Opened and Explained, By T. TAYLOR D. D.

Very usefull for the better understanding the whole Scripture.

And beginning at Moses and all the Prophets, he expounded unto them in all the Scriptures, the things concerning himself,

Luke 24. 27.

LONDON, Printed for John Williams, at the Crown in St. Pauls Church-yard, 1653.

TO THE RIGHT WORSHIPFUL, Sir MILES FLEETWOOD Knight, Receiver Generall of his Majesties Court of Wards and Liveries: All welfare in Christ Jesus.

Noble Sir:

IT is a truth able to endure the most fiery times and trials, None but Christ, J. Lam­bert Mar­tyr. Epist. ad Romanos. none but Christ. Ignatius expresseth as much, drawing near to his Martyrdome, Let come upon me fire, crosse, meetings of wilde beasts, cut­tings, tearings, breaking of bones, rendings of members, dissolutions of the whole body, and all torments of the de­vill, [...], onely that I may gain Ie­sus Christ. Thus he intreated the Romans not to intercede for him, and hinder his suffering for the Gospel. And thus the servants of God in these last times, when Romanists have thrust them into flames and other calamities,

Christ is all, and in all, said the Apostle, Col. 3. 11.

Look to the Church: he supplies all defects 1. of his people, heales all their infirmities, puts on all comfortable relations, and procures all [Page] saving benefits; In the golden chain of our salvation, which reacheth from eternity to e­ternity, we shall observe, that Christ is the owke or closure that tyeth every linke toge­ther: as in these lines.

He is the foundation of our Election, Ephes. 1. 4. He is the price of our Redemption, 1 Pet. 1. 18. 19. He is the cause efficient of our regeneration, Eph 2. 10. He is the author of our justification, Jer. 33. 16. He is the beginner and perfecter of our sanctification, Heb. 12. 2. John 15. 4, 5. He is the matter of our consolation, spiritual and temporal, c. 16. 37. Rom. 5. 1. He is the sweetner and sanctifier of all our trou­bles, Rom. 8. 37, &c. He is the assurance and pledge of our resurrection, 1 Cor. 15. 20. He is the procurer and producer of our glorification, John 17. 22. Rev. 21. 23. All of them good grounds of comfort, and set forth the happinesse of Gods people. All of them disgrace merit, and the worthi­nesse of the creatures, Men and Angels. All of them magnifie Gods love and wisdome, call unto thankfulnesse, and would make us con­tent with little. All invite labour, to make sure of a portion in Christ, without whom all is as nothing. And finally, all command those that are in Christ, to be all unto him, doe all for him, give all, suffer all, speak, live, die, rejoyce [Page] in all through him, and with him expect all in his heavenly kingdome.

Look to the Word, wherein all these things 2. are revealed: Christ is evidently the matter and sum of the Gospel: and the Apostle af­firmes the like concerning the Law, Christ is the end of the Law for righteousnesse to every one that Rom. 10. 4. believeth. First, by similitude, saith Austin: when a man is come to the end of a way, he can goe no farther: so when a Christian is come to Christ, he hath no farther excellencie to seek or goe unto: in Christ there is enough and enough to reconcile him to God, and bring him to heaven. Secondly, for perfection, saith Cont. Jul. 9. Cyril, when a thing is finished, it is said to come to an end, as namely, in weaving a garment: so Christ hath finished, perfected, and fulfilled the Law: he came not to destroy, but establish it: so that in him we have a perfect righte­ousnesse to present God withall, even as the Law required, Gal. 2. 16. 21. Thirdly, he is finis intentionis: the Law bids us look to Christ, in whom onely we can live: both the Moral Law, in the holy precepts of it, impossible in this our weaknesse; therefore have recourse to Christ, Rom. 8. 3, 4. together with the curses and threats of it, whereby it is a sharp Schoole­master [Page] leading to Christ, Gal. 3. 24. As also the Ceremonial Law, all whose shadows figure out Christ and his benefits, Heb. 10. 1. Now is Christ come (saith Tertullian) who is the end of the Law, o­pening De cibis Jud. c. 5. all the dark matters of it, anciently covered un­der the mists of Types and Sacraments: An excellent Master, an heavenly Teacher, a setler of truth to the uttermost. Austin calls Moses his Ceremonies, Cont. Faust. prenunciative or foretelling Observations: and saith, We are not now constrained to observe things used in the Advers. Jud. Prophets time, Non quia illa damnata, sed quia in melius mutata sunt; not for any evill in them, but because they are changed for the better.

What they foretold, and how they are chan­ged for the better, this Treatise in part disco­vereth, and I purpose not now to discourse. These glorious times of the Gospel shew evi­dently, how much the truth excelleth the sha­dow: the vertue common to the antient be­lievers, as well as unto us: Christ Iesus yesterday, and to day, and the same for ever: but as the mani­festation Heb. 13. 8 is more clear, so the grace is more plentiful and comfortable. The same Testator made both Testaments, and these differ not really, but accidentally; the Old infolding the New with some darknesse, and the New unfolding the Old with joyous perspicuity.

[Page] This glorious dispensation of grace, as it stands by the good pleasure of God, so also by his manifold wisdome, who in severall ap­proaches of his mercy and goodnesse drawes still nearer to his Church, and yet reserves the greatest for his Kingdome of glory. Even now, in this marvellous light of the Gospel, we have our divine Ceremonies and Sacra­ments, see him afar off, know but in part, dark­ly as in a glasse, and receive our best content­ment by the acts of faith, while the Word and Spirit make us know the things freely given us of God in Christ Jesus. But time shall be, when (to say nothing of the estate of the Church after the ruine of Antichrist, and cal­ling of the Jewes) we shall in heaven see him whom we believed face to face, clearly, per­fectly, immediately, without Sacraments or Types, in the fullest vision, nearest union, and absolutest fruition. Never till then shall we comprehend wholly what is the marrow of that text, I am the Way, the Truth, and the Life. John 14. 6.

To your Worship I commend this Treatise of that illuminate Doctor, excellent sometime in following and opening an Allegory, and now more excellent in enjoying the Truth it self: of whom, while here a Preacher, you [Page] shewed your self a joyfull Hearer, as of other faithfull Pastors at this day, with obedience to the truth, religious care of your family, inte­grity in your office, love of good men, both in the Ministery and private estate, and all Christian behaviours; as the fame of your sweet savour goes forth in the Church of God, to which I doubt not but this Treatise will be the more welcome, because of your worthy name prefixed. It is an Orphane, & the Widow desires it should be your Ward; who in your love can best tender it, and by your authority defend it sufficiently. The God of heaven in­crease all heavenly graces and comforts in your noble heart abundantly, and adde unto your dayes, honours and blessings of all sorts, till these shadowes flie away, and the true Day-star arise upon you in glory: the hearty prayer of one, who is, and desires to be reckon­ed among

Your Wo: truest friends, in every good service, WILLIAM JEMMAT.


I Have heard of a demur made, as though something were put forth under this Authors name, which is none of his. I assure thee in the word of a Mini­ster, that for the workes that have my Epistle pre­fixed (and I hear of no other published with his name) there is not one note nor notion which is not the Authors own, according to his papers. And the like I affirm concerning this Treatise of Types, which now I publish. The use of it is mani­fold: To open divers places of Scripture: To shew the mean­ing of legal shadowes and ceremonies: To declare the faith of the Elders, who received a good report: To manifest our faith, Heb. 11. 2. Eph. 4. 5. one with theirs, one Faith, one Lord, one Baptisme, one salvation: To magnifie and commend Christ to every soul, that it may be saved, and he honoured: To discern and bewail the blind­nesse of Gods ancient people the Jewes, and pray for their re­turn to the truth, not [...]atching at shadowes: Of whom, in pre­sent I may say with detestation of their madnesse, as he said against the Philosophers, Nos qui non habitu, &c. We Christi­ans, M. Min. Fel. Octav. whose excellency stands not in outward things, but spirituall, glory that we have found what they (with all their diligence) have sought, and could not finde. Why are we unthankfull? Why doe we stand in our own light, if the truth of the Deitie hath in this our age attained to maturity? Let us enjoy and make use of our own good, and follow the truth in truth: avaunt superstition, be packing all impiety, let true religion be preserved and flourish. Yet withall, seeing there is a promise, that all Israel shall be saved, let us pray Rom. 11. 26. for the performance, and that with all earnestnesse, as that converted Jew gave exhortation to his son, So long pour forth Ludov. Coe­retus: 1553. thy prayers for the remnant of Israel, till God look from his high ha­bitation, and see, and have mercy on his people for the Lords sake, his Annointed, that in our dayes Judah may be saved, and the chil­dren of Israel may dwell safely in their own land, and spend their dayes in good, the Lord making his good Spirit to rest upon them.


A Table of the Contents of this Treatise.

  • I. THe Introduction: containing five Propositions of the Church, Salvation, Covenant of grace, Christ, and the ancient Ceremonies, p. 1
  • Five reasons for those Ceremonies, 2
  • Grace in the new Testament specially, how, 3
  • Ceremonies called shadowes for four reasons, ibid.
  • Threefold use of them to the Jewes, 4
  • Gods wisdome in appointing them: three wayes, ibid.
  • II. The Treatise: shewing Christ prefigured by holy persons and things, 5
  • Adam a type of Christ in creation, of­fice, soveraignty, conjugation, pro­pagation, 6
  • The Ministery reverend for antiqui­tie. 8
  • Antiquity of the doctrine of free grace, ibid.
  • Seek life by Christs death, 8
  • Get into Christ the second Adam, as thou art surely of the first. Motives, ibid.
  • Noah a type for salvation, righteous­nesse, preaching, Ark, repairing the world, sacrifice of rest, and a dove sent out of the Ark. 9
  • Preserve integrity in the worst times. 13
  • Sinnes which are signes of judgement approaching. ibid.
  • Comfort to be had in Christ our No­ah, 14
  • Melchizedek a type in Etym [...]logi [...], office, originall, excellency of person, and Priesthood, 15, 16, 17
  • Christ greater than Abraham, 18
  • Comfort by Christ our Melchizedek, ibid.
  • We are blessed by our Melchizedek, 19
  • By our Melchizedek the Church a­bides for ever. ibid.
  • Excellency of Christs Priesthood above the Leviticall eight wayes. 20
  • Sin not to be accounted slight, whose sacrifice is so costly. 21
  • Isaac a type in birth, suffering, offer­ing, escape, marriage. ibid.
  • A pattern of obedience in 5. things. ib.
  • How Christ doth meet his Church. 25
  • Two Rules. 26
  • A type of our resurrection. 27
  • Matter of sweet consolation. 28
  • Look for help, though the case be despe­rate. ibid.
  • Joseph a type in his person, actions, [...]ssions, advancement. 29
  • No newes for good men to be hated for their excellency. 32
  • All sufferings of the godly come of God: ordained and ordered. 33
  • Comfort by Christ our Joseph: four [Page] wayes. 34
  • Doe to Christ as Joseph's brethren to him. 35
  • Moses a type in person, estate, office, [...] suffering, sundry actions. ib.
  • Our doctrine is of God. 40
  • Be faithfull in doing thy office. ibid.
  • Shew faith in the fruit of it: contrary to four sorts of men. 41
  • Assurance of our resurrection. ibid.
  • Joshua a type in saving, calling, mi­racles, valour, actions. 42
  • A fearfull thing to be an enemy of the Church. 45
  • Comfort in our salvation accomplish­ed. ibid.
  • Duties we owe to Christ our Joshua. 46
  • Conditions to be observed in going to heaven. Six. ibid.
  • Sampson a type in person, condition, actions, sufferings, stratagems, vi­ctories. 48
  • Judge none by outward calamities. 51
  • Strange meanes used by God for the Churches good. 52
  • Our victory stands in patience and passion. ibid.
  • Fourfold comfort to Gods people. 53
  • In Gods cause contemn greatest perill, and prepare for death approaching. 54
  • David a type in person, vocation, wars, kingdome, office, Propheticall and Priestly. 55
  • Enter upon no office without assistance of the Spirit. A note of it. 61
  • Christ the true King of the Church. Nine wayes more excellent than David. 62
  • How God brings his servants to ho­nour. 65
  • Church ever pestered with home-bred enemies. 66
  • Comfort to the Church in 3. things. ib.
  • Salomon a type in person, condition, peace-making, wisdome, glory, tem­ple, justice. 68
  • Duties to Christ our Salomon: two. 73
  • Fourfold comfort in our Salomon. 74
  • Jonah a type in name, office, death, bu­riall, resurrection. 75
  • Repent at the Ministery of Christs servants. 77 Motives. ibid.
  • Vocation of the Gentiles. 78
  • Our resurrection assured to us. 79
  • Power and wisdome of God to be admi­red. ibid.
  • Terror of sinne, even in Gods own chil­dren: and comfort. 80
  • The First-born types: as Gods peculi­ar, fathers of the family, preferred before brethren, double portion. 82
  • Every mercy is the greater engage­ment unto God. 85
  • Honour Christ as the first-born of God: and how. ibid.
  • Threefold comfort in the birthright. 86
  • Forfeit not the birthright by sin. 87
  • Resemble Christ our elder brother. 88
  • [Page]Priests types: in deputation to office, and execution: choice, consecration, apparell: actions. 88
  • A cover for us in Christ for all defor­mities of soul and body. 90
  • Qualities requisite in Ministers. ib.
  • Eminency of Christ above all crea­tures. 93
  • Ministers must increase their gifts. 94
  • Duties of private believers. ibid.
  • Three sacrifices. ibid.
  • No perfection but onely in Christ. 96
  • Sin unpardoned, all service is abomi­nable. 97
  • Wash and purge all with the bloud of Christ. 99 Notes of it. 100
  • Effects of being so washed and purged. 101
  • Priests garments common, and peculi­ar to the High Priest. 102
  • Seven uses thereof for Ministers. 112
  • Three uses for the people. Twofold instruction. 115
  • Comfort to the godly, in respect of their head and themselves. 117
  • Believers highly esteemed, as precious stones. 119
  • Sin to slight them. ibid.
  • Temperance of Ministers. 122
  • Marriage. ibid.
  • Mourning for the dead. 125
  • Ministers duty. 130
  • Private Christians duty, as Priests to God. 131
  • Nazarites types: as set apart for God, abstemious, nourishing the hair, not to touch the dead, and released of their vow. 133
  • Christ and his excellency to be acknow­ledged: and power, wherein. 137
  • Difference of the Nazarites vow, and Papists. 138
  • Be Nazarites unto God: in five things. 139
  • Clean Persons types: three sorts of legall uncleannesse. 141
  • Meats and unclean, how, and why. ib.
  • Two markes. ibid.
  • Issues unclean, corporal and spiritual. 144
  • Leprosie of body, and of sin. 146
  • Signes. ibid.
  • Church and members subject to many defilements. 149
  • Look narrowly on the misery of sin. ib.
  • Good fruit thereof. 150
  • Miserable effects of inward unclean­nesse. 152
  • Washing legall, and of Christs bloud. 153
  • Smallest sinnes to be put away. 154
  • And how. 155
  • Offering purgeth the unclean: so of Christ, typified. 156
  • There is a way to cleanse every un­cleannesse. 160
  • Have recourse to the meanes. 161
  • Motives. ibid.
  • Be very carefull to avoid spirituall uncleannesse. 162
  • Oblation of Birds. 163
  • Comfort to the godly. 166
  • Affect purity of heart and life. Mo­tives. [Page] 167 Directions. 169
  • Avoid all occasions of defilement. ib.
  • No easie matter to be rid of sin. 174
  • Separate between the precious and the vile: who must. 175
  • Christ discernes the leprosie of sin. 176
  • Onely they are cleansed from sin, whom Christ accounts so to be. 177
  • Markes of one cleansed from sin. ibid.
  • What is to be done before this cure. 178
  • And what afterward. 179
  • Holy things types of Christ. 180
  • Use of legall Ceremonies. 181
  • Their fitnesse to the Jews nature. ib.
  • Ends. ibid.
  • Sacraments and Sacrifices distin­guished. 183
  • Sacraments ordinary and extraordi­nary. 184
  • Circumcision described in parts. 185
  • A sign of Christ, and seal of righteous­nesse, how. 186
  • Be humbled for naturall corruption. 188
  • And imperfection of grace. 189
  • Be circumcised spiritually. ibid.
  • What it is. ib. Notes. 191
  • Mortification, if right, is painful. 192
  • Motives to get the spiritual circum­cision. 194
  • Passeover a type in the choice, prepa­ration, effusion of bloud, eating, fruits. 195
  • Christ a Lamb: and his perfection. 196
  • Christ two wayes set apart to be a Mediator. 198
  • The time of his ministery and passion ordered. 199
  • Christ must dye a violent death: time of it. 200
  • Jewes division of the day into four parts. 201
  • How Christ is to be conceived and re­ceived. ibid.
  • In all worship look to Christ. 202
  • The pretiousnesse of Christs bloud. 203
  • Applied. 204
  • Faith resembled by hyssope, how. ib.
  • Christs bloud to be highly prized. 205
  • Precious things procured by it. ibid.
  • Profane not the bloud of Christ. 206
  • How. 207
  • Feeding on the Lamb, and Christ: five conditions. 208
  • Danger of the soul: and how it is to be avoided. 213
  • Directions for receiving the holy Communion. 214
  • Similitude of purging out leaven and sin. 216
  • Entire purging of the soul. 217
  • Whole Christ must be received. 219
  • And how. ibid.
  • Popish abuses taxed, about the Lords Supper. ibid.
  • Pillar of Cloud and Fire a type of Christ. 221
  • How. 223
  • Four constant miracles to, Israel in the wildernesse. 224
  • Comfort by Christ as our guide. 226
  • In seven things. ibid.
  • Confidence and security by Christ. 228
  • [Page] Notes of them that receive comfort by this Pillar. 230
  • And how this comfort is to be esteemed. 231
  • Mercy and Justice met in this type. ib.
  • Follow Christ as a guide. 232
  • And how. 233
  • The Red Sea a type. 234
  • In three conclusions. ibid.
  • Miracles in the miraculous dividing of the Sea. ibid.
  • Benefits sealed up by Baptisme: four. 237
  • Observe the power of God. 238
  • The way to heaven filled with difficul­ties: and why. 239
  • Many comforts by that great work of God. ibid.
  • Duty of them that will enjoy these com­forts. 241
  • Manna a type of Christ. 242
  • Matters of resemblance. ibid.
  • Why Manna putrified, if reserved. 247
  • Christ infinitely better than Manna. 248
  • Gods patience and love to be noted. 250
  • How it should work in us. ibid.
  • Gods watchfulnesse and care over his Church, to be noted. 251
  • Comfort thereby, and instances. 252
  • Gods bounty towards his Church, to be noted. 253
  • His wisdome in ministring to his Church, to be noted. 254
  • Manna, why given daily, yet not on the Sabbath. ibid.
  • Moderation in naturall things. 255
  • And what is Gods measure. 256
  • Man of himself is senselesse of the things of Jesus Christ. ibid.
  • Whence this comes. ibid.
  • And of what use. 257
  • Hunger and thirst for Christ: mo­tives. 258
  • Take pains for him: motives. 259
  • Observe times and places to meet with Christ. 260
  • Apply and feed on Christ. 261
  • And how. ibid.
  • Be never weary of this Manna. ib.
  • Motives. 262
  • Prize and magnifie this Manna. ib.
  • Water out of the Rock a type of Christ. 263
  • In three respects. ibid.
  • Christ resembled by a Rock: and wa­ters. 264
  • Christ ever present with his Church. 269
  • Our duty. ibid.
  • An almighty power in Christ for his Church. 270
  • Our duty. ibid.
  • Gods mercy to his people admirable. ib.
  • See the fountain of grace opened: and its superexcellency. 271
  • Thirst for Christ: and conditions of it. 272
  • Continue it: two rules. ibid.
  • Have re [...]rse to Christ in this thirst: motives. 273
  • Quench thy thirst, and be satisfied. ib.
  • Motives. 274
  • [Page] Meanes to get water out of this Rock: hindrances: helpes. ibid.
  • The Brazen Serpent a type of Christ. 275
  • Gods justice here to be noted, and equi­ty of it. 276
  • Of fiery Serpents, and the old Serpent the devill. 278
  • Temptations called fiery darts, why. 279
  • Observations about sin, deceit, folly, poyson, danger of loving it, ibid.
  • God appoints the meanes of health to soul and body. 280
  • A brazen Serpent, not golden: five reasons. 281
  • Christ lifted up before us, how. 282
  • Application of Christ a saving reme­dy, far most excellent, ibid.
  • God helps his people by weak, unlikely, and contrary meanes: and why. 284
  • Grounds for faith in these troubles of the Churches. 286
  • Kingdome of Antichrist, how fit for destruction. ibid.
  • The eye of faith must shut the eye of reason. 287
  • Four things cannot otherwise be ob­tained. ibid.
  • Believe the Word absolutely. 291
  • Pray for eye-salve: and what it is. 292
  • Captivate thine own reason and wis­dome. ibid.
  • Motives. 293
  • Mans reason, the mother of heresies. 294
  • Naturall reason, an enemy to the power of godlinesse. 296
  • What is to be done to be cured spiritu­ally. 298
  • Wounds of sinne compared to deadly poyson: in four things. ibid
  • Come for counsel to spiritual Physiti­ans. ibid.
  • Who reproved. 299
  • Confess special sins: and go wholly out of thy self and all other. 300
  • Look onely unto Christ: and that two wayes. 302
  • How this looking cures us: by faith: and how by faith. 303
  • Markes of one cured by looking to Christ. 304
  • Four qualities of the eye that lookes to him. ibid.
  • Motives to look up to our Serpent. 306
  • Use of comfort, in five particulars. 307
In this Treatise are two things.
  • 1 The Introduction. chap. 1. where
    • 1 Propositions concerning the Church of God.
    • 2 Reasons of the ancient Ceremonies.
  • 2 The Trea­tise it self, c 2. where
    • 1 Christ is figured in holy persons.
      • 1 Singular: eleven. cap. 2.-12.
      • 2 Rankes, and orders of men.
        separated and sanctified
        • 1 By birth: the First-born, c. 13.
        • 2 By office: the Priests, c. 14
          • Deputation.
          • Execution.
        • 3 By vow: the Nazarites, c. 15
        • 4 By ceremony: Clean per­sons, c. 16.
    • 2 He is fi­gured in holy things: c. 17.
      • 1 Ordinary Sacraments,
        • 1 Circumcision, c. 18
        • 2 Passeover, c. 19.
      • 2 Extraordi­nary: answe­rable to
        • 1 Circum­cision, & Baptism: 2
          • 1 Pillar of Cloud & Fire, c. 2
          • 2 Red Sea: c. 21.
        • 2 Passo­ver and Lords Supper, 2.
          • 1 Manna frō heavē c. 22
          • 2 Water out of the Rock, c. 23

Adde hereunto the Brazen Serpent, c. 24.


JOHN 14. 6.

J am the Truth.


HAving formerly delivered, that Christ is Truth Christ the truth of le­gall sha­dows. Introducti­on to this Treatise. as opposed to falsehood; we are now to shew, that he is Truth as opposed to the shadows and figures of the old Law. In the entrance into which Treatise, we must premise some Pro­positions.

I. That the Lord decreed to have always a Church upon 1. the face of the earth; for the upholding of which he up­holds the world. For, 1. He will have his name confessed, and praised as well in earth as in heaven. 2. He will main­taine his publike worship by it, to distinguish heathenish Ido­laters from true Worshippers. 3. To prepare true beleevers in this Church militant to that Church triumphant, and to set and polish them as living stones in this mount of the Church, for that heavenly mountaine and temple.

II. For the effecting of his purpose he hath decreed, that 2. the doctrine of salvation by Jesus Christ would be sounded out in the Church, together with the doctrine of the Law, that partly the right way of his shorship, and partly the way of salvation, might be made known and opened to beleevers.

[Page 2] III. By the Gospel the Lord hath revealed the Covenan 3. of grace, which is in substance but one, as God is but one and Christ is but one, who is the substance of it. As there is but one hope of one eternall life, the end of the Covenant; and one faith which is the mean to lead to that end, Ephes. 4. vers. 5.

IV. Christ, and his doctrine, the Covenant being the same 4. Sacramenta sunt mutata, non sides. August. yesterday, and to day, and for ever, Heb. 13. 8. for substance, altereth and differeth onely in the form and manner of dis­pensation; according to which, it is diversly propounded in the old Testament and New. In the former propounded, as of the Messiah to come, from Adam unto his Incarnation. In the latter, as of the Saviour allready come, and so em­braced in the Church from his first comming, to his second comming againe.

V. So long as Christ was to come, it pleased God to train 5. God ap­pointed a multitude of ceremo­nies to the Iewes for 5. reasons. 1. his Church by an heap of Ceremonies, rites, figures, and shadows, to strengthen their Faith in the [...] of him. Of which multitude of Ceremonies, if more [...]p [...]ll reasons be demanded;

These may be given.

1. The nonage and infancy of that Church, which was not capable of such high mysteries, but was to be taught by their eyes as well as their ea [...]s. And therefore it pleased God to put the ancient Church (even newly out of the Cradle) under Tutors, Gal. 4. 2. and appointed divers Types and Ceremonies, as Rud [...]ments and Introductions, vers. 3. fitted to the grosse and weak fences of that Church, which was to be brought on by little and little, through such shadows and figures, to the true Image and thing signified, who in our Text calleth himselfe truth, in opposition to all those sha­dowes.

Object. But the weaker and duller they were, the more need had they of clear instruction; and God could have revealed Christ as clearly to them, as to us. Velata sunt ista, done [...] a­spiraret dies, & remove­rentur um­brae. Aug.

Sol. But as the Lord had observed this method in crea­ting the world, he would have darknesse go before light; and in upholding the world he would have dawning [Page 3] go before clear day: So in the framing and upholding the Church, he would have Christ exhibited to the Fathers, as to the Wise men, in swadling coluts, which hid his glory. He respected them as Children; he erected for them in Jewry a little free-schoole set up in a corner of the World; he ap­pointed the Law of Moses as a Primer, or A. B. C. in which Christ was to be shaddowed in dark and obscure manner; he would that Christ should come to his brethren, as Joseph to his; who first obscured himself to them, and afterwards made himself better known. One compares it to Noahs 1. open­ing the window of the Arke; 2. Removing the covering; 3. Stepping forth himselfe.

II. Therein the wisedome of God provided for the further 2. advancement of Christ and his Gospel; which compared with the Law, must be manifested in great brightnesse and glory. Christ the Sonne must come in more glory, than Moses the servant. Hence John 1. 17. The Law was given by Moses, but grace and truth came by Jesus Christ. The Gospel is called grace, not because under the Law the same grace was not preached, but comparatively: that was scarce grace to this which is more full, more manifest; as the light in the dawn­ing, is scarce light in comparison of light at noon-day. There Grace in the new Testament specially, how. was grace, but here is more grace. 1. In manifestation: The light of the Sunne is sevenfold, and like the light of seven days, as was prophesied, Isai 30. 26. 2. In impleti on and accomplishment of that which was but a promise of grace in comparison. Act. 13. 32. 3. In application and apprehension by beleevers in all Countries, not onely in Ju­dea. 4. In the groth and perfection of faith and grace in the hearts of ordinary beleevers above them. Hence Heb. 10. 1. the Law had but a shadow of good things to come, and not the Image and truth it self: that is, It had a rude and dark delineation of good things to come, as a draught made by a painter with a coale; but the Gospel exhibites the picture it self in the flourish and beauty; that is, the truth and be­ing of it.

Hence also Paul to the Col. 2, 17. speaking of observan­ces Ceremonies called sha­dows, for 4. reaseus. of the Ceremoniall Law, saith: they were but shadows [Page 4] of things to come, but the body is Christ. Whence he would have us conceive: 1. That as the body is the cause of the shadow, and the cause more excellent than the thing caused: So Christ was the cause of those Ceremonies, and more excellent than they. 2. As the shadow representeth the shape of the body, with the Actions and motions: So those rites, and Ceremonies resemble Christ in all his actions, passions, motions, as after we are to hear. 3. As the shaddow is but an obscure resemblance in respect of the body: So the Ministery of the old Testament in rites and Ceremonies is a dark representation of the body, namely Christ and his spirituall worship. 4. As the body is solid, firme, and of continuance, even when the shadow is gone: So the Ce­remonies as shadows are flown away, but Christ the body and his true worship lasteth for ever. In all which Christ and his grace are advanced, as the publisher and perfecter of our salvation without any shadows; whereas of the Law it is said: It made nothing perfect, Heb. 7. 19.

III. Those Ceremonies were not given to merit remission of sinnes by them, nor to appease Gods anger, nor to be an 3. Non ex ope­reoperato. acceptable worship by the worth of the work done, nor to justifie the observer: but to shew justification by Jesus Christ, the truth and substance of them; to be types of him, pointing at him in whom the Father is pleased; to be Alle­gories and resemblances of the benefits of Christ, exhibit­ed in the new Testament; to be testimonies of the promise and Covenant on Gods part; to be Sacraments and seales of faith on the part of the beleeving Jew, exciting and confirm­ing his faith in the Messiah.

IV. God would have this heap of Ceremonies. 1. As 4. bonds and sinewes of the ministery and publike meetings; in which the voyce of the promised seed, and the sound of Use of them to the Iews. wholesome and saving doctrine might be preserved in the Church, and propagated to posterity. 2. To be externall signes of their profession, by which God would have his Church distinct from all nations of the earth. 3. To be to the unbeleeving Jewes, an externall discipline to bridle them, and an exercise to frame them (at least in externall conver­sation) [Page 5] to the Policy, and Common-wealth of Moses; for else they must be cut off, and excluded.

V. Gods wisedome in appointing these Ceremonies; 1. 5. Gods wis­dome in ap­pointing them. Appointed a certaine observation of the line & tribe whence the Messiah should come according to the promise. 2. En­joined a certaine provision for the Ministery, which had no certaine part of the Land allotted to them. 3. That the poore might be so provided for, as that there might not be a beggar in Israel.

The former propositions and reasons being delivered by way of Preface, we now come to shew that which our Text properly calleth for, that is: wherein or how Christ is the truth of those figures, and the body of those shadows of the Ceremoniall Law.

Christ was figured in the old Testament by holy Persons, The gene­rall division of this Trea­tise. and by holy Things. Of the most holy and eminent Persons who were figures of Christ, I will propound some instances.


1. Adam a type of Christ.

THe first of them is the first Adam, who was so lively a representation of Christ, as that Christ is often called the second Adam, Rom. 5. 14. Adam was a figure of him that Adam a type of Christ, in four things. 1. was to come. We will gather the resemblances between them into four generall heads.

I. In respect of Creation. 1. Both of them were Sons of God, the one by eternall generation, the other by grace of creation. 2. Both were men, Adams red earth; the first in his matter, the second not in his matter onely, but also in his bloudy passion. 3. Both were Sons of one Fa­ther, and both men but of no man their father, neither of Uterque ad imaginem Dei condi­tus, uterque Deo charissi­mus. them having any other father but God. 4. Both created in the Image of God; the former, Gen. 1. 27. the latter the in­graven forme of his Fathers person. Heb. 1. 3. 5. Both en­dowed [Page 6] with perfect wisedome and knowledge; the first Adam so wise as that he gave fit names to all Creatures ac­cording to their natures: in the second Adam dwelt treasures of wisdome and knowledge. Col. 2. 3. 6. Both possessed of a most happy and innocent estate; in which the one had power to persever, but not will: the other had both power and will. 7. The first Adam was made in the sixth day of the week to the Image of God: the second Adam towards the sixth age of the world, appearing to restore that Image which the first Adam quickly lost.

II. In respect of office and soveraignty. 1. The first 2 Adam was owner of Paradise, the heir of the world; sove­raigne Lord of all Creatures, to whom they came for their names; the second Adam is Lord of heaven as well as earth, heir of the outmost bounds of the earth. Psal. 2. 8. Com­mander of all Creatures; whom the winds and sea obey; whose word the divels tremble at; and he keeps his sove­raignty which the first Adam lost. 2. Adam was appointed to keep the Garden and dresse it, Gen. 2. 15. Christ the se­cond Adam was set apart to sanctifie and save his Church, the Garden and Paradise of God, Ephes. 5. 26. 3. Adam was King, Priest and Prophet in his family: so is Christ in the Church, the family and houshold of faith, Rev. 1. 5. As Primus ec­clesiae doctor audiens im­mediate a Deo quae ec­clesiae erant proponenda, ita et Christ­us. Adam was the first Minister of the word in the Church, de­livering the promise of the blessed seed with certaine rites and Ceremonies to his Children, and they to their poste­rity: So the second Adam is the chief Prophet and Doctor of his Church, who alwaies prescribed the pure worship of God for matter and manner in the Churches of all ages.

III. In respect of Conjugation. 1. Adam sleeping Eve 3. is formed: Christ dying the Church is framed. Eve is taken out of Adams side, while he sleeps: out of the second A­dams side, while he was in the sleepe of death, issueth the Church. 2. Eve was no sooner framed, but as a pure and innocent spouse she was delivered by God to Adam, yet in in­nocency: so God the Father delivered the Church as a chaste and innocent spouse to be married to the second A­dam for ever, to be bone of his bone, and flesh of his flesh. [Page 7] 3. Of Eve marryed to Adam he receives both a Cain and an Abel into his house: so the second Adam had in his vi­sible Church both elect and reprobates, sound and hypocrits, as by many parables is signified; as of the field; the net, &c.

IIII. In respect of propagation. 1. Both of them are 4. rootes, both have a posterity and seed, Isai. 53. 10. 2. Both of them convey that they have unto their posterity, Rom. 5. 12, 14. As by the first Adam sinne, and by sinne death came over all men: so by the second Adam came righteousnesse, and by righteousnesse life on all beleevers; and herein espe­cially was the first Adam a figure of him that was to come. 3. As the first Adam merited death for his posterity: so the second Adam life for all his.

Application followes. Use 1. The Mini­stery reve­rend for antiquity.

I. To note the honour and antiquity of the Ministery, which not the first Adam onely, but the second also exerci­sed. Despise at thy perill what they so honoured; think it too base for thy self to attend, for thy sonnes to intend: Neither the first Adam Lord of the earth, nor the second Adam Lord of Heaven and earth did so.

II. To note the antiquity and authority of the doctrine 2. Antiquity of the doct­rine offres grace. of free grace by the merit of the Messiah, which both the first and second Adam taught: neither of them ever dream­ed of the doctrine of workes and humane merits. What Adam learned of God in Paradise, he taught to his poste­rity; what his posterity heard of him, the same they de­livered and left to their children; but they never heard nor taught any other way to salvation, but by the promised seed: so also what the Disciples heard of the second Adam, that they taught to the Churches; but they heard the same of him. Act. 4. 12. And our doctrine being the same with theirs, is not new, but more ancient then any other. For as this is the honour of all truth, to be before error and falshood: Quod anti­quissimum, verissimū. Tertul. so of this truth, to have precedency of all truthes; It truely pleadeth antiquity, therefore verity.

III. In that the Church comes out of Christs side, being 3. [Page 8] in the sleep of death, as Eve out of Adams he sleeping, we Seek life by Christs death. learn to seek our life in Christs death. That death should be propagated by the sinne of the first Adam, was no marvell: but that life by the death of the second, is an admired myste­ry. Here is the greatest work of Gods power fetched out of his contrary; of ranke poyson a soveraigne remedy by the most skilfull Physitian of hearts. Let the Jewes scorn a crucified God, and refuse the life offered by a dead man; they know not the Scriptures, nor the power of God; who can and doth command light out of darknesse, life out of death, 2 Cor. 4. 6. all things out of nothing. How easily can he repaire all things out of any thing, who can fetch and frame all things out of nothing? He is of power to make of clay and spittle (fit to put out the sight) a remedy to restore sight. He can as easily save a world by the death of his Sonne, as multiply a world by the sleep of Adam.

IV. Labour to be ingrafted into the second Adam, that 4. Get into Christ the second A­dam, as thou art sure of the first. Motives. as thou hast born the image of the earthly, so thou maist bear the image of the heavenly, 1 Cor. 15. 49. 1. Because the second Adam repaires whatsoever we lost in the first. By the first we are enemies to God, by the second we are reconci­led to him. By the first we all dye, by the second we are all made alive. 1 Cor. 15. 22. By the first we are left to Sa­thans power, by the second we are guided by the spirit of God. By the first we lost all the Creatures, by the second we are restored to the holy use of all. By the first a necessity of death is brought in, Heb. 9. 27. it is appointed for all men once to dye, and then commeth judgement; but by the second we have a recovery of the blessing of immortality and life. Whatsoever the first Adam brings into the world by sinne, the second carries out by his righteousnesse. 2. Because by Christ the truth we recover more than we lost, or ever should have by the Type. For so the Apostle, Rom. 5. 16. the gift by the second Adam hath exceeded the offence of the first. That as the first Adam by eating the forbidden fruit hath powred all evill into the souls and bodies of all men, though they eat not of the forbidden tree: So the second Adam by regenerati­on is made righteousnesse to those who had wrought no righte­ousnesse, 1 Cor. 1. 30. [Page 9] and powred all good things into the souls and bo­dies of his members. The first Adam by sinne helps us into misery: but the second Adam not onely helps us out of mi­sery, but advanceth us to the highest dignity; to be, of sons of wrath, sons of God; brethren of Christ; members of his body; heires of the kingdome of heaven. By Adams sinne we are all driven out of Paradise, and earthly pleasure, in which we should have enjoyed an inconstant happinesse: but by Christ we are brought into the heavenly Paradise, our Fathers house. By Adams sinne we became unjust: but by Christs holinesse we are not just onely, but sanctified, graced, confirmed, glorified, into whom by faith we come to be in­grafted.


2. Noah a type of Christ, 7. wayes.

THe second instance is Noah, a manifest type of the true Noah a type of Christ, in seven re­spects. 1. Noah, and that in seven respects.

I. Both were fore-prophesied of to be Saviours, Gen. 5. 29. Lam [...]ch begat a son and called his name Noah, saying: This shall comfort us concerning our workes, and sorrow, and curse of the earth; therefore he called him by a name signifying ceasing, or rest: So of Christ, Mat. 1. 21. thou shalt call his name Jesus, for he shall save his people: He shall be the true Noah that shall cause Gods wrath to cease, and bring the af­flicted soule to true rest and tranquility.

II. Both are said to be just and perfect; both said to 2. Differences between Christs and Noahs righ­teousnesse. walk with God; and both to finde grace and favour with God. 1. Noah was just in his generation: So was Christ; have nothing to do with that just man, saith Pilates Wife, Mat. 27. 19. But with difference; Noahs righteousnesse was im­puted, being righteousnesse of faith, Heb. 11. 7. Christs was inherent, a righteousnesse of nature, person, and heart. 2. Noah was a perfect and upright man, Gen. 6. 9. that is, [Page 10] not defiled with Idolatry, false religion, opinions, or exter­nall crimes, but Christ was perfect simply and absolutely, Noah but comparatively. Noah was perfect but in part: Christ Christus i am perfectus: Noah cur­rens ad per­fectionem. August. perfectly perfect; Christ Legally; Noah Evangelically. Noah perfect by the perfection of another: Christ by his own. Noah perfect because without open crime: Christ being without sinne. 3. Both walking with God, found grace with God. Noah, Gen. 6. 8. Christ, Luke 2. 40. 52. But Noah found grace by acceptation and imputation: Christ by compleat merit and satisfaction. Christ found grace by his own perfection and justice: but Noah cloathed with Christs.

III. Both of them were Preachers of righteousnesse. But 3. Christ preached his own doctrine, Noah Christs. Both in­vited unto repentance. Both called men to avoid the Judge­ment to come. Both lived and preached in a most corrupt age, when there was a generall defection both in doctrine and manners. Both their Ministeries were despised, and that despight of both fearfully revenged; the one by water, the other by fire and sword: both by utter desolation, as the like never heard of before.

IV. Both of them makers of an Ark, and Masters of it. 4. But Noah of a materiall, Christ of a spirituall, the Church. Noah to save sinners from the deluge of waters temporall: Christ to save sinners from the deluge of Gods wrath eter­nall. In the making of their Arkes they are very like. 1. Noahs Ark and Christs: 6. resem­blances. Both doe all about their Arkes at Gods commandement. For as the Lord did not hide from Noah his decree, Gen. 6. 13. So he communicated his whole will and counsell to his Sonne concerning the salvation of the Church, Joh. 8. 26. 2. As Noah takes many trees at Gods commandement, and strong­ly eloseth them together, and pitcheth them within and with­out against the waters: So doth Christ make choice of trees of righteousnesse, the planting of the Lord, and compacts them together by the bond of the Spirit, glewes and fastens them together by the glew of Christian love, and pitcheth them within and without, fortifies and strengthens them against the waters of affliction, temptation, persecution, that [Page 11] none shall drown or overwhelme them. 3. As Noah prepa­red divers roomes in the Ark for divers creatures: So Christ in his Ark appoints divers places and functions for beleevers here, and prepares in his Fathers house many mansions for them hereafter, Joh. 14. 2. And as Noah receives into the Ark clean and unclean creatures and persons, a Sem, and a Cham: So the Lord Christ into his militant Church, all sorts of Nations, sexes, persons, conditions; Jewes, Gentiles; men, women, noble, ignoble; beleevers, and unbeleevers; hypocrites, and sound Christians. On this floor is wheat and chaffe. 4. As Noah made a window into his Ark, to give light to the creatures within: So Christ, by the Gospel preached in the Church, enlighteneth the mindes of those that are within; without which light let in, they should sit in everlasting darknesse. 5. As Noah by the same direction makes a door to enter into the Ark, and but one door for so very great a building: So there is but one door to the great building of the Church dispersed farre and wide, and this is Christ himself, Joh. 10. 7, 9. 6. As Noah the Master of the Ark enters into it, and receives and saves all that enter in with him; for which purpose he is contented to be tossed up and down by those most raging waters, and had no more free­dome from fear and danger than others in the Ark: So Christ the Master of his Church, to save his Church, himself enters into it, and is admitted into it by the waters of Baptism; and was contented, for the saving of others, to be tossed with waves and billowes of affliction, ignominy, shame, sinne, curse, yea, the torments of hell. That his Church might be in safety with him, he will be in danger with her, and every way to help her, will be everyway like her in all things, sinne excepted.

V. Both of them were repairers of the world, From 5. Noah descended all the inhabitants of the earth: from Christ all the inhabitants of heaven. The world again was re-peo­pled and replenished by Noahs posterity: the Church and every member is Christs posterity. Both of them were pre­servers and providers for all sorts of Creatures: But Noah as a steward; Christ as Lord and owner of them: Noah for [Page 12] a few, Christ for all: Noah for a year and a little more, Christ perpetually. To both of them the creatures came in, and were obedient to them. Though never so fierce and savage out of the Ark, yet in the Ark they were mild and tame: So to Christ the windes, seas, devils obey; and if Lyons and Cockatrices come into the Ark and Church, they become as Lambs and little children, putting off all fierce­nesse, Isa. 11. 6.

VI. Both of them offered a sacrifice of rest, and sweet sa­vour 6. to the Lord, Noah, Gen. 8. 21. As men are delighted with sweet savours, so was Noahs sacrifice pleasing to God. But his was a sacrifice but of testification, witnessing his faith Sacrifice of testification and of satis­faction. and thankfulnesse: The sacrifice of Christ was a perfect sa­tisfaction, in which he offered, not the bodies of clean beasts as Noah, but his own body as a Lamb without spot, not upon an Altar built by Noahs hand, but upon the Altar of his Deity, not ascending to heaven by ordinary fire, but offered through his eternall spirit, compar'd to fire, Heb. 9. 14. And therefore must fully satisfie his Fathers justice, appease his wrath, and be most acceptable in it self, and must bring Noahs, and all other sacrifices into acceptance. And from hence it was, that with both of them God did make a covenant of grace for their posterities, that he would never break out in such wrath against them, confirming the same unto the poste­rity of Adam by the sign of the Rainbow, and to the poste­rity of Christ by the Sacrament of Baptisme, and the Lords Supper.

VII. Both of them sent a Dove out of the Ark. Noah 7. when the waters asswaged, and much of his fear and dan­ger was past, sends out the Dove, who brought an Olive branch, a sign of joy, comfort, and abating of the waters: So Christ Jesus, his sufferings and labours being ended, sent his Spirit forth (which had lighted as a Dove on him) and Mat. 3. 16. brings joy, and peace, and comfort into the hearts of all be­leevers, bringing in a testimony, that Gods wrath is appeased, the waters are diminished, his love and favour returned, which is better than life.

[Page 13] I. In the type and truth learn: If all the world about us Use 1. Preserve in­tegrity in the worst times. be given to wickednesse, and we be cast into never so wick­ed an age, then to labour to shine in the middest of a naugh­ty generation, Phil 2. 25. It is a singular praise to be a Lot in Sodom, and in a corrupt age to be unlike sinners. For light to shine and shew it self in darknesse, is beautyfull and glori­ous. Let your light so shine before men, that they may see your good Math. 5. 16. works, and glorifie your father which is in heaven. To shew our selves sonnes of God, and children of light among enemies of God and light is a singular honour. Noah fashioned not himself to those corrupt times; nor Christ to the evill be­haviour of that age. Never had Christians more need a­mong so many wicked fashions to be exhorted, not to fashion themselves to the world. If a Preacher hold on a preacher of righteousnesse in singlenesse and sincerity of heart, not fashioning himself to the present temporizers and men-plea­sers, Let all the world scorn, oppose, traduce him: If a pri­vate man hold forth the word of life, and in blamelesse and pure conversation walk in a way which leadeth against the stream and common current of the corrupt age: Both the one and the other have heer the type and the truth, Noah and Christ presidents for the like actions, precedents in the same way.

II. In them both learn: That these are the days in which 2. Sins which are signs of Iudgement approach­ing. Math. [...]4. 38 we must expect our Lord to judgement. As it was in the days of Noah, &c. So shall the comming of the Sonne of man be. As those sinnes in Noahs time brought the deluge of water: the same sinnes now reigning, shall bring and hasten the de­struction by fire prophecyed, 2 Pet. 3. The sinnes are these. 1. The sonnes of God marry with the daughters of men: that is, the godly with the ungodly, religious with the super­stitious, beleevers with infidels. 2. Horrible contempt of the word. As Noah preached by the power of the Spirit, and 2 Pet. 3. 20. Christ himself by the Spirit, so as never man spake; yet both were despised, and the Spirit resisted whereby they spake: So now godly Ministers must not think much to be despised in their Ministery; for as it was in the days of Noah and of [Page 14] Christ, So Christ hath told us it must be. 3. Prophanenesse of the Ministery, and generall malice against sincerity. As in the dayes of Noah, many Wrights and workmen were bu­sie to prepare an Ark for others; but themselves neither en­tred into the same, nor saved by the same: And as in the dayes of Christ, the Scribes and Pharisees professed them­selves chiefe builders, but refused the corner stone, and nei­ther entred themselves nor suffered others, but envy Christ they could: So shall it be in the dayes of the Sonne of man. 4. In the common-state, and men, apostacy, security, sensu­ality; men eat, drinke, marry, but know nothing of judge­ment, that is, will not know: So shall the comming of the Sonne of man be, Mat. 24. 39.

III. In that Christ is the true Noah, all the true members 3. Comfort to be had in Christ our Noah. of Christ (who are carefull to prepare them an Arke, and to get within the Arke of the Church) have solid and strong comfort. For, 1. He is ready to receive all that come un­to him: who calls all the weary: as Noah readily received all that offered themselves unto him. Let not thy sinne dis­courage thee, be thou never so uncleane, get once into the Arke, and thou art safe. 2. As Noah himself entered into the Arke, and abode there all the time of danger, and tossing by the waters: so our Lord abides still in the same ship of the Church with us: he is so much the more compassionate to us, as he is acquainted with our sorrowes: and though the danger and fear be never so much, we shall fare no worse than himself will, who in all our troubles is troubled with us and for us. 3. As Noah pitched the Ark within and with­out, and so fenced it against the waves and raging billowes and surges of a world of seas: So doth our true Noah strengthen his Arke and Church partly with his promise, partly with his prayers that their faith faile not, as with pitch within and without, so firme and sure, as let this little Arke of the Church be tossed upon the waters of affliction, and tried by never so many temptations, and persecutions in this sea of the world, it is so fenced & pitched, that it shall ne­ver miscarry. Noahs Arke indeed by tossing & beating of the waters may be weakned and made worsei but Christs Arke the [Page 15] Church, is made better and stronger by trials and afflictions, It is good for me that I have been afflicted, that I may learn thy Ps. 119. 71. statutes. Noahs Arke at last shall putrifie and perish, but Christs Arke shall never perish, but at last be more perfect and glorious. 4. As Gods Covenant with Noah was his safety in the Arke: (for looke upon the Arke floating above water laden with heavie burthen, fenced against the waters with a little pitch, perhaps not very skilfully, that being the first vessell that ever was made for the water) without An­chor, mast, sterne, Pilot, or Master to govern it (for Noah was shut in by God) how should it be but carried by windes and waves upon rocks, or hils, or sands, or trees, or buildings, and so in an instant split all to pieces, but that the Lord was Stearsman of all that voyage? So the safety of the Church is, that it hath so faithfull a Pilot, whose Covenant made in his Church is the wall and defence of his People, more stable than the foundation of the earth. Which made David to glory: Though the earth be moved, and the mountains tumbled Psal. 46. 2. into the sea, yet the Church may glory in the salvation of her God. In our lesser trials, stormes, oppositions, look to God Arca tan­dem ex delu­vio liberatat fic Ecclesia.▪ Arca cessan­te diluvio in monte requi­evit: Eccle­sia mundi fluctibus ces­santibus in coelesti mon­te. our safety; be within the Arke, God will provide for thy safety. 5. The Arke had a time to be freed from the deluge of waters: So the Church hath a time for her deliverance, Rev. 7. 14. Psal. 55. 22. 6. When the flood of waters bated, the Arke rested on the mountaine of Ararat, Gen. 8. 4. So when the waters of affliction are dried up, the Church hath her rest in the holy mountaine of God, Psal. 15.


3. Melchizedek a type of Christ.

HEbrews 7. 3. He was likened to the Sonne of God. We must Melchizedek a type of Christ, in 4. respects. 1. search wherein and how Christ was the truth of that figure.

I. In the notation of his name Melchizedek signifieth King [Page 16] of righteousnesse: Our Saviour was indeed properly King of righteousnesse, Heb. 7. 2. Isai. 11. 4. Psal. 45. 6, 7. thy kingdome is a scepter of righteousnesse, thou lovest righteous­nesse, Mal. 4, 2. Christ the Sonne of righteousnesse shall arise. From him all have righteousnesse as from a fountaine.

II: In his Office. 1: He was King of Salem, of peace: 2. Peace by Christ most excellent. Hebr. 7. So Christ is called, the Prince of peace, Isa. 9. 6. not of a corner, but of all the world; and of Salem, that is, of Je­rusalem, Psal. 2. 6. I have set my King on Sion. On his shoul­ders was the government laid. Of whom Zach. 9. 9. O Jeru­salem, behold thy King commeth unto thee, he is just and saved himself, poor and riding upon an asse: but with this difference, Melchizedek brings peace earthly, temporall: but Christ is our peace, Ephes. 2. 14. by whom we have peace with God; he guides our feet into the way of peace, and leades us to peace eternall: So he was true king of true peace, so was not Melchizedek. 2. Melchizedek was not onely a King, but Priest of the most high God, Gen. 14. 18. So Christ was both King and Priest; King, Revel. 1. 5. Prince of all the kings of the earth; Priest, Heb. 4. 14. Our great high Priest. This was not usuall in the Jewes Policy, or progeny of David, to whom onely the kingdome was promised: nei­ther would God admit the mingling of these Offices among them, as in Uzziah, 2 Chron. 26. But as this dignity was re­served unto Christ: so was it dispenced with in his speciall figure to be both a great King and Priest.

III. In his originall. Without Father or Mother, genealo­gy, beginning or end of dayes; without kindred, that is, none 3. Heb. 7. of these mentioned in Scripture, or in the story of his life. Although he had both father, mother, kindred, birth, death; yet the Lord of set purpose would have all these concealed in scripture, that he might be a more expresse type of Jesus Christ, who was truely without father as man, That holy thing Luk. 1. 35. which shall be born of thee, shall be called the Son of God; without mother as God, without kindred according to his Deity, in respect of his Divine nature without generation, for who can declare his generation? Isa. 53. 8. seeing he was before all worlds [...]. eternally begotten of his Father. And whereas Melchizedek [Page 17] onely had no beginning or end of life expressed: Christ is onely truly without beginning, neither shall have any end; for he is the beginning and the ending. And although his huma­nity [...]. Apoc. [...]. 11. had genealogie, beginning, and ending of life, yet as he was the word he had none. And although as the So [...]e he Melchize­dek quoad Scripturam: Christus quoad▪ natu­vam. was from the Father; yet as God he was from none, but as the word was of himself. Here also is a difference; Melchizedek was without genealogy according to Scripture: Christ ac­cording to nature.

IV. In the excellency of his 1. Person, 2. Priesthood. 4.

1. For excellency of Person. 1. Melchizedek was greater than Abraham; for he blessed Abraham, and the greater bles­sith the lesser, Heb. 7. 7. signifying Christ the fountain and originall of all blessing in heavenly and earthly things, Ephes. 1. 3. 2. Melchizedek refreshed Abraham and his Army, re­turning weary from the battell and journey, with bread and wine. Here Abraham was a receiver. Melchizedek a giver; a manifest type of Jesus Christ, refreshing and comforting all his followers, and members of his militant Church in their journey and wearinesse, with his word and Sacraments. Mat­thew 11. 28. I will refresh you. 3. Melchizedek was man Ego refici­am vos. onely and sinfull: Christ God and man without sinne. Melchizedekas the sonne of God. Christ indeed the Sonne of God.

2. For the excellency of his Sacrifice, or his Priesthood, which was greater than Aarons. For, 1. Levi and Aaron paid tythes in Abrahams loines to Melchizedek, Heb. 7. 9. Prehemi­nence of Christ's Priesthood above Aa­rons. Psal. 110. 4. and the inferiour payes tythes to the Superiour: Such is the Priesthood of Christ after▪ the order of Melchizedek, not of Aaron. 2. In regard of the entrance. Melchizedek was not annointed with materiall oyle as Aaron, nor received his Priesthood from any other, but onely so declared by the mouth of God: So Christ succeeded none, received his Priesthood from none, but annointed by the Spirit of God, Luke 4. 18. and made a Priest by the Oath of God, Psal. 110. 4. The Lord sware and will not repent, thou art a Priest for ever after the order of Melchizedek. 3. In regard of the continu­ance of his Priesthood. For as he receives it from none, so [Page 18] he passeth it not to any other, nor any can succeed him; but he endureth ever, having an everlasting Priesthood, Heb. 7. 24. The Leviticall Priesthood ended particularly in the death of every high Priest, and universally and finally in the death of our high Priest: But Christ is eternall, who died, but rose a­gain, figured in Melchizedek.

I. If Christ be the true Melchizedek, then must he needs Use. 1. Christ greater than Abra­ham. be greater than Abraham, though the Jewes vainly gainsay it, Joh. 8. 53. To him all our tythes and offerings, due from Abraham to Melchizedek. He is blessed and Prince onely, the King of kings, and Lord of lords, unto him be honour, and power everlasting, 1 Tim. 6. 15, 16. So the four and twenty Elders, Revel. 11. 15, 17. And Angels, Beasts, Elders, and all crea­tures, Revel. 5. 11, 12, 13.

II. For the comfort of the Church, that Christ is the true Melchizedek, both a Priest and a King. 1. As he is a Priest Use. 2. Comfort by Christ our Melchi­zedek. we are assured of a perfect reconciliation by his all-sufficient Sacrifice. 2. Of sound instruction, for the Priest must teach the Law, his lips must present knowledge. Joh. 4. 25. When the Messiah is come he will tell us all things. We detest the blasphemy therefore that tells us, that he hath left an imper­fect doctrine, that must be eeked with traditions. 3. Of his blessed intercession, which is meritorious and acceptable. Samuel out of his love to the people, 1 Sam. 12. 23. saith thus, God forbid that I should sinne, and cease to pray for you; but I will teach you the good way: Christs love to the Church is no lesse; therefore he will both teach and pray. 4. Of powerfull protection and safety. For he is not our Priest onely, but our King: not our Doctor onely, but our De­fendor; not a Priest onely to pray, but a King to obtain for us, and bestow on us what he prayes for. What if he had never so much power in teaching, if he were impotent in defending? But he is King of peace in himself and unto M [...]gnum in [...] habe­ [...]m [...]atro­ [...]um. us. We have a powerfull advocate in heaven. They never tasted the sweetnesse of this doctrine, that seek after any other Mediator.

III. Hence is the happinesse of the Church. As Melchi­zedek Use. 3. [Page 19] blessed Abraham: So Christ our Melchizedek hath We are blessed by our Melchi­zedek. blessed all the faithfull posterity of Abraham, Ephes. 1. 3. with all spirituall blessings in Christ Jesus. But with difference, Melchizedek onely pronouncing blessing, Gen, 14. 19. Blessed art thou of God possessor of heaven and earth: But our Melchi­zedek meriteth and bestoweth blessings of higher kind also than could Melchizedek. For, 1. Christ blesseth by meri­ting blessing, through his most perfect sacrifice pacifying his Fathers wrath: Melchizedek offered no such sacrifice to no such effect, his was accepted by mercy, not for merit, not for his own sacrifice, but for Christs. 2. By actuall procuring the blessing of remission of sinnes and righteousnesse resto­red, a more effectuall blessing than Melchizedek could pro­cure: His sacrifices could onely signifie these in the Messi­ah's, not actually apply them. 3. By gathering, calling, ru­ling, and preserving in spirituall life his whole Church, as members of his own body, and by the donation of his spi­rit: none of which blessings Melchizedek could give. 4. By bestowing eternall life on beleevers, here in the first fruits, hereafter in the harvest: whereof Melchizedek must be a receiver from him the fountain, not a giver, 5. By publish­ing and pronouncing on beleevers all this blessing in the preaching of the Gospel, and sealing it to the hearts of the elect by the daily effectuall voyce of his spirit by the word: which Melchizedek could not doe. Therefore a greater than Melchizedek is here, and a greater blessing than Abraham received from him. Let the world curse, wicked ones rage and revile against the Church and Members, yet as Isaac said of Jacob, Gen. 27. 33, I have blessed him, and therefore he shall be blessed; the same will Christ not say onely, but ac­complish to them.

IV. Hence is the stability and perpetuity of the Use. 4. By our Mel­chizedek the Church a­bides for ever. Church and members. That Christ is the true Melchi­zedek, that is, an eternall Priest; the Church must be e­ternall. For a Priest cannot be without a Church, nor an eternall Priest without an eternall Church, but of Christ it is said, thou art a Priest for ever. Therefore Tyrants shall not waste it, time shall not out-last it, death shall not hinder [Page 20] the being and happinesse of it, no more than it could the eter­nity of the Priest himself, who rose gloriously from the dead, so shall the members. How happy a thing is it to be of this houshhold.

V. The excellency of Christs Priesthood above the Levi­ticall. Use. 5. Excellency of Christs Priesthood above the Leviticall. This is the scope of the Apostle in describing Mel­chizedeks Priesthood so largely. For the Leviticall Priests were homagers to this, yea, to the shadow of it in Melchi­zedek, while they were in Abrahams loines 1. They were men onely of men: Christ the Sonne of God, true God and man. 2. They were sinfull men, and must offer first for them­selves, and then for others, Heb. 5. 3. But Christ was sinlesse, he needed not offer for his own sinnes, Heb. 7. 26, 27. 3. For their office, they were but ministers of holy things, and of salvation propounded in them: Christ because of this order was author of salvation to all that obey him., Heb. 5. 9. 10. 4. They were many, and all ministers of a temporary cove­nant: but he is but one, who hath obtained a more excellent office, in that he is Mediator of a better testament established up­on better promises, Heb 8. 6. For the promises of the covenant of grace are more excellent than those of the Legall cove­nant. 5. They offered often, and the repetition of sacrifices argued their invalidity and imperfection: but he offered but once, and needed not doe it daily, Heb. 7. 27. which argued the perfection, Heb. 9. 28. 6. They offered the bloud of beasts which could not expiate sinne, nor wash the conscience of the sinner, farther than purifying the flesh: but he (not with bloud of bulls and goats, but) with his own bloud entred once into the holy place, having obtained an eternall redempti­on, Heb. 9. 12. and this bloud purgeth the conscience from dead works, verse 14. 7. They served in an earthly fading Sanctu­ary made with hands, and entred into an holy place which perished and failed, according to that elementary and tem­porary worship [...] but he is minister of the true Sanctuary and Tabernacle which the Lord pitcht and not man, Heb. 8. 2. this tabernacle is his own blessed body, in which he performed all his service, called, chap. 9. 11. a great and more perfect Ta­bernacle not made with hands, and verse 24, is now entred not [Page 21] into holy places made with hands, but into the very Heaven, to appear in the sight of God for us. 8. They all ceased, dyed, one succeeded another; as mutable was their whole service, which also ceased and deceased, and gave place to the truth of it, when the fulnesse of time came: but this true Melchi­zedek, being without beginning or end of dayes, hath an eternall Priesthood, Heb. 7. 24. and therefore neither hath nor needeth any successor in earth. Whence every repetition of his sacrifice, bloudily or unbloudily in the Masse, is an high and hatefull blasphemy, a denyall of Christs person to be above the person of Melchizedek, and of his sacrifice to be above Aarons, or that it was offered by the eternall spirit of his Deity.

VI. The excellency of the person shewes the greatness of 6. Sin not to be accoun­ted slight, whose sacri­fice is so costly. the Sacrifice, the greatness of the sacrifice the greatness of the sinne, Melchizedek, because he was but likened to the Sonne of God, Heb. 7. 3. could not offer a Sacrifice to take away sinne: he must be the Sonne of God indeed, and God himself that must doe that. The least sinne, which we account so light, could never be expiated, but by the bloud of him that is God as well as man. All created strength cannot stand under the burthen of the least sinne. Therefore in the worthiness of this person see the unworthiness of thy sinne, to hate and ab­horre it, and thy self in dust and ashes for it. An hainous and execrable offence were that, which nothing could take away but the death of the Prince.


4. Isaac a type of Christ.

I. IN his birth, Isaac the sonne of Abraham the father of the Isaac a type of Christ in five respects. 1. faithfull: a promised seed long before he was born, in whom all the nations of the earth should be blessed. Yea, so strange was his birth, as that he was not to be born by the strength of nature, but of Sarahs dead womb, when it was [Page 22] not with her as with other women: Insomuch as when the Angel fore-told it to her, she thought it impossible, Gen. 18. 12. So Christ the sonne of Abraham commonly so called, the onely Sonne of God by nature, who is the Father of all the faithfull, who are taught to say; Our father, &c. The onely true promised seed long before prophecied of, and ex­pected of beleevers before his manifestation about four thou­sand yeares. Borne and incarnate not by the strength of na­ture, but by the power of the holy Ghost after an uncon­ceiveable manner; so as when the Angell told his mother Mary of his miraculous manner of birth, she thought it im­possible, and said, How can this be? Luk. 1. 34. And in him onely the whole spirituall seed of Abraham, all Gods people of Jewes and Gentiles were blessed, Psal. 72. 17. the Na­tions shall blesse him, and be blessed in him. Which Prophecy cannot be understood of Salomon; for scarce his own nati­on was blessed in him, who by his sinne lost tenne tribes of twelve from his own sonne: and verse 5. they shall fear him so long as the Sunne and Moone endure from one generation to another, verse 11. all Kings shall worship him and serve him: and, verse 17. his name shall be for ever: all these are true in Christ onely. Thus as Isaac was founder of a mighty state: so Christ of all the Church of God in all nations onely blessed in him. As Isaac was his fathers heire: So Christ heire of all things, Isaac hath goods onely.

II. In his suffering. 1. Isaac was circumcised the eighth 2. day: so was Christ. Luk. 2. 2. Isaac in his infancy was persecuted by Ishmael, Gal, 4. 29. So Christ by Herod, Mat. 2. 3. Isaac carried the wood of the burnt offering upon his shoulders even to mount Moriah, Gen. 22. 6. So Christ carryed the Crosse on which he was to be nayled, even to Golgatha. 4. Isaac was led away as a Lamb to the slaughter: So Christ was lead away, Joh. 19. 16. to death. 5. Isaac with­out reply submitted himself to his father even to the death; suffered himself to be bound on the wood, and yeelds himself burnt offering unto the Lord: Even so Christ without reply was obedient unto his father unto the death, and was con­tent to be bound, not as Isaac for himselfe alone, but for us [Page 23] and them; and layd down his life a whole burnt offering, and a ransome for many, Joh. 16 28. Thus were both Lamb­like sufferers, both bear their Crosse, both without reply led away, both bound and fastned on the wood, both willing­ly obedient to the death.

III. In his offering, 1. Both sonnes, onely sonnes, inno­cent, beloved of their fathers; Abraham did all at Gods 3. Et Isaac Christus erat & aries Christus e­rat. Isaac si­bi ligna por­tabat: Chri­stus crucem propriam ba­julabat. Pro Isaac aries, &c. Aug. Act. 2. &. 4. Cervamat [...] ­tina. Commandement, and lifted up his hand: So Christ by the determinate counsel of God was delivered by wicked hands. Abraham offers his sonne freely: God more freely offers his sonne out of his bosome. 2. Abraham by Gods commissi­on riseth early in the morning to sacrifice his sonne; and Isaac riseth as early to obey his Father: So the Jewes by Gods permission break their sleep, and early in the morning proceed to the condemning of Christ, who is called the Hinde of the morning. Psal. 22. 1. compassed with dogges that hunted his life; and Christ, as another Isaac, after his passion rose early in the morning to fullfill the work of his fa­ther. 3. Neither of them must be offered every where or a­ny where but both in a mountaine, and such a mountaine as must typifie Christs humane nature. MountMoriah must bear the Temple built by Salomon, a type of Christs body, Joh. 2. 19. Mount Calvary must bear the body it self; and these two hills, if they be not one and the same (as Augustine thinks, and it is not unprobable but that Golgotha was the skirt of Moriah) yet could they not be farre distant, the one be­ing within the gate of the City, and the other not farre with­out, the nearest to the City of all. 4. The Father layes first the wood upon both, and then both upon the wood, both must feell the weight of the wood, no small wood to burne a man, a whole burnt offering as Isaac: but the wood which Christ bore was farre heavier. 1. For the greatnesse of the burthen. 2. For the burthensomenesse of our sinnes Ob moli [...] magnitudi­nem. Ob peccato­rum molem. Isai 53. 4. He bare all our diseases. And then both by Gods appointment were bound on the wood, fastned hand and foot, not that either was unwilling, but to retaine the man­ner appointed for a sacrifice. 5. Isaac must be offered alone, the servants must stay at the foot of the hill a farre off, little [Page 24] knowing th businesse and sorrow in hand: So Christ must tread the Winepresse alone, Isai. 63. 3. the Disciples fear and fly, and little consider the agony of their Master. 6. The Father carrys in his hand the sword and fire against his own sonne; the sword signifying the justice of God, the fire his burning wrath against the sinnes of men: Both bent a­gainst Christ, both sustained by this Isaac; in whom the justice of God is satisfied, and the flame of his wrath extinct and quenched.

IV. In his scape and deliverance. 1. The blow is a fetch­ing, 4. but Abraham must hold his hand, Isaac's flesh must not be pierced or cut: The souldiers ready to break the leggs of Christ (as of the two theeves) must stay their hands; not a bone of him must be broken. 2. Isaac offered, and three dayes dead in his Fathers purpose and minde, yet dyed not, but his Father received him as from the dead: So Christ of­fered upon his Divinity dyed not, and his humanity dead in the belly of the earth, after three days he revived, and ray­sed himselfe againe to dye no more. So both were delivered from death the third day: wherein the Apostle plainly makes him a type, Heb. 11. 16. from whence he received him as in a [...]. type or resemblance, that is, to be a type or resemblance of Christs resurrection from death. 3. The Ramme that was of­fered for Isaac was caught by the head among the thornes, and hanged in a bush: Christ our sacrifice was hanged on a tree crowned with thornes, and so hung on the Crosse to expi­ate our sinnes compared to thornes and bryers, which would for ever have held us if they had not held him.

V. In his mariage. 1. Rebeckah was fair and beautyfull: 5. Similitude of Rebec­kahs marri­age, and the Churches. so the Church is faire in the beauty of Christ, and fair with­in. 2. She was of his own kindred and flesh, Gen. 24. 4. so Christs spouse is of the same flesh which himself assumed. 3. She was wooed by his Fathers servants, and brought for­wards towards Isaac: so the Church is wooed by Pastors and Preachers, the servants of Christ, and so brought forwards by his friends towards the bridegroome. 4. She resolved to forsake all her friends and comforts to come to Isaac: so the Church forsakes all in affection and actually, being [Page 25] called to enjoy her head and husband Jesus Christ. 5. She decks her selfe with jewels and trims her self before she comes to Isaac, but covers all with a vaile: So the Church prepares her selfe as a Bride for a Bridegroome, trims her selfe with faith and grace as Jewels, but covers and vailes all with hu­mility, modesty, shamefacenesse, as not worthy to be seen, much lesse matched to such an husband. 6. In her comming How Christ meets his Church. towards Isaac, Isaac meets her: so the Church cōming towards Christ he meets her a far off. 1. by his grace of election. 2. By his most intire love and affection. 3. By most gracious accep­tation. 4. In person and Incarnation. 5. In glory and power at the last Judgement for her finall salvation.

I. In the type and truth note a pattern by which to frame Vse. 1. A pattern of obedi­ence. our obedience. Phil. 2. 8. Let the same minde be in us that was in them. 1. To be humbly obedient unto our father as they 2. Having never so difficult a Commandement. As A­braham rose early to obey God: and Isaac as early to obey his Father, and Christ was content early in the morning to be prosecuted to death: so let us not procrastinate, but hasten to our duty, especially to our sacrifices of prayer and prayses early in the morning. Psal. 108. 2. 3. As Ahra­ham in offering, or Isaac in obeying consulted not with flesh and bloud, acquainted neither Sarah nor the servants, nor consulted with humane wisedome to hinder obedience: no more must we in our obedience. So Paul Gal. 1. 16. pro­fesseth of himselfe that he communicated not with flesh and bloud after he had a calling. If flesh and bloud will object any thing against obedience, and extoll it selfe against the knowledge of God, bring it captive into the obedience of Christ, 2 Cor. 10. 5. 4. Obey in suffering, as well as in do­ing; dayly take up our crosse (as both they carryed the wood of their offering) and not repine nor reply. We must not think that by carrying our crosse we can performe the work Non ad [...] sic Christus tantum: ta­men quoad [...], etiam propter [...]. of our redemption, for to that end it was carried by Christ onely; yet we must carry it so farre forth as he is a patterne for our imitation, yea, that we may be conformable to the image of Christ, Rom. 8. 29. 5. For the measure, stick not at heavy crosses and burthens, they carried heavie loads [Page 26] of wood. We must not love our lives to death, if God call us thercto. For both they were obedient unto death, Phil. 2. 8. Such a testimony is given of the Saints, Revel, 12. 11. they loved not their lives unto the death.

Now thus to frame our obedience are required two rules. Two rules for our obe­dience.

I. A change and renovation of our crooked and corrupt nature, which is ever rebelling against the law of the mind. Nothing (we say) is hard to good will: But this good will is not to be found but in such as are regenerate by the Spirit of God, who hath made it of an unwilling, a willing will. And till this change be made, every commandment is impossi­ble, and an intolerable yoke. Let Christ give the same com­mandement to the young man, and to the disciples, of leaving all and following him, it is an impossible taske to the one, yet in his naturall estate, but an easie yoke to the other, who with the commandement receive some secret power to draw them to obedience. Let the word command an angry, fu­rious, natural man to forgive his neighbour that wrongs him, and blesse him that curseth him, and doe good for evill, and recompence love for hatred: Oh this is an impossible com­mandment, and flesh and bloud cannot possibly brooke it; and indeed he must be more than flesh and bloud that can heare it, he must have a spirit subduing his will unto the will of God. Let God speake (as he did to Abraham) to a man unconverted: Offer me up now, not thy sonne, but thy sin, thy dear lusts; thy Usury, thy Revenge, Swearing, Lying, thy Herodias, thy Dalilah, thy Darling, thy Pride; take the knife into thy hand, and with thine own hands kill it, sacrifice it, let out the life bloud of it: Oh what grutching, gainesay­ing, rising up against the word, and him by whom God com­mandeth? Every naturall mans sinne is his Isaac, his childe, his best beloved, his joy and laughter, he cannot spare him, he cannot part with him. Though the Lord be in never so great haste and earnest, they be not so hasty to rise up with Abraham, early in the morning to offer up their sinnes; a plain evidence that as yet their nature was never changed, but they are in their sinnes.

[Page 27] Rule II. In dangerous, and difficult, or costly comman­dements, prop up thy faith with consideration of Gods power and truth. So did Abraham in this difficult comman­dement, when he might have considered of a thousand strong hinderances, he strengthened his faith by this, Heb. 11. 19. he considered that God was able to raise him up even from the dead, whence after a sort he received him. Thus he sup­ported his faith in that word of promise, Rom. 4. 20, 21. he considered not Sarahs dead body, but was fully assured that God (whom he beleeved, who quickneth the dead, verse 17.) who hath promised, was also able to do it. These two props upheld him, even the full assurance of Gods truth in promises, and power in performing them. In duties of apparant danger, the cast­ing an eye on Gods truth and power will bring them forward, else they never come on, Dan. 3. 17. Our God is able to deli­ver us, and he will; but if not, &c. So in the time of dan­ger and deep distrhsse, cast thy selfe on the might and truth of God, who quickneth the dead, who can say to the dead live, and they shall live. In duties chargeable, if thy obe­dience must cost thee some part, or the whole of thy estate, looke on Gods power and goodnesse. So the prophet to Amaziah, 2 Chron. 25. 9. what shall we do for the hundreth talents? The Lord is able to give thee more than this.

Object. But I know not whether he will.

Sol. Faith assures it self there is never any losse in obey­ing God. It knowes the way to keep Isaac, is to give up Isaac. It hath a promise, whosoever forsaketh house, lands, &c. for Christ, he shall have an hundreth fold.

