CICERO REDIVIVUS; OR THE Art of Oratory REFIN'D: BEING Two ESSAYS of ELEGANCY. The FIRST, Containing Plain and Easie RULES for SCHOLARS to make Eloquent Latin. The SECOND, Usefull Directions for Young Gentlemen and Students to Adorn their Discourse and Writings with a Refin'd and Genteel Style. By JOHN TWELLS, School-Master.

Aliud est Grammaticè, aliud Latinè loqui.

J. C. Scaliger.

LONDON, Printed for Benjamin Crayle, at the Peacock and Bible at the West-end of St. Paul's. 1688.



Anno Domini M.DC.LXXX.V.

De Libelli hujus Utilitate ad Eloquentiae Studiosum Dactylicum Heroicum cum Iambico Dimetro.

SI te vera juvat Romanae gloria Linguae,
Et ejus Elegantia;
Si cupis Eloquii flumen, gazás (que) Parentis
Totius Eloquentiae:
Huc tua mens adsit, modicum tua lumina lustrent
Hanc diligenter codicem,
Qui Ciceronis opes paucis brevibús (que) decenter
Comprendit omnes paginis.
Multa dabit multos, largo cum foenore, fructus
Illius ardens lectio.
Barbara formabit per se tibi protinus ora
Purè loquendi formulis.
Incertúm (que) reget calamum vestigia cautè
Servantis ejus jugiter.
Nec sinit ut similis sibi prorsus in omnibus exstet,
Et moveat aliis nauseam.
Pluribus ecquid opus? Quod Agro sunt Lilia, quód (que)
Est culta vestis corpori,
Arboribús (que) comae quod sunt auró (que) Lapilli,
Et quod cibis Aromata:
Hoc linguae scriptís (que) tuis omnino Libelli
Sunt hujus Elegantiae.
Quippe quod, his fastiditis, nihil amplius insit
Orationi gratiae.

The Author to the Bookseller.

Mr. Crayle,

THat I may in some measure satisfie your frequent importunities, and yet safely and modestly consult as well your Advantage, as my own Repute, I have thought fit, in­stead of the Two whole Books (which indeed are quite finished, and ready for the Press) to send you at present for a New-years-Gift, only a Specimen of each, viz. The two first Parts of the Examination of the Elegant Grammar, out of Nine; and the Two and Twenty first Chap­ters of Scholastick Prolusions, out of Three hun­dred. Let these first try their Fortunes in the World for a Term or two, and, according to the Reception I find it gives them, I will take my future measures, either of publishing, or for ever concealing the Remainder.

However, Sir, believe me always to be

Your assured Friend, J. T.

Plutarchus de Liberis educandis. p. 4.


Plutarch of the breeding of Children.

ANd yet many Fathers there are, that so love their Money, and hate their Children, that lest it should cost them more than they are willing to spare, to hire a good School-master for them, ra­ther choose such persons to instruct their Children, as are of no worth; thereby beating down the Market, that they may purchase a cheap Ignorance.


Senec. 3. Contr.

Magna & varia res est Eloquentia, nec adhuc ulli sic indulsit, ut tota contingeret. Satis felix est, qui in aliquam ejus partem receptus est.

A. WHat is the Elegant Gram­mar?

B. The Elegant Grammar is the Art of speaking elegantly.

A. What mean you by speaking elegant­ly?

B. To speak elegantly, is to express the sense of our minds otherwise than the rules of the native way of speaking require; and yet to be understood with more delight, than we should be, should we follow the natural cur­rent of Speech.

To speak elegantly according to art, is to have in readiness the ways of garnishing Speech; and to be able to give an account why a Sen­tence must be changed so or so.

A. Wherein doth the elegancy of a sentence consist?

B. The elegancy of a sentence consists gene­rally in the transformation of the same, from its native, into another aspect, the sense remaining unaltered.

A. How many ways may this transfor­mation be performed?

B. Nine:

For the same thing may be expressed other­wise, three manners of ways generally: the first of which is subdivided into two, the se­cond into three, the third into four ways.

For Example:

The same otherwise placed, byPerspicuity. 1.
Transposition. 2.
The same thing may be exprest by words Othermore Latine, byIdiotism. 3
simply equipollent, by Transmutat. 4
allegorically equipoll. byTransnomi­nation. 5.
The same, or other, yet expressed after a­nother manner, viz.By more than the matter requires, byDilatation. 6
By fewer than ordinary, byContraction. 7
With an unusual affection, by Figures. 8
Bound up, byVerse. 9

A. How many therefore are the parts of the Elegant Grammar?

B. Nine.

  • I. Exposition, clarification, perspicuity.
  • II. Idiotism.
  • III. Transposition
  • IV. Transmutation.
  • V. Transnomination.
  • VI. Dilatation.
  • VII. Contraction.
  • VIII. Figuration.
  • IX. Versification.

A. Illustrate what you have said by an example; propose a sentence.

B. Magister meus docet exemplis perpetuis.

A. How many ways may this sentence be adorn'd?

B. These nine ways.

1. If there be any thing obscure or ambigu­ous, (or at least may seem such) by explaining and limiting it by some addition, or mutation into another, not ambiguous, word, so that nothing else can be understood, but what I design.

A. Is there any obscure or ambiguous word in the sentence you proposed?

B. Yes. Magister is an ambiguous word; for the Masters of divers Arts and Handy-crafts, the Masters of the Horse to Persons of Honour, and the rest, may be stiled Magistri: as, Ma­gister [Page 4]Artis, Magister Tabernae, Officinae, Magister Equitum, &c.

A. What must a Scholar do in this case?

B. In this case the Scholar must either add some other words, to restrain the generality of the word Magister; as, Magister studiorum me­orum: or change it for another synonimous word, which is not ambiguous; as, Ludimagi­ster, or Praeceptor meus.

So if any one should be said cepisse labracem, the sentence will be obscure, because there are few that understand the word, tho' it be extant in Plinie and Plautus. And again, if a man be said cepisse Lupum, it will be ambiguous, because it may be understood that he hath caught ei­ther a four-footed Beast, or a Fish, so called. Therefore, if you would have the latter under­stood, say, Lupum piscem; or change it for a synonymous word signifying nothing else, and say, Lucium cepit.

A. What do you call such an Explana­tion of Speech?

B. I call it Perspicuity.

A. What is Perspicuity?

B. Perspicuity is the easiness of a Sentence, as to the matter to be understood.

A. What is the vertue of Perspicuity?

B. The Greeks call it [...], that is, so great [Page 5]a plainness of Speech, as that the things seem to be set before the eyes.

A. What are the vices contrary to this vertue?

B. The vices contrary to Perspicuity, are Ob­scurity and Ambiguity.

A. When may a Sentence be said to be obscure?

B. When it can scarce be understood: as, that of Varro, Omnia dapatilia comîsse Jani cusio­nes; for, Omnia opipara comedisse Jani Curiones.

A. Whence ariseth this obscurity?

B. This obscurity proceeds from words un­known to the People.

A. What Sentence may be said to be ambiguous?

B. That which admits of a various interpre­tation: as, if a man should say, Peto jus; he may mean either jusculum, or justitiam.

A. Whence ariseth this ambiguity?

B. It ariseth from equivocal or homonymous words.

Therefore a word that is obscure, homony­mous, or too general, is, like a Rock, to be avoided by him that has a mind to speak per­spicuously.

For this reason in our familiar discourse we say not, Clepta, or Directarius, but Fur; nor jus, but jusculum; nor rem inveni, but hoc, or illud.

Or, if such a word should thrust it self in, let a­nother word more common, distinct, & special, be immediately subjoyned, to enlighten & limit the former; or let some explicatory, discretive, or determinative epithet be added: as, Clepta, quod Latinis furem sonat. Jus seu jusculum. Rem perdidit, nempe bona sua: Or, Clepta furax. Jus coctum. Rem possessam perdidit.

Words, that by chance light into the same termination, may sometimes be changed into another, free from ambiguity; as, if you should say, Tu canis; 'twill be uncertain whether you call any one a Dog, or mean he sings. If the first, you will speak more clearly by an Ad­jective, Tu impure Canis; or, Tu latras ut Canis. If the latter, you had better say, Tu cantas, &c. Or they are to be discriminated by an accent (if possible) either pronounced or marked: as, venit in the present tense, from vênit in the pre­terperfect tense. Moreover, he that desires to acquire this great Ornament, must studiously avoid Amphibolie, that is, such a placing of the words as may render the sense doubtful. Such is that in Terence: Adeò uno animo omnes Socrus oderunt Nurus; for one would be at a stand, scarcely discerning, whether Socrus was the Nominative Plural, and Nurus the Accusative; or contrariwise. It is supposed the Poet so placed the words, with a design to set out the [Page 7]reciprocal odium between Mothers-in-law and Daughters-in-law; which, if so, 'twas artificially done.

A. Must then words that are obscure, homonymous, of a more general significa­tion, and amphibolous, be for ever inter­dicted a studied clarity?

B. To your four-fold question I answer di­stinctly, thus:

1. An obscure word appositely used, and in its right place, is commendable: as, if there be any thing you would not have all men in­differently understand, but some one only, that is privy to your counsels and purposes, or some few of the more sagacious. With these did Cicero fill his Epistles to Atticus, a wise man, and his intimate friend.

2. An homonymous word, in its proper place, ceaseth to be such; because words are under­stood according to the subject matter. For example: A Cook speaks not ambiguously, that says, Jus piscinum; or an Astronomer, that says, Sol in piscibus. An homonymous word set on purpose for the ambiguity of the sense, is a pleasant elegancy. As when Tully said, that Octa­vius was laudandum & tollendum, for he might be understood either tollendum esse laudibus, or tollendum de vitâ.

3. Words of a very general signification are [Page 8]happily homonymous; for they augment the treasure of the Language with variety of Ele­gancies. Such are these Latine Nouns, Res, Vis, Locus, Natura, Substantia, Genus, Species; and the Verbs, Sum, Habeo, Facio, Do, Gero, &c.

4. Words of a doubtful meaning fitly dispo­sed in the same Sentence, increase the Elegancy; as, Jura te velle servare jura. And Lingua pue­rorum facilè discit diversas linguas. Hence the Distick so much celebrated.

Quid facies, facies Veneris si veneris ante?
Ne sedeas, sed eas; ne pereas per eas.

A word so placed betwixt two, that it matters not to which it is referred, is an Elegancy; as, Opus caeptum urgeas vehementer oro. For here it is a question whether I mean the work is to be mightily hastned, or that I mightily desire it: And yet, which way so ever you take it, it will not be amiss; and more full if you understand it both ways. But if yet you have a mind to speak it very perspicuously, you may do it by a Comma, or a Repetition, thus:

Ut opus urgeas vehementer, oro.

Ut opus urgeas, vehementer oro.

Ut opus vehementer urgeas, vehementer oro.

A. Proceed to the second part.

B. Secondly, by putting, instead of the usual speech, and common language, Idiotical, and proper only to the Latine tongue; as if, instead [Page 9]of Magister studiorum meorum, one should say more latinely, Meus à studiis.

A. What do you call this Ornament?

B. This second part is called Idiotism, and in specie Latinism, Graecism, Hebraism, &c. when this Language, or that, hath an elegancy un­known to others.

A. What is Idiotism?

B. Idiotism is an emphatical custom of speak­ing, proper and peculiar to some one tongue: Or thus,

Idiotism, or Idiom, is a propriety, phrase, or form of speaking, peculiar to its own tongue, which cannot be rendred word for word into any other language, but with much barbarity and baldness of expression.

A. How many fold is Idiotism?

B. Idiotism is two fold, or there are two sorts of Idiotism, i. e. Lexical and Grammatical: Of the first in Latine this may be an example, Potiri rerum, to reign; of the latter this, Potiente rerum Augusto, when Augustus reigned.

A. What mean you by Lexical Idiotisms?

B. By Lexical Idiotisms, I mean such as can­not be translated out of Latine into English, Greek, &c. word for word, or iisdem verbis; as, Audire bene, Dare verba, &c.

A. What mean you by Grammatical Idio­tisms?

B: By Grammatical, I mean such as cannot be translated by the same Case, Person, Tense, &c. as, Sole orto, &c.

Of Lexical Idiotisms see a plentiful Harvest in Mr. Walker's Idiomatical Dictionary; of Gram­matical here.

A. How many are the general subjects of Grammatical Idiotisms?

B. The general subjects of Grammatical Idio­tisms are two.

A. Which are they?

B. 1. Single words. 2. Phrases.

A. In what heads of single words are Grammatical Idiotisms found?

B. 1. In Substantives. 2. In Adjectives. 3. In Pronouns. 4. In Verbs. 5. In Participles. 6. In Ad­verbs.

A. How many Rules do you observe in delivering the Idiotisms of Substantives?

B. Four.

A. Which is the first Rule?

B. It is an Elegancy, instead of the Substan­tive or Abstract, to use the Adjective or concrete, in the neuter Gender, either singular or plural; as, Verum, falsum, bonum, multum, &c. (or vera, falsa, &c.) for veritas, falsitas, bonitas, multitu­do, &c.

A. Which is the second?

B. To circumscribe the names of Offices by a Noun which denotes the Subject or Object, with ab or ad, is the peculiar of the Latines:

For the say, For

  • Secretarius, à secretis.
  • Scriba, à manu, or ad manum.
  • Consiliarius, à consiliis, or ad consilia.

This form of speaking requires a Dative case of the person to whom this duty or service is performed: as, Est mihi à manu; Domino suo à pedibus, &c. unless you speak by a Personal Adjective, as Cicero did, when he said, Servus meus à pedibus.

A. Which is the third?

B. Any Noun assuming Res, and being turned into the Genitive case, or into an Adjective, makes an elegant Idiotism: For Plautus says, Res voluptatum, for voluptas; res cibi, for cibus: and Cicero, Res bellica, militaris, num­maria, &c. for bellum, militia, nummus or pecu­nia, &c. So also Vis: as, Vis flammae, or flam­mea, for flamma; magna canum vis, for multi canes, &c.

A. Which is the fourth?

B. The Latines do elegantly compare Nouns Substantive by the Adverb magis: as Plautus, Hominem magis asinum nunquam vidi.

In imitation of which, why may not one say, Magis Homo, Rex, Doctor, Miles, &c. magis vi­num, [Page 12]&c? that is veriùs, more truly; or me­liùs, better. But that jocular comparison of Nouns, which the same Author used, O patrue mi patruissime! and, Nullus me est hodie punus pu­nior, we ought not to imitate, except, as he did it, for sport.

A. How many Rules are to be observed for the Idiotisms of Adjectives?

B. Four.

A. Which is the first?

B. A local Adjective is changed into its Sub­stantive with the Preposition De, or A: as, Aper Sylvestris, or de Sylvâ; Homo aulicus, de aulâ; Scholasticus, de scholâ, &c. So Cicero's Poeta de papulo, that is; popularis; Ovid's Ales ab Indis, for Indica.

Observation. Nay the Preposition is sometimes understood, especially in Poets; as Sallust, Taeda pice & sulphure, for è pice & sulphure, or pieca & sulphurea. Aere Clypeus Virg. Syracusis soleae, for è Syracusis, Syracusanae, &c. Therefore we speak most latinely, Vinum Cretâ, Hispaniâ, Hungariâ, &c. for è Cretâ or Cretense, &c.

