A Genealogical History OF THE KINGS OF ENGLAND, AND MONARCHS OF GREAT BRITAIN, &c.

From the Conquest, Anno 1066. to the Year, 1677.

IN SEVEN PARTS OR BOOKS.

Containing A DISCOURSE Of their several Lives, Marriages, and Issues, Times of Birth, Death, Places of Burial, and Monumental Inscriptions.

With their Effigies, Seals, Tombs, Cenotaphs, Devises, Arms, Quarterings, Crests, and Supporters; All Engraven in COPPER PLATES, Furnished with several Remarques and Annotations.

By FRANCIS SANDFORD Esq Lancaster Herald of Arms.

In the SAVOY: Printed by Tho. Newcomb, for the Author, 1677.

CHARLES R.
CHARLES the Second, by the Grace of God King of England, Scotland, France, and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, &c.
To all Our loving Subjects of what Degree, Con­dition or Quality soever, within Our Kingdoms and Dominions, Greeting;

Whereas Our Trusty and Welbeloved Francis Sand­ford Esq Lancaster Herald, hath employed himself near fif­teen Years in the Compiling A Genealogical History of the Kings of England, and Monarchs of Great Britain, from the Conquest An. 1066. to this present Year, 1677. and the Twenty ninth of Our Reign, in seven Parts or Books. Con­taining a Discourse of their several Lives, Marriages, and Issues, Times of Birth, Death, Places of Burial, and Monu­mental Inscriptions; with their Effigies, Seals, Tombs, Ce­notaphs, Devices, Arms, Quarterings, Crests, and Suppor­ters: All Engraven in Copper Plates, Furnished with several Remarques and Annotations. Which by Our Gracious Approbation and Influence, and the Encouragement of several of the Nobility and Gentry, is now (after much Expence, Labour, and Industry,) brought to Perfection. KNOW ye therefore, That it is Our Royal Pleasure, and We do by these Presents, upon the humble Request of the said Francis Sand­ford, not only give him Leave and Licence to Print the said Book, but strictly Charge, Prohibit, and Forbid all Our Subjects to Reprint, within this Our Kingdom, the said Book in any Volume, or any Part thereof, or any Abridgement of the Ge­nealogical History, &c. therein contained, or to Copy or Counter­feit any the Sculptures or Ingravements belonging thereunto, or to Import, Buy, Vend, Ʋtter, or Distribute any Copies or Exem­plaries of the same, Reprinted beyond the Seas, within the Term of fifteen Years next ensuing the first publishing thereof, without the Consent and Approbation of the said Francis Sandford, his Heirs, Executors, or Assigns, as they and every of them so offend­ing will answere the contrary at their Perils. Whereof as well the Wardens, and Company of Stationers of Our Citty of London, the Farmers, Commissioners and Officers of Our Customs, as all other Our Officers and Ministers whom it may concern, are to take particular Notice, that due obedience be given to this Our Royal Command herein declared. Given under Our Signet and Sign Manualat Our Court at Whitehal the 3d day of January, 1677. in the 29th Year of Our Reign.

By His Majesties Command, H. Coventry.

To the KING.

SIR.

THis GENEALOGICAL HISTORY, &c. which (encouraged by Your Maje­sties Gracious Approbation and more Special Favour) I have (with the expence of all that time which in near fifteen years I could spare from the necessary attendance on that Employment which Your Majesty hath been pleased to confer upon me) brought to such a Perfection, as my mean Abilities could give it, (though neither such as the Kingly Subject requires or deserves) I now humbly Present to Your Majesty, to Whom onely of Right it belongs, You being (as it were) the Ocean into which all these Mighty Springs of Royalty have, through the Streams of so many several Generations, discharged themselves, and in Your Veins running the Royal Blood of all those Kings of so many sundry Nations, Who, within the Records of Time, have swayed the Scepter of this Noble Island.

Your Majesty, when You were first Acquainted with [Page]the Design, and whilst there was yet but a Prospect of it, were pleased to say, That it would be a very useful Book. An Encouragement so Royal, That it was able to put life into the meanest Ʋndertaker. And I can­not but boast it as my greatest Honour to acknowledge that the Remembrance of those Words of Your Majesty, did, through the whole Course of the Work, Animate me to a more diligent Search and stricter Scrutiny of the certainty of Things, in a Matter so Nice and Curious, so No­ble and Illustrious; That this History, which I wanted the Art to adorn with the Flourishes of Eloquence, might at least appear to the World, though in the less Gorgeous, yet more Glorious Habit of Truth.

Nor do I doubt, but in this Plain and Humble Dress (guarded by Your Majesties Patronage and Approbation) it may prove as Acceptable to all Well-minded Men, and produce its desired Effects, which are, The Preserving the Memory of the Seals, Monuments, and Epitaphs of the Royal Family, from Devouring Time, and the Fate of Accidents, and the Convincing the People of the Reasonableness of their Obedience. For though Kings ought to be Honoured as the lively Images of the Divinity, and Gods Vicegerents upon Earth, yet it must needs be Acknowledged, That when their Title is Strengthened by a Descent from so many Royal Progenitors, made Fa­mous from Age to Age by their Renowned Actions and He­roical Virtues, and the Blood of all these Ʋnited in one Person or Family, to make their Right indisputable, Loyalty Redoubles, and Acts more vigorously in the Breasts of those Subjects whom God hath submitted to so Ʋn­doubted and Lawfull an Authority.

And this is a Consideration which ought, in a more par­ticular manner, to Oblige all Your Majesties Subjects to a Nearer and Dearer Veneration of You their King than the Subjects of any other Prince in the World; For whe­ther they derive their Descent from the Britains, Saxons, Danes, Normans, or Scots, (of all which Nations the Inhabitants of this Island are Composed) You are still their Lawfull Sovereign, by a continued Succession of near Twelve hundred Years. You are Flesh of the Flesh, [Page]and Bone of the Bone of every one of us; so that no Native of this Island can say as once the Ten Tribes did to2 Chron. chap. 10. v. 16. Rehoboam, What Portion have we in Da­vid? And we have no Inheritance in the Son of Jesse: For You are equally alike to all of us, our Portion, and our Inheritance.

But this, Great SIR, is not all: Providence has not only Obliged us to our Duty, by giving us, to Rule over us, the greatest King in Christendom, in Respect of Blood: You are not only of the Most Antient Kingly Descent of any Christian Monarch, being the Eleventh that in a due and direct Succession have worn a Dia­dem; But You are likewise the Inheritor of the Glori­rious Endowments of Your Royal Progenitors. Their Virtues are Ʋnited in You as well as their Blood. Not to fetch Examples from Darker Antiquity; In You we daily behold the Courage and Magnanimity of King Ed­ward III. The Prudence and Policy of King Hen­ry VII. The Peaceable Inclination of Your Royal Grandfather King James; And the Piety and Clemency of that Blessed Martyr Your Father. * VVhere then should we find a Center to fix our Obedience, but where Heaven has cocentred all these Advantages of Blood and Virtue?

And yet, SIR, there still remains one more Signal Observation, which seems to Cry out like a Voice from Heaven, and Challenge our Duty and Allegeance to Your Royal Line, which is, That when ever, for the Sins of the people, God hath permitted Invaders or Ʋsurpers to Disturb the Peaceable Course of some of Your Ancestors Reigns, yet never did the Intrusion last beyond the Third or Fourth Generation, but, by some means or other unthought of by and undiscernable to Mankind, Providence hath Ordered the Return of the Crown to the Lawful Heir. This in­deed is Digitus Dei; which has powerfully been shewn up­on sundry Occasions, but never did the Arm of God more plainly appear than in that Miraculous Preservation and Restauration of Your Majesty to the Throne, when with­out Dint of Sword, or any open Violence, even the Ma­lice of Your very Enemies, was, by the Divine Power, [Page]lull'd asleep, and You endeared to us by being made the Restorer of those Breaches both in Church and State, which, by the Pride, Ignorance, and Folly of a violent Party among us, were opened so wide, that they threatned no­thing less than utter Desolation.

And now surely he must be the most perverse of Man­kind, that will not yield that to be Right which Heaven and Earth Proclaim to be so, such Monsters deserve not only to be cut off from the People, but razed out of the Memory of Mankind. May Your Majesties Do­minions never breed more such Vipers, but all Your good Subjects, with an unanimous Heart, join and say with the Prophet David, 2 Sam. chap. 7. v. 29. Therefore now let it please thee to bless the House of thy Servant (the King) that it may continue for ever before thee, for thou, O Lord God, hast spoken it, and with thy Blessing let the House of thy Servant be Blessed for ever. Which shall be the daily Prayer of,

(May it Please Your Most SACRED MAJESTY;) Your Majesties most Dutiful, And most Obedient Subject and Servant, FRANCIS SANDFORD, Lancaster Herald.
BOOK I. The Norman D …

BOOK I. The Norman Dynasty.

CONTAINING A Genealogical History OF THE KINGS OF ENGLAND, &c. From WILLIAM the CONQUEROR, to HENRY II.

From the Year 1066. to the Year 1154.

✚ HOC ANGLIS REGEM SIGNO FATEARIS EVNDEM

WILL. I

✚ HOC NORMANORUM VVILLELMVM NOS EE PATRONVM SI

Genorosissimo Viro Dno ROBERTO VYNER Equiti aurato et Baronotto, nec non celeberrima Civi statis LONDINI Senatori Tabulam hanc Sigillorum H. D. F. S.

✚ VVILIELMVS DEI GRATIA REX ANGLORVM

WILL II

✚ VVILIELMVS DEI GRATIA DVX NORMANNORVM
✚ HENRICVS DEI GRATIA REX ANGLORVM

HEN I

✚ HENRICVS DEI GRATIA DVX NORMANORVM
✚ HENRICVS DEI GRATIA REX ANGLORVM

HEN I

✚ HENRICVS DEI GRATIA REX NORMANORVM

Generosissimo Viro Domino, IOSEPHO SHELDON Equiti Aurato, nec non Celeberrima Civitatis Londini Senatori. Sigillorum hanc Jabulam H. D. F. S.

✚ MATHILDIS DEI GRATIA ROMANORVM REGINA
[blazon or coat of arms]
✚ STEPHANVS DEI GRATIA REX ANGLORVM

K. STE.

✚ STEPHANVS DEI GRATIA DVX NORMANNORVM
A GENEALOGICAL TABLE Of the First BOOK.
  • 1. WILLIAM the First of that Name, King of England, and Duke of Normandy, called The Conqueror, Pag. 1. MAUD, Daughter of Baldwin the Fifth, Earl of Flanders, p. 3.
    • 2. ROBERT Duke of No­mandy, p. 7. Sibil of Con­versana, pag. 14.
      • 3. WILLIAM Earl of Flan­ders, p. 16. SIBIL of Anjou, p. 18. JOAN of Savoy, p. 18.
      • HEN­RY, p. 18.
      • Natural Sons, viz. Richard and Wil­liam, p. 19.
    • RICH­ARD, p. 7.
    • WILLIAM the Second, King of Eng­land, p. 19.
    • HENRY the First, King of Eng­land, and Duke of Nor­mandy, p. 24. MAUD of Scotland, ibid.
      • WILLIAM Duke of Nor­mandy died. S. P. p. 28. MATILDA of Anjou, p. 29.
      • MAUD the Relict of HENRY the Fourth, Emperor, p. 34. Remarried to GEOFFREY Earl of An­jou, p. 34, 35.
        • 4. HENRY the Se­cond, King of Eng­land, &c. Mentioned in the First Chapter of the Second Book, continued the De­scent.
        • GEOFFREY Earl of Nantes, p. 37.
        • WILLIAM, p. 37.
    • CICILIE Abbess of Cane, p 9. CON­STANCE, Countess of Britain, p. 9.
    • ADE­LIZA, p. 10.
    • ADELA or ALICE, Wife of Ste­phen Earl of Blois, p. 10.
      • STEPHEN King of England, p. 38. MAUD of Bologne, p. 10. & 40.
        • BALD­WIN, p. 42.
        • EUSTACE Earl of Bo­logne, p. 42. CON­STANCE of France, p. 42.
        • WILLIAM, p. 43. ISSABEL Countess Warren, p. 43.
        • MAUD, p. 43. MARY Wife of Matthew of Flan­ders, p. 44.
        • Natural Sons, viz. WILLI­AM, p. 44. GER­VAIS Abbot of Westmin­ster, ibid.
      • WILLIAM, p. 10.
      • THEO­BALD Earl of Blois, p. 10.
      • HENRY Bishop of Winchester, p. 11.
    • GUNDRED Countess of Surrey, p. 12. WILLIAM de Warrenna, ibid.
    • AGA­THA, p. 12.
Natural Issue of King HENRY the First, and their Descendants.
  • 3. ROBERT Earl of Glocester, p. 45. MABEL Fitz-Ha­mon, ibid.
    • 4. WILLIAM Earl of Glo­cester, p. 48. HADE­WISA, p. 47, 48.
      • 5. ROBERT died S. P. p. 48.
      • MABEL Wife of AL­MERICK Montfort, Earl of Eve­reax, p. 48.
      • AMICIA married to GILBERT de Clare Earl of Glocester, p. 49.
      • ISSABEL Wife of John Earl of Mor­taigne, p. 49.
    • ROGER Bishop of Worcester, p. 47.
    • RICHARD Bishop of Bayon, p. 47.
    • HAMON, p. 47.
    • MABEL Wife of AUBREY de Vere, p. 47.
    • MATIL­DA mar­ried to Ranulph Earl of Chester, p. 47.
  • RICH­ARD, p. 30. AMI­CIA de Guarder, ibid.
  • REYNALD Earl of Corn­wal, p. 50. N—Fitz-Richard, ibid.
    • HAWIS Countess of De­von, p. 51.
    • MAUD Countess of Melent, p. 51.
    • URSULA Lady of Castlecomb, p. 51.
    • SARAH Vicount­ess of Le­moges, p. 51.
  • RO­BERT, p. 30. GIL­BERT, p. 31.
  • WILLI­AM de Tracy, p. 31. HEN­RY, ib.
  • MAUD or MARY Countess of Perch, p. 32. Rotrock Earl of Perch, ib.
  • MAUD Countess of Britain, p. 32. CONAN Earl of Bri­tain, ibid.
  • JULIAN, p. 32. N—mar­ried to William Goet, ibid.
  • CON­STANCE Vicountess Beaumont. p. 33. ROZCE­LIN. Vic. Beaumont, ibid. N—married to Matthew de Montmorency, p. 33. ELIZABETH Wife of Alex­ander King of Scots, ibid.
K WILL CON [...]

