Apologia Chyrurgica.

A VINDICATION Of the Noble Art of Chyrurgery, FROM The gross Abuses offer'd thereunto by Mountebanks, Quacks, Barbers, Pre­tending Bone-setters, with other Igno­rant Undertakers.

WHEREIN Their Fraudulent Practices are plainly de­tected by several remarkable Observations, their Fair Promises prov'd Fictions, their Administra­tions pernicious, their Confident Pretences injurious and destructive to the Welfare of the People.

By DANIEL TƲRNER, Practitioner in Chyrurgery.

K [...].


  • John Lawson, President.
    • Samuel Collins,
    • Richard Torles,
    • Edward Tyson,
    • Martin Lister,
    • Censores.

LONDON Printed, and are to be Sold by J. Whitlock near Stationers-hall, and the Booksellers of London and Westminster. 1695.


TO THE Most Ingenious and Truly Learned Dr. EDWARD TYSON, One of the present Censors of the College of Physicians, Fellow of the Royal Society, and Physician to the Hospital of Bethlehem.


'TIS the common Fate of Learned Men, that they are more than ordinarily expos'd to the importunity of such as are in want of their assistance; and tho' it be Presumption in their Petitioners, 'tis in them however a generous Condescention, that they encline to gratifie the Requests of their needy Supplicants.

I am ready to acknowledge my self little short of the same Arrogance, in that I am become troublesome so soon as honour'd with your ac­quaintance.

The Great and Eminent seem indeed to be placed in a sublimer Sphere, not so much that they might pity the Ignorant as to protect the Indigent.

Being conscious of my own insufficiency to withstand the Test of Critical Censure, it was reasonable I should endeavour to find a Patron that might (in some measure) secure me from the Obloquy of my Adversaries.

When I had consider'd upon whose friendship I might most happily rely, it was the effect of my Ambition to single out Your Self, for one of the greatest and most learned amongst others, whom I had thought on: to make which choice (Sir) I was the rather encourag'd, since you had so lately oblig'd me with a very kind ac­ceptance of some loose Papers I had by me, which upon your communicating were by the Royal Society esteem'd not unworthy, to be prin­ted with their Philosophical Transactions. Af­ter the experience of so much Civility on a first or second conference, I had the less reason to dispute your Goodness upon the occasion I have had of a farther correspondence.

The ensuing Discourse, which I am endea­vouring to shelter under the Umbrage of your Favour, was compiled about four years since, in which time it was mostly in the custody of some particular Friends, who were not a little earnest with me for its publication; tho' on other accounts I might have rely'd upon their Judgments, yet with this I could not so readily comply, because as I had never appear'd in Print, I was the less capable to imagine the Difficulties and Disadvantages I had to encoun­ter: I did already foresee some, which put me [Page] upon thinking, and was afraid to meet with others that should (when past recovery) be at­tended with Repentance.

'Tis true, I valued not the Resentments of malicious and deceitful Men, since I doubted not but the more honest and judicious would espouse my Cause: But when I reflected on the extream Nicety of the Town, many wherein are fonder to expose what they call Wit, by their Comments upon an Author's Language, prying for Errata's, and searching out his Lapses, rather than regarding the Usefu [...]ness of the Sub­ject, or heeding whether it answers the End for which 'twas enterpriz'd. Of these men I had reason to be fearful, especially perceiving that more learn'd Discourses were frequently attend­ed with an apologetick Entrance that might ob­viate their Censure.

Amongst other worthy Authors, I could do no less than take notice of the almost too great Modesty of the late incomparable Mr. Boyle, who when he had written never so elabo­rately upon what he undertook, is not­withstanding excusing himself, as if guilty of some Blemish or Imperfection. It should seem by this his singular Humility he was as worthy of, as he could be willing to procure a general Esteem and Admiration: And yet, according to the conclusion of a Panegyrick on the Curious De Graaf,

Quis Jove, major erat, magno quis major Homero,
Ille tamen Momum: Zoilon Alter habet.

However, if so great and famous Men have every where thought it Prudence to arm them­selves against the Zoilists of the Age, what abun­dant cause had I to remain silent, and keep out of their reach?

A farther motive to induce me for some time to retard the impression, was, That as I hop'd there would not be wanting those, who would judge aright of my Undertaking, so I as little question'd to find others ready enough to think me more desirous to be reputed an Author, than by being so to serve the Publick Interest.

These (Sir) were the more material Impe­diments to my Consent, till on the other hand I bethought my self how serviceable such a Dis­covery as this might be at a time that seem'd extraordinarily to require it; and finding those who were perhaps better capacitated wholly negligent therein, I was the rather prevail'd with to lend my mean assistance towards the redressing so universally-prejudicial an Aggrie­vance; so that in whatever I have expos'd my own Weakness, I shall think my self enough fortunate if the same be imputed to my Zeal for the General Good, by using my utmost di­ligence to suppress all base Pretenders to our most Noble Art, and vindicating the same from their Ignominy and Reproach.

I have no reason to doubt but your self, at some times, in the variety of your Practice, have remark'd how easily many reputable Peo­ple have been impos'd on by a Pretence to Phy­sick, and how fatally deluded with a Promise of Recovery; from whence, if I mistake not, there will be little room for a Surmise, whether a Dis­course of this tendency may be advantageous. However I may happen to be aspers'd, or what­ever may be thought of the Discourse it self, I fear not to be discommended for my choice of so fit a Person, by the benefit of whose counte­nance both may be defended from the too rigid Censure of those who will still be condemning all but their own Offspring, if it be but to show the Parts which a more refined Education hath conferr'd upon them above the rest of Man­kind.

I have here a fair opportunity (since I can say little for my self) to make a modish Ha­rangue upon your Accomplishments; but rather than trespass on your Modesty, I shall omit to say any thing of that nature.

I am, I must confess, very much of opinion with the Noble Mackenzy, (in an Epistle to Esquire Boyle) with respect to Dedications, and do believe an Author much more concern'd to procure for his Patron him who hath conspicu­ously render'd himself truly worthy, than one so made by Flattery or Adulation.

Were I minded to speak to so large a Theme as your Merit would afford, I might say much, I'm certain, before the greatest of your Oppo­nents would accuse me as a Sycophant. To pre­vent Reflection, I shall only take the liberty to give the World my Wish, That we had been longer happy in your access to, or possession of our Anatomical Chair. And, that your indefa­tigable Industry therein may be imitated by your Successors, is the Desire of

Your much Obliged Servant, D. T.


THE Custom of Apologizing is grown so fa­shionable, and become so very common, that we meet with it at some times in those Pie­ces where the Critick himself hath thought it super­fluous. I must own, it seems to me not only savouring of a becoming Modesty, but highly reasonable that an Author excuse himself, where he foresees Objections will be rais'd against him.

He is now superlatively happy, who can either write or speak without a Penitet, or at least a Pu­det; and yet if no one would bestir himself on the account of Censure, we must be ever liable to a much greater Mischief, occasion'd by our Silence.

I shall only mention, that the almost continual Avo­cations by Business, when this Discourse was penn'd, gave me at some times so great interruption, as may have render'd the same the more incoherent, and will, I hope, prevent an Expectation of any thing studied or accurately curious, which was, as I may say, stol'n from the spare minutes of another's Service.

The Practise of Chyrurgery, in which I have been educated, gave me many opportunities to inspect its Abuses; and though it was long before I could resolve to publish my Remarks, yet knowing them to be exact­ly consentaneous to the Truth, which some few can [Page] attest, I believ'd they might conduce to the convicti­on at least of some of those who have too long suf­fer'd themselves to be deluded by Fiction and fair Stories.

As I have endeavour'd to shun a useless redundancy of words, by abreviating what seem'd to run too far upon Speculation, so I have likewise labour'd to avoid Contention, which was not enforced. However bold it may appear, I can satisfie the Reader, that if he comes not prepossess'd with some unreasonable Prejudice, but will candidly and impartially suspend his Opinion, till he hath considerately weigh'd the whole, he will find little wanting towards the making good my As­sertions, of the necessity of a Reformation.

Amongst the particular Causes of the Contempt of Chyrurgeons, and that Art which they profess, I have first of all expos'd the Empirical Practitioner, whom we call a Mountebank; you have here a view of the Origin of his Skill, by which may be the bet­ter guess'd how far he hath contributed both to the discredit of Chyrurgery, and the Peoples ruine.

Indeed the very sence of this man's Practice being built upon Tradition only, and his so rashly experi­menting his detestable Conclusions on Humane Bodies, should methinks afford us the most plenary Intelligence, that his Claim to this Privilege is altogether illegal, and that for this we ought to hold him as the general Object of our Scorn and Aversion; to be much more fearful of him than the supposed Poyson he swallows down, that his more poysonous Antidote may be thought salubrious.

You may find, after him, a plain description of the Libelling Quack, or Practising Pamphleteer, de­tecting some of the Frauds he makes use of to delude the Unwary; how meanly he is qualified for the pra­ctice of Physick and Surgery, as also with what de­triment both to Purse and Person he is rely'd on.

Farther, you have an account of the Chyrur­gick Barber, his great Injustice to assume what he has no right to, his Presumption for intruding on the same, contrary to those Laws that are in force against him, and lastly, his most shameful Ignorance, not­withstanding which he will be tampering out of the reach of his Reason, to the scandal of every legal Artist, and to the present disesteem of the Art it self.

There is from hence a digression to give you a pro­spect of the Practice of a Pretending Bonesetter, as well investigating his juggling contrivance to amuse the People, and draw them into a great Opinion of him, as laying open the falsity of his Predictions in point of Practice.

I have endeavour'd to inform you by some ob­servable Instances, how extreamly ignorant this per­son shews himself, and how absurdly ridiculous, when the real Practice of Bonesetting falls under his care, by which you may learn, that his pretence to the same is but a knavish Contrivance to cheat men of their Money, and (as it often happens) to spoyl them of their Limbs.

Finally, amongst those who have scandaliz'd the Practice both of Physick and Chyrurgery, I have most truly characteriz'd our City Doctress, expo­sing her in all her Qualifications and Endowments, how forward she is to promise, and how capable to perform. By the method of her proceedings, you may gain a foresight how serviceable she hath been to rid her Country of some thousands of its Inha­bitants, and to bring the most contemptible Reflecti­ons on our Art, by the burthensome encroachment she hath made thereon.

These, with some more general Annotations on the Practices of others, are the Contents of the ensuing Discourse, which if the Reader take the pains to pe­ruse, he will find neither deliver'd on a meer Report, nor represented from a malicious Suggestion, but the Cases truly stated, as they happen'd in reality to fall under my observation.

I have been so far from imposing any Misconstru­ction, as to endeavour with the utmost caution, that no one Reflection or Remark of Consequence should escape upon a bare Surmise or Supposition.

Now, considering the great and almost unspeaka­ble Comforts we are blessd with, in the most eminent Restorers of our Health, and Preservers of our Limbs and Lives, I believe there is scarce any Nation so unfortunately miserable as ours in their Bodily Di­sasters, and all upon the account of our most intolera­ble sufferance of base Impositions on those honourable Professions; which adds to our Affliction, How is it likely we should be secur'd from the fraudulent and knavish practices of deceitful men, at a time when [Page] they are so much countenanc'd, and even tempted by the small care taken to suppress their disingenious and dangerous proceedings; or what other can we expect, than a perpetual decay of Learning, from our great neglect to encourage and promote the same; a want of able Practitioners, from the discouragements they are subjected to, and the consequence hereof, viz. a Universal Damage accrewing to the People, till Care be taken to inspect these matters, and remove out of the way the Authors of our Calamities?

The painful Mr. Tho. Gale thought he had abundant reason for his Complaint, That there were no less than Sixty Women who intermeddled in the Art of Surgery; I doubt not but we have at this time as many score, who in one respect or other will presume hereon, as well to the discredit of the Art, as to the destruction of the Unwary; there are not many Streets in London without three or four, nay, it is a Chance (and that a great one too) if the good Gentlewoman of almost every House doth not assume the liberty to tamper from C [...]r's Directions.

Such indeed is the frail Judgment of many in Chyrurgick Affairs, that they believe those men to have the least Knowledge therein, whose sole Right and Propriety it is to practise in this worthy Art: The more eminent the Chyrurgeon is, he must be attended (in their Opinion) with a Consequence of the greater Tyrannizer; or, The more learned the Artist, the more fraudulent Oppressor. If you con­sult any one of these, you are told, He will make a Cure, or, That you must expect the Work of a Chy­rurgeon. [Page] But if you advise with any Runnagade Intruder, some practising Old Wife, or strowling Empirick, some boasting Quack, Barber, or Ig­norant Undertaking Bonesetter, with the rest of this pernicious Tribe, you are to look for honest dea­ling, fine promises, and fair stories. After all, when you recover, which you are not to doubt under their management, you purchase Health at a much easier rate, than when you expose your selves to the Extor­tion of a bloody-minded Surgeon.

These are the frightful Bugbears that amuse the People to such a strange degree of Folly and Indiscre­tion, that from a Relation of this nature, by some in­famous person, they will fly a mile or two, oftentimes a score, from a Faithful Practitioner, to enter them­selves under the most ordinary handling of an Igno­rant Undertaker. So that our present Case, as I con­ceive, will reasonably bear a Prognostick of this nature, that we may easily see how matters tend, when the most illiterate are advanc'd to a prehemi­nence above the Learned.

—Didicisse sideliter artes, was heretofore accounted the most serviceable Expence of Time in the whole course of Life, as well in respect of the profundity of Knowledge, for which Men were formerly so highly reputed, as also for that (on this account) they were look'd on much better capacitated, and more eminently qualified to counsel such as were in Affliction, and to succour those in Distress; but it is now far otherwise, since not so much the solidity of a Man's Understanding (which is his most worthy and honourable Endowment, nay, his true and in­trinsick [Page] Worth) renders him Taking with the Com­mon People, as his unjustly-assumed Confidence to de­clare himself what he is not, on the most unwarran­table and unreasonable grounds imaginable. To be, and to pretend to be, are much at one with them, till they experience the great difference at the cost of their Limbs, and oftentimes at the hazard of Life it self.

Since therefore I have taken this opportunity to give a small Insight into their dishonest Actions, I hope there will not be wanting some generous Spirit, who may consummate the Design of our Good Inten­tion, at least so far as to put a Check to the extra­vagant Presumption of base men, and to put us (with all Well-wishers to the Publick) upon taking some such course as may secure us from being endanger'd by them for the time to come.

There remains to my self however this Satisfaction, that I have us'd my Endeavours to convince the most incredulous, and on that account have all-along taken care, that the Verity of my own Sentiments and Opi­nions, with respect to the Abuses put in practise by every of these persons, might be confirm'd by the most demonstrative Evidence taken from Observation of their own Proceedings.

I have been the less sollicitous to embellish or adorn my Discourse after the manner of Rhetoricians, since I intend it not so much for the perusal of any practical Author, neither to raise a Theo [...]ical Disputation on some novel Hypothesis, as for the conviction of the People, who have and do still suffer themselves to be impos'd on.

Let me give the Reader this farther assurance, that I have in no wise been perswaded, over-rul'd, or gui­ded by the Bait of a particular Interest, or other sini­ster Advantage to my self; neither have the Sweets of a Revenge, thrust forward by some inbred Malice for a suppos'd Wrong receiv'd, induced me to this pub­lication; but the deep sense I had upon me (for want of some such information) how liable we are to suffer under the worst and most miserable circumstances, from the Practice of Injudicious Men, and withal (which I must needs say was a considerable motive) I was the more willing to appear in publick, out of the sin­cere Respect I am oblig'd to pay that truly worthy and noble Art we call Chyrurgery, and no less to the Professors thereof; I mean such of them as are quali­fied by a Legal Education to administer herein, whom I was extreamly troubled to see so ignominiously us'd by the Opprobrious Reflections of many Ignorant yet Malevolent Detractors.

Proceed now in charity with a favourable Censure, and if thou meet'st with those Errors which have escap'd mine, or the examination of the Press, be pleas'd to alter and amend the same; if they prove such as are not worthy Correction, in kindness pass them by, and let them (with many other trivial Corri­genda) be look'd on as unavoidable Oversights, through the Weakness of the Author's Judgment.


IT is one of the grand Axioms, or Epithets, given by Philosophers to (their almost Deify'd) Nature, that She is Sui Conserva­trix; and as generally believ'd by others, that there is a natural Propensity in Hu­mane Kind, to attempt the speediest means of Self-preservation: But truly considering the degeneracy of Humane Reason in some, from what it was of old, and their contradictory Pra­ctice in the more eminent concerns of Life, we have just reason to dispute, whether there be such an inherent Principle or not, that directs infallibly to the Means of Restauration, when we are subjected to Bodily Infirmities.

Did not Ignorance, with her Darling Impudence, cast a mist before our Eyes, and darken the Un­derstanding, we might have hopes to see this Phi­losophical Tenet indubitably verified: But whilst the ingenious Artist is exploded, and the Artless Pretender mean while advanc'd; whilst the Ratio­nal and Methodical Remedies of the former, are [Page 2] held contemptible, and the Empirical Prepara­tions of the latter, (tho' with the greatest detri­ment to those that use them) highly extoll'd and embrac'd: I say, till Men can make a more clear distinction betwixt one and the other, we may the less unreasonably suspect the Truth of this applauded Notion; and as we have just cause to compassionate the hard fate of the Vulgar, who are daily impos'd on and deluded by the specious Pretences of the most Unskil­ful, too often to the hazard and forfeiture of their Lives; so, I think, it may be accounted the most necessary piece of service we can do them, to undermine the Foundation of these Infamous Impostors, to dissect their pernicious Principles, and lay open the treachery and im­piety of their Dealings.

Hereby the unprejudic'd Reader may obtain a Prospect of the greatest Benefit that can ac­crew from the best Performances of such a scan­dalous sort of People.

I conceive it no unpardonable Deviation, if we look back upon Antiquity, and take a view of that sublime Respect which was formerly paid to the true and faithful Practitioner of this no­ble Art.

Since it will be needless to spend our time in searching for its Original, I shall only intimate by the way what is recorded by the Ancients, who are differently opinion'd in the point of Invention.

Apollo is very early taken notice of for his profound Wisdom, particularly in the divine Mystery of Healing, on which account there was a noble and rich Sepulchre built after his decease, nam'd by the Founders The Temple of Apollo. Aesculapius is thought by some to be descended of Apollo, though Virgil seems to think him first happy in the Discovery, and that he was for the same dignified by the Epidauri with the Title of a God: as were also his two Sons Podalirius and Machaon, whom Celsus does particularly mention as very eminent for Chyrurgery, being carried from Crete to the Trojan Wars. But if what is reported of the renowned Chiron be true, that he was Master to Aesculapius, I think with more reason the pre­cedence will be his. The same Celsus does far­ther suppose Hippocrates to be the Parent of all Medicine, and delivers the Chyrurgick Practice rather from him than any before him. Soranus says, 'twas Apollo first invented Medicine, that Aesculapius enlarg'd, and that Hippocrates finish'd [...]he same, after whose death the Grecians erected [...]n perpetual remembrance of his honourable deeds, a most stately and fair Tomb, at Delphi, near Parnassus, where they solemniz'd his Obse­quies, and superscrib'd this Epitaph:

Hippocrates of Thessalia, and by kind of the Country of Coos, lies buried in this place: He was [...]egotten of the Seed of the immortal god Phebus, [...]nd hath left in the World many Books of Medicine, [Page 4] to put away Sickness, and to preserve Health: what shall we need to say more of this worthy Man? there is no man's cunning that can give him his condign Praise.

In the succession after these, there is mention made of Galen, Aetius, Paulus Aegineta, Avicen Albucasis, Guido Cauliacus, Joannes Tagaltius, De Vigo, Lanfranc, with many others.

Farther, in the more ancient times, it is inti­mated by Dr. Willis, (in one of his Prefatory Epistles) that before the Medicinal Art wa [...] methodically digested, when Physick was give [...] at random, as 'tis now-adays by Empiricks an [...] old Women, they held their experimental Re­cipe's (which had been try'd, and prov'd saluta­ry) in so great esteem, that they were look'd o [...] as sacred Monuments of Mercy, and diligently reserv'd in their consecrated Temples: but i [...] after-Ages, when their Understandings wer [...] more refin'd, and a more general success attended the rational administrations of ingeniou [...] Artists, it is recorded, that the superstitiou [...] Greeks were blinded with such a fervent zea [...] as to Deifie their more eminent profess'd Chyrurgions, and adore them in the number of thei [...] Gods.

The wisest of Men, from the beginning o [...] the World to this latter Age, in consideratio [...] that our Art hath for its exercise the most n [...] ble of Subjects, which is no other than the Divine Image of the Creator, considering lik [...] wise [Page 5] the many Casualties that were still wait­ing, to subvert the Oeconomy of Man's corpo­ral state, have, for these Reasons as well as others, reputed and accounted Us the Hands of the Almighty.

But if we enquire what particular Persons they were that had this Homage render'd them, we shall find them such as were legally consti­tuted, for the discharge of so great a Duty as lay incumbent on them. There were no such Swarms of Pseudo-Medici & Chyrurgi, as now disturb the Town, and poyson its Inhabitants, admitted into their Reverend Societies. They paid not this Respect to any, unless those who had been educated (ab incunabulis) by the most diligent service under the greatest Masters; for they look'd on Humane Life of too high a con­cern to be tamper'd with by the barbarous H [...]nds of a rude and ignorant sort of People. They found no reason in those days to prize and overvalue the famous Italian or High-Ger­man Doctor, thereby to degrade and despise the more worthy Physicians their fellow-Citizens; neither would they confide in the most ridi­culous absurd Predictions of the calculating Piss-prophets that now molest us. For why? There was a communicative Knowledge to each other, that the superstructure of these mens Ass-trologick Judgments, was founded on their [...]nsatiable desire of Gain, which they procure [...]o themselves out of the Spoils of the Peo­ [...]le.