II. In both we have a nolable type of our resurrection. Use. 2. A type of our resur­rection. Isaac was raised the third day, as from the dead: but Christ indeed raised, not as Isaac for himselfe, but as an head for his body and members. Which assureth us 1. That we shall rise out of all petty deathes and dangers, for our head is a­bove water. Though the billowes of afflictions inward and outward may rinse us, and run over us, yet they shall not drown us, because our head is aloft. They may threaten and affright us, but shall not drown and destroy us; we shall wade out well enough, because they can never go over our [Page 28] head any more. 2. That we shall at the last day rise from all the death of mortality and corruption; in which argument the Apostle is large to prove, that because Christ the head is risen, the members must also rise againe. For, 1. Can or will a 1 Cor. 15. 12. living and powerful head be always dismembred and sundered from the body? 2. Because Christ rose not as a private person as Isaac did, but as the first fruits of them that slept, v. 20. 3. Be­cause Christ in his resurrection is opposed to the first Adam, v. 21. For as by the first Adam comes death on all; so by the second Adam resurrection from the dead. This is a sure prop and stay against all the miseries & occurrences of this life, & a­gainst the bitternes of death, and horror of the grave, that we are assured of a better resurrection, else were we of all men most miserable, verse 19.

III. A sweet consolation. God watched every motion Use. 3. Matter of sweet conso­lation. in both these Isaac's offering; how farre Abraham should go, how long, to the lifting up of the knife; and where he should stay; and when was fit to say, do the boy no hurt: So he watched the executioners, the crucifiers, how farre they should proceed with Christ, but stayed them from breaking his bones, and kept him from seeing corruption. So when Gods time and terme is come, the affliction and afflicter shall goe no farther; a voyce at length shall come, and say: Stay thy hand, do him no hurt.

IV. Both were delivered, but not till the third day; the Use. 4. Look for help, though the case be desperate. Luke 24. one when the knife was up, the other being dead and hopeles at least in the account of men, as appeared by the words of the disciples which were going to Emmaus. Hence we learn to make this use for the strengthening of our faith: Then to look for helpe and deliverance, when the case is desperate, and in humane sence we are gone. There is life in this com­fort, which assureth us of life, even in death, as Hos. 6. 2. After two days he will revive us, and in the third day he will raise Gen. 22. us up, and we shall live in his sight. In all wants and extreami­ties let Abrahams voice to Isaac comfort thee: God will pro­vide. Deus provi­debit. If Isaac see Abrahams sword in the one hand, and fire in the other ready to devoure him, yet a little while and the sword shall be put up, and the fire shall take another object. So the faithfull Sonnes of Abraham, seeing God [Page 29] the Fathers sword of justice drawn against them, and the fire of his fury ready to consume them, yet at length shall see by Christ the sword put up, and the fire of wrath turned againe into a flame of love and grace. Faith hath a cheer­full voyce: God will provide. Unbeleefe is full of repi­nings and murmurings: Oh how shall I be provided for, in this or that? I see no meanes, &c. Here the difference holds which was between the ten spies and the two, Numbers 13. If thou see not the meanes for thy deliverance, go to the Mountaine there is a Ramme for Isaac: hasten thy obedi­ence, and God which set thee on work, will hasten thy de­liverance.


5. Ioseph a type of Christ. 4. waies. Ioseph a type of Christ 4. wayes. 1. Gen. 30. 24 Luke 1. 18.

I. IN regard of his person. 1. Joseph was the first borne of the beloved Rahel, as Christ was the first borne of the freely beloved Mary. 2. Best beloved of his father, Gen. 37. 3. figuring Christ who was declared the well-beloved Decorus fa­cic, pulchrior mente. in whom his Father delighted, Matth. 3. 17. 3. He was very beautifull, Gen. 39. 6. and his internall beauty was more than his externall: Christ was more beautifull than the sons of men, and making us beautifull in his beauty. 4. Joseph was endued with such a measure of wisedome and under­standing as none was like him, in whom Gods Spirit was. For which cause he was called Zaphnathpaaneah, verse 45. Gen. 41. 38. that is, an expounder of secrets: figuring Christ in whom were treasures of wisedome, and the Spirit beyond all mea­sure; who is therefore called the great Counseller, and the Lambe onely worthy to open the book, who onely hath the key of David to open the secret mysteries of salvation. 5. In Jacobs last Testament, Joseph is called a fruitful bough, whose branches runne upon the wall, because out of him branched two tribes, Ephraim and Manasseh, therein he was a type of Gen. 49. 22 [Page 30] Christ, who is not a fruitfull bough onely, but a root from whom all the tribes of God branch out and flourish. And whereas those tribes are come to nothing; Christ shall see Isai 53. 10. his seed, and prolong his dayes.

II. In his actions. 1. Joseph was sent by his father to vi­site 2. Gen. 37. 15. his brethren in the wildernesse: So was Christ sent to seek his brethren wandering in the wildernesse, he was sent to the lost sheep of Israel. 2. As at thirty years, Joseph was preferred to his Office by Phanaoh: so at thirty years Gen. 41. 42. Christ entered his Office. 3. As by Pharaoh a virgin was gi­ven Joseph to wife, verse 45. So is the Church as a pure Vir­gin given by the Father to Jesus Christ, as his spouse to san­ctifie and save: All that the Father giveth me, shall come Ioh. 6. 37. to me: and him that commeth to me I will in no wise cast out. 4. As Joseph out of Pharaohs garners feeds all Egypt, all his fathers house, and the nations; whence in Gen. 49. 24. he is called the feeder of Israel, and a stone, that is, a rocke or refuge to his brethren: So Jesus Christ is the feeder of Isra­el, and of all the family of God in all Nations of the earth, not with temporall food onely, but with the Manna from heaven, the word and Sacraments, and his owne flesh and bloud, the incorruptible and indeficient bread and water of life. 5. As Joseph in his lowest estate was both a Lord in the prison, and a comforter of the prisoners, assuring the But­ler of his life, and recovery of his place: So Jesus Christ at his lowest abasement, was Lord over death and the grave, having command of them, and his last breath on the Crosse almost comforted the poor thiefe promising him both life and glory. 6. As Joseph doth all the good he can for his brethren that had ill deserved it: For, 1. He teacheth them how to live together, and commends brotherly love and con­cord, fall not out by the way. 2. Teacheth them how to Gen. 45. 24 speake to Pharaoh, and what to demand. 3. Goes to Pha­raoh, and speaks, and obtaines for them whatsoever he would, and placeth them in Goshen the fat of the land, till they come to Canaan: So Jesus Christ above all lessons commended to us the new Commandement of love, a badge of his disciples; teacheth us how to pray, and what in the Lords [Page 31] prayer; himselfe intercedes for us, and obtaineth all that good is, and provides for us in earth till we come to Ca­naan.

III. In his sufferings and passions. 1. The archers grie­ved 3. him, Gen. 49. 23. that is, not his Mistris onely and Ma­ster, but his brethren also conspire against him, although sent from his father in love, and comes in love to see how they do, and to know their wants; yet they scorne him, be­hold yonder dreamer comes; they consult to kill him, let us kill him and see what will become of his dreams: So Jesus Christ came among his own, sent from his Father in love, pitying the wanderings and wants of men; but the Jewes scorn him for a deceiver, plot to kill him, conspire against his life. 2. As his brethren sold him for twenty pieces stript him naked, and cast him into a pit, sent hin as a slave into Egypt, where he (being indeed free) became a servant: So Jesus Christ in his infancy was sent into Egypt, sold by the Jewes for thirty pieces, stript naked of his apparrel, and in the form of a servant cast into the pit of death and the grave, whence they thought never to have heard more of him, as Josephs brethren did. 3. As in this service Joseph was tempted to whoredome by his wanton Mistris when they were alone, and that often and daily; but by strength of grace stoutly re­sisted, yea conquered her and himself: So was Jesus Christ in the enterance of his Ministery strongly assailed by Satan to spiritual whoredome when he was alone in the wildernesse, and that often set upon; yet by the power of the Spirit o­vercame and conquered, so as the evill one found nothing in him. 4. As in this service (notwithstanding his faithful­nesse and innocency) Joseph was falsely accused, condemned, cast into prison with the Butler and Baker: So was Jesus Christ notwithstanding all his innocency falsely accused, they lay things to his charge he never knew, as falsly condemned, bound, yea fastned to the crosse between the theeves, and cast into the grave as into a prison, till the time of his de­liverance came, that he was taken out from prison and judge­ment, as Isai. 53. 8.

IV. In his advancement and preferment. For, 1. As 4. [Page 32] Joseph was separate from his brethren, Gen. 49. 26. that is, ad­vanced by God to honour above them all: So Christ was separate and advanced in glory above men and Angels, Heb. 1. 4. hath obtained a farre more excellent name than the An­gels. 2. Though Joseph was shot at by the archers, yet his arme was strengthened, the bonds and fetters were loosed, and he not onely brought out of prison, but advanced to be Lord over the whole Land, and next unto Pharaoh, having all administration delivered unto him: So Jesus Christ, al­though he was a But or signe of contradiction, yet his arme was strengthened to raise himselfe out of the grave, to loose all chaines of sinne, to loose all sorrowes of death, and be­ing risen againe was advanced and exalted above all crea­tures, all power given him in heaven and earth, his throne set next unto his Fathers, the Lord of his Church, and ru­ler of the whole earth, to him is committed the government, and his bounds are the utmost hills, Psal. 2. yea, the whole Church in heaven and earth is his to whom all power be­longs. 3. As Pharaoh every way honoured Joseph; As 1. He richly decks and attires him, puts a golden chaine on his neck, Gen. 41. 42. 2. They must cry before him, Abrech, that is, every man must bow to him. 3. Every man must de­pend on his word, Gen. 41. 55. Goe to Joseph (saith Pharaoh) and what he saith to you, do yee: So God the Father hath highly exalted his Sonne Jesus, and given him not onely the rich robes of immortality and glory, but a Name above all names, that at his Name every knee shall bowe. He appointed not John Baptist onely to be his fore-runner to make way for him, but all the Apostles and Evangelists cry before him Abrech. Yea, all faithfull pastours and teachers, whose of­fice is to bring men to stoope under the subjection of Jesus Christ. Yea, he hath given his Sonne plenary authority to govern his kingdome, and commands us, as another Joseph to hear him. Use 1. No newes for good men to be hated for their excel­lency.

I. From the type and truth learn. It is no new thing for the best men to be hated and wronged for their excellency and innocency. Joseph was therefore hated of his brethren, because most loved of his Father, Gen. 37. 4. Christ was hated [Page 33] because he was the light, and gave witnesse unto it. This is a certain truth, if God will testifie to a man, the world will testi­fie against him, whose judgements are contrary to his. If God will advance a man in grace, the world will depresse him. If God be extraordinary to Moses, Aaron and Miriam, his brother and sister will hate him. If David be respected, Saul will envy him. Who can stand before envy? not natu­rall brothers. No marvail if men say as of old: If we let this man alone all men will beleeve in him. Well: an evill eye is a sign of an evill man, that dares in his thoughts check the Almighty for doing with his own as he will. And a good man cannot expect a surer confirmation in goodnesse, than to be hated for it; as in our type and truth. Let us on the contrary there love most where God sheweth most love: nor let any Joseph leave his goodnesse for the hatred of his brethren.

II. All the sufferings of Gods children are ordained and Use. 2. All suffe­rings of the godly come of God. Or­dained by him. ordered by him. 1. They are ordained by God. So in the type Joseph sees Gods decree: It was not you, but God sent me afore you. So did the true Joseph, It is not thou Pilate that could have any power over me, unlesse it were given from above, Joh. 19. 11. and Acts 4. 27, 28. against thy holy Sonne Jesus, Herod, Pontius Pilate, with the Gentiles, and the people of Israel gathered themselves together, to doe whatsoever thy hand and counsell hath determined. Let not us look so much at mens malice as at Gods decree. So did David when he said, Shimei curseth because the Lord hath bid him curse David, 2 Sam, 16. 10. If for brethren we find enemies, let us say as Joseph; It was not you God hath an hand in it. 2. Our suffrings are ordered by God. 1. For Ordered, and how. their measure, as in the type; Come, say they, let us kill the dreamer, but they could not: So in the truth; come let us kill the heir, and then the inheritance shall be ours; let us bury him, and lay stones, and watch, and feal, yet with all these they could not keep him under. Fear not evill men, they shall not doe as much as they will, but as God will. 2. For the end, they cannot frustrate the counsell of God, nor his dreames. Neither Gods glory, nor Josephs preferment [Page 34] can be prevented: So the Jewes, Let us put this seducer to death, and we shall well shift our hands of him, what will be­come of his Doctrine, of his Disciples: But all turned to his greater exaltation, as Josephs. Conclude hence, that all the hatred of evill men, unjust accusations, false sentences, cruell executions shall not hurt, but one way or other set forward our truest good. As both Josephs and Christs turn to their greatest advancement, both their innocencies break out as the light. And innocency is innocency, and will be so known, and shall be as the Sun at noon day.

III. A singular comfort Is Christ the ture Joseph our brother? He will 1. know us when we know not him, as Use. 3. Comfort by Christ our Ioseph, ma­nifold. Joseph. He will love us before we can love him, he will love us when we shall not know it, his bowels will earn within him towards us, 2 Cor. 6 9 as unknown, and yet known. He is a stone of refuge to all his brethren, and though he be rough for a while, and try us with temptations and afflictions of sundry sorts as Joseph did, yet he will at length make himself known to be Joseph; he will say, I am Joseph, I am Jesus your brother. 2 As Joseph took order that his brethren should be washed in his house, and set at his own table: So our Jo­seph washeth us in cleaner water, even the pure streames of his bloud, and makes us clean by the water of sanctification, sealing it to us in baptisme, and after feeds us at his own ta­ble, and sets before us the bread and water of life, as in the sacrament of the Supper. 3. As Joseph sent his brethren home with victuals without money, and with Chariots and all necessaries for their journey till they came again to be fully provided for by him: so our Joseph furnisheth us in this our journey and travell with all necessaries without our money or merits, untill we come to dwell with him, and he be all in all unto us. 4. As when Jacob and his sonnes came into AEgypt, and at that joyfull meeting of Father and all the sonnes, Jo­seph went out to meet them: So our Joseph meets us now in our way by his grace and spirit: and at that great meeting of all his brethren, shall make ready the clouds as his Chariot, and come in person in state, and we shall meet the Lord in the air, and be ever with him.

[Page 35] IV. As Josephs brethren behaved themselves to him, Gen. Use 4. Doe to Christ as Iosephs bre­thren to him. 50. 17. So let us behave our selves to Christ. 1. Humble our selves, be ashamed that we have so wronged our brother, pray for pardon; and as it is in Zachary, look upon him whom we (that is our sinnes) have peirced; and lament and be sorry for him, as one mourneth for his onely sonne. 2. Honour him. All our sheafes must bow to his; he hath that extraordinary blessing from above and below, the bles­sing of his Father is strong with the blessing of his Elders, Gen. 49. 26. Christ is blessed in himself, and in his posterity in all ages. 3. Depend on him for food as they, and say with Peter, Joh. 6. 68. Master to whom shall we goe? thou hast the words of eternall life; and for all supplyes apply that to him which is spoken of Joseph, Gen. 50. 19. Is not he for us under God? 4. Let his gracious promises comfort and feed us, as Josephs brethren were comforted by his, Gen. 50. 21. 5. Offer him such gifts as we have, prayer, praises, duty, en­deavour. Be encouraged, Joseph will accept small and mean gifts from brethren, although he need them not, Gen. 43. 15. Our Joseph despiseth not a grain of grace, not smoak­ing flax.


6. Moses a type of Christ 4. wayes.

MOses was a type of Christ. Deut. 18. 18. A Prophet Moses a type of Christ 4. wayes. Similes, non pares. will I raise up like unto thee: Here is a similitude a like­nesse, no parity no equality. This is the difference; Christ is worthy of more glory than Moses, Heb 3. 3. For Moses was meer man: Christ God as well as man. Christ the builder of Gods house, Moses but a stone in it. Christ a sonne in the house, Moses but a servant, Christ the Lord of his own house being the Church: Moses a servant in his Lords house. Now let us see wherein the similitude is.

[Page 36] I. In his person and estate. 1. Moses was of mean pa­rents and birth: So was Christ of a poor decayed and dryed stock, and born of a poor Virgin, who at her purification brought a pair of Doves, a gift appointed for poor persons Luke 2. 24. Whereas rich folkes must bring a Lamb of a year old, Lev. 12. 6. 2. Moses was no sooner born, but he was exposed to the cruelty of King Pharaoh, and sought out to death: So Christ in his infancy was sought by Herod to be slain. But both by Gods extraordinary and speciall provi­dence saved and delivered, that both might be saviours and deliverers, the one by her whose sonne he was reputed, the other by him whose sonne he was reputed. 3. Moses was a shepheard, he kept the sheep of Jethro his father in law, Exod. 3. and while Moses was in that private estate, we read of little concerning hsi life expressed till he was forty yeares old: So Christ was a shepheard sent to seek and save the lost sheep of his Fathers fold, of whose private life we read as little as of Moses till he was thirty yeares old. 4. Moses was of a most meek and sweet disposition above all men living, yet full of zeal and indignation against sinne, as at the erecting of the Calf, Exod. 32. So Christ a pattern of meeknesse: Learn of me for I am meek; but most zealous and earnest at the abuse of the Temple, Mar. 11.

II. In his office and function. 1. Both appointed by God. Moses sent and raised to deliver Israel out of Pha­raohs 2. Office of Moses and of Christ. bondage: Christ sent to deliver all the Israel of God from the Pharaoh of hell, and all his oppression of sinne, curse, damnation, the most heavy taskes and burthens. Moses was appointed to lead Israel towards Canaan: So Christ to lead the Church, the Israel of God, into heaven. And where­as Moses was to lead them but into the sight of Canaan, and the borders: Our Moses leads us into the heavenly Canaan, and gives us possession. 2. Both were furnished by God to their office. 1. Moses was learned in all the learning of AEgypt: Christ was learned to admiration. His enemies asked, whence hath he all this great learning? Joh. 7. 15. And never man spake like this man, Joh. 7. 46. And at twelve years old he sate among the Doctors conferring with them, [Page 37] Luk. 2. 46. 2. Moses was furnished with many mighty mi­racles, in Egypt in the red sea, and in the wildernesse for the confirming of his calling: all types of the mira­cles of Christ by sea and land, in Townes and deserts to manifest his glory, Ioh. 2. 11. But with difference, Christ wrought by his owne power: Moses by Christ. 3 Botl Execution faithfull for matter and manner. joyfully executed their office, whether we consider the mat­ter, or the manner. 1. For the matter. 1. Moses brings glad tydings to the Israelites of their deliverance out of Egypt, and that from God, Exod. 29 30. Christ brings from God the glad tydings of eternall salvation, and deliverance from the spirituall Egypt and bondage under Pharaoh of hell to all the elect of God. 2. Moses received from God, and de­livered to his people the Law, and was a Mediator between God and his people, Gal. 3. 19. the Law was delivered in the hand of a Mediator: that is, Moses, as Acts 7. 38. Now Moses was Mediator of the Old Testament, not a media­tor Non redem­ptionis, sed relationis. of redemption, but of receiving the law and delivering it to the people, standing between God and them, as his mouth to them, and theirs to him: But Christ our true Mo­ses, 1 not onely receives the Law but fulfils it. 2. When Mo­ses had broken the tables, to shew how we in our nature had broken the Law, our true Moses repaires it againe. 3. He writes the Law not in tables of stone, but in the tables of the hearts of beleevers Joh. 1. 17. the Law was given by Moses, but Grace by Christ. Moses could not pierce the heart, nor supply grace to keep the Law. 4. He is Mediator of a new Covenant, and surety of a better Testament, Heb. 7. 22 and 9. 15▪ 3. Moses gives Israel an excellent pattern of the Tabernacle, and all the utinsils to the very least pins about it: but our Moses delivers a perfect Doctrine from heaven, and certaine and perpetuall rules for the worship of God to his Church & the well ordering of it even in the smal­lest things. And as nothing was left which must not be fram­ed to the pattern seen in the Mount: So hath not Christ left the worship of God in whole or part, in great or small mat­ters to the libertie of men; for then he would have been lesse faithfull than Moses, 4 Moses instituted the Passover [Page 38] and sacrifices from God, offers the bloud of beasts, sprin­kles the houses of the Israelites with the bloud of the Lamb, Exod. 12. by which they were saved from a temporall death, and the revenging Angel: But Christ the true Moses insti­tuted the supper of the Lord, sacrificeth himselfe, offers his own bloud being the Paschall Lambe, who purgeth and sa­veth from death eternall. And as that house onely was ex­empted which was sprinkled with the bloud of the Lamb: So in the Church, salvation is assured onely where the bloud of Dum ex­tendebat manus Moses praese sere­bat typum e­jus qui cruci­fixus est pro nobis. Nam quem ad mo­dum serve extendente manus ceci­dit Amalech, ita cum do­minus manus extendit, dis­soluta est a­cies diabol. Theodoret. in Exod. Christ is sprinkled, and apprehended by faith. 5. Moses prayeth for Israel with his hands stretched out till the even­ing, and while he prayeth, Israel overcometh Amalek, Exod. 17. At Moses prayer Gods wrath is turned away. Num. 14. Christ stretcheth out his hands for the elect upon the Crosse, and made intercession for them in earth, and now continues so to do in heaven; whereby we are both enabled to conquer our spirituall enemies, as also Gods wrath is appeased, and grace and favour returned, Heb. 8. Thus both for the mat­ter faithfully discharged their office in these five things. 2. For the manner containing the difference, it is in Heb. 3. 5, 6. Moses was faithfull in all the house of God as a servant: but Christ as the sonne. Moses in his Masters house: Christ in his own house. Moses by delegate authority: Christ by pro­per power. Moses as a servant foretels his Masters comming, Christ declared the Lord present. Moses in types & shadowes: Christ in body and truth. Moses to one nation the Jewes: Christ taught all nations the true worship. Moses doctrine ac­cuseth, woundeth. Christs doctrine justifieth, healeth, &c. Ioh. 5. 45.

III. In his passion and suffering. 1. Moses being to 3. Suffering of Moses and of Christ. deliver the Law, fasted forty days and forty nights in the Mountaine alone: Christ being to preach the Gospel fasted so long in the Wildernesse alone. 2. Moses, comming arm­ed with authority for the Hebrews good, was rejected both in his person and doctrine and message. The Hebrew could say, who made thee a judge? And Pharaoh will not hearken, Exod. 2. 14. Exod. 7. 4. Nay Pharaoh raged and oppressed the more: Our true Moses comming to save the Jewes sped no better; for thus they protested against him, We have no King but [Page 39] Caesar Joh. 19. 15. And we will not have this man to raigne over us. Yea, his gracious words, and potent works were still contemned and envied by the wicked Scribes and Phari­sees, as at this day by all the wicked in the world, and there is no stilling of the rage of the Devil and his instruments where Christ is truly preached. 3. Moses refused to be call'd the sonne of Pharaohs daughter, and left the Court of Pharaoh to be partaker of the afflictions of Gods people, Heb. 11. Christ descended from the Glory of heaven to save his elect, and to suffer with them, and for them as Moses could not do. Yea, he tooke on him our infirmities and sor­rowes, and on earth refused his right to be a King, when they would have made him, because his Kingdome was not of this world. 4. Both were willing to dye at Gods commande­ment, both went up into a mount to dye; Moses on mount Abarim, Christ on Golgotha. Both carefull to supply their absence to their people: Moses by appointing Joshua his suc­cessor, Christ by sending his spirit to lead his people into all truth.

IV. In sundry particular actions. 1. Moses lift up the 4. Actions of Moses and of Christ. serpent in the wildernesse: So was Christ lift up, Joh. 3. 14. 2. Moses obtained flesh in the wildernesse to feed many thou­sands: So Christ in the desert fed many thousands with a few loaves and fishes. 3. Moses married an AEthiopisse, a stranger, blacke, Christ marrieth the Gentiles, strangers, and in the Encomium of his Church it is said, I am blacke but comely, Cant 1. 4. 4. Moses sweetned the bitter waters of Marah by the tree cast in, Exod. 15. 25. Christ sweetens our afflictions by the wood of his Crosse, Hebr. 2. 10. 5. Moses was called a God; Aarons God for directing him in things of God, Exod. 4. 16. and Pharaohs God, Exod. 7. 1. For executing on him, as God, Gods judgements: But Christ is indeed God, most wise in counsell, most po­tent in revenge. 6. Moses delivered Israel through the Red-sea by his Rod, Exod. 14. So Christ his Church from death by his Crosse through the red-sea of his bloud. 7. Never was God so clearly seen by the eve of flesh as to Moses, who talked face to face: But never did Creature see his face but [Page 40] Christ, Joh. 1. 18. 8. As Moses was transfigured on an hill, Sinai, and so glorious as Israel could not behold his face: So was Christ on mount Tabor, so as his disciples were ama­zed, and wist not what they said. 9. As Christ after death rose most gloriously: So Moses body after his death was most gloriously raised, in which he was talking with Christ on the mount in his transfiguration, Matth. 17. 2. 10. Mo­ses face was covered with a vaile: Our Moses with the vaile of his flesh hid the glory of his Deity, and put on vilenesse in stead of majesty, that men might behold him, and see, and hear him and beleeve.

I. The doctrine of Religion which we teach is of God. For, 1. We teach no other than what Moses taught, nor Use 1. Our doct­rine is of God. no other than what Jesus Christ taught, the one being faith­full as a servant, the other as the sonne in the house. For as there were not two Churches of the old and new Testament: So is there but one faith, one doctrine in substance, onely differing in manner of delivery. 2. This doctrine was per­fectly, fully, and faithfully delivered to the Church, seeing both were so faithfull. If there be a doctrine of traditions un­written; If a doctrine of merits, of purgatory, of intercessi­on of Saints; then was Christ unfaithful, and did not reveale the whole will of his father. Paul a servant revealed the whole will of God, Acts 20. 27. Was the Sonne lesse faith­full? 3. This doctrine is fully and sufficiently confirmed by many and mighty miracles both in Moses the servant, and in Christ the Sonne, and being no new doctrine, it needs no new miracles. It is too idle to call for other miracles, when they cannot prove that we bring any other doctrine. If we should bring in strange and lying doctrines never known to Moses or Christ, as they do, we would cast about for lying wonders, and pretend fabulous miracles to proove them as they do.

II. Whatsoever office or function God sets thee in, be faithfull; so was Moses the servant; so was Christ the Use. 1. Be faithfull in doing thy office. Sonne. Hast thou an high place in Gods house as Moses? be faithfull; see 1 Tim. 1. 12. Art thou but a door-keeper in Gods house? be faithfull, in faithfull performing of what­soever [Page 41] God reveales to be his will. Hast thou received any talent? lay it out to thy Lords advantage, else canst thou not be faithfull. Let thy care and study be, to be found not onely faultlesse, but faithfull in all things according to thy Chri­stian profession; that faithfullnes may be thy praise and crown in Magistracy, Ministery, private life, in the whole pra­ctise of religion; and also thy comfort living and dying, when the Lord shall witnesse unto thee as to Moses in his life time, Numb. 12. 7, 8. and dead, Deutremon. 34. 5, 10. Moses the servant of the Lord died, and there arose no such Prophet.

III. Labour to expresse the fruit of faith, Heb. 11. 26. Use. 3. Shew faith in the fruit of it. to preferre the state of Gods people above all earthly profits and prerogatives: account the despised condition of the Saints above the admired happinesse of wicked men. Moses would joyne himselfe to them when he might have been in the height of honour: Christ would not be in heaven with­out them; but endured more affliction, than Moses could to enjoy them. Hence observe four sorts of people that are not of Christs nor of Moses minde. 1. Polititians, who take the honour and profit of the Gospel, but will none of the afflictions of Christ. 2. Proud persons, who will not looke so low as on afflicted Christians. 3. Temporizers, that looke a squint on them if any suffer for well-doing. 4. Scorners, that despise the society and exercises of Gods peo­ple as too base company and courses for them. Let all such know, 1. That Christ in heaven scornes them not, nor withdrawes himself from them, yea, heaven would not please him without them. 2. That the fellowship of a Kings Court, such as Pharaohs, in riot, feasting, drinking, gaming, is hate­full to a sound mind in comparison of the society of the mi­serable and persecuted Saints, though a fleshly eye cannot see it. 3. That it will be no great comfort to beleeve the Communion of Saints and not enjoy it. 4. That they which despise it here shall never enjoy it in heaven.

IV. In the type and truth we have a sure argument of our Use. 4. Assurance of our re­surrection. resurrection. Moses dead body, hid in the valley of Moab, none knew where, appeared glorious on the hill Thabor in [Page 42] Christs transfiguration: Christs body hid in the grave comes forth glorious, and ascends glorious on mount Olivet. Both teach that our boies are not lost but laid up, and as sure as laid downe in basenesse, shall rise in glory.


7. IOSHUA: Joshua a type of Christ, five ways. A type of our true Joshua, another Moses.

I. BOth Saviours. For Joshua under the very same name 1. Saviours. is propounded a type of Christ. Both had the name Jesus, both saved their people (therefore Joshua is called Jesus. Heb. 4. 8.) the type from temporal and exter­nall enemies, the truth from spirituall and eternall.

II. In his calling. 1. Both succeeded Moses▪ who makes 2. Calling. way to both. 2. Both guides going before Gods people. The type to the earthly Canaan: the truth to the heavenly. 3. Both led them into the land. Joshua led the people not onely towards the land, but into the promised land. What was denied to Moses, was granted to Joshua. Moses might not enter, nor those that had disobeyed: but Joshua e [...]eth and taketh possession for himself, and for all the people: So our Joshua hath taken possession, and led us into the possessi­on of our heavenly Canaan. What Moses Law could not do for our infirmity, Christ by his Gospel hath done for us. That may shew us the way, but this brings us to the ways e [...]d, and gives us all our promised expectation. Thus our Joshua carries us through from this wildernesse to our rest. 4. Both divided the land, and allotted to every man his portion. Joshua having entered Canaan, assignes everyone his porti­on, Josh. 14. 1. Christ ascended unto heaven, prepares for e­very beleever a place, Joh. 14. 2.

III. Both confirmed their calling with many miracles. 3. Miracles. [Page 43] 1. Joshua being to passe over Jordan divides the waters and they gave way unto him: Christ in the same Jordan divides the heavens, Matth. 3. 16. and they testifie unto him verse 17. Joshua divides waters but he ascribes it to the power of the Lord of all the world, Chap. 3. 13. But our true Joshua, being that Lord and God of all the world, by his owne power commanded the seas and they obeyed him. 2. Joshua becompassing the walls of Jericho, and the long blast of rammes hornes overthrew the walls of it, Chap. 6. 5. Our Joshua by as weak and vile meanes in the eye of flesh, even by the sound and blast of the Gospel shakes down dayly the high and thick walls of the Divell and Antichrists king­dome, and of the Jericho of this world, which resists the people of God in their passage to Canaan. By the preach­ing of the Gospel, typified by the sound of the trumpets, our Joshua overthrowes the wisdome, power, seeming sancti­ty, and whatsoever strength of flesh is opposed to the power of the Gospell. 3. Whilst Joshua was destroying the ene­mies of God, the Sunne in the heavens at his word stood still, and stayd his course as a willing spectator of that busi­nesse, and deferred the night least he should want day to smite his enemies in, Chap. 10. 12. So our Joshua whilst on the Crosse he was spoiling principalities and powers, and opening the way to Canaan, commanded the Sunne to stop his course, and hide his face, to witnesse to all the world the great work in hand that day. Of both these dayes may be verified, Josh. 10. 14. there was never before day like, nor after it shall be.

IV. In his fortitude, victory, triumphs. Both of them 4. Valour. [...] mightily miraculous, miraculously triumphant. 1. Joshua was the Judge and Captaine of Gods people, the leader of Uterque ma­gnus miracu­lis, magnus triumphis. Ambr. de offic. lib. 2. cap 20. his Armies, the mighty conquerour of all the enemies that rose up and resisted them. He subdued both princes and peo­ple of the Canaanites. He set his foot on the necks of five Kings at once, and slew them, Chap. 10. 24. nay made his men of warre set their feete on their necks, and trample them as dung, and went on, and in small time had slaine one and thirty kings with their armies, Chap. 12. 10. Never [Page 44] had Israel so many enemies in their passage to Canaan, as Gods people have unto that heavenly Canaan their countrey Moses non pugnat cum Amalecitis sed Joshua, Exo. 17 10. fig. quod non lex nos ab hostibus li­beraret, sed Iesus Chri­stus. and rest, typified by that. Even all the gates of hell, the rage of Satan, the power of sinne, the allurements of the world, whole armies of temptations, a troupe of pleasures, honours, profits on one hand, a whole band of crosses and discouragements on the other, a legion of lusts within our selves. But our Joshua the mighty Captaine, not onely of the Lords hosts, but who is the Lord of hosts, is described to sit on a white horse, whose name is called Faithfull and true; and he judgeth and fighteth righteously, Rev. 19. 11. He hath valiantly triumphed over all enemies, spoyled principa­lities and powers, set his foot on their necks, trodden Satan under his feet, and made us tread him under our feet too. If Joshua have slaine one and thirty kings; Our Joshua hath slaine so many thousand Commanders. 2. by meanes of Io­shuas faithfullnesse and fortitude, not one word failed of all the good things which the Lord had said unto Israel, but all came to passe, Chap. 21. 45. and 23, 14. So by meanes of our Ioshua, all the promises of God concernig heaven and happinesse are accomplished, which are all in him, Yea, and Amen. Heaven and earth may faile, but not one jote of Gods promise but his Ioshua will see it accom­plished.

V. In sundry actions. 1. Ioshua saved Rahabs house that 5. Actions. had the red cord hung out at the window, because they had saved the Spies. Chap. 6. So Christ saves every penitent sin­ner that▪ expresseth faith in his bloud, and love to the true Israel of God, especially his Ministers and Seers. 2. He graciously accepted the Gibeonites, when they humbly sued and intreated peace of him: So a broken and a contrite heart our true Ioshua never despised. He that offers repentant sin­ners grace before they seek it, when they seek it will not de­ny it. 3. When God by Ioshua had wrought that great mi­racle of stopping up the river Iordan till they passed over, Chap. 4. 2. Ioshua commanded twelve men of Israel to ga­ther twelve stones out of Iordan, and set them up memorials of Gods great acts to all posterity: So our Ioshua having [Page 45] wrought many mighty miracles for the confirmation of his holy doctrine, commanded twelve men, his twelve disciples, by the preaching of the Gospel, to erect through all the world, a monument and memory of the wondrous workes of the Sonne of God in the working out of mans salvation, and leading them to the heavenly Canaan.

I. What a fearfull thing it is to be an enemy of God and Use. 1. A fearfull thing to be an enemy of the Church. his Church. Never was Joshua so mighty against the enemies of Israel (not one of whom, were he never so strong, could stand before him) as our Joshua is to roote out at once all his enemies. Art thou an enemie to Jesus, an hinderer of any of his people in their way to Canaan? look to thy self. Sup­pose thou haddest power above Joshua the type, art thou stronger than the true Joshua? He carries victory in his ban­ner. Julian shall cry with his gutts in his armes: O Galile­an Vicisti Ga­lilae. thou hast the victory. The proudest enemy shall be as lambs greace before a consuming fire. Our great Joshua shall set his feet upon thy neck, and make thee the dust of his foot­stoole; nay he shall set the feet of his dispised servants up­on thy neck as Ioshua did. The power of one and thirty kings shall not carry it against him. If thou are an enemy, hasten thy repentance, else thou hastnest thy destruction. If Qui non fa­ciunt Dei vo­luntatem, de iis fit Dei voluntas. thou work not the will of God, God will work his will on thee. And what need any man be offended at the present prosperity of Gods enemies, be they never so great, seeing our Ioshua shall suddenly blast their power and glory, and dash them asunder as earthen vessells.

II. Comfort. All the good word of God for the salvati­on Use. 2. Comfort in our salvati­on accom­plished. of his people shall be accomplished. 1. Though the promise may seem out of minde, Ioshua shall performe every word and syllable of that promise made three hundered years before. 2. Though there be never so many hinderances and mighty lets, they shall not hinder. God promiseth the good land; but how should they get thorow Iordan, seeing there is no other way? Now rather than his promise shall faile, he will invert the order of nature; Iordan shall stop his course. nay runne backward. The like in their comming out of Egypt. God had said, that night they must out; and [Page 46] the sea must give way to the promise. God promiseth Io­shua to overcome five Kings at once; an hard taske, and one day is too little for it; but rather than the night approaching shall dissolve the battell, and any of them escape, he will command the Sunne to stand still, and lengthen the day that his word may be accomplished. Israel in passing to Canaan must passe the huge and terrible wildernesse forty years. Alas what shall they eat or drinke? Can a barren wildernesse af­ford any food, or (if any) for so many hundred thousand men? But before the promise faile, heaven shall raine Man­na, the rock shall give abundance of water. Hath God pro­mised thee daily bread, help in affliction, refreshing in wea­rinesse, remission in sense of sinne, a blessed issue in every triall? Let thy faith give God the honour of truth. Heaven shall fall and earth ascend, before thou beleeving shalt be frustrate, Isai 54. 10. Hath he promised thee the heavenly Canaan? what if thou seest armies of enemies, of discou­ragements? thou being an Israelite shalt not faile. For, 1. Nothing in nature is so strong as the promise. 2. God hath after a sort captivated himself and all his Creatures to thy faith. 3. He may deferre the promise but never deny it or himselfe. Wait still.

III. Is Christ the true Ioshua? 1. Acknowledge him our Use. 3. Duties we owe to Christ our Joshua. Captaine and head. 2. Submit our selves unto him, as Isra­el unto Ioshua, Iosh. 1. 11, 17. All that thou commandest us we will doe, and whether thou sendest us we will goe; as we obeyed Moses in all things, so will we obey thee. 3. Fol­low him as our guid into that eternal rest, and depend on him for our inheritance there. Moses cannot carry us in, for himself must onely see the land. So we may see the land of promise afarre off in the Law; but onely Jesus can bring us in. For, 1. He alone is entered already to take possession for us. 2. He hath undertaken to carry us through our wil­dernesse to our Canaan.

IV. What conditions we must observe in comming to Use. 4. Conditions to be obser­ved in go­ing to hea­ven. heaven, as they in comming to the good land. 1. The land is theirs and possession given, but many Canaanites and Je­busites must dwell in the land under tribute still, Chap. 15. 63. [Page 47] and 16. 10. So notwithstanding all our promises of rest, and possession of peace of conscience, in this world are some, yea many Canaanites and Jebusites to molest Gods people. But at last our Joshua leaves never an enemy unsubdued. There shall nothing which is unholy get within the walls of that City; he sees the last enemy destroyed. 2. They must not come into that land till they were circumcised; for all the forty yeares in the wildernesse they were not circumcised, Chap. 5. 3, 7. Till the shame of Egypt was remooved, verse 9. Joshua cannot bring them into the promised land. Which shame (as Iunius thinks) was the prophanenesse of their fa­thers contracted in Egypt, whereby they grew carelesse of Gods ordinances. Our Joshua brings not us into our Cana­an so long as we are prophane and uncircumcised; till he have circumcised our hearts, and we be holy and sanctified: for without shall be dogs. 3. Ioshua must divide their inhe­ritance by lot, and so every one must receive it; not by right or desert, Chap. 14. 2. And so God commanded Moses, Numb. 26. 55. So our Ioshua divides to the elect their in­heritance in the heavenly countrey, not for their merits and deserts, but by his rich and free gift. If no Israelite could claime of Ioshua one foot out of merit and desert, but all of promise and grace: much lesse may wee our childs part in heaven. Gods mercy is mans merit 4. Ioshua gives them the land with this condition, that for so great labour and travel in preparing so good a land, they afford him an inheritance among them, Chap. 19. 49. Our Ioshua was not inferiour in labour and paines to Ioshua, in purchasing us a better land; and we must give him the inheritance he asketh (so they did to Joshua) that he may dwell among us, or in the middest of us. Now the inheritance he asketh among us is our hearts purged by faith. He desires no more of thee for all his paines but a little roome in the middest of thee, which him­selfe will build and dwell in. If thou dost not give him his demand, besides thy unkindnesse and unthankfullnesse, thy heart shall lie as a ruinous wast, as a nasty and stinking hole, a cage of unclean beasts and lusts, yea, an habitation of Di­vels. 5. Ioshua brings them into the good land, and as soon [Page 48] as they eat the corne of the land, the Manna ceaseth the next morrow, Chap. 5. 12. So when our Ioshua shall bring us into our good land to eat the fruit of it, the good things and meanes of this world shall cease. The Manna, the preach­ing of the word, celebration of Sacraments, faith and hope, &c. But we are sure of better meanes, or better things with­out means; in the hope and expectation of which we must per­severe in the faith, and walk in hope through our wildernesse. The fruits of that good land will be worth all our labour. 6. Ioshua brings none into the land but conquerours, and divides the land to a conquering people: So our Ioshua gives the land onely to him that overcommeth. And he that perse­veres to the end shall be saved. Vincenti da­bo. Rev. 2.


8. Sampson a type of Christ.

I. IN person and condition. 1. His conception foretold Sampson a type in 4. respects. 1. Conception by the Angel of God, Judg. 13. 5. So was Christs. His office foretold, he must be a Saviour: So Christ. Borne beyond strength of nature, of a mother long before barren. Iudg. 13. 3. So was Christ. His mother saluted by the An­gel as Mary was, that though she was barren she should con­ceive a sonne, a saviour; the one shall begin to save Israel out of the hand of the Philistims, verse 5. the other must save his people from their sinnes. And this promise confir­med by a signe to both the mothers, Iudg. 13. 4. Luke 1. 30. 2. Both must be Nazarites, Sampson by the Law of Naza­rites, Nazarite. Numb. 6. 2. Christ by occasion of the place in which he was educated, not by that law. But as a Nazarite signified one that was separate and severed from the common course of men to a more holy profession of sanctity, and to a strict­er care to avoid all manner of impurity, such a one the Pro­phets signified Christ should be; not onely holy and sepe­rate from sinners, but the author of holinesse. And as [Page 49] Sampson was sanctified from the womb: So was Christ much more. So the Angel, The holy thing that is in thee is of the holy Ghost. And herein beyond Sampson, for in Christ are all sanctified. 3. Sampson grew, and the spirit waxed Growth in Spirit. strong in him, so as he became a Saviour of incomparable strength. So Christ grew every way; in stature, in favour with God and man; and the Spirit was so strong in him (be­cause it was not measured unto him as unto Sampson) as he became a Saviour stronger than the strong armed man. He was the true Sampson that overcame many enemies, and slew heapes upon heapes. And although Sampson the type was at last overcome by his enemies: our true Sampson is invin­cible, and hath gloriously triumphed over them all. Both of them were great deliverers; the one from great thraldome and temporall misery: the other from a greater spiritu­all and eternall thraldome under sinne, the Law, Satan, hell, &c.

II. Sampson was a type of Christ in three especial actions. 2. Actions. 1. He found meat in the eater, and from the strong sweet­nesse, and brought some of it to his parents: Christ by his death (which seemed to eat him up) brings us meat, the bread of life, sweeter than honey: and out of this dead Ly­ons mouth, that is, Christ dead, comes sweetnesse. Thence Christiano­rum processit examen in­star apum. August. ser. 107. de temp. sprang whole flocks of Christians, like so many swarmes of bees. 2. Sampson loved strange women, and went among the ene­mies of God for a wife; which might seeme a sinne in him, but that the text saith, It came of God, Iudg. 14▪ 4. A type of Christs love to the Gentiles, casting his love on her that was not beloved, to make his despised and dispersed of the Gen­tiles his spouse and wife: as Hosea 2. 23. I will have mercy on her, &c. Where the whole contract on both parties is set down at large. 3. Sampson put forth his minde in parables and riddles: So did Christ his doctrine to the Pharisees, Matth. 13. 34.

III. In passion and suffering they were very like in many 3. Sufferings. passages. 1. Both sold for money, Sampson by Dalilah to the Princes of the Philistims, Iudg. 16. 5, Christ for thirty pieces of silver unto the chiefe Priest. Both betrayed by [Page 50] their most familiar; the one to the Philistims, the other to the Pharisees. Both under pretence of love, Sampson by Dalilah, Iudg. 16. 15. Christ by Iudas with a kisse; both ap­prehended by their enemies, both led away, both bound, both brought forth at a great feast, both blinded, both scorn­ed, both fastened to a post, the one of the house, the other of the Crosse. 2. As Sampson offered himselfe freely unto death among wicked men, as a most valiant Captaine being called to be a revenger of Gods enemies; and therefore it it is said, Heb. 11. he dyed (not as a self-murtherer, but) in faith; that is, as a faithfull servant of God adventured his owne life for the destruction of the enemies of God and his Countrey, as every good subject and souldier (pressed to the field) ought to do. So Jesus Christ voluntarily offered him­selfe to death, and went out to meet the apprehendors, and was content to dye among wicked men, and to be hanged be­tween two theeves, that he might destroy and scatter the powers of the enemies of his Churches salvation.

IV. In victory and fortitude. 1. His first stratagem (which was as a praeludium to his calling) in which he assayed his Stratagems and victo­ries. power, was that he overcame a stout Lyon in the desert, and slew him with his own hand, Chap. 14. 6. and tare him as one should have rent a Kid: So the first powerfull worke in which our Sampson shewed himselfe, was the conquering of the de­vill that roaring Lyon hand to hand, who assaulted him in the wildernesle by three horrible and hellish temptations. 2. Sampson flew with his owne hand (being alone) above a thousand men at once, having nothing but the jawbone of an Asse; a weake, base, and insufficient weapon for so great a warre and victory; and as it was unfit, so it was an unclean weapon of an unclean beast by the Law, which his strict pro­fession of a Nazarite should not have touched, had it been out of case of necessity: So our true Sampson by as weake instruments, and as contemptible in the eyes of flesh, con­quers thousands daily; while by the foolishnesse of Preach­ing, by the doctrine of the Crosse, by weak earthen vessells he subdues whole countries and kingdomes unto him; that the work may be knowne to be his own hand and power, and [Page 51] not the instruments. 3. Sampson slew more of Gods enemies at his death than in all his life, Iudg. 16. 30. And this was the effect of the death of Christ, when sinne, Satan, hell, the grave, and his enemies seemed to triumph over him, and make themselves merry (with the Philistims) as having in their power their greatest enemy; but suddenly he afflicted them more in his death than in all his life. This death of Christ pulled Satans house over his head; it was the death of death, and squeasing of all enemies at once. 4. Sampson being in the City Azzah, and the Citizens nowlying in wait to kill him, and to make an end of so furious an enemy whom they had sure within their gates, he arose at midnight, and tooke the doores of the gates of the City, and the two posts, and lift them away with the barres, and layd them on his shoulders and departed, Chap. 16. 3. So when satan and sin­ners had buried Christ, laid a stone on him, sealed it, and watched him, thinking they had him sure enough, never to molest them more; he like another mighty Sampson rose in his might, carried away the gates and barres of death from himself and all his members. All the bonds of death and sinne, with which he was bound in our steed, he shooke off, as Sampson did the seaven green cords, and broke their power as towe is broken when it feeleth fire. 5. Sampson never had help from any other, in slaying the Lyon, the ene­mies; but with his own hands, without any other second or weapon: So Christ in the wildernesse alone; in the garden at prayer alone; before Pilate alone, all the disciples fled; on the Crosse alone. No other must tread the winepresse; none must share in the honour, nor conquest with him.

1. Not to judge of the piety or impiety of Gods chil­dren Use. 1. Judge none by outward calamities. by their calamities. Sampson hath many enemies, many conslicts, many dangers; by the Lyon, the Phi­listims, the Azzhites, and his own wife; his life painfull, his death violent: Jesus Christ himselfe beset with enemies on all sides, as the sunne with moats; never free from con­flicts with the Lyon, the devill, with his owne Jewes, with Pharaoh, Sadduces, Herodians; his person despised, his mi­racles traduced, his life painfull, his death shamefull and ac­cursed. [Page 52] Yet may we not judge either of them forsaken of Or inward. God, who still assisted them with his own strength, and was strongest in them when they seemed weakest. Neither may we mis-judge the generation of Gods children in their con­flicts Psal. 37. 15. with satan, with temptations, with sinners, or with the terrors of their own hearts. If they shall cry out, My God, 22. 1. why hast thou forsaken me? waite a while and Gods strength shall do great things in their weaknesse.

II. God can and usually doth use strange, weake, and un­expected Use. 2. Strange means used by God for the Chur­ches good. meanes to overthrow his enemies, and the enemies of his Church; his strength is most seen in weake things, his wisedome working by the most foolish. When a thou­sand enemies set upon Sampson at once without any weapon or meanes of defence, he can use a jawbone to kill a thou­sand of them when they thinke him farre enough from any weapon; and if Sampson wants a better and readier meanes against Gods enemies, he can by two hundred Foxes (a most unexpected meanes) burne up their graine and fields at har­vest time: Our Lord by the foolishnesse of preaching can & doth overcome his enemies; nay God can and doth by con­trary meanes wrack his foes. Sampson shall marry a wife a­mong the Philistims to be an occasion of warre and revenge, and this came of God: whereas marriages among Princes ordinarily are made to compose and make up differences, not to make them. Our Lord Jesus overcomes sinne, death, hell, grave, by suffering, by death, by descending into hell, by lying in the grave, most unlikely or contrary meanes. Let Gods enemies fear revenge by every thing, even where no fear is. An enemy of God and his Church is never safe, seeme he never so secure. An Army of frogs shall drive Pha­raoh out of his bed chamber in the middest of his greatnesse; a fly shall choake Pope Adrian, if other meanes be want­ing; and proud Herod shall be eaten up, not by any army of men but of lice.

III. The greatest victory against the enemies of the Use. 3. Our victo­ry stands in patience & passion. Church is by passion and patience, submitting our selves meekly unto God in obedience, walking in our callings, and doing the work of God. Thus did these two mighty Sam­psons [Page 53] most overcome their enemies when they seemed most Illic' qui cae­dit & supe­rat; hic qui caediur & perfert, I llic qui vicissim ferit; hic qui alteri maxil­lam praebet: non in ultio­ne, sed pati­entia victo­ria pondera­tur. overcome by them. Our warre (saith Isidore) is contrary to the striving of the Olympicks. There he gets the garland which striketh and overcommeth; here he which is strooke and suffereth. There he which being strooke striketh againe, here he which offer­eth his cheeke to the striker. And thus he concludeth; Our victory consisteth not in revenging but in suffering. Oh let the children of the Church lay aside worldly weapons, clamour, reviling, revenging speeches or actions; and betake them­selves to the weapons of the Church, prayers, teares, pa­tience, weapons mighty under God. The power of a Christian is patience, who must overcome evill with good­nesse.

IV. In that Christ is the true Sampson, here is much con­solation, Use. 4. Fourfold comfort to Gods peo­ple. and many comforts to the Israel of God. 1. Com­fort. As Sampson revenged the wrong offered him in his wife: So will Christ: Matth. 25. In that ye did it to one of these little ones, ye did it to me. And though Sampsons wife may be taken from him and given to another: Christs can­not. Ioh. 10. 28. none shall pluck them out of my hand. 2. Com­fort. A mightier deliverer is here than Sampson for Israel. For, 1. Though Sampson was strong to overcome a Lyon: our Sampson is stronger to overcome the Devill; not in him­selfe Christ a mightier and better Deliverer, than Samp­son, in six things. onely, but for us, in us, and by us. 2. Sampson was stronge, but might abuse his strength, as he did in whoring and wantonnesse, which in prison he repented: But Jesus Christ used all his strength for God, against sinne and his enemies. 3. Sampson abusing it, might loose his strength, for it was not the parting with his haire, but his sinne grie­ving the Spirit, that weakned him: but Christ could not loose his strength, because he could not loose his obedience. 4. Sampson was so strong, as the Philistims thought it boot­lesse to assay him with power, but by pollicy and indirect meanes they conquer him: but our Sampson cannot be con­quered, neither by power nor by pollicy: for he is stronger than all, and in him are treasures of wisdome. 5. Sampson overthrew the enemies, but that was his owne overthrow: but Christ not so; his conquest was to his most glorious ex­altation. [Page 54] 6. Sampson as a type onely began the deliverance of the Church, but hindered by death could not perfect it: Our Sampson perfected the deliverance and salvation of the whole Church, and did more after death than in his life or death, and will most fully perfect it for all his members in the resurrection. 3. Comfort. The glory of Gods children appeares not yet, but shall when he shall appeare, 1 Ioh. 3. 2. Sampsons strength for a time lurked in the prison: the glory of Christs Deity lay hid a while in the grave, but both most powerfully brake forth: So shall the glory of the despised Saints, Psal. 37. 6. 4. Comfort. We shall never doubt of meanes to comfort and supply us in want. The same God that supplied Sampson a jawbone against his enemies, suppli­ed him out of the same jawbone a well of water to drinke when he was ready to faint. Trust thy selfe with God in thy wants, reserve to him all meanes, instruments, and wayes Psal. 37. 9. of bringing thee help. If thou see no apparant or great meanes of thy comfort and supply, he can use weak and un­expected meanes; onely walk in thy calling, and the rock shall yeeld thee water rather than thou shalt be destitute in Gods way, or work.

V. In both learne to contemne the greatest and extream­est Use 5. In Gods cause con­temn▪ grea­test perill. perill in Gods causes. Sampson offered himselfe to death, so did Christ; he went out to meet his enemies, so must thou, learne not to love thy life to the death, Revel. 12. 11. and with Paul, not count thy life dear to finish thy course with joy. For a man to thrust himselfe in hazard, or venture his life without warrant from God, or by his own private motion, is rash: Injussu Dei, privato af­fectu. And pre­pare for death ap­proaching▪ but God calling, in standing against the enemies of the Church, it is honourable. In both, learn to prepare for death approaching, by faithfull and fervent prayer. So did both these Sampsons. And the issue will be comfortable as theirs; that all thy life and combate shall not give such an over­throw to thine enemies as such a death, though enemies seem never so much to prevaile.


9. David a type of Christ in 5. respects.

AS all the Kings of Israel were expresse types of Jesus Christ, the head of his Kingdome and of all the peo­ple of God, as they in their times were: So were there two of them that were more manifest figures of him than all the rest; I meane David and Solomon. Of both which we are to enquire wherein the resemblance consisteth. David Five things specified in which David was a type of Christ. was so speciall a type of Christ, as scarce is any thing noted of Christ, but some shadow of it might be obser­ved in David.

I. For his person. David the son of Iesse: Christ the true rod out of the stock of Iesse, Isai. 11. 1. Both of obscure 1. 1. Person. and low parentage. Both out of dry and despicable roots. Both Kings. Both Kings of Israel. Both their Kingdomes raised out of humility. Both men after Gods own heart. Both Davids; for even this roote of Iesse was not onely common­ly called by the name of the sonne of David, but of the name of David himselfe, Ezech. 34. 24. My servant Da­vid shall be the Prince among them; which was long after Da­vid was dead Ieremiah 30. 9. They shall serve the Lord their God and David their King, whom I will raise up unto them. Hosea 3. 5. They shall seek the Lord their God, and David their King: that is, not the typicall King David dead long be­fore, but the Messiah the true David, to whom onely prayer and spirituall worship belongs.

II. For his vocation and calling. 1. Both called to be 2. 2. Calling. the head of nations. Psal. 18 43 thou hast made me the head of nations: which was not literally true of David, who was properly King of one little corner in Judea; but of Christ the true David, whose kingdome was from sea to sea, and to the worlds end. David of a shepherd of sheepe, was raised to be a shepherd of men, even of Gods people: So was Christ raised of God to be the chiefe shepherd of the stock, [Page 56] 1 Pet. 5. 4. And not of bodies, as David, but of soules, 1 Pet. 2. verse 25. 2. The time when. David was a­nointed [...] about the thirtieth year of his life, 2 Sam. 5. 4. and Christ was baptized at thirty yeares, and invested into his Office▪ 3. The place where. David made choice of Jeru­salem for his royall seat and Metropolis, being anointed of God to the Kingdome of Israel: So Christ, being a­nointed the everlasting King of all the Israel of God, made choice of Ierusalem there to rule and shew his power upon the Crosse, his Chariot of triumph, crowned with a crowne of thornes: and after in his glorious resurrection, and as­cension, sending the Spirit and the Gospel. And as David added some of the borderers to the kingdome of Israel, as himselfe saith; strangers were subdued to him: So the true Psal. 18. 44. David adds to the Church the whole body of the Gentiles; and hath by the preaching of the Gospel (the sword of his mouth) subdued the world to himselfe. 4. The gifts fitting him to this function. As when David was anointed, the Spi­of God came upon him, 1 Sam. 16. 13. and fitted him to the government of Gods people: So our true David Jesus Christ, anointed with oyl above all his fellowes, had the Spirit of God descending upon himin a visible shape, and by that anoint­ing filled and furnished with the Spirit and all needfull graces for the administring of his Kingdome. 5. As David was preferred above all his brethren in four speciall graces: So Four graces wherein David and Christ ex­celled. was Jesus Christ above David himselfe. 1. In wisedome and prudence, 1 Sam. 16. 18. the servants of Saul observed Da­vid to be wise in matters, and the Lord was with him: and Ch. 18. verse 14, 15. when Saul saw that David was very wise, he was afraid of him. Our true David had all treasures of wise­dome and knowledge; The Spirit of wisdome and understand­ing, the Spirit of Counsel rested upon him, Isai. 11. 2. who is therefore called the great Counseller, Isai. 9. 6. whose coun­sels are farre beyond Ahitophels; his were as the Oracles of God: Christs were so. And our true David gets beyond his type. David in many things (by his own confession) did very foolishly. Our true David never did any thing but the wisedome of God shined in it; with whom not onely God [Page 57] was, but because he was God. 2. In fortitude and magna­nimity Confilium, fi­ne fortitudi­ne & mag­nanimitate, inane. (without which counsell were bootlesse) by which he was able to encounter with a Lyon, a Beare, with Goliah, and all that rose up against him or his people. A man fitted for peace or warre, with counsell and strength. Whose descrip­tion (in part) is contained in the forecited place, 1 Sam. 16. 18. strong, valiant, a man of warre, and wise in matters. A type of our true David, who for fortitude is the invincible Lion of the tribe of Judah; and not a valiant man onely, but the strong God, Isai. 9. 6. the mighty God. See Tit. 2. 13. 3. In gifts of prophecy. He was able to sing divine Psalmes and hymnes to the praise of God; an holy pen-man of the Scripture. A type of Christ, the true Prophet of his Church, not a pen-man, but the Author of all the holy Scriptures. David a Prophet: Christ the Lord of all holy Prophets. 4. In gifts of true sanctification and holinesse; 4. Sanctifica­tion emi­nent in Christ three wayes. being a man after Gods own heart, commended for his up­rightnesse in all matters, save that of Uriah. A type of Jesus Christ; who by the devils confession, was the holy One of God. 1. Himselfe being sanctified beyond all mea­sure. 2. Being the sanctifier of his people; the author, me­ritour, and applier of all sanctifying graces to his members, of whom himselfe is head. 3. In his type were many foule spots [...]: In him no spot nor staine. Therefore the Church sings out his holinesse from toppe to toe, Cant. 5: 10. and concludes him wholly faire and delectable, verse 16.

III. David was a type of Christ in his warres. First in 3. Warres. Followers. respect of his followers, secondly of his enemies, thirdly of his victories. 1. His followers. David had a traine. 1. Of poore men, and received such to him as were in debt, 1 Sam. 22. 2. The Sonne of David had a poor train; and not receiveth onely, but calleth all unto him that are heavy laden with the burthen of sinnes, called debts, promising he will ease them. 2. Afterwards David had his thirty seaven Worthies, that Valiantly fought his battels, 2 Sam. 23. and by their strength carried wonderfull victories: So had the Sonne of David his twelve Apostles, and seventy two disci­ples, who as worthy and stout Champions, fought the Lords [Page 58] spirituall battels, and mightily subdued the world under the government of Jesus Christ, in whose place are succeeded Pastors and Teachers to the end. 2. His enemies. 1. Open Enemies: open and manifest, not onely Goliah that defied all Israel, but Saul that casts a speare at him, that hunts him as a Partridge, that sends out for him to bring him to death, and the house of Saul, Shimei rayling on him, and cursing him with an horri­ble curse, besides Amalekites, Philistims, &c. So our Lord Jesus had open hostility against the great Goliah of hell, and encountered him hand to hand, and conquers him in the wildernesse. But Herod hunts his life every where, the Pha­risees revile him for a deceiver and Demoniack, send out for him to take away his life, and the people of the Jews pursu­ing him with all open hatred and hostility even to the death, and all the wicked tyrants and enemies so many Amale­kites and Philistima. 2. Secret and underhand enemies, that and secret. should have been loyall and loving to him, even his own peo­ple that flattered him with their mouths, but imagined mis­chief against him, Ps. 41. 9. Such as Doeg, Achitophel. Nay he which eat bread with him at his table, his familiar that went up to the house of God with him. And more than all this, he that came out of his own loynes, his own son Absalom; besides the sonnes of his Father, 1 Sam. 17. 28. So our true David had not onely his own Jewes; and brethren hating him with an horrible hatred, and calling his bloud upon themselves; but his own Disciple that had been so familiar with him, that went to the house of God often with him, that knew all his haunts and waies, betraying him, and delivering him to be crucified. And thus Christ himselfe expounds that in Psalm. 41. 9. of himselfe and Judas, Euk. 22. 21. And therefore Interpretors expound such exectations, as Psal. 59, 13. Consume them that they be no more, not so much litte­rally against Saul and other enemies of David; as against the Jewes and enemies of Christ shadowed by them; and so conceive them as they be Propheticall predictions of Jerusa­lem and the Jewes forty yeares▪ after Christs ascension, and o [...] the present wrath upon the hardned Jewes, whose hatred a­gainst Christ liveth at this day▪ as the cu [...]se liveth on them▪ [Page 59] 3. His deliverances and victories, with many of which the Victories. Lord honoured him. As 1. Saul layes wait every where to take him, and pursues him from place to place; but Davids feet were made like Hinds feet in expedition to avoid his ene­my whether Saul or Absalom; who chased him as hunters the silly hare, and he escapes them all though narrowly and strangely. Christ Jesus was often sought after and layd for by his enemies, no kind of snare was undevised to take him in his talke, in his doctrine, in his life and conversation; no meanes unattempted to take his person, but he escaped their hands strangely. Sometimes he went through the middest of them all, who having strong purpose, yet had no power to take him, till the time was come that he delivered himselfe. 2. Saul having wearied himself in pursuit of David, sent mes­sengers to take him three severall times, 1 Sam. 19, 20. but they among a company of Prophets began to prophecy, the spirit of the Lord comming upon them, and they went without him. So the Pharisees sent messengers to apprehend Christ and bring him before them; but comming to him (as Sauls messengers to David) & hearing his gracious words, had no power to take him; but went away preaching and proclalm­ing (as they prophecying) never man spake like this man, Joh. 7. 46. 3. In the comparison between Saul and David (David having ssaine Goliah) was sung: Saul hath slaine his thousand, but David his ten thousand, 1. Sam 18. 10. But there is no comparison between the victories of David and the Son of this David, who hath slaine the great Goliah the Devill, who de­fied all the host of Israel; and not destroyed the devill one­ly, but overcame death, hell, the grave, and chased before him all the armies of sinnes, and bands of temptations which come out against the Israel of God. 4. In that noble victo­ry David cuts off Goliahs head with his own sword: So in the wildernesse the devill, the great Goliah, used Scripture against Christ, and Christ overthrowes him and cuts off his head by the fame sword of the Spirit, the word of God. And now daily he convinceth the wicked enemies by the testimony of their owne conscience, Rom. 2. 15. He needeth no other sword or weapon against them than their own.

[Page 60] IV. David was a type of Christ in his kingdome: first in respect of the entrance, secondly of the administration, 4. Kingdome. Entrance. thirdly of the continuance or eternity. 1. David entered not without strong opposition, much contempt and disdaine: so our David. For of both it was verified, the stone which the Psal. 118. 22. builders refused, is become the chiefe stone of the corner. No man was more despised of Sauls Courtiers than David, who was thought farre enough from the Kingdome: So no man so much despised and rejected of the Scribes, Pharisees, chiefe Priests and People, as Christ. Barrabas an honest man to him: and yet was mightily and unexpectedly invested into his kingdome by his glorious rising from the dead. 2. In Admini­stration. his administration. David will judge uprightly, and sing mercy and judgement; he will endure no hatefull person in his presence. But our David is the just and righteous Judge of all the world; and most sincerely dispenseth mercy to the penitent sinner, but seedes the impenitent with judge­ment. 3. In the continuance or eternity. God promised mer­cy Eternity. to David and his seed forever, which promises are not to Ps. 132. 12. be extended to his carnall succession, for the princely digni­ty is taken from them. Their glory was eclipsed in the cap­tivity, and where be now any of Davids race according to the flesh? But the everlasting seed of David is to be meant. 1. Christ himselfe, in whom his kingdome is perpetuated. 2. The true Israel as well of Gentiles as of Jewes by faith ingrafted into the Messiah, in respect of whom shall be no end of his Kingdome. Thus in all those speeches where­in David professeth he will praise the Lord among the Gen­tiles. David must be taken as a type of Christ, who by his Psal. 18. 49. Spirit set forth the praise and true worship of God among the Nations to the end of the world. And so Paul, Rom. 15 9. interprets it of the calling of the Gentiles. For David could not do this litterally and in person, among whom he never dwelt nor came, but onely in him whose type he was.

V. David was a type of Christ in respect of Christ his 5. Office Pro­pheticall and Priest­ly. 1. prophesticall and Priestly office. 1. David by his sweet mu­sick allayes Sauls madnesse, 1 Sam. 16. 23 Christ by the sweet voyce of the Gospel stills the evill spirits which molest [Page 61] and vexe men, and gives them peace and quietnesse in mind and conscience. And in the dayes of his flesh, how he sought to cure and allay the spirituall madnesse of the wick­ed Scribes and Pharisees against him, is plaine in the story. 2. David brings back the Arke to his right place, 2 Sam. 6. So did Christ, the truth of Gods Law obscured by the false glosses of Scribes and Pharisees; and reduced the true sence Matth. 5. & 6. & 7. and meaning of it. And freed his Church (signified by the Arke) from the spirituall thraldome and captivity of the Law. 3. David buildes an Altar in the grounds of a stran­ger, 2 Sam. 24. 24. namely, Araunah the Jebusite: The true David builds up a Church among the Gentiles, and sets up Gods worship among them that were strangers from the Co­venant. 4. David offers a sacrifice, and the Lord accepts it, sending fire from heaven to consume it, 2 Sam 24. 25. Christ offers the most acceptable sacrifice that ever was, in which both Davids and all ours must be accepted; and in which alone the Lord smels a savour of rest.

I. As the Spirit of God came on David after his anoynting, Use. 1. Enter upon no office without as­sistance of the Spirit. 1 Sam. 16. 13. So did it on our true David after his bapti­zing: to fit them to their waighty offices. Learne 1. That he that is not fitted and furnished with gifts of the spirit in some measure, and attempteth any office in the Church or common-wealth, is not called by God; whose wisedome will not send a blind man for a Seer, nor a dumb man on his message or errand. Would a man know whether he have received of this spirit for his office? A note is, when God A note of it. stirres up his will in that office to performe all the desire of God. Isai. 44. 28. he saith to Cyrus: Thou art my Shep­heard, thou shalt performe all my desire. The Magistrate is a shepheard; he must do in judgement what God himselfe would do in repressing vice, and cherishing religion, else the spirit (who is not contrary to himselfe) leads him not. The Minister is a shepheard; he must speake nothing but what God would speak for the incouraging of grace, and dis­grace of sinne and sinners. God speakes peace to his peo­ple, and feeds the impenitent with judgenent, and he that in his ministery doth speak sweetly to wicked men, and broach­eth [Page 62] ā vessell of gall and wormewood for godly men to drink, is not sent by God on that errand: he crosseth the spirit which he pretendeth. 2. Art thou a private Christian, see that the same spirit rest on thee, and that thou hast received of the same anointing. For 1. he that hath not the spirit, is none of Christs: and 2. w [...]t is it to us that the spirit rest Rom. 8. 9. and light upon Christ, if he should determine all his fruits and graces upon him? But in that the sweete oyntment and Balsame poured upon the head of our high Priest runnes down to the skirt of his garment, that is, to the lowest mem­ber of his Church, Psal. 133. 2. hence are we sweetly and admirably refreshed. Findest thou emptinesse or want of grace? fly to this fullnesse, but observe the diverse manner. To the head is given the spirit in all fullnesse: to us members, of that fulnesse, Joh. 1. 16. To him beyond all measure: to us according to measure.

II. That Jesus Christ is the right and undoubted King of Use. 2. Christ the true King of the Church. And nine waies more excellent than David. 1. Originall. his Church, of whom David was but a shadow. And it will be worth our labour to enquire how farre the truth ex­ceeds the type. 1. For originall, Davids kingdome and all other Kings and kingdomes are mediately from men, either from some meane family, as Jshais, or some greater house in some corner of the earth: But the kingdome of Christ is immediately and unchangeably from heaven. Dan. 2. 44. the God of heaven shall raise up a kingdome, that is immediately; for mediately all kingdomes, Kings, and power is from him.

2. In respect of unction. All they are anoynted, 1. by 2. Unction. men, 2. with materiall oyle. 3. to be temporary Saviours. 4. from temporary dangers. But Christs anointing was by the Spirit of God with more divine and excellent oyle above all his fellowes, Psal. 45. 7. that he might be a spirituall and and eternall Saviour; a Jesus saving his people from their sinnes, and such spirituall evils as pertaine to the life to come. 3. Their titles are stately and glorious. David as an Angell 3. Titles. of God, as the woman of Tekoah said, so Caesar Augustus; Charles the great, Constantine and Alexander the great, to set out their glory. But all these are nothing to the true and un­doubted title of Jesus Christ: who is King of Kings, and Rex regum,[Page 63] Lord of Lords Rev. 19. 16. And if this were too little he hath & Dominus dominantium another, for he is God and man in one Person: our Emmanuel, a stile too high for Pope or Potentate, for men or Angels, Isai. 7. 14. 4. Their Scepters are of metal, gold or silver, 4. Scepters. which they hold in their hands, and by them they save or slay innocent or nocent: But his Scepter is but verball, which he holds in his mouth, the word and breath of his mouth Rev. 19. 15. more pure than the gold of Ophir, more potent than all the Scepters of all Kings put together: By this he slayes the wicked. Hos. 6. 5. I slew them with the word of my mouth. 2 Thes. 2. 8. He shall slay that wicked man of sinne with the breath of his mouth. Other Kings by their Scepters can kill men, but cannot make them alive againe when they have done: but Christ by his word can quicken and make alive dead soules and bodies. They by theirs can be dreadfull to men: Christ by his drives back devils, diseases, death, and all adversary power. 5. In port and state. 1. Their ban­ners 5. State. and ensigns exprese their noble acts, and the honourable exployts of them and their progenitors, which are glorious in the eyes of men: Christs banner for his kingdome of grace is his Crosse, or rather the Gospel, a doctrine of the Crosse, to the world foolishnesse or basenesse; but in his kingdome of glory, the signe of the sonne of man, that is, such glory and power as agrees to none else. 2. Their ser­vants and attendants must be rich, stately, noble, and the sonnes of great Princes must be nearest to attend them: Christ Jesus (in contempt of what the world admireth) will have his servants poor, meek, lowly; not such losty Lords as so farre excell the Emperour in worldly glory as the Sunne the Moone, the Popes ridiculous claime; and yet they be Sonnes of God, heires of heaven, brethren of Christ, and of the royalest bloud that ever was. 3. When they ride in progresse, they shew their state, pompe, and worldly glory. Great Alexander gets upon his Bucephalus: Pompey triumphs upon an Elephant: Anthony rides upon Lyons, Aurelianus upon Harts and Bucks. Christ (had his kingdome been of this world) could have imitated them. But while he was in the world (to shew that his kingdome had no similitude [Page 64] nor correspondency with the Pomps of earthly kingnomes) in his progresse he gets on an asse, and in'stead of a saddle of state, he had poore mens clothes spread under him. But when he shall shew his glory, he shall ride upon the Clouds, as on an horse, with such attendants and majesty as all the Potentates on earth were never capable of, nor shall be able to behold. 6. In amplitude and absolutenesse. They will 6. Absolute­nesse. be free Monarchs and Commanders, their will and every word of theirs must be a Law: but never was any kingdome abso­lutely Monarchicall but Christs, all earthly kings ever held in fee of him. By me Kings raigne. Prov. 8. 15. Never any other included all kingdomes of the world in it, and under it, but this. Never any to whom all Princes were subject but this. Never was there any of them which shall not be brok­en to pieces by this little stone, if it stand in opposition a­gainst him, Dan. 2. 45. 7. In dispensing justice. 1. They 7. Iustice. Ex allegatis & probatis. must judge by evidence and proofe, by the sight of their eyes, and hearing of their eares, but he shall not do so, Isai. 11. 3. For he shall try and discerne the reynes and secrets of all hearts, and shall judge things as they be, not as they seem. David judged according to the hearing of his eare, rashly a­gainst Mephibosheth: Christ shall not do so. 2. They can pronounce their subjects just and innocent: but he can make them innocent and just, communicating his own righteous­nesse to them, which no Prince can do. 1 Cor. 1. 30. He is 8. Meanes of upholding it. made to us righteousnesse. 8. In meanes of upholding and maintaining. 1. They must winne holds as David Sions fort, and enlarge themselves by force of armes, dint of sword, multitude of souldiers: But Christ sends but twelve unar­med poor men, who wonne and subdued the whole world with the word onely in their mouthes, such a word as was the greatest enemy to the world, and corrupt fashions of it. This is the weapon mighty under God to cast down holds. 2. They, 2 Cor. 10. 4. if they want men, money, munition, must despaire of attain­ing or retaining their rights: But Christs kingdome (being neither set up nor held up by military power) shall be upheld by the invisible and secret power of the spirit. If all world­ly power be against it, never despaire, it thrives best in op­position. [Page 65] 9. In things to be attained. In them the best things 9. Things to be attained. Rom. 14. 17 are honour, pleasure, externall prosperity, and this for a time: But Christs Kingdome stands not in meat or drink, but in righteousnesse, peace of conscience, joy in the holy Ghost, in grace here, and glory hereafter. The wealth of Christs subjects is to be rich in grace, rich in good works, his ho­nour to be of the stock and lineage of Christ, his pleasure a patient and painfull expectation of the pleasures at Gods right hand. And these being eternall, the kingdome of Christ must needs be eternall: now this being the glory of the kingdome of Christ, we have need of faith to discerne it, and a great measure of humility before we can resolve to be­come subjects of it. The theefe on the Crosse asking Christ Quid regium vides? vides­ne coronam aliam quam spineam, sceptrum ali­ud quam cl [...]vos, aliam purpuram quam sangui­nem, alium thro [...]um quam cru­cem alios mi­nistros quam carnifices? to remember him in his kingdome, Augustine askes him: What Royalty doest thou see? Seest thou any other crown than that of thornes, any other Scepter than Iron nayles, any other purpl than bloud, any other Throne than a wooden Crosse, any other guard than executioners.? Was there now so great faith in Israel? Let our faith touch the top of this Scepter, let us submit our selves to his word for the present, and cast our eye beyond the present upon his second comming, when we shall see him ride upon a white horse, not upon garments but up­on the Clouds in power and great glory; entring, not Jeru­salem, but the stage of the whole world; to render unto e­very man (even Kings) according as they have done in the flesh good or evill.