K WILLIAM 2

K HENRY 1

K STEPHEN

Anne Domini 1066. Octob. 14.1. WILLIAM I. KING of ENGLAND, and DUKE of NORMANDY, called the CONQUEROUR.Gules 2 Ly­ons passant guardant Or, are the Arms as­signed to this WILLIAM the Conqueror, as also to Re­bert Duke of Normandy, King William II. and King Henry I. all three his Sons, the two last his Successors, de­rived (as Tra­dition tells us) hereditarily from ROL­LO, the First Duke of Nor­mandy; who is said to bear in his Escoche­on or Shield, the same Charge, affe­cting as several other Nor­thern Princes did, that Sove­reign Beast the Lyon. I term these Arms attribu­ted, or assign­ed, because I cannot find ei­ther by Monu­ments, Coyns, Seals, or any Cotemporary Author, that such were in use with these several Princes, but that fol­lowing Ages did assign or fix them upon the Norman Line, to di­stinguish it from the suc­ceeding Plan­tagenets, that did bear Gules' 3 Lyons passant guar­dant Or (King Henry II. the First of that Race, adding to the Norman Arms the Ly­on of Aquitain of the same Mettal, in a Field of that Colour, in the Right of Elianor his Wife, Heir of that Coun­trey) and for this cause are they painted for the Con­querour, upon the Tomb of Queen Eliza­beth in Henry VII. Chap­pel at West­minster, im­paled with those of Queen MAND of Flanders his Wife, viz. Gironne of eight pieces Or, and Azure, an Ineschocheon Gules, Arms attributed to the Forresters, and First Earls of Flanders, to the time of Ro­bert the Fri­son; (Oliva­rius Uredus in Sigilla Com. Flandriae p. 6.) and the Arms also of King Henry I. im­paleing them of Queen Maud of Scotland, viz Or, a Ly­on rampant within a dou­ble, Tressure counter-flowry Gules; when indeed Impalements were not known before the time of Henry the Thirds if so soon, as I shall prove in its proper place. To pass by the Poetical Fictions of Devises assigned to the Trojan and Grecian Captains, those attributed to Solomon, David, and Josbua, yea and our Saviour himself, by Monks, Poets, and Painters (Hen. Spelman Eq. Anr. in Aspilogia, p. 41.) We may upon better grounds not only note the Devises of several Romans upon their Consular Coins (Carolus Patin in Antiquis Numismatibus, &c. pag. 257. & 313.) but take a view of their Practice in the time of Trajan the Emperour, upon whose Pillar (one of the Worlds most famous Monuments in being) are not only variety of Devises, but also the exact form and differ­ence of the Roman, German, and Dacian Shields. But to confine my self within the limits of my Story, and to prove that De­vises were in use about the time of the Conquerour, we may note in the Challenge of Geffrey Martell Earl of of Anjou returned him, being only Duke of Normandy near Damfront, by Roger de Montgomery and others; where the Earl, that he might be the bet­ter known to the Duke, describes, Qualem Equum in praelio sit habiturus, quate SCUTUM, & qualem vestitum: and Roger on the behalf of the Duke of Normandy, Equum vicissim Domini sui praefignat, vestitum & ARMA, Gesta Will. Ducis Normanuiae, pag. 113. Upon this ground Samuel Daniel in his History of the Conquerour's Life, pag. 26 (surnished with what other Authority I know not) enlargeth thus: That Count Martell made this return by Roger de Montgomery, viz. Tell the Duke, to morrow by day-break, he shall have me there on a White Horse, ready to give him the Combate, and I will enter Damfront if I can; and to the end he shall know me, I will wear a SHIELD d' OR without any devise. Roger replies, Sir you shall not need to take the pains, for to morrow morning you shall have the Duke in this place, mounted on a Bay Horse, and that you may know him, he shall wear on the point of his Launce a STREAMER OF TAFFATA to wipe your face. Here was a Shield d' Or (of Gold) without any Devise, which implies that Devises were used in that time, but it seameth onely momentary, taken up, and laid down at pleasure: For had they been personal, that is, for life, Count Geffrey might have been as well known by his Devise, as Families are by their Arms at this day. And its probable the reason why the Shields of that Age were lest Blanks, or of one Simple Colour or Mettal, was to receive the Impress of every Fancy that either pleased the Bearer or the Painter.
CHAP. I.

THere had been a continued Succession of Six Dukes of Normandy, Gesta Nor­man. ex Veteri Co­dice, M.S. pag. 213. beginning with ROLLO, who being a Nobleman of Denmarke, came forth with the exuberancie of his Nation, and compel­led Charles surnamed the simple, King of France, by force of Armes to make him Duke of Nor­mandy. To Rollo succeeded his Son William the Second Duke, (called Longue-Espee or Long-Sword) Father of Richard, Third Duke of Normandy; who had issue Richard, surnamed the Hardy, and Emma (Wife of King Etheldred) Mother of St. Edward the Confessor,Will. Malmesh. Will. Gem­meticonfis p. 230. d. & 231. a, b, c. King of England; from whom our succeeding Mo­narchs derive the Cure of the Kings Evil. Richard Duke of Nor­mandy II. of the Name, surnamed the Hardy, had two Sons, Richard and Robert; Richard succeeded his Father by the Name of Richard III. and was Fifth Duke of Normandy, who decea­sing without issue, the Dutchy came to his Brother Robert the Sixth Duke of Normandy, Father of this WILLIAM II. of the Name, Seventh Duke of Normandy and Conquerour of England, begotten on Arlot a Skinners Daughter of Falais, Rob. of Glocester. whom he affected for her Beauty, and Comely Dancing (which he by chance be­held) among her Countrey Companions. WILLIAM thus meanly generated, yet wanted not before, and at his Birth, Presa­ges of his future Greatness; for his Mother being with-child of Him, [Page 2] The Norman Dinastyhad a Dream (like that of Mandana Mother of Cyrus the First Per­sianBook I. Monarch) that her Bowells were extended over all Normandy and England; and even his Bastardy seemed to have an allay, if it be true asWill. Malmesh. lib. 3. in principio. Ingulph. lib. 6. cap. 19. some write, that his Father took Arlot to Wife. Nor was Bastardy at that time accounted a scandal or reproach, for this WILLIAM in his Grant to Alan Earl of Brittain, of the Lands of Earl Edwin in Yorkshire, styles himself WILLIAM, surna­med Bastard, King of England; it being then also a general Cu­stom in France, that Bastards did succeed even in Dignities of highest condition, as Children lawfully begotten.Scevola & Louis de St. Marthe. lib. 2. p. 68. Thierry Bastard of Clouis, had for his Appennage with the Lawful Children of the said Clouis, the Kingdom of Austrasia, now called Lorrain; so likewise in England, Harold surnamed Harefoot, Bastard to Canu­tus, succeeded him in the Kingdom, before Hardy-Canutus his Lawful Son. The like Custom hath also been observed in Spain and Portugal, and its probable this use was grounded upon often expe­rience, that Bastards (as begotten in the highest heat and strength of affection) have many times been Men of excellent proof both in courage and understanding. But however it was, Duke Ro­bert esteemed our WILLIAM worthy to be his Successor, for undertaking his Pilgrimage to the Holy-Land (whether out of De­votion, or Penance, for procuring his Brother Richards Death, whereof he was suspected) he caused his Nobles to swear Allegi­ance to WILLIAM; and after his Death to receive him for their Prince, being then onely Nine years old; the Tuition of whom he left to his Brothers, and the Guardianship of his person to Henry the First, King of France, Will. Gem­met. lib. 6. oh. 7. into whose Custody he delivered him with his own hands; that King owing Robert a kindness for former assistance in the preservation of his Crown.

But Duke Robert's Journey and Life ending together, the No­bles of Normandy by much intreaty got him out of the French Kings hands, thinking by his presence to awe his Estate the better; but soon they found that having his person among them, without his power, was but to put them into more disorder and faction; and [Page 3]more than that, WILLIAM's Bastardy gave occasion, and his Youth opportunity to Roger de Tresny his Cosin (though in a re­mote degree) and William Earl of Arques his Uncle,Gesta Guil. Ducis Nor. &c. p. 184. b. c. d. & 185. a. b. c. to lay claim to the Dutchy of Normandy; the first of which bringing his Title to the Trial of a Battail, was by the valiancy of Roger de Beaumont slain upon the place, with his two Brethren; and Arques, though privately assisted by the King of France (who now grew jealous of Duke WILLIAM's Successes) was overthrown by Count Guiffard the Duke's General, leaving the Town of Arques (the First Arch of Triumph) to this Conquerour, not yet arrived the Age of Seventeen years. A third Competitor there was, Guy of Bourgoigne; who though more distant in blood, yet by the treaso­nable practices of his discontented Lords, had succeeded in his De­sign; had not the Duke (warned by a certain Fool) by a sudden retreat into France, not only avoided them, but perswading that King to assist him in Person with his Forces, returned home, and at the Battel of Dunes cut off that Knot of Confederacy; forcing Bourgoigne to submit to mercy. This happened when he was about Two and twenty years old. Several other Affronts were after­wards offered him, some by meaner persons, some by the King of France himself; all which he overcame with such Prudence and Va­lour, that they got him a high opinion in the World, and settled him on the Basis of a firm Government. And being thus fixed, his Nobility minding the Duke of a Succession, perswade him to mar­ry MATILDA or MAƲD, His Marri­age. Daughter of Baldwin V. sur­named The gentle, Earl of Flanders (by Hadala or Alix, Eldest Daughter of Robert II. of the Name, King of France, Son of Hugh Capet) a potent Prince at that time, and so much the more, in that he wasScevola and Louis de Sante Marthe. p. 305. a. Guardian to the young King of France Philip (Son of King Henry) by Baldwin's means made afterwards instrumental to Duke WILLIAM's greatness. The Solemnity of this Mar­riage was celebrated at Augi in Normandy, and in the second year of WILLIAM's Reign over England, she wasMatthew Westminst. crowned Queen, upon Whit-Sunday in the year of Our Lord God One thousand sixty and eight, by Aldred Archbishop of York. She had by Him a Numerous Issue, among which her eldest Son Robert was her Dar­ling; witness her maintaining him in his Quarrel for Normandy a­gainst his own Father, and assisting towards the payment of the War out of her own Coffers. Which act of hers rather caused the displeasure,Mat. Paris p. 11. Robert of Glocest. p. 186. than hatred of the King her Husband, it being for the advancement of her Son. She departed this life the second day of November (being All-Souls-Day) in the 17th year of WILLI­AM the Conquerour,Will. Malmesh. fol. 62. b. num. 10. and of our Lord 1083. and was interred in the Monastery of the Holy Trinity (of her own foundation) at Cane, betwixt the Choire and High Altar; where King WIL­LIAM caused a stately Memorial to be raised for her (embel­lished with Gold and Precious Stones) and inscribed with this Epi­taph in Golden Characters.