A. Which is the secund Rule?

B. A Local or temporal Adjective is changed for on Adverb: as Plaut. Tu intus pateram pro­ferto foras, for pateram intraneam, or quae est intus. Virg. Apparet domus intus, i. e. interior. Ter. Hinc civis, i. e. hujus loci. Idem. Interea [Page 13]tempus, for interjectum tempus, &c. Plaut. Nunc copia, for praesens copia.

A. Is this elegancy common?

B. No. Very rare, yet worth knowing.

A. Which is the third Rule?

B. Adjectives of quality are changed into their abstract Nouns with the Verb sapit, olet, or the like; for we say, instead of novus, novitaters sapit; barbarus, barbariem olet, redolet; rusticus, rus refert, &c.

A. Which is the fourth Rule?

B. Partitive Adjectives are elegantly changed into the Noun Genus, or else joyn themselves to it: as, Quidam homines, quoddam genus homi­num. Omnes homines, omne genus hominum. Nulli homines, nullum genus hominum. Quod genus homi­num, i. e. quales. Id genus hominum, i. e. tales homines, &c.

A. How many Rules are there for the Idiotisms of Pronouns?

B. Six.

A. Which is the first?

B. In lieu of the Interrogative quis, the La­tines use quid with a Genitive case, elegantly: as, Quid homo, or quid hominis? Quae res, or quid rei? The same happens in the Redditive: as, id hominis, id rei, &c. for is homo, ea res, &c.

A. Which is the second?

B. When any one speaks of his own affairs, [Page 14]he useth hoc; when of his, whom he speaks to, istud; when of the affairs of some third man, and one who is absent, illud: as, Per caput hoc juro, says the Deity in Virgil, pointing to its own.

Sic oculos, sic ille manus, sic or a gerebat. Id.

A. Which is the third?

B. Ille and ipse demonstrate some person or thing with honour, iste with content for the most part.

A. Which is the fourth?

B. When two things are to be expressed by Pronouns, hic is spoken of the nearer, ille of the more remote: But when three, hic signifies the nearest, iste the more remote, ille the far­thest off. And yet Valerius Maximus, tho' a superstitious observer of this elegancy, once neglected it: as, Brutus, inquit, par gloriâ Ro­mulo: quia ille urbem, hic libertatem Romanam condidit.

A. Which is the fifth?

B. Idem qui, and idem ac, and idem illi, are said most Latinely: but idem cum illo wants the authority of the middle-age: as,

Hesperus ea­dem stella

  • Quae Phosophorus.
  • Ac Phosphorus.
  • Cum Phosphoro.
  • Phosphoro in the Dative is Poetical.

A. Which is the fixth?

B. These Pronoun Primitives, Ego, tu, sui, do [Page 15]emphatically double their Accusatives; as, me­me, for me; tete, for te; sese, for se.

A. How many Rules are to be observed for the Idiotisms of Verbs?

B. Seven.

A. Which is the first?

B. The Latines very elegantly use some a­ctive Verbs, instead of passives: as, Terra mo­vet, for movetur. Cic. Venti posuêre, for posuê­runt se. And Tempestas sedavit, for sedata est. Virg. Cum mare turbat, Varro. Mores Populi Romani mutârunt, for mutati sunt. Liv. Prae­cipitat nox. Virg. Olim volventibus annis, Idem. Non qui volvunt, sed qui volvuntur. Decollat spes, i. e. decollatur. Vehens curru; not the Cha­rioteer, but the Passenger, &c.

N. B. In all these the Pronoun se seems to be ellipted. See the 1 Sylvula Verborum in the Ox­ford Grammar.

A. Which is the second?

B. On the contrary, they use some absolute Verbs actively: as, Spirare odorem; olere hircum; sapere rem suam. Plaut. Celerare iter; penetrare se aliquo; ruere se, &c. See more of this sort in the second Sylvula Verborum.

A. Which is the third?

B. The Latines elegantly signifie passion by Deponent Verbs, i. e. such as indeed were once Commons, but even in Tully's age had either [Page 16]altogether, or almost, laid down their passive signification: as, Adipiscor, auxilior, complector, meditor, polliceor, testor, &c. For, says Flautus, Non aetate, sed ingenio, adipiscitur sapientia. Lucil. Auxiliatus est à me. Cic. Uno maleficio scelera omnia complexa esse videntur. Ter. Meditata mihi sunt omnia. Metellus, Aliis statuae pollicebantur. Cic. Publicis literis testata sunt omnia, &c. See the fourth Sylvula Verborum. But these are as it were Laxical; let us come to Grammatical.

A. Which is the fourth?

B. Any one speaking of himself in Latine, may elegantly speak in the plural number; as, Cic. Nos valemus, i. e ego valeo.

OBS. Modern Languages do the same in the second person, by way of complement: but for that reason to speak so in Latine, ineptire est, says Comenius

B. Which is the fifth?

B. The Imperative Mood by the help of the Indicative of the same Verb, Si coming between, commands more urgently; as, Plautus, Bibe, si bibis. In imitation whereof you may rightly say, fac, si facis; scribe, si scribis; perge, si pergis; by the figure Antanaclasis.

A. Which is the sixth?

B. Perfect time, whether past or to come, is very Latinely expressed by a Participle of the preter or future tense, with the Verbs do, reddo, [Page 17]volo, curo, rogo: as, Dabo tibi hoc effectum, for efficiam; curabo efficiendum; volo te rogatum, &c.

A. Which is the seventh Rule?

B. An action perfectly past is elegantly ex­pressed by a Neuter Participle of that tense, with the Verb habeo: And therefore a man may say instead of feci, habeo factum, scripsi, habeo scriptum; Solvi, habeo solutum. One would take it for a meer Anglicism, Germanism, or Italism; but it flows from the nature of things. And this construction is meat with the English and Ger­mans, and sawce with the Latines.

A. How many Rules do you give for the Idiotism of Participles?

B. One only.

A. What is it?

B. A Participle of the present tense, coming with a Verb of the preter tense, or future, takes to it self the signification of that tense: as, that of Martial, Vilior haec nobis alio mittente fuisset, i. e. si alius misisset. Caesar. 1. Civil. Quos ab urbe discedens Pompeius erat adhortatus, i. e. quum discessit. Plaut. Menaechmei A. 2. sc. 3. Herus emit me dicto audientem, non imperantem sibi, i. e. qui futurus essem dicto audiens. See Franciscus Sanctius, lib. 1. cap. 4. Vossius de Analogiâ pag. 233.

A. How many Rules do you give for the Idiotisms of Adverbs?

B. Four.

A. Which is the first?

B. Adverbs of place, time, and plenty, have elegantly a Genitive case after them: as, Ubi locorum? Ubi (que) terrarum, nusquam Gentium, in­tereà loci, Nunc temporis, olim seculorum, &c. Sa­tis verborum, Ter. Abunde fraudis, Virg. Largi­ter mercedis indipiscar, Plaut.

A. Which is the second?

B. By a Grecism also Adverbs of plenty ad­mit of an Accusative case: as, Cic. Satis tempus habet. Si satis consilium haberem. Ovid. fortunam habuit satis. Apul. Vinum affatim habemus, &c.

A. Which is the third?

B. To change an Adverb into an Adjective of the Neuter Gender, either singular or plural, is a pleasant hellenism: as, in the singular, Tur­bidum laetari, Hor. Sursum ferri. Lucr. magnum clamare, Plaut. indoctum canere, Hor. In the plural, Multa gemens; insueta rudentem; terram crebra ferit, for crebrò, Virg.

A Which is the fourth?

B. 'Tis no less pleasant to leave that Adjective in the Gender of the person, whether masculine or feminine: as, Virg. Nec minus Aeneas se ma­tutinus agebat, for mané. Idem. Gregibus noctur­nus obambulat. Hor. Serus in coelum redeas. Idem. Delicta majorum. Immeritus lues. Impar congres­sus Achilli, Virg. 1 Aen. v. 479. for impariter.

A. In how many Rules do you lay down the Doctrine of Idiotical Phrases?

B. In Fifteen.

A. Which is the first?

B. A proper name being put by Apposition (as the modern Grammarians, or Epexegesis, as the ancient call it) to a common name, may be turned into the Genitive case, or changed into an Adjective: as, we say grammatically, Urbs Romae, arbor ficus, &c. but more latinely, Urbs Romae, or Romana. Arbor fici, Cic. or ficulnea, Appuleius. So Livie, Arboris abietis. For (says J. C. Scaliger) it is one thing to speak Gram­matically, another to speak Latinely.

A. Which is the second Rule?

B. It is a Grecism, when Nouns betokening divers things are put in the same case, as if they belonged to the same thing: as, we say grammatically, Terra Galliae, Regio Thessaliae, &c. but more latinely, Terra Gallia, Regio Thessalia, &c. Thus Livie and Appuleius use to speak.

A. Which is the third Rule?

B. A Noun Substantive is most latinely chan­ged into an Adjective, and put into the Neuter Gender: as, we say grammatically, Generosa honestas; mordax veritas; quanta inanitas; ma­jor serenitas, &c. And yet Persius said more la­tinely, Generosum honestum; mordaci radere vero [Page 20]auriculas. Quantum est in rebus inane! And Sta­tius also, Majus serenum, &c.

By the same Rule.

It is a Grecism, but most grateful, to Latine-ears, for the Adjective to be changed into the Neuter Gender, and the Substantive to be put in the Genitive case: as, we say grammatically, Secretus locus. Lubrica juventus: Ultima seditio. Ardui montes. Serenum coelum. Vanus rumor; or inanis fama, &c. But Tacitus and others have said more latinely, Secretum loci. Lubricum ju­ventae. Ultimum seditionis. Ardua montium. Se­rena coeli. Vana rumoris; inania famae, &c.

It is also a Grecism to change the Adjective into an Adverb, and the Substantive into the Ge­nitive case: as, when Plautus, for larga merces, said largiter mercedis. But it is an Hebraism to change the Adjective into the Genitive case of the abstract Substantive: as when for vir iracundus, is said vir irae. Jac. 1.20. for spiritus lenis, is said, spiritus lenitatis. Gal. 6.1. And for Mam­mona iniquus Mammona iuiquitatis. Luc. 16.9. And so often in Scripture.

A. Which is the fourth Rule?

B. An Adjective of fitness is elegantly omit­ted, and instead of the Dative case, is used a Gerund in do: as we say grammatically, Esne par oneri ferendo? Non sum sufficiens debito sol­vendo. Semen idoneum sationi. Charta apta scri­ptioni, [Page 21]&c. Latinely, Esne ferendo? Non sum solvendo. Semen exoletum non est ferendo, Plin. Charta emporeutica non est scribendo, &c.

A. Which is the fifth Rule?

B. It is a Grecism to put the part affected after Verbs, Participles, and Adjectives in the Accusative case: as we say grammatically, Clarus genere. Hirsutus pedibus. Similis voce, colo­re, crinibus, &c. Tacitus more latinely, Clari ge­nus. Virg. Hirsutus crura. Mercurio similis vocém (que) colorêm (que) & flavos crines, &c. In the Accusa­tives, quod ad, quantum attinet are ellipted.

According to the same Rule.

Adjectives of plenty, knowledge, care, stu­dy, and their contraries, require in a Latine construction an Ablative, in a Greek a Genitive case: as one may say grammatically, Cantha­rus plenus aquâ, vacuus vino; vir praestans animo, invictus labore, eruditus artibus, plenus vitiis, &c. But more latinely, Plenus aquae, vacuus vini. Arabes frugum pauperes, odorum divites, Apul. Sociorum inops, Tac. Rudis artium. Peritus rerum, ignarus omnium. Praestans animi. Invictuslaboris. Integer vitae sceleris (que) purus. Hor. Yet in all these Genitives there is a defect of some Ablative, which governs them. As, Arabes pauperes [pro­ventu] frugum. Inops [à comitatu] sociorum. Ru­dis [cognitione] artium. Purus [à crimine] scele­ris, &c.

By the same.

Adjectives of power, in imitation of the Greeks, change an Ablative case for an Infinitive Mood. A man may say grammatically, Dignus amore. Difficilis fiexu. Largus donis. Audax subeundis passionibus. Bonus inflandis calamis, & dicendis versibus &c. And yet more sweetly by an In­finitive Mood, Dignus amari. Difficilis flecti. Largus donare, Horat. Audaxomnia perpeti, Idem. Boni convenimus ambo, tu calamos inflare, ego dicere versus, Virg.

A. Which is the sixth Rule?

B. To express the Accusative case of the Pronoun me, te, se, before an Infinitive Mood, after a Verb of a Finite Mood, signifying desire, is an insolent, rare, and yet pleasant Latinism. Grammatically, Facere studeo. Faciam, ut tu cupias facere sumtum. Quis (que) studet praestare cae­teris. Plautus more latinely, Ego me id facere studeo. Faciam, tu ut te cupias facere sumtum. Omnes homines, qui sese student praestare caeteris, Sallust.

A. Which is the seventh Rule?

B. To Verbs of disagreeing, keeping off, conten­ding with, and some signifying motion is joyned a Dative case, in imitation of the Greeks. Gram­matically, Dissidere ab aliquo. Differre ab alio. Ar­cere lupos à grege. Comitari aliquem, &c. Latinely, Discordat parcus avaro, Hor. Differt sermoni ser­mo, [Page 23]Idem. Virg. Solus tibicertet Amyntas. Idem, Arcebis gravido pecori. Idem, Solstitium pecori de­fendite. Plaut. Voluptati comes maerer sequitur, &c:

A. Which is the eighth Rule?

B. The Latines have a custom of putting ma­ny Verbs Actives Absolute, that is of concealing their Accusative cases. As you may say gram­matically, Abstinere se à placitis. Degere alicubi vitam. Solvere navim è portu. Fallere hostem-Occupare animum, &c. Latinely, Abstinere placi­tis. Degere alicubi, for habitare. Solvere è portu, for egredi. Non fefellerunt insidiae, Liv. Opinio falsa occupavit, for obtinuit, Agellius.

A. Which is the ninth Rule?

B. There are four ranks of Verbs, that instead of an Ablative case, elegantly assume a Genitive; but by an ellipsis of some Ablative, viz. 1. Verbs of being thoughtful, doubtful, and pensive. 2. Verbs of plenty or scarceness. 3. Verbs of pri­sing, and buying. 4. Verbs of accusing, con­demning, or assoiling.

1. We say grammatically, pendere animo, and excruciari animo. Defipere mente. Falli spe, &c. But Latinists had rather say, Pendere animi [sup­ple, cogitatione.] Excruciarianimi [sc. sollicitudine.] Desipere mentis [sc. errore.] Falli spei [sc. opinione or expectatione, or some such Ablative.]

2. Grammatically, Abundare divitiis, egere consilio, implere vino, carere pecuniâ, &c. More [Page 24]latinely, Quarum abundemus rerum, & quarum indigeamus, Lucilius [sc. copiâ] Cic. egere consilii [sc. ope, rc.] Virg. Implere vini [sc. liquore.] Ter. carendem erat tui [sc. praesentiâ.]

