[Page] [Page] Logopandecteision, OR AN INTRODVCTION TO THE VNIVERSAL LANGVAGE. Digested into these Six several Books,

  • Neaudethaumata,
  • Chrestasebeia,
  • Cleronomaporia,
  • Chryseomystes,
  • Neleodicastes, &
  • Philoponauxesis.

BY Sir THOMAS URQUHART of Cromartie, Knight.

Now lately contrived and published both for his own utilitie, and that of all pregnant and ingenious Spirits.

C [...]dere quaerenti nonne haec justissima res est?
Qui non plura cupit, quam ratio ipsa jubet.
Englished thus,
To grant him his demands were it not just?
Who craves no more, then reason sayes he must.

LONDON Printed, and are to be sold by Giles Calvert at the Black­spread-Eagle at the West-end of Pauls; and by Richard Tomlius at the Sun and Bible near Pye-corner. 1653.

The Epistle Dedicatorie, To No-body:

Most Honourable,

MY non supponent Lord, and Soveraign master of contradictions in adjected terms, that un­to you I have presumed to tender the dedica­cie of this introduction, will not seem strange to those, that know how your con­currence did further me to the accomplish­ment of that new Language, unto the frontispeice whereof it is premitted.

You did assist me in the production of many special fancies, whose promulgation will perhaps, exceedingly conduce to the delight of the Philosophical Reader: by your help, amidst the the penurie of books, and want of learned conversation, have by me been enixed several treatises; which, for their apparent usefulnesse, and curiosity, I sometime intend to consecrate to the Shrine of publique view: if none hitherto hath made choice of such a patron: neither hath any till this hour affor­ded an invention of that kind. In things whereof the proposed subject is within our reach, imitation is imbraceable: but where the matter is transcendent, we commonly bid patterns adiew, that porch will not befit a cottage, which is suitable to a Ca­thedral, nor can unusuall dedications, misbeseem tractats on an extraordinary purpose; seeing therefore skill in symmetrie bespeaks an artificer and gives the contexture of a work that decorum, which becomes the Author: I am with force of rea­son perswaded to this election, thereby to glance at the pro­portion betwixt your favours, and my retribution; for such were the courtesies you conferred on me, that I could not o­therways choose but lay hold on this expedient, to testifie my remembrance of them.

When after the fatal blow, given at Worcester, on the third [Page] of Septemb. 1651. to the regal partie, I was 5 times plundred, pillaged, pilfred, robbed, and rifled, and nothing almost left me, fortune could dispoil me of, save my health alone, which in the croud of so many incident difficulties, as I was forced to un­dergo, was most miraculously preserved: You then out of your mercie, amongst the victorious soldiers, were pleased to com­miserate my condition. When, in horses, armes, apparel, and monie, I had, in that place, taken from me above five hundred pounds worth English: you, at that time, out of pietie, amongst the Presbyterians of our armie, did regret my case. When it was told, that amidst the fury of the raging souldiery, I had above ten thousand crowns worth of papers embezeled, without recovery: you from your generosity of all the great men prisoners,Avarus nec patien­tibus com­patitur, [...]ec miseris subvenit vel m [...]se­retur: sed offendit d [...]um, of­fendit proximum, offendit scipsum; nam deo detinet debitum, p [...]oximo d [...]negat n [...]cessa [...]ia sibi subt [...] [...] [...]: d [...]o ingrat [...]s proximo impius, sibi crude­lix. were sorry at the losse. And last­ly, when, after my being brought to London, without ei­ther monie or goods, I had my self, and several others, both brothers, and servants (whereof not any, save my self alone had been in that City before) to provide for, in every thing, that the States allowance (which neverthelesse continued no longer, then my parole was taken for their true imprisonment) did not reach unto: And that, after many of my fellow pri­soners, of considerable fortunes at home, had received, from the Scottish factors, on the Exchange, in matter of borrowing monie, answers so full of churlishnesse, and inhumanity, that I am ashamed the ear of any man of common honestie should hear them: then was it (whilst the charity of those Bankers, and other rich Scots men at London, by little and little de­cayed, and became still the lesse, the greater the pitch was, unto which their wealth had formerly increast: And that for six months together, from none of my kindred, alliance, nor any other of my pretended friends in Scotland, I had received so much, as the mission, or return of a letter) that you (such was your magnificence) were content to supply my need, and furnish me with what I lacked.

These favours, I deem my self in duty the more obliged to commemorate, that they were bestowed upon me, in sequel of some others of that nature,Sir James F [...]aser namely, when, a while agoe, I had a suit in Law, depending against a Gentleman neigh­bour [Page] of mine, for taking fifteen in the hundred, these sixteen years past and above, [...]ui hic ar­det aestu a­varitiae, nostca ar­debit igue Gehennae. and refusing payment of the principall summe, that the said usurie might still continue, for the which, there was given unto him by my Father, securitie in land (by a present possession) worth more then thrice the monie, which my Father had received from him; as likewise, for plundring from my tenants (in my absence) above two thousand, and five hundred pounds sterlin worth of goods:O p [...]is mali [...]na a­varitia, [...]emper b [...] ­nis animis terestan­da, quid illae [...]i [...]m quid in­ [...]nacu [...]um [...] milti [...]. it was then that your grace, in the session of the land, and Committee of E­state, there taking notice of these enormous wrongs, did doe me justice. Much about the same time, when some Ministers had maimed my rents, to strengthen their own stipends: your reverence, sitting in the commission of the Kirk, were plea­sed to take my part against them, and patrocinate my cause. By your highnesse also, sitting then at the helm of the State of Scotland, when a grievance for the pressure sustained by me, was in all humility put in before the said Committee of Estates, was I maintained against the crueltie, and indis­cretion of those, did overrate me in the exaction of publick dues, And finally, when by the oppression of some ill affec­ted countrey men, under pretext of Committee acts, my vas­sals, and tenants had suffered extreme prejudice, streight upon the presenting of a petition thereanent, whereof at least a hundred, at several times were tabled: your wisdome re­medied the plaintif, and did for my cause redresse the injuries done unto him.

That with these benevolences; as the most eminent effects of your ingenuitie, I should (as affairs then ruled) be gratified by your liberalitie, was from day to day, my constant expectation; being always perswaded to the greater probability of my ac­ceptance of them, that in many sound, and wel-grounded opini­ons of mine, long before that time, you frequently jumped with me; for when I openly said, that Presbyterie was like to turn to a Hydral Episcopacie, and that the gallantry of the English na­tion would never comport with such a government (which Speech was thought should have been asserted by all the No­bles, and Gentlemen of Scotland) you out of your goodness, a­mongst them all (being sensible of the heavie yoke of the De­mocratical [Page] tyrannie of the Kirk) were pleased to justify my sayings. Besides this, when the intending of one thing, and pretending of another, was by me a thousand times foretold to prove destructive unto Scotland, and that the cause of God could not produce Diabolical effects: Your holiness, amongst the Zelots of the Nation, did give way to beleeve the truth of both. And when moreover I avouched, that money should never be held in such estimation, that either to honestie, or a good name, any summe, however so great, ought to be prefer­red: Your discretion, amidst many of the Ecclesiastical Armie, did in very deed acknowledge the veritie of the saying, although verbally you denyed it. And at last, when to be charitable to distressed men, whose misery could not with reason be imputed to their own fault, was by me represented to be an especial act of goodness, you, out of your love, amongst the Scotish Mer­chants condescended to it.

Whereby most seriously perpending the manifold, or rather innumerable testimonies of your goodness, holiness, grace, dis­cretion, wisdome, liberalitie, reverence, mercie, pietie, generosi­tie, magnificence, love, and other unexpressible respects, I have perceived to flow from your highness in behalf of me, whether I applyed my self to the Nobilitie, Souldierie, Gentrie, Clergie, or Burger degree of the Consistorian partie of the Scotish Nati­on: I must needs promise (in acquital of these incom [...]rehensi­ble good deeds, out of your endless, and immense bountie, so undeservedly erogated) whilst I breath, to break my parole unto you, to be to you dishonest, and prove disloyal to you in my trust, to curse you in malicious thoughts, reproach you with scandalous words, and wrong you with cruel, and uncon­scionable deeds: to do you injustice, deceive, and cosen you: to persecute you with hatred, envie, and rancour of mind: and ac­cording to the infallible rules of the Sacred Evangile, dictamen of reason, and precepts of Philosophie, to approve my self your faithless, implacable and wicked enemie; and consequently, to your contrary opposite (every body) upright, true, and ho­nest: and to your contradictorie foe (some body) an affectio­nate, trustie, stedfast, and unalterable both Friend, and Ser­vant.

Thomas Vrquhaer [...].

The Contents Of the First BOOK, entituled NEAUDETHAUMATA.

THe Author in this first Book of his Introduction discloseth many excellent overtures, for the furtherance of Literature: Esp [...]cially in the facility of contriving expressions for any con­ception, the mind of man is able to afford. He plainly setteth down the analogie, that ought to be betwixt things, and words; and that, to make a perfect Lan­guage, things semblable in nature, should be signifyed by words of a like pronunciation. He proveth all hitherto known tongues, to be full of imperfection, both by reason of the insufficiencie of their Alphabets, and for that there are many common things, which cannot, without circumlocution, be expressed by them. He com­pareth the learned Languages with one another: giveth freely his opinion of all vernacularie tongues: and demonstrateth an uni­versal defect in all, and each of both the one, and other, because of the common necessity they are driven unto, of mutual borrow­ing for conveniencie of elocu [...]ion.

The Author also, in this Book, utterly rejecteth the vulgarly received opinion of the origin of Languag [...]s, and very neatly twits the opposers of those curious arts, where [...]n there is no harm. He confuteth that disproportion in matter of number twixt words, and things, wherewith the smattrers in knowledge, would cloak their inability of giving unto every thing its proper term: and shew­eth [Page] how for the advancement of Learning, and Vertue, & clearing the mind of all prejudicat tenets, the brains, and heart should be pur­ged of malice, and wilful ignorance, the two plagues of a Common­wealth: the bad acquitals, he hath received from some great men of his own Countrey, he but glanceth at, to incordiat other his compa­triots, with more respect in times coming, to men of no lesse desert: & declareth what injury, to that deity, unto which the heavens are subservient, is done by those lazie Sciolists, who frequently seek after supernatural causes, where the natural is obvious to the eyes of our understanding.

The Author likewise, setteth forth in this Book, the possibility of framing a new idiome of far greater perfection, then any hi­therto spoken, and that the performance of such an undertaking will without doubt exceedingly conduce to the benefit, and con­tentment of all ingenious Schollars. By its Logopandocie, or comprehension of all utterable words, and sounds articulat, he evi­denceth the universality of the proposed Language, and by infalli­ble reason proveth whilst there is no other world, but this, the impossibility of forming any other such.

Lastly, The Author, after his delivery of a genuine and up­right gloss, on three passages of Solomon, Terence, and Paul, in confutation of some Scholiasts, Idolizers of corrupt antiquitie, who had mis-interpreted those texts, concerning the nature of new in­ventions, most manifestly avoucheth, that exquisit inventions will never be wanting, so long as good spirits are extant on the earth: and, in concluding this his first Book with sixtie and six several advantages, this Language hath above all other, exposeth to the view of the judicious Reader, many inestimable secrets, worthie the perusal of the best wits of the time.

The first BOOK OF THE INTRODVCTION To the Universall Language, intituled NEAUDETHAUMATA. OR Wonders of the new SPEECH, which, as a Preface thereto, comprehendeth its most necessary Prenoscendas, together with some Miscellanie Articles concerning the AUTHOR himself.

1 WOrds are the signes of things; it being to signifie that they were instituted at first: nor can they be, as such, directed to any other end, whether they be articulate or inarticulate.

2, All things are either real or rational: and the real, either naturall or artificial.

3. There ought to be a proportion betwixt the sign and thing signified; therefore should all things, whether real or rationall, have their proper words assigned unto them.

4. Man is called a Microcosme, because he may by his con­ceptions and words containe within him the representatives of what in the whole world is comprehended.

[Page 2]5 Seeing there is in nature such affinity 'twixt words & things, (as there ought to be in whatsoever is ordained for one ano­ther) that Language is to be accounted most conform to Na­ture, which with greatest variety expresseth all manner of things.

6. As all things of a single compleat being, by Aristotle into ten Classes were divided; so may the words whereby those things are to be signified, be set apart in their several storehouses.

7. Arts, Sciences, Mechanick Trades, notionall faculties, and whatever is excogitable by man, have their own Method; by vertue whereof, the Learned of these latter times have or­derly digested them: Yet hath none hitherto considered of a mark, whereby words of the same Faculty, Art, Trade, or Science should be dignosced from those of another by the ve­ry sound of the word at the first hearing.

8. A Tree will be known by its leaves, a stone by its grit, a Flower by the smel, Meats by the taste, Musick by the ear, Colours by the eye, the severall Natures of things, with their properties and essentiall qualities, by the Intellect: and accordingly as the things are in themselves diversified, the Iudicious and Learned men after he hath conceived them a­right, sequestreth them in the Severall cels of their under­standing each in their definite and respective places.

9. But in matter of the words whereby those things are ex­pressed, no Language ever hitherto framed, hath observed any order relating to the thing signified by them: for if the words be ranked in their Alphabeticall series, the things re­presented by them will fall to be in severall predicaments; and if the things themselves be categorically classed, the word whereby they are made known will not be tyed to any Alpha­betical rule.

10. This is an imperfection incident to all the Languages that ever yet have been known, by reason whereof, For­raign Tongues are said to be hard to learn; and when obtai­ned easily forgot.

11. The effigies of Jupiter in the likenesse of a Bull, should be liker to that of Io metamorphosed into a Cow, then to the [Page 3] statue of Bucephulus, which was a horse: and the picture of Alcibiades ought to have more resemblance with that of Ce­riolanus, being both handsome men, then with the Image of Thersites, who was of a deformed feature: just so should things semblable in Nature be represented by words of a like composure: and as the true intelligible species do present unto our minds the similitude of things as they are in the object; e­ven so ought the words expressive of our conceptions so to a­gree or vary in their contexture, as the things themselves which are conceived by them do in their natures.

12. Besides this imperfection in all Languages there is yet another, That no Language upon the face of the earth hath a perfect Alphabet; one lacking those letters which another hath, none having all, and all of them in cumulo lacking some, But that which makes the defect so much the greater, is, that these same few consonants and vowels commonly made use of, are never by two Nations pronounced after the same fashion; the French A with the English, being the Greek Hra; and the Italian B with the Spanish, the Hebrew Vau.

13. This is that which maketh those of one dominion so un­skilful in the idiome of another; and after many yeers abode in a strange land, despair from attaining at any time to the perfect accent of the language thereof, because as the waters of that stream cannot be wholesome; whose source is corrupted; nor the superstructure sure, whereof the ground-work is ruinous: so doth the various manner of pronouncing one and the same Alphabet in severall Nations, produce this great and lamenta­ble obstruction in the Discipline of Languages.

14. The G of the Latin word legit, is after four several manners pronounced by the English, French, Spanish, and Dutch: the Ch likewise is differently pronounced by divers Nations; some uttering it after the fashion of the Hebrew Shin, as the French do in the word chasteau, chascun, chastier, chatel; or like the Greek Kappa, as in the Italian words, chie­dere, chiazzarė, chinatura; or as in Italy are sounded the words ciascheduno, ciarlatano; for so do the Spanish and Eng­lish pronounce it, as in the words achaque, leche, chamber, chance: other Nations of a gutteral flexibility, pronounce it af­ter [Page 4] the fashion of the Greek χ. Nor need we to labor for ex­amples in other letters; for there is scarce any hitherto recei­ved, either consonant or vowel, which in some one and other taking in all Nations, is not pronounced after three or four se­veral fashions.

15. As the Alphabets are imperfect, some having but 19 letters, others 22. and some 2 [...]. few exceeding that number: so do the words composed of those Letters in the several Lan­guages, come far short of the number of things, which to have the reputation of a perfect tongue, ought to be expressed by them.

16. For supply of this deficiencie, each Language borrows from another; nor is the perfectest amongst them, without being beholden to another, in all things enunciable, bastant to afford instruction: many Astronomical and Medicinal terms have the Greeks borrowed from the Arabians, for which they by exchange have from the Grecians received payment of ma­ny words naturalized in their Physical, Logical, and Meta­physical Treatises. As for the Latin, it oweth all its Scienti­fick dictions to the Greek and Arabick: yet did the Roman Conquest give adoption to many Latin words, in both these languages, especially in matters of military discipline, and pru­dential Law.

17. And as for all other Languages as yet spoke, though to some of them be ascribed the title of original Tongues, I may safely avouch there is none of them which of it self alone is able to afford the smattring of an elocution fit for indoctrinating of us in the precepts and maxim [...] of moral and intellectual vertues.

18. But which is more, and that which most of all e­vinceth the sterility of all the Languages that since the Deluge have been spoke, though all of them quintesenced in one, capable of the perfections of each, yet that one so befitted and accommodated for compendiousness and variety of phrase, should not be able, amidst so great wealth, to afford, without circumlocution, the proper and convenient representation of a thing, yea of many thousands of things, whereof each should be expressed with one single word alone.

[Page 5]19. Some Languages have copiousness of discourse, which are barren in composition: such is the Latine. Others are compendious in expression, which hardly have any flexion at all: of this kind are the Dutch, the English, and Irish.

20. Greek hath the agglutinative faculty of incorporating words; yet runneth not so glib in Poesie as doth the Latine, though far more abundant. The Hebrew likewise, with its auxiliary Dialects of Arabiek, Caldean, Syriack, Aethiopian, and Samaritan, compoundeth prettily, and hath some store of words; yet falleth short by many stages of the Greek.

21. The French, Spanish, and Italians, are but Dialects of the Latine, as the English is of the Saxon Tongue; though with this difference, that the mixture of Latine with the Gau­lish, Moresco, and Gotish Tongues, make up the three first Languages; but the meer qualification of the Saxon with the old British, frameth not the English to the full, for that, by its promiscuous and ubiquitary borrowing, it consisteth almost of all Languages: which I speak not in dispraise thereof, al­though I may with confidence avere, that were all the four a­foresaid Languages stript of what is not originally their own, we should not be able with them all, in any part of the world, to purchase so much as our breakfast in a Market.

22. Now to return from these to the learned Languages; we must acknowledge it to be very strange, why, after thou­sands of yeers continual practice in the polishing of them by men of approved faculties, there is neither in them, nor any other Tongue hitherto found out, one single word expressive of the vice opposite either to Temperance or Chastity in the defect; though many rigid Monks, even now adays, be guilty of the one, as Diogenes of old was of the other.

23. But that which makes this disease the more incurable, is, that when an exuberant spirit would to any high researched conceit adapt a peculiar word of his own coyning, he is bran­ded with Incivility, if he apologize not for his boldness, with a Quod ita dixerim parcant Ciceronianae manes, Ignoscat De­mosthenis genius, and other such phrases acknowledging his fault of making use of words never uttered by others, or at least by such as were most renowned for eloquence.

[Page 6]24. Though Learning sustain great prejudice by this re­straint of liberty to endenizon new Citizens in the Common­wealth of Languages, yet do I conceive the reason thereof to proceed from this, That it is thought a less incongruity to ex­press a thing by circumlocution, then by appropriating a sin­gle word thereto, to transgress the bounds of the Language; as in Architecture it is esteemed an error of less consequence to make a circuitory passage from one room to another, then by the extravagancie of an irregular sallie, to frame projectures disproportionable to the sound of the house.

25. Thus is it, that as according to the largeness of the plat of a building, and compactedness of its walls, the Work­master contriveth his roofs, platforms, outjettings, and other such like parts and portion of the whole: just so, conform to the extent and reach which a Language in its flexions and compositions hath obtained at first, have the sprucest Linguists, hitherto been pleased to make use of the words thereto belon­ging.

26. The Bonification and virtuification of Lully, Scotu's Hexeity, and Albedineity of Suarez are words exploded by those that affect the purity of the Latine diction; yet if such were demanded, what other no less concise expression would comport with the neatness of that language, their answer would be altum silentium: so easie a matter it is for many to finde fault with what they are not able to amend.

27. Nevertheless, why for representing to our understan­dings the essence of accidents, the fluency of the form as it is in fieri; the faculty of the Agent, and habit that facilitates it, with many thousands of other such expressions, the tearms are not so genuine, as of the members of a mans body, or utensils of his house; the reason is, because the first inventers of Langua­ges, who contrived them for necessity, were not so profound­ly versed in Philosophical quiddities, as those that succeeded after them; whose literature increasing, procured their excur­sion beyond the representatives of the common objects, imagi­ned by their forefathers.

28. I have known some to have built houses for necessity, having no other aime before their eyes, but barely to dwell [Page 7] in them; who nevertheless in a very short space were so en­riched, that after they had taken pleasure to polish and adorn, what formerly they had but rudely squared, their moveables so multiplyed upon them, that they would have wished they had made them of a larger extent.

29. Even so though these Languages may be refined by some quaint derivatives and witty compositions; like the stri­king forth of new lights and doors, outjetting of Crenels, ere­cting of prickets, barbicans, and such like various structures upon one and the same foundation; yet being limited to a cer­tain basis, beyond which the versed in them must not pass, they cannot roam at such random as otherwise they might, had their Language been of a larger scope at first.

30. Thus albeit Latine be far better polished now, then it was in the days of Ennius, and Livius Andronicus, yet had the Latinists at first been such Philosophers as afterward they were, it would have attained to a great deal of more perfection then it is at for the present.

31. What I have delivered in freedome of the learned Lan­guages, I would not have wrested to a sinister sense, as if I meant any thing to their disparagement; for truly I think the time well bestowed, which boyes in their tender yeers employ towards the learning of them, in a subordination to the excel­lent things that in them are couched.

32. But ingenuously I must acknowledge my averseness of opinion from those who are so superstitiously addicted to these Languages, that they account it learning enough to speak them, although they knew nothing else; which is an errour worthy rebuke, seeing Philosophia sunt res, non verba; and that whatever the signes be, the things by them signified ought still to be of greater worth.

33. For it boots not so much, by what kind of tokens any matter be brought into our minde, as that the things made known unto us, by such representatives, be of some considera­ble value: not much unlike the Innes-a-court-gentlemen at London, who usually repairing to their commons at the blow­ing of a horn, are better pleased with such a signe (so the fare be good) then if they were warned to courser cates, by the sound of a Bell or Trumpet.

[Page 8]34. Another reason prompteth me thereto, which is this, That in this frozen Climate of ours, there is hardly any that is not possessed with the opinion, that not only the three fore-na­med Languages, but a great many other, whom they call Origi­nals (whereof they reckon ten or eleven in Europe, and some fifty eight more, or thereabouts, in other Nations) were at the confusion of Babel, immediately from God, by a miracle, infu­sed into men; being induced to believe this, not so much for that they had not perused the interpretation of the Rabbies on that text, declaring the misunderstanding whereunto the builders were involved by diversity of speech, to have proceeded from nothing else, but their various and diserepant pronunciation of one and the same Language, as that they deemed Languages to be of an invention so sublime, that naturally the wit of man was not able to reach their composure.

35. Some believe this so pertinaciously that they esteem all men infidels that are of another faith; whilst in the mean while, I may confidently assever, that the assertors of such a tenet, doe thereby extremely dishonour God, who doing whatever is done, by nature, as the actions of an Ambassa­dor (as an Ambassador) are reputed to be those of the Sove­raign that sent him, would not have the power he hath given to nature to be disclaimed by any, or any thing said by us in derogation thereof.

36. Should we deny our obedience to the just decree of an inferiour judge, because he from whom his authority is deri­ved, did not pronounce the sentence? Subordinate Magistrates have their power, even in great maters; which to decline, by saying, they have no authority, should make the averrer fall within the compass of a breach of the Statute called scandalum magnatum.

37. There are of those with us, that wear gowns and beards longer then ever did Aristotle and Aesculapius; who when they see an Eclipse of the Sun or Moon, or a comet in the aire, straight would delude the commons with an opinion that those things are immediately from God; for the sins of the people; as if no naturall cause could be produced for such like apparitions.

[Page 9]38 I saw once a young man, who for his cunning convey­ance in the Feats of Leger Demaine, was branded, by some of that Fry, for Sorcery, and another (for being able, by vertue of the Masson word, to make a Masson, whom he had never seene before, without speaking, or any other apparent signe, come, and salute him) reputed, by many of the same Litter, to have had a familiar, their grosse ignorance mo­ving them, to call that supernaturall, or above the na­turall reach of meere man, whereof they knew not the cause.

39 By which meanes, Mathematicall Thaumaturgies, Op­ticall magick, secrets of nature, and other Philosophicall mysteries, being esteemed to be rancke Witch-craft, they ruine the best part of Learning, and make their owne unskill­fullnes Supreame Judge, to passe an Irrevocable sentence upon the Condemnation of knowledge.

40 The matter notwithstanding would be of lesse danger, were this the worst: but to this ignorance of theirs, is conco­mitant so much wickednes, that when an action of any extraor­dinary performance, is done, although by a man of a most ap­provable conversation & to a very good end, such as the curing of the diseased, or releeving men out of apparent peril, yet if the cause thereof be unknowne to them, they will not be so charitable, as to attribute the effect to a good Angel, albeit their faith obliege them to beleeve, that the Spirits belonging to any of the nine celestiall orders, are, for the atchievement of such masteries, in nothing inferior to the infernall Demons: but instead of Gabriell, Raphaell, Michaell, and such good Spirits, by whom (I think) it is more prob [...]ble, an honest man would be assisted, in works of a strange, and hidden operati­on, then by the bad ones, they ascribe the wonderfullnes of the exploit, to the inspiration of Beelzebub, Abadon, Lucifer, or some other of the F [...]ends of Hell; so malevolently they asperse the reputation of gallant men, whose deeds surpass their Capacity.

41 Truly, those two qualities of Ignorance, and wicked­nes conjoyned, are of such pernicious consequence, that no Nation, or Common-wealth, wherein they get footing, is [Page 10] able long to subsist, for rapine, coveteousnes, and extortion, flowing from the one, as from the other, doth all manner of Basenes, Pusillanimity, and cowardize, ignorance affe­cteth the Braine, and wickednes the Heart: Yet both the Braine, and Heart of a common weale, by the mischei­ously vnskillfull, and illiterately, malicious, are equally depraved.

42 For remedy of so generall a Calamity, seeing universa­lity hath its existence in individualls, would each amend but one, the totall would be quickly rid of this Lamentable infe­ction.

43 Therefore, since ever I understood any thing, know­ing that the welfare of the Body of a government, consisteth in the intirenes of its noble parts, I alwayes endeavoured to employ the best of my Brain, and Heart towards the furthe­rance of the Honour of that Country, unto which I did owe my birth.

44 In prosecuting whereof, as the heart is primum vivent so was it my heart, which, in my younger years, before my braines were ripened for eminent undertakings, gave me the courage for adventuring in a forrain Climat, thrice to enter the Lists against men of 3 severall nations, to vindicate my native Country from the Calumnies, wherewith they had aspersed it, wherein it pleased God so to conduct my fortune, that af­ter I had disarmed them, they in such sort acknowledged their Error, and the obligation they did owe me, for sparing their Lives, which justly by the Law of Arms I might have taken, that in Lieu of three enemies, that formerly they were, I acquired three constant Friends, both to my selfe, and my compatriots, whereof, by severall gallant testimonies, they gave evident proofe, to the Improvement of my Countreys credit, in many occasions.

45 As my Heart, hath been thus devoted to the love of my native soile, so have my Braines, to the Honour thereof discharged so much duty, that betwixt what is printed, and what ready for the presse, I have set forth above a hundred severall Bookes, on Subjects never hitherto thought upon by any.

[Page 11]46. Let no man think, that I have spoke this in hope of future benefit, or by way of regret,S. d. B. 2. art. 53.54:56.57.58. I should have faild ther­of in times past; vertue (in my estimation) whether morall, or intellectuall, carrying alwayes along with it a recompence sufficient: nor yet out of pride, or vaine glory in extolling of my own praises, which (as willingly as to live) I would have smothered, but that the continuall receiving of bad offices, for my good intentions, hath wrought this excursion out of my pen.

47. Could any man imagine, I should have been singled out amongst all those of Scotland, to, suffer most prejudice, without a Cause; that the wickedest of all the Land, should be permitted to possesse the best part of my Inheritance, vnder colour of a law by meer iniquity: and other, little bet­ter then he, to gape after the remainder, without any fault of mine.

48. who would think, that, some of my Tenants (whilst I was from home) being killed, and neer upon three thousand pound sterlin worth of Goods taken from them, by a pack of villaines, who could pretend for their robery no other excuse, but that they had been plundered by others, no reparation or justice should be granted, although oftentimes demanded: that I should be extorsed, in matter of publique dues, beyond any of my neighbours: that a garrison should be placed within my house, and kept there ten months together, to my almost utter undoing, upon no other pretence, but that the stance thereof is stately, and the house it selfe of a notable good Fa­brick, and contrivance, and in the mean while, a party both of horse and foot remain nevertheles quartered upon my lands till the remotest Highlands should pay their sesse-mony: that neighbor Garisons, besides my own, should by parties inforce me, upon their Governours bare tickets, to furnish them with what provisions they pleased, and yet nothing thereof be allowed unto me, although I presented a Bill to that purpose to the Scots Committee of Estates, as I did forthe quartering of severall Troops of horse, for many months together, with­out any allowance.

49. These grievous pressures with many other, and as [Page 12] many more I have sustained by the ministry of the Land, whereof I make account in the large treatise of my Aporrexises to give notice more at length, have occasiond this digression in a part, which likewise having proceeded from a serious con­sideration of the two aforesaid scurvie quallities, that move the Inhabitants of this Ile to run every foot to superna [...]ural causes, engageth me to say, that as it is a maxim in Philosophy, that entia non sunt multiplicanda sine necessitate. So: that it is no lesse in congruity to avouch, that a thing hath miraculously been done by God, or that for atchievement thereof the help of an evill Spirit (because of his being reputed of more experi­ence, then man) hath been required thereto, when, in the mean while perhaps, the performance of it, by secondary means of an ordinary working is obvious to any that have the dexterity to open his eyes to see the truth.

50. For which cause, they are much to blame, that think it impossible for any man naturally to frame a language of greater perfection then Greek, Hebrew, or Latine.

51. For who, instead of affording the true cause of a thing, unnecessarily runs to miracles, tacitely acknowledgeth that God naturally cannot do it: wherein he committeth blasphe­mie, as that Souldier may be accounted guilty of contumacie and disobedience, who rejecting the Orders wherewith an in­feriour Officer is authorized to command him, absolutely refu­seth compearance, unless the General himself come in person to require it of him.

52. As there is a possibility such a Language may be, so doe I think it very requisite such a Language were, both for affor­ding conciseness, and abundance of expression.

53. Such as extoll those Languages most, are enforced some­times to say, that Laborant penuria verborum; and thereunto immediately subjoyn this reason, Quiae plures sunt res quam verba.

54. That is soon said; and, ad pauca respicientes facile [...]aun­tiant. But here I ask them, how they come to know that there are more Things then Words, taking Things (as in this sense they ought to be taken) for Things universal; because there is no word spoken, which to the conceit of man is not able to [Page 13] represent more individuals then one, be it Sun, Moon, Phoenix, or what you will, even amongst Verbs, and Syncategoremati­cal signes, which do onely suppone for the modalities of things: therefore is each word the sign of an universal thing; Peter signifying either this Peter, or that Peter; and any whatever name, surname, or title, being communicable to one and many.

55. Thus though both words and thoughts, as they are signs, be universal; yet do I believe that those who did attri­bute less universality to words then things, knew not definite­ly the full number of words taking words for any articulate pronunciation.

56. Nay, I will go further: There is no Alphabet in the world, be the Calculator never so well skill'd in Arithmetick, by vertue whereof the exact number of words may be known; because that number must comprehend all the combinations that Letters can have with one another: and this cannot be done, if any letter be wanting; and consequently, by no Al­phabet as yet framed, wherein (as I have already said in the twelfth Article) there is a deficiency of many letters.

57. The Universal Alphabet therefore must be first concei­ved, before the exactness of that computation can be attained unto.

58. Then is it, when having couched an Alphabet materia­tive of all the words the mouth of man, with its whole imple­ments, is able to pronounce, and bringing all these words with­in the systeme of a Language, which, by reason of its logopan­dochie, may deservedly be intituled, The Universal Tongue, that nothing will better merit the labour of a Grammatical Arith­metician, then, after due enumeration, hinc inde, to appariate the words of the Universal Language with the things of the Universe.

59. The analogie therein 'twixt the signe and thing signifi­ed holding the more exactly, that as, according to Aristotle, there can be no more worlds but one, because all the matter whereof worlds can be composed, is in this: so can there be no Universal Language, but this I am about to divulge unto the world, because all the words enunciable are in it contained.

[Page 14]60. If any officious Critick will run to the omnipotency of God for framing more worlds, (according to the common saying, Nothing is impossible to God, that implies not a con­tradiction) so must he have recourse to the same omnipotent power for furnishing of man with other speech-tools then his tongue, throat, roof of the mouth, lips, and teeth, before the contexture of another Universal Language can be war­ped.

61. That I should hit upon the invention of that, for the furtherance of Philosophy, and other Disciplines and Arts, which never hitherto hath been so much as thought upon by any; and that in a matter of so great extent, as the expres­sing of all the things in the world, both in themselves, actions, ways of doing, situation, pendicles, relations, connexions, pa­thetick interpositions, and all other appurtenances to a perfect elocution, without being beholding to any Language in the world insomuch as one word, will hardly be believed by our fidimplicitary Gown-men, who, satisfied with their predeces­sors contrivances, and taking all things litterally, without ex­amination, blaterate, to the na [...]seating even of vulgar ears, those exotick Proverbs, There is no new thing under the Sun, Nihil dictum quod non dictum prius, and Beware of Philosophers, authorizating this on Paul, the first on Solomon, and the other on Terence.

62. But, poor souls, they understand not that in the passage of Solomon is meant, that there is no innovation in the essence of natural things; all transmutations on the same matter, be­ing into forms, which, as they differ from some, so have an es­sential uniformity with others preexistent in the same kind.

63. And when it was said by Paul, Beware of Philosophers, he meant such Sophisters as themselves, who under the vizzard of I know not what, corrupt the channels of the truth, and per­vert all Philosophy and Learning.

64. As for the sayings of Terence, whether Scipio couched them, or himself, they ought to be inferred rather as testimo­nies of neat Latine, then for asserting of infallible veri­ties.