Egregie pulcri tegit haec structura Sepulcri
Moribus insignem, germen Regale MATHILDEM.
Ordericus Vital [...]s p. 647. & 648.
Dux Flandrita pater, huic extitit Hadala mater,
Francorum gentis Roberti filia Regis,
Et soror Henrici Regali sede potiti,
Regi magnifico WILLELMO juncta marito,
Praesentem sedem praesentem fecit & aedem,
Tam multis terris, quam multis rebus honestis
A se ditatam, se procurante dicatam,
Haec consolatrix inopum, pietatis amatrix,
Gazis dispersis pauper sibi, dives egenis
Sic infinitae petiit consortia vitae
In prima mensis post primam luce Novembris.

Duke WILLIAM now towards his declining Age,Rob. of Glocest. p. 186. under­takes his Expedition for the Conquest of England, unto which Kingdom he pretended a Right, by theRogerus Hoveden sol 348. a. n. 30. & n. 40. Gesta Guil. Ducis Nor. p. 196. d. n. 198. a. b. Gift of King Edward, (for his Sanctity surnamed the Confessor) lately deceased, Cosin German to his Father Duke Robert; nor wanted he a powerful in­citement to put his Title in execution: for perjured Harold, Earl Godwin's Son, who had formerly sworn to assist him in the gaining of the Crown; not onely falsified his Oath, but being appointed Regent of England during the minority of Edgar-Etheling (or Prince Edgar) the Lawful Heir, deposed his said Master, and set the Royal Diadem on his own Rebellious Head. Notwith­standing which Duke WILLIAM sent several Proposals to Ha­rold in order to an Accommodation, all which being by him slighted, was indeed the true cause that spurred on the affronted Duke to this Expedition; not thinking himself too old for a King­dome, when Galba aged near 73 years, buckled on Armor to obtain the Roman Empire. But being of himself too weak for such an Enterprise, He by fair promises, not only engages the Em­perourGesta Guil. Du­cis, &c. p. 197. c. Henry IV. and the young King of France Philip (by means of his Father in Law Baldwin Earl of Flanders, who sent him large supplies) but also (to make Religion give Reputation to his Pretended Right) procures from Pope Alexander aGesta Guill. p. 197. c. & 201. c. Banner of the Church, with an Agnus of Gold, and one of the Hairs of St. Pe­ter. With this collected force, being near 60000 men, Duke WILLIAM arrives atIbid. p. 199. a. b. Pevensey in Sussex; who to create a more desperate valour in his souldiers, sends away his ships: King Harold (having lately won the Battel of Stamford, and slain Harold Harfager King of Norway) hearing of his Landing, advances with all speed, and gathering together his wearied Troops, and increa­sing them in his March, over-hastily (contrary to the advice of his best Counsellors) gives the Duke Battel at Hastings in Sussex upon the 14th day of October Anno 1066. Where after Prodigious Acts of Valour performed by these two great Chieftains in a doubtful Fight, and the loss of above 66000 souldiers on both sides, the [Page 5]Normans won the day, and Harold lost his life, and whole Eng­land with him her Ancient Laws and Liberties (except the Kentish men,Ingulphus fol. 512.2. n. 20. Matth. Pa­ris p. 12. n. 30. who circumvented the Conquerour by Stratagem, and there­by retained their Old Customs.) The Place of Fight WIL­LIAM made famous, by the Erection of Battel Abbey, dedica­ted to St. Martin; and from the time, being the 14th day of October, began the Computation of his Reign over England; unto which Victory he also owed his Appellation of The Conquerour. Upon Christmass day next following he was crowned at Westmin­ster in the Church of St. Peter, W. Malm. fol. 57. b. n. 50. Henricus Hunting. fol. 211. a. n. 50. Gesta Guil. Ducis, &c. p. 206. a. by Aldred Archbishop of York (the Archbishop of Canterbury Stigand, to whom that Office did pro­perly belong, not being admitted for some defect in his Investiture, or perhaps some corruption in his Manners) where according to Custom, the Bishops and Barons of the Realm took their Oaths to be his true Subjects, and he reciprocally made his Personal Oath before the Altar of St. Peter, To defend the holy Churches of God, and the Rectors of the same; To govern the universal people subject unto him, justly; To establish equal Laws, and to see them duly exe­cuted.

In the second year of his Reign,Matth. Pa­ris pag. 5. n. 20. viz. 1067. Edgar Etheling, with the discontented Earls Edwin and Morcar, made some resist­ance, but to no purpose; so that Edgar with his Mother and Sisters, were forced to flie into Scotland; where King Malcolme entertained them nobly, took his Sister Margaret to Wife, and by his constant and effectual standing for him, Edgar was reconciled to the Con­querour, and had royal allowance from him: several of the Nobi­lity and chiefest of the English Clergy were guilty of this defection, whom WILLIAM punished in their Estates; which he aliena­ted, and burthened with unusual Taxes, and therewith gratified his Normans and other Adventurers; and for his future security, disarmed the Commonalty, and ordained theA Law, that every one should put out his Fire and Light, at the ringing of the Eight-a-Clock Bell, to pre­vent Insurrecti­ons; called at this day by the Vulgar Curfur. Conure Feu. He pur­chased the departure of the two Sons of Swayne King of Denmark, (who had invaded the North Parts of England) with money,Mat. Paris p. 11. n. 10. and in the 13th year of his Reign, Anno 1079, he constrained the Princes of Wales to do him Fealty, as before in his seventh year he had forced Malcolm King of Scots to be his Homager; so that if England made him greater than he was before, a King of a Duke, he no less made England greater, by joyning several Dominions in one. He caused a GreatThis Seal hath on the one side, the Pi­cture of the King in his Robes, sitting on a Throne, with his Crown on his Head; in his right hand he holds a Sword, and in his left a Mound, with a Cross thereon. On the other side he is rep e­sented on Hors­back armed at all points, in his righthand he hath a Streamer (issuing from the Staffe) slit in form of a Trident, and in his left he bears a shield of an oval shape, the con­vex side next your sight; so that if there were any de­vise thereon, its not to be disco­vered. Seal to be made for himself, wherein was circumscribed on the one side,

HOC NORMANORUM WILLELMUM NOSCE PATRONUM And on the Reverse was engraven,See his Great Seal in Speed, p. 115. HOC ANGLIS REGEM SIGNO FATEARIS EUNDEM.

Thus Englished.

This Sign doth WILLIAM, Normans Patron show,
By this the English Him their King do know.

To those Insurrections that vexed him in England, his Son Robert added a more unnatural one in Normandy (by the instigation of the King of France) which King WILLIAM hastning to appease,Mat. Paris p. 10. n. 10. a. 1075. was by his own Son unhorsed; whom yet upon submission, he was content to pardon: but afterwards taking revenge upon the scof­fing of the King of France, in his return into Normandy (being cor­pulent and in years) by a leap of his Horse, he took a rupture in his inward parts, which putting him into a Feaver, he died thereof at Roan, Will. Gem­met. p. 292. Rogerus Hoveden, fol. 348. a. n. 50. & 264. a. n. 20. upon the V. of the Ides of September (viz. the IX. day of September) Anno 1087. aged above LXIV. years; having go­verned Normandy LII. and reigned King of England XX. years, and near XI. moneths. The disposal of his Estates to his three Sons, these few Old Rhimes comprehend.

He yaf his Eldest Son Normandy,
Continua­tion of Ro­bert of Glocester, p. 335.
And to the Secund Engelond truly,
To the Thridde his Goods menable,
This was holde ferme and stable.

WILLIAM thus overcome by death, was forsaken of his Followers, despoiled of all, and left naked on the ground, till at last one Harlewyne a Countrey Knight embalmed his Body, and conveyed it to Cane; where in the Office of Burial it was thrice for­saken, and then a Composition forced for his Grave by Anselme Fitz-Arthur, which at last proved too little for so great a Con­querour.

But afterwards King William Rufus his second Son, and imme­diate Successor in his Kingdom of England, caused a most stately Mausoleum to be erected for Him,Will. Gem­met. p. 292. before the High Altar of St. Stephen (an Abbey of the Order of St. Benedict, of his own Foundation) at Cane, his Burial Place. One Otho a Goldsmith was the Workman, and the Materials Gold, Silver, and rich Stones, and although several Epitaphs were composed by the Wits of that Age, yet only that of Thomas Archbishop of Yorke was pre­ferred, and pencil'd upon his Tomb in Letters of Gold.

He that the sturdy Normans rul'd, and over English raign'd,
And stoutly won, and strongly kept, what he so had obtain'd.
And did the Swords of those of Mans by force bring under awe,
And made them under his Command, live subject to his Law.
This great King William lieth here, entomb'd in little Grave,
So great a Lord, so small a house, sufficeth him to have.
When Phoebus in the Virgins lap, his circled course apply'd,
And twenty three degrees had past, even at that time he dy'd.
Qui rexit rigidos Northmanos atque Britanos,
Ordericus Vitalis, P. 663.
Audacter vicit, fortiter obtinuit.
Et Caenomenses virtute coercuit enses,
Imperii (que) sui legibus applicuit,
Rex magnus parva jacet hac GUILLELMUS in Ʋrna
Sufficit & magno parva domus Domino
Ter septem gradibus se volverat at (que) duobus
Virginis in gremio Phoebus, & hic obiit.

This stately Monument flourished until the year 1562.Sir Rich. Baker in the Life of King Wil­liam I. pag. 34.8. and then Chastillion taking the City of Cane, certain dissolute souldiers open­ing it, and not finding the Treasure they expected, brake it to [Page 7]pieces, and threw forth the Conquerours Bones with great derision; some whereof were afterwards brought into England. But the Monks lately in the year 1642. in the place thereof caused a plain Altar Tomb to be built, the sides and ends of which are of speckled Marble, red and white, the Top Stone of Touch, the whole frame raised on a Pedestal of Free-stone; on an Escocheon at the Head are the three Lyons of England, and at the foot, upon ano­ther the two Lyons of Normandy; on the South side the above recited Epitaph is restored. The Figure of which Monument I here present you, with the Inscription on the North side thereof, transcribed from the Original by aJervas Holles Esq one of the Masters of Request to His Ma­jesty King Charles [...]I. Person of Worth, and a Lover of Antiquities.

Clarissimo Gener­osissimo (que), Viro, Domino GEORGIO de CARTARET, Eqviti Aurato et Baronelto. Classium Regiarum Thesaura­rio Domus Regiae Vice Came­rario. Serenissimi Dni Regis Ca­roli II a secretioribus Consilijs.

Tumuli hanc Regis Willelmi Conquorteris Figui [...]m. H.D.F.S. 1666

LOYAL DVOIR

HOC SEPVLCHRVM INVIOTISSIMI IVXTA ET CLEMENTISSIMI CONQVESTORIS GVILLELMI, DVM VIVERET ANGLORVM REGIS NORMANDORVM COENO MANORVM (QUE) PRINCIPIS, HVIVS INSIGNIS ABBATIae. PIISSIMI FVNDATORIS. CVM ANNO 1562 VESANO HAERETICORVM FVRORE DIREPTVM FVISSET PIO TANDEM NOBILIVM EIVSDEM ABBATIAE RELIGIOSORVM GRATITVDINIS SEN­SV IN TAM BENITICVM LARGIROREM INSTAVBATVM FVTT ANNO DOM. 1642 DOM̄NO IOANNE DE BAILHACHE ASCETORII PROTO PRIORE P. D. D. D.

Children of King WILLIAM the Conquerour by Queen MAƲD of Flanders his Wife.

2. ROBERT Eldest Son, succeeded his Father only in the Dukedome of Normandy, whose Story followeth in the next Chapter.

2. RICHARD second Son was born in Normandy, Rob. of Glocest. p. 173. Order. Vi­tal. p. 573. c. 781. a. and after his Father had attained the Crown came into England, where in his youth (for he had not yet received the Girdle of Knight­hood) as he hunted in the New Forrest in Hampshire, he came to a violent and sudden death by the goring of a Stagg (others [Page 8]say by a pestilent air) and is noted to be the first man that died in that place, the justice of God punishing on him,Will. Gem­meticensis p. 296. d. his Fathers depopulating that Countrey, to make a habitation for wild Beasts. His body was thence conveyed to Winchester, and there interred on the South side the Chore of the Cathedral Church; where are two black Marble Stones inlaid into the new work (built by Bishop Fox) one of which stands edgewayes in the wall, and the other lies flat; both marked with the Letter A: the manner exactly drawn from the Original, in this Figure; containing an Epitaph on the verge thereof in Saxon Letters, signifying the Person there interred to be Duke ofBernay ubi Abbathia pul­cherrima in la Bailliage d' A­lenson in Nor­mandy. Philip­pus Brierius Para [...]ella Geographiae veteris & no­vae Tom. 1. Part. 2. lib. 7. cap. 4. pag. 398. Bernay in Normandy, viz. HIC JACET RICARDUS WILLI. SENIORIS RE­GIS FILL. ET BEORN. DUX.