3. Grammatically, Aestimare magno, Cic. Vendere plurimo, Idem. Valere minimo, Ulpian. Data magno aestimas, accepta parvo, Sen. Yet the self-same good Authors have spoken more la­tinely by a Genitive. Aestimare magni, vel parvi. Flocci facere. Nihili pendere. Nauci ha­bere, &c. Quanti vendidisti? Tanti, pluris, mi­noris, &c. To compleat the sense thus supply the ellipsis, Aestimare [rem] magni [pretii;] or thus, [pro] magni [aeris pretio.] Facere [rem] flecci; or [pro re] flocci. Quanti [aeris pretio] hoc emisti, aut vendidisti?

4. Cicero said grammatically, Accusare [ali­quem] de veneficio; and again in another place elliptically, Condemnare crimine [supple De.] But again elsewhere more latinely by a Geni­tive, Postulare flagitii; Absolvere criminis, con­demnare capitis; tenere furti, &c.

That you may the better apprehend these elegancies, note that accusare de veneficio is en­tire, but that the Genitive after these Verbs de­pends on some of these Ablatives, either expres­sed, or suppressed, sc. Crimine, scelere, peccato, actione, causâ, paena. So that a man may be said accusari, and afterward condemnari, or absolvi [Page 25]de crimine veneficii, [which is complete.] But for brevity and elegancy (the general causes of ellipsis's in all Languages) [De] was first omitted. So Martial, Arguitur lentae crimine pigritiae. At length the Ablative it self became concealed, and the Genitive only was expressed: as, Arguere pigritiae. Accusare veneficii. Damnare sceleris, &c.

A. Which is the tenth Rule?

B. That which a Latine Grammarian speaks by Gerunds and Supines: Ibo visum, or ad visen­dum. Misit quaesitum, &c. an imitator of Gre­cism expresses by an Infinitive Mood: as, Ter. It visere ad eam. Plaut. Parasitum misi petere ar­gentum. Hor. Persequar frangere. Virg. Non ve­nimus populare penates, &c.

A. Which is the eleventh Rule?

B. The common Grammar saith, Cum hoc & hoc fieret, or sub, ab hoc; inter haec; postquam, &c. Which are most latinely exprest by two Ablatives, the one a Noun, the other a Partici­ciple, which the Latine Grammarians commonly call Ablativus consequentiae, and the English the Ablative case Absolute: as, Pompeio pugnante, that is, cum pugnaret, in ipsâ pugnâ. Pompeio victo; postquam esset victus: Or thus, [sub] Pompeio pugnante. [à] Pompeio victo.

Obs. 1. You may also find two Nouns so put, by an ellipsis of the Participle: as, Cicerone [Page 26]Consule, sc. Res gerente. Me puero, sc. Existente. Navigare vento secundo, sc. aspirante; vento ad­verso, sc. obsistente. Vento nullo, sc. afflante, &c.

Obs. 2. Again you may find a Participle of the Preter tense used alone so, as it may betoken a consequence; yet the Ablative case of some other Substantive is tacitly implyed: as, Caesar, audito, sc. rumore. Nondum comperto, sc. Nun­tio, &c.

A. Which is the twelfth Rule?

B. Instead of a Participle you may use a Verbal Substantive most latinely: as, Agellius says, Homo fabulator. Virgil, Populum late regem, i. e. regnantem.

A. Which is the thirteenth Rule?

B. A Grammarian to the Verb joyns its Ad­verb, but a Latinist had rather have an Ad­jective in the Neuter Gender, nay sometimes in the Masculine or Feminine, either singular or Plural. See the third and fourth Rules for the Idiotisms of Adverbs.

By a Hebraism also, not grating to Latine-ears, a Gerund noting the certainty of the action may be joyned to a Verb: as, Videndo videre, &c.

A. Which is the fourteenth Rule?

B. The Latines have a strong inclination to the ellipsis of Prepositions, especially in Nouns, 1 of Time, 2 of Place, 3 of Measure, 4 of the Cause.

1. Of Time. Anno hoc, (i.e. in anno hoc.) Men­se Maio [in.] Die quinta [in.] Colloquebamur tres horas, [i. e. per] or tribus horis, [in.]

2. Of place. Unde venis? Ex Italiâ, Vene­tiis, Mediolano, Româ. [i.e. ex Venetiis, è Me­diolano, &c.

Quo ibis? In Italiam, Venetias, Mediolanum, Romam, [i.e. in Venetias, &c.]

Ubi est ille? In Italiâ. Venetiis, [i. e. in] Medi­olani. Roma.

Here the Candidate of Eloquence must ob­serve three things.

1. That Names of Cities and Towns are very commonly used elliptically: the Names of whole Countries and Islands very seldom: as, Navigare Cyprum, for in Cyprum, said Livie. And Ter. Proficisci Aegyptum, [i. e. in Aegyptum.]

2. That the Names of Cities of the first and second Declension, and the singular number, are put in the Genitive case instead of the Ablative, by a double ellipsis. So, Ubi? Romae [in urbe Re­mae.] Mediolani [sc. in urbe Mediolani.]

3. That this ellipsis is imitated by five Noun-Substantives common, viz. Domus, humus, rus, bellum, militia: and yet not in every thing; for we say only,

Ubiest? Domi, humi, rure, or ruri, belli, militiae.

Unde redis? Domo, rure. Tolle humo.

Quo ibis? Domum, rus.

3. Of Measure. The Preposition is understood in Nouns of Measure: as, Capua distat Româ

  • Iter tridui [per iter tridui.]
  • Itinere tridui [ab itinere tridui.

4. Of the Cause, Whence, or why, any thing is, or is said, may also be put elliptically in the Ablative case: as, Est puer aetate, [i. e. ab aetate.] Sapientiâ senex, [i. e. à.] Est mater nomine [à no­mine.] Noverca re, &c.

The same Latines put two Prepositions toge­ther, one of their casual words being understood. Cicero often, In ante Calendas [in Diem ante Cal.] Ex ante diem nonarum [ex termino, qui fuit ante—] Liv. Ex templo è circa Praetorem missi ad civitates nuntii [ex hominibus, qui erant circa Praetorem.] So Seneca in de irâ [in libro de irâ,] &c.

A. Which is the fifteenth Rule?

B. It is a delicacy amongst the Latines to joyn together two Conjunctions, or Adverbs of the same signification: as, 1. Copulatives, Que &; Etiam &; Etiam quo (que) Quo (que) etiam: for says Cicero, Apertâ (que) & clarà voce dicere. Ma­crobius, Existimo nonnihil ad consuetudinem vete­rum, etiam & Praetoris, accedere. Plaut. Et hoc quo (que) etiam. Lucret. Est etiam que (que) ubi proprio cum lumine possit, &c. 2. Concessives, Etsi quam­vis non fueris suasor, approbator certè fuisti, Cic. Quanquam etsi magnum me dixisset, Apul. 3. Or­dinatives, [Page 29] Pòst deinde, Ter. Deinceps inde, Liv. Deinde postea, Ulp. Tandem deni (que) Apul. 4. Illatives, Ergo igitur, Apul. Itaque ergò; Ter.

A. Are Idioms always confined to some one language only?

B. Idioms, strictly so call'd, are so peculiar to one Language, that others cannot imitate them, whether they lie in single words: as the Greek [...], which the Romans themselves are fain to circumlocute thus, Vis rerum viva, motuum principium; and the Latine, Parentare, i. e. Personis funeratis aut funerandis, ceremonia­rum apparatu, honorem (veluti Parentibus) exhi­bere: Or in Sentences: as, Post homines natos, Since the creation of man, which no modern Language can translate ad verbum, no nor the Greek neither. These are termed Idiotismi stricti.

Others are not so the monopoly of any one tongue, but that they may be common to two or more Languages. Such are all pure Latine words used by Classic Authors, and many Senten­ces: as that of Plautus, Nescio quid habeo in mundo; Anglicè, I know not what in the world I have. So habeo scriptum, solutum, may idiomatically be translated verbum de verbo into the English, Ger­man, and Italian Tongues. Quantum est in rebus inane? for quanta est in rebus inanitas? is com­mon to Latine and Greek: So inania famae, lu­bricum juventae, for inanis fama, lubrica juven­tus, &c.

Vir irae, spiritus lenitatis, mammona iniquitatis, are common Idioms to the Hebrew, Latine, and English Languages. These therefore are stiled Idiotismi laxi.

A. Wherein lies the Ʋirtue of Idiotism?

B. The Virtue of this Ornament lies in the Emphasis that is in the validity of the significa­tion, which other tongues cannot attain to even with a Periphrasis; such are many expressions of the Greeks, Latines, English, &c. inimitable in equal nervositie by other Languages.

A. How many Ʋices are contrary to this Ʋirtue?

B. The Vices which stand in opposition to this Virtue are Three, sc. Barbarism, Solecism, Xe­nism, or Peregrinity.

A. What it Barbarism?

B. Barbarism is defined by Diogenes in his seventh Book thus, [...]. By Suidas thus, [...]. In English thus, Barbarism is a word used contrary to the custom of approved Authors. Again, Comenius defines it thus, Bar­barism is, when in a Latine Sentence a word is made use of, which either is not Latine, as avi­sare for certiorem facere, or praemonere, or not conformable, in some circumstance or other to the practice of pure writers, as filie for fili.

Sciopius thus, Barbarism is a sin against the Rules of Orthoepia, Prosodia, Etymologia: such Rules, I mean, as are built upon the Writers of Tully's Age.

1. Against Orthoepia: as, Mecaenas for Maece­nas, Expecto for exspecto, doc-tus for do-ctus, &c.

2. Prosodia: as, Compétitor for Competítor, Opo­rínus for Opórinus.

3. Analogia: as, Gratitudo and ingratitudo for animus gratus and ingratus, or gratum and in­gratum, certitudo and incertitudo for certum and incertum, adversitas for res adversae, turbidae, gravis fortuna, &c.

A. What is the true signification of the Adjective barbarus, a, um?

B. Barbarus is synonymous to extraneus, pere­grinus, one of another Country, from דב extra, foras.

A. What is Solecism?

B. Suidas defines Solecism thus, [...]. Vox incongruè constructa, the Latines call it Stribligo.

Sciopius thus, It is (saith he) a sin against the Rules and Figures of Construction.

Comenius thus, It is a Solecism when Latine words are joyned together unlatinely, that is, after a manner unusual to the Latines: as if one should say, Facere damnum for dare, or dare [Page 32]jacturam for facere. Milites viligant in monte for milites speculantur de monte, in these the words are Latine, but coupled unlatinely. So if one should say, Magna fur, or misera homo, it would be Solecism, no less than pugio mea, pro­fectus Londini, penes Romanis, or such-like.

A. What is Xenism or Pereginity?

B. Peregrinity or Xenism is when we in Latine, or Greek, &c. unelegantly imitate an Idiotism, elegant in another Language.

Sciopius defines it thus, Peregrinitas est verbo­rum Latinorum usus ad idiomata aliarum linguarum consuetudinem conformatus: as, Non me latet is an unelegant imitation of the Greeks [...]. So superior illius is a Peregrinity in imitation of the Greeks, who use a Genitive case after a Com­parative degree, by an ellipsis of [...], which really governs the case, instead of illo, which is governed of prae understood.

So the verbal translations of our English Idioms into Latine is mostly Xenism: as, Let us take our heels and run away: Capiamus nostros calces & fugiamus: for which Terence saith ele­gantly, Nos in pedes conjiciamus, &c. Caesar, Nos fugae mandemus.

He doth the clean contrary: Politum opposi­tum facit, for which Tully saith, Ab illo contra fit.

I stand in great need of Learning: Sto in [Page 33]magno opere doctrinae: for which Cicero said, Doctrinam magnopere desidero, and such-like.

A. Methinks no man should ever happen upon such uncouth expressione, but having con­sulted his Grammar and Dictionary, should without any more to de, say with Terence, Nos in pedes conjiciamus, or with Caesar, &c.

B. You think so, because you have already gone thro' Terence and Plautus, Caesar and Cicero, and by long use and custom have bin so inured to this & no other Phrases upon this subject, that all other seem uncouth to you: but to convince you that it is far otherwise than you imagin, do but consult the Vulgars translated last night by one of the lower Forms, or rather those your self translated three or four years ago. And again, Tell me this, seeing every thing may be expressed so many several ways (I have heard our Master say at least an hundred) in a queint and elegant stile, and seeing some few of the ways are only proper in a plain and familiar stile, which we are now speaking of, because they only are idiotical, and in use: do you think that all Nations have made choice of the same forms and expressions to be in com­mon use, and agreed together which should be rejected?

A. It were impessible that they should: for how should we that speal English know what [Page 34]Phrases they have made use of to be in common use in France, Italy, or Spain; or what are the common Phrases in German, Turkish, or Persian Languages? And as impossible it would be for them to know what ours are:

B. So that you must now confess, that if One of any of these Nations should come to learn our Language, or One of our Country to learn theirs, and know the significations of all words in their respective Tongues, yet he might fall upon as uncouth Phrases as those I propounded.

A. I am now convinced that he may: for how shall we Englishment know that these are in use more than any other in their Languages, having one perhaps clear differing from theirs in our own Mother Tongue; and probably Theirs will seem as strange to Vs, as Ours do to Them.

B. No question but it will; but this, which you rightly apprehend, will be more clear by an instance or two. Suppose Latine was now spoke in Italy, as once it was; here comes one of that Country into England, and English is the Language, he hath a desire upon occasion to speak the same in effect with this piece of his Mother Tongue, Rogo te, amice, mihi Virgilium tuum ad horam unam aut alteram utendum des, & cum tibi reddam integrum: How do you think he would express himself?

A. I fancy that he (not knowing the Idiom of our Language, and observing the manner of speech in use in his own tongue) would be apt to say thus: I intreat thee, my Friend, that thou maist give to me, to be used, thy Virgil, to one hour or another, and I shall render him to you entire. Nor indeed can I well conceive how he should speak any otherwise, being ignorant of our usual manner of speech, in this particular; but surely we should count it very strange English.

B. If a French man should come, he would have some other kind, which yet would differ as much from our English, and seem as strange, the same you may understand of an Italian, of a Spaniard of a Dutch-man, or any other what­ever. All would be different, and all uncouth:

A. How would a Frenchman speak in this case?

B. My master, I pray you of lending me your Virgil for an hour or two, &c.

A. How a Dutchman?

B. Do me though (i. e. amabo) your Virgil an hour, two, three, and I will give you it back again unhurt.

A. How an Englishman that can speak pure, i. e. proper, good English?

B. Sir, I would desire you to lend me your Virgil for an hour or two, and I will send it safe back.

This is Idiotical; the other Peregrinity.

A. How would a Latinist (for want of skill in the propriety of the English tongue) at the first meeting salute you?

B. Be safe, Friend.

A. Why do you suppose he would choose that form of expressing himself?

B. Because it is an Idiom in Latine, Salve amice.

A. How would a Frenchman speak upon the same occasion, and for the same reason?

B. Good day, my Master, how do you bear your self?

A. An Italian how?

B. How stands your Lordship? or, how stand you?

A. How a Dutchman?

B. Good day, my Master, how goes it with your health?

A. What should they say, if they would speak proper English?

How do you do, Sir? I am glad to see you well: for the other are Xenisms in imitation of their own familiar expressions; but this is our Idiom.