We read not, till of late, of any inferiour Mechanic so speedily advancing as to commence presently Doctor of Physick, profess'd Chyrurgick Operator, yet still a Mountebank. No, Petticoat Practitioners were formerly accounted Oracles, or their Skill esteem'd valuable in competition with the legal Surgeons: They were endow'd with greater Prudence than to run a mile or two af­ter an ignorant Butcher, to enquire whether the ingenious Artist had perform'd his Duty: but in all times of their Calamities, and on all emergent occasions, could safely ask Counsel, and confide in the true and genuine Sons of Hippocrates and Aesculapius, expecting from the Endeavours of these men (under God) the Restauration and Preservation of their Limbs and Lives.

If we would reflect now on the great and mighty illustration the Medicinal Science hath receiv'd in the present Age by many rare and admirable Inventions of some modern and in­genious Spirits, we might suppose they have had great reason to expect rather an augmentation than diminution of that Honour which was gi­ven to their Predecessors; not only for the considerable Advantages they have made by their Discoveries, in order to compleat and perfect both Study and Practice of Physick, but also for their great Industry, and the pains that it hath cost them to erect another Fabrick on the Basis of solid Reason, whereby they have adapted the most intricate, obscure, and con­jectural [Page 7] Phaenomena of the Ancients to plain, easie and practical Demonstrations.

We have had indeed such considerable and magnificent Contributions towards the com­pleating of this worthy Science, that the most voluminous of the Ancients, nay, (if it may be pardonable to say so) the whole Body of Physick, as then confusedly and darkly com­pil'd, is a rude and indigested Chaos, compara­tively to one singular Invention of the Neote­ricks, whose sublime Speculations and proficu­ous Experiments are elegantly descanted on by Dr. Charlton, in the account he gives a Friend in France, of the considerable improvement of Learning here in England, where he thus accosts him in some parts of his Discourse.

In the College of Physicians in London, which (without offence to any thing but their own Modesty) I may pronounce to be the most eminent Society of Men for Learning, Judgment, and Industry that is now, or at any time hath been in the whole World. Here you may behold the House of So­lomon; some there are who constantly employ themselves in dissecting Animals of all kinds, as well living as dead; and faithfully recording all Singularities that occur to their observations, both in the several Species and Individuals; that so they may come to know what is perfectly natural, what preternatural, what rare and monstrous amongst the Parts of them, and also what resem­blance there is betwixt the conformation of the Parts in the Body of Man, and those in the Bodies [Page 8] of other Animals, ordain'd by Nature to the same or like and equivalent uses. Others there are who daily investigate Arguments to confirm and ad­vance that incomparable Invention of the Immor­tal Harvey, in his Circulation of the Blood, and have already brought the Doctrine thereof to so high a degree of perfection, that it is not only ad­mitted and admired by all the Schools of Europe, but the advancers of it also are able to solve most of the difficult Phoenomena in Pathology, only by this Hypothesis; and frequently effect such Cures by having respect thereunto, in their Intentions and Prescripts, as well in chronick as acute Diseases, as would not be hoped from any other Ground-work formerly laid.

Indeed this singular transcendent Discovery hath given more light to the Materia Medica than all the laborious Tryals, Inventions, and Expe­riments that had been practis'd in former Ages; I may say, that the whole System of Anatomy, Physick, and Chyrurgery have hereby receiv'd such g [...]eat amendments and alterations, that the quondam Clouds of Ignorance seem wholly to be dispers'd. Here is no flying to occult causes for an explanation of seeming Difficulties, (which was the Refuge of the Ancients) nor any other Asylum left for the Unlearned; but the progress of each Distemper incident to Man­kind, with its various appearances in the begin­ning, augment, state, and declension, are perspi­cuously said open and unfolded from an Aetyo­logy built upon Inferences gather'd from this sub­stantial [Page 9] and lasting Foundation. But to prose­cute a little farther the aforesaid Author, where he proceeds;

There are moreover amongst the Members of this Venerable Society, who pursuing the hint given them some few years since, by Jacobus Mullerus, in an academical exercise of the Nature of Animal and Voluntary Motion, have gone far towards the ex­plication of the Reasons and Manners of the motion of the Muscles, by the Principles of Mechanicks; an Enterprize of great difficulty, and long desidera­ted, as leading us to understand the Geometry ob­serv'd by the Creator in the Fabrick of the Micro­cosm, and the verification of Anatomical Asserti­ons, by Demonstrations Mathematical. There are others who have found out a more commodious use of the Glands than all antecedent Anatomists ascri­bed to them; with other considerable Discoveries that have been made, such as the Motion of the Chylous Juice from the Stomach to the Receptacu­lum Chyli; the falsity of that Opinion, that the Liver was the immediate instrument of Sanguifica­tion, which is now found inservient to no other use than the sequestration of the bilious Particles of the Blood, conveying the same into the Gall, to be thence excluded into the Guts, the discovery of the Lympha­tick Vessels, with many others.

Moreover, were we desirous to take a view of the considerable Improvements that have been made by some learned Men of our own Coun­try and Profession, we need but take the trouble of perusing those elaborate Lectures of Dr. Reed, [Page 10] Mr. Woodall, with many more, not forgetting to make particular mention of those methodical and practical Observations of Mr. Serjeant Wise­man.

These, amongst others, are the Helps we have receiv'd from the unwearied Labours of Men eminent in our Art, so that if the College of Physicians is allow'd metaphorically to be estee­med Solomon's House, I think we may pronounce our Anatomick Theatre in Surgeons Hall, to be a very splendid and glorious apartment thereof; not so much for the curiosity of Structure, as for the Streams of Eloquence and good Litera­ture, flowing from those Fountains of True Wisdom Dr. Brown and Dr. Tyson, whose can­did and impartial Discoveries for the support of what we all desire, viz. Health and its continu­ance, will never sufficiently be compensated by this purblind Age.

Have we not then a just cause to stand ama­zed at the predominant Folly of some, who will rather chuse to trust their Bodies in the hands of Quacks and other fraudulent Professors, than in those of the most judicious and skilful Practitioners: and truly, if the learned Dr. Feat­ly thought he had such great reason to inveigh against the Sufferance of Laymen's imposing on the Ministerial Function, who took on them (the most unlearned Mechanicks) to expound the Sacred Scriptures, to the disgrace and con­tempt of Divinity and Episcopal Authority: Have not we, I say, as great occasion to dissent [Page 11] from, and admire at the present toleration of those great Abuses, which by the most illegal and ignorant Intruders are offer'd to the noble and divine Mystery of Healing. I may truly justifie the word Mystery, since it is so undenia­bly, to those who by their most impure and nocuous conceptions thereof, their evil Practi­ces and oftentimes fatal Performances therein, have brought a general Scandal on the most noble of all Arts, an Art which was deliver'd unto fallen Man by the Almighty himself, and hath been accounted the most excellent of all others, by the wise and supreme Donor, as well as in the sight of Princes; which made King Solomon advise us to give Honour to the Physician, since the Highest Lord hath created him for our Help and Health. The most wise Hebrecion gives this Encomium of Medicine, That it proceeds from the Most High, and that the ancient and most wise men of the Land have brought it forth; he that is wise will not despise it.

What pity is it, and how justly do we com­plain, that this our honourable Art, which in former times the most renowned Kings and Princes did not disdain to dignifie, not only by their Contributions to render its Fame immor­tal, but also by diligently practising themselves therein, that it should now unworthily be en­trench'd on, and degraded by the unjust Pre­tences of the very Scum of the Earth? This the vaunting Emperick, and couzening Quack, [Page 12] the confident Barber, the fraudulent Bone-setter, and ignorant Old Woman; This all people, of whatever Condition or Occupation, take on them to administer and intermeddle withal: Nay, these men tell us so many Stories of their grand Atchievements, of the safe, certain, spee­dy, and infallible Remedies they have pur­chas'd by their multiply'd Experience, that it shall escape them hard if they possess us not with a Belief, that we run the greatest hazard in the trusting our Distempers to the manage­ment of any other (though infinitely more skil­ful) than themselves; the meanest of their Medicines outvys all other Compositions for their Vertues; and the most inferiour of their Administrations must be reputed a Panacea.

The great and only support of these mens Credit is built on such lying and romantick Stories; and though the person that hath once try'd the best of their Performances most com­monly carries about him (perhaps to his Life's end) a sufficient Remembrancer of their abo­minable Practice, yet for a more publick con­viction, and that I may deter others from fal­ling into their hands, I shall use my weak En­deavours to display these notorious Cheats in their true and proper colours, to divulge their wheedling Insinuations, and expose to the na­ked Eye as well the weakness of their Judg­mens as their Miscarriages in most, if not all, their insolent Undertakings, that so the World may see we are as willing to preserve them [Page 13] from, as to recover them out of Danger.

I am sensible, that for want of such a distin­guishing Mark between Art and Ignorance, there have been many well-meaning and deser­ving Persons, who have shipwrack'd both their Health and Fortunes by their most dangerous encounters with such, who as they value not their Reputation in the forfeit of their Credit, so are they the less concern'd at the loss of (what they never had) a Good Name, if thereby they can accumulate their unjustly-acquir'd Gain; the discharge of Conscience is to them of no concern, for if they heeded that, the bare sense of their Guilt in a most gross Simplicity would fly in their Faces, and debar them of those Pri­viledges they now endeavour to engross unto themselves.

If the confident declaration of a Man's own Skill to the World be of sufficient force to en­gage the People to employ him, without an impartial consideration whether there be any thing of Merit to render him acceptable; or if his own positive Assertions of those great and mighty things he has perform'd, without any thing of disquisition, be capable to constrain their applause, we have the less reason so pro­foundly to admire how some Men have gain'd such considerable ground amongst Rational Creatures.

With respect to the most welcome and easie admittance to the Trust and Confidence repo­sed by incautelous People, in the extravagant [Page 14] boasting of Emperical Quacksalvers; and in con­sideration that their Breach of Promise, toge­ther with their unsuccessful Practice, have been but little available to forewarn others how they rush into the same Mischiefs; these Re­flections should, in my opinion, encourage eve­ry man who respects the Miserable, to take care that they be not deluded by the specious Pre­tences of those who have presum'd to stile them­selves Metropolitan Physicians, the most infallible Health-Restorers of the People, having gain'd their Knowledge by ten, twenty, sometimes thirty years Industrious Study; when 'tis a Chance at the same time if they ever look'd on any other piece than Queen Elizabeth's Closet, Culpepper's English Physician, and his Midwifry, Aristotle's Problems, or his Masterpiece, with some other choice Cabinet of Physical Receipts. And on this small stock of Knowledge, with a much greater provision of undaunted Impudence, they account themselves deserving such sounding Ti­tles, whereby they insinuate themselves into the Peoples favour, and by degrees draw them into a perswasion, that they are the only Men fitted for the cure of all Distempers, as well by Inter­nal Remedies as Topical Applications.

It is unlikely I should frame a more suitable description of these wonderful Operators, than we have given us by an ancient Author, in his Office of a Chyrurgeon, on which account I shall take the liberty to transcribe what is most for our present purpose, in his own words.

[Page 15]

It is requisite (saith he) that this Artist be not only learned in the Theory, but also that he be brought up under some cunning Man, which hath good Know­ledge in the same Art; for otherwise it is not possible to come to the exact and perfect knowledge thereof. If I should tell you of the ungracious Witchcrafts, and of the mischievous Abuses and Misuses that have been in times past, and yet in our days continually used, ye would a little marvel thereat: But foras­much as it hath not only turned to the dishonour of God, but also to the state of the Common-wealth, I have thought good to declare unto you part of their wicked doings, that it may be unto you who profess this Art an Example, to avoid the like wretched Deeds. These things I do not speak to you of Hear­say, but of my own Knowledge.

In the Year One thousand Five hundred Sixty two, I did see in the two Hospitals in London, St. Tho­mas's and St. Bartholomew's, to the number of Three hundred and odd poor people, that were disea­sed of sore Legs, sore Arms, Feet, and Hands, with other parts of the Body, so grievously infected, that One hundred and twenty of them could never be re­cover'd without loss of Leg or Arm, a Foot or Hand, Fingers or Toes, or else their Limbs crooked, so that they were either maimed or undone for ever. All these were brought to this Mischief by Witches, by Women, and by Counterfeit Javils, that take upon them to use the Art, not only robbing them of their Money, but of their Limbs and perpetual Health. And I (saith our Author) with some others, dili­gently Examining these poor people how they came by [Page 16] their grievous Hurts, and who were their Chyrurgi­ons that look'd unto them; they confess'd that they were either Witches, which did promise by Charms to make them whole, or else some Women that were to cure them with Herbs, and such-like things, or some Vagabond Javil, that runneth from one Country to another, promising unto them Health, and deceiving them of their Money.

This Fault and Crime of the undoing of this Peo­ple, were laid unto the Chyrurgions, I will not say by part of those who were at that time Masters of the same Hospitals; but it was said, that Carpenters, Women, Weavers, Coblers, and Tinkers did cure more People than the Chyrurgions themselves; but what manner of Cures they did, I have already told you, such Cures as all the World may wonder at; yea, I say, such Cures as makes the Devil in Hell to dance for joy, to see the poor Members of Jesus Christ so miserably tormented. What shall I say hereunto, but lament and pray unto our Lord Jesus, for his precious Blood sake that was shed upon the Cross, to illuminate the Hearts of the Magistrates, for amendment hereof; and that this Rabblement of Runnagates, with Witches, Bawds, and the Devil's Southsayers, with Tinkers, Coblers, and Sowgelders, and all other the wicked Coherents of these same Devilish Sects, which do thus abuse the Noble Art of Medicine, may be re­formed and amended; and every one to get their Li­ving with Truth in the same Arts that they have been brought up in; else to be grievously punish'd, as they be in other Countries, and as they have been here in times past.

[Page 17]

I think the Prince is bound in Conscience to punish those false and wicked pernicious Deceivers, who do not only destroy the Limbs of Man, but his Life also. Of this sort London is as well stor'd as the Country, for I believe there be not so few therein as Threescore Women, who practise in the Art of Phy­sick and Surgery: Of these (some are called wise Women, or holy and good Women) there are many sorts and sects, as some for sore Breasts, some for the Stone and Strangury, some for Pain in the Teeth, others for Scald Heads, some famous for sore Throats, others for sore Legs, with a Thousand more; Galen in his Book of Sects never made mention of half so many. I think, if this worshipful Rabblement were gather'd together, they would make a much greater procession than ever did the Monks, Fryars, and Nuns, when they swarmed most in London.

This unprofitable Company have so encreas'd in this City, that all the Countries in England have taken notice thereof; yea, and at this day all the Countries in Christendom may wonder at our Laws, in suffering and maintaining of them.

Well, I say, we will let these pass with Tinkers, Carpenters, Old Women, &c. and a great many of other Occupations, whereof some come out of France, some out of Germany, and so of other Countries, some for Religion, and some to pick Pockets. And all these are now become great Physicians, and Chyrurgions, to the no small advancement of this noble Art of Medicine; for their worthy Cures do bear such witness thereof, and give such a Report unto them, that at this day the learned Physicians [Page 18] and Chyrurgions may not a little rejoice. I say no more, but God amend all, and unless these things are quickly amended, I think the diseased people with Wounds, Ulcers, &c. are like to have small help; and if it shall chance the Prince to have Wars, then are this Company that I have spoken of like to serve. And I doubt nothing, but that the Souldiers shall have great courage to fight, forasmuch as they shall have such a goodly company of Chyrurgions to cure them when they are wounded: As for others, there will be but few left, unless better order be taken, and that with speed.

Thus we see that in those days the unwearied Endeavours of illiterate and base People were not wanting in their Knavish Practices to over­throw the Medicinal Art; but lest I tire my Reader with a preliminary Discourse, I shall hasten to expose (which was the drift of my Undertaking) the Principal Intruders on and Pretenders to the same, by whose disingenuous Practice it hath receiv'd so great a diminution in the estimate of some responsible, but mostly the common People; each of which you will find the Subject of a particular Section.

Apologia Chyrurgica.


UPON enquiry into the Causes of the Contempt both of Physicians and Chy­rurgions, we shall find in the first place (as one great Promoter hereof) the perfidious Practices of a Fellow whom the Vulgar entitle Mountebank.

He is one whose true and fixed Character, with respect to his unsetled state and condition, cannot properly be render'd, and therefore we will content our selves with a description of his Employment.

An Emperick or Mountebank (after Dr. Blan­card's concise and pithy remark on him) is one who vends his irrational and immethodical Me­dicines to the Rabble that surround him; for being mounted on the publick Stage of his Am­bition, he blows so loud the Trumpet of his (otherwise insupportable) Fame, that the Passen­gers [Page 20] who pass by him run as great hazard of be­ing infected from his Discourse, as did the Com­pany of Ulysses, when they stop'd their Ears, to prevent being captivated by the charming Sy­rens.

'Tis true, the musical concord of his Notes cannot be suppos'd so tempting as was theirs; yet by reason of those fatal Events which do at­tend the Unwary, that by this Bait are hauled into his Net, he may be look'd on as more pe­rilous than those ficitious Musicianers.

Having sent his Fool before him, with his other antick Attendants, by some pleasing, tho' ridiculous Gestures, to allure the People; when his Auditory is somewhat numerous, Sir Fop himself (upon notice given) immediately mounts the Stage, and after a very reverend Congee to his ignorant Admirers, addresseth himself to this purpose.


The deep sence of your subjection to Bodily Infirmi­ties, and your want of the most true and necessary means for your recovery: I say, weighing in my Mind the multitude of Distempers which my fellow Creatures are liable to undergo, if not redressed by the hands of Art; and withal well knowing your want of able Physicians, I thought in this great exigency there was an absolute necessity for me to force my self from that private and contemplative life I lead in the free enjoyment of a plentiful Estate, to make known to you my Abilities in the practise of Physick as well as Surgery.

[Page 21]

I will assure you, Gentlemen, I have obtain'd such stupendious specifick Remedies, for the cure of most, if not all your Distempers, as no Mortal besides my self can reasonably pretend to.

Now having his Man ready that attends his motions with his Dish of Trumpery for the entertainment of his Guests, he first pulls out his little Box of Electuary, and proceeds.

Here is first of all, Gentlemen, my true and only famous Orvietan, a Medicine of such admirable property, that it expels all manner of Poyson, which is incident to the whole Race of Adam's Posterity.

Gentlemen, this only administration strikes at the very Root of Distempers, and perfectly eradicates the worst of their Concomitants. The Orvietan of it self, Gen­tlemen, is very well worth your Money, but 'tis the consideration of your Wants, and the real necessity that there is to keep such things by you, that occasions me out of a cordial love and respect to your welfare, to let you have some other things, almost gratis, into the bargain.

Here are next of all, Gentlemen, my Pilulae Ex­cellentissimae, a most incomparable Purge I will as­sure you, Gentlemen, which answer all Intentions of purging Physick, and are the most friendly to Nature of any thing yet known: They sweep the Stomach, cleanse it of all Impurities whatsoever, and carry them forth of doors with the greatest ease imagi­nable.

[Page 22]

You have next, Gentlemen, my Pulvis contra Vermes, or Pouder which kills all Worms: This Pouder, Gentlemen, not only expels those Crudities, and the Corruption which engenders those troublesome Insects, but also procures a good Appetite, makes a light Heart, and recreates all the Spirits, as well natural, vital, and animal. And now, Gentlemen, that you may see I am as willing to take care of those outward Accidents you are prone to, as your inward Distempers,

I give you, Fourthly, my Emplastrum divinum, which for its wonderful Vertues may truly be so call'd. It cures all Aches proceeding from Heat or Cold, Pains of what kind soever in any part of the Body; it re­solves Tumors of all sorts, tho' never so obdurate and hard to be dealt withal by other Remedies. In short Gentlemen, you need no other Plaister to keep by you on any account whatsoever.

You have lastly, Gentlemen, my Balsamum Mul­tarum Virtutum, which cures all Wounds, Ulcers, Fistula's, and what not? for indeed it is of sufficient force to withstand all putrefied Humours lodged in any part of the Body. So that you see, Gentlemen, I am as willing to save you the unreasonable Fees of other Physicians, as the extraordinary Sums of Mony which a Chyrurgeon requires for a small and inconsi­derable Cure.

Having made this learned Harangue to the People, and rehears'd the same two or three times over, he leaves them to pause a while, and then diverts them with an Interlude of his fan­tastick [Page 23] Drollery; which being over, and Mon­sieur the Doctor majestically withdrawn, his Con­federate Juggler (almost as good an Oratour as himself) begins to this effect.

Gentlemen, I would earnestly entreat you, for your own safety, to embrace this fit Opportunity of purcha­sing these most infallible Medicines, whilst you may have the great benefit to find the Doctor in Town, which will be but a week at farthest. (At the same time he designs to stay till he is forc'd to fly the Town.) But, continues he,

I'll assure you, Gentlemen, you will never meet with the like Opportunity as long as you live.

The Doctor, First of all, presents you, Gentlemen, with his most famous Orvietan, which is the greatest Wonder in Nature, to procrastinate your Health and Lives.

Secondly, He almost gives you his Pilulae Excel­lentissimus, in English, The most excellent of Pills.

Thirdly, Here is the Dr's Pulve [...]e Vermibus, or his Pouder to kill all manner of Worms in Men, Women, and Children.

Fourthly, You may have his Emplastrum divi­num, or a Plaister to cure all manner of Aches, Pains, Swellings, or Tumors whatsoever.

Fifthly, and lastly, Gentlemen, here is the Dr's Balsamum multutum vertarum, which heals all Wounds, Ulcers, and other Accidents proceeding from what Cause soever.

[Page 24]

You have all the whole Pacquet, Gentlemen, for the inconsiderable price of one Shilling.

Gentlemen, 'tis not the small Gain which is gotten hereby that maintains the Doctor's charge of his Coach and Horses; no, Gentlemen, he does it purely for the benefit of poor People, as well as others, who are willing to be rul'd by his Directions.