65. If there hath been no new thing under the Sun, accor­ding [Page 15] to the adulterate sense of those Pristinary Lobcocks, How comes the invention of Syllogisms to be attributed to Aristotle, that of the Sphere to Archimedes, and Logarithms to Neper? It was not Swart then, and Gertudenburg, that found out Gun­powder, and the Art of Printing; for these two men lived af­ter the decease of Solomon.

66. Had there been Canon in Solomons dayes, Rehoboam (by all appearance) would have made use of them for the reco­very of his inheritance; nor had some mention of Artillery been omited in the Books of the Macchabees.

67. Pancerola's Treatise de novis adimpertis (although Po­lydor Virgil were totally forgot) would be, had there been no new thing since Solomon penn'd Ecclesiastes, but as a discourse of Platonick reminiscencies, and calling to mind some formerly lost fancies.

68. Truly I am so far from being of the opinion of those Ar­chaeomanetick Coxcombs, that I really think, there will al­wayes be new inventions, where there are excellent spi­rits.

69. For as I ascribe unto my self the invention of the Tris­sotetrail Trigonometry, for facility of calculation by represen­tatives of letters and syllables; the proving of the equipollencie and opposition both of plain and modal enunciations by rules of Geometry, the unfolding of the chiefest parts of Philosophy by a continuated Geographical allegory; and above a hun­dred other several books on different subjects, the conceit of so much as one whereof never entered into the brains of any before my self (although many of them have been lost at Wor­cester-fight:) so am I confident, that others after me, may fall upon some strain of another kind, never, before that, drea­med upon by those of foregoing ages.

70. Now to the end the Reader may be more enamored of the Language, wherein I am to publish a Grammar and Lexi­con, I will here set down some few qualities and advantages peculiar to it self, and which no Language else (although all other concurred with it) is able to reach unto.

71. First, There is not a word utterable by the mouth of man, which in this language hath not a peculiar signification [Page 16] by it self; so that the allegation of Bliteri by the Summulists, will be of small validity.

72. Secondly, Such as will harken to my instructions, if some strange word be proposed to them, whereof there are many thousands of millions, deviseable by the wit of man, which never hitherto by any breathing have been uttered, shall be able, although he know not the ultimate signification there­of, to declare what part of speech it is; or if a Noun, unto what predicament or class it is to be reduced; whether it be the sign of a real or notional thing, or somewhat concerning me­chanick Trades in their Tooles, or tearmes; or if real, whether natural or artificial, compleat, or incompleat; for words here do suppone for the things which they signifie; as when we see my Lord Generals picture, we say, there is my Lord General.

73. Thirdly, This world of words hath but two hundred and fifty prime radices, upon which all the rest are branched: for better understanding whereof, with all its dependant boughs, sprigs, and ramelets, I have before my Lexicon set down the division thereof (making use of another allegory) into so many Cities, which are subdivided into streets, they a­gain into lanes, those into houses, these into stories, whereof each room standeth for a word; and all these so methodically, that who observeth my precepts therein, shall at the first hearing of a word, know to what City it belongeth, and con­sequently not to be ignorant of some general signification thereof, till after a most exact prying into all its letters, finding the street, lane, house, story, and room thereby denotated, he punctually hit upon the very proper thing it represents in its most specifical signification.

74. Fourthly, By vertue of adjectitious syllabicals annexi­ble to Nouns and Verbs, there will arise of several words, what compound, what derivative, belonging in this Language to one Noune or to one Verb alone, a greater number then doth pertain to all the parts of speech, in the most copious Language in the world besides.

75. Fifthly, So great energy to every meanest constitutive part of a word in this Language is appropriated, that one word [Page 17] thereof, though but of seven syllables at most shall comprehend that which no Language else in the world is able to express in fewer then fourscore and fifteen several words; and that not only a word here and there for masteries sake, but several mil­lions of such; which, to any initiated in the rudiments of my Grammar, shall be easie to frame.

76. Sixthly, In the cases of all the declinable parts of speech, it surpasseth all other Languages whatsoever: for whilst others have but five or six at most, it hath ten, besides the nomina­tive.

77. Seventhly, There is none of the learned Languages, but hath store of Nouns defective of some case or other; but in this Language there is no Heteroclite in any declinable word, nor redundancie or deficiencie of cases.

78. Eighthly, Every word capable of number, is better pro­vided therewith in this Language, then by any other: for instead of two or three numbers which others have, this af­fordeth you four; to wit, the singular, dual, plural, and re­dual.

79. Ninthly, It is not in this as other Languages, wherein some words lack one number, and some another: for here each casitive or personal part of speech is endued with all the num­bers.

80. Tenthly, In this Tongue there are eleven genders; where­in likewise it exceedeth all other Languages.

81. Eleventhly, Verbs, Mongrels, Participles, and Hybrids, have all of them ten Tenses, besides the present; which num­ber, no Language else is able to attain to.

82. Twelfthly, Though there be many conjugable words in other Languages defective of Tenses, yet doth this Tongue al­low of no such anomaly, but granteth all to each.

83. Thirteenthly, In lieu of six Moods which other Langua­ges have at most, this one injoyeth seven in its conjugable words.

84. Fourteenthly, Verbs here, or other conjugable parts of speech, admit of no want of Moodes, as do other Langua­ges.

85. Fifteenthly, In this Language, the Verbs and Partici­ples [Page 18] have four voices, although it was never heard that ever any other Language had above three.

86. Sixteenthly, No other Tongue hath above eight or nine parts of speech; but this hath twelve.

87. Seventeenthly, For variety of diction in each part of speech, it surmounteth all the Languages in the world.

88. Eighteenthly, Each Noun thereof, or Verb, may begin or end with a Vowel or Consonant, as to the peruser shall seem most expedient.

89. Nineteenthly, Every word of this Language declina­ble or indeclinable hath at least ten several synomyma's.

90. Twentiethly, each of these synomyma's, in some circum­stance of the signification, differeth from the rest.

91. One and twentiethly, Every faculty, science, art, trade, or discipline, requiring many words for expression of the know­ledge thereof, hath each its respective root from whence all the words thereto belonging are derived.

92. Two and twentiethly, In this Language the opposite members of a division have usually the same letters in the words which signifie them; the initial and final letter being all one, with a transmutation only in the middle ones.

93. Three and twentiethly, Every word in this Language signifieth as well backward as forward; and however you in­vert the letters, still shall you fall upon significant words: whereby a wonderful facility is obtained in making of Ana­grams.

94. Four and twentiethly, There is no Language in the world, but for every word thereof, it will afford you another of the same signification, of equal syllables with it, and be­ginning or ending, or both, with vowels or consonants as it doth.

95. Five and twentiethly, by vertue hereof, there is no Hex­amater, Elegiack, Saphick, Asclepiad, Iambick, or any other kind of Latine or Greek verse, but I will afford you another in this Language of the same sort, without a syllable more or less in the one then the other, Spondae answering to Spondae, dactil to dactil, caesure to caesure, and each foot to other, with all uni­formity imaginable.

[Page 19]96. Six and twentiethly, As it trotteth easily with metrical feet, so at the end of the career of each line, hath it the dexterity, after the manner of our English and other ver­naculary Tongues, to stop with the closure of a rime; in the framing whereof, the well-versed in that Language shall have so little labour, that for every word therein he shall be able to furnish at least five hundred several monosyllables of the same termination with it.

97. Seven and twentiethly, in translating verses of any ver­naculary Tongue, such as Italian, French, Spanish, Slavonian, Dutch, Irish, English, or whatever it be, it affords you of the same signification, syllable for syllable, and in the closure of each line a rime, as in the original.

98. Eight and twentiethly, by this Language, and the Let­ters thereof, we may doe such admirable feats in numbers, that no cyphering can reach its compendiousness: for whereas the ordinary way of numbring by thousands of thousands of thou­sands of thousands, doth but confuse the hearers understanding; to remedy which, I devised, even by cyphering it self, a farre more exact manner of numeration, as in the Treatise of Arith­metick which I have ready for the Press, is evidently apparent; This Language affordeth so concise words for numbering, that the number for setting down whereof, would require in vulgar Arithmetick, more figures in a row then there might be grains of sand containable from the center of the earth, to the highest heavens, is in it expressed by two letters.

99. Nine and twentiethly, what rational Logarithms doe by writing, this Language doth by heart; and by adding of letters, shall multiply numbers, which is a most exquisite se­cret.

100. Thirtiethly, the digits are expressed by vowels, and the consonants stand for all the results of the Cephalism, from ten to eighty one, inclusively; whereby many pretty Arithmetical tricks are performed.

101. One and thirtiethly, in the denomination of the fixed Stars, it affordeth the most significant way imaginary: for by the single word alone which represents the Star, you shall know the magnitude, together with the longitude and la­titude, [Page 20] both in degrees and minutes of the Star that is expres­sed by it.

102. Two and thirtiethly, by one word in this Language, we shall understand what degree or what minute of the degree of a sign in the Zodiack, the Sun or Moon, or any other planet is in.

103. Three and thirtiethly, as for the year of God, the moneth of that yeer, week of the moneth, day of that week, partition of the day, hour of that partition, quarter and half quarter of the hour, a word of one or two syllables at most in this Language will express it all to the full.

104. Four and thirtiethly, in this Language, also, words expressive of herbs, represent unto us with what degree of cold, moisture, heat, or driness they are qualifyed; together with some other property distinguishing them from other herbs.

105. Five and thirtiethly, in matter of Colours, we shall learn by words in this Language the proportion of light, sha­dow, or darkness commixed in them.

106. Six and thirtiethly, in the composition of syllables by vowels and consonants, it affordeth the aptest words that can be imagined, for expressing how many vowels and consonants any syllable is compounded of, and how placed in priority and situation to one another. Which secret in this Language, is ex­ceeding necessary, for understanding the vigour of derivatives in their variety of signification.

107. Seven and thirtiethly, for attaining to that dexterity which Mithridates King of Pontus was said to have, in calling all his soldiers of an Army of threescore thousand men, by their names and surnames, this Language will be so convenient, that if a General, according to the Rules thereof, will give new names to his souldiers, whether Horse, Foot, or Dragoons, as the French use to do to their Infantry by their noms de guerre, he shall be able, at the first hearing of the word that represents the name of a souldier, to know of what Brigade, Regiment, Troop, Company, Squadron, or Division he is; and whether he be of the Cavalry, or of the Foot; a single Souldier, or an Officer, or belonging to the Artillery or Baggage: which device, [Page 21] in my opinion, is not unuseful for those great Captains that would endear themselves in the favour of the Souldiery.

108. Eight and thirtiethly, in the contexture of nouns, pro­nouns, and preposital articles united together, it administreth many wonderful varieties of Laconick expressions, as in the Grammar thereof shall more at large be made known unto you.

109. Nine and thirtiethly, every word in this Language is significative of a number; because, as words may be increased by addition of letters and syllables; so of numbers is there a progress in infinitum.

110. Fourtiethly, in this Language every number, how great soever, may be expressed by one single word.

111. One and fourtiethly, As every number essentially differeth from another, so shall the words expressive of seve­rall numbers, be from one another distinguished.

112. Two and Fourtiethly, No Language but this hath in its words the whole number of letters, that is, ten vowels, and five and twenty consonants; by which means there is no word escapes the latitude thereof.

113. Three and fourtiethly, As its interjections are more numerous, so are they more emphatical in their respective ex­pression of passions, than that part of speech is in any other Language whatsoever.

114. Four and fourtiethly, The more syllables there be in any one word of this Language, the manyer several significa­tions it hath: with which propriety no other Language is en­dowed.

115. Five and fourtiethly, All the several genders in this Language, are as well competent to verbs as nouns: by vertue whereof, at the first uttering of a verb in the active voice, you shall know whether it be a god, a goddess, a man, a woman, a beast, or any thing inanimate, (and so thorow the other five genders) that doth the action: which excellencie is altogether peculiar unto this Language.

116. Six and fourtiethly, In this Language there is an art, out of every word, of what kind of speech soever it be, to frame a verb; whereby, for expressing all manner of actions, a great facility is attained unto.

[Page 22]117. Seven and fourtiethly, To all manner of verbs, and many syncategorematical words, is allowed in this Language a flexion by Cases, unknown to other Tongues, thereby to re­present unto our understandings more compendious expressi­ons then is possible to afford by any other means.

118. Eight and fourtiethly, Of all Languages, this is the most compendious in complement, and consequently, fittest for Courtiers and Ladies.

119. Nine and fourtiethly, For writing of Missives, Letters of State, and all other manner of Epistles, whether serious or otherways, it affordeth the compactest stile of any Language in the world, and therefore, of all other the most requisite to be learned by States-men and Merchants.

120. Fiftiethly, No Language in matter of Prayer and Eja­culations to Almighty God, is able, for conciseness of expressi­on, to compare with it; and therefore, of all other, the most fit for the use of Church-men, and spirits inclined to devoti­on.

121. One and fiftiethly, This Language hath a modifica­tion of the tense, whether present, preterite, or future, of so curious invention for couching much matter in few words, that no other Language ever had the like.

122. Two and fiftiethly, There is not a proper name in any Country of the world, for which this Language affords not a peculiar word, without being beholding to any other.

123. Three and fiftiethly, In many thousands of words belon­ging to this Language, there is not a Letter which hath not a peculiar signification by it self.

124. Four and fiftiethly, The polysyllables of this Language do all of them signifie by their monosyllables; which no word in any other Language doth, ex instituto, but the compound ones: for though the syllabical parts of exlex separately signi­fie as in the compound; yet those of homo doe it not, nor yet those of dote, or domus, as in the whole: and so it is in all other Languages except the same: for there are in the Italian and Latine Tongues, words of ten, eleven, or twelve syllables, whereof not one syllable by it self doth signifie any thing at all in that Language, of what it doth in the whole; as [Page 23] adolescenturiatissimamente, honorificieabilitudinitatibus, &c.

125. Five and fiftiethly, all the Languages in the world will be beholding to this, and this to none.

126. Six and fiftiethly, there is yet another wonder in this Language, which although a little touched by the by in the fiftie eighth article of this Preface, I will mention yet once more; and it is this, That though this language have advan­tage of all other, it is impossible any other in time coming sur­pass it, because, as I have already said, it comprehendeth, first, all words expressible; and then, in matter of the obliquity of the cases and tenses, the contrivance of undeclinable parts; and right disposure of vowels and consonants, for distinguishing of various significations within the latitude of letters, cannot be afforded a way so expedient.

127. Seven and fiftiethly, the greatest wonder of all, is, that of all the Languages in the world, it is easiest to learn; a boy of ten years old, being able to attain to the knowledge there­of, in three moneths space; because there are in it many facili­tations for the memory, which no other Language hath but it self.

128. Eight and fiftiethly, sooner shall one reach the under­standing of things to be signified by the words of this Lan­guage, then by those of any other, for that Logarithms in com­parison of absolute numbers, so do the words thereof in their initials respectively vary according to the nature of the things which they signifie.

129. Nine and fiftiethly, for pithiness of proverbs, oracles, and sentences, no Language can paralel with it.

130. Sixtiethly, in Axioms, Maximes, and Aphorisms, it is excellent above all other Languages.

131. One and sixtiethly, for definitions, divisions, and di­stinctions, no Language is so apt.

132. Two and sixtiethly, for the affirmation, negation, and infinitation of propositions, it hath proprieties unknown to any other Language, most necessary for knowledge.

133. Three and sixtiethly, in matters of Enthymems, Syl­logisms, and all manner of Illative ratiocination, it is the most compendious in the world.

[Page 24]134. Sixtie fourthly, Negative expressions are more com­pendiously uttred in this Language, then in any other in the world.

135. Sixtie fifthly, The infinitant terms by this Tongue are in one single word expressed, which succinctness is by no other Language afforded.

136. Lastly, There is not any phrase whatsoever, which, for being peculiar to one Speech, and consequently in all other to be improperly taken (wherewith each known Tongue in the world is most variously stored) hath, when translated from its original idiome, the denomination of Graecism, Latinism, Scotism, Anglicism, and so forth; but in this universal Language is so well admitted, that, in losing nothing of its genuine liveli­ness, it beareth along with it, without any diminution either of sense or expression, the same very emphasis in the stream, which it had at the spring, the like whereof is in no other Lan­guage to be found.

137. Besides these sixty and six advantages above all other Languages, I might have couched thrice as many more, of no less consideration then the aforesaid, but that these same will suffice to sharpen the longing of the generous Reader, after the intrinsecal and most researched secrets of the new Gram­mer and Lexicon which I [...]am to evulge.

The Preface To the second BOOK, entituled CHRESTASEBEIA.

THe scope of the Author in this his second Book is to plead for the removal of some impedi­ments, which stand in the way of emitting those his works of a curious invention, where­with he intends to gratifie this Isle; in doing whereof, he observeth a very compendious, and most commendable method, for prosecuting of the noble designe, proposed in the general title of the Introduction. Natural Phy­losophie teacheth us, That one form is to be expelled, before ano­ther can be introduced upon the subjected matter; for which cause Aristotle very wisely, constituted Privation for one of the th [...]ee principles of Nature. No judicious Architect will begin to erect a fabrick, till the ground be first cleansed of the rubbish, which hindreth the laying of the foundation. Arts, disciplines, and sciences, for being qualities (as are the faculties whence they emane) (though of another species) are predicamentally classible under accidents, that have their essential dependance on that sub­stance, which, without derogating any thing from the soul of man, may properly be said, to be the body, whose livelihood consisting in a maintenance by external means, The Author very rationally thence inferreth, a necessity of being established in the estate of his Predecessors, for the production of his brain-issues, in ma [...]y elaboured secrets. Those the Author metaphorically termeth moveables, thereby to claim the benefit of an act of Parliament, for [Page] his redintegration into his progenitors Land, and yet that he should make so disproportionate a parallel, he layeth the weight upon the iniquity of the times, and rigour of Flagitators, whose lamentable wrongs done unto him, he most egregiously amplify­eth by three notable examples: and in sequel thereof describeth Usurie to the life, together with the bruti [...]hness of the churlish exacters of it. Why to the promised Language, is premised this Introduction, and that the promulgation thereof is retarded, the Author, besides what is said, inserteth this other reason, least it's inconsiderate prostitution should make it be undervalued: to con­firm this, he sheweth by three or four pregnant examples, how en­joyment abates affection, and by ten instances more, how in the est [...]mation of ill-poised Judgements, very precious things have been postposed to quisqu liary trash, for witnessing the transcen­dencie [...]f the effects of mental faculties, beyond those of either body or fortune, he points at Scotus, and Sacrobosco: but in collatio­tioning Learning with Warfare, he leaves the odds undecided. What large Donatives have been bestowed on learned men for their encouragement to Literature, he specifyeth by eight several examples: and by seven more, the indefatigable pains taken by eminent Schollars of former ages in the prosecuting of their stu­dies; all which the Author is pleased to display before us, the better thereby to extoll the gifts of the intellectual part: and where he transiently lets fall a word in praise of his own elucubrae­tions, he excuseth it by the necessity of avoiding a greater evil, subjoyning thereto for better illustration, three specious presi­dents of a King, a Prophet, and a Saint, all divinely insp [...]red: and finally closeth all, with a certainty (upon the removal of ob­structions) of performing whatever he hath promised, the contex­ture of all which being maturely perpended, cannot choose, but be pleasing to the industrious Reader.

The second BOOK OF THE INTRODVCTION INTITULED CHRESTASEBEIA. OR Impious dealing of CREDITORS. WHEREIN The severity of the Creditors of the Authors Family, is desired to be removed, as a main impediment to the Production of this Universal Lan­guage, and publication of other no less considerable Treatises.

1 WHy it pleased me to set forth this Preamble a part, without annexing thereto the rudi­ments of the Language, by the faith I owe to truth, it was against my will, and the cause thereof did meerly proceed from without: First, for that all the Papers con­cerning that Subject were lost at the spoil after Worcester fight, and next, there being in Scotland of those that would despoyl me of my whole Lands, who care as little for Learning, as a [Page 26] Sow doth for a Pearl:Avarus prius sac­cum im­plet q [...]am animum. should I have publiquely exposed these treasures, like Aesops Cock, they would have preferred a Barley Corn before them.

2. And although I expect no applause from them, whose Arcadian ears by the warbling of no Nightingale;Interea pleno cum [...]urget sa­culus, ore. Crescit a­mor num­mi quan­tum ipsa pecunia crescit. are to be de­mulceated: yet by reason of the power they have in the land, I thought fit to stop my Pen for a while, least otherwise I should fail of my designe, in the preservation of my Predecessors in­heritance.

3. For albeit it might be thought unreasonable, that I should be denuded of those possessions, my Ancestors have enjoyed these one and twenty hundred years, and upwards, and that by them to whom I was never beholding insomuch as a pennie,Avari ani­mus nullo satiatur lu­cro. nor any of my predecessors, save my Father alone, whose facility, in making of unprofitable bargains, they abused, for inriching of themselves; and at whose hands they have gained so much, although they never get a penny from mee they can be no losers.

Suos hospi­tes male remunerat avarus ser­pens est in sina ignis in gremio, mus in pe­ra.4. Yet as if I were their Debtor (of which Title, the civilest Nations in the world will acquit me) I demand of the State, and Authority established, this favour amongst others, that they would allow me the benefit of the six and thirtieth Sta­tute of the fifth Parliament of King James the third, which ne­ver yet was repealed, in so far as it provideth, that the Deb­tors moveable goods be first valued, and discussed, before his lands be apprised, much less possessed.

5. And if conform to the aforesaid Act, this be granted, I doe promise shortly, to display before the world, ware of grea­ter value, then ever from the East Indias were brought in ships to Europe.

Qui studet nummis hic praefert infima summis: condita fastori proeponit & ejus a­mori.6. And though there be many (even of my Fathers Credi­tors) that will postpose it to a Little money, yet are not Dia­monds and gold of the less worth, because the Americans make more account of Iron, and Beads.

7. I have seen of those, that choosed Sugar, before Amber­grece; because they deemed it sweeter to the tast: and prefer­red Black Tours velvet, to pure Segovia scarlet; for that it see­med softer to the touch: Yet is not such a simple, and un­skilful [Page 27] misprising of things to passe for a Rule amongst the bet­ter sort, for inhansing, or imparing of their prices.

8 For truth being in indivisibili, as is the essence of what ever is, who is most versed in the nature, and properties of a thing, is alwayes best able to dignosce of its value.

9. A Shooe-maker cannot judge so uprightly of an elabou­rate Picture, as a cunning Artist in the trade of Painting: nor an illiterate Soldier pry so profoundly in a Metaphysical Argu­ment, as a Learned Philosopher brought up with quiddi­ties.

10. A Ploughman, is better acquainted with tilling, then Bils of Exchange: and a Merchant banker, with the rate of what in the Hundred, is to be taken from Amsterdam to Ve­nice, then what Fair he should go to, for buying of the cheap­est, and best cattel.

11. Seamen will prove as ridiculous, in making on foot their approaches to a Fort, as Land warriers, in the conding of a ship; and it will become a Clown as ill, to complement with a La­dy, as a Courtier to carry Burthens. Each trade, or vocation having its own genius, and no man being skill'd in all alike.

12. I have heard an Italian of good report say, that, with the money got from a Lapidarie, for a box of precious stones, he bought a signiorie of Land, which the owner, ignorant in such, would not have disponed for a Hundred times as many Jewels.

13. And have likewise known a Citizen in Paris, that would not have let out one single Chamber of his, though but for a moneth, for six times more Cochenile, then at the hands of others, well seen in the like Chaffer, afforded the money, for which he was glad to sell a Ninteen yeares Lease of his whole house together, consisting of ten Rooms as good, which is the proportion of thirteen thousand six hundred and eighty, to one.

14. Out of which instances, is to be collected, that seeing men of all professions trade for money, who usually are unex­pert in the Commodities of one anothers vocation, if it occurre, that the Debtor and Creditors be of several Faculties, the Deb­tor [Page 28] must otherwayes then with the Chevisance of his Imploy­ment, Labour for the Contentment of his Creditor of another calling; and consequently money being the common measure of all merchandize, must needs sell to some other, for the pay­ment of him.

15. The case in some measure is my own, considering the condition, wherein, for the present, I am made to stand with my Fathers Creditors, whose lack of insight in the Ware, I would make sale of, together with their earnest pressing me for money, enforce me, for the better obtaining of the last, to have recourse to those, that are more skilful in the first to dis­pone it to.

16. Yet if I were not netled by such a Sect of bawling, & ob­streperous Seekers,Vide Art. 69. in a time so unfertil of good shifts, & wherein I have already essayed the uneffectualness of all other manner of means,Hic bona pars homi­num d [...]cep­ta cupidine salsa. Nil satis est in­quit. this vendacity should never have appeared in me of a Commodity, which to appreciate at the rate of any coyn, I would have accounted a kind of Simonie, and a course which, had my Land been as cleer of Merchants, as my minde is of mercinariness I had not daigned to stoop to for a King­dom.

Ergo solli­ci [...]ae tu causa pe­cunia vitae es.17. But for want of other expedients, making bold to pitch on this, I heartily supplicate the subsidiarie-courtesie of the State aforesaid, towards the emancipation, and infranchising of my mind, from the drudgery, and servile ploddings, wherewith it hath been captivated,Tu vitiis hominum [...]udelta [...]bula p [...]aebes se­mina cura­rum de ca­pite o [...]ra l [...]o. how to perform duty to those Faenerato­rie Masters.

18. Who alwayes sticking close about me, like a cluster of stinging Wasps, and thundring upon me charges, as unwelcom to any generous Spirit, as is the touch of an Ibis Penne to a Crocodile, have so fretted, galled, and pricked me to the very Soul, that all the Faculties thereof, have by them been this great while most pitilesly, and atrociously inslaved, and incar­cerated in the comfortless dump,F [...]enus est on us etiam divitibus intollerab [...] ­le, says Plutarch. Magno malo est hominibus avaritia idcirco quod homines magnis & multis incommodis conflictantur propter immensam pecuniae cupiditatem. of searching for wherewith to close their yawning mouths, and stop their gaping.

[Page 29]19. For truly I may say, that above ten thousand severall times, I have by those Flagitators been interrupted for money,Vid. lib. 5. Ar. 43. Avarus omnia de­vorans vellet nul­lum homi­nem esse, ut omnia solus possideret. which never came to my use, directly or indirectly, one way, or other, at home, or abroad, any one time whereof, I was busied about Speculations, of greater consequence, then all that they were worth in the world; from which, had not I been violently pluck'd away by their importunity, I would have emitted to publick view, above five hundred several Treatises on inventions, never hitherto thought upon by any.

20. But as a certain Shepheard, on a time (according to the Epimythist) would have perswaded the Fox not to destroy his flock, till he had got their fleeces,Excusatio avaritiae est cumu­lare pro fi­liis. the wool whereof was to be employed in Cloth for the royal Robes of the Soveraign of the Land: unto whom the Fox replied, That his main in­terest being to fatten himself, and his cubbs, he did not find himself so much concerned in either Soveraign or Subject, that upon any such pretext (how specious soever) he would leave his terrier unmagazined of all manner of provision, competent for his vulpecularie family.

21. Even so may I avouch, that the nature of the most part of this strange kind of Flagitators,Nullum est justitiae in cordibus il­lorum ve­stigium in quibus a­varitia sibi fecit habi­taculum. being without any conside­ration, or regard to the condition of a Gentleman, or whether the improvement or impairing of his Fortunes, should further, or retard the progress of the Countries Fame, totally to em­ploy themselves in a coin-accumulating way towards the mul­tiplying of their trash, and heedful accrescing of the Mammon drosse, wherein their Lucre-hailing minds, and consopiated Spirits lie intombed, and imburyed.

22. For again, as the old Hyena of Quinzie (as it is reported in some Outlandish stories) after he had seized upon the sub­limest witted Gymnosophist of that Age,Omnium scel [...]rum gravissima est avari­ [...]ia cum omnia hu­mana & divina jura cul­tumque vel ipsius dei pessundare consuevit cum nihil sit tam sanctum quod avaritia vic­la [...]e non soleat. on purpose to feed upon him, being a Hungred, did vilifie and misregard the tears and sorrow, justly shed, and conceived by the Inhabitants of that populous and magnificent City, for the apparent loss of such unparallelled wisdom, and exquisite Learning, as through [Page 30] the death of so prime a Philosopher, was like for ever to re­dound to the whole Empire of China: and altogether postpo­sing them, to the satisfying of his base appetite, with one poor meal of meat, and that only in a sorry breakfast he was to take out of his bowels, killed him, tore him in peeces, and greedily snatched up that repast, the better to dispose his stomach, with­in three houres thereafter, for another of the like na­ture.

23. Just so, amongst many of my Fathers Creditors, hath there bin a generation of such tenacious Publicans,Quid non mortalia pectora co­gis, auri sacra fa­mes. that cared so little, what the Countrey in general might be concerned in any mans private interest (though much by some singular good friends of mine, hath been spoke to them in my own particular) that through their Cruelty, and extreme hard usage, I have beene often necessitated to supply out of my Brains,Qui ma­luat locu­pletari crumenas quam Ca­moenas consulcre. Ab ipsis e­tiam statu­is exige­rent (ut aium) farinas. what was defici­ent in my Purse, and provide from a far, what should have been afforded at home, one half tearms. Interest, although but of a Pettie, and trivial Summe, being in their eyes of more esteem, then the Quintessence of all the Liberal Arts, together with that of the Moral Vertues, epitomized in the person of any, though imbellished to the Boot, with all other accomplish­ments whatsoever, for discategorically, in despight of all order, by marshalling quality after habere, they have still preferred the possession of a little Lumber, and baggagely Pelf, to all the Choicest perfections of both body and mind.

24. And indeed, to speak ingenuously, as the Sparrow, whom a late Archbishop of Canterbury weeped to see as often forced to fall back, as it strove to flye upwards, by reason of a little Peeble stone, fast at the end of a string, that was tyed to her foot: the contemplatively devout Prelate thereby consi­dering, that the sincerest minds, even of the most faithfull, are oftentimes impedited from soaring to their intended height, because of the clog of worldly incumbrances, which depres­seth them.

Nunquam expletur cupiditatis sitis nam cupiditati nihil est satis.25. Even so may it be said of my self, that when I was most seriously imbusied about the raising of my own, and Countries reputation to the supremest reach of my endeavours, then did my Fathers Creditors, like so many milstones hanging at my [Page 31] heels, pull down the vigour of my Fancie, and violently hold at under, what other wayes would have ascended, above the sublimest regions of Vulgar conception.

26. Thus I being, as another Andromeda, Nil avaro molestius nullam est hominum genus quod [...]am auri habendi cupiditate intab. scat. chained to the Rock of hard usage, and in the view of all my Compatriots, exposed to the merciless Dragon, Usurie: I most humbly be­seech the Soveraign Authority of the Countrey, like another Perseus, mounted on the winged Pegasus of Respect to the weal and honour thereof, to releeve me, by their power, from the eminent danger of the jaws of so wild a monster.

27. Which maketh the very meanest, and most frivolous summe of any (like the Giant Ephialtes, Vid. B. 3. Art. 8. Inflamma­tur lucio avaritia & non ex­tinguitur quasi gra­dus quos­dam cupi­ditatis ha­bet et quo plures as­cenderit eo ad altiora festinat unde sit gravior­ [...]uina lap­suro. who grew nine In­ches every moneth) immensely to [...]pread forth its exuberant members, without any other sustenance, or nourishment, then the meer invisible Flux of time, that starveth all things else, un­till it extend it self at last to a mighty huge Colossus of Debt, able, like that of the Rhodes, to take fastning upon two territo­ries at once.

28. And in recompence of a so illustrious and magnificent action, unto the State of this Land, as fittest patron for such a present, will I tender some of the aforesaid moveables whose value I doe warrantably make account to be of no less extent, then in the estimation of all the Universities of both Nations, & other pregnant Spirits of approved Literature, shall centuplate the worth of the whole money, that for debt can be asked by those Creditors, out of the profoundest exorbitancy of their Covetousness.

29. By my appealing thus to a Judicatorie, conflated of the prime lights of the Isle, and who (as all wise men else) do more magnifie, and extoll the endowments of the mind, then those of either body, or fortune: it is very perceptible, unto which of these three branches of good this offer of mine is to be re­duced.

30. No man will deny, that is not destitute of common sense, but that Scotus, and Sacrobosco, brought more reputati­on to Scotland by their learned writings, then if they had en­riched it with Gallioons, loaded full of gold: and that it had been better for that Nation, to have lost many millions of An­gels, [Page 32] then that through penurie, or any other accident, the workes of those Gallant men had been buried in Oblivi­on.

31. For as in both body and mind, the instruments of the nobler faculties are esteemed of the greater value: so in a po­litick incorporation, so much the more should be respected, and dignified the advancers of the reputation thereof, then the ac­crescers of its wealth, that of the three degrees of goodness, the qualifications of the mind have the precedency.

Cum ava­ritia alicui duminatur subjectu [...] malis om­nibus de­monstratur quia de a­varitia omnia ma­la oriuntur & pecca­torum om­nium spinae producun­tur.32. And although, there be Legions in Scotland of those Ga­darenal Swine, that will prefer the taste of a Sky ball to the fragrancy of the most odiferous Jasmin: who also, like so many dunghil fowles, to a grain of wheat, will postpose the most precious Pearl that is: and haling only after sensual things, re­duplicatively as sensual, give no repast at all to the better part, which preposterously dancing attendance, after the inferiour appetites, hath its eyes in a veternatorie somnolency shut up from the prospect of all mental speculations.

33. Yet the essence of man consisting in reasonability, he may be said to have little of man in him, that regards not ano­ther the more, for having his reason imbellished with the ad­dition of Literature.

34. Which hath been held in such grandissim account by the prudentest of Pristin ages, that making it come in compe­tition with Souldiery it self, they did not stick to aver, that Greece (which of all Nations was most renowned, and most worthy to be most renowned, both for wit and valour) did owe more cordial praise, and commendation to the Philosophers thereof, then to all its most military and warlike Champions; preferring in this Case, knowledge in Sciences, to fortitude in the fields; and the habits of the Intellectual faculties, to those of the moral.

35. But unfainedly, seeing to the foundest judgements of any▪ and most consentaneous to one another, in their Adhe­rence to Apodictick conclusions, is oftentimes incident a re­pugnancy of Opinion in matter of Dialectical ratioc [...]nation: and that some of them, in a very similitudinary probability of prevalency on both sides of the Argument, doe ferret, out of [Page 33] Topick celluls, mediums prompting them to have in grea­ter estimation magnanimity of Courage, then vivacity of Spirit.