III. David was called and anoynted to be King, but be­tween Use. 3. How God brings his servants to honour. that and the installing, or enjoying of his king­dome he had many troubles, doubts, and feares that made him stagger, and say: I shall surely one day fall by the hand of Saul: So was the true David Jesus Christ annoynted with the fulnesse of the Spirit, and called to be King of his Church, but before his installation into his Kingdome, ma­ny afflictions, persecutions, feares, yea, death it self over­tooke him for our sakes, Isai. 5. 3. Wherein he said, My God, why hast thou forsaken me? So must it be with us, who must be content to suffer before we can raigne; to be crown­ed first with thornes as Christ was, and stand with Christ on [Page 66] Mount Golgotha, before we come to Mount Olivet, see Act. Ut per au­gusta ad au­gustum, per spinas ad ro­sas, per mo­tum ad quie­tem, per pro­cellas ad por­tum, per vir­tutem ad glo­riam, per ar­ma ad trium­phum, per bella ad pa­cem, per eru­cem ad cae­lum conten­damus. Use. 4. Church e­ver pestered with home­bred ene­mies. 14. 22. It is so ordained by God, that we should make our way through a straite to state, through thornes to Roses, through troubles to rest, through stormes to the haven, through vertue to glory, through conquest to triumph, through warre to peace, through the Crosse to Heaven. And this processe God the father strictly observed with his beloved Sonne, as was necessary, Luk. 24. 26. Phil. 2. 8, 9. he was humbled, therefore God exalted him. And this is the Lords honour, to honour his servants raised from the dunghill; that they may know the way to glory lies by humility.

IV. It was ever the lot of the Church to have in it secret and inbred enemies, as David and Christ had; even such as eat bread at his table, and dipped in the dish; and these have alwayes proved more mischievous than open and for­raigne enemies. The Church ever had hypocrites and false brethren, Satans spies; who professing the same Christ and religion, eating bread at the same table of the Lord, and making shew of friendship in the communion of Saints, joyning in the hearing of the word and prayer, yet watcht the haunts of Gods servants to spy their weaknesse, and where they ly open to advantage. Every one sees they ad­vantage not themselves, but by all meanes undermine the Gospell and professors; so as the silly dove of Christ can find no rest for the soale of her foot. And never was the Church so wounded as in the house of her friends, Cant. 1. 5. The sonnes of my mother were angry against me. This be­ing the estate of the Church, to be hunted as the silly hare from one Mush to another, and no where safe, it must make us 1. more wary. 2. desire our rest. 3. love that promise, Come with me from Lebanon, &c. Cant 4. 8.

V. Comfort the Church. That Jesus Christ is the true David. 1. We have a strong deliverer and deliverance. 5. Comfort to the Church in 3. things. David pulled the sheep out of the Lyons mouth, and the Lamb out of the paw of the Beare, 1 Sam. 17. Christ the true David hath delivered his chosen flock out of the power of Satan, death, and damnation. 1 Cor. 15. 27. 2. Be con­tented to be rejected of all sorts of men: not enemies one­ly [Page 67] but of brethren. So was David, so Christ, and the ser­vant is not better than the Master. It was ever the lot of truth to be rejected of the builders, as was David, as was Christ: few nobles, few wise: nay many great Rabbies (pro­fessing the key of knowledge) were greatest enemies to the truth as the truth is in Christ, that is, to the sincere profession and practise of Christianity. Nay the basest sort made mouthes and scorned them both: And are there not now such as would scorne out the truth of grace were it possible? 3. Though Christ the chiefe corner stone may be refused, he cannot be removed. David must be King against all the hearts of his enemies. So Christ shall keep his place and headship against the gates of hell: he is a king everlasting in his Church, and of his kingdome shall be no end. He is a King ever present in his Church, Matth. 28. 20. and needs no Vicar, nor hath put it off to his pretended Vicar, who claimes to be King of Priests and Princes. He is a King present in his Church, not as Baal among his worshippers either a sleep, or in his journey, or otherwise taken up, but ever intent for the safety of the Church, watching ever to overturne the open power and private pollicy plotted and planted against his kingdome. Let us with faith and hope ever lift our eyes up to his banner, and stand close to our victorious Captaine. For as Souldiers loosing the sight of their Ensigne are in extreame hazard of confusion: so we, if we suffer Christ to slippe out of our eyes and hearts, hazard the losse of our salvation.


10. Salomon a type of Christ: in 6. things.

I. IN person and condition. Both Salomons; both Jedi­diahs, Six things wherein Sa­lomon typi­fied Christ. 1. Person. that is beloved of God; both Kings of Israel, both Kings in Jerusalem, both Preachers in Jerusalem, both sonnes of David, yea, both sonnes of God. To both agrees that, 2 Sam. 7. 14. I will be his father and he shall be my son. But with this difference, Salomon was the sonne of God by adoption and grace: the true Salomon by nature and eternall generation.

II. Salomon was a peace-maker, full of peace, 1 Chr. 22. 9. A sonne is borne to thee which shall be a man of peace, and I will 2. Pacificus. give him rest from his enemies; therefore his name is Salomon, and I will send peace and quietnesse on Israel in his dayes. A notable type of our Salomon, who himself is the Prince of peace, whose Scepter is a Gospel of peace whose subjects are Sons of peace, whose kingdome stands in righteousnesse, joy, peace, &c. at Isay 9. 6. whose birth the Angels sang, Peace on earth. But with diffe­rence, Salomon could preserve onely outward peace: but Christ makes up our peace with God and all Creatures, and brings sweet peace and upholds it in our consciences. 1 Kings A. 25. Salomon procured that in his days all Israel and Iudah dwelt without fean, every man under his Vine and fig-tree, in re­spect of outward tranquility and security: but our Salomon, that every beleever is redeemed from enemies to serve God without fear of sin, Satan, hell, damnation. Salomon brought peace but could not establish it in his own dayes, much lesse Luk. 1. 74. after him; for presently after, the kingdome was rent into pieces: But our Salomon brings a peace which none shall take away▪

III. Salomon excelled all other men in wisdome and knowledge, 1 King. 4. 29, 30. But Christ is the wisdome of the 3. Wisdome. Christ grea­ter than Sa­lomon, in wisdome, 5. things. father, & far excells Salomon; as in whom are hid all the treasurs of wisdome and knowledge, Col. 2. 3. For, 1. Salomon had wisdome by donation and gift: Christs was native and pro­per. [Page 69] 2. Salomon by all his wisdome knew not mens thoughts: but Christ knew what was in man, Joh. 2. 25. 3. Salomon, though very wise in himselfe, could not infuse his wisedome into o­thers to make them so: But Jesus Christ is made of God our wisdome, 1 Cor. 1 30. because he is not onely our head as King, but as Mediator, unto whom we as members are misti­cally united. 4. Salomon was not so wise in the beginning of his raigne, nor in the end: but our true Salomon was ne­ver destitute of the wisdome of God. 5. Salomons wise say­ings have commended his wisdome in all the Church of God; the fame of his wise speeches and actions spread through the world: But much more hath the fame of Christs doctrine and miracles, Matth. 4. 24. John 7. 46. And never man spake like our Salomon, by his adversaries confession; there­fore not Salomon.

IV. Salomon was a type of Christ in that he was a King of 4. Royal glory greatest royalty, wealth and glory that ever was. He so in­riched his subjects, that silver and gold were as common to them as stones in the streets. 1 King. 3. 13. no King on earth was like Salomon: but Salomon was no King to Christ. Cant. In Christ, far greater and better. 3. 11. Come forth ye daughters of Sion, looke upon King Salo­mon with the crowne wherewith his mother crowned him, &c. That was (no doubt) royall and glorious to behold; but we shall see all Salomons glory nothing to Christs. For, 1. Sa­lomon had but one Crown: but Christ hath many Crownes on his head, Rev. 19. 12. 2. The maids of Sion admire Salo­mon for his, and reverence him: but all the Saints in earth and heaven, honour and worship Christ with divine honour, which is given to none but God. 3. Salomon without wealth and abundance cannot enrich his subjects: but Christ out of poverty enricheth his: He being rich became poor to enrich us. 4. Salomon enricheth his people with silver, gold, and earthly wealth: Christ the true Salomon doth his with heavenly and spirituall wealth; as of wisedome, the price of which is above silver; of faith much more precious than gold; and all other graces, to which all worldly wealth is but as stones in the street, yea, dung and drosse. 5 Salo­mons throne was set above all the thrones of the Kings of the [Page 70] earth: but Christs farre above Salmons. He is the great King of glory exalted unto the right hand of God; and ruleth not a small corner of the earth, but hath all power in heaven and earth. Neither doth Christs humility and a­basement hinder his glory; for when he was lowest, he shew­ed greater glory in the least of his many miracles, than Salo­mon in all his royalty. Nay more, he was more triumphant upon the Crosse, and rode in more magnificence than ever Salomon did in all his golden Chariots.

V. Salomon was a type of Christ in 1. building, 2. dedi­cating, 5. 3. ordering the Temple.

First, in the building. 1. Salomon according to the wise­dom In templo1 aedi­ficādo.2 dedi­cando.3 consti▪ tuē do. Structure. Ioh. 14. 23. 1 Pet. 2. 5. and large heart which God gave him, built God an house wherein he dwelt at Jerusalem; for God kept house and fire in Sion, Isai. 31. 9. and Salomon set him up a stand­ing house. Our true Salomon builds an house for God, even for the blessed Trinity to dwell in. Not a materiall house of stones, or of gold, silver, wood, marble; but a spirituall house of living stones. And as the house is spirituall: so are the meanes and instruments he useth. His rule is the word of God; Psal. 19. 4. Their line is gone forth through all the earth, and their words into the ends of the world. The hammer by which he hewes and polisheth these rugged stones is the same word or doctrine of the Law. Jer. 23. 29. The cement by which he couples them to the head, is Faith, and to the mem­bers, is Love and Charity. 2. Salomon being to build his Temple could not find matter enough for his building in his own countrey of Judea, but sent abroad to Hiram a Gentile, and to Pervaim, (now Peru as some think) and to other farre and remote parts for supply: So our Salomon for his spi­rituall building gathers matter, not onely out of Judea his own ancient people, but contracts friendship with the Gentiles, and these come in out of the most remote parts of all the world to set forward that building, therefore the Church is now Catholike. 3. Salomon prepared great stones to lay in the foundation of the house. 1 King. 5. 17. but as great and costly as they were they could not uphold that house, but it must fall to ruine and destruction: Our true Salomon [Page 71] by inimitable art, layes himselfe, a foundation in Sion, an e­lect, precious, and chiefe corner stone, Upon which firme foun­dation, he so aptly layes and knits every living stone, that is, every beleever, that all the gates of hell cannot prevaile against any one of them, Matth. 16. 18. 4. Salomon in that building prepared and hewed stones in Mount Lebanon, 1 King. 6. 7. and being so squared and fit, not an axe or hammer, nor any toole of Iron was heard while the house was a building. Our Salomon admits no stone into his build­ing which is not first prepared and initiated by the word and Sacraments, and being fitted, lays them on the foundation without any more shaking by hammer or hatchet, & knits them to the other stones by the durable cement of Christian love & charity, so as now the noyse of contention, nor blowes of bitternesse and hatred are heard among them any more.

Secondly, in dedication of the Temple. 1. Salomon con­secrated Dedication. that house to the service of God by solemn prayer, imploring his eye of protection upon it, and his presence with it upon all occasions and necessities, 1 King. 8. 14. Our Salomon hath also dedicated his house, and by solemne prayer commended it to the care and custody of his heavenly father, Joh. 17. Nothing needfull for his Church hath he forgotten to pro­cure for it, not onely by that most effectuall and meritorious prayer, but also by his continuall intercession now in heaven for it. 2. In that dedication Salomon framed a most excel­lent prayer, the form of which is registred in Scripture: but our Salomon hath delivered us a forme and pattern of prayer: which is a great part of the riches of the new Testament a­bove the old.

Thirdly, In ordering the Temple, that is, in the con­stitution Order set. [...] of Gods true and publike worship in that Tem­ple, in appointing the severall offices and Officers of it. A type of Jesus Christ, who ascending on high appointed the Officers of his Church; some Prophets,, some Apostles, some Evangelists, and some Pastors, and Teachers for the building up of the body of Christ, Eph. 4. 11, 12. 1 Cor. 12. 5. there are many administrations, but the same Lord.

VI. Salomon was a type of Christ in wise dispensing and 6. [Page 72] administring justice. 1. In respect of gifts. 2. Of excution Admini­stration of justice. or manifesting them. 1 For the gifts, they are notably sig­nified in Salomons Throne, which was exalted above all the Thrones of all Princes; described, 1 King. 10. 18. 1. The Salomons Throne: six things opened. matter was Ivory and gold wherewith it shined: Signifying the sincere and upright disposition of Salomon to justice and equity, shunning all corruption and by-respects which make men pervert justice. And as these virtues made Salomons throne to shine: so the royall throne of Christ is a throne of Justice, a great white Throne, Rev. 20. 11. Nothing but sincerity and purity proceeds thence. He justifies no wick­ed person or cause, nor takes the ungodly by the hand. 2. The state of it. The King ascended to it by six stayres, signifying that the Kingriseth above all his subjects many de­grees in practise of many vertues; wisedome, prudence, justice, fortitude, piety: So Christs Throne is infinitely ex­alted above all Princes, above men and Angels, dominati­ons, principalities, thrones, and set at the right hand of God; and himselfe as infinitely transcendeth all crea­tures in practice of all graces, in perfection of all holinesse 3. The figure was round: signifying the perfection and simplicity of the minde in the Judge dis­cerning causes; who could not abide any deceitfull, fraudu­lent, or hypocriticall courses or corners: Such is the Throne of Christ, in whom was never found guile nor deceit, neither can he abet, or not hate it in any. 4. There were two pil­lers or barres to beare up the armes of Salomon: signifying the rewards and defence of good men, and the punishment and repressing of evill men by the power of his arme, where­by Kings and kingdomes are sustained: So our Lord Jesus upholds his kingdome by reward and punishment; and in the Premio & poena. last day shall set the sheep at his right hand, and the goats on his left. 5. Two Lyons of gold standing by the stayes: noting the power and fortitude of the King, whose strength is as the strength of Lyons against enemies, and to put in execution wise and soveraign counsels. But Salomons strength was weaknesse to the strength of Christ; who as a couragi­ous Lyon of the tribe of Judah shall teare and foyle his ene­mies, [Page 73] and none shall rescue, Hos. 5. 14. 6 The foote-stoole of it was of gold, 2 Chr. 9. 18. to note the freedome of the King from covetuousnesse; that he ought to have his wealth under his feet, and so master them as they neither overcome nor corrupt him: So Christ the Judge of the world most perfectly despised the world; and at his appearing shall set it under his feet and burne it. 2. For administring according to those gifts. Salomon did with such admirable wisedome judge between the two harlots for the living child, as all Is­rael hearing the judgement feared the King; for they saw that the wisedome of God was in him to do justice, 1 King 3. 28. But our Salomon is the just judge of all the world, who shall passe a righteous sentence between the godly and the wicked, in that great and terrible day, Matth. 25. when all flesh shall see and admire the wisedome and power of God in him to do justice.

For applycation, briefly.

I. A greater than Salomon is here, Luk. 11. 31. 1. Hence our Sa­viour Use. 1. Duties to Christ our Salomon. 1 Hear him. perswads to come to him to partake of his wisedome, wealth, peace, grace. But the Queen of the South shall rise up against this generation. For she, 1. a woman of weak sexe. 2. A Queen enjoying pleasures at home. 3. Under­tooke a long journey from the ends of the earth, Matth. 12. 42. 4. Set aside the weighty affaires of her kingdome, the charge of her journey and gifts to Salomon not small, 1 King. 10. 10. the dangers, wearinesse, and all to hear the wisdome of Sa­lomon, yet as a Gentile did all this: But many men and wo­men professing Christianity will not step over their thre­sholds to hear the wisdome of a greater than Salomon.

Object. If Salomon or Christ were here, we would.

Sol. 1. The Jewes would say so, but would not. 2. He that heares you, heareth me. 3. He that will not hear us, would not hear Christ himselfe.

Object. We have businesse and occasions.

Sol. 1. Many make occasions which might be avoided. 2. Many pretend occasions. 3. Many have occasions, but [Page 74] so had this Queen, who would not be hindered from Salomon by the weighty affaires of a kingdome. 4. Whose occasi­ons ordinarily hinder them, they shall never taste of the sup­per. 2. Hence we must labour to account it our happinesse 2. Wait on him & think thy self there in happy. that we may have liberty to wait on the true Salomon. So the Queen of Saba: Happy are thy servants that may at­tend on thee, and heare thy wisedome. So our Saviour him­self: Happy are they that hear the word and keep it. Hap­py we, if we saw our happinesse, that we need not with such cost and toyle seek after our Salomon. For he comes to us, and knocks at the doors of our hearts, and offers to enrich us with treasures of wisedome. Let us open our gates that this king of glory may enter in. Let us receive the rules of wisedome from his mouth, and consider how unhappy they are that despise the word, of which both the Salomons were preachers.

II. Comfort, that Christ is the true Salomon. 1. Great Use. 2. Fourefold comfort in our Salomon. were the blessings which Salomon procured to Israel, but all temporary, and outward: but our Salomon procures greater, spirituall and eternall. 2. Salomon prayes, and is heard of all that pray in the Temple. 1 King. 8. Christ prayes, and merits that all prayers of Saints be heard, Joh. 17. 3. Salomon could not be present in all his kingdome at once. Cant. 8. 11. Salomon had a Vineyard, and let it out to dressers: vers. 12. but my Vineyard is set before mine eyes. Himself still walks in the midst of the golden Candlesticks, and watcheth for the good of it. 4. All the excellencies which now we see and enjoy in Christ, are nothing to them we shall see, as the Queen of Saba, halfe was not told me in my country. So as the glory, delight, pleasure, which our Salomon now gives us must affect our hearts to renonunce carnall delights, and pursue those that are above. What is earth to heaven, that is, faith to fruition: This is that, Cant. 3. 7. Behold his bed is better than Salomons, which was for price and safety most excellent; for threescore valiant men stood about it e­very night. But the spirituall marriage-bed in the marriage chamber (the kingdome of glory) surpasseth all compre­hension: all sweetned with incense of holynesse, hap­pinesse, [Page 75] glory, immortality, better than the best perfumes, there is perfect security, and lasting joy on their heads for ever.


11. Jonah a type of Christ in 4. respects.

IOnah was a type of Christ, as Matth. 12. 39. No signe Four things delivered in which Jonah was a type. 1. Name and office. shall be given them, but the signe of the Prophet Jonah.

I. In his name and office. Both Jonahs, both doves, one in name, the other in nature. Both mournfull, one in a sea of sorrowes shut in the whales belly, the other a man of sorrowes, and such as no man ever sustained and overcame: Both Prophets, Jonah sent to preach repentance to Niniveh: Christ the true Jonah, the great Prophet of the Church was sent to preach the same doctrine to the world, Mat. 4. 17: Then Jesus began to preach and say, Amend your lives, &c. Both of them in expresse words must signifie to their hearers, that without repentance they were in state of per­dition.

II. In respect of his death and suffering. In the 1. kind, 2. Kind of death. 2. manner, 3. fruit. 1. The kinde, it was a willing death, a free will offering. For as Jonah, when the tempest was raised, freely offered himselfe to death when the Marriners would faine have saved him, Ion. 1. 12. take me, and cast me into the sea that the tempest may cease: So, when the storm of Gods wrath was boystrous against the sinnes of mankind, Jesus Christ our Jonah offered himselfe to the death, for he had power either to lay down his life, or to retaine it, Joh. 10. 18. No man taketh away my life from me, but I lay it down of my selfe. Joh. 18. 5. I am he. 2. The terrible and dreadfull Egosum. Manner. manner. For as Jonah was swallowed up of the Whale who made but one morsel of him: So Christ was swallowed up of death, and seemed wholy devoured of the curse of God. As the one cryed in the Whales belly, and out of the belly of [Page 76] hell, Ion. 2. 2. and vers. 4. I am cast away out of thy sight: So the other cries upon the Crosse, My God my God why hast thou forsaken me? Both of them were in so extraordinary death, as in their sence they were in the deepest hell. 3. The fruit of it. 1. The appeasing of the wrath of God his And fruit. Father. For, as Jonah once cast into the Sea, the windes were stilled, the sea ceased from h [...]r raging, Chap. 15. 1. and there was a great calme: So Christ by his death pacified his Fathers wrath, stilled the rage of Satan, abolished the horror of death, which otherwise had never been still and calme to­wards us. 2. To save his fellowes. For as Jonah must be cast into the sea to save his fellowes from drowning, Chap. 1. 12. So must Christ be overwhelmed with the waves of his Fathers displeasure, and (as Jonah) be put to death by those that should have preserved him: but not for any desert of his owne, but to save his companions and brethren in the same ship with him from death and drowning: For so was the signification of his name, Jesus; so himself affirmed, Matt. 20. 28. The Sonne of man came to give his life a ransome for many. So also Caiaphas prophecies: It is fit that one man die for the people, and that the whole Nation perish not, Joh. 11. 50.

III. In Jonah we have a type of Christs buriall, noted by 3. Buriall. Christ himself. For as Jonah was in the belly of the fish, three days and three nights: Matth. 12. 40. So must Christ be detained in the grave, and lie under buriall three dayes and three nights, parts put for the whole, as perhaps also in Jonah) till the case seemed desperate in both; not onely in their own apprehensions (as [...] have before shewed) but in the dis­ciples apprehension. Luke 24. 21. We thought this should have been he that should have delivered Israel, and behold this is the third day.

IV. Jonah was a manifest, type of Christ in his resur­rection 4. Resurrecti­on. For, 1. As Jonah was taken into the belly of the Whale whole, & passed through the ranges & armies of teeth as sharpe as speares, without breaking or crushing one bone of him, or the least limb of his body: So Jesus Christ pas­sed through the straight gate of death, but as one bone of [Page 77] him was not broken; the special and extraordinary providence of God in both of them watching the whole businesse. 2. As the Lord spake unto the fish, and the fish against his will must cast up Jonah on dry ground: So the belly of the earth can keep Christ no longer than the third day (no more than the belly of the Whale could keep Jonah) his blessed body must see no corruption. 3. As Jonah returned from his grave with a song of praise and thanksg [...]ving, Chap. 2. So Jesus Christ returned to life from his grave with a song of triumph and victory, fore-prophecyed, Hos. 13. 14. and accomplish­ed, 1 Cor 15. 55. O death where [...] thy sting! O grave where is thy victory! 4. As Jonah an Hebrew goes not to preach to the Ninivites, being Gentiles, till after his resurrection out of the belly of the Whale: So Jesus Christ an Hebrew, not till after his resurrection, leaves the obstinate Jewes; and by his Apostles Ministery and preaching turnes himselfe to the Gentiles, Act. 13. 46. 5. As Jonah after his delivery, went and preached the doctrine of repentance with great fruit and successe, to the conversion of all Niniveh, and pre­venting the fearfull wrath denounced to come within forty dayes: So our Lord Jesus after his resurrection and ascensi­on, sending out his Apostles to preach repentance and re­mission of sinnes, mightily prevailed, and suddenly con­verted many nations of the heathen, and brought them to faith and repentance.

For Application:

I. Let us acknowledge a greater than Jonah here, Matth. Use. 1. Repent at the Ministe­ry of his ser­vants. Motives. 12. 41. Least as the Ninivites shall rise up against the Jewes, they rise also against us if we convert not, nor repentat Christs doctrine as they did at Jonahs. For, 1. Who are they to us? They barbarous Heathens, and Gentiles, never instructed before: we have been trained in the Scriptures from child­hood. 2. What were their meanes to ours? Jonah preach­ed but three dayes to them: Christ hath preached, not three Christ a far more excel­lent Preach­er. days as he, nor three yeares as to the Jewes; but above three­score yeares: He preached one Sermon: Christ a thousand. [Page 78] 3. What was this Preacher to ours? 1. Jonah was a weak man: Christ is God and man. 2. Jonah a sinfull man, cast into the sea for his own sinne: Christ an innocent man, cast into the sea for our sinne. 3. Jonah a Prophet, a servant: Christ the Lord of all the holy Prophets, therefore of Jonah. 4. Jonah a stranger to them: Christ of our own kindred and family. 5. Jonah preached unwillingly: Christ preached freely, and spent himself for us. 6. Jonah preached nothing but destruction of them and their City: Christ a sweet doctrine of grace, salvation, and the promise of a king­dome of heaven. 7. Jonah came indeed out of the belly of the Whale, but did no miracle for confirmation of his do­ctrine: Christ came both from the bosome of the Father, and from the heart of the earth, and did innumerable signes and miracles in which we see his glory. 8. Jonah a most angry & impatient man, would faine die because he Ninivits did not: Christ a mirrour of patience will die least his hearers should. 9. To Jonah no prophet gave witnesse, or foretold of him: To Christ all the Prophets gave witnesse, Act. 10 43. and spake before of him. Shall now Niniveh repent in sackcloth and ashes by Jonahs Ministery of three days; and shall not we by Christs constant Ministery of threescore yeares? Shall Niniveh condemne Judea for not acknowledging a greater than Jonah; and shall it not condemne us not repenting? whose sinne shall be farre greater than that of the Jewes, who rejected Christ in his abasement and humiliation; but we re­ject the Lord of glory, now exalted.

II. In the type and truth the freedome of Gods favour Use. 2. Vocation of the Gen­tiles. Rom. 9. 6. in the calling of the Gentiles. Jonah was a preacher of grace to the Gentiles: and Christ was a preacher of grace, not to Jewes onely, but the Gentiles also: being given for a light to the Gentiles, that he might be the salvation of Gentiles to the farthest parts of the earth. For 1. God is not the God of Jewes onely, but of Gentiles also. Rom. 3. 29. 2. Christ was the promised seed in whom all nations must be blessed. Gen. 22. 18, Hence comes in our title to grace, and not from any desert of ours. For what is amiable in the wilde olive? It is onely Gods free calling, who calls her that was not beloved, to be beloved.

[Page 79] Object. If we be grafted into Christ, and received into grace, all is well, we are in state good enough.

Sol. Some are grafted into the Church by profession of mouth onely, as all were not Israel that were of Israel: and some planted into it by the faith of the heart. The former are not altered from their wilde nature: the other are renew­ed to the Image of Christ. Therefore let none content them­selves with externall profession, joyning in the word, sacra­ments, and prayer; but labour for soundnesse of faith and grace, by which onely we become branches of the true Olive; whereas to be hanged as a scien, by a thred of profession, will not keep it from withering.

III. In both we have a certaine Emblem and proofe of our Use. 3. Our resur­rection assu­red to us. resurrection. Rom. 8. 11. If the Spirit of him that raised up Jonah and Jesus be in us, he shall also quicken our mortall bodies, and if the head be risen the members must rise also. For as God spake to the Fish, and the fish gave up Jonah as from the dead: so shall God speak to the earth and Sea and all creatures, and they shall give up their dead. Isai. 26. 19. he shall say to the earth give, and to the sea restore my sonns and daughters, and they that are as seed under clods shall a­wake and sing: And these dry bones shall be againe covered with sinewes, flesh, and skin, a [...] Ezek. 37. 6. For as it was im­possible for Christ to be held ever under death, Act. 2 24. as im­possible is it for his members. Let us comfort our selves in the approach of death to our selves, or our friends, and by rising before hand from the grave of our sinnes, provided for a blessed and joyfull resurrection. 2. King. 13. 21. a dead body, cast into Elisha's grave, quickned: so our soules and bodies.

IV. The wonderful power and wisdome of God, that can Use. 4. Power and wisdom of God to be admired. draw light out of darknesse. Jonahs casting over board into the sea was the occasion of converting the Marriners: Even so Christs death converted many of them that were causes and authors of it. Act. 2. 36, 41. And as the Marriners lives were saved by casting Jonah into the sea: so all beleevers by the death of Jesus Christ. 1. Let us not measure Gods works by carnall senses. This made the two disciples going to [Page 80] Emaus, Luk. 24. to make but a bad argument: He is cruci­fied, and behold this is the third day; therefore though we thought he should have redeemed Israel, we are deceived. Whereas faith would have made a clean contrary conclusi­on: He is crucified, and this is the third day; therefore he is the Redeemer. The Jewes not knowing the Scriptures, and power of God, are hardned against Jesus Christ, ex­pecting a great Emperour, as Julius Caesar, or some great Monarch; not able to see that by so base a death life could be procured. The carnall protestants are held off from the true embracing of Christ, because they see the truth and sin­cerity of Christ every where so resisted and hated by great Rulers and Doctors; as if it had not been so in Christs own person and Ministery; or as if Christ was not set as a signe or butt of contradiction, whereas, therefore it must needs be he. 2. Let us admire Gods power and wisedome, and patiently with Jonah expect after darknesse light. And seeing God can turne the greatest evill into the greatest good of his Church; let us labour to make benefit of all evils hap­ning to our selves and others. 1. Even of our sinnes them­selves, to make us more humble & watchful for time to come 2. Of our sufferings, as Jonah and Christ learned obedience by the things they suffered.

V. In the type and truth we have, first terror on the one Use 5. Terror of sin, even in Gods own children. hand, secondly comfort on the other. 1. We see the weight of sinne committed pressed Jonah into the deepest sea of e­vills; and sinne imputed thrust Christ into a deeper sea, even the deepest hell. Both seem left of God in the hands of death; both cry out as left in the depth of hell. 1. Do thou run from God and duty, and though thou beest Gods childe, thou maist find God pursuing thee, as if he were an utter and irreconcileable enemy. 2. Make as light a reckoning of sinne as thou canst, the least of them shuts us or Christ out of heaven. Doth Christ undertake thy sinne, he sees not heaven till he die for it? Sinne imputed will not let Christ enter into heaven, but by his own bloud, yea, through hell. Thy sinne repented of held Christ, an innocent, out of hea­ven till he died for it: but where shall ungodly and impe­nitent [Page 81] sinners appear? 2. This same collation affords us sundry grounds of comfort.

First, both seem forsaken, neither of them was so; but And com­fort. both of them go to his God. There is no time nor place wherein the child of God may not boldly goe to God, and pray to his God and say: My God, my God.

Secondly, no deepe is so deepe but Gods hand can reach helpe into it, even into the Whales belly, and heart of the earth.

Thirdly, the extreamest misery and death it selfe work to good to the godly. See it in Jonah: Where was feared per­dition, Ubi putab [...] ­batur interi­tus, ibi custo­dia. there was found preservation. The Whales belly was a prison indeed, but to preserve him alive; a deepe gulfe and a sea, but to save him from drowning. Can any man save a man from drowning by casting him into the Sea? but God can.

Fourthly, when the case seems most desperate, then the Lord steps in to help; When no helpe can be expected any other way, after three dayes and three nights Jonah must be cast up, and Christ raised up. Never feare extreami­ties, but then exercise thy faith most, for then is God the nearest: howsoever, trust in him though he kill thee, Job 13. 15.

Fifthly, the deepest sorrowes of Gods children end in greatest joy. God hath a dry ground for Jonah after a sea of misery: a glorious ascending for Christ after his lowest descent. Whatsoever the sorrowful songs be that Gods peo­ple sing here in Egypt or Babel, they shall end in songs of joy and victory, and be changed into the songs of Moses and the Lambe. Rev. 15. 3.



The first-born: Types of Christ, 4. waies.

HAving spoken of holy types in sundry speciall persons; Four rankes of sanctified ones under the Law. now of personal types in some rankes and orders of men, sanctified and specially separated to the Lord.

Of whom,

  • 1. Some were sanctified by birth, the first-borne.
  • 2. Some by office, Priests, especially the High-Priest.
  • 3. Some by vow, as Nazarites.
  • 4. Some by ceremony, as cleane persons, legally cleansed from uncleanenesse.

Of these the first-borne were speciall types of Jesus Christ.

1. As they were Gods peculiar. Exod. 13. 2. Sanctifie 1. The first-born, types in four re­spects. Ex [...]Commu [...] [...]is [...] gratia. [...] is [...]. unto me all the first-born; for it is mine.

Quest. How were they Gods?

Answ. 1. By common nature. But so were all both first and last borne through the world. For all the world and inhabitants of it are his, Psal. 24. 1.

2. By common grace. So all the people of the Jewes by reason of common grace were his, with whom God had plighted his gratious covenant, which was made to Abraham and all his seed, wheresoever they were borne; of whom he made choice as his peculiar, though all the earth was his. Exod. 4. 22. Israel is my first-borne, that is, not onely the first people and nation that first professed the true worship of God, and had priority of the Gentiles who were younger brethren; but the first-born by a special election and choice of that from all other people; whom he would accept as his beloved in the Messiah, the first-born of all creatures, and a­mong whom he would stablish his covenant, and raise up his worship, thus he dealt not with other nations.

3. By a speciall right. The first-born of Israel were Gods by a singular right, as no other Children of any other family [Page 83] were, namely by right of that singular deliverance of all the first-born, when he destroyed all the first-born of Egypt. And therefore presently after that destruction he makes challenge of them, Exod. 13. 2. Thus is Jesus Christ the Lords first-born by a singular right, not common to man or Angell, whether we respect his nature or office. 1. In his nature he is first-born as sonne of God, the first begotten of all creatures, Primogeni­tus, ante quē nullus. Unigenitus, post que [...] nullus. Col. 1. 15. begot before all Creation, And thus he is not one­ly the first begotten before whom there was none; but the onely be­gotten after whom is none. Joh. 1. 14. the onely begotten Sonne of the Father; the first-born without a second or brother. 2. In his office he was first-born by speciall prerogative. 1. For the kind. 2. For the undertaking. 3. For the accom­plishing. 1. For the kind, in that he was Mediator, God and man in unity of person, and the onely redeemer of his Church. In this regard, Rom. 8. 29. he is called the first-born among many brethren. Which phrase noteth quality, not equality with him, some similitude, but no parity between him and beleevers. He holds his birth-right as the Sonne of God by nature; and we by grace made the Sons of God, he disdaines not to call us brethren. 2. For undertaking his office. 1. In his incarnation, he was the first-born of his Mother. Matth. 1. 25. till she had broughtforth her first-born Hieron. ad­vers. Helvid. Son; not in respect of any that his mother had after him, but because she had none before. 2. For the stranger man­ner. He was the first-born of a virgin, and so never had brother. 3. He was the first born without sinne. 3. For accomplishing his office in his resurrection. He is called the first-begotten, or first born of the dead two wayes. 1. In respect of his Father who first begot him from the dead. Whence his resurrection is called a begetting. Acts 13. 33. thou art my sonne, this day have I begotten thee; the A­postle applying it to the resurrection of Christ. And had not the Father thus begotten his sonne from the dead, we had never been raised from death. 2. In regard of himselfe, whose priviledge it was to raise up himselfe from the dead by his owne power, Rom. 1. 4. As himselfe said, I have power to take up my life againe. And being risen, he was [Page 84] the first that ascended in body and soul into heaven. Thus consider Christ, as God, as Mediator, as incarnate, as rais­ed, and ascended; he is the Lords first-born, and the birth-right belongs to no other.

II. The first borne of Israel was the second, and next to 2. the father of the family, yea, after the father instead of the father: So is Christ to his family, the Church; performes all offices of a careful & tender father, and takes on him, not the affection onely of a father, but even 1. the name of a father. Isa. 9. 6. Father of eternity. 2. the office of a father. 1. He sup­plies the meanes of spirituall life, as they of naturall 2 He nurtures and teacheth his Church. 3. He provides for the present, and bestowes the inheritance of eternall life.

III. The first-born had the preheminence among the 3. brethren, and were chiefe in office and authority, rulers in the house after their fathers, and Priests in the family, before the Leviticall order was established. Gen. 27. 29. when Isaac blessed Jacob for Esau, supposing him the first-born, one part of it was: Be Lord over thy brethren, and let all thy mothers children honour thee. So all the sheaves must bow to Josephs. And Gen. 49. 8. when Jacob blessed Judah, this is added as his right: Thy fathers sonnes shall bow down unto thee. Herein they were speciall types of Christ; who in all things must have the preheminence, as first in time, in order, in precedency, first in the excellency and dignity of his person. Of whom, comming into the world, was said: Let all the Angels of God Heb. 1. 6. worship him. And for glory and authority he sits on his fa­thers throne, the onely King of Kings, who hath a name a­bove all names. Phil. 2. 9. And Heb. 2. 9. we see Jesus crown­ed with glory and honour, the head of the mysticall body, the Prince and head of all his brethren. And besides he is the high Priest of our profession, by offering up himselfe a sacrifice for us. Thus Christ is first in order, in glory, in Priesthood.

IV. The first-born had a double portion in goods, Deut. 21. 17. Signifying 1. The plenitude of the spirit and grace in 4. Psal. 45. 7. Christ, who was anointed with oyle of gladnesse above all his fellowes. 2. The preheminency of Christ in his glori­ous [Page 85] inheritance, advanced in glory and majesty incompre­hensible by all creatures.

I. Out of the occasion of the Law of the first-born, learn, Use. 1. Every mer­cy is the greater en­gagement unto God. that the more God doth for any man, the more he ought to conceive himselfe to be the Lords, and the more right and interest the Lord chalengeth in him. For therefore the first-born were his by a speciall right, because he had not onely delivered them out of Egypt, as others; but from the spe­ciall plague of Egypts first-borne. Speciall mercies call for speciall service. More mercies are more bonds of obedience. And new mercies are so many new cords to draw and fasten us to God and duty. Is it not reason that the more it pleas­eth the Lord to become ours, the more we should become his? Ought not great benefits become great binders? And should not great love be a great load-stone of love? Should not strong cords of Gods love draw us strongly to love our God? Examine the encrease of Gods mercies on thee in all kindes, and whether they have had this fruit, to make thee more dutyfull. Hath God multiplied blessing on thy head, that thou shouldest blesse thy self in wickednesse? Hath God continued mercy, that thou shouldst continue sinne? Art thou the Lords by Creation, providence, redemption, stored with all personall kindnesses pertaining to life and godlinesse, to continue a slave to sinne and Satan? Remember good Josephs conclusion, Gen. 39. 8, 9. My master hath dealt thus and thus with me, advanced me from nothing to this estate, committed all to my trust, kept nothing from me but thee, How then can I do this great wickednesse and sinne against God?

II. If Christ be the true first-born, of whom all they are Use. 2. Honour Christ as the first-born of God. but types; we must give him the honour of his birth-right. The whole Church, and all the sonnes of that mother must honour him; all the sheaves of the brethren must vaile and bow to his sheave. Let not the basenesse of his birth, the hu­mility of his life, the ignominy of his death, the shame of his crosse, the poverty of his professors, the weaknesse and frailty of his followers, draw our eyes aside from him (as the Jewes at this day) but acknowledge him the first-born, e­steeming him (as doth the Church) the chiefe of ten thousand; [Page 86] and with the Apostle esteem to know nothing but Christ and him crucified.

Question. How shall we honour Christ as the first-born? and how.

Sol. 1. If we honour him with the same honour that is due to the Father, Job. 5. 23. 2. Advance his estate above our own or other mens, confesse and professe his name, though with losse and disfavour. 3. Depend upon him, and make him our chiefe refuge, for all the family depended on the first-borne for protection, so doe members on the head. 4. Grieve to offend him by sinne. How pitifully can men & women grieve for the death of their first-born? So much more should we that our sinns have pierced Gods first-born, Zach. 12. 10.

III. Here is a ground of much consolation. 1. In that Use. 3. Threefold comfort in the birth-right. Christ being the truth of the first-born, from him the birth-right is derived unto us believers, as it was from Reuben unto Judah, and we partake of the same birth-right with our head. For here is a difference between the type and truth of the first-born. They had all their priviledges for themselves: but Christ not for himselfe but for us: Whence his elect members are called the Congregation of the first-born writ­ten in heaven, that is, whose names are written in the book of life. And farther; the more those first-born had, the lesse had the other brethren: but the more Christ hath, the more have we, seeing of his fullnesse we receive grace for grace. If he be strong, he is strong for us, if rich, he is so to us. If he be Prince and Priest of his family the Church, hereby we recover the dignity, we had lost by sinne; and of slaves and vassals of corruption, are made Kings and Priests, that is, the first-born to God, Rev. 1. 6. If he have a double portion of the spirit, so have we by him. Isai. 40. 2. speake to the heart of Jerusalem, her iniquity is forgiven; she hath re­ceived double at the Lords hand for all her sinnes, that is a double portion of grace and favour. As Joseph made Ben­jamins messe to be doubled: so our Jesus doubles his spirit on the elect. If he have a double portion of glory, im­mortality, and heavenly inheritance; so have we in him, be­ing [Page 87] coheires with him in the same inheritance, Rom. 8. 17. 2. Comfort. Being Gods first-born through Christ, we are dear unto God. So Exod. 4. 22. Israel is my first-born, that is, dear unto me, as the first-born, commonly are dea­rest to their Parents. Israel, before his receiving into the Covenant, was the worst of all people, and smallest in it selfe, and in Gods eyes, Deut. 7. and 9. 4. But afterwards being (in the right of the Messiah) Gods first-born, became dear to him as the apple of his eye. Now what a joy is it to the beleeving soule to see God a father look towards it as a father to his first-born? So fareth it now with us, being so made in Christ. 3. Comfort. God takes notice, and re­vengeth all the wronges done to the Saints, because they are his first-born. Let Egypt offer injury to Gods first-born, God will say, slay every first-born of man and beast in E­gypt; let them see, in the punishment, their sinne. For can a tender father see an arme or a legge of his first-born cut off? Would it not go to his heart to see him dismembred? And can the Lord Jesus endure any wrongs and cruelties done to his members, and this not pierce his bowels? A man may sometime see his child in want, and correct his first-born for his farther good, send him to be schooled and trained in some course under a sharpe discipline; but to see him wound­ed, to see him bleed, cast off, trodden under feet, he can­not endure: No more the Lord. Let no man, never so great, dare to wrong the godly; for he will rebuke kings for their sakes.

IV. Seeing in Christ the first-born we attaine the birth-right; Use. 4. Forfeit not the birth-right by sin. let every Christian beware of prophanenesse, and passing away his birth-right as Esau, who sold his birth-right for pottage, Heb. 12. 16. and therefore called prophane. So do they that exchange spirituall things for temporall, earth for heaven. As many who pretend a part in Christ; but in Esaus language say: Give me my pottage, my silver, my ho­nour, my profit, my pleasure, let them take their religion, their preaching, praying, and precisenesse, a bird in hand is worth two in the bush. This contempt of their priviledges robbed the Jewes of them, who being cast out of favour, of [Page 88] first-born become the last of all people, and now we Gen­tiles are stept into their birth-right. Let us be wise in the en­tertaining our prerogative conscionably, expresse our love to Christ and his Gospell, not hatred, as they, least provoking the Lord he deal with us in justice as he did with them. For if he spared not the naturall branches (Rom. 11. 21.) What rea­son hath he to spare us?

V. Learn to grow in conformity with our elder brother Use 5. Resemble Christ our Elder bro­ther. Joh. 1. 13. Christ, with whom we cannot be equall, but like as brothers. All must have one Father, one flesh, one spirit. For the bro­therhood stands not in communion of flesh and bloud, for so every man were his brother, but in the spirituall union by regeneration, We must be like him in affection, like him in affliction, like him in the combat, and like him in the Crown. How like unto Christ is he that resists and despises the spirit of grace, that having onely humane nature hath no whit of that divine nature, 2. Pet. 1. 4. When heardest thou this first-born brother to swear or lye? Or be idle in speech, wanton in behaviour, carelesse of his course, or company? When was he ashamed of thy cause, of thy Crosse, yea or curse? But thou art ashamed of his Crosse and cause. When did he revile, rebuke, hate?. Would he be like us in every thing, even in our evils, sinne onely excepted? should not we be like him in grace, to be like him in glory?


PRIESTS: Types in the deputation of their office.

OF the rankes and orders of holy persons some were san­ctified Priests, typ [...] of Christ, wherein. and seperated to the Lord by office or function, As the Peiests and high Priests, who of all other were most expresse types of Jesus Christ. Hebr. 4. 14. We have a [Page 89] great high Priest, which is entered into heaven, even Jesus the Sonne of God.

The Priest a type of Christ
  • 1. In deputation to his office, wherein
    • 1. his choice.
      • 1. for his tribe,
      • 2. for his per­fections.
    • 2. his consecration.
    • 3. his apparrell.
  • 2. In execution of it: Actions.
    • 1. Common.
    • 2. Ministerial.

Sect. 1.

1. The Choise had respect 1. To the tribe. He must The choice respected, 1. Tribe. come of one onely tribe of Levi, which was by God of all the tribes separated, and appointed by God to exercise the Priest­hood in the Tabernacle, and to performe whatsoever be­longed to the holy Ministery. This signified Christ our Mediator, who must be a speciall and singular man, taken from among men, Hib. 5. 1. as they, true man as they. For he must be true man in nature and affection that must mediate and negotiate mans cause with God, and so taken from men to stand in the midst between God and man. True it is, our Lord came not of Levi, but out of Judah, Heb. 7. 14. with the reason, for he was not to be after the manner of Aaron, but of Melchizedek, verse 15. and because he was to change the Priesthood, and would do it in the tribe, and was to be a Priest not after the carnall commandement, but after the power of endlesse life, verse 16. But yet he was expressely typed by those Priests. Neither was it without a spirituall significati­on, that Aaron the first of those high Priests should be Mo­ses brother. For what more Brotherly league than of Christ to Moses, of Grace to the Law, and of the New Testament to the Old?

2. To the perfections. For in the choice of the Priest 2 The per­fections. were requisite many externall perfections. Levit. 21. 17. Whosoever of the seed had any blemishes, shall not presse to offer the [Page 90] bread of his God. He must not be blind, lame, nor mishapen. Wherin the Lord would not onely provide for the dignity of that calling in that infancy of the Church; which other­wise (if the Priesthood had been in outward shew contempti­ble) many might have drawn, not their persons onely into contempt, but even all such holy things as they handled: But especially to signifie Jesus Christ our high Priest to be with­out all blemish, the onely immaculate Lamb that takes away the sinnes of the world. For although no other mortall man could be without some blemish of sinne or other; yet it became us to have such an high Priest as is holy, harmlesse, undefiled, separate from sinners, Hebr. 7. 26. And as our Lord was spotlesse, and without all blemish; so also perfect in all parts and perfections. He wanted no part, no gift, no sufficiency to discharge that function too weighty for men and Angels.

I. In this our unblemished high Priest we have a sufficient Note. 1. A cover for all deformi­mities of soul and body. cover for all our blemishes both of soul and body. 1. If ne­ver so blemished in soul by sinne, by infirmity, if we have a thousand wants and eye-sores; if we bewaile and resist them, here is help and remedy in our high Priest against them all. For as those persons that had such blemishes might not stand at the Altar to doe duties there, yet they were allowed in the Congregation, and to eat from the Altar of the sacri­fices as the Priests did, Levit. 21. 22. So all defects and weaknesses, which the Saints carry as a burthen, shall not hinder them from participating in the good things purchased by Christs sacrifice, nor cast them out of place of the elect, neither here nor for ever. 2. Be thou never so blemished, and deformed, or maimed in body, now (the truth being come) God respects not according to the outward appear­ance. And although the honour of the Ministery must be respected, and the choysest of our children are not too good for Gods service; yet now it is far better, a good Minister without an eye, or a hand, or foot; than a Congregation without a good Minister. Note. 2. Qualities requisite in Ministers.

II. All these outward perfections of the body in all the Priests high and low, point us to such endowments and [Page 91] gifts of mind which the Lord expects in Ministers, before they attempt this high calling. 1. He of all men must not be blind or ignorant, Hos. 4. 6. Because thou hast refused knowledge, thou art rejected from being a Priest to me. How should he be a light to others that himselfe is in darknesse? If the eye be dark, so is all the body. 2. He must not have either a blind or a blemished eye, an eye filled with envie at another mans gifts and prosperity: Nor a squint eye, looking indirectly upon every thing; not ayming at Gods glory, or the build­ing of Christs kingdome, but his own glory, wrath, lusts, ends. 3. He must not be lame or cripled in his feet, but make right steps to his feet, Heb. 12. 13. Upright in his way; not right doctrine onely but right life also. 4. He must not have a flat nose, that is, without discretion, or judgement to discerne truth and falshood, good and evill, things fit and unfit. As the nose discerns smells; so to discern companies and courses. 5. He must not have a crooked back, bended downwards and allmost broken with earthly cares, hindering his eye from looking towards heaven, and interrupting heavenly contemplations and study. And so in the rest. Would God such care were had in the choice and permission of Evangelicall Ministers, as in the Old. We should not see the Churches pestered with so many un­worthy illiterate men, fitter for any trade than this so holy calling.

Sect. II.

II. His consecration set down, Exod. 29. 1. wherein In the con­secration 3 things. were three things. 1. Washing. 2. Anointing. 3. Sa­crificing and purifying with bloud. And this consecration to continue seven dayes together. Which in generall sha­dowed the surpassing sanctity and purity of Christ above all other men and Angels: Whom the devils themselves call that holy one of God, Mark. 1. 24. In speciall, verse 4. the washing did not onely admonish them to cleanse and 1. Washing. purge themselves from the inward defilement of their sinnes before they undertooke that holy calling; but plainly pointed at the washing and Baptisme of Christ; who under­taking [Page 92] his Ministery went into the water and was baptized. Matth. 3.

The anointing by the holy Oyle, verse 7. signified the a­nointing 2. Anoint­ing. When. of Christ with the holy spirit without measure: Isai. 61. 1. The Spirit of the Lord hath anointed me to preach. Psal. 45. 7. God, even thy God hath anointed thee with the oyle of gladnesse above all thy fellowes. In which regard Christ was called by eminency, the anointed of God; and the Priests are Unctus Dei. Nolite tan­gere unctos meos. Matter. types, touch not mine anointed. In this anointing. 1. The matter, holy oyle; signifying the Spirit of God and his gifts, for much similitude & agreement between them. 1. That was made of the most pretious things in all the world, Exo. 30. 25. So the holy graces of the Spirit are the best things in the world, Luk. 11. 13. there is no gift to this. Oyle swimmes aloft: So the Spirit and graces are highest. 2. No stranger had that Oyle, but onely persons and things sanctified: So none but Gods Elect have these precious and saving mercies. Joh. 14. 17. the World cannot receive it, that is gifts not com­mon, but of sanctification. 3. That perfumed all the place where it was: It is the Spirit of God that sweetens and per­fumes all our actions and natures, otherwise most corrupt and loathsome to God. 4. That sanctified the thing to which it was applied, and set it aside to an holy use. With­out this oyle the sacrifice of the Jew was as if he had killed a dog. It is the Spirit that sets us apart, and sanctifieth to the Lord us, our persons, our actions, 2 Tim. 2. 21. The service that wants the Spirit is hatefull to God. 5. Oyle is cleare in shining, and makes other things anointed to shine: The holy Ghost within, enlighteneth the mind, and brings in the true light and knowledge of God. 1 Joh. 2. 27. the anointing shall teach you all things. 6 Oyle hath the force of fire in penetrating and subtly pearcing, and is the fuell and feeder of fire and flames: So the Spirit of God is a pearc­ing fire in the heart, and kindles and maintaines in it the ar­dent flames of the Love of God. Holy thoughts as spark­els flie upward. 7. Oyle suppleth, cherisheth, comforteth: So the Spirit of consolation anoints with oyle of gladnesse, Psal. 55. 7. It is he that brings peace and tranquility into [Page 93] consciences. 2. the measure, powred in abundance upon Measure. Aarons head. Not dropped but powred, signifying the abun­dance of gifts and graces most plentifully conferred upon Christ our head. For as it was proper to the high Priest to be anointed on the head, whereas the common Priests were anointed but in their hands, not on their heads: So was Christ as the head anointed with oyle above all his fellowes, and received the spirit beyond measure, signified by powr­ing on the head. 3. The communication of this oyle. It Communi­cation. stayed not on Aarons head, but ran down his beard, even to the skirts of his garments: signifying that the Spirit of grace distills from the head unto all the members of his mysticall body the Catholike Church. First the Spirit descends and sits on Christs head, then on the Apostles in likenesse of fiery tongues, running down as it were by Aarons beard; and from them upon other inferior persons beleeving their word, as unto the skirts of his garment, Psal. 133. 2.

Now a threefold Application hereof.

I. In the anointing of the high Priest, the eminency of Note. 1. Eminency of Christ above all creatures. Heb. 3. 1. Jesus Christ above all creatures; whose very name carrieth in it a note of principality, being called the high Priest of our profession. And in that this whole consecration of the high Priest in most solemne and stately manner, was but a dark shadow of his selemne inauguration into his Office. And by this anointing Christ is differenced from the most excellent Priests and Prophets that ever were, Aaron, Moses, Elias. Some of them had a most glorious vocation, as Moses, and in the entry of their callings, gra­ced with most divine and powerfull miracles: but never any had the spirit sitting on his head but he. None of them by their anointing had all graces, nor any grace in perfection, but onely begun, and in small degree. Moses a beleever wanted faith sometime, as when he smote the Rock which he should have spoken to; and the meekest man in the world was sometime to seek of his meknesse. Aaron, though the oyle was powred on his head, was weak; as in murmuring against [Page 94] Moses, & in making the calf: But in our high Priest all graces & virtues were not inchoate onely, but perfect. In him knowledge of God was most perfect, holiness most perfect, and all kind of graces in highest degrees. Grace sits in his lips, not onely to move the mind but to change it. None of them by anoint­ing could receive graces for others, but for themselves onely; but he receives such a measure; as runns over to the sanctifying of the lowest and meanest of his members. Hence 1 Joh. 2. 27. the anointing which we have of him, dwels in you, and teach­eth you all things. And 2 Cor. 1. 21, 22. It is God that a­nointeth us in Christ; and sealeth, and giveth us the earnest of the Spirit. Thus our Lord Jesus is advanced above all, his oyle shines brightest, and swimmes aloft above all o­thers.

II. In Aaron's and Christs anointing and furnishing to Note 2. Ministers must in­crease their gifts. their Office: Ministers must labour for a greater measure of this ointment than others, to run down from them to their skirts. They must pray by the Spirit, watch by the Spirit, walk by the Spirit. An unconverted Minister may do ano­ther good, but he hath no prmise of blessing, nor doth any good to himselfe. As the holy ointment was kept in the Sanctuary: So Christ is the Sanctuary whence this oyle comes. The pipes are the Word preached, Sacraments, Prayer, societies of the Saints and Gods people. And such Ministers as contemptuously contemne the conduit-pipes, through which this oyle drops and flowes, scorne to come to Sermons, and joyne in holy exercises; how doth their oyle dry away? Instead of this oyle that should fall from them, a deale of pitch and slime, froth and filthinesse falls on their skirts.

III. In the communication of this ointment unto us the Note: 1. Dutles of private be­leevers. skirts, we learn that Christ is not for himselfe, but for us. And therefore, 1. Examine if thou beest anointed. This is to be a Christian, to be anointed as Christ was? Scornest thou this holy oyle in thy selfe or others? Know, thou shalt one day wish the mountaines to fall on thee, on whom this oyle falls not. 2. Hence draw strength in temptation. Re­member, If sollicited to sinne, Oh I have the anointing; I [Page 95] am taken up, and set apart to Gods use; I am for God and his glory, Neh. 6. 11. 3. Use meanes to attaine a farther measure, and be liker Christ. Thou missest a Sermon, or the Sacrament; thou knowest not what drops of oyle thou hast missed: 4. Have a care to walk as such as are anointed, smelling sweet every where in holy lives, speeches, prayers; in all things edifying thy self and others. Leave a sweet smell every where behind thee. Let it drop down from us to others round about us.

The third thing in the high Priests consecration was sacri­ficing, 3. Sacrifi­cing. Three sorts of sacrifices. Exod. 29, 1, 2. In which, 1. Observe in general, that the Priests must be consecrated by offering all sorts of sacrifices for them; and therefore they must take a calfe, two rammes, unleavened bread, cakes and oyle, verse 1, 2. 1. Because of the speciall holinesse and honour of their cal­ling who are to come so near unto God, who will be speci­ally sanctified in all that come near him. 2. Because sinne in them is more hatefull than in any other, and in expiating their sinnes, as much is required as for the sins of all the con­gregation. 3. Because they were to offer unto God all the gifts and sacrifices of all the people of all sorts; and there­fore for them must be offered all sorts, to sanctifie them not onely in generall, but to their speciall services between God and his people. 2. In particular: The first of these sacri­fices 1. A sinne offering: Particulars, six. must be a sinne offering, verse 10. For which they must; 1. Take a calfe and offer him for the expiation of sinne, verse 14. This young calfe was a type of Christ, who onely by his own oblation expiated our sinne, which other­wise made our selves and duties most hatefull. 2. This calfe must be presented before the Lord and his Congregation: signifying the willingnesse of Christ to offer up himselfe for the sinnes of men. Joh. 19. 11. 3. Aaron and his sonnes must put their hands on the head-of the calfe, verse 10. not onely to confesse they were worthy to die for their own sins, but to professe also that the death which they deserved, was by the death of the Messiah (the high Priest of the new Te­stament) removed off them, and transferred upon the beast. And not onely the imputation of our sinnes upon Christ; [Page 96] but also is signified, that we must lay our hand by a true faith upon Christ our head, if we expect any comfort from his death and passion. 4. The calfe must be killed before the Lord, at the doore of the Tabernacle, verse 11. signifying both the death and crucifying of Christ, as also the fruit of it by the place. That by his death, as by a doore, an entry is made for us into the Church, both militant and triumphant, Heb. 10 20. 5. The bloud of that sinne-offering for the Priest must be put on the hornes of the Altar, and the rest powred at the foot of the Altar, verse 12. signifying; 1. The sufficiency of Christs death to purge and reconcile us to God. 2. The plenty of grace and merit in it for many more than are saved by it. For being sufficient for all, it is not help­full to all, nor to any that tread under foot this pretious bloud; the extent of the benefit is to all the elect. 3. The large spreading and preaching of the Gospel of salvation by Christs bloud through all the coasts and corners of the earth (as the bloud sprinckled on the four corners) and that by the finger, hand, and ministery of men. 6. The fat must be offered unto God; but the flesh, skin, and dung, must be burnt with fire without the host: signifying: 1. That Christ offered himselfe, and the best parts he had, suf­fering in soule and body. 2. That he must suffer without the host, without the gate of Jerusalem, Heb. 13. 12. and carried out our sinnes out of Gods sight. 3. That nothing but bloud comes on the Altar: For onely the bloud of Christ his Sonne cleanseth us from all sin.

Note hence, that the Priests in the Law must be put in mind Note. No perfecti on but one­ly in Christ that they were sinners, and needed a sacrifice for themselves. By which they were to take notice of a difference between themselves and our high Priest. 1. There was no perfection in their persons; for they must offer, and lay their hands on the head of the sacrifice, confessing guiltinesse. 2. Nor in their Ministery, in which the high Priest need offer for his own sinnes. 3. Nor in all their Consecration; they could offer no sacrifice to wash away any sinne, their owne nor others; onely they did point at the sacrifice of Christ: but by his consecration he could offer himself a meritorious [Page 97] and sufficient sacrifice for the sinnes of his elect. Thus is our high Priest advanced above them all.

The second of these sacrifices in the Consecration of the 2. A burnt offering, or Holocaust. Particulars four. high Priest was to be a burnt offering or Holocaust. The use of which was to signifie the dedication of himselfe and all that he had, to be purified by the Spirit (as by fire) to the use of God in his service, as that Holocaust was, verse 15, and 19. Most things in this were common with the for­mer.

1. The bloud must be sprinkled on the Altar round about: signifying the full remission of sinnes purchased by the bloud of Christ, and the communication of all his benefits, and the virtue of his whole passion to be aplyed to the whole Church for sprinkling still betokens application.

2. The inwards and legs must be washed in water, vers. 17. signifying that Christ should bring no unclean thing in his offering, but he should be absolute pure within and without; in his mind, thoughts, affections, signified by the inwards; and in his conversation, motions and walkings, signified by the legs.

3. The burning of the offering wholy, ver. 18. signified. 1. The ardent love of Jesus Christ; who was all consumed as it were with the fire of love and zeale towards mankinde upon the Crosse. 2. The bitternesse of his passion in his whole man, who was as it were consumed wholly with the fire of his fathers wrath due to the sinnes of man.

4. As the burnt-offering ascended up to heaven in fire: So Jesus Christ having offered himselfe a whole burnt offer­ing ascended up into heaven, and so obtained an everlast­ing redemption for his Church. From whence also he sends the fire of his Spirit, as on the Apostles, so on all beleevers in their measure, Joh. 14.

Note from this sacrifice for the high Priest; that first Note. Sin unpar­doned, all service is a­bominable. he must offer the sinne-offering, and then the other sacrifi­ces for consecration. This burnt-offering nor the others following could never have been acceptable, if the sinne-offering had not gone before, and sinne by it expiated. Learne hence, that so long as we are in our sinnes, all our [Page 98] sacrifices and services are abominable. Sinne unremoved lyes in the way of thy prayer. The blind man could say, God heares not sinners, Joh. 9. 31. And David, If I have de­light Psal. 66. 18. to sinne, God will not hear my prayer. Sinne unrepented and unpardoned makes thee hatefull in the house of God; thy hearing doth but more harden thee, the Sacraments become poyson unto thee, for thou by thy sinne castest poyson into the Lords Cup, and so eatest and drinkest thy owne damna­tion.

For Applycation.

Let this be our wisedome, first to offer our sinne-offering. It is the Lords own counsell, Isai. 1. Wash you, cleanse you, Use. and then come and let us reason. And as our Lord advised us in case of reconciliation with man, we must much more practice in case of our reconciliation with God. If thou hast brought thy gift to the Altar, and thou remembrest that God hath ought against thee; first reconcile thy selfe to God, and then to man, and so bring thy gift. There be two graces which we must bring before God in all our services in which we would find acceptance. The former of preparation; that is, repentance which prepareth aright to the performance of good duties. The latter of disposition; and that is faith, which disposeth the party aright in the whole carriage of them, for this purifieth the heart, exciteth the will, sees the weaknesse, seeks a cover, and finds acceptance.

The third sacrifice in the consecration of the high Priest 3. A peace offering, or sacrifice Eucharisti­call. Particulars, four. was the peace-offering, or the Eucharisticall sacrifice; the use of which was, both that Aaron should shew his thank­fullnesse to God, who had advanced him to so high an office, as also to obtaine of God by prayer such high and excellent gifts as were needfull for the execution of the same: and this pointeth directly at Jesus Christ.

1. The bloud of this Lamb was to be put on the lap of Aarons eare, upon the thumb of his right hand, and on the great toe of his right foot. Signifying, 1. That all the actions of Christ, his hands, feet, and parts were red with his passion. Psal. 22. 16. they pierced my hands and feet. [Page 99] 2 The whole obedience of Jesus Christ to his father even to the death, called a piercing or boaring of the eare. 3. That Psal. 40. 6. it is Christ who sanctifieth the eares, hands and feet of the Priest and people. The eare to hear divine Oracles, the Priest must first learne then teach. The hands to work the actions of grace and holinesse. The feet to direct and lead into all holy motions and conversation, all must be washed by the bloud of Christ, that we may be wholy clean. As both our Saviour teacheth by the washing of the disciples feet, Joh. 13. 5, 6. As also in Peters request, Lord not my feet onely, but my hands and head, Joh. 13. 9.

2. A part of this sacrifice went to the Priest, part to the Offerer, signifying, that both Priest and people have part and interest in the death of Christ; as also that Christ did not onely deliver himselfe to death for us, as this Ram, but also giveth himselfe to feed us to eternall life, Joh. 6. 55. My flesh is meat indeed.

3. It must be heaved up before the Lord, and shaken too and fro every way, vers. 26. Signifying, 1. The lifting up and heaving of Christ upon the Crosse. 2. The heaving up of our hearts in thankfullnesse to God for so great benefits. 3. That the merits of Christ our true sacrifice, and benefits of his death should, by the preaching and publication of the Gospell, be spread abroad into all corners of the world, as that sacrifice was shaken every way, East, West, North, and South.

4. This sacrifice must alwaies be offered up with cakes of unleavened bread tempered with oyle, vers. 23. Signifying, 1. The most perfect purity of Christs life and doctrine with­out all leaven of sin. 2. That Priest and people must in service to God lay aside all leaven of maliciousness. 3. The oyle notes the soft and loving kindness of God & Jesus Christ, chearing & suppling the conscience by the sweet meditation of it; as also how joyfully & gladly we ought to serve the Lord, and with Note. Wash and purge all with the bloud of Christ. cheerefullness present before him all the parts of his worship.

Note hence, as the eare, hands, and feet of the high Priest must be touched with bloud before he attempt any part of his office; so our care must be that all our parts, all our actions [Page 100] and affections be touched and purged with the bloud of Christ. So David, Psal. 51. 2. Wash me throughly. Reason. 1. Because sinne hath defiled the whole man; all his parts, all his actions, all within him, all without him. 2. This foul­nesse sticks so fast, as it is no easie matter to be cleansed. Nothing in the world can fetch out this soile but the bloud of Christ. Not all the water in the sea, nor all the holy water in the Sea of Rome can wash away one sinne. 3. All thou doest or performest depends upon the merit of this bloud, and dignity of this person and passion for acceptance. The knowledge of thy duty must be sprinkled with this bloud, for that is signified by the eare. The undertaking of duty, by the hand. The progresse and perseverance in it by the foot. All must be presented in him and by him, and find grace and acceptance. If I wash thee not, thou hast no part in me.

Qu. How may I know that the bloud of Christ hath touch­ed Notes of it. and purged me?

Answ. 1. It is not enough that Christs bloud be shed, but it must also be sprinkled. If thou contentest not thy selfe that Christ hath died for all, but seest how necessary it is to apply it to thy self. 2. If thou hast an hand to lay hold on Christs bloud and besprinkle thy self with it. A man wash­eth his face with his hand. This hand is faith, which takes up the bloud of Christ, and applies it to ones selfe, as did Paul, who dyed for me. 3. If it wash the whole man with­in and without, which no others bloud could do. The bloud of sacrifices under the Law could not sanctisie the conscience, but onely the outside, Heb. 9. 9. but this can and must purge the conscience from dead workes, verse 14. And under conscience is contained the whole inner man, purged by the merit of his Merito san­guin [...] satis­factorii. Spiritu na­turam nost­ram regene­rante. satisfying bloud, and by his spirit renewing our nature. And for the outward man, 1. If thy right eare be touched, thou hast the hearing eare rightly to hear the word of God. Thou hearest to learn; for to harken is better than the fat of Rammes. 2. If thy right hand be touched, that thou art an active Christian, not an hearer onely of the word but a do­er, and unto knowledge of the doctrine of faith joynest obe­dience [Page 101] of faith, thou keepest the faith working, as knowing that obedience is better than sacrifice, thou darest not doe what seemes good to thy self, or is right in thine owne eyes, but what is rightly ruled by Gods word, for that is the right hand touched. 3. If thy right foot be touched that thou walkest in the right way with a right foot, not making crook­ed pathes to thy feet, but ordering thy conversation aright. And all this with right ends and affections, the feet of the soule laying aside all sinister ends and intentions in all thy o­bedience, and directing all to the honour of the true Aaron and high Priest Jesus Christ. 4. If thou findest the effects of Christs bloud sprinkled. 1. Pacification of conscience, Effects two. for this bloud speakes better things than Abels for us, and in us; for us, to God by intercession: in us, by perswasion, that the Lord looking on the bloud of Christ, rests wholly in it as a full satisfaction for all our sinnes; for this is the end of shedding, remission of sinnes, Matth. 26. 28. there­fore of sprinkling. 2. Daily sanctification through this sprink­ling, 1 Pet. 1. 2. For out of the side of Christ issues water as well as bloud; the one redeeming from condemnation, the other from vaine conversation, the one purgeth from the death of works, the other from dead workes themselves. Heb. 9. 14. The sprinkling of this bloud admits not security, or idleness, and carelessnesse; nor suffers a man to sinne against this bloud by impenitency, unbeliefe, despising of grace, hor­rible swearing, and foul lusts. But makes the Christian true­ly noble, as one now descended of the bloud of Christ; scorning the base and foule courses he formerly affected. Find these markes, and comfort thy selfe, thou art sprinkled with Christs bloud. Thy whole course is sanctified; all thy hearing, all thy obedience, be it never so weak in it self, be thy unworthinesse never so great, it shall be no barre to thine acceptance with God, For every thing sprinkled with this precious bloud is sweetned and accepted.

Sect. III.

III. The third thing in the deputation of the Priest to [Page 102] his office, is his apparrell, appointed by God, and called holy garments, glorious and beautifull; farre differing from all other mens. And they signified, 1. The function to be glorious and excellent. 2. The fitnesse of their persons to that office. 3. The glory of the true high Priest Jesus Christ, of whom Aaron was but a figure. For all the gliste­ring shew of these Priestly garments set forth the more Ange­licall The Priests garments in number 10. whereof 4. belonged to inferiour Priests. 1. A linnen garment. brightnesse of all the virtues which should shine in Jesus Christ. The Priestly garments appointed by God were ten in number; of which four belonged to the inferiour Priests, Exod. 28. 40, 42.

1. A linnen garment: Which signified the white garment of Christs righteousnesse and innocency; which they were to appeare in before the Lord, if they would be acceptable in their persons or duties. Noting to us by the way, that every godly Minister weares a white linnen garment, not woven and made by men, but by God; not without him, but with­in him; not a shaddow o [...] ceremony, but the substance and truth, to which all shadowes give place. Nay there is no private man that is godly, but he must weare this white linnen garment, having put it on in the laver of regeneration: as Gal. 3. 27. Whosoever are baptized into Christ, have put on Christ.

2. A girdle, verse 40. which signifies constancy and sta­bility 2. A girdle. in the truth, both in our high Priest Jesus Christ, who was not a reed shaken, but a firme rock: as also in his mem­bers, who are commanded to stand fast, their loines girt with verity, Ephes. 6. 14. Hence followes, That the Ministers word must not be yea and nay; his course must be constant­ly gracious and watchfull. And for private Christians, Heb. 13. 9. Be not carried about with divers & strange doctrines, for it is a good thing that the heart be stablished with grace.

3. A bonnet, verse 40. A symbole and signe to them of 3. A bonnet Gods protection still covering them in their faithfull service: signifying to us the Lords cover and faithful protection both over our head, and over his members for his sake. So as every faithfull Minister hath a bonnet, Christ carries him [Page 103] as a starre in his right hand, and covers him from the rage of Satan and the world, else should he not stand a minute. And every faithfull member of Christ is so covered as an haire cannot fall (much lesse the head) without the will of his heavnely father.

4. The breeches, verse 42. Putting more comlinesse upon 4. Breeches. the uncomely parts. Signifying to them and us, 1. What reverence we ought to use in the service of God; farre re­mooving thence every uncomely thing. 2. Shaddowing out the true and perfect holinesse, with which Christs humanity was cloathed; and not onely with that, but with the Majesty of his deity, which highly graced and honoured the despi­sed and fraile humanity, which had no forme nor beauty, Isai. 53. 2. 3. Not darkly representing that care and respect which our Lord and Saviour Christ hath of his inferiour, base, and despised both Ministers and members through the world. Isai. 41. 14. Feare not worme Jacob; I will helpe thee.

To the high Priest belonged six peculiar garments: To the high Priest six. 1. The E­phod: where Matter. First the Ephod, verse 4. In which

1. The matter, it was not wooll or silk, but linne, which riseth out of the earth, Ezech. 44. 17. Signifying that holy flesh of Christ which vailed his deity as a garment; and that it was taken not from heaven, but from his mother on earth, as the matter of that garment grew immediately out of earth.

2. The forme it was a long white garment: signifying the Forme. long white garment of Christs absolute righteousnesse; white, innocent and unspotted; and long, to cover all our nakednesse, without eecking and patching of merits.

3. The ornament of it. In [...]it were set two Onyx stones, Ornament. and in them the names of the twelve tribes of Israel engra­ven, which Aaron carried upon his shoulders: signifying, 1. That the names of the godly are not lightly written, but fast engraven in the love and memory of Christ, as those names were engraven in very hard stones. 2. That Christ doth still carry his Church on his shoulders; lifting them up out of dust and misery, and bearing them upon the shoul­ders [Page 104] of his power and providence as on Eagles wings, Deut. 32. 51. Or as the good shepheard brings home the sheep on his shoulders, Luke 15. 5. According to his gracious pro­mise, Isai. 46. 4. I have made you; I will also beare you, and I will carry you and deliver you.

4. The use of it. The high Priest in this garment carried Use. on his shoulders the names of Israel into the sanctuary before God: so our high Priest in the garment of his righteous­nesse presents his Church (shadowed by the twelve tribes) without spot or wrinckle or any such thing; and carries into heaven on his shoulders, even into the true Sanctuary not made with hands, those whose names are written in the book of life.

5. Distinction. As the high Priest carried the names in Distinction severall precious stones, and severally engraven: so our high Priest takes speciall notice of every particular member of the Church, neglects not the meanest, but knowes them by name, as the head can name every member of the body, and contemnes not the meanest. Revl. 3. 4. the Church of Sard [...] had a few names, that is, godly persons so well known to Christ as men by their names.

6. The property of it. It was not lawfull for any but A­aron and the high Priest to use this garment, nor might any Propriety. imitate it, for it was the fall of Gideons house, Judg. 8. 26. 27. for making an Ephod like that of the sanctuary. It is true there were ordinary Ephods, holy garments common to in­ferior Priests, as Saul put to the sword fourscore and five Priests that wore an Ephod. 2 Sam. 22. 18. And used by the Levits, as Samuel very young ministred in an Ephod, 1 Sam. 2. 18. And it may be there were some garments cal­ed Ephods which great men did weare, and no holy gar­ment. as 2 Sam. 6. 14. David danced before the Arke girt with a linnen Ephod. But this Ephod was peculiar to the high Priest, and in no garment else might he present the names of the twelve tribes: signifying that no garment of righteousnesse may be expected or imitated, in which God can behold his Church, but this of Jesus Christ. And who­soever seeks elsewhere, are abolished from Christ to their de­struction, [Page 105] Gal. 5. 2, 4. Oh the fearfull case of Papists that seek to have their names written in another Ephod of their own weaving and making!