Now Gentlemen, those that are willing to be Ma­sters of these serviceable Remedies, let them throw up their Mony in Glove or Handkerchief, and the whole Pacquet shall be return'd them therein. If you make not use of the present time, you must not blame the Doctor, when it shall please him deservedly to debar you of this great privilege, by his speedy absence.

I have been the rather willing to impose the trouble of perusing these great Impertinencies, in regard that from this exact Copy of the Ori­ginal, the whole Design may be more commo­diously guess'd at; for, first of all, his elevating the Minds of the conceited Vulgar with the title of Gentlemen, (without which he scarce repeats a sentence) argues his Endeavour from bringing them into a high opinion of themselves, that they may harbour the same of him, and that he the more unsuspectedly may carry on his Cheats.

Secondly, His frivolous Circumlocution and repetition of the same Discourse, implies as well his Ignorance, as his incessant appetite of Lucre.

Thirdly, His thus openly publishing himself to the World doth clearly indicate his want of Merit to be sought after, and the shift he is put to for to purchase a Living, by making this abo­minable fabulous proclamation.

Fourthly, His vain Ostentation by the antick Fooleries of his Tumblers and Ropedancers bespeaks him to be the greatest Spend-time of the People, who are the rather willing to tarry, when the thought of their Business is diverted by the Conceits of Merry Andrew, and the Mounte­bank in the Interval, finds the Sweets of an op­portunity to put off and vend his Empirical Compositions.

Truly, this Fellow may most justly be ac­counted the Common Enemy of the People, not only for the Time he cheats them of, which should be otherwise employ'd, but also for their Money, which (if they want not for their own or their Family's subsistence, and know not to employ it more advantagiously) is better thrown to Swine, who will not evilly reward them, than given to these deceitful Quack-pretenders, who prey both on their Purse and Persons.

Fifthly, and lastly, (which is the number of his Medicines) His inconsiderately ascribing so many and different Vertues to each single and improper Remedy, without reflecting on the various Intentions and Alterations that are espe­cially made in Surgery, before we can accom­plish the cure of any compound Indisposition, doth absolutely demonstrate him to be ignorant [Page 26] and knavish, and as great a Novice in Surgery as his Hireling Jack-pudding.

Having given you this cursory view of the Mountebank upon his Stage, we will now con­duct you to his Lodging, which is commonly near thereto, in some publick Victualling-house or Inn, where his Host (perhaps for botching up some former Clap, or out of an expectation of Custom to his House) suffers him to live Rent-free.

His Chamber is commonly set off with Skele­tons of Puggs, Doggs, Rabbits, and other Ani­mals, which he has got some Butcher's Boy to anatomize and set together for him. There are likewise the stuff'd Skins of Crocodiles, Panthers, and Sea-Lyons, and these, he tells the People, are such as have been presented him, for some remarkable Cures in his dangerous Travels thro' the remotest parts of the World.

In his Window it's possible you may find half a peck of Teeth, some of which (as he tells you) he threw out on the Stage with the Point of his Sword, others with an imperceptible touch of the fore-finger of his right hand.

In other parts of his Chamber you may see Humane Bones, being such (he would insi­nuate) as he hath amputated or dismember'd on necessitous occasions, yet by a more particular Enquiry we shall find he procur'd them after the same manner as his Caemiterean Teeth, or those from the Church-yard.

I shall conclude these Remarks with the reci­tal of an Account I had given me some time since, of a certain famous Empirick, who upon a Visit made him by a Gentlewoman for his Advice, about a Pain in her Breast, she chanc'd to espy under a Glass in his Closet a very black and deform'd piece of Flesh, which (out of cu­riosity) enqui [...]ing af [...]er, the Mountebank very impudently told her, that it was a Cancer'd Breast which he had taken from the Body of a certain Indian Queen, whom he had recover'd in three weeks afterwards. The Gentlewoman, surpriz'd at the Skill of this famous Operator, when she came home, imparted it to some of her Neighbours, upon which the whole Impo­sture was detected▪ and the Breast prov'd no other than that of a poor Womans, by which Excision he had sent her into the other World, and kept her Breast as a Pledge for payment of the Mony, till she should come back again to redeem it; which when he had boyl'd, as Ketch does his quarter'd Members, (to preserve them from being tainted by the Air) he kept as a Mo­nument of his admirable Dexterity.

It would be too tedious to enumerate all the Cheats such Persons practise, to render them­selves famous; and therefore waving their par­ticular Enarration, I shall give you as short an account of his Education or Initiation in the Practise of Physick, by which you may perceive the utmost of his accomplishments in that sub­lime Science.

By an Enquiry of this nature you will find, that the whole of his Judgment proceeds from a Twelvemonths cohabitation with some Coun­try Practitioner, who after covenanting that he should not molest him when he practiseth for himself, (for a small Stipend) permits this In­truder to inspect his Business, till the expiration of such a term of time; when the little Bag­ful of Conceit, thinking himself sufficiently flegg'd in Knowledge, having thrown aside his Leading-strings, begins to soar aloft on the Pi­nions of his unbounded Pride, and scorning those mean Retirements of an obscure Practi­tioner, who permits himself to be sought to, he thinks he hath already a sufficient Call to publish himself to the World; and thereupon immediately erects a Stage in some City or Market-Town, where he perpetrates the most enormous Mischiefs, under the notion of a most undoubted Preserver of the People's Lives.

If this does not exactly quadrate with his ori­ginal, but that he descends from a better Pro­geny than the former, having spent his Patrimo­ny through his extravagant living, and disdain­ing to labour otherwise for his Bread; in this exigency he can find out no better method for an idle and easie life, than that of turning Mountebank; in order whereto, considering likewise that it was absolutely necessary he should be skill'd in some Terms of Art, the Ver­tues of a few Simples, and the making up some vulgar Remedies (which he can easily disguise) [Page 29] to amuse the People. On such-like Reflections he betakes himself to the turning over some plain and intelligible Author, from a short con­verse with whom, together with the advantage of indifferent Natural Parts, he sets up for the most experienc'd Physick and Chyrurgick Professor about Town: yet at the same time, if he were brought to the Test, 'tis most certain, that he (nay, the ablest of them all) knows not right­ly to deliver either Diagnostick or Prognostick in the most usual of disastrous occurrences to Hu­mane Life, and so much a Stranger to Chyrur­gery, that you will find him unable to give a di­scerning Querist a satisfactory definition of ei­ther Wound or Ulcer.

Now these are the fit Idols of the Peoples Ap­plause, whose quacking and dishonest dealings meet with less Calumny and Opposition than the just and artificial proceedings of the Licen­tiate Practitioner.

One great Bait wherewith this Pretender en­snares his Auditory, is his fair Carriage and splendid Equipage: and indeed (what is most­ly to be lamented) when by the influence of a Friend at Court he can skrew himself into the Prince's favour, he then bears all before him, with his assumed Title of a Regius-Professor ordi­narius, or (as Medicaster Medicatus in his Banter upon J. B.) One of the King's most Ordinary Practitioners.

The two notorious Empiricks, that have for some years past infested England, when they had by the like means procur'd, as they call it, the Signal Testimony of a Prince's Favour, the [...] were no sooner mounted on the Stage, but it was expos'd to the Peoples view, who were from a prospect of this Royal Gratuity to respect them as it were by consequence for very emi­nent Physicians. But did not the many fatal Errors committed by them in most parts of the Town declare their Arrogance, as well as Ig­norance: yet I am well satisfy'd, that a consi­derate Person can value no man so much on a gaudy appearance, as on that of a sound and rational Judgment, which is not only furnish'd by Autopsy, in a continued series of Practical Ex­periments, but adorn'd with the Theory of the choicest Authors.

It may not be from our purpose, if I inform you, that notwithstanding the Titles of Physi­cians and Chyrurgions in Ordinary, that very Prince himself we were just now speaking of, neither before nor at the time of his unhappy dissolu­tion, did think it reasonable to confide, or trust his Life in the hands of such his spurious Regii Professores.

After my endeavours to prove this Upstart as dangerous a Person as the People can converse with, I shall lay down such a faithful account of his Practice, as will, I doubt not, render his Name so ignominous and detestable in the Peoples Ears, that in consideration of those [Page 31] many Outrages he commits on their Bodies, they may as well venture their Persons amongst ravenous Beasts, as trust their Health, Limbs, and Lives to the management of such Intruders on the Physician's and Chyrurgeon's Duty.

I have already acquainted you with his Edu­cation, which if not positively the same, I have intimated, yet circumstantially you will find it correspond.

I am satisfy'd it was never known of any Empirick, that he acquir'd the Skill he boasts of by a diligent Service under a legal or rightly-qualify'd Chyrurgeon, or commenc'd gradually Physick-professor at a University, but all from such sinister clandestine methods, as renders their Pretensions as unjust as their Practice destru­ctive.

It's but a few months from the writing here­of, that a late Mountebank or Stage-player in M—F—was consulted by a Gentlewo­man then labouring under the severe Symptoms of an ulcerated Cancer, seated on her Breast. She had been tampering some time before with a noted Doctoress about C—, famous for such Cures, who labour'd all she could to put it up­on suppurating (for you must know she had been concern'd before it ulcerated) she took much pains to perswade the Patient there was no other way for cure, but (as she express'd it) by letting out that corrupt Humour which was continually gnawing of her, and fed her Can­cer.

She said she had cur'd several by this new way, which the ablest Chyrurgeons durst not meddle with: hereupon, by the incessant ap­plication of hot Topicks, and powerfully at­tractive (to use the ancient expression) Pultisses, she in a little time accomplish'd her desire, but—Quis talia fando, with so evil a tendency of all things for the worse, that from this (as was to be expected) the before occult and quiet Cancer now manifested its rage and cruel fierce­ness more than ever; there was soon after the discharge a pertinacious Fungus thrust forth in several parts of the Abscess, and the virulent Humour by erosion, having open'd the mouths of the Vessels, finding a clear passage, gave a free egress to the vital Spirits with the Blood up­on any the least provocation.

By this the Patient was debilitated, and her Spirits much exhausted, so that of necessity be­ing compel'd to dismiss her Female Undertaker, and to add more Fuel to her inextinguishable Flame, upon the rumor of a noted Empiric (one of the before-mention'd) she refers her case to him, who finding the Breast movable (sure he thought it should not long continue so) most igno­rantly orders a Bottle of strong Spirits, for to bath the part affected, and half a dozen Papers of purging Pouder, to be taken every other day, which when she had roundly paid for, she took home with her to her House near M—.

Upon the very first application, the most dif­fusive Particles of the subtile Spirit, fermenting with the bilious adust Humour, lodged in the Glandules of the Breast, soon hasten'd an In­flammation, by an encrease of fluxion; which when by circulation the morbid taint was com­municated to the rest of the bloody mass, there was presently excited so great an effervescence, and such a continued Feaverish Ebullition, that notwithstanding the too late assistance of an eminent Chyrurgeon, the vital Flame was sud­denly extinguish'd, and this miserable Gentlewo­man untimely hurried to her Grave.

I think we shall have no occasion to produce a more evident demonstration of Empirical Igno­rance, than this of the foregoing, where we find the application of a burning Spirit to an inflam'd ulcerated Cancer, which was as likely to effect a Cure, as 'tis that the Fire should be put out by a combustible Sulphur.

I was the rather free to insert this Passage, for that being an eye-witness, and enquiring what had been done, they shew'd me the Moun­tebank's Bottle of Spirits, which (as I could imagine) were no other than an inflamable Spi­rit of Turpentine, impregnated with Galbanum, Ammoniacum, and other Gumms; and his Pouder that of Jalap Root; a very likely thing to prove beneficial, where the most lenitive Purgation oftentimes puts the Humours into an over-eager ferment, to the disturbance of the part.

A Case likely to have been as fatal as the for­mer, you may understand by this, that when (a little while since) a Chyrurgeon had been sent for to take a view of a weakly Child, he found one of our present Mountebanks there before him, who had already made a demand for his intended Cure, and was preparing for his Work: He told the Practitioner, that the Child had so large a Carnosity, or fleshy Excre­sence, by the Fundament, that it hinder'd him from going to Stool; but he did not question he should soon cure him, by cutting of it away: The Chyrurgeon being curious to see it, desir'd a view of this strange case, which being gran­ted, he found nothing more than a bearing down of the Fundament, or Prolaps of the Intestine, by cutting off which (if not providentially pre­vented) this bold Undertaker had most cer­tainly kill'd the Child.

Did not the fear of being burthensome to your Patience take me off from such a design, I could relate some scores of my own observa­tions on these mens Practises, where the Success hath been much at one with the former, more especially in their Pretensions to the perfor­mance of Chyrurgick Operations, such as couch­ing Cataracts, extirpation of Wenns, and other preternatural Excrescences; their cutting Men for the Stone, and extracting the same from the Female Sex per dilatationem, where their prodi­giously expanding and lacerating the Urinary Ductus, if no worse Symptom intervene, yet [Page 35] by this violent usage they so far weaken the Muscular Fibres, that the Patient from thence labours of a Paralysis in that part, and is atten­ded with an involuntary Miction all her Life after.

Surely if such absurd Practices and daily Mis­carriages as these, are not sufficiently conducing nor enough prevalent, there can be nothing more coercive to rectifie Mens Judgments, or to caution them from their application to a Pre­tending Mountebank, who not only acts out of the reach of his capacity, by surreptitiously en­trenching upon Medicine and its Professors, but also (which is of much worse consequence) by so doing he too frequently brings the overcre­dulous into danger of their Lives.

It was no rash Opinion of him who deliver'd his Thoughts to this effect; That if Justice had taken place, a great number of these Vagabonds had long since suffer'd by the hands of the com­mon Executioner, as just Memento's to forewarn others how they tempt their Stars beyond their Light. And the Comparison made by another is as little disagreeable, That there is no farther disproportion between the Mountebank and mur­thering Robber than this, that the former, by a pretence of Service, having bereav'd the unwa­ry Passenger of both Mony and Life, passeth undiscover'd; whilst the latter, to accomplish the same ends, more certainly suffers condign Punishment, on the account of open Violence. There is also this disparity between the Cases of [Page 36] such who fall into the hands of either, that the one ignorantly as it were consents (tho' upon a different expectation) to be depriv'd of his Life, whilst the other is compel'd to resign the same, when overpower'd by his Adversary. In short, they are both sacrific'd to the Interests of base Men, and if either be the more eligible, 'tis he who gives us time enough to fly from him, or defend our Lives.

That I may take off what may seem to some a too rigid Censure on the Failings of these men, I shall give you the concurring Testimony of one of Galen's Commentators.

Whosoever (saith he) doth take upon him to ad­minister in the Medicinal Profession, for the safety of Man's Life, and being ignorant in the Principles thereof, he administring therein, and the Man perish­ing in his Hands, or under his administration; I say that this is Murther, and the practising Pretender answerable for the same, as well to humane as divine Justice.

Truly 'tis great pity that such Trespasses as these come not under the Verdict of a skilful and inquisitive Jury, that the Treachery being hereby detected, the Tragick Actor might receive his Praemium.


AS a farther occasion that those honourable Professions of Physick and Chyrurgery have been so meanly reputed, and so much under­valued, I shall give you an account of the abuse­ful Practices of other Quack Pretenders.

A Quack is by a certain facetious Author de­scrib'd as a kind of bastardly Breed, engender'd by the Congres of a Mountebank and a City Do­ctress, from whence is said to result this defor­med lump of Impudence.

He is by others said to have been Jack of all Trades, yet could never live by any; and there­fore having well acquainted himself with the extravagant Humour of such who can't distin­guish Truth from what is otherwise; without farther deliberation he presently turns Doctor: but considering that his sudden pretence to the cure of all Distempers would raise suspicion of his being no more than a Pretender, he there­fore (encourag'd by the predominant Vice of the Age) professeth at first, that he is only Master of some pleasant, private, and speedy method for the cure of the Lues or French Pox, and according as this takes, if there be Mony in the case, there's nothing comes amiss to him.

These Quack Practitioners were never so nume­rous as they are at present, there being scarce a corner in either City or Suburbs, where one or other of these Intruders have not shamefully crept in.

'Tis true, I can't suppose him full out so dan­gerous as the former, on account that his meaner and more private station, doth not admit him (if otherwise willing) to make such heavy slaughter among the People.

There is also this farther inequality, That the former having summons'd a concourse of People, is the cryer of his own Abilities, by those fabu­lous Stories he delivers to them; whilst this Person (for want of so much confidence) con­tents himself by employing some Hackney Scribe, who sends abroad for him a Noverint Universi, or Advertisement where to find the Habitation of such an eminent Professor both of Physick and Chyrurgery, as will undertake to cure them when left off by others.

We are so pester'd now of late with these ri­diculous Libels, that you cannot walk from Temple-bar to Charing-cross without being im­pos'd on to inspect three or four of them. In­deed the divertisement they afford an ingeni­ous Reader, may in some measure requite him for his expence of time in the perusal, it being certainly as pleasant to supervise some such as are especially intermix'd with a few doggril Rhimes, as to be Spectator at a Farce. Risum teneatis? may very well be queried, there being [Page 39] such of them dispers'd about the Town, as would constrain a smile from the most mortify'd Ancho­rite or reclusest Hermit.

There is scarce a Corner-house in Town, or Entrance to a publick Thorowfare, where you may not find a Quack-pretender's Bill.

The one presents you with his Aqua Tetrachy-magogon, a word as far above his Comprehension to etymologize, as the Zenith from the Nadir.

A second offers a most specious and grave Ti­tle of Read, Try, Judge, and speak as you find; which when they do, it is commonly utter'd with a shower of heavy Oaths and Execrations on the Author, for his trying Conclusions, and leading them on from an inconsiderable Mis­chance, (viz. a recent Venereal Gonorrhoea, Dy­sury, Bubo, &c.) into the most lamentable, excru­ciating, nocturnal Dolors, and often many more irrepairable Disasters.

A third gives you to understand, that at such a place lives the only, true, and approved Phy­sician of Twenty odd years Experience: But to solve this Aenigma, we may make it out thus: The first seven years, perhaps, were served in an Apprenticeship to some Country Apothecary, or practising Barber, where he had the liberty to see his Master oftentimes let Blood, and cut holes up and down the Body, which he calls his Issues. After the Foundation was thus laid, we may imagine that a second seven (being youth­ful days) were spent in rambling foreign parts, where there might be as much Knowledge [Page 40] gain'd in Physick or Chyrurgery as amounts to a Cypher. The last seven were not improba­bly) spun out in working Journey-work, when coveting the Title of a pater familias, (he sets up for himself, and spends the remainder of his days in diligently conning over his Grandmother's Receipt-book.

Here he finds such admirable Titles to all his several Medicines, that he can suppose he hath already purchas'd a greater Talent of Knowledg than his Brother who sends out the Three Infalli­ble Remedies.

Here is first of all an incomparable Direction to make Lucatellus Balsam, which the good old Woman would never impart to any one be­fore her death. In another place he finds a Receipt for Diachylon and Melilot Emplaster, for the cure of Cuts, Bruises, Splinters, and such­like. In a third place there is a never-failing Mercurial Water, subscrib'd, This is that Won­derful Water with which my Lady—cured Thousands of poor people, and was bequeath'd as her Legacy to her Nurse Mrs.—.

With this Solution of sublimate Mercury in fair Water the Dr. dresseth all Tumors, I should say Swellings, Wounds, Ulcers, and the several species of them, under any appellation whatso­ever. And amongst the rest, he hath found out a cheaper way (that he might be absolutely compleat) than any as yet discover'd, to make Pil. Cochiae, with another famous Purger in all cases, made of Aloes, Rhubarb, Coloquintida, and [Page 41] Jalap, brought into a mass, (or in the old Gen­tlewomans Phrase a consistence) with the Syrup of Buckthorn-berries.

You have here a prospect of the Basis where­on is built the wounderful Skill of the Rabble's many years Practitioner, from whence it will be no hard matter to judge of his Accomplish­ments in Physick and Chyrurgery. And now if (your Spring being drained) you are not obliged to withdraw, you may behold upon another piece Cure without Poyson, and that in Capitals.

This Gentleman speaks as truly as the rest, but only under the notion of No Poyson he would possess the People with a Belief, that from the Legal Artist they must expect Poyson in their Cures, when at the same time some of these Pre­tenders shall not scruple to vend the worst of Poysons in their dangerous Compositions

Indeed, if our sweet sublim'd Mercury must deserve no other name than Poyson (though one of the most noble Medicaments yet known) I dare be confident there never was any considerable Venereal Cure (pretend they what they please) effected securely without its exhibition. And of the same opinion we shall find the most reputable Authors who have writ­ten upon its Use and Vertues: I think the ingenious Harvey, and the late Mr. Richard Wise­man, have said enough to evince the great truth of this Assertion. However, to clear farther the treacherous proceedings of one of these bit­terly [Page 42] inveighers against Mercury, I shall impart what was communicated to me from a person of good credit, who himself pretending an occa­sion for a Box of Pills, bought about two drams of a Quack, who had wonderfully decry'd the Use of a Mercurial Preparation in Physick, when by a Chymical Analysis of the Composi­tion he found therein contain'd half a dram and fifteen grains of crude Mercury or Quick­silver.

After all, to bring up the Reer, another tickles you with the pleasing invitation of No Cure No Money. This honest man may, not unlikely, tell you, That 'tis customary however for his Patients to give him a small Fee of a Piece or two for encouragement, which he calls your Admittance; and when he thinks he hath done enough for this, he knows how to accost you, upon your next appearance, with a Comple­ment of this nature.

Sir, or Madam,

Finding the dangerous states of your Distemper to encrease upon you, and that altogether through your own neglect, in not conforming to my Directions, I am wholly taken off the thoughts of farther proceed­ing with you; nay, I am as well satisfied, by your inordinate living, and by the appearance of new Symptoms, that you have stray'd and got a fresh Mischance, as if I my self had been the person you have so lately been concern'd with: Now, you know, it was by no Covenant or Bargain of mine promis'd, [Page 43] that I would cure one Clap upon another, without being satisfied for the first.