36. I will in so far as concerns my self, for that I hope ere long to breath in such auspicious dayes, as will give way to my good destinie, to present me with those favorable opportunities may make my deservings appear equally recōmendable in both, rather choose to suspend the pronouncing of my verdict, then by any sentiment of mine, positively to determine of the pre­eminence of either.

37. However, to discend more particularly to the pur­pose, seeing it is every where uncontroversibly acknowledged, that the goods of the mind are of more worth, then those of fortune; and by consequence, the pregnantly conceived, and maturely ennixed ofspring of my own brain (which least I should seem to philotize it, I in all humility submit to the un­partial censure of the choicest Spirits) of farre greater value, then any peece of money due to my Fathers Creditors.

38. I do ardently desire, and supplicat the State not to suffer the majesty, and sacred name of Soveraign authority, under colour of a Law, any more to be abused in favours of those men, who have made use thereof in several charges against me, formerly in the name of both the King Charle's, and now in that of the Keepers of the Liberties of England, O Avare sordidius nihil est nihil est te spur­cius uno qui potes insidias dona voca­ta. to no other end but to rob me of my Predecessors Inheritance, without any procurement of mine.

39. Withall, I heartily intreat them to vouchsafe the Patronizing of the present, I am to make unto them, and in Testimony of their acceptance of it, exoner me of the Burthen of these Flagitators, by taking such a course, as to their discre­tions shall seem most expedient, which, if they consider aright, were it for the defrayment of greater sums, will be of small dif­ficulty.Si [...] avidis fallax in­dulget pis­cibus ha­mus Calli­da sic stul­tas decipit esca feras.

40. And here I promise, by the Faith I owe to God, that this courtesie, so conferred, shall (if I live) as Seed sown in a fertil soyl, yeeld a hundred fold, to the promoving of the repu­putation of the Land.

41. Which in an age, so full of Calumnies, and wherein [Page 34] the most zealous thoughts do not escape mis-interpretation, is not to be rejected, nor any thing in that kind, which may con­duce to the undeceiving of Forrainers of any prejudicate opini­on of late conceived by them against the integrity of our Countreymen.

42. Some will say, that, I demand much, and things un­usuall to be granted: others again, that I promise far more, & am too prodigal in my own praises: But my self will avouch, that as my demand is reasonable, so would I have ere now per­formed what I promised, and not spoke so much as one sylla­ble in my own Favours, but that by one and the same occa­sion, I was necessitated to doe the one, and forbear the other.

43. It is ordinary amongst Seamen, to say the Tempest so increas'd; that, for safety of my life, I was glad to throw my goods over-board: I have heard Soldiers likewise affirm, and have seen, that they have heartily abandoned their Purse to the prevailing Enemy, for obtaining the better quarter: yet to examine either of these actions aright, they were but mixt ones tending to the lesser evil; voluntarie, secundum quid, but sim­pliciter, unwilling.

44 Just so is it, for shunning of the greater harm, to wit, the Inconveniency might ensue upon the vilifying of my brain­works, I choosed both to restrain their Emission, and com­mend what was to be promulgated: either of which, had it not been for the aforesaid necessities, would have been as un­welcome to me, as to the Merchant, was the casting out of his goods into the Sea; or to the Soldier, the delivery up of his purse unto his Foe.

45. Enjoyment commonly abates Estimation, but long­ing doth increase it; And as there are of those, who, for one night of a Lady, have bestowed double the means, would have sufficed for a Joyncture to the Mother of their lawful children, although a better and more handsome woman to the boot: so are vulgar Spirits (for the most part) highly mistaken in their sense of the true value of things of any im­portance.

46. Judas valued at three hundred pence the Box of Oint­ment, [Page 35] which Mary poured on the feet of Christ, whom him­self sold for thirty.

47. I have seen of them, that accounted no more of Amber­grece, then of Fullers Earth, though in some parts, a handfull of the one, will be worth a Thousand cart loads of the o- other.

48. I have likewise heard of a hundred crowns, given for a Fresh Salmon, where the Scots Pint of wine did cost but three half-pence: and of a Salmon every whit as good, got for six pence, where so much wine of no better kind would have stood you in half a Crown, which is the proportion of twenty thousand to one. For who at Toledo with the hundred crowns got for a Salmon, supposed fresh, which at Aberdeen he bought for a six pence, did purchase four thousand pints of Wine, which at his return to Aberdeen yeelded him two thousand Crowns, hath clearly obtained twenty thousand six pences for one: Or who at Aberdeen with the two Crowns got for four pints of Wine, which at Toledo he bought for a six pence, did purchase twenty fresh Salmons, which at his return to Toledo, yeelded him two thousand Crowns, hath in the same manner, for one six pence obtained twenty thousand, which is a hundred to one, two hundred times told.

49. Of these examples there are many, which to summe up in one of a more disproportioned mistake, then any of the rest, I will tell you, [...]hat there happening a Gentleman of very good worth, to stay awhile at my house, who one day, a­mongst many other, was pleased, in the deadst time of all the Winter, with a Gun upon his shoulder, to search for a shot of some Wild-fowl: & after he had waded through many waters, taken excessive pains in quest of his game, & by means thereof, had killed some five or six Moor-Fowls, and Patridges which he brought along with him to my house, he was by some other Gentlemen, who chanced to alight at my gate (as he entred in) very much commended for his love to sport; And (as the fashion of most of our Countrymen is, not to praise one, with­out dispraising another) I was highly blamed for not giving my self in that kind to the same exercise, having before my eys so commendable a Pattern to imitate; I answered, though the [Page 36] Gentleman deserved Praise, for the evident proof he had given that day of his inclination to thrift and laboriousness, that ne­vertheless I was not too blame, seeing whilst he was busied a­bout that Sport, I was imployed in a diversion of another na­ture, such as optical secrets, mysteries of natural Philosophie, reasons for the variety of Colours, the finding out of the Lon­gitude, the squaring of a circle and wayes to accomplish all Trigonometrical calculations by signes, without tangents, with the same compendiousness of computation, which, in the estimation of learned men, would be accounted worth six hundred thousand Partridges, and as many Moor-Fowles.

50. But, notwithstanding this relation, either for that the Gentlemen understood it not, or that they deemed the exer­cise of the Body to be of greater concernment, then that of the minde, they continued firme in their former opinion, whereof I laboured not to convince them; because I intended according to their Capacities to bear them Company.

51. In the mean while that worthy Gentleman who was no­thing of their mind, for being wet, and weary after travel, was not able to eat of what he had so much toyled for whilst my braine recreations so sharpened my appetite, that I supped to very good purpose. That night past, the next mor­ning I gave 6 pence to a footman of mine, to try his fortune with the Gun, during the time I should disport my self, in the breaking of a young horse: and it so fell out, that by I had given my selfe a good heat by riding, the Boy returned with a dozen of wild fouls, half-Moor-foule, half Partridge, whereat being exceeding well pleased, I alighted, gave him my horse to care for, & forthwith entred in to see my Gentle­men, the most especiall whereof was unable to rise out of his bed, by reason of the Gout and Siatick, wherewith he was seized for his former dayes toyle.

52. Thus seeing matters of the greatest worth, may be under­valued by such as are destitute of understanding:Vide Art. 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 13, 46, 47, 48, 49. B. 6. Art. 51, 52, 53, 54, 55. who would reap any benefit by what is good, till it be appreciated should be charie of its prestitution; let this therefore suffice, why to this preface, or Introduction, I have not as yet sub­joyned the Grammar, and Lexicon.

[Page 37]53. But why it is I should so extoll the worth thereof,Vide Art. 46. of the fi [...]st Book, and 54, 56 of this same. without the jeopardy of vaine Glory, the reason is clear, and evident, being necessitated (as I have told in the fifth and twenty eight articles of the same Book) to merchandise it for the redintegrating of an Ancient family, it needeth not be thought strange, that in some measure I descend to the Fa­shion of the shop-keepers, who to scrue up the buyer to the higher price, will tell them no better can be had for mony, tis the choicest ware in England, and if any can match it, he shall have it for nought.

54. So in matter of this Literatorie chaffer, I determined not to be too rash in the prostitution thereof, least it should be villified: yet went on in my Laudatives, to procure the grea­ter Longing, that an ardent desire might stir up an emacity, to the furtherance of my proposed end.

55. Thus the first step of this Scale, being to avoid the dispreciative censure of Plebeculary Criticks,Hi admi­ratures au­ri oderunt virtutis indolem & omnes ho­nestas ar­tes. who (as Children preferr an apple to an Inheritance, or, Esau like, postpo­sing their birth-right to a dish of pottage) have no regard of intellectual perfections, where they come in Competition with any sensual goodnesse; or if they doe consider of them, in so far as concerneth new inventions, they slightingly use to vent themselves thus, the matter is not great, another could have done it, what serveth it for edification, Philosophy is dangerous, the Apostle himself avoucheth it, and other such Quisquiliary diblaterations, to the opprobrie of good spirits, and cloak of their own ignorance, they cast in the face of Lear­ning, that there is more humanity in the voice of a bull, or that of the wildest bear that ever was, then in the speech of those monsters

56. The second step thereof, is my elogiarie interthets, in extolling the proposed matter (without any philotary pre­sumption) whereof in the most authentick writings there wan­teth not store of presidents.

57. Moses, in a book cōmonly said to be of his own writing, intituled himself, the meekest man upon the face of the earth, and Paul, in the 11 of the 2 to the Corinthians, which was an Epistle of his own, ascribed to himself the stile of one of the [Page 38] chiefest of the Apostles, magnifying likewise his own Learning therein, and other qualifications, wherewith he was endowed.

58. Nor was David, for all his heinous transgressions, free from this manner of exalting himselfe; for in severall of his Psalmes, he wished to be judged according to his righteous­nesse, all which, though proceeding from the pen of man, had the Spirit of God for the Dictator.

59. Truths related to a good end, carry not along with them any Blemish of ostentation, and the intention being that which specified the Action, such self commendatives are not to be dispraised; seeing they bring us to the third step of the Scale, which is seriously to long after Learning.

60. Men of the greatest renown among the Ancients have been so taken with the Love thereof, that some divested them­selves of large Patrimonies, and vast possessions, the better to attend their Studies, Such was Anaxagoras: others pulled out their own eyes, that they might be subject to the lesse di­straction from Philosophicall Speculations, as did Democritus: others again, like Carneades, with metaphysical raptures were so taken up, that when set downe to table to eat, they forgot to put their hands to their mouthes.

61. Nor was this at starts, but so indefatigably studious were the most of those prime men, in times of old, that Simo­nides writ his poesies, Chrysippus his Logick, and Isocra­tes his Panathenaicon, when each of them was full fourscore yeares of age:The rea­der may be pleased to have recourse to the 22 Axioms mentio­ned in a Book of mine en­tituled The vindi­cation of the reputa­tion of Scotland. it being likewise reported by Cicero, that So­phocles, in his hundreth yeare, write the Tragedie of Oe­dipus.

62. From this earnest desire of Literature, wee ascend a­nother step, which is to hold him in great estimation, that is well qualified therewith, and not permit the offspring of his brain to perish, through the defect of worldly goods where­with to support it.

63. Of that most noble kind of Favorers of Learning, was Alexander the great who allowed several thousands of men to attend upon Aristotle, in the writing of his Natural history, for which, when done, he gave him in a donative, two hundred and fifty thousand pounds sterlin. Largius Licinius [Page 31] to Plinie the younger, would have given four hundred thou­sand Crowns for his Annals: and Marcus Popilius Andronicus for a little treatise of that sort, got sixteen thousand Du­cates.

64. Isocratés for one oration which he pend, had given unto him six thousand two hundred and forty pounds sterlin: and Antonius the Son of Severus, to Oppianus the Poet, gave a crowne for every verse of a great poesie, which he had written of the Nature of Fishes.

65. Ptolomae, on Cle [...]mbrotus the Phisitian, bestowed a hun­dred talents: and at how dear a rate Aristotle bought the Books of Speusippus; and Plato those of Philolaus the Pythago­rian, is clearly set down in Aulus Gellius, and Valerius Maximus.

66. Notwithstanding what hath been said, I would not have it to be thought, that these Largesses were so much competent prices for the Learning approved of, as manifest testimonies of the givers unfeigned affection to the learned man.

67. For, as there is no known proportion betwixt a crook­ed line, and a streight; and that the angle of contingence, is lesse then the least acute angle that is: so cannot all the tran­sitory goods in the world, be paralleled with those of the mind, if either we beleeve Ovid, whilst he saith, Nil non morta­le tenemus, pectoris exceptis, ingeniique bonis: or the Dutch Poet Buschius, in this his Epigram,

Judicious, virtus, saepientia, cedere fato
Non norunt tristi, nec didicere mori:
Nec cole (si cordis quod habes) sunt caetera mortis,
Divitiae, robur, gloria, sama, genus.

Or yet Julius Scaliger, who in his sixt book de re poëtica, (in­tituled, Hypercriticus) professeth, That he had rather have been the Author of Pindar's Pythionick, and Nemeonick lines, then King of Aragon, although he accounted them far short in value, to the third Ode of Horace's fourth book, or ninth of his third, which nevertheless he esteemed to be by many stages inferiour to Virgil's verses, at so high a rate he valued the minds endowments.

[Page 40] Vid. B. 3. Art. 12.68. Seeing thus it is then, that, being put into one ballance, the scale of learning depresseth the other, I would not expose any such talent of mine for external means, were it possible for any else to buy, with all the moneys in the world, that which I would preserve therewith, to wit, that antiquitie of race, by a continuat discent from many Predecessors, in one and the same Land, which would be altogether buryed in oblivion, by dis­possessing me of my ancient inheritance.

Vide Art. 16. Perpe­tuo [...]ignis crescit cre­scentibus ignis orco siv mari mens aequ [...]ara­tus avari.69 Yet were free from the slavery of Flagitators, though most of the Island should disapplaud my writings, I would ne­vertheless emit them, without hope of any further recompence; for a deed of vertue, whose reward is in the action it self, makes the very doing thereof to passe for a competent remunerati­on.

70. But the exigence of my estate, and fortune, requiring another course to be taken, I will on this fourth step of the scale, as on its landing place, expatiat my self upon the equity of my demand, and assurance of the performance of what I promise, for the better doing whereof, I make account to speak somewhat of our family, other some of the rigour of the Flagi­tator, a little of what the Law in Justice may provide for either of us: and lastly, to mount the highest degree of all, by clo­sing with a perswasion to have my Ancestors inheritance made free to me, and mine.

In Flagitatores. Ep. 1.

Scotorum è [...]templis nunc exulat omnis imago,
Sculpta nec in saxo sed nec in aere manet.
Causa patet nimirum, est unum venerabile numen,
Nec colimus, quanquam novimus esse deum.
Aurea nam postquam Scotis affulsit imago
Nomina sola colunt quae gravis arca tenet.

The Designe Of the third BOOK, entituled CLERONOMAPORIA.

AS in the Book immediately foregoing, the Author very plainly hath pointed at the main block, which lyeth in the way, as a hindrance to the progress of his brain-itineraries: so in this, the third of his Introduction, doth he, with great perspicacity, educe most peremptory reasons out of the clearest springs of both modern, and ancient, divine, and humaene Law, why it should be removed. In the mean while, the better to prepare the Reader towards a matter of so prime concernment, he begins the purpose with a peculiar, and domestick Narrative of the manner, how those impediments were cast in, to the end that the more unjustly he was dealt with by the persons, who did inject them, the greater justice may ap­pear, in his relief from their oppressions, to have mentioned such particulars, and unfolded them to the view of the publick, did very much damp the Genius of the Author, who, could he have otherways done, would undoubtedly have manifested ae most cordial dislike of any motion, tending to approve the offring unto Pan, the sacrifice of the houshold gods, or disclosing to all the mysteries of penatal rites. But the threed of the discourse hanging thereupon, without a gap in its contexture, it could not be avoyded; especi­ally, that generous and worthie Knight, the Authors Father, hae­ving been unparalleledly wronged by false, wicked, and covetous, men, himself being of all men living, the justest, equallest, and [Page] most honest in his dealings; his humor was rather than to break his word; to lose all he had, and stand to his most undeliberate promises what ever they might cost, which too strict adherence to the ansterest principles of veracity, pro­ved oftentimes dammageable to him, in his negotiations with many cunning sharks, who knew with what profitable odds, they could scrue themselves in upon the windings of so good a nature. He in all the neer upon) sixtie years that he lived, never inju­red any man voluntarily, though by protecting, and seconding of some unthank [...]full men, he did much prejudge himself: he never refused to be surety for any, so cordial he was towards his ac­quaintance; yet (contrary to all expectations) his kindnesse therein was attended by so much good luck, that he never payed above two hundred pounds English, for all his vadimonial favors. By the unfaithfulnes on the one side, of some of his menial servants in filching from him much of his personal Estate, and falshood of several Chamberlains, and Bayliffs, to whom he had intrusted the mana [...]ing of his Rents, in the unconscionable discharge of their Receits, by giving up one account thrice, and of such ac­counts many: And, on the other part, by the frequency of disad­vantagious bargains, which the slieness of the subtil Merchant did involve him in, his Loss came unawares upon him, and irresisti­bly, like an armed m [...]n; too great trust to the one, and facility in behalf of the other, occasioning so grievous a misfortune: which ne­verthe [...]ess, did not proceed from want of Knowledge, or Abilitie in Natural parts: for in the business of other men, he would have given a very sound advice, and was surpassing dextrous in Ar­bitrements, upon any reference submitted to him, but that hee thought it did derogate from the Nobility of his house, and repu­tation of his person, to l [...]ok to petty things in matter of his own affairs. Whereupon, after forty years custom, being habituated thereunto, he found himself at last (to his great regret) insensibly plunged into inextricable difficulties, in the large field whereof, the insatiable Creditor to make his harvest, by the ruine of that Family, struck in with his sickle, and by masking himselfe with a vizard, composed of the rags of the Scotish Law, in its se­verest sense, claims the same right to the whole inheritance, that Robinhood did to Frankindals money, for being master of the [Page] purse wherein it was. Those wretched, and unequitable cour­ses, indefatigably prosecuted by merciless men, to the utter undo­ing of the Author, and exterminion of his name, have induced him, out of his respect to antiquity, his piety to succession, and that intim regard of himself, which by divine injunction ought to be the rule, and measure of his love towards his neighbour, to set down in this parcel of his Introduction, the cruel usage, where­with he hath been served these many years past, by that inexora­ble race, the lamentable preparatives, which, by granting their desires, would ensue to the extirpation of worthie pedigrees, and the unexemplifyable injustice thereby redounding to him, who ne­ver was in any thing obliged to them. The premisses he enlargeth with divers quaint, and pertinent Similies, and after a neat appa­relling of Usury, in its holiday garments, he deduceth from the Laws, and customs of all Nations, the tender care that ought to be had in the preservation of antient Families: the particulars whereof, in matter of Ordonance, he evidenceth by the acts of So­lon, the Decrees of the Decemvits, and statutes of the Twelve Tables: And for its executional part, in the persons of Q. Fabius, Tiberius the Emperor, and the Israelitish observers of the sacred institution of Jubilees. By which enarration, nothing is more clear­ly inferred, then that seeing both Jews, and Gentiles, Painims, and Christians, in their both Monarchical, and Polyarchical Go­vernments, have been so zealous in their obsequiousness to so pi­ous a mandate, that the present age being no less concerned in the happy fruits thereof, then the good dayes of old, the splendid Au­thority of this Isle should be pleased, not to eclipse their commen­dation, by innovating any thing in the Authors case. Who decy­phering the implacability of Flagitators, by shewing how they throw in obstacles, retarding their own payment, thereby tacitly to hasten his destruction; and hinting at the unnatural breach of some of his Fiduciaries, he particularizeth the candor of his own endeavours, and nixuriencie to give all men contentment, the dis­course whereof, in all its periods, very well deserveth the serious animadversion of the ingenious Reader.

Ad Illustrissimos Dominos Comitiorum Serenissimi Status ANGLICANI. Carmen [...].

SCotia quam vidit sublimi in sede superbam,
Prae (que) aliis unam saepe tulisse caput;
Ehen prisca domus generoso stemmate foelix
Urcharti diro foenore pressa jacet.
Commodat aera viris usurae subdolus author,
(Aerased in turpem conduplicanda sinum)
Hinc erosus ager vastus, victique penates,
Et lex conspicuos turbat iniqua lares
At vos ô patres, legum queis summa potestas.
Qui (que) datis populis jura benigna tribus,
Ne sinite indigno ruat ut domus optima lapsu,
Terra (que) ut immeritum rapta relinquat herum:
Ille sacer Musis lotus parnasside lympha,
Vivat, & Aonii gloria prima chori:
Primus Hyperboreum musas qui duxit ad axem,
Cum stupuit dominum barbara terra suum.
Ponè lyram Pataraee tuam, tu barbiton Orphen,
Sint licet & carmen saxa secuta tuum:
Ille rudem populum primus feritate remota,
Jusserat Aonios edidicisse modos.
Nunc querulae lugent sylvae, colles (que) nivosae,
Gens viduata dolet, monticolae (que) gemunt.
Nec Pan Arcadiae sylvis tam saepè vocatur,
Quam nunc Urchartum terra relicta sonat.
Patres bellorum primi, pacis (que) columnae,
Ferte ô, nam meritam ferre potestis opem,
Creditor heu totas sylvas est, flumina potat,
Et centena avido jugera ventre premit.
Ut Scylla in medio fertur latrare profundo,
Sorbet & aequoreas dira Charibdis aquas.
Ut (que) rates avidis claudit Godwinus arenis,
Gaza (que) cum domino non reditura suo.
Sed neque pul, a fames, det tandem Jupiter ut sit
Carne vorax propria visceribusque satur.

The third BOOK OF THE INTRODVCTION INTITULED CLERONOMAPORIA. OR The intricacy of a distressed Successor, or apparent Heir. WHEREIN For the better evulging of this Vniversal Tongue, and other works, the preservation of the Authors ancient Inheritance, is by the lawes of all Nations, Pleaded for.

1 MAy it therefore be considered, in the first place, that a competent estate, (which, these many yeares past, hath yeelded a thousand pounds sterling of rent, although hardly the fifth part of that, either in ex­tent of bounds, or revenue, which some 900 yeares agoe from the dayes of my fore-father Zeron up­wards, till those of No [...]ostor, who was the first of my Pro­genitors, that stayed to inhabit the Land of Cromartie) being [Page 42] (consecutively (through a direct uninterrupted Series, for the most part, and Lineall discent of threescore and twelve severall Ancestors, from Father to Sonne, for the space of (neer upon) fourscore two Iubiles, at 25 yeares each served, and retoured heires (almost alwayes) to their immediately foregoing Predecessors, in the same family,) continued, de­volved, and transmitted, with many especial royalties, pri­vileges, and immunities from one another, and in all inte­grity preserved, untill the time of the majority, and perfect age of my Father: who according to the prescript form of the country received it then, from his Guardian, or Tutor (as they called him) without any burthen of debt (how little soe­ver) or provision of brother, sister, or any other of his kin­dred, or allyance, wherewith to affect it; he having no­thing else (being void of all manner of incumbrances) to care for, out of so considerable means, blest with so much free­dome, but himself, and Lady alone, my Mother, it pleased his Father-in-law, my Lord Elphingston then high Treasu­rer of Scotland, at the time of the mariage, to require of him so to manage the foresaid patrimony, with such ease and plen­ty, through a various change of neighbours, and so careful­ly conveyed unto him, that in compensation of the courtesie received from his predecessors, and to retaliate so great a fa­vour, he should be oblieged and tyed to leave unto her eldest Son, to be begotten of her (who some 5 yeares afterwards happened to be I) the said estate, in the same freedome, and entirenesse, every way, that it was left unto himself, which before many noble men, and others he solemnly promised to doe to the utmost of his power.

2. Neverthelesse, by incogitancy one way, or what else I know not,Faenus ex­tremae im­pudentiae signum. Lucri pro­missio est quasi esca in musci­pola. and on the otherside, by the extortion, and ra­pine of some usurious Cormorants, whose money then was con­stantly laid out, as a bait for improvident men of great re­vennues, to be hooked by: the fortune of his affairs turned so far otherwayes, from the byass they had been put in (to the regret and heavy dislike of all his friends, and his own likewise at last, when he knew not how to help it) that all he bequeathed unto me, his eldest Son, in matter of worldly [Page 43] means, was twelve or thirteen thousand pounds sterling of debt, five brethren all men, and two sisters (almost mariage­able) to provide for, and lesse to defray all this burden with, by six hundred pounds sterling a year, although the warres had not prejudiced me in a farthing, then what for the main­taining of himself alone, in a peaceable age he inherited for nothing.

3. But that,Avarus animus nullo lucro sa [...]iatur, Auri nam (que) fames par­to fit ma­ior ab auro. which did make my case the more to be com­miserated, was, that all these huge, and exorbitant summes were charged on me by those, to whom I was never obliged in a penny, nor whose money ever came to that fine, that it might be known to what good end, it was borrowed; there being nothing more certain, then that the education of his whole children, comprehending my self, and all together, with what he expended on his daughters portions, and other wayes disbursed for suretyship, did not in all amount to a­bove two yeares rent, and a half, of that estate, which he totally enjoyed for six and thirty yeares together: and that in such halcyonian dayes, without any compulsory occasion of bestowing his means other wayes, then might best please himself, that till two yeares before his decease it was not known by the commons of the Land, what the words of Mus­queteer, and Pikeman did signifie.

4. Notwithstanding all this, and that neither directly,Lucrum facit homi­nes dete [...]i­ores et nisi lucrum es­set nemo f [...]re esset improbus. saith Vola­teranus. nor indirectly, I had a hand in the contracting of so much, as one two-pence of the aforesaid burden, Those Creditors (all Scots) dealt so rigorously with me, that by their unchari­table severity (even in my fathers time) it was done what lay in them, to shake me loose of my progenitors inheritance, and denude me of what I was born unto, by investing themselves in the right of those Lands, that through the continuat race of six dozen of Predecessours (as aforesaid) were after the expiring of many ages, by their valour, vertue, and in­dustry, most heedfully transmitted to these late yeares, free from all intanglements, claims, and intricate pretences whatsoever.

5. Yet did I thereby attain to the greater portion of my fa­thers blessing, who conscious of the prejudice I sustained by [Page 44] leaving me (contrary to the promise made to his Father-in-law, and ancient custome of the Countrey) so much inthralled,This was do [...] August in the year 1642 some 4 yeares after the hatching of the Co­venant. had of me that respect, and remembrance, although in ano­ther dominion for the time, that, besides his constant bewai­ling the hard condition, whereunto he had redacted his house in my person, during all the time of that long, and lingring disease, whereof at last he died, he so generously, and lo­vingly (as truly he was one of the best men in the world) acquit himself two dayes before his decease, that he had all my six brothers strongly bound, and obliged before famous witnesses himself being one, and the prime of all, especially my nea­rest brother intituled the Laird of Dun Lugas for whose occa­sion, to sharpen his thank [...]ullnesse the bond was conceived, be­cause of that portion in Land he received from him worth a­bove 3000 pounds English money, under pain of his everla­sting curse, and execration, to assist concur with, follow, & serve me, (for those are the words) to the utmost of their power, in­du [...]try, and means, & to spare neither charge, nor travel, though it should cost them all they had, to release me from the unde­served bondage of the domineering Creditor, and extricate my Lands from the impestrements, wherein they were involved: yea to bestow nothing of their owne upon no other use, till that should be done; and all this under their own hand wri­ting, secured with the clause of registration, to make the op­probrie the more notorious, in case of failing, as the paper it self, which I have in retentis, together with another signed to the same sense, by my mother, and also my brothers and Si­sters, Dunbugar only excepted, will more evidently testifie.

6. Thus l [...]cking nothing I could have desired of him, but what by my grand-father he was ingaged to leave me in mat­ter of temporal means. I must in all humility make bold to beg the permission to proceed a little further in this purpose, see­ing it doth not diametrally militate against the reverence, I owe to the established authority, and municipall Laws of the Land.

7. In competition with which, though by the Laws, and and statuts of many the most civilized parts of Europe, the punishment, or correction inflicted for faults of undertaking [Page 45] excessive burthens upon ancient estates, be meerly personal, and not (like Gehazies leprosie) derived to posterity;Qui in magnis o­pibus sunt avidiores & sitibun­di in medio oceani gur­gite. there being more regard had by them to the memory of worthy, and renowned Gentlemen (whose reputation they would not have laid in the dust, by the supine remissness of any one of their successors) then to the raising up of the fortunes of those, who have no other vertue to recommend them by, but the stupid neglect, forgetfulness, and improvident cariage of those, that borrowed their money.

8. Whereby like the indwellers of Guinea, Vid. B. 2. Art. 27. Avoritia est porta nortis & radix om­nium ma­lorum. they may be said to purchase their gold sleeping; for in whose hand soever any little heap thereof is sequestred upon obligation; the smallest time of any engendreth interest thereon, which is no sooner bred, then apt to propagate another progenie, of the same pregnancie with the first, to beget a third: and so forth from term to term, by the incestuous copulation of the Parent with the whole Children together, and with each a part,Argentum & aurum non extin­ [...]uit agenti & auri cu­p ditalem n [...] (que) si plu­ra posside­as coerce­tur plura possidendi cupiditas. and every child conjunctly, & severaly with all the rest: one brood spring­ing forth of another, and another again out of that, producing still, in that progressive way of procreation, a new increase of the like nature with the former.

9. And all by vertue of a bond dormant, lying passibly in the greasie cobweb of a musty chest, whose master (perhaps) being lulled all this while in a dull lethargy of ease, awaketh not (Like the Angell Apollyon, in the eleventh of the Apoca­lypse intituled Abadon) but to the destruction of some one or other of his paper-fetterd slaves.Avarus, saith St. Austin, est inferno si­milis, nam quantum­cum (que) de­vor iverit nu [...]qu [...]m dicet is. Sic quan­quam om­nes thesauri consluxerint in avarum non satiabitur. Heu crescit scelerata sitis praedae (que) recentis incestus jam flagrat amor nullusve petendi crescendi (que) pudor. proving such a bad one in­deed to whom he hath concredited his goods, that he never abandoneth them, till his covetousness (making that the fer­tilest thing of any, which of it self is most unfruitful) have, in the unconscionable multiplying of such a graceless genera­tion, reared up that unhallowed result from a spark (as it were) in a corner of their houses, to the hight of a most pro­digious flame, to consume them, their wives, and children, with their whole estates, and fortunes for ever.

[Page 46]10. Yet seeing the rigour of the Law of Scotland, seems rather (as the times have been this while past) to favour,Cortem­nenda est cupid [...]as quae qu [...] ­d [...]m velut [...] ignis quanto p [...]us acci­ [...]it tanto plus requi­r [...]t. and abett the unmercifull creditor, then the debtors innocent suc­cessor, I have till this hour (although not without some in­ward reluctancy) chosen rather to undergoe the sternness, and austerity thereof, then legislatively to supplicate the eversion of an established custom.

11. Albeit (what ever Lawyers say) I be sure, that Law, as it is conform to equity, and justice, requireth as well (if not more) that there be antidots, and preservative remedies for mens estates in Lands, as for the fortunes of them, whose stock is onely in money.

Vide. [...]. 2. Art. 68. O avare jun­gantur so­lium Craesi Cyri (que) tia­rae, Nun­quam di­ves cris nunquam sallabere quaestu.12. Especially, in the behalf of those, whom to deprive of their old possessions (as is glanced at a little in the sixtie eight Article of the second Book) would ingulph, and bury in for­getfulness, that antiquity of Line, which all the riches on earth is not able to purchase, and consequently, making nobility stoop to coyn, and vertue to gain, bring the only support, and props of honour, to serve as fewel to the unquenchable fire of avari­tious hearts.

13. And I may very well say, seeing it cohaeres with the purpose in hand, that I sustain a greater prejudice, in being de­barred from my Lands,Lucrum justitiae praefer [...]nt impit. which were more then two and twen­ty hundred years agoe, acquired by the valour, and prudence of my Predecessors, then the Sons of the aforesaid Creditors can doe, by the want of the money, pretended to be due to them, for my Fathers debt; the overthrow of a worthy Fami­ly, being more deplorable, then the missing of what a Thiefe may filch out of a clout: and have reaped as little benefit of the summes so lent, as the brats, they are as yet to beget, have done of the Revenues which should be mine.

14. What forcible Statutes have been published in former ages, for obviating the decay of honorable houses, is not un­known to those, that are any thing versed in the historie of pru­dential Law.

15. In this, the ablest, and most judicious men on earth, have imployed the best of their wits: and Solon, that famous Legislator amongst the Athenians, and wisest man then living, [Page 47] made acts so favourable for the preservation of antient Fami­lies, and so strictly to be observed, that the controveners of them, so long as the splendor of that Republick lasted, were by the Arcopagits most exemplarily, and condignely punished, as the reliques of the Attick Laws, till this day, will sufficiently bear record.

16. Nor was this so conscientious an ordonance, so totally proper to the Common-weal of the Greeks, but that the rema­nent of the world, in those happy times of old did tast of the wholesome influence, and goodness of it.

17. The Decemvirs (amongst the Romans) instituted, and ordained, that those who were apt by their mis-government, and reckless conduct to endanger the undoing, and subver­sion of their predecessors house, to the apparent detriment, and damage for ever of such, as by nature were designed to succeed after them in that family, should be disabled from dis­poning Lands, alienating any whatsoever goods, and con­tracting debts, in such sort, that whosoever should meddle or deal with them, in either of those kinds, should do it at their owne hazard, and perill, without hope of restitution of any loss, or hinderance they might sustain thereby, as ma­nifestly may be seen, by the Law Julianus, in the paragraph de cura Furiosorum, and in the Law, is cui bonus in the para­graph, de verbis obligatoriis.

18. Which being conform to that other Law of the twelve tables, whereby such like inconsiderate persons were appoin­ted to have surveyers, and controulers set over them, and wholy prohibited, and interdicted from all manner of mana­ging their own affairs, as the words of the Text it self more succinctly declares, Quando bona tua paterna, avitaque neg­ligentia tua disperdis Liberos (que) tuos ad egestatem perducis, ob eam rem tibi, ea re, commercio (que) interdico.

19. It is apparent how hainous, horrid and sacrilegious an offence it seemed to be in those happy dayes, to have a hand in pulling down the monuments of their fore-fathers vertue, and demantling the honour of their house, by dilapidating their estate.