The second garment peculiar no the high Priest, was called 2. The brest plate of judgement. the brest-plate of judgement, ver. 15. the most precious part of all his garments.

I. In respect of the twelve costly and glistering stones which were set in four rowes according to the number of the tribes, ver. 17 to the 22. In which

1. The shining of these stones signified the shining purity Precious stones. Shining. and innocency of Jesus Christ both in himselfe, and in his members. If they be pure as the Sunne, faire as the Moone, what is he?

2. Their price of great value and worth: signifying what Worth. a price the Lord Jesus valued his Churth at. He counteth not believers as common and base stones, but more preci­ous than his own life. How vile and despicable soever they seeme to men, and trodden under foot here below as com­mon pebles; yet Jesus Christ sets another price on them.

3. Their place or situation. They are set in the pecto­rall, Place. and Aaron must carry them on his heart: fignifying that Christ hath as much care of his Church, as if it were en­closed in his heart; lets out his bloud to make room in his heart for them.

4. Their number, Twelve, according to all the tribes: Number. noting that there is a room in the heart of Christ for every one of the elect. None can anticipate or prevent other. With him is plentifull redemption. The former without the latter shall not be perfected, Heb. 11. 40.

5. Their order. They stand in four rowes in a comely Order. quadrangle: signifying the comely order that Christ hath stablished in the Church: some in higher place, some in lower, some of one ranke and virtues, and some of another, as those stones, but all stand seemely and fitly. And this order we must maintaine, keepe our rankes as they did.

6. The figure. The four square, ver. 16. signifying the Figure. stability and firmenesse of the Church, as a four square, turne it any way, is firme. Satan and all deceivers shall not pick [Page 106] one stone out of Christs Pectorall. The gates of hell shall not prevaile against him that is fixed in that rocke and stone of Israel.

7. Their use. That Aaron, who before bare the names Use. of Israel on his shoulders before the Lord, might now bear them on his heart continually for a remembrance before the Lord, when he goeth into the holy place, vers. 29. signify­ing, 1. The ardent love of Jesus Christ towards his Church, who beares it not onely on his shoulders as a shepheard, nor onely in his armes as a nurse: but upon his heart, and in his heart, never to forget our good. If Aaron may for­get the names he carries upon his shoulders, he cannot the names upon his brest or heart, so cannot Christ forget the Church he hath taken into his heart. Isai 49. 15. Can a woman forget her childe, and not have compassion on the sonne of her womb? though they should forget, yet will I not forget thee. 2. Bearing of the names continually before the Lord on his heart, signifieth the continuall mindfulnesse and intercessi­on of Jesus Christ for his Church in that heavenly sanctuary, Heb. 7. 25. By vertue of which all our prayers get audience and acceptance.

8. The quantity. As all the names of Israel were gather­ed Quantity. into a narrow compasse: so Jesus Christ our Mediator shall gather together into one, all the despersed sonnes of God: and present them before God as the most beautifull and pre­cious parts of the world, Joh. 11. 52. He shall make a short account in the earth, in comparison of the wicked who will take up more roome.

II. In respect of the Urim and Thummim which were put Urim and Thummim Non est ma­nifestū apud nos quid haec significent. Rab. Da. in the brest-plate of Judgement, vers. 30. Of which Rab­bi David a Jew saith: It is unknown to us what these signifie. And what this precious monument was (put by Gods appoint­ment into the fold of the Pectorall) no man living can tell. I take it to be no workmanship of man, but a sacred mo­nument immediately received from God. But expresly they signified Jesus Christ, 1. In their names. 2. In their use.

1. Their names, Urim and Thummin. Urim signifieth Names. [Page 107] lights in the plurall number. Note that there were not lights and shining before in the Pectorall by the many precious stones: but here is a glorious light shining above them all, to which their light is obscurity. Plainly signifying Jesus Christ in whom are hid treasures of wisdome and knowledge, Col. 2. 3. He is the light of the world, Joh. 9. 5. Which enlightneth every one that commeth into the world, Joh. 1. 9. There are many lights, as stones and stars, in the world: but he is the sun, nay he is lights. With him is many-fold wisdome. And without [...]. him is nothing but darknesse, sinne, death, inner darknesse and utter, Joh. 8. 12. Thummim signifieth perfections. And to whom can this point us but unto Christ; in whom alone are all perfections of holinesse and graces. There is illumi­nation in the twelve stones the Church, but not any perfecti­on; there is some purity in the stones, but farre from per­fection of it. In Christ is perfection in all parts; and from him alone we must expect our perfection.

II. The use of them was to receive by them answer from Use of them God when the high Priest consulted with him, vers. 30. For when the Priest asked counsell of God, God is said to answer by Urim, that is, not by the colour of the stones, nor the changing of colour by brightnesse, blacknesse, or bloudinesse of them (as some Jewes) but the Lord answered by voice, Numb. 7. 89. And therefore it is called the Urim of Judgement, not because it selfe gave Judgement or de­cided causes; but because the Lord answered when the Priest applyed the Urim and Thummim. This directly looked at Christ, as to whom, 1. All secrets and Mysteries are perfect­ly known. He is the Lamb with seven eyes, which are the se­ven spirits of God: Rev. 5. 6. Onely worthy to open the booke, vers. 9. because of his abundant grace and wisedome, signi­fied by the seven spirits. 2. Who makes known and conti­nually reveales to his Church and members, as their need re­quires, whatsoever is meet for them to know, by such meanes as himselfe hath sanctified

Now although this was a great priviledge of the first Tem­ple; and the second did want it, that they might not be kept from desire and expectation of the true Urim and [Page 108] Thummim: yet we in the new Testament are farre beyond them. For as the Oracle by Urim was certaine for direction: so Christ is the most perfect rule and direction shadowed by that. As the Urim answered by voice: so Christ by his word preached. As God spake then by Urim to the Priest: So now by his own Sonne. Heb. 1. 2. Wouldest thou have God an­swer thee? goe to the Urim. 1. Frequent his ordinance. God then answered, when the Priest consulted. 2. Pray for wisdome. If any man want wisdome, let him aske of God and it shall be given him, Jam. 1. 5. 3. Feare God, Psal. 25. 14. The secret of the Lord is with them that fear him. 4. Follow and obey the voice. Joh. 14. 21. If any love me and obey my commandements, I will love him, and reveale my self unto him. Joh. 7. 17. If any man doe the will of God, he shall know the doctrine whether it be of God.

The third peculiar garment of the high Priest was the robe 3. The Robe Particulars, four. of the Ephod, Exod. 28. 5, 31. On the skirts of which were fastned,

1. The Pomegranates of blue silke, and purple, and skar­let round about. This fruit hath a most pleasant smell, sweet in it selfe, and sweetning other things round about it; and is full of precious juyce and liquor.

2. Bells of gold between them round about, a golden Bell and a Pomegranate; the use of which was, that his sound might he heard round about when he went into the Sanctua­ry and holy of Holies. The whole garment signified the righteousnesse of Christs humane nature, which is. 1. Most sweet it selfe, having a most pleasant savour as the Pomegra­nate. 2. Full of most precious juyce and vertue, to qualifie and abate the raging heat of Gods displeasure, as the juyce of Pomegranats doth allay the burning heat of an ague that would shake the body to pieces. 3. Casts upon us a sweet savour being wrapped in it: For wee by nature, stinking in our sinnes and rottennesse, are loathsome to the Lord; but once covered with this mantle, we are a sweet savour to God; who now speakes of us as Isaac of Iacob covered in his elder brothers garments: My sonne is as the savour of a field which the Lord hath blessed, Gen. 27. 27.

[Page 109] 3. This garment hath a sweet sound, as of golden Bells, which to hear were most delectable: because the garment of Christs righteousnesse brings grace to us no otherwise than by the sound of the Gospell. For Faith, by which we put on Christ, is wrought by hearing the sweet sound and golden Bell of the Gospell. Whence some have thought, that by this part of the Priests Attire, is shadowed the Propheticall Office of Christ. Sweet is the proclamation of the Gospel of peace.

4. The use. That by these Bells the Priests must be heard when he goeth into the Sanctuary: signifying the power of Christ our high Priests perpetuall intercession (being entred into the sanctuary of heaven) for his elect and chosen.

The fourth peculiar garment was the Miter or bonnet up­on 4. The Mi­ter Particu­lars. 3. his head, vers. 36.

1. Made of blew silke and fine linnen, vers. 39. like (as it seemes) to an halfe coronet.

2. Beautified with a golden plate, on which was written: Holinesse to the Lord.

3. The use. Aaron must ever have it on his forehead while he beares the iniquity of their offerings, to make the people acceptable before the Lord, verse 38.

First, The Miter and crowne on the Priests head signified, 1. The Deity of Christ our head, which as a crown or cir­cle wants beginning and end. 2. The Kingly Office of Christ, with all that honour and crown of glory set on the head of our Redeemer, to whom all power is given in hea­ven and in earth. And according to his power is his name; for God hath exalted him and given him a Name above all names, Phil. 2. 9. His stile is not onely King of Saints, Revel. 15. 3. But King of Kings, and Lord of Lords, Chap. 19. 16.

Secondly, The golden plate in which was written, Holiness to the Lord, did not onely distinguish it from the miters of the ordinary Priests, which wanted such a plate: but speci­ally typified Jesus Christ our head, in whom was most con­spicuous (as in a mans forehead) a most divine and perfect holinesse purer than the gold of that plate. Who was not [Page 110] holy onely, as other sanctified persons, but holinesse it selfe. Holinesse in his person, holinesse in his nature, ho­linesse in all his actions and passions; holinesse in the foun­taine and originall, whence all streames of holinesse issue forth to his elect members. So Joh. 17. 19. I sanctifie my selfe that they may be sanctified. Never was there so pure a plate, such shining holinesse, so deeply ingraved as nothing can raze it out for ever.

Thirdly, The use was significant; that as the high Priest, having on this plate with this inscription, got the iniquities of the people pardoned, which he bare before the Lord: So our high Priest Jesus Christ, presenting before his Father, his most absolute holinesse, gets a pardon for all our sinnes, which he beares upon him selfe. And as their sinnes were pardoned in respect of the high Priest, who represented Propter sum­mum Sacer­dotem. Christ: So both theirs and ours are indeed and truth par­doned, for the true and eternall high Priest, who is Christ himselfe.

The 5. peculiar garment was the embroydered Coat of fine 5 The em­broidered Coat. linnen, vers. 39. which was a beautiful, costly and large gar­ment, reaching down to his feet, covering most of his bo­by; curiously wrought with most precious matter and cunning workmanship: which noted the dignity of the person, and office of the high Priest. For in old time long white gar­ments appertained to men of high place, and excellent in wisedome: As in Iosephs advancement, Gen. 41. 42. he was clothed with white fine linnen, when he was to be Viceroy, and next in authority to the King. See Ester 6. 8. how Mordecai was apparelled by the Kings command. This garment was most proper to our high Priest of the new Testament Jesus Christ; who is by it described, Rev. 1. 13. clothed with a robe down to his feet. Noting,

1. The excellency of his person; who is Prince of peace, Three things in Christ noted here­by. Isa. 9 6. For so, long white garments ever betokened peace, both within the Church and without.

2. That he excelled in wisedome and counsell, being the great Counseller, and the spirit of counsell and understanding resting in his breast, Isai. 11. 2. For to such also these gar­ments [Page 111] belonged, Dan. 5. 7, 16. 3. The lovely and beauti­full connexion and conjunction of his Propheticall, Priest­ly, and Princely Officers; sincerely and perfectly fulfilling them, and appearing before God in them as in a most cost­ly embroydered garment consisting of many pieces, and many colours fitly couched and layd together. And this grament he ware not onely in earth (as the Priests did) but now after his ascension he continues to performe the Offices of the high Priest for his Church: in the same embroyde­red garment presenting before God the merit of his onely sacrifice, and making intercession to the Father for it.

The sixth garment is the girdle of needleworke, ver. 6. The gir­dle. 39. Of diverse matter, linnen, blue silke, purple and scar­let, and of divers colours, Chap. 39. 29. The use of it was to fasten the Priests garments unto him, that they might not hang loose upon him in his ministration; and specially points out unto us our high Priest Jesus Christ described after his ascension, Revel. 1. 13. to be girded about the paps with a golden girdle. Noting in Christ four things.

1. The truth and constancy in accomplishing all the gra­cious Four things in Christ noted there­by. promises of the Gospell; seeing our high Priest is girt about with the girdle of verity.

2. His justice, integrity, pure and uncorrupt judgement as gold. Isai. 11. 5. Iustice shall be the girdle of his loynes, and faithfulnesse the girdle of his reines.

3. His readinesse to do the office of a Mediatour. Gird­ing of the attire hath ever been a signe of readinesse, and diligence in businesse undertaken. So Luke 12. 35. Let your loines be girded about.

4. His mindfulnesse and care in performing his office. For as not girding is a sign of carelessenesse and negligence: So girding of care and industry. So our Lord and high Priest never carelessely cast off any poor and penitent sin­ner: but in the dayes of his flesh minded their misery; and now in heaven keeps on his girdle, casts not off the care of his Church, but perpetually accomplisheth whatsoever is needfull for her salvation.

Sect. IV.

I. In the garments, some things necessary for Ministers, 1. Seven uses for the Mi­nisters. No baseness in a Mini­ster. some things for the People. 1. All about the Priest must be gold, silver, pretious stones, curious colours; signifying, that no vile or base thing must be in the Ministers cariage or behaviour. But as the Priests costly garments covered the frailty of their bodies, and graced them in their office: so the graces of their minds must not onely hide their weakness, but adorne and beautifie them for the honour and prosperity of their function. And the rather, because this corrupt age is bent to disgrace this holy profession, care shall be had both of keeping out, and thrusting out vile persons. And those who are in this calling should labour to shine in godli­nesse and vertue; which is the onely apparell that will draw the eyes of good men to reverence them.

II. As the Priests had variety of holy garments: so eve­ry 2. Variety of gifts. minister must be clothed and adorned with many graces. If every sheep of Christs fold must adde to his graces, much more the Pastor of the flock. If every child of God, much more the Father in the faith begetting others to God. He is not onely a disciple of Christ, but an instructer of others. He must therefore be stored, 1. With variety of know­ledge [...]. to bring forth things new and old. 2. Variety of Mi­nisteriall gifts, to instruct, exhort, reprove, correct. 2 Tim. 3. 16. 3. Variety of saving graces, to be an example in word, con­versation, in love, in spirit, in faith, in purenesse. 2 Tim. 4. 12. 4. Variety of externall and civill vertues. 1 Tim 3. 2. to the 8. and Tit. 1. 7. More gifts are expected in the builders of the house than in any stone of it.

III. As the Priest must carry on his breast Urim and 3. [...]Mini­ [...]er [...].Per [...]o nae. Thummim: so must every Christian and Evangelicall mini­ster; in whom are required graces ministeriall and personall. The former, that he may shine before the Congregation in the light and purity of wholsome doctrine. The latter, that he may shine in integrity and perfection of manners and con­versation, [Page 113] so farre as humane frailety will suffer. The Urim must enable him to divide aright, and furnish him with whole­some [...]. precepts. The Thummim must fit him to walke aright, and to go forward in holy practise. The lights of the world must give light both wayes. Deut. 33. 8. Let thy Urim and Thummim be on the man of thy mercy. Mal. 2. 6. The Law of truth was in his mouth, and he walked in truth and equity And Typus fideli­um in doctri­na & inte­gritate mo­rum. 1 Tim. 4. 12 the Apostles Canon is, that every Timothy should be a type of beleevers in doctrine and upright conversation. I would all ours might be found such types. Then should not so many parishes have lampes without light, Mi isters with­out the light of saving knowledge, and integrity of con­versation.

IV. As the high Priest must carry on his forehead the plate 4. Special holi­nesse. of gold in which was written, Holinesse to the Lord: so the Ministers of the new Testament must labour for speciall holinesse. If every mean servant in the house must be holy, much more the steward of the houshold. And if every pri­vate Christian must follow holinesse, without which no man shall see God, Heb. 12. 14. much more the Ministers. They that carry the vessels of the Lord must be holy. Alas, how afraid are many of this Plate, for spoiling of their prefer­ment? It was a chiefe grace of the chiefe Minister of the old Testament: with us a chiefe disgrace; and too much purity to carry holinesse in our profession. We can put on this plate in the Pulpit, and suppose it fit for the Temple, but in our private houses cast it aside.

V. As the Priests must have in their skirts both bells and 5. They must be good preachers & good livers. Pomegranates: so must every Evangelicall Minister. 1. The bells allow them not to be dumbe dogs, Isai. 56. 10. but the sound of the Law and Gospel must clearly sound in their mouthes to be heard afarre off. 2. These bells must be of gold, to put Ministers in minde that their doctrine be pure; not corrupt, not savouring of Popery, liberty, or selfe-re­spect. 3. They must never come into the congregation without these bells; for Ministers must still be furnished with some sound matter of instruction and edification. How is it then that many come into the Congregation and never [Page 114] bring bells? Many are afraid least the sound of their bells should be heard too much, and that it would disgrace them to be counted diligent Preachers? And many s [...]orne others that their bells sound so often? 2. To the bells ministers must joyne Pomegranates: With the wholsome word joyne good workes and holy life. He carries the bell, a Minister whose life is agreeable with holy doctrine. Matth. 5. 19. He that keepeth the commandements, and teacheth others so to do, shall be great in the kingdome of God. John Baptist had, both bells (being a burning light in himself) and Pome­granates; being a shining light unto others. And as the Pomegranates smelled sweet: so must ministers labour to leave a sweet smell behind them every where. Their conver­sation 6. Love the flock dearly. Illud quod; Christiani sumus, pro­pter nos est; quod au­tem praepo­fiti sumus, propter vos est. Aug. de Past cap. 1. Illud quod mundani su­mus (potius quam Chri­stiani) pro­pter nos est 7. Still keep on these ho­ly garments must not savour of lightnesse, pride, ambition, cove­tousnesse, contention, prophanenesse, &c.

VI. As the Priest must have the tribes be graven on his breast: so must the minister his flock committed to him; who must be deare to him, and taken up into his heart. And hearty love would force them to feed the flock, in season, out of season, and set forward their salvation and instructi­on; and seek them, not theirs. In that we Ministers are Christians, we are so for our selves; but in that we are Ministers of Christ, we are so for you. Some wholly forget the second, and I wish not the first too. Who may rather say: In that we are worldlings (rather than Christians) we are so for our selves. Their flockes are slightly engraven in their hearts

VII. As the Priests had these garments girded unto them: so must ministers gird fast unto them these garments; for these garments differ somewhat from theirs. They might put off their garments when they came out of the holy place: but Ministers of the Gospell may not put off theirs when they come out of the Church; no nor when they goe to bed, nor about any businesse; they must never come off. Many are so dissolute and ungirt, and these garments are so loose on them, as they give just occasion to the people to say; that they be good onely in the Pulpit; and so their people learn of them to be good onely in the Church. We must girt our graces fast to us. This is the onely ministerial appar­rel appointed by God.

Sect. V.

Now for the People of God:

I. These garments were never changed. Though the high Priest dyed, yet his apparrel remained and was put upon the next. This teacheth us that we all have but one high Priest, 1. Three uses for the peo­ple. Twofold instruction. whose robes we must put on, which are lasting and never worn out. For 1. There was but one Mediator between God and man while Aaron lived; a type of that our Mediator between God & man Jesus Christ. 2. There were garments but for one, although they passed from one to another as that Priesthood did: So no other robe save of this one and onely true and high Priest must be presented before God; no robe of our own workes or merits; no robe made or woven by men or creatures; not by Popes, Saints living or dead, or Angels. We must never change this garment; nor abide to see any challenge it but the high Priest our Lord Jesus. And hence for ever detest the wicked and abominable Masse, with those sacrilegious Priests, who usurpe these garments of Jesus Christ, and tell us they offer propitiatory sacrifices for the sinnes of the quick and dead. The theeves that spoiled Christ of his garments, and divided them among themselves, did him no such despite as these theeves do, who rob him and disrobe him of all his glory.

II. Every Christian is made a Priest unto God by partici­pation, Rev. 5. 10. But not legall and externall; for they Use. 2. As a Priest, offer spiri­tuall sacri­fices. were dated by the Priesthood of Christ: but Evangelicall; improper, and spirituall. Neither to offer reall, and exter­nall sensible sacrifices, which all had end by Christs onely sacrifice upon the Crosse: but spirituall sacrifices; such as, Calves of the lips, Heb. 13. 15. The sacrifice of a broken heart. Psal. 51. 17. Of almes, with which God is well pleased. Heb. 13. 16. Of mortification Rom. 12. 1. and of good works and duties of all sorts. Of prayer, Psal. 141. 2. Now before any of these sacrifices can finde acceptance we must all put on holy and spirituall garments. Never was any priest or performance pleasing without his garments; the use of [Page 116] which was to cover and adorne.

Quest. What garments must we put on?

Answ. Jacob before he could get his fathers blessing must In our prist­ly garment. put on his elder brothers garment, Gen. 27. 15. so must we put on the Lord Jesus Christ. Rom. 13. 14.

Quest. How?

Answ. Put on whole Christ, as the Priest all his gar­ments. How put on

1. By making him our own; we must weare our own gar­ments. Speciall faith unites to Christ, and marrieth us to him, that he is ours, and we his.

2. Cover thy selfe with the sacrifice of his death. Adam having sinned covered his nakednesse with skins of dead beasts: signifying that all his sinfull posterity must cover themselves with the sacrifice of Christ dead; the righteous­nesse and perfection of which, is the linnen Ephod in which thou being wrapped, must offer up thy sacrifice.

3. Array thy selfe with his virtues, to adorne and deck thee. This is the broydered coat which thou must weare, of manifold virtues and graces; which as jewels and orna­ments must shine in thy life, as the many glistering stones did in the brestplate. So the Apostle, Ephes. 4. 24. Put on the new man created after God in righteousness and holi­nesse.

4. Put on Christ by Christian profession. Our apparrell is seen, and makes us known to others. Servants make them­selves known by the cloth they weare whose they are. The Priest must put on the Plate on his forehead, and we are com­manded to carry the name of God and the Lamb on our foreheads, Rev. 14. 1. that men may never see our faces but therein read the holinesse and innocency of our conver­sation.

5. Put on the girdle, Have thy loines girded. Luke 12. 25. Stand in a readinesse. 1. To all duties of Christianity. 2. To all acceptable sacrifices of faith, repentance, prayer, prai­ses, obedience. 3. to offer up our selves by life or death to the glory and praise of God. We had need be thus begirt, that we may stand to the confession and profession of the [Page 117] truth, not knowing when or what trialls will come; besides that the world, nor pleasure, nor lusts, seldome find us unpre­pared. And can he be a good subject who is alwaies un­prepared for his Princes service; but ever ready to serve his enemys.

III. From the being arrayed with these garments, the Use. 3. Comfort to the godly. poore members of the Church have a ground of much comfort; in respect, 1. Of their head so arrayed. 2. Of themselves, and in respect of themselves considering those garments. 1. In the generall. 2. In the parti­culars.

First in respect of our high Priest Jesus Christ thus glori­ously 1. In Christ so arrayed. arrayed. 1. In the Ephod we see his mighty power, who carries his Church upon his shoulders of power and protection. Alas! where should we lie if our Lord did not lift us up, and beare us up? But now we never need to discourage our selves, by casting what shall become of the Church or religion, if such and such projects prevaile, for so long as we are on Christs shoulders, we are safe. 2. In the Pectoral behold the ardent & surpassing love of Jesus Christ to his Church For as he carries us on his shoulders by his pow­er: so he carries our names on his heart by his love. This our true high Priest cannot forget his saints when he seems to turne his back on them, but still hath their names before his eye. And this is the happinesse of the Church, in which she may well rest her selfe; that (according to her prayer Cant. 8. 6.) Christ setteth her as a seale on his heart, and as a signet on his arme. How is it possible to forget that which is sealed on the heart? How can the eye look off the signet on the arme? For a signet, because it is most precious, is most carefully kept; and being upon the arme of Christ, what arme can pull us off from him?

Object. Oh that I might know my happinesse to be set on Christs heart!

Sol. If thou wouldest be set as a signet on the Lords arme, become the Lords servant, and be faithfull in this service, See Hag. 2. 23. O Zerubbabel my servant, I will set thee as a signet. 3. In his Miter we see our high Priest crowned with [Page 118] honour and glory above all men and Angels. And all the Church must say (as Psal. 132. 18.) On him let his Crown flourish. And if the dignity of the head be the honour of the members, and the power of the head the safety of the members: then from hence we have no small consolation. 4. In his Plate we see holinesse engraven on his forehead, that all our senses and thoughts must be fixed in the forehead of our onely high Priest, from whom all holinesse floweth to his Church. Oh what matter of joy is it to see, that we (in our selves so foule every way, in our nature, in our course, and shut out of heaven where no uncleane thing commeth) have in him a fountaine of holinesse set open for us! For he is made to us of God wisedome, sanctification, &c

Secondly, in respect of themselves (by meanes of Jesus 2. In respect of them­selves. In generall. Christ) the members of the Church thus arrayed enjoy sure and stable consolation. For, 1. In generall they all afford us this comfort, that through Christ our high Priest we are beautifull and glorious, yea, our beauty is made perfect through his beauty. Psal. 45. 9. The Queen stands in most royall and costly garments. Never had Salomons Queen Psal. 45. 9. in all her royalty such sweet perfumed and precious garments, as hath the spouse of our true Salomon. For, 1. Those were provided by Salomon: Kings daughters in thy precious garments: but these provided by Christ out of his wardrobe; and will not endure any other garment or ornament brought or procured elsewhere. 2. Those were materiall, gold, sil­ver, and precious stuffe out of earth: but ours are spirituall and heavenly. What the glorious robes of the Church are, see Isa. 61. 10. I will greatly rejoyce in the Lord; for he hath clothed me with garments of salvation, and covered me with a robe of righteousnesse, and decked me as a bride with Jewels. What is gold, silver, silk, pearles; to righteousnesse, holy­nesse, life, immortality and glory? 3. Those were cor­ruptible and soon cast off: but these never weare nor teare. For all the sonnes and daughters of God are clad with incor­ruption and immortality, and are heires of eternity. Now it were no small comfort that we, being so naked and foule, wallowing in our bloud and filthinesse, or covered with filthy Ezek. 16. [Page 119] clouts and raggs of sinne, and the apparel of death, should have these taken away, Zach. 3. 4. But to be thus arrayed & covered, yea, decked and adorned with such beauty and glory, is more cause of joy and comfort.

II. In their parts they assure our happinesse, and seale up In the par­ticulars. our comfort:

I. The Pectorall shewes how God esteemes of believers; 1. Beleevers highly est [...]ē ­ed, as pre­cious stone. that they are the precious parts of the earth, signified by the twelve pretious stones. 1. For price. A great summe of money will not buy one of these precious stones. For we are not redeemed with gold, silver, or corruptible things; but with precious bloud. He must be some great King that must buy an Union; but he must be the great God that can pur­chase one of these precious stones, Acts 20. 2. For shin­ing and beauty. If a man were clothed with the Sunne, he must needs shine gloriously. The meanest beleever is clothed with the Sunne, Revel. 12. 1. and shineth in the firmament of the Church with the beames of Christs righteousnesse as the Sunne in his strength. 3. For hidden virtues and secret ope­ration. The godly have not a shine and shew, but the true substance of many virtues and graces secretly layd up in their hearts, and working mightily in them: the stones out of common Quarries, that is, common men, have not such things. 4. For rarenesse. It is an hard thing to find a godly man, these are rarer than most pretious stones. Elias could not see one in the world besides himselfe, though there were many. 5. For their estimation, and the reckoning of them with God and good men. Although the world out of ignorance and malice scorne this pearle, and as swine tread them under foot; yet the Jeweller knowes them; our high Priest placeth them upon his breast. And a wise merchant knowes that a pearle troden under foot is a pearle: and in it selfe, a pearle lying in the quarry or sands unknown, or trampled in the dirt or myre, is as good as when it is taken out. Thou that art an enemy to good men, 1. See how farre thou Sin to slight them. art from Gods judgement. 2. If thou knewest their worth, where now thou tramplest them, thou wouldest take them into thy heart. 3. One day thou shalt desire their glory, but too late.

[Page 120] II. The robe of the Ephod hath comfort for the poor 2. As Pome­granats. despised members of Christ, whose estate is figured by the Pomegranates. Which, 1. In themselves have no great beauty without, or on the outside. 2. Their place is below, and they hang in the skirt of the garment: But within, 1. They carry the colour of bloud, are washed in the bloud of Christ. 2. They are full of excellent juyce and liquor, of grace and piety. 3. They cast a sweet smell from them, and leave a pleasant savour behind them: and therefore Christ fastens them to himselfe inseparably, as the Pomegranates were fastened to the high Priests garment. Be thou a fruitfull Christian, no matter what place thou art in, or in what ac­count among men: Our high Priest hath use of thee, and must not go into the sanctuary of heaven without thee, though thou hangest in the skirts of his garment.

III. The Miter or crown of our high Priest assureth us, 3. As heires of the crowne of righte­ousnesse. that we by his anointing shall attaine the like crown. For he hath trodden all our enemies, not onely under his feet, but under ours also, Rom. 16. 20. Let us not cast down our hopes and hearts; our high Priest is stronger than all the enemies that can rise up against the Church. And we may couragi­ously combate against sinne, errours, hereticks, being sure of victory through the Crown and Miter of Jesus Christ. This Miter of Christ shall fetch down the Miter of Anti­christ for us. This Crown of our high Priest shall shake down his tripple Crown, and hath already blasted him. And though these Babylonians begin to wriggle, as a snake deadly wounded, with hope to raigne in these Churches as sometime they did; and for the sinnes of the Land, they may recover power by their craftinesse to surprize some ig­norant, silly, and unstable persons: yet shall they prevaile against none whose names are written in the book of life; but by the power of our Captaine we shall tread down both Satans and Antichrists kingdome, and prevaile against all that riseth up against the power of Christ.

Sect. VI.

Priests, types in the execution of their Office.

Having declared how the high Priest, and Priests of the old Testament resembled our high Priest of the new Testa­ment, Jesus Christ, in respect of his solemne inauguration and investure into his Office: Now we are to shew how he far­ther typified our Lord in respect of his administration and ex­ecution of it. Many are the speciall Lawes which the Lord gave to the Priests concerning their careful carriage of them­selves above others, and these may be reduced to two heads. 1. As concerning their common actions. 2. As concerning their actions ministeriall.

Concerning his common actions, he was prohibited di­verse Common actions of the Priests: 3. things which were lawfull in other men. I will mention three.

I. The Priests must keep an holy abstinence from wine 1. Abstinence from wine and strong drink. and strong drink, for the time they entered into the Taber­nacle, Levit. 10. 9. a Law was made for all the Priests, upon occasion of Nadabs and Abihues punishment; who being (as it seems) drunk, offered strange fire, and were burnt by fire before the Lord. And the Lord gives a reason of this Law: least their mindes or sences might be distracted or disturbed, so as they could not rightly discerne or execute the thing pertaining to God, and things pertaining to men, Heb. 5. The use of the Law was: 1. Typicall, shadowing out the most holy and sober course of our high Priest Jesus Christ, [...]. The use of this Law. who was never unready or unfit for any part of his Office, but in all perfection of judgement and understanding faith­fully performed and fulfilled all righteousnesse. 2. Perpetu­all, carrying in it a perpetual equity for all Christian Pastors, and Ministers, who must use such creatures and liberties spa­ringly, as they help their naturall infirmities by them, and help themselves forward in the exercise of prayer, study, preaching, and other Ministeriall duties; but not to dull, [Page 122] or to make themselves grosse or distempered by them. And hence is the same law repeated in the new Testament, Tit. 1. 7. A Minister must not be a lover of wine: Not inhibiting all use of wine and strong drink in case of necessity; as in griefe of heart, or for healths sake, Prove. 31. 6. Timothy may drink a little, 1 Tim. 5. 23. yea, and for honest delight at Feasts and Marriages may be a more liberall use of wine, as Joh. 2. where Christ himselfe was present. But he may not be a quaffer, or wine-bibber, one that sits at the wine or pot, swilling in wine or strong drink; because this is as great an hinderance to the faithfull performance of Ministeriall du­ties, as may be. For, 1. It troubles the understanding, Intempe­rance in Ministers very hurt­full. Hos. 4. 11. wine takes away the heart: It disturbes the memo­ry; Prov. 31. 5. least he drink and forget the decree, and change the judgement, not being able to discerne between clean and unclean. 2. It disables and withdrawes a Minister from all his duties. While he sits at the wine or strong drink, how can he sit at his study? How can he attend to reading, medi­tation, to exhortation or doctrine? How can he but be di­sturbed from ardency of prayer? Or how dare he (if he could) pray; How can he keep watch with God, or over his People, or over himselfe? 3. It disables the duties them­selves, suppose them done never so well; seeing by this vice he hath made himselfe and his calling so contemptible. What authority can an Oracle have in a drunken mans mouth, which cannot but use to speake leud things? Prov. 23. 33. 4. How can such a mans course but wage open warre with holy doctrine? He must needs shake hands with as base and wicked company, as a countrey yeelds; and give his hand to scorners, Hos. 7. 5. Wine is a mocker, and acquaints a man with mockers of God, and of all good things, and all good men. He must needs be an enemy to all that are not of his own straine; to all that call men to sobriety and temperate courses, and scorne them as too pure and precise. Hence shall a godly carefull preacher have all such Ministers in a country at warre with him. A man being once warmed with strong drinke, how many things break from him in his speech­es, in his actions, unseemly, unsavoury, and disgracefull to [Page 123] his profession? These things being so, we cannot but lament that this sinne is so much crept into the Ministery, even in all parts of the Christian world. Alas that the stewards of Gods house should sit with drunkards, and drinke, and be drunken, Luke 12. 45. Drunkennesse was wont to fly the light, they use to be drunk in the night; and should the lights them­selves be drunkards or associates with them, and in the light?

II. A second Law for the common actions of the Priests 2. Ministers marriage how orderd. concerneth their mariage. God doth not forbid any Priest in the old Testament mariage, but onely orders it for the holy, modest and grave cariage of it in this sort of men above all other. And therefore the Law of God forbids his mariage with three sorts of women, Levit. 21. 14. 1. He must not Whom they may not marry. marry a widow, least, 1. She might prove with child, and bring in a strange seed into the Priesthood, provided against ver. 15. 2. Least setled stoutnesse, or evill disposition should hinder her fintesse for him, who must not be disgraced in one so neare him. 2. He must not marry a divorced woman, that hath been put away from her husband, because it may be presumed she was put away for her misbehaviour, or bad car­riage towards her former husband. 3. He must not marry one defiled neither voluntarily or violently; such a blot must not lie on his wife, least his function be disgraced. But the Law allowes him onely two sorts of women to marry. 1. A maid, And whom they may. or virgin, vers. 13. because she may be more easily guided and ruled, and wonne to frame her selfe to duty and obedi­ence; and she must be of his own tribe or stock, both for the credit of her parentage, and for the certaine knowledge of her education and manners before he tooke her to him­selfe. 2. The widdow of a Priest, Ezech. 44. 22. For it is presumed that such a one hath been already trained to mo­desty, to sobriety, to a chast and sweet behaviour beseeming the wife of a Priest.

This Law is both ceremoniall and significative, as also hath Typical use of this ordi­nance. in it a perpetuall truth and equity. In the former use it hath an eye unto Christs mariage with his wife the Church. Our high Priest marieth not any harlot, or polluted Synagogue, [Page 124] defiled with Idolatry, which is spirituall fornination, and going an whoring from God, doting upon Idols, Merits, o­ther Mediators: Neither with a divourced woman, such as is the Synagogue of the Jewes, as now they are in the East, and the Synagogues of Satan and Antichrist, as now they are in the West, since their Tridentine apostasie and Ana­thematizing the doctrine of Christ; to both whom God hath given a bill of divorce. Christ our high Priest is not married to either, howsoever the Church of Rome pretends a marriage with him, and shew us their Baptisme, and Lords Supper as the ring and confirmation of their marriage. But we know it will neither make her an honest woman, nor prove her now a lawfull wife to shew her marriage ring, who having plaid false with her husband, is now long since di­vourced from him. Jesus Christ marrieth a virgin chast and undefiled, that is, holy and unspotted by imputation of his own righteousnesse, and washed by water through the word, 2. Cor. 11. [...]. Eph. 5. 26. He marrieth her of his own tribe: For as the first Adam must not marry a wife but of his own flesh, and out of his own side: so the second Adam marrieth a wife issuing out of his own side, flesh of his own flesh, and bone of his bone. And he will take to himselfe againe the high Priests widdow, the people of the Jewes, and marry them in­to one body with the Gentiles. So much for the signification.

Now the perpetuall equity of this Law bindes the Ministers of the new Testament; who are not prohibited marriage by Perpetuall. the Scripture, no more than the Priests of the old Testament: But for the honour & credit of this office & function care must Ministers marriage, lawfull. 1 Tim. 3. 11. be had, that their wives especially be honest, sober, free from scan­dal, and framed to the rules of the Apostle for Ministers wives, & for the preventing a number of scandals that else may arise within, and lye upon his family. This care being had, they being married shall be as holy and honourable in their functi­on as the Priests of the old testament: who being married, were said to have the Crown of God upon their heads, and to offer the bread of God, and to be after a speciall manner, holy. But how detestable is that filthy whore of Rome, Against the practise of Romanists. whose filthy virgin Priests hate marriage but not lust; refuse [Page 125] Gods owne ordinance, and honest wives of their owne, and like fed horses neigh after their neighbours wives, and co­ver the countrey with a bastardly brood; and hold in their doctrine, better they should have a hundred Concubines than one married wife, and in their practise adjudged married Ministers to death, but adulterous priests to a light penance, and that bought out with a trifle or word of a friend. One story is memorable out of the book of the Acts of the Romane Bale. De actis Roma­norum Pon­tificum. Bishops: when the Kings visiters in England, in the yeare 1538. visited the Abbyes, they found in some of their styes, rather than religious houses, five, in some ten, in some twen­ty Sodomites and adulterers, of which some kept five, some seven, some twenty harlots. So Gregory the first, enjoyning single life to the Clergy, sent for fish to his ponds, and had six thousand heads; whereupon (sighing) he said, it is bet­ter to marry, than to burn. Bede denies the story, although of Huldericus Bishop of Augusta to Pope Nicholas.

III. A third Law for common actions. He must be very Mourning for the dead moderate in mourning for the dead. Levit. 21. 2, 3. the or­dinary priest must mourne, onely for his mother, father, sonne, daughter, brother, or his sister (if a maid) because she was yet in the house and family; but without the family he might not lament for any, no not for the Prince, verse 4.

Qu. Might he not mourne for his wife? For some think Whether for the wife. not, because she is not named, neither in that Law, nor in the repetition of it, Ezech. 44. 25.

Answ. I think he might: but the wife is not named, be­cause, 1. she is one with himselfe, 2. If for our daughter and sister, much more for wife which is nearer. 3. The Pro­phet Ezechiel was charged not to mourne for his wife, being a Prophet and Priest, Ezech. 24. 16. which seems an excepti­on from the ordinary manner. But for the high Priest, Levit. 21. 12. he might not mourne for any of them named, neither in (likelyhood) for his wife; nor uncover his head; nor rent his clothes, nor go to any dead body, nor go out of the Sanctuary, for the crown of the anoynting oyle of his God is upon his head.

[Page 126] This Law had in it both ceremony, and perpetuity in Ceremoni­all use here­of. substance of it. In the ceremony▪ the Priest might not mourn for the dead, 1. Because mourning for the dead was count­ed a Legall uncleannesse. vers. 11. 2. The oyle of holy ointment was upon his head, being oyle of gladnesse. 3. They must be contrary to the foolish manner and fashion of the Priests and People of the Gentiles, who were so passi­onate and excessive in their affected and sometimes forced mourning, as they fell into indecent and unlimited behavi­ours. 4. The Priest, and especially the high Priest, was to be a type of eternity, and therefore must shew no such sign of weaknesse and corruption, as weeping is. Hence it is, that we read not of the death of an high Priest, but ever be­fore his death another was appointed and installed. So be­fore Aaron dyed, Eleazer was installed; and before his death Numb. 25. 3. was Phinias, Numb. 20. 28. Hence it is that we read not of their raignes and times, and how long or how short any of them lived, as of the Judges and Kings; which closely noteth and implyeth unto us, that they were types of eterni­ty and immortality. 5 In the Ceremony this Law had a speciall ayme and respect to Jesus Christ our high Priest, in whom was no blot, no spot, or morall pollution, as that high Priest most carefully was restrained from every Legall pollution. He wept indeed sundry times for the dead, as Lazarus, &c. because he was to abolish the Legall ceremo­nies, and this among other. It being in him sufficient that most perfectly he preserved himselfe from morall pollution: In which sence he never uncovered his head, that is, was ne­ver so weak or inglorious by passion, but that he ever main­tained union with his father, and abode the powerfull head of his Church. Neither did he rent his garments, that is, his holy flesh baked as it were in the oven of afflictions, exten­ded and rent on the Crosse, cast aside in the grave, was never rent off from his divinity, but was ever from the first moment of Hypostaticall union, present with it, and shall be for all eternity. He never goes out of the Sanctuary to mourne for the dead, for the Crown and oyle of God is upon him. For as in his life he (being mosth oly) was not subiect to be quite [Page 127] subdued in the house of death: so now after his resurrecti­on he hath attained all excellency of glory and happinesse, free from all misery and sorrow, never to be interrupted any more by any griefe or adversary power. The Crowne of God is set upon his head for ever, Revel. 4. 9, 10.

The perpetuity and substance of this Law concernes both Perpetutall. Ministers and people.

1. To teach both the one and the other not to grow into excesse of sorrow or passion, but to be examples of gravi­ty, moderation, and well wielding of affections; and to be patterns of patience and holy obedience in suffering extream adversities, as well as in the actions and exercise of practick virtues.

2. To give testimony of their hope and assurance of the happy resurrection of their friends, for whom they must not sorrow as men without hope, 1 Thes. 4. 13.

3. To shew that no occasion or naturall affection, no not the nearest and greatest change befalling their outward estate might distract them from their charge and duty; or so dis­quiet▪ the peaceable tranquility of their mindes, as any part might be hindered for matter or manner. And therefore in this case our Saviour (confirming the perpetuall equity of this Law) saith, Let the dead bury their dead, follow thou me, Mat. 8. 22. And the Lord is so strict in this case (Levit. 10. 6.) that when Aarons sonnes were so strangely slaine before his face, he must not mourne nor stir a foot out of his Ministe­ry, least he dye, and therefore the text saith: Aaron held his peace, vers. 3. So no outward respect of duty to friends must call us from duty to God.

Object. If the Priest must not weep, how could they seri­ously repent of their sins?

Answ. The Priest must not weep for any temporal losses, nor for personall losses; and in naturall regards he must be impassionate: but for his sinnes he might. Jeremy a Pro­phet and Priest wisheth his head a fountaine of tears, Jer. 9. 1. The high priest must weep for his own and the peoples sinnes in the day of expiation, and if he weep not, he must die. So Joel. 2. 17. all the Priests must howle, and cry, and weep [Page 128] between the porch and the Altar. Christ wept often, and all for sinne: as, for Lazarus, on the Crosse over Jerusalem. Whence we note:

1. That the proper cause of mourning, is sinne. He that Sin, the pro­per cause of mourning. must not shed a teare for any other cause in the world, must shed teares for his sinne upon paine of death. Oh that they would think of this that glory in their sinne!

2. Let us so order our affections, as that our principall mourning may be for our sinnes; and bind up our affections for outward and naturall losses and crosses, so as we may have them loosed in spirituall. This Law tells us, that sor­row for our onely sonne or brother, or the deare wife that lieth in our bosome, ought to be no sorrow in comparison of sorrow for sinne. Which, 1. Separates from God: 2 Makes Christ absent and stand aloofe: 3. Grieves the Mischiefes of sinne. the Spirit, and makes him heavy towards us: 4. Separates soule from body, yea, (without repentance) soule and bo­dy from heaven and happinesse. Let us, who have been ex­cessive in worldly sorrow, turne the streame against our sinnes; and in all crosses set our heaviness rather upon some sinne in our selves, which might cause the crosse, than on the crosse it selfe.

Sect. VII.

Now it followeth that we shew how the Priests figured 2. Ministeriall actions of the Priests. Christ in their ministeriall actions. Of these kinds of actions some were common to inferiour Priests, some proper to the high Priest.

I. Common actions were six. Common actions of all Priests: six.

1. The Priests must kill the sacrifices and none but he: signifying Jesus Christ his voluntary action in laying downe his life for beleevers; none could take away his life from him. And he was to be as well the Priest as the sacrifice; Joh. 10. 18. I have power to lay down my life.

2. The priest offered the bloud of the sacrifices to God, and sprinkled it on the Altar; for they were ordained for men in [Page 129] things of God, to offer gifts and sacrifices for sinnes. Heb 5. 1. No man might offer his owne sacrifice, but he must bring it to the Priest, Levit. 7. 4. there was no comming to God, but by the Priest: Figuring out Jesus Christ who offers up him­selfe a sacrifice for the sinnes of the world upon the Altar of his Deity, which gives both vertue and merit unto it. No other can offer to God bloudy or unbloudy sacrifice upon this Altar, but himselfe. Joh. 17. 19. I sanctifie my selfe for them: even as the Altar sanctifieth the gift. 3. The Priests prepared the body of the sacrifice (Lev. 1. 6.) fleyed it, di­vided it into severall parts, washed the intrailles, put fire un­to the burnt offering, consumed the fat, cast the filth and dung into the place of ashes: Sgnifying, that Christ him­selfe alone did the whole worke of redemption. He suffer­ed the heat of Gods wrath and justice; he puts away all our filth, and covers it in his owne ashes; he burnes up our fat, that is, the senselessenesse of our sinne, and all that savoureth of the flesh, by the fire of his Spirit; and inward­ly purgeth and wholy washeth us in the fountaine of his own bloud. 4. The Priest must teach the people; His lipps must preserve knowledge, Mal. 2. 7. and the people must depend on his mouth: Signifying the action of this great teacher of the Church, who brought to us from the bosome of his father the whole counsell of God concerning the redempti­on of mankind; which could never have, entered into the heart of man, but by the teaching of this great Prophet, Deut. Isa. 52. 4. Psal. 45. 2. 18. 15. He hath the learned tongue, and Grace is powred into his lippes. He therefore having the words of eternall life, we must depend on him and hear him. 5. The Priest must pray for the people, and blesse them. A forme of blessing Num. 6. 23 is prescribed for Aaron and his sonnes, laying their hands on the childeren of Israel: fignifying the strong prayers and intercessions of Jesus Christ for his Church, who was heard in all things, Hebr. 5. 7. as himselfe witnesseth, Joh. 11. 42. Father, I know thou hearest me alwaies: And accomplished Joh. 17. not onely in his holy intercession upon earth, and now in heaven: but manifestly in that blessing of his disciples by laying his hands upon them, which was his last action upon [Page 128] earth, Luke 24. 50. 6. The Priests were to preserve the Oyle for lights and the incense, and for the daily meat-offe­ring, and the anointing oyle. And the over-sight of the whole Tabernacle, and all in the Sanctuary, and all the in­struments belonged to their care for the safety in moving, carrying, standing, &c. Signifying Jesus Christ the preserver of all grace in his Church. He onely watcheth for the safe­ty of his Church, for the upholding of his holy ministery, and all holy constitutions which else would quickly be bro­ken up. He plants the Ministery, and he removes it at his pleasure. He hath the seven stars in his right hand. He is the great Arch-bishop of soules to the whole Church, and no other in this kind but he. So much of common actions ministeriall.

II. Actions more peculiar to the High priest were, 1. dai­ly. Actions proper to the high Priest. Daily. 2. weekly. 3. yearly. 4. continually.

I. He must daily, 1. dresse the holy lamps and lights morning and evening before the Lord, Lev: 24. 2, 3. to pre­serve the lights from going out. Shadowing Christ the true light, by whom the light of true doctrine must ever shine in the Church, and never go out; by which the true believers shall be delivered from darknesse and death. This was for­merly figured by Goshen, there was light when three days darknesse was over all Egypt. And this was figured by the pillar of fire that never failed till they came to Canaan. 2. He must daily burne incense before the Lord upon the Altar Exod. 32. 7, [...]. of sweet perfume: Signifying Christ our high Priest daily offering up, 1. Our duties and services done by his ap­pointment, and which through him smell as a sweet incense acceptable to God. 2. Our prayers, called odours of the Saints, and a sweet incense, Rev. 5. 8. And as no incense pleased God but that which was offered upon that golden Altar: so no Psal. 141. 2. duty or prayer of ours is farther accepted than offered up by him and from him, whose golden purity gives merit and worth unto them. And as the incense must be offered up by Revel. 8. 3. the high Priest morning and evening: so the continuall vir­tue of Christs merit ascendeth daily before God, and per­fumeth all the Sanctuary, neither is there any other way to the father but by him.

[Page 129] II. He must weekly make the shew-bread, and set it before Weekly. the Lord continually. Exod 25. 30. And more expressely, Lev. 24. 5, 6. Every Sabbath he must set on the table twelve loaves according to the twelve tribes, & take the old away, to the maintaining of his family; for which use they might well suffice, every loafe weighing about seven or eight pounds. Here was a figure of Christ the true bread of Life, who sets himself (in the preaching of the Gospel, and administration of the Sacraments) before the face of God (that is, in the as­semblies gathered together every Sabbath) the most sufficient food and refreshing of the Church, to continue it in life, strength, and good estate from Sabbath to Sabbath till that eternall Sabbath come.

III. He must yearly once (and that in the day of expiati­on) Yearely. go into the Holy of Holies, Exo. 30. 10. and Lev. 16. 2, & 24. to make an attonement for himselfe, for all his house, and for all the people, but not without bloud. Signifying, that Christ by one alone sacrifice of himselfe hath opened the Sanctuary of heaven, and by his ascension hath made ente­rance into it on our behalfe, and there appeares before God once for all to make intercession for us. See Heb. 10. 12, 19. And as he must goe alone without all attendants: so Christ must tread the wine presse alone, Isai. 63. 3. No friend, no disciple stands with him; no fellow, no companion goes with him to make attonement; but all feare and flye, that we might cast our eye on no other Mediatour but him, 1 Tim. 2. 5.

IV. He must continually decide the highest controver­sies; Continual­ly. he must judge between the clean and unclean; he must excommunicate the one out of the Congregation, and receive in the other when he was legally cleansed. Signifying Christ, who in the Church and Scriptures is the supreame Judge of all controversies. It is his word alone can binde or loose, justifie or condemne. According to his direction obstinate persons are to be cast out, and penitent offendors received in. As Pharaoh to Joseph, so God to Christ: Without thee shall no man lift up his hand or foot in all the land of Egypt. Gen. 41. 44.

[Page 130] I. Ministers of the new Testament must learn hence to at­tend Use for Mi­nisters. diligently on their charges; and know, that the sub­stance of all these duties lyeth as heavy on their shoulders, as upon those Priests of the old Testament. Every conscio­nable Minister is bound.

1. To prepare sacrifices to the Lord. In the old Law the Priest presented dead sacrifices: but we must offer living ones. They dead beasts: but we living men, quickned by faith, alive by the Spirit of God, holy and acceptable. They externall and unreasonable: we reasonable and spiritu­all, such as God (who is a Spirit) may accept and delight in. Rom. 12. 1. They must first kill, and then sacrifice: so we can never pre­sent any man an acceptable sacrifice, without killing his sin. As the poore beast must be killed, and cut in pieces, and then offered: so we must by the sharpe knife of the Law (urging repentance and mortification) cut asunder the heart-strings of sinne, mangle the body of sinne, and let out the life­bloud of mans lusts and corruptions. And as they having slaine the beast must wash the intraile, burne the fat, cast the filth and dung into the place of ashes: so the Minister after his labour in mortifying sinne, must bring men to the labour of sanctification, separate them from their foulenesse, and bring them to the full holinesse in the feare of God.

2. The Priest must preserve knowledge, his lips must feed many, he must stand in the counsell of God, and be as his mouth: And as Jesus Christ brought the whole will and counsell of God from the bosome of his Father: So must his Minister declare that whole counsell to the Church, and keep nothing back. Act. 20. 17.

3. The Minister must daily dresse the holy lamps and lights morning and evening, and preserve the light from go­ing out; he must provide oyle for the continuall feeding of the lights, that is, by painfull and diligent study of the Scriptures and meditation, he must furnish himselfe to the work of the Ministery, that the light of holy doctrine may shine by him on all occasions: that having the tongue of the learned he may be alwaies ready to speak a word to him that is weary, and never want words of comfort which may [Page 131] be as oyle to the distressed soule.

4. He must daily burne incense before the Lord upon the Altar of sweet perfume, that is, offer daily prayers as sweet odours in the Name of Christ, who is the Altar of sweet perfume both for himselfe and his people. He must pray al­so for the people and blesse them, as Samuel, God forbid I should sinne against God, and not pray for you. For his office is to stand between God and his people. Every man must be his own mouth to God; but he must be the mouth of eve­ry man.

5. He must weekly set the Shew-bread before the Lord, that is, propound Jesus Christ the true bread of life, the Manna that came down from heaven, the continuall strength & nourishmēt of the Church of God, both in the ministery of the Word & Sacramēts, which the ancient Church did weekly celebrate, as the Priest did weekly set these loaves. Nay, he must not onely set them before others, but himselfe must feed on them, as the Priests did on the Shew-bread, all the week and year long, least it befal him as that Prince, 2 King. 7. 20. that saw plenty of food with his eyes, but tasted not of it, for being troden under foot, he died.

II. Every Christian as a Priest unto God must, 1. Daily Use. For the people. labour in his owne mortification: Every day kill some beast or other, some lust or other that as wild beasts are untamed, and dangerous to the soule.

2. Morning and evening dresse his lights, and look to the clearing of his lamps; setting himselfe a task of daily read­ing the Scriptures for the clearing of his judgement, and the informing of his minde, and for the reforming of his heart and life, that he may shine every day more clearly than other in holy conversation.

3. Every day burne incense before the Lord, upon the Al­tar of sweet perfume both morning and evening. Every Christian, morning and evening must offer up daily prayers and praises as a sweet smell unto God. That as the smoke of sweet incense goeth upwards and disperseth it selfe abroad in the ayre: so the incense of prayer ascending may disperse [Page 132] it selfe abroad for the benefit of the person, family, Church, at home and abroad. What else calls the Apostle for, say­ing: Pray continually, in all things give thanks, but that the 1 Thes. 5. Lord should smell the sweet odours of our morning & even­ing prayer, especially when we rise and go to rest? How this duty is neglected, and with manifest contempt and losse, every mans conscience can tell him. Now in offering this incense, 1. See no strange incense be offered, that is, no prayer without faith. 2. None but upon the Altar of in­cense, none but in the name of Christ.

4. Every week on the Sabbath day (as the Priest in the Law) provides himself of shew-bread, to serve for his pro­vision all the week, that is, make such conscionable use of the holy Ministery, as he may preserve life of grace, and strength of grace, which falls to consumption in the soule, except it be continually repayred, even as the body wasteth without naturall food.

5. Every yeare set apart a day of expiation, to make an attonement for himselfe, for his house, and all the people. This proportion shewes it not amisse once a yeare to set apart a day of humiliation in serious fasting and prayer, to make attonement for our own and others sinnes. The equity of which seemes not onely grounded in that Law, Lev. 16. 29. which enjoynes the Jew a yearly standing fast, wherein once a year every soule should humble it selfe with fasting before the Lord in one of the great assemblies; and Chap. 23. 27. bindes all unto it: But also in good reason, seeing a yeares space might bring about many just occasions, 1. Many sinnes might be committed to provoke the Lord, 2. Reasons for a yearly fast Many judgements let in, or to be let in for those sinnes. 3. many mercies wanting, which by ours and others sinnes we are worthily deprived of. And although we ought continu­ally to humble our selves for our sinnes, yet to help our infir­mities, and to do it throughly, it shall availe us much, to set a special time apart for it, as such who out of sound judge­ment esteem we have sufficient cause once a year thus deeply to humble our selves. For however the Jewes had daily ex­piatory sacrifices, yet the Lord held it not superfluous to ap­point [Page 133] them besides one set and solemne day of expiation. So is it no lesse needfull for any Christian (notwithstanding his daily humiliation) to help himselfe in his repentance by one, in a year at least, day of more solemne expiation.


Nazarites, Types of Christ.

THe third order or ranke of holy persons types of Christ Nazarites types of Christ [...]. waies. are the Nazarites, who were sanctified by vow or spe­ciall profession; and not obscurely shadowing Jesus Christ the onely true and perfect Nazarite. For,

I. The name Nazarite by which Christ must be (according to the ancient prophecies) called, Matth. 2. 23. and in contempt was by the Jewes so stiled in the superscription of the Cross) signifieth one separated and set apart from o­thers; and is ascribed to three sorts of men, usually set above others.

1. To such as are set apart for singular sanctimony, as the Separate, or set apart 3. waies. high Priest, whose crown of sanctification on his head is called Nezer, Ezod. 29. 6.

2. To such as in dignity and authority are separated from others; as Kings whose royall Crown or diadem is called Nezer, 2 Sam. 1. 10. I tooke the crowne that was upon his head.

3. To such as were separated by some religious vow, as to this order of the Nazarites, whose hair increasing on their heads as an externall signe of their vow, was called Nezer. Numb. 6. 18. By which order the Lord would have the eminent sanctity of Jesus Christ to be typified, as well as his sacrifice and kingly office by Priests and Kings. He was indeed the onely true Nazarite separated from sinners, holy, Christ emi­nēt for san­ctity in 6. respects. harmelesse, and undefiled, Heb. 7. 26. For, 1. His professi­on was, I am not of the world, Joh. 8. 23. 2. He is called [Page 134] (Dan. 9. 24.) the holy of holies, or the most Holy (a title never ascribed to the most holy persons on earth by resem­blance:) For as the holy of holies (a type of Christ) was separated from the rest of the Tabernacle and Temple, and excelled both the outer and inner Court in holynesse: So Jesus Christ surpassed not onely common men, but the holiest of men as far as the sanctum sanctorum excelled both the san­ctum and atrium. His divine holinesse farre excelled the most pure Nazarites who yet are said (Lam. 4. 7.) to be purer than the snow, and whiter than the milk. 3. He was not of un­holy made holy as they, but he was alwaies holy and without all staine of sinne, from the first moment for ever: That holy thing which is conceived in her is of the holy Ghost, Matth. 1. 20. 4. His holinesse was not from any other, but of and from himselfe, whereas whosoever else have a­ny holinesse, it is from him. 5. His holinesse was essentiall (not accidentall) as he was God; and as he was man (by the union of the manhood with his divine nature) was be­stowed upon him in full measure, yea, beyond measure; and therefore is called, fullnesse of grace and holiness, Joh. 1. But in the most holy men this holinesse is a received quality by communicating of his spirit, and that imperfectly and in small measure. 6. They might be holy in part for themselves, but could not impart that holinesse to others: But Christ is not onely holy in himself, but sanctifieth them & the whole Chruch; he being the originall and fountaine of all holiness. They might be legally cleane in some actions: but he was morally clean in all observations. They in some passages of their life: but he in his nature, in his disposition, and in the fulfilling of all righteousnesse.

II. Nazarites by the Law (Numb. 6. 2, 3.) must abstaine 2. Abstemlous and why. from wine and strong drink, and all that commeth of the grape.

1. Because they were to study the Law of God, and the Lord will not have them meddle with any thing that might trouble their braine, or unfit them to so holy studies.

2. He would have them patterns of sobriety and tempe­rance, and restraine them from whatsoever might stirre up [Page 135] lust, or occasion intemperance. In which, what else did they but shadow our Saviour Christ? Who was a true Nazarite, not in the letter and ceremony (for he did drink wine, and miraculously provided it for others; yea, ordained wine an element in the Supper, that every Christian might drink it) but in the morality and truth of the thing he was the onely perfect Nazarite. Never was any so intent in study, invo­cation, preaching, acting, and suffering all things for our sake, as he was. Neither was any creature so abstinent and temperate as he was; he fasted fourty daies and fourty nights, and after that (being hungry) he would eat nothing till all his temptations in the wilderness were ended. As of all other virtues, so he was an unfailing pattern in this of holy abstin­ence and unviolated temperance.

III. The Nazarites were enjoyned to let their haire grow, 3. Nourishing the haire. and no razor must come on their heads all the time of their vow and separation, Numb. 6. 5. By which ceremony the Lord intended two things.

1. He would have them most unlike and contrary to the religious orders of the heathen Idolaters, who usually nou­rished their haire to offer in sacrifice to their gods, as in ma­ny examples I could shew: But these must not diminish their haire all the time; and when they cut it off they must burne it with fire.

2. To be a meanes to avoide finenesse and delicacy in cu­rious trimming of the head, and care of the flesh, which is a great enemy to religious thoughts and exercises. So the A­postle implies, the more care of the flesh, the lesse of putting on Rom. 13. 14. Christ Jesus:

3. Long haire in men is a signe of strength, as in Sampson. And by this Law the Lord would put them in mind, that as they were to avoid effeminate softnesse and delicacy; so to be manly, strong, and couragious in performing duties, and resisting stoutly all the temptations and baites that might al­lure them from the duty undertaken. As for our Saviour (whom they shadowed) it is not likely he nourished his hair, because the Apostle saith, it was (in that age) uncomely for men to have long haire. If a man have long haire it is a [Page 136] shame unto him, 1 Cor. 11. 14. And then are all the Romish Painters quite out, who paint him with his haire lying round about his shoulders; but Painters and Poets may lie by au­thority. It was enough for him, that he was a Nazarite in Pictoribus atque Poetis, Quidlibet audendi sem­per fuit aequa potest [...]s. Hor. the truth and substance of that Law, although not in the letter and outward ceremony of it. In which respect how did he neglect himselfe; who being the Lord of all, de­nied himselfe of all rights and comforts. He was so farre from all delicacy, that (with an utter refusall of all delights of flesh) his whole intention was set on his function and office, submitting himselfe to sorrow, curse, &c. Besides what courage and fortitude did he express through his whole function and office, in overcomming Sinne, Death, Satan, the Crosse, Hell, and all adversaries? Sampson the strongest of all Nazarites was but a weakling to him; his adversaries, flesh not spirit; his power, faint and failing, yea, changed into weaknesse.

IV. Nazrrites must not come near the dead to touch them, 4. Not touch the dead. nor defile themselves by them; nor meddle with the funerall of father, mother, brother, sister, or any of their kindred, though they might pretend never so much piety, affection, or good nature. By which Law the Lord would teach them two things.

1. That no changes of this life, nor losses of their dear­est friends should turne them aside from their duty, or from the observation of the Law of their profession.

2. To teach them constancy, patience, and magnanimity of spirit in the greatest outward afflictions, and not to shew a weaknesse or passion in open and excessive lamentation. Our Lord, although he did touch the dead, and was at fune­ralls, and wept at the raising of Lazarus, and so observed not the ceremony of Nazarites, because he was no Legall Nazarite, but was called a Nazarite as being the truth and substance of all the Legall Nazarites, as in all other things, so in this: For he onely was the Master, and had the true command of all his affections; never exceeded measure in any thing, never was defiled by any person dead in sinne, never by any dead work, never touched or came neare [Page 137] any such defilement, which Legall Nazarites could not a­voide.

V. The Nazarites must be absolved and released from 5. Released of the vow. their Vow by comming to the doore of the tabernacle of the Congregation with their offering. Numb. 6. 13. plainely by that figure leading us unto Christ, the onely doore by which we enter, and have liberty to come into the presence of God, and obtaine freedome from the sinne and weakness of any duty we performe before him.

Now for Applycation.

I. Acknowledge Christ the true Nazarite. Upon his head Vse. 1. Christ and his excellēcy to be ac­knowledged let his Crowne flourish. As it was said of Joseph, Gen. 49. 26, he was separate from his brethren: so was Jesus Christ se­parated from all other men and Angels.

1. In holinesse and purity, being advanced in holinesse above all creatures: He alone in propriety and perfection is a Nazarite purer than snow, and whiter than milk; yea, his measure runs over to his Church, Ephes. 5. 26.

2. In excellency and perfection of all virtues and graces, he is that Netser, Isai. 11. 1. the branch or flower which al­waies flourished in all kinds, and perfections of virtue and graces, and casts from him farre and near a most sweet smell, sweet and acceptable to God and men.

3. In power and authority. The kingdome is his and And his great power: wherein. power and glory; all power is given him in heaven and in earth. He hath power, 1. To do us good. 2. To withstand our evill. 3. To tread down Satan, sinne, death. 4. To re­scue his Church, to confound Antichrist and all enemies. 5. To finish the grace and glory of his Saints.

Object. Why must Christ be so pure a Nazarite▪

Answ. 1. Because his passion could not have been accep­table, if his person had not been as pure as the sunne.

2. He was to be, not onely righteousnesse in himselfe as other Nazarites, or righteousnesse in part: but he must be a perfect righteousnesse unto many.

Ob. But how could he be so pure comming of Adam as they did?

[Page 138] Sol. He came of Adam, not by Adam, as they did; that is, he came not by naturall propagation from Adam, but was conceived by the holy Ghost, and so all originall impurity was stopped in the very first moment of his holy conce­ption.

Ob. But did not he take the same infirmities comming of Adam as they did?

Answ. No, he tooke such infirmities as he pleased, to fit him for a mercifull high Priest, not to hinder him, and there­fore he took such infirmities from Adam as were miserable, but not damnable, and so remained a pure Nazarite without all sinfull frailty.

II. Christ the true Nazarite being come, all shadowes Use. 2. Differences of the Na­zarites vow and Papists. must fly away, and therefore this order of Nazarites gives no colour or approbation to any order of Popish votaries or monasticall persons now in the new Testament. Besides, that white is not more contrary to black than monasticall vowes to this.

For, 1. The Nazarites were appointed by God himselfe: theirs devised by themselves.

2. Their vowes were of things possible, in their power, and temporary: these are of things impossible, without their power and during life, be the party never so unable to endure it.

3. Their vowes (though appointed by God) were not able to merit remission of sinne and eternall life: but these say that they merit for themselves and others, that their vowes are parts of Gods worship (which never came in his mind or book) and a state of great perfection: Whereas, a Nazarite was not more righteous than others, but better fitted for his duty. Nazar [...]us non suit caete­ris justior, sed aptior ad [...]fficia.

4. Nazarites might not cut their haire: their order stands in cutting and shaving that they may still look neate and ef­feminate.

5. Nazarites drink no wine nor strong drink, and they are very temperate in their diet: these Belly gods eat up the fat, and poure in the sweet till they be monsters, that the very fasts of [...]riers (for the delicacy and abundance) is become a proverbe.

[Page 139] 6. Nazarites might not come at funeralls: these follow them (as flyes do fat meat) and suck out thence their greatest profit, and sweetest morsels.

7. Nazarites (notwithstanding their vow) lived in holy wedlock: but Popish Votaries abhorre marriage, not lust or whoredome. Yet from this order they would establish their disordered orders, as contrary as darknesse to light.

III. The shadow of the Law is vanished away, and the Use 3. [...]mbra legis c [...]i [...], il­luxit veritas Evangelii. truth of the Gospell is broken forth as the light, saith the Canon Law. Every Christian must be a Nazarite not by vow of separation, but by imitation and resemblance of Christ the true Nazarite, For,

I. He must be separate from others. 1. He must see that Be Naza­rites and how. [...]e be separate from ungodly ones, as one advanced to a hap­py estate in Christ. 2. That now his mind, affections, spee­ches and whole course be contrary to the course of the world; and so (as Joseph) separate himselfe from the evill behaviour and manners of his brethren; yea, complaine of them to his father. 3. He must be content if his brethren separate from him, as did Josephs brethren when they sold him into Egypt. This is to be a Christian Nazarite.

II. This Christian Nazarite must strictly keep the rules of his profession. i. e. he must labour. 1. To preserve the vow of holinesse made in Baptisme, study and follow after sanctifi­cation. This is the will of God even your sanctification, 1 Thes. 4. 3. he must resigne himselfe wholy to God. 2. Carefully to avoid the least defilement of sinne. The Lord made a Law (Numb. 6. 9.) that if any died by a Nazarite casually and suddenly (though he could not avoide it) he defiled the head of his consecration; he must be shaven and come and offer a Lamb for a trespass offering, and then begin his vow againe. Wherein the Lord shewes that he will not endure any sinne in his servant (though not willingly committed, nor inten­ded if it be but casuall or by happe, and stirres up thereby our watchfulnesse against all, even the least sinne, and urg­eth the shunning of the least touch of dead works: Jude 23. hate even the garment spotted by the flesh. 2. He must study the Law of the Lord to grow in knowledge and conscience. [Page 140] Men deceive themselves that think there be no students but those whose profession is learning, contrary to Psal. 1. and Joh. 5. 39.

III. He must avoid intemperance, surfeting, drunkenness strongly watch and ward against naturall desires, against the allurings and baits of sinne, remove impediments of faith and godlinesse, strive both against inward corruptions and outward occasions. How many of much hope, by the im­moderate desires and use of these outward things, have be­sotted themselves? It is to be doubted, that the delicacy of this age affords but a few Nazarites.

IV. He must restrain his passions and affections in the use of every thing about him; use every thing weanedly, as not using it; not suffering any thing to steale our hearts from us, for then we can hardly moderate our selves in the parting from it. Nazarites in all changes must be unchangeable in their profession: so must Christian Nazarites.

V. When he hath done all in his generall vow and course of holinesse, he must retain humility, bewaile his wants, con­fesse how unprofitable he is in his service. The Nazarite that hath gone through his vow in the best manner, in give­ing it up must bring a burnt offering and a peace offering; confessing his wants, and craving acceptance: so must we in our best strife and indeavours, present our duty with that burnt offering and peace offering made by Jesus Christ; and in that onely seek and find acceptance.


Clean persons: Types of Christ.

THe fourth ranke of holy persons pointing us unto Christ, Cleansing the unclean a type of Christ. were such persons as were cleansed from any legall un­cleanenesse. The person legally uncleane were of severall sorts, and every sort had his severall sort of cleansing, all of them looking towards and leading us to Jesus Chuist. To give some taste in some particulars. Legall uncleannesse was caused. 1. From without, by touching or tasting. 2. From 3. Sorts of uncleanness within, as unclean issues. 3. From within and without, as Leprosie. Order requireth that we should speake,

  • I. Of the severall uncleannesses.
  • II. Of the severall cleansings.

Sect. I.

I. The kindes of legall uncleanenesse were three: 1. By meats or creatures that were unclean.

I. The first kind of legall uncleanenesse was by eate­ing or touching any uncleane meat or creature, Levit. 11. 11. and 28.

Qu. How did the creatures become uncleane, which God had made good?

Answ. The Law of distinction of meates was not there­fore Whence this uncleanness. ordained, because those creatures were evill in their na­ture (for God saw all his workes very good) but prohibited onely in their use. Neither doth the Lord pronounce them uncleane by their creation, but by a temporary institution, which restrained their use and touch.

Object. It seemes they were so by creation: for before the ceremoniall Law, there was a distinction of clean and unclean in Noahs time, Gen 7. 2. When it be­gan.

Answ. It was before the writing of the ceremoniall Law, [Page 142] but not before the being of it, it being delivered to Adam and his posterity by Gods lively voyce. Besides by that in­stitution they were forbidden onely for sacrifice: but by this forbidden for common use and food, yet still cleane in their owne nature.

Qu. But how can these creatures defile a man, and that of How it could be. our Saviour be true, Mat. 15. 11. That which goeth into the mouth, defileth not the man?

Answ. Now under the Gospel whatsoever goeth into the mouth defileth not, in respect of lawfull and limited use: And under the law it was not the creature that defiled; but the transgression of Gods institution in it. In the begin-God permitted all other trees to Adam, onely restrained him in the tree of knowledge of good and evill; which there­fore ceased not to be good of it selfe, but became evill in Adams use, because of the commandement: not the apple, not the eating were in themselves defilements, but sinful eat­ing against the commandement.

Qu. But what ends or reasons were there of this prohibi­tion Meats why prohibited. of meats?

Answ. Very many.

1. To shew the Lords soveraignty over his creatures, who hath liberty to permit or forbid any creature at his pleasure without impeachment of himselfe or the creature, he may do with his own as he will.

2. To teach all persons to depend on God and his word of allowance for and in the use of all things, even for meats, and drinks, and all comforts; seeing man liveth not by bread, but by every word of God.

3. To traine up his people in temperance and obedience, by restraining them so many creatures in earth, ayre and sea, as good as any other.

4. That his people might professe open detestation of the heathenish superstition about them. The AEgyptians took for gods, oxen, sheep, goats, doves: God will have his people sacrifice these to his service, and eat those creatures which they (out of their heathenish superstition) might not touch. The heathens used to offer many kinds of beasts to [Page 143] the Moon, the Queen of heaven, and to Bacchus: God will have his people detest both in sacrifice and meat those which they so offered; all to shew how contrary we ought to be to Idolaters, in whatsoever we may.

5. To distinguish that people of God from all the nati­ons; God esteeming them by his grace in the Messiah a clean people, and all other unclean. And this was a wall of partition between Jewes and Gentiles, till Christ by rending the vaile brake it down also, as in Peters vision, Acts 10. 15.

6. The Lord by this difference of beasts would have them conceive a difference of persons shadowed thereby; of whom some are clean, some are unclean; the former being elect, arè cleansed by faith from their pollution of sinne, the other remaine foule and filthy still.

Quest. How shall we know the cleane from the un­cleane.

Ans. 1. The clean are known by the two common marks Marke, of clean beasts of clean beasts, Lev. 11. 3.

1. They divide the hoofe; that is, rightly distinguish of things, between nature and grace, between Moses and Christ, between the Law and Gospell, truth and falshood. They will not receive things in gross and hand over head; but being spirituall discerne all things, 1 Cor. 2. 15.

2. They chew the cud, that is, after hearing and reading the word, they meditate, ponder, apply, and digest it: as Mary laid up the words in her heart, Luke 2. 19.