Here you find there is no Remedy left (especially if you would be genteel) but to throw down a couple of Guineas more before you are discharg'd, and then you have the li­berty to seek out a second Quack-salving Physician, in a much worse plight than you came to the first.

Whatever may be the Practice of particular Undertakers, who send abroad these Papers, I know it hath been a course taken with some, who have insinuated to the Patient, they would have nothing till they perform'd their Cure; indeed, such are usually the Hypocritical Shams and Evasions of selfish Ignorants, who are for­ward enough to lay their own Miscarriages up­on the Errors of their Patients, when it's possi­ble at the same time they were never otherwise guilty, than being overforward to swallow down their preposterous and improper Drenches.

I would therefore seriously advise the Unfor­tunate Sons of Venus, who have been paid the Wages for their Works of Leachery, that they as safely hazard a fresh encounter with their darling Curtezans, in hopes (and with as much likelihood) to find an Antidote where they re­ceiv'd their Infection, as to rely for Relief upon the Counsel of a Quack Pretender; for by a re­petition of their amorous Delights, they can but propel the malign Seminaries a little farther [Page 44] into the Body, and by the inconsiderate and rash adhibition of these mens Medicines, the said Infection is carried as far inwards, and be­ing mix'd with the (now thorowly polluted) mass of Blood, produceth as dangerous and in­veterate effects.

That which principally incites the People to make use of this Intruder, is, his retail vending of his Medicines; for being inform'd, that of such a famous Physician they may have an In­fallible Box of Pills, of another an Incomparable Pleasant Liquor, of a third a Never-failing Tin­cture, Lozenge, or Elixir, and all these undoubted­ly preservative, as well as curative, in the Pox, with its Attendants: Being allur'd, I say, with so plausible an Invitation, they scruple not to send their Mony by some trusty Friend, to purchase these Medicaments, wherewith (as they are told) they may cure themselves, with­out hindrance of Business, or knowledge of Relations.

Hereby accrews this great advantage to the Quack, that he's not oblig'd to credit; for were not the Mony paid upon the receipt of what he sells them, there are few People (upon a too late repentance of their Bargain) would come to return their Thanks.

It is the pleasing hopes to keep their Mis­chances secret, with the promise that they meet with of so easie and cheap a Remedy to restore their Health, makes them look upon these Bills as so many Oracles, and what they deliver to be [Page 45] purely orthodox; but alas, the Event renders them the greatest Objects of our pity, who by splitting upon these Rocks of Dissimulation, have shipwrack'd their Lives and Fortunes.

I can do no less than admire that any Man should be so inconsiderate, not to say ignorant, as to take for granted, that an Eighteen-penny Box of Pills, an Halfcrown Bottle of Tincture, &c. should be of sufficient energy to withstand or profligate a radicated Pox, in all its several shapes and diversity of appearance, when at the same time it is not often known that any the most recently contracted Virulency was ever throughly expel'd by these frequently mis­chievous and prejudicial administrations.

I have heard of a certain Quack in London, who (upon a bare Recommendation from as wise a person as himself) undertook, and bold­ly exhibited the Pouder of Cantharides, or Spa­nish Flyes, in order to carry off the Flux of a Gonorrhoea, but with so fatal a consequence, that hereupon the miserably afflicted Patient dy'd suddenly convulsive.

We have an account of two Cases of some affinity with the former, related by Meekrin, in his Chyrurgick Observations, which for the extraordinary circumstances at­tending, I shall copy from the aforesaid Au­thor, in page 141.

[Page 46]

Bartholomeus Cabrolius, Anatomicus Mon­speliensis, Observationem singularem (huc facientem) adfert his verbis.

AVenionem evocatus, ut quendam majori in femore Sclopeto ictum, curarem, una cum Joberto Guilimeo & aliis; è diverticulo, ad Ho­minem, enormi laborantem Satyriasi visendum ac­cessimus. Res ita habet, laborat quartana Aeger, in qua profliganda strigae auxilium petierat, quae illi poculum ex ℥j. seminis urticarum, Canthari­dum ʒij. sesqui drachma coeparum aliisque concin­narat: hinc it a exarsit in venerem, ut Uxor ejus per omnia sacra dejerarat, se ab binoctio octuagies septies initam, interea saepius in lectum semen effu­disse: imo nobis adstantibus, brevi momento ter se polluit, pedem lecti pro foemina subagitans: hinc in stuporem versi, quidquid fieri potuit remediorum adhibuimus, sed ipse paulo post libitinariis pollincto­ribus (que) cessit.

Huic affine, retulit Dominus Chauvet Avenio­nensis Doctor, aiebat ille, annis abhinc 32, Evo­catum se Gaderousam ad hominem eadem Satyriasi correptum, & limine domus obvia fit Uxor, de praepostera libidine (rarum in mulieribus querelae genus) mariti expostulans; quadragies illam una nocte hortum suum fodisse; simul laceratam nimla affrictu ostendebat vulvam, remediumque [...]olori juxta ac colori quaerebat. Simili potione malum [Page 47] Aeger contraxerat, quam praebuerat Mulier Xeno­dochio ancillans tertianae arcendae, qua hic in tan­tam amentiam versus fuerat, ut catenis obsessi instar ligandus erat. Aderat cum Domino Chaveto Sa­cerdos, qui cum verbis solari Hominem vellet: rogabat uti se deliciis istis immori sineret: Foeminae cum linteo oxycrato immerso cinxere. Mane mor­tuus, hiantiore membro (que) gangraena correpto, inven­tus, ridenti similis est rictu quem Sardonium vo­cant.

I have the rather made this Digression, that the World may see what intolerable Mischiefs an unskilful Person may be guilty of, when countenanc'd the most illegally to practise in our Art.

If it be reply'd, That many who have recei­ved the Venereal Infection have been cur'd by Quack Practitioners; I must needs say, that I am so far diffident, as to question their Security from the danger of Relapse. I very well know they have obtain'd a Truce, or short Requies, with their Distemper, in which Interval the Undertaker fues for satisfaction; but after some little time (remanente causa) there has been found to the Patient's sorrow, a Pejoration of all Cir­cumstances, such as from the patching up a Venereal Ulcer, the retroceding of a malign Bubo, by refrigerant and repelling Topicks, or the untimely stopping of a Gonorrhoea with re­stringent Injections, or otherwise, have imper­ceptibly transmigrated into the most inveterate [Page 48] Cephalalgia's, extream Lassitudes, the most pun­gitive nocturnal Dolors, with other universal excruciating Pains in all parts of the Body. Indeed from such Ignorants you must expect no other, than to be carried from a simple slight Infection, and that most inevitably into the strongest Contagion; when if you seek Redress of your Physician, you are told, That he hath already commanded the Pox out of your Quar­ters, and these are no other than Symptoms of a predominant Scurvy, contracted by the pro­fuse drinking of Wines and other strong Li­quors, with your liberal seeding upon Salt and Spiced Meats.

These are the Pretences of such illiterate and Empirical Pretenders; scarce any one of which ever freed a Patient of any Venereal Concern, without the severe Relicks of a Pocky Scor­bute, which when arriv'd at their Extream, are sufficient to emaciate the most corpu­lent Body, and unless reliev'd by Medicine, will unavoidably induce a lingring Chronick Sickness, oftentimes terminating in Death it self.

I hope now, from the already recited In­stances and Remarks, there will need the fewer Arguments to disswade Venereal Patients from their application to a Quack, and in his room to introduce the true practical Chyrurgeon, where, upon discovery of their Misfortune, and an enquiry into the progress of their Distem­pers, they may with as much Secresie, and far [Page 49] greater Safety (from a rational and well groun­ded method of Proceeding, without which the slightest Symptoms are no more than palliated) expect Recovery without the fu­ture access or danger of a Relapse; for let Men boast never so much of their Specificks, or infallible Nostrums, as an Eighteen-penny Box of Pills, a small Vial of their Antivene­real Elixir, with the rest of their Empirick Remedies, they are all, I say, the fantastick Notions and Chymera's of self-interested and deceitful Intruders on the Medicinal Art, who have invented these fabulous Stories to amuse and fool the People, defraud them of their Mony; and run them not seldom into the hazard of their Lives.

There is the less reason to exemplifie by more particular Remarks the Cheats by these Men practis'd to beguile the Unwa­ry, since the same begin now to be so publick and notorious, that you shall scarce light into the company of a clapp'd Mon­sieur, who is not presently reviling of his Phy­sician, and lamentably condoling his Misfor­tune, for rashly confiding in the Judgment of a Quack Professor.

I sincerely and heartily wish, that the di­stressed Gallican may be hereby warn'd, how­ever I have discharg'd my Duty, with respect to the Praemonition; and if the Proffer of an [Page 50] undoubted Salutary Antidote be oppos'd or wilfully rejected by an infected Patient, we have the less reason to be concern'd, when the Poyson he hath receiv'd shall prove as fatal.


ANother great cause for the Scandal and Male-reflection upon Chyrurgery and its true Professors, is, the base and burthensom In­trusion made thereon by the Practise of a Bar­ber, who by his Title seems to cry Halfs with the Chyrurgeon, and bears as great a sway in the good Opinion of ignorant People as the Legal Artist.

Indeed the very Notion of a Barber-Surgeon seems in some measure to countenance the Arro­gance of these men, and hath so far impos'd on such as are unacquainted with the Truth, that they have never imagin'd the great difference between the Chyrurgeon and this bold Undertaker; neither will they be perswaded that the latter in­curs a Penalty, by his assumed Confidence to intermeddle in the Duty of the former.

Now have we not just reason to stand ama­zed at the Presumption of these men, who are so numerous in all the out-parts of the Town, that it's almost a Rarity to find one of their Poles without a Frame of Porringers, or some other Signal of their Pretensions to Chyrurgick Practise: Nay, some of them have of late years presum'd so far upon our negligence to suppress [Page 52] them, as to hang out for their Sign the Arms of our Profession; so that, as far as I perceive, it may in time be no easie matter to know the rightly qualified Professor of our Art, from the person of whom we are now giving you a de­scription.

However, that I may render my design the more compleat, and shew my willingness to rectifie those mens Judgments who have been hitherto misguided, I shall give you a true ac­count of his Original, that you may see with how great Injustice he takes upon him to admi­nister in our Art.

If we look back on his Descent, we shall find his Rise from some honest contented Barber, with whom having liv'd a little time in perfect abhorrence of so strict a confinement, he waits for an opportunity and steals off to Sea, where he passes indifferently for a Barber's Boy, till his Master dying; after a first or second Voy­age, he steps into his Place; and now being acquainted with the custom of the Seas, on his next setting out he is, after some slight Examen, introduc'd as the Surgeon's Mate; in which sta­tion having purchas'd much Experience, and tir'd with rambling, full fraught with Know­ledge, he comes on shore, where setling in some obscure part of the Town, he goes by the name of an able Barber or Sea-Chyrurgeon, and acquaints the People with such wonderful Stories of his extraordinary Atchievements in our Art, that they are ready to repute him for as worthy a [Page 53] Practitioner as either Galen or Hippocrates were in former times. You may be sure to find him talking (where he fears not to betray his Igno­rance) of nothing less than Fractures, Dislocations, Gangreens, Mortifications, and Amputations, with other scraps which he hath pick'd from some ancient Author, and launching out into a far­ther liberty of romancing, is continually boast­ing how many scores of Limbs he hath taken off, on which his ignorant Auditory shall ground a supposition, that without a sufficient know­ledge in the Practice of the Seas, it must be im­possible for the Land Professor to be truly ac­complish'd, or well qualify'd for administration in the Medicinal Art.

To remove this Scandal, I must ingeniously confess, that were I to deliver my own Senti­ments, I see very little reason to make distincti­on in point of Knowledge between the com­mon Sea Professor and the Town pretending Bar­ber. I know they are not seldom a Result one from 'tother; and I shall farther remark for our advantage, that in consideration of the most slovenly and uncouth Practice, together with the absurd (that I may not say ignorant) Pro­ceedings too commonly attending a great num­ber of these Sea Practitioners, I am sensible there will be found as great difference between such a person and the City Chyrurgeon, as betwixt a deceitful Artless Pretender and a Master in the said Art.

I would not be thought herein by any means to reflect on those legal and ingenious Practitio­ners employ'd in His Majesty's Naval Service, but what I have spoken hereto, is on account of the great Abuses committed by those shame­ful Intruders on the Practise, who by making Friends to the Supervisers, have clandestinely procur'd the Title of Chyrurgeons Mates, to the no small detriment and personal damage of the King's good Subjects, whose Health and Lives, in the Chyrurgeon's absence, are in the hands of these so lately Barbers and Apothecaries Ser­vants.

'Tis not many years since a meer Novice in Surgery, humbly requesting a Grant for the Office of a Mate, upon a tryal if he was fitted for the discharge of such a Trust, when he was ask'd, what he thought was the first intention in the treating of a penetrating Puncture on the Thorax, he reply'd, He had never seen such a thing in his life. Being farther question'd, if he knew where the said part, viz. the Thorax, was situate in a Humane Body, he as ignorant­ly pointed to the Hypogastrick Region of the Abdomen, and might (according to his Judg­ment) as well have shewn the Palm of his Hand: yet this Person, as I am credibly in­form'd, quickly after obtain'd his desire, and got off to Sea.

The small converse I have had with these men, and the inspection I have made into their Business, hath afforded me many opportunities [Page 55] of beholding as indifferent Practice as might be expected from a tampering Old Woman.

A certain noted Sea Practitioner had some time since a Patient here on Shore, who was afflicted with a malign Paronichia on his Finger, which he treated so long with Suppuratives that the Ligaments were corrupt, and the Bone ca­rious; at length there happening a spontane­ous discharge of Pus, the sinuosity was dilated, and the Bone denudated for ex [...]oliation. Now to recover his former negligence, in suffering the malignity to lye so long conceal'd, he as prejudicially drest the Patient with Basilicon and Oyl of Hypericon, laid immediately on the Bone, whereby the Putrefaction and Caries encreas'd, a large Fungus thrust out, and after all there was a necessity for an Amputation, which was spee­dily perform'd.

I could recite many other instances where the Success hath been much the same, with the foregoing, but whosoever will take the pains to look over the Observations of Mr. Richard Wise­man, will, I doubt not, be confirm'd in my Opinion, with reference to the common Sea Professor, and his Brother the Barber-Chyrurgion.

There is another sort of the last mention'd presuming Undertakers, by whose Abuses the Chyrurgick Profession hath suffer'd a diminu­tion of her quondam Credit and Repute: He is one who not daring to run the hazard of the Seas for his Experience, and finding that the Trimming Trade does not answer expectation, [Page 56] enters himself as a Cubb under an Hospital Pro­fessor, or thrusts himself into the acquaintance of a Chyrurgeon's Servant, who in his minori­ty is perhaps induced, by the gratuity of a Pre­sent, to suffer this Intruder to take a Prospect of his Master's Practise, and to give him an oppor­tunity of phlebotomizing Poor People.

This is too commonly the Foundation of a Barber's Knowledge, who after some few ha­zardous tryals couragiously turns Adventurer, and punctures all who come unto him.

I believe it will not be altogether foreign to our present task, if I spend some little time in making a discovery of their pernicious Practice in their pretence to that part of Chyrurgery which we term Phlebotomy or Venaesection, so mightily now-adays in request, that there is rarely an in­disposition which seems not in the Peoples opi­nion to indicate a necessity of emptying the Store-house of the Vital Spirits, by the drawing forth of Blood.

This frequent Custom were the less to be condemn'd, did not the Patient so rashly trust the performance hereof to the management of a Barber, who is generally unknowing in the many times prejudicial consequences attending this Operation.

It will be impossible (saith the famous Dr. Willis) to prescribe general Rules according to the particular cases of every individual person, whereby the quantity in letting of Blood may be [Page 57] exactly proportion'd according to the Disease or the strength of the Patient; but let this be left to the Judgment of the prudent Physician, let his Com­mands be ever exactly observ'd; and let not, as it every where is, such leave be given to Quacks, Em­piricks, and Barbers, to play with Humane Life, who every where rashly and wickedly use Phlebo­tomy; and if the Blood spring more freely, and appear discolour'd, therefore bragging of the Vessel's being well pierced, they say it must be let out more plentifully, because it appears bad, when oftentimes on the contrary it ought to be spar'd.

I would not be thought so much affected with the Chymist's Principles, as absolutely to condemn Phlebotomy, for such a Remedy as will prove at all times of worse consequence than the Disease; neither can I cordially promote the too frequently unnecessary administration thereof; and therefore, as I am well satisfied that it is beyond dispute preservative in many affects, after other Preparatives, as in an Apo­plexy, Lethargy, Carus, Megrim, Mania, on the occasion of Inflammations, as in the several species of an Angina or Quinsey, Peripneumony, Pleurisie, with other Feaverish Ebullitions of the Blood; so I would not advise such as are about to undergo its extraction to conside in the mean Judgment of a Barber; but rather let them take Counsel of the worthy and able Physician, and if he approve thereof, let them rely on the performance of an expert Chyrurgeon; for [Page 58] did not the ill success attending them in their puncturing of Tendons, and Arteries for Veins, with other almost as prejudicial, their intem­pestive and superfluous Venaesections: Did not this, I say, give us a demonstration of their Ig­norance, yet notwithstanding there may be those among them, who know indifferently to penetrate those azure meandrous Channels of the Microcosm, yet are they little knowing the damage or disadvantages ensuing thereon. This was the ill fortune of a young Gentlewoman at St. J—, who being already enclining to a Chachexy, at the instant of labouring under a periodical Evacuation of the Menses, was seized (as is usual to some at those times) with a great Pain in her Head, Back, and Hypochondria. Her impatience till the Uterine Ferment should have secreted those monthly Superfluities, put her upon asking Advice of a Physician, who order▪d forthwith, that she should be blooded in the Foot; and for this purpose there was sent for a noted Barber near at hand, who not daring to venture on the Saphena, or any of its Branches, notwithstanding she had inform'd him on what account it was so order'd: He confidently told her, it would be equally beneficial if she were blooded in the Arm; and thereupon overper­swading the unhappy Maiden, he drew from her to the quantity of 12 ounces of Blood, but with so mischievous a consequence, that here­upon there follow'd a total suppression of the Flux, and the noxious Particles which were [Page 59] them critically to have been discharg'd by the Womb, regurgitating into the mass of Blood, brought on several hysterick Paroxysms, with Syn­cope's and continued faintings; from which (be­ing almost wearied of her Life) she was in three weeks time rescued by the Prescriptions of the Physician she had before consulted.

Thus you see the Practice of such a one, who right or wrong, rather than hazard the loss of his Fee, will perpetrate the greatest Wickedness, and seldom fail of bringing those who are con­cern'd with him into jeopardy of their Lives.

I remember, some years since, I breathed a Vein for a poor Woman just then come from a Barber in S—, who had been attempting it in the following manner.

The Woman was very corpulent, her Limbs of the largest size, and withal so very fat, that her Veins were neither visible, nor indeed (by what I perceiv'd) at all perceptible to the Touch in her right Arm, where he had been trying; and telling her it was never customary to bleed in the left, he was the more eager to make a tryal of his Skill; whereupon once more laying his Fingers on her Arm, and finding no other part that was so tense, and perhaps to his apprehension turgid, as the Tendon of the Bi­ceps, after some little pause, gave his opinion, That this was certainly the Vein, but it lay so very deep, as made him fearful he should not pierce it. The Woman being herewith dissatis­fied, was about to leave him; and he, unwilling [Page 60] that another should go away with the Prize, overperswades her, with some difficulty, to ad­mit a tryal of his Abilities: Upon this he bold­ly plunges in his Weapon, and had not a mira­culous Providence interven'd, had undoubtedly made such a breach in the Tendon of the said Muscle, as had been most certainly past his Skill (not improbably that of any other) to have re­pair'd, without hazarding the loss of her Limb, if not her Life.

Surely the most ignorant person could not have been guilty of greater Simplicity, with re­spect to the Office of a Chyrurgeon, than this arrogant Intruder on the foresaid Duty, who with the rest of his Brethren Quacks, Empiricks, &c. ought no farther to be trusted with a Lan­cet, than a Lunatick with any Weapon where­by he may either mischief himself or others.

I do imagine, that this Woman's fortunate deliverance was effected by her own fearfulness, she (not unlikely) withdrawing, or some how altering the position of her Arm, in the time of his incision, whereby the foresaid Tendon slip­ping from him, most happily missed the Point of his Piercer.

Indeed, such-like commissions, or the suffe­rance of so odious and abominable actions, must not altogether be imputed to the free choice or delight of the People, who are daily injur'd thereby, because not knowing the dan­ger of a wounded Tendon, neither what a Tendon is, or the difference between an Artery [Page 61] and a Vein, they are easily induc'd to make use of the next Barber they come to, and are con­tent so long as he can any ways fetch the Blood out of their Bodies, that he also ease them of the weight of their Purses. But I think we have just reason severely to reprehend and cen­sure the Presumption of such men as are so wonderful ambitious to be reputed for Chyrur­geons, when they neither are so, nor ought to practise in that worthy Art; and who, not­withstanding they know themselves to be Intru­ders, that the best of them is incapacitated to perform the part of an Artist, will nevertheless dare to intermeddle for the hope of Gain, making their Shops so many Slaughter-houses, and detestably exposing Humane Blood on their Windows and Benches, to invite the unwary Passenger to partake of their bloody Ban­quets.

It is not often known, that the loss of Blood is not advis'd in almost every Distemper of the Body by these Men, out of the sordid desire of Gain per fas nefasque.

This truly, with his undertaking to make an Issue, are the chief and main points of Surgery that this pretending Barber could ever arrive at; not but that there are some of them too forward to encounter with more difficult cases.