A. Are these three all the vices opposite to the virtue of Idiotism?

B. To these you may add one more, tho' some comprise it under Xenism.

A. What is that?

B. It is called Archaïsm.

A. What is Archaïm?

B. Scioppius answers for me thus, Archaîsmus est usus verborum, quae intelligebantur quidem Ci­ceronis aetate, sed tamen in usu esse desiêrunt. Ar­chaîsm is the use of words, which truly were understood in the Age wherein Tully lived, but yet had ceased to be in use: as, Senati for Senatüs, Plebes for Plebs, Satias for Satietas, Secus virile for Sexus virilis, Locus hostibus igna­rus for ignotus, Bellum Punicum posterior for posterius. Such are Naevius's words, who begins his first Punick War thus, Queiterrai Latiai (vel Latiei) hemones tuserint. Virésque frudésque Poi­nicas fabor; for Qui terrae Latiae homines tude­rint (vel fregerint) vires fraudésque Punicas fabor.


Scholastick Prolusions TO THE ART OF ORATORY.

J.A. Comenius de finibus Latinae Scholae.

PƲram requirimus Latinitatem, ad inescandum oble­etandúm (que) Ingenia: Quia impurae, qualis sordida illa vulgaris, variss variarum Gentium Barbarismis & Solaecismis inquinata Latinitas, gratiae inessenihil petest: nausea potiùs & fastidium, etiam ad elegantes Authores, perinelegantem illam viam translatis. Ʋt ergò Latina quaevis Schola purum putum referat Latium, danda est omninò opera.

Idem de Eleganti Elegantiae studio:

OMnium hominum nemo est, qui pulchro aliquo Terrae tractu, amoeno camporum & montium conspectu, pul­chrís (que) hortis & vineis, & speciosis animalium formis, & concinnis aedificiorum structuris, & decorâ veste, & bene conditis cibis, & suaviter modulante Musicâ, &c. non ca­piatur. Et cur ergo non magis illis, per quae Homines ma­gis sumus, afficiamur & oblectemur, Cogitationum & Lin­guae Elegantiis? Ah quàm pulchrum est sapere! mente sci­ticet ad quidvis pulchrum pulchrè excogitandum pollere-Quam pulchreon linguâ esse politum! ad quidvis pulchrum pulchrè eloquendum, animís (que) persuadendum, potentem.


QƲin & Deo ipsinos per verbum suum alloquenti, seimonis artificia adhibere placuit omnia, plusquem ullus De­mosthenes aut Cicero imitariposset. Ad divinorum ita (que) Eloquiorum intelligentiam facit Elegantiae sermonis non ig­norare Artes. Hinc summi Theologi antiqui & recentes, Tertullianus imprimis, & Lactantius, Hieronymus, Am­brosius, Augustinus, Gregorius, nupér (que) Joh. Calvinus, Sermenis elegantium cum Rerum majestate ita copulârunt ut non sapientiae tantùm divinae doctores, sed & Esoquentiae Romanae, tersissimí (que) stili agnoscantur ab ipsismet Criticis duces. Ʋt mhil, sit cur Voe, Theologiae studiosi, purioris Latinitatis studium à vobis putetis alienum. Vobis prae omnibus, qui homines humanâ alloqui necesse habetis linguà, hoc incumbit, ut cum pro Deo, Deí (que) leco, Vebis conveniat loqui, lequi annitamini Deo dignè, h. e. Linguâ erudit [...] (Jes. 50.4.)

Scholastick Prolusions TO THE Art of ORATORY.

CHAP. I. What means we are to use, to make a Sentence Elegant.

I Have always been of an Opinion, that whatever is to be exploded in Manners, ought to be hissed off the Stage in Speech. For as the Manners of the rude Mobile are not much appro­ved, so Speech is little grac'd by the gibberish of the half-learn'd Vulgar.

Language, if it be not ordinary and trite, attracts the minds of the Hearers, and with a kind of Majesty offers it self to be ador'd with admiration. Wherefore we conclude it ought to be of another make than that of the com­mon people.

By the Language of the Vulgar, Note. I mean not that which is Latine, Learn­ed, and Elegant, tho' the common [Page 42]sort use it: for 'tis impossible but that the People should retain to themselves some things, of what they have recei­ved from the more learned, pure, and unprophaned.

Precept 1 First therefore, do not use rustic, barbarous, and improper words, the too frequent admission whereof makes a Language rough and boisterous.

Precept 2: Observe, secondly, a quite different Order in placing words one among another.

Precept 3 Thirdly, a witty and ingenious in­vention of expressions of Fancy, which we commonly call Phrases, and such as stand at a great distance from the sense of the Vulgar, will leave the Sentence more graceful.

Of the first of these I design only to advertise you here, reserving the par­ticulars for Chap. 22. where I intend a most exquisite and curious account of all those impurities that stain and soil the native complection of the Latine Tongue.

Of the second there will all over oc­cur many both Precepts and Submo­nitions.

Of the third I shall speak somewhat [Page 43]in this place, and therefore do thus exemplifie.

Whereas in English the ignorant Many are used to write thus,

I have not received a Letter from you this Twelve-month:

A lover of quaintness and elegancy will raise himself above the common level, and express himself on this, or some such-like manner;

You write Letters to me, as Astrolo­gers to Almanacks, once a Year.

This is now the second August, since I saw your hand at a Letter.

The Sun hath once compleated his yearly circuit, since you grac'd me with a Letter.

The Sun hath made his annual pro­gress thro' all his Caelestial Houses, since I broke up the seal of one of your Letters.

The Sun hath run thro' all the Lines in the Zodiack, since I saw one from you.

And whereas our common form of Speech used to be,

Sir, I shall make bold to come and see you by and by:

The more polite and genteel make use of this, as a more elegant and ci­vil expression,

Sir, I shall take the boldness to wait upon you.

Again the proletarious and homely Phrase creeps thus upon the ground,

I do verily believe such or such a thing:

But they, that by a liberal and more generous Education are become Sons of Art, distinguish themselves, as by their Manners, so by their Language, from these Plebeians, and say,

I do verily perswade my self, I am very confident, I do assure my self of such or such a thing; and so a thousand ways, according as every mans Fancy leads him.

So in Latine,

Amicitiae nostrae integritas nos delectat maximé.

Nondum Saturni revolutionem absol­vit.

For which the illiterate swarm would have said,

Multum gaudemus, quia boni sumus Amici.

Nondum complevit annos triginta.

Magnitudo amoris in te mei officium linguae vel expeditissimae superat.

Virtus tua me tibi amicum fecit.

Vivite felices, memores & vivite nostri, Tibullus:

Sive erimus, seu nos fata fuisse velint. Horatius.

Porcis haec comedenda relinquis.

Hoc animo scito omnes sanos, M. Cicero.ut mor­tem servituti anteponant.

Hyems adhuc rem geri prohibuerat. Idem.

Nec verò Aristotelem in Philosophiâ deteruit à scribendo amplitudo Platonis. Idem. O­rat. 5.

Queniam me loqui voluistis, Ibidem.aliquid de vestris vitiis audiatis.

Haec quum Crassus dixisset, 3. de Ora: 141.parumper & ipse conticuit, & à caeteris silentium fuit.

Nam (que) haec duo,Ibid. 172.Musici qui erant quondam iidem Poetae, machinati ad voluptatem sunt versum at (que) cantum, ut verborum numero & vocum modo, de­lectatione vincerent aurium satietatem.

Sic omnibus in rebus, Ibid. 9 [...]voluptatibus maximis fastidium finitum est.

CHAP. II. How the Obscurity of a Sentence is to be avoided.

WHen Nature first gave Man­kind the use of Speech, it was past all doubt, to the intent that what [Page 46]we had conceived in our minds, we might utter in our words. For this reason 'tis one of the principal virtues of Speech, to be dilucid. For he that speaks obscurely, had almost as good hold his peace, and say nothing.

And there is nothing that worketh more effectually the obscurity of a Sentence, than a vulgar Perswasion, that between the Adjective and Sub­stantive, between the Supposite [i. e. the Nominative Case] and its Verb, between the word governing and the word governed, and such other like, something ought to be inserted.

Precept. Now,that we may avoid all dan­ger of Obscurity arising from this ar­tificial order of the words, let us so place them, that the Adjective may stand near its Substantive, the Suppo­site near its Verb, the governed near its governour, the Antecedent Case of the Substantive near its Relative; And if any thing do come betwixt, let it be short, and have (as far as the nature of the thing will bear) a respect to both, or at least one of those words between which it is pla­ced: as in that Verse of the Poet,

Calliope princeps sapientipsallerat ore. Bassus. Such is that of Cicero, (nor indeed can the like be easily found in him again.

Bonâ adolescentibus indole praeditis sa­pientes senes delectantur.

CHAP. III. That the Comparative and Superlative Degrees are very elegantly set after their Substantives.

Precept. YOu will perceive a greater Ele­gancy, and, I fancy, more ta­king to the ears, if you place a Com­parative or Superlative after its Sub­stantive; tho' some others, of whom Valerius Maximis is one, do not very religiously observe it: as, Plato, Qui sanâ mente est, cui rei adhibeat diligenti­am majorem non novi, quàm ut filium reddat optimum. Idem, Nullius injuriae qui sibi ipse conscius est, ei jucunda spes senectutis nutrix optima semper adest.

Nunc est ille dies, Ennius.quum gloria maxima sese.

Nobis ostendat, sive vivimus sive morimur.

Fortissimi viri & milites strenuissimi ex agricolis gignuntur. Plinius.

Hippocrates divinà vir scientiâ de coïtu Venereoita existimabat, Aul. Gel­lius, or ra­ther Agel­lius.partem esse quandam morbi teterrimi: quem nostri comitialem dixerunt.

In Theodoro quo (que) viro gravissimo Hieronymus tyrannus tortorum manus frustra fagitavit. Valerius Maximus.

Nunc isti pretia maxima ob tacendum accipiunt. C. Gracchus

Imperatorem liberalissimum, M. Cicero, Epist. lib. 7. ep. 7.aetatem opportunissimam, commendationem certè singularem habes.

Cultura animi Philosophia, Idem 2 Tusc. 13.quae extra­hit vitia radicitus; & praeparat animos ad satus accipiendos; eá (que) mandat iis, &, ut ita dicam, serit, quae adulta fructus uberrimos ferant.

CHAP. IV. That Numerals, or those Nouns which signifie Number, are set after their Substantives.

Precept. THus much you may learn by the first Example, that those Nouns that signifie Number (be they [Page 47]Cardinals, Ordinals, or Distributives) are elegantly set after their Substan­tives, which in ordinary discourse use to be set before them; as, Aristoteles. Babylon [Ninus] capta quum est ab hoste, ferunt partem aliquam civitatis ejus die tertia nondum quicquam sensisse. Zeno Citticus adolescentulo inepta loquenti plurima, duas, inquit, aures ideo habe­mus, & os unum, ut audiamus multa, pauca loquamur.

Teneros laedunt juga prima juvencos; Ovidius.

Fraena (que) vix patitur de grege captus equus.

Pluris est testis oculatus unus, Plautus▪quàm auriti decem. Qui audiunt audita di­cunt: qui vident planè sciunt.

Prima vitae tempora, media patriae, Plonius ju­nior.extrema nobis impertire debemus, ut ipsae leges monent, quae majorem annis sexa­ginta otio reddunt.

Homini non ante diem septimum le­thalis inedia. Plinius.

Demosthenes melius, Quintilia­nus.qui se in locum ex quo nulla ex audiri vox, nihil (que) pro­spici posset, recondebat: ne alind agere mentem cogerent oculi. Ideó (que) lucubrantes silentium noctis, & clusum cubiculum, & lumen unum maximè teneat.

Herodotus homo fabulator, primo historiarum, inventum esse sub terrâscri­psit Oresti corpus, cubita longitudinis ha­bens septem: quae faciunt pedes duodecim & quadrantem.

Si cujus legati violati essent, M. Varro.qui id fecissent, quamvis nobiles essent, ut dede­rentur civitati, statuerunt faeciales vi­ginti, qui de his rebus cognoscerent, judi­carent, & statuerent, & constituerent.

Quem laborem nobis Attici nostri le­vavit labor,M. Cicero. Orat. 120.qui conservatis notatís (que) temporibus, nihil quum illustre praeter­mitteret, annorum septingentorum memo­riam uno libro colligavit.

CHAP. V. That dissyllable Adjectives are to be postpon'd to plurisyllable Substantives.

Precept. GReat is the Elegancy of a Sen­tence then, when an Adjective of two syllables is put after a Sub­stantive, that consists of more; as, Animus aequus optimum est aerumn [...]e condimentum. Socrates saltabat saepius, eám (que) exercitationem valetudini bonae non parum conferre putabat. Plato, [Page 49] Amicum bonum habere malim, quàm pretiosissimam coturnicem, aut Gallum, aut per Jovem potiùs quàm equum & canem ac medius fidius potius quàm Darii aurum adipisci, aut Darium ipsum capere.

Concilium bonum gratiâ parvi facia­tur. [faciatur prisce dictum.] Titinnius.

Cineri gloria sera venit. Martialis:

Casta placent superis, Tibullus. purà cum veste venite Et manibus puris sumite fontis aquam.

Pub. Cornelius Rufinus manu qui­dem strennuus, & bellator bonus,Agellius.mili­tarí (que) disciplinâ peritus admodum fuit: sed furax homo & avaritiâ acri erat.

Avaritia pecuniae studium habet, Sallustius.quam nemo sapiens concupivit: ea quasi vene­nis malis imbuta, corpus animúm (que) viri­lem effoeminat: semper infinita insatia­bilís (que) est, ne (que) copiâ, ne (que) inopiâ rerum minuitur.

Pythagoreis interdictum putatur, Cicero de divin. lib. faba vescerentur, quae res habet inflatio­nem magnam.

Tho' you may not find this always observed by great Authors, Submoni­tion. yet you will perceive it to have a great deal of fineness, if you take your measures from the judgment of the ear.

Grandes materias ingenia parva non sufferunt, Divus Hie­ronymus.& in ipso conatu ultra vires ausa succumbunt.

CHAP. VI. That the word Omnis loves to be placed after its Substantive.

Precept. EVery Sentence almost uses to be more venust, wherein the word Omnis is set after its Substantive; as, Aristoteles, Animantium omnium homo corporis habitâ proportione, cerebri habet plurimum. Plato, Oleum arboribus om­nibus herbís (que) prodest maximè, pilis autem animantium omnium nisi hominum necet plurimum. Idem, Peccatis multis onera­tam animam ad inferos descendere malo­rum omnium extremum est. Plutarchus, Viro bono diem omnem festum esse Dio­genes dicebat.

Ut te Dii omnes infelicitent, Caecilius.cum malè monita memoria.

Gnato ordinem omnem ut dederit, Pacuvius.enodat patri.

Rugosi passí (que) senes eadem omnia quae­runt. Laecilius.

Scriptorum cherus omnis amat nemus & fugit urbes. Horatius.

Matres omnes filiis in peccato adjutri­ces,Terentius.& auxilio in paternâ injuriâ solent esse.

Quadrupes animal omne, Cornelius lactans est, minus alimenti praestat.

Hordeum frugum omnium nobilissimum est. Plinius.

Frustra mala omnium ad crimen for­tunae relegamus. Quintilia­nus.

Virtutis laus omnis in actione consistit: Cicero 2 Offic. 19.à quâ tamen scepe fit intermissio.

Ut deos esse natura opinamur, Id. 1 Tusc. 56.qualés (que) sunt ratione cognoscimus, sic permanere animos arbitramur consensu nationum omnium.