3. The uncleane are known by some naughty and unclean property. Some like the dogs that prophane the most holy things; bark against the word & preachers of it; never chew the cud, nor digest the word. Some like the swine (2 Pet. 2.) having their mouthes allwaies rooting in the earth, cannot look up towards heaven; all for their belly; good for no­thing but the knife: neither for plow, nor cart, nor burthens, nor saddle, nor wooll, nor milk; but onely to feed and die; besides (while they live) their filthy wallowing in miery lusts and puddles of corruption. Some like the hare, fearfull crea­tures, shrinking from faith in God in temptation, and from [Page 144] profession of it in times of danger and persecution; more fearing crosses and losses than God himselfe, or the losse of salvation. The unclean creatures connot enter into heaven: The fearfull, &c. shall have their part in the lake, &c. Rev. 21. 8. Of the same ranke are the Comes, that burrow and treasure in the earth, and neglect to treasure where theeves neither digg through nor steale, Matth. 6. 19. 20. Some like the Ravens, black and unnaturall, feeding on carrion. Some like the Ostrich, grosse hypocrites, with faire wings, but cannot flye. Some like the Sea-meaw, partly living on water, partly on land: partly will be saved by faith, partly by workes; carry fire and water, blow hot and cold, of any or no reli­gion. And so much might be said of the properties of the rest.

Sect. II.

II. The second legall uncleaneness was caused from with­in, 2. By an un­clean issue. and was by the unclean issue of man or woman; for which were appointed ceremonies of purification, Levit. 12. and Chap. 15. 6. All those uncleane issues (of which we must read and speak modestly) lead us by the hand, 1. In­to What it teacheth. our selves, and the consideration of our naturall corrupti­on, the running issues of which meet us every where. 2. Out of our selves to the remedy, which is by Jesus Christ our sanctifier. The description of this foulenesse shewes what we are by nature, and in the first Adam. The manner of the cleansing shewes what we are by grace, and in the second Adam, in whom alone we attaine cure and remedy. To ex­plaine which, we must know that,

1. Those lawes concerning our uncleane birth and the wo­mans purification after every birth, put both the Jewes and us in mind, how that the common nature of man is horribly polluted by sinne, which is every where called by the name of uncleanenesse; Psal. 51. 5. Behold I was borne in iniquity, and in sinne hath my mother conceived me. Isa. 64. 6. We have all been as an uncleane thing, and all our righteousnesse as filthy cl [...]uts. Joh. 14. 4. Who can bring a cleane thing out of filthi­nesse? [Page 145] there is not one. Joh. 3. 6. That which is borne of Generatum sequitur na­ram ge [...]e­rantis. the flesh, is flesh; because that which is begotten, participateth of the nature of that which begetteth. And this uncleane­nesse is not in any one part, but stickes to the whole man both in body and soule, polluting the mind with blindnesse, the will with rebellion against the will of God, the consci­ence with senselessenesse and horrour, the affections with all manner of disorder, the whole outward man with resistance and repugnancy to the Spirit. Rom. 8. 7.

2. As from these inward issues the outward man was many waies polluted: So the Jewes and we are put in mind, that from that filthy puddle and fountaine of originall sinne issue continually many uncleane issues into the life and conversa­tion. Matth. 15. 19. Out of the heart come evill thoughts, murthers, adulteries, fornications, thefts, false testimonies, slaunders: These are the things which defile the man.

3 As these uncleane issues defiled whatsoever they touch­ed, Lev. 15. 4. to the 15. so herein is noted to them and us, the infection of sinne and spreading of it, and that the cor­ruption of nature (which will put forth it selfe in every thing) polluteth all that we touch, Tit. 1. 15. Unto them that are defiled and unbeleeving, is nothing pure, but even their minds and consciences are defiled.

4. As those uncleane issues excluded and shut them out of the campe and society of Gods people till they were staid: so the foule issues of naturall corruption (till stopped and stayed by grace) estrange us from God, and from the com­mon-wealth of Israel. Ephes. 2. 12. The effect of all mo­rall uncleanenesse is to thrust every man and woman under the curse of the Law and wrath of God; who can no more abide a man in the foulenesse of his nature, than men can the spawne of a most venemous serpent. In Adam all died.

5. As the description of those issues brought the Jewes to the legall purification; for when the Jew saw the danger of his uncleanenesse, and that if he separate not from it he shall die in it for defiling Gods Sanctuary, vers. 31. this made him seeke to the remedy: So the true understanding of a [Page 146] mans forlorn & desperate estate by nature; and that except a man be borne againe of water and the holy Ghost, he can never see the kingdome of God, Joh. 5. 5. This makes a man flye out of himselfe to seek righteousnesse and purity in the meanes which God hath appointed. And thus by the very descripti­on of our uncleannesse we are led unto Christ, by whom how we are to be cured, we are after to see.

Sect. III.

The third Legall uncleannesse was by the disease of the 3. By leprosie. leprosie; than which none was more foule, more hatefull. None so lively resembled the native face of sinne; none had so solemne and significant rites for cure; none did more ex­pressely shadow all constitutions as conduce to the purging and removing of sinne; and consequently none more force­ably led us to Christ, who is not in any ceremony more lively figured. The Lord would have the Jewes and us in this instance to be led by things sensible to things intellectu­all; Per sensibi­lia ad intel­ligibilia. by an externall and sensible disease to be carried to that which is internall and lesse sensible, for the most part. And though of all bodily diseases, none more expresly declareth the disease of sinne in the soule than leprosie; yet it comes farre short of it in the desperate and dangerous properties of it. We must therefore prepare men to Christ by descri­bing the foulenesse and misery of the disease.

1. Leprosie proceeds from poisoned and corrupted hu­mours Sin declared odious. in the body: so sinne is nothing else but the poison and corruption of the soule. And this spirituall leprosie is farre more miserable than the other; for that of the body is onely a punishment, this is a guilt. And who can deny but Poena culpae. the corruption and poison of the soule and spirit, is farre more poisonfull and mortall than poison of the flesh?

2. Bodily leprosie is a disease of some men: sinne is of In all. all men, and of all the man. Bodily leprosie spreads over all parts of the body, but cannot reach the soule: but this spreads over the whole man; the soule and all the faculties are weakned and tainted; there is, not a debility onely, but a [Page 147] corruption in the understanding, will, conscience, memory, in all affections, in all sences, in all parts; no man, no part of man exempted or excepted.

3. No disease is more stinking, and hatefull to men than God hates. leprosie: So nothing is so hatefull and abhominable to God as sinne; his eyes cannot abide to behold it; he will not endure it in his dearest servants, no nor Angels themselves, unrevenged; he esteems the sinner as dung.

4. No disease more contagious and infectious: A leper Infection. must meddle with nothing unlesse he would defile it: All he can doe is to make others unclean by breathing, touching, conversing. The plague of pestilence is not so infectious as the plague of leprosie, so called, Levit. 13. 20. infecting houses, walls, vessells, garments: Nothing is so infectious as sinne, which not onely foules the person or house, but hea­ven and earth and all creatures are subject to the vanity of it. Neither can an impenitent sinner doe any thing but make himselfe and others unclean, by the filthy breath of his corrupt communication, by his wicked example and con­versation: No leaven is so spreading, no pitch so clea­ving.

5. Leaprosie of all diseases separated the infected persons Excommu­nication- from the fellowship of all men both in civill and divine or­dinances for many dayes; and if they proved incurable (suppose them Kings) they were utterly and for ever exclud­ed the host, as Uzziah, 2 King. 15. 5. Neither might they come to the Temple to joyne in holy things; for the Tem­ple was legally the most holy place, and no polluted thing might enter into it: So in our sinne unrepented, we are out of the campe, aliens from God. Sinne shuts out of the com­munion of faith and Saints; shuts out of the state of grace and Salvation; it shuts out of the Congregation of God in QuoadConsor tium.Lo­cum.Prae­m [...]. earth and heaven: No fellowship, place, or reward with them.

6. Of all diseases none is more painfull, sorrowfull, mor­tall, or incurable; and therefore they were enjoyned to put on mournfull garments seeing God had inflicted so lamen­table Paine and danger. [Page 148] a disease on them, so hardly and seldome cured as most did cary it unto death, as Gehezi and Azariah. In which the Lord (as in a glasse) would shew us the extream sorrowes and paines that wait on sinne unpardoned; sorrowes of this life and of the life to come: And that we should put on mourn­ing garments of timely sorrow, and afflict our selves for our sinnes, seeing we are all poisoned with so incurable a disease, as there is no hope to expect any cure in this life; for eve­ry man carries the running issues of sinne to his death natu­rall, the most to the death eternall.

7. The signes and symptomes of leprosie are most corre­spondent Signes of sin and le­prosie. to the symptomes and effects of sinne in the soul.

1. As there is a debility and weaknesse of all parts becuase the spirits are exhausted: so sinne weakens all faculties, be­cause the spirit of grace is resisted and driven out.

2. There is a tumour and swelling in the flesh: here a tu­mour and proud swelling of mind; none more proud than he who hath least cause.

3. There is burning and thirst through the adust and burnt bloud by melancholy whereof it ariseth: here is inflammation and burning of anger, of lust, and thirst after the world, af­ter revenge, after prefermentst; and this insatiable as every sinne is.

4. There is filthy putred matter still breaking forth most loathsomely: so here from within breaks out corrupt mat­ter of envie, of hatred of goodnesse, of uncleanenesse in speeches and behaviour. 5. There is an hoarse and weake voice: here the voice so weake as it cannot pray, or cannot be heard. God heares not sinners; for either they pray not at all, or they are in their sinnes.

6. There is a filthy stinking breath; and therefore they must cover their lips, that by their breath they might not in­fect others: So here is a filhy breath of corrupt communi­cation, of uncleane and adulterous speeches, swearing and cursing speeches, lying and false speeches, slanderous and uncharitable speeches; and seldome doe such cover their lips, being like the uncleane vessells of the Law which [Page 149] were ever open to the corrupting and poisoning of num­bers.

Sect. IV.

1. From the former description of legall uncleannesses, Note. 1. Church and members, subject to many de­filements. note the state of Gods Church and people here upon earth, subject unto many sorts of defilements and pollutions within them, without them, and on every hand of them; by foule and uncleane creatures and persons, by foule courses and actions, which a godly man may not touch or taste but he is presently defiled, as he that toucheth pitch cannot but be defiled with it. Where be they that will see no Church, if they see any uncleannesse? Or who say that God is in no such society where any pollution is? seeing God vouchsafe­eth to walk among his owne people, who were daily sub­ject to so many legall and morall pollutions. God might (if it pleased him) wholly purge his floore here upon earth; but it makes more for his glory to suffer sinne and evill, and to set the Saints in the middest of defilements here be­low.

1. There must be a difference between this heaven and And why. earth, and the new heaven and new earth in which dwells nothing but righteousnesse; for had the Saints no warre, there needed no watch, there could be no victory; if no seed time, no harvest.

2. Gods mighty power is more manifest in gathering and preserving a Church to himselfe out of sinners, and among sinners; and he magnifieth his mercy both in covering and curing so great and many corruptions.

3. The godly in sence of their uncleanenesse are kept low in their owne eyes, and watchfull of their own waies; and so are driven out of themselves unto Christ for righteous­nesse, and unto God for strength continually, as privy unto their own continuall weaknesse. So to subdue presumption Paul must have a buffeter, and to way-lay security comming on Israel, all the Canaanites must not be subdued.

[Page 150] 4. In that they cannot expect freedome from foulenesse and uncleannesse here below, they may the rather desire and aspire to that heavenly Tabernacle into which no uncleane thing can enter, Rev. 21, 27. and wish to be translated thi­ther where righteousnesse shall dwell, yea, the righteous and holy God shall dwell immediately in the middest of his Saintes, and all things together with themselves shall be most absolutely clean and holy.

II. The Lord by so large a description of legall unclean­nesse, would have them and us look more nearly and serious­ly Note. 2. Look nar­rowly on the misery of sinne. upon our own misery by sinne, both in the cause, and in the effects of it The former by bringing us to the contem­plation of the foulnesse of our natures and uncleannesse even in our birth and originall. For howsoever men little esteem or bewaile this uncleanenesse of nature and original sin; yet the Apostle (better acquainted with the nature of it) calls it, The sinne; and the sinning sinne; and the sinne which dwelleth in [...]. us, and compasseth us about, Rom. 7. 17. Neither can a man ever be truely humbled and prepared for Christ, nor can ex­pect a good estate in him, whose daily corrupt issues from an overflowing fountaine make him not seem marvellous filthy and unclean in his own eyes.

1. What is the reason that so many do Pharisaically pride themselves, if not in the goodnesse of their persons, yet in some blind hopes and presumptions that they be not so bad as they are, or as some others be: but because they never saw themselves in this glasse; which onely lets a man see himselfe a masse of sinne, a lump of uncleannesse: and that no good thing is in his nature, which in no part is free from the running issues of that festred and inbred sinne?

2. Why do many doat upon their own works and sightly actions; either to Popish confidence in them as meritorious, or at least (with many Protestants) to rest in the civility and morality of them without farther pursuit of the power of religion, but that they see not that so evill trees cannot send forth any good fruit, nor so bitter fountaines any sweet wa­ter? which could they but discerne, they would be weary of the best of their righteousnesse, and cast it away (with Paul) [Page 151] as dung; and conclude that when Aloes and wormwood yeeld a sweet taste, then might their fruits be sweet and tast­full to God and themselves.

3. Why do so many thousands contest against grace, stand upon their honesty, good neighbourhood, hospitality, cha­rity; they thanke God they are no blasphemers, no drunk­ards, adulterers, murderers; they wash the outside, come to Church, hear sermons, are outwardly clean and formall; no man can challenge them, no nor they themselves? but be­cause they never saw the infection of their soules, nor the in­ordinacy of their inner man which is a fountaine ever over­flowing all the banks: most dangerous, most secret: hardest to find out, and hardest to cure, and this deceives thousands in their reckonings.

4. Why is the righteousness of faith in the bloud of Christ so much undervalued, and men so hardly driven out of them­selves to seek righteousnesse by him? But because they see not their own uncleannesse, and therein their hatefull estate before God, untill Christ the high Priest have made atone­ment for them. For as that man who (being sick to death) feels not his sicknesse, nor discerns the depth and dangers of it, seeks not greatly after the Physitian, he applies either no meanes, or some idle and impertinent things to small purpose: so he that sees not the misery of his disease of sinne, sees not the need of Christ, neglects the right meanes, and content­edly deludes himselfe, running any whether but to the right remedy.

It is fit and fruitfull to look a little nearer this disease of Good to see and know our filthi­ness, by sin. nature, that we may not onely make conscience of the foul­nesse of nature, but be thrust out of our selves to the meanes of our cleansing: Considering,

1. That this uncleane issue (which the Legall issues point us unto) is a sinne against the whole Law of God in all branches of it, whereas other sinnes are against one of the Tables, and one of the Commandements.

2. This poyson of nature is the same in all men, that all may be humbled who are born children of the devill, ene­mies to righteousnesse, all of us being in our very birth [Page 152] sonnes of death: for in Adam all are dead. And as an image of rotten wood must needs be rotten: so we, hewn out of so rotten a stock. Who is it that is not a Leper from the wombe? Let any man thrust his hand into his bosome, as Moses did, Exod. 4. 6. and he shall pull it out againe le­prous, and as white as snow. Every man hath cause to cry with the Leper, I am uncleane, I am uncleane. The spawne of a Serpent are Serpents; and what are we but the spawn, the seed of Adam?

3. This Issue is a generall disorder of the whole man, and of all parts. Neither is bodily leprosie more generall and universally spread over all the members, than sinne in the [...]. soule, which is seated in all the members, so as from the crown of the head to the sole of the foot, there is nothing sound: but ataxy or disorder in want of all goodnesse in all parts, and pronenesse to all evill.

4. Miserable are the effects of this close uncleanenesse:

As, 1. In this Image of sinne, no ugly toad can be so hatefull to us, as we unto God.

2. The whole man lies subject under the curse and wrath of God; Rom. 5. 18. the fault came on all men to condem­nation.

3. Nothing can proceed from us but what is foule and damnable. What can a Serpent cast out but poyson? What­soever our own strength or will can bring forth is tainted with this leprosie, for free will remaineth onely to evill.

4. Nothing without us that we can touch, but we taint, 4. Miserable effects of inward un­cleannesse. till we be cleansed, noted in the infection of houses, vessels, garments. Both earthly things, all the creatures, all our comforts, actions, to the unpure all is so: yea, divine acti­ons, the word, Sacraments, prayer, almes, all polluted by us and to us, so long as we be unconverted and in our un­cleane nature.

5. An unregenerate man can converse with no man, but (as a Leper) he infects him by example, provocation, cor­rupt opinions, frothy speeches, fruitlesse behaviour. And if they that poyson mens bodies are worthy extreame punish­ment, and every man detests them: how much more severe [Page 153] wrath of God are they liable unto, that do nothing but poi­son mens soules?

6. No Leper was so worthily cast out of the campe; as all of us by nature are worthily cast out of the society of Saints in earth and in heaven, yea, from the presence and fel­lowship of God and Jesus Christ, and that for ever. Sinne properly shuts out of heaven, no unclean thing comes there: nothing more hateful to God, nothing but that hated by him.

7. All this misery we our selves can neither discerne nor remedy. It makes us pure in our owne eyes, though we be not washed, Prov. 30. 12. We lie wallowing in our filthinesse, and delight in it as the swine in the myre, and never are cu­red till we get out of our selves to the high Priest, in whom onely it is perfectly to cleanse and cure us. Now seeing in this glasse our own disease and need of cure, let us returne to the meanes of our cure in these three severall sorts of un­cleanenesse, and in the legall be led to the cure of morall un­cleannesse.

Thus of the kinds of legall uncleanenesse.

Next, all Legall uncleanenesse was to be cured two waies. 2. Unclean­ness cured by washing, and offering

1. By ablution or washing.

2. By oblation or offering. Both these were appointed for all kinds as in particular.

1. For uncleane touchings and tastings, the parties must wash their clothes, Lev. 11. 40.

2. For unclean issues, they must wash themselves and their clothes, Lev. 15. 13.

3. For uncleanness of Leprosie they must wash themselves, their clothes, and besides shave off all their haire, and stay seven daies without the camp, Lev. 14. 8, 9.

Sect. V.

I. The first meanes of purging Legall uncleanenesse is Washing: bloud of Christ. washing; which shadowed out the washing of the sinner [Page 154] in the laver of Christs bloud, all the water in the sea can­not wash away the least sinne; that great work is appropria­ted to the bloud of Christ, 1 Joh. 1. 7. the bloud of Jesus Christ his sonne cleanseth us from all sinne: Rev. 1. 5. Who lo­ved us, and washed us from our sinnes in his bloud: which bloud is opposed to all legall washings, Heb. 9. 9.

Object. Levit. 11. 44. This washing is called a sanctifi­cation.

Answ. Sanctification is twofold. 1. By the outward sign. Externi sym­boli et profes­sionis. Veri­tatis internae. 2. By the inward truth. They by washing, symbolically and in outward profession, by these rights sanctified themselves: but thereby beleevers were led to the internall truth, and the laver of the bloud of Christ. All this washing then leades us to the bloud of Christ, by which is meant his whole passi­on and obedience; by the merit whereof he hath procured both remission of our sinnes, and mortification of them. And herein is no small resemblance.

1. Washing is an applying of water to foule parts: so in Resemblāce the cleansing of sinne must be a speciall application of the bloud of Christ; called, Heb. 9. 14. the sprinkling of Christs bloud upon the conscience. Which is nothing else on Gods part but the imputation of Christs sufferings to us: and on our own part the application of them to our selves by the hand of faith.

2. In Washing is a rumbling and scouring off of unclean­nesse which will not easily off; and in some foulenesse they must wash often for the surenesse of the work: noting the paines and true indeavour of the repentant heart in mortifi­cation, and afflicting it selfe. It is well contented with any beating and wringing, so he may fetch out the staine of sin, which sticks as close as his flesh to his bones.

3. The unclean party was to wash himselfe, that is, his whole man and every part: which noteth totall sanctificati­on in the whole man and all parts and members, that the washing may be as large and general as the foulenesse is. For whatsoever part is not washed by Christ, hath no part in Christ, which made Peter say, not my feet onely (Lord) but mine hands and head.

[Page 155] 4. In the foulnesse of Leprosie he must wash againe and againe: to note, that after our justification by the death of Christ, we must look to a second washing of sanctification by his spirit. And because we have still washing work with us, we must be still washing our selves by daily labour in our own reformation. This was more lively signified in that o­ther ceremony added to washing in the Leper, that he must shave his haire againe and againe: signifying the paring a­way of superfluities and lusts as fast as they grew; and a vo­luntary departing from his own secret corruptions, which were as many as the haires of his head, and no lesse rooted in him; that well he might shave and loppe them, but he was out of hope quite to unroot them as long as he lived. He must keep them under, but cannot be ridde of them: He must shave the first day and the seventh day, and resist his lusts, which daily grow upon him, as haire cut, quickly growes againe.

5. The unclean person must wash his clothes as well as himselfe: signifying that wee must part with all impurity, e­ven the least, at least in endeavour, cherishing none, favour­ing none. He must hate the very garment spotted by the flesh, all occasions, and appearances of evill, esteeming the least spot of sinne foule and filthy enough. And all this is requisite in purifying of the soule.

I. Labour against the smallest sinnes. Be not a mentall a­dulterer, Use. 1. Smalest sins to be put away. banish unchastity in the eye and mouth, avoid wan­ton company, as did Joseph that of his Mistris. Thou art no drunkard, or great swearer, but art thou a companion of such not reproving them? No Papist, but a friend and patron, as seeing no great harme in their superstition; No Atheist, but a scorner of the persons and doctrine of godly teachers? what dost thou but foam out thy own shame? If thou should­est keep thy selfe never so pure, but partakest in other mens sins, thou art unclean. This reproveth Magistrats, who (though they themselves come to Church, yet) suffer others in time of divine worship to lye in streets, houses, fields, openly, &c. prophaning thus the day of the Lord, which is to be kept holy to our God. Or if they be ordinary abettors of [Page 156] idle persons and gamesters by example. This brandeth Mi­nisters openly pleading for durnkards and hatefull blasphe­mers. This defileth masters, parents, husbands, that suffer their families to run into prophaneness or ryot.

II. In all these touches goe to the fountaine opened. Zach. Use. 2. Goe to Christ, wash and be cleā. 13. 1. Every Jew had his water-pots to keep water for daily purification, Joh. 2. 6. but now the house of David and Je­rusalem, that is, all the godly, have a fountaine opened by the death of Christ. We must every day be washing and cleansing our selves in that fountaine, from all filthinesse of flesh and Spirit.

Sect. VI.

II. The second meanes of purging legall uncleannesse is oblation, or offering some attonement to the Lord, this di­rectly Offering. Christ offe­red himself. leads us to Christ. For howsoever an unclean person must wash himselfe and his clothes, yet no Jew could make an attonement for himselfe: but this was common to all un­cleannesses legall, the Priest must make an attonement for the unclean person. For all uncleannesse in generall, Lev. 16. 30. In speciall, for uncleannesse in touchings. Numb. 19. 4. In issues, Lev. 12. 8. and 15. 15. In leprosie, Lev. 14. 53. Noting by the way, that all that we can do, cannot make at­tonement Washing not suffici­ent without offering. for the least spot of sinne. Let us wash our selves as often as Naaman in Jordan; yea, let us take snow water to us, and wash our hands most cleane; yet our owne clothes will make us foule, and God will plunge us in the pit, if our Lord Jesus (the high Priest of the new Covenant) make not attonement for us. A fit note against all humane satisfacti­on and merits.

The offering for the Legall uncleannesse by touching, was done by the sacrifice of a red cow, and the sprinkling water 1. Red Cow. made of the ashes of that red Cow, prescribed by God to this purpose, Numbers, 19. called water of expiation. That all this ordinance typified Christ to the Jewes, the Apo­stle expresleth, Heb. 9. 13, 14. when from the bloud of this red Cow he leads us to the bloud of Christ, saying: [Page 157] If the bloud of bulls and goates, and the ashes of an heifer, sprink­ling Pro Christo aries, pro Christo agnus, pro Christo vi­tulus, pro Christ [...]hir­cus, totum Christus Aug. Difference. them that are unclean, sanctifieth as touching the purifying of the flesh: how much more shall the bloud of Christ purge our conscience from dead works; wherein he not onely compareth, but infinitely advanceth the truth above the type. For, 1. that was symbolicall and figurative: this spirituall and sub­stantiall. 2. That was eternall and temporary: this inter­nall and eternall. 3. That onely a purifying of the flesh: this of the Spirit and conscience. 4. That cleansed from legall and bodily pollution: this from morall, called dead works. 1. Because they proceeded from death of sinne. Dead wo [...] why. 2. Because they lead to eternall death.

For the explaining of this ordinance consider four things.

  • 1. Whence the Cow must be.
  • 2. The properties or qualities.
  • 3. The actions about her.
  • 4. The use and end of it.

I. All the congregation must bring an heifer to Moses out 1. of the heard.

1. All the congregation, for not one in the congregati­on but needs a meanes of purging.

2. This meanes must be a Cow, not an Oxe or Bull. The imbecillity of the sexe noteth the great humillity of our Lord Jesus; who being the mighty Lyon of the tribe of Judah, would so abase and weaken himselfe for our sakes.

3. They must take her from the heard: so our cleanser must be taken from among our selves, being true and perfect man, taking our nature and our flesh, yea, our infirmities as the weak sexe importeth, in all things save sinne like un­to us.

II. The properties required in this Cow are four. 2.

1. She must be an heifer, in her youth and strength: Christ offers himself, and must be taken for a sacrifice in the flower of his strength, at three and thirty yeares. He offers his best gifts, and dies in his strength, and so his offering was more free and acceptable. And we also should offer up our youth, strength, best times and gifts to Jesus Christ, who of­fered himselfe in his best strength to death for us.

[Page 158] 2. The Cow must be red: Signifying, 1. The truth of Christs humane nature, being of the same red earth that the first Adams body was. 2. The grievousnesse of sinne which he was to undertake, and the scarlet staine of it. 3. The bit­ter and bloudy passion of Christ, and his cruell death. The red skin of the Cow resembled the red garments of Christ all Isa. 1. 18. Isa. 63. 1. besprinkled: 1. With his own bloud. 2. With the bloud of his conquered enemies. 3. Presented unto his father, like the coat of Joseph, all stained with bloud.

3. The Cow must be without spot or blemish: to signifie the purity of our Lord Jesus, in whom was never any spot or staine of sinne. Though he was contented to be counted a sinner, yet he was no sinner. And though he had sinne on himselfe, he had none in himselfe: as the Cow was slaine for sinne, not being sinful. Christ was ruddy through his passion, yet most white and spotlesse by his most perfect and Cant. 5. 10. absolute righteousnesse.

4. She must be without yoke, on which never yoke came: Signifying, 1. That Christ (not necessarily, but) volunta­rily took our nature, that he might free us from our yoke. 2. His absolute freedome from all the yoke of sinne, farther than he voluntarily undertook the burthen of it. 3. That he was never subject to the yoke of humane precepts and commandements, being the Law-giver to prescribe Lawes to all, not to receive Lawes from any. 4. That none could compell him to suffer for sinne, but his whole obedience active and passive was a free-will offering, he having power to lay down his life and to take it up againe. 5. He was more free from the yoke than any red heifer could be. She indeed must be free in her selfe: He not onely free in him­selfe, but he must free all believers from the yoke; whom the sonne sets free, they are free indeed.

III. The actions about the Cow were five, ver. 5.

1. Action. 1. The Congregation must deliver the Cow to be slaine: so was Christ delivered to be slaine by the whole body of the Jewes. 2. She must not be delivered to Aaron but to Eleazer his successor: signifying that the death of Christ serveth all the successions and ages of the Church, [Page 159] and must be taught by the Ministers of all ages.

2. Action. She must be led out of the Camp, and there burnt whole to ashes; her skin, flesh, bloud, and dung ver. 5. Signifying, 1. That Christ must be led out of the gate of Jerusalem to suffer, Heb. 13. and there 2. must be crucifi­ed, by which he was made a whole burnt offering. 3. That whole Christ is our comfort, his flesh our meat, his bloud our drink, yea, the very base dung of those contumelies cast up­on him were a part of his sacrifice offered up in the fire of his passion for us, to sweeten and sanctifie ours.

3. Action. Eleazer must take of the bloud with his finger, and sprinkle towards the foreside of the Tabernacle of the assem­bly seven times, vers. 4. Signifying, 1. The purging of us by the bloud of Christ sprinkled on the Conscience. 2. That Christs death profits none to whom it is not specially applied: for the Cowes bloud must be not shed onely, but sprinkled. 3. That onely the people and Congregation of God have benefit of the death and bloud of Christ, for it was sprinkled directly before the tabernacle. 4. The seven times sprinkling noteth, 1. That that one oblation hath virtue and merit enough. 2. The perfection of justificati­on. 3. The need of often application of Christs death. 4. The duration of it to all ages.

4. Action. She must be burnt with Cedar wood, scarlet lace, and hysope, all which must be cast into the fire with her, vers. 6. Signifying, 1. Three things in Christ. 1. The Cedar of uncorrupt life. 2. The scarlet of fervent love to mankind. 3. The hysop of savoury obedience in all things to his father, all which were in all his sufferings, and fire of his passion sweetning it. 2. They noted three things ari­sing from Christs sufferings. 1. Immortality, signified by the Cedar, which is not subject to putrefaction. 2. The scar­let, the merit of his bloud applyed to justification. 3. The hysope of mortification, healing our corruptions, a [...] hysope hath a healing quality. All these three properly arise from the passion of Christ.

5. Action. A clean person must gather the ashes of the heifer, and lay them without the Camp in a clean place, [Page 160] vers. 9. Signifying. 1. The buriall of Christ in a cleane and new tombe wherein never man lay, a clean place never used before. 2. That the merit of Christs death is ever laid before God in the highest and holiest heavens. 3. The Chri­stians account of Christs merit and passion, who layeth them up as his chiefe treasure in the clean place of a pure heart and conscience, an onely fit closet to keep the mystery of faith in.

IV. The use and end of these ashes was twofold, vers. 9. 4.

1. They must be kept for the Congregation: Signifying, that there shall never want supply of grace and merit from the death of Christ to any believer that sees his need of them.

2. Of them was made a water of separation, thus: A clean person took of the ashes of the red Cow burnt, and put pure water into a vessell, and taking hysope dipped it and sprinkled it upon the tent, the persons, and vessels, and upon the unclean person the third and seventh day, and so he (washing his clothes and flesh with water) was clean at even, ver. 18, 19.

Signifying, 1. That the bloud of Christ is the onely wa­ter of separation for persons separate, to separate them from their uncleannesse. The water made of the ashes of Christs death and bloud-shed, sprinkled upon the unclean, can onely purge the conscience from dead works.

2. That this bloud of Christ must be sprinkled with hysope of faith and mortification. For hysope hath a cleansing quality, and is put sometimes for that which onely and pro­perly cleanseth, purge me with hysope, that is, with the bloud Psal. 51. 7. of that eternall sacrifice, figured by that which is sprinkled with hysope.

3. That this bloud of Christ must be often applied; the third day, and the seventh day: The death and merit of Christ must be often meditated and applied to the heart. For it is a perpetuall and eternall purging and sprinkling Note. 1. There is a way to cleanse eve­ry unclean­nesse. water in the Church, and we must have daily recourse un­to it.

I. That the Lord hath appointed meanes for cleansing all kind of impurity.

[Page 161] 1. That his people and we might know, that by no infir­mity and frailty we shall fall quite out of the grace of God.

2. That the Lord takes not the forfeit of all the scapes, and foule falles of his children, utterly to forsake them: see­ing the Jew that was legally polluted seventy times seven times, was as often received in againe as he was cleansed, ac­cording to the purification of the sanctuary.

3. That we should not despaire, nor the weak Christian be quite dejected in the sence of the multitude of his frailties and foule touches, seeing the Gospel affordes us the remedy and meanes to cleanse all morall uncleannesse, no lesse cer­tainely and fully, than the Law to the Jews, to purge their legall.

II. As the Jew was no sooner defiled by touching a dead Note. 2. Have re­course to the means. man, or bone, or grave, or tent, or any thing about him, but he must presently repaire to the meanes of legall cleansing. So every Christian defiled by the least touch of any dead work must have recourse to the remedy appointed in the Gospel. The Law appointed the water of the ashes of a red Cow; but the Gospell appoints the red bloud of Jesus Christ, sprinkled and applied by faith (as by hysope) upon the conscience.

Consider, 1. The necessity: The person defiled not ha­ving Motives. this sprinkling upon him shall be cut off from Israel, vers. 13. So whosoever hath not the bloud of Christ sprink­led upon his soule, shall be cut off from the number and inhe­ritance of the Saints, Mar. 16. 16. he that believeth not shall be damned.

2. Every sin is a separation from God, who being a God of pure eyes cannot abide the filth of it; and therefore we had need continually to have this water of separation for the washing of our hearts daily, and often every day; because it is gathering some uncleannesse every hour, yea, every moment.

3. An unclean creature or vessell could not be of any ser­vice to man, for he must not touch it till it be cleansed: So a sinner, so long as he is unclean and impenitent, cannot be of [Page 162] any good use, nor present any acceptable service to God. And therefore the Prophet. Isa. [...]. Wash you, and cleanse you, and then come. No man dare present any thing to a King with a foule hand: the Lord will accept no such present. 2 Cor. 6. 17, 18. touch no unclean thing, and I will receive you, and be a father unto you: Implying, that the Lord will not receive him that any way communicates with sinne, if obstinate and impenitent.

4. Nothing else can recover our beauty and first estate of holynesse and happinesse but this laver. A cloth once soiled never recovers the beauty and whitenesse but by washing. This laver onely brings back a white and unspotted innocen­cy. All the holy water in the Sea of Rome cannot wash one sinne; for that hath no commandement, no institution, no promise. Besides all legall Ceremonies are dead, which in their life time could not cleanse by the meer deed done, as they Ex opere operato. say theirs doth.

5. How vaine is it to see men and women curious and care­full in washing their bodies and clothes, they will not suffer the least spot on them, but wash them weekly: and yet go on year by year in the soule defilements of sinne, and never desire to be washed and rinsed in the water of separation; nay, nothing more troubles them than to be called to refor­mation: A cleanly man will have his clothes washed week­ly, but his hands and face every day: A cleanly Christian will not be lesse carefull of his heart.

III. Seeing there was so much businesse in legall cleansing Note. 3. Be very carefull to avoid spiri­tuall un­cleannesse. of the least foulenesse; how carefull were the Jewes to a­void those foulnesse? and how much more should Christi­ans be to avoid the morall?

1. In themselves. A good heart will be affected with the least touch of sinne, as David to cut Sauls lappet, and to a­void the least appearance as well as evill it selfe. Iustus metu­it non solum a peccato, sed & a conta­gione & la­be peccati. Ambr. de institut. virg.

2. From others. For the Jew might be impured from o­thers as well as by himselfe. We must not communicate in o­ther mens sinnes, 1 Tim. 5. 22. The just man bewareth not onely sinne it selfe, but even the contagion and infection of sinne. Watch thy selfe, as privie to thine own weaknesse, [Page 163] and thy adversaries subtletie and strength. Watch against other sinnes; as being beset with snares. Resolve with good Jacob, Gen. 49. 6. Into their secret my soul shall not come. This strict watching is counted commonly foolish precisenesse, nicety, hatefull purity: but God esteemes it otherwise. It is an apparant losse of mens favour, preferments, and world­ly helps: but he onely findes the favour of God, and the happinesse to see God.

Sect. VII.

The oblation for unclean issues, leading us to Christ is ap­pointed, 2. Birds. Lev. 15. 14, 15. In this,

1. What foules must be prepared for the offering; Two Turtles, or two young Pigeons; and so for the womans, vers. 29. Of the clean kind of birds: signifying and resembling the purity of Christs humane nature. Besides his innocency, simplicity, meeknesse, chastity, charity, fruitfulnesse; of all which virtues these Doves were expresse Emblems.

2. What was the use of these foules.

1. They must bring them to the Priest: No man must of­fer his own sacrifices, but must present them to God by Christ the onely high Priest.

2. They must bring them to the doore of the Taberna­cle; for publick service must not be privately performed; and figured our entrance by Christ, the doore.

3. One must be made a sinne offering, the other a burnt offering. The sacrifices were types of that onely sacrifice of the Sonne of God our Redeemer, performed upon the Altar of his Crosse, for the expiating the sinnes and foule is­sues of the whole world. In them both. 1. What they were. 2. What were the ceremonies about them.

1. The sinne offering was a sacrifice in which the whole beast or bird was not consumed with fire (as the burnt offe­ring was) but slaine for the expiation of sinne: The use of which was to figure and seale up to the Jews the expiation of their sinnes in Christ. Now Christ is made manifest for [Page 164] the doing away of sinne, by the slaine sacrifice of himselfe, Heb. 9. 26. and see vers. 28. The burnt offering was a sacrifice in which the whole beast or bird was consumed with fire offered up therein to God for a savour of rest; namely to appease and pacifie Gods wrath for some sinne, or sinnes committed. Which signified, that Christ was to be a whole burnt offering, and to be wholly consumed in soule and body with the fire of his Fathers wrath, that he might be a sweet smelling savour for us. He gave himselfe for us, a sacrifice and oblation for a sweet smelling savour. Neither did the believing Jewes think Ephes. 5. 2. that God was appeased by any virtue in the burnt-offering, but through the eternall sacrifice of Christ shadowed therein.

2. What were the ceremonies about these foules, for they all pointed at Christ.

1. For the sinne offering of foules, the ceremonies are ap­pointed, Levit. 5. 8, 9. and they be three.

1. Rite. The Priest must wring the neck of the Dove a­sunder, but not pluck it clean off; and the same rite in the burnt-offering. The neck must be pincht with the naile of the Priest to let out the bloud, but the head must not be pluckt Lev. 1. 15. off from the body.

Signifying. 1. That although Christ was to die, yet his divinity and humanity should not be severed.

2. That the death of this innocent Dove should not inter­rupt his headship of the Church. He was to be pinched to death; but his head should not be severed from his body and members, which is the Church.

3. That Christ should die indeed, but no bone of him must be broken, Joh. 19. 36. Shadowed also in the Passo­ver.

2. Rite. The Priest must sprinkle the bloud of the sinne offering upon the side of the Altar, vers. 9. and the like in the burnt offering, Chap. 1. 15. Signifying, that all the virtue and merit of Christs bloud for the purging of sinne, was drawn from the Altar of his Deity. He must be God that must purchase the Church with his bloud, Act. 20. 28. and [...]. Cor. 5. 19. God was in Christ.

[Page 165] 3. Rite. All the rest of the bloud must be powred out at the foot of the Altar: Signifying, not onely the powring out of the bloud of Jesus Christ our true sinne offering upon the Altar of the Crosse, without which shedding of bloud can be no remission of sinnes: but also the bloud powred at the foot of the Altar, that is, those clots and drops of bloud plentifully flowing from him in his agony before his passion, Luke. 22. 44. as he was going up to the Crosse.

2. For the Dove appointed for the burnt offering (besides the former rites) some other are appointed.

1. The Priest must pluck out the maw with his feathers, and Lev. 1. 16. cast them besides the Altar on the East side in the place of the ashes: For these were things unclean: and signified that Christ should bring no unclean thing to his suffering, but present a most spotlesse and holy oblation to the Lord; for else had it not been of sweet smell.

2. The Priest must divide and cleave the bird with his winges, but not asunder: signifying Christ, who seemed by his death to be burnt, extinct, and perished; for so he was in the esteem of his own disciples as they were going to Emaus: but yet he was not quite sundered, but rose a­gaine by his own power, and ever liveth sitting at his Fathers right hand to make request for us. Yea, his own words might seem to imply a sundering, when he saith; Why hast thou for saken me? but that the ingemination of his former words (my God, my God) doth strongly prove the con­trary.

3. This bird must be throughly consumed to ashes, to make it a sweet savour to the Lord, Levit. 1. 17. signifying that never was any thing so gratefull and acceptable to the Lord, as the whole burnt sacrifice of his Sonne; in which he smelled a savour of eternall rest. To which the Psalmist alludeth, Let him smell a savour of all thy oblations, and turn thy burnt offerings into ashes. Psal. 20. 3.

4. When all these rites were observed, the party that was unclean shall be clean, Levit. 12. 8. and Chap. 15. 13, 28. signifying, that a party justified by Christs bloud, and exer­cising true repentance, and the study of holinesse and new [Page 166] life; is brought in againe into the right and fellowship of God and his people, whatsoever his uncleannesse formerly hath been. And thus hath the legall cleansing of this person brought us to the Evangelicall in Jesus Christ:

I. Sundry grounds of consolation to the Church and Note. 1. Comfort to the godly. people of God.

1. As Christ seemed clean divided and sundered from his Father & from his Church, but was not: so his members often seem quite sundered from God and all comfort, but are not, 2. Cor. 4. 8 and Ch. 6. 9. A godly man may be in such a streight as David was, when thus he brake forth to Jonathan; As the Lord liveth, and as thy soul liveth, there is but one step between me and death. And yet when he can see no passage, God makes a passage forth. Hence may a Christian (with Paul) challenge all perills and dangers, and contemne them as too weak to sepa­rate us from Christ, Rom. 8. 39. yea, in all things we are not onely conquerours, but more than conquerours. So was Christ in death, and from under the grave more than a con­querour. Let a Christian be slain, it hinders him not from be­ing a conquerour; and what ever he may loose, he looseth not the love of God, who loveth him to the end, whom he once loveth; and therefore onely the sound Christian is in a sure estate. If sorrow be for a night, joy will returne in the morning; after darkenesse as sure to see light. As Jesus Christ keeps his headship, and death cannot sever him quite: so the members may be pinched (yet not quite off) but abide members still.

2. As the speciall providence of God watched his own sonne, that though he was in wicked hands that wanted no will, yet they were kept from breaking one bone of him: so doth the same providence watch over his members; that howsoever the wicked of the world pinch and presse them, yet the promise is made to them, Psal. 34. 20. He keeps all their bones, not one of them is broken, that is, without the will of our heavenly Father, as Matth. 10. 29. Not an haire shall fall; for the same providence watcheth the head and mem­bers. This consideration is used by Christ to remove exces­sive fear of men. If thou see thine enemies encrease as bees [Page 167] about thee, ready to strike and sting: Let thy waies please the Lord, he can 1. turne their hearts to peace as Esaus to Jacob when he purposed his death; and Labans to Jacob when he in­tended evill intreaty towards him. 2. He can turn their counsel to folly, and bring it on their own heads, as in Haman & Archi­tophel. 3. He can turn their evill to thy good & salvation, ac­cording to the saying of Joseph to his brethren, Ye intended e­vill against me, but God turned it to good as this day. 4. He can take them off at his pleasure, he hath a hook for Zenacherib; and Balaam shall not curse, though he would never so faine.

3. In that Christ brought no unclean thing to his sacrifice (figured in pulling out the maw and feathers, and casting them besides the Altar in the place of ashes) we have com­fort in the offering of all our service and sacrifices of prayer, praises, almes, duties, all unclean in and from us: but pre­sented in Christs sacrifice, no uncleannesse is in them.

II. How carefull the Lord is that his people preserve Note. 2. Affect puri­ty of heart and life. Motives. purenesse among them, that the holy God may walk amongst an holy people: And teacheth how carefull we Christians should be to cleanse our selves from all filthinesse of the flesh & spirit, 2 Cor. 7. 1. And that we should be ever stopping up those unclean issues which disturbe our chastity of body or mind, which these legall issues specially ayme at. Oh this chastity of mind and body is a singular grace.

For, 1. It stands with the will of God; 1 Thes. 4. 3, 4. This is the will of God, even your sanctification; and that every one possesse his vessell in holinesse and honour.

2. It stands with the nature of God, which is most holy Casta Deus mens est, casta vult mente vocari. and pure; God is a pure chast Spirit, and will be praied unto with a pure and chaste heart. How can foule fornicators and adulterers think that their praiers can, get into heaven, and themselves shut out?

3. By holinesse and chastity of mind and body thou be­commest a Temple of the holy Ghost, 1 Cor. 6. 19. Without which thou art no better than a swine-sty, fit for foule spirits and devils, that delight in uncleannesse to harbour in.

4. It stands with the honour of the body; which 1. is for the Lord, that is, created for the glory of the maker. [Page 168] 2. The Lord is for the body, namely to redeem it, so as the body also is a part of Gods purchase. 3. The Lord is the head, and the bodies are members of Christ. Oh what a great wickednesse (as Joseph calls it, Gen. 39. 9.) to make it a member of an harlot?

5. Follow holinesse and chastity; without which thou shalt never see God either in grace or in glory, Heb. 12. 24. What makes the harlot so sottish, so gracelesse in the mid­dest of powerfull meanes, but that their hearts are taken away, Hos. 4. 12. Gods plague hath already seised upon them in great part, for they cannot see God in grace offering repen­tance, and therefore they shall never see him in glory. Now the best directions for stopping these running issues, are:

I. Direction. Begin at the fountaine; labour for inward Begin with the heart: why. purity first.

For, 1. Whence issue these but from a wicked and impe­nitent heart?

2. God looks first at the cleannesse of the heart, knowing that if he find that unclean, nothing is clean.

3. Morality and cleanliness make a man care for the clean­ness of his face, but grace and religion make him look to the cleannesse of his heart, Jer. 4. 14. Because he knowes that no beauty of the face can allure a man so much, as the cleannesse of heart allureth.

4. Get grace into thy heart, and it cannot choose but send out, as Christ saith, According to that which is within. Accor­ding to the abundance of the heart the mouth will speak, the eye will look, the hand will work, the foot will walk. Get thy heart purged and washed, and it is impossible that thy life should be foule.

5. In vaine do men struggle and strive to cast off some wast boughes of sinfull actions, if they seek not to strike up the root. Thou wouldst avoid oathes and lyes in thy tongue, but shall never do it while thou hast a swearing and lying heart. Thou wouldst avoid fornication and adultery in the act, in the eye, in the speech, but never shalt thou stop this issue, if thou hast an adulterous heart: And so in other sinnes.

[Page 169] Quest. How may I cleanse my heart? How the heart may be cleansed.

Answ. Cleannesse of the heart is in two things.

1. Justification by the bloud of Christ imputed and appli­ed, Joh. 15. 8, 10.

2. Sanctification by the Spirit, which stands in two things.

1. In parting with our filthinesse, as evill thoughts, pride, hypocrysie, stubbornnesse, mallice: in a mortification of all inward lusts.

2. In attaining a new estate in all the inward faculties, a planting and cherishing of all graces. Thus (as our Saviour saith) he that is washed is all clean.

II. Direction. From the foundation come to the streames. Proceed in cleansing the life. If the heart at any time be inflamed with the fire of con­cupiscence, and begin to boile over, stay the issue with all expedition.

Quest. How?

Answ. 1. Covenant with all thy parts that none of them shall fulfill the lusts of the flesh. Specially, covenant with thine eye, as Job. with thy tongue not to name any filthi­nesse, as it becommeth Saints, Eph. 5. 3. With thy hand not to execute any inordinate desires.

2. Threaten thy members; that thou wilt pluck out thine eye, cut off thy hand and foot rather than by them offend God and thy conscience. If this will not serve, beat down thy rebellious members (as Paul) with labour.

3. Direction. Avoid occasions of defilements by the Avoid oc­casions of defilement. unclean issues of others, so did the Jews.

As, 1. Come not near unclean persons, 2 Cor. 6. 17. Avoid swearers, drunkards, gamesters, wantons, Proverb. 4. 14.

2. Avoid the seat they sit on; A place of shorter rest, Psal. 1. 1. Blessed is he that sits not in the seat of wicked men; Lev. 15. 6.

3. Shunne the bed they lye on, Lev. 15. 5. A place of longer rest with them; as one delighting in their fellowship, and tumbling with them in filthinesse.

4. Beware of their spittle, v. 8. words are cast out of the mouth Ut saliva [...]re excutitur, sic serme. [Page 170] spittle. Neither assent to their speeches and perswasions, (which are still against God) nor be dismaied from good things by their threats and reproaches. This filthy froth and spittle daily pollutes many that are carelesse to a­void it.

Object. Alas it is impossible then to avoide unclean issues. I cannot but daily and hourly touch some filthinesse, unlesse I run out of the world, and from my selfe.

Sol. 1. Therefore as the woman having the bloody issue, thrust in daily to touch the hemme of Christs garment, Mar. 5. that his bloud may heal thy bloudy issues.

2. As seeing need of daily mercy, to true watch joyne prayer, as Hezekiah, 2 Chron. 30. 18, 19, 20. The good Lord be mercifull to him that is sanctified, although net according to the purification of the Sanctuary: And the Lord heard him. So will he thee, where he findes a true endeavour after clean­nesse.

Sect. VIII.

Now followes the oblation for the uncleannesse of lepro­sie. 3. Leper two waies clean­sed. The cleansing of the Leper is in Lev. 14. where we read of two sorts of oblations prescribed.

1. For the cleansing of him that he might come into the tent.

2. After his cleansing and comming into the tent, he must offer three Lambes, one for a trespasse offering, one for a sinne offering, another for a burnt offering, with a num­ber of ceremonies about the Lambes, all leading to Christ. But in this place we are onely to speak of the former, con­cerning his cleansing, Lev. 14. from ver. 2. to 8.

Where 1. The Leper to be cleansed must be brought to the Priest. For he onely must discern and pronounce of it, whether it be cured or unclean: signifying, that the sinner that desires to be cleansed, must hasten to Jesus Christ the onely high Priest of the new Testament: who onely is able to cleanse and heal our leprosie of sinne, and herein is farre [Page 171] beyond all those types. The Priest could discerne of bodily leprosie, and pronounce them cleane if they were so, but he could not make them clean if they were not. But Jesus Christ can properly forgive sinne, the soules leprosie, being the healing God, and onely Physitian of soules.

2. The Priest must go out of the campe unto him to con­sider him: to signifie, how Jesus Christ finds us when he first comes unto us, namely such as (having the most loath­some leprosie running upon us) have no right to the commu­nion of Saints, nor to any of the priviledges or Gods peo­ple, but out-casts and aliens from God, from the faith, and from the common-wealth of Israel, Ephes. 2. 12.

3. The Priest must first see him healed, and then proceed to the exact cleansing, vers. 3. signifying, a twofold action of Jesus Christ in the curing of the leprosie of sinne. For,

1. He must heal the sinner by the grace of justification and sound conversion: but this is not all, for there remaines a great deal to do before we can be soundly cleansed. And therefore 2. he must bestow on us his spirit, to work in us a daily growth and proceeding in sanctification, before we can be pronounced clean.

4. The Priest must prepare 1. two little live birds of the clean kind, vers. 4. 1. two birds, to note the twofold na­ture of Jesus Christ, his deity and humanity. 2. Two little birds, to note the humility and mean esteem of our Lord and Saviour Christ. 3. Two cleane birds, to note the un­spotted and surpassing purity of both his natures. 4. Two live birds, one to die and the other to live, to note that Christ had one nature to die in, another not subject to death; As also the twofold estate of our Lord Jesus, his suffering and dying estate, and his glorious & exalted estate. 2. He must prepare Cedar wood, scarlet, and hysope: noting, (as we have heard) the excellent graces that Christ brings to his oblation, both in regard of himselfe, his Church, and his Father: And signifying, that Christ and his graces are inseparable: And teacheth, that no man can think to be cleansed by the bloud of Christ, that is carelesse to receive his graces; which thou must as eagerly desire as himselfe.

[Page 172] 5. The use of these materialls of cleansing, concern, 1. the dying bird. 2. The living bird. 3. The party to be cleansed.

First concerning the dying bird. 1. One of the birds must be slaine: pointing at the death of Christ, without which is no purging or cleansing of sinne, Heb. 9. 22. But one bird onely dyed: so Christ was put to death concerning the flesh. 1 Pet. 3. 18. 2. It must be slaine over running water, that the bloud might fall into the water. The bloud falling into the water signified: 1. That a fountaine of grace by the death of Christ is opened both for justification and sanctifi­cation. For water and bloud here meet, shadowing the streames of water and bloud issuing from the side of Christ in his passion, 1 Joh. 5. 6. 2. The bird slain over running water signified the innocency of the death of Christ, for though he must die, yet his bloud is in pure streames, as run­ning water is. 3. That this water must be running water, not standing; signifying, that there is a continuall cock and conduit of grace overflowing from this fountaine, ever run­ing and issuing from Christ to the refreshing of thirsty and weary soules believing in his name. 4. By the falling of the bloud into running water might also be signified, that the death of Christ should run into the Ministery of the Gospel, as the waters from under the Sanctuary every way. As Christ spake of Maries fact preparing him to his death: so much more of his death it self, what he hath done and suf­fered shall be every where preached to the worlds end. 3. This water must be in an earthen vessel. Not onely to signi­fie that Christ must sweat and powre forth in his death, wa­ter and bloud according to his humane nature, (which for the time of his abasement was a fraile and brittle vessell, sub­ject to infirmities and contempt, and in all things like unto ours onely sinne excepted) but also that this blessed treasury of the Church should be retained and held in earthen vessels, that is, the faithfull Ministers of Christ; how contemptible so ever they are in the world, yet these shall carry and disperse these blessed misteries unto men, as 2 Cor. 4. 7.

Secondly, concerning the live Sparrow. The generall sig­nification [Page 173] of it was Christ now alive raised from the dead, who can die no more, but ever liveth, and sitteth at the right hand of God, and that by the power of his divinity. And 1. This Sparrow must be used also to the cleansing of the Leper. For neither the humanity of Christ without his deity, nor his deity without his humanity can cleanse or justifie the sinner. Neither the life of Christ without his death, nor his death without his life can availe us to righteousnesse. Act. 20. 28. God shed his bloud to purchase the Church to himself. 2. The Priest must dip the live bird, and the Cedar, and scar­let lace, and hysope in the bloud of the Sparrow slaine and pure water, vers. 6.

Signifying, 1. That the deity of Christ (which is im­passible in it selfe) can yeeld us no comfort alone, had it not been joyned to an humanity subject to passion, which is plainly meant by dipping the live bird in the bloud of the slaine. For therefore the sonne of God must take our nature to better our nature, and take our flesh, that by death he might destroy him that had the power of death. Heb. 2. 14.

2. The scarlet, cedar and hysope must be dipped also, to shew, that all the graces we receive from him must be dipped in his bloud, by which alone we have both accesse unto grace, and acceptation into grace. For by the dipping and union of this live bird and slaine, we come into the grace and fa­vour of God, being united first to his humanity, then to his divinity, and so are knit to his whole person, and by him we come to the father.

3. The Priest must let the live bird go into the broad field, vers. 7.

Signifying, 1. Christs escape and deliverance from death, and the power of the grave.

2. His exaltation after he was once consecrated, his ascen­ding on high, and being made higher than the heavens, Heb. 7. 26.

3. The publication and manifestation of righteousnesse purchased by the death of Christ, in the broad and open field of the Church, and this in the daily ministery of the Gospel.

[Page 174] Thirdly, concerning the party to whom this cure must be applied. The Priest must sprinkle on him that is to be clean­sed this bloud seven times.

Signifying, 1. That onely Christ Jesus doth sprinkle his bloud on penitent soules, from whom onely they must expect pardon and purging from sinnes.

2. That Christs bloud must be particularly applyed to e­very believer, to every thing that is to be cleansed: partly by Gods imputation of Christ and his merits to the penitent sinner: Partly by his Ministers in the publishing and speciall applying the particular promises to every soule that is weary.

3. Seven times sprinkling noteth,

1. Perfect justification by the bloud of Christ, the num­ber of seven times, perfect sprinkling; he is able perfectly to save, Heb. 7. 23. all that come unto him, and needeth no other seeking of other merits to satisfie or justifie.

2. To put the unclean person in mind how hardly he parts from his foulenesse: and us, that it is no easie thing to be rid of sinne.

3. How weak and imperfectly our selves apply the bloud of Christ, that have need of so many sprinklings: to hum­ble us for our weaknesse of faith, and slow progresse in san­ctification.

Sect. IX.

I. All these ordinances and ceremonies in discern­ing Use. 1. No easie matter to be rid of sin. and curing this disease, in generall teach us two things.

I. That it is no small businesse to be rid of the leprosie of the soule, and the infection of sinne; which was but shadowed in that, as that was occasioned by this. For whence is bodily leprosie, but from leprosie of the soule? Or what is it that strikes the body with such contagious sickness, but the infection and sicknesse of the soule? As in Gehezi, Miriam, Uzziah; Whose bodies were so fouly infected and deform­ed [Page 175] by the leprosie of the soule, and corruption of heart. And who sees not how the Lord would lead them and us to take speciall notice hereby of the souls leprosie by sinne, in that he committeth the knowledge and discerning of this dis­ease of leprosie to the Priests, sending them to the Physiti­ans of their souls, and not to the Physitians of their bodies, whom one would think it more specially and properly con­cerned? This should admonish us all, that if there be so much adoe to get clean bodies, clean faces, clean skins; how great our care and businesse should be to get clean souls, the soile of which cleaves not to the skin onely, but sticks closer to us than our skin or bones; and yet we think every slight sigh, or Lord have mercy, or three words at our death sufficient to rid us of our sinnes, and soules leprosie.

II. How careful the Lord is to sever the clean from the un­clean Separate be­tween the precious & the vile, for fear of generall infection.

Teaching, 1. The Magistrate, that as the Lord puts dif­ference between him that sweareth, and him that feareth an oath: so should they to incourage and countenance the clean person, that is, the godly and faithfull. David set his eyes on the godly in the land, not to maligne or wrong them, but to cherish their persons, and help up religion and the fear of God in them: As also to discounte­nance and terrifie the foule blasphemer, the drunkard, Sab­bath breaker, idle persons and gamesters, that thrust them­selves out of their calling all the week long. But if a man by his course shuffle clean and unclean together, nay run with the unclean, & countenance gamesters, swearers, bibbers, how doth he execute the judgements of God?

2. A good Minister then stands in the counsell of God, when he severs the precious from the vile, Jer. 15. 19. The Priest in the Law must pronounce him clean that is so indeed. He durst not pronounce a foule person to be clean, nor a clean person foule. Then how dares a man that stands to judge between the Lord and his people, scandalize or scorn such as endeavour most to be clean? How comes it that we do not hear drunkards, adulterers, theeves, swearers, blas­phemers, [Page 167] so rated and disgraced as them? Or how dare men sell praises of religion to foule Atheists, swearers, haters and despisers of goodnesse, (as if men should gild rotten posts, or wash dead bricks) making them at their death seem as white as lawne, who all their life were white as Lepers? Well, let not the despised members of Christ be discouraged; we know that the judgement of Christ shall passe righteously between the cleane and uncleane. If thy heart be upright, let all men cast the foule brand of an hypocrite on thee, Jesus Christ shall pronounce thee clean.

3. Every good man must and will be glad of this se­paration, rejoyce in that arbitrement that differenceth cleane and uncleane, as most savoury. Wicked men can a­bide nothing lesse than this shedding and differencing of men. Whence are so many tumults? Oh you are more holy than all other, you are the pure ones, you are all clean, &c. but because they have learned a trick to deceive themselves, and to hide their foulenesse (as they think) by crowding all into one confusion. Now is that doctrine one­ly intolerable that fetcheth them out of their holes, and casts them out among their uncleane fellowes, for whose company they be a great deale fitter, than for the society of Saints and beleevers.

II. Note in speciall. 1. In that the Leper must bee Use. 2. Christ dis­cerns the le­prosie of sin sent to the Priest to have his leprosie discerned: we see that our Lord Jesus (who was typified by the high Priest) can dis­cerne our leprosie. Thou maist hide thy sinne from man, but thou canst not deceive him, no idle excuse or fig-leaf can cover thee. If he see thee an adulterer, a swearer, an unjust person, a covetous or proud person if he see thee an enemy, a prophane person; he will judge thee a Leper. Thou canst not sin (though never so secretly) but thou art sure to be discerned and tried, by him whose eyes are as a flame of fire. And if he judge thee a Leper he will pronounce thee a Leper, and thou canst not apeale from, but must stand to his judgement. What if a man applaud and commend thee for an honest man, a good neighbour, a just man, if He judge thee a Leper? What had it been better, if all the congregation had taken [Page 177] part with a Leper, if the Priest pronounced him uncleane? And if he pronounce thee uncleane, he will shut thee out of the campe, out of the society of God and his Saints, till thou beest seasonably cleansed. Men may faile in their cen­sures, and shut out the clean for unclean (as Joh. 9. 34. the Jewes did the man that was born blind) and hold in the un­cleane for base respects: but Jesus Christ he shuts him out unpartially, whom he pronounceth a leper.

II. Then was the leper healed, when in the judgement of 2. Onely they are cleansed from sin, whō Christ accounts so to be. the Priest he was so; and then the Priest must pronounce him so. The Priest could not make him clean but pronounce him clean: Even so, thou art then cleansed from thy sin, when in the judgement of Christ (our high Priest) thou art so; who not onely can pronounce thee cleane, but make thee so.

Quest. But how may I know that Christ accounts me clean?

Answ. When his word by the mouth of his servant pro­nounceth thee clean, he accounts thee so. Whatsoever yee bind or loose in earth, shall be bound or loosed in heaven, Mat. 16. 19. with Joh. 20. 23. Christ onely properly pardons sin, and remits it, 1. By merit. 2. By efficacy of confer­ring; and no Minister can thus remit sinne: But every Mi­nister must pronounce & declare pardon to penitent sinners; and when he doth this in Christs Name, Christ from heaven pronounceth the leper to be clean.

Ob. But there may be errour in the Priests sentence, and the Ministers judgement is not infallible.

Sol. The sentence of the Priest was infallible, if he kept him to the rules of inquisition: And the Minister pronouncing pardon upon penitent sinners cannot be deceived; though thou maiest deceive thy selfe in applying promises and grants of pardon not belonging unto thee.

Question, What are the rules of inquisition or di­rection. Marks of one cleansed from sin.

A. 1. If by rubbing the place he see it grow red the leprosie is in the way of cure; if it be not red by rubbing, it is incurable: So if the sinner be ashamed and blush at his sin, if godly abash­ment hath begun his repentance, it is a good signe of cure.

[Page 178] 2. If the spot pricked with a needle, there come forth bloud, it is in the way of cure: So sinners pricked with the needle of the Law, if they have sence of pain which makes them cry out of themselves, and see the need of Christ, it is a good sign. Men pricked now adayes, stir up their bloud against the Physician; but such are far from cure.

3. A leper was healed when his leprosie was stayed, and went no further: So he is to be pronounced clean, who truly turnes to God; sinne hath lost dominion in him; sinne growes lesse and lesse; the stirrings of corruptions are aba­ted; he cannot doe as he hath done, or would doe; nor forget that he was cured.

4. When the conscience is bathed in that fountain in which water and bloud have met, then is the leper clean. When by the merit of Christ the sinner is fully justified, and by the Spirit of Christ he is in part sanctified, and riseth up towards full sanctification; then is he truly pronounced clean.

Object. Alas! I am then unclean still; I find much foulness and folly present with me.

Sol. 1. The leper and sinner may be truly cleansed, never fully in this life; for every day will make him foul even after true repentance: but we must daily renue our repentance for daily cleansing.

2. Remember, that the leper must shave his hair again and again, but he leaves the roots behind; yet he was pro­nounced clean, though the hair was still growing, and for all the roots.

3. The running water in the basen for the cure of the le­per, signified a continuall flowing of a fountain of grace from Christ to the heart of the sinner, for his continuall washing.

III. What every man must doe in sence of his spirituall 3. leprosie. Something is to be done before the cure: some­thing after.

I. Before the cure. 1. As the leper discerning his own 1. What is to be done be­fore this cure. misery, esteemed him an happy man that was clean: So thou seeing this disease, must judge thy self most unhappy and mi­serable of all men, as Paul, Rom. 7. and never think thy self [Page 179] happy till thou hast got a cure, Psal. 32. 1. Every leper cried out, I am unclean: the same must be thy complaint and cry.

2. Get thee to the Priest: Go to Christ in humility, as that leper (Matth. 8. 2.) Lord if thou wilt, thou canst make me clean; and the least touch of Christ shall make thee clean, vers. 3.

3. Naaman, being struck with leprosie, must wash and be clean: So must thou bewaile and lament thy estate; wash thy selfe in the salt sea of teares, that God may wash thee with the sea of mercy. Especially in greater sinnes (as in a deeper leprosie) take up deeper humiliation and repentance; as David washed his couch with teares.

II. After the cure. 1. If God have healed thy leprosie, 2. And what afterwards. be thou thankfull; so Naaman, 2 King. 5. 15. Not as the nine lepers of whom none returned back to give thankes. Would to God one of ten were as thankfull as we ought for Luke 17. so great a cure.

2. Bring thy gift to the Lord for the curing, for so the lepers were enjoyned: that is, pay thy vowes; offer up thy selfe and all thy obedience, an acceptable sacrifice to God, Rom. 12. 1. Resigne unto God; present all thy sacrifices by the high Priest Jesus Christ, in whom alone thou canst finde ac­ceptance.

Objection, Alas, I have nothing worthy giving unto God.

Sol. 1. Thou canst give no lesse than true endeavours of obedience; and then, be they never so weak, he that accepts the will for the deed, will accept them.

2. God prescribed a smaller offering for the poor than for the rich; the poor man must provide a sacrifice according to the labour of his hands: To comfort the weake Christi­an, who offering according to his ability, is respected accor­ding to that he hath, not according to that he hath not.

3. The third thing after the cure, is, to avoid the com­pany of lepers, 1 Cor. 5. 11. If a man be an incorrigible sin­ner, let him be to thee as an heathen or Publican, Matth. 18. 17. A good lesson for the Masters of families to cast out [Page 180] leprous persons from the rest. It is incredible what mischief one swearer, one drunkard, one wanton, one prophane beast may do in an house. We have not more usually seen an whole house infected, and poisoned up by one plaguie per­son, than whole houses corrupted by some one leud person; which suffered (as one swine in a garden) roots up all that is good.

So much of holy persons: Now follow holy things.


Holy things, types of Christ.

HAving now intreated at large of such holy persons as we have seen expresse types of Christ, The second gene­rall head ensueth, which is to speak of holy things. All which in the old Testament, and Jewish pollicy did especially ayme at, and point out Christ after a farre clearer manner than did the former. And therefore for the confirming of our faith in the new Covenant, we must go on to shew the cor­respondence and agreement of the Scriptures in both Testa­ments: and that Christ is the same in both; and the faith of believers the same in substance, onely differing in the manner of exhibition and publication.

A man that superficially looks over the books of Moses, and sees so great an heape of ceremonies and ordinances, would wonder what the Lord meant to enjoyne so many, and (as reason would judge) so needlesse institutions to his own people; of which they can make nothing by cursory, scarce by considerate reading. and hence (whereas the Jews were so superstitiously observant of the books of Moses, as that they had at their fingers ends a great number, not of the pre­cepts onely, but of the letters and pricks of every book and [Page 181] chapter:) Christians (unlesse it be in point of history) al­most reject the books of Moses; not for their credit and truth, but for their utility and use, as not touching them. But to him that readeth and considereth will appear:

1. How truely our Saviour affirmeth (Joh. 5. 46.) that Use of legal ceremonies. Moses wrote of him: partly by promises and prophecies, and partly describing him in figures and shadowes; so as, had the Jewes believed Moses, they had also believed in him: but re­jecting Moses (not in the generall: for generally they be­lieved him, and magnified him as their greatest Prophet: but) in the special prophecies and promises concerning the in­dividual person of Christ; therefore they could not believe in Jesus Christ.

2. How aptly and wisely the most wise God did accom­modate himselfe to this people, in loading them with so ma­ny burthensome ceremoniall constitutions, and yet not one of them in vaine.

For, 1. Consider the nature of the people; it was rude Fitnesse to the Iewes nature. and dull, and needed corporall and externall elements and rudiments to help them. Besides it was not onely naturally superstitious, and addicted to idolatry: but had lived some Centuries of yeares in Egypt, and was infected with Egyptian rites. And further, they were now to go into the land of the Canaanites, and were in danger to learn their fashions, Deut. 4. 16. And therefore the Lord would prescribe to their whole life (both in sacred and civill things) abundance of Ceremonies; whereby their senses should be exercised, their faith excited, their obedience preserved, and themselves re­strained from devising on their own heads, or appointing to themselves any other worship or form of service, than that of the Lords owne prescribing, which should find them work enough, and take up their minds sufficiently.

2. If we look on the many kindes of rites, and ordinan­ces, and compare them with the many ends which the Lo [...]d had in ordaining them, we shall conclude none of them were idle or superfluous.

For, 1. God would have the glory of Christs Kingdome Ends of or­daining them. shadowed, and his own religion gloriously propounded, and [Page 182] reverently received, not exposed to any contempt; and there­fore appoints the erection and sanctification of a stately Ta­bernacle with all the costly vessells, and holy persons gar­ments.

2. He would traine up that people in piety, and stirre up in their hearts an earnest sence of sinne, and hunger after mercy: and this he will do by appointing so many kinds of sacrifices, and rites about them.

3. He would frame them to purity and sanctimony of heart and life, and will help them hereto by the many lavers, pu­rifications, cleansings, and sanctifications, of which we have heard in part.

4. He would nourish naturall love among his people; and for this end appointes many feasts, meat and drink offe­rings, and many solemnities to appear and rejoyce before God.

5. He would have them testifie their thankfullnesse for his great bounty, and acknowledge themselves homagers as was fit. And therefore ordaines a number of oblations, first fruits, tithes, vowes, first-born, and many moe institutions to testi­fie their gratitude.

6. Many of Gods great works must be held in their eyes, and must not be suffered to slip out of memory. And for this purpose served many of those institutions; As Deut. 6. 20. when thy sonne shall aske thee in time to come, &c. For this end the Passeover must be yearely celebrated, Exod. 12. 14. and Chap. 13. 14. So also the feast of Tabernacles, Lev. 23. 42, 43.

7 The Lord so ordered, as the Jewes could not cast their eyes any way within doors or without, but some shadow or other should meet them, and preach unto them either Christ or some grace by Christ, or some duty unto Christ. In the fields they had first fruites, first borne of cattell: In their houses the lintels must have the Law written: In their bodies Circumcision was a teacher: on their cloathes, fringes: If at their tables, choyce of meats: If on their children, the first borne a type of Christ. So for times, places, and the rest.

[Page 183] But that we may propound to our selves some good order Substantial things point ing at Christ and familiar method, in which we must bound our discourse: We must know that all the holy things in the old Testament pointing at Christ, were:

  • 1. Substantiall.
  • 2. Circumstantiall.

Substantiall, are such as concern the parts and substance of Gods worship.

Circumstantiall, are such as concerne some inferiour things about that worship.

The former may be referred to two heads.

  • 1. Sacraments.
    Sacraments and Sacri­fices. Differences.
  • 2. Sacrifices.

The difference: In Sacraments we see God giving us all good things in Jesus Christ.

In Sacrifices we present all our duty to God by Jesus Christ.

Now for the Sacraments of the old and new Testament in generall, we must in one word know, that they are out­ward signes, seales, and confirmations of Gods word and promise of grace. For the Lord knowing and tendering What Sacra­ments are in generall. the weaknesse of man would informe him of his good will and pleasure two waies.

1. He would speake to his minde and understanding by his word and promise.

2. To his outward sences by externall signes and Sacra­ments, Word and Sacraments go together. called by some of the Fathers, visible words. He is not contented by his word to declare his will, but also by Sacraments to witnesse and signe that word, for our more full instruction. If before the fall he covenanteth (by his word) life upon condition of works, he addeth a twofold signe to the sences of Adam, the tree of life, and the tree of know­ledge. If after the fall he give a promise of the blessed seed Gen. 3. 15. he enjoyneth to Adam outward sacrifices and signes of that his Word. If to antient believers before Christ he promise deliverance from sinne, death, and hell, on condition of faith in the Messiah to come, he sealeth up this promise by two standing Sacraments: Circumcision, and the Passeover. If to believers of the new Testament he ac­complish [Page 184] in his Sonne all those ancient promises, and now preach salvation to all that believe in the name of Christ cru­cified, dead, buried, raised, ascended, and sitting at the right hand of his Father, as Joh. 3. 16. This promise he con­firmeth with two Sacraments, Baptisme, and the Lords Sup­per, as speciall seales of his grace. Thus is the Lord still like himselfe in all ages, and provideth fully for our direction and consolation, for our strength and assurance in the Covenant of grace and salvation.

But to come nearer to our purpose. The Sacraments of the old Testament were either before the fall, or after. Of the Sacraments in Paradise before the fall; we are not to speak, as the tree of knowledge and the tree of life: Be­cause 1. They sealed the Covenant of works, not the Co­venant of grace. 2. They concerned the first Adam with­out any respect or reference to the second Adam: There was no need of Christ, and consequently no type of him. We are onely to speak of Jewish Sacraments, types of Jesus Christ, and so reject them which never aymed at Christ, but were before any distinction of Jew or Gentile. These Jew­ish Sacraments were either 1. Ordinary or standing. 2. Ex­traordinary Sacraments ordinary & extraordi­nary. and occasionall. Ordinary were 1. Circumci­sion. 2. Passeover. Circumcision was the the Sacrament of enterance and receiving the Jew into Gods Covenant. The Passeover was a Sacrament of continuance and growth in that Covenant. Extraordinary, which were in some resemblance both to them, and the two Sacraments of the new Testa­ment. 1. To Circumcision and Baptisme answered the Sa­craments of the Cloud and red the Sea. 2. To the Passeover Antitypes. of the Lords Supper answered Mannah from heaven and wa­ter out of the Rock. Of these we must (by Gods assistance) speak in order, not what we might, for that were endlesse, but what we must necessarily, so farre as they preach Christ unto us, or may set us nearer unto him.


Circumcision, a Type.

  • 1. What it is.
  • 2. How it figures Christ.
  • 3. Observations.

1. CIrcumcision was a sacred rite ordained by God; Definition of Circum­cision ex­pounded in parts. wherein, by cutting off the fore-skins of all the males of the Jewes in the eighth day, the Covenant of God, made to Abraham, was sealed up to him and all his poste­rity.

1. A sacred rite ordained by God: God is the Author. For, 1. He onely that can promise and give the grace, can seale the Covenant. 2. Abraham received it of God, Rom. 4. 11. therefore God gave it. 3. The institution is in Gen. 17. Where is the word of institution, 1. In commanding, 1. Mandato. 2. Promisso. 2. In promising.

2. The subject of Circumcision were all the males of Israel descending of Abraham. For these must be destinguished from all families of the earth, Gen. 17. 4. Neither may we think that women were excluded out of the Covenant of Grace, for they were comprehended under the Circumcision of males. And God spared the weaker sexe; becaese it was enough to bring them within the number of Abrahams po­sterity, to be born of the males circumcised. Besides, as the males carry a speciall type and resemblance of Christ (as 1 Cor. 11. 3.) in order to the female: so was it fit they should [Page 186] have the thing and ceremony of Circumcision, and the fe­male onely the virtue and efficacy, Junius.