Having however shewn you his dexterity in Venaesection, or opening a Vein, I will here take the opportunity of diverting you with a short view of his Performance in cutting of an Issue, [Page 62] which is likewise a Practice so frequently now­adays in use, that rarely Man, Woman, or Child, nay, Infants themselves, but what (as the 'fore mention'd Doctor saith) must have their Skins prick'd full of Islet-holes: and did not the advantageous event attending this Ope­ration sufficiently countenance the continuance thereof, we might have grounds to censure what is amongst all at present in so great re­quest.

I would be understood, that a Fontanel or Issue made upon good advice, by the hand of a know­ing Artist, is a very preservative, and oftentimes curative, Remedy in a multitude of Infirmities that are wont to infest us; otherwise I have and do daily find, that they are most commonly painful, perverse, and attended with many In­conveniencies as well as Prejudice to the Health. Such generally are those which are attempted by a Barber, who not knowing how or in what part they are most commodiously instituted, thinks it sufficient that he can make a Solution of Continuity, or a hole in the Skin which will hold a Pea, not heeding the appropinquating Result, which is very commonly the sending for a Surgeon, to afford the Patient a little ease in the extremity of his pain, arising from the inartificial making this little Ulcer upon the body of some Muscular part, where it would have been continued with the most intolerable vexation, and no small danger to the welfare of the Limb.

Thus I have known some Pounds deservedly bestow'd on an eminent Chyrurgeon, for his trouble in resisting the severe Accidents of an Issue, which hath been a product of the Proceedings of this bold Undertaker.

Both Reason and Experience dictate, that if an Issue be not made as near as it is possible in the Interstice of the Muscles, or the space between two fleshy parts, it is generally kept open with so great trouble and perplexity to the Patient, that the inconsiderable benefit of its discharge is in no measure equivalent to the great Mischief and Misery that accrews there­from.

Now the People, as I hinted before, not knowing this distinction between Art and its Opposite, or the legal Chyrurgeon and the Person we are speaking of, are as ready to comply with the one as 'tother, to be blood­ed, or to have an Issue made, not minding the sometimes-fatal Prejudice by the hazard of the former, and as little imagining that there is any peculiar distinct part of the Body, whereof these men are ignorant as themselves, and wherein only the Operation is to be perform'd.

The ridiculous Practice of this nature, which I have seen such as have assum'd the Title of Chyrurgeons guilty of, would make one really stand amaz'd at their profound Ignorance, and admire by what means they keep up their Re­pute and Credit with such as are more stupid than themselves, and will not take warning by [Page 64] the Fate of others, till a Self-tryal, conjoyn'd with a too late Experience and Repentance, make them sensible of their Error.

It is truly a difficult matter to find one Issue in One and twenty in a convenient or proper place, or that can be long continued without manifest detriment to the Safety of such a per­son as hath employ'd therein a Barber, or a Pet­ticoat Practitioner. Some I have seen come from them with an Issue made on the body of the Bicep's Muscle in the Arm; others on the Bra­chialis Externus; some on the outside of the Deltoides; and one that I was advis'd about, with the most intolerable pain threatning a Gangreen, made not a Finger's breadth from the Tendon of the Biceps, in the bent of the Cu­bit. In the Thigh I have found them directly on the musculous part of the Vastus Internus, others on the same in the Rectus. In the Leg they have been made on the middle of the Gastroecnemius, where every extension thereof, besides other Accidents, was subject to throw out the Pea.

There is, I am certain, no occasion to en­large farther hereon, since the Truth is so ob­vious to every judicious person, that I dare as­sure my self there are not many of the same Profession, who have not made such-like Re­marks in the Variety of their Chyrurgick Oc­currences; so that in these two Particulars, and indeed in the general practice of Chyrur­gery, [Page 65] we have abundant cause to account this Person an unallowable Undertaker, considering that some of the most noted amongst them have all-along, and do still discover to us as much ig­norance as is taken notice of in any other the most insufferable Intruder.

What gross and most ridiculous Actions do we find committed in the Examples of such bold Encroachers on our Art, which are deliver'd to us by a multitude of worthy Au­thors, particularly in the Observations of Mr. Wiseman, who hath in several places given us very necessary hints of the extream injury the People receive from the toleration of Bar­bers in the Practice of Chyrurgery.

I shall here transcribe one more remarkable than some others, from his Observations upon Wounds of the Head, where he tells us, that

A young fellow, who was Servant to a Horse-courser, was thrown off his Horse against some of the Barrs in Smithfield, whereby the Calvaria or hairy Scalp was torn up from the Coronal Suture to the Temporal Muscle on the left side; the Skull was bared about two or three inches in breadth: He was led to the next Barber, who cut the piece off, and hanged it up in his Shop. The day after the Patient was brought to me; I caus'd the Hair to be shav'd off from about the Wound, and dress'd the Bone and Lips with Linimentum Arcei warm, and embrocated the parts about cum Ol. Rosarum and Chamomeli, and apply'd Emplastrum Ebolo [Page 66] over the Wound, with Compres and Bandage rowling up his Head. He had been let Blood the the day before, without consideration of the great quantity he had lost from his Wound: I continued the former way of dressing, &c. Thus (saith he) it was cured as Wounds with loss of substance, a troublesome and vexatious work to the Patient and Chyrurgeon, which might at first have been cured by Agglutination, with a less Cicatrix, and thereby he might have enjoy'd the natural tegument of his Hair, whereas that part remained bald and unseemly.

Were it absolutely requisite for a fuller satis­faction, I could from my own Remarks on these mens Practice, acquaint you with divers cases tending to evince the weakness of their Judgments. 'Tis but a very little while from the writing hereof, that one of them happen­ing to puncture a Tendon in the Foot of a Maid-servant, would have solv'd the business by upbraiding the Artist, who was afterwards em­ploy'd, for that he, by his improper applicati­ons, had hasten'd those dangerous and important Symptoms.

I remember Mr. Young of Plimouth gives us an account of a business of the like nature, though more troublesome, occasion'd from such a per­son's puncturing of the Bicep's Tendon in the Arm of a Woman, an Inhabitant thereabouts. This fellow (having no better Subterfuge) went about to justifie his Proceeding, strenuously affirming and assuring the Patient, that these Accidents [Page 67] were no other than usual Symptoms frequently attending a disorder'd Body, abounding with evil Humours.

If the Reader think it worth his while to pe­ruse the said Author's Treatise of Ol. Terebinth. he may be farther inform'd with how great trouble, the pertinacious Symptoms of this Pun­cture were overcome, and at length an indiffe­rent use of the Arm restor'd.

Surely if these Events were no more than usual Consequences of Venaesection, (as the Pre­tender intimates) I am apt to think we should not find such great numbers of People thus willing to be blooded on every slight occa­sion.

I may truly say, it is the much to be lamen­ted sufferance or toleration of such Knaveries hath been one great cause that we meet with so many obstinate and oftentimes incurable Di­stempers. Indeed, the first Surgeon sought for amongst the meaner sort of People, when an Accident befals them, is commonly no other than a Barber, who when he hath shown his Skill by the most contrary administrations, and marr'd instead of mended the business, they are then at liberty to refer themselves to the true practical Chyrurgeon, whose demands of a rea­sonable Gratuity for his officious care and dili­gence in performing the Cure, is not seldom requited with the opprobrious Language of Un­conscionable; because, forsooth, that such a Bar­ber (who to gain Experience at the cost of their [Page 68] Lives, will run a mile or two to purchase Por­ter's Hire) would have dress'd them so long for little or nothing.

What great pity is it, that the Sons of Art should be vilified and disesteem'd for their not complying with the base and sordid Principles of such men, who have already so far disgrac'd and undervalued this most noble Art, that in time it may (not unlikely) be forced to stand in competition with the meanest and most con­temptible mechanick Occupation.

Were not the Art it self as far above the reach of his Capacity, as it is from being a legal appertenance to his Calling, we could expect no other, but that it would be held the meanest and most despicable of all o­thers, not only for the multitude of such Pre­tenders thereunto, but also for that the succesless Events of their Chyrurgick Undertakings, are by too many, undeservedly imputed to some Knavery in the Art it self; they hence infer­ring, that the Profession, at best, is no more than Pretence or Contrivance to delude the People, and deceive them of their Mony: And indeed, how can we expect less, than that the best of Arts should partake of such a distres­sed Fate, when so great a liberty is allow'd the most Ignominious to practise without mo­lestation.

When we consider the great and most per­plexing difficulties that we are oftentimes obli­ged to encounter, the many intricate and ha­zardous [Page 69] Undertakings that we meet with, where the Lives of our fellow-Christians lye at stake; did we seriously and impartially reflect on this, we should imagine it to be no such easie Task for the most diligent in our Art to attain Perfection; much less might we expect an Artificial Performance from any Ignorant Professor. Did we farther consider all Circum­stances attending some People's Complaints against us, I as little question but we should find Chyrurgeons are not the men some ignorant and malicious Spirits have endeavour'd to re­present them. How rash a Censure is that of their being unconcionable (one of the great Ob­jections) because they endeavour to set a small value on that most noble Art, which can never be too highly esteem'd.

Is it not Ingratitude, that the worthy Artist should be requited with Revilings for his care in the performance of a Cure, the reasonably demanded Recompence for which is thought a Crime, because it hath already cost the Pa­tient so much Mony under the hands of several false Practitioners? If such a ta [...]t'ling Doctress hath filch'd so much, such a Practising Barber as much more, and such a pretending Bonesetter as much as both, yet still the Patient is left in a condition much worse than before; is it not unjust, that the Chyrurgeon, who is last con­sulted, when he hath diligently recover'd and restor'd them to their Health, should be so mean­ly look'd on, or so evilly rewarded?

I remember where a late Upstart Pretender was entertain'd by a Gentlewoman, in order to treat a Scrophulous Tumor on her Son's Knee, when for Two Years attendance he demanded but Forty shillings, he was thereupon thought a very honest and able Artist, till it was made apparent to the Patient's Friends, that they had better have given him as many Pounds never to have undertaken it.

When the good Gentlewoman perceiv'd no likelihood of her Son's recovery, she thought fit to dismiss the Undertaker, who, as a Mark of his Judgment, left behind him this Prognostick, That if they waited till Time or some casual application should put the Swelling on Aposte­mating, there would then be no question of a probability for cure.

In some months afterwards the Wish of their presaging Chyrurgeon was accomplish'd, but so fatally to the Patient, that soon after the dis­charge of an indigested wheyish matter, and sometimes a slimy viscous Pus, there ensued an inveterate Synovia, accompanied with a most foetid Stench, proceeding from the parts affected, and undoubtedly arguing a Cariosity; the Liga­ments were corrupt, and the Joynt so loose, that the Apophyses or Extremities of the Bones at length shew'd themselves in the Absces, as per­fectly separated as in a dislocation.

This Gentleman was truly the most miserable Spectacle under such-like Circumstances that I have seen, and so far from hopes or a possibility [Page 71] of cure, (without Amputation, which he would not admit) that when he had languish'd many months, he painfully resign'd his Breath.

I was the rather guilty of this prolixity, since the Example seems to afford us as pregnant a demonstration as we need desire, of the Abuses committed by unskilful People in their Chyrur­gick Administrations: for, first of all, when the Patient had got an Accident of a contus'd Wound, he was committed to the care of one who went by the name of a Barber-Surgeon, where when he had suffer'd considerably through Ignorance, to rectifie the Mistake, he referr'd himself to a most incomparable Doctress, who was Mistress of a famous Pultiss, to work Mira­cles: Under her hands the Tumor was render'd schirrous, and the Joynt immovable. When there was an unlikelihood of recovery perceiv'd here, being still misguided and flatter'd by fair Promises, he unhappily submitted himself to the management of another Pretender, and finally dy'd under the too late care of an eminent and approv'd Chyrurgeon, whose Advice, or that of any judicious Practitioner, if he had first been govern'd by, I think it is not to be imagin'd that so slight a Contusion, in the worst habit of Body, should ever have arriv'd to so incurable a Malady.

Whilst I was writing these Observations, I was diverted for some little time, being call'd up­on to let one Blood, who took occasion in Discourse to tell me, That he had never [Page 72] been blooded more than once before, and that was by reason of a Wound he had receiv'd into his Body, which, he said, had like to have cost him his Life; hereupon his Mother, being by, immediately slip'd back his Shirt, and shew'd it me: I ask'd him who had been his Surgeon; he reply'd, One Mr.—, a very able man in C—street: I told him, 'twas like the Workmanship of such an Intruder on our Art; Truly, answer'd the good Woman, we have great cause to respect him, since he sav'd my Son's Life; for he told us when we came to him first, that the Wound was but an Hairs breadth from his Heart; and that had it been a little larger, his Bowels would have fallen out: yet notwithstand­ing this imminent danger, her Son had been re­cover'd in about three weeks time.

Thus the Case had been represented, the most notoriously false that could be, and there­fore to solve the Doubts of the surmising Rea­der, I shall impart the Truth in all its Circum­stances, that we may see how easily the People are impos'd on, and take all for granted that is put upon them by deceitful Men.

The Wound was a Puncture, occasion'd by a Fall against an Iron Spike, superficially entring the Cutis and Carnous Membrane, and stopping, without hurt to the Sternon, a hand's breadth or more above the Ensiform Cartilage. This insignificant business, which would (not unlikely) have admitted of a Cure by the first intention, and perfectly healed in two or [Page 73] three days time by the application of Aggluti­natives, was tented so long, and afterwards ig­norantly dressed up with some slabby Sarcotick Unguent, till an Hypersarcosis thrust forth as large as a Small Nut, which the Operator not know­ing what to do with, or what it was, however thought it necessary to alter his Medicine, and by chance, most probably dressing it with some powerful Epulotick, at length produc'd a Cica­trix thereon, leaving the same deform'd, as if there had been a Ganglion or Wenny Sub­stance.

Could any man have plaid the Knave and Ignorant in a greater measure than this Pseudo-Chyrurgus? First, his keeping open a not pene­trating Puncture; secondly, his suffering a Fungus to thrust forth; and thirdly, his not cor­recting the same, but cicatrising on the Excre­scence, doth as evidently declare the weakness of his Judgment as his unbecoming Arrogance; the former, in so irrationally treating an incon­siderable Puncture; and the latter, for his ascri­bing so much of Art and Industry, where there was nothing more visible than the greatest want of Honesty and Discretion.

I cannot chuse but reflect moreover on the Patient's Weakness, who could so easily believe that a Protuberance on the Breast-bone, was occasion'd from some of his Bowels pressing for­wards to get out.

We have really (considering the over-cre­dulity of the People in Chyrurgick matters) great cause to bewail the neglect of the Civil Magistrate and all other Powers therein con­cern'd, who are so little careful to suppress Pre­tenders, and to take notice after what manner Men are qualified for the publick profession of the Art of Surgery. I am satisfied that the en­terprizing such a Task as this would be ex­treamly commodious, and the Reasons for such an Undertaking are, I think, as extraordinary weighty, if it were but on consideration of those evil and dangerous consequences continu­ally resulting from the toleration of illegal Pra­ctitioners; a fatal Instance whereof you may find from the subsequent account.

A Youth aged about Fifteen years, labouring of a malignant Feaver, when by a Metastasis or critical translation, the peccant matter was thrown forth of the bloody mass it produc'd an Erysipelas, spreading it self on the right Arm, from the Cubitus or Elbow to the top of the Os Humeri, upon which the Patient began his com­plaint of a violent and intense heat affecting his whole Arm; in order to the removal whereof, it was thought necessary by his Friends to send for a Barber-Surgeon of their acquaintance, who coming to take a view of the case, told the young man, that he had got a St. Anthony's Fire, but he would send him something that should kill it before the next morning. Whereupon, without making any manner of Revulsion, or [Page 75] otherways preparing of his Body, he imme­diately orders an expressed Juice (supposed to be that of House-leek) in which the Patient was to dip a folded Linnen Cloth, and bind the same upon his Arm. After some few repetitions of this Remedy, the heat was indeed abated, and the Inflammation (before highly red) gra­dually enclin'd towards a livid complexion. But now the Youth's Complaint was, of an ex­traordinary Stupor or Numbness possessing the whole Arm, as if somewhat had been strictly ty'd about the same. He was moreover hence disturb'd with a Subsultus Tendinum, or light Convulsive twitches, now and then infesting, and plainly arguing the danger which ensued; upon which the Barber was again consulted, who thinking it time to lay aside his first application, instead thereof, prescribes an Embrocation of Unguentum de Althaea, by the use whereof the Patient receiving nothing of advantage, but finding himself much worse, and wholly depriv'd the use of his Arm, for farther satisfaction, a more eminent Practitioner was call'd in, who found a confirm'd Ne­crosis, or Mortification, which had already seized the whole Arm, spreading it self for­wards over the Clavicle and Pectoral Muscle, and reaching backwards the whole compass of the Scapula. The sphacelated Member was however immediately taken off, but to little purpose, the mortification still encreasing and opposing the most powerful Endeavours, soon [Page 76] oblig'd the Patient to a surrender, and accept of a Quietus.

I hope this may Warn a practising Bar­ber, how he intermeddles in Chyrurge­ry (quite out of his Element) to the loss of his Credit and Reputation, and oftentimes to the irreparable danger of the Patient; as in the fore­going case.

We may, I think, imagine it one of the worst of Sins, thus shamefully to trifle with the con­cerns of Humane Life; and doubtless, accord­ing to the impartial method of Divine Justice, the Miscarriages of those poor Creatures, who have thus miserably suffer'd through wilful Ig­norance, calls aloud for vengeance on the Heads of such as have in the manner here de­scrib'd, been accessary thereto. What a burthen must there lye upon his Conscience, who by an unjust pretence of a Call to the Practice, will intermeddle in another's business (notwithstan­ding the knowledge of his inability to perform what is requir'd) till by such his unwarrantable actions he hath brought the Patient into the most miserable state imaginable?

I think I shall not need (though I am farther furnish'd) to make other Reflections, since those already mention'd may abundantly satisfie an inquisitive Person, with how little Reason the Barber boasts himself a Surgeon, and with how great detriment to the People his Chyrurgick Undertakings are countenanc'd without inter­ruption.


THAT the Chyrurgick Art hath been yet far­ther misrepresented, and its legal Professors by many People render'd ignominious, we are not a little oblig'd to the sordid and base Practi­ces of those men, who affect to be known by the peculiar name of Bonesetters; as if because they particularly apply themselves to that only part of Chyrurgery, they would be the more esteem'd, or for such their Pretences thought more famous and successful than other Men.

The Fame of an Experienc'd Bonesetter sounds so great in the Ears of a Vulgar Apprehension, that thinking the reduction of a fractur'd or broken Limb, or the reposition of a Bone dislo­cated, to its place, more properly his Employ­ment, they wholly neglect consulting with the more eminent Chyrurgeon herein, as believing it no appurtenance to his Profession.

Why the Legal Practitioner should be exclu­ded from this so considerable a part of his Duty, is somewhat strange, and much more so (in my opinion) that the particular Underta­kers hereof should be more than ordinarily confided in, or so wonderfully sought unto.

If we make a scrutinous enquiry into the Practice of these men, I am satisfied we shall find, that they have not been wanting by their unworthy proceedings to bring as great Con­tempt upon us as any of the rest: And this, in a great measure, hath been brought to pass by their detestable as well as impious Principles of constantly asserting for an undeniable Truth, That almost all Accidents that happen where they are requir'd to lend their assistance, are no less than Fractures, or undoubted Dislocati­ons.

If your Arm be so weaken'd, as that you have not the compleat and perfect motions, by a Contusion, overlifting or reaching, by which the Ligaments and Tendons of the Muscles may be extended beyond their natural tone; if you seek Redress herein of one who calls himself a Bonesetter, you are presently inform'd with the sorrowful tydings, That your Limb is out of Joynt. If by slipping of your Foot aside, or treading the same awry, you are disabled for the present to walk without some pain, you will (if you refer your self to him) be sure to find a broken Legg, or an Ancle out of its proper place.

It is no difficult matter for any confident Un­dertaker, to perswade Men (of a large capa­city in other respects) that when they come under the restraint of a Cubicular Confinement, by any outward Mischance, it is for no smaller matter than a broken or disjoynted Member; [Page 79] out of which seeming considerable Misfortune, when (by the most immethodical course taken) they have the good hap to be recover'd, the operating Bonesetter is then applauded for a Skil­ful Person, and certainly very Honest, because he try'd no Practice with them, neither kept them so long in hand as is usual with Chyrur­geons.

This is too commonly a Practice made use of by these Bonesetters, to deceive the Ignorant; and we have the less reason to admire that the Knavery is not detected, when we consider how little difficult it is for him who can thus stifle the Dictates of his Conscience, to delude the Unwary, and impose upon their Judg­ments.

I have oftentimes found, when call'd to such as by the occasion of a Blow or Fall have been incapacitated for the wonted motion of their Limbs, they have been ready enough to imagine them either fractur'd or out of Joynt. Nay, I have farther met with some of so peevishly in­discreet a Temper, that when they had litt on a Disaster proving troublesome, beyond their own imagination of the Cause, would tax the Artist of want of Judgment, if unwilling to treat them (though meerly fictitious) as really broken or dislocated Members.

This was the case of a Victualler not far from B—street, who by a fall down Stairs had receiv'd a Contusion on his Ribs, forwards to the Breast-bone, for which he was let Blood, [Page 80] and rationally treated by an expert Practitio­ner, with hopes of speedy recovery. The night ensuing, from the abortive tattle of some igno­rant Old Woman, he was importun'd, and at length prevail'd on to send again for his Chy­rurgeon; who hastening, found him lament­ing his Misfortune, being redoubled from his Wive's Complaint, and pitifully condoling his case, in being neglected, for so much as he was now fully assur'd, that his Ribbs were bro­ken.