And yet Tully 1 Offic. 57. says, Submoni­tion. Chari sunt parentes, chari liberi, propin­qui, familiares: sed omnes omnium, cha­ritates patria una complexa est. And Domitius Afer. Mulier rerum omnium merita, in omnibus rebus infelix.

CHAP. VII. That Nullus uses not unelegantly to be placed after the Substantive it agrees with.

Precept. THere is almost no manner of speaking, disagreeable to ordi­nary [Page 52]speech, but hath something of Elegancy: And such is the Noun Nullus, which therefore is more or­nately postpon'd its Substantive, be­cause in common Language it usually precedes it. Aristoteles, Lacedaemoni­orum Lege, qui hestem nullum interfe­eisset, capistro cingebature. Idem, Apud Scythas epulo selenni pateram circumla­tam accipere non licebat ei, qui hostem nullum occidisset. Plato, Si quis falsò iterum dixisse testimonium convictus sit, ter [...] lege nulla testari agatur: Sin au­tem tertiò, ratione nulla et postea testimo­nium dicere liceat.

Nam (que)Catullus.ego ab indignis praemia nulla peto.

Fabula nulla tuas de nobis concitet aures. Propertius.

Cognatos affines (que) nullos ferme tam esse objequibiles ait,Agellius.ut laborem ad capessendum nihil cunctentur, & statim dicto obedient.

Bellum nullum nisi pium geri putabant M. Varro.

Illud magis mihi selet esse molestum, M. Cicero Epist. lib. 12. ep. 30.tantis me impedire occupationibus: ut ad te scribendi meo arbitratu facultas nulla detur.

Majus mihi dare beneficium nullum potes. Idem l. 15. ep. 8.

CHAP. VIII. That Alienum, Aliud, Alterum, U­trum (que), Solum, Ullum, Tale, Sin­gula, and other such-like Adjectives, are to be put after their Substantives.

Precept. HE that in reading of good cur­rant Authors, does strictly exa­mine the scituation of each word, will find more than once or twice the Adnouns, alienum, aliud, alterum, utrum (que), solum, ullum, tale, and it there be any more of the same kind, plac'd after their Substantives: as, Aristote­les, Advenarum quorundam legibus alie­nis educatorum uti consuetudine creditum est inutile esse ad rectam civitatis disci­plinam. Plato, Principium operis totius dimidium esse proverbio dicitur: eúm (que) qui bene caepit laudamus.

Cui cepe edendo oculus alter profluit. Naevius.

Illud ediscendo scribendó (que) commune est,Quintilia­nus.utri (que) plurimum conferre bonam va­letudinem, digestum cibum, animum co­gitationibus aliis liberum.

Nunc autem pleri (que), inquit,Agellius.partis utri­us (que) amici, quasi probè faciant, duos li­tigantes destituunt, & relinquunt, de­dúnt (que) [Page 54]advocatis malevolis aut avaris, qui lites animós (que) eorum inflamment aut odii studio, aut lucri.

Multam nos que (que) apud veteres scri­ptores locutionum talium copiam offen­dimus. Idem.

Quid de nostris ambitionibus? M. Cicero 2 Tusc. 62.quid de cupiditate bonorum loquar? que flam­ma est, per quam non cucurrerint ii, qui haec olim punctis singulis colligebant?

To these add quodvis, Note.quodlibet, to­tum, caetera, reliqua, and such others that signifie multitude, commonly called Collectives.

However, Submoni­tion. Tully, pro Dei 24. hath, Sed in eo etiamsi accidisset, culpam regis fuisse nullam arbitrarer, alieni autem à te animî fuit.

CHAP. IX. When Tale and Aliud are set before.

MY mind runs upon nothing else, but how I may most profit all the Scholars committed to my charge, by laying out my utmost care and pains to breed them up unto Religion as well as unto Learning: For, alas! [Page 55]where there is One without the Other, namely Learning without Religion, it serves many times but to make men the more desperately debauch'd, and the more mischievously wicked. But at present 'tis You, my young Can­didates of more polite Eloquence, whom I address in these my Labours, and therefore it is that I bring such unheardof, in a manner unusual, (I fear) ways of speaking out of darkness (as it were) into open light: Of which sort this is one.

Precept. After the Adjective Tale, we ele­gantly place these words: Nihil, ne­mo, nullus, and Pronouns of the Pri­mitive species, which is the self-same; as also, quicquam and ullum we in like manner set after Aliud, nay in diffe­rent cases: as, Tale nihil de amico unquam putâssem. Alium nemo vidit. Alias quasdam accepi literas.

Nec nobis praeter me alius quisquam servus Sosia. Plautus.

Tale nihil de te, crede mihi, Ang. Poli­tianus.homines existimant.

Si alium, inquit tribunus, Agellius.neminem reperies, me licet ad hoc periculum utare.

Alius quidam veterum poetarum cujus nomen nunc mihi memoriae non est, Idem.veri­tatem temporis filiam esse dixit.

His verò temporibus habemus aliud nihil, M Cicero, Epist. l. 4. ep. 3. Id. l. 2. de Leg. Id. Tusc. lib. 5: quo acquiescamus.

Is enim Magistratus in nostro munici­pio, nec alius ullus creari solet.

Humanus autem animus decerptus ex mente divinâ, cum alio nullo nisi cum ipso Deo, si hoc fas est dictu, comparari potest.

Necesse est homini tale aliquid accidere. Idem.

Quod si tales nos Natura genuisset; Idem 3. Tusc. 2.ut eam ipsam intueri & prospicere, ea­dem (que) optimâ duce cursum vitae conficere possemus: hand erat sanè, quid quisquam rationem ac doctrinam requireret, quum Natura satisfaceret.

Tales nos esse putamus, Idem.ut jure laude­mur. For,

These Pronoun Primitives are very elegantly set after such Adjectives, Note. as otherwise would be placed after their Substantives: as, Unum id. Omne id.

Quicquid praeter spem evenit, Terentius:omne id deputato esse in lucro.

Edepol senectus, nihil apportestecum quum advenis, unum id satis est. Here would Quintilian have said, Id unum. For says he,

Discipulos id unum moneo, Quintilianut Praecepto­res suos non minùs quàm ipsa studia a­ment: & Parentes esse non quidem Cor­porum sed Mentium credant. Multum haec pietas confert studio.

CHAP. X. That a Pronoun Adjective may be put after its Substantive.

Precept. THis is a Precept great in vogue, and much in use, viz. That before the Pronoun Adjective may be set his Substantive: as, Bion Borys­thenites ad eum qui agros suos vorave­rat: terra, inquit, Amphiaraum absor­buit, tu verò terram. Plato, Necessitati ne (que) dii ipsi repugnant.

Si quisquam hodie praeter hanc, Titinnius.posticum nostrum pepulerit, patibulo hoc ei caput defringam.

Noli ex stultitiâ multarum credere esse animum meum. Afranius.

Is demum miser est qui aerumnam suam nequit occultare. Ceciline.

Domina nostra privignum suum amat efflictim. Laberius.

Ecquis est, Turpilius.qui interrumpit sermoneus meum obitu suo.

Dicere labora, res ipsa, ac ratio ipsa refellat.

Munus nostrum ornato verbis, Terentius.quoad poteris.

Homo hic ebrius est, Plautus.ut opinior.

Res eadem magis alit jurulenta quàm assa, Cor. Celsut.magis assa quàm frixa.

Oleum ipsum sale vindicatur à pin­guedinis vitio. Plinius.

Nec interest discentium quibus quid (que) nominibus appelletur,Quintiliandum res ipsa mani­festa sit.

Ea demum tuta potentia est, Val. Max.qui viri­bus suis modum imponit.

Dum te pudet Mani, M. Varro.quod domi tuae vides commilitonum tuorum cohortes ser­vis tuis ministrare coementa.

Dotes filiabus suis non dant. M. Cato. C. Caesar apud Sal­lustium. M. Cicero, 3 Tusc. 2.

Ne (que) cuiquam mortalium injuriae suae parvae videntur.

Sunt ingeniis nostris semina innata vir­tutum, quae si adolescere liceret, ipsa nos ad beatam vitam natura perduceret.

Hic est ille vultus semper idem, Id. 3 Tusc.quem dicitur Xantippe praedicare solita in viro suo fuisse Socrate, eodem vultu semper se vidisse exeuntem illum domo & rever­tentem.

But lest you should think that this Submoni­tion. [Page 59]Precept requires your perpetual re­gard, observe these under-written Examples.

Unum etiam vos oro, Terentius.ut me in vestrum gregem recipiatis.

Ita versatus sum in provinciâ, C. Gracchusut nemo posset verè dicere, assem aut eo plus in muneribus me accipisse, aut meà operâ quempiam sumtum fecisse.

Priscian, Note. & other not ignoble Gram­marians, allow the Relative Qui, quae, quod, no room among the Pronouns, and indeed their number is very un­certain among the Grammarians; Vossius, lib. 1. de Analogia, and some others, adding to those commonly re­ceived, Quis, cujus, cujas; as also, Unus, ullus, nullus, solus, totus, uter, alter, neuter, aliquis, alius, reliquus, caeterus, omnis, quis (que), nemo, quidam, ambo, uter (que): However it be, this is certain, that both Qui and its com­pounds share this kind of Elegancy with the rest of the Vice-Nouns: for we read in

Urbem quam statuo vestraest. Virgilius.

Eunuchum quem dedisti nobis, Terentius.quas turbas dedit?

Naucratem quem convenire volui, navi non erat.

In animis omnium ferè est naturä, M. Cicero, 2 Tusc. 47.molle quiddam, demissum, humile, ener­vatum quodammodo & languidum, se­nile. Sed aliud nihil est in homine de­formius.

Somnum deni (que)Id. 5 de fi­nibus bo­norum: 54.nisi requietem corpor is & medicinam quandam laboris afferret, contra naturam putaremus datum: aufert enim sensus, actionem (que) tollit omnem.

Graves enim dominae cogitationum li­bidines infinita quaedam cogunt,Idem in Fragm. de Repub. l. (que) im­perant: quae quia expleri, ac satiari nullo modo possunt, ad omne facinus impellunt eos, qui illecebris suis alliciuntur.

CHAP. XI. That a Pronoun Adjective is to be placed between the Noun Adjective and its Substantive.

Precept. BY this graceful way of speaking, one may make a Sentence more composed: If there be two Adjectives, the one nominal, and the other pro­nominal, which do belong to one Substantive, set the nominal first, betwixt which and the Substantive place the pronominal: as Plato, Mare [Page 61]civitati proximum quotidianâ quadam delectatione eam afficit. Idem. Spartani quoties bonum quendam virum commen­dare volunt. Hic vir, inquiunt, divinus est.

Mollis illa educatio, Quintilianquam indulgen­tiam vocamus, nervos emnes & mentis & corporis frangit. M. Cicero. 1 de leg. l. 19.

Subcisiva quaedam tempora incurrunt, quae ego perire non patior,

Leviora sunt ea, Id. Offic. 127.quae repentino aliquo motu accidunt, quàm ea quae meditata, quae praeparata inferuntur.

Commendo vobis parvum meum filium. Idem.

Memini in hoc genere gloriari solitum esse familiarem nostrum Hortensium, Id. Epist. l. 2. ep. 16. quòd nunquam bello civili interfuisset.

If you can intersert any thing be­twixt the Pronoun Adjective and the Substantive, 1 Note. that may respect both, or either of them, you will be sensible of a certain greater Elegancy: as, Morituro Socrati Apollodorus pre­tiosum quoddam, in quo moreretur, pal­lium obtulit; cui Socrates: Nunquid moriturus mihi, inquit, non conveniet hoc, quod viventi convenit?

Dii tibi dent propria [i. e. Afraniut. perpetua] quaecun (que) exoptes bona.

Qualem fuisse accepimus ferum quen­dam in ludo Caesaris gladiatorem: Agellius.qui cum vulnera ejus à medico execabantur, ridere solitus fuit.

In omnibus meis epistolis, M. Cicero, Epist. l. 7. ep. 6.quas ad Cae­sarem aut ad Balbum mitto, legitima quaedam est accessio commendationis tuae.

Auditis oratoribus Graecis, Id. 1 de Orat. 14. cognitís (que) eorum literis adhibitís (que) doctoribus, in­credibili quodam nostri homines dicendi studio flagrârunt.

If in this kind of Speech two Noun Adjective be joyned by a copulative Particle, 2 Note. let the pronominal Adjectives be set between both, just before the Conjunction: as, Libero tuo & admi­rabili ingenio dilector.

In nobis egregiam quandam ac prae­claram indolem ad dicendum esse cognovi. M. Cicero, 1 de Orat. 131.

CHAP. XII. The place of Omne, Nullum, and nu­meral Adjectives, in company with other Adjectives.

THe Latine Tongue, as Servius well remarks, permits not two full Adjectives to be joyned to one [Page 63]Substantive without a Conjunction: And that is the reason why we stile Pronouns, Omne and Nullum, and Nouns that signifie number, not full Adjectives: for one may find them adjoyn'd to Substantives, together with other Adjectives. Of the Pronoun we have already spoken, of thers we are now to speak.

Precept. Omne therefore, Nullum, and the numeral Adjective, being in combina­tion with another Adjective also not full, linked to one Substantive, do in­differently claim to themselves with equal elegancy every place in the Sentence, and to be set before or after either the Substantive or Adjective: as, Omnis mea felicitas; or, Mea omnis felicitas; or, Felicitas omnis mea. Thus

Omnis nostra vis in animo & corpore sita est. Animi imperio, Sallustius.Animi imperio, corporis servitute magis utimur. Alterum nobis cum diis, al­terum commune cum belluis est.

Quicquid enim à sapiente proficiscitur, M. Cicero. 3de fin. continuò debet expletum esse omnibus suis partibus.

O mearum voluptatum omnium in­ventor, incaeptor, perfector! Terentius.

In me planè dii potestatem suam om­nemIdem.[Page 64]ostendêre: cui tam subitò tot conti­gerunt commoda.

Libros tres reliquos mercatur. Agellius.

Illum, Terentius.liquet mihi dejerare, his mensi­bus sex vel septem prorsus non vidisse proximis.

Unless when the other Adjective is full; Submoni­tion. for then these Adjectives less full, the full ones being set first, are placed before the Substantive very sweetly: as, Bona omnis valetudo.

Tace tu, Terentius.quem esse infra infimos puto homines.

Nunc videre est Philosophos ultro cur­rere,Agellius.ut doceant, ad fores juvenum divi­tum: eós (que) ibi sedere at (que) opperiri prope ad meridiem: donec discipuli nocturnum omne vinum edormiant.

Ludós (que)Valerius.& lectisterina continuis tribus noctibus, quia totidem filii periculo libera­ti erant, fecit.

Pro Academiâ autem quae dicenda erant, M. Cicero, Tusc. lib. 2.4.satis accurate in Academicis qua­tuor libris explicata arbitramur.

But that this neither is unexceptio­nable, Except. the ensuing instances do demon­strate.

Adolescens mori sic mihi videtur: M. Cic. de Senect. 71.ut quum aquae multitudine vis flammae op­primitur: [Page 65]Senes autem sicut suâ sponte, nullâ adhibitâ vi, consumtus ignis extin­guitur.