20. And least these premised acts, should be thought to [Page 48] have been but good Laws ill obeyed, and worse executed: such rigorous punishment was inflicted upon the delinqents in them, that no person guilty, of what age, or condition soever, was spared.

21. As may be instructed by Quintus Fabius, son to Quin­tus Fabius the great, surnamed Allobrogicus, who, by an edict of Quintus Pompeius Praetor, was curbed and inhibited from doing by his misguiding, and unadvised cariage any harm or prejudice to the house of his progenitors.

22. And by that prodigal Senator of threescore yeares of age (otherways wise enough) over whom the Emperour Ti­berius did constitute, and impose a tutor, or governour, that, to the impoverishing of his issue, he might not have power to lavish away the estate he never acquired.

23. The causes which moved them to inact, and publish those Statutes being no lesse urgent now, then they were then, should (as I conceive it) astrict, and oblige us to be every whit as zealously fervent, as they in the observing of them.

24. Chiefly being warranted thereto by the sacred Scripture it self, in the old Testament, whereof, the people of Israel is said to have been enjoyned to marry in their own Tribes, Jubilees appointed, and all debts whatsoever, after the revolu­tion, and expired date of so many years, ordained to be dis­charged, annulled, freely acquit all bonds and bills rescin­ded and cancelled and all this only for the preservation of an­cient houses.

25. Of which the countrie of Scotland also, till within these fourscore ten yeares, was so exactly carefull, that Signior David, one of Queen Martes prime Courtiers, could not for all the mony he was master of, obtain in that whole dominion, the purchase of one hundred pounds sterlin of rent in Land, whereby to acquire the benefit of a Scotish title, the more to ingratiat himself (being an Italian) in the favour of the Nati­on; so unwilling in those good days, was every one to break upon any parcel of their predecessors inheritance.

26. Seeing thus it is then, that all Nations, and almost all Religions, both Jews and Gentiles, have had the benefit of so commendable, and pious a custome, shall Scotland alone be [Page 49] deprived, and destitute of it, and that only since it is said by themselves, to have received the puritie of the Gospel, and a­bout the year of the Jubilee, no man will think it, that hath any good opinion of the Nation?

27. But although it were so (as God forbid it ever come to that pass) and that like to the most rigid Levellers who would inchaos the structure of ancient greatness, into the very rubbish of a Neophytick parity, it were inacted there be no more re­gard had thereafter of pristin honour, then of old garments: and that none be thereby dignifyed, but in so far, as the num­ber, weight, and measure of modern coyn, shall serve to in­hanse him.

28. Yet with some probability, doe many harbour in their breasts the opinion, that with a never so little auxiliary suff­rage of publick Order, there should be found amongst them, and the successors of those, that in divers good offices (not to speak of my self) have been obliged to the proprietaries of our house, severals who would of their own accord, (in what they could) without any great incitement thereto, supply the defi­ciency of the Law in that point▪ and further of themselves, the redintegration of my Predecessors family in my person.

29. Notwithstanding all this,nullum est officium cam san­ctum at (que) solenne quod non varitia comminue­ [...]e atque violare so­leat. the embracing of the foresaid subsidiarie expedient, being too far below my inclination I doe really Imagine, that (without the conscriptitious adjutan­cie of the State) I shall enterprise but impossibities, and ne­ver enjoy the proposed end; which nevertheless my bashfull­ness and naturall aversness from craving what might put me to a blush if denyed would never have permitted me to prose­cute by such means, if by the in [...]quitie of the times, disloy­alty of some I did put trust into, and rough harshness of the unplacable creditors, I had not been frustated of my other designs.

30. For albeit, to the most frugall,Avaritia crudeles efficit eos qui ei ser­viunt & animus a­vari sepul­chrum est. it might seem a task very difficult, to make the payment of my Fathers debt, con­sist with the preservation of my fore-fathers estate: when by the malignant influences of concredited summes, the Land rents do usually shrink in, to the accrescing of the burthen; there being nothing more certain, then that the apprising of [Page 50] of Lands, serving of inhibitions, arresting of Farms in the hands of Tenants, purchasing of letters for delivering up of the Ma­nor house, & other such like most rigorous proceedings, where­by one is made illegal, would have disabled any (though never so well affected) from putting his means to the best a­vail, and taking that safe course for himself, and creditors together, which otherways (with lesse disadvantage to either) might be performed by one, that were free of these lets and disturbances.

Av vitia ema [...]s i [...] ­just [...]tiae so­m [...]s est, & avarus communis omnium host is cu­jus arculae sunt sepul­chra in quibus sae­po [...] vitae pau­p [...]um.31. Whereupon ensue such dismal inconveniences, that commonly, when a gentlemans estate begins to be clogged with such like impestrements, little or no use at first is made of the rents thereof; either for that the Tenants (for fear of creditors attachings and arrestments) pay not their due, least they be forced to repay it, & so, through the uncertainty of ma­sters, spending all on themselves, become some times insuffici­ent debtors: or for that merchants (being afraid to fall into the reverence of creditors, because of inhibitions and arrestments) dare not bargain for victuall, or any such like annual commo­ditie: both, or either being like to drive on the decadence of a house to its utter desolation at last.

32. So that instead of a double benefit, that ought to accrew to both the Debtor, and Creditor, by the timely payment of both Lands, and money rent, a twofold prejudice (for the most part) through the strictness of the creditors, is incurred, to wit the one, by delaying their own pay, and the other, by hastning the ruine of the house of their Debtor: as if men should be tyed to defray great summes of money, and yet not get leave to make use of their own means, wherewith to do it, there being hardly any shift remaining for a man so used, but to have recourse to his wits.

33. Nor is it any thing less lamentable, that the Law of Scot­land, in matter of Horning, should be a main furtherance of this inconvenience by debarring any one lying under the lash ther­of, from getting payment at the hands of others of never so just debts due to them; whereby a greater load being laid on him that is already overburthened. Machiavel's policie of breaking the bruised reed, and thrusting him over head and eares in the [Page 51] water, that was in it to the chin, is very punctually obser­ved.

34. Which rugged, crosse,Similis est pecunia u­surarii morsui as­pidis, per­cussus enim ab aspide quasi dele­ctatus va­dit in som­num, et per suavita­tem soporis moritur. and thwarting proceedures so incensed, damped, and exasperated my father, that a charge from a creditor, being as the hissing of a Basilisk, the disor­derly troubles of the Land being then far advanced (though otherways he disliked them) were a kind of refreshment to him, and intermitting relaxation from a more stinging disquiet­nesse.

35, For that our intestin troubles, and distempers, by si­lencing the Laws for a while, gave some repose to those, that longed for a breathing time, and by hudling up the terms of W [...]itsuntide; and Martimass, (which in Scotland are the desti­nated times for payment of debts) promiscuosly, with the other seasons of the year, were as an oxymal julip, wherewith to indormiat them in a bitter sweet security.

36. Yet for all this, and notwithstanding the grievousness of such solicitudinary, and luctiferous discouragements, able to appall the most undaunted spirits, and kill a very Paphla­gonian partridge, that is said to have two hearts, I did never­theless, without attristing my self a jot, undergoe the defray­ment of the debt, although not as a debtor, with as much ala­crity, and cheerfulnesse,Usurae li­beros ser­vos faci­unt. as if it had been of my own underta­king: and took such speedy course therein, that immediately after my Fathers decease, for my better expedition in the dis­charge of those burthens, having repaired homewards, I did sequestrate the whole rent (my Mothers joynture excepted) to that use only, and, as I had done many times before, betook my self to my hazards abroad, that by vertue of the industry, and diligence of those, whom by the advise, and deliberati­on of my nearest friends, I was induced to intrust with my af­fairs, the debt might be the sooner defrayed, and the ancient house releeved out of the thraldome, it was so unluckily faln into.

37. But it fell out so far otherwayes, that after some few years residence abroad, without any considerable expence from home, when I thought, because of my having mortified and set apart all the rent to no other end, then the cutting off, [Page 52] and defalking of my Fathers debt, that accordingly a great part thereof had been discharged: I was so far disappointed of my expectation therin, that whilst conform to the confidence repo­sed in him, I hoped to have been exonered, and relieved of ma­ny Creditors, the debt was only past over, & tranferred from one in favours of another, or rather of many in the favours of one, who, though he formerly had gained much at my Fa­thers hands▪ was notwithstāding at the time of his decease none of his creditors, nor at any time mine; my Egyptian bondage by such means remaining still the same, under task masters dif­ferent only in name, and the rents neverthelesse taken up to the full, to my no [...]mall detriment, and prejudice of the house standing in my person.

38. The aime of some of those I concredited my weightest adoes unto, being, as is most conspicuously apparent, that I should never reap the fruition, nor enjoyment of any portion, parcell, or pendicle of the estate of my predecessors, unlesse by my fortune, and endeavours in Forrain countries, I should be able to acquire as much as might suffice to buy it (as we say) out of the ground.

39. And verily (though not in relation to these ignoble, and unworthy by-ends) it was my purpose, and resolution to have done so, which assuredly, had not the turbulent divisions of the time been such as to have crossed, and thwarted the at­chievements or more faisible projects, I would have accom­plished two or three severall ways ere now.

40. And yet for all the stops, and inconveniencies, that flowed from the late unhappy stirrs, and garboyls in both Na­tions, I had by all probability) got a great many thousand pounds thereof, had not a wretched, poor, and trivial summe scarce worth the naming, been more prevalent with the afore­said party.

41. By reason of whose injurious, and unequitable dealing, in appropriating to themselves, and converting by all appea­rance) to their own use my rents, and neither purging the Land, nor exonerating me of any considerable part of the burthen, wherewith either it, or I stood affected: I was mo­ved to face about, and return homewards, to take that solid, [Page 53] and deliberate course with the crazed estate left unto me, as might make the subsistence of my house, compatible with the satisfaction of my Fathers Creditors.

To which effect, with might and main, to the uttermost of my abilitie, I strove, with pecunial charms,Questum facile neg­ligit gene­rosus ani­mus, inquit Hierony­mus. and holy-water out of Pluto's Cellar, to exercise and lay the Spirit lately rai­sed, and raging abroad, without the besprinkling of a Chryso­past hyssop, not to be conjured: my successfulness therein a­mounting, non obstans all interveening impediments, to the fi­nal discussing of some of these creditors, and, in a plausible way, according to the exigence of the persons, and circumstan­ces of the nature, condition and quality of their security, to dispatch the residue of them epassyterotically, that is, one after another.

43. And to this end, applyed all my aforesaid rents, save so much, as for publick dues, and augmentation of Ministe [...]s sti­pends were exacted of me: in the latter whereof, because of the hereditarie loss, which I thereby am like to sustain, I will make bold to insist a little, with that reverence nevertheless, which becomes me to the Church, and to be established Ec­clesiastical order of the Land.Nulla di­tare ratio­ne potestas avari vos faciunt in­opes quas cumulatis opes.

24. Here neverthelesse, Let the good Reader be pleased to take along with him for his better conceiving of the unmerci­fulness and indiscretion of my Fathers creditors, how when to some of them I had offered present possession of Land, til they should be found paid; and unto others, who formerly had been victual Merchants, had made tender of my rents of that kind, at very easie rates, to be delivered by my deputies,Hu jusmodi lucra ho­minem compara­re de­cet propter quae nun­quam in postcrum doliturus sit. with­out their running of any hazzard at the hands of a distressed Tenandrie: the answer of the former was, That they would have no land, but money; and of the other, That though they had often before that traffiqued in such like commodities▪ yet that then for being taken up with other more publick busi­nesses they could not accept of my proffer, but wishing I might have the fortune to deal with those would give the greatest prices, expected I should not fail to let them have the money for defalcation of some of their accounts.

45. By which their subdolous and crafty tergiversation, [Page 54] from what in a time of peace,De damno alterius n [...] ­ [...]o lucrum s [...]ctet. they would have so eagerly em­braced, they have made it too evidently apparent, that in pro­secuting of their own ease, they have aimed at my utter destru­ction, both their resolutions concentring in this, That they thought it more expedient,Qu lucra lenta fugit damna re­ [...]nte subit Non habet eventus sordida praeda bo­nos. Nam quae male parta domi accumu­lantur ni­hil salutis habent. by a little forbearance, to suffer their unhallowed sums to increase, for the better obtaining af­terwards of my whole Estate to themselves, then by any ways medling with my rents, in a tumultuous time, to bring me the sooner in a capacity of enjoying my own, through the dimi­nution of my Fathers debts, by their receivings. This pit they digged for me, which that they should fall into themselves were both just and equitable.

In Flagitatores. Ep. 1.
Tros quondam Aeneas Harpyas, virginis ora,
Atque ungues volucrum vidit habere truces.
Namque fame rabidus dum littore prandia sumit,
Omnia foedarunt vel rapuere viro.
Creditor his similis, perturbans omnia, pacem
Nullam vicini qui sinit esse sui.
Harpiae proprios certant defendere fines,
Ille tamen pejor namque aliena rapit.
Non satis apparet cur nomina creditor omnis
Accipit à credo: res ratione vacat,
Debuerat potius vocitari incredulus, et sic
Sortiri merito nomina digna suo,
Esse avidus nullum nam credit in aethere numen,
Nec quenquam fidum Creditor esse virum.

The Scope Of the fourth BOOK, entituled CHRYSEOMYSTES.

THe Author having in the two preceding Books, very orderly proceeded from the manifestat [...]on of the huge log of Flagitators, lying in his way, to the displaying of pregnant reasons, why the said impediment should be removed, for the weal of the whole Isle, whose Literature by his endeavours he is to improve; In this fourth Book of his Intro­duction, he maketh mention of another block, which, though not [...]f so immense a bulk, ought nevertheless, for its repugnancie with the proposed end, be as well laid aside, as the former, and that is the unjust decrees, wherewith the Presbyterian Commisi­on hath robbed him of a great deal of his rents. He for compen­diousness sake, begins with the figure of Apophasis, to say he in­tends not to expostulate for the injurie sustained by that Kirko­manetick tyrannie, which despoyled him of his right of Patronage to his Churches, and from thence descendeth to a plain Narrati­on, how contrary to an established Union by Act of Parliament, and in opposition to seven relevant reasons, to any one whereof they would not daigne to make answer, the Commission of the Kirke; without giving any hearing to the Authors advocats, decerned one of his good Priests, to have an augmentation out of his patrons, rents, though equivalent to as much more, as was possessed by his Predecessor in that Church; and the Churches of the other Parish (in spite of both Law & Reason) to be disunited, & to each [Page] of the Ministers thereof, more stipend mortifyed, thou to them both formerly was thought to be sufficient. This is one of the chips of the block of Presbyterial Government, which because the violent assertors thereof would by a pretended jure divino au­thority pertinaciously obtrude upon our consciences, and co-essen­tiat it in the object of our Faith, with the most orthodox Ecclesi­astical doctrine, the Author very civilly, without falling upon the common School-controversies, twists out a discourse concerning Fables, Sorcerers, and distracted people, wherein, they will be found as erroneous in their opinions, as in their rule, oppressive. The Author desires to have the prolixity of the disgression for this cause excused, that who would encounter with such an adversary, must step a little aside to cope with him aright. He walks in no known tract, his actions are arbitrary, and passion directs his motions: and where he finds evasions suitable to his hypocrisie, Proteus never transformed himself into so many shapes, as he will doe for his own ends. What the Author speaks of the devotion of his Ancestors, before the Nativitie of our Saviour, and when afterwards the only Romish Faith was embraced by them: Of the antiquitie of his Tenandrie, and their skilfulness in the Cere­monies of p [...]istine Sacrifice: Of vindicating old customs from the aspersions of Neoterick Sciolists, and maintaining the inge­niositie of Fables: Of the consistence of Poetical Fictions with true Divinity, and sympathie twixt old and new Rome in their Rites and Mysteries of Religion: and Last­ly, of Hypocondriack, and Fanatical braines, and the great perpetrations of horrible unjustice in Scotland, by the too frequent mistakes of their diseases, is to no other purpose [...]; but in view of the Courteous Reader, to carreer his Spirits along the bounds, the rigid Presbyter would not have to be trod upon: and to make that Judicatory perceive, to whom he makes his appeale, how unfit it were, that any consistorian vaile should da [...]ken the light of his Elucubrations. After all, he closeth with the covetousness, and inflexibility of the selfish Kirkist, which as it is connexed with foregoing passages, to the discretion of the gentle peruser cannot come unseasonably.

The fourth Book OF THE INTRODVCTION INTITULED CHRYSEOMYSTES, OR The covetous Preacher. WHEREIN The rigour of the Scotish Kirk, beyond that of the Churches in former ages, is shewn to have very much obstructed the Authors design, in the emission of this new Idiome, and other Tractates of that nature.

1. HEre I omit the Kirks denuding me of my Heri­table right of Patronage to the Churches of the Shire, whereof my Predecessors have above these two decades of Ages been both Hereditary Sheriffs and sole proprietaries: as likewise to make mention of the five Chalders rent of additionall stipend, any year worth 500 l. Scotch, which the Minister of Cromartie hath now, more then his foregoing Incumbent in that Charge did enjoy.

2. I will only speak a word or two of my two other Churches, which when seperated in former times, and those of late too, had but 300 l. Scotch of allowance betwixt them both, which [Page 56] neverthelesse was a great matter then in proportion to the little stock whence it was to be educed; and therefore togither with other more relevant causes, were by a commission to that effect by the Parliament then sitting in the year 1617. united into one, and ordained after the decease of either of the two, that then preached in them, to have the cure of them, served singly by the Survivor, and so consecutively from one another, by one alone.

Presby [...]r in mundo n [...]n est qa [...] dicit a [...]u [...] ­ [...]io.3. But when the stipauctionarie tide, immediately after the Duke of Hamilto [...]ns unluckie ingagement, begun to overflow the Land, and that I thought with sufficient Bulwarks of good argument to have stayed the inundation thereof, from the two foresaid half Churches I was violently driven,Clericus annof [...]s li­c [...]timb [...]r [...]s: furiosus, non possit prunam dum drachmam si [...]cipii [...] ­nam. like a feather before a whirlewind, notwithstanding all my defences, to the sanctuary of an inforced patience.

4. For though I did put in these subsequent reasons, against the disuniting, and adjectitious provision of the aforesaid two Churches.

First, that both parishes togither are but three miles long, and one of the churches therof (called the Kirk of Cullicudden) seated in the middle (or near by) so that the dwelling house of the remotest parishioner of either of the parishes, will not be above a mile and a half distant from that church, and yet with­in 40 miles of that place, and that in a plain country, there are of those whose dwelling house in the parish, is sixteen miles distant from the parish Kirk.

5. Secondly, that there are not thirty six ploughs labouring in both, and when acknowledged to be united, they shall be found the least parish in the Country, both for rent, people, and bounds.

6. Thirdly that these two have been but one parish (by all appearance) from the beginning; for Cullicudden is built af­ter the fashion of a Church, but that other (now called Kirk­michel) is in its edifice like but to a Chappell.

7. And forsooth, it was nothing else but a Chappel, which one of my predecessors, in the time, that the Romish Religion was universally professed in Scotland, caused to be built for his own ease of devotion.

[Page 57]8. For having a prety summer dwelling adjacent thereto, within the precinct of the parish of Cromartie, and three miles distant from the church thereof, he chused rather, then weekly to go so far to hear mass, and other such liturgies, as, on the Sundays, and many festivall days, are amongst the Catho­lick Romans till this hour in use, to be at the charge of that petty Fabrick, and the maintenance of a Chaplain, whereby, with the lesse labour to exercise his devotion at his own doores.

9. and in testimony thereof, my father, not thinking it should have been at any time destinated for a parish Church, but a place only for preaching, with the more ease to the au­ditorie caused make it as much longer as it was before, which evidently sheweth, it being the shortest church as yet in all the country, that it could not at first have been but a Chapel.

10. Nor is it to be thought strange, why my Ancestors of late have been pleased to expend so much on structures, to a re­ligious end; seeing as my father, who was the first protestant that ever was of our house bestowed the charge of the additio­nal length of the half of the whole of that chappel, which now they call a Kirk, and as some of my progenitors, bestowed all those lands in the parochin of Rose Marknie which now are in the Possession of Robert Leslie of Finrasie upon the Bishop Dean and Chapter of Ross, and that others of them were at the cost of building the churches of Cromartie and Cullicudden, and many other monuments, betokening their zeal to the Romish faith then professed: so amongst their forefathers, were there severals of our familie, who before the days of Christ, in the same foresaid parishes, founded many Temples, delubres, and fanes, for sacrificing in the groves, and high places to Jupiter, Juno, Mars, Pallas, Mercurie, Venus and Diana, the reliques whereof are as yet in my Land obvious to the eye of a­ny curious antiquarie, and so much extant till this day as by the circularie oval, Triangulary, or square figure, together with the various manner in situation of the stones, will to an intelligible Mythologist, and well versed in rites of old, make it easily discernible, to which of the Heathenish deities the respective dedication was made.

[Page 58]11. That in my bounds should be seen remainders of so great antiquity, is much: yet is it more to have them in a Country so remote from the territories of the Theonomothets, and Legisla­tors of the divinity of the Ancient Poets; but most strange of all it is, that in my Lands should be found of those, who (though they can neither read nor write) will neverthelesse be able to exchange discourse with any, concerning the Na­ture of the Heathenish deities, and afford pertinent reasons for the variety of Sacrifices, and other circumstantial points usual to be performed in the days of old.

12. I asked them how they came by this knowledge, they told me, that their fathers taught them it, who had it from their progenitors, unto whom (say they) it was derived from their first fore-fathers, that accompanyed my predecessors A­lypos, Beltistos, Nomostor, Astioremon and Lutork in their abo­riginarie acquest of the Land of their Ancestors residence, and in this their relation, they were so punctually exact, that some of them by Nomenclature, in a Lineall pedigree from Father to Son, of above threescore severall persons, instructed their dependence upon our family, in one and the same Land, three hundred years before the days of our Saviour.

13. That this is very probable, and that none hath a more ancient Tenandrie then my self, I doe the rather beleeve it, that both historie, and the most authentick tradition we have, a­voucheth the first Labourers, and manurers of that Land, to have come along with my ancestors Beltistos, Nomoster and Lutork, and for their good service done, especially to the last of those three, received Leases thereupon in the quality of yeo­mans, who were so well pleased with what they got▪ that af­ter they had most contentedly spent the best of their age, when decrepit years did summon them to pay their last due to nature, they bequeathed unto their children the hereditarie obedience they did owe their master, to whom they left their blessing, and best wishes.

14. Which proved so effectual in advancing obsequi­ousness on the one side, and protection on the other, that in his posterity they were most fortunate, from generation to ge­neration, and so deeply ingaged to each, in the long continu­ate [Page 59] succession of our house, that the children of their children, in a subsecutive progress of Dad to Brat, and Sire to Suckling, have, til this houre, through so vast a flux of time, remained te­nanciarie enjoyers for pay of those their respective rooms, without any interruption of assedation, or breach of Lease, which, at the expiring of any 5 years end, might (unwron­ged the late possesser) have been bestowed on any other.

15. I have Farmers, who, albeit neither they, their Fathers, nor fore-fathers ever payed to me, or any of my predecessors, above fifteen pounds sterlin a year, dwell neverthelesse in the self same house, which hath been inhabited by their Ancestors, from parent to child, above nine hundred years together, though none of them ever yet had a lease for above five years.

16. But of such; as have removed a furlong, or two from the place of their progenitors abode, there are that can reckon, in their own familiar pedigree, a row of antecessors who have dwelt in that country above a thousand years beyond that time.

17. Although this constancy of residence be commendable, yet doth it carry along with it this disadvantage, that the pro­genie of these firm abiders, is always of a small extent, for the most part, as may appear by seven or eight several surnames, in two parishes of my Land, whereof scarce one was ever heard of in any other place of the world.

18. The reason hereof proceedeth from that, when at first (after the manner of the plantation of the Israelites in the Pa­lestine each Tribe by it self) my predecessor had assigned to e­very family a part, its own allotted parcel of ground, they very suddenly took such deep root therein, that to the [...]r successors they left an irremovable ascriptitiarinesse to the soyl in which they had been ingraffed.

19. Each Hamlet by that means, decenarie, or Wapen­take (to use the Saxon word) having its peculiar Clan (as we call it) or name of a Kinred, none whereof will from that portion of Land, bouge with his will to any other, upon ne­ver so great advantages offered unto him, the interflitting from one parish to another, though conterminal, being of such a [Page 60] mutual displeasingness, that all, and each of them esteem of it, as of an extrusive proscription to the Barbadoes, or depulsorie exile to Malagask.

20. It is amongst such of both sexes, that are found some Philarchaean Zelots, whose pristin, and breborian customs, [...]a­vouring of superstition, manifest great antiquity, many of them endeavour the prosecuting of good ends with an upright in­tention by exolet, and Palephasian means utterly exploded: which seccessive course of sanctimonial dutie hath successively been followed by many with such inveterate proneness, that some of our Neoterick sacricolaries, have been much scandali­sed at the hereditariness thereof.

21. We, for be [...]ng Christians, ought to avow that those ways (although such a [...] were trod upon with great observancie by the antient Gentils) should nevertheless, for deviating from the streight paths of the present profession of the Country, be nothing at all relyed upon; because they were excogitated by the only wit of man: so for the same reason and faith we owe to him, who is the truth as well as the way, should all of us endeavour to be upright in our judgement, and not to deter­mine rashly of a fault, but to consider thereof according to the nature of its delinquencie, without aspersing it with the guilt of another crime.

22. To punish a Fornicator for murther, or a Theef for Fornication, is an act of injustice; because the first begetteth rather then kills, and the other rather takes then gives; and to chastise one for an offence, which he hath not committed, is a meer oppressing of the innocent: for that whatever se­cret sin he have, that may deserve it from above, it is with­out any cause▪ knowne to him that inflicts the Correcti­on

23. So is it, that we may esteem that censure unreasonable, and injurious, which imputes to Sorcerie what meerly pro­ceeds from the frivolous practise of poetical divinity; and and that scholar, a bad proficient, that is mistaken in the ex­ercise of that whereof in the Schools he was taught the spe­culation.

[Page 61]24. I have heard of a sillie old Wife, who for doing some prettie feats (wherein she had been instructed by her mother) according to a prescript manner set down in some of the Ver­ses of Homer, whom neither of them had the skill to peruse, but had learned the contents from their Progenitrices up­wards, through many ages, was branded with the imputation of having the concomitancie of a D [...]mon, and accused of witch­craft, by him, who, being a pro [...]essor of the Greek, whipt a boy, for not getting these verses by heart, it being the Task, that was enjoyned him for a days Lesson, as if the Devil had been more assistant to the operation, then the Theorie, and that it had been lawfull for them to studie, what was felonie for others to enact.

25. Amongst this meaner sort of people, there are some, who tenaciously cleaving to their frets of old, doe very often repair at set times to Fountains, Oak-trees, little round Hil­locks, and great stone heaps, where, with pre-conceived words, and motions befitting the service, they doe things truly not approvable, because unwarranted by the best religionaries of the time, yet that there is charm, fascination, inchantment, infernal assistance, or any thing else more, then meer custom in them, may safely be denyed; for that in the choicest of the ancient of the both Greek, and Latin Poets, are couched, in set terms words, expressive of all the points of that Po­eticall Liturgie.

26. Who doubteth hereof, let him read Homer, Virg [...]l, Theocrit, Hesiod, Pindar, Aristophanes, Ovid, Claudian, Ho­race, Martial, and others, which if he doe not, his laziness to peruse these books, should not be of such prevalencie over our credulitie, as to make us beleeve, that others doe devilishly, be­cause he knoweth not what it is they doe; otherwise (as is said in the 30th Article of this first book) the Lesbian rule of the various degrees of ignorance, would be the sole directory, to the overthrow of knowledge.

27. According to the unstreightness of which canon square, or pattern, in what countrey soever it shall happen, men of eminent condition for place, and fortune (whose example usu­ally is the only Line and Level, whereby the multitude, and [Page 62] body of the people is ordered, both in their Lives and opini­ons) to be so regulated, as implicitly to follow such leaders, and, without any further examination, to ply as they bow, jog as they wag, redandruate as they ampirvat, and every way bestirre themselves after their motions, more constantly in that their inconstancie then the rising of the billows of the Sea, at the boysterous and impetuous thuds of a raging Boreas: There is nothing more infallible then that a countrey, Kingdome, or Common-weal sick of the ablepsie of such an epidemical sectatorship, (of which disease, incivility, malice, usurie, ig­norance and hypocrisie are the ordinary symptoms) must needs by the frequencie of its convulsions against reason, equity, and conscience (though under pretext of a Law) perish, and be ruined at last, either by the violence and furie of a forraine enemy, or by intestin broyles, and commotions within it self, or by both togither: so dangerous a thing it is, willfully to hudwink the mind, & blind-man-buf't, in the propatularie view of a meridian sun, as if we were quoquoversedly mufled, in the sable mantle of Cimmerian darknesse.

28. It is a bad acquital we give the ancients of great Litera­ture, for their pains taking to civilize our manners, and instruct our minds in all the choicest, and most researched mysteries of Learning, and true Philosophie, by the lovely, sweet, and curi­ous allurements of poeticall devises, to twit them with the name of Devils, fiends, and infernal spirits.

29. Whether it be so or no, I appeal to all the judicious Mythologists of this age, whereof some being most emi­nent in their knowledge of Theologie and of choise literature in other commendable faculties, have in their learned Wri­tings made most evidently appear, what sacred rayes of true divinity, lie hid in those excellent fables of old.

30. Such as say, that fables are lies, and therefore, not unlike to have proceeded from the deceiver, and father of lies understand not well what belongs to truth, and derogat much, from the most authentick writings of any, wherein allegories, parables, and apologues are almost every where obvious to the readers perusal.

31. Complexed truth is in affirmation, and negation, which [Page 63] in matter of signes enun [...]ed of one another, hath its plenarie signification in the things by them signified, as when we say, man is reasonable, we mean not that the word man, is the word reasonable, but that the thing, for which the word man sup­pones, hath reason in it.

32. Even so is it in a fable, where the epimythie, or mo­rality thereof is supposed to be sign [...]fied by the words, and not the litteral sense, which by them is expressed, but in actu signa­to (as it were) and not exercito.

33. As the Fables in Aesop of the Wolf, and the Lamb, the Lyon and Mouse, the Frog, and the Oxe, the Grashoper, and the Pismire, the Bull, and the Goat, the Dove, and the Mag­pie, the Eagle, and the Raven, the Cuckow, and the Hawk, the Bee, and the Bear, the Dog, and the Sheep, the Stork and the Fox, are verified in their Epimythetical sense: by some great mens oppressing of the innocent: by the thankful retri­bution of a received favour: by the ruine that Pride brings up­on the arrogant man: by the advantage of careful industrie, beyond wanton idleness: by kicking against those their betters, whom misfortune suppresseth: by the hazard that many good men run, to be deceived: by undertaking things foolishly be­yond their power: by keeping themselves wisely within bounds: by the patience rather to endure somewhat, then in being re­venged to suffer more: by the huge prejudice, which false wit­nessing bringeth upon many: and by the great delight we of­tentimes conceive in clinching, and retorting jeers, jests, and pranks; all which to avow not to be as truly expressed, by that affabulatory manner of speech, as by a plain historical enarration of the purpose decyphered by it, is to ascribe lesse vigour to the rayes of the Sun at noon, in an estival Solstice, then when in Capricorn he is meerly horizontal.

34. As in copious Languages, there are severall words made use of, for setting forth one and the same thing to our under­standings, whereof neverthelesse each apart is a sufficient signe, for its representation, though not with such imbellishment: so should we dissever truths from elocutions framed in this kind of way, we would open a door to the destruction of elo­quence, by banishing from our discourse all figurative utte­rance, [Page 64] in the delicious varietie of Tropes and Schemes.

35. There are moe wayes to the wood, then one, (as the common saying is) and from the circumference to the center, may be drawn infinite lines, whereof nevertheless, not any can fall perpendicularly on the Basis, save one: yet is the obliqui­tie of any of those radial lines, the lesse, the nearer it approach the perpendicular, and so much the greater, the less that the angle be, which with the Basis it comprehendeth.

36. Just so, there being one sole God omnipotent upon whom the conservation of the whole world dependeth, which is the ground work, and Basis, whence is erected that perpen­dicular of perfection, and true knowledge attained unto by the only saints in heaven, and celestial hierarchies, there pro­ceedeth from the circumference of the duty of man, an innu­merable diversitie of religious Sects, and faiths, tending all, and each of them very cordially to the aforesaid Basis of incompre­hensible goodness, whereof there is not one, that, by reason of humane frailty commixed with it, declineth not a little from that orthog [...]nal streightnesse, which in the Theocathetos is re­quired.

37. However, there is nothing more sure, then that as the more amply by Learning, and integritie of heart, the acute an­gle (to call it so) of a profession be dilated, it will prove the more orthodoxical, so the greater deflexion, that by wicked­nesse, and ignorance it be brought to from the proposed up­rightnesse, it will be the lesse warrantable.

38. By which account, although all be directed to one end, yet because of the imperfections which anavulsibly adhere to the soul, whilst it remains invested with mortality, there being none of them without some blemish, the difference onely is in more, and lesse; better, and worse.

39. Neverthelesse, albeit in every state almost there be a discrepance in the manner of regulating the consciences of the people, yet without any danger of heresie, may the mysteries of one and the same devotion be displayed unto us, after se­veral fashions, as the variety of the signes taketh not away the unity of the thing, that is represented by them.

40. The Trumpet incourageth Troops of horse, the same is [Page 65] done by Kettle-drums: the foot is animated by the Tambour, and with our Highlanders, the Bag-pipes effectuates every whit as much. The Mahumetans repair no faster to their Moschees, at the voyce of La ilha, illa alha, which calleth them thereto, then we doe to our Churches, at the knell of the Bell, though of an inarticulat sound.

41. If the thing be the same, which is signified, as likewise the conception we have of that thing, although the signes be various, which to that our conception doe represent it: Whereat is it (I pray you) that we startle? Is not the sacred Word interpreted as well anagogically, as literally; and alle­gorically, as well as after any of the other ways, yet are all the said expositions accounted authentick, and the same authority attributed to each.

42. It is evident to such, as will look out with their own eyes, that the first instituters of Fables, which admit of a Phy­sical, as well as Moral sense, did in their pluralitie of gods, aim at the knowledge and worship of one onely divinity, in whose perfection they conceived all other deities to concenter, as substantial qualities flowing from his vertue, power, and goodnesse.