3. The part must be the part generative. Gen. 17. 13. My Co­venant shall be in your flesh; and vers. 11. Circumcise the fore-skin of your flesh. The very place shewes that Circum­cision aymed to remedy the corruption and uncleannesse of mans nature, whereof it admonished Abraham and his po­sterity. For neither Abraham nor any of his were chosen into the Covenant, because they were cleaner or holier than other; but that they might be holier. Gods election is free, who maks choyce of them that need Circumcision as well as any other.

4. The time, the eighth day: Because 1. The Lord had a mercifull respect to the tendernesse of infants. 2. Not to distinguish, but that those infants also were within the Covenant that died within that time. 3. Because whatso­ever was born of man or beast was Legally impure, and in their bloud till the eighth day, and therefore no beast must be offered to the Lord till the eighth day, Ex. 23. 19. and ch. 34. 26. No nor men of other nations, servants or other must be circumcised but upon the eighth day from their comming in. 4. This precise observation of the eighth day was not with­out a mistery, either pointing to the resurrection of Christ on the eighth day, or leading beyond the week of this pre­sent life (in which we cannot be perfectly circumcised) unto that eighth day in the life to come, when all our corruption shall be cut away, and perfectly and at once abolished.

5. The end of Circumcision was to seal up Gods Cove­nant made with Abraham. This Covenant had three clauses.

1. Of the multiplying of his feed in Christ.

2. Of the inheritance of the land of Canaan, being a type of Heaven.

3. Of the blessed seed, the Messiah, that was to come of him typified in Isaac, and so was Circumcision a seal of the righteousnesse of Faith, Rom. 4. 11.

II. Circumcision figures Christ. Circumci­sion a figure of Christ.

I. As it was a Jewish Sacrament, wherein Christ shined out clearly; who was and is the substance of all Sacraments both Jewish and Christian; for Christ is the substance of [Page 187] the whole Covenant, and all the seales of it. In this sence the Apostle calls it a seal of the Righteousnesse of faith. Rom. 4. 11. How a seal of righte­ousnesse.

Namely, 1. A seal of secresie, that locked up the Co­venant onely to that people.

2. A witnessing seal, whereby (as by a visible, perpetual, and sensible signe in their flesh, which they could never lay off) the Lord would still hold in their sences, his own pro­mise of grace made unto them in the promised Messiah, and their promise of obedience made back againe unto God to become his people. Which promise of theirs, howsoever they were to endeavour in; yet could it not be fully perform­ed for them but in the promised seed, in whom their imper­fect obedience and indeavours were to be covered & accept­ed. And thus is every Sacrament a signe. 1. Of grace. 2. As every Sa­crament is likewise. Of duty, and a religious signe binding God to man, and man to God. 3. A strengthning and confirming seale by which the Lord pleased to ratifie the promise of grace, and seal up to them the inward and invisible circumcision of the heart; called the Circumcision of Christ, Col. 2. 11. Because he onely by his spirit can work it, Deut 30. 6.

II. Circumcision figures Christ, as it was a signe.

1. Memorative of the Covenant of God made with Abraham and his seed, Gen. 17. 11. which mercifull Cove­nant was founded in Christ Jesus, out of whom God ne­ver contracts Covenant with any man. He onely slayes ha­tred, and makes God and man to walke together as friends.

2. Figurative, or representative; foreshewing,

1. That the Messiah should be born of Abrahams seed, 3. Things foreshewed. Rom. 15. 8. and not of the uncircumcised nations, who being to be a Minister of the Circumcision, was also to receive Circumcisi­on himselfe, which was shadowed in all their Circumci­sions.

2. In their shedding of bloud by Circumcision, was re­presented to their eyes the shedding of Christs bloud; not onely in the first fruits of his bloud-shed in his Circumcisi­on (which was a part of his humiliation, and a parcell of the price paied for our sinns) but also the full powring out of [Page 188] all his bloud in Sacrifice upon the Crosse, wherein the Cir­cumcision of Christ was fully accomplished.

3. Was shadowed their duty also; that having shed the first fruits of their bloud in Circumcision in obedience to God, they should be ready to shed all their bloud for him whom they expected to shed all his bloud for them.

3. A distinguishing signe of the Jewes from all other peo­ple who were without God, without Christ; and they one­ly a chosen seed, in that blessed seed in whom all their pre­rogatives were conferred and established.

4. A demonstrative signe, 1. Of the naturall sinne and Demōstrats wound and cure. disease of man; and therefore it was placed in the genera­tive part, to admonish Abraham and his posterity of their uncleannesse; for things clean need no Circumcision nor ab­lution. Abraham and his seed must be led out of themselves. 2. To demonstrate the cure and remedy by the Messiah to come, cleansing our natures two waies.

1. By bearing upon himselfe the imputation of our im­purities. How Christ cures us.

2. By healing them in us, partly by his merit and bloudy death bestowing a perfect righteousnesse upon us; partly by his Spirit daily sanctifying and circumcising our hearts: thus hath this Sacrament preached Christ unto us.

Now the observations to make it usefull.

1. Take notice of our own estate to humble us, both in Use. 1. Be humbled for naturall corruption. state of nature, and in state of grace.

1. In our nature, we are all sprung out of a corrupted seed; which although we would forget, yet the Lord in this Sacrament took care that his people should carry upon their bodies the signe of sinne and death, seizing upon their whole nature. In place of which comes our Baptisme pre­sently after our birth; shewing, that a man in his very first frame is filthily polluted, and goeth astray even from the womb. Psal. 58. 3. Whence also it is called, Originall sin.

1. Because it hath been from the beginning of the world.

[Page 189] 2. Because it is the originall and beginner of all sinne in us; it is the first of all our sinnes.

3. From our beginning, even from our conception. Psal. 51. I was conceived in iniquity; and we from it called the childeren of wrath, that is, laid under wrath even from our childhood, Eph. 2. 3.

2. After grace received see the weaknesse of our faith. And for im­perfections of grace. Abraham the father of the faithfull, needed this pledge and seale to support his weak and shaking faith. Who can say, my faith is strong enough, which is ever imperfect in the best, who know but in part, and believe but in part? Why else did the Lord appoint the use of Sacraments to the strongest believers, and that all their life long; but to put them in mind of the weaknesse of their faith, which needeth such continuall props and supports? Neither is it marvel that men are so heavy to the reverent receiving of the Sacrament, because they see no want, no need, no benefit of faith; they feel not the weaknesse of faith, which would breed desire of strength, and drive them to the diligent use of the meanes.

II. If Christ be the truth of Circumcision, then every Use. 2. Be circum­cised spiri­tually. Christian in the new Testament must be circumcised as ne­cessarily as the Jewes in the old. And though the ceremony and act of Circumcision be worn out: yet the truth of cir­cumcision as neerly belongs to us now a dayes, as of old it did Col. 2. 11. unto them. In whom we are circumcised through the cir­cumcision of Christ, speaking of the Gentiles converted unto Christ. In which words, the Apostle plainly distinguish­eth between Jewish circumcision and Christian, between Le­gall circumcision and Evangelicall, between Moses his cir­cumcision and Christs.

Here 1. What this Evangelicall circumcision is.

2. The difference from Legall.

3. The marks and notes of it.

4. The motives.

This Christian Circumcision is described (Col. 2. 11.) to What the E­vangelicall circumcisi­on is. bee a putting off the sinfull body of the flesh; that is, in plaine tearmes, the mortification of the body of sinnes that are in [Page 190] the flesh. For the truth and kernell of Circumcision never stood in the cutting off a piece of skin (that was but the shell of it) but in cutting off the lusts of the heart & life, & parting from corruptions of nature, which rebell against the Spirit. And this we have in Christ alone, being as farre beyond the Circumcision of the old Testament, as the truth useth to ex­cell the type: as farre as Christ is beyond Moses, or heaven above earth. This renovation of mind was. 1. Signified by that Ceremony. 2. Promised by every Circumcised person.

The difference between this Evangelicall and that Legall Difference from legall circumci­sion. Circumcision, is,

1. In the efficient. That was appointed by God to be made with hands: but this is a wonderfull work without hands, done by the finger of God himselfe. The mortifica­tion of sinne is so honourable a work, as the hand of man and Angels cannot do it.

2. In the subject. That was wrought upon the seed of Abraham according to the flesh: this onely upon Abrahams seed according to the faith, upon believeres and members of Christ. That upon the Jew without: this upon the Jew within. That upon Ismael as well as Isaac: here no Ismaelite is circumcised. That was Circumcision of the naturally born, and males onely, of Jewes onely: this is of the supernaturally Nascentium Renascenti­um. born againe, male or female, Jew or Gentile, for in Christ all are one.

3. In the proper seat. That was ceremoniall in the flesh, this morall in the heart. In that a natural part was wounded: in this the very corruption of nature. That dealt with flesh in substance: this with the body of flesh in quality.

4. In the end. In that, every man was circumcised in him­selfe, and his bloud shed to fulfill the rite of the Law: In this all believers, men and women are in Christs bloud once circumcised to fulfil the rigour of the Law.

5. In the effect. By that, the person was received into the society of Gods people according to externall professi­on: by this, the sinner is received into inward and eternall fellowship with God, and into communion with Gods peo­ple.

[Page 191] 6. In the latitude or extent. In that, the Priest circumci­sed in one part of the body: in this, Christ our high Priest circumciseth the whole man. In that, one beloved part was cast away with griefe and sorrow: in this, the whole corrupti­on of nature, and all beloved sinnes; with no lesse griefe and sorrow of heart for them.

7. In the durance and continuance. That was tempora­ry, but till the coming of Christ; who razed the type, and rai­sed Qui signum destruxit, ve­ritatem in­duxit. the truth: but this is to continue for ever, till the second coming of Christ; and is most perfectly finished and con­summate in heaven.

The notes or markes to know inward circumcision attain­ed Notes of inward and spiritual cir­cumcision. by Christ, are these.

1. The party to be circumcised was presented and offered to this ordinance of God, as willing and contenttd to part with his flesh and bloud in obedience to God: so here thou hast begun thy circumcision, if thou hast offered up thy soul, body, and all, a reasonable sacrifice to God, Rom. 12. 1. willing­ly mortifying all the deeds of the flesh, and denying and renouncing all fleshly lusts and affections, which are as neat and as dear unto thee as the parts of the body. So Col. 2. 11. it must be a putting off the sinnefull body; implying, not a suffering it onely to be violently taken and cut away: but a voluntary putting away, and parting with it. Indeed in le­gall Circumcision the infant could not cut away the flesh of his body: but in Evangelicall Circumcision thy selfe must put off this sinnefull body of flesh, and be more than a meer patient.

2. As there the whole body was wounded in one part: so see the whole body of sinne be wounded in all parts, not one member spared, Col. 2. 11. put off the sinnefull body. Speciall parts to be circumcised No sinne must raigne, none unresisted. And therefore,

1. Labour for an heart circumcised. There the Lord be­gins this work, Deut. 30. 6. and Chap. 10. 16. there see thou hast begun. See thy desires be sanctified; that the thoughts of thy heart and inward affections be watched and guarded; not suffered to be earthly, wanton, impious, disordered, or unfruitfull. This purging of carnall affections, and fastning [Page 192] them on the right object, is a note of inward circumcision, Deut. 30. 6.

2. See thine eare be circumcised. Act. 7. 51. the Jewes are reproved for uncircumcised eares. All sinnes of the eare must be circumcised; and that is done in opening them to hear God and good instruction, and shutting them against slanders, false tales, wicked counsels, doctrines of liberty, and the like.

3. Circumcise thy lips; which then are so, when they are able to speak for God. Moses (in Exod. 6. 12.) com­plaines that his lips were not enough circumcised. All the sinnes of the tongue must be cut off. This circumcision ad­mits not a lie, an oath, a slander, a deceitfull, or filthy, or unclean speech unmortified.

4. All sinnes of the eye must be circumcised, by making Covenant with this member; not suffering the eye to be en­vious, covetous, wanton, scornfull, adulterous. And so examine all the parts, that no sinne be peaceably admit­ted, without drawing bloud upon it, as was in circum­cision.

3. As in that Circumcision was sence of much paine and True mor­tification is painfull. griefe in the body; as we see in the Shechemits, Gen. 34. 25. So in this (where ever it is) is affliction of conscience, pain of spirit, pricking in the heart; as in the Converts, Act. 2. 37. which makes the circumcised mourn, and cry out of him­selfe; judging himselfe, and breaking his heart with godly sorrow for sinne. The Priest could not take the knife, and cut off the piece of flesh without paine and sorrow of the child: Neither can the Minister take the sharpe weapon of the Law to wound and cut the body of flesh in any part, but it will be painfull and sorrowfull to the child of God; who will judge and condemne himselfe, and dares not stand out the threats of the Law, as many contemptuous rebels do. An hard and secure heart is an uncircumcised heart: good Josiah will tremble at the word; but all Gods words and plagues stirre not Pharaoh.

4. As that part cut off was never set to the body againe, but was taken quite away for ever: So in this circumcision [Page 193] of Christ is not a parting with sinne onely for a time, but a ceasing of sinne, that is, a constant endeavour to forsake all sinnes, inward, outward, secret, open: A parting from pleasing, profitable, deare, and bosome sinnes; saying to them (as Ephraim to his idols. Hos. 14. 9.) get ye hence; what have ye to do here? with resolute purpose never to give them entrance, or entertainment more. Those that fall to their former sinnes, as who forget they were washed (like dogs and swine) were never circumcised. The skin once cut off died for ever: such a dying to sinne must be in this circumcision.

5. In that was a joyning to Gods people, and a receiving of the party into the Church and family of God: See if thou beest joyned to Gods people not in outward profession, but in sincere affection; embracing them that feare God, de­lighting in their society, giving them the right hand of fel­lowship, and with the hand the heart; separating from the fellowship of the uncircumcised and prophane, as the Jewes medled not with the Samaritanes. Doest thou professe cir­cumcision and grace by Christ, but oppose and pursue the professours of Christian religion, as Ismael him that was born after the promise? A plaine signe, all thy circumcision was made with hands. Thy body was washed with water of Baptisme: but thy heart is unwashed, untouched with any water of saving grace.

6. In that was a joyning and admittance to the outward worship of God, and externall communion in all holy things: so here thou art become a true worshiper; not out­wardly in the letter and ceremony, but inwardly in spirit and truth: A Jew within, Rom. 2. 29. Phil. 3. 3. We are the cir­cumcision, which worship God in the spirit. He that worships for­mally, for fashion, for Law; and in the mean time can con­temne the power of godlinesse; cannot away with inward watchfullnesse, sincerity, strictnesse: though by Baptisme he be brought to the externall communion of the Church in holy things; all is but in the letter, without all circumcision of the heart.

7. In that was much rejoycing as in a great priviledge; and [Page 194] the Jew did much boast, and beare himselfe upon this prero­gative; partly upon the externall worke; partly on their distinction by it; partly because it manifested them sonnes of Abraham according to the flesh: and much was their praise among men: But true circumcision rejoyceth not in Abra­ham, but in Christ; hath no confidence in the flesh, but re­nounceth all outward things, and settles his rejoycing in Christ alone and his merits: counting all other things dross and dung in comparison of him. Let the Jew trust in Cir­cumcision by the work wrought, as our Judaizing Papists do in their Sacraments; Let him glory of Abraham his father, Joh. 8. 33. that he is beloved because the seed of Abraham: We are chosen in Christ not in Abraham. In him we have atonement and become a beloved people, and not in Abra­ham. In him we come boldly to the Throne of grace, and speed in our suits: In him we glory all day long. We trust not in good meanings, as simple ignorant persons; nor in merits, as wilfull blinded Papists; nor in any thing within us, nor without us, nor without Christ. All our joy and trust is in himselfe alone. And this is the true inward Circumcision, Phil. 3. 3.

The Motives are. 1. All outward service and Ceremo­ny Motives to get the spi­rituall cir­cumcision. without this, is rejected; as preaching, hearing, praying, fasting, weeping. All thy service and labour is lost, if by the Spirit of God thy mind be not renewed, and faith and con­version wrought in the heart. For as the Jewes (being cir­cumcised) were chalenged to be uncircumcised (though they had the fore-skinne of the flesh cut off, and had the circum­cision made with hands) and were so farre unworthy of A­brahams seed, as that they are called, Witches children, seed of the whore, Isai. 57. 3. and Act. 7. 51. So art thou not circum­cised, which art onely outwardly, Rom. 2. 28. A Jew without, or outward, is as good a worshiper as thou.

2. If We cannot say truely that now not the Jewes, but we are the circumcision, Col. 2. 11. our persons are no better before God, than an uncircumcised person in the Law. Therefore if thou art not thus circumcised, thou art,

1. An exceeding hatefull person. So David of Goliah by [Page 195] way of reproach and contempt: This uncircumcised Phi­listime. 1 Sam. 17.

2. Thou hast no part in the promised Messiah no more than he.

3. No portion in Canaan, not a foot in Heaven: all thy portion is in Earth.

4. No member of the true Churth, but without the Com­munion of Saints.

5. As he was in state of death and judgement, Deut. 30. 6. Jer. 4. 4, 14. so thou shalt be condemned as surely for want of a sanctified and circumcised heart, as he for contemning circumcision of his flesh. Col. 2. 13. Ye were dead in the cir­cumcision of the flesh; without the life of God in grace, with­out hope of the life of glory.


The Passeover, a type.

THe second ordinary Sacrament of the Jewes, lively re­presenting Jesus Christ, was the Passeover, instituted, Exod. 12. to be a lively type of Christ. 1 Cor. 5. 7. Christ our Passeover is sacrificed for us. The name of this Sacrament hath in it the occasion, for it was (by God) therefore insti­tuted in memoriall of their great deliverance in Egypt, when the destroying angell (who slew all the first born in Egypt in one night) passed over all the Israelites houses, whose doors and posts were striked with the bloud of the Pascall Lamb slain and eaten in that house; wherein the god­ly Jewes were not to fix their eyes in that externall signe, or the temporary deliverance signified; but to cast their eye of Faith upon the Messiah and true Paschal Lamb; by means of whom, the wrath and revenge of God passed over all those whose soules are sprinkled with his bloud, and who by true [Page 196] faith feed upon him. And therefore, howsoever the word, Passeover, hath in Scripture many significations, both proper and figurative; I understand by it the whole institution of God concerning the Lamb called Paschall. In which we shall see Jesus Christ most lively pourtrayed before us; and that this one legall Sacrament preached (not obscurely) to the ancient Jews the whole doctrine of the Gospel, and grace of salvation, by the onely suffering of Jesus Christ. This will appear in five things.

  • 1. In the choice of the Sacrifice.
  • 2. In the preparing of it.
  • 3. In the effusion of bloud, and actions about it.
  • 4. In the eating and conditions therein.
  • 5. In the fruits and use.

Sect. I.

I. In the choice of the Sacrifice. The Lord appointed it 1. Paschall Lamb a type in the choice Christ a Lamb. Denominati­one. Qualificati­one. to be a Lamb, or a Kidd: notably signifying Jesus Christ; whom John Baptist called, the Lamb of God; taking away the sinnes of the world, Joh. 1. 29. Christ is a Lamb.

1. In name, Revel. 5. 6. In the midst of the Elders stood a Lamb.

2. In qualities, in respect of innocency, patience, meekness; humility, obedience to the will of his Father to the death, not opening his mouth, Isai. 53. 7. in fruitfulnesse and profita­blenesse to feed us with his flesh, and cloath us with his fleece of righteousnesse.

3. In shadows, being figured in all those lambs slain, espe­cially Adumbrati­one. in the Paschall Lamb. In which shadowes or figures he was (not yearly onely, but) daily held before the eyes of beleevers; and so here we consider him. In this Lamb for his choice must be four conditions. Choice. Christum fuisse [...], amici pariter & inimici testati sunt.

I. Condition. It must be a Lamb without blemish, ver. 5, every way perfect, without any spot or defect: signifying the most absolute perfection of Jesus Christ; who was, both in respect of his person and actions, without all spot and ex­ception, [Page 197] 1 Pet. 1. 19. as of a Lamb undefiled and without spot, Heb. 7. 26, Such an high Priest it became us to have, as is Perfection of Christ. holy, undefiled, separate from sinners. The reasons are two.

1. Because else his ransome were insufficient.

2. He must be perfectly righteous that must become a righ­teousnesse to many.

II. Condition. It must be a male, for three reasons.

1. Reason. To note the excellency, strength, and digni­ty His excel­leency. of Christ, proper to that sex. For although he seemed a most weak man in the state of his humiliation; yet must he be not effeminate, but masculine; strong, stout, and potent to destroy sinne and death, and to foile all the enemies of mans salvation. Christ indeed must be the seed of the wo­man; but the woman must bring forth a man-child, Rev. 12. 5. And though he must be borne of a Virgin, yet the Vir­gin must bring forth a sonne, Isa. 9. 6. For he must divide the spoile with the strong, Isa. 5. 3. 12.

2. Reason. Consider Christ in both his natures, it was fit he should be a male as the Lambe was. 1. As he was the Sonne of God it was meet he should be of the more worthy sex of men; for it was unfit that the Sonne of God should be the daughter of man. 2. As being man, he was to be the Messiah, the seed of Abraham, the Sonne of David; and so to be circumcised, to be a fit Minister of Circumcision.

3. Reason. Consider him in his office. He was to be a King, a Priest, and a Prophet of his Church; all which ne­cessarily require him to be a man, a male, a the Lamb was. We conclude therefore hence, that being the head of the whole Church, he must be of as worthy sex as any of his members.

III. Condition. The Lambe must be of a year old, ver. 5. Christus in medio aetatis flore immo­latus cujus conditionis rationem vid Iun. in Exod. 12. to signifie that Christ dyed at a full and perfect age, in his strength; and therefore had experience also of our infirmi­ties. For a Lambe of a year old is at his state and growth, and a Lamb of a year old is acquainted with many miseries: Even so our Saviour, living to the full strength of a man, was a man full of sorrows, and acquainted with infirmities. See Heb. 4. 15. we have not an high Priest which cannot be touch­ed [Page 198] with the feeling of our infirmities, but was in all things tempted like us, yet without sin.

IV. Condition. He must be taken out of their own flocks and folds: For so Moses to Pharaoh, Exod. 10. 25. thou must allow us our beasts for sacrifice to offer to the Lord. Plainly signifying, that Christ was to be an Israelite: and within the fold of Gods own people; for he was to be of the seed of Abraham; and salvation was of the Jewes, Joh. 4. 22. Yea, and the Lords own Law requires, that the King should be taken from among his brethren, Deut. 17. 15. and much more the King of the Church, being King of all Kings.

Sect. II.

II. Jesus Christ was as evidently expressed in the prepa­ration Paschall Lambe a type in the preparation. Where six Observati­ons. of the Paschall Lamb wherein the Jewes were tyed to six observations.

I. Observation. The Lamb must be severed from the flock, v. 6. to signifie Jesus Christ separated by God the Father to the office of mediator; and that two waies.

I. By Gods eternall decree; he was a chosen servant of Christ two wayes set a­part to be a Mediator. God to the most excellent service in heaven and earth. Isai. 42. 1. My elect servant. And thus is called a Lamb separa­rated from before the foundation of the world, 1 Pet. 1. 20.

2. In due time actually separated from all the rest of the flock, by,

1. A supernaturall conception by the holy Ghost; where­by he became an high Priest separated from sinners, all the rest of Mankind remaining sinners.

2. By a miraculous birth of a Virgin, being the seed of the woman.

3. By an unconceiveable union of the two natures, divine and humane, in one person; by which he became our Imma­nuell, God with us.

4. By a solemne and heavenly inauguration into his office [Page 199] at the brinke of Jordan; by which he was openly pro­claimed the chiefe Doctor and Prophet of his Church. Thus it became this Lamb of God to be actually separated from all the rest of the flock: because for all the rest he was to pay a greater ransome and price, than any other that could be found amongst all mankind.

II. Observation. The Lamb thus separated must be re­served and kept alive four daies; even from the tenth day of the first month till the fourteenth day of the same month, vers. 6. Wherein was signified the very particles of time of Christs both Ministery and passion.

1. For his Ministery. Christ must not be sacrificed pre­sently The time of his Mini­stery and passion or­dered. so soon as he was born, nor so soon as he is baptized and separated, but after that separation must live about four years to preach the kingdome of God, and then be offered up; that his death might not be a seale to a blancke, but might confirme all that holy doctrine delivered by his owne mouth and Ministery to the world.

2. For his passion. The time of it depended not on the will of man, for his enemies sought many a time before to slay him; as Herod in his infancy. Matth 2. 16. the Jewes took up stones to stone him, Joh. 8. 59. The Nazarites would break his neck from an hill, Luk. 4. 29. And many other attempts were made against his life; but his time was not then come, the lamb must be reserved four daies. And this very moment of time was determined and registred in Gods most certaine and unchangeable computation. Act. 2. 23. being delivered by the determinate counsel and foreknowledge of God. Whose wisdome so ordered that, Quia Do­minus deci­ma die ej [...]s­dem mensis, hoc est ante quinque dies paschae in Civitatem in qua pate­retur, erat ingressurus. Ansem. in Math. 21.

1. As the lamb was taken in the tenth day of the first moneth: so Christ came into Jerusalem about the tenth day of the same month to suffer; as appeares, Joh. 12. For up­on the sixth day before his passion, he came to Bethany vers. 1. and the next day he went to Jerusalem, which was the fifth day before his passion, ver. 12.

2. As the lamb must be slaine the fourteenth day of the first month (which answereth to our March) and at the full of the Moon: So, that no man might be deceived in our [Page 200] Paschall lamb, he must be sacrificed at the Passeover, the same day that the lamb must be slaine; In the full Moon, to note the fullnesse of time now come which was so long before ap­pointed, and in such a month as when light prevailes against darknesse, and every thing revives and springs: to signifie that Christ by his suffering chaseth away our darknesse and death, and brings in light and life, and a blessed spring of grace and glory.

III. Observation. The Lamb must be slaine, vers. 6. signifying, that Jesus Christ being (as that Lamb of a year 3. Christ must die a vio­lent death. old) in his vigour and strength (who by reason of his age and strength might have lived longer) must not onely die, but by a violent death, and that by Israel.

Noting. 1. That Christ must be put to death by the Jewes.

2. That the benefit aad merit of his death redounds to his Church onely: The Redeemer must come unto Zion, Isa. 59. 20.

Objection. How was he then a Lamb slaine from the How from the begin­ing of the the world. beginning of the World, before the Jewes were in be­ing?

Sol. Two waies.

1. In regard of Gods decree, whereof a promulgation was made in promises and types, and an acceptation as if it had been already done.

2. In regard of man: He was slaine onely one time as to S [...]mel actu, semper fructu the act, but in all times as to the fruit: because the perpetuall power and efficacie of Christs sacrifice was begun with the world, and extended to all believers of all ages, who onely diversly apprehend it.

IV. Observation. The lamb must be slain between two 4. The time of Christs death noted. evenings.

1 To put them in remembrance of their deliverance in Egypt, which was in the evening.

2. To note that our Paschall lamb should be slain towards the evening of the world, that is in the last times, Heb. 9. 26.

3. that Christs sacrifice was to succeed in the same time of their evening sacrifices, which were daily to be offered. [Page 201] Exod 29. 41. and so to put an end to them, Dan. 12. 4. to note the very houre as well as the day of Christs suffering on the Crosse. To understand which, we must know that Iewes divi­sion of the day into 4. parts. the Jewes distinguished their artificiall day into four parts. From six to nine, from nine to twelve, from twelve to three, from three to six. This last part was counted the evening of the day, and the next three houres the evening of the night. In this fourth part of the day used the Paschal lamb to be slain, and the rest of the time was little enough to dresse it whole for Supper: even so the true Paschal lamb must be sacrificed the very same day and houre that the Mysticall lamb was. For Christ at the third houre, that is, at three of the clock in afternoon, between the evenings, with a great voyce gave up the Ghost, Matth 27. 50.

V. Observation. The lamb must be roasted with fire, not 5. How Christ is to be con­ceived and received. raw, not sod, baked, boyled, or otherwise, but all thoroughly roasted with fire, vers. 9.

1. Not eaten raw, to signifie, that we must not grossely conceive, nor unpreparedly receive Christ in the Sacrament, as the Capernaites did of the flesh of Christ, Joh. 6. and the Papists of eating the raw flesh of Christ, as it was born of a Virgine, with their teeth.

2. Roasted, to Signifie two things. 1 The manner of Christs death, he was to be crucified and peirced. As the lamb must be thrust through and fastened to a spit, so must the lamb of God be peirced and fastened to the Crosse. As the brazen Serpent was fixed to a pole Joh. 3. 14. 2. That Jesus Christ was made fit food (as that lamb) for his people by enduring the fire of affliction, but especially by suffering the hot burning fire of his Fathers wrath, which had burnt up all mankind to the bottome of hell, had not Christ en­dured it.

3. Wholly roasted, to signifie, that Christ endured the whole wrath of God (which is a consuming fire) both in soul and body, as that bitter agony in the garden witnesseth, which made him sweat drops of water and bloud, and com­plaine that his soule was heavie unto the death. 6. A bone of Christ not broken.

VI. Observation. Though the lamb must be wholly drest, [Page 202] yet a bone of it shall not be broken. Noting, that wonderfull ac­cident in the passion of Christ, that when the souldiers came purposely to break his legs, (as they had done the others that were crucified with him) yet by Gods secret providence they were restrained, so as the antitype might exactly answer to the type, as the Evangelist applieth it, Joh. 19. 36. This lamb by dying when he would, hindered the breaking of his bones.

For, 1. His body was most holy, and must not be pro­phaned And why. and torne ignominiously, as if it were the body of a thiefe or malefactor.

2. His Fathers care that keeps the bones of the Saints, that not one of them is broken, Psal. 34. 20. will much more keep safe the bones of his onely Sonne.

3. His bones were to be whole buried, because he was to rise againe with his whole body; and so the faith of believers, in the article of his resurrection, was more easily con­firmed.

We must cast our eyes upon Jesus Christ the true Paschall Use In all wor­ship look to Christ. lamb, in all the worship of the old Testament. For further than Christ was found and seen in it, it was then but as an em­pty shell without a kernell: and how much more now? The Jews at this day celebrate the Passeover, kill the Lamb, sprin­kle V. Buxtorf. Syn. Iudaic. c. 12, 13, & 14. the bloud, eat the flesh, observe the rites; but refusing Jesus Christ, what sweetnesse can be in that feast? What do they else than cast away the kernell to gnaw upon the shell, or as a mad man, who casts away the graine, and choakes himselfe with the husks? Oh how is the wrath of God come upon them to the uttermost, who think that they have done a good service when they have slain a number of lambs taken from earth, rejecting the Lamb of God, who came from heaven from the bosome of his Father, infinitely surpassing them all!

For their madnesse. 1. What sence or what spirituall worship is it, to feed their bodies with the flesh of lambs, and to refuse Christ the lamb of God separated from all the flock for the food and refreshing of the soule?

2. What weak and cold comfort to eat a number of lambs [Page 203] in memory of their deliverance out of Egypt, and the thral­dome of Pharaoh; and yet not endure to hear of, much lesse to taste of that lamb that hath wrought a more power­full deliverance from the Pharaoh of Hell, from sinne, from damnation, and all their heaviest burthens.

3. All that sprinkling of bloud in their houses, so long as they despise the bloud of Jesus Christ, shall never get them protection from the revenging Angel. We must pray that God would please at length to remove their vaile from their hearts, that they may submit themselves to the righteousnesse of God. Rom. 10. 3. that so all Israel may be saved by acknow­ledging the deliverer out of Zion; of whom was propheci­ed (Isai. 59. 20.) That he shall turne away the ungodlinesse from Jacob.

Sect. III.

III. The Paschall lamb directly aimed at Christ our Paschall Lamb a type in effu­sio of bloud Actions. The preci­ousnesse of Christs bloud. true Passeover, in respect of the bloud and actions about it, which were three.

1. The bloud of the Lamb must be saved in a Basen, vers. 22. It must not be shed upon the ground to be troden under foot: signifying the preciousnesse of the bloud of Christ.

1. In respect of God. 2. Of Christ. 3. Of the Church.

For, 1. God the Father highly prizeth this bloud, and saves it in a golden vessell, that it may be ever before him; and that the streames of it may pacifie his displeasure, and confirme the Covenant of grace with his Church. Whence it is called the bloud of the Covenant. Heb. 9. 18.

2. It was precious in regard of Jesus Christ; seeing every drop of it was the bloud (not of an innocent man onely, but) of one that was God as well as man, Act. 20. 28. God with his own bloud purchased the Church, and therefore it was a bloud of infinite vertue and infinite merit.

3. Every true member of the Church doth most high­ly esteem it, as the most precious thing in all the world, and with great care and reverence receives it into the vessell [Page 204] of precious and saving faith, and there keeps it safely, as men do their most precious commodities.

2. The bloud of the Lamb must be sprinkled upon the lin­tle and side posts of the doores of the Israelites, vers. 22.

1. In that it must be sprinkled, it signified that the bloud Bloud of Christ sprinkled, or applied. of Christ must be applied unto us; for our righteousnesse stands not in the shedding of Christs bloud, but in sprink­ling and application of Christs bloud shed and sprinkled up­on our soules and consciences to purge them from dead works.

2. It must be sprinkled upon the posts and doores, so as the Israelites could neither go out of doores nor in, but they must see on all sides the bloud of the lamb: signifying, that they and we should both at home and abroad, going forth and comming in, and on all occasions have the passion of Jesus Christ before our eyes, in the holy meditation and deep contemplation of it.

3. It was not enough for the Jew that the lamb was slain, & the bloud shed within the house, but it must be sprinkled with­out doores, that every man might see it: and signified, that if Christs bloud and the merit of it be shed in the houses of our hearts for justification and righteousnesse, the sprinkling of it will appear and be seen without, in holy life and practise of sanctification.

3. This bloud of the lamb must not be sprinkled with the 3. Faith resem­bled by hys­sope, how. bare hands, but with a bunch of hyssope dipt in the bloud, vers. 22. which signifyed, that every one which puts forth his hand, is not sprinkled with Christs bloud, unlesse he have provided this bunch of hyssope. Hyssope is Faith: and Faith Hyssopus fi­des est. Aug. in 4. Num. 33. Herba bumi­lis. resembles this herbe in four things.

1. It is a ground herbe, low and weake: so Faith in it selfe, and in us, is weak, fraile, feeble, and of most despised. Neither hath every man that hath hysope in his garden, this bunch of hysope in his heart.

2. Rooting in a rocke (for so it used among the Jewes) R [...]dicibus haerens in pe [...]ra. whence some thought it to be Pellitory of the wall. Faith roots it selfe upon the rock Jesus Christ, and cannot grow or prosper in any other soile. Other hysope roots in earth, this in heaven

[Page 205] 3. It is an herb cleansing and curing. Faith onely is an Purgans, & sanans. herbe of soveraigne virtue both to purifie the heart, Act. 15. 9. and to heal all the wounds of conscience. Act. 16. 31. the Goaler wounded and pricked in heart must believe in the Lord Jesus Christ, and be saved. Our Lord himselfe was wont to say to distressed persons, According to thy Faith be it unto thee.

4. It was fitter than other herbes for the receiving and sprink­ling Prae caeteris recipiendo et aspergendo liquori valde apta. of liquor: so Faith, although a low and weak plant, is onely fit to receive the precious liquor of the bloud of Christ. Onely faith drawes virtue from Christ; as in the poor woman that stood behind Christ, Mark. 5, 31. And the want of this bunch of hyssope disables Christ from do­ing thee any good. Christ could do nothing in Capernaum for their unbelief.

I. Note hence, how we are to prize and magnifie the Use 1. Christs bloud to be highly priz­ed How. bloud of Christ. For if the shadow of this precious bloud must be so preserved, so carefully saved in a costly vessel: how much more ought the bloud it self?

Quest. How may I prize the bloud of Christ?

Answ. 1. Consider, with the dignity of the person, the infinite value of it: That it is able to purchase the whole Church of God. Act. 20. 28. which a thousand worlds of wealth could not do. No wealth in heaven or earth besides this can redeem one soule: And therefore the Apostle, 1 Pet. 1. 19. sets this precious bloud against all corruptible things, as gold and silver, and things so much set by amongst men.

2. Consider the precious things which it procures us both in earth and in heaven.

1. Here below it procures us four things. Precious things pro­cured by it. On earth.

1. Reconciliation and peace with God, Rom. 3. 25. and Ephes. 2. 13. we which were farre off, are made near by the bloud of Christ.

2. A sweet tranquility of mind & peace of conscience, which all worldly treasure cānot purchase, because now we are with­in the Covenant of God, living in his love which is better than life; and in this love is no lack, but an abundant sup­ply [Page 206] of all needfull things. All which Covenant of grace is made and ratified by this bloud, therefore called the bloud of the Covenant, Heb. 9.

3. Victory against all the malignity of our spirituall ene­mies, even the greatest: Satan himself who is overcome by the bloud of the lamb, Rev. 12. 11.

4. Immunity and safety from all the judgements and dan­gers threatned against our sinnes; else had we died without mercy for despising Moses law, Heb. 10. 28. For if there were such force in the bloud of the type, that by the effusi­on of it the Israelites lay safe and untouched of the reveng­ing Angel, Heb. 11. 28. much more in this bloud of Jesus Christ to cover belieuers in his Name, from the hand of Gods revenge due to our transgressions.

2. This precious bloud now in heaven procures us the most In heaven. needfull and excellent good things above all that we can ima­gine: Especially two waies.

1. By opening heaven for our prayers; for this bloud pleades for us now in heaven, and speaks better things for us than the bloud of Abel, Heb. 12. 24. That called for vengeance against the sinner: this intreateth for daily grace for daily sinnes, and procures daily mercies for daily supplies.

2. As to our prayers, so this bloud openeth heaven to our persons. This bloud onely rents the vaile asunder, and makes a way into the holy of holies, and gives entrance into the kingdome of heaven, Heb. 10. 19. by the bloud of Jesus we are bold to enter into the holy place. This bloud is the one­ly key that unlocks heaven; for else the Lord dwels in light which no flesh can have accesse to, 1 Tim. 6. 16. namely, without Christ and the shedding of his bloud.

II. Is the bloud of Christ so precious? take heed of pro­phaning Use. 2. Prophane not the bloud of Christ. this precious bloud; take heed of sinning against it. Consider of that sore punishment which he is worthy of, that treads under foot the sonne of God, and counteth the bloud of the Testament unholy, Heb. 10. 29. He cannot expresse the greatnesse of the punishment in words, but leaves it to all mens minds to consider of.

[Page 207] Quest. How may a man prophane this bloud? How that may be done.

Answ. 1. By undervaluing it; as Papists, who think it insufficient to ratifie the Covenant unto them without other additions and supplies from themselves and others; yea, a­scribe as much to the bloud of Thomas Beck [...]t and other tray­tors, Tu per Tho­maesangui­nem, quem prote impeu­dit, &c. as to this bloud.

2. To be ashamed of Christ and his sufferings. The Jewes must strike the lintels of their doors with the bloud of the Paschall Lambe, that all might see they were Israelites: sig­nifying, that we must openly professe Christ, and not be a­shamed of his death and ignominy, which is the life of the world, at which, notwithstanding, the greatest part of the world stumbleth at this day. To shame at the profession of Christ, is to contemn his bloud.

3. To contemne it in the meanes in which the Lord would hold it before our eyes: To reject or neglect the preaching of the word, wherein Christ is crucified before our eyes, as he was to the Galatians, chap. 3. 1. To neglect and despise the Sacrament, in which his bloud is after a sort poured out to the mind and senses: Or unpreparedly to receive the Sacra­ment, and in the unworthinesse of a guilty conscience; is to make ones self guilty of the bloud of Christ; as Pilate, Judas, and the Souldiers were.

4. To despise and wrong the godly, descended of the bloud of Christ: redeemed with the bloud of Christ: To hate the Church of God, and abuse the members of Christ; is to cru­cifie again the Son of God, and despise the price of our pur­chase. In that yee doe it to one of these little ones, yee did it to me. Mat. 25. 40. Thou canst not draw bloud of the Saints, but thou sinnest against the bloud of Christ.

5. To prophane it in gracelesse swearing, as those brand­ed hell-hounds that swear commonly by wounds or bloud, as if this precious bloud were to be engaged on every base occasion. Well, they carry wounds in their consciences, and poure out the life bloud of their souls.

Sect. IV.

IV. In eating the Paschall Lambe, Jesus Christ was ty­pified. Pasc [...]ll Lamb, a type in the eating. 5. Condi­tions. 1. Time. To this eating many conditions are required, con­cerning 1. Time. 2. Place. 3. Persons. 4. Manner. 5. Measure.

The Time. It must be eaten at the sametime; and in one evening must all Israel eat the Passeover.

1. In the evening, to signifie our estate of darknesse and misery by sinne and death, till Christ came, and when Christ came to be our ransome.

2. In one and the same evening, to note the holy agree­ment and consent of the whole Church in the faith of Christs death and passion: to which well agrees the constitution of our Church, ordaining the Supper succeeding it in the same time, so all superstition and formality be avoided.

The Place. 1. Every particular Lambe must be eaten in 2. Place. one house: to signifie the unity of the Church of God, the house of the living God, and the spirituall conjunction and agreement of all the faithfull in one bread and one body, 1 Cor. 10. 17.

2. If one house sufficed not to eat up one Lambe, they might call in their neighbours to a competent number; which might be about a dozen, as in our Saviours family: to signifie 1. That the Gentiles in time, by the voice of the Gospel, should be called in to the participation of Christ the Lambe of God, and to the fruition and feeding of the same Lambe with the Israelites. 2. No number is assigned, be­cause the Lord onely knowes who are his. 3. Because there were many Lambes to be slain, they must be eaten in many houses; so as no man must abstain from the Passeover in pain of death: signifying the speciall application of the same Christ to severall persons, families, and houses; that every one might taste the sweetnesse of Christ in his own heart, and no man expect to be helped or saved by another mans cating, that is, by the faith and devotions of others with­out [Page 209] his own. This is contrary to Romish doctrine.

The Persons. 1. Onely Israelites, no stranger from the 3. Persons. Covenant. For what have they to doe with the seales, that are excluded the writing? To signifie, that none without the bounds of the true Church have any part of the re­demption of Christ; neither are capable of the priviledges of Gods people. This Lambe gives his life for his sheep one­ly: the merit of his death is childrens bread onely.

2. No uncircumcised person might eat the Passeover: signifying, that no unsanctified person can truly partake of Christ and his merits, and that none is fit to come to the Lords table (our Evangelicall Passeover) that is not first baptised, which Sacrament is come in the room of Circumcision.

3. Yet a stranger Proselite, if he would be Circumcised, and joyn himself to the people of God, might eat the Passe­over as a Jew: to signifie both the calling in of the Gen­tiles, (of whom divers came in still, as Jethro, Rabab, Ruth, the Queen of Saba, Job, as first fruits of them) as also that the Lord is no accepter of persons, but in every Nation he that feareth him is accepted of him, Acts 10. 34, 35. Gal. 3. 27, 28.

The Manner, which was twofold. 1. Proper to the first 4. Proper manner of the first Passeover. Passeover in AEgypt. 2. Common to that and all other that followed.

I. Proper to the first Passeover in four things.

1. They must eat it standing, now on the suddain departing out of Egypt, This was a law of the first Passeover (for Christ and his Disciples sate, and stood not in celebrating the Passeover, and yet broke no law, as all the Evangelists observe) to signifie, that Christians must stand before God as prest and intent upon his service, but especially at the time of our departure out of this AEgypt. See we be in a readi­nesse to receive our full deliveries from the servitude of sin, Satan, and all their present oppressions, of which theirs was but a type.

2. They must eat it in haste: To admonish them not to stay or dwell any longer in that AEgypt: And to teach us, 1. To hasten out of our spirituall AEgypt quickly, least we [Page 210] partake of her plagues; and 2. To hasten to our Canaan and Countrey; even that heavenly Countrey, as they must to their earthly.

3. They must eat it like Pilgrims, with their loynes girt, staves in their hands, and shooes on their feet, ver. 11. signifying how we must eat and enjoy Christ our Paschall Lambe; e­steeming our selves strangers and pilgrims here in the AEgypt of the world, to stand with our loynes girt with verity and truth, Eph. 6. 14. alluding to this very occasion, with the shooes of the preparation of the Gospel on our feet, and with the staffe of Gods heavenly Word in our hands, both to strengthen us in our way, to defend our selves in our right, and propulse whatsoever is in doctrine or manners contrary to heavenly doctrine. Thus must Christians acknowledge their condition on earth, and frame themselves to it, as the Rechabites, Jer. 35. 7. not forgetting the commandement of our Father. This was the third condition proper to the first Passeover, of which we read nothing in Christ and his Apostles.

4. They must not goe forth of the house all night till the morning, nor ever mingle themselves again with the AEgypti­ans, ver. 22, 23. This was also proper to that Passeover, for our Saviour Christ after the Passeover went out into the gar­den. This signified, 1. Our perseverance and continuance in the family of Christ the Church of God, not going out any more in action or affection to the AEgypt of this world. 2. That we can lie hid and safe onely under the bloud of Christ, and in the house of Christ the Church of God, where­on and wherein that bloud is sprinkled, the revenging Angel is abroad, and out of the Church is no salvation. 3. In the night of errors, heresies, afflictions, and persecutions for the truth (when God revengeth the worlds contempt of his grace) if we would be safe, we must keep our selves within the Church, not departing from the particular house or Church in which we are, to joyn to Idolatry or errors, least Gods re­venge overtake us, as the waters overwhelmed all that were without the Arke.

[Page 211] II. The manner prescribed to all Passeovers ensuing, stood Manner common to all Passeo­vers. in three observations.

1. They must eat it with unleavened bread: signifying, that if we would feed on Christ our Passeover, we must purge out all old leven, and become a new lumpe, 1 Cor. 5. 7. This old leaven is the fusty, swelling, and spreading corruption of our own wicked nature, the leaven of sinne, false doctrine, he­resie, corruption of manners, soure and tart affections, that will not stand with the receiving of Christ and his benefits. All this we must purge out, and study for sincerity and truth in judgement, in affection, in action.

2. They must eat the Passeover with soure hearbs, as sauce: signifying, 1. True repentance, and godly sorrow of heart, to be inseparable with the true apprehender of Jesus Christ: 2. That Christ and his Crosse are inseparable, and that af­flictions (as soure hearbs) are the most wholsome sauce of Christianity: Soure indeed, and unpleasing to the flesh, but profitable, 1. To prepare and provoke the appetite with more chearfulnesse and ardency to all godly duties of Prayer, Hearing, Sacraments, Mercy, Patience, Hope, &c. Rom. 5. 3, 4. 2. To whet and provoke to the practise of all Chri­stian duties of mercy and love. 3. To excite the desire to be fully fed with that sweet tree of life, and that blessed Man­nah (in which is no sourenesse) in the kingdome of glory, Rev. 2. 17.

3. They must alwayes in eating repeat and conferre of their deliverance out of AEgypt, and in memory of that benefit provoke their thankfulnesse to God, ver. 26, 27. adding as it were to the Sacrament a word of instruction: signifying,

1. That we should alwayes remember the death and passi­on of Christ, with due thankfulnesse for so great a delive­rance by it: if they must still speak of their temporall deli­verance, much more we of so great and eternall deliverance by it, from the spirituall servitude of sinne, death, the devill, and damnation.

2. It shadowed herein its successor in the new Testament, for the Sacrament of the Supper was therefore instituted, to keep in remembrance the death of Jesus Christ, 1 Cor. 11. 26. [Page 212] As often as yee shall eat this bread, and drink this cup, yee shew the Lords death till he come.

3. To be a rule for all Sacraments, wherein it is necessary, that the word be joyned to the Element: I mean the word of In­stitution, Ut accedat verbum ad elèmentum. and (if it may be conveniently) of exhortation, that the seal may goe with the Charter, as (even in these shadowes) the Lord himself straitly enjoyned: these were the Lawes prescribed for the Anniversary Passeover, both in Exod. 12. 14. and Numb. 9. in neither of which is any men­tion of any of the former Laws proper to the first Passeover.

The last condition in eating concerned the measure. The Lambe must be whole eaten: signifying, 5. Measure of eating it.

1. Our perfect communion with Christ, who are as nearly united unto Christ, as the meat we eat, which is turned into our own substance.

2. That nothing in Christ is unprofitable.

3. That Christ must be received wholly without dividing of his natures, or destroying any of his offices. Arrius di­vides the Lambe in denying his Godhead. Manichees im­pugned his humanity. Neither eat the whole Lambe. The Papists destroy all his Offices. Whosoever deny any funda­mentall Article of Religion, they divide the Lambe. To eat the whole Lamb, is to believe whole Christ; according to the rule. Faith is but one, yet a copulative: Deny one, overthrow all. Hitherto served that Injunction, that no part Fides est u­nā Copulati­va. of the Lambe must be reserved till the morrow; but if any remained it must be burnt with fire, verse 10. The Lord in his infinite wisdome would prevent all the occasions of ido­latry, which is easily admitted in the reservations of holy things: As in Popery, what a deal of idolatry is crept into the Church by reserving superstitious relicks, and especially their consecrated or conjured bread; as if this condition did not condemn expresly that Popish reservation of the hoast or breaden god? Add hereunto, that the Jewes, requi­ring the body of Christ on the Crosse to be taken away that night before the Sabbath, Joh. 19. 31. fulfilled (against their knowledge) this Prophecy: Nothing of the Paschall Lambe must be left till the morning.

Sect. V.

V. The Paschall Lambe is an expresse type of Christ, in respect of the fruit and use of it, which is security and safety Paschall Lamb a type of Christ in the benefits. from Gods revenge, ver. 23. For as by the sprinkling of the bloud, and eating of the flesh, the Jewes were defended from the revenging Angel, and the destroyer passed over the house where he espied the bloud sprinkled: So the bloud of Christ applied to the conscience, causeth the wrath of God to passe by those that are so sprinkled. And as they could sit in the house safe, and not fear the stroke of the destroyer, because of the bloud sprinkled; so whosoever by true faith feeds upon Jesus Christ, and are died with his bloud, rest secure, and fear not the destruction and revenge due to wicked men. Heb. 10. 22. Let us draw near with a true heart in assurance of faith, sprinkled in our hearts from an evill conscience.

1. As the Jewes dwelling in Egypt were in great danger Use. 1. of the revenging Angel, who was to passe through the land: So all the Israel ot God, dwelling in the midst of the Egypt Danger of the scul: and how it is to be a­voided. of the world, and too too much tainted with the fashions of it, have no small cause to fear the judgements and revenge of God, which must pursue the sinnes of it; and also to use meanes for their own safety in the night of trouble and re­venge, as the Israelites did.

Quest. What meanes?

Answ. The same that Israel did. We must, 1. Sprinkle the house of our hearts with the bloud of the Lambe, Heb. 10. 22. sprinkled in our hearts, &c. Whosoever were sprinkled with the bloud of the Lambe, were safe. Was there so much power in the bloud of the type; and not much more in the bloud of the truth?

2. Get into the house of the Church, and fellowship of the faithfull; for such as are true members of the Church (which is the house of Saints) are secure from the plagues of wicked men. Isai. 27. 3. I the Lord doe keep the vineyard: I [Page 214] will water it every mom [...]nt: lest any assaile it, I will keep it night and day: and [...]sai. 37. [...]8. My people shall dwell in the Taber­nacle of peace, and in sure dwellings, and in safe resting places. Noah can be safe no where (in the deluge) but in the Ark: And out of the Church is no salvation, or safety.

3. Thou must abide in the house all night, and goe not forth. Except the Israelites abide in the house, they cannot be safe: except thou abidest in the ship of the Church, thou canst not be safe, no more than any of Noahs company if they had stepped out of the Ark. We must adhere constantly to the true Church, and not forsake the fellowship, or depart from it by Apostacy, or revolt; which brings certain ship­wrack of faith. Consider, Heb. 10. 25.

4. Patiently wait for the morning, even the bright rising and appearing of Jesus Christ the Sunne of righteousnesse; coming again to our deliverance; whether publikely to ge­nerall judgement, or personally in speciall to our selves. For he shall bring health under his wings, Mal. 4. 2.

II. In the whole precedent discourse is a fruitfull direction Use. 2. Directions for recei­ving the ho­ly Com­munion. for Christians for their holy use of the Sacrament of the Sup­per, which is come in place of the Passeover.

1. As he must be circumcised that must eat the Passeover: so must he be baptized that must be admitted to the Supper; that is, a reverent professed Christian. For holy things must not be cast to dogs, Mat. 7. 6. The Word and Sacraments are childrens bread, and must not be cast to dogs, that is, obsti­nate enemies, scorners, blasphemers, to men of uncircumcised lips and eares, who wilfully repell the meanes of their clean­sing. So much the more pity is it, that all sorts of notorious evill men thrust into the presence chamber of the great King, yea, sit down at the Lords Table, and like swine swill in his cup without controul, or any rebuke in many places: Open blasphemers, common-drunkards, scoffing Ishmaels, noted adulterers, obstinate sinners: And where is the care to preserve the holythings of God from pollution, con­tempt, and prophanation? Would a man spread a table for dogs or swine? If the shadows of these holy things might not be cast to dogs: is it nothing to expose to them the body [Page 215] and substance it self? 1 Cor. 11. 30. for this cause many are weak and sick among you, and many sleep

2. As the Lamb was taken in the tenth day, but was not slain till the fourteenth, that it might be before their eyes all the four dayes before, for the helping of their meditation, and due preparation to the eating of it: So no man must come to the Supper without due preparing himself. For if so long preparation was by God thought fit for the shadow: what preparation can be thought fit and sufficient for the substance, 2 Chron. 35. 6? It was the counsell of Solomon, Prov. 23. 1. When thou sittest down at a great mans table, consi­der diligently what is set before thee: Much more here at the great Gods Table, no consideration, of the Author, matter, manner, end, fruit, and use, can be sufficient. What a fear­full thing is it to come as most men do, not considering the Lords body? How miserable was the sentence of that guest, that sate down at the Kings table without his wedding gar­ment? Our common preparation is, to put on our best Mat. 22. 13. clothes, and to cover our bodily nakednesse in most curious manner: In the mean time the Lord seeth, and mens own consciences witnesse against them, how naked their soules lie, and filthily discovered. The due preparation to this ordinance would be attended with more comfort within, and more reformation without, than we can espie in most communicants.

3. As the Paschall Lamb must never be eaten without soure hearbs: so we must never come to the Sacrament without true humiliation and sorrow for sinne. There can be no sweetnesse in the bloud of Christ, till the heart be full of bitternesse for sin. For as soure sauces whet the stomack, and provoke the appetite: so true sorrow for sin stirreth up our desire and appetite after Jesus Christ, and prepares us to all good duties, and holds us in a fitnesse to pray, to hear the Word, to the Sacrament, to works of mercy, &c. What a sweet sourenesse and bitterness is that, which brings such delectable sweetnesse and refreshing after it? Any man of reason would make hard shift to drink down a bitter potion to help his bodily health: and much more a godly man will [Page 216] be contented to digest godly sorrow for the procuring of heavenly joy, and the sweet comforts of Gods salvation.

4. As the Jew might not eat the Lamb, till he had purged all leaven out of his house: So we must not come to the Sa­crament without the forsaking of our sin. Never can a man expect any comfort by Christs Sacrifice, that hideth the old leaven in the corners of his heart. Whence the Apostle, 1 Cor. 5. 7. exhorteth the Saints, to purge out the old leaven; because Christ our Passeover is sacrificed for us. Here is to be considered,

  • 1. What this leaven is.
  • 2. What is the purging of it.

1. This leaven is not onely the leaven of corrupt doctrine, which suddenly soureth the truth and lumpe of the Gospel, as leaven doth a lump of dough: but also the leaven of sin, both in the corruption of nature; (which is the old leaven in our selves, and hath soured all the lump of whole man­kind, and every man, and every faculty of man) as also in cor­rupt and vicious conversation, which soureth and leaveneth others with himself in societies.

2. The purging of this leaven is, 1. In correcting and re­penting sin past; when a constant care is nourished to find it out, and to cast it out: 2. In serious conversion and turn­ing to God; both which are expressed in Psal. 34. 14.

Sest. VI.

Quest. How may we purge out this leaven?

Answ. Imitate the Jew. For why should a Jew be more carefull in the shadow and ceremony, than a Christian in the truth and substance? Similitude of purging out leaven and sin.

I. The Jew begins to purge within, and banish it out of his house: So begin thou to purge the inside first, Jer. 4. 4. Wash thy heart, O Jerusalem. An hypocrite can wash his face, but a found Christian looks to his heart. Many can purge their mouthes and outward man about the time of the Sacra­ment; but the heart is stuffed with maliciousnesse, envie, [Page 217] prophaneness, and ungodliness. Many can be busie to purge other mens houses; but the Jew must purge his own house.

II. The Jew purged out all leaven, and spared none, not a morsell or a crum: And shall not a Christian count every sin a pollution, and hatefull to God? Shall any say, Is it not a little one? I may swear a little; be drunk, if seldome: I may not kill; but rail and revile, and speak my mind: I may not be an adulterer, but wanton in speeches, looks, behavi­ours, and in my company: I may not goe to plough on the Sabbath, but may buy and sell, ride abroad, or be idle at home. Why? Is not a little serpent a serpent; or a little poison poison? Is not a little leaven enough to soure a whole lump?

III. The Jew carefully and narrowly searched and swept every corner and cranny of his house, that not the least crum might escape him: And shall not we as carefully throw out this leaven out of every power of the soul, and every part and member of our bodies? That every one may possess his whole house in holinesse and honour, 1 Thes. 4. 4. How doth the Scriptures teach us to purge this leaven out of all cor­ners?

As 1. Out of the conscience; to serve God with a pure Entire pur­ging of the soul. conscience, 2 Tim. 1. 3.

2. Out of the affections; prescribing love out of a pure heart, 1 Tim. 1. 5. and to take heed to our feet coming to the Eccles. 5. 1. house of God.

3. Out of our senses, Psal. 119. 37. turn away mine eyes from regarding vanities; Job 31. 1. I made a covenant with mine eyes. So to shut the ear from hearing blasphemy a­gainst God, or men; and not to be agents and abetters of blasphemers

4. Out of our speeches, Psal. 39. 1. I said I will look to my wayes, that [...] not in my tongue: And instead of this leaven to accustome, our selves to the language of Cannaan, Esay 19. 18. and [...]ous speeches tending to edification, ministring grace to the heare [...]s.

IV. A Jew must begin his purging seven dayes before, [Page 218] and hold on all the feast on pain of death: How much more should we begin to purge our selves betimes, and hold on so long as our Passeover lasts? And because our Passeover is not annuall, as that was, but continuall; we must continue our cleansing and separating from this leaven which is not easily washed out. Thou hast but trifled in this busines, that hang­est down thy head for a day, and art penitent for the time of the Sacrament, unlesse thou continuest to reform and renew thy heart and life, and conscionably avoidest all leaven of sin, all thy life; which is, or ought to be a continuall Christi­an Passeover.

V. As the Jews must eat the Passeover with their loines girt, with staves in their hands, eating in haste as tending to their Countrey: So we must never come to the Sacrament, but with holy hearts and meditations.

1. Seriously considering what strangers and pilgrims we are here below; not having any continuing City here, but are seeking a Countrey, Heb. 13. 14. He that is a true eater of our Paschall Lamb, must not pitch down his staffe here; but as Christian Rechabites, Jer. 35. esteem themselves strangers, content themselves to dwell in tents, ever ready to remove; not distracting themselves in building houses, or planting vineyards, or seeking great things for themselves. Hence was that commendable admonition of the ancient Church, in the time of the Sacrament, used in our Liturgy: Lift up your hearts. Sursuns corda.

2. We must eat the Lamb hastily, hastning unto Christ the true Passeover; and not insist in these Sacraments of ours, which are still but as shadows of good things to come; yet serving us through this our strange Countrey, and speeding us into our own Canaan and Countrey, and that with all ex­pedition; seeing that to be dissolved hence, and to be with Christ, is best of all, Phil. 2. 23.

3. We must celebrate our Passeover with staves in our hands, that is, the doctrine of the Law and Gospel held in our hearts, as a staffe to defend our selves in the right track and path of holy doctrine, and holy conversation; to repulse our adversaries that come out against us, for it is the sword of [Page 219] the Spirit; and to lean upon, as a staffe, in our weaknesse and wearinesse. This staffe must not lie by us in our books, but be held by us in our hands and hearts, and be (not in possession onely, but) in our daily use. He hath no comfort of this Sacra­ment, that hath not this staffe in his hand.

VI. As the Jewes in eating the Passeover must repeat and recite the memory of that great deliverance out of Egypt by a mighty and miraculous power: so must we in our Sacra­ment commemorate and remember our great deliverance from hell, and that spirituall Pharaoh, wrought by the bloud of our Paschall lamb. 1 Cor. 11. 26. so often as ye shall eat this bread and drink this cup, ye shew the Lords death till he come, And therefore it is very fit the Word and Sacrament should go together, as the seal together with the deed and Indenture. Hence those, that are so devout at the Sacra­ment, and neglect or despise the Word, are meer hypocrites and ignorants; their folly is like his that makes much of a seale, but teares the Indenture all to pieces, which onely can convey his inheritance unto him.

VII. As the Jewes came together to eat the whole lamb: so must we to receive whole Christ.

Quest. When do we receive whole Christ? Whole Christ must be received.

Answ. First when we reverently receive the signes appoint­ed by Christ according to his own institution.

Secondly, when we receive faithfully the thing signified, which is Christ and all his merits.

I. For the former, 1. As it had been a great sinne for Note. 1. Popish abu­ses taxed. the Jewes to divide the lamb which God commanded to be eaten whole: no lesse grievous a sinne is it in Popery to ad­minister the bread without the cup; of which Christ hath said expressely, Drink ye all of this.

2. As the Lamb was appointed to no other use by Moses but to be eaten: so was the bread and wine in the Sacrament ordained to no other end by Christ but to be eat and drank: all other holy use of them out of the action of the Sacra­ment is Idolatrous, superstitious, and unlawfull.

3. As it had been a grievous sinne to reserve any of the lamb till the morning, against so expresse a commandement [Page 220] appointing it to be wholly eaten: so grievous a sinne is it to reserve the consecrated host (as they foolishly call it) either to boxe up, or to hang up, or to worship and adore it, or pray unto it, or carry it in procession, or lift it up with both hands above the Priests head, that it may be worshipped with divine and Idolatrous worship; or yet (if it be possible) with more blasphemy to offer it upon an Altar, as an unbloudy sacrifice for the sinnes of the quicke and dead, which abo­lisheth (at once) the whole Priesthood of Christ. All which the Lord would prevent in this constitution, that no part of the lamb must be reserved, but if any were left it must be burnt with fire.

II. We eat the whole lamb, when with the signes we re­ceive the thing signified, which is Christ and all his merits. We must feed upon and digest whole Christ; that is, be uni­ted so straitly and undividedly to Jesus Christ, as the meat which is changed into the same substance with our bodies; and this by the faith of our hearts, which so streightly knits us to Christ as a marriage bonde; and he becomes a perfect nourishment to us unto eternall life. Neither could our Lord fitlier expresse this straite union, than by feeding and eating; seeing there cannot be astraiter union in nature, than between the thing nourishing and nourished.

Question. What may I doe thus to receive the whole Lamb?

Answ. 1. Come hungry in sence of the want of faith, And how we may re­ceive whole Christ. and desire of supply.

2. Labour to feele the sweetnesse of Christ; take heed of despising this sweet Manna: Let not the hunger of the Ony­ons, garlick, and flesh-pots of Egypt thrust down the desire of this Manna which comes down from heaven; to which the other Mannah was not halfe so sweet.

3. Thinke it not enough to eat the flesh of Christ Sacra­mentally if not spiritually. Conceive what a fearfull delusi­on it is to eat the Sacrament of the flesh of Christ in the Supper, and not eat the flesh of Christ by the Sacrament: Thou hast been at the Supper of the Lord, but hast not tast­ed of his Supper.


The Pillar of Cloud and Fire, a type.

OF the ordinary Sacraments of the Jewes, pointing at Christ, we have spoken: Now of the extraordinary. Of these some are answerable to the Jewes circumcision and our Baptisme. As 1. the Pillar of Cloud. 2. The red Sea. Some to the Jewes Passeover and our Supper. As 1. Mannah from Heaven. 2. Water out of the rock. The ground of this distinction we have in 1 Cor. 10. 2, 3. where the Apostle leads us by the hand to the distinct considerati­on Cloud and fire types. Ground. of these Sacraments. First of the Pillar of Cloud and fire, under which the Fathers of the old Testament were baptised. When the Lord in his wise providence appointed to lead the children of Israel (for the space of fourty years) through a drie, uncouth, and terrible wildernesse, himselfe undertooke to be their guide, and for their certaine directi­on in their way, appointed them this visible signe of his pre­sence for their motion or station, by night or by day, through all their pilgrimage: concerning this Cloud let us enquire

  • 1. Of the kind.
  • 2. Of the difference between it and other clouds.
  • 3. Of the use of this cloudy Pillar.
  • 4. How a type of Christ.

1. Quest. What kind of Cloud was this?

Answ. Not naturall, but supernaturall and miraculous, 1. What cloud it was. yea, one of the four great miracles that the Lord continued all the while of their Journey, which was fourty yeares.

Those four great miracles were, 1. The not swelling of their 4. constant miracles to Israel in the wilderness. feet. Deut. 8. 4.

2. Their aparrells not wearing, or not waxing old, Deut. 8. 4.

3. The feeding of them with daily Mannah, vers. 3. and 16. and water out of a rock, vers. 15.

4. This Pillar.

[Page 222] 2 Quest. Was there any diference between this and o­ther 2. How it dif­fered from other clouds Clouds?

Answ. Yes, in five things 1. The Matter. 2. The Fashion. 3. The Motion. 4. The Properties. 5. The Durance.

1. The Matter of it was not of vapours as other Clouds, nor apt to engender raine, but framed by the Lord besides and above the ordinary course of nature.

2. The Fashion: It kept still the figure of a Pillar, where­as other clouds continually alter the shape and figure every moment.

3. The Motion: other clouds are moved by the wind: this moved it selfe, yea, though the winds moved most strong­ly, it stood still. Besides that the motion of it was certaine, and imi [...]able, so as they might follow it, but so was it never in any other cloud.

4. It had contrary Properties, of light and darknesse, be­ing a Pillar of cloud and fire.

5. In Durance. For one cloud to continue firme and stable for fourty years long, must needs be miraculous, whereas no­thing is sooner dispersed than ordinary clouds by wind and weather. In all which regards it is called the Cloud of the Lord, Numb, 14. 14. Not that all clouds are not his, but Nubes Ichovae. because this was so after a speciall and extraordinary man­ner.

3. Quest. What was the use of this cloudy Pillar? 3. What was the use of it.

Answ. Threefold, the first in respect of God, the second in respect of the Israelites, the third in respect of their ene­mies, Numb. 14. 14.

I. In respect of God; It was a signe and symbole of the presence of God and Christ. For God often pleased to ma­nifest his presence by the clouds: As when he sets his bow in the cloud, a signe of his favour: God in a cloud appear­ed to Moses, Exod. 19. 9. God appeared in the cloud upon the Oracle, Lev. 16. 2. So Christ in the Mount was transfi­gured in a bright cloud: In his ascending he was taken out of their sight in a cloud: And in his comming againe to judgement, he shall appear in the clouds to judge the quick and dead.

[Page 223] 2. In respect of the Israelites. 1. To shew and direct them the way as a faithfull and constant guide through the wildernesse, for when it moved, they must move, when it stood, they must stand. Psal. 78. 14. in the day he led them with a cloud, and all the night with a light of fire: which seemes the chiefe use of it, Exod. 13. 21.

2. To shine and lighten them in the way, so as they might go by night as well as by day, so in Psal. 78. 14. he led them all night long with a light of fire, noted also, Exod. 13. 21.

3. To coole and comfort them (as a shadow) from the parching heat of the Sunne: Psal. 105. 39. He spread the cloud as a covering or canopy over them. To which the Prophet (Isa. 4. 5.) alluding, calls it a covering cloud, which shadow was no small comfort in that hot countrey, in that drie and parched desart, they still lying and living a­broad in it.

4. As a shield to defend them against their enemies, for the cloud came between the host of Israel and the host of the Egyptians to separate between them. And therefore it is called (Numb. 9. 19.) the watch of the Lord, actively, watch­ing over their safety; passively, which they carefully watch­ed and attended.

3. In respect of enemies: It was darknesse to the Egyp­tians, Exod. 14. 20. For the Lord used two of his creatures against the Egyptians especially; water, and the cloud, as meanes of execution of his justice upon his enemies: As the cloud and fire shall be serviceable for the execution of his last and generall judgement at Christs second ap­pearing.

IV. Quest. Wherein was this cloudy pillar a type of 4. How it vvas a type of Christ. Christ?

Answ. In five respects. 1. As a Pillar. 2. Of Cloud. 3. Of Fire. 4. Of Cloud and Fire. 5. In the Use of it.

I. As a Pillar it signified Christ; who as a Pillar is firme, stable, straight, strong, and as a Pillar able to support his Church, and to beare up all the living stones layd on this foundation.

[Page 224] II. As a Pillar of cloud. 1. As the Cloud naturally en­gendereth fruitfull raines and showres: so Christ properly, by the influence and raine of grace, makes the field of the Church fresh, fruitfull, flourishing.

2. As the Cloud mitigates the heat of the Sun: so Jesus Christ quencheth and allayeth the parching heat of his Fa­thers wrath, and is the covering of his Church in this drie and parched wildernesse. So as when the soul of a man is dried up and fainteth within him through heat of his sinne, then he refresheth it with the sweet and comfortable doctrine of the Gospell (as with a sweet raine) the distressed consci­ence. He it is, that speaketh a word to the weary in due season.

3. As the Cloud covered Israel from the Egyptians fury, so Jesus Christ defends his Church, 1. From the fiery, darts and assaults of Satans temptations. 2. From the furious rage of our own lusts, and inflammation of sinne. 3. Shel­ters it from the heat of the Sun of persecution, and from all bodily foes, that they cannot do what they will but what he permits.

III. Christ was signified by the fiery part of the Pillar.

For, 1. As fire hath a quickning heat in it: so hath Jesus Christ, who is the life of the world; but especially of his Church and elect.

2. As fire hath light: So Christ is the true light of the world; whom, whosoever believeth, he needs no other light nor knowledge to salvation, no more than Israel needeth a­ny light in the night but this. All Gods people walk by this fiery Pillar and by no other.

3. As fire purgeth and purifieth metalls from drosse: so doth Jesus Christ purge his people from all their sinnes; partly by the fire of his spirit within, Matth. 3. 11. and perfectly by his bloud which cleanseth from all sinne. 1 Joh. 1. 7.

IV. As a Pillar both of Fire and Cloud, it signified, Christ in his 1. Person. 2. Actions.

1. In his Person: being a Pillar both of fire and cloud, it was both light and darknesse; signifying Christ Jesus, [Page 225] God and man; both shining in the brightnesse of the glory of his deity, and at the same time clouded, veiled, darkned, and obscured in a base and despicable humanity, in which to the blind world, was no forme nor beauty, Isa. 53. 2. And as both fire and cloud make but one Pillar, so God and man one Christ.

2. In his Actions. For, 1. As the Pillar of fire and cloud, Christ both enlightens the Israel of God to salvation, and is darknesse, at the same time, to all Egyptians, that is, a stumbling block and stone of offence to unbelievers.

2. As the same Pillar, Christ both openeth the way of the red sea to believers, giving the grace of Baptisme through the red sea of his bloud: as also justly shutteth obstinate sinners from his grace and favour; the meanes of which (be­ing offered unto them) they wilfully tread under foot, turn­ing all the grace of Christ to their deeper damnation.

3. As the same Pillar of cloud and fire, Christ is the guide of all the Israel of God; whom we must follow in all our journey through our wildernesse, both in the rules of his ho­ly doctrine, and also of his blessed example. Therefore him­selfe saith (Matth. 11. 29.) follow me: as they were to follow that cloud; for that was but a type of this, leading us unto our Canaan.

4. As that same Pillar of cloud and fire, Jesus Christ pro­tecteth his Church from all enemies: He steps between the Camps of Israelites and Egyptians, becoming their sure de­fence, Psal. 18. 1, 2. This Pillar shall never rest till the dead bodies of the Egyptians and enemies become a spoile and spectacle to his people.

V. In the infallible instruction of it, it typified Christ. For as the Lord spake to Moses out of the cloudy Pillar, when it descended on the Tabernacle, and delivered his Oracles in it, Exod. 33. 9. So Jesus Christ alone is the cloudy Pillar by whom the Lord delivers to us his whole counsell concerning our happy passage through this our wilderness to that blessed Canaan, the happy rest of all the Saints. And as they must hear and obey absolutely those Oracles, so we are command­ed to hear him. Mat. 17. 5.

Application followes.

I. Is Christ the Pillar? Here is comfort for the people of Use 1. Comfort by Christ as our guide. God; who shall want no good things, but this Pillar of cloud and fire shall supply it. For,

I. The Cloud was a generall guide for all and every par­ticular of Gods people, Isa. 4. 5, 6. The cloud was every where seen: and Christ is every where present to be seen and found in his Church. Wheresoever two or three are ga­thered together in my name, there am I in the middest of them, Matth. 18. 20. Jer. 51. 5. Israel hath been no widow.

II. The Cloud was an unerring guide; because the Lord went in the Cloud: so that (except the Lord could mislead them) they must needs go aright. Jesus Christ is the way as well as the truth; follow him in the direction of his word, in the motions of his spirit, agreeing thereto: in his blessed example, both in doing and suffering walk as he did: and as be passed by his Crosse to the Crown, so shall he lead thee through this wildernesse to that Canaan and rest, to which he hath gone before to take thee in.

III. As the Cloud was a safe guide and a covering cloud, so is Jesus Christ the vaile and cover of his Church. When the Pharaoh of hell pursues us at heels, and is even ready to snatch us back into eternall slavery; now this Angell of the Covenant interposeth himselfe to defend us, and steppeth be­tween us and dangers. This Cloud of Gods protection (seem it never so farre off) is the sure wall and defence of the Church, the strongest munition, and will not suffer the Egyptian armies to come near the Israelites to hurt or destroy them, but onely to exercise them, & drive them more hastily to God for safety, and to Canaan for rest. This is a sure com­fort, when we know that all the enemies of grace, Papists, apostates, recusants, drunkards, scorners and atheists reach at us to hurt and hinder us in our way, this cloud shall make them further us.