INTVS EST CORPVS RICHARDI WILLHELMI CONQESTORIS FILM ET BEORNIE DVCIS

[...] WILLI SE [...]RIS REGIS [...]

Nobili et egregio Ʋiro Domino EDWARDO HƲNGERFORD de Farley Castle in Com̄ Somerset Equiti de Balneo Tumuli hanc RICARDI Willelmi Conquestoris filij Figuram, H.D.D.D.F.S.

2. WILLIAM the third Son of King William and Queen Maud, succeeded his Father in the Kingdom of England, whose History followeth in the III. Chapter of this Book.

2. HENRY fourth Son, after the death of his Brother King William, obtained both the Kingdom of England, and Duke­dome of Normandy. See more of him in the IV. Chapter of this First Book.

2. CICELIE Abbesse of Cane, Ord. Vital. p. 484. d. 512. d. 548. b. e. 638. d. Rob. of Glocest. p. 173. Eldest Daughter of William the Conquerour, was born in Normandy, brought up in Eng­land, and returned again into Normandy; where in the Ninth year of King William's Reign, Anno Dom. 1075, she was by her said Father, on Easter-Day with great Solemnity offered up in the Church of Feschampe, by the hands of John the Archbi­shop, and vailed a Nun in that Monastery.Gemmet. p. 310. a. 282. c. After the death of Matilda Abbess of the Holy Trinity at Cane (founded by Queen Maud her Mother) this Cicelie undertook that Govern­ment, which she managed with singular piety for the space of XIV. years,Ceonica St. Steph. [...]adomensi [...] p. 1019. b. and then departed this World upon the xiii. day of July Anno Dom. 1126. in the XXVI. year of the Reign of King Henry the First, her Brother, and was interred in the same Monastery; having worn a Religious Habit the space of LII. years.

2. CONSTANCE Countess of Britaine, Ord. Vital. p. 484. d. 512. d. 544. c. 573 d. 638. d. second Daughter of King William and Queen Maud, was the first wife of Alan Earl of Little Britaine, surnamed Fergant in the Brittish, and in En­glish the Red (Son of Howell, second Son of Caignard, by Hawis his Wife, Daughter and Heir of Alan Earl of Britaine, and great Aunt to William the Conquerour) married unto him at Cane in Normandy; in regard of which alliance, and his ser­vice done at the Conquest of England, his Father-in-Law in the Third year of his Reign (at the Siege of Yorke) did give unto him and his heirs,W [...]. Gem. p. 310. a. all the Lands and Honours late belonging to Earl Edwin in Yorkshire; whereon he built the Castle, and whereof he made the Earldome of Richmond: which long after belonged to the Earls and Dukes of Britaine, his Successors. These are the words of the Grant translated into English, I William (surnamed Bastard, King of England) give and grant to thee my Nephew Alan Earl of Britaine, and to thy heirs for ever, all those Villages, Towns, and Lands, which were late in posses­sion of Earl Edwin in Yorkshire,Milles p. 588. with Knights-Fees and Churches, and other Liberties and Customes, as freely and honourably as the said Edwin held them. Given at the Siege before Yorke. This Constance Countess of Britaine (after she had been married XV. years) died without issue, and was buried in the Ab­bey of St. Edmondsbury in Suffolk; Ord. Vital. p. 544. c. after whose death Earl Alan espoused Ermingard Daughter of Foulk Earl of Anjou, and [Page 10]had by her Conan le Gross, unto whom King Henry the I. gave one of his Natural Daughters to Wife, named Matilda or Maud.

2. ADELIDIS or ADELIZA, third Daughter,Will. Gem­met. p. 310. c. was in her Childhood contracted unto Duke Harold, when he was in Normandy, being a young Widdower; notwithstanding which he refusing her, took another Wife, and usurped the Kingdom of England, after the death of St. Edward the Confessor:Ordericus Vitalis p. 638. d. where­by he occasioned his own ruin, and the Conquest of his King­dome; which afterwards fell out, when her Father sought re­venge, which some write was so much to the discontentment of this Lady,Will. Gem­meticensis p. 285. c. that for grief of these misfortunes she ever after re­fused Marriage, and led a single and solitary life; though others upon better warrant collect, that she died young, and before William her Father set forth for England; Harold himself plead­ing that he was free from all Covenants and Promises to the Duke by reason of the death of this his Daughter.

2 ADELA or ALICE, Countess of Blois, Will. Gem­met. p. 310. c. fourth Daugh­ter of the Conquerour and Queen Maud, was contracted unto Stephen Earl of Blois, for the Confirmation of a strict Union betwixt that Earl and her Father. This Ceremony was perfor­med at Bretville, Ord. Vital. p. 573. c. & 574. a. and afterwards their Nuptials were nobly ce­lebrated at Chartres. She out-lived her Husband, and in her Widowhood governed the County Palatine of Blois, during the Minority of her Sons, and then took upon her Religious Orders in the Priory of Nuns at Marsigny in France; Will. Gem­met. p. 313. d. where she continued in Devotion unto her lives end: which hapned to be two years after the death of King Henry I. her Brother: leaving issue by Earl Stephen four Sons and one Daughter: Viz.

3. WILLIAM, her Eldest Son, was an Innocent (saith Ralph Brooke York Herauld,Ord. Vital. p. 810. d. & 811. ad [...]20. d. &. 972 c. and Speed who exactly followeth his Copy) but as simple as he was, I find that he had a Wife, Daughter of Gilon de Soleio; whose Estate he peaceably pos­sessed during life: and also issue by her, three Sons, Odo, Ra­herius, and Henry de Soleio Abbot of Feschampe; and a Daugh­ter married to Henry Earl of Augi Son of Earl William.

3. THE OBALD, Earl Palatine of Blois, called the Great, Ord. Vital. p. 811. a. (second Son of Stephen Earl of Blois) was a man famous in War, and as great a Justicer in the time of Peace; and both for his vertue and riches ranked among the chiefest Princes of France. After the death of Henry the I. King of England his Uncle, he took Normandy into his hand, and forced the Inhabitants to Obedience. His Wife was Mand, Daughter of Duke Ingelbert, by whom he had issue three Sons, Henry Earl of Campaigne, Theobald Earl of Blois, and [Page 11] Stephen Lord of Servicium in Berry, and several Daughters. He departed this world Anno 1151.Chronica Norman­niae, p. 985. a. and upon him Giraldus Cambrensis wrote this Epitaph:

Ille Comes, Comes illo pius THEO BALDUS eras, quem
Gaudet habere polus,
Camden's Remains, p. 355.
terra carere dolet.
Non hominem possum, non adeo dicere numen:
Mors probat hunc hominem, vita fuisse deum.
Trans hominem, citraque deum, plus hoc, minus istud,
Nescio quis, neuter, inter utrumque fuit.

3. STEPHEN, Third Son of Stephen, was Earl of Mortain and Bollein, after the death of his Uncle King Henry I. he u­surped the Kingdom of England; of him you may see more in the VI. Chapter of this First Book.

3. HENRY,Will Gem. p. 310. c, d. Bishop of Winchester, Fourth Son of Stephen Earl of Blois, was a Monk of Cluny from his Childhood, from which place he was removed, and made first Abbot of Ber­mondsey, and afterwards of Glastonbury; among many Books which he wrote in Prose and Verse,Bals. one was an History of the finding King Arthur's Bones in the Abbey of Glastonbury, being a principal Actor in that discovery. He was by his Un­cle King Henry I. upon the 17 of November 1129 preferred to the Bishoprick of Winchester, Godwin. Catalogue of Bishops. fol. 170, & 171. not by favour only, or in regard of his high Extraction; for he was very learned. And though his Brother King Stephen found a good friend of him, upon his gaining the Crown of England, yet being taken pri­soner by Maud the Empress, he accursed and excommunica­ted all that resisted her: Notwithstanding he had many con­tentions with the said Empress, unto whom he was at last re­conciled. And although he is charged with the burning of most part of Winchester, and the Religious Houses, with the Ruins of which he enriched himself; yet to ballance that with his good Deeds, we must also remember, that he founded the Hospital of St. Cross near Winchester, and built the Castle of Farnham. He contended often with the Archbishop of Canterbury for Superiority, under colour that he was the Popes Legate a Latere, and (as some write) a Cardinal. He is reported to have obtained from Pope Lucius the Title of an Archbishop,Matthew Westminst. with the presentment of a Pall, and Authority over Seven Churches. He lived in great honour till the Reign of King Henry II. whom he sharply reproved, as the Causer of Thomas Becket's death, and deceased upon the 6th of Au­gust 1171.

3. MAUD Countess of Chester, Will. Gem. p. 310. c. & 313. e. only Daughter of Stephen Earl of Blois and Adela, Daughter of William the Conquerour, was married to Richard the young Earl of Chester (Son of Earl Hugh, and Grandson of Richard Viscount of Auranches) who [Page 12]enjoyed his Earldome 12 years only, for this Richard and his Wife Maud, William Son of King Henry the First, and near 200 persons more were drowned near Barbfleet, Order. Vi­tal. p. 787. c. 870. d. in their passage from Normandy, upon the vi. of the Kalends of December, viz. the 26 of November, Anno 1119. so that dying without issue, the Earldome of Chester, came to Randol Meschines his Cosin German.

2.Infra Re­ceptam Scaccarii apud V. C. Johannem Bradshaw. GUNDRED, Countess of Surrey, fifth Daughter of King William the First was married to William de Warrenna a Noble­man of Normandy; who came with the said King to the Con­quest of England: and was afterwards by King William Rufus created Earl of Surrey. He deceased upon the viii. of the Ka­lends of July (viz. the 24. day of June) Anno 1088.Ord. Vital, p. 680. d. and was buried in the Chapter-house of the Priory of Lewis in Sussex, a Monastery by him founded and dedicated to St. Pancrace, with this Inscription engraven in white stone on his Tomb.

Hic, GUILLELME Comes, locus est laudis tibi fomes,
Ibidem.
Hujus fundator & largus sedis amator.
Iste tuum funus decorat, placuit quia munus
Pauperibus Christi, quod prompta mente dedisti.
Ille tuos cineres servat Pancratius haeres,
Sanctorum castris quite sociabit in astris
Optime Pancrati, fer opem te glorificanti.
Daque poli sedem, talem tibi qui dedit aedem.

The Countess Gundred died in Childbed at Castle Acre in Nor­folk, upon the vi. of the Kalends of June (viz. the 27th day of May) Anno 1085. about three years before her Husband, and was also interred in the said Priory of Lewis, leaving by him two Sons and three Daughters, viz. William Earl Warren, and Surrey, Lib. Lew­e [...]s. M. 8. Ordericus Vitalis, p. 680. d. Will. Gem­met. lib. 7. cap. 1. Progenitor of the succeeding Earls, and Reginald Warren, who also had issue, Gundred eldest Daughter, Edith first married to Gerald de Gurney, and afterwards to Drew de Monceux; and another Daughter the Wife of Ernisius de Colunchis.

2. AGATHA the sixth and youngest Daughter of William the Conquerour, is reported to spend her time so much in prayer,Vitalis p. 573. c. that with continual kneeling her knees were brawned. She was affian­ced unto Alphonso King of Galicia in Spain, Founder of the King­dom of Portugal, renowned for his Victories against the Moors; but this Lady Agatha having not only an aversion to the person of Alphonso, but unto marriage it self,Rob. of Glocese. p. 173. made it her prayer that she might die a Virgin, which came to pass, for being upon her journey in­to Spain, she deceased, and her Body being brought back into her Native Countrey, received Burial at Bayeux.

William the Conquerour, besides these Children his lawful issue,Milles p. 62. is (by Thomas Milles in his Catalogue of Honour) said to have a Ba­stard Son, called PEVERELL, who was Lord of Notting­ham and Derby.