43. Do not our selves affirm, That all that truly can be said of God, is God himself; because of his simplicissime ab­stractednesse, pure act, and substance, void of all matter and composition: and yet what is more commonly said amongst our Theologs, then that many are the attributes of God, which kind of speech they maintain to be necessary, for our bet­ter understanding; hence the word, Anthropopathie, a descen­ding to the capacity of man.

44. God is just, he is loving powerful he is, and wise: yet all, and each of those qualities in the Abstract belonging to him, are God himself. Astraea, Cupid, Mars, and Apollo, by the prist [...]n Poets have been made, by a Metonymical trope, to stand concretively for the divulsives of the justice, love, power, and wisdom of God: not much unlike to the second notions, to which we grant an objective existence in the mind.

45. That the Heathen did beleeve in the unity of the God­head, is also apparent by this, that all their deities of both [Page 66] sexes, were in consanguinity, and affinity with Jupiter; which is as much to say, as that all power, vertue, goodness, and ef­ficacy, proceeds from God.

46. Neptune was esteemed the power of God, in the Seas: Minerva, the power of God, in Learning: Pluto, the pow­er of God, in subterranean concavities: Baecchus, in Wine: Ceres, in Corn: Nemesis, in revenge: and so through all, whatever may concern Gods efficacious working, in relation either to the qualitie, whence it floweth, the subject, that re­ceives it, or place, wherein it operateth; by emanation, or any other kind of production.

47. To make use therefore, either in our discourse or wri­tings of the words Bellona, Hebe, Aeolus, Mercurie, Aphrodi [...]e, Hercules, Pan, Saturn, Hymen, and so forth through the whole List of Poetical terms, for warfare, youth, wind, eloquence, lust, vertue, the universe, time, virginity; and almost all that is of any importance, either for subsisting by its self, or qualifying of us▪ doth so little derogate from the puritie of our Religion, that (in my opinion) our manners are improved by it, our Language inriched, and, by vertue of Rethorical tropes sug­gesting to our minds two several things at once, the spirits of such as are studious of Learning, filled with a most wonderful delight.

48. And why should not Greek and Latin words of so sub­lime expression, obtain acceptance in this our English tongue, when many ultramarine termes of very low consideration, and vernacularie in our neighbour Nations, receive admittance in it.

49. Ruitmaster, Ruit, Plunder, and Proveant are Dutch; yet have we made them English; the French words of Parole, Cavalleer, Van, Rear, are now by us spoke usually: We have likewise made perfect English of the Spanish words, Junto, Be­gotero, Balcone, Montera: as also of those Italian ones, Pi­azza, Montebanco, Curvetti, Ciarlatano, with many moe both of these, and other Languages, which luxurious wits of forrain education, for the greater emphasis, have obtruded upon their maternal idiome.

50. Nay I will goe further, by those excellent fancies is so [Page 67] curiously imbellished the doctrine of both the Law, and Gos­pel, that in a Book entituled Mystagogus Poeticus, written by Mr. Alexander Rosse, you may find how prettily, God is re­presented by Apollo, by Atlas, by Jupiter, by Neptune, by Prometheus; his Spirit by Boreas, and his Word by Ariadne: How Christ is the true Aesculapius, and how vively he is evi­denced by Amphion, by Apollo, by Aristaeus, by Aurora, by Bacchus, by Bellerophon, by Cadmus, by Ganymed, by the Genii, by Hercules, by Mercurie, by Minerva, by Nep­tune, by Orpheus, by Perseus, by Prometheus and by These­us: How Christians are expressed by Hercules, by Iason, by Sphinx, and by Ulysses; And how lastly, the Church is signi­fied and set forth by Atlas, by Ceres, by Diana, and by Ia­son's Ship.

51. And all this by the elucubrations of that worthie Gentleman Master Alexander Rosse, whose praise in that late Book set forth by me, in vindication of the honor of Scotland, I thought expedient not to omit.

52. That the Catholick Romans have constantly, and as yet doe, after the manner of the learned Paynims of old, most heartily relish variety of consecrations, plurality of invocati­ons, and adoring one and the same thing, under a great di­versitie of titles, is apparent by the several names of Churches, huge Legend of Saints, and different dedications to one dietie as of one edifice to Christ the redeemer, and of another to Christ the mediator, of one to our Lady of help, and of a­nother to our Lady of mercie: even as the warlike Romans de­voted their temples to Ju [...]iter Feretrius; and Jupiter Stator: to Diana Lucina, and Diana Flu [...]na.

54. In this likewise they agree, that amongst the Heathnish Philosophers, there were many sects, such as Stoicks, Academicks, Peripateticks, Pythagoreans, and Cynicks, and amongst those we call Papists, there are divers orders of Monks, Fryars, Thomists, and Scotists: subdivivided again into Ecclesiasticall incorpora­tions, such as Cordeliers, Recollects, Succola [...]ts, Capuchins, Fucillans, Iacobins, Dominicans, Augustins, Iesuits, Teatins, Oratorians, Benedictins, Cartusians, Carmelists, and many other of that Nature, discrepant more in name, then opinion; in habit then profession.

[Page 68]55. That there is great unformity in both doctrine, and dis­cipline betwixt the Churches of the Ancient, and Modern Ro­mans, will never be denied by any, that having applied his mind to the Philosophical Poesie of the one, and scholastick di­vinitie of the other, is well versed in the rites of both.

56. And truly, there is so great knowledge wrapt under the vail of that affabulatorie divinity of old, that not to be­leeve in the truth of many points thereof, will argue as much senslesnesse, and stupiditrie in him, that is so incredulous, as it can of miscreance, and infidelitie in the person of any, that would question the infallible events of the most authentick revelations of the other.

57. It is said by them, that Saturn was the son of Coelus, and Thetis, that he devoured all his children, save Jupiter, Ju­no, Neptune, and Pluto, that he disgorged them again; and after he devirilised Coelum, was expelled his kingdome by Jupiter.

58. And say not we the same, though in other words, whilst we avouch, that time is measured by the motion of the heavens, and ebbing and flowing of the Sea: that the Ele­mentarie, and mixed bodies are corruptible, whilst the Ele­ments themselves in their purest Natures are not so: that the corruption of one thing is the generation of another: that there can be no more worlds but one: and that it lieth not in the power of time to limit the duration of the celestial influen­ces, in all which it seems that the Ancients did philosophate pretty handsomely.

59. Had they remained there▪ it had been well, but when they begun to adulterate that knowledge with superstition, & out of conscience, to immolate the bloodie sacrifices of young Infants, upon the altars of Saturn; then was it that their pro­fession became detestable to all the civill men in the world, and what was commendable therein, even abhorred; because of its intermixture with so much wickednesse.

60. Yet is it the part of wise men to sever the good from the bad, and without any relation to times, to adhere to what of it self is rightest, and to account that religion damnable (what ever it be) that destroyeth mutuall duties, and autho­rizeth cruelty.

[Page 69]61. The Poets say, that Vulcan was the son of Jupiter, and Juno; that he was lame, that he was thrust out of heaven, that he was fostred by Thetis, and the sea Nymphs, that he had Venus, and Aglaia to his wives, that the semence, where­with he thought to have imbued Minerva, had its diffluence on the earth; and that he was the smith, who made the armour of the Gods.

62. And doe not wee, though in other termes, affirm the same, whilst we say, that firy meteors are begot in the air, by the motion, heat, and influence of heaven: that the flame of our fire ascends not in a streight line, but crookedly: that lightning, and thunderbolts fall out of the air upon the earth: that naturall heat is intertained by radical moisture, and the ignean mixtures in the second region by Marine exhalations: that beautie, light, and splendor are concomitant with the heat of fire: that heaven, for being pure from the commistion of elementarie qualities, remaineth still a Virgin, in spight of that naturall heat, which diffused on terrestriall things, ma­keth them fruitfull in generation: and that naturall heat is the armour, and defence of our life, by which we are preserved from our destruction, our life, and motion ceasing, when it is gone, now what can be said against this, but that their way of expression is somewhat more figurative, and elo­quent.

63. The ancient Heathens did assever that Bacchus was the Son of Jupiter, and Sem [...]le: saved out of her ashes, when Ju­piter in his coit had burnt her with thunder, that he was cheri­shed in his Fathers thigh, nourished by the Hyades; bred in Egypt; and afterwards conquered the Indians; that he had both a Virgin and a buls face; was sometimes Male sometimes Female; now with a beard, anon without one: that he was worshiped on the same altar with Minerva, and accompanied by the Muses: that whilst he was a Child Mercurie carried him to Macris, the daughter of Aristaeus, to have his lips a­nointed with honey: that he slew the serpent Amphisbena ▪ that virgins were his priests, himself painted naked, and the Mag-pie consecrated to him: that he was turned into a Lyon, was called Liber, and Dyonisius, and the first that made bar­gains: [Page 70] that he was three years with Proserpina, and that he was torn by the Titans, buried, and revived again.

64. Though this relation seem a little fabulous, yet doe we maintain the truth thereof, whilst we affirm, that the Vine tree by the influence of a warm air produceth grapes: that ashes are excellent dung for Vines: that the best wine is where the soyl is hot, subject to thunder, and where the trees are parched with the rays of the Sun: that Egypt is a fit climate for that Liquor; that moisture maketh it prosper very much: and that the Indians were very temulencious Symposiasts: that there is a hudge difference, and almost incredible betwixt the effects of wine moderatly, and immoderately taken: that wine drunk with mediocrity conduceth much to wisdome, and Learning, and refineth our wits with eloquence, which brin­geth us to a felicity of expressing our selves most sweetly, in the best things that are: that wine killeth sorrow, utterly ba­nisheth it from all joviall congrecations, in pulling from it the sting at both ends of melancholie, wherewith both the beginning, and closure of all commensall meetings are for the most part stung, without this Lyaean liquor: that sometimes wine makes men effeminate, prompts them to reveal secrets, and oftentimes occasioneth much prating: that many times it inrageth those that drink it: that it maketh men to talk freely, and stirreth up the mind to high attempts: that commonly it is in taverns that men are aptest to bargain-making, when they are well whitled with Septembral juyce: that it will be three years before the Vine tree can come to its full perfection and that its twigs cut off, and set in the earth will afterwards bring forth good and sufficient grapes.

65. Doe not both these ways tend to the signifying of the self same conception of one and the same thing? truly they doe: Yet is it with this discrepance, that our conceit thereof is naked and bare, and theirs apparelled with an expression of more pomp and statelinesse.

66. To run after this manner albeit in never so percursorie a way, through the remainder of what is extant of this kind of inveloped Philosophie, would require a Treatise of a greater bulk, then these few miscellanie schedules are able to in­close.

[Page 71]67. Yet is it a thousand pities, that the knowledge of all Arts, and Sciences, both Practical and Theoretick, having been very ingeniously shrowded, by the learned men of Old, under the most gorgeous cover of Poetical fancies, there should not of that pretious Mantle now be seen, so much as the ten thousandth part; too severe innovators by an ubiquitarie con­flagration, having devored the rest.

68. Truly I lament it, and could wish from my heart, that the diverse exquisite books written on that subject, by Orphee, Musaeus, Linus, Phurnutus, Palaephat the Stoick, Dorothee, E­vanthes, Heraclit of Pontus, Silen of Chio, Anticlides, Evar­tes, Zenon, Cleanthes, Chrysippus, and several thousands com­piled by other Authors, which have been lost these many hun­dred yeares agoe; whereof I beleeve some were amongst those of curious arts, mentioned in the nineteenth of the Acts, were at this time obvious to our perusal.

69. I say not this to undervalue other books, for the Spi­rit of God hath taught us, that the two Testaments of the Law, and Gospel doe far excel them: but only to give you to understand, that Diamonds are not the worse, they be in­chassed in Gold; nor a Patacoon to be rejected, because a Portugal ducat is better.

70. Yet may the Oro de Tibar, and Plata de Peru, which are the best gold, and silver that are any where; that, being of 24 Carats (or Quilates, as they call them there) and this full twelve-pennie fine, abate much of their proper value, by being allayed with baser metal; there being nothing admits of mixture, which is not capable of being adulterated.

71. And likewise the unskilfulnesse of the receiver, may contribute much to the undervaluing of very good coin, as I have seen by some the Cross dolar of a Hanse Town (because of its circular shape) preferred to a Spanish Ryal of Eight, of a Polygonal Form; the insufficiency, by the touchstone of the eye, consisting in the figure.

72. Even so have these melliffluently relishing devises, su­stained great detriment in the estimation of many, partly by reason of the blind superstiion of some pusillanimous Zelots, addicted to that kind of devotion: and on the other part, be­cause [Page 72] of the uncharitable mistakes therein of some supercilious coxcombs, who avoiding to be instructed aright, are every jot as peremptory in their doom, as they are certain in their un­skilfulness.

73. Both which, the one, for depraving a thing by the in­termixture of some badness with it, and the other, for condem­ning that as ill, whereof he knows not the goodnesse, are like the Syrtes, and Symplegades: or Rocks, and Quicksands of er­rour, to be shun'd by those, that would sail into the haven of truth.

74. As for my self, I never yet had such prejudicate avers­nesse from old Tenets, nor implicit adherence to new positi­ons, whither at home, or abroad, but that I always thought it most beseeming one of a liberal education, to keep the middle course that tends to truthwards, without regard to either pri­stin, or modern opinion; Ephestian, or Exotick.

75. Which resolution of mine, to hold on in an even path to what is rightest, without straying to either side, begot such opposition in others, to whose conduct I was loath to deliver up my judgement, that because of fascination, incuba­tion, succubation, peragration with fairies, and other such communication with foul spirits, I had openly purged many of both sexes, whom they esteemed guilty, I was forthwith re­puted an obstinate assertor of erronious doctrine, and that with the greater vehemency of bitternesse, that I who was but raw, young, and lately come from my travels, would not without examination give trust to aged men of long experience, albeit in matters contrary to both common sense, and reason.

76. Yet as a child (though but of ten years old) is not ob­liged to beleeve it is dark, when the Sun shines, although a man of threescore should swear it to him: so such weak arguments à testimonio having never been of great prevalency with me, I caused send for one of either sex, that were supposed Rivals in Diabolical venerie, the male, with the succub; and the female with the incub And after I had spoken kindly to them in ge­nerals, I intreated them with all gentlenesse possible, to tell me f [...]eely, whether it was so, or-no, as it was reported of them, (the Reader must understand, that these two knew not [Page 73] other, and that it was not at one time, nor in one place, that I thus examined them) their answer was (for they were not suspicious of any harm from me) that it was true enough, yet wisht because of their so ingenuous confession, that I would be pleased never to bear testimonie against them; I promised to doe so, but withall considering how, in all other incident pur­poses, they were alwayes every whit as pertinent, as any what ever man or woman else of their condition, I streight concei­ved there might be a crack in their imagination.

77. The young man was two and twenty years old, very bashfull, yet prone to lasciviousness, and a handsom youth: she was some five and twentie, nothing so pleasant as he, and had it not been for a little modestie that restrained her, a very sink of lust: All this I perceived at the first view, and therefore the better to try an experiment thereon, I commanded, at the time they were in my Fathers house, an insomniatorie and ex­oniretick potion, for stirring up of a libidinous fancie, to be given unto each of them: I also directed one of my Footboys to attend the woman, with all possible respect, and outward shew of affection; the like I required of one of my mothers Chambermaids, to be done in behalf of the young man: which injunctions of mine were by these two servants with such dex­terity prosecuted, that the day after each their nights repose, of those two hypochondriacks, which happened to be within a moneth of one another, when I had called for them, and after I had fairely insinuated my self into their minds by a smooth discourse, asked whether, that night as formerly, they had in their bodies felt any carnal application of the fowl spirit, or if they did, in what likeness they received him: To this both of them made answer, That of all the nights which ever they had enjoyed, it was that night respectively, wherein unto them both the spirit was most intirely communicative in feats of dalliance, and that in the representation of the Boy, and Chamber­maid, whom I had appointed to wait on them, as they went to bed.

78. This ingenuous declaration of theirs confirmed me in my former opinion, which with more degrees of certainty in­creased, when I heard that within a short while after, the ima­gination [Page 74] of two, had turned to a fornication of four: for which, though I caused to punish them all, the Fantasiasts were thereby totally cured, who (becomming afterwards Yoke-mates in wedlock to the two servants of our house) were in all times comming sound enough in fancie, and never any more disquieted with such like apprehensions.

79. In these the cure proved easie, but in many that kind of disease taketh such deep root, that no remedie can prevail. I saw at Madrid a bald-pated fe [...]low, who beleeved he was Juli­us Caesar, and therefore went constantly on the streets with a Laurel Crown on his head: and another at Toledo ▪ who would not adventure to goe abroad, unlesse it were in a Coach, Chariot, or Sedane, for fear the heavens should fall down upon him.

80. I likewise saw one in Saragosa, who imagining himself to be the lawfull King of Aragon, went no where without a Scepter in his hand; and another in the Kingdome of Grana­da, who beleeved he was the valiant C [...]d, that conquered the Mores.

81. At Messina in Sicilie, I also saw a man, that conceived himself to be the great Alexander of Macedone, and that in a ten years space he should be master of all the territories, which he subdued: but the best is, that the better to resemble him, he always held his neck awry, which naturally was streight and upright enough; and another at Venice, who imagined he was Soveraign of the whole Adriatick Sea, and sole owner of all the ships, that came from the Levante.

82. Of men that fancied themselves to be women, beasts, trees, stones, pitchers, glasse, angels, and of women whose strained imaginations have falne upon the like extravagancies, even in the midst of fire, fortune, and the extremest pains, there is such variety of examples, amongst which I have seen some at Rome, Naples, Florence, Genua, Paris, and other emi­nent Cities, that to muitlply any moe words therein, were to load your ears with old wives tales, and the trivial tattle of idly imployed, and shallow braind humerists.

83 Thus am I forced to deliver my opinion, in opposition to some of our Kirkists, who would burden my conscience [Page 75] with more tenets then are fit for it, and lighten my estate of more mony then is due to them. for proof of the latter where­of, as I have already, in refutation of their covetous disjoy­ning of what was legally united, and splitting one parish into two, deduced three pregnant reasons, why the two fore­mentioned Churches should remain as one Church, belon­ging to one parish, I will in sequel of the sixth Article of the same book say,.

84. Fourthly, that in the up-lifting of all Taxes, and im­positions in former times, these two pretended Churches have been still rated as one parsonage, as the rolls of the stint can sufficiently bear record.

85. Fifthly, there are in both these pretended parishes, not above three hundred communicants, so that the great charge of soules needeth not much obstruct the union, seeing there is to be found in a shire not far from thence, eight thou­sand parishioners resorting to one parish Kirk.

86. Sixthly, that the whole parishioners of both nemine contradicente, did, and doe as yet, most unanimously ac­cord to the union.

87. Seventhly, that to have the union ratified by the Ge­nerall assembly of the Land, as it was past in the days of King James the sixth, I offered, if another place might be pitched upon more expedient, for the ease of these two half parishes, to cause build a church therein upon my own charges.

88. Yet for answer to these aforesaid reasons (in my opini­on relevant enough) a decreet by the Commission of the kirk, was pronounced against me, in favours of the 2 men serving at the cure of that Kirk and chappel, providing yearly to each of them 4 chalders victual, and 400 marks Scotch in monie, besides their Glebe (as they call it) and vicarage: although before that time (by reason of the smalnesse of the tiths of the Parish) their expectation did never reach to above five chalders rent for both, without any monie at all, and that they would have been exceedingly well pleased, to have accepted of less, had they been free of a brotherly suggestion to my prejudice, which for fear of deprivation, they were forced to lay hold on.

89. With this ecclesiasticall pressure, whereby my rents [Page 76] are diminished, another from the same fountain, though of a higher nature, was inflicted on me by a kirk-man, whose co­vetousnesse reaching the procurement of an unjust decree, through non defence in my absence, at an inferiour court, a­gainst four of my especial tenants, for some farmes pretended to be due to his mother, as the wife of an ecclesiastical dignary, he prosecuted the action with such indignation, violence, a­varice, and extortion, so prevaricatly and contrarily to both divine and humane Laws, that J purposely conceal his name, least the divulging thereof should prove scandalous to his fel­low Labourers in the spirituall Vineyard, for tollerating a man of such oppressive courses, to domineer in the Pulpit, by vertue of a supposed call from God for the preaching of his word.

90. Many things may be spoken of the unstreight carriage of this man, who, as I am Informed, is about as yet to vex my Tenants in Farnesse as formerly he hath done those of my Townes of Davistone and Pettistone, which if he doe, let him assure himself, that I will lay open the wickednesse of his dis­position to the view of the whole Isle, as perspicuously as his face is weekly apparent to his Parish at Romarkney.

91. But for the time I will forbear, in hope of his repen­tance, which no sooner can appear then I shall be apt to for­give, my humour leading me never to insist in twitting any that is not of an obdur'd spirit, nor had these three Ministers against whom I writ, in that book of mine entituled Exsciba­lauron sustained the lash of my pen, had they then been sen­si [...]le of the wrong done me, or acknowledged their faults, as afterwards they did; for, although I had dissimulation, I can upon a cordial remorse for any injurie committed, pardon my cruellest, and most inveterate enemie.

92. Why men that should make profession of Learning, doe goe about to vex and disquiet me, is most wonderfull; seeing it is not unknown to all, that are acquainted with me, that there is none breathing doth more respect and reverence it then I, and that by all appearance I am like (by Gods assi­stance) to give greater proofs thereof to posterity, then any whosoever that hath been, is, or will be ready to display open banner again [...]t me.

[Page 77]93. Bavius and Mavius were both envious of the worth of Virgil, and covetuous of his means but although the ruine of Virgil, had acquired them an Empire, yet had not so vast a purchase been able to contrevalue the infamie, which by that one Hexameter, Qui Bavium non odit amet tua carmina Maevi did redound to them both.

94, I will apply nothing, it being the readers part some times to infer consequences, where the modesty of the writer will not permit it, but setting forward in the proposed Method, doe make account to glance a little at the other branch of the dichotomie, mentioned in the forty second Article of the third book; as very obstructive to the defrayment of private debts, to wit publique dues.

Epig. Primum.
Ardochae duri fodiebant arva Coloni,
Lassabat (que) graves terrae profunda boves.
Finrasus invasit: tunc longae rastra quieti
Tradidit, & non est quo fodiatur ager.
Scire libet quaenam sit trist is causa rapinae,
Quid poterant terrae, quid meruisse solum;
Iphigenia domi nimirum nubilis illi.
Dotanda est, proprio non tamen illa solo.
Debita fallaci socero nam Burgius heros
Detulit, injusta qui rapit arva manu.
Sponsam ambit juvenis: pater agros ambit, & illi
Inde Ligone carent: illa Ligone suo.
Protinus armatas trahit in sua vota cohortes,
Authores culpae, substituit (que) suae.
Arva novo tibi sunt Cromarti danda colono;
Sic fodietur amans: sic fodietur ager.
Epig. Secundum.
Etheiam quondam Patrio Cromartius heros
Jure habuit, raptam nunc tamen alter habet:
Ru [...] (que) fallaces aluerunt devia vulpes
Semper & hos laqueo ducere moris erat;
[Page]S [...]d post quam has sedes cepisti Finrase, paejer
Incipis his cunctis vulpibus esse lupus.
Epig. Tertium.
Ut succum toto morbus de corpore ducit
Evacuata trahens ossa liquore suo
Torrida dum tot is concrescant viscera fibris,
Et subito in rugas cedat adusta cutis
Divitias populi totas sic Creditor haurit
Séque unum nummis Hydrope pejor alit
Argenti venas rimatur & undique quaerit
Abdita siqua auri gut ta vel una fluit,
Vos estis medici Patres si dicere fas est
Vos soli huic morbo ferre potestis opem.
Epig. Quartum.
Socratici fertur patientia longa mariti,
Xantippe lingua clara fuisse tua,
Ille tuo pulsus clamore obduruit etsi,
Lingua lacessito est aere sonora magis.
Huc ades, ô venerande senex, tentamina linque,
Talia virtuti non satis aequa [...]uae
Voce sua turbet solum te creditor unus,
(Sufficiunt (que) tamen non duo tresue mihi)
Xantippen querulam vere laudabis et ipse
Judice te post hac (crede) beatus eris.
Epig Quintum.
The Scripture says, that three things always crave,
The raging sea, the barren womb, and grave;
I dare not adde to Scripture, but I say,
That Creditors do crave far worse then they.
When I have render'd, by mortalitie,
To th' grave her due, she craves no more of me;
No strong desire can make me satisfy't,
Nor yawning womb command my appetite:
Besides ther'es pleasure here, in debt there's none,
And when once laid in grave, all grief is gone.
No sea constrains you, to entrust your frayl
Plank to the waves, or forceth to hoise sayl;
Or yet suppose it could, against your will,
[Page]There's hopes of Calm, or of a Harbour still:
There's storm on storm, when Creditors do crave,
And ev'ry Interest a rolling wave;
O let me debtor be to th' other three,
Free me from Fa [...]cher, Fraser, Fendrasie.
Epig. Sextum.
That he might in oppression be free,
Fendrasi [...] took the Kirk upon his side,
Who were of avarice as full as he,
And for the goods of all men gap'd as wide,
Those that beheld him Saint-like veyl'd did wonder,
And marvelled that he was chang'd so much,
When Satan's claws were suddenly seen under,
And all were startled at his hellish clutch:
'Twas like his Father, who's the root of evil,
Who taking Angel shapes, is still a Devil.
Epig. Septimum.
Since your selves are unto the Devil as due,
You Usurers, as Debtors cash to you,
To trust you so the Devil do's us wrong,
For you'l not trust your debtor half so long;
But it's confess'd indeed their may be lets,
And creditors by chance may lose their debts;
But though the Devil gets no use at all.
Yet is he sure t' obtain the Principall.
Epig. Octavum.
Like as the Tyrant plunder'd mightie Jove
Out of his golden vesture, and him told,
A woollen one might now far fitter prove;
Because the season waxed somewhat cold:
And from the God of Physick, Phoebus Son,
The golden beard in bitter scorn he took,
And said it was not fit he should have on,
Since his own Sire a beard could never brook.
Even so my Creditors with charitie,
And fellow-feeling piety possest,
In our Estates would make a paritie;
For conscience, say they, not Lands is best.

Pox take your gryping conscience, let me Enjoy m' Estate, and keep your Charitie.

O creditorum dira, & immitis cohors
Furiis (que) cunctis saevior.
Quorum sonorus clamor exanimat meum.
Urit (que) pectus taedio.
Hoc sei [...]c nunquam numinis vestros sine:
Impune fraudes pergere,
Cum vos hiatu caepiet immenso niger,
Si [...]u (que) claudet Tartarus.
Tum scire (si fas ista mortali) libet
Quas Aeacus paenas paret?
Megaera properat, properat Alecto ferox,
Incincta tortis anguibus.
Caliginosam saeva Tisiphone facem,
Intrantibus vobis quatit.
Nec non catenas certat extensas triceps
Averni custos rumpere.
Et linquit ales Titij exosum jecur,
Ad vos opimos advolans.
Saxum (que) dirum Sisyphi vobis datur,
Sitis (que) vobis Tantali.
Istis (que) cunctis pejus interca manet,
Majus (que) tormentis erit.
Absum et haeres omnia, et exosos lares
Divendet insignis nepos.
Ibit (que) tremula, et paene procumbens fame
Proles parentis perfidi.
Viri (que) conjux tenera in abjecti sinu
Alga jucebit vilior.
Et cuncta vobis ista Mercurius feret,
Ibit (que) certus nuncius.

The intent of the fifth Book, intituled, NELEODICASTES.

WHat is to be last in the execution, being com­monly first in the intention, the Author, conform to that order, begun this Isagogi­cal Treatise, as is apparent by the first Book thereof, intituled, The Wonders of the new Language: but in the continuation of the matter, thorow all the Books following, he quits that Analytical method, and betakes him to the Compositive, wherein pri­ority in cause, hath its citeriority in description. Thus therefore, as in the third Book were deduced Reasons, why the impediment mentioned in the second, should be remo­ved; so to the fifth, hath the Author reserved the expres­sion of his regret, for want of remedy against such inju­ries, as under which in the fourth, he had discovered a pressure. In a word, the third block which doth lie in the way of the Authors excellent undertakings, is the lack of redress, after Petition put in, for the wrongs he had sustained. Yet doth he not insist so long thereupon, as on the former; because the Court before which he did address himself, was somewhat more homogeneal; and that to de­cline the Kirks authority in civilibus, he conceived it to be no Heteroclitism. Both Iudicatories were constituted the Epitomes and Abridgements of greater ones; the Par­liament, and Assembly: that, passing under the name of a Committee; and this, of a Commission. But truly, such was the influence the Ecclesiastical party in this, had [Page 2] over the Secular in that, in imitation of the larger Bodies, which they represented, who had the same ascendent, and subordinacy, in rule, and dependencie▪ that he was thereby plunged into the more lamentable sufferings, the higher the exclamations against the Consistorian Clergie on all sides soared to this Picrologie, that no good aspect was to be expected from a conjunction of so malevolent Lumina­ries. After the enumeration of many grievous losses from Souldiers, and others, which the Author, contrary to the Laws of the Nation, and Equity it self, was enforced to undergo without reparation, he falls in the next place to discuss the Flagitator, whose poyson, by reason of its uni­versality of diffluence on all his best endeavours, requireth a careful administration of Antidotes to be set down in each of all the six Books of this Introduction. To this purpose, in several particulars, he instanceth their impla­cability, their unnaturality, and unconscionableness; he discloseth three plausible overtures most untowardly reject­ed by them; and in amplification of their cunning and rigour, hath a learned disceptation concerning Prodigality and Covetousness: he bringeth against them arguments both from Conscience and Law, in its supremest Legisla­tion; and with sentences of a vigorous and strong impres­sion, most accurately illustrates them. The tender care should be had of ancient Houses, he again inculcates: and lastly, to perswade the Publike to exoner him of the fore­mentioned burdens, he ratiocinates a minori ad majus, of Monopolies, in ampler benefits granted to men of no de­sert, wherein he needeth not doubt to have furnished matter abundant, for the satisfaction of the impartial Reader.

The Fifth Book Of the INTRODUCTION, intituled, Neleodicastes, Or, The pitiless Judge.

Wherein the austerity of the Law of Scotland, to­gether with the partiality of those that professed it a while ago, is made appear to be a great hin­derance to the present promulgation of the Uni­versal Speech, and future evulgement of other excellent Inventions.

1 THe publike Pressures, which in Scotland I was in­forc'd to undergo, (in matter of Tax and Loan, monthly maintenance, additional Sess-money, tran­sient Quarters, constant and assistant quartering Horse, Foot, and Dragoon-Levies, besides neer 3000 l. sterling worth of goods, as it stands upon Record, under the hands of those Gentlemen authorized for Commissioners, to take upon Oath and Proba­tion, the just account of their losses, most basely and unworthily (whilst I was absent from the Country) robbed and plundered from my Tenants: against whom, no pretext of quarrel could be had, but the love of their means, they being never sufferers, but for their innocencie, and too conscionable neighbourhood) did extend to so vast a proportion, that my Lands thereby were more sadly dealt with then those of any Subject within the Do­minion; and my self, from time to time, brought under the suf­ferance of such exorbitant Impositions, as would have been al­most [Page 4] insupportable to any of the Country, though of a free estate.

2. But that which made my condition the more bewailable, was, that in spight of that distributive justice according to which the then Estates of the Nation enjoyned each one ratably to lend his shoulder to the common burden▪ I was, by over-prizing of my Lands, emitting too great a proportion of Horse and Foot, and extraordinary quartering, at all occasions, singled out a part to sustain the calamity alone, without that wretched comfort (called Solatium misoris) of any other to share with me therein.

3. Which had it been inflicted on me▪ as a punishment for an offence, albeit pretended, were somewhat tolerable: but all the doers could say, was, that what they did then, they had warrant for; under the mask and vizard whereof, the sordid and corrupt Commissaries, with the ravenous Neoptoleman Presidiaries, did grinde the faces of my poor men, and suck the very blood out of my estate.

4. This disorder of Order-monging multitudes (without pre­judice be it spoke of a well-disciplined Souldiery) together with the specious pretences that some have grasped at, to do iniquity by a Law, hath truly run in such an over-flowing speat and inun­dation of violence against me, that what by the cruelty and high hand of neighbouring Flagitators and others,Nihil est pro­fecto molestius quam Vicinus avarus, says Joh. Decollo. and continual cur­rent of unavoidable Taxes, my poor tenants were so incompas­sionately plucked mangled, torn in pieces, and shuffled, that they and I both, for all our endeavours, (the publike burden alone, besides other pressures, having in some yeers (over and above the whole rent of the Land) put me to a hundred pounds English money on the score) have not been able to give, in matter of the Principal, a full repast to the rest of those craving a hungred Cre­ditors, who, by reason of the foresaid obstacles, barring, my de­termination remain as yet unsatisfied.

5. Of whom nevertheless not any almost (notwithstanding all these difficulties,Stolidus est qui propter spen [...] majoris rem praesint [...]m & certam licet parvam non amplectitier. which yet procreate this one and the great­est stop of all, that no Merchant is to be had for Land, without huge loss to the disponer; men of flourishing estates having sold their Lands of late at easie rates, to shun the pressures of so fre­quent [Page 5] impositions, and Assesments) will abate a mite of the due, the Law in its rigour doth allow, nor out of a fellow-feel­ing of my sufferings, relent never so little of the extremity.

6. For whether Land hath been undone,Turpia lucra foenotis, & ve­lox usura ino­pes trucidat. Sed male parta male de­libuntur. and impoverished by unseasonable years; or begger'd, and exhausted by the ra­pine of unruly Soldiers, they will alwayes have their money to yeeld a super-abundant and fruitful Crop, and the Rent thereof (in despite of the fortune of the Nation) to hold our most plen­teously to the full.

7. However, though to any judicious and well-poysed brain it would seem strange,Hac prima est sc [...]lerunt mater quae semper haben­do plus sitiens patulis rimatur faucibus au­rum. that by such men what is naturally bar­ren, shall be still made fruitful, even when by the hardness of the times, what is naturally fruitful, is still made barren.

8. I could nevertheless, in so far as concerns my own parti­cular, be well pleased not to decline the fertilizing of that sterility, (if the State think such kind of men worthy of being so nearly taken notice of) provided the judicatory, of the Land debar me not from the benefit of that justice which (without too palpa­ble a partiality) cannot be denyed to a very stranger, though but passing by, never to return again.