Hereupon, for his farther satisfaction, he was again strictly research'd, and his indisposition more diligently enquir'd into; although no­thing could give conjecture or suspicion of a Fracture: yet however, the discontented Pa­tient would by no means rest satisfied till the Surgeon (contrary to his own honest intenti­ons) had favour'd him in his opinion, that there might be a broken Rib, and by Compress and Bandage drest him up again: for his farther Security Venaesection was repeated, and a Trau­matick decoction, with a Pectoral Linctus were prescrib'd; but from the second day that he was bound up, he grew well of his Conceipt, and soon after went about his Affairs.

By this we may be acquainted where a Man is minded to act a Knavish Part, how cour­teously his Abuses are entertain'd by ignorant People; and indeed, if such a Practice as this be at all tolerable, it must be allow'd in such a case, where the Patient proves obstinate to the [Page 81] Advice of his Chyrurgeon, being resolv'd to pay for his own Folly, in augmenting the value of an inconsiderable Cure.

Indeed, it is abundant pity that a free and entire submission or condescention in the Pa­tient to his Chyrurgeon's Honesty, should be so evilly requited as it is by too many of these only Titular Bonesetters, who are certain­ly some of the vilest, for their treacherous Practi­ses on the People, of all other the spurious Pre­tenders to this worthy Art.

It's not unlikely to be objected, That I am too severe in my Censure of these men, who without question, in the diversity of Casualties happening in their way, must certainly at some times meet with real Fractures and Dislocations, and if then they were deficient in Judgment to manage one as well as the other, doubtless they would be decry'd for the most notorious Cheats, and wholly unable to keep up their Repute.

To this I reply, That as I doubt not but there are many Mischances of this nature, which in reality sometimes present with other Business to their Care, so I shall require no other (neither desire any better) Proof of their Indiscretion or want of Knowledge ar­tificially to administer Relief; than to supervise their Proceedings with any Patient under such an Affliction.

Were I to give my Opinion, I must ac­knowledge, that I look upon that person's case to be very dangerous, if not desperate, who in order to his Cure hath apply'd himself to such an one as we are at present discoursing of; and my Reasons that he hath been still enabled in some measure to preserve his Credit with the World, are these: first of all, his slight and careless looking after a simple Strain or Contusion, after a pull and hawl or two, af­firming, That it was a Fracture or Dislocation, and is now set to rights. The speedy Success, I say, attending such-like Operations, is one great cause that he hath been so wonderfully esteem'd by the beguiled, who can well enough wink at some few Failings now and then in­tervening. Furthermore, his Disappointments of this nature, if they are not more numerous than his successful Enterprizes, are look'd on by the Deluded to proceed from Causes extra­ordinary: or, where the case hath been so full of danger (though no more than a simple Fracture) that the Patient, in all likelihood, must have miscarried under any other the most able hand.

That the matter in debate will bear a Re­flection of this nature, I shall now endeavour to demonstrate; and I think we may prove from Experience, that upon the reduction of a Bone, which hath been displac'd through a considera­ble force, whereby a defluxion is excited, and the part (till such Accidents which ensue, re­mov'd) [Page 83] render'd unapt for motion. I say, that notwithstanding the said Bone hath been safely reduc'd, it is a very unlikely thing that the late suffering Member should so suddenly recover its wonted strength, or that it ought to be per­mitted so speedily to exercise its usual functions. I am very well assur'd, that if the business were positively so, as it is too often represented, notwithstanding the Patient's Endeavour to exert the utmost of his Strength, he would find to his sorrow, an inability, and that he was, for very great cause, debar'd the privilege of so hasty a Recovery.

I know it is a usual thing with many of these men, when they have perswaded the Pa­tient that his Limb was luxated, but is now cer­tainly, by their diligence and care, replac'd, to permit him presently to go about his business, without binding, keeping up, or any ways to favour the Limb so lately out of Joint; neither is he to regard the wearing of more than one Cerecloth (as they call it) and the use of a Five-shilling Pot of their infallible Oyntment, to finish the work.

There are many persons have thought much to be rationally treated and kept under a neces­sary confinement for such-like Accidents, be­cause they have receiv'd information from their Neighbours, that far greater matters have been made light of under the care of a skilful Bone­setter.

When I was visiting a poor man in S—, for whom I had reduc'd a fractur'd Clavicle, it was thought a very dishonest Principle in me, because I forewarn'd him of using his lame Arm, or putting it on its wonted actions in al­most three weeks time. I was much censur'd by his Sister, who stood by, and took upon her, from her own knowledge, to assure me, that Bonesetters were not so strict, yet much more successful: To confirm this, she told me a Story (I think it may be so thought) of her Husband, who had been some time before cured by Mr. T—in a very little time; but what was most admirable, this man, on the same Limb, had his Coller-bone broken in three places, his Shoulder put out of Joynt, the two Bones below the Cubit, viz. the Radius and Ulna, were also fractur'd, and several of his Fin­gers wounderfully bruised by a violent force; yet notwithstanding all this, by the application of a sovereign Pultiss, her Husband was com­pleatly well in little more than a fortnights time, although he could then, with much ease, raise an hundred weight a great height from the Ground with his broken Arm.

Where is there such an execrable piece of Impudence to be parallel'd, that dare thus im­piously contemn the divine Mandates, and prophane even the Authority of Heaven it self?

It is the injurious Practice of these knavish Undertakers makes many Persons so unwilling to submit to a just and reasonable government of themselves under such-like Calamities; and it has been, I am certain, the ruine of some Thousands, who have been so impos'd on, still running from one to another, without redress of their Grievances, till at length (having un­dergone the greatest Misery) they have ren­der'd themselves unpitied, and their Infirmities irrecoverable.

I question not but you have heard the Fame of some Country Plow-jobbers, who are so dex­trous at the knack of Bone-setting, that where a poor man hath been brought to them ten or twenty miles, with his Knee or Ancle out of place, it hath been presently set for Two shil­lings or Half a crown, when dressing him up with a famous Plaister of Paracelsus or Barbadoes-Tarr, he is presently order'd to put forth his strength, and (if he can) to walk home, whereby, he is told, he may disperse and scat­ter those naughty Humours which would fall thereon.

'Tis such a like Rumor as this, that hath de­ceiv'd many, and some of them of good re­pute, who being blinded in their Judgments, have forsaken the most eminent Professors here in Town, and convey'd themselves twenty or thirty miles, to some noted Bonesetter, where when their Self-experience prompts them to a Repentance of their Folly in suffering them­selves [Page 86] to be deluded, they have return'd in a much worse condition than they went: and I think it is the less severe, that incredulous men learn by their own Misfortunes to beware for the time to come. It is an ancient Saying, Exemplo alterius, &c.—but truly, for the most part, another's Miseries will not caution us, that we fall not on the same, who are seldom so throughly satisfied, unless we taste of them our selves.

Is it not a very great Argument of a frail Ca­pacity, for us to think, that a Limb, by a very considerable force displac'd, and oftentimes as great a one us'd to restore it, whereby an un­avoidable fluxion is stirr'd up, which produceth Pain, Tumor, and sometimes Inflammation, attended with an Ecchymosis, or Sugillation of the Blood, oftentimes stagnating in the capilla­ry Vessels and Interstices of the Muscles, if no­thing worse occur? How unlikely, I say, is it that such a suffering Member as this should (till such Accidents are overcome) be safely per­mitted the liberty of its accustomed Use?

I would not be thought hereby to lay down such a Rule as should admit of no exception, for that I know where a light and trivial Acci­dent hath concur'd to the production of a Dislocation, in a Member predispos'd thereto, by a relaxation of the Ligaments or otherways, the danger is not so great, and the Patient (if minded to hazard a Reluxation) sooner capaci­tated for its use, upon a restitution: but where [Page 87] the case happens otherwise, I am well satisfied, that the reposition of such a Dislocation, and removing its sometimes severe Attendants, is a work of much greater moment and concern, than we are tempted by the Stories of unlearned men to imagine.

Hence we would infer this kind of Boneset­ter to be a deceitful person, as abusive as dan­gerous, and a very mischievous Intruder on the Profession of our Art.

That he is such as represented in this present Section, will want no other Proof than his con­stant Endeavours to possess People with a Be­lief of his Abilities for the Practice; and when they get the least mischance (whereby for the present they are in some measure disabled) his pretending by a feigned extension, and other juggling contrivances, to reduce what before he (falsly) affirm'd to be a Dislocation.

Thus I have heard of one of them, who when he came to a Patient, and had busied himself some time in an Extension of the Limb, at length cunningly turning off his Head near the part supposed for reduction, would make such an artificial noise by the grating of his Teeth, that the by-standers, and the Patient himself, were forward enough almost to swear they heard the disjoynted Bone (which was never out) knap into its place.

Let us take but a Survey of those Accidents which prove Luxations, and have been mana­ged by the most famous Bonesetter, I am cer­tain we shall find him more ignorant and dan­gerously robustick, more irrational, immetho­dical, unsafe, and far more tedious than a Chyrurgeon's Servant of but two years expe­rience.

How many stiff and curved Members, what numbers of useless emaciated Legs and Arms proceeding from Dislocations, which have been affirmed (but were never) set, may we find at this day in London, being Fruits of the Under­takings of some presumptuous Bonesetter. And shall we still be so misguided in our Opinion, as to slight the Labours of the faithful Artist, whilst we confide in the Promise of one whom we ac­count more worthy, only because he takes upon him no other business than the reducing of bro­ken or disjoynted Members.

Having thus far hinted to you his Dealings, with reference to what he calls a Dislocation, I shall trouble you with a short account of his Be­haviour where he meets with a Fractur'd Limb, at least where he takes upon him, right or wrong, so to affirm it; and these two, viz. a division or disjunction in the continuity of a Bone, call'd a Fracture, and a distortion of the Head thereof from its Acetabulum, nam'd com­monly a Bone out of joynt, are the principal or sole parts of his Employment.

His treating the former of these, is but little different, or varies not much from the me­thod which he takes in looking after the other. 'Tis true, for the most part he reap more Profit and Repute from the one, inasmuch as a broken Limb is generally look'd on of greater moment, and the cure thereof more valuable than that of a Dislocation: so that where a Contusion on the Muscles, or a sudden wrench of their Ten­dons, passes under the denomination of a Fra­cture, and the Patient in a short time (as well he may) recover, you must conceive his Skill is then more highly extoll'd, and his Pay ad­vanc'd.

But after all, if to discover the real Truth, we may be so inquisitive as to trace him where he hath been concern'd indeed, either with a broken or displac'd Member, and make our ob­servations on the course of his Proceedings, we shall find him, I doubt not, so far short of the Knowledge requir'd in that difficult part of our Art, that it will be the least of Crimes to ac­count him unworthy of his assumed Title, in comparison with the more able and expe­rienc'd Chyrurgeon.

His Anatomical Judgment, that absolutely necessary Basis for this administration, is so very inconsiderable, that I have known some of them justly reprehended for their ridiculous Talk, by an indifferently well read Mechanick.

Comparing Man with other Animals, he presently concludes, that he also hath Bones in his Body; and therefore when the People get any hurt, there must forsooth presently happen a Fracture or Dislocation in one or other of them, which is nearest to the part complain'd on by the Patient: But if you raise an Argument (although no Critick) you find him no man for Discourse, unless you can bear the Burden of his Nonsence.

Ask him how differently Bones are conjoyn­ed, which of them by Articulation, and which by Symphisis; the distinction between Diarthro­sis and Synarthrosis; the several ways of their connexion under these two Heads; ask him which he calls Enarthrosis, Arthrodia, and what Ginglymus; enquire by how many several man­ners Bones are joyn'd by Symphisis; what he means by Sutura, Harmonia, Gomphosis; or what he under­stands by Synchondrosis, Synneurosis, Syssarcosis, or Syntenosis; I say, query but these things of this wonderful Operator, and (notwithstanding we must own them to be requisite appurtenances to the Study of the Art, in which no one can be unskill'd, if compleat in the Practice of Bone-setting) you shall gain as satisfactory Answers, as if to an Infant you were discoursing in some unknown Language.

How can it be suppos'd now that any one who is ignorant or unknowing after what man­ner, and by what means the several Bones of [Page 91] Humane Bodies are conjoyn'd, should be in a capacity the easiest way, the safest and most commodious, or indeed by any way to repose them, when by a Misfortune they are slipt from their proper places; is it not farther more improbable, that such a person as perfectly knows not where the breach is made, whether any or not; if any, whether transverse, ob­lique, &c. or how to resist the Accidents which will ensue, and afterwards kindly to assist Na­ture in the generation of a Callus, or, in short, what a Callus means; is it not, I say, a Presum­ption to imagine, that a desir'd Success should attend such an abuseful Intruder's Underta­kings?

We find it, I am sure, a very rare Case, to see either Leg, or Arm which have been fra­ctur'd, and the reduction thereof attempted by a pretending Bonesetter, (if they have escap'd the tyranny of a Gangreen or Sphacelus, occasio­ned frequently from their immoderate bandage intercepting the Spirits, and retarding the cir­culation) without some or other indubitable mark of their Ignorance and Indiscretion, as a crooked Member from a common and simple Fracture, an ill-favour'd if not painful Protube­rance, which might often have been prevented by Art, but will now, to their no small preju­dice, shew they had a broken Limb all their life after.

This was the ill hap of a poor man, at that time of L—W—, who in the morning having fractur'd both Foeils of his Leg, was carried to a famous Bonesetter at the other end of the Town, who ignorantly girt him up with half a dozen pieces of a Hoopstick laid over a single Cloth, which had been spread with a sort of Paste, next to the bare Leg, and fasten'd with many circumvolutions of a nar­row Filleting; afterwards ordering the poor wretch to be carried home a mile and half, where he was as negligently laid into his Bed, without Pillow, Junks, Cradle, or other desence from the incumbent Bed cloaths.

Having lain thus whilst the Evening, in ex­tremity of Pain, his Friends out of pity re­quested a speedy Visit from a neighbouring Chyrurgeon, who, with my self, coming to him, we found the Patient roaring after an hi­deous manner, and taking a view of the fractur'd Limb, could plainly perceive, above and below the Bandage, it was already vesicated, and tend­ing to mortifie from the Foot upwards.

Having cut away, and otherways with much difficulty separated the Cloaths, which had been daub'd over with some very Emplastick Com­position, we found the Splints, by a strict com­pression, had even buried themselves in the Flesh, and with abundance of pain and trouble could not be drawn away without excoriating the parts they lay upon.

When we had thus clear'd our way, (not having an Elixivium in readiness) we or­der'd some common Spirit of Wine to be set over the Fire, whilst we snipp'd off the Vesications, impleet with a livid Serum, and laid down the Leg upon a soft and easie Pillow, where it was fomented with a sufficient number of warm Stuphes, and at length with a suitable Rowler drest him up leaving the Limb in as easie a position as we could contrive. We contented our selves for this time with what had been done, not so much regarding the Fra­cture, till the more important danger of a mor­tification was taken off, which was in a few days afterwards, with all its threatning Sym­ptoms remov'd, when taking a greater liberty in searching for the broken Bones, we perceiv'd a part of the Tibia almost ready to protrude it self, lying prominent a little above the Maleo­lus Internus. But finding that every little motion was extreamly painful, from the uneven super­fice of the fractur'd Bones molesting and irrita­ting the Nervous Fibres; and being terribly perplex'd with the thoughts of a Re reduction, he declar'd positively his dissent therefrom, begging for God's sake that we would desist from troubling him, but lay down his Leg without Plaister or Bandage, where it lay easie to him; for since the danger of its being mor­tified was over, he was certain in himself that the former Undertaker had placed the Bones [Page 94] right, and that in a little time they would grow together.

Hereupon (finding him so very wise) we left him to his own management, having first given him to understand what he must trust to, if he persisted to believe that his Bone was set: Thus we parted. Whether or no the Boneset­ter was afterwards sent for, to be inform'd of his Work, I know not, but have lately seen the Patient a meer emaciated Cripple, scarce­ly able to walk by the help of Crutches.

I could give you an account of many more Examples of this Nature, where the Practice hath been of near affinity with this so lately mention'd, and the practising Pretender some famous Bonesetter.

Indeed, a man shall rarely at this time peaceably and quietly discharge his Office without interruption; either we must be ac­counted unknowing in our Applications, be­cause the Patient finds not presently his wonted Ease; or negligent, because we will not, neither can with safety open their Limbs every day or two; or, last of all, dishonest, intending to make a Prize of them, by keeping them so long in hand. All this befals us from their consideration that so many People so speedily recover under the care of Bonesetters: where­as I have told you, every simple Contusion be­ing by these men represented as a Fracture or Dislocation, the Patient may as safely be per­mitted [Page 95] to follow his business at a week or ten days end, as we can suffer one, who hath in reality receiv'd such a Mischance, in a month or six weeks time: and I think all such may be thankful to GOD and their Surgeon, that they escape so, especially if they consider how far worse it happens to some under such-like circumstances, when taken in hand by these un­just Practitioners in our Art, as in the preceding History.

Amidst the multitude of such as have most unworthily assum'd the Character of Boneset­ting, it were almost an inexcusable omission, should we forget to number the deceased T—, but since it would be a petty kind of Impiety to trample on the Ashes of the Dead, I shall forbear all Reflections of my own, yet cannot pass by a remarkable Case given us by a late Author, where this person had been con­cern'd.

A Youth (saith he) of about Twelve years of age was seiz'd with a Pain in his right Hip, it encreasing with Tumefaction and great Lame­ness; the Parents suspecting it might be out of joynt, sent for T—the Bonesetter, he declar'd it luxated, and pretended to set it, and dressed it up his way: The Child continuing lame, they sent for him again; he assur'd them that he had set it, and that in time the Child would recover strength in it, and be well: But the Child growing daily [Page 96] more pained, Chyrurgeons were consulted, and at last my self; I saw the head of the Os Foemoris shot upwards, and a large Tumor possessing the Hip and parts about, under which there seem'd to be lodg'd Matter; there was also a long white Swelling stretching down the forepart of the Thigh, from the Groyn towards the Knee, within four Fingers breadth of it: the Tumor seem'd to be full of Matter, and to derive it self from the Hip, and that the Luxation had been made by Fluxion, and encreas'd by Extension. But however it was, the Bone was not capable of reduction, nor could I promise my self any Credit by my Endeavours there; yet I comply'd with his Parents, resolving to serve them as well as I could, but desir'd that the Bonesetter might be first fetch'd to see his Work, I not thinking it safe to meddle in the Cure whilst he insisted, that the Bone was reduced: They sent often for him, but he did not come, till I acci­dentally met him at a Person of Honour's Lodgings, and by Threatnings brought him with me to the Child, where he acknowledg'd his Fault, and de­clar'd the Bone incapable of reduction; yet this fel­low went directly back to that Person of Honour, and upon demand where he had been, declar'd, That he had been with me to set my Patient's Hip, and that he had reduced it. This fellow's scurvy using me almost discourag'd me in the Undertaking, but after making a Presentation of it, I attempted the Cure, &c.

By this account you may perceive the base shifts and evasions these men are put upon of­tentimes to raise their Credit.

I have seen great numbers of People, where I have been conversant, in reducing of Fra­ctures and Dislocations, who when an oppor­tunity hath presented, would very commonly affirm, That after a fortnights time, when their Limbs as (they were told) were broken, and had been set together by the said T—, they were as fit for the most weighty and stirring business as before in their whole life-time: A matter as unlikely as impossible; for if we con­sider that the division of these solid parts is not conjoyn'd by Agglutination, or immediate uni­tion, as in Wounds upon a fleshy part, but by interposition of the nutritious Particles, falling off from the little mouths of the ruptur'd Ves­sels, and other the Pores in the divided medul­lary parts of the Bone it self, which at the space of so short a time will be no more con­firm'd than, like a Jelly or soft Wax, receiving any accidental impression, and for want of care, by a disorderly or irregular position, is the occa­sion of many crooked and deformed Members. This weighty Consideration doth infallibly and experimentally indicate, that where so early a liberty is given to move their Limbs, and no prejudice ensues from such a liberty, there was no Fracture or Solution of Continuity in the Bone.

I have strictly examin'd and searched some few, who have been deluded by these Pretences, but could never find (nor was it likely that I should) any bearing out of a fractur'd Bone, or other perceptible demonstra­tion of a Callus, which must of necessity inter­vene, and is the most certain and permanent indication thereof.

I hope, by what has been said, there are suf­ficient Arguments given of the Ignorance of a Bonesetter: Indeed, the Name is a meer Bubble, or empty Title, wherewith unwary and imprudent People are ensnar'd, and oftentimes too dearly pay for their Experience.

One would imagine, if this worthy Art were so easily attain'd as might be conjectur'd from the Presumption of these men, there would be little occasion for us to put our selves to the charge of purchasing our Experience, under some eminent Practitioner, by a sedulous Study, and a tedious Service therein: nay, it might be not unreasonably thought, that we are fond of a Confinement, when we consider, that if a man have but confidence sufficient to avouch for himself, whether or no he be otherwise qualified, if he please hereupon, to take the Profession of a Surgeon upon him, he shall meet with the same welcome, and by many who have not try'd his Abilities be accounted as wor­thy as the best of us all. For confirmation [Page 99] hereof I will deliver to you on my own know­ledge a remarkable instance.

A Weaver in B—street coming home in the Evening much in drink, there arose a diffe­rence between him and his Wife, which grew to such a heighth, that he could bethink himself of no other Revenge, at least no better method, to avoid the Storm which was coming on him, than by hastening back again to his compa­ny, where he hoped to be at quiet. Hereupon going to the Door (which the good Woman had beforehand lock'd, resolving to keep him in) and finding himself unable to force his pas­sage there, he fearlesly makes to the Window, and (although a Story high) leaps out thereat, but was receiv'd by the Ground with so unkind and rugged an embrace, as made him forcibly content to be carried up again a farther way than he came down, where by the help of his Neighbours, in great misery he was laid upon his Bed.