Omnium magnarum artium sicut ar­borum altitudo nos delectat,Id. 1 Offic. 147:radices stir­pés (que) non item: sed esse illa sine his non potest.

Ne (que) ego quenquam hominum esse ar­arbitror,Terentius.cui magis bonae felicitates omnes adversae sient.

Spes nulla reliquain te siet tibi. Idem.

Eorum consilio saepe aut non suscepta aut confecta bella sunt, M. Cic. 1. Offic. 79.nonnunquam au­tem illata: ut M. Catonis, bellum terti­um Punicum, in quo etiam mortui va­luit Autoritas.

CHAP. XIII. That if any thing interpose between the Adjective and Substantive, 'tis no matter whether be set first, but that the Substantive does more frequently lead the way.

Precept. I Have already inform'd you by some Precepts, that the Adnoun is very elegantly placed after its Noun; Nevertheless if any thing intervene betwixt both, tho', what I [Page 66]advised, you will for the most part find hold; yet I have often observed the contrary position: as, Omnium natura est animantium, or Animantium natura est omnium: for both may be said in a manner indifferently for mat­ter of Elegancy. So, Pietas in Paren­tes tua, tua in Parentes pietas. Anno aetatis quarto, quarto aetatis anno. As He in Aristotle, Quem populus celebrant, omnino famâ perire nullâ potest. Plato, Nullus in civitate nostrâ mendicus sit. Idem, Majorem certè virtutem Religione Pietaté (que) in Deum nullam in hominum genere inveniri quisquam sibi persuadeat. Idem, Oleum externis corporis nostri par­tibus optimum, interioribus pessimum est: qua propter aegrotantibus olei usum Me­dici prohibent. Idem, Qui in foro vendit. venalis suae rei pretia duo nunquam di­car, sed quum unum dixerit precium, si non vendiderit, referat iterum: nec eo­dem die majus minúsve pretium petat.

Malo hercle suo magno convivant [pro convivantur] sine modo. Ennius.

Amorem intercapedine ipse lenivit dies. Turpilius.

Longa dies meum incertat animum. Plautus.

Sela Gallia monstra non habuit: Divus Hie­ronymus.sed [Page 67]viris semper fortibus, & eloquentissimis abundavit.

Temporantiâ quo (que) Agellius. Socratem fuisse tanta traditum est: ut omnia ferè vitae suae tempora valetudine inoffensâ vixe­rit.

Caesar Augustus duodecim natus an­nos aviam pro rostris laudaverit. Quintilia­nus.

Unde autem faciliùs, M. Cicero, in Hort.quàm ex anna­lium monumentis, aut bellicae res, aut omnis Reipub. disciplina cognoscitur?

Quid enim videatur ei magnum in rebus humanis, cui aeternitas omnis, Id. 4 Tuse.­tiús (que) mundi nota sit magnitudo.

Sed quoniam Grammaticus es, Id. ad At­tic. l. 7. ep. hoc mihi setêma persolveris, magnâ me molestiâ liberabis.

CHAP. XIV. That to other Adjectives their Substan­tives are often postpon'd.

Precept. BY the assiduous reading of Ora­tors about the placing of other Adjectives, whether they are to be set before or after, you can find nothing certain: and yet one may observe they are generally set first; as,

Magna ossa lacertí (que) apparent homini: Ennius:

Magna penus parvo spatio consumta peribit. Lucilius.

Ea oblectat spes aerumnosum hospitem, Actius.dum hic quòd miser est, clam esse censet alteros.

In steriles campos nolunt juga ferre juvenci.

Pingue solum lassat, sed juvat ipse labor.

Assiduae multis odium peperere que­relae, Propertius

Frangitur in tacito femina saepe viro.

Pauperibus sacros vilia thura damus. Idem. Quintilia­nus.

Natura tenacissimi sumus eorum, quae rudibus annis percepimus.

Ne (que) ingenium sine disciplinâ,Vitruvius.aut dis­ciplina sine ingenio perfectum artificem potest efficere.

Aliter enim ampla domus dedecori do­mino saepe fit,M. Cicero, 1 Offic. 133si est in eâ solitudo, & maximè sialiquando alio dominosolita est frequentari.

CHAP. XV. That Nouns of Measure and Weight ought to be put in the Accusative case, or in the Genitive.

Precept. THat Nouns signifying the Mete and Ballance, instruments we measure and weigh by, are wont to be put in the Ablative, the meanest Grammarian sure is not ignorant: as, Jugerum fune dimensus sum. Romani Brenno aurum bilance appendunt. But Nouns that denote the measure of Length, breadth, height, depth, or thickness of any thing, the space be­tween place and place, or the weight of any thing, are very often wont to be placed by the Learned in the Geni­tive Case, or Accusative, seldom in the Ablative: as, Puteus altus ulnarum decem, latus pedes quinq,, longus cubito­rum centum.

Haec autem basis erat long a pedes duo­decim, lat a pedes octo, alta pedes sex. Vitruvius.

Jugerum vocabatur, Plinius.quòd uno jugo boum in die exarari potuisset. Actus, in quo boves agerentur, quum aratur uno impetu justo. Hic erat centum viginti [Page 70]pedum, duplicatús (que) in longitudinem ju­gerum faciebat

In morem horti areas latas pedum de­nûm,Columella.longas pedum quinquagenûm facito.

Tres pateat coeli spatium non amplius ulnas. Virgilius.

Sulmo mihi patria est, Ovidius. claris uberri­mus undis,

Millia qui novies distat ab urbe de­cem.

Is locus est citra Leucadem stadia centum viginti. M. Cicero Epist. l. 16. ep. 2. Id. ad At­tic. Plinius ju­nior.

Cum in castra proficisceretur, à qui­bus aberam bidui.

Decem & septem milibus passuum ab urbe secessit.

Tam multa ille meo divisa est millia lecto, Propertius

Quantum Hypanis Veneto dissidet Eridano.

A quo mons aberat ferme millia pas­suum triginti. Sallustius.

In Creta terrae motu rupto monte in­ventum est corpus stans quadraginta sex cubitorum:Plinius.quod alii Orionis, alii Eti­onis fuisse tradunt.

Babylon Chaldaicarum gentium ca­put diu summam claritatem obtinuit in tot orbe;Idempropter quam reliqua pars [Page 71]Mesopotamiae Assyriae (que) Babylonia appellata est, sexagenta millia passuum, emplexa muris ducentos pedes altis.

By these you may take notice that learned men speak by mille much more usually than by milliare, Submoni­tion. or mil­liarium; and yet if any man upon other reasons and authorities will de­fend the use of either, or both, I shall not contend with him about it.

CHAP. XVI. That Nouns signifying Time are put ve­ry venustly in the Accusative, and when in that signification they are to be put in the Ablative.

Precept. HE that for many days hath been exercised in attentive and sedu­lous reading of the finest Authors, will own that it is not foreign to their almost daily usage, for Nouns impor­ting Time to be put in the Accusative Case: as, Plato, Ad literas pueri decen­nes proficiscantur; ibí (que) triennium insi­stant.

Vix unumpotes infelix requiescere men­sem. Propertius

Tu faciem illius noctem amplius unam Falle dolo.Virgilius.

Sum totos dies cum eo, M. Cicero filius.noctís (que) saepe numero partem.

Nemo est tam senex, M. Cic. de Senectute.qui se annum non putet posse vivere.

Quae potest in vitâ esse jucunditas, Ibidem.quum dies & noctes cogitandum sit jam­jam (que) esse moriendum.

Nonius Marcellus, Note. I know, makes a distinction. As often, says he, as we express years or days by the Accusa­tive, we mean whole years and days together; and as often as we use the Ablative, we intend them by inter­vals, some years or days interposing. And truly Mr. Lillie does not much ablude from him in his Rules for Con­struction, where he tells the young Fry, that Nouns that betoken conti­nual term of Time, without ceasing or intermission, be commonly used in the Accusative Case.

Now to this hypercritical distincti­on, I declare, I cannot assent.

For Nouns that betoken a term of Time, whether continued and with­out intermission, or discontinued and by intervals, if they answer to the [Page 73]question, How long? are so more usu­ally, as more elegantly, put in the Accusative Case, than in the Ablative.

But then indeed we use the Ablative Case, when we speak of part of Time, such as answers to the question, When? As, for example, if I was any part of the night sick, I may say, Valetudo mihi nocte familiaris non fuit. Ad te visam anno proximo.

Non amplius quum plurimum, Suetonins de Divo Augusto.quàm septem horas dormiebat, ac ne eas quidem continuas.

And yet, Submoni­tion. lest you should take this for a Precept of perpetual force, you may sometimes, let me tell you, find a Noun of continual Time in the Ab­lative Case: as,

Nihil salutare est, Plinius.nisi quod toto anno salubre.

Quem ego hedie toto non vidi die. Terentius:

Biennio continuo post adeptum imperi­um pedem portâ non extulit. Sneton. de Divo Tibe­rio.

CHAP. XVII. That Nouns signifying Time, conjoyned with some Nouns that signifie Num­ber, are to be used in the Accusative Case; with others, in the Ablative:

Precept. THose Nouns that signifie time, if they be conjoyn'd to cardinal Numerals, such as Unum, duo, tria, and the like, are more usually and elegantly put in the Accusative, but & if they confort with Ordinals, such as Primum, secundum, tertium, then they delight more in the Ablative Case: as, Annos viginti Platonem Aristoteles audivit. Urbem Romam Senones Gal­li octo menses vastavere. Regis Alexan­dri equus Bucephalus vixit annos tri­ginta. Post eversam Trojam anno cente­simo sexagesimo, & annts totidem ante conditam Urbem Romam natus est Ho­merus. Plato anno aetatis suae octogesimo primo mortuus est. Anno post Urbem è Gallorum manibus recuperatam septimo natus est Aristoteles.

Horarum nomen non minùs annos tre­c [...]ntos Romae ignoratum esse credibile est. Sensorinus

Duodequadriginta annos tyrannus Sy­racusanorum fuit Dionysius, M. Cic. Tusc. 57. quum quin (que) & vigintinatus annos dominatum occupâsset.

Postquam mulieris uterus conceperit semen, Agellius.gigni hominem septimo mense ra­renter, nunquam octavo, saepe nono, sae­penumero decimo mense.

Plato, Cicero de Senect. uno & octogesimo anno scri­bens, est mortuus.

Quapropter tum primum ex plebe alter Bos. Agellius. l. 5. c. 4.factus est duo & vigesimo anno postquam Galli Romam ceperunt.

Cicero indeed lib. 8. ep. 26. Submoni­tion. expres­seth duration of Time in the Accusa­tive case by an Ordinal, thus: Quum decimum jam diemgraviter ex intestinis laborarem.

One may find [in] the ellipted proposition, sometimes, Note. though sel­dom, expressed: as,

Hoc venisse usu Romae comperi, Agellius,femi­nam bonis at (que) honestis moribus, non am­biguâ pudicitia, in undecimo mense post mariti mortem peperisse.

Decem virt in decimo mense gigni ho­minem, non in undecimo scripserunt. Idem,

CHAP. XVIII. In what Case Nouns signifying Time are to be put, when the Particles Ante and Post do precede, succeed, or inter­vene betwixt the Substantive and Ad­jective.

Precept. IS not this too frequent with Orators? viz. That Nouns signifying Time, if the Particles Post or Ante do stand before them, be put in the Accusative Case, as being governed thereof; if behind them, in the Ablative, the ca­sual word depending on the Preposi­tions being suppressed; if between the Adjective and Substantive, as they are sometimes put in the Accusative, governed of the said Particles Post or Ante, so often in the Ablative, the ca­sual word influenced by the Preposi­tions being ellipted: as,

Post diem quartum quàm est in Bri­tanniam ventum. Caesar.

Post dies quadraginta, Sallust Jug. Cicero ad Attic.quàm eo ven­tum est.

Horâ post Gabinium condemnaverunt.

Hither refer Tanto post, Aliquanto post, Paulo post, Haudita multo post, &c.

Annum post quintum decimum creati consules. Livius:

Alter triumphum patris funere suo quartum ante diem praecessit: Val. Max.alter in triumphali curru conspectus post diem tertium expiravit.

Quo gaudio elatus non temperavit, Suetonius.quin paucos post dies frequenti curiâ ja­ctaret, invitis & gementibus adversa­riis, adeptum se quae concupîsset.

Annibal tertio post die, quàm venit, Livius de 3. l. 5.copias in aciem eduxit.

Quae si hoc tempore non suum diem obiisset, Servius Sulpitius:paucis post annis tamen ei mori­endum fuit, quia homo nata fuerat.

Paucis ante mensibus quàm ad te scri­berem, excessit è vitâ. Aldus Ma­nutius.

Themistocles aliquot ante annis, Cicero:quum in epulis recusâsset lyram, est habitus in­doctior.

CHAP. XIX. The Division and Use of Numerals.

Precept 1 IN cardinal Numerals from the Unit to Ten we use one single word: as, Tria, Quin (que), Novem, Decem. After Ten till Sixteen we use a compound [Page 78]word, wherein the lesser number pre­cedes: for we say Undecim, Duodecim, Tredecim, Quatuordecim, Quindecim, Sexdecim. After this number, even to Twenty, Priscian [in his Book de Nu­meris, Nummis, & Ponderibus] charges us to set the greater number first, and then bring in the copulative with the lesser number, thus: Decem & septem, Decem & octo, Decem & novem. So,

Decem & septem millibus passuum ab urbe secessit. Plinius. Tho, M. Cicero said,

Ille egit septem & decem annos.

Object. But either our most classic Authors are corrupted, or else, that which Priscian is silent in, one may authen­tically say, Septendecim, Octodecim, No­vendecim; for in Cicero's Orations a­gainst Verres, and Suetonius's Nero, you may read Septendecim, as also Octode­cim and Novendecim in Eutropius's Breviary. And therefore Dr. Linacer thinks it lawful to speak both ways.

Elias Vinetus (a vere great Critick) is of opinion, Solution. that because Priscian is silent therein, the Ancients did not speak so, but that Cicero, Suetonius, and Eutropius, used these Cyphers, XVII, XVIII, XIX, which the Transcri­bers [Page 79]expressed in whole words, but unlatine; especially because in the old Codexs it is more frequently read Priscian's way.

Precept 2 In Ordinals after the twelfth the Copulative is omitted, if the lesser number precede: as, Tertiusdecimus, Quartusdecimus, Quintusdecimus, Sex­tusdecimus, Septimusdecimus, Octavus­decimus; otherwise, ducdevigesimus, novusdecimus; otherwise, Undervigesi­mus, thus;

Nam (que) octavodecimo die excludunt,Plinius lib. 10. cap. 58.statím (que) concipiunt.

Tho' in these also the number uses oftner to be expressed by numeral notes, than in words at length.

But if the greater number lead, Priscian advises to clap in the Copu­lative: as, Decimus & septimus, Deci­mus & octavus; and yet in the com­mon Prints you may read Decimuster­tius, Decimusquartus, and so forward without the Copulative.

But here too 'tis the judgment of Vinetus that we may more safely fol­low Priscian, in whose days Books were more uncorrupt than they are in ours.

Precept 3 From Twenty to a Hundred, if the greater number precede, the Con­junction is let alone: as, Viginti octo, not Viginti & octo; Trigesimus octavus, not trigesimus & octavus.