9. For the most of all that I demand,Sir James Fraser of Dark­house, of whom no good can be truly spoken but that he is dead. springeth from these two branches: first, that to have rest [...]tution of all that wrong­ously hath been taken from me and my Tenants, I be per­mitted to take my course against the meanes of the Robber; who by having disabled them, through so great a spoil, from paying their Farmes ever since, and these seven years to come, so well, as formerly they did, will prejudge me in thrice as great a summe, as all they were pillaged of did amount to▪ and next,Avarum nisi cum moritur nihil recte facit (says Publius Mimus) avaro quid mali optes nisi ut diu vi­vat. Non sibi non aliis pro­dest dum vivit avarus & pro­dest aliis & si­bi dum moritur that King James his Act, concerning the most important clause in decreets of apprising may be conceived as it ought to be, in favours of them that offer moveables of more worth then the debt that is required.

10. Now lest I should seem to protract time; and involve the Reader into a Labyrinth of discourse upon this so exuberant a purpose the amplification whereof (should I give way there­to) would with little difficulty draw from my Pen more Vo­lumes (time not failing me) then ever Origen wrote, as is ma­nifest [Page 6] by those aporrectical interthetes I have already couched; (whereof nevertheless I have not the twentieth part, nor any considerable portion of other more worthy Manuscripts of mine, which I having left behind me at Cromartie, were in the time of my imprisonment at London by the Sequestrator Dun­dasse's rifling of my Library, most wretchedly imbezled, and unluckily scattered amongst those that prefer'd clean paper to a­ny writing that is) I will (after having mentioned somewhat of the matter, climacotially proposed in the seventieth Article of the second book, make bold to conduct the Reader to the reposing­room of a closure, there to remain, if it please him, till it be high time to require his progress towards the ten excogitable Cities mentioned in the 73 Article of the first book.

11. Seeing the matter already spoke of concerneth me and my Fathers Creditors, both of us ayming at one and the same thing to wit, the enjoyment of the Estate of my Progenitors, I shall desire the Reader, by what I am to say, to take notice, which of us hath best right thereto, first in conscience, then ac­cording to Law.

Vid. Art. 28.12. Conscionably therefore to talk thereof, in some of the most civil parts of the world, it is thought unjust, that the in­fection of debt, like a hereditary disease, should be derived to Posterity, but onely transmitted to those, that from the indebted receive a benefit equivalent to the debt; conscience requiring that each one be a faithful Administrator to his Posterity of the means, which from his Predecessors he hath received: nothing being made lyable to his own debt, but his own conquest; his Personal deservings, and nothing else being that, which ought to expiate his personal faults.

13. Hence it followeth by the same equity as aforesaid, see­ing neither any of my fore-fathers, nor yet my self, were obliged in so much as one farthing to any of those Creditors; that con­sequently neither their estate, nor mine, should be affected with the burthen, which concerned us not, but onely the means of him that was the Party-contractor; whereby the whole shire of Cromartie, and Baronry of fishery in Scotland; ought clearly to be mine, for having belonged to my Progenitors five hundred [Page 7] and twenty yeers before the Incarnation; it being enough, that I lose two hundred pounds sterling a yeer of old rent, which my father put away, together with all his own conquest, and moveables belonging either to him or any other of my Ance­stors.

14. But the Lucripetary Poscinummios,Hydropico simi­lis nunquam saliatur avarus infaelix, requie nocte dioque caret. lending a deaf ad­ders ear to these kinde of motions, because the rigour of the Scotish Law against the heirs of ancient families, alloweth not the admittance of such a desire, to soften the hardness of their hearts, it was told them,

15. First, that seeing I had nothing answerable to the annual Rents of those Creditors, but the yeerly Rent of the Land,Non solum liberalitatis est, sed etiam commo­ditatis plorum­que aliquid de suo sute rela­xare. and that estates in Land should be as well weighed in the balance of Justice, as stocks in money, it could not be but reasonable, that as much were defalked from Creditors interests, as by publike dues have been exhausted out of my Land-rents.

16. Secondly, that for the payment of what sums of debt the Creditor could with reason claim right to, he might be pleased to take peny-worths,Vtilia non om­nia quae pro fu­lura videntur. Effugere cu­piditatem re­gnum est vin­cere. not according to his own cutting and carving, but as judicious men employed therein▪ should discern of their value; there being nothing more common amongst burgers (whom the Law certainly cannot with reason favour more then landed men) then that if a Merchant fall into any de­cadence in his means (although by his own procurement) his Creditors must take of his moveables, as, by the prime Magi­strates of the town, they shall be appreciated, and at no under­rate.

17. Thirdly, for further trial of their discretion, it was pro­pounded, (seeing it was their resolution to have my Lands to go to the payment of another's debt) that they would therefore vouchsafe to give some voluntary courtesie,In lu [...]rando modus secta [...] ­dus. for lightning of the burthen; which favour, considering the smalness of the sums at the first borrowing, and yet the smaller use they were put to,Sed illis cres­centem sequitur cura pecuniae. (there being none living; but the Creditors themselves, that had any benefit thereby, and yet how vastly and exsuperantly they have accresced since) may very well be granted.

18. These most reasonable Overtures prevailing as little as the [Page 8] former, with those cunning Creditors, who, when my father needed no money,Avari rectas cogitationes non admittunt, & lucri gratia cor­pus & animum diabolo prosti­tuunt. knowing his disposition to borrow, and abi­lity to pay, did for their own ends lend unto him whatever he pleased; that thus by laying out a worm (as it were) to catch a Salmon, taking occasion of his profuseness, they might make their own covetousness the main ground-work of their enrich­ment.

19. For which prodigality, I have already dispensed with all that ever he acquired, and a hundred thousand pounds Scotish more, besides seven or eight yeers rents of my Lands, which I gave them totally, save so much thereof, as for Publike dues I could not get avoided to abalienate from their acceptance.

20. Yet as if this their covetousness were such an illustrious and heroick vertue,In illis ne (que) pe­cuniae modusest, neque cispidita­tum, quas nulla praeda, unquam improbe parta minuit, sed au­get potius, atque inslammat. as could not be recompensed, all that ever they got from my father, or yet from my self, taking no more bulk in the immense gulph thereof, then would a grain of Millet­seed in the throat of an ass.

20. They refused to take Land in part of payment of the superplus of the debt, not but that in their own thoughts they esteem the Land much more worth then the money to be dis­charged for it, themselves having given greater sums of money for worse Land,Vltroneae vi­lescunt merces & pretia facili­tate decrescunt. Retia ubique tendunt ad nummos. and less of it: but that by this their seeming re­fusal, to be free of their cruelty otherways, I might be necessi­tated, out of desperation, to cast it into their laps, half for nought.

21. Which that I might the sooner be enforced to do, they demanded, besides their principal sums (which oftentimes were but failies of bargains) their interests, reer-interests, expences in seeking after them, and the interest of those expences, without having any regard to the difficulties of the times, which eat up the rents in publike disbursements;Lucrum in ar­ca, damnum in conscientia. and had laid such politick courses for insnaring me in the trap of an unthrifty bargain, that by their forestalling the bank, there was no money to be had in borrowing for my behove, but onely from themselves.

22. Had this been the worst, it should never by me have been mentioned; but to conceal it, I were to blame. After that I was ascertained of what inward joy was conceived amongst [Page 9] them, when they had fondly assured themselves of the truth of my being killed at Worcester-battel, and for the gladness of the tidings had madified their nolls to some purpose with the liquor of the grape.

23. And how when afterwards they understood the contrary to be verified by Letters under my own hand; and that by being (no thanks to them) in as good health as any of themselves, they were like to be disappointed of their abominable and unchristian hopes, they then threw in the way of my credit all the impedi­ments that they could, to debar me from money, that the with­holding of necessary helps might (if possible) snatch away what the sword had spared.

24. As also, what underhand-dealing there was for arrest­ing of my person at London, by men with whom neither my fa­ther nor I had ever any dealing (notwithstanding of my being a prisoner upon Parole to the Councel of State) and likewise what plotting was in Scotland by that fry of men against me,Voluntas fin­gendi & men­tiendi est corum qui lucrum de­siderant. after I was allowed by the State the favour of five months time to go thither and return again, is well known by those that were em­ployed by them in those unconscionable negotiations.

25. What congeeing cringing▪ doffing of hats, making of legs, and petitioning there was of the Judges of Scotland, the Com­missioners for the Sequestrations at Leith, and others, by many of those men, that they (good souls) who have always been found true and trusty (to their own profit) should not, for my lawless and unwarrantable joyning with Charles (for so some called him) in the invasion of England, be debarred from their legal rights to the enjoyment of my fathers lands apprised by them for their (most precious and inestimable) money, is not unknown to any that for business did frequent the Courts of Justice in that Country.

26. Furthermore, to shew the craftiness & subdolous pranks of some of those Creditors, of whose discharges I was content some two yeers ago to accept, for sums of money I had given them towards the defrayment of certain debts due upon Bonds, which they (perceiving my forwardness to relieve them, and having a further project in their own mindes) pretended they were so mis­layd, [Page 10] that they could not come at them, so soon as the urgencie and pressing haste of my then-incident occasions might require, did, very subtilly (or rather, knavishly) at my last going down to Edinburgh from London, demand payment from me by vertue of those Bonds, which then they had to shew readily enough, thinking the Discharges they had given me had been utterly lost at Worcester: and although some of them, by means of the clauses of Registration which they contained, might have been put upon Record,Divitias per falsitates ac­ [...]rere, oppro­ [...] [...] est. that nevertheless that should help me nothing, because the Scotish Registers were removed to the Tower of Lon­don, and therefore (in their conceit) never to be exposed hereafter to the inspection of any of the Scotish Nation. So cunning this generation of Usurers is of late become in Scotland.

27. But when they saw that those their Acquittances (which by the discretion of one Captain Goodwin, in Colonel Pride's Regiment, had been recovered out of the spoil at Worcester) were produced before them, they then looking as if their noses had been a bleeding, could not any longer for shame retard my cancelling of the aforesaid Bonds.

28. Who doth not account such a trick a deep piece of ini­quity, doth not positively know what belongs to sin: but who thinketh any more of it, and of all the formerly-mentioned abo­minations, then of a Flea-bite to the stinging of a Scorpion, in re­gard of Robert Lesly of Finrasie's far more wicked contrivan­ces against me, hath no skill in Comparatives.

29. For albeit of all the friends he ever had, the most de­serving was my father, by whose intercession alone he obtained, for the space of one and twenty yeers together, fourscore pounds sterl. a yeer:Maxima cupi­ditas ratio­nem pervertit, ac mentem a suo slatu remo­vit. yet for exchange (as it seemed then) of so great a favour, he having lent him eight hundred pounds English mo­ney, when my father neither needed nor required it; and having by mischance on the one side, and subtilty on the other, got his Bond thereupon, he was the first that led apprisings against his Lands; and not content with that, to the end he might obtain the mar­row of his estate to himself, procured the most of all his other Creditors, to take the same violent course against him.

30. And though when in the time of my Lord Montross's [Page 11] over-running of the North of Scotland, he knew not what course to take for the securing of his Gold, Silver, Evidences, and other things of value, from the hands of the Irish, it pleased my mother, out of courtesie,Cupicbam tuam ingratitudinem silentio dissi­mulare, scel me­am modestiam tua vicit impro­bitas. to take into her own custody the Trunks wherein those things were, and place them within my house of Cromartie: of all which although she made such a good account unto him, that now he hath them at his own dis­posure, yet (like that Snake mentioned in the Fable, which, instead of thanks for the warmth of a good fire bestowed on his almost-starv'd-for-cold joynts, without which he had assuredly died, did leap up in the face of his Host, to destroy him, with his whole family) he hath ever since applied the utmost of his wit to the undoing both of her and me, and the utter subversion of all the remnant of our House.

31. That such bad acquitals should have by him been rendred to my father and mother for those so considerable favors of theirs conferred on him who was born a Gentleman (for he is the third in descent from Norman Leslie, that for killing his Master Card.Tu omnium in gratissime pro summis officiis, qua [...]um poles malesicorum reponis. Retoun, was justly forfeited of his estate) is truely very strange.

32. Strange likewise it is, that by the continuance of his mis­carriages towards me, I should be necessitated in my own defence against him (who,Tu pro officiis ea reponis in­gratissimum monstrum, quae host is non face­ret hosti. as if there were a Cannibal-like Leprosie over his heart, impeditive of the susceptibility of thanks, hath never any way been sensible, in the least measure, of the several good offices done unto him) to afford yet another evidence of the height of his ingratitude; which is this.

33. When some four yeers ago, with all the Horse and Foot he was able to command, he came in a hostile manner to take possession of a Farm of mine, called Ardoch; unto which (as Sir Robert Farquhair can testifie) he had no more just title,Improbi cum maxime benefi­cia acceperint, tunc maxime ad malesicia ani­mantur. then to the town of Iericho mentioned in the Scriptures; and that at the offer of such an indignity to our House, some of the hot­spirited Gentlemen of our name would even then have taken him, with his three sons, bound them hand and foot and thrown them within the Flood-mark, into a place called The yares of Vdol, there to expect the coming of the Sea in a full Tide, to car­ry him along to be seized in a soil of a greater depth, and abler [Page 12] to restrain the insatiableness of his immense desires, then any of my Lands within the Shire of Cromartie.

34. Then, when in hopes he would behave himself more le­gally in times coming, prove a better neighbour, and more con­scionable man, I had restrained their fury, curbed their sudden attempt, and allowing him, together with those were with him, a Pass and Safe-conduct to their own houses, I did not permit so much as a hair of any of their heads to be touched; his re­tribution of thanks to me for my then so publikely-manifested affection to him in the preservation of his life (under God) ap­peared in nothing else, (he like another Mithridates, feeding his gall on no other nutriment but on the poyson of that rancour he had most maliciously conceived against me and my family) but in the present setting of himself to work for laying the platform of a most mischievous plot, to my total and unavoidable de­struction.

35. In pursuance whereof, having adjoyned to himself Co­lonel Archibald Strachan (then designed Lieutenant-Colonel) good John Forbas of Innernass, Lieutenant Huchison, and o­thers who may be named hereafter, that under pretext of saving my tenants from being quartered upon (with which punishment they were threatned, even out of the Pulpit of Cromartie, by an intimation made to that effect from the Ministers own mouth, who nevertheless (as I believe) knew nothing of the Plot) unless I should go to Innernass my self, to conduce with the Officers for some ease of an extraordinary Sess was then to be imposed on me;Avarus etiam diis molitur fallactas. hoping by such means, when I should be in that Town, that by vertue of a Caption stollen out against me by James Su­therland Tutor of Duffas, I should be deprived of my liberty, and kept in durance there,Eo productus est furor, uti sit res periculofis­sima magna be­neficia in ali­quem conferre: nam quia turpe putat non red­dere, non vult esse cui reddat. till Finrasie should be fully satisfied in all his demands.

36. This wicked device proved so universally odious to all the ingenuous spirits that heard of it, that his own wife having it in a perfect abomination, because of the bad sequeles she was certain could not chuse but ensue upon such pernicious machinations, did not enjoy her self long after, but died very discontented at the wilfulness of her husband: for truely she was a very discreet and [Page 13] judicious woman, and so was his mother, who, though she loved him as well as any mother could do her son, was still, in all differences betwixt him and me, more for me then him, be­cause she studied always to have reason on her side.

37. The above-written Robert finding that this his subtil contrivance had failed of its aimed-at effect, and that there ap­peared as much baseness in the one, as rashness in the other at­tempt, did forecast another way how to bring about his covetous designes; which that he might the better do, after that he had most glibly insinuated himself into the favour of the afore-named Archibald Strachan, Ingratitudo est ventus urens, siccans fontes pietatis, & flu­enta gratiae. and that he had a pretty while before that, moved a young Gentleman in Morray (who afterwards married one of his daughters, and who (had he been free from the infection of his father-in-law's untoward suggestions) would have assuredly dealt very courteously with me, he being the heir of one of my fathers Creditors) to make over his rights to him, to be consolidated with his other pretended claims, for the which he was to give him a good round sum of money, and his daugh­ter to the boot.

38. Now to the end he might bestow his daughter with the least charge he could to himself,Ingratum dixe­ris, & omnia dixeris. he procured an Order for Colo­nel Strachan to quarter a whole Troop of Horse upon my Te­nandry, till I should transact for a sum to be paid to his son-in­law; which verily was the greatest part of his portion; he chusing rather my Land should lie waste, then that his daughter were not well laboured.O tempora! O mores!

39. The injustice of this action, against which Strachan, even at first, had some inward reluctancie, stamped within a lit­tle thereafter into the Colonels minde those deep impressions of regret for the perpetration thereof, from whence sprung forth so many various prickles of soul-disturbing thoughts for it, and some other of his more notorious actings upon the advice of a so oppres­sive counseller, as that his conscience being exceedingly stung with remorse, he was not able (a while before he died) to refrain from these abrupt exclamations, Wo to thee Finrasie, accursed be thy consultations, shame fall on them, and so forth: after this manner fretting and vexing himself several times in private, at the [Page 14] very single memory of that one man, as some of those that heard him in his Soliloquies a little before his decease, can bear re­cord.

40. And truly thus much I can testifie my self, that to my own hearing he did acknowledge his hearty sorrow for the inde­fatigable pains he took for neer upon twelve months together, at the request of the said Finrasie, in procuring a Garison to be setled within my house at Cromartie, whereof the Governour (being a Leslie) was (though otherways a passing civil young Gentle­man) imbued in a very short space with such corrupt documents from his cousen Roberts, that before the disbanding of that Ga­rison (for which courtesie I owe the thanks to Lieutenant-Ge­neral David Leslie, who I perswade my self did never approve of Finrasie's proceedings against me) begun to keep such a high hand in my absence over all that had in me any interest, that in the most unreasonable of his demands (as his written Order as yet can bear witness) his loftiness was such, that he kept a strain like that of Solyman the magnificent, to the petty Princes of Christendom.

41. Not without a design (as is supposed) to indear himself the more intrinsecally in the favours of the young Gentlewomen Finrasie's daughters whose father (like another Charles of Bur­gundie) keeps them (by all appearance) the longer unhusband­ed, that they may serve him for so many stalking-horses, where­by to intangle some neighbouring Woodcocks (through an ex­pectation of wiving them) in a confederacy with him, and opposition to my Family, against which he hath so injustly de­nounced War.

42. The Garison being removed from Cromartie, and honest Robert thereby disappointed of any further assistance from Go­vernor Leslie in the driving on of his projects, he betakes him­self to another course; and laying hold on the occasion of a meeting amongst the Gentlemen of the name of Mackenzie, put in this humble suit unto them, that they would be pleased to move the Earl of Seaforth (their chief and his superior) to al­low him the favour of protection, and to further him to the pos­session of those my Lands he had apprized for moneyes due by [Page 15] my Father to him; which discourse as he amplified after the best manner he could for his own advantage, so had he an e­special care to make no mention of his ungrateful miscarriage within a year before that, unto my Lords own self; whose law­ful commands (though both his Father and he had formerly un­to that Honourable Family sworn unfeigned obedience) he not onely sleighted, in not undergoing those duties which (as a Vas­sal) it became him to discharge, and which the primest Gentle­men thereabouts (out of the meer tye of Neighbour-hood) did unanimously perform; but contrary to the homage he did owe unto my Lord, and personal good Offices he had received from him, adjoyned himself with might and main, in both counsel and action, to those, that had vowed the ruine of both him and his name, had plundred his and their Lands, dipt their hands in the blood of his servants, and burnt some of the best houses of his kinsmen.

42. All which things being very well known to the worthy Juncto of the aforesaid Gentlemen, his Petition was justly re­jected; not so much for that in both Consanguinity and Ally­ance I had unto his Lordship a very near relation, or that the Predecessors of us both, had for these many hundreds of years kept a most entire and amicable correspondence, as that his de­mands were totally of themselves unreasonable, and that (al­though they had been better grounded) my Lord was not con­ceived to be in honour bound to protect him, who had infring­ed his faith, and forfeited his loyaltie to him, whose Vassal he was.

44. Whereas these rubs in the way of a plain-meaning man would have quickly made him to desist from such violent under­takings,Lucri spes omnia dissicilia facit jucunda. he on the contrary was by such repulses the more eagar on his game: what would have proved discouragements to o­thers, did animate him; and the greatest spur to his action, was the iniquity of the cause: he left no Winde unsailed by, nor Oar unplyed he could make use of: he importuned the Kirk, so­licited the State, courted the Soldierie, feasted the Lawyers, ca­joled, smoothed, and flattered Gentlemen, Merchants, and men of all degrees, to gain friends both in Heaven and Hell for my [Page 16] destruction, and that with such vigilance and circumspection, cunning and reservedness, without sparing either cost or travel, that had the time I was forced to bestow in my own defence on avoyding his grins,Vid. lib. 2. Art. 19. shunning his traps, and with no small charge and trouble preserving my self from his various and manifold snares, been spent after the manner I intended, I would (by Gods assistance) in that space of leisure have emitted those things, which (to the Isle of Britain) would have been of greater e­molument, then all the estate he is worth in the world, twenty times told.

45. But he mis-regarding these things, which did no more relish with him, then a French Galliard in the ears of a Spanish Mule, and setting at nought my enjoyment of any spare hours upon what occasion soever, did even at my last being in Cro­martie (where I was not to stay above two months, by reason of my being engaged to the State upon Parole to return to Lon­don at a prefixed day) plod and forecast how without offending Authority (I being a Prisoner of War) he might so secure my person in Scotland, as not to be released till he were contented in all his demands.

46. In the prosecuting of this Plot by his two elder sons and brother George many of the English Officers both of Horse and Foot, together with the Deputy-Governour of that English Garison in my house, being most earnestly spoke to, he found them of such another temper then the Presbyterian Comman­ders he had formerly employed against me, that neither the beau­ty of his daughters nor glistering of his gold, being able to tempt them to a condescendment to his unjust desires, in spight of his way-laying of me, and conducing with English Messengers at Elguin in Morray to apprehend me, I securely traveled thorow all the best Towns of Scotland, and thereby making a safe retreat to London, wisht him for the future to employ his Motto of Gripe-fast, with the Griffin pounces of his Arms, upon some other prey then me, who knows him already so well, that he being of Normans extraction, there can no Proverb be more fitly applied to him, then that of Qualis Corvus, tale ovum.


[Page 17]47. Several Gentlemen of good account, and others of his familiar acquaintance having many times very seriously expo­stulated with him, why he did so implacably demean himself towards me, and with such irreconciliability of rancor, that no­thing could seem to please him that was consistent with my weal; his answers most readily were these: I have (see ye?) ma­ny Daughters (see ye?) to provide Portions for (see ye?) and that (see ye now?) cannot be done (see ye?) without money; the Interest (see ye?) of what I lent (see ye?) had it been termely payed (see ye?) would have afforded me (see ye now?) several stocks for new Interests: I have (see ye?) apprized Lands (see ye?) for these summes (see ye?) borrowed from me (see ye now?) and (see ye?) the Legal being expired (see ye now?) is it not just (see ye?) and equitable (see ye?) that I have possession (see ye?) of those my Lands (see ye?) ac­cording to my undoubted Right (see ye now?)

48. With these over-words of see ye, and see ye now, as if they had been no less material then the Psalmists Selah and Higgaion Selah, did he usually nauseate the ears of his Hear­ers, when his tongue was in the career of uttering any-thing concerning me, who alwayes thought that he had very good reason to make use of suchlike expressions, do you see? and do you see now? because there being but little candour in his mean­ing, whatever he did or spoke was under some colour.

49. For under colour of Religion, he did sow the seeds of division betwixt me and the Kirk, and devised such abominable lyes of me, as the like were never hatcht in Hell: under colour of being against Tyranny, he sent his sons along with Col. Strachan to the overthrow of Montross, whom he called James Graham the, &c. as now he doth his Master by the name of Charles Stuart: under colour of being for Monarchy, he hyed away his Eldest Son to Dunbar, where being taken Prisoner, he was kept fast for a twelve month at New-castle; and under what co­lour soever he can shew himself with the least detriment in pub­lick, doth he alwayes with the greatest security drive on his pri­vate benefit.

50. So that such as talk and discourse with him, who goes [Page 18] alwayes Masked and Vizarded with colours and pretences to what he intends not, ought not onely to see, to see well, and better see; to see well now, and see well then, but with all the perspicacy of sight, and prying inspection that may be, to look upon his concealed Objects, pore into them, and cast an eye on what from open view he purposely withholdeth, to the end that in discovering by such opticks the fallacies of the sight of our mind, we be not deluded, by finding under the Cloak of Righte­ousness, nothing else but the Babylonish Garment and accursed thing.

51. Let the Reader (I beseech him) excuse my having so long detained him upon the wretched subject of this man, who like a Fox in his Den, living in my Progenitors Lands of Ethie, hides or shews his Pawes as he sees the Prey in a conveniencie to let go or lay hold upon: and in compensation (seeing con­trariorum eadem est ratio) I will set before him another of my Fathers Creditors, who in the commendative deserveth as much to be insisted upon, as the other in the vituperatory part.

Quaestus mag­nus conscientiae puritas. Bona est substantia, cui non est pec­catum in con­scientiae.52. As of the ten Lepers whom Christ healed, one believed in him; and of the two crucified Theeves, one was saved: so were it a pity, if amongst so many Creditors there could not be found one honest man: but far more pitty it were, that (he be­ing a man of such approved integrity) I should be silent in his praises▪ and not extol his worth.

Nemo injustum habet lucrum sine justo dam­no, tamen non sic sapit lucrum quam dolet damnum.53. Vertue was the foundation of his wealth, and he never loved to gain any thing by the loss of another: of the many Debtors that have been beholden to him, he never offered to put the Bonds of any in the Register: yet hath God in his goodness towards him blessed him with prosperity, whilst others that had blamed him for his lenity, and had themselves extended the ri­gour of the Scotish Law to the extreamest cruelty imaginary, till they had obtained to the outmost farthing all that out of the depth of their covetousness they could have required from my Father, and afterward had in their jollity vaunted of the immense profit that thereby accrued unto them, are now (al­though it be not long since the time of their oftentive rigour) in a despicable condition, and fit objects of Divine wrath, to be [Page 19] punished with that poverty, which most unmercifully for their own inrichment they would have inflicted upon their betters.

54. But may William Robertson of Kindeasse, Honestum est lucrum, quo ne­mo laeditur; juste acquiritur, & nulli praeju­dicatur. or rather kindnesse, (for so they call this worthy man) for his going con­trary to that stream of wickedness which carryeth headlong his fellow-Creditors to the black sea of unchristian-like dealing, enjoy a long life in this world, attended with health, wealth, a hopeful Posterity, and all the happiness conducible to eternal salvation: and may his children after him, as Heires both of his vertues and means, derive his Lands and riches to their sons, to continue successively in that Line from generation to generation, so long as there is a hill in Scotland or that the sea doth ebbe and flow.

45. This hearty wish of mine, as chief of my kinred, I be­queath to all that do and are to carry the name of Vrquhart, and adjure them, by the respect they owe to the Stock whence they are descended, for my Fathers love and mine to this man, to do all manner of good offices to each one that bears the name of Robertson, both for the Personal deservings of the Gentleman I have now mentioned, as for that (as it is a common saying that the Skeens ought to be Robertsons) there is nothing more cer­tain then that the Robertsons should be Vrquharts; for besides that their own Coat-Armour doth in some measure manifest it, the first of that name was a son of Robert, the second brother of Endymion Vrquhart; which Robert, a little after the decease of Charlemain, in emulation of his Uncle Carolo, was so re­nowned for his Chivalrie and valiant atchievements in Italy and other forrain Countries, that his Off-spring hath ever after been designed by his name, as the Forbasses were by that of [...], the second brother of Vocompos.

56. O that I might continue longer upon this subject! But the scope of this Treatise not permitting it, I must of necessity have a fling at the Creditors of another temper.

57. For whose preying like wolves upon the innocent flock,Avaritia (in­quit Chrysost.) est canis rabi­dus, & insatia­bilis ebrietas. whom by Captions, Arrestments, Inhibitions, Apprisings, and other base weapons of the rigour of the Scotish Law, they en­deavour to devour, without Reason or Conscience, I may safe­ly [Page 20] avouch (conform to that ancient saying, Arma tenenti, omnia dat qui justa negat) that, expedit, ut, jus tenenti, qui justa negat, aliquid saltem de suo amittat.

58. Thus is it clear, in regard of their stubbornness, and re­fractary carriage,Tantum est ma­lum non se con­tinere intra proprios penates majoribus inhi­ando, ut propria saepe percant. against all conscience, equity, and reason, as said is, that they get neither wrong nor injustice done them, al­though they be made to forgo their principal, as well as their an­nual; it being more conducible to the publike good, that the in­nocent enjoy the means of their forefathers, then that the monu­ments of vertue become the inheritance of the vicious.

Pejor existima­tur civis soene­ratur, quam sur, says Cato de re rustica.59. I know now they will exclaim, that they are scandalized, in being called vicious for doing what the Law allows them: but truely I must answer them that Fornication is accounted to be a sin, even by those from whom a permission floweth to commit it, as at Rome and Avignon; and that likewise for the hardness of the peoples hearts,Vsurarius super omnes merca­tores, est male­dictus, says Chrysost. in his 38 Hom. upon Matthew. Moses did tolerate Adultery; and what else can be said of Foenory ▪ more then Venery, but that, as too much illicite kindness occasioneth the one, the meer lack of cha­rity admits the other to be connived at, for the less prejudice of the poor, in behalf of whom, the Law suffereth rather that they should pay a little Usury, then to be altogether undone for want of trust?

Avaritia omnis improbitatis, est metropolis. Nullum est vi­tium tetrius a­varitia: nam inopiae pauca desunt avari­tiae multa.60. Yet not to call it a sin, were to bely both Divine and Hu­mane Law; under pretext of either whereof, that they should go about to undermine ancient and worthy Families, doth make their sin to be so much the more prodigious.

61. Those that are any thing versed in the Morals, will ac­knowledge Prodigality not to be a vice half so dangerous as Co­vetousness, because it swerveth less from Justice, which is the com­mon measure of all Vertues: for as it is nobilius dare quam accipere;Avarilia ani­mam & corpus esseminat nec ullus [...]am fir­mum praefidium habet, quod a­varitiae infrin­gere, & debili­ [...]are non poterit. so may it be truely said, that he doth rather tribuere cuique suum that giveth too much of his own, then who exceeds in taking from his neighbour.

62. Now the properest effects of Justice, being to reward and punish, according to the receivers demerit, there is no doubt but that both Prodigality and Covetousness should fall under the compass of the penal Statutes; and this more then that, be­cause, [Page 21] as the Apostle says, it is the root of all evil.

63. It is a tenet, that faults being personal, the punishment of them ought not to be transferred to after-ages, as is said in the twelfth Article of this Book unless they did militate treasonably against a Prince or Commonweal; in which case, for the publike good, ut amor filiorum terrorem parentibus incutiat incur­rendi crimen laesae Majestatis, necesse est, ideoque justum, aliquantillum deflectere ab ea justitia, quae privatis accom­modari solet negotiis; even as we finde, contrary to the ordi­nary course of nature, for the weal of the Universe ad evitandum vacuum, air to descend, and water to amount.

64. Of this nature of punishment, I have been participant with all my predecessors of the Paternal Line, since the Reign of Eugenius Octavus, in the days of my fore-father Zeron, who had the greatest part of his estate taken from him, for no other trespass then his too great hospitality to a Prince of his own kinred, as in the [...], or Genealogie of our House lately published, is more fully deduced.

65. But this other kinde of transgression,In nullum a­varus bonus in­se pessimus. being in a matter onely twixt subject and subject, it follows that the successor of neither the prodigal, nor covetous man, should eo nomine be punished; much less should any,Omnia des cu­pido, sua non perit inde cu­pido. for his predecessors covetous­ness be rewarded; nothing more shocking against common sense it self, then to make the recompence for vertue be the reward of vice, whereby the very pillars of equity would be quite subverted and overthrown.

66. How can it then be called Justice, that the successor of the Prodigal, for no other reason but his predecessors prodigality,Aestimat esse parum sibi quic­quid habet cor avarum, ac quoque semper hiat major pars, ut sibi fiat. shall have his whole inheritance discerned to be the inheritance of the son of a covetous man, and that meerly for his covetousness? the onely recommendable quality for which he obtains it being a constant purpose and resolution to hook his neighbours means unto him, by eights and tens in the hundred, and other such baits, whereby improvident and inconsiderate men of great Revenues are oftentimes entangled.

67. Were it not less prejudicial to the Publike, and more equitable in it self, that a covetous man should forgo both of his [Page 22] principal and interest,Avaro tam de­est quod habet quam quod non habet, quia aut non habita con­concupiscit ut habeat, aut ha­bita metuit ne amittal; & dum in adversis spe­rat prospera, in prosperis formi dat adversa. then that he who is neither prodigal, nor covetous, should be denuded of the estate of his forefathers, which never was acquired by him that contracted the debt?

68. Although the Lords of the Session, or any other inferiour Judicature, were never invested with power to judge otherways then according to the Customs of the Country positively written, and Municipal Laws of the Land of Scotland; yet the high Court of the Parliament of the Commonwealth, by vertue of their Legislative authority, may, for the weal of the Publike, trans­cend the bounds of any written Law much more that unto which they were never tied, and of a stranger-Country now under their command.

69. And as it is a common saying, Interest Reipublicae ne­quis re sua male utatur; so doth it very much concern the re­putation of a Commonwealth, that ancient considerable families be preserved from ruine, if possible.

70. If Creditors say, they get injustice done to them by it, I answer with Tacitus, Nulla est res quae ad malefi­cium magis im­pellat quam a­varitia, nec justitiae sit in­festior. (Dato, sed non concesso) quod habet iniqui contra singulos ulilitate publica rependitur: or with Plutarch, A justitia in parvis negotiis deflectendum est, si ea uti volemus in magnis.

71. For if it be lawful to cut off an arm, for the preservation of the body, how much more lawful is it to defalk somewhat from the exorbitant sums of merciless Creditors, for the preserva­tion of an ancient family, in favour of him, that never was the debtor? seeing the Commonweal, for his appearance of good service thereto, may be highly concerned in his fortune.

72. These few points I have premitted, to make those Credi­tors pliable to Reason, in undergoing any such course as it shall please the State to command or perswade them to; who, as I make account, will take them from off my hand, and settle me with freedom in the inheritance of my predecessors, and that for the reasons formerly mentioned.