IV. The Cloud was a powerfull guide, strengthning Israel, weakning and discomforting all the power of Egypt; power­fully [Page 227] and miraculously opening the red sea for a passage to the one, and shutting it for the others perdition. Our Lord Jesus is a potent guide, the Michael and Captain of Gods Armies, getting himself a name upon Pharaoh and his forces, discomfiting and destroying all adversary power of our sal­vation, perfectly conquering for us all the powers of dark­nesse, and triumphing upon all the externall enemies that pursue his people, and making them the dust of his footstool. Besides that, this cloud powerfully opens the red sea, and makes a way for the Saints through a sea of afflictions. Oh the sweet comfort hence, both in the view of the trouble of the Church in generall, beset with so many huge armies of Antichrist and his adherents; as also in sence of our own particular tryals! Both whole and parts are under this pow­erfull cloud.

V. The Cloud was a comfortable guide, a cooling cover­ing Cloud: Jesus Christ is the well, yea, and sea of consola­tion: without whom is nothing but scorching heat, which would burn up and consume the Church. But he cools the fire of his Fathers wrath for us, he cools the fiery darts of Satans temptations, and quencheth them in us; he refresheth and cheareth us in the sunne of persecution and afflictions, which Satan and his instruments kindle against us; he is our onely shadow for the heat, and a cover for the storm, and for the rain, Isai. 4. 6. Now therefore get to him by prayer, faith, and repentance.

VI. The Cloud was a patient and respective guide. It wait­ed all their necessities, it rested that they might rest, it moved slowly according to their pace, it stayed for them till they had ground their Manna, and baked it; till they had eaten and refreshed themselves; till they had offered sacrifices, and whatsoever was necessary to be done, it waited for them. Oh what a patient and respective Lord have we, who not onely waits on our necessities, but beares all our needs and weak­nesses on himself; not onely beares with our infirmities, but beares them on himself, and helpes them in us! He stretcheth his hands all day long, waiting for our return: He knows our mould and weaknesse, and covers it with his own strength [Page 228] and righteousnesse: He would be in all things like us, that he might in all things help us.

VII. The Cloud was a constant guide. The Lord never took away his Pillar by day, nor by night from before the people, Exod. 13. 22. not all their journey till they came in­to Canaan. Jesus Christ is constant to his Church, never leaves it without light and direction, without comfort and consolation, without safety and protection. Nay he not onely leads and covers them in this wildernesse, but never failes them, no not in the land of their rest. That cloud, which now is like the cloud which Elias saw, like the big­nesse of an hand, then shall cover, or rather fill the whole heavens.

II. Here is a ground of confidence and security in the greatest perils. What a marvellous thing is it, that a Pillar Use. 2. Confidence and security by Christ. of fire should sit upon the Tabernacle, and not burn it? What a strange thing, that a Pillar of fire must cool the Israelites, and save them from fire? So shall all fires kindled, and all extream dangers threatned against the Church, tend to the saving and comforting of it.

For 1. God never kindles a fire to consume his Church, but (as the Pillar of fire) to enlighten it, and direct it to Canaan.

2. The Church is that bush which burnes with fire, but is not consumed, Exod. 3. 2. The members of this Church are not chaffe and stubble, but pure metall, the longer in the fire, the better tryed, and the purer.

3. There is no Pillar of fire in the Church without the pil­lar of cloud: God mingleth his corrections with consolati­ons, and in judgement remembreth mercy.

4. Nature must run out of her self to doe homage to her Creator. Fire must c [...]ase to burn at his word, Dan. 3. 27. The fire burnt onely the bonds of the three children, but not their bodies: it not onely saves their lives, but sets them at liberty, being cast in bound.

5. The power of God makes all the creatures serviceable to his Church; the love of God to his Church makes them comfortable, and the presence of God with his Church makes [Page 229] them profitable: as the presence of the Angell in the bush: the presence of a fourth (like the Sonne of God) in the furnace, Dan. 3. and the Pillar of fire was a sign of the presence of God in it, who made a pillar of dreadfull and unmercifull fire a great mercy to his people, yea, and most beneficiall.

6. The wisdome of God can put understanding into these senselesse creatures, to distinguish between an Israelite and an Egyptian. The fire shall give light to the Israelites, and de­ny it to the Egyptians. The sea shall give way to Israel, but shut up the way to Egypt. The cloud shall hide, cover, and comfort the Israelites, but deny it to the Egyptians. The fire shall come out and destroy the Captains and their fifties, and send them to hell, but a Chariot of fire shall hoyse Eliah to heaven. Make use of this observation for the present; in the greatest dangers remembring that gracious promise, Isai. 43. 2. When thou passest through the fire I will be with thee, and it shall not burn thee, no more than the Pillar did the Isra­elites. Doe the enemies come out against us as strong as pillars, as furious and fiery as fire it self? Never was there so not a Pillar of fire, but there was a cooling and covering Cloud as near us. The Cloud that makes the Red sea give way, can conquer Canaanites too, and all the furious enemies that come out against us. Were it not for this Cloud of Gods gracious protection, there were no standing against the heat and rage of such fiery enemies. Lay up this medi­tation for time to come: Time shall be, when our Lord Je­sus shall appear in flaming fire, 2 Thess. 1. Heb. 10. 7. he comes with a violent fire: Psal. 50. 3. a fire shall devour before him. This shall burn up the studs of heaven and earth; and now how shall any man be able to stand before these great burn­ings.

Now know, 1. That that dreadfull fire shall attend Christ the head as a servant, for the finall salvation of his members.

2. It shall be commanded to be comfortable to the elect; as most dreadfull to the wicked, driving them to their wits end; even as this Pillar of fire was: And as the waters of the deluge, which (while they drowned the world of the un­godly) [Page 230] lifted up the Ark, and saved that from drowning.

III. Who they he that may expect to partake of all these Use. 3. Notes of them that receive comfort by this Pillar. comforts from this Pillar.

Answ. The Cloud is not the same to all: But the same Cloud that lightned Israel, cast darknesse on the Egyptians; so Christ is not the same to all, not sweet, not comfortable to all: But to such as are,

1. Of mount Sion, Isai. 4. 5. true members of the Church, sonnes of the Church, known by eleaving to the Assemblies. Upon Sion and the Assemblies thereof shall be a cloud, in Sion shall be deliverance. And as the hills compass Jerusalem, so doth the Lords protection his people.

2. Such as be in the Lords wayes, gotten out of the Egypt of their darkness and earthliness, and moving still towards Canaan; for so did the Israelites: so Psal. [...]1. 11. they shall keep thee in all thy wayes. All the while Israel was in Egypt they had no Pillar of Cloud and Fire, and when they came into Canaan they had none, nor needed any; but while they were walking in the wilderness in unknown wayes, in danger of enemies; We are without protection while we are in the state of nature, not called out of our Egypt; and when we shall come into our Canaan we shall need none, because we shall be set quite beyond danger and enemies: But now in our moving towards heaven, in so many dangerous wayes, a­mong so many mortall enemies, we need the Cloud, and the Lord supplies our need.

3. Such as life up their eyes to this Cloud and Pillar for direction. Had Israel refused to move according to the mo­tion of it, it would not have sheltred and comforted, but re­venged them: Such onely shall obtain the mercy of God in Christ, who obediently follow Christ, and submit themselves to his direction. If thou waitest upon him for duty, thou mayest wait upon him for mercy; for such onely shall attain it, Gal. 6. 16. Psal. 121. 1. I will lift mine eyes up to the moun­tains, and then verse 6. the Sun shall not smite thee by day, nor the Moon by night: alluding to this place, in which the Cloud abates the heat of the Sun by day, and the fire the coldness of the Moon by night.

[Page 231] 4. Such as persevere and goe on forward in grace. For therefore was the Pillar light in the night to Israel, that they might goe forward day and night: And therefore was it a dark cloud to the AEgyptians, that they might not hinder the Israelites in their way. Gods favour and protection belongs to such as desire to prosper and profit in grace, and get every day nearer their happiness.

Object But this seems to be the way to lose all peace and And how this com­fort is to be esteemed. joy of our lives, seeing none are more assailed by Satan and wicked men, than godly men, sonnes of the Church that walk in Gods wayes, that take Gods directions, and desire to pro­ceed and persevere in godliness; how then are all these pro­mises accomplished?

Answ. 1. All promises of temporall good things are made with exception of the cross: this exception impeacheth not the promise.

2. It is a common condition of good and bad, to sustain many evils, and undergo many difficulties; but with this dif­ference, that the wicked have no Pillar to sustain them, no Cloud, no refuge or hiding place: but the godly hath God for his refuge, his Pillar and Cloud.

3. The Pillar still stands over the Tabernacle, and saves the Army of Israel: the whole Church is ever saved by Gods protection, though some souldiers may fall in the battell: as Martyrs, who receive not alwayes corporall deliverance, to receive a better resurrection.

4. If this Pillar put not off some evils, it ever supplies some greater good: If it deliver not from death, it delivers by death: If our state seem not so good, it will turn it to good, Rom. 8. It led the Israelites to Marah, a place of bitternesse; but the next remove was to Elim, where were twelve fountains of water, Exod. 15. 23. 27. It suffers the Israelites to want meat in the wilderness, but to feed them with Manna: If to want drink, it is to supply them by miracle; to refresh their souls as well as bodies by water out of a rock.

IV. In the same Pillar of the Cloud, see Justice and Mer­cy Use. 4. Mercy and justice met in this type. met together and tempered.

1. Mercy to the Church and believers; that now we be­hold [Page 232] Gods presence in a cloud. The brightness of his good­ness to us shines in this dark cloud, in which we see him as we are able. His Majesty hath attempered himself to ou [...] debility and weakness. For such is our infirmity here be­low, that unlesse the glory of God be vailed and covered, we can never be able to behold it: no more than the Priests could stand before the brightness of the cloud that filled the Temple, 1 King. 8. 11. nor the Disciples abide the bright­ness of Christ, when a bright cloud shadowed them in his transfiguration. For as no man can endure to see the Sun in his brightnesse and strength, but in and through a cloud he Mat. 17. 5, 6 may: so no man can behold the glorious Majesty of God and live. Hence hath he pleased to let us behold him here, not in his own glory, but in his Christ; in whom his excel­lent Majesty is vailed and covered with our humanity. This is his mercy, that we see now as we may, as in a glasse or mir­rour; preparing us to a farther mercy, than which no mercy goeth farther, namely to see him as we would, and face to face; when with our frailty and corruption all clouds and vailes shall be removed.

2. His justice against sinners; whose misery it is, that there is alwayes a cloud between God and them. A cloud of ignorance, that hinders them from the knowledge of God and holy things; they see no true light: A cloud of darkness and misery, that suffers them not to enjoy one spark of sound comfort or consolation: A thick cloud of lusts and sinnes, which hinders the passage of their prayers. They may truly use that speech of the Church, Lam. 3. 44. Thou hast cover­ed thy self with a cloud, that our prayers should not passe through. As this cloud was a means of greatest mercy to Israel; so was it of extream misery and destruction to the Egyptians.

V. Is Christ this Pillar of Cloud and Fire? Then we must Use. 5. Follow Christ as a guide. follow Christ our guide. The Saints in earth are as Israel in their pilgrimage marching out of Egypt into the promised land. God of his mercy affords us as he did them, a com­fortable cloud to lead us through to Canaan. We must de­pend on this Pillar; For light of instruction against the [Page 233] blindnesse of our minds: For light of consolation in sor­rows and terrours of heart, that we may say with the Church, Mic. 7. 8. When I shall sit in darkness the Lord is my light: For spirituall heat and warmth; seeing this Pillar onely can kindle true love of God, true zeal for God and his glory, servency in prayer, and inflame us with all ardent desires af­ter God We must follow this Pillar for safety, security, di­rection, &c.

Quest. How may we follow this Pillar? And how.

Sol. As the Israelites carefully followed the Cloud, in this manner.

1. Because the Cloud was placed on high, they must still look upwards: So must we still look upwards, not fixing our eye on any other direction about us, or beside us. We must not walk by examples of men never so great, never so wise, never so rich, never so near us; but onely so far as they fol­low this Cloud. The Sunne of the world, and the Sonne of the Church herein agree, that both of them are set infinitely above our heads; that we should expect our direction from above, not from below; from the heavens, not from the earth.

2. As the Israelites contented themselves with that Pillar, as being sufficient: So must we with the light ftom Christ our Pillar. They needed no artificial lights of their own devi­sing; the Pillar of fire was sufficient (although at midnight) to enlighten them. The Sunne at noon day was not more useful to them than this Pillar at midnight: So Christ in the Scriptures is a most bright and shining light; not (as the Papists say) obscure, dark, imperfect, unlesse there be an ad­dition of traditions, Fathers, and mens devises. As that Cloud was no natural direction: so we must not walk by direction of nature, dictate of reason, or command of our own wills and senses. Follow this Pillar onely, and (as Goshen was light when all AEgypt was darkness) thou shalt have light when all the world else sits in darkness, Joh. 8. 12. But as for such as kindle themselves a fire, or set up a Pillar to themselves, and walk in the light of it, and in the sparkes themselves have kindled; the Lord threatens what they may expect [Page 234] from his hands; They shall lie down in sorrow, Isaiah 50. 10.

3. As Israel must watch this Pillar night and day, and frame their whole course unto it for motion or station, for action or for rest: so must we to Christ (our Pillar) in the Scri­pture. Blessed is the man that meditates in the Law of the Lord night and day. And as they must give diligent heed both day and night, to be ready for their journey whensoever the Cloud should move; and therefore are said to keep the Lords watch, Numb. 9. 19. so must we alwayes watch, and be in a readiness; because we know not when the Master of the house will come, at even or at midnight, at the cock-crowing or in the dawning, Mar. 13. 35. Remember for conclusion; that blessed shall that servant be (and he onely) whom his Ma­ster (when he cometh) findeth well doing.


The Red Sea, a type.

THe second extraordinary Sacrament of the Old Testa­ment, pointing unto Jesus Christ, was the Red Sea; Red Sea a type of Christ. which being miraculously divided by God, the Israelites (pursued by the Egyptians) passed through the midst of it, Exod. 14. 22. Now for our profitable and fruitful beholding this great work of God, we will consider it,

  • 1. As a miracle in it self.
  • 2. As a type and signification of Christ.
  • 3. As applyable to our selves in some profitable obser­vations.

I. In this great miracle are many miracles: Miracles in the miracu­lous divi­ding of it.

As 1. That so vast a sea should be divided with the lifting up of a rod. For the breadth of that Sea, where Israel went over, was (by computation of Ptolomy and other Geogra­phers) [Page 235] twelve or fifteen German miles, at least thirty six of ours; so Chytraeus upon this place.

2. That the Lord should open a way, and lead Israel Psa. 106. 9. through the deep, as in the wildernesse; for their passage was not over the Sea, but through it. Neither did they walk upon the waters as upon the land, which had not been so much, for in cold countries it is ordinary for men and cariages to passe upon the Ice and congealed water as upon firme land: but they walked in the bottome of the Sea as on dry land. Who could deny, but it had been a work of omnipotency, for the Lord to have made the sea (on a sudden) a pavement for Is­rael (as hard as Christal) to have walked firme upon? but because every strong frost congeales the water according to nature, that had been lesse glorious, more questionable. But he provides for the clearness of his own glory, by effect­ing a work above (yea against) the whole frame of nature.

3. That the waters should stand as a solid wall on both sides, which are naturally fluid, and seeing nothing is so hard­ly contained within bounds as liquid waters, it was exceeding miraculous. And that the bottome of the Sea should on the suddain become firme and dry ground, (Exod. 14. 22.) and even as an high way, was not the least of these miracles.

4. That the same Sea at the same time should be both calm and tempestuous: For the mighty winds and tempests were so strong against the Egyptians, that it brake their Cha­riot wheeles, and they could hardly move or stirre against it; yet all the same time it was a peaceable calm to Israel; who were very near them.

5. The time of the standing of the waters on so vast an heap (whereon learned men agree not) any way concluded, is most miraculous. Some think (as Chytraeus) that for so many thousands, yea, hundred thousands of men, women, and children, to walk a soft pace, and to drive their cattel so ma­ny miles, must needs take them four or five dayes time, and then the waters to stand so long, was admirable. Others think they went through in one night, (for the text mentioneth but one night) and then was it no lesse miraculous, to convey so much people and cattel so much way in so small time.

[Page 236] 6. That the same Sea at the same time should be both a gulfe and devourer; and yet a saver from devourers. That the same Sea at the same time should both retire back, and yet return to its course, for the Waters returned upon the Egyptians on the one side of the Sea, when Israel was not fully over on the other, as appeareth by comparing verse 26. with verse 29. That the same Sea at the same time should move and stand with such judgement and distinction, as not one Egyptian was saved, verse 28. not one Israelite drown­ed, verse 30.

II. Now consider this great work of God as a significa­tion and type of Christ; which it must needs be as it is a Sa­crament, How signi­fied Christ. which we must consider, both in the constitution, and in the consequents or effects of it, in all directly pointing us to Jesus Christ hereby typified. In the first to the Corin. 10. 2. the Apostle saith, that all the Fathers were baptized in the sea; whence I gather three conclusions.

I. Conclusion: That this was a Sacrament figuring our baptisme, and that all necessary institutions of a Sacrament In three conclusions concur in it:

As 1. The Author was God, the Institutor both of the Covenant and seales, Exod. 14. 30.

2. The Minister was Moses, verse 31.

3. The Covenant sealed was Gods promise and word for their deliverance, verse 15.

4. The sign of the Covenant was Moses stretching of his hand, both for the dividing of the Sea, verse 16. and the re­turning of it again, verse 27.

5. The thing signified was salvation by the Messiah, and all spiritual and eternal benefits and deliverances procured by him sealed up in this miracle.

6. The faith of the Israelites was the same hand with ours to receive the same benefits, and things signified: verse 31. They believed God: Heb. 11. 29, By faith they passed thorough the Red Sea, &c.

II. Conclusion: There was not one of these actions in this temporal deliverance, but it signified and sealed such actions to the believing Israelites, as both confirmed their [Page 237] faith in the Covenant, and set forward their salvation merit­ted by the Messiah, and so still led them to Christ. As in these examples.

1. God in leading his people to Canaan made them a safe way through the Sea: signifying to their faith, that God offered them Jesus Christ the promised Messiah, through the red sea of whose death and passion, they should find a sure and safe way to passe them through a full sea of troubles to the true celestial Canaan, and by him, as by a firme way, to walk forward to eternal life.

2. When they saw the same Jehovah to divide the sea into his division (Junius calleth them cuttings off) and to drive Segmenta. away the raging waters from overflowing them; this action signified to their faith, that the Son of God by his merit and mediation would carry them through all difficulties and dan­gers as deep as the bottome of the sea, unto eternal rest, and so rebuke the seas of their sorrows, and drive back the ra­ging waves of terrors and temptations that threaten their destruction, that they shall safely and happily passe through the sea as it were on dry land.

3. When they saw Jehovah the Sonne of God present with them in the voyage, and that he made the sea return to his force again, both to save themselves and to overthrow the Egyptians: It signified to their faith the action of Christ, freeing his elect from all spirituall forces and armies pursu­ing them, as also by a mighty overthrow swallowing up and devouring (in the bottomlesse sea of his wrath) all those that come out and stand against them.

III. Conclusion: There is no Evangelicall blessing by Christ sealed to us by baptisme, which was not signified and sealed to them in the Red Sea. So as Christ was as truly re­presented to them as to us, though not so clearly; and the truth and substanre of his merits exhibited to them as to us, onely in a manner more obscure and clouded. As in ex­amples,

1. If the waters of Baptisme seal up to believers, that the bloud of Christ alone saveth and defendeth the people of Benefits sealed up by baptisme. God from eternal death and damnation: What could be [Page 238] more plainly signified by the waters of the Red Sea saving Is­rael from present death and destruction?

2. Baptisme signifieth to us, that by the bloud of Christ (in which Red Sea all believers must be baptised) there is a dying and a burial unto sin, and a rising unto newnesse of life: What could be more plainly signified by the Baptisme of the fathers in the Red Sea, who were (after a sort) buried in the waters, but after raised to the shoare, and restored to land and life?

3. By the benefit of Baptisme (in which the Red Sea of Christs bloud is truly applyed) our old man and flesh is tru­ly mortified, buried, and destroyed; but the new man is quickned and repaired; and now new motions, desires, af­fections are stirred up and preserved in the hearts of belie­vers: what could be more expresly signified to the Fathers by the overthrow of Pharaoh and his hoste in the Red Sea, and the escape of the Israelites safe and sound?

4. When they did see themselves (by the benefit of the Red Sea) freed from Pharaohs servitude: how easily might they gather, that by the bloud of Christ every believer of Jewes and Gentiles are freed from the slavery of hellish Pha­raoh, and all his Armies of sinnes and corruptions? And when they did see how the Egyptians (once dead and slain) could hurt them no more, how could they but gather, that all the armies of sin (once remitted and buried in the death of Christ) can no more rise up to condemnation, than a drown­ed Egyptian to drown an Israelite?

I. To note the mighty power of God, who can still and over-master the mighty raging of the Sea: which we see Use 1. Observe the power of God. here in that its water, dry land, sands, and shoare observe the providence of God, and serve for his peoples safety. Israel saw the mighty power of God herein, Exod. 14. 31. Let us also behold the glory of God herein, and fear before him as they did. Let not us be more senseless than the senselesse creatures, but hear his voice, runne out of our own nature to observe his voice sounding in the Scriptures and Ministry of the Gospel.

[Page 239] II. To see and consider the state of the Church and peo­ple Use. 2. The way to heaven fil­led with dif­ficulties. of God. Canaan (whither they goe) is a fine and fer­tile countrey, but the way is asperous and dangerous. They are still as it were in the bottome of the sea: enemies impla­cable at their heeles in infinite numbers: Seas of waters dreadful to behold on both hands, yea, rising over their heads as mountaines threatning to fall over them: and after a deep sea, a terrible wildernesse takes them, in which is no meanes for meat, drink, nor cloath. A man would think, no man could deal so with his children: and yet Gods wisdom sees this the fittest way to Canaan. He sees how, 1. Every small And why. content glewes us to our Egypt. 2, What sluggs we are in the way, farther than we are chased out. 3. How little we care for dependance on himself, when we are full of naturall comforts. 4. That Canaan is so rich a land as is worthy all our labour and suffering.

Apply this note to awake thee out of thy ease and carnall slumber. If thy way be so easie and pleasing to flesh, sure it leads not to Canaan, suspect it. The Israelites going into Egypt had no enemies nor troubles meeting them; but go­ing into Canaan, they had nothing else. Strait is the way that leads to life, and all the way to heaven is strowed with crosses. Apply it also to secure thee in thy troubles. Art thou in a deep danger or sorrow like the bottome of the sea? It is no worse with thee than with the rest of the people of God. No affliction overtakes thee, but the same hath befaln the Saints in the world. Hold on to Canaan, and all is safe: Canaan is worth all. Happy thou if thou canst get to Canaan, though thy passage be through the bottome of the sea.

III. To observe what a many comforts this great work Use. 3. Many com­forts by this great work of God. of God will load us withal, that are willing to carry them away. For.

I. The Lord in strange and unwonted dangers can work new and unwonted remedies for his children. As we heard before that fire shall not burn them, so here the Sea (at his word of restraint) shall not drown them. He can make a wall of water more strong for them than a wall of Adamant: yea, himself (according to their need) will be to them either a wall of fire or water.

[Page 240] II. What danger can prevail against the Church, if all these dangers on all hands, above them, below them, afore them, behind them at once, cannot sinke them? No, All the gates of hell cannot prevail against it. Every main affliction is like a main Red▪ Sea, which threatens to swallow us up, but it shall in the issue onely preserve the Church. What we have most cause to fear, the Lord maketh most helpful and soveraign. The very raging Sea (rather than they shall pe­rish) shall open her lap as a tender mother, to recieve them from the rage of Pharaoh and his pursuing army: Nay, the land of Goshen shall not be half so bountiful to them as these waters, which gave them freedome, victory, and the spoiles▪ and riches remaining upon the dead bodies of their enemies.

III. How unweariably the Lord sets himself to overcome all difficulties for his servants. What had it been to have passed the oppressours of Egypt, and to have been swallowed up of the sea? Therefore he makes a new way, where never any way lay before, in the bottome of the Sea. Afterwards he makes a dry and barren wildernesse comfortable to them; dryes up Jordan as strangely for their passage; gives them a daily harvest of Manna from heaven; breaks a Rock to give them water; and happily in time finisheth their long and te­dious journey. Even so the godly (going out of Egypt, de­parting from the kingdome of the devill, and hastning out of the world towards heaven) come presently into a deep sea; not pursued onely by the fury of tyrants and enemies, but every where threatned with dangers, wants, and death it self: yet the Lord breakes for them one toyle after another, and happily guides them through a deep sea of miseries, and ne­ver leaves them till they recover the shoare, and arrive safely at the haven of salvation, where their songs shall be louder than their cryes were, and a mighty deliverance shall swallow up all their danger.

IV. Here is comfort against the fear of enemies.

1. Spiritual enemies. For here we have both a confirma­tion and resemblance of the eternal delivery of the Church from the tyranny of the hellish Pharaoh; which in spight of him is led through a sea of tribulation every where ready to [Page 241] overwhelme it, into the promised rest of everlasting life. A­gain we see here our sinnes also cast into, and drowned in the bottome of the Red Sea, Mic. 7. 19. These are the strongest and fiercest enemies that pursued us to death; but these our furious sinnes (as so many Egyptians) are drowned in the sea of Christs bloud, and extinct in the waters of Baptisme, Aug. Psal. 113.

2. Temporal enemies. How can the Egyptians hope to stand before Israel, to whom the waters give way so strange­ly? The enemy shall find the same sea a wall and a well, a safety and a death. Let enemies look here as the heathen did, and let their hearts faint as theirs, to see God make the Sea a wall, a lane, yea, a lap for his people. Let them behold the ordinary work of God, who commonly joynes the salva­tion of his Church with the destruction of the enemies. So for Mordecaies advancement, and the Churches deliverance, Haman must be hanged, and his posterity destroyed: as in a ballance, if one scoal goes up, down goes the other.

IV. The godly to partake of these comforts must learn, Use. 4. Duty of them that will enjoy these com­forts.

1. To labour for increase of faith: for by faith they passed thorough the Red Sea, Heb. 11. 29. So must thou get faith for thy vessel to passe thee through. Faith in tryall is a great victory; in the bottome of the Sea, in deepest afflictions it is most glorious. It is nothing to believe in prosperity: but in desperation to believe, in the bottome of the Sea to stand still, yea, in the bottome of hell to hope for heaven, there is faith.

2. To joyn to Gods people. Let not the Egyptian think the way is made for him. Except thou goest out with Israel (as Exod. 12. 38.) the sea will know thee for an Egyptian, and cover thee.

3. To get God their guide, and to follow him. Neither Noah upon the top of a world of seas, nor Israel in the bot­tome of the sea shall miscarry, if [...]od become the Pilot. Fol­low thy guide, goe on forward, fear not, rest in God for safe­ty in extream danger, and thou art the fittest for his help and deliverance. See 2 Chron. 20. 12. We know not what to doe, but our eyes are towards thee.


Manna, a type of Christ.

THere were among the Jewes two extraordinary Sacra­ments, which sealed up unto believers their continual nourishment and preservation in grace, by the free Covenant of God in the Messiah. The former was Manna from hea­ven; the latter, the water out of the Rock: Both of them most lively setting forth Jesus Christ, the true bread and wa­ter of life to ancient and present believers. In which sense the Apostle (1 Cor. 10. 3, 4.) calleth them spirituall meat, and spirituall drink.

The Story of Manna is recorded, Exod. 16. 14. The pro­per application of which is in Joh. 6. 32. 48. where our Sa­viour Manna a type of Christ. shewes that he is the true Manna, of which the other in the wildernesse was but a shadow and dark resemblance. Now for opening this type we shall fruitfully consider two things.

I. Christ prefigured by it; where we shall see an admira­ble and pleasant correspondence of the type with the truth; and how Christ was (not obscurely) preached even in this one shadow to old believers.

II. Christ far preferred before this figure, as became the truth to be set above the type.

I. For the resem­blance Matters of resem­blance. consider Manna
  • 1. in it self, in
    • 1. Quality.
    • 2. Quantity.
  • 2. in the Jews, in their
    • 1. Gathering.
    • 2. Use.

Sect. I.

I. The qualities of Manna considered in it self were six, many of them miraculous. Six quali­ties of Manna.

[Page 243] 1. The Manna came down from heaven. God in heaven Dominus Jesus ipse conviva & convivium [...] ipse come­dens & qui comeditur, Jeron, Ep. ad Hedibiam. prepared this food to satisfie the Jewes hunger: so Jesus Christ is the true bread that came down from heaven, all o­ther bread is from earth, but Christ is from heaven; he hath God for his Father, from whose bosome he is sent into the wildernesse of this world to satisfie the spiritual hunger of his people. And as that was an admirable gift prepared by God for them, and therefore they called it Manna: so nothing was more freely prepared and given by God than Jesus Christ for the life of the world; he came without the worlds seeking, without merit and deserving, yea, or accepting; for he came to his own, and his own received him not: And was not this miraculous above that, that he which sent the Manna, was the Manna which he sent?

2. The taste of Manna was sweet, and tasted like fresh oyle, Numb. 11. 8. or wafers baked with honey, Exod. 16. 31. So nothing is so sweet as Jesus Christ to an afflicted and hungry heart, The sweet promises of grace are sweeter than honey, Psal. 19. 10. No fresh and sweet oyle can so cherish the face, as they doe the heart, which is able to apprehend the sweet consolations and joyes of the Spirit. And as Manna tasted alike to all tastes, and every whit of it was sweet, and every mouth tasted the same sweetnesse, as it never was in any other food in the world: So onely Christ is the same to all that taste him, and every whit of him is sweet, even his yoak, his Crosse, and every mouth that tastes him, can confesse him so to be.

3. The figure of it was round, a figure of perfection: sig­nifying Jesus Christ without beginning or end, the first and the last, most simple and sincere, without any guileful corner or [...]. angle; most infinite, most perfect, and fit to contain all per­fections of grace, meet for the head of the Church.

4. The colour was white, Exod. 16. 31. signifying the most holy and immaculate purity of Jesus Christ in his nature, person, and actions: The holy One of God, fairer than all the sonnes of men, Psal. 45. 2.

5. The generality: It was common to all the Israelites of what state soever: So Jesus Christ is the common Saviour, [Page 244] to rich and poor, to master and servant, bond and free, and to all believing in his Name, without respect of persons, Acts 10. 34. There is neither male nor female, but all are one in Christ, Gal. 3. 28.

6. The continuance of it: This was all the while they were in the wildernesse: So Christ continues alwayes with his Church, to the end of the world, Mat. 28. 20. But when they came into Canaan it ceased; for where ordinary bread was, was no need of miraculous: So when we come to our Ca­naan, we shall gather no more Manna by the meanes of the Word and Sacraments: neither yet shall we lose our Manna, but mmediately enjoy Christ, and see him face to face, which the Apostle calls an open face, 1 Cor. 13. 12.

II. The quantity of Manna considered in itself, resembled 2. Quantity of Manna, figurative in 4. things. Christ in four particulars.

1. It was a small grain, as a little seed of Coriander, verse 14. but full of yeald, sweetnesse, and nourishment: So Jesus Christ was little and humble in his own eyes, and in other mens eyes, liker a worm than a man. Little in his birth, in his life, in his death, in his followers. Very weak in shew and appearance; but full of power, strength and grace to sustain and uphold his Church; full of nourishment, sweet­nesse, and comfort to refresh his Church to eternal life.

2. It was freely and abundantly given to Israel as the rain, and fell down with the dew: So Jesus Christ is freely given to the Church, and in him abundant grace and plentiful re­demption. God never expressed such bounty, nor ever open­ed the treasury of his rich grace in any thing so much as in giving his Christ, who never comes any where without the sweet dewes of comfort, joy, and happy graces, which distil from him into every believing heart.

3. Manna fell every morning round about the campe, and no where else; and so much every morning as was sufficient for six hundred thousand men, besides women and children: signifying, that Jesus Christ is no where to be found with­out the campe and bounds of the Church; and that of his fulnesse all believers receive grace for grace; and that in Christ is sufficiency of merit for all his Church; and there need [Page 245] other supply for health and safety of soule, but out of this heap.

4. It fell on the evening of the Sabbath in double quantity, because they must not break the Sabbath in gathering any: signifying the double diligence that we must use to get Christ while we are in this life, which is as the Even of our eternal Sabbath; and the incessant labour after a farther degree of grace, giving all diligence to make our election sure before we goe hence; for when that eternal rest cometh, there is no more gathering, but a ceasing from all labours. And upon condition of our diligence and care here below, we shall have supply enough of all grace without labour and gather­ing, when Christ shall be all in all to all Israel gathered unto him.

Sect. II.

Now we are to consider this miraculous food, both in the Jewes gathering of it, as also in their use of it.

I. In their gathering are three things; the place, the time, 1. Three things in the Jewes gathering. the measure.

1. The place where: It was about the campe and tents of the Jewes in the wildernesse: signifying, that Christ the hea­venly Manna is given to us in this our wildernesse, and while we are in this world, we must procure him to our selves, or never: And farther, that his grace is rained down in the Church; and no where else is saving grace ordinarily to be found. Onely the Israel of God enjoy Christ in the meanes; his abode is among the tents of shepherds.

2. The time of gathering is: 1. The week day; the six dayes, not the Sabbath, for it came not on the Sabbath; but as knowing and distinguishing times it would, as feed them, so teach them; namely, to rest on the Sabbath day, as it did: and signified, that in that eternal Sabbath we shall enjoy Manna without meanes; and shall eat our fill of that hidden Manna, laid up and prepared for the Saints, Rev. 2. 17.

2. Every day in the week: to signifie, that we must daily [Page 246] feed on Christ and his grace, and that we must daily renew the care of the salvation and sustenance of our soules.

3. Every morning of every day; early must they gather it, the first thing they did: To signifie, that we must embrace Christ speedily, while the meanes last and offer themselves. Christ is worth our first care; and his commandement is, first to seek the kingdome of God. The foolish Virgins sought Oyle and Manna too late.

3. The measure: 1. Every man hath a measure out of the common heap: signifying, that Christ is the same trea­sury to poor and rich, small and great; and every believer and Israelite hath his portion and measure measured out unto him, (for he must live by his own faith) and a severed measure Hab. 2. 4. of knowledge and sanctification from others.

2. Every man hath the same measure. There was one measure for all, a Gomer for every person: So every Chri­stian hath his Gomer, and the same measure. For although there is difference in the graces of sanctification (some be­ing in the higher formes of knowledge, some in lower; some of little faith, some of great faith; some whose zeal is as a smoaking flax, in some a bright flame) yet justification by Christ is equall to all, and doth not admit a more or a lesse. The Non suscipit magis & minus. youngling in grace is as truly and fully justified as the ancient believer, though not so fully sanctified.

3. Every man hath a full Gomer, a full measure: to signi­fie, that in Christ is no want, but we are compleat in him, Col. 2. 10. And as the gathering Israelite (though he gathered lesse than some other) had his Gomer full: so he that hath [...]he weakest grace, and weakest faith (if true and sound) shall attain the same salvation which the stronger believer attaines. For the same precious faith attaines the same com­mon salvation.

II. We must consider this Manna in the Jewes use of it. 2. Their use of it.

1. In respect of the dressing. It must be ground and ba­ked before it could be fit food for the Israelites: signifying. that Jesus Christ must first be ground and broken upon the Crosse, and pounded with passion before he could become a fit food and Saviour of his Church. Every grain of Manna [Page 247] must be ground and broken: so must Christ be broken and bruised in the winepresse of Gods wrath Every grain of Man­na must be baked in the Oven: so must Christ be parched and baked, yea, and dryed up in the Oven of his Fathers dis­pleasure. And this was extraordinary and above nature in it, that one heat (namely of the Sunne) melted it; another heat (namely of fire) baked it; very strange; but significative of the same in Christ. The heat of his love to mankind melted him; but the heat of his Fathers wrath (as hot as fire) baked him, and fitted him for our spirituall food.

2. The Manna being dressed must be eaten, that is, applied to their substance, and digested for their nourishment; sig­nifying Jesus Christ, who although (like the Manna) he must be gathered in common, and must be received whole (as Manna must be gathered whole) yet he must be eaten in several, that is, specially applied to every believer for his food and strength; by which application he becomes food in our hunger, and physick in our weaknesse, as the Manna was to them, and other had they none.

3. They must use it all, and reserve none till the morning; for if they did, it putrified, and wormes grew in it, verse 19. 20. To signifie, that not the profession of Christ profits any thing without faithful applying of him. Yea, and as Manna reserved, putrified: so Christ becomes a scandall and a rock of offence to the unbelieving of the world, that content themselves to hear of Christ, and have the Word among them, but apply it not to their hearts and lives. The sweetest Manna becomes a rottennesse, and a savour of death to car­nall professours.

Quest. But why did the Lord cause the Manna daily to Why Man­na putrifi­ed, if reser­ved. putrifie, if kept?

Answ. 1. He will have them daily depend upon his hands and provision; that was no time nor place to shift cove­tously for themselves, neither was there any need, seeing eve­ry day supplied them with a new harvest.

2. To signifie to them, that man lived not by bread onely, but by every word of God, Mat. 4. 4. How could they think, that such corruptible food could preserve them, that it self [Page 248] could not be preserved above a few houres but by Gods in­stitution?

3. That they might acknowledge God a free and extraor­dinary worker in all his administration with them. For even this Manna (which kept an hour beyond a day, suddenly rot­ted) if God command to keep it two dayes every week for his worship sake, it shall be miraculously preserved sweet and sa­voury. Yea, if for a monument of his mercy he shall com­mand to lay a sample of it in the Ark; it shall last and be kept in the Holy of holies many ages, yea, many hundreds of yeares sweet and savoury as at first. And all this not with­out signification: that although Jesus Christ was in his flesh and humane nature subject to sorrow, death, and passion, yet even in that humanity (now glorified) he is set in the Holy of holies (as the Manna in the golden pot) before the Lord for ever, Exod. 16. 33. and abides for ever in the heavens for all eternity, not subject to corruption any more, as that gol­den pot of Manna was.

Sect. III.

II. Now let us see how Christ is infinitely preferred be­fore 2. Christ infi­nitely better than Manna this type or figure, in six severall advancements.

1. That Manna had no life in it self, but this hath, Joh, 5. 26. As the Father hath life in himself, so hath he given to the Sonne to have life in himself. Joh. 6. 35. I am that bread of life.

2. That Manna not having life in it self, cannot give to o­thers what it self hath not; it could onely preserve life given of God: But this can convey and give life to others: John 6. 33. The bread of God is he which cometh down from heaven, and giveth life unto the world.

3. That Manna preserved onely natural and temporal life, as other bread: but this preserves spiritual and eternal life in the soul and inward man.

4. That Manna could not preserve this temporal life for ever, Joh. 6. 49. Your fathers did eat Manna in the wildernesse, [Page 249] and are dead; nay it could not keep them from hunger above one day to an end: But this bread once tasted makes a man live for ever, he shall not die, ver. 50. yea, he shall never hunger more, verse 35.

5. If a man were dead, that Manna could not raise him again to life: but this raiseth dead to life, as Lazarus; which all the food, physick and meanes on earth cannot doe, Joh. 11. 25. He that believeth in me, though he were dead, yet shall he live.

6. That Manna did corrupt, it melted daily when the Sun arose; it lasted not beyond a day, it continued not beyond the wildernesse; and that small portion which the Lord reserved in the Holies of holies, perished and was lost after the captivity: But this Manna is not subject to cor­ruption, but abideth sweet and precious to every hun­gry heart; nor subject to violence, but abides in the Holy of holies without all change or fear of danger; nor onely lasts in this journey through our wildernesse, but is the sweetest and most delicious in our Canaan; when he shall be food, physick, raiment, delight, and all in all to all the Saints and sonnes of God.

Sect. IV.

Now to Application.

I. To note God in four things: Use in re­spect of God.

  • 1. Patience and love.
  • 2. Watchfulnesse and care.
  • 3. Bountifulnesse and beneficence,
  • 4. Wisedome and judgement. And all these to his Church, both Jewish and Christian, and to all the Israel of God, Legal and Evangelical. Every one of these affordeth us special matter of instruction.

I. His grace and patience appears in the time of his giving 1. both the typical and the true Manna from heaven. Then he pleased to give the Manna to Israel.

[Page 250] 1. When Israel had great need of Gods help, and had no Gods pati­ence and love to be noted. power to help themselves, when they were even ready to starve: Even so when the Church was in extream need of Christ, and altogether helplesse in her self, it pleased God to give his Sonne from heaven to save and refresh her. Which the Apostle notes, Rom. 5. 6. For Christ, when we were yet of no strength, at his time died for the ungodly,

2. Then God gave Israel Manna, when Israel (murmuring) had deserved nothing but wrath and vengeance; when they could look for nothing but fire from heaven, he gives them food from heaven, and such food as was Angels food, sweet as honey: Oh what a tender Nurse is the Lord become to a froward people? he will still the frowardnesse of his first­born rather with the breast than with the rod: Even so when by our hateful sinnes of many sorts we could neither deserve nor expect any thing but revenge from heaven, God sent his Sonne from heaven, the true Manna and bread of life, who hath more sweetnesse in him than the honey comb; which one gift sweetneth all blessings, which else had been so many curses. For what had the Israelites deliverance, victory, lives been worth in the wildernesse without food and Manna, which kept them in life and strength? Even so had all our outward blessings been to us (without Jesus Christ) onely a lingring death and misery. Oh who would deal thus with his enemy, but he that hath an Ocean of mercy? Which the same Apostle (in the same Chapter, ver. 8.) leadeth us un­to; where he magnifieth and heightneth Gods love unto us; that, while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us, yea, while we were yet enemies (ver. 10.) he sent us this Manna, by whom he reconciled himself unto us.

Let this consideration be of use: 1. To stir up in us a fervent love of God, who loved us with a pittifull love when we were in so pitifull a case; as also with so seasonable love, And how it should work in us- when our extream need urged us; yea, with such effectuall love, as spared us the greatest gift of love, and the richest mercy that heaven and earth can contain to relieve our want.

2. To labour to love our enemies, as God did us being his [Page 251] enemies. For naturall men and hypocrites can love those that love them, Mat. 5. 45. but if we love them that hate us, we shall be the sonnes of our heavenly Father.

3. To move us to cease from our sinnes; for who would goe on to provoke so good a God, that still prevents us with love and mercy? And if he please to reserve love for us while we are yet in our sinnes, and in love with them; how sweet will his love be, when we cease to love them? How strong will it be, and how constant? For, doth he not cast us off when we are enemies, and deserve hatred, and will he ever cast off those whom he thus loveth? This love shall be stronger than death, for that shall not quench it.

II. See the watchfulnesse and care of God over his 2. Gods watchfulnes, and care over his Church, to▪ be noted. Church. The Manna fell with the dew; and while the peo­ple of Israel slept, the Lord watched to spread a table for them: because, 1. He that keepeth Israel slumbreth not nor sleepeth. The eye of the Lord (saith Basil) is without all sleep, ever watchfull: 2. Because he is a tender father, and Israel is his son and first born. A carefull father is waking for his childes good while it sleeps and takes no care: In like man­ner hath this watchful eye kept it self waking, from the be­ginning of the world till this day. How did it watch over Abraham and all his believing posterity; whilest he and we were all in the night of sin and death? And whilest we were in a dead sleep, how carefully did he provide this heavenly Manna, and spread it about the tents of the Church in all ages?

1. In the promise of the blessed seed.

2. In the types and shadowes signifying and exhibiting Jesus Christ.

3. In the holy Ministery of Prophets and Apostles, in which it was plentifully showred.

4. In the spirituall worship of believers both in the old and new Testament.

5. In the blessed Incarnation and appearance of the truth it self, who rose as a glorious sun of righteousnesse, but as it were at midnight, when the world lay in such palpable dark­nesse, as was thicker than the darknesse of Egypt: as Manna [Page 252] fell in the night, and was readier for them every morning than they were for it.

Apply this observation for thy particular comfort. If thou Comfort thereby. beest an Israelite, no night shall befall thee, nor sleep in any night, but this carefull eye of God shall watch to supply thee. As in three instances.

1. The godly passing through this wildernesse of this world, although they be in Covenant with God (as Israel Instances. 1. was) yet often are cast into the night of sin, and in this night they often nod and slip into a sounder sleep of sinne some­times than they think of: but then this eye watcheth them that they sleep not in death, and so fall into extream ruine. For they being written on the palm of the Lords hand, being as a signet upon his finger, as a jewel on his heart, and (which is nearer) as the apple of his eye, he watcheth a season to waken them, to raise them, and erect them in faith to watch­fulnesse and salvation.

2. Many times the godly fall into the night of affliction, and are cast into the dark of many deadly dangers which they should never (by themselves) be won'd out of. Now while they are thus surprised with a dead and dangerous sleep, the Lord watcheth to prepare some meanes of evasion, which they never dream of. How did the Lord watch over Jonah while he slept under hatches, not dreaming of so pre­sent a danger? Nay, when he seemes dead and buried in the Whales belly (as in a grave of silence) how miraculously did the Lord watch to bring him to dry land, as sound and safe as if he had been kept in a strong Castle? How did the Lord watch Mordecai while he slept, Hest. 6. 1. he slept, but the King shall not sleep till he have advanced Mordecai? How did he warth over Peter (Acts 12. 7.) whilst he slept so fast in the night, as scarce an Angel could waken him, and brought him through the sleepie watch? Our experience can tell us every morning how the Lord keepes our houses, our selves without fear against robbers, fires, dangers, in the night he makes us sleep in safety, and while we are helplesse, naked, sencelesse, becomes a wall of protection round a­bout us.

[Page 253] 3. In the night of death he gives not over his watch, but watcheth the very bones of the Saints, that in the morning of the resurrection they may more fully enjoy Christ the true Manna, and attain a full measure and Gomer, and a perfect satiety and fulnesse of this sweet bread of life, Psal. 17. 15. David calls it, a satisfying with Gods Image, when he shall awake.

Sect. V.

III. See in this gift, Gods bountifulnesse and freenesse to Gods bounty to­wards his Church, to be noted. his Church in three things.

1. He offers Israel Manna without the asking, seeking, or buying; it costs them nothing but gathering: even so he offers us salvation by Jesus Christ while we ask not after him. He is found of them that seek him not. The first Adam runs away from Gods presence: the second Adam runs after him to seek and recall him out of his bushes. Now what desert or merit could there be in the first Adam to be followed with grace in his flying from it? And if there be none in him; how come we his posterity to more possibility to merit any thing but death, more than he? No, here is no merit, no buying of Manna, but onely a faithfull and thankful acceptance of it.

2. He raines it down in abundance, his hand is not short; he opened the windows of heaven, and rained down Manna to eat, Psal. 78. 14. For 1. It is for the honour of God to be bountiful and rich in mercies, and to pour down his blessings upon his people. 2. Israel needed daily abundance and store of Manna, which need he is careful to supply. But oh what great goodnesse hath God stored for them that love him! In his Son Jesus Christ he hath rained down bread of life, the greatest arme and stream that ever flowed from that Ocean. A mercy covering all the tents of believers. A mercy that lets the true Manna fall enough for a whole world of believers, not on one Nation of Israel onely, but on all the Nations of the world. For he did not so then to any other Nation, but now to all. Nay, in this Manna is a mercy not [Page 254] onely covering the earth, but a mountain of mercy reaching to heaven.

3. His hand is not weary, but every morning lets fall e­nough to feed and fill so many hundred thousands of mouths and bellies: so the grace of God in Christ is an unweariable grace. As he gave more Manna than all the Israelites were able to gather [...] so he is more infinitely able to give, than all believers are able to receive. Hence we may (with David) stir up our selves to blesse the Lord that loadeth us with blessings daily.

IV. The wisdome of God in administring his mercy to Gods wis­dome in ministring to his Church, to be noted. his Church.

1. In that he gives them Manna from heaven not from earth, they cannot now expect an annuall harvest of corne from the earth, but must expect every day an heavenly showre to be fed by; because the Lord will not have them fix their eyes and sences on earth, but know they were now to live of Gods allowance, and for their whole means depend on his hand. Let it teach us Christians to lift up our eyes and sences from earth and earthly desires, and affect that Man­na which is from heaven: every day desire to be fed with some heavenly shower for the nourishment of the soul, and preserving the life of grace in it. Let it teach us to acknow­ledge the hand of our heavenly father in the gathering of the Manna, and good things for our temporall life. He is the Fa­ther of lights, from whom descendeth every good and perfect gift. The Israelite must look to heaven for every morsell of bread that he puts in his mouth: & shall the Christian (like swine) eat up the mast, and never look up to the Tree from whence it falls.

II. In that he gives them Manna every day. He might Manna, why given daily. have given them an harvest of it once a year; or he might have rained it once a moneth, but he gives it daily; To shew 1. that he had undertaken for their daily maintenance, whose continuall supplies challenged the continuall dependance up­on his providence. 2. that they must be content with daily bread. 3. that it should be a part of their calling and exer­cise in the wilderness, where other temporall business had [Page 255] they none. Let us hence learn, 1. To acknowledge Gods wisdome; if he give us earthly Manna and meanes but from hand to mouth, he knows how to supply it with true Manna. He allowes us to pray but for daily bread; and if we have food and rayment we must be content, 1 Tim. 6. 8. 2. To confine our cares within the day, not so solicitous to lay up for many yeares, as the rich glutton. Care not for tomorrow, that is, in­ordinately, distrustfully. 3. To take notice of our daily need of the true Manna, whereof seeing God hath given us daily meanes, we must not crosse Gods wisdome, to think the read­ing of Gods Word once in a year, or moneth, or week enough; but be daily gathering, and answering the daily meanes afforded by Gods gracious wisdome, as did the Jews.

III. His wisdome is seen, in that he giveth them no Man­na on the Sabbath; but for the Sabbath a double portion on the day before.

For 1. The Sabbath day is not to seek temporal food and Why not on the Sabbath day. Manna, but spirituall and eternal.

2. He will not have his Sabbath and service interrupted, therefore he gives them a double portion on the day before.

3. He will not have them losers by being intent in his ser­vice; but as a liberal pay-master, allowes them as largely as any other day.

Let this teach us, 1. To nourish the care of Gods wor­ship above the care of our life, and more intend the businesse of the soul than of the body. So our Saviour, first seek the Kingdome of God, and then other things. 2. To become more conscionable in the keeping of the Sabbath, not seeking this day after earthly but heavenly things alone.

For consider, 1. The Lords liberality in giving thee (not a sixth day, but) six whole dayes wherein to gather earthly Manna; and wilt thou encroach his day too?

2. His liberality in giving thee Manna for the seventh day, blessing the labour of the six dayes, and thereby binding thy hands from labour on the seventh.

IV. His wisdome is seen in giving to every man his Go­mer; Measure thy desires in naturall things. and every man hath his measure. 1. To measure their desires by Gods measure. 2. That no man should have just [Page 256] cause of discontent; for he had a sufficient measure for ne­cessity, and God was not bound to provide for their wanton­nesse. 3. That no man might envy another mans dispro­portion; seeing no man had want, no man might have su­perfluity.

Let us learn hence, 1. To gather no more of this earthly Manna than God would have us to gather.

Quest. How shall I know Gods measure for me?

Answ. 1. That which his blessing by good and warran­table How to know Gods measure. meanes affordeth, is his measure; and to transgresse Gods Word in seeking or getting wealth, is to goe beyond Gods measure.

2. Neither to lay up, nor to keep any of this Manna with­out or against God. Goods well gotten shall stand and prosper (as Manna gathered in the six dayes:) But gather this Manna on the seventh day, or lay up without and against Gods Commandement, that is to say, that which thou gettest falsly, or well gotten which thou shouldst expend for Gods glory, and the charitable relief of the poor Members of Je­sus Christ, but doest not, all that shall rot and stink; as stol­len Manna did.

Sect. VI.

II. In respect of our selves also, we learn sundry instructi­ons Use in re­spect of our selves. from the consideration of both the Mannas, the typical, and the true Manna. These instructions concern, 1. Our Estate. 2. Our Duty.

1. Concerning our Estate: To note how senselesse and Man of himself senselesse of the things of Jesus Crist. void of understanding every man is by nature in the things of God and Jesus Christ, Exod. 16. 15. None of the Jewes knew what the Manna was: No more doth any man know by nature the things of the Spirit of God. 1. Cor. 2 14. The naturall man perceiveth not the things of God. If he perceive them not in his understanding, much lesse can he receive them in his affection. Tell the Jew of Christ, or let the Jew hear Christ himself speaking of himself (the Manna and bread [Page 257] of life) they conceive he is bread for the belly, they must eat him up straight, Joh. 6. 52. Tell Nicodemus of the new birth, he can conceive no second nativity, but of going into his mo­thers womb again being old, Joh. 3. 4. Tell the Samaritan of the water of life, she cannot conceive whence to have it, if not out of Jacobs Well, which he and his cattel drank, Joh. 4. 12. Nay such is our palpable blindnesse in spiritual things, as we cannot onely not find them, but even offered unto us (as the Manna to them) we cannot apprehend them, nay, we cannot but reject them, as that woman of Samaria; Jesus Christ offers himself unto her, she scornes him, and will not make nor meddle with him, Joh. 4. 9.

The reason whereof is partly in the things themselves, and partly in ourselves.

1. The things are things of Gods Spirit, and cannot be Reason 1. reached or judged by any rule in nature. For the things of Creation, the heathen knew them in part from God as God, Rom. 1. 19 But for the things of Sanctification (as that God the Father by his Sonne made the world, or that God the Sonne by his Spirit made a new world) here they are blind as moles. Nay even in this part of knowledge, the natural man asketh what engines or tooles could God get to rear such a frame, and will not believe it could be made with a word. It will ask, of what prejacent matter, and will not believe that so great a thing could be made of nothing: whereas we by faith understand, that the world was framed by the Word of God, Heb. 11. 3. How blind then must they needs be in spiritual things, that are blind in things natural?

2. The reason in our selves is, that we are wedded to our own apprehensions, and not easily led out of our conceits; as vessels hardly let goe the savour of the first liquour; we will measure all by the standard of natural reason, and by the scantling of our own senses.

Apply this observation, 1. To see our impotency, nay Applica­tion. the contrariety of our nature to Gods grace. Where is our free will to good? In what disposition stands darknesse to entertain light, which fights against it? But yee were darknesse [Page 258] (saith the Apostle) Eph. 5. 8. not dark or darkned, but dark­nesse it self. Nay, yee were dead in trespasses and sinnes (Eph. 2. 5.) not half dead (as the Samaritan) but whole dead. Now let all the Papists in the world teach us, how a dead man can dispose and prepare himself to life. And let us know how a privation of it self can regresse to an habit.

2. To see what need we have of the Ministery to help us unto the true Manna. Moses must tell the people (Exod. 16. 15.) This is the bread which the Lord hath given you to eat: So must the Ministers of the Gospel acquaint all the Israel of God with Christ (the true Manna) by the Word preached; and say, This is the bread of life which came down from heaven, in whom alone is full nourishment to eternal life. Nothing is good to salvation, but by Gods revelation. If the Word preached doe not teach thee Christ (the true Manna) thou never knowest him of thy self. Let us pitty and pray for the lamentable blindnesse, not of Popish recusants onely, but of wilful and carelesse absenters of themselves from the House of God; whose Judgement is just, if they never come to a saving knowledge of Jesus Christ.

3. Hath Christ been made known to thee, that thou hast tasted the sweetnesse of him in the Gospel? As Christ said to Peter so I say to thee, Happy art thou, for flesh and bloud hath not revealed him to thee, but the Father which is in heaven.

Sect. VII.

2. Concerning our Duty we learn sundry instructions, which may be reduced to six heads. Our duties in respect of this Manna. 1. Hunger and thirst for Christ. Motives.

I. To get in us an hunger and thirst after Jesus Christ; in whom alone is full nourishment, and without whom we are far more miserable than Israel had been without Manna.

For 1. Onely this hunger makes us value him, and see our need of him. It is hunger that is the best sauce that makes Manna sweet; and without hunger a full belly despiseth an honey comb. It is hunger that makes the prodigal sonne look towards home.

[Page 259] 2. It is the note of a blessed man, to hunger and thirst after righteousnesse, Mat. 5. 6. And this man will not rest till he be satisfied. David was an happy man in such hungry de­sires, when he desired after God, as the chased Hart after the waters. This thirst would eat out and thrust out the thirst after the world; that dropsie-thirst after gold and silver, which is never satisfied: As also the thirst after the puddle water of earthly pleasures: And this thirst would devoure and consume the thirst after revenge, as Moses his rod con­sumed the rods of the Sorcerers.

II. To goe out of our tents, and take paines to gather our 2. Take pains for him. Motives. Manna daily, as Israel did theirs.

For 1. Christ enjoynes labour for this unperishing food, Joh. 4. 14. and 2 Pet. 1. 10. give all diligence to make your election sure.

2. It is worth much paines and cost to procure Christ to our selves and others. In bodily famine how farre will men run and ride for Corn? Jacob sends all his sonnes out of Ca­naan into AEgypt for food, Gen. 42. 2.

3. Idlenesse is every where blame-worthy, especially in matters of greatest importance. God might have rained Manna into their laps or mouthes, as well as about their tents, if he had pleased; but would not for the tryal of their dili­gence: besides he is well acquainted with our corruptions, who think that worth nothing which costs us nothing. Give me leave to apply this to many idle Christians among us, who have this sweet Manna round about their tents, but will not stirre out of doores for it. If it rain not down within their own tents, though it doe [...]ound about, they will not stirre out of their tents: Like idle husbandmen that would have a harvest, but will not stirre out into the fields to plow, nor sow, nor reap, unlesse it grew at their own doores, or in their own streets. Alas how lamentable and unanswerable to God is our high unthankfulnesse; who with lesse labour than the Jewes may gather better food, and have as expresse a com­mandement as they; gather every man of this Manna ac­cording to his eating. But in stead of gathering, we ingrate­fully reject it, yea, thrust it off with both hands, as the Jewes [Page 260] did, Act. 13. 46. Take heed in time, lest the doom come out against us, as did against them: Because you have made your selves unworthy of eternall life, we turn from you to the Gentiles.

III. As Israel, so must we daily and diligently observe the times and places of gathering Manna. 3. Observe times and places to meet with Christ.

1. The place is the wildernesse, not Canaan; and all the while that they are in the wildernesse, they must gather Man­na: So we, so long as we are in this world, must gather this true Manna. Many seem to gather when they be young, but are weary and give up when they are elder: But even the oldest man of the Israelites must gather if he would eat; he must starve here that ceaseth to gather. Many have gathered enough, know as much as the best Preacher of them all, have strong faith, are sound Christians; and so was the Church of Laodicea: But be it known to thee, thou canst scarce gather enough of this Manna for the day; and he that sees his daily weaknesse will conclude with me, that his faith, hope, love, knowledge, and all his graces need daily repairing; and that he hath got but a little of Christ, that feares to get too much. Again, the place of seeking true Manna is about the tents of the Israelites; it is confined to the Camps of the true Church; where two or three are gathered, there is Christ to be found: his parents found him in the Temple. There­fore 1. It is no marvel if Christ be not to be met with a­mong Antichristan Synagogues. If men had learning to ad­miration, and above the Angels▪ they should not find the truth of Christ but among the tents and congregations of Christ. No marvel if an Egyptian misse of Manna be he never so learned. 2. Let us learn to wait in the Temple (as the antient beleivers Anna and Elizabeth) if we would meet with the consolation of Israel.

2. The time and season of gathering Manna was while it lay on the ground. We must apprehend the season of grace, that is, while the Church hath peace make use of the peace of the Gospel; as the Churches did, Acts 9. 31. Little know we how soon the sunne of persecution may arise, and melt away our Manna. But Christ may make as pittiful a com­plaint over us, (and with weeping eyes) as that over Jeru­salem, [Page 261] O Jerusalem! Oh England! if in this thy day thou knewest the time of thy visitation! Oh how rich in grace hadst thou been by knowing this season? but it hath been (in great part) hid from our eyes.

IV. As Israel must bring home the Manna, and bake, and 4. Apply and feed on Christ. grinde it, and feed upon it; for else what had it been better for them that Manna had lain about their tents in never so great abundance, had they not brought it home and sustain­ed their lives with it? so must every Christian specially ap­ply to himself Christ crucified, and by the faithful applicati­on of Christ and all his merits become one with him, as the meat or bread we eat becomes one with our bodies; thus will an hungry Christian doe. An hungry man is not con­tent with onely comming to a Cooks shop where meat is; it is not the sight, smell, or handling of meat which contents him; he must eat and fill his belly: So it is not a bare coming to the place of the Word and Sacraments (which yet many doe not) to see, and hear, and taste; but thou must feed by faith, or starve to death eternal, Heb. 4. 2. The word they heard was unprofitable, because not mingled with faith.

Quest. How may I know if I apply Christ crucified to my self?

Answ. 1. The right application of Christ crucified, is And how this may be. not to know that Christ was crucified; but when we are cru­cified with him, Gal. 2. 19 as Elisha (2 Kings 4) applyed his eyes, face, and hands to the dead child that it might quicken.

2. So much as thou truly beleevest, so much thou eatest of Christ, saith August. Look how much strength thou gettest by the Word, so much nourishment thou receivest from Christ. And so much as thou refusest, contemnest, or neglectest that, so much thou refusest Christ himself.

V. We must beware of being weary of this Manna. The 5. Be never weary of this Manna. Jewes esteemed Manna sweet at first, and went out cheerfully to gather it, yea the Sabbath and all (which was a prohibited time) so greedy were they of it: but within a little while (although it retained the sweetnesse) they waxed weary of it. We must take heed of this ficklenesse in goodnesse, which hath ever bewrayed it self in most forward people. At the [Page 262] first building of the Tabernacle men brought too much, but after took it away as fast again, John was a burning and shining light, Joh. 5. 35. and they rejoyced in his light, but it was but for a season: and few shining lights but find it so. The Gala­tians at first received Paul as an Angel, but soon revolted from him. What flocking and thronging was there after Christs doctrine and miracles, that the kingdome of God suf­fered violence, but soon they had enough of him, and in short time did tumult as fast against him? The like was observed in our own land; at the first falling of this Manna, and be­ginnings of the Gospel: men were earnest, glad, joyful, for­ward: then was a sweet time of the happy welcome of this Manna, happy was he could get his Gomer first and fullest: But now what voices hear we other than of the ungracious Israelites? Oh our soules are dryed up with this Manna, here is nothing but Manna: so much preaching, so many Ser­mons, and it was better with the world in Egypt, before all this preaching! And whereas our fathers would have ridden far to a Sermon, we, their lazie off-spring, will scarce step over our thresholds.

Let us consider here for our incitement, 1. How hard it Motives. is to begin well, but harder to hold out; and not holding out we lose all our labour. 2. That Manna is a sweet as ever, though we see not our own need; which if we did see, we would be no more weary of Gods Word were it daily preach­ed, then we are of our bread we daily eat.

VI. We must be so farre from wearinesse, as that we must 6. Prize and magnifie this Manna. highly esteem this true Manna, as the sweetest gift that ever God gave from heaven, and never forget so miraculous a mercy. That Israel might not forget Gods extraordinary mercy in this type, they must for ever keep a pot of Manna; which was preserved so long as the Temple stood for many hundred yeares. And that we might not forget this mercy in the true Manna, he hath and doth for ever preserve his Word preached, and instituted Sacraments, in which he perpetually holdeth this mercy before the eyes of the Church. Let us raise monuments of Gods mercies to our selves, and not forget lesser favours if we would not forfeit them: But [Page 263] such a mercy as this is in Jesus Christ the true Manna, let it live in our hearts, in our memories, sences, affections, actions, in walking worthy of it; for thus it becometh the just to be thankfull.


Water out of the Rock, a type.

THe second extraordinary Sacrament, sealing up to Israel Water out of the Rock, a type. their nourishment and strength in the Covenant, was the Water out of the Rock. After the Lord had brought Israel through the dangerous Sea, he brings them to Elim, a sweet and fruitful place, where were twelve fountaines of water, and seventy Palm trees, there they camped and breathed, Exod. 15. 27. Not long after they must come into the dry desart of Sin, where they want both bread and patience; for they murmure against God, and exclaim against Moses and Aaron. At this time the Lord feeds their bellies, and fills them with miracles of which Manna was full. Thence at Gods commandement must they come unto Rephidim, Exod. 17. 1. Here have they bread from heaven, but no water. Now contend they as fast with Moses for water as before for bread. And as thirst is the more eager appetite, so it inea­gers their affections, that Moses complaines to God they are ready to kill him. God sees their rebellion and puts it up; and instead of revenge of their horrible obstinacy and in­gratitude, satisfies their thirst as miraculously, as formerly he had done their famine and hunger. He commands Moses to take his rod and speak to the Rock, and then should issue The fact it self. waters in abundance to satisfie all the Campe, both man and beasts; and so he did, Exod. 17. 6.

Now we may not think that this fact concerned onely Israel in the wildernesse, but even all the Church and Israel of God passing through the wildernesse of this world: and that for these Reasons.

[Page 264] 1. The Apostle (1 Cor. 10. 4.) calleth it a spiritual Rock, both for being miraculous in effects, and for being a type of what The thing ours as well as theirs: Reasons. Propter mi­raculosum effectum, & propter futu­ri signum. Aquin. was to come. It was both miraculous and significant, and there­fore called spiritual.

2. The same water which they drank, we also drink, as in the same Chap. and ver. because in the holy Supper of the Lord, the matter of our spiritual drink is the same with theirs▪ and that is the bloud of Christ, resembled by theirs: The difference is onely in the manner of drinking.

3. Including this water of the Rock, the Apostle saith: they are all types to admonish us, and are written for us, verse 6. and 11.

4. Most plainly he affirmeth, verse 4. and that Rock was Christ; not in substance but in signification, saith Aquinas. Non per substantiam, sed per signi­ficantiam. Now▪ we having as much to doe with Christ as they, we must farther enquire into this type. 1. To parellel it with the truth by comparing them. 2. By applying it in some fruitful observations to our selves.

The Rock was a type of Christ three wayes. The Rock a type in three re­spects.

  • 1. As it was a Rock.
  • 2. As out of it issued water.
  • 3. In the manner of obtaining.

I. As a Rock, it elegantly typed out Jesus Christ, fitly compared to a Rock in five resemblances. 1. In nature: five resem­blances:

1. For the despicable appearance: The Rock is in ap­pearance dry and barren, the most unlikely thing in all the world to afford water; so as it was incredible to Moses and Aaron themselves to fetch water out of a Rock. If God had commanded them to have beaten fire out of a flinty Rock it had not been so unlikely; but to distil water out of a flint or Rock must be miraculous: Even so Jesus Christ was (for outward form and appearance in the world) most unlikely of all men to afford any such waters of grace and salvation. Isai. 53. 2, 3. He was as a dry root, without form or beauty, as an hard, barren, and despised Rock, the most abject of men, the refuse of the world, a worm and no man; of whom when the Prophets preached, they could fimd none almost that would believe their report.

[Page 265] 2. A Rock for exaltation and advancement. A Rock is a promontory lifted up above the earth: Such a Rock was Christ advanced above the earth, yea, and the heavens; ad­vanced above all men and creatures, 1. In holinesse and purity: 2. In power and authority: 3. In place and dig­nity. So Joh. 3. 31. he that comes from heaven is above all. His person is above all; for God hath exalted him, and gi­ven him a Name above all names, Phil. 2. 9. His work is above all that men and Angels can comprehend in power and merit. His place is above all; the head of the Church, eminent above all men and Angels.

3. A Rock for firmnesse and stability: He is the strength of Israel; on this Rock (as on a sure and firm foundation) the whole Church is laid, and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it, Mat. 16. 18. Hence he is a Rock of defence and safety to his chosen; and everywise man builds his house on this Rock.

4. A Rock of scandall and offence to wicked men, Rom. 9. 32. Not in himself and his nature (for he is a precious corner stone) but accidentally and passively, because men dash them­selves against him; as many, at this day bark (like doggs) against the wholesome doctrine of justification by Christ without the works of the Law. Many loose and formal Go­spellers scorn the basenesse and meannesse of Preachers and true professours of the Gospel, because their darknesse can abide no light to come near it. To all these, and thousands moe, Christ is a Rock of scandal by their own default.

5. A Rock for weight, and danger, and inavoidable judge­ment upon his adversaries; which on whomsoever it falls, it crusheth him to pieces, Mat. 21. 44. If any rise against it, they doe but tire and tear themselves: but if this Rock rise against any man, and fall upon him, it breaks him to pouder. Wit­nesse the greatest enemies of Jesus Christ which the world ever had, Herod, Judas, Julian, Jewes, Pilate; as unable to rise from under his revenge, as a man pasht to pieces unable to rise from under a Rock. 2. In respect of the wa­ters issuing forth.

II. It was a type of Christ, as it sent out water in abun­dance to the people of Israel ready to perish for thirst. For [Page 266] so Jesus Christ is the onely Rock that sends from himself all the sweet waters of life for the salvation of his elect, other­wise ready to perish eternally. For explanation whereof, mark

1. As from that Rock issued waters to wash and cleanse themselves and their garments: so from this Rock stream Three things. waters of ablution or washing; which serve to wash away both the guilt of sin, and stain of sin. For the former; the precious bloud of Christ streaming out of his side is the one­ly mundifying water in the world, to wash the soul from the guilt of sin, and to scoure away all the execration of sin from the sight of God, 1 Joh. 1. 7. The bloud of Jesus Christ cleanseth us from all sin. For the latter; from the same side of Christ our Rock issueth water as well as bloud, even the waters of regeneration, called (Tit. 3. 5.) the washing of the new birth, by the Spirit of grace and holinesse, which daily cleanse the stain and filthinesse of sin. Of these waters read, John 7. 38. He that believeth in me, out of his belly shall flow rivers of water of life: This he spake of the Spirit which he would give.

2. As from that Rock issued waters to cool and comfort Israel in their wearinesse and wandrings: so from Jesus Christ doe issue the waters of refrigeration and comfort, to cool and refresh the dry and thirsty soul; to allay the heat of a raging and accusing conscience; and to revive with new strength the fainting soul in temptation or persecution. And therefore the tyred traveller and thirsty passenger is called to these waters, Mat. 11. 28. Isai. 55. 1. For nothing but sound grace from Jesus Christ can quench the tormenting thirst of an accusing or distressed conscience.

3. As from that Rock streamed abundance of waters, to make fruitful that barren wildernesse wheresoever they ran: so onely from the true Rock issue plentiful waters of grace, to make our dry and barren hearts fruitful in all works of righ­teousnesse: Isai. 44. 3, 4. I will pour water upon the thirsty, and floods upon the dry ground; I will pour my spirit upon thy seed, and my blessing upon thy buds; and they shall grow as among the grasse, and as willowes by the rivers of waters. All this blessing of fruitfulnesse is from the Rock. See Eph. 1. 4.

[Page 267] III. In the manner of attaining this water, are many sweet 3. In the man­ner of ob­taining it. 5. Resem­blances. resemblances.

1. The people might ask Moses water, but Moses cannot give it. It is God must give it, and miraculously fetch it out of a Rock, which how it should be, Moses cannot conceive: So men may seek justification, and to drink waters of salva­tion in themselves, either by nature, as Pelagians, or by merit, as Popish Justiciaries doe, either in the Law of Moses, as the Jewes, or in Evangelical Counsels, as the fond votaries of the Church of Rome: But no Jew can tell how to procure any water to himself, neither can Moses give it. By the Law of Moses no man can be justified, nor by any fond devises be­yond the Law. But God of his grace hath devised a way, and pointed to us a Rock of living waters, to supply unto us that which was impossible to Moses Law because of our infirmity, Rom. 8. 3.

2. The Rock gives water, but not till it be smitten, Exod. 17. 6. so Christ the true Rock must be smitten with passion, he must be smitten with the wrath of his Father, and made a curse for us, before there can issue out of his side that bloudy stream by which the thirst of believers can be quenched And as the Rock was smitten twice, and waters gushed out both times: so Christ was twice smitten, first actually in himself, secondly virtually in the faith of believers of all ages, the faithful before him, believing in the Rock that was to be smitten and suffer death for sinne, the faithful after him, believing in the Rock that was smitten, dead, and raised al­ready.

3. It was the Rod in Moses hand that smites and breakes the Rock: Even so it was the Law given by Moses hand, and our transgression against it that breaks the true Rock, Isai. 53. 5. Gal 3. 13. He was made a curse for us, and our transgression of the Law was laid upon him, that we might be freed from it. And as this was the same Rod that smote the River to bring destruction on the Egyptians and enemies of the Church: so this same Law and Rod of Moses brings the curse and damnation upon all the enemies of God, from whom it is not removed by Jesus Christ.

[Page 268] 4. The Rock was smitten, but it was not so much the striking on the Rock, but the Lords standing upon it that gets water for Israel, Exod 17. 6. There was no vertue in the stroak, but all depended on Gods commandement, and pre­cept, and presence: even so, it is not the death of Christ, nor the abundance of price and merit of his bloud, nor the striking on this Rock before mens eyes in the ministery of the Word and Sacraments, that can bring one drop of true water of comfort, but by the presence and word of Gods blessing. The efficacy of grace depends not on any meanes or work wrought, but it is Gods word and presence that doth all in them.

Object. Then we may give up the use of all meanes, and pray at home for grace.

Sol. Not so, for meanes must be used, Moses must speak to the Rock. God appoints no meanes in vain, but we must not insist and dwell in them, but look beyond them to Gods blessing and successe. Moses must use the Rod, though a word without the rod might have done it: so we must use the meanes as being tyed to them (though God be not) but not stick in them, seeing the abuse of them may make them hurtful not helpful. The people of Moses (the Jewes) struck this Rock, pearced him with thornes and speares, saw with their eyes the precious fountain opened in his side (a privi­ledge in which they were beyond all people of the earth) but partly ignorant what they did, partly malitious, treading this pretious bloud under foot, not attending, not believing the Word; this real striking of this Rock was unprofitable, yea, and damnable unto them. 5. How the Rock fol­lowed the Jewes. 1 Cor. 13. 7. Petra con­sequente eos, 1. sequen [...]e, vel satisfaci­ente coru [...] voluntari. Aquin.

5. The waters of the Rock smitten followed the Israelites:

1. Noting the abundance of water, not onely for their present supply, but also for future: so in Christ and his bloud [...] abundant and plentiful redemption and consolation.