2. ROBERT DUKE of NORMANDY, named COURTOIS.
CHAP. II.

Gules 2 Lyons passant guar­dant Or, are the Armes as­signed to Ro­bert Duke of Normandy; which indeed are painted on the surcoat of his Effigies up­on his Tomb at Glocester. But many years af­ter his inter­ment, as evi­dently appears by several Es­cocheons of Armes depict­ed on the sides and ends of the same Monu­ment, unto which I refer the Reader. AMongst the Children of William the Con­querour and Queen Maud, Matth. Pa­tis pag. 12. l. 38. this Prince was the eldest Son, surnamed Courtchoyse, of his short Thighs; or Courthose, of his short Breeches; or Courtois, of his courteous be­haviour: (for so many are the Comments upon his Name.) He had his birth in Nor­mandy, many years before his Father sub­dued England; to which Dukedome, and also the Earldome of Main, Gemmet. p. 298. & 293. he pretended a Title; to Normandy, by the Gift of King William his Father, and to Main, upon the interest of Margaret his betrothed Wife, Daughter of Herebert Earl of that County (al­though she died in the Nunnery of Feschampe before the Consum­mation of her Marriage.) This was not the first promise the Con­querour had broken, and therefore ROBERT resolved by force of Armes to gain these Territories rather then with dutiful patience to expect them; and the King of France that now began to fear King William, endeavours by assisting the Son, to lessen the Father; nor found he a less friend of his Mother, who grown impatient not to see her Son in the possession of a Dutchy, underhand contributed largely with her own purse.Mat. Paris pag. 10. n. 10. Anno 1075. ROBERT thus confederated, gives his Father battel at the Castle of Gerbery, Anno 1075; who was there launced thorow the Arm, and unhorsed (but being discovered, remounted again, and conveyed out of the battel, leaving him the honour of the day.) Which unnatural action of Duke Robert did not so much incense the King, but that he performed his promise to him at his death; yet with such a brand, that he seemed rather therein to justifie himself, than to accommodate his Son. These are the words of his Will, The Dukedome of Normandy (said he) before I fought against Harold in the Vale of Senlac, I ganted unto my Son Robert, for that he is my first begotten, and hath already recei­ved homage of all the Barons of his Countrey; that honour given can­not be again undone. But yet without doubt, I know it will be a mise­rable Region which is subject to the rule of his Government; for he is a foolish proud Knave, and to be punished with cruel fortune. These indeed prophetick expressions of the dying Father, had their sad influences upon the Son, whose rebellion had forced his curses; for upon discontent that Normandy was still retained (before his [Page 14]Fathers sickness) ROBERT was gone into Germany to sollicite as­sistance, for the obtainment of his right in that Dutchy; but hearing of his death, hasted into the Province,Mat. Paris p. 10. n. 10. and was peaceably received and made their Duke; which Title notwithstanding seemed to him dishonourable, being disinherited of a Kingdome, into which his younger brother William (taking advantage of his absence) had in­vested himself;Rand. Higden in Potyehr. lib. 7. cap. 5. but not so absolutely, but that ROBERT forced him to the payment of 3000 Marks yearly during his life, and the Crown of England in reversion after his death. Upon this agreement ROBERT undertook the Crossiade to the Holy Land with God­frey of Bulloigne against the Saracens; where for the space of four years he behaved himself with such excellent courage and conduct, that when the Christian Princes had subdued the City and Teritory of Jerusalem, they made him the first offer of that Crown; which he refused (hearing of the death of his brother King William) to receive his own in England: and in his return married SIBIL daughter of Geoffrey and Sister of William, Earls of Conversana in Italy, His Marri­age. Gemmet. p. 299. a. Ord. Vital. p. 780. a. & 810. a. a Lady which wanted no virtue to make her an acceptable Wife. To her the Duke in his absence alwayes left the rule of his affairs at home, which contracting the envy of several Noble Women of Normandy, they made shift to remove her by poyson; having been his Wife five years. William Archbishop of Roan celebrated her Exequies, and interred her in the body of the Cathedral Church of our Lady at Roan, in a Tomb of white polished Marble; upon which these Verses were engraven,

Nobilitas, species, laus, gloria, magna potestas,
Ord. Vital. p. 810. a. b.
Vivere perpetuo non faciunt hominem.
Nam generosa, potens, dives Comitissa SIBILLA
Hoc jacet in Tumulo condita, facta cinis.
Cujus larga manus, mens provida, vita pudica,
Prodesset patriae, si diuturna foret.
Normanni Dominam, gens Apula deflet alumnam,
Cujus in occasu gloria magna ruit.
Velleris aurati cum Titan fidus inibat,
Mortem passa ruit, sit sibi vita Deus.

King William Rufus was scarce cold in his Grave, when Henry, Duke ROBERT's youngest brother an Englishman born, taking the second time advantage by his absence, usurps the Royal Diadem: And ROBERT being now returned into Normandy, is easily perswaded by Ralphe Bishop of Durham, to claim his Kingdom with his Sword; who urged to the Duke, That indeed King William Ru­fus had reason to pretend to the Crown of England, because his Father had given it him by his Will; but to what could Henry pre­tend, who had his portion left him in money; and besides it was a­greed with William, by consent of all the Lords of the Realme, that the survivor of them should succeed. These pregnant reasons quickly inflamed the Duke, who immediately raises a force, comes [Page 15]for England, and by a conjunction with his friends here, makes up a formidable Army; but instead of a battel, which in all probability might have put him in possession of the Kingdome,Henry Hunting. he was cheated into a composition at the old rate, 3000 Markes per annum, and the Crown in reversion, and so returned home; which so much disobliged his Normans, that they never after heartily as­serted his interest. After this, he made a visit out of kindness to see King Henry his brother, where he was so well pleased with his en­tertainment, that in requital thereof, and to oblige the Queen that was his God-daughter,Will. Gem. p. 298. a. he released to King Henry the 3000 Markes. But returning home, and considering better what he had done, he so repented him, that he spared not to say his brother had directly cousened him, which coming to King Henry's ear, he was so incensed, that he takes the occasion to invade Normandy, and at the battel of Tenarchbray fought upon the fifth of the Kalends of October (viz. the 27th day of September) in the seventh year of his reign,Will Gem. p. 298. c. d. Ord. Vital. p. 373. b. & 823. a. b. 887. a. anno 1106. ROBERT was made prisoner, and sent into England, and kept in durance sometime in the Castles of Bri­stol and the Devises, and last of all at Cardiff in South Wales, where he remained a prisoner till his death, used for a time with reasona­ble liberty for recreation, till attempting to make an escape, it was thought fit to put out his eyes (an unbrotherly act) which though it increased his misery, yet it shortned not his life; for he lived ma­ny years after; in all from the time of his first imprisonment xxviii. His death (as Mat. Westminster hath it) proceeded from grief taken at his brother King Henry, who (according to custom) sending him a Scarlet Robe; which he had tried on, and finding the Ca­pouch to be somewhat too strait for his head, thereupon sent it to Duke ROBERT, whom he said had one much lesse. The Duke demanded of the Messenger if any one had worn it, and be­ing informed the King had first essaied it, and what words he used, replied, I have now too long protracted a miserable life; since my brother is so injurious to me, that be sends me his old cloaths to wear; and from that time would never eat any meat, or receive any com­fort.

He deceased upon the iv. of the Ides (viz. the 10th day) of February, Vitalis p. 893. d. Will. Gem­met. p. 301. a. b. Anno 1134; and was interred in the Chore of St. Peter's Church at Glocester before the high Altar, where not long after was erected for him a Tomb (in form of a Chest) of Wainscot, with his Image thereon cross-legged; carved to the life in heart of Oak; upon the pannels of the Chest are pencilled the Armes of several of the Worthies, and at the foot the Armes of France and England quarterly. Which shew these Escocheons to be painted since the Reign of King Henry the Fourth. This Monument (to the great credit of the substance of which it was made) stood firm until that the Parliament Party having garrison'd the City of Glocester against King Charles I. the rebellious souldiers tore it to pieces; but the parcels thereof (ready to be burnt) were by the care of aSir Hum. Tracy of Stanway in the County of Glocester. Loy­al Person bought of the souldiers, and privately laid up, till the [Page 16]Restauration of his now Majesty King Charles II. when the old pieces put together again were repaired and beautified with Gold and Colours, at the charge of that worthy Person; who hath also added a Wire Skreen inform of an Arch, for its future preserva­tion. This is the form of the Monument, taken from the Original in the Month of October, Anno 1665.

Honoratissimo et Nobilissimo Domino EDWARDO Baroni HERBERT. de CHIRBVRY. et CASTLE-ISLAND, Tumu [...] hanc ROBERTI Ducis NORMANNIAE Figuram. H.D. F. S.

FORTITVDINE ET PRVDENTIA

Children of ROBERT Duke of Normandy by SIBIL of Conversana his Wife.

3.The Arms of this Earl Wil­liam are said to be Gironne of eight pieces, Or and Azure, an Ineschocheon Gules, which were the reputed Arms of the Forresters and first Earls of Flanders to the time of Philip of Alsatias who as tradition goes (in his first Expedition to the Holy Land) having slain a certain Mahumetan King of Albania, did after­wards bear his Arms, being a Lyon Rampant Sable, in a field Or; and transmitted them to his Posterity. As to the Arms of the Forresters, the only example exhibited by Olivarius Vredius for the proof of them, is the Monument of this WILLIAM, in Sigil. Comit, Flandriae, pag. 14. which you have exactly drawn from his Copy in the next leaf; n [...]t so much as seconded by the Seals of this WILLIAM or any other: but on the contrary by the same Author exploded, as rather belonging to the Monastery of St. Bertin, where several of those Earls received burial, and long afterwards had their plain Shields adorned with the Arms of the said Abbey. For it appears evidently by the Seal of Robert the Frison, above 54 years before the time of this WILLIAM, that the Lyon was used for the Arms of that Earldome; and also that the said Philip of Alsatiae Earl of Flanders, 17 years before his first Voyage to Palestine, did bear in his Shield the same Lyon rampant; which have ever since been used for the Arms of that Earldome; and doth contradict that general opinion of the occasion of bearing the Lyon. WILLIAM Earl of Flanders, born at Roan in Normandy, Ord [...]ital. p. 724. b. v: Ibidem p. 780. [...]. so called from William Archbishop of that City, who gave him his Name at the Font, was elder Son of Robert Duke of Nor­mandy, [Page 17]and for his Covetousness sirnamed Miser. He was made Earle of Flanders by Philip le Grosse King of France, in the right of Maud Queen of England his Grandmother, and succeed­ed Charles of Denmarke in that County, Anno 1127. notwith­standing that several other Lords laid claim to the said Earldome; as William de Loo Viscount of Ipre, Theoderick of Alsatia, and Baldwin of Hainalt; having good reason to contend, in respect of their proximity and descent,Petrus Baltasar in comitum Flandriae Imagines. p. 80. as appears by their Genealogies. This WILLIAM, before his advancement to the County of Flanders, behaved himself with a seeming modesty and tem­per; but being once possessed thereof, became tyrannical and cruel; by which carriage he caused the Estates and Nobles of Flanders to reject him,Henninges in Quaria Morarchia p. 78. & 79. Gemmet. p. 3 1. b. Ord. Vital. p. 887. a. and chuse in his room Theodorick Lant­grave of Alsatia, with whom WILLIAM fighting the Bat­tel of Aelst in Flanders, got the Victory, but in the prosecuti­on thereof lost his life by the wound of an arrow in his hand, up­on the vi. of the Kalends of August, (viz. the 27th day of July) in the XXVIII. year of King Henry I. his Uncle, Anno Dom,

HIC IACCET GVLLIS COMES FLANDRIE FILIUS ROBERTI DVCIS NORMANIE QUI OBIIT ANN DNI M.CC.XXVII

✚ SIGILLVM GVILLELMI COMITIS FLANDRIE

Clarissimo Generosissimo (que) viro. Dno: IOHANNI FORTESCU de Salden in co Buckinghamiae Equiti aurato et Baronetto Tumulti hanc GVILEL­MI Comitis Flandriae figuram D.D.D. F.S.