73. Although the State pay them not to the full, or perhaps pay them (for so much as concerns me) with a pardon; yet ought they to be thankful to the State for what is left them, and not grumble at the Publike severity, that others no less faulty then [Page 23] they, have sustained a milder lash; seeing (as in the Edecima­tion of Criminal Souldiers, the nine associates have no reason to complain of partiality, because the tenth escapes unpunished) it becometh these aforesaid Creditors to remain contented with that mercy to others, which proceeds from those who are just to them, although they suffer by it: nam plurimis damnum in­fligitur, quibus nulla fit injuria. And such of them as are most clamorous in seeking, considering what benefit by usurious bargains they had from my father, though they neither from the State nor me get any thing at all, can be no losers.

74. However it go, I should not be deprived of my fore-fa­fathers Lands, because of many reasons which I have already deduced. Nor is this unwillingness in me to part from my Land a vice, as is their tenaciousness in keeping of money: for, si parva licet componere magnis, as the King of Spain spent in the de­fence of Flanders more Ryals of eight then would cover the face of the whole Country (as is commonly reported) so to preserve my inheritance (whatever it cost) it defends the honour and reputation of the House which I represent.

75. And ingenuously, as when I collationed in the fiftieth Article of this same Book, Prodigality with Covetousness (viz. that Prodigality, whereby one lavishly expendeth his rents, and unnecessarily involveth himself into a Labyrinth of debt; and not that other,Suum cuique pulchrum. which by alienating his Predecessors ancient in­heritance, destroyeth the whole stock in so far as lies in him) I did prefer Prodigality to Covetousness as the lesser vice: so should I now compare with the covetousness of an Usurer, the profuseness of him that maketh no conscience to dispone unto strangers the Land of his Ancestors, I would find his fault a great deal more unpardonable then that of the Usurer.

76. For who turnes his Land into money, devirilizeth and emasculates what is naturally procreative and by consequence,Est amor & re­rum cunctis tu­tela suarum. bending his course to what is more imperfect, deserveth greater blame then who to the Eunuch and Spadonian money, allowes a constant pregnancy,Avarus est in­satiabilis cui nec tolus mun­dus obolus est. by imagining every peny to be both Father and Mother, still begetting, and still bearing, and the child still growing per juxta Positionem; whom if the Debtor [Page 24] find not beside the Parent at the semestral period,Avaritia laten­tium indega­triae lucrorum, manifestae prae­dae avidissima vorago, neque habendo fructa faelix, quamvis cupiditate que­rendi miserrima he must e­duce another of the pre-supposed Bulk, or lye by it, as one that hath not faith enough; because although both be unnatural, yet for that the latter aymeth at what is of choicer worth, it merits less imputation; the intention of making what is barren fruitful, (albeit impossible to do) being more commendable then of ex­changing what is by nature fertile, for that which produceth and bringeth forth nothing but rust and dross.

77. However, although by what is already said my declining to pay those men, needed not be imputed to me, for want of equity towards them in my proceedings, they having received much from me,Omnis avarus ex potu situm multiplicat, quia cum ea quae appetit adeptus fuerit, ad appe­t [...]nda alia am­plius anhclat. and often, and I from them never any thing at all; my obligations to them being so prescinded from all speciali­ties and particular restrictions, that they never could shew neither what, nor when, nor time, nor place, nor any other circumstance whatsoever, denotating the existence of any thing on earth, where­with to upbraid my acceptance: yet I shall wish, (if so it please the Publike) that they be satisfied and reimbursed of what they can with any kinde of reason demand.

78. For as Julius Caesar, after he had repudiated his wife, being desired to call her home, because the Judges had absolved her from that adultery whereof with Clodius she was accused, did very gallantly reply, that the wife of Caesar must be free of Suspicion, as well as Guilt: so, though I may vindicate my self, and the land of my progenitors from the stain of that debt, wherewith some peevish and malicious men would adul­terate the hitherto-immaculate purity of our Family; yet would I rather chuse some little coin should be bestowed on them, therewith to stop their bawling mouthes, then have any the meanest distrust or jealousie remaining though without a cause.

79. I expect, that the Publike will be pleased to undergo (after what manner to them shall seem most fit) the perform­ance thereof: which that they do, even in the most expensive way, is no new thing and in matters of far less concernment.

80. Many have had their estates made up by Monopolies, and other such publike exactions, who afterwards employed the utmost of their power for subverting the State, to which they [Page 25] had been so much beholding, although before that time they had never made apparent their deservings for so great a favour.

81. How many have there been about the Courts of Kings, who having no higher qualification, then to sweep the Privie rooms, or at most, to make the Kings bed, were short while after so bedaubed with Honours, that (although their endowments continued still in the same degree of baseness) they disdained the touching of a Missive directed to them, whereof the Superscrip­tion spoke not, To the most noble, high, and potent Earl, with other Signorial Titles, attended by an & caetera in the reer?

82. Cheating at Cards, Dice, Bowling, Tennis, or any other Game, where confederacie or betraying of trust hath at any time proved advantagious, and all those other sneaking means that are commonly at corrupt Courts practised, for cramming their bags full of money, upon any terms, have been in many places, this long time, the usual Scale of Promotion, and very often the most infallible way for attaining to most sublime and splendid Digni­ties: which sort of Nobility, without Valour, Wit, or Learning, may be fitly termed a kinde of Metaphysical wonder, or relation sine fundamento & fundandi ratione.

83. I have seen beyond sea a Marquess of twenty thousand Crowns a yeer, who albeit he obtained both his Title and Rents, for having served his Prince in the quality of a Pander, would nevertheless have sworn with as much Grandeur, and pretended conscience upon his Honour, as if he had been a Con­queror of several mighty Nations. I have likewise known of those that have been Lorded above their fellow-Courtiers, for their greater dexterity in the winding of a Hunting-horn; in which faculty nevertheless, the education of a Shepherd or Posti­lion was sufficient to make one in a very short space by far to ex­cel them.

84. This evidenceth many to have been enriched by the Publike, whose service thereto, or merit otherways, deserveth scarcely the retribution of private thanks. As for my self, be­cause I have promised to do for the Publike that which shall be better then ten times my estate, I cannot think it will be impu­ted for boldness to me, to require it be made free for my proposed [Page 26] service; and for doing thereof, such debt as shall be thought fit to defray, be forthwith made a Publike burthen; with the pub­like expence to be discharged, if so to them it seem expedient, and no other ways.

86. But seeing it hath been said by some, who not long since did sit at the Helm of the Scotish State, when by one of the most eminent persons in the Army, an exemption but from some few months maintenance (now called the Sess) of my own lands was demanded, in compensation of thrice as much which I had disbur­sed upon Warrants from the Publike, for which, by an Act of Parliament, there was allowed retention in future dues of that nature, with assurance that my endeavours to the honour of my Country, should quickly appear for deserving, worth a greater courtesie, That when such endeavours should be made effectual, it would be then time enough to appoint a recompense: the il­less noble Lord not considering, that the refusal was unjust, though I had not been endowed with faculties for any such de­signe, the like not having been denied to any well-affected Gen­tleman but my self; nor taking notice, that by those and such­like enormous pressures, I have been these twelve yeers past disabled from prosecuting so powerfully my intended purpose, as otherwise I would have done, had I been clear of those impedi­ments.

87. I will therfore halt a little in the divulgement of this my great undertaking, left I should participate in such kind of mens precipitancy, by shewing no less rashness in my exposing of pre­cious things to their acceptance, then they have done of incogi­tancie, by their sudden rejecting the grant of my most equitable requests.

The project of the sixth Book, intituled, PHILOPONAUXESIS.

THe Author in the first five Books having very posedly digested the causes promptive to the removal of all obstacles impediting the exposal of his brain-endeavours, doth in this sixth and last of his Introduction, prove that the concession of these his just demands, will prove conducible to all industrious negotiations and employments whatsoever. And whereas by the Usurer the contrary was upbraided, he retorts back the dart of that obloquie on whence it came, and sheweth what innumerable prejudices have redounded to Merchandizing, Scholarship, Hus­bandry, Mechanism, Nobility, Gentry, Disport, Exercise, and, in sum, to all the persons, professions, and diversions of honest men, of what degree or quality soever, by the Gangrene wherewith Usury and Avarice hath seized upon the Land, since the domination of Hypocrisie over its in­habitants. He declareth likewise much of these calami­ties in behalf of all those fore-named Vocations, Arts, Disciplines, Recreations, and those that plied all or either of them, to have occurred by reason of his own particu­lar pressures under the Foenoratory yoak. And therefore, to extricate him out of those impesterments, and dis-intangle his estate from the intricacies wherein the Flagitator keep­eth it involved, he sues the Supreme Authority, and begs the favour of a Judge whose qualifications he delinectes. [Page 28] He solveth all the Scruples that oppose his suit, and evi­dently demonstrateth the grant thereof to endanger the preparative of no incidence for the like in any time to come. Finally, he knowing that any man in a chamber, desirous to enjoy the light of the sun, would be offended at him, who, by holding the windows shut, should detain him in dark­ness; as also be displeased with such a one as would keep fast the door against that person did intend to present him with a rich Diamant; Seeing the expansion of a door and window-leaf is able to admit the brightness of the one, and wealth of the other: He expects that the State, con­sidering how easily he may be disburdened of the aforesaid letts, and how upon their removal dependeth an illumina­tion and enrichment of the Minde in the knowledge of divers exquisite things, will not wittingly lose a matter of so great concernment, for the not-performance of so mean a task: for when Utility may be obtained with ease, and the steps to Profit trod upon with facility, it needeth not to be imagined, where Wisdom superiorizeth most, that such conveniences will be set at nought, and omitted. In hopes therefore of a gracious retribution, and with a stre­nuous assurance of a plenary discharge of his promise, The Author very daintily closing this sixth Book, puts a Catastrophe to the whole Introduction; the publishing of the Book it relates to, depending totally upon the removal of the often-aforementioned impediments, then which the Author asks no more for helps: for, Qui impedimenta tollit, praestat adminicula.

The Sixth BOOK Of the INTRODUCTION, intituled, Philoponauxesis, Or, Furtherance of Industry. Wherein is evidenced, that the grant of the Au­thors demands will prove (besides that of the Universal Language, and other kindes of Lite­rature) conducible to all manner of other vertu­ous undertakings whatsoever.

1. IF there happen to be any, who for the better repelling of my demands, would alleadge (all other reasons failing them) that the grant thereof might prove very damage­able to traders in Merchandise, whose fortune wholly consists in the frugal managing of their money; it may very fitly be an­swered (if they be Scotish Merchants who move the doubt) that by casting in such a scruple, they most unjustly impute that fault to others, whereof themselves are very hainously guilty; seeing under the title of Merchant, and mask of the honesty thereof, they do that, which (of any thing) is to Merchandizing most destructive.Quis metus aut pudor est, un­quam properan­tis avari.

2. They lend money upon Usury to none, but such as have estates in land, without any regard to traffique: for whether [Page 30] the intention of the Lender be considered, or use that the Borrow­er commonly puts it to, all Mercantil negotiation is exceedingly eclipsed by it.

3. There being nothing surer, then that for the most part such-like borrowers, in Hawks, Hounds, Wenching, Gaming, Tipling, Swaggering, Fidling, Rioting, Revelling, and other such-like profligate courses of a most effusive and vast expence, squander away the money so lent, without casting an eye to any thing tending to the furtherance of the exchange of Ware, to­wards the necessary use of man.

4.Hi incuban [...] & excubant, ut au­ro insidientur. Diu tamen vi­vant avarī, nam se diutius tor­quebunt.And that likewise, the Lenders of money unto such men, minding chiefly their own ingreatning, when they think a com­petent time hath expired, for engendering upon the emitted Coin a progenie numerous enough for their enrichment, require from their respective debtors the sum at first so lent, with its usurious attendants; which, if obtained, they, possibly at the hands of some other no less debosh'd then the former debtors, make pur­chase of some Land: if not, then are they sure, by Decrees of Apprising according to the harsh Law of Scotland, to take pos­session of the land of the debtor.

5. So that however the matter go, being certainly assured of Land, which was the thing they aimed at, assoon as they finde themselves invested therewith, they cast off the Vizard of Mer­chant, wherewith they cheated the world, and turning once landed men, they altogether scorn to traffique any longer.

6. But the best is, that the sons of those, because of their fa­thers having acquired Land,Quanta demen­tia est, sui baere­dis res procu­rare, & sibi ne­gare omnia! O egregiam phrenesin, ege­nus vivere, ut dives moriare! (though the said fathers, by vertue of their long-accustomed parsimony, snudge out their own time, without any danger of thraldome by debt) strive usually to be renowned (the better to appear Gentleman-like) for such extra­vagant actions, as carrying along with them profuseness of charge, occasioned the sale of those lands which by their fathers were purchased.

6. And as from the same causes, with all their concomitances, proceed always the same effects;Prodigus est natus, de parco patre creatus. so doth such a course of life as was kept by those that did dilapidate the foresaid lands at first, produce an inevitable necessity of redisponing them, and that [Page 31] oftentimes to the first abalienators sons, who, bitten with penury,Pecunia ava­ro supplictum est. for the lavishness of their fathers, become miserable scrape-goods for their childrens subsistence.

8. After which manner,Non sibi, sed a­lits aries sua vellera portat; sic aliis cumu­lat dives ava­rus opes. the generation of one livelihood be­ing the corruption of another, the son of the Covetous spending what the father of the Prodigal had gained; and the son of the Prodigal re-acquiring what the father of the Covetous had put away: Prodigality and Covetousness, in this alternative vicissi­tude,Est suror haud duhius, qum est manifesta Pl [...]re­nesis ul locuples moriaris egeno vivere fato. were the two master-wheels that hurried Scotland into Confusion and Hypocrisie; the Iehu, that drove the Chariot with such velocity, that since the National subscribing of the first Covenant, one and the same estate in lands hath been observed, according to the manner of the fore-mentioned circulation of co­vetous men, and prodigals, succeeding in the veece of one ano­ther,Quod parcus quaeres essun­det, prodigus haeres. to have interchangeably been posses [...] by four several own­ers, hinc iude, the seller being still (as it were) the buyers pre­decessor, in a diametral line, as in a direct one, the Prodigal was to the Covetous; or inversedly, the Covetous to the Prodigal: and this not onely in one, or two,Dives es ut Croesus, sed vivis pauper ut Irus. but in above five hundred se­veral parts of the Country; wherein what the covetous father of one family had bought from the prodigal-father of another, the covetous son of that other did recover from the prodigal-son of the first, and that with so little vertue in either,Cui plus licet quam par est plus vult quam licet. that often­times the purchase flowed from the greater vice.

9. By such a vicious flux and reflux (within these ninety yeers) upon the chanel of Land-rents,Ea cupiditas habendi istos in­vasit homines ut possideri, magis quam possidere videantur. so great prejudice hath redound­ed, and daily redoundeth to the worthy profession of Merchan­dizing, the disponer not being accustomed with traffique, and the purchaser disdaining any longer to exercise it; that all Ma­nual Trades in that Nation are now almost totally failed, and have fallen of late into such a palpable decadence, that hardly shall a man be found, where these men have being that can make a pair of Boots aright, or Taylor skilful enough to apparel one in the Fashion, although he see the patern before him.

10. Other Trades of weaving Silver Lace, knitting Silk Stockins, sowing of Cut-work, with five hundred more depend­ing on the hammer, needle, or pencil (in other Countries as com­monly [Page 32] practised, as Cookery with us) may in Scotland now, where-ever the Usurer lives, be as well put amongst the antiqua deperdita, as the malleability of glass, liquability of stone, or incombustibility of linen.

11. And the reason is, Though they had the dexterity to make the ware, there is no Merchant to buy it; all such being turned by Usury to Mongrel-Gentlemen, and all Gentlemen thought unthrifty, that turn not Usurers; whose both inclinations being to convert all into money, (save so much victual and clothes as barely may preserve their bodies from starving, which a corner of their own Country-farm will sufficiently afford) all gallantry of Invention is ruined, exquisite Artificers discouraged, and Civility it self trod under foot, for want of Commerce.

Locum virtutis discru [...]t & ob­ru [...]tur, qui sem­per in eugenda f [...]stina [...] re.12. Thus it being clear, that promiscuous Usury (the Gentle­man being no more ashamed of it, then the Burger) hath been the overthrow of Merchandise in Scotland, which is so com­mendable a profession, and so agreeable to Learning and true Wisdom, that as by Literature we are justly called Microcosms; for being able to comprehend all manner of things under specieses in the predicament of quality: so may we be as well termed the same, for our ability by Merchandising (were we so inclined) to bring within the compass of our possession whatever is in the category of habere.

13. There is no doubt but to have antipathy against such oppo­sers of honest Negotiation,Nec a mortuo sermonem, nec ab avaro grati­am expectes. is to sympathize with good men; and not to abhor them with a perfect hatred, (in so far as Christian charity will allow us) is to be enemies to both Civility and Dis­cretion.

14. What great harm they have done to the whole Isle of Bri­tain by their violence against me,Avaritia ad in­juriam usque grassatur. (not mentioning their obstruct­ing my intellectual faculties, which, to the opprobry of Mankinde it self, they oftentimes have most inhumanely laboured to sup­press) I will instruct how, in my person, these men have hin­dered Navigation,In omne nefas p [...]aecipites hoc adigunt nummi. Commerce, by the export, import, and trans­port of Commodities Manufactares, Fodinary employments for Coal and Minerals Agriculture for Tillage, Pasturage, and Plant­ing, and many other such feasible projects of industry, tending [Page 33] altogether to the promoval of both wealth and civility in a Land.

15. I have (or at least had, before I was sequestred) a certain Harbour or Bay, in goodness equal to the best in the world, adja­cent to a place, which is the head-Town of the Shire; whereby I am intituled both Sherif, and Proprietaty; the Shire and Town being of one and the same name with the Harbour, or Bay; whose promontories on each side, vulgarly called Souters, from the Greek word [...], that is to say, Salvatores, or Savers, from the safety that ships have, when once they are entred within them, had that name imposed on them by Nicobulus the Druyd, who came along with my predecessor Alypos, in the dayes of Eborak, that founded York, some 698 years before Ferguse the first; at which time, that whole Country, never be­fore discovered by the Greeks, was named Olbion by the said Alypos, whose description in the [...] doth specifie it more at large.

16. This Harbour, in all the Latine Maps of Scotland, is called portus salutis; by reason that ten thousand Ships together, may within it ride, in the greatest tempest that is, as in a calm; by vertue of which conveniency, some exceeding rich men, of five or six several Nations, Masters of Ships, and Merchant-Adven­turers, promised to bring their best Vessels, and stocks for trade­ing along with them, and dwell in that my little Town with me, who should have been a sharer with them in their hazard, and (by subordinating factors to accompany them in their nego­tiation) admitted likewise for a partner in their profit, and ad­vantages.

17. By which means, the foresaid Town of Cromarty (for so it is called) in a very short space would have easily become the richest of any within threescore miles thereof: in the pro­secuting of which designe, I needed not to question the hearty concurrence of Aberdeen; which for honesty, good fashions, and learning, surpasseth as far all other Cities and Towns in Scotland, as London doth for greatness, wealth, and magnifi­cence, the smallest Hamlet or Village in England.

18. Nor was I suspicious of any considerable opposition [Page 34] in that my project from any Town save, Innernasse alone, whose Magistrates (to the great dishonour of our whole Nation) did most foully evidence their own baseness, in going about to rob my Town of its liberties and priviledges.

19. Yet was that plague of Flagitators, wherewith my house was infected, so pernicious to that purpose of mine, that some of them lying in wait (as a thief in the night) both for my person and means Cannibal-like,Avari (says Chrysostom) sunt fures & latro­nes, ubiqu [...] in­u [...]iles, & p [...]iores ipsit moretrici­bus: maxim [...]t pars horum in mo [...]bo [...]actatur codem. to swallow me up at a breakfast; they did, by impediting the safety of my travelling abroad, arresting whatever they imagined I had right unto, and inhibiting others from bargaining most barbarously and maliciously cut off all the directory preparatives I had orderly digested, for the ad­vantage of a business of such main concernment, and so condu­cible to the weal of the whole Island, to the great discourage­ment of those gallant Forreners, of which that ever-renown­ed Gentleman for Wit and excellencie in many good parts, Sir Philbert Vernati by name was one; who being of Italian pa­rents, by birth a Dutch-man, and by education expert in all the good Languages of the Christian world, besides the Arabick and Sclavonian Tongues, wherein he surpass'd, had a great as­cendent in counsel over all the Adventrous Merchants of what Nation soever: whereof (without the foresaid lets of those barba­rous obstructers) some by all appearance had so concurred with me, that by t [...]eir assistance I would ere now have banished all idleness from the commons, maintained several thousands of persons of both sexes, from the infant to the decrepit age, found employments proportionable to their abilities, bastant to afford them both entertainment, and apparel in a competent measure; by various multitudes of squameary flocks of several sizes, co­lours, and natures, educed out of the bowels of the Ocean both far and neer, and current of fresh-water streams, more abundance of wealth then that whole Country had obtained by such a com­modity these many yeers past; erected Ergastularies for keeping at work many hundreds of persons, in divers kindes of Manu­factures; brought from beyond sea the skilfull'st Artificers could be hired for money, to instruct the natives in all manner of honest wades; perswaded the most ingenious hammer-men to stay with [Page 35] me, assuring them of ready Coin for whatever they should be able to put forth to sale; addicted the abjectest of the people to to the servitritiary duty of digging for Coals and Metals, of both which in my ground there is great appearance, and of the hit­ting on which I doubt as little, as of the Lime and Free-stone Quarries hard at my house of late found out, which have not been these two hundred yeers remarked; induced masters of Husbandry to reside amongst my tenants, for teaching them the most profitable ways, both for the manner and season, of tilling, digging, ditching, hedging, dunging, sowing, harrowing▪ grub­bing, reaping, threshing, killing, milling, baking, brewing, bat­ling of pasture-ground, mowing, feeding of herds, flocks, horse, and cattel; making good use of the excrescence of all these; im­proving their Herbages, Dayries, Mellificiaries, Fruitages; set­ting up the most expedient Agricolary instruments of Wains, Carts, Slades, with their several devices of Wheels and Axle­trees, Plows and Harrows of divers sorts, Feezes, Winders, Pul­lies, and all other manner of Engines, fit for easing the toyl, and furthering the work; whereby one weak man, with skill, may effectuate more, then fourty strong ones without it; and leaving nothing undone, that by either sex, of all ages, might tend to the benefit of the labourer, or rather in applying most industriously the outmost of their vertue, to all the emoluments of a country­farm, or manual trade,

20. I would have encouraged likewise men of Literature, and exquisite spirits for invention, to converse with us, for the better civilizing of the Country, and accommodating it with variety of goods, whether honest, pleasant, or profitable; by vertue whereof, the professors of all sciences, liberal disciplines, arts active and factive, mechanick trades, and whatever con­cernes either vertue or learning, practical or theoretick, had been cherished, for fixing their abode in it.

21. I had also procured the residence of men of prime facul­ties for bodily exercises, such as riding, fencing, dancing, military feats of mustering imbattleing, handling the pike and musket, the art of Gunnery, fortification, or any thing that in the Wars be­longeth either to defence or assault; volting, swimming, running, [Page 36] leaping, throwing the bar, playing at tennis, singing, and fing­ring of all manner of musical instruments, hawking, hunting, fowling, angling, shooting, and what else might any way con­duce to the accomplishment of either body or minde, enriching of men in their fortunes, or promoving them to deserved ho­nours.

22. All these things, and many more, for export of the com­modities of this Island to the remotest regions of the earth, import from thence of other goods, or transport from one for­raign Nation to another, and all for the conveniency of our British inhabitants, whether for their integrity and uprightness of conversation, gain and utility in their meanes, or delight and re­creation in their disports, I would undoubtedly have ere now provided to the full, in being (as by a friend of mine was writ­ten of me in an Epistle of his premised to a book intituled The Genealogie of the family of the Vrquharts) a Mecaenas to the Scholar, a pattern to the Souldier, a favorer of the Mer­chant, a protector of the Trades-man, and upholder of the Yeo­man, had not the impetuosity of the usurer overthrown my reso­lutions▪ and blasted my aims in the bud.

Ad quid Pro­dest multa qui­dem possidere, & nihil agere?23. Now if you would know what it is that the Usurer bestow­eth on the Country, in compensation of so large a benefit whereof he hath deprived it; I will tell you, it is laziness, greed, obsti­nacy, pride, beggarliness, hatred, envy, treachery, contempt of betters, oppression, hypocrisie, cruelty, contention, cowardliness, continual heart-burning,Nulli potest se­cura contingere vita, qui de reproducenda ni­mium cogitat. disquietness, and miscontentment of minde, misregard of true honour, vilifying of vertue, and dis­dain of learning, with other many such like perturbations of a most odiously wicked, and grievously troubled spirit.

24. Amongst such, he is accounted a thrifty Gentleman, who bestirreth himself the space of two daies in the whole year,Modum [...]on habet avaritia, nec capiendo expletur, sed in­citatur; hoc e­gentior, quo plu­ra quaesivit. Avaritia desideratis rebus non extinguitur, sed augetur; num more ignis, cum ligna quae consumit asceperit excrescit, & unde videtur ad momentum flamma comprimi, paulo post ceruitur dilatari. about the ingetting of his interests, although all the rest of the time, he be more lither then a dormouse; and when he hath got this money, covetousness will not permit him, howbeit, to the [Page 37] debtor it prove destructive, to make any other use thereof, then by joyning it to the parent, which did procreate it, to beget thereon an incestuous brat of the same kinde, enixible at ano­ther term.

25. They will not be perswaded to forgo this fashion of living, because it is easie, although it be often told,Spes mali lucri initium est ja­cturae. that goods so acquired can never prosper; for that their gaine is grounded on the visible loss of another.

26. The Trades-man gets no imployment;Avaros Dioge­nes Hydropicis comparat; quia illi argento ple­ni: hi aqua re­ferti amplius desiderant, id (que) utrique in sui perniciem. for though he make some curious work fit for sale, the Merchant will not buy it, because his money beforehand is designed to beget interest a nor yet the Gentleman; because the monster of the Merchants interest hath devoured his land-rents: thus the Merchant is idle, the Gentleman begger'd, and the Artificer starved for want, and all by the gallant vertue of Usury, so much cryed up in Scot­land.

27. Fear of Piracy and Shipwrack, will not permit those men to adventure the launching forth in the depth: and uncer­tainty how the prizes may rule, deters them from the hazard of bargains by land; thus the Seas are not sailed, nor the ground half tilled, nor doth that parcel thereof which is laboured, for lack of apt materials wherewith to manure it,Fidelis terra, infidele mare, insatiabile lu­crum. yeeld half the increase, which otherwise it would; and yet they would be rich: whereby it is manifest, that their ignorance is great, their laziness far greater, but their covetousness and avarice is far the greatest of all.

28. Their chief felicity consists in wealth,Haec vera est causa ne cives quidquam ho­nestum, honum­ve curent: cum insatiabili auri & argenti cupi­ditate, honesta pariter & inho­nesta officia complectantur; & quicquid agunt, si [...]is fa [...] sive nefas, id habeatur, ut pecunias cumulent, quibus subministran­tibus, veluti pecora, ventri & veneri serviunt. Plat. 8. de Legibus. that wealth is mo­ney; which money, when they have obtained, they know not how to use it: yet rather then not have it, they will do what­ever is not good, although what is good they will not do, for the purchasing thereof: they will not labour for riches, by pro­secuting of industrious exercises; yet would prove treacherous for it; they will take no frugal course to attain to means, yet will they rob, pillage, filch, pilfer, and purloyn, ere they want mo­ney.

[Page 38]29. They will not with us Metallurgize it, or dig one fathom deep unto the ground, to search for a Mine, or Mineral, although the surface give apparent signes thereof (being like the Pro­stapheresicians of late times, who could not see the invention of Logarithms, which they had lying before their eyes) and yet their thoughts are so immersed in the earth, that the sublimest of them do seldome reach a fathom above it;Aurum omnes victa jam pic­tate colunt. nor would they for the most part reach that hight, but to derogate from their supe­riors, whom in duty they are bound to bear respect to, and to denude them in all they can of their rights, whereby the better to grasp at somewhat, for the fatning of themselves.

30. Another way they have no less detestable then this, whereupon they very ordinarily walk, to get themselves approved men of high spirit, and that is biviated into two paths, one whereof they tread in for oppressing of the poor, and men of mea­ner chevisance then themselves, and in the other for contemning the worth, valour, learning, or whatever else is most commenda­ble in him, whose means they aim at.

Cum illorum af­fluentia crescit simul inopia: in­sanus medio flumine quaerit aquas.31. Nay, they go so far on in this their sordid and abominable humour, that slighting all manner of learning, and inrichment of the minde, they account sciences and liberal arts but con­ceits, and toys, compared to money, which by these clusterfifts is held in so great estimation, that though they will chuse to be hanged, before they trouble themselves with taking any kinde of vertuous course,Divitem esse non est hone­stum, sect ex ho­nestis divitem esse. for the obtaining of it, they do nevertheless re­pute honesty it self to consist therein, and will commonly say, that such a one is honester then another, by so many hundred pounds a year.

32. Notwithstanding all these unworthy, and base endea­vours of theirs,Avarorum do­ctrina est tanti teipsum putato, quantum habu­eris. I have constantly observed them to remain still poor and needy; the reason whereof is, that their laziness and pusillanimity not permitting them to search for wealth, in the azure bosom of Thetis, or secessive regions of the earth, where the title primi occupantis would prove right sufficient enough for the possessor;Damnum potius quam turpe lu­crum cligendum they aim only at what belongeth to their neighbour, one or other.

33. Who possibly being of the same disposition of avarice [Page 39] towards them, if the tenaciousness of the one, interchangably encounter with the covetous humour of the other,Semper avarus eget, congest [...] pauper in auro, inter opes mendicus opum. with an equal number of degrees of intensive greed, darted and receiv­ed to and from each on either side: both parties, because of the parity of reaction, will remain in the same condition, as be­fore, without bettering or impairing their fortune.

34. But if there be any difference in the aforesaid qualities,Avarus dum colligit, colligi­tur: & dum vult esse praedo, fit praeda. betwixt the two contesters for each others means, he, in whom the degrees thereof are most remiss, will, (as by a Canni­bal) be devoured by the other; which other perhaps, being so served by a third, and he againe by another,Gula primo pa­renti abstulit paradisum, ava­ritia diviti ape­ruit infernum. there will fol­low a perpetual consecutive course of intergulping one ano­ther, till the devil, by snatching up the last in him, have quite swallowed them all, and so rid the world of those ignominious rakehels, by whom it had been so long impestred.

35. Such men (as is said already in the 27 Article of this same book) will not apply themselves to navigation, because it is ha­zardous; nor to trading by land because it is painful; nor yet to the ripping up of the bowels of the earth for wealth,Illi morbo qui permanet inve­nis, & inhaeret in visceribus, nec inveteratus evelli potest, no­men est avari­tia. because it is uncertain; and yet they would be rich, and have store of money; which to attain unto, they take this course for the most part, Such as have Land, make use of some ascriptitiary varlets, for the ma­nuring of it, who in their agricolary work, follow not the prescript rules of husbandry as they are most approvable by reason, but as they were most in use in the daies of their fore-Fathers; for whensoever the Land-Lords are desired, for improving of the Land, to do other wayes, their answer is, that they will not alter the fashion of their Grandfathers, who were honest men, and the times then were good.

36. Nevertheless, when the Wife or Children gape for new provisions, then it is that the peevish shifts are set abroach, of incroaching upon their neighbours pasture-ground or corn-land, by removing of the march-stones, or as aforesaid: or if they have a little money, they pack it up in a clout, then upon good secu [...]ity concredit it to some one or other, who after the expi­ring of a prefixed time mutually condescended on, shall be bound to restore the said clout-birth, with an additional increase; which when obtained by its coalescencie with the former heap, is produ­ced [Page 40] a new parent, with parturiencie for more store.

Pecunia non satiat avariti­am, sed irritat. Cui nihil est quod habet, ni­hil illum con­stat habere.37. This is called vertue, and hath been of all other the commonest way of thrift, since usury in Scotland hath been in any request; yet by the means thereof, the whole country is impo­verished, and no man rich: for those that, in the estimation of the vulgar, are accounted most wealthy, have nothing else but money, which not being wealth, but the measure of appreciating it, they can no more (to speak the truth of them) be reputed rich, then Straffords (my Lord Leiutenant of Ireland's) ape, which had a thousand pound sterling hid in a hole.

Avarus est tan­quam balneate­ris asinus, qui cum ligna sar­menta (que) depor­tel, tamen sem­per sumo ac fa­villis oppletus est: nec unquam fit particeps, ne­que balnei, ne­que teporis, nec munditici. Toto mundo e­get, cujus non capit mundus cupiditatem.38. I'll not deny, but that a vertuous man, with less money, would quickly become rich; because with it he would purchase those commodities, which are the true riches that fortune bestow­eth on us: but that mony maketh these men such, I utterly disavow it; for in their cloaths they are poor, in their attendance mean, their fare course, and in their houses so bare and naked, that unless it be the wife, or the daughter (and that peradventure not much worth neither) you shall not perceive a moveable that merits the looking on: and why? there is no Trades-man in the Country to make it, nor Merchant to bring it home; and though both these were (whom, as in the 26 Article of this same Book I said already, they banished from the Land) they have not the heart to buy it.

39. Whereby it is evident, that either the Usurer storeth up nought but money, or if he exchange it for ware, the chaffer that he buyeth with it, is that which in many civil Countries, to ap­preciate at the rate of any Coin, hath been accounted Sacriledge, to wit, the inheritance of Land, the proportion whereof with money is more irrational,Nonne morbus insaniae similis, ac miserandus videtur? siquis ob id non utatur veste, quod al­geat, ne (que) pane quod esuriat, neque divitiis quod divitiarum sit avidus. then that of the Diagonal to the side, or Diameter to the circumference.

40. The poor from the rich, of this kinde of men, differ but little in their meat, drink, cloathes, and lodging; and all these a Fox hath in and about his terrier: so that truely who purveyeth but what is meerly necessary for the life of man, may be said to have but the providence of a beast: Doth not the Pismire, and the Bee every whit as much and almost every fowl of the air?

41. To what end our Knowledge, if it make not all things [Page 41] vendible conduce to our behalf, and wealth suppeditative of whatever exceedeth not that extent: I would have cloth from the Draper, silks from the Mercer, lace from the Millener, hang­ings from the Upholster, trinkets from the Trigler, jewels from the Lapidary, books from the Stationer, marmalads from the Confectioner, course dulciaries from the Grocer, essences from the Perfumer, and any thing else either of Merchant or Artificer, belonging to that Macrocosme, whereof I am the little world.