Ex feminis Livia Rutilii nonaginta septem annos excessit. Plinius lib. 7. cap. 47. And elsewhere, Quinquagesimo quarto, Sexagesimo quin­to, and the like.

But the lesser number is set before the greater, if any Conjunction do interpose: as, Primus & vicesimus, or also unus & vicesimus; secundus & quinquagesimus, or also duo & quinqua­gesimus.

Plato uno & octogesimo anno scribens est mortuus. Cicero de Senect.

Duo & vigesimo anno postquam Galli Romam ceperunt. Agellius lib. 5. cap. 7.

Marcus Cicero tertio & sexagesimo aetatis anno obtruncatus est.

Annus tertius aetatis & sexagesimus Aristoteli at (que) Demostheni vitam eodem prope tempore ademit.

In like manner in Distributives we may say without a Conjunction, Vice­ni, singuli, Triceni bini, sexageni qua­terni; but with a Copulative singuli & viceni, bini & triceni, quaterni & sexageni.

Sometime the greater number is set before in the purest writers: as, Submoni­tion.

Equidem haud sum natus annos prae­ter quinquaginta & quatuor. Plautus.

Fero annos octoginta & quatuor. Idem.

Funeratus tricesimo & octavo aetatis anno, & nonagesimo & quinto Imperii die. Suetonius:

Quum aetas tua quinquagesimum & sextum, annum compleverit, M. Cicero.quae summa tibi fatalis erat, spes quidem salutis pub­licae te videbit.

Venerunt post diem quadrage simum & sextum, quàm à nobis discesserant. M. Cicero Filius.

The former way of speaking is more usual, tho' this spoken very sparingly, Note. may, I think, pass: As there is no fault neither in placing the lesser num­ber first without a Conjunction, so it be done mighty warily: as,

Periit cum fratre & filio anno vitae septimo quinquagesimo. Suetonius.

Sine ullâ molestiâ sumtúve sociorum septimo quinquagesimo die rem confeci. M. Cicero.

Precept 4 After a hundred the greater num­ber uses to lead, the lesser to follow, with a Conjunction in the middle.

Illa praeclara institutio Romuli, M Cicero, de Repub. quum ducentos annos & triginta fere firma mansisset.

Leontinus Gorgias centum & septem implevit annos. Idem de Senect. 13.

Fuit, Ibid. 68.ut scriptum video, Argantonius Gadibus, qui octoginta regnavit annos, centum & viginti vixit.

Nondum centum & decem anni sunt, Id. 2 Offic. 65.quum de pecuniis repetundis à L. Pisone lata est lex.

And yet the Copulative is more elegantly, I know not how, omitted.

Epigenes centum duos annos impleri negavit posse: Plinius lib. 7. cap. 49. M ad At­tic. lib. 6. ep. 1. Id. Offic. lib. 1. Berosus centum septendecim

Post Leutricam pugnam die septinge­simo sexagesimo quinto.

Ut ille, qui quum centum triginta die­rum essent cum hoste pactae induciae, noctu populabatur agros, quod dierum essent pactae non noctium induciae.

Is locus est citra Leucadem stadia cen­tum viginti. Id. Epist. l. 16. ep. 2.

But that the lesser number may in this case precede, that of Valerius Maximus is proof enough.

Repudium inter uxorem & virum à conditâ Urbe us (que) ad vicesimum & quin­gentesimum annum nullum intercessit. Valerius Maximus

Legis, M. Caelius.inquit, quae unum & centesimum caput legit, in quo ita erat: quod eorum judicium major pars judicârit, id jus judicatumq, esto.

Ut tamen in septimum & quinquage­simum at (que) centesimum duraret annum. Plinius lib. 7. cap. 17. de Epime­nide.

CHAP. XX. That Nouns of Number are divided by Poets, compounded by Orators.

ANd forasmuch as Poets too have their Elegancies in speaking, we shall now consider what the Poets and what the Orators are wont to ob­serve in Nouns of Number.

Precept. Poets do put asunder those Nume­rals that Orators put together; for these use to say, Decem, duodecim, quin­decim, viginti, triginta, &c. Those, Bis quin (que), bis sex, ter quin (que), bis decem, ter decem, &c.

Tempus ad hoc lustris mihi jam bis quin (que) peractis. Ovidius.

Omne fuit Musae carmen inerne meae.

Bis senos cui nostra dies altaria fumant. Virgilius. Idem.

Bis denis Phrygium conscendi navibus aequor.

Hic jam tercentum totos regnabitur annos. Idem:

The unskilful commonly say, Note. Qua­ter viginti, which I had rather they would exchange for Octoginta, Ducenti [Page 84]& Trecenti, and such-like others, are in Prose much more usual.

But as Virgil spoke by a compound number, Submoni­tion.

Trigin ama [...]nos volvendis mensibus orbes; Virgilius.

So did Plinie by a divided one,

Homo crescit in longitudinem ad annos ter septenos, Plinius. tum deinde ad plenitudinem.

CHAP. XXI. That Mille and Sexcenta use to be spo­ken, one by Orators, the other by Poets.

THere are a thousand testimonies of this Precept, both in Writers of former times, and especially in those to whose lot it hath fallen to live in this age of ours: And it hes thus;

Precept. When you have occasion to speak some great uncertain number, in Prose say Sexcenta, in Verse Mille: as, Gaudia mille feres me si laudabis ami­cum. Sexcentas amicitiae nostrae testes li­teras ultro citro (que) missiculavimus. In vulgaribus hominum amicitiis sexcentos invenias, qui neglectâ amicorum utilitate, suam diligenter exquirant.

Tu mille nummûm potes uno quaerere centum. Lucilius.

Non anni domuere decem, non mille carinae. Virgilius.

Ecquis non causas mille doloris habet. Ovidius.

Plus millies jam audivi. Terentius. Bartolo­maeus Sca­la.

Ex eodem videntur genere error, mar­ra, susurri, barri, horror, ferrum & hu­jusmodi sexcenta.

Testes sunt Schol astici sexcenti. Beroaldus. Politianus. M. Cicero, Epist. lib. 7. ep. 1. Submoni­tion.

Possum tibi verò proferre sexcentos.

Quid enim delectationis habent sex­centi muli in Clytemnestra.

Yet Agellius sometimes, and Quin­tilian very often, use Mille, as also Cicero elsewhere Millies, in this sense.

Ajax quo animo traditur millies oppe­tere mortem,M. Cicero, 1 Offic. 113.quàm illam perpeti ab alio maluisse.

CHAP. XXII. That some Words and Phrases have been polluted by the use of the ignorant and unlearned.

Precept. WE must needs confess that it fares with the use of the La­tine Tongue much after the same man­ner as it doth with Manners; now for the good to be changed for the worse, and for our Youth it self to [Page 86]copy out the bad with more ease than the good, this is nothing strange or incredible: Let us therefore (that our Young-men may not be wholly immerst in the filth and off-scouring as it were of the Latine Tongue, when they have occasion (as they daily have) for speaking and writing that Language) specifie a few of those impure barbarous Words and Phrases which have been foisted in, whil'st those that are Latine and pure have been carelesly neglected, and set aside.

In the first place therefore, I do impeach Sa­lust laesae Linguae Romanae, for barbarously using

  • Soluit, for solitus est; and
  • Paritas opes for partas.

And Joseph Scaliger for using

  • juvarunt and ad­juvarunt.
  • Aures erroribus personantur.
  • Valeant, qui bonis obtrectantur.
  • Hoc me injusso factum est.
  • Materia ictibus resistendis apta.
  • Canes mundiora loca immingunt.

Justus Lipsius, for

  • Canis illum permingit.
  • Frigidis imprime juvor.
  • Mihi abunde satisfacitur.

Isaac Causabon, for

  • Tot palmis, tot lauribus.
  • Lana pectita.
  • [Page 87]Strigil est supellex.
  • Omnes mortales omnium aevorum.
  • Mensura cujus fundum sit collisum.

Jacobus Thuanus, for saying

  • Substraxit,
  • Substractus,
  • Aboletus,
  • Coliturus,
  • Perculsit.

And Paulus Jovius, for saying

  • Prosternentes se, for Prostrantes.

Burdo-Scaliger makes a most notorious Solecism in the Preface to his conjectanea upon M. T. Varro De Linguâ Latinâ (for the use of which excellent book I am indebted to the most learn­ed Dr. White, the Reverend Arch-Deacon of Notinghamshire, since Lord Bp. of Peterborough;) which he thus begins: Non dubito quin haec Conjectanea in M. Varro­nem maturiùs edenda erant, quod à quibusdam, &c.

So doth Lipsius, in saying

  • Sol meridies erat.
  • Vereor ut milites non pellant.
  • Non ambigo quin peregrinationem laudabis.

And Cazabon,

  • Multa quorum interpretibus ne suboluisse quidem videbamus.
  • Jussit me Rex ut tibi significarem.


  • Castellum aggrediuntur, sed irrito successu, qui intro erant, gnaviter se defendentibus.
  • Tantum terroris oppidanis injecit, ut tandem po­sitis armis deditionem faciunt.
  • Incommodare aliquem.


  • Amiculam breviorem tunicae superinduunt.

And Famianus Strada,

  • Nos monitore necesse non habemus, for moneri necesse non habemus.
  • Pecuniam mutuo dare, for mutuam.

Paulus Jovius, Henricus Stephanus, and Jos. Scaliger.

  • Putant se occisos iri: which deserves a lash.

Lipsius, an exact imitator of the faults, i. e. of the Archaisms, of Varro, Sallust, and Sisenna, how insolently and obsoletly does he speak!

  • Volupe mihi auditu est.
  • Hilum non ego deterior.
  • Vale mioculissime.
  • Non magis propritim expresseris.
  • In civitatibus est confluges vitiorum.

Nay he began one of his Epistles in the first Edition of his first Century thus: ‘Aio Locutio tu lita: ego fidei strenué.’

Guess what the man means. Durst I presume to be this enigmatical Gen­tleman's OEdipus, I would unriddle him thus: Tu noli silere diutius, sed scribe, ut Deum illum, qui ab aiendo & loquendo nomen sortitus est, habeas propitium; sicut ego fidem habeo propitiam, quam ser­vavi, scribendo scilicet, sicut acturum me promiseram.

And indeed this Sentence is rather obscure than antique: So is that of Hen. Stephanus, con­ceived on the nonce to puzle Boys with. [Page 89] ‘Rebare te fari scio, fabare nescio.’

Of Salust's Archaisms these are a Specimen;

  • Famae, famarum, famas.
  • Magnas vis, for vires.
  • Armis decoribus, for decoris.
  • Senati, for Senatûs.
  • Plebis, for plebs.
  • Satias, for Satietas.
  • Sallere, for Sallire.
  • Secus virile, for sexus virilis.
  • Calui, for Decipi.
  • Claudere, for claudicare.
  • Egere aliquam rem.
  • Supplicium, for Supplicatio.
  • Locus hostibus ignarus, for ignotus.

Nay even Erasmus himself, a Writer of ye­sterday, is not without expressions which were accounted Archaical or old-fashion'd by Caesar and Cicero: for what else are those in the end of a Colloquie entituled Male valere?


Ciendus est alvus, movendus est alvus.


Imò sistendus est magis,

for cienda, movenda, sistenda.

It smells old, says Angelius Politianus, to say totiens quotiens, quinquiens, deciens, viciens, trici­ens, vicensimum, tricensimum, for toties quoties, &c.

Adrian the Emperour, cited by Charisius, lib. 2. taxes Augustus himself of Innovation, for using the word obiter instead of per viam, (for which [Page 90]very expression, i. e. per viam, Augustus repre­hends Tiberius Claudius: Scribis enim (says he) per viam [...] obiter) used by Plautus Cistell. or in viâ used by Ter. Hec. 5.3. or in itinere used by Cicero at Artic. l. 9.

And lest you should stand in amaze at this, I do assure you, that in the latter-end of Augu­stus's reign the face of the Latine Tongue was so innovated, that shortly after Seneca says that the men of his Age do not speak Latine. His very words are these, Ep. 39.

Vide ne plus profectura sit oratio ordinaria, quàm haec quae nunc vulgo Breviarium dicitur, olim cum Latinè loqueremur, Summarium vecabatur.

Of this Impurity called Neoterism, are they guilty, saith Quintil. lib. 9. cap. 3. and l. 8. c. 3. who say

  • Huic rei invidere, and not with Cicero and o­thers hanc rem.
  • Incumbere illi, and not in illum.
  • Plenum vino, and not vini.

So was Muretus, for saying

  • Figmenta Poetarum.
  • Ne optimi quidem jaculatores semper collimant [aim] for collineant [hit the mark.]
  • Juxta praeceptum Hesiodi.
  • Martialis Silio Italico coaevus fuit.
  • Quorsum necesse est?
  • Hoc tibi imputabis.
  • [Page 91]Syllabae modus impedire mutationi videtur.
  • Ad Episcopi munus promoveri.

How severe was Tullie upon Antonie for inno­vating the signification of one word, viz. Contumeliam facere, for pati. Nonne melius est (says he) mutum esse, quàm quod nemo intelligat, dicere?

How much more then, think you, had he been alive, would he have storm'd at Paulus Manu­tius, who, tho' otherwise a most fine Writer, innovates both significations and Phrases; such are, Ingratitudo, Speculatio, Contrarietas.

  • Damnum pati.
  • Dissuadere aliquem ab aliquâ re, for dehortari.
  • Adhibere fidem alicui, for habere fidem, or credere.

Such also are these of Maffeius,

  • Mercimonio dare operam, for Mercaturae.
  • Locus exercendo mercimonio idoneus.
  • Fluvios, quamvis ad jugulum us (que) aqua pertin­geret, transibat, for pertineret: For pertingere was not used in this sense in the Golden Age of the Latine Tongue, altho' it be found in one cor­rupt place of Salust and Cicero.
  • So quae Arabes de Angelorum corporibus turpiter astruunt, for affirmant.
  • Ut minimum, for minimum, or ad minimum.
  • Spiritum mortificationis spiritui speculationis praeferre.
  • Hactenus de toto vitae cursu, nunc praecipua de [Page 92]dictis ac moribus per species exsequemur, for di­stinctè or singulatim.
  • Toto ditionis suae imperio, for regni or provinciae.
  • Cujus bonitatem supplices exoramus, ut nos ad cae­lestia regna pervenire patiatur, for oramus, implo­ramus.
  • Aliquot Collegia in eâ Urbe fundavit, for condi­dit, constituit; for fundare is as much as stabilire.
  • Proprium Navarrae gentis est conversio Ethni­corum.
  • Compenset Deus hanc ejus in nos voluntatem.
  • Virgo à Meacensi quodam procere expetita; for Magnate.
  • Christianae doctrinae fundamenta memoriter hau­serat, for memoriae mandârat.
  • Meminisse and Recitare memoriter is Latine, but not discere memoriter.
  • Totum illud bellum circiter annum viguit, for tenuit: Vigere is averr'd by Festus not to belong to warlike affairs.
  • Secùs mare; secùs aream (which Charisius says are both fatuum and sordidum dictu) for juxta, secundum.
  • Talarem tunicam in caligas infundunt, for in Braccas or femoralia; for calige are Soldiers shoes.
  • Detrimentum passus est.
  • Homini voluptuoso jucunda proponere, for volup­tuario, as Cicero, Plautus, and Terence speak. Pli­nie the younger makes voluptuosus adequate to [Page 93] voluptate plenus, but Maffeius unskilfully uses it for one that hunts after pleasure.