✚ SIGILLVM WILLELMI COMITIS FLANDRIE

1128. (six years before the decease of Duke Robert his Father, whose releasment and re-establishment he had strenuously en­deavoured [Page 18]and was interred at St. Omer, in the Monastery of St. Bertin, Sigilla Comitum Flandria, pag. 14. leaving his Successor Theodorick in quiet possession of the said Earldome.The Strea­mer or Sand­ard of WIL­LIAM Duke of Normandy (mentioned in my Annotati­ons in the se­cond Page of this First Book, and new dis­coursed of up­on the exhibi­tion of these Seals of WIL­LIAM Earl of Flanders) you have ex­actly represent­ed upon his Great Seal, when he after­wards came to be King of England; on that of his Son King William Rufus, and upon the Coin of King Ste­phen, charged with a Cross: Nor was this Standard figu­red only upon the Seals of our Kings at home, but abroad also, among the Neighbouring Princes; for this WILLIAM Earl of Flanders, whose Monument and Seals are depicted in the prece­dent Page; on that marked with the Letter C. is noted to have a Standard also (Olivarius Vredius in Sigal Com. Flandr. p 11.) and for another instance of this kind, you may observe that Humbert Earl of Morienne, now called Savoy, to a Grant made to Boson Viscount of Augusta, sealed with his figure on Hors-back, armed at all points, in the right hand of which is a Standard charged with an Eagle displaied, which was his Devise (the Charter dated Anno 1206. (Histoire Genealogique de la Royalle Mayson de Savoye par Samuel Guichenon, p. 121.) which Streamer is never to be found in the Seals of other than Soveraign Princes. Of this sort were those Standards of Edwin King of Northumberland, who began his Raign Anno 677, carried alwayes be­fore him: and called in English a Tuffe, as Venerable Bede observes. That of King Aelfred, named Reofan, that is Corvus; of which it is reported, That if they who displaied it in Battel were destin'd to Victory, there would appear in the middle of the Ensigne as it were a Living Raven upon the wing; but, if to be overcome, it would hang directly downward, without motion. A third was the Standard of King Oswald, of Gold and Purple, interwoven; which after his death was set up over his Tomb at Beardney Abbey. Bede lib. 3. cap. 11. And lastly, That of King Harold, lost with his life and Kingdome to Wil­liam the Conquerour, and afterwards by William sent to the Pope; the form thereof resembling an Armed Man, wrought in Gold and Precious Stones with most exquisite workmanship. (mentioned by Malmesbury.) And well might this Imperial Ensign be exhibited among the Regalia and Marks of Dominion, when it was displaied only in the Army where the King or Soveraign Prince himself commanded in Person; (for which cause it hath with us the Denomination of the STANDARD ROYAL) In levioribus enim congressibus (saith Sir Henry Spelman in Aspilogia, p. 22.) nun­quam visum est (meaning the Standard) sed tantum in ipso regio exercitu jam de summa rerum confligente. And Huntington fol. 388. num. 20. speaking of David King of Scots invading King Stephen, hath it, Erecto (viz. Standardo) huic con­currendum est ut de salute publica perictitaturis. Sic Davide Scotorum Rege innumerabilem exercitum in Angliam promo­ventent contra Stephanum proceres Boreales viriliter restituerunt, fixo STANDARDO, idest, Regio insigni, apud Al­verton. And Brito Armoricanus (in Apice, lib. cjus 11.) mentioning the Conflict of Otho the Emperour against Philip Augustus King of France, emphatically expresses the Dignity of this Ensign in this Hexameter STANDARDO Mundi Dominum se disputat Otho. As the Middle Ages among the Romans (saith Sir Hen. Spelman) changed the Imperial Banner into the Name of the Laba­rum, so other Nations in the more Modern, that of the Labarum into the appellation of a STANDARD, a word deri­ved from the Germans, signifying a Stationary, or thing fixed. The Saxons called it Becan, its probable because Becen signifieth Discernabic; from which our Becons set upon the tops of Mountains and Hills (fired to give notice to the Countrey upon occa­sion of Insurrections and Invasions) derive their Denomination. The form of his Tomb of Grey Marble, I present to your view in the fore-going Page (copied out of Olivarius Vredius) upon the Verge of which is this In­scription, HIC JACET GUILLELMVS COMES FLAN­DRIE FILIVS ROBERTI DVCIS NORMANIE QVI O'BIIT ANNO DOMINI M.CCXXVII. which Epi­taph disagreeth 99 years from the time of his death; for he de­parted this World in the year of our Lord M. CXXVIII. The two Seals (mentioned in the precedent Page) are taken out of the same Author, Pag. 11. & 12. that marked with the Letter C. annexed to Charters dated Anno 1127. and that no­ted with D. to one bearing date Anno 1128. (ei fatalis, mean­ing thereby the year of his death.)

This WILLIAM Earl of Flanders had two Wives,Will. Gem. met. p. 299. a. b. the first of which was SIBIL (whose Mother also named Sibil, was Daughter of Foulk Earl of Anjou) after divorced from him and remarried to his Successor Theodorick before-mentioned;His Marri­ages. Ord. Vital. p. 784. b.c. af­ter which he took to his second Wife Joan Daughter of Hum­bert Earl of Morienne (now called Savoy) Sister of Queen Alix of France, Wife of King Lewis le Grosse; but by neither of these had any Child.

3. HENRY the younger Son of Duke Robert, Will. Malmesb. fol. 62. b. a. 30. hunting in the New Forrest in Hampshire, was (Absalom like) caught up in the boughs of a Tree by the Jaws (his Horse passing under) and so was left hanging until he died; being the second per­son that in that same place came to a violent death,Order. Vi­tal. p. 781. a. preceded by Richard, and succeeded by King William Rufus, both his Uncles; who also there had their untimely ends.

Natural Issue of Duke ROBERT.

3. RICHARD and WILLIAM,Ordericus Fitalis p. 780. c. & 781. a. Bastard Sons of Robert Duke of Normandy, whom he begat of the young and beau­tiful Concubine of a certain old Priest living on the borders of France. These Children were by their Mother for a long time carefully educated, and being grown up, by her pre­sented to the Duke in Normandy, who by several tokens made her self known to him; but he doubting of the Children, she in his presence purged them by Fire-Ordeal. These Sons com­ming to mans estate, one of them took a surfeit in Hunting, of which he died; and the other (after his Father Duke Robert was taken prisoner at the battel of Tenarchbray) undertook a Voy­age to Jerusalem, and there died fighting valiantly against the In­fidels.

WILLIAM II. KING of ENGLAND, and DUKE of NORMANDY, surnamed RUFUS.
CHAP. III.

WILLIAM the Conquerour being dead,An. Dom. 1087. Sept. 9. the Crown of England did by right of succession fall upon his eldest Son Robert, but this WILLIAM his third Son (born in Nor­mandy, in the XXI. year of his Fathers Dukedome, and surnamed of the red co­lour of his hair in French Rous, and in La­tine Rufus) alwayes framed his actions so parallel with his Fathers humour, that he thought him much more worthy to succeed him in his Kingdome.Matth. Pa­ris p. 14. n. 10.20. Rob. of Glocest. p. 192. Rogerus Hoveden, p. 264. a. n. 30. And Lanfrank the learned Lombard, this William's Tutor, Archbishop of Canterbury (who had given him his Education and the Order of Knighthood) so prevailed with the people, that Robert (being absent at that time in Germany) was rejected, and WILLIAM hastning into England, was crowned at Westminster by the said Lanfrank upon the vi. of the Ka­lends of October (viz. the 26th day of September) in the year of our Salvation 1087. seventeen dayes after the decease of his Fa­ther. But having gotten a peaceable possession of the Crown, he must [Page 20]not think to hold it so, for both his brother Robert prepares to re­cover it from him, and the Lords of England combine with Ro­bert to assist him in it. The first mover of this trouble was Odo Bishop of Bayeux his Uncle, in his Fathers time imprisoned by Lan­frank, and therefore owed him a grudge; but though this storm was violent, yet it soon passed over; that indeed of his Lords with more difficulty,Matth. Pa­ris, p. 16. n. 10. Rand. Higden in Potychr. lib. 7. cap. 5. but that of his brother Robert with more cost; for it was at last agreed that Rufus should pay him 3000 Markes yearly during his life, and leave him the Kingdome after his decease. Some of the Lords were reconciled to the King by fair words, and others again reduced by force; and Odo chief En­gineer of all the work besieged in Rochester Castle, taken prisoner, and forced to abjure the Realm.

Malcolme King of Scots taking advantage of WILLIAM's troubles at home, invades Northumberland, burns and harrasses the Countrey, and returns home laden with his spoils; upon which King WILLIAM and Duke Robert invade Scotland, Mat. Paris p. 16. n. 10. and force Malcolme to acknowledge his former Homage, and upon faith gi­ven, return; Being by these successes better assured of an establish­ment than before, WILLIAM now began to tread his Fa­thers steps, and with the like severity and oppression to humble the haughty spirits of the English, by imposing on them many in­tollerable Taxes, thereby keeping them low, and bereaving them of those requisites that might either promote their hope or his fears.

Duke Robert at this time finding his brother King WILLI­AM not to keep his word in paying him his Pension,Willel. Gemmet. complains to Philip King of France, and by his aid takes some Towns which he before had delivered in pawn for Money to his brother WIL­LIAM, who hearing thereof, hastens into Normandy; and the King of France by him bribed, forsook Robert; so that being de­prived of assistance, he was compelled to crave pardon; shortly after which he undertook his Voyage to Hierusalem.

His war made upon Rhees ap Tewdor the last Prince of South-Wales, Chron. Willia. proved tedious, but was at last recompenced with a signal Victory, by the death of that Prince, and a better assurance of sub­jection from that people, than had been exacted by any of his Predecessors. At which time Rob. Fitz. Hamon and his followers obtained a fruitful possession in those parts.

King WILLIAM being at Glocester, was out of kindness visited by Malcolme the valiant King of Scots, but not admitting him to his presence, it put the Scot into such a passion, that return­ing home he raised an Army, and the second time invaded and spoiled Northumberland; Matth. Paris, p. 17. n. 30. Vincent. p. 369. but by Robert Mowbray the Kings Gene­ral, Earl of that Province, he, together with his eldest son Edward, were defeated and slain near Alnwicke, Anno 1092. and Mowbray demanding a reward of King WILLIAM for his service, and being neglected, was so highly moved, that he combined with di­vers [Page 21]Lords to depose the King: but the plot being discovered, (for Traytors seldome thrive better) Mowbray after some resi­stance,Rogerus Hoveden, fol. 267. n. 10, 20, 30. was forced to seek Sanctuary at Tinmouth; from whence he was taken, and imprisoned at Windsor Castle, about the year 1095.

The Pope had no friend of our WILLIAM, who slighted his binding and loosing, and held it unavailable to invocate Saints, he punished the then swelling Clergy for their pride, luxury, and a­varice, by heavy impositions; by which means he filled his Cof­fers: heard a Disputation of the Jewes (who bribed him to favour them) against the Christians, but they lost the day and their money together.Rob. of Glocest. p. 196. b. & 197. A Groom of his Chamber on a time bringing him a pair of Breeches of three shillings price, was by him blamed, and com­manded to furnish him with a pair fit for a King, that should cost a Mark; he goes, and presenting him with a meaner pair, which he said cost so much; Yea Bellamy (or by St. Luke's Face) said the King, they are well bought; such was the frugality of those times. His liberality to religious persons and places, do manifest he was not void of Religion; and those stately Structures of the Tower; and Westminster-Hall of 270 foot long and 74 in breadth, are suf­ficient marks of his Magnificence. And although it be somewhat te­dious, yet I cannot omit (among many) this one example of his Magnanimity; Word being brought him, as he sate at dinner, that his City of Mans in Normandy was besieged, and in great danger to be taken, if not suddenly relieved; whereupon King WILLI­AM asked which way Mans lay, and then caused Masons imme­diately to take down the wall, to make him passage the next way; and so rode instantly towards the Sea; his Lords advising him to stay till his people were ready, No, said he, but such as love me, I know will follow me; and being on shipboard, and the weather growing tempestuous, he was advised to stay for a calm season, No, replied he again, fear nothing, I never heard of any King that was drowned; and thereby coming to Mans unexpected, he raised the Siege, and took Helias Count de la Flesche (Author of the tu­mult) prisoner; who vaunting to the King, and saying, Now in­deed you have taken me by a wile, but if I were at liberty again, you should find another kind of resistance; at which the King laughing, said, Then go your wayes, and do your worst, and let us see what feats you can do; and so set him at liberty.

His death was casual,Gesta Guil. Ducis Nor. p. 213. c. will. Gem­met. p. 296. d., by the glance of an arrow from a Tree (some say from the beam of a Deers Horn) shot at a Stagg (by Sir Walter Tyrrell a French Knight) in the New Forrest (near a place called Charingham) upon the iv. of the Nones of August (viz. the 2. day of August) Anno 1100; after he had reigned 12 years, 11 moneths, and 9 dayes.) wherein 4 Abbies and 36 Parish-Churches had been demolished, with the removing of all the In­habitants, to make room for wild beasts, or dogs game; as Gual­ter Mapes, who lived immediately after, hath it.

Reverendo in Christo Patri GEORGIO P [...]lione Divina Episcopo WINTONIENSI Nobilissimique Ordinis Garterij Praelato; Hanc Tumuli WILLELMI secundi Regis, cogno minati RVEL Figuram, H.D.D.D.F.S.

HONI SOIT QVI MAL Y PENSE
Chap. 3.
Rex cervum insequitur,
Matthias Prideaux M. A. in his Intro­duction to History. p. 315.
Regem vindicta,
The King the Stagg, Vengeance the King doth chace, Tyrell's hard happ, concludes this Tragick Case.
Tyrellus
Non bene provisum transfixit acumine ferri.
William II.