Being immediately call'd in to officiate for my Master; upon enquiry, I found, that by his Fall he had fractur'd the Fibula or minor Fo­cil of his Leg; there was already a large Tu­mor and Extravasation; the Fracture was made obliquely, and the lower end of the Bone pro­tuberating a little above the Maleolus Externus; however, with a little assistance I reduc'd it, and with a small Compress and Defensative dress'd him up, as usually in such cases, laying him in [Page 100] as easie a position as I could, and ordering his Wife in looking after him to keep him still and quiet.

Thus I left him for that time, and return'd the next morning, when I found my Patient very sensible of his condition, and heartily sorry for his Indiscretion; there were all things safe, and not the least Symptom attending more than commonly intervenes. He promis'd to be rul'd, upon which I told him I did not question but when we came to open it, we should find all in good forwardness; and accordingly, on our first taking off the Dressings, the Leg was streight, without inequality or bearing out of the fra­ctur'd Bone. He rested well from the first night, and so continued.

At the end of One and twenty days I took him out of Bed, and at the expiration of a month he set his Foot to the ground, from that time walking by the help of a Crutch, till a short time after that it was laid aside. And now the Tumor which fell upon his lame Leg, upon his first uprising seem'd wholly to be discuss'd, whereupon taking the liberty to walk abroad, and falling to his wonted course of drinking Brandy and strong Beer, he contracted so ill an habit of Body, that the Humours now abound­ing, for want of his accustomed labour, occa­sion'd a new defluxion on the broken Leg, with a small inflammation, and a very troublesome Pruritus, which was certainly caus'd from his [Page 101] having been for some time kept up to a spare and moderate Dyet, and now coming of a sud­den to make use of a more strong and plenti­ful nourishment; upon this he made his Com­plaint to us; I told him the reason of it, and to prevent farther mischief, advis'd him to bleed and purge: he desir'd time to consider farther of it, and promis'd to return in two or three days; but however it happen'd, we heard no more of him till about five or six weeks afterwards, when going by his House, I took the opportunity of calling on him, and was presently welcom'd by his Wife with the op­probrious Language of a dishonest and unskil­ful person; she told me, that I had ruin'd her Husband, and that his Leg was very near to have been cut off since I had seen him; that it was broken out all over; and farther, that she had taken the Advice of three several Chyrur­geons, one of them being the King's general Surgeon, who told her, That these severe Sym­ptoms were brought upon him by his broken Leg, which had never been well set.

I was very attentive to the Woman's Dis­course, and did at first imagine it to be a Fiction or plausible Story, invented with a design to keep off the Demand of Satisfacti­on for his Cure, till being better inform'd of the business by others, I began to admire ex­treamly, that any Artist (especially the King's Surgeon) should be so void of Knowledge, as [Page 102] well as Honesty, to impute this defluxion of sharp Humour upon the Leg to an ill reduction of the Fracture, which had been set and united by a confirm'd Callus, above a month before. I thought it very strange, that three such Practitioners as they were represented should be so far short of the Truth, and upon that account endeavour'd all I could to inform my self who they were; the first of these, I came soon after to understand, was a Barber in the Neighbourhood, whose Frame of Blood-Porringers, and his Cloth sew'd round with Teeth, were all that render'd him so eminent a Professor: the second who had been consulted was a practising Ap—in S—F—; this Person had forewarn'd the Patient, that he should not bleed, because the Weather was not warm enough; and for the same cause Purga­tion was interdicted. The last that had been advis'd with, I found to be an illegal, skulking, Sea Practitioner, who had wheedled himself into their good opinion, and by assuming the Epithet of a Regius-Professor, was look'd upon as an Oracle, and his Promises already little short of Performance. They thought they could do no less than give this sworded Gentleman his Fee in hand for his Visit; after which the Doctor took an occasion to withdraw and show them his backside, for they could never after hear what became of him.

These were the three famously qualified Ope­rators, who had concurr'd in their Opinions, That the Bone was not rightly set, and that if they had not been consulted, the Leg must have been cut off.

I have been the larger in a rehearsal of all circumstances relating to this case, that I might more clearly investigate the whole truth of the matter, and give the plainer demonstration of the fraudulent Practises of such abuseful Intru­ders on this noble Art.

I think the Case was here so evident, that nothing unless a Barber's Ignorance could have made, upon an excoriation, the most irrational prediction of an Amputation: what other Sur­venient might indeed have been expected, than that from the Patient's acquir'd Chacochymy he should be infested with so troublesome an Ul­ceration, which was no other than the effect of an acred or sharp Serum in the Blood, more readily redounding on the weak Member than another part.

Who, unless such an imprudent practising Ap—, would have forbidden in this case Phlebotomy, with the repetition of appropriate Catharticks? or, what Novice other than an unexperienc'd Sea Practitioner would have ad­vis'd the application of Digestives, to encrease the pain and fluxion, where when the acidity of the Blood had been corrected, there had needed nothing more than an anodyne Epu­lotick [Page 104] to have perfected this mighty cure?

We may hereby inform our selves how in­considerable a distinction the Commonalty make between a legal Artist and a spurious or false Pretender. They imagine (as we may reasonably think) that there is no other diffe­rence between a Barber's Pole, when his Win­dow is beset with Porringers, and the Surgeon's Arms, than in some few degrees of a larger purchas'd Knowledge and acquir'd Experience; and therefore whilst the former calls himself a Barber-Surgeon, and will practise underhand, it may be for little or nothing, they are con­tent to save themselves a present Penny, altho' it cost them a Pound hereafter; or to let this Person try Experiments upon their Bodies, in order for the future Employment of the Chy­rurgeon. They can easily enough believe, for that the Ap—sells them out his Balsams, Unguents, and Emplasters, he must certainly be acquainted with their true and proper Uses; and therefore, if he take upon him the Pra­ctise, they scruple not his Fidelity, his Judg­ment, nor his Honesty. But, above all, they seem the most willing to be impos'd on by the Pretence of a Sea Professor: if he be not altogether so arrogant as to take upon him the Title of the King's Surgeon in general, yet his large Experience on the Seas, his having been present in so many hundred Engagements, where he hath taken off mens Limbs by the [Page 105] dozen, seldom eating a morsel till he hath whipp'd off a score Members; where the Bul­lets were wont to rattle like Hail about his Ears, some taking off his Wig, some piercing his Hat, and others (if you'll believe him) have almost touched his Heart, yet still, by his unbounded Knowledge in the Art of Healing, he remains alive: he hath sailed so many times into Asia, so many to Arabia, and as many to the farthest parts of America; or, if he please, to the out­most Borders of the Earth; has gone through so many several Hardships, and met with such miraculous Deliverances, as would make you shake and tremble at the recital: 'Tis this, I say, that renders him a man of great repute, and you must certainly admire to hear him tell what he underwent to purchase Experience in the Medicinal Art, or to render himself the more compleatly qualified for the Chyrurgick Pra­ctice.


AFTER all, as if this so worthy Profession had not suffer'd by these means a suffi­cient diminution in its Repute, or its honoura­ble Professors had not been hereby enough de­graded, we are not wanting of the utmost En­deavours of a Petticoat Pretender, to farther our present Ignominy and Contempt.

Were I speaking to any one of a discerning Judgment, I would argue nothing more against the Sufferance of a practising old Gentlewo­man, than the single consideration of the divine Mystery of Healing, in the contempla­tive or theorical part thereof, together with the great and intricate difficulty of its Practice, be­ing wholly above the comprehension of a Wo­mans Genius, and vastly distant from the reach of a Feminine Capacity.

But since I expect to meet with opposition from some conceited pusilanimous Spirits, I shall, for a more general satisfaction, take the same course I have in the preceding Sections, and lay their too common Abuses open to the naked Eye, that so all may see (unless here and there one will remain blind, and think it a [Page 107] piece of Modesty to blush at the reproach of their Grandams Skill in Surgery) with how great and scandalous Reflection on good Litera­ture, I had almost said, on the Sence and Rea­son of all Englishmen, the Magistracy suffer such continual Delusions, practis'd by igno­rant Women, in the Heart of their Metropolis, the City of London, where there are such pro­digious numbers, who take upon them to pra­ctise both in Physick and Chyrurgery, that scarce a Street, Lane, Court, Alley, or o­ther Building therein, which remains unfur­nish'd.

If you get a Fall, you are no sooner up again, but advis'd to send for the Cerecloth of some infallible old Wife. If by accident you are wounded, and cannot manage it your self, you are presently recommended to a skilful Gentlewoman. Nay, if by ill Com­pany you are drawn aside, and by an infected Curtesan happen to be clapp'd, you shall not walk far before you meet with some bawdy Doctress ready to entertain you, and admini­ster to your Infirmities, be they never so ob­scene. Lastly, let your Business be as it will, unless very ghastly or ill-favour'd to look on, you need not question the Confidence of some Female Enterpriser thereof. So that it is very rare if a Chyrurgeon be now-adays consulted upon any business which comes not to him out of the wearied or tired hands, or which hath [Page 108] not been nearly spoyl'd by the workmanship of a Woman.

If you are minded to take a view of her Closet or Surgery, you may find the same set off with a multitude of consus'd Preparations, with as many Glasses, Gallypots, Boxes, and Plasters: in the former she keeps Blackcherry, Bawm, Carduus, Mint, and other Waters of her own distilling, which when mix'd up with a little Syrup of Gilliflowers, makes a Cor­dial to answer all Intentions. In her Gallypots she keeps her Oyntments and Balsams, the chief of which is that of Lucatellus, and her Oynt­ment of Marshmallows. In her Boxes are Pills, and Spanish Flyes to draw Blisters, and by the help of a Pepper-corn, to make an Issue also. Her Plasters in common use are Diachylon, and Melilot, and upon extraordinary occasions Pa­racelsus and Oxycroceum, for those that will go to the price.

From the Furniture of her Closet we will conduct you to her Library, or the Fountain of her Knowledge; and first of all, (as deser­ving the chiefest place) we must not forget to mention [...], as well his Mid­wifry as his English Physician, which Book alone is the chief part of her Treasury; the rest, such as the Good Wife made Doctress, the Woman's Coun­sellor, and the Plain Rules for Health, with some other Receipt books, being more for the orna­ment of her Study than for real use. I had [Page 109] almost forgot to tell you of those famous Baths and Pultisses (for you must conceive she nei­ther approves of Cataplasms nor Fomentations) she is likewise Mistriss of upon occasion.

Being thus accomplish'd, like an honest, grave, and discreet Matron, she sets about her Work, which is, first of all, if she meets with a green Wound, let it be where or in what part it will, to strow in her Bole Armeny, that the Haemorrbage (if there be any) may be re­strain'd. Now, if the 'foresaid flux proceed from some divided Capillary, it may chance to take effect, if not, the Patient must seek out for other help. Her next or second Inten­tion is, to cram the Wound full of Lucatellus Balsam, and to apply a Cloth with some of the same daubed over it, and cover'd with a Woollen Clout, for you know it must be kept warm: and to talk to her of Dossils, Pledgits, Compress, and Bandage, you are told, they are the cramp words of Conjurers and Chyrurgeons, wherewith they amuse the People, intending to make a Cure of every Trifle, whilst she, good Woman, (meaning honestly) can do with­out.

This is the exact method of her Proceed­ings hitherto, being confirm'd to me by ma­ny (I may say) hundred Observations, where the Event hath been frequently the same, viz. the employing a Chyrurgeon to rectifie the mistake, and finish after a different man­ner [Page 110] the desir'd Cure. What other indeed can be expected from such a treatment, where a Wound hath been plaister'd up with the im­proper application of Lucatellus's fam'd Bal­sam, so mightily cry'd up by the People, for the principal Salve necessary in a Woman's Sal­vatory?

I will by the way take the liberty to in­form you, that I see very little reason to ad­mire the vulgar Use of this Composition; neither did I ever find any other effect from its external application, than a Slough indu­ced, which covers the bottom as well as lips of the Wound, whereby Digestion is retarded, and by consequence a fluxion of Humour ex­cited, begetting Pain, Tumor and Inflammati­on on the Parts about. How then is it likely that Unition in a recent Wound by Conglu­tination, otherwise term'd the first Intention, should ever be procur'd, where the sides of the Solution are kept distended by this clogging Medicament; and there must at length be a necessity (protracting time) to heal it, as a Wound or Ulcer with loss of Substance, when by Sutures and Bandage, to retain them close, the same might have been attain'd in a third part of the time, with far less trouble and much more content to the Female Patient, by avoiding of a Scarr, which upon the Neck, Face, Breasts, or Arms of the fair Sex looks very unseemly.

It may here be query'd by some, how it should come to pass, that so many and (in their weak Opinion) such conside­rable Wounds, are often Cured by the alone application of this Wonderful Bal­sam.

I reply hereto, That were it convenient my single Judgment should take place, such an Effect is not so much to be imputed to a Vertue latent in the said Medicine, as to the homogenious or true and genuine Crasis of the Blood, by whose Balsamick quality I have heard of many large and seemingly dangerous Wounds (where no part of exquisite Sence hath been divided) which have been heal'd with­out any topick or outward administration, more than a slight covering bound about, to defend them from the Particles of the circum­ambient Air. And of this nature (unless I mistake) are many of those which by some fanciful men are suppos'd to be wrought by Sympathy.

I shall be wholly silent as to the good or bad effects of this Balsam, when exhibited inter­nally, since by speaking thereto I might seem to impose on the Duty of a Physician; but I am well satisfied, that should we go about to debar our Female Practiser of this her most admirable Salve, she must wholly desist from farther intermeddling in Chyrurgick Practice, there being a great number of them who have [Page 112] nothing more to support their ridiculous Pre­tences than a Gallypot or Box of Lucatellus's Balsam, and a Roll or two of Paracelsus Plaister.

It should seem reasonable that I beg excuse, if in the present Section I lay too great an imposition on the Patience of any judicious Person, more particularly on that of my Bro­ther the Chyrurgick Reader. Although it be altogether unlikely to advantage him, who al­ready knows the truth of what I shall deliver, yet it seem'd highly convenient for the benefit of many in this incredulous Age we live, for illuminating their Understandings, and re­moving of that Veil of Ignorance which hath beguil'd them, with a false prospect of our just and honest Intentions.

I should have had the less concern upon me, had I perceiv'd their Frauds to have taken place, and pass'd undiscover'd by no other than the inferiour Rabble-Proselites like them­selves; but when I found that the Minds of a more understanding People, such of far greater Worth, Reputation, Credit, and sometimes Quality, were not exempt or freed from the same Mist of Ignorance, this Consideration gave me Grounds for the most profound amazement, as well as pity, and was indeed a great incitement to induce me to lay this In­junction (not yet, that I know of, so fully per­form'd by others) upon my self.

I shall not trouble the Reader with a rehear­sal of many particulars; nor do I see occasion, where the general Rule of Practice is altogether preposterous.

Thus, against that Maxim of Contraria con­trariis, in a recent Contusion, where a repel­lent Topick (as a Defensative) should take place, we find her tampering with hot Cerecloths or Pultisses, whereby a ready way is made for the Influx, and when the Tumor happens to be considerable, or the Extravasation large, there often succeeds an incommodious Suppuration or Inflammation, at best, a vexatious itching (the old Gentlewoman's sign of healing) heat and excoriation, accompanied with a very trouble­some sence on the part so grieved.

It is not without cause that I am ready to think this to be a great occasion of our meeting with so many obstinate and perverse Humours attending an inconsiderable Wound, Ulcer, or Contusion, whose Descent hath been first invi­ted by the improper application of hot Pul­tisses, Unguents, or Emplasters; so that we find that (which if then rationaly treated) would have been little troublesome, now impossible to admit of healing, till the intemperies brought upon the part be carefully removed.

You will scarcely believe that a simple Herpes, exasperated by a Woman's improper appli­cation, should make such an inveterate im­provement in its erosion, as not to admit a [Page 114] check under a fortnight's time: and it may seem as strange to you, that a bare solution of continuity on the superficial parts of the Body, where, 'tis probable, there hath been nothing more than the Cuticle and Cutis divided by the efficient cause, or that a meer Excoriation by the scratch of a Pin or Nail, should by impro­per Medicines (especially where there is a salino-sulphureous Dyscrasy of the Blood predominant) occasion three or four months trouble to over­come.

I was some years since desir'd to look upon a Woman, who from a trivial Accident suffer'd at that time under the formidable Symptoms of a putrid phagedenick Ulcer upon her Leg, so extreamly corrosive, that in a little time it had spread it self to the compass of a hands breadth, and when the Sordes or Slough was thrown off, it expos'd the fore part of the Tibia denudated and carious.

I will not affirm, this arriv'd at first from a famous Doctress, her dressing the said Leg with an Ointment of Tobacco and Marshmallows, enwrapping the same about with a stiptick Plaister of Paracelsus; but I dare appeal to any discriminating Artist, whether any thing much better could be expected from such a treat­ment.

As I shall by no means seek to ingratiate my self into the favour of any anti prejudic'd Per­son, or such an one as may unreasonably bear [Page 115] an aversion to the honourable Professors of our Art: so neither shall I require the admissi­on of his Faith to any thing I have said, far­ther than the prevalency of right Reason will constrain, or beyond a confirmation of the Truth he may receive from those remarkable Instances which continually emerge.

Let him take but a serious view of the weekly Presentations made to those two sacred Sanctuaries for the Sick, I mean the Hospitals of St. Thomas and St. Bartholomew, or supervise those great numbers which are daily offer'd to the Undertakings of the more private Practi­tioners in our Art; and after a free enquiry into their Distempers, with the former ma­nagement thereof, he will, I doubt not, receive information, that the greater number of their Maladies (some of them by delay now grown incurable) had their foundation laid in, or took their original from the hands of some confi­dently-pretending Baggage, or other fair pro­mising Female Undertaker.

Is it not a very usual thing for People to con­sult us about any troublesome Accident, being dissatisfied in their Doctress; and we often­times find, where they have been deluded un­der the notion of a Sprain, that their Limbs have been obscurely broken, and a Callus (although deform'd for want of Art,) thrust forth, attended with the disadvantage of an ill-shap'd, crooked, and sometimes almost use­less [Page 116] Member. The like may be said of Dislo­cations, which are by base unlearned Women treated for no other than simple Contusions, and so long neglected, that there is no hope of Remedy; which might at first, with as much facility as success, have been administred.

Indeed, it is much the same comparatively in all other cases where there has been ad­mitted a Feminine Chyrurgick Operator, who if one undertaking succeed, although a score miscarry, that one proves a sufficient Basis for the light Fabrick of her Reputation. Nay, she being most commonly the proclaimer of her own Fame, you shall not want to hear the flying Stories of her Fortunes, whilst those of her unbounded Ignorance are buried in as deep a silence, and revive not otherwise than through the Courtesie of some sorrowful Mother, who is beholden to this famous Doctress for making of her Child a Mar­tyr.

She is one, who if she finds you wavering in your Opinion of her Skill, or dissatisfied at her Proceedings, knows how to terrifie you from falling into the Chyrurgeon's hands, where you are to expect nothing less than the unspeakable Tyranny of Probation, Incision, and Scarrification; whereas she, like a tender-hearted Woman, makes use of no such Cruelty; she has none of those frightful Instruments to per­plex and disquiet you, but is willing to cure [Page 117] you with her soveraign Balsam or Plaister, which she will admit you to take off and put on your self.

This is the pleasing Subterfuge of Ignorance, and a Bait very easily swallow'd down by in­considerate People, not seldom to their de­struction. 'Tis truly the main Objection, why many Persons are so fearful of the Chy­rurgick Artist, viz. his severe and cruel usage to his Patients. Now therefore, that I may un­riddle this great Mystery, and expose the whole Truth without reserve, thereby to see if the matter in debate be such as represented, we will thus argue: If thou shouldst at any time labour of an Infirmity, either Tumor, Wound, Ul­cer, &c. whether may it be thought more rea­sonable to confide in him who is throughly ex­perienc'd in the progress and event of each Di­stemper, which thy self and fellow-Creatures are all prone to, has had his abundant Know­ledge therein confirm'd to him by his Educa­tion under some learned and ingenious Practi­tioner, and is himself continually conversant in such-like practical Observations? Hadst thou rather trust thy self in the hands of such, or in those of some senceless Petticoat Pretender, who hath no more Judgment in thy Distemper than thy self, neither more Authority to take upon her the Profession, than what she basely and most unjustly assumes? I can easily enough foresee what may be answer'd hereto, that you [Page 118] the rather prefer a Woman, because she will not cut or make Incisions upon your Flesh; she hates those inhumane Cauteries or Searing Irons wherewith Chyrurgeons (who are sworn to make a Cure) perplex and disturb you, but will carefully endeavour, by her Ointments and pre­cious Salves, without any Severity, to remove your Disorders.

To this I could reply, if there were occasion, that of the Poet,

—immedicabile vulnus,
Ense recidendum—

or, That a desperate Case requires as severe a Remedy: And whether or no the Disease be arriv'd at such a state, I think the able and knowing Artist the more competent Judge: so that it is not to be disputed, but where necessity calls for it, so rough and rigorous an admini­stration is undeniably to be justified.

I do not go about to perswade, that this must be the result of every one's particular condition, since I would have all to understand that it is much beneath the Principle of any Christian Professor of our Art to exercise such seeming Cruelties upon his Patient, if he could other­ways discharge the Duty of his Calling, or per­form what is requir'd of him.

It seems most strange to me, and I think this may supply the place of a conclu­sive Argument, that an ignorant unlearned Woman's Judgment should surpass that of the most eminent Artist, or that she should in any probability be capable to relieve us, without such handling as we are frighted with, whilst he whose proper business it is, knows not to per­form the same.

What an extream Folly carries some People into a resolute Belief (which they will not al­ter till they have render'd themselves Sufferers) that such an one as is unknowing in the cause of a Distemper, or what the same Distemper truly is, can make neither Prognostick nor Diag­nostick thereof, neither can tell by what appro­priate Remedies the same Distemper should be profligated, but hazardously prescribes her fortuitous Medicines, which for all her knowledge, may do more injury than good. That she (I say) should notwithstanding have found out a more easie and salubrious Methodus Medendi, than the more judicious and skilful Practitioner in the said Art.