These, and such-like new-fangl'd words and phrases, do extremely muddy Maffeius's Latine, and argue that he took more pains than reason or science to write that Language.

Now Lipsius's upstart novities would amount to a compleat Volume, I shall there give you a tast, and away. He useth

  • Septimana sustantively for dierum hebdomas, which is spoken not only novè, but also sordide, saith the greatest of Criticks.
  • Saltem, for tantummodo.
  • In Consistorio decretum est.
  • Vide ne seducat te affectus, for auferat, in erro­rem inducat.
  • Gratitudo. Ut quid, for quare.
  • In locis dissitis, for longè remotis.
  • Juramentum, for jusjurandum, sacramentum.
  • Ore ad os aliquem alloqui.
  • Nepos ex fratre.
  • In ditione Leodicensi subsistam.
  • Ubi leonina pellis non pertingit, vulpinam asse­rere oportet, for quo non pertinet.
  • Meus amanuensis.
  • Dio asserit aliter vixisie Senecam, quàm scrip­serit, for affirmat.
  • Rerum circumstantiae, for attributiones.
  • Lenocinium circumponere dolori, for delinimen­tum.
  • [Page 94]Te volo meum amicum & crebrum invisorem esse, for visitatorem.
  • Quid agas, fac me scitiorem, for scientem, certi­orem.
  • Ex corde, ex pectore dico, for verò, seriò.
  • Invalentia mea causam sustinet, for invaletudo.
  • Aequitas ipsa sententiam à me donet.

There are a great number too of Causabon's Neoterisms: as,

  • Complices conjurationis, for affines, participes, populares, conscii.
  • Consequentias elicere.
  • Carentia, for orbatio, detractio, caritas.
  • Rebus sic stantibus, for his rebus, quomodo nunc est.
  • Tenetur nuptias cogitare, for debet.
  • Mutuò rogare pecuniam, for mutuam.
  • Tu unus à multis retro seculis extitisti.
  • Tuas laudes attaminare.
  • Errant in observantiâ hujus reì.
  • Risum alicujus tollere, for movere alicui.
  • Turpis & defaedus mos.
  • Conciliare duas lectiones diversas, for in concor­diam vel consensum redigere.
  • Libri manuales, for manu descripti.
  • Multum sibi in barbaris dictionibus permiserunt, for vocabulis.
  • Versus penultimus, & antepenultimus.
  • Cibi aliis indicti & innominati.
  • Error memorialis.
  • [Page 95]Multoties, for Saepiùs.
  • Judiciosissimus.
  • Balbutie laborare.
  • Monstruositas.

Thuanus's novities are almost innumerable; such are,

  • Nullatenus, for nihil penitus, omnino non, nullo modo.
  • Juxta veterem sententiam.
  • Nostra & retrò seculorum memoria, which, tho' Schottus the Jesuit boasts for Ciceronian, yet is no more worthy of Tullie than Congruè loqui, which being swallowed up by the Monks, he makes use of.
  • Pejerare in Deum.
  • Impar contra tantam multitudinem.
  • Vir nupsit puellae.
  • Literae fiduciariae, for Authoritates, commonly called Credentiales.
  • Caligae, for Braccae.
  • Improperare alicui, for exprobrare, since Varro used it for intro properare.
  • Obiter notandum.
  • Dejerementa in Deum.
  • Ad mortem damnare aliqi em, for capitis.
  • Ne ipsorum dignitati tractu temporis praejudice­tur, for ne in posterum fraudi sit.
  • Dietim, for in singulos dies.
  • Ultroneus, spontaneus.
  • De rerum statu optimè instructus.
  • [Page 96]Per trasennam appellare.

Nay the so much admired Barclay's novel words and phrases would fill a good large Vo­lume, I shall therefore pass them by in silence: for to endeavour to purge away the filth of his writings, would be a matter of as great loathsomness and difficulty as to cleanse Auge­as's Stable; and if this requir'd a River of Wa­ter, that would ask a Sea of Ink.

It is a vulgar modern error to write to speak

  • octuaginta, or quatuor viginti, octuagesimus and octuagenarius, for octoginta, octogesimus, octogenarius.
  • Nonies, for novies. Vigesies, trigesies, quadra­gesies, septuagesies, octogesies, nonagesies, centesies, millesies, for vieies, tricies, quadragies, sezagies, septagies, octogies, nonagies, centies, millies.
  • Indignor, quandó (que) bonus dormitat Homerus.

I am grieved that the incomparably learned, great and good, Gerard John Vossius should be now and then caught napping in his (tho', to give the old Gentleman his due, he apologizes for fear of the worst) in his excellent Books de Vitiis sermonum; where he says,

  • Desitâ Romae sermonis puritate, & nondum collapsâ Romanae linguae puritate.
  • Acceptum Aegyptiis ferimus Zythum, for re­ferimus.
  • Decerptum for discerptum.
  • Animus mihi est ita tractare literas, ut neminem depretiem.
  • [Page 97]Ab iis oris longe dissiti erant Daci. In terras longinquas, dissitás (que) for remoti & remotas.
  • Hodié (que) for hodie quoque.
  • Juxta Stoïcos, for secundum Stoîcos, de Stoî­corum sententiâ.
  • Collaterales sunt, quorum alter alterius latus claudit; for which Horace said tegit, Catullus ad­haeret.
  • Muto sumere est mutuari, for mutuam.
  • Non vero, for non autem.
  • Nuspiam clathrus legitur. Nuspiam aequè pec­catum. Hoc nuspiam extat, for nusquam.
  • Ex Hispaniâ Paenos petituri obiter visemus Sar­dos, for pretereuntes; or in Greek [...]. In transitu, in trancursu, per viam.
  • Primum universè aliqua praemittam de longè vetustissimis Aeuropae linguis, tum particulatim di­cam de linguae Latinae natalibus, for separatim, seorsum.
  • Passivus est error, for vulgaris, by his own confession.
  • Praeclara eorum reperta; sine quibus esset, de­fraudaremur magnâ doctrinarum parte, for abs (que) quibus esset, &c.

But certainly there is nothing can make La­tin so impure, and debase it so much, as Xe­nism, or Peregrinity; Which is the usage of Latin words in conformity [Page 98]to the Idiotisms, or proper custom of other Languages. And this Vice, this [...] as the Greeks call it, this foolish affectation, be­gan so early to taint the Latin Tongue, that Sallust himself cannot plead not guilty, when charg'd by Quintilian for saying Amat fieri, in imitation of the Greek Idiom [...], for the Latin solet.

Muretus also, among other learned men, must pardon my boldness, if I call him [...], for saying, Non me latet, because forsooth [...] & [...], whence lateo seems to be formed, is construed with an Accusative Case; whereas Latet me is no more Latin than Patet me. Nor indeed did ever Lucretius, Plautus, or Cicero use other than latet mihi.

For why? Because forsooth the Greek is a Language of great elegancy, will it be there­fore praise-worthy always to use Latin words after the Greek way? Why then let us e'en say with Vitruvius, ‘Nummus ex auri, & Poculum ex ligni,’ for ‘Nummus ex auro, & Poculum ex ligno,’ and ‘studium in Juris,’ for ‘studium in Jure;’ because a Writer of Augustus's age thought good thus to Grecissate.

And in no wise less is Tacitus's evil-affectation, who in the beginning of the 5th. Book of his Annals writes thus: Titus, ut superior sui jam cre­deretur, decorum se, promtúm (que) in armis ostendebat. [Page 99]Here our Historian indiscreetly imitates the Greek cu­stom, saying superior sui for superiorse; which Lipsius, not discerning, and yet well knowing it was not right sterling Latin, did what Criticks commonly do, viz. go about to correct what they do not understand, and so endeavoured ridiculously to amend, and set it to rights thus; Titus ut super fortunam crederetur, &c.

Moreover, if we consult Reason (which Cicero advi­seth all learned men to use as a Test, or Touch-stone, to try, refine, and purifie the corrupt custom of speaking) we shall find that 'tis absurdly done of him who after the Greek custom dares say Superior illius: for in the Greek there is suppressed the Preposition [...] or [...], which governs the Genitive Case; but in the Latin prae is ellipted, which ever governs an Ablative Case.

In Greek therefore by regular Syntax we say, [...]; but figuratively and usually, [...]. In Latin according to Rule, Major prae his charitas; by a Figure, Major his. If you say Major horum, why then you grecissate, and are cacozélous, laying aside both your Reason and Judgment:

But more intollerable are they, that foist upon the Latin Tongue the Idioms of living Languages, as the most learned Jesuit Johannes Mariana did in that; Rex sumtus istos excusare debet, for compendifacere, ponere ad compendium, sumtibus supersedere; because in the Spanish Idiom it is said, Escusar los gastos.

So Lipsius, Orientales Imperatores in specie, gestu & cultu magis curiosi aut affectati, for ista talia magis du­cupantur, venantur, nimio studio persequuntur, sunt putidi & nimii in talibus; because indeed the Italian Idiom bears it: sc. E troppo affettato in questo.

So Thuanus, Rex Episcopum aliquando deponere potest; for Episcopatu abigere, exuere, movere, removere, dimo­vere, depellere, detrudere, desicere, abire, cogere, or Epis­copatum alicui abolere, or abrogare.

His also is this, Viginti ad minus dies; because, you [Page 100]must know, the French say, Au moins; the Italians, Al meno ò manco; the Spaniards, A lo menos; which the Latins express thus, Minimùm, quod minimum est, mi­nimè and sometimes saltem, duntaxat, certè, at, vel.

And this reminds me of a novel expression that Dr. Busbey, after Pasor upon the Verb [...], uses, viz. ut plu­rimùm [most an end] I know not by what authority: Pasor, says he, in Lexico N. T. ad verbum [...], ut pluri­mùm dicit resumi 1, quae in indefinito primô abjicitur. Gr. Gram. Rud. p. 298.

There are some of our own Country-men too, that being deceived by the Idiom of our Mother-Tongue, stick not to say, Fidem dare alicui, for credere; because we com­monly say, to give credit, or trust, to any one, or any thing. Nay Dr. Robinson in his Phrase-book commonly called Winchester-Phrases, appoints it Children for a Phrase. Phr. 186. Title, To believe or credit. Whereas Fidem dare alicui is to promise, or pass ones word to any body. Nem­pe (saith Scioppius) cum fidem tibi dedi, i. e. promisi, ac veluti fidem meam apud te deposui, tu mihi fidem habes, sive est mihi apud te fides; hoc est, Tu mihi credis. Instead of which, Ausonius, Manutius, Scaliger, alias Burdo, and Dr. Robinson in the fore-cited place, say newly and bar­barously, Tu mihi fidem adhibes, whenas adhibere fidem is afferre fidem ad rem aliquàm, uti fide, even as adhibere diligentiam. And here give me leave to observe to you, that Lucretius innovated in saying Fidem dare, for persua­dere, facere ut res habeat fidem, or credatur. l: 5. Dictis dabit ipsa fidem res forsitan—which he presently inter­prets thus; Hoc ratio potius quam res persuadeat ipsa. But note, Fidem habeo signifies one while credere, other whiles credi, or credibile esse.

Certainly Mr. Merryweather shew'd himself to be more skilful in foreign and ancient customs, than in the ver­nacular practice and usage of the Language of his own Country, when in his Latin Translation of Religio Me­dici he turns this passage of the Author, ‘Yet have I [Page 101]not so shaken hands with those desperate Resolvers, [Roman-Catholicks] as to stand in diameter & at swords point with them, we have reformed from them, not against them;’ thus: ‘Nec tamen in vecordem illum per­tinacium hominem gregem memet adjungo, ita ut iisdem ex diametro repugnent; ab illis, non contra illos refor­mationem instituimus.’—Neither Latin, nor Sense! for, Nec tamen vecordi illi pertinacium hominum gregi ita valedixi, ut iisdem ex diametro repugnem, &c.

Nay, what is stranger still, a witty and ingenious Phy­sician has had the misfortune in divers places of his Book to write neither Concord nor Government true. A Pa­radox! Well, take down Dr. Tho. Skinner's Motus compo­stti, turn to pag. 111. Dum Aurangii authoritatem apud Ordines imminutam iret, cuncta ipse administravit solus; for imminutum. To pag. 113. Ʋnam interim [navim] im­mensis opibus refertam, & pulrimis fatiscentem ictibus vo­racior pelagus hausit, for voracius. To pag. 140. Cernere erat rutilantium hîc flammarum fulgor, illie ruentium prope tectorum fragor; for fulgorem, fragorem. Ohe! jam satis est, Ohe! If your spleen be not ready to crack, I could furnish you with more such as these be, not only Xe­nisms, but even Barbarisms and Solecisms, (collected out of English Authors, Latin Treatises) which I have in store lying by me, as finding them matter of almost every tormenting observation.

—Pudet haec opprobria nobis
Et dici potuisse, & non potuisse refelli.

There is yet one offence more, which unskilful men do often unwarily commit against the purity of the La­tin Tongue, whereby, tho' the words of a sentence be neither barbarous, antique, nor novel, and the Constru­ction nor false, nor cacozélous, the Language suffers ex­tremely. You'll say, what can this be? Why, I answer, 'tis mala junctura, 'tis an unlawful joyning of words to­gether, never warranted by the practise of the purest Age.

Of this Crime are those Onocrotali, those Latin-bablers [Page 102]most notoriously guilty, who value themselves highly up­on their prating, where they chance to come, Latin un­latinly & rudely to the listning & all-admiring Semidocti.

How oft have I blush'd to hear these Asses bray out

  • Vigilant milites in monte, for speculantur de monte.
  • Janizarit tentant frangere aciem Polonorum, for co­nantur aciem perrumpere.
  • Dimisit suos milites Rex Gallicus, for dimisit copias or exercitum:
  • Impedivit commeatum Dux Lotharus, for interclusit.
  • Triduum victu carebant Christiani, for re frumentariâ.
  • Duxit vineas, for egit.
  • Primi in consilio, for consilii principes.
  • Reportârunt praedas, for egerunt.
  • Milites monuit, for hortatus est.
  • Signum fecit, for signum dedit.
  • Renovavit praelium, for restituit, or redintegravit.
  • Aciem ordinavit, for instruxit.
  • Tutò redierunt Christiani, for receperunt se.
  • Misit ad succurrendum, for misit subsidio.
  • Fecerunt vim, for impetum fecerunt.
  • Magnis viis contendit, for magnis itineribus.
  • Perdidit opportunitatem, for amisit occasionem.
  • Facere orationem, for habere.
  • Agere verba, for facere. Facere gratias, for agere.
  • Damnum pati or facere, for dare.
  • Jacturam pati or dare, for facere.
  • Contumeliam facere or dare, for pati; and such-like.

And now, my young Sailers in the wide & perillous O­cean of the Latin Tongue, I have discharg'd the duty of a faithful Pilot, I have pointed out to you all those Quicsands, Shelves, and Rocks, upon which others, not altogether unskilful Mariners, both of the last and present Age, have, and do yet daily split: It is yours to advert di­ligently to my directions, to lanch forth your Vessels cau­tiously, lest after a heedless and temerarious Wrack, you fall a Sacrifice to those gaping Sea-monsters, unlamen­ted because fore-warn'd, and unpitied.


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