2. The Rock following them, that is, following or satisfying their desires. It followed them every where, where they desired; followed their necessities, followed their desires: So Christ Jesus is to the faithful heart, all it can desire. He followes them with all sweet and needful desires. He is above all [Page 269] that heart can think; alwayes present with us through our wildernesse, especially in most needful times.

3. It followed them, in signifying the truth which was to Veritatem sequentem significante. Aquin. follow. It signified plainly, that Christ was to follow it as the truth the tppe; and so it followed them with instruction and admonition: so Christ the true Rock followes the Church with instruction. His whole life, ministery, miracles, actions, passion, and speeches, was a real instruction. And now by his Ministery he followes us with daily directions.

4. It followed them through the wildernesse even unto Canaan. All the drynesse of that dry and barren wildernesse could not dry it up: So the waters of grace streaming from the Rock Jesus Christ, follow the believing Israel of God through the wildernesse of the world to the heavenly Canaan. All the persecutions and parching heats and droughts in the world can never dry it up. Let all the wildernesse besides want water, in Israels Campe is enough. Where God be­gins with a man in sound and saving grace here, it will carry him into the land of promise True grace must end in glory.

Hence arise observations twofold. 1. Uses in re­spect of God.

I. In respect of God, to confirme our faith in the assu­rance of his, 1. Presence. 2. Power. 3. Mercy to the Church.

I. His Presence. He that before was present in the Pillar of the Cloud and Fire for their safety, and in the Manna for Christ ever present with his Church. their sustenance; is now present in the Rock for their sa­tiety in their extreme thirst. The presence of Christ is all in all to the Church; his presence is a present supply of all wants. His eye is alwayes present; for although it goe over all the world, yet it is alwayes fixed on the Church. His ear is present, they cannot call to Moses for bread or water, but he heares and supplies. His hand is ever present with and for his Church, and is not shortned. Himself is ever present with his, in life, in death, and after; for good, for grace, and glory.

Onely keep thou these conditions. 1. Be with him, 2 Chron. Our duty by vertue thereof. 15. 2. that is, walk with him, as Henoch. 2. Keep in thy wayes; for so long he hath promised his comfortable presence.

[Page 270] 3. Rejoyce in his presence, in the presence of his spirit, in the signes and meanes of his presence; And then fear not want, sicknesse, nor to walk in the midst of the valley of the sha­dow of death for God is with thee, Psal. 23. 4. He will also prepare a table for thee in the sight of the adversarie, ver. 5.

II. Here is a testimony of such mighty and miraculous An almigh­ty power in Christ for his Church. power in God for his people▪ that even Moses himself stagger­ed, and could scarce conceive a work of such power from God. Here is a work of omnipotency in cleaving the hard Rock, Psal. 78. 15. To shew, 1. That he is a free worker, not tied to second causes; but at his pleasure can hinder, alter, or change the power of nature, Psal. 115. 3. 2. That he can work by contraries, and out of most unlikely (yea con­trary) meanes, effect his own pleasure, Luke 1. 37. Is any thing impossible to God? 3. That we should cast our eyes on this power, Psal. 62. 11. Once have I heard it, yea twice, that power belongeth to God.

And hence learn, 1. Not to limit the holy one that made heaven and earth of nothing. 2. Faithfully to depend on Our duty. this power when we see no meanes of safety or supply, but all the meanes contrary: For the Rock shall yield water rather than thou shalt want what he seeth good for thee. 3. In thy fainting and wearinesse, when thy weaknesse tells thee thou art not able to goe on in this wildernesse for want of water, of comfort and consolation, nay, art hopelesse in thy self or any meanes thou canst make; now hope above hope, Gods power is sufficient in thy weaknesse; Sampson shall get both victory and water by a jaw-bone, the most unlikely thing in the world for either. And though this power now worketh not miracles ordinarily, yet before thou that waitest on him shalt miscarry, he will miraculously sustain thee.

III. Here is a testimony of Gods admirable mercy to his people. Israel deserved to be smitten for their murmuring Gods mer­cy to his people ad­mirable. and rebellion; but the Rock is smitten for them. The Rock is not smitten for itself, but for Israel. In stead of a revenging power which they might have expected, they find a gracious power which they could not expect: Even so all mankind was to be smitten by the Law; but the Rock must be smitten [Page 271] for us. Our Rock suffered nothing for his own sinnes (who was purer in his nature and actions than all the Angels of God) but all the stroke he suffered was for the Israel of God, that they might draw out of this well-head waters of joy and abundant consolation. The mighty power of God (which we had deserved to be turned all against us) is all turned to the salvation of the Church, where mercy rejoyceth against judgement.

Thus of God.

From this Rock and water we are also to observe some 2. Uses in re­spect of our selves. See the fountain of grace open­ed. things concerning our selves.

I. We have here the accomplishment of that Prophecy, Zach. 13. 1. A fountain is opened to the house of David, and to the inhabitants of Jerusalem, for sin and for uncleannesse. Here we have Christ himself the true water out of the Rock; who onely refresheth dry and weary soules, and comforteth the fainting heart with the sweet promises flowing from the Go­spel. And that we may see the excellency and benefit of this fountain, we will a little compare this Rock with the other, and set the truth above the type, to draw our eyes and desires after it.

1. In that Rock, the Rock was one thing, the Water ano­ther: Far better than that in the wilder­nesse: 7. wayes. here Christ is both the Rock and Water, both the gi­ver, and water given.

2. That Rock refreshed wicked men and beasts: this is bestowed upon, and comforteth onely believers.

3. That Rock refreshed bodies onely: this both soules and bodies. That preserved natural life, but this torrent pre­serves the supernatural life of grace; so as a leaf withers not, nor falls from a tree of righteousnesse planted by this River of water, Psal. 1. 3.

4. That Rock might preserve and comfort the living; but could not help a dead man: but this quickneth the dead soul with new and heavenly life.

5. The waters of that Rock quenched natural thirst: but this quencheth all unnatural. One drop of it tasted by Za­cheus quenched all his unnatural thirst after the world: and [Page 272] in Paul all [...]he thirst of revenge and fury against the Saints.

6. The Rock gave water twice: this Rock gives waters of comfort alwayes. The water of that Rock followed them a great while, but at length were dryed up: but the waters of this Rock are never dryed up. The bloud of Christ is alwayes running, and a fresh fountain never dry.

7. The Israelites drank of that water, and were contented for a little while; but by and by did thirst again; But he that drinkes of this water shall never thirst again, Joh. 4. 14. that is, miserably as they: however he shall desire it still, yet his ve­ry desire is his happinesse and satiety.

II. How we are to carry our selves to this Rock and Foun­tain, Do as Israel at the Rock. namely, as Israel to that Rock.

1. The Israelites thirst and call for water, they see and feel Thirst for Christ. their need and want: so we must feel our want of Christ, and get a fervent desire after Christ and his graces, because onely the thirsty are called, Isai. 55. 1. and onely they in want see the worth of the thing wanting. Now we may not think that every wish after Christ is this thirst; for the worst can wish a part in Christ: but this thirst and desire must have three con­ditions.

1. It must be fervent and eager as Sampsons, Give me wa­ter, Conditions or I die, Judg. 15. 18. As the chased Hart panteth after the rivers of water, so doth my soul after thee, Psal. 42. 1.

2. It must be faithful. We must not thirst with repining and diffidence, as the Israelites, but with faith and confidence▪ This drawes vertue from Christ, According to thy faith be it to thee.

3. It must be constant. The Israelites thirst still till they obtain their desire: so we must not content our selves with desire, or to come where this water is and goe without it; but we must never be content with our estate (though it be never so well with us for the world) till we taste the sweet comfort and strength of Christ and his merits. To continue Continue still this thirst: Rules. thy thirst, observe two rules.

1. So long as God hath any grace to give, or is not weary of giving, thou must not be weary of thirsting, begging, asking.

[Page 273] 2. So long as thou wantest any grace, or any measure of grace received, thou must thirst still. Ever be desiring one good thing after another, and one measure of grace after another, till thou beest compleat; and then shalt thou never give over this thirst while thou livest here.

2. Israel thirsty runs to the Rock: so in thy thirst run thou Have re­course to Christ. to the Rock. Dost thou thirst for pardon of sin, for grace of sanctification, for sence of Gods love, for assurance of eter­nal life? come to this Rock for supply. Art thou ready to faint in thy soul for want of grace and comfort, art thou rea­dy to sink in sorrows, feares, faintings, wants, dangers? run to this fountain which God hath opened for thee. To move thee hereto, consider

1. The Rock it self calls thee which art thirsty (which that Motives. Rock could not doe) Joh. 7. 37. If any man thirst, let him come to me and drink

2. That to run any whither else, is to forsake the fountain of living waters, and dig pits that will hold no water. Let Papists run to the puddle waters of their own merits, or seek other Mediators or Intercessors: say thou with the Apostles, Lord thou hast the words of eternall life, and whither should we goe? Let others run to humane helpes and remedies in their sor­rowes; to cards, dice, merry company, let them run to devils and witches, and make them their Rock: Let thy heart say, The Lord is my Rock: and if the word were not my comfort, I were sure to sink in my trouble.

3. Israel coming to the Rock, did not onely draw from Quench thy thirst and be satisfied. thence, but drink heartily: so we must not onely come to the place where Christ is preached, but we must believe in him, and specially apply to our selves the merit of his death. For as drinking is a special application of water to the thirsty bo­dy, so by believing in Christ we specially apply the waters of grace to the refreshing of the soul. To believe is to drink this water, Joh. 7. 38. with Joh. 4. 14. Nothing could quench Israels thirst (being bodily) but water: and onely faith quencheth our spiritual thirst: And therefore (as they to Moses) we must say to Christ, Lord, give us faith to quench our spiritual thirst.

[Page 274] Let these motives provoke us to drink these waters. Three Mo­tives.

1. As Israel was by drinking that water revived and re­freshed, so onely these waters from Christ quicken us with new life, and cool the heat of raging and accusing conscien­ces. Every believer hath true tranquillity of heart, and joyes of the Holy Ghost within him; yea, so plentifully doe these waters of consolation rise from the Rock, that he that drinkes them is said to have the kingdome of God in him, which stands in Rom. 14. 17 righteousnesse, peace, joy, &c.

2. What madnesse and folly is it to lay about us so eagerly for this puddle water in comparison, and catching with all greedinesse at the bitter-sweet comforts of this life, which prove poyson to the most; and neglect the sweet and pure streames of saving waters of grace flowing from the true Rock Jesus Christ. We read what strife and contention was among the Jewes for wells of spring water; and now no man will lose a dishful of well water, but he will know to whom: and shall we onely not care for the water of saving grace, which cost Christ so dear before he could open the well of it for us?

3. When the woman of Sumaria heard Christ say, that he that drank of this water should thirst no more: Lord, saith she, give me this water, that I may no more thirst, nor come hither to draw: Joh. 4. 15. So let it stir up our desires after it also, that we may get within the well that springeth up to eternal life.

3. What means may we use for the attaining of water out Meanes to get wat [...] out of this Rock. of this Rock?

Answ. 1. Be an Israelite. That Rock was smitten onely for them: This Rock is laid in Sion, not in AEgypt. No AE­gyptian, no Canaanite, no Romish AEgyptian that drinkes of that Popish puddle, no profane worldlings taste of these wa­ters; swill and draffe is good enough for such swine.

2. Come to the place. Israel must goe out of them houses, as well to fetch water out of the Rock, as to gather Manna. The place whence the Rock sends water is the threshold of the Sanctuary, Ezeck. 47. If we will not stir out of our dores, we may justly starve.

3. Avoid letts and hinderances that dam up these waters:

[Page 275] As, 1. Ignorance of their worth, and of thy own need; Hindrances Joh. 4. 10. If thou knewest the gift of God, thou wouldst have ask­ed. &c. Good reason thou want it, who thinkest it a thing thou mayst best want. Many among us (like Tantalus) in the midst of water die for thirst.

2. Hardnesse of heart, which keeps the soul dry and bar­ren; and abiding in the natural hardnesse of a Rock, all the waters of this spiritual Rock are lost upon it.

3. A quenching and grieving of the spirit; this turns the stream another way, that it finds another chanell. Grieve not the spirit, but grieve rather that thy self art so strait-neck­ed a vessel.

4. Secure neglect of meanes. A man that will be rich fol­lows the meanes: so he that meaneth to be rich in grace; whereas he that meaneth to die a begger, casts up all, and makes holy-day at his pleasure.

4. Provide, 1. The bucket of faith to draw; for the well Helpes. is deep, and without this bucket thou gettest none, John 4. 11. 2. Find a fit vessel to put these waters in: As 1. A clean vessel of a pure heart. Who would put Aqua vitae, or Balm water, in a fusty and stinking bottle? 2. A whole vessell, that it leak not out again. This whole vessell is a whole and sincere heart, but broken all to pieces. No vessell here can hold but a broken and contrite heart. God fills the humble; the haughty and proud are sent away empty.


The Brazen Serpent, a type.

THe History of the Brazen Serpent is in Numb. 21. 6, 7, 8. The brazen Serpent a type of Christ. The disease of Israel at this time. where are two things.

  • I. The Disease.
  • II. The Remedy.

The Disease is set down, 1. In the occasion, ver. 5. 2. In [Page 276] the kind, by fiery Serpents sent by God to sting them. 3. In the effect, many dyed. In all which Story we must not stick in the letter or bark, but break through to the kernel and truth: The rather, because our Lord Jesus (an interpreter beyond all exception) brings us hereby to himself; and to the conside­ration both of our disease, and of the remedy, and the appli­cation of it, Joh. 3. 14. 15. As Moses lift up the Serpent in the wildernesse: so must the Son of man be lift up; that whosoever be­lieveth in him should not perish, but have eternall life. It will be now both pleasant and profitable to look a little while upon the apt resemblance of the type with the truth both in the dis­ease and remedy: and first of the occasion of the disease.

Sect. I.

I. The occasion of the disease was the peccant humour of ingratitude and murmuring against the grace of God mira­culously The occasi­on of it. manifested in the wildernesse. Never had any peo­ple upon the face of the earth the like mercies from God, the like experience of God. Never any fed and feasted with so many miracles as it were in ordinary. They have water fol­lowing them every where out of a Rock. They have bread from heaven, delicate even to a miracle; but this Angels food is too light, and no bread will serve them but from earth. God gave them abundance of it for the gathering; he rained it most bountifully round about their tents: but their un­thankful souls loath it, and tread it under foot. And there­fore rising up against God, and tempting him, they were de­stroyed of Serpents, 1 Cor. 10. 9.

Note here by the way, 1. The Justice of God. He that Which lea­deth to Gods Ju­stice. brought Manna from heaven to feed them, for contempt of his grace now brings Serpents out of the earth to revenge and destroy them. Rom. 2. 4, 5. The despising of Gods bountiful­nesse, treasureth up wrath. See the same Justice on our selves. How lightly did we in our first parents regard that upheaped measure of bounty and grace conferred by God in our Crea­tion and innocency? And how justly were we stung to death by the old Serpent for it? The unthankfull person is the greatest robber that is.

[Page 277] 2. See the equity of this Justice on the Israelites: They And the e­quity of it. not contented to murmur against the Lord, set also upon Moses and Aaron his servants, Why have yee brought us into the wildernesse to die? Now their punishment is answerable to their sin. They transgresse in hot and fiery tongues, and are punished by hot and fiery stings. Venomous words against God and his servants, are revenged by the mouthes of poy­soned and venomous Serpents. Doe thou at thy perill sting God and his servants with bitter words, God will have some Serpent or other to sting thee. I am out of doubt, that many great plagues have lingred, and doe, amongst us in this land, for the poysoned and reviling speeches cast against God and his servants every where. We sting his holy profession and servants incessantly, and he stings us with the Scorpions of his Judgements.

3. Beware of being weary of Manna. Never did man com­plain And teach­eth not to be weary of Manna. of plenty of Manna, but was justly stung with want of it. Doe thou complain without cause, and thou shalt have cause to complain. Israel that complains of too much Manna, shall shortly change their note, and cry out of too many Serpents.

II. The kind of the disease. The Lord sent fiery Serpents to sting them. Where, 1. Why Serpents? 2. Why fiery? The kind of it. Why Ser­pents. 3. Why stinging?

1. This disease by Serpents lively resembles our disease of soul, which is no other than the fiery sting of the old Serpent, which is the devill, Rev. 12. 9. Our spiritual disease is hence noted to come from that old Serpent at first. Now Satan is aptly compared to a Serpent in five respects:

1. Because he covered himself with a Serpent, when he first The devill so termed, why. stung and deceived mankind.

2. He is more subtle than any Serpent; crafty to insinu­ate and deceive, 2 Cor. 11. 3. 14.

3. As a Serpent dwels and lies among thornes, bushes, bryars, and feeds upon dust: so the devill reigns in the thick­ets and bushes of worldly cares and lusts, and feeds upon worldings, exercising his chief power against them.

4. As a Serpent casts out of his mouth venome and poy­son: so the devill casts out nothing but virulent words against [Page 278] God and his Saints, and spewes out after the Church a flood of poyson to drown her. How he blasphemed Job, how he is the accuser of the brethren, how of the head Christ himself, the Scripture declares.

5. As a Serpent is cursed above all beasts, so is the devill, The first cursed creature in the world was this Serpent, and hath ever since remained the cursed head of all cursed rebels and wicked ones, to whose custody and condemnation they shall all be gathered in the last day, Mat. 25. 41. goe yee cursed, &c.

2. Why called fiery Serpents? Why fiery Serpents.

Answ. 1. From their colour. Through abundance of poy­son they had a shining and glistering skinne, and they seemed as if they had been made of fire. A resemblance we have in our Snakes, that seem to shine and sparkle against the Sun.

2. From their effect. For with their sting they infused such poyson into the bodies of the Israelites, as stirred up in them an outragious heat and fire. Now these diseases are most painful, and so tormentful, as if a wild-fire were in the bow­els, feeding upon the bones, marrow, and members.

3. From their end. 1. Because they were appointed by God, and after a sort inflamed and kindled with desire of re­venge of the Lords wrongs; and they so fiercely assaulted the Israelites, as if a raging and devouring fire had seised upon them, which no way they could avoid. 2. That in their pu­nishment they might be admonished, both what a fearful fire of Gods wrath they had kindled by their sin against them­selves; as also that they had deserved a more fearful fire in hell to seize upon their whole man everlastingly.

3. Why stinging Serpents? Why sting­ing Ser­pents.

Answ. To imply unto us, 1. That sin is the sting of this old Serpent, even a poysoned sting that he hath thrust into all mankind. But with this difference; in that this poyson is far more general, and the wounds infinitely more mischievous than were those of the fiery Serpents. For, 1. They stung a few Israelites, but not all; but this Serpent hath stung all mankind, none excepted. 2. They stung the bodies onely; but these, souls and bodies also. 3. They stung one part of [Page 279] the body; this Serpent all parts, and whole man. 4. They to a temporal death, this to an eternal.

2. To imply, that sin is the sting of a fiery Serpent. 1. Set on fire with wrath and cruelty, and desire to poyson and de­stroy us, Rev. 12. 17. 2. Setting on us with fiery darts. For Temptati­ons called fiery darts, why. so his temptations are called (Ephes. 6. 16.) for three reasons.

1. From the manner and custome of souldiers in times past, which cast poysoned darts, the poyson of which inflamed the wounded bodies, and made the wounds incurable. As now many out of desperate malice poyson their weapons and bullets to make sure with their enemy: So doth Satan by all meanes poyson his darts to speed the Christians soul.

2. Because as fiery darts they inflame and kindle in the heart all manner of burning lusts and sinnes, one of them be­ing but as a spark or firebrand to kindle another.

3. Because they leave for most part a cauterized and seared conscience behind them, as if they were burnt with an hot iron, which makes the sinner stung senslesse of his wound. Whence is another miserable difference between the stung Israelite, and the stung sinner. The former was alwayes felt with grief and pain; but this often not felt, and so more desperate.

3. The effect of this stinging was death in many: And so 3. The mortal effect of it. the effect of sin is death in all. The stung Israelite had death in his bosome, and no other could be expected: so the guilty sinner is stung to death. In his nature is every man the son of death, and can expect nothing but death every moment. And as the stung person in the wildernesse had no meanes in himself, nor from others, to avoid either the Serpent, or death from it, till God appointed them the brazen Serpent: So the poor sinner was destitute of all help in himself and others, till the Lord appointed Jesus Christ the promised seed, to break the Serpents head: There is given no name else, whereby we must be saved, Act. 4. 12.

First, Note hence how deceitful are the pleasures of sin. It Observa­tions, is as a sweet poyson: Job 20. 12. sweet in the mouth, but poyson in the bowels. What wise man would drink a draught of poyson for the sweet taste of it? Wicked men hold sin as a sweet morsel: but sour sauce follows it.

[Page 280] Secondly, What little cause we have to love our sinnes: for that is to love our own bane. Prov. 8. 35. He that sin­neth against me, hurteth his own soul; and all that hate me, love death. No sin, but the more pleasing, the more poyson­ing; the more delicate, the more deadly. Sin never so much disguised, never the lesse deadly.

Thirdly, That sinners are but dead men while they live, 1 Tim. 5. 6. An Israelite stung was but a dead man: So al­though the reasonable soul in a sinner makes him a man, yet the want of the Spirit of grace makes him a dead man. Death waits upon sin as the wages on the work; and hell upon death that comes before repentance.

Fourthly, A fool he is that makes a mock of sin. Who would play with a deadly Serpent, or make a jest of his own death? or drink up the poyson of a Serpent in merriment? or cast darts and fire-brands about him to burn himself and others, and say, Am I not in sport? See Prov. 26. 18. and 10. 23. and 14. 9. Oh that we could discern our wounds as sensibly as we are certainly stung! It would make us run to God, and get Moses to goe to God for us, and pray that these Serpemts and painful wounds might be removed. If we saw death as present and as ghastly in our sins as Israel did in their stinging, we would hasten our repentance, and seek after meanes of cure.

Sect. II.

The Remedy is, First prescribed, Numb. 21. 8. Second­ly The reme­dy of that disease. applied, vers. 9. Thirdly, in the same verse is the ef­fect: they recovered and lived. So then in the Reme­dy are, 1. Ordination. 2. Application. 3. Sanation, or Cure.

I. The appointing hath, First, the person appointing, 1. God ap­points the meanes of health to soul and body. which was God himself, who devised it and prescribed it to Moses: for God will save onely in his own meanes. So God himself so loved the world, that he gave his onely begotten Son, &c. Joh. 3. 16. This way of remedy and cure could be [Page 281] no devise of man nor Angel. For, 1. The Angels stand still admiring and amazed at it, 1 Pet. 1. 12. 2. Men with­out a superior teacher cannot conceive it, 1 Cor. 2. 14. much lesse invent it.

Secondly, The thing appointed, a Serpent of brasse, resem­bling Christ in the matter and the form.

1. The matter was of Brasse, not Gold, for five reasons. A brazen Serpent, not golden: five reasons

1. God ties not himself to the excellency of meanes, but by weak and unlikely meanes effects his great works: And therefore that which had no power of cure in it self must cure and heal, that the work may be known to be his, and not the meanes.

2. The lower and baser the meanes are, the better may the Israelites be led through them, and so beyond them. It was not the will of God, that they should rest in the brazen Ser­pent, which had no power of cure; but through it be led by faith unto the Messiah, who onely could cure them.

3. Though it was of brasse, yet it was strong: and signi­fied Jesus Christ; how weak soever in mens eyes, yet was he, First, the mighty and strong God: Secondly, powerful and able to deliver his people: Thirdly, most invincible and po­tent also against all his enemies, he is a wall of brasse, and his strength is as the strength of brasse, Rev. 1. 15.

4. Being of brasse, as it was strong, so was it shining and bright: signifying Christ, in respect of his divine and eter­nal generation, truly shining and glorious. He was the bright­nesse Ipsum [...] gloriae Dei. of his Father, Heb. 1. 3. the very brightnesse of the glo­ry of God; excelling all the Angels in heaven, in their clear­est glory and brightnesse, Rev. 1. 16.

5. As that Serpent so shined, that the Israelites might look upon it, and their eyes not dazled: so this great glory was so veiled by his flesh and humility, as we the Israel of God might behold it, yea, approach it, and fetch our salvation and happinesse from it.

2. It resembled Christ in the form; for the form was of Serpents form notes Christ: how a Serpent.

1. A Serpent is of an hateful and contemptible shape and appearance: so was Christ in his own habit, Isai. 53. a despised [Page 282] man, a worm rather than a man; men saw no beauty in him, but hid their eyes.

2. The Serpent was accursed of God: so Christ lay under the curse of sin for us, Gal. 3. 13.

3. That was but like a Serpent; in the form of a Serpent, not a Serpent; it had onely the shape, not the life, sting, nor poyson of a Serpent: So Jesus Christ was the similitude of sinful flesh, but no sinner. No venome or poyson of sin was found in him, neither in his nature nor actions. Rom. 8. 3. he was in the similitude of sinfull flesh, as that of a Serpent, but without all sting or spot of sin. [...]. End and use of it: what to us.

The third thing in the appointment is the end or use of the Serpent. It must be lift up upon a pearch, that all Israel might see it. Which plainly noteth both the kind of death which Christ must suffer, as also the proper end and vertue of it: as in these particulars.

1. Both must be lifted up: So Christs crucifying is called an exaltation from the earth, Joh. 12. 32.

2. Both must be exalted upon wood; the Pole a type of the Crosse of Christ.

3. Both among the Jewes; out of the Church is no sal­vation.

4. Both to be looked upon; one with the eye of the bo­dy, the other with the eye of faith.

5. Both to recover health and life; one of body, the other of soul; one frees from corporal death, the other from spiri­tual and eternal.

II. The applying of this remedy was nothing but the look­ing upon the brazen Serpent: which signified the sinners be­holding 2. Applicati­on of the remedy. of Jesus Christ for his cure. The meanes of applica­tion of the remedy was the eye of the Israelite: So the in­strument of applying the remedy by Jesus Christ, is the eye of faith, which is the eye of the soul. So our Saviour Christ himself expoundeth it (Joh. 3.) As the brazen Serpent was lift up, so shall the Son of man, that whosoever believeth in him, &c. That which Moses calls looking on the type, Christ calls be­lieving in himself the truth. Which if the Lord had not pur­posed to expresse, he could as easily have removed the Ser­pents, [Page 283] as appointed the making of another; and as easily have healed them by his word, as by this sign: but hereby affords them a double mercy and cure, one of the body, by the sign, another of their soules, by the thing and truth there­by signified.

III. From this application follows a saving effect. The 3. The saving effect. Israelite by looking lived, and received present ease, with freedome from pain and poyson: So the believer looking on Christ by the eye of faith, hath an heavenly life restored; present ease from the pain of a guilty and accusing consci­ence; freedome from the poyson of sin, both the guilt and stain of it.

But herein the truth is advanced above the type. By Christ farre more excellent.

1. That brazen Serpent had not power in it self to cure; this hath power in it self.

2. Whereas they were cured to dye again; believers at­tain a sound cure, never to dye more, Joh. 11. 26.

3, Whereas that did not alwayes retain the vertue of cu­ring, our brazen Serpent doth ever retain power and vertue for the salvation of believers, looking towards him, to the end of the world.

4. Whereas this brazen Serpent, now a remedy against poyson, was after turned to poyson the Israelites in Hezeki­ahs time; which made him stamp it to powder: our brazen Serpent ever remaineth the soveraign and healing God; as unchangeable in his goodnesse, as he is in his most holy and divine nature.

5. That remained a great while, about seven hundred and threescore yeares, but after was defaced and destroyed: Our brazen Serpent can never be defaced or destroyed, but abides the Saviour of sinners to all eternity.

Oh now what a sweet Sermon doth this one type contain of the whole sum and marrow of the Gospel? what a preg­nant testimony and vaticinie is it alone of the death and passion of Jesus Christ, as also of the vertue and merit of the same? and consequently what a prop and stay of our faith? what a goade and spurre to drive us to Jesus Christ, in whose name alone we can be saved?

Sect. III.

I. Note. What weak, unlikely, and contrary meanes the Observati­on 1. God helpes his people by weak, unlikely, and contra­ry meanes. Lord useth, to effect great things for his Church, and in his Church. Was there any sence or reason to be conceived in all this counsel and ordinance of God in healing thus his people?

1. Could a Serpent of brasse, a shape onely more heal than hurt them?

2. Could a dead Serpent prevail against so many living and fiery Serpents?

3. Shall not this shape and image of a Serpent be so much as touched or applied to the wound; but the sight of it one­ly afar off cure a mortal wound really inflicted? How in­conceivable is this to humane reason, which perhaps would count it foolish and ridiculous? But the Lord (though he might by many other more mighty and likely meanes) will by no other meanes effect their deliverance. He that brought in the Serpents could as easily have removed them; if not that, yet he might have hindered them from biting them; or he might powerfully of the same poyson have made a reme­dy: but he chooseth most unlikely meanes.

Quest. Why doth the Lord thus?

Answ. For three reasons. And why he doth so.

1. He will have his people look for help at no hand but his own, who useth in such meanes to help, as whence no help can be expected but onely divine. Israel now sees, that all the world cannot make a dead Serpent prevail against living Serpents, but that God of all the world, to whom all crea­tures obey.

2. He will have his people hereby know and acknow­ledge the power of his Word. For it was not the Serpent, as it was brasse, nor as it was lifted up, nor as it was beheld, that could heal them, but as unto this sign was added, the word, first of commandement, secondly of promise. By vertue of which word [...]1. [...].2. Pro­missio­ [...]. the infected persons were cured, Psal. 107. 20. he sent out his word and healed them. Gods word alone can make a Serpent heal, and a dead Serpent restore to life.

[Page 285] 3. He will shew the mighty power of his arme, which hath ever by weak things confounded the mighty. See this in examples.

When God was to save Noah from the deluge, one would 3. Examples. have thought it fit to have reared him up a mighty turret of iron or Adamant, or founded him some invincible building upon some mighty Rock to have resisted the waters: But Noah must build himself a weak Ark of boards and a little pitch, and that must float all the time, and sustain all the waves and billowes without mast, stern, or Pilot, or any the like meanes to preserve it.

When God was by Joshua to demolish the mighty walls of Jericho, he bids him not set against it huge engins, or war­like Ramms and batteries to batter it seven dayes together, but he must cast down the walls with looking on them, and win the City by walking about it seven dayes; and onely blow upon it with Rams hornes, but not lift an hand or wea­pon against it, Josh. 6.

When God sends Gideon against an huge army of Midia­nites to overcome them, a man would have thought he would have furnished them with armour of proof, and munition fit for the warre, but he puts into their hands trumpets, and pitchers, and lampes within the pitchers, and bids them not fight, but onely make a noyse, and so they conquer, Judg. 7. 17.

When God is to foyle that mighty Giant Goliah, a warri­our from his youth, who alone (at the sight of him) made all Israel run away, 1 Sam. 17. 24. he chooseth not a man of war and prowresse, but a poor shepheard, David, a boy, as Saul calls him, ver. 33. and he not armed with sword and spear as Goliah was, but with a sling, and a scrip, and five stones; with which when he had overthrown him, he bor­rowed his own sword to cut off his head.

These instances instead of many may serve to shew Gods ordinary custome and delight to effect the greatest matters by weakest meanes, and to advance his own power in weak­nesse. Useful to us in these times.

This doctrine may be fruitfully applyed to our present [Page 286] times, in which we see such tumults raised against the Church; such insolencies of the enemy, such hopes, yea, and triumphs before victory. If God give his Church a check, and his peo­ple receive a foyle, oh how the enemy laughs, and boasts, and blasphemes as if all were theirs! but let us raise our faith and confidence in considering these grounds.

I God can and doth often work by unlikely and contra­ry Grounds for faith in these trou­bles of the Churches. meanes. When he was to multiply Abrahams seed as the starres of heaven, he begins his promise with that precept; Abraham take thy son, thy onely son, and slay him in sacri­fice. What seemed more diametrally or directly contrary to this promise, yet hindered not but furthered it?

2. Gods word and promise for the present causes of the Church shall be accomplished, either with meanes or without them, yea, against them. God hath determined, and in his word foretold the fall of Antichrist, and destruction of Ba­bylon, Isai. 60. 12. the kingdome that will not serve the Lord shall be destroyed, much more that kingdome which is most op­posite to the Lord, as this is. More specially, 2 Thes. 2. 8. whom the Lord shall consume and abolish: There is, both a con­sumption, 1. [...]. 2. [...]. and an extinction: The former we have seen, the second as certainly remaines in short time to be done, Rev. 19. 20. 21. The Beast and the false Prophet shall be taken, and their flesh made meat for the fowls of the air. There is more strength in this word of God, than in all Antichistian limbes and captaines. All Babylons Physitians shall not heal her, for great is the Lord who will destroy her. If this be the time it shall forward apace; if deferred, not forgotten.

3. The cause in hand is Gods cause, against a Kingdome; 1. Contrary to Christs whole Kingdome. 2 A Kingdome 3. Kingdom of Anti­christ, how fit for de­struction. destinated to destruction by God. 3. A Kingdome against which Christian Princes are called to sanctifie their swords, and to fire her, and to return double according to the whores workes. 4. A Kingdome in which every member is an high blasphemer, and ought to dye, no eye pittying them. 5. A Kingdome, an infinite encroacher upon Chri­stian Kings and Kingdomes, and disturber of all their com­mon and publike peace, by claimes to all Crowns, Scepters, [Page 278] Lawes, subjection: but God is with his cause, and therefore it is strong enough.

4. The cause is not therefore at an end, because foyled; nor farther from victory, because the party seemes weaker, and the meanes incomparable, Judges 20. Israel had the bet­ter cause than Benjamin, and more number of souldiers, and were prudent and expert in war, as it appeares by some stra­tagems set against the enemy; yet was foyled and broken twice, because, although God had been sought, yet not so se­riously as was fit. If the Israel of God had sought the Lord so seriously by fasting, prayer, and sound humiliation, the powers of Antichrist could not prevail. But great are the sinnes of the Church, which must be corrected; and God will be more earnestly sought to be found in so great mercy. Again, Salomon observed, that the race was not alwayes to the swift, nor the battail to the strong, nor for their strength. Gideons Army may be too many for God to give victory by: Meanes are to be used, not trusted in; and whether they be likely or unlikely, God will save his Church, either by them or without them. Therefore let the Church look back to that of Moses, Exod. 14. 14. The Lord shall fight for you, and yee shall hold your peace.

Sect. IV.

II. Moses having a commandement, shuts his own eye, Observati­on 1. The eye of faith must shut the eye of reason. and makes a brazen Serpent, though he had no reason for it. And the people having a word of commandement and promise; shut the eye of their reason, and open the eyes of their faith, and by beholding this shape of a Serpent were cured; and found life restored, not by a thing having life, but by a dead thing. Learn how the eye of faith must shut up the eye of our reason; and having a word of God, look confi­dently upon it, be it never so unreasonable or impro­bable. Without which four things can­not be ob­tained. There be four things which a man shall never attain, till the eye of his faith close up the eye of his rea­son.

[Page 288] 1. He shall never attain the true knowledge of divine 1. The true knowledge of divine things. things. Gods wisdome hath no greater enemy than humane wisdome not sanctified: No men hardlier nor seldomer converted than worldly wise men: as the Scriptures, which say, not many wise, and experience shews daily. What wiser men in the world than the Philosophers and Stoicks of A­thens? but when Paul came to dispute among them of do­ctrine of religion, he was called a babler, Act. 17. 18. What [...]. will this babler fay? and reasoning among them of the re­surrection, he was derided and mocked, verse 32. Was not Festus a wise man, and a prudent Governour? and yet when Paul preached to him, no other things than Moses and the Prophets had foretold of those sufferings, death, and resur­rection, Festus tells him, too much learning had made him mad, Acts 26. 24. John 9. 6. Christ to cure a blind man tem­pered clay and spittle together, and applyed it to his eyes, and bids him goe to Siloe: A remedy likelier to put out a mans eyes than to recover sight. There was no reason in the earth of the remedy, but onely to try whether the blind man did constantly believe. Yet if the blind man had not wholly resigned himself to Christ, and shut up his own reason; had not he acknowledged Christ able to doe what he would by what he would; and to be the same God, who at first put all sences into a piece of clay, and now by a piece of clay would recover his sence, he had never seen, but remained blind still.

So every naturall man, born as blind as he in spiritual things, till he wholly submit himself, and subdue his reason to the meanes appointed, shall never see any thing to salvation, but a bide in natural blindnesse still. What hope hath he to be taught by the Spirit, that must give lawes to the Spirit of God? or what a short [...]et-wand is natural reason to mea­sure divine things by? 1 Cor. 1. 21. and 1 Cor. 2. 14. Why else did these Jews esteem the doctrine of the Gospel scan­dal, but that reason of flesh would not, nor could behold life and glory in such a base life and ignominious death as Christs was, nor could hold him the Messiah, who was made a curse upon the Crosse, as if he had been crucified through [Page 289] infirmity? and this vail (as to them) remaineth at this day unremoved. And why was Christ foolishnesse to the Grecian, but that reason would not yeild, that life should be fetched out of death, or salvation to be sought in curse and malediction.

2. He that shuts not the eye of reason can never attain 2. Faith: as in six particu­lars. faith. There be six things which a man cannot believe, so long a [...] he sticks to natural reason.

First, He cannot believe the Word of God, nor depend upon, but scorn the Ordinances of God in the Word preach­ed, and Sacraments administred, which is the visible word. Reason unrenewed cares not for this foolishnesse of preaching. 1 Cor. 1. 21. And to a carnal man the threatnings of God are like Lots warning to his kinsmen; he was as one that mocked or jested. A promise to a carnal heart, is as taste­lesse as the white of an egge. The wiser men are, the further off they are from believing in a crucified God, or conceiving that by the foolishnesse of preaching, God will save such as believe. Flesh and bloud revealeth nothing.

Secondly, He cannot believe the main promises of God, which cannot be comprehended but by the eye of faith, and not by that till the eye of reason be shut up. God hath promised his presence, favour, and love with his children: how can reason conceive the truth of this promise, seeing them in hunger, thirst, wants; hearing them reviled, slander­ed, disgraced; observing them cast out of companies, and societies, as refuse and out-sweeping; that were their hopes here onely, they were of all men most miserable? Reason will not be perswaded, that God can send us by hell to heaven, yet that is his promise. Humane reason will never pray, My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me? How could Abraham have believed the promise of a son by Sarah, had he looked Mat. 27. 46. to natural reason?

Thirdly, He cannot believe the main Articles of faith, that hath not resigned up his reason. Example. Reason will not believe an happy resurrection, seeing the body ra­ked up in dust and corruption, but denies this Article. Rea­son cannot conceive or believe an eternal life, because it [Page 290] sees it not given but to dead men. It cannot apprehend how the Son of God should become the son of man, or that this Son of man was born of a Virgin without man. And so of the rest.

Fourthly, He cannot believe the miracles of Scripture for confirmation of Gods truth and our faith. Natural rea­son cannot believe that the Sun ever stood still, as in Gibeah, much lesse went back ten degrees, as in Hezekiahs time, 2 King. 20. 11. Or that fire should descend, which naturally ascendeth, and feed upon water contrary to nature, as at Elias prayer, 1 King. 18. 39. Or that fire should rain down (as on Sodome) which is proper to water. Or that fire should not burn the three children: Or that water should stand as a wall (as in the Red sea, and in the river Jordan) whose pro­perty is to be fluid.

Fiftly, He cannot believe the work of creation, if he will believe reason; the universal consent of which is, That of nothing, nothing can be made; and not anything (much lesse all things) out of nothing. To reason therefore it will be incredible, that there should be light before the Sun, or fruits before any rain, as in the Creation. Heb. 11. 3, By faith we know (not by reason) that the worlds were framed by the word of God, so that things which are seen, were not made of things which doe appear.

Sixtly, He cannot believe the great work of Redempti­on. For natural reason thinks it unreasonable, that the life of the Church can be fetched out of the death of Christ. That a man can be justified by the imputed righteousnesse of another, and yet there dwell, so many sinnes in him. Reason will not believe, that one man can recover life by anothers death: no more than one man can live by anothers soul, or be wise by anothers learning, or be cured and brought to health by anothers disease.

3. So long as the eye of reason is open, a man shall never attain sound obedience unto God. For much of that obedi­ence 3. Obedience which God will accept. required at our hands is clean against corrupt nature: As the whole doctrine of repentance, of mortification, or watchful and careful conversation, of restraining our selves [Page 291] in unlawful liberties, yea, and in lawful; all crosses reason. Had Abraham ever sacrificed his son, had he consulted with reason? Had Paul ever joyned to the Disciples to preach that doctrine which he had persecuted, had he consulted with flesh and bloud, Gal. 1. 16? What other reason can be given, that the word powerfully preached is so generally fruitlesse, but that men think they have reason not to obey it, at least not in all things? They see no reason to be so pre­cise; nor is there any wisdome to be so forward. Reason tells them they see few great men so strict, and but a few de­spised men are so earnest.

4. He shall never attain heaven. 1 Cor. 15. 50. Flesh and 4. Heaven and the glory thereof. bloud cannot inherit the kingdome of heaven; neither doth cor­ruption inherit incorruption. By flesh and bloud is meant the vitiate and corrupt estate of man; or flesh and bloud sever­ed from the spirit and grace of God; or the man unregene­rate, having onely flesh and bloud. So Mat. 16. 17. Blessed art thou Simon Jonas, for flesh and bloud hath not revealed it unto thee, but my Father. So as here is not required an abolition of flesh and bloud in the being and substance of it, but an ad­dition of new qualities. As in Christs transfiguration was not an extinction of his body, but an accesse of incredible glory; without which change none can get to heaven. John 3. 3. Ex [...]ept a man be born again, he cannot see the King­dome of God. The Apostle adds the reason, 1 Cor. 15. 50. Gods kingdome is incorruptible; flesh and bloud in it self is corrupted, and so not capable of that kingdome. Therefore to come to heaven thou must be changed in thy will, reason, wisedome and all.

Sect. V.

To apply this:

I. Labour to bring the eye of faith to the word: else Use. 1: Believe the word abso­lutely. shall we be ready to reject holy doctrine (as absurd and im­possible) as Nicodemus did the doctrine of regeneration. Why else doe most men live no other than a natural life, in [Page 292] the midst of so many supernatural and divine meanes, but that their reason resists the Spirits perswasions? Why are many wholsome doctrines daily distasted and quarrelled against by our witty men; but that they think they have better reason to doe as they doe, than any that we can bring out of Gods book? Why else doe so many fall back to Po­pery and idolatry, but because they cast off the teaching of the Spirit, and give themselves to another teacher, agreeing with natural corruption and reason? If a man were to be led onely by reason, and it were lawful to cast off religion, I would choose to be a Papist, by which doctrine it is law­ful to be every thing but a sound Christian. Therefore though some Apostates are gone from us, we need not care how many such turn Papists; for such were and are their gracelesse and lawlesse courses, that it were pity they should be of any other religion, than that which yeilds men so much liberty.

II. Pray for that eye-salve wherewith to annoint our Use. 2. Pray for eye-salve: and what it is. eyes that we may see, Revel. 3. 18. This eye-salve is no­thing but the spirit of illumination, working sound and sa­ving knowledge in the mind, by which their natural dark­nesse is enlightned, as eye-salve sharpens and cleares the dim sight. This is proper to the regenerate, that they have re­ceived the [...]ointing, which teacheth them all things, that is, all needful things.

III See what need we have to captivate our own wis­dome Use. 3. Captivate thy own reason and wisdome. and reason, being one of the highest [...] and holds i [...] [...] [...]ed against [...] God, 2 Cor. [...]0. 5. If this be not brought into subjection unto God, we can never become his servants. The Apostle in the same verse sheweth what must be cast down and captivated; his words are, Casting down reason­ings, [...] and bringing into captivity every thought to the obedience of Christ. These reasonings and cogitations (the froth of hu­mane reason) must be resisted, yea, remoued. Thou must become a fo [...] to be wise. As a full vessel cannot hold any more, and no wise man will offer to pour any thing into it, if he would not spill it: So an heart filled with carnal wisedome, is an uncapable vessel for the Lord to pour his [Page 293] wisdome into, He fils the empty vessel, and teacheth the humble.

Obey without reasoning or disputing, though the comman­dement be never so difficult, or seem unreasonable. Abra­ham left his own countrey, and went he knew not whether at Gods commandment. One would have thought that this had been folly in him, but that the Scripture acquits him, and saith, he did it by faith, Heb. 11. 8. And in a more difficult commandment he rose early to slay his son, not reasoning the case with himself, nor with Sarah, nor his son, nor his servants. The Disciples when Christ bad them leave all and follow him, did so presently.

Here let us consider: 1. How reasoning with flesh re­sists Moti [...] [...] the commandement. 2 King. 5. 12. Naaman being commanded to wash seven times in Jordan, grows angry, and falls into comparisons of the waters of Israel and Damascus; Are not Arba [...]a and Pharphar better than all the waters in Israel? &c. But had not his servants been wiser than he to perswade him to so small a thing, his reason had returned him without his [...]. The young man that came so hastily to Christ, hearing a commandement, goe sell all, and give to the poor; [...] and consulted with himself, but Christ heares no more of him.

2. To follow reason is to follow a crooked rule. But ad­mit it were straight, yet is it defective and too short for my­steries above reason. And if it were straight, and large e­nough, yet it is a party, and so unfit to be a Judge in cases be­tween God and man. And therefore there is no fit Judge in divine things but the Word, which stands equally affected between God and man.

3. We read much of the blind obedience of Papists in their Ridiculous instance of Popish obe­dience to Superiours. workes to their rules and Superiours, of things scarce credible, but that themselves have published them in writing. One Masseus a Franciscan, tumbled himself in the dust, and crawled like a childe, because St. Francis said, they could not be converted unlesse they were as little children. Ano­ther of our Countrey called Throckmorton, even in the Arti­cle of d [...]th, was so dutiful to his Superiour, as he would not [Page 294] die without his leave asked: as Everard a Papist writeth in his commendation. Another called Barcen (as Diego a great Jesuit relates) was so humble and dutiful, that when the De­vil appeared unto him, he ran to meet him, and prayed him to sit down in his chaire, because he was more worthy than himself. The Jesuites are so formed to obedience by Igna­tius his rules, that whatsoever service they are set upon by their Superiour (suppose it never so mischievous) they must fly up on it without question asked. So as if one of them were talking with an Angel, if his Superiour call him, he must instantly come away. Yea, if the blessed Virgin vouchsafe her presence to one of the brethren, if his Superiour call him, he must presently break away from her, and obey him: as he writes to the brethren of Lusitania, and a thousand such. To what end name I these follies, but by Popish and wicked su­perstition to condemn our heavinesse in Gods Commande­ments? They must shut their eyes of reason and discretion to obey their Superious: We must dispute all in our obe­dience, which ought to be absolute. Their wicked com­mandements must not be laid in any scales to be weighed: We will weigh all Gods Commandements in our own false ballances, and so they become too light, and unworthy of obedience.

4. There is not the most heretical doctrine or opinion Mans rea­son the mo­ther of here­sies. that ever was, that found not Patronage and protection in the corrupt reason of man. Not to speak of damnable Arri­ans, or Nestorians, or mad Manichees; come to the heresie that now reignes, and see the truth hereof in it.

Quest. Why hath the leaven of Popery spread and soured the whole lump of the Christian world, and enlarged and Instance in [...]he Papists. fixed it self in all Countries for so many hundred yeares; that even in Countries, above a hundred yeares reformed, it gets round; and neither severe Lawes can master it, nor time cast it out?

Answ. Surely because it is a devise of humane reason, up­holding humane reason, and upheld by corrupt reason, which first set it up. See it in parts, and in whole.

First for the parts. 1. Seemes it not good reason to Proved in parts [Page 295] choose, defend, and stick unto our forefathers religion? for so the old Idolaters thought: Jer. 44. 17. they would still sacrifice to the Queen of heaven, because their fathers did so. But Paul would not consult with flesh and bloud in matter of religion; nor Abraham with humane reason: This their reason also is as absurd in true reason, as if a sonne were bound to put out his eyes because his father was blind; or never to enjoy liberty, because his father was in prison, or dyed in a dungeon.

2. The doctrine of merit and justification by workes, runs with nature, as (Luke 18. 18.) in the young Pharisee, Master what good thing, &c. for fain would it finde some goodnesse in it self to demerit God: whereas the second Commandement saith, God shewes mercie to thousands in them that love him, and keep his Commandements. The Lords Prayer also teacheth us, to pray for daily bread. A likely thing, that he can merit life eternal, that cannot merit a crum of bread.

3. The Intercession of Saints, and worshipping Images, stands onely on the legs of humane reason against divine wisdome. Carnal men would see their god, and turn his glory into the similitude of a calf, or other creature. And is it not reason we should have Mediators? For why should every rude fellow thrust into the Kings presence, and not first make way by some of his Court? But divine wisdome saith, there is but one Mediator, and that we must come to the King by the Prince onely; and it is high treason to come by any other.

4. Carnal reason teacheth, that every man is full of doubt­ing, and therefore no man can certainly believe the remissi­on of sinnes, or be assured of his own salvation. But divine reason teacheth us, that this doubting destroyes not faith, but exerciseth it; and in our Creed we believe remission of sinnes, and eternal life; which is more than to believe in ge­neral as devils doe.

Secondly, for the whole doctrine and religion of Popery, And in the whole. how plausible is it to the natural man?

For, 1. What easier faith than to believe as the Church [Page 296] doth, no matter what; without any knowledge or faith of their own? How at one blow cut they off all paines in get­ting assurance, holding or increasing of faith?

2. What an easie principle is it, that to be ignorant is to be devout; and that it is vain labour which is spent in the Scri­ptures; as Hosius saith; and that they are the books of He­reticks, and they Hereticks that read them. What need we be at any paines to read, study, and meditate in the book of God night and day, as the Saints have done? How was the Holy Ghost deceived, yea, and holy men, who have studied in Gods Law night and day?

3. How pleasing i [...] it to nature, to deny it to be so corrupt as it is; to say, it is but half dead, and being a little helped can keep the Law, and come out of Gods debt? whereas, Eph. 2. 1, and 5. what can a dead man doe but rot?

4. How pleaseth it nature to offer release from sin, from hell, from p [...]rgatory for money? Who would not whore, swear, prophane the Sabbath, resist Magistracy, riot, &c. if for a little money he may have licence? What hypocrite would not give thousands of Rams, yea, the first-born of his body for the sin of his soul, Mic. 6. 7?

5. Whereas the Word layes a continual care of keeping the heart and thoughts, how doth that doctrine please na­ture, that unlooseth it from this care, that requires no pain to keep the heart, or to keep out the first motions of sin: which▪ they say, is no sin? Which makes many sinnes venial in their nature, put away with a light sigh, a knock on the brest, or an Ave Mary: that a man may lye in sport, or officiously by equivocation, that to [...] a small thing is but a venial sin? S [...]lomon saith, a fool makes a mock of sin. To conclude, that must be a natural and sens [...]el religion, which any thing but Gods Word sets up, and holds up, but this is neither set up▪ nor held up by it, for where Gods Word comes, down goes Popery. It could never [...]bide the breath of Gods mouth, 5. Natural reason an [...] the power of godli­nesse. which blasts and destroyes it.

5. Where doctrine is truly taught and believed▪ natural reason raiseth strong ramparts against the practise of it. Fo [...] else why doe many Protestants walk after the lusts of their [Page 297] hearts, as the Gentiles, Eph. 2. 3. but because they captivate the Commandement to their own reason, and limit and con­fine the wisdome of God within the bounds of their own carnal wisdome?

1. Our Gentry have reason to say, that the word in gene­ral Instances. is the rule of good life, but bring this rule close home unto them to reform their fashions, to leave their strange apparel and painting; their vain discourses, their idle com­plements, their gaming, their service of pleasure, and unfruit­ful spending of their times: Oh now they have reason to scorn and chafe against the rule, and him that holds it before them. What reason he should be so strict, lesse reason they should be as strict as he? They know how to put on their clothes, how to behave themselves every where; and are wiser than to follow such rules as would make them as de­spised as himself is. Alas, that the wisdome of God shall be a rule onely for our judgements; but reason must guide our practise!

2. Ordinary hearers think they have reason to professe religion so farre as they may thrive by it, and prosper in the world; whose godlinesse is gain, To trust God so farre as they see him in some sort, else not: To favour religion and religious persons when times doe; else not. To avoid per­nicious and dangerous sinnes which law revengeth, as mur­ther, adultery, theft; but not covetousnesse, not usury, not swearing, not unclean lusts. Herod will not part with his Herodias. Ahab hath no reason to respect Micah when he prophecies evil to him.

3. Tradesmen oppresse, cosen, lye, deceive, &c. because they have reason to make the best of their own. What rea­son but they may serve a Customer upon the Sabbath, so they come to Church? They have reason to slip all opportunities of grace all the week, because they must walk diligently in their callings the six dayes. Thus reason steps in, and thrusts aside the practise of that, which men in judgement hold not for good and necessary; and like Evah, still longing after forbidden fruit.

Thus of the second observation▪

Sect. VI.

III. Seeing all of us in this wildernesse are stung with Observa­tion. 3. What is to be done, to be cured spiritually. 1, We must see our selves stung and woun­ded. As with deadly poy­son: in 4. things. the old Serpent, what are we to doe to be cured?

Answ. We are to doe five things.

1. We must feel our selves stung with our sinnes, and con­fesse our selves stung; for so must the Israelite before he could be cured. We must feel the poyson and pain of sin; and

First, That this poyson hath not seated it self in one place, but hath crept and diffused it self through all our parts. For therefore it is called venenum, quod per venas eat. And as the veines and bloud run through every part of the body, so sin through every part of the man.

Secondly, As poyson never rests till it come to the heart, and there strikes and corrupts the fountain of life: So our sin hath mortally wounded our very hearts, and strikes at the life of grace in the soul.

Thirdly, As poyson inflames the party with an incredi­ble thirst, having overcome natural moisture, and eaten up the spirits: so sin in the soul workes an utter defect, and dries up all waters of grace, and makes the sinner insatiable in drinking up iniquity like water.

Fourthly, As poyson not prevented brings speedy and certain death, but not without extream pain and intolerable torture: so the poyson of sin unconquered brings certain and eternal death, attended with horrour of conscience, desperate feares, and torments most exquisite. Thus must we labour to feel the sting of our sin in all parts, farre more mortal than the most venomous stings of most direful Ser­pents.

2. When this people felt themselves stung so deadly, they 2. Come for counsel to spiritual Physitians. come to Moses for counsel: so must thou depend upon the Minister for direction, as they upon Moses. Never was man sensible of this sting, but he would run to the Ministers. Acts 2. 37. when they were pricked in their hearts, they said to Peter and the rest, Men and brethren, what shall we doe? Acts 16. 30. [Page 299] the poor Jaylor being stung, and being sensible of his pain, came trembling and humbling himself to Paul and Silas pri­soners, saying, Sirs, what must I doe te be saved? A conscience truly wounded will seek to God, to his Word and Ministers; for it knowes that God woundeth and healeth. The feet of him that brings good tidings are beautiful to an humbled heart, even as an experienced Physitian to a sick party, who else were sure to be lost for want of meanes. What marvel if a soul truly sensible of his sting and pain can run to Gods Ministers; when a counterfeit humiliation can make as hard hearted a King as Pharaoh run to Moses and Aaron, and beg prayers of them?

A marvellous thing then that of so many thousands stung so deadly, so few are sensible; that so few trouble Moses or the Ministers with questions concerning their estates. Some stung and guilty consciences not supported by faith, in touch of sin and sence of pain (like a Doe shot with an arrow) run every way but the right for ease. Some with Asa send to the Physitian to purge away melancholy. Some with Saul send for musick, esteeming soules sicknesse but a sottish lumpish­nesse. Some run into the house of laughter, and wicked play­houses, to see and hear the Lords Sampsons and Worthies de­rided, not without haynous blasphemy. Others fall a build­ding with Cain, or set upon other imployments, perhaps it is but an idle fancy. Some run perhaps to the Witch of End or, in the mean time send away Paul, as Felix, or run against Mo­ses and his Ministers: But comfort can they have none but from God and his Word: had not thy Word (saith David) been my comfort, I had perished in my trouble. All the Physiti­ans in the world, all the Musitians and Magicians, put toge­ther, nor any other meanes could help a stung Israelite; he must come to Moses when he had done all he could. All o­ther by-comforts are worm-eaten, and as cold-water to cure a dropsie, or as a cold draught to cure a poyson. Some few there are that come unto us, who, we are sure, had never sought to us more than others, had they had so little sence of their sting as others have: as the Israelites had never come at Moses, had they not been stung. Let them be comforted in [Page 300] that they have gone the right way to fetch their comforts, which is from God and his Word, and not from carnal men or councels. The Lord in mercy hath brought them light out of darknesse: for pitty had it been they had wanted the sting of affliction, that hath driven them to God, and to his Word, and Servants.

3. Coming to Moses, wherein doe they imploy them? what questions move they to him? Numb. 21. 7. Oh their sinne 3. Confesse special sin. troubles them, which they confesse in general, we have sinned; and in particular, we have spoken against the Lord, and against thee; and then pray him to help them in removing the Ser­pents: So thou being stung, when thou comest to Gods Mi­nisters must be conversant in fruitful and edifiable questions; thou must be free in confession of such sins as are the likely cause of thy trouble; and intent and busie how to be rid of the Serpents, and the sting and poyson of thy sins. Thou will be careful to know how to get ease of heart, and quietnesse of conscience from the pain and sting of sin. So the converts Act. 2. and so the Jaylor, What shall I doe to be saved?

The fault of many is when they have meanes of counsel and comfort present with them, to waste their time in trifling and curious questions, and impertinent to the cure of the sting of the Serpent. Questions which are like Crafishes, in which is more picking than meat. Questions meerly idle, the reso­lution of which helps them no whit to ease, or to heaven. An humbled heart will not so lose his time, nor dwell in toyes and unnecessaries, to thrust out things more profitable. A wise heart will not for a shadow forgoe the substance; but will be much in that question of the young man, Master, what may I doe to inherit eternall life? what may I doe to be saved? what may I doe to be rid of this Serpent, and of that, of this sin and of that? How may I doe to get mastery of my cor­ruptions? In going to Gods Ministers, let thy errand be the same with the Israelites in their going to Moses; how to be rid of the Serpents.

4. Moses directs them to the br [...]zen Serpent erected for 4. Goc wholly out of thy self, and all creatures. their cure; for Moses himself cannot help them. Moses law cannot cure them; that rather sharpens the sting, and thrusts [Page 301] it deeper into the flesh and spirit. He directs them to no merits or works of their own to cure them; for their merits brought in those poysoned stings among them; but he sends them quite out of themselves to Gods ordinance, which was the brazen Serpent. Thou art never in the way of cure, till thou art sent out of thy self; out of the Law and works of it, which now cannot justifie; till thou comest to the Evangelical bra­zen Serpent, there is no hope of cure. As the Israelite could never be cured till he acknowledged the brazen Serpent the onely meanes: so no more canst thou, till thou acknowledge Jesus Christ the onely healing God; and that there is no o­ther name in heaven or earth to be saved by, but the name Jesus: Onely Christ, onely Christ, said that Martyr: for he I. Lambert. onely can give a perfect righteousnesse: he onely can cover our imperfections: he onely being no sinner, could conquer sin: he onely by dying could conquer death: he onely by entring into the grave could sweeten it: he onely by sustain­ing the sorrows of hell could shut hell for all believers. Had Moses sent the Israelites any whither but to the brazen Ser­pent, he had deluded them, and they had lost all their labour.

Who now is so void of judgement, that cannot discern whether our Religion, or the Roman, be the antient and true Religion of Moses and the people of God: If a man stung with the Serpent come to us for counsel and cure, as they to Moses, we send him (as Moses) out of himself to Christ one­ly, the true brazen Serpent. Our doctrine leads him out of himself, out of his own merits, out of external works and ce­remonies unto Christ who is our peace, and left his peace unto believers; and by this meanes, through Gods blessing, the Patient attaines true tranquility of mind, and inward peace of conscience: and rejoyceth with an unspeakable and glo­rious joy for his recovery, as the Israelites did in theirs. But let a man stung in conscience goe to a Roman teacher, he leads him any way but the right, any whither so not to Christ. Instead of Gods certain direction in the words of the Pro­phets and Apostles, which testifie of Christ the onely brazen Serpent, they send him to unsound and uncertain speculati­ons, fables, traditions, equal (say they) to Scripture; and [Page 302] some of them say, far better. Instead of Christs satisfaction and merit, they send him home to his own merits and satis­factions; by which (say they) he may apply the satisfaction and merit of Christ. But in case he be so bad as he have no merits of his own, the Church hath a Treasury of other mens merits to dispense by taile, so he will come to the price. So he may buy oyle enough to fill his lamp out of the Popes Exchequer or Burse, filled to the top with works of superero­gation. But if he make some scruple of this; least the wise Virgins have not enough for themselves and others, then they may have the sacrifice of the Masse not to fail, but never apply that one and onely sacrifice upon the Crosse it self. Now whether of us agree with Moses?

5. As the Israelite must look up to the Serpent lifted up: so must thou look up and behold Christ lifted up. This must 5. Look onely unto Christ. Two wayes. thou doe two wayes. First, on the wood of the Crosse: Se­condly, on the Throne of the Kingdome both of grace and glory. Behold Christ lifted up, not in his abasement onely, but in his advancement. First, in the Kingdome of grace, as 1. Ratione Ligni. 1. Ra­tione Reg­nigra­tiaeglo­riae. he is lifted up in the Word and Sacraments. In which Christ is mightily declared the Son of God, and preached the Savi­our of the world; Gal. 3. 1. among whom Christ was crucified. Secondly, in his Kingdome of glory raised from the dead, as­cended into heaven, and exalted at the right hand of God above all principalities and powers; Phil. 2. 9. God hath gi­ven him a Name which is above every name. Now the looking on Christ thus lifted up, is the act of faith, not a bare intuition, sight, or vision, as to believe that Christ was thus exalted on the Crosse, and in his Kingdome, but it is apprehensive and applicatory, and to believe in Christ crucified and glorified. This looking hath three things in it. 1. To believe that he was the Son of God and son of man, our Immanuel 2. That he being so, was lift up, for the salvation of believers. 3. That my self assuredly trust and depend on him alone, as the onely author▪ meritour, and bestower of salvation. This is Evan­gelical looking on the Serpent.

Now because this looking is the principal thing in the cure, we will consider, 1. How this looking cures us. 2. How [Page 303] we know we are cured by our looking. 3. Motives to stir us up still to look on our Serpent.

Sect. VII.

I. When the Israelite comes to Moses and asketh, Oh what How this looking cures us. shall I doe to be saved from death, being so deadly stung? A full answer to this question was, goe look upon the brazen Serpent, thou shalt be whole. So if an humble soul (suppose the Jaylor) shall come to the Minister as Paul or Silas; Sirs, what may I doe to be saved? the direct answer to this que­stion By faith. is, Believe in the Lord Jesus Christ, and thou shalt be sa­ved, Act. 16. 31. Act. 16. 31. and, yee are saved by faith: and, Thy faith hath made the whole.

Quest. But how doth faith save us? And how by faith.

Answ. Not as it is an excellent grace, nor as any work of ours. We are not saved and cured for believing, but by be­lieving.

1. Because faith is the condition of the Covenant, and of our cure; as looking was the condition of the cure of the Israelite. For it was not the having of a Brazen Serpent, nor the lifting it up could cure; but the Israelites looking upon it: so it is not the hearing of Christ, nor the lifting of him up in the Ministery, nor knowledge of his merits can save, unlesse they be received by faith. A potion never so vertuous is fruit­lesse if not taken. As meat uneaten; so is Christ not digest­ed and applyed by faith.

2. Faith cannot cure, considered simply in it self as a qua­lity, or vertue, or gift, or habit; but considered relatively with his object, which is Jesus Christ, the Lord our righte­ousnesse; for faith is the eye of the soul. But as it was not the eye of the Israelite, but the eye set upon the brazen Ser­pent that cured him: so here, faith upon his object cureth, because onely faith draweth vertue from Christ, as in the Sy­rophoenician, who touched Christ and was cured; but not by touching, but by believing. More plainly in this comparison. As a Jewel included in a Ring enricheth a man or healeth him; it is not the Ring doth it but the Jewel, and yet none have the Jewel without the Ring: So Jesus Christ is the onely [Page 304] Jewel and antidote against the deadly poyson of sin. This Jewel is included in the Ring of faith. Now it is apparently Christ the Jewel that justifieth, enricheth, cureth; but we cannot have him without the Ring of faith which includeth him. So as faith saveth and justifieth us onely as a meanes, suppose the hand of the soul to convey Christ to us for justi­fication, which no other grace can doe. So not faith, but Christ applied by faith, that saveth and cureth us.

3. As no Israelite could be cured but by his own sight of the Serpent; and no man could be cured by another mans looking or seeing it: So must every just man live by his own faith, Hab. 2▪ 4 No ma [...] can be saved by anothers faith, or the faith of the Church, but by his own special faith, believing in particular, upon assured grounds, the remission of his own sinnes.

II. By what marks may I know that I have looked on this 2. Marks of one cured by looking to Christ. brazen Serpent for cure.

Answ. By four marks.

1. If thine eye have been rightly affected; which will appear in four particulars. Four quali­ties of the eye that looks to him.

First, If it be a discerning eye, cleared to see in Jesus Christ two things; the first his power; the second his will to cure. That he is able to help, being the mighty God; and that he is willing to cure, being a compassionate Saviour, who him­self was stung to death, that he might have compassion on them that are stung, Heb. 2. 18.

Secondly, If it be a mountfull eye. He that had seen the Isra­elites [...]ing about the bra [...]en Serpent, should have seen many a [...] falling, and heard many a deep gr [...]an, and pitti­ful complaints of their deadly pain and poyson. Hast thou come to Jesus Christ with sorow in thy heart, with teares in thy eyes, with lamentable groans and complaints of thy mi­sery by sin? this is to look upon him for cure. Zach. 12. 10. the members of the Church shall▪ behold him and mourn, as a man for his onely son. Such lookers on him, he looketh up­on and easeth, Mat. 11. 28. Come unto me all that are weary and heavy laden, and I will ease you.

Thirdly, If it be a wishing and oraving eye: for there is af­fection [Page 305] as well as vision in the eye. As the lame man that lay in Solomons potch (Act. 3. 5.) wistly looked on Peter and John, expecting to receive something from them: so no doubt did the Israelites on the Serpent. And so must thou hold on wait­ing and expecting sound cure from Christ, and take no denial till thou be fully cured; for so did the Canaanitish woman prevail.

Fourthly, If it be a faithfull stedfast eye; a believing eye carries cure from Christ. Christ was wont to ask some of his Patients that came for cure, if they did believe he could help: and in the cure, According to thy faith be it unto thee: and after the cure, go thy way, thy faith hath made thee whole: and much more works he the cure of soules by meanes of the parties faith, and not without it.

2. If the sting were gone, and the poyson of the Serpent a­bated, this was an infallible sign that the Israelite was cured. Consider if the power and rage of sin be removed, the guilt of it gone by justification; if the poyson and stain of it be a­bated, and daily abolished, now art thou in the way of cure. But if the poyson remain, that sin lives in thee, prevailes, and raignes in thee, and commands thee as formerly; thou hast not yet looked on the Serpent for cure. Justification and Sanctification are inseparable.

3. A ceasing of pain, and ease and comfort restored; which when the Israelite felt, it was a sign he was cured: So if after sense of pain and grief of spirit, thou hast received sound peace of conscience, joy of the holy Ghost, and comfort of a good estate in Christ, that thou art able upon good grounds to challenge thy righteousnesse in Christ, and maintain thy self sted fastly assured and cheared in Gods mercy, and the goodnesse of an excusing conscience; thou hast now looked upon Christ, and Christ upon thee, for perfect cure.

4. When the sting with the pain was gone, the Israelite could goe as strongly and chearfully about his businesse as e­ver before; he had new life, new strength, new motions, by which he might be sure he had looked upon the Serpent: So if thou canst find so happy a change in thy soul, as new life, new motions, new actions, new affections, and in a word, the [Page 306] whole renewed nature; all these are the fruits and effects of thy faith, and faithful beholding of Christ, and of his looking upon thee. Of this new obedience and renewed strength of a Christian having lately spoken, I passe it over more briefly.

III. Motives to stirre us up to this looking upon our Ser­pent, 3. Motives to look up to our Serpent. are:

1. Nothing else can cure us but Christ. The Israelites had Gold, Silver, Manna from heaven, Water out of the Rock, yea, the Ark, the Oracle; but none of all these can help them, one­ly the Serpent must cure them; no sight else can cure. Thou mayest see Gold, Silver, Lands, Friends, Playes, Pleasures, nay couldst thou see Heaven it self without Christ, there were no help or cure in it. In respect of this sight the Apostle counted all things losse and dung; and desired to see and know no­thing but Jesus Christ and him crucified, and lifted on the wood.

2. No not Christ himself can cure without this looking and faithful beholding him: as the brazen Serpent not look­ed on, healed not. The want of the eye or sight disabled the Israelites from cure, though the Serpent were by them: so the want of faith disableth God after a sort, and Christ himself from doing a man any good, Mark. 6. Christ could doe no great cure in Capernaum because of their unbelief. Neither can any ordinance of God doe him good that wants faith: no more than this Serpent ordained by God, could doe a blind Isra­elite good. If we should send a man to the Word, it must be a word of faith must doe him good: that is, not onely because it is a begetter of faith, but because it must be mingled with faith, else it proves unprofitable, Heb. 4. 2. If to the Sacraments if he bring not faith, they are not to him the seales of faith, Rom. 4. 11. but as seales set to blanks. If to Prayer; it must be a prayer of faith that is available, Jam. 5. 15. If to good works, and good life; it must be a life of faith, led by faith; for the just must live by his faith. If to the Church of God; he must be of the houshold of faith, else he shall be but as Judas among the Disci­ples, Gal. 6. 10. Faith must be every where diffused, to walk by faith, live by faith, and die in faith, as the Saints in former ages have done for our imitation.

[Page 307] 3. We must hold on this expectation on our Serpent, as the Israelites did till they were perfectly cured. And because we can never be perfectly cured in this life, but onely in part; we must still look up to Jesus the Author and finisher of our faith, Heb. 12. 2. till we be fully and perfectly healed. Hence it is, that the Lord will never have this Brazen Serpent taken down as the other was after a short time, but hath appointed the Ministery to lift him up, and hold him perpetually before our eyes so long as we are here below, and enjoyned us the constant use of it all the while we are in this wildernesse, which were needlesse if we had once attained our perfect cure. This is a strong motive to hold our eyes fast fixed upon Jesus Christ, till we come to enjoy him as he is; when all Ministery shall cease, and the Lamb shall be all in all.

Sect. VIII.

From this so excellent a figure ariseth a bright Sun of light Use of com­fort, in five particulars. and comfort for all the faithful.

1. The Israelite that could look to the Serpent, if his eye were never so tender, weak, or dim, yet was cured. Thou that art the weakest believer, be comforted, thy weak faith shall save thee, thy smoaking flax shall not be quenched, but cleared to farther brightnesse. Thy weak hand shall be able to receive and hold the gift of righteousnesse and eternal life. It is not the greatnesse of thy faith that saves thee, but the truth of it. Yet with this caution. If it be true it will strive to encrease. And if there be so much comfort in weak faith, how much is there in strong?

2. The Israelite stung never so often, if so often he did look on the Serpent, so often he was cured. Oh singular comfort! Thou that renewest thy sins every day, and every day goest over the same frailties, renew also thy faith daily, and thy re­pentance, and thou art safe. That brazen Serpent lost his ver­tue of healing, but our Brazen Serpent never loseth his. If thou sinnest seventy times seven, and so many times returnest by faith in Christ, and say, It repents me: by this looking upon [Page 308] the brazen Serpents all those wounds shall be cured. Yet with this caution. That as he had been a mad Israelite, who be­cause there was a Serpent set up to cure him, would therefore run of purpose among Serpents to be stung by them: So is he no lesse witlesse a Christian, who therefore willingly makes his sin abound, because grace hath abounded. A mad man he is, that will therefore break his head, or wound his members, because he hath a soveraign plaister by him.

3. The Israelites stung never so deadly, never so desperate­ly, never so long wounded, yet looking on the Serpent were cured. If thy sins be as red as scarlet, and never so great: if in thy sense some one of them deserve a thousand hells, and the guilt of it or them rings continually in the eares of thy con­science, frighted with feares of hell and death; if thy sins be festered and of long continuance: Now come to the Brazen Serpent. Never was any Israelite that could look on the Ser­pent, sent away uncured: But there is ten thousand times more vertue in Jesus Christ, than in ten millions of brazen Serpents; onely look on this Serpent by the eye of faith, turn from all thy sins, and be saved.

4. The Israelites looking on the Serpent brought present cure and ease, and they went away rejoycing. If thou believest in Jesus Christ, thou art perfectly cured. As Christ was wont to say to his Patients, so I say to thee, Goe in peace, Thy faith hath made thee whole. Onely this grace can quiet the heart distressed, and can keep it from sinking, as once it did Peter, Mat. 14. 29. In this is the beginning and accomplishment of thy happinesse. The converted Gaolor went away rejoycing that he and his house believed, Act. 16. 34. Now if one sight of faith in this our absence from Christ be so joyful a thing: what shall the sight of fruition doe in his presence?

5. The Israelites having once the brazen Serpent, cared not for the fiery Serpents. They might sting them now, but not much hurt them; they might now poyson them, but not kill them: So the believer looking to the true Brazen Ser­pent, may triumph over the old Serpent, and all the serpentine seed: and say as the Apostle teacheth, 1 Cor. 15. 55. Oh sin where is thy sting? Oh hell where is thy victory? Nay, Thanks be [Page 309] to God, who hath given us victory by our Lord Jesus Christ. Great was the power of the Israelites looking upon that Serpent; for when the fiery Serpents were present, it made them pow­erlesse, and not hurtful. Greater is the power of faith in the Lord Jesus; which though our sinnes in themselves are most venomous and poysonful stings, and such as we cannot be rid of them; yet it so blunts them, and makes them so power­lesse, that they kill us not: nay, that they hurt us not: nay more, that they help us, and make us better; more humble, more wise, more watchful. Thus our good God (who out of the most infinite curse of Christ his Son on the Crosse, brought forth to us the most infinite blessing which fills hea­ven and earth) doth out of our cursed sins bring forth his own glory, joyned with our greatest good. For which, as for all other his unspeakable mercies unto us, be praise given in all Churches, and from henceforth to all eternities.



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