I would sincerely advise those who are so wonderfully afraid of having their Flesh cut, (as the only Preservative therefrom) that they shun a pretending Doctress, one, who by her Ignorance gives too commonly the first occa­sion of such unavoidable proceedings, and in­deed many times for that which is of higher [Page 120] consequence than a small Incision (viz.) Am­putation, or (to save their Lives) dismembering of a Limb.

If they would repair in time to the Foun­tain of true Knowledge and Understanding, they might find from their own experience, there would be no reason to apprehend such danger, or thus dismally to affright themselves, being secure under the industrious care of a tender and compassionate Artist: Or let the case be what it will, when you have been misguided and so long neglected your self, and at length repair to him, you may assure your self you will find no Surgeon so indiscreet as to undertake (without your free consent) any thing of a dubious consideration or event; if he finds your condition perilous, or full of dan­ger, he proposeth the method he intends to proceed by, and which is absolutely necessary he should observe, if to your full satisfaction he discharge the Duty incumbent on him. If you dislike such his Proposal, you can but reflect upon his Caution, and blame your self for an unwillingness to submit thereto. Farther, if you cannot comply with such his intended course, yet will still put your self under his care, I am certain you will not find wanting (when he has forewarn'd you of the danger) the ut­most of his Endeavours (which should, as I conceive, be much more prevalent than a Wo­man's) [Page 121] to restore and cure you without this painful and severe usage.

I could wish that every Patient would make choice of such an honest and able Professor of this Art as they might reasonably confide in, and then wholly, under the Supreme Power, to submit themselves (without dictating their own erroneous Sentiments) to his management, I would have them banish all those childish and fearful Apprehensions of his supposed Cruelty, and remain stedfast, in a firm belief, that he will act no otherwise by them than himself, if under such-like circumstances; or, that what he does is purely design'd for their recovery and well being.

It is but little short of a Miracle to me, that any one should imagine we can be so much de­lighted in (what they call) the persecution of our Neighbours, when we take upon us those troublesome operations of Incising, Cauterising, Amputating, &c. as to account the same for Pleasure or Diversion, which is no more than what we are prompted to from the urgent ne­cessity of such miserable States and Accidents as require such performance.

Can they think, I wonder, that the clamo­rous Shrieks and Outcries of poor suffering Creatures are such grateful Concord or harmo­nious Melody, to make us fond thereof, if we knew to avoid it? Rather let me inform such who have been too subject to censure us in this [Page 122] manner, that every faithful Practitioner is at these times of distress an almost equal Sufferer with his Patient, as well by a deep concern for his Affliction, as on the account of that burthensome Care which then lies upon him, arising through the disturb'd Thoughts and Fears of a Miscarriage under his hands: Which are, I think, sufficient grounds for our Belief, that no man in his Senses would take upon him some very troublesome Operations in our Art, did not an indispensible necessity, with the conscientious discharge of his Duty, compel him to the same.

I doubt not in the least but many have suffer'd, and that in an extraordinary mea­sure, through the Ignorance of some unal­lowable Practitioners in our Art, but I can­not think that any one, unless some stupid Atheist, who believes neither the Divine Om­niscience nor Omnipresence, would dare the Di­vine Vengeance, by trying Conclusions and Experiments upon his fellow-Creature, where­by he might be endanger'd of either Limb or Life, or after any other manner witting­ly torment his distressed Patient, farther than the urgency of his Case commands: and he who hath thus far follow'd the Rules of Art with a good and just intent, is undoubtedly to be justified, his Actions also to be accounted war­rantable before GOD and Man.

I must needs say I have so high an opinion of all that are known to my self, as to be­lieve them in no wise guilty of such impiously degenerate and sordid Practice; and I am so far from censuring all others of this faculty, that I as little question but that every of them who are legally qualified for the Practice would scorn to act the same. Let me there­fore advise all malevolent, mean-spirited, and ill-principled Persons, who have unreasonably contributed to the disheartening and discoura­ging their Friends from being concern'd with the Chyrurgick Artist, (in his room pre­ferring an Old Woman) that they desist from such their dangerous Perswasions, till they can bring a justifiable Accusation, to countenance what they endeavour to insinuate against us.

I might here, according to a more orderly proceeding, lay before you a Scheme of every individual Woman's Ignorance, and recite to you their Names and Places of residence, but truly considering the present state of affairs, where a feminine preheminence in Chyrurge­ry is made a kind of Disputation, and that the whole Nation sounds of their wonder­ful Atchievements; the former would be as troublesome as the latter without number. Since then it were no News to tell you of an Old Wife's Failings in her Pretences to the Practice, and as little strange to be inform'd [Page 124] where there lives such a famous Gentlewoman, who is turned Doctress, or other Petticoat Un­dertaker. Waving (I say) a rehearsal of such-like Fooleries, I shall come towards a conclusion of this my last Section, not forgetting first to acquaint you with the Transactions of a won­derful She Professor beyond L—B—who seldom intermeddles in any thing short of such difficult business, as hath been declar'd incurable by the most eminent of our City-Chyrurgeons, viz. Cancers and Scrophulous Tu­mors, which she seldom keeps under hand by any long delay, but for the most part makes a quick (though painful) dispatch, giving them a speedy deliverance out of all their Afflictions. 'Tis not the expiation of a pub­lick Whipping, or any thing less than a capi­tal Punishment, that can so far satisfie as to make compleat atonement, or restitution to the hands of Justice, for this bold Pretender's multi­ply'd Offences.

You will scarce believe those unheard of Rarities, found out by the Industry of this Per­son, such as the cure of a confirm'd Cancer upon the Tongue, by a Plaister of Earth­worms, whereby the Patient (though before sick and weak) was with a little of her help enabled to take a Journey into the other World. Nor is it likely that you have heard who it was that the deceased Mr. W—. courted as an Assistant, let me tell you then [Page 125] (as it came from her) 'twas the lately mention'd Gentlewoman who blaz'd it abroad for the encrease of her Fame, That this ingenious Artist proffer'd her One Hundred Pounds to take the Charge of his most difficult Practice. A very likely matter! that such a person as a Serjeant-Surgeon, who had ac­cumulated the greatest Honours of his Pro­fession, should at length make suit to a pre­sumptuously-intruding Gossip, and proffer her a Stipend to be his Coadjutrix.

What will not Impudence leave unattem­pted, to purchase the empty Nothing of Po­pular Applause?

It was by such-like Insinuations that the 'foresaid Person wheedl'd her self into the good Opinion of a Gentleman who had been for some time afflicted with an Ulcerated Cancer, spreading it self from the Coronal Suture on one side, reaching over that part of the Bregma and Os Temporis to the Man­dible. The Patient, not content with a pal­liation of this raging Malady, was induced (by a confident promise of Cure) to submit himself to her management, under whose hands he languish'd for some time, till he died a mi­serable Object, to forewarn the Unwary how they embrace the Poyson of a Woman's Speech, whilst they neglect and contemn the Counsel of the Legal Artist.

It would be too burthensome a Task to give a succinct or compleat Narrative of those gross Cheats and Abuses offer'd to the Inhabitants of the City of London, by Women pretend­ing to the Art of Surgery. The one pro­fesseth the Cure of sore apostemated Breasts, another for sore Eyes, a third for the King's Evil, a fourth for sore Legs, a fifth for Scald Heads, a sixth for Cancers, and so of the rest; when at the same time making no manner of distinction in the Temperaments or Consti­tutions of Humane Bodies, but having pur­chas'd one particular Medicine, as a Mercurial or Vitriolick Water, a famous Oyntment, Bal­sam, or Plaister; and either of these having casually prov'd successful, they confusedly ever after use the same upon all occasions, extolling them as the most soveraign Remedies yet known.

It is not long since I was discharg'd by a Gentlewoman, in order for the entertainment of a Woman, who undertook to cure the most inveterate Abscess, with no other application than a Cloth spread with equal parts of Ba­silicon, and an Oyntment of Marshmallows; But what was the consequence? When the Tumor suppurated, the discharge was left to Nature (for, you must know, it would have been a piece of Cruelty to have open'd it [Page 127] either by Caustick or Incision;) and the more fluid part of the Matter vented it self at a small Orifice, whence the residue subsiding, her Pain afresh encreas'd, and I was at length admitted to open it in the more depending part, by which means the same in a short time was perfectly healed.

'Tis most certain, where the Pus or Quitture has no commodious vent, it frequently falls down lower, and begets Sinus's or Caverns, which, for want of timely opening, especially where the Humour is corrosive, and the Bone near the same becomes carious, the hollowness in time growing Callous. And truly, for the most part, such kind of Work as this gives us the opportunity of meeting with so ma­ny incurable Fistula's, which oftentimes take their rise from an inconsiderable Abscess, whose Cavity was never open'd, or otherwise deter­ged, than by that base pernicious Practice of Injections.

I shall divert you (before I summ up all) with an account of somewhat of the like tendency with the last recited Case, out of Mr. W—'s Observati­ons.

Whilst I was dressing a Patient (saith the said Author) in a Citizen's House, I was desir'd to look upon the Breast of the Gen­tlewoman of the House: She had lately lain in, and from abundance of Milk and ill handling, her right Breast had been Aposte-mated, and broken out in many holes. A Woman famous in the City for dressing fore Breasts was her Chyrurgeon. I had observ'd, that the Breast had at first broke in the up­per part, in a small Pin-hole, and the Matter not having had sufficient discharge, had subsi­ded, and so made the other Openings, and af­terwards passed an inch lower than any of the Openings, and could not be discharg'd other­wise than as it filled up the Sinus, and ran over, or was press'd from below upwards with her Hand: By this means the Breast continued inflam'd▪ and apostemated, insomuch that it was impossible to cure it by that method, till it had apostemated the whole Breast.

I pitied the Patient, and wonder'd that a Woman (so fam'd for such Cures) could be so ignorant, and yet preserve her Credit with that Sex. I shew'd the Patient the Cause of her Pain, and the unlikelihood to be suddenly cured by such a Chyrurgeon, and prevailed with her to permit me to lay a [Page 129] Caustick on the Depending Part; and ha­ving made an Eschar the compass of a Threepence, open'd it, and gave vent to the Matter, and left her a little Unguentum Basilicon, by which she was Cured in few Days.


I Have now discharg'd my self of what I thought an Obligation, by endeavouring to evidence the notorious Abuses arising from a sufferance of unallowable Practi­tioners in the Chyrurgick Art, which is so dark and obscure, so unintelligible in the Practick as well as Theorical part thereof, to the Judgment of every one, unless that of its Professors, that he who is minded to act a dishonest part, or play the Knave therein, shall carry on the most fraudulent Designs imper­ceptibly to the People, and so far, it's possible, from meeting with interruption, that it is no wonder if he be nobly rewarded, very honest­ly accounted, and as charitably thought of for so doing. Indeed, whilst this liberty is granted to every impertinent Intruder, who hath Con­fidence [Page 130] enough to carry on his Pretensions; whilst their frequent Failings are so little heed­ed, their male Practice no ways minded, nor themselves in the least question'd, how qualified for the same; whilst these, I say, are buried in silence, we must expect no other than a perpe­tual decay of Knowledge, a discouragement of Learned Men, and (let our Care otherways be never so great) must be incident to the grea­test Calamities, occasion'd from so prejudicial and shameful a toleration.

Were either Galen or Hippocrates now living, to see this spurious Issue made so much of, their Pretences unquestion'd, their Abuses even countenanc'd, and they advanc'd, whilst their legitimate Offspring are degraded and dis­esteem'd; were they inform'd of this worthy Rabble, who basely take upon them the exer­cise of our Art; or did they know how eve­ry Water-flinging Piss-prophet boasts himself as great a Doctor as the most gradually-commenc'd Physician; how the most contemptible Me­chanicks, such as Tinkers, Coblers, &c. not only make it a point of Controversie, but endeavour with all their might to monopolize the Art, and exclude the worthy Artist; were these Worthy men in a capacity of inspecting these matters, we may suppose they would not a lit­tle wonder at the Age we live in, and grieve to behold our miserable Neglect, who suf­fer the most honourable of Arts to be [Page 131] render'd the most despicable, that Art which they themselves were not more painful and la­borious to new model and compleat, than we are careless to support and prevent its final over­throw.

There is truly at this time so little care ta­ken to correct and punish the Presumption of any illiterate Person, that if a man have but an Inclination thereto, though the most injudicious or unknowing, if he have Wit e­nough to hang out a Bloodporringer, to call him­self a Barber-Surgeon, to set forth a Urinal or Scheme of the Celestial Houses, with any o­ther Hieroglyphick of his Skill, he shall pass in the Crowd for the most learned Professor of Physick as well as Surgery. What is worse, let his Ignorance be as manifest as the Injustice of his Claim, he goes on unmolested, without danger of opposition.

I believe there are at this time some Thou­sands of false Practitioners in the City of London, besides those whom we more peculiar­ly entitle Quacks and Mountebanks; at least such as undertake to bleed, cut Issues, set broken and disjoynted Members, or to ad­minister Physick, and the one half of these no other than ignorant and foolish Women, whose enormous Practice hath been one great cause, as well to lessen the number of its Inhabi­tants, as to bring the most ridiculous Contempt and Scandal on the best of Arts.

If you take a Prospect of the outparts of the Town, you would imagine there were a plenary Indulgence granted to all Empiricks, Quacks, Barbers, Old Women, and others, whom it shall please to take upon them the Pro­fession of Chyrurgery; you will either think this Art the most easily attainable of all others, since a meer Pretence to the same will carry a man very far into the good Opinion of the People: or, last of all, you will find just rea­son to imagine this (formerly sublime) Pro­fession is now become a kind of Sanctuary or Refuge for decay'd Tradesmen, who know not to live longer upon their own Employ­ments.

I remember, (saith an ancient Author) when I was at the Wars of Mutterell, in the time of the most famous King Henry the Eighth, there was a great Rabblement, that took upon them the Practice of Chyrurgery, such as Tin­kers, Sowgelders, Shoemenders, and the like; this noble Sect perform'd such wondrous Cures, that they got to themselves a perpetual Name; in two or three dressings they most commonly cu­red their Patients, making them whole and sound for ever.

[Page 133]

When the Duke of Norfolk, who was then General, understood how the People dy'd of in­considerable Wounds, he sent for me, and certain other Chyrurgeons, requiring us to make search how these men came by their Death, whether it were by the grievousness of their Wounds, or through want of Knowledge in the Undertakers. According to his Command, we made search throughout the Camp, and found many of these Good fellows, who took upon them the Titles of Chyrurgeons; not only so, but the Salary also: We enquir'd with whom they had been brought up; and they shamelesly would answer, With some Skilful Person or other, who was dead some time ago. We farther demanded to see what Medicines they had to Cure the Wounded; and they would readily shew us a Pot or Box which they had in a Budget, wherein was such Trumpery as was only fit to grease Horse-heels withal; others, who were Coblers and Tinkers, made use of Shoemakers-wax, and the Rust of old Pans, wherewith they compounded a Noble Salve, as they term'd it.

In the end this worthy Rabble were commit­ted to the Marshalsea, and threatned by his Grace to be hang'd for their Wicked Deeds, ex­cept they would declare the Truth, what they were, and of what Occupations: They did finally confess as I have declar'd to you before; upon [Page 134] which the Duke gave Commandment, That they should immediately avoid the Camp, upon pain of Death; and if after they appear'd there again, they should be hang'd as Murtherers.

I could wish that the present Nobility of our Nation, with others the supreme Gover­nours and Magistrates thereof, would imitate the Example of this eminent person, and take care to punish all such deceitful persons, who fall from their proper Employments, and most unjustly assume the Profession of Chyrur­gery.

I am sure, if the publick Interest, or the Honour of the said Art were sought to be advanc'd, such a course would be taken, whereby insolent Pretenders might be silenc'd in their attempts, their Abuses prevented by their condign Punishment, and the People secur'd from suffering through Ignorance, in the ma­nagement of their Distempers.

If we reflect on the Care and Industry of every private Tradesman, who is himself a Freeman, to discover any Stranger who hath unjustly encroach'd upon his Privilege, what a bus [...]ie and stir he makes to keep out Foreign­ers, never leaving nor desisting till for his own and his Company's good he hath routed and put them down. If (I say) we consider the Care taken about inferiour matters, where the [Page 135] Contest is upon a small and frivolous occasion, what are we in the mean time to be accounted, who negligently dispense with those intolera­ble Impositions made by Strangers, Ignorants, and all others, upon the Practice of Chy­rurgery, where the Debate is not upon a meer Livelihood, or the advancement of Trade, but here our Health, Limbs, and Lives are the Price of our Contention, and by permission hereof we are conti­nually in danger of being Ruin'd in them all.

It was the Opinion of a Person very emi­nent in our Profession, that no one could be qualified for Practice, Nisi in eadem edu­catus, exercitatusque fuit. With how great Peril do we then (from his words) confide in these presumptuous Undertakers, who cannot subsist by the Income of their proper Occupations, and have nothing to set them off but their Impudence and a little Book-Knowledge, wherewith they amuse those who take them to be rightly accomplish'd Physicians and Chyrurgeons. They are so far from having been initiated under the Care of any Legal Practitioner, or so little exercised in the said Art, that their short Conference with some Confident Empirick or Quack (having thereby purchas'd one or two parti­cular Medicines) is the whole Stock of their [Page 136] Learning, as well as Grounds for such their pernicious Pretences.

I will however hope, that from the fore­going Observations the People may see what intolerable Mischiefs an unskilful Person may perpetrate, when countenanc'd the most ille­gally to practice in this Noble Art; and al­though I doubt not but many others have made the like Reflections upon the erroneous Actions of these Men, yet I may think, at least, that this publick manifestation of their Ignorance and Deceit, from the important ur­gency thereto, with the unavoidable necessity for the same, will the rather excite or spur on some generous Person (whose station will admit thereof) to perfect in some sence a re­gulation of these Abuses.

What indeed can we expect from the con­tinuance of such a Sufferance, but that the Medicinal Profession (formerly held in so great repute and admiration) is not only likely to stand in competition with the most mercenary Employment, but that its genuine Professors, meeting with so great discourage­ment, may in time lay aside and neglect its farther improvement, to the no small diminu­tion of all true and methodical Knowledge therein, and to the universal detriment thereby accrewing to the whole Nation.

If he who hath spent the greatest part of his Life hath been instructed by the ablest Master of the said Art, by a long and tedious Service therein, and constantly habituated to the study as well as practise thereof, all which he finds little enough to render him­self capacitated. If, after all, such a Person as this shall be no better accounted than an Upstart Empirick, no farther rely'd on than a Foreign Quack, no more confided in than a Practising Barber, his Skill thought scarce equi­valent to a cheating or deluding Bonesetter's, and himself in all respects, for his Art, little more esteem'd than a Female Enterprizer. If Tinkers, Coblers, Heelmakers, and Butchers, with the rest of this spurious and sordid Tribe, shall be as well rewarded as the most judicious and faithful Practitioner, what other Fate to at­tend can we imagine, unless that of the irrepairable Confusion of this once famous Art?

How profitably a Regulation of these Dis­orders might be undertaken for the suppres­sing base Pretenders to Chyrurgick Practice, where the Concerns of Life it self are daily hazarded, would, I doubt not, soon appear with the Product of these great Advantages. First of all, the Unwary would be no longer mis­guided by the plausible Stories of the Igno­rant, nor expos'd to the Miscarriages they [Page 138] are now subjected to. Furthermore, the law­ful Practitioner would not be molested or im­peded in his Practice by these surreptitious Quacksalvers, whom we should quickly find dissolved into their pristine Employments: There would be no Toleration for any of them to enter themselves as Cubbs in an Ho­spital, hereupon to be accounted for rightly-constituted Chyrurgeons. No Tradesman would, with polluted Hands, intermeddle in the Medicinal Art, or any other of them presume upon this Privilege, if not only the Fear but the Effect of a just and reasona­ble Prosecution could be of sufficient force to reduce them into their proper Elements.

How might we rejoyce to see the presa­ging Piss prophet broke to pieces with his Uri­nal, and the Empirical, with the strouling Bill-Doctor, forced to take up some other Business, wherein it may be unlikely they should do that injury to the generality of Mankind?

Let those few, and some of them fatal, Instances I have given, caution all Persons how they confide in the Promises of any confident Undertaker: Let their frequent Fai­lings be no longer wink'd at, but let every one who wishes well to the Publick use his utmost diligence, that these Abuses be as well reform'd as detected. It is not so trifling a [Page 139] Concern as may be supposed, since the Lives of so many miserable Creatures are forfeited by our delay herein. And therefore, as we may read in Ancient Authors, what good and wholsome Laws were made to punish all such arrogant Persons, let us endeavour all we can that the same, or the like, may be in force, and put in execution against those who by their malevolent and slanderous Aspersions, to­gether with their most detested Practises, have procur'd as much Mischief to the People as Contempt to Surgery, and its honourable Pro­fessors; the well-wishing to whose Prosperity will be but little available, till there be an Attempt made for the removal of those grand Impediments of their Lustre and Re­nown.

I think I cannot more pertinently finish what I have to say upon this Subject, than in the Words of one of our own Authors to this purpose.

As you would that this Noble Art should flourish, you must not be wanting in your Endeavours to take away the Oc­casions of its Prejudice and Disrepute; neither yet to acknowledge your depen­dance upon the Supreme Being, who hath [Page 140] as well created and appointed the Means thou shalt think fit to use, as ordained thee to be the Instrument of such his Favour. Furthermore, be thou never wan­ting to petition Heaven for Success upon thy Chyrurgick Enterprizes, whereby the Sick may be advantag'd, and an Eternity of Comfort and Satisfaction procur'd to thy self.

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