He was the third man of his Fathers Progeny that in this place came to an untimely end,Will. Gem. p. 296. d. thus finishing his troublesome yet victori­ous Reign, having governed 12 years and 11 moneths, wanting 8 dayes; aged above 40 years: who being of an able Constitution, and neglecting Marriage, is generally charged with incontinency, but with nothing in particular; for neither is mentioned any vio­lence he ever offered to any, nor is any woman named to be his Pa­ramour; and Princes Concubines are seldom concealed. But Sir Ri­chard Baker tells us of a Bastard Son he had, called Bertran­nus; whom he advanced in honour, and matched into a Noble Fa­mily.

The dead Body of King WILLIAM being thrown into a Colliars Cart, was in the journey overturned and left in the dirt; whence it was taken, and had Royal Burial in the Cathedral Church of St. Swithen at Winchester (by the appointment of his Brother and Successor King Henry I.) before the High Altar;Will Gem. p. 297. a. where his Tomb is in being, of Gray Marble, raised about two foot from the Pavement; the Figure of which you have in the precedent page marked A. with a prospect of the said Altar copied from the Original; which Monument being broke open (by the Rebels in the raign of our late Soveraign Lord King Charles I. (as I am in­formed) was found to contain the dust of that King, some Re­liques of Cloth of Gold, a large Gold Ring, and a small Cha­lice of Silver.

Upon his GreatThe Great Seal of this King nearly resembles that of his Father, excepting the Crown on his Head (which is much like the Coronets that our Earles use at this day) and his Standard slit up almost to the Staffe, and charged with crosse strokes. Both which differences are expressed over the Effigies of this WILLIAM in the first page of this Book. Seal he wrote himself WILIELMUS DEI GRATIA REX ANGLORUM,Speed p. 427. and on the re­verse WILIELMUS DEI GRATIA DUX NOR­MANORUM. Although its well known he had no Title to Normandy, but only by pawn from his Brother Duke Robert.

HENRY I. KING of ENGLAND, and DUKE of NORMANDY, surnamed BEAU-CLERKE.
CHAP. IV.

HENRY fourth and youngest Son of William the Conquerour,For the De­vise or Arms of this King HENRY, I cannot omit or passe over in si­lence the Story of John the Monk of Mar­monstier (or de Majori Monasterio) in Tourain, an Author of the time, who tells us, That when this King chose Geoffrey Plantagenet Son of Foulk Earl of Anjou, Tourain, and Main, to be his Son in Law, by mar­rying him to his only Daughter and Heir Maud the Empress, and made him Knight; after the hathing, and other so­lemn Ritesper­formed (pedes ejus sotulari­bus in super­ficie Leonculos Aureos haben­tibus munian­ter) Boots embroidered with Golden Lyons were drawn on his Leggs; and also that (Cly­peus Leoriculos Aureos imagi­narios habens collo ejus su­spenditur) a Shield', with Lyons of Gold therein, was hung about his Neck. Favine lib. 3. pag. 577. 578, & 579. Here we find the Lyons of England (the golden Lyons) but cannot s [...] in what colour Field, of what number, or in what posture; which Lyons were not fixed, nor became hereditary to the Kings of England, till the Reign of Richard I. when he caused his second Great Seal to be made. born at Selby in Yorkshire Anno 1070. in the third year of his Fathers Reign,An. Dom. 1100. August was bred at Paris (say some) others, at Cambridge; Rob. of Glocest. p. 212. b. Matth. Pa­ris p. 6. d. 30. its probable at both places: wherein he so profited, that he acquired the Surname of Beauclerke, or The fair Scholar. Upon the death of King William Rufus (taking advantage of the absence of Duke Robert his eldest Brother at that time in Apulia, Ord. Vital. p. 665. on his return from the Holy-Land) he suddenly seised his Treasure, and then usurped his Throne, and was crowned at Westminster upon the fourth day after his Brother King William's death, being the 6. day of August, in the year of our Lord 1100. by Maurice Bishop of London (Anselme Archbishop of Canterbury be­ing then in exile) which enterprise was highly advanced by the Au­thority and Industry of Henry Newborrow Earl of Warwick; Gemmet. p. 227. a. 6. the people expressing also to King HENRY a prone inclination, for that he was born in England, and after his Father was crowned King. On which politick criticisme, he claimed and obtained the Kingdome. Having thus mounted the Seat of Majesty, he neg­lected no means of a firm settlement therein,W. Malm. fol. 88. a. n. 30. Matth. Paris p. 58. l. 6. against the return of his Brother Robert. And to that purpose (in the first year of his raign, Anno 1100, upon St. Martins day, at London) he contracted both amity and alliance with Edgar King of Scots, by taking his Sister Maud (in her Baptisme called Edith) to Wife;His first Marriage. Ord. Vital. p. 784. a. & 843. b. Will. Gem­met. p. 297. a. b. by which act he not onely diverted that Prince's Sword, but stood assured of his assistance. She was Daughter of Malcolme III. of the Name (surnamed Canmoir or Great Head) King of Scots, by Margaret his Wife, Sister to Edgar called Etheling, and Daughter of Edward, Son of Edmond Irouside, the most valiant Saxon King,Robert of Glocest. p. 213. the scourge and terrour of the Danes; so that by her intermarriage [...] HENRY, the two Families of the Normans and Saxons were united in the soveraignty. And this, more than any other respect, both gained, and ever after continued the peoples affections firm [Page 25]to HENRY. The solemnity of her Marriage (and afterwards that of her Coronation, upon Sunday the 11th of November in the same year 1100. at the Abbey of Westminster) was performed by Anselme Archbishop of Canterbury. Her education she had a­mong the Nunnes of Wilton and Rumsey, W. Malm. pag. 92. b. a. 50. whether for her love to a single life, or to avoid some inferiour matches offered by her Fa­ther) Writers do differ; yet sure it is, that for the common good she abandoned her devoted life, and by the aforesaid Anselme, without dispensation from Rome, was joyned to King HENRY; who having been his Wife 17 years and upwards (famed for her humility, piety, charity, and all vertuous dispositions, far from the ordinary,Will. Malmesh. pag. 93. a. n. 30. Rogerus Hoveden, pag. 271. b. n. 50. Robert of Glocest. p. 217. a. either vices, or imbecilities of her Sex) she departed this world (to enjoy a better) at Westminster the first day of May, in the 18th year of his Reign, and of our Salvation 1118. And was interred in the Collegiate Church of St. Peter, in the Chappel of the Kings, on the South side of St. Edward the Confessor. Her devotion, time of death, and time and place of burial, is thus re­membred by Robert of Glocester.

This Queen Molde at Westiminster long and many a day
In prayers and in pennance by the Kings leave lay:
And after deyed as it is radde the xi. hundred yer
And xviii. after Mary our Lord bere.
At Westminster hed was I buried a Seynt Philips day,
And Seynt Jacob, as hit falleeth the ferste day of May.

As King HENRY by this Marriage seemed to strenthen the Title of their Issue to the Crown, so the more to cement the peo­ple to his interest, he made fair promisses for reforming those rigo­rous Laws imposed by his Father and Brother; and in some sort restored those of St. Edward the Confessor. He granted the Nobi­lity free leave to hunt, and to enclose Parks for Deer; banished from his Court all Flatterers, regulated the Extravagancy of Appa­rel, and Luxury in Diet:Rob. of Glocest. p. 336. Ordained punishment by death for Theeves and Robbers, and the loss of sight to them that counter­feited his Coin; and also is said to have held the first Parliament, which he ordained should consist of the Three Estates, of which himself was Head. He obliged the Clergy by recalling Anselme Archbishop of Canterbury from banishment, and furnishing the Va­cancies in the Church, with learned and grave Divines.

And because it is not lesse pleasing to the people to have bad Ministers punished, than the good to be advanced, he imprisoned Ralph Bishop of Durham (a principal Causer of their late troubles.) In this posture stood King HENRY, when Duke Robert his El­dest Brother was by slow journeys returned from the Holy-Land into Normandy; to whom Bishop Ralphe (having broke prison) repaired, and by many reasons perswaded to dispute his Title to England with his Sword: whereupon he levies an Army, arrives in England, and the day of Battel being appointed, by the mediation of Friends an [Page 26]Agreement was made betwixt the two Brothers on the same terms as in William Rufus his time, an unfortunate one for Robert; by which he lost not only his Kingdome and afterwards his Pension, but his Dukedome of Normandy, and his eyes into the Bargain; for King HENRY not long after (whether out of distast at some affront offered him by Robert, or which is more probable, stirred up with desire of enlarging his Dominions) invades, and after many bickerings, conquers Normandy (and takes his Brother Robert priso­ner at Tenarchbray) about that time forty years that Normandy had before subdued England. And now was that prediction of the Conquerour on his Death-bed fulfilled; who observing his Son HENRY to be much discontented, for that he had bequeathed Normandy to Robert, England to William, and no appennage to him, but only a bare Portion in money; said unto him, Content thy self Harry, for the time will come, when thy turn shall be served as well as theirs. Verified in the possession of both their Domini­ons, as the Inscription on his great Seal doth testifie; viz.

On the one side of this great Seal is repre­sented the King on his Throne, in his right hand he holds a Sword, and in his left he sustaines a Globe sur­mounted by a Crosse patee, upon which is fixed a Dove; a bird I observe to be used upon the Scepter of St. Edward the confessor, as appears by his great Seal (Speed pag. 398.) and its probable that this Dove was taken up by King Henry as an Embleme of the Restaurati­on in some sort of St. Edwards Laws, and the mittigation of those of his Fa­ther and Bro­ther; so that, practising the clemency of King Edward, he would also bear his Sym­bol or Devise: that as the Sword in his right hand was to denote his Power and Ju­stice, the Dove standing on the Mound in his left hand, was emblematically to demonstrate that his Government was to be mix­ed with Clemency and Mercy. This Dove was used in like manner by his Successors King Stephen and King Henry II. but discontinued by King Richard I. Upon the reverse of this Kings Seal is a Man on Horsback armed at all points, holding in his right hand a Sword, and in his left an Oval Shield, the convex side only to be seen. HENRICUS DEI GRATIA REX ANGLORUM.Speed p. 434.

And on the other side,

HENRICUS DEI GRATIA DUX NORMANNORUM.

Not four years after the death of Queen Maud (married upon interest of State) King HENRY (for the love he had to beauty) took to his second Wife Adeliza or Alice, His second Marriage. Daughter of Godfrey the First Duke of Brabant (Sifter to another Duke Godfrey and Josce­line of Lovaine, Henricus Hunting. fol. 218. b. n. 10. Matth. Paris, p. 69. l. 14. Ancestor in direct Male Line to Algernone the present Earl of Northumberland) whom he married at Windsor on Candle­mass day (viz. the second of February) Anno 1121. in the 22 year of his reign. She was afterwards crowned at London by Ralph Archbishop of Canterbury with great Splendor, and is thus chara­cterized by my old Poet.

Now a go to Queen Alice that ich er of tolde,
Rob. of Glocest. fol. 216. & 217.
So fayre as she in Christendome was there none I holde.
He spoused hur at Wyndesor that himselfe ganne rer
Of his Coronement, the two and twentieth yere.
And of our Lord 1121.

To Queen Alice the King gave in Dower the Castle and Earl­dome of Arundell, who having been his Wife about 14 years,Chron. Norman­niae, pag. 978. b. but ever Childless, surviving him was re-married to Will. Albaney, in her right Earl of Arundell; and by him had issue Earl William the second (from whom by the Fitz Alane's Earles of Arundell [Page 27]Thomas Howard the present Duke of Norfolke and Earl of Arundell, &c. derives his descent) Godfrey de Albiney and Alice married to John Earl of Augie. Rob. of Glocest. pag. 219. a. The time of her birth I find not, but the place of her interment to be the Abbey of Reading, near to her first Husband King Henry. The princely vertues of which King be­ing profitable to all, did with their lustre so dazle the eyes of his subjects, that they could not discern his vices; for besides his Usur­pation of the Crown, and his cruelty to his Brother Duke Robert, he was also very wanton, as appeareth by his numerous natural Is­sue, all by him publikely owned;Will. Gem­met. p. 306. d. 307. a. the Males highly advanced, and the Females richly married: His sobriety other wayes was admira­ble, whose temperance was of proof against any meat objected to his appetite, Lampreyes onely excepted, on a surfeit of which he died at St. Denys in the Forrest of Lyons (after seven dayes sicknesse) upon the iv. of the Nones of December (viz. the second day of December) in the LXV. year of his Age,Ibidem p. 309. b. and of Our Lord 1135. when he had reigned King of England 35 years and 4 moneths, lacking one day, and been Duke of Normandy 29 years, two moneths, and four dayes; (in whom ended the Heirs Males of the Norman Line, so that his Daughter and Heir Maud the Empress, transmitted the Crown into the Family of Plantage­net, in her Son Henry II. of the Name, called Fitz-Empress; not­withstanding her Cosin German Stephen Earl of Mortain, both u­surped and held it during his life.) From thence his Corps was con­veyed to Roan, Robert of Glocest. p. 219. a. and there his Bowels, Tongue, Heart, Eyes, and Brains were taken out, and buried in the Church of St. Ma­ry de Prato; the body also sliced and poudered with salt, was wrapped in a Bull hide, to avoid the stench, being so intollerable that the Physician that took out his Brains was poisoned therewith, and immediately died; whereupon some observed, that other Kings killed men in their life time, but he also, after he was dead: thence also was his Corps carried into England, Will. Gem­met. p. 309. b. 308. a. b, c. and honourably in­terred in the Church of our Lady in the Abbey of Reading (upon Christmass day next following, King Stephen with many of the Clergy being present) which he had founded, and richly endowed, as he also did the Abbeys of Hide and Circester, and the Priory of Dunstable. His Wife Queen MAƲD also founded the Priory of Holy Trinity within Aldgate, and the Hospital of St. Giles in the Fields, so that by himself, his Queen, and other pious persons, 24 Foundations to religious uses were in his Reign erected. In Gemmeticensis I find these several Epitaphs composed for him not long after his death.Ibidem, p. 309. c, d.

Quod modicum praestent, quod opes magnum nihil extent,
Rex probat HENRICƲS, Rex vivens pacis amicus.
Extiterat siquidem praecunctis ditior idem,
Occiduae genti quos praetulit ordo regendi.
At necis ad pestes, quid gemmae, pallia, vestes,
Aes varium terrae, quid castra sibi valuere?
[Page 28]
Vilibus hinc aequam dans sortem, pallida, nequam,
Portendendo pedem, mors ejus pulsat ad aedem.
Quo dum dira febris prima sub nocte Decembris
Mundum nudavit, mundo mala multiplicavit.
Quippe pater populi, pax & tutela pusilli,
Dum pius ipse ruit, furit impius, opprimit, urit:
Anglica lugeat hinc, Normannica gens fleat illinc.
Occidis HENRICE, tunc pax, nunc luctus utrique.

Another,

Sensu, divitiis, aditu, feritate decenti
More, plus dictu, vim perpessis scelerosis,
Excellens, locuples, haud difficilis, reverendus
Hic jacet HENRICƲS Rex quandam, pax, decus orbis.

Yet another,

Victor, sectator, vindex, tutamen, amator,
Bellorum, pacis, scelerum, regni, bonitatis,
Continet hunc loculum Rex notus ubique locorum,
HENRICƲS pridem, tunc terror, nunc cinis idem.

I do not question (although we find not any particular mention of this Kings Monument) but that the Abbot and Monks of Rea­ding crected a Tomb answerable to the Dignity of so magnificent a Founder: But well might the memory thereof, perish and be bu­ried in the rubbish of Oblivion, when the bones of this Prince could not enjoy repose in his Grave (not more happy in a quiet Sepul­cher than the two Norman Williams, his Father and Brother) but were (upon the suppression of the religious Houses in the Reign of King Henry VIII.) thrown out,Tho. Milles pag. 78. to make room for a Stable of Horses, and the whole Monastery converted to a dwelling house; which sacrilegious Act, is thus lamented by a Modern Poet:

O soul impietie,
HENRY the First, that famous King,
which here entomb'd did lie,
Now as a rascal is digg'd up,
and turn'd our of his Grave;
And as a stranger seeks in vain
a resting place to have:
For why, the greedy thirst of gain,
affords even Kings no place,
But dreadful is unto their Tombs,
least it should them deface.

—Heu dira piacula, Primus
Neustrius HENRICƲS situs hic, inglorius urna
Nunc jacet ejectus, tumulum novus advena quaerit
Frustra; Nam Regitenues invidit arenas
Auri sacra fames; Regum metuenda sepulchris.

Children of King HENRY the First by Queen MAƲD of Scotland his First Wife.

3. WILLIAM only son of Queen Maud and King Henry (by Ord. Vitalis called Guillielmus Adelinus) was born in the second year of his Fathers Reign,Ord. Vital. p. 702. a. b. Anno 1102. At the age of 14 years, [Page 29]the Nobility of England did Him homage,Ordericus Vitalis, p. 841 b. & 851 b. and sware fealty to Him at Shrewsbury. In June, An. 1119. He took to Wife Matilda, Daughter of Foulk, Earl of Anjou, the Marriage being solemnised at Luxseul, in the County of Burgundy; upon which Alliance, besides a strict League contracted betwixt the two Fa­thers, William had the County of Maine. Rogerus Hoveden, f. 273 a. numb. 20. And the same year be­ing made Duke of Normandy, did homage for it to Lewis the Grosse, King of France, and received the homage and oaths of the Nobility of that Countrey, who were soon after discharged of that tye: For Duke William the same year returning thence for England, Ordericus Vitalis, p. 216.649 b. 870 a. 869 a. was upon the 26 of November (viz. the VI. of the Calends of December) An. 1119. in the Seventeenth year of His age, cast away near Barbflete, together with Richard his Base Brother, Maud, or Mary, Countess of Perch, His Natural Sister, and near 200 others; for the sake of this Sister, Prince William is said to have lost His life: For the Ship being dashed in pieces against a Rock, He, and some few others secu­red themselves by leaping into the Boat, and might have escaped: But the Duke being more moved with the sad cryes of the Countess his Sister, then possessed with the consideration of his own safety, endeavoring to receive her in, had the Boat so over­charged with the Company which pressed in with her, that they wholly perished, except one unwelcome Messenger, who escaped with this sad news, to the great grief of his Father, and the whole Kingdom. Upon this William I find this Epitaph.

Abstulit hunc terrae matri maris unda noverca,
Camden Remains, p. 354.
Proh dolor! occubuit Sol Anglicus, Anglia plora:
Quaeque prius fueras gemino radiata nitore,
Extincto nato vivas contenta parente.

The Princess Matilda, Rogerus Hoveden, f. 273. num. 20. Widow of PrinceAdeline sig­nifieth Ethel­ing in the Saxon, or in Latin Prin­ceps. Adeline, aged onely Twelve years, highly favored by King Henry the First, her Father-in-Law, returned not suddenly into Anjou, but remained some time in England, where she was treated and served according to her quality. But the air of her own Country, after some years of absence, seeming more sweet to her, she returned into the Court of her Father,Gabriel du Moulin in Histor. Norman­niae, pag. 322 & 323. which she abandoned Ten years after; when by the advice of Geoffrey, Bishop of Chartres, she quitted the World, and took upon her a Religious Habit in the Abbey of Fout-Eurault.

3. MAƲD the Empress, onely Daughter, and (after the death of her Brother) Heir of King Henry the First, and Queen Maud his first Wife; of whom, see more in the V Chapter of this First Book.

Natural Children of King Henry the First.

3. ROBERT, Earl of Glocester, first Natural Son of King Hen. I. whose story followeth in the VII Chapter of this First Book.

3. RICHARD, another Base Son of King Henry, was, as appeareth by an ancient Register of the Monastery of Abing­don, born in the Reign of William Rufus, Ordericus Vitalis, p. 852 a. 854. a, b, c, d. 867 c. 875 d. of the Widow of Anskil, a Nobleman of the Country adjoyning to that Abbey. In the year 1119. this Richard was with His Father King Henry, at the reducing and burning of the Town of Evereux, held out against him by the partakers of William, Son of Robert, Duke of Normandy; and also, at the Battle of Brenvile, where the said William, and Lewis King of France, were forced to flie for their lives, leaving King Henry the Field, with several Prisoners of note. And much about the same time, Richard was sent with 200 Horse to the succor of Ralph de Guader; with which assistance, Ralph was so well pleased, that in requital he bestow­ed upon him his Daughter Amitia, with the Seigneuries of Bretvile, Gloz, and Lyre; but this Marriage was prevented by the death of Richard, drowned near Barflete, in his return for England, among other of King Henries Children, the 26 day of November, An. 1119. And Amitia, his espoused Wife,Williel. Gemmet. p. 306 d. was afterwards married to Robert, Earl of Leicester.

3. REYNALD, Earl of Cornwal, Third Natural Son of King Henry I. mentioned at large in the IX Chapter of this First Book.

3. ROBERT, another Base Son of King Henry I. was born of Edith, the Sister of Ive, Son and Daughter of Forne, the Son of Sigewolfe, both of them great Barons in the North;Williel. Gemmet. p. 306 d. which Edith, King Henry afterwards gave in Marriage to Robert Doiley, Baron of Hook-Norton in Oxfordshire, and with her be­stowed on him the Mannor of Eleydon, Speed, p. 443. col. 2. num. 69. in the County of Buck­ingham, by whom he had issue Henry Doiley, Baron of Hook-Norton, who often mentioneth this ROBERT in his Charters, ever calling him ROBERT his Brother, the Kings Son. I have seen a Charter of (Mahalt de Abrinco uxor Roberti filii Regis Henrici) Maud de Auranches, the Wife of Robert, In Camera Ducatus Lanca­striae. Son of King Henry, to which Her Seal is appendant; impressed with Her Effigies, without any Shield of Arms; which Maud, in all probability, was the Wife of this ROBERT.

3. GILBERT, Williel. Gemmet. p. 306 d. another Natural Son of King Henry, is men­tioned by William Gemmeticensis, the Norman Monk in the Chro­nicle of that Countrey, written by John Taylor, being a Trans­lator of that Work out of Latin into French; and not long ago,Speed, p. 443. col. 2. num. 70. in the Treaties betwixt England and France, written in the French Tongue by John Tillet, Secretary to King Henry II. And yet in them not any other mention is made, but onely of his name.

3. WILLIAM de TRACY, Williel. Gemmet. p. 306 d. another Base Son of Henry I. had for his Appennage, the Town of Tracy in Normandy, from which he took his surname, and was called WILLIAM of TRACY, whose death immediately followed that of his Fa­ther King Henry I.Speed, p. 443. col. 2. num. 71. But whether he were the Progenitor of the Tracies, sometimes Barons in Devonshire, or of them which now be of the same surname? or, whether Sir William Tracy, one of the Four Knights that slew Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury, were any of his Posterity? is not certainly re­ported, nor any thing else concerning him.

3. HENRY, Speed, p. 443. another Base Son of King Henry I. was born of the Lady Nesta, Daughter of Rhees ap Tewdor, Prince of South-wales. (Who was the Wife of Sir Gerald Windsor, and of Ste­phen, Constables of the Castles of Pembroke and Abertivy in Wales, Brook, York He­rald. and Progenitors of the Families of the Fitz-Geralds and Fitz-Stephens in Ireland,) He was born, and bred, and lived, and married in Wales, having issue two Sons, Meiler and Robert. The elder of which, Meiler, took to Wife the Daughter of Hugh Lacy, Lord of Meath in Ireland. He lost his life in the con­flict betwixt Magnus the Son of Harold-Harfager, King of Norway, and Hugh Mountgomery, Earl of Arundel and Shrews-bury, An. 1197. I have had the view of a Pedigree, which deriveth the descendants of Henry Fitz-Herbert, Chamberlain to King Henry I, and Sibill Corbet his Wife, Concubine to the said King, from this HENRY, who in that Genealogy is called Henry Fitz-Roy, or the Kings Son. But in a Commission (of which, I have a Copy) sent into Wales to theJeavan ap Redde­rick ap Jeavan Lloyd of Cardigan Esquire. Howel ap David ap Jeavan ap Reece. Howel Sundwal, Jeavan Dilwine, Jeavan Brashay. Bards there, by King Edward IV. to enquire of the surname of William, by Him created Earl of Pembroke; the said Bards make return, That the said Earl William, was the Son of William, Lord of Ragland, Son to Thomas, Son to Guillime, Son to Jenkine; the Son of Adam, the Son of Reynold, the Son of Peter, the Son of Herbert, Base Son of Henry the First, King of England. Upon which, King Edward IV. gave him the surname of Her­bert: With which, aLib. An­notat. E. 12. fol. 42. b. in Offi­cio Armo­rum. Vincent, p. 236. Pedigree in the Office of Arms agreeth in this point, That Herbert was a Natural Son of King Henry I. and had in marriage with Lucia his Wife, the Forest of Dean. Yet Vincent in his Correction of Brooks Errors saith, That this [Page 32] Lucia, the third Daughter of Milo Fitz-Walter, Earl of