42. Do those men I have been speaking of so,Peccarum ava­vitiae mentem, quod affecerit, ita gravem red­dit, ut ad appe­tenda sublimia tolli non possi [...]. I doubt if they understand the names of the trades I have related: nor are such professions to subsist by them, whose thoughts being fixed on money, as the Load-stone on the Pole-star, consider not of what is convenient either for their minde or body.

43. I have heard of one with us of the cattel aforesaid, worth a thousand pound sterling a year, who had no other book in his house, but the Bible,Pauperiorem se judi [...]at omnie abundans, quod sibi deesse arbi­ [...]ratur quicquid ab aliis posside­tur. and that onely to have a chapter in readi­ness after meat, when the Minister should come to see him: all the paper he had was full of of sneesing-powder, nor had he o­ther pen, but that wherewith he took it; so careful he was of ma­terials for the exercise of the mind.

44. As for the preservation of the health of the body, preventi­on of diseases, or remedies against them, they are so well versed in the terms of art concerning them, that the word Apotheca­ry may signifie somewhat to eat for any thing they know; Sur­geons and Physicians coming along like the Burgers of some Towns to their Land-meers but once in the five years.

45. Thus hath the Usurer in less then fourscore and ten years space that he hath domineered in the Land,Quae est avidi­tas concupiscen­tiae, cum & ipsae belluae habeant modum: inne enim rapiuut, quando usuri­unt; vero praedae, cum senserint satietatem; sed insatiabilis ost avaritia divitum. made some of us no less savage, and barbarous, then the wildest beast that is; and if he roam at such random, but for twenty years more, the Satyr, and the Centaure, will in their lower parts have more humanity then many of us shall in our brains.

46. For he resteth not in the destruction of the Merchant and Artificer, but likewise layeth his heavy hand upon the Scho­lar, who, by reason of not allowing him competencie of mainte­nance [Page 42] at the Schools; doth not (one amongst fourty bred amidst them, even when they have past their whole course of learning) know how to spell the English tongue aright.

47. By means of which gross imperfection, I now and then have sustained my self no smal prejudice, in the expence of time; for although I compose no Treatises (whether in prose or verse) without some considerable deliberation, yet for the most part, for couching them in a hand not very legible (for truly I am no good Scribe) and not being able to finde (neither in my owne fa­mily, nor within a great many miles about me, one skilful e­nough in vernacular Orthography) I have oftentimes been at a great deal of more paines, in enditing of them to the writers, and amending their errata's, then at first I was in the framing and writing of them both.

48. Nor is there any hope in haste of amending this fault; for the most of the parents of that Country, ever since the dayes of our Grandfathers, have by the triumphancie of Usury, had the inclinations of their mindes so mechanically protruded upon the contempt of Letters, that their children have with their very Mothers milk, imbued an aversness form learning, and all the Vtenda's conducible thereto, fearing they should hinder the ad­vancement of their private fortunes, according to the trivial say­ing, Vbi multum de intellectu, ibi parum de fortuna; whereof (to speak nothing of the manifold great discouragements which in the progress of Literature I have from my infancy had through the whole tract of my time, till this very present minute) the late course taken for sequestrating whatever belonged to me, gave no smal experiment.

49. For I have found at home, even in those that loved the better then they did any body else, and in the eyes of the world most entirely, a very heavy and deplorable omission, in taking a course (like Martha, who was onely busied about external things) for the preservation of corn, cattel, plate, with other goods and and utensils, whilst they were altogether neglective of securing what they themselves knew I preferred to all these moveables; as appeared even when they so slighted my Library, that not a book thereof escaped the touch of Dundasse's singers; [Page 43] although there were not three therein, which were not of mine owne purchase, and all of them together (in the order wherein I had ranked them) compiled (like to a compleat nose­gay) of flowers, which in my travels I had gathered out of the gardens of above sixteen several Kingdoms) by having their thoughts plunged, and totally immersed, in an extraordinary care for these things, which with little expence, and less labour, were obtainable about our owne doors: all which books (had not that worthy and most consciencious Gentleman Col. Tho. Fitch (to whom I was then unknown) contremanded the seque­strators purpose of sending them to Leith in a Ship, then ready to launch forth from Cromarty) had assuredly been thrown in­to the bottom of the sea (for the Vessel whithin two days thereafter, was taken by the Hollander) or tossed amongst the Flemish Sationers in their Shops at Amsterdam, never any more to be thumb'd in this Isle.

50. But Providence (which doth not always go along in its dispensation of events according to the expectation of the fore­casters) permitted not what they would have most concealed, to slip out of the reach of Dundasses hands; unwilling (as it were) for their preposterous election, that any thing should be saved, though the loss of both was mine; with this difference nevertheless, that upon giving of Bonds and good security, they were repossess'd with the other moveables; but as for my Books, although I obtained an Order from the Commissioners for the Sequestration at Leith to Captain Dundass, requiring him to let me have the refusal of them, yet he not pleasing to come to Cromartie, where they were fast looked into Trunks, whereof himself had the keys, I was not able, for all the favour I could make till this hour, to obtain either the getting or buying of any of them, save a few of those which under pretext of the Seque­strators having medled with them, being stollen, and afterwards dispersed thorow the Country, were through good intelligence by me happily recovered.

51. The little care had of my Papers and Books, by those to whom they were intrusted, being a branch springing from the epidemical tree of Ignorance, which, together with Hypocrisie, [Page 44] Usury, Oppression, and Iniquity, took root in these parts, when Uprightness, Plain-dealing, and Charity, with Astraea, took their flight with Queen Mary of Scotland into England, where, not without the incitement of those her subjects who f [...]om her own Dominions had expelled her, she lost her life: since which time, what devastation hath by Usury been made amongst the most ancient families of that Country,Avari omnem ordinem tur­bant, est (que) ava­ritia arx omni­um malorum. he that runs may read it upon all the prime Castles of the Land.

52. The Usurer thus (as is obvious to the eyes of any) being the chiefest occasion of the ignorance of Scotland, and of a huge deal of wickedness besides, as in my own particular may be instanced: for as of any knowledge that (by the favour of God) is in me, he would rob the whole world; so goeth he a­bout to despoil me of all my means and inheritance against all reason; therefore could I say no less: but who would have more, I remit him to my Aporrectical intervals, in the Menip­paean Satyrs, whereof he may see five hundred times as much, when the Order obtained for recovering those my Manuscripts which Dundass the Sequestrator medled with at Cromartie, shall prove more effectual.

53. What I have spoke of this sort of untoward men, is in some measure to incite the State, to whom in all humility I make my address, to consider of the many wrongs I have most unjust­ly sustained by them; for reparation whereof, I heartily desire my inheritance may be made free unto me, and the priviledges of my ancient House kept entire, after the above-written propo­sed way; which engaging me to the exposing of some move­ables in exchange, of a sufficient stamp, and currant pass, I must acknowledge my self obliged (in the strictest manner can be con­ceived) towards the discharge of that duty.

54. However, instead of too hastie publishing my intent therein, which for some reasons mentioned in the four and fiftieth of the second Book, and other Articles to that sense, is most ex­pedient for the time to forbear; I humbly propose to take this course, for the satisfaction of the Publike, That in case I per­form not, at a competent time to be prefixed for the purpose, whatever I have promised, I shall be willing to forfeit both life [Page 45] and lands; the later whereof will, even in the estimation of those craving men, double the worth of all the money that they can, with any kinde of pretext of reason, demand from me. This is adhibere cautionem Mutianam, and to prescribe the readiest way how to avoid deluding.

55. Onely thus far, I would have the judges of my offer to be learned and judicious men,Vide Book 2: Art. 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 46, 47, 48, 49, 52. and not such as will prefer a fishes eye to a Diamant, a Bable to a Scepter, and Tilling, Harrowing, Sowing, Reaping, Mowing, Planting, and feeding of the flocks and cattel, to all the seven Liberal Arts; their Encyclopedia being Agriculture: for men of that nature, being meerly led by the Sense, will never discern of things aright.

56. It was by such amongst the Turks, that Famagusta in the Isle of Cyprus (none of them at that time carrying any re­spect to the inward worth of a Christian) that the Earl of Pa­phos (though the compleatest Courtier, and gallantest man of that Age) was made to carry on his shoulders a packet full of mortar, for the repairing of a breach.

57. A horse fit for the wars, is oftentimes, by the indiscretion of his master, appointed to go round in a Mill, and perhaps esteemed less worth then a blinde Jade, that in the discharge of that circumambulatory office shall be found to surpass him.

58. A Country-hoydon, in carrying loads, will excel a Gen­tleman of fashion: and I have known a young handsom wo­man prefer a man for building of a Peat-stack in a comely pro­portion, to be her husband, before a Gentleman, who, for his valour, very shortly after, became a Colonel of both Horse and Foot.

59. Silly mindes have abject thoughts; and though Eagles catch not Flyes, Cameleons do. With such therefore whose spi­rits soar not a Grashoppers leap above the ground, we are not to meddle, lest, as Midas twixt Pan and Apollo, and the Ass between the Cuckow and the Nightingale, they pronounce an erroneous sentence, to the disgrace of themselves, and oppro­brie of Learning.

60. It is onely the generous spirit indued with knowledge, to whose judicious arbitrement I do heartily submit my self, and all [Page 46] my endeavours; because such a one will not deny, but that a private Gentleman may enter in paction with the potentest State that is, for matters touching the furtherance of the good fame thereof: That though (as Protestants avouch) in our service towards Almighty God we merit nothing, yet if in the perform­ance of good offices to the Publike, we transcend the bounds of the ordinary duty of a subject, we may justly be said to super­erogate at the hands of any Soveraign Authority in the world: And that Learning, even in time of war, is to be held in estima­tion; for that he who is the God of glory and peace, is likewise the Lord of hosts.

61. Nor is there any doubt, but that he will acknowledge the profound Literature of a Native, to bring great reputation to his Country, That such a reputation is there far more worth then riches, and consequently riches to be amply disposed on for the promoval of that Learning, whether it be by dona­tives and largesses, positively to give encouragements to him that is so qualified; or by a negative assistance, to remove (whatever it cost) the obstructions of those, whether Creditors or others, that meschantly stand in the gap, to hinder the progress of the effects thereof.

62. He will also avouch, that in all well-policed Commonweals there are remedies appointed for helping of the debtor (much more the Aquopet) who is in case to do his Country service,The Aquopet is he from whom debts are sought, al­though he owe them not. as well as (if not rather then) the creditor, that doth nought but for his own ends, without regard of the Publike: and likewise, that such Creditors as are but Flagitators, craving money from those to whom they never lent any, should (will they, nill they) be enforced to confer courtesies (in abating of their sums) upon them that never were their debtors,Qui sint aliena, volunt adsicere. but onely enthralled to them for the debts of others.

63. Nor will such a gallant man fail to assever, but that it is more honourable for Britain, Hi saepius victi sua spe fru­stramur. that my Family, which hath stood therein for the space of ninety and four generations, be establish­ed for my doing unto that my foresaid Country service, then per­mitted, through the rigour of a dangerous Law, by the covet­ousness of those, whose money neither I nor any of my progeni­tors [Page 47] ever saw, to be ruined and overthrown,De male partis non gaubebit tertius haeres. for setting up of I know not what, which shall not, nor ever yet hath been seen, in the like occasion, to stand till the third heir, or a full age: and that the fall of an ancient House, which mutilates the Country,Neque enim di­vitiae injustae nunquam con­stantes sun [...]. is more deplorable, then the defalking of some interests, which doth but, as it were, shave off the hair of some greedy wretch.

64. I am also confident, that in the opinion of such a man, antiquity of Race (cateris paribus) is to be preferred; and that to rescind private covetousness for a publike good, is to do no wrong at all.

65. The verity of all these things being asserted, (as in rea­son it ought) I offer to the Publike to make good my Parole, provided they liberate my estate from the bondage of the Flagi­tutor.

66. By dis-inthralling me thus from the slavery of the im­portunate Riposcones, I accomplishing my part,Vorac [...]ores pun­pura & dolia inexplebilia. the Publike will gain the reputation of re-establishing into its pristine integrity a family of great antiquity, of furthering the course of Learning and good Letters, of relieving the innocent from unjust oppressions; and to do this, will obtain the unanimous consent and approba­tion of all the Souldiers, Gentlemen, Commons, and People of either sex, within the whole Land, the Flagitators onely except­ed.

67. For which cause, seeing I am drawing to a closure, if any happen to imagine, this my suit to be the more unobtainable; that the preparative thereof, may endanger the disquieting of the State with showers of Petitions, to have publick charges allo­cated for the payment of private debts;

68. My answer is, that my case in this particular, being quite different from that of any other within the dominion of Scot­land, whether regard be had to me, to my Fathers creditors, or the land in debate betwixt us there is none who by vertue of a­ny favour by me demanded from the supream power of the Land, can for his interest in the like suit, pretend a right to the same courtesie to be performed on his behalf.

69. For if we consider the Land which I claim title to, as the undoubted inheritance of my predecessors, it is a land which [Page 48] never was bought nor sold, nor otherways derived to my proge­nitors from any Soveraign power, then by bare confirmations of their former rights; (the like whereof cannot with truth be avouched of any Land in the Isle of Britain) and therefore the more heedfully to be preserved from being a prey to the un­clean Harpyes of Usury.

70. If again I be looked upon as one who for any personal courtesie done to my self, was never obliged to any one of them who call themselves Creditors: how I have obliged every one of them by having given to each a hundred times more then ever I had received from them all together: how withal I am willing to renounce my right to any thing that ever was acquired by my father: and how lastly I am content not onely to pass by the lay­ing of any title to those many several lands of my progenitors within the Shires of Cromartie and Aberdeen, which in his own time he heritably disponed away and abalienated; but also to discharge them of the vast sums of money many of them un­mercifully pilled out of my rents ever since my fathers decease; I am certainly perswaded no compatriot of mine by such reasons will pretend to the like; or if it happen he should, (which I be­lieve he cannot) that offer which I make to the Publike, beyond the reach of common imitation, will quell the ambition of that suit, the obtaining whereof totally dependeth upon examples he is not able I suppose to follow.

71. To these I furthermore adjoyn this other circumstance, That in all the Isle of Britain there shall not be found a crew of such rigorous and merciless Creditors, (William Robertson one­ly excepted) who without respect to any thing else then their own meer enrichment, care not what misery their debtor and his po­sterity be brought into by their procurement; which procedure (considering how of eight or nine times I was surety for Coun­try-men of mine, I was always forced to pay the debt; how like­wise, of a hundred times at least, that money by others of them had been borrowed from me, I would ever have been well pleased to forgo all interests for the bare sum which I lent; and how ne­vertheless I do not plead immunity or exemption from any debt due by my self, my condition (I thank God for it) being such, [...] [Page 49] with all manner of people I have had to deal with, of what Country soever, that upon three hours warning I shall pay all I owe in the world, and to the utmost farthing give satsfaction to all those that properly can be called my creditors) may very well be thought to furnish ground sufficient for what I have deduced, by way of grievance against the aforesaid flagitators.

72. Wherefore I likewise answer, if ever there fall forth a contingencie of the like occasion, in all its specialties and circum­stances, the lack of any one whereof will undoubtedly alter the case; that is to say, if (besides what I have already said) a good deal of contiguous rent (priviledged with the title of a Shire within it self, and worthily possessed for the space of two thou­sand thirty and nine years, by threscore and twelve several gene­rations of heritable Sheriffs, and sole owners of the whole Shire, descended (for the most part) of one another in a direct conse­cutive, and uninterrupted line from father to son, accordingly served and retoured heirs to their immediately-foregoing pre­decessors in the same family) happen to undergo the lamentable disaster of being legally threatned to be taken away by credi­tors, for vast sums of money, from the righteous heir, who ne­ver was bound, nor any of his ancestors (save his father alone) to them, or any of theirs in so much as the value of one bare groat, and himself nevertheless able, out of the nimble reach and per­spicacity of his wit, to afford stuff equivalent to both land and money joyned in one.

73. If ever, I say it chance, that all these prenotated restricti­ons, and limited designations, occur in any Country-man of mine (which I trust will first cost the revolution of the great Pla­tonick year) the State should have my advice,Vide art. 42, 44, 53, 54, 59, &c. of the se­cond book and others, for vin­dicating the Author from Philosisme. were there twen­ty of them, to instal them (other means failing) upon the pub­lick charge, in the place of their fore-Fathers, with all emolu­ments and profits thereupon depending; that like so many radi­ant stars in one constellation, they might dart an influence pro­pitious to the furtherance of the glory of this Island.

74. And in truth (for my owne part) before that in the per­son of such a one, should be seen the overthrow of the house of his progenitors, I would allow him the adminiculary suc­cour [Page 50] of half my meanes, when at best, for his aid of support, and think in so doing to gaine by the bargain; being certaine (besides that it is a deed of vertue, whose recompence, for being held by all moralists to be in the action it self, makes the very do­ing thereof to pass for a sufficient reward) that for a gratuity of that importance, so seasonably administred, from a spark of such a nature, would never be wanting a most thankful acquital to the utmost of his power.

75. After which manner, without striving for examples, the publick may be throughly and fully assured of me, and of the in­fallibility of my grateful return, which shall be alwaies ready; for that my inclination leadeth me, not to receive any thing in that kind, unless it be as willingly crogated, as it shall be accept­ed of.

76. Therefore to conclude, seeing there is not any Scotish man breathing, who is not as much, if not rather more behold­ing to me, then I am to him; and that my humour serves me rather to apply my self to the good of many in general, then to be wedded to any particular interest: I humbly desire, for that neither my self, nor any of my predecessors, have at any time been subject to any other then the supream Authority, that by the sa­cred influence therof, I may be freed from the bondage of the sup­posed creditor, whose discretion being as the broken rod of Egypt to repose upon, let me adjure the publick, by all their sacred, and most endeared tyes to patriotisme, antiquity, honour, vertue, learning, and what else may be reputed most laudable in the be­half of one totally addicted to their command, seriously to con­sider of the premisses, to homologate what I demand vouchsafe the pratrociny of my offer, and Mecenatize the request of him, who in rearing up monuments of his engagement to them for so splendid a favour, and for memory thereof, erecting trophies of thankfulness to their fame, shall withall research all other oc­casions, wherein he may most deservingly approve himself their eternally-devoted servant,

Thomas Vrquhart.

The Epilogue.

THat I (whilst a prisoner) was able to digest and write this Treatise, is an effect meerly proceeding from the courtesie of my Lord General Crom­wel, by whose recommendation to the Councel of State, my Parole being taken for my true imprisonment, I was by their fa­vour enlarged to the extent of the Lines of Londons Communication: for, had I con­tinued as before, coopt up within Walls, or yet been attended still by a Guard, as for a while I was, should the house of my confine­ment have never been so pleasant, or my Keepers a very Paragon of discretion, and that the conversation of the best Wits in the world, with affluence of all manner of Books, should have been allowed me for the diversion of my minde; yet such an antipathie I have to any kinde of restraint, [Page] wherein my self is not intrusted, that not­withstanding all these advantages, which to some spirits would make a Jay I seem more delicious then Freedom without them, it could not in that eclipse of Liberty lie in my power to frame my self to the couching of one sillable, or contriving of a Fancie worthy the labour of putting Pen to Paper, no more then a Nightingale can warble it in a Cage, or Linet in a Dungeon.

Here must I not forget the obligation I owe to that most generous Gentleman Captain Gladmon, for speaking in my fa­vour to my Lord General; which gallan­try in him (upon so small acquaintance) shall assuredly be remembred by me, with a stedfast resolution to embrace all the op­portunities wherewith Fortune shall pre­sent me, for performance of the best offices I can, in testimony of my thankfulness.

The kindly usage of the Marshal-Gene­ral Captain Alsop, whilst I was in his custo­dy, I am bound in duty so to acknowledge, that I may without dissimulation avouch, for courtesies conferred on such as were [Page] within the Verge of his authority, and fide­lity to those by whom he was intrusted with their tuition in that restraint, That never any could by his faithfulness to the one, and loving carriage to the other, bespeak himself more a Gentleman, nor, in the dis­charge of that Military place, acquit him­self with a more universally-deserved ap­plause and commendation.

The enumeration of these aforesaid courtesies, will not permit me to forget my thankfulness to that Reverend Preach­er Mr. Roger Williams of Providence in New-England, for the manifold favours wherein I stood obliged to him above a whole mont, before either of us had so much as seen other, and that by his fre­quent and earnest sollicitation in my be­half, of the most especial Members both of the Parliament and Councel of State; in doing whereof, he appeared so truely gene­rous, that when it was told him how I, ha­ving got notice of his so undeserved respect towards me, was desirous to embrace some sudden opportunity whereby to testifie the [Page] affection I did owe him, he purposely de­layed the occasion of meeting with me, till he had (as he said) performed some accept­able office worthy of my acquaintance: in all which (both before and after we had conversed with one another) and by those many worthy Books set forth by him, to the advancement of piety and good order (with some whereof, he was pleased to present me) he did approve himself a man of such discretion and inimitably-sanctified parts, that an Arch-Angel from heaven could not have shewn more goodness with less often­tation.

To the Reader.

Sweet and judicious Reader,

ALthough you have been detained all along this little Tractate, upon the particulars of a private family, and that the Author, as the first sight, doth thereby seem to mind rather his owne profit, then your instruction: yet so much confidence is reposed in your ingenuity, that it is credibly thought, you will not expect great apologies from him, whose best endeavours, you know already, have been much devoted to your service; especially for that your in­terest in the future establishment of his fortune (all things being well considered) appeareth every whit as great as his owne: for albeit in the eyes of the vulgar, most of the be­nefit of an estate seemeth to accrue to him that enjoyeth it; yet if the fruition thereof in his person, be but a mean to a further end, communicable by many thousands, unto each of whom is of it exposed as plenary a possession as to himself, his share must needs, by that account, in regard of theirs of so great a number, be but very little: herein therefore is it evident, that the Reader in the Authors settlement is as much concerned as himself; for who desireth any thing, is also desirous of the means whereby it is to be attained unto. Thus there being no possibility of the Authors publication of excellent Treatises, unless he be reseated in the estate of his predecessors, the Reader, of whatever con­dition, with whom literature is in any estimation, should [Page] concur with, assist, and help him forwards to the prosecu­ting of those his just demands, if not for any love to the Author, yet his owne sake at least, and that for the know­ledge which thereby may redound to himself, which (to va­lue things aright) must needs be of more importance, then any interest the Author can have in the means of his pro­genitors; for what can the Author and his posterity suf­fer of damage by the want of his estate, comparable to the prejudice sustainable by the many Readers and their suc­cessors, through lack of his writings? unless one would think that the goods of Fortune are more highly to be pri­zed then those of the Minde; the contrary whereof hath been very clearly evidenced, in many several passages of the fore-going Tractate.

Vade Liber, totumque refer mea damna per orbem,
Hostibus affigens stigmata nigra meis:
Contingatque mihi Siculi fortuna Poetae,
Cui fatale metrum non minus ense fuit;
Nec posthac demptum dices mihi creditor ensem,
Si calamo possem te jugulare meo.

SEeing the end of this fore-going Tractate is to perswade the State, out of their wisdom, to conde­scend to the just demands of the Author; there can no number like that of Two and thirty, which by the Rabbies of old was ascribed to wisdom, and by Pytha­goras to justice, be pitched upon, so apposite for terminating the sum of these subsequent Proquirita­tions, according to the tenour of this Algebraical Hexastick.

Of Postulata's a sursolid, whose
Content doth twice that Square of Squares enclose,
Which is the double of the Cube of two,
Is here display'd, for th' Author's sake, to shew
How that Square dealing will him best become,
Whereby he gets his owne in solidum.


THat he, whose good name is like to be eternized in the grave, should not in his life-time be neglected by the State of an immortal fame, is the hope of

A. S.


That to the overthrow of Equity in the person of the Author, the State suffer not any Law of theirs to become the executioner of the spleen and covetousness of his implacable adversaries, is the humble desire of

B. H.


That they who look meerly to the present time, without any regard of the future, be not permitted by the State to deprive [Page] him of his means, who, for the weal of after-ages, spends his time most vertuously, is the desire of

D. I.


That outlandish Nations, with whom the Author hath much acquaintance, may, for the States favour to him, when they shall restore him to his own, after the above-written manner, offer up a most cordial sacrifice to their Authority, is the humble desire of

Ai. Bs.


That seeing the most of Scotland is subdued, those that had long before that enslaved themselves to the most abominable vice of oppressing others, be not permitted by the Conqueror to med­dle with the estate of him that never injured any, is the earnest suit of

E. G.


Seeing the Authors Treatises are conducible to posterity, for the weal whereof the now-established Authority hath undergone so many difficulties, that for its respect to them, and hopes of their retribution of praises, he may be better rewarded, then if he were a present-time-server, without consideration of the future, is the desire of

Ei. Z.


Seeing from the creation of the world, it hath pleased the Au­thor to deduce his extraction, without baulking since the dayes of Adam, so much as one of his progenitors on the paternal side, That the State vouchsafe to put him in a consistence of protracting his posterity through as many hereditary successors in a lineal descent, according to the contents of the preceding Tractate, is the desire of

K. F.


Seeing the most innocent of the Scotish Nation is no more blameless, then he, that his sequestration should be taken off and [Page] a considerable acknowledgement allowed him, for the great loss he sustained by the rigour of the subsequestrator, is the desire of

V. Fs.


Seeing the Author hath been still faithful to his trust, never culpable of Parole-breaking, but always true in every word and action, That the generosity of the State will not suffer him to be exposed to the inhumane dealing of those Country-men of his, who for their owne ends, make no bones of being guilty of greater breaches, is the desire of

Wh. Y.


Seeing he is born to the profit of a few, who thinketh onely on the people of his age, and to that of fewer, whose thoughts exceed not the reach of his own proper interest, That the illustri­ous State shall consider of the difference betwixt the Authors competitors of dark and narrow projects, and his owne splen­did and ample endeavours, comprehensive by appearance of the whole latitude of time, is the humble desire of

X. Ya.


The Authors family being of the greatest antiquity in Scot­land, and by an especial providence till this time preserved from that utter subversion intended by the iniquity of his covetous and dissembled enemies, should in my opinion obtain a larger measure of protection from the State, then any other race in that land, and himself favoured with the grant of all that in this foregoing Treatise is demanded by him, (which that it be so) is the humble desire of

Gh. Eu.


That the shire of Cromarty, which ever from the beginning hath been the receptacle of the most harmless inhabitants, be not bestowed on any other then the Author, whose predecessors, for uprightness and integrity of carriage, had not their equals in that Nation, is the desire of

Yo. Bu.


That the noblest State in the world, will not now permit that to be exposed to sale, which never hitherto was made vendible in any preceding age, and that the Lands and shire of Cro­marty, (which by none that ever breathed were either bought or sold) should by a grant from the State, be in the heritable possession of the Author, as nearest in line to the aboriginary owner, is the earnest desire of

T. Wi.


That the Author being but as a clear spark, from whence gleameth the most of the pure light that is to be seen of any learned invention in that Country of Scotland, it be not quench­ed and quite extinguished, by the foul and black water of an usurious puddle drunk up there, by the natives almost of all sorts, is the humble request of

Bu. Ts.


The Authors education having been more abroad then at home, whereof England may duely claim no small share; that by the State of that Nation, he should be singled out to suffer more then the disaffecters of both their rule and country-men, is not the expectation of

Wo. Kn.


That the Authors unwillingness to acknowledg an Ecclesiasti­cal soveraigntie above the supream established Civil authority, be not a motive to deal more rigorously with him, then with any of those other his compatriots, that turn tail to every government, without affection to any, is the desire of

V. Ye.


There being scarce any other Gentleman in Scotland, who to the press so freely adventureth his name as himself, that the Author's thus favouring this Isle with elucubrations beyond the reach of most of his compatriots, may not for his service to the publick by the attolerance of the State suffer any detriment by his owne country-men in his private fortune, is the desire of

Q. O.


That the reasons deduced by the Author in the above-writ­ten Treatise, why he should not be made lyable to any other debt then that of his own contracting may be so relished by the supream authority of the Land, as that thereby he may be ex­onered of any other burthen, is the humble desire of

C. W.


Their being none in Scotland less covetous then he, nor more averse from the excessive love of money, that it may please the State so to protect him, as that he be not made a prey to the most avaritious men of any, and such as respect Silver and Gold beyond whatever else is most precious in the world, is the hum­ble desire of

L. Ch.


Seeing the Authors unwillingness to pin his faith implicitely to the sleeve of the Ministry, would at Sterling have debarred him (although otherwaies he had been willing) from being admitted to any charge in the Scotish army against the English; and that therefore his going to Worcester would by all appearance seem rather to have proceeded from his desire to shun old adversaries at home, then to acquire new ones abroad, that he should be looked upon with a more amicable eye from the State, is the humble opinion of

M. Gs.


That the exemplary civility of the Author, for being apt to have influence on the mindes of the rudest of his kinred and neighbours, even unto the remotest hills of Scotland, may per­swade the State, whose endeavour it is to bring them into as neer a conformity as may be, in Manners and Language with the na­tives of England, to settle him, without incumbrance, in the in­heritance of his predecessors, is the desire of

Du. Th.


Seeing the States adversaries had kept some three yeers ago a Garison in the Authors house for twelve months together, and [Page] that for these many yeers past, by several exactions, tolerated plunderings, and other such-like unmerciful dealings, without any just occasion given, his rents have been made almost totally unserviceable, that he may now, for his greater peace in the fu­ture, be exonered of the English Garison that is in his house; and after its removal, have himself fully setled in his own, with all manner of ease and tranquillity, is the humble desire of

N. Wa.


Seeing the grant of what is demanded in this Treatise, can no ways introduce a preparative of any dangerous consequence, as hath been evidently shewn in the above-written Introduction, That the State may be pleased, without any suspicion of being troubled upon the like grounds by any other of his Compatriots, condescend to his desires therein, is the hearty wish of

P. Oi.


That sublime. Natural and Moral Philosophy, Mathematicks, Poesie, and many other kindes of good Literature, should not be any longer supprest by the injustice of devouring and insatiable seekers ignorant of every thing that is not lucrative for the bag, is the desire of

Au. Ps.


Seeing many in Scotland live at ease who enjoy more of their neighbours unlawfully-acquired goods then formerly was their own. That the Author who never yet could for the importunity of waspish seekers, and terrour of a rigorous Law, most often in the mouthes of partial men, get applied, in the most fertile yeer that was, for his own use the tenth part of his rent, should now by the magnificence of the State, reap the fruits of his own▪ without the hazard of such terrible soakers, is the earnest desire of

Gu. Dn.


As the overthrow of Vice should be the establishment of Ver­tue, That the conquest of his opposers reseat the Author in his own inheritance, and that the State of England do it, which pro­fesseth [Page] the subdument of irregular spirits, is both the expectation and desire of

Tm. Ou.


Seeing the Authors designe hath been these many yeers the same, in matter of furthering Manufacture, Commerce, with all manner of Trading and Negotiation with the most industrious of the English now inhabiting Scotland That the State will not, in favour of those that have obstructed the performance of so worthy enterprises, denude him of his just inheritance, is the de­sire of

Yi. Pn.


As love to the English Nation more then to their money, de­serveth from that Government the larger influence of grace; so, that the Authors affection to the equitable Customs, & innate Ci­vility of that Nation, being of a more generous temper then that of others, who laboured their introduction for pecunial inte­rests, may be regarded with an eye of greater favour, is the hum­ble desire of

Gn. We.


Seeing there are many heritors in Scotland, who though for being actually in charge against the English, as pretended op­posers of Presbytery, they did either inrich themselves, or by their levies and quarterings received great profits to the no small damage of the Country, do nevertheless enjoy their means at this time (whose good fortune notwithstanding thereby, I wish no man to envie) with as much tranquillity as before; That the Author, who never yet had any benefit to the prejudice of an­other, be placed rather in a better then worse condition then any of those, is the desire of

Tu. I.


That the vexation uncessantly for these ten yeers past sustained by the Author, from men of unsatisfiable appetites, in matter of worldly means, may not, as formerly, to the great hinderance of [Page] divulging learned Treatises, be any longer an impediment unto him, is the earnest desire of

R. Yu.


That a plenary grant of the Authors demands, after the man­ner above specified in the Tractate of his Introduction, will prove a great encouragement to good spirits, in the prosecuting of ver­tuous endeavours, is the opinion of

Wu. Fn.


That this is the unanimous desire of all the good persons of either sex, with whom, of any Nation, in whatever Country, whether at home or abroad, the Author hath been formerly ac­quainted, is testified by

Tu. Vs.
Parva peto: debens minus: & plus spondeo: at istis
Plura dabit genio spero Camaena meo.
Englished thus.
Little I ask: I owe less on the score:
I promise much; yet hope to perform more.

THough in this almost extemporary Treatise, composed amidst most of the disturbances that are incident to one totally destitute of encou­ragements from without, for undertaking enter­prises of the like nature; and, by the Author him­self, in scribled sheets and half sheets, before the Ink oftentimes was well dry, given out to two se­veral Printers, one alone not being fully able to hold his quill a going: there should have occurred ma­nyer escapes of the Press then there are pages in the Book (considering how the animadversion of the Revises, was altogether recommended to the Compositors at the Case, who were, through the odness of the Hand wherein the cop [...]e was writ­ten, very frequently apt to mistake the sense of both single words, and full members of periods) it needeth not to be thought strange. May the Reader therefore be pleased to excuse all, and with his pen to correct these ensuing Errata, as it is here­after shewn how they should be amended.

1Tit. pag.15CredereCedere.
1183quintessincedwere quint­essinced.
11123five & twentysix & twenty
2355v [...]ry similitu­dina [...]yveri similitu­dinary.
239marg.vo [...]atavocare tua.
2441for shunningthat for shun­ning.
27013nimirum est unum.nimirum u­num est.
3378in himin him whom I had intrusted with my affairs
344.marg.ditare doliturusditari. doleturus.
4824fire, fortune, and the ex­tremest painsfire, and the extremest pains fortune could inflict upon them.
4915ExscibalauronExskybalauron or Exskybalo­chrysos
4p. 80.7hoc scitenamque ira
512marg.Vid. Art. 28.Vid. Art. 63
5137Baronry of Fi­sherieBaronries of Bray and Fi­sherie.
687confusion and hypocrisie;confusion; and hypocrisie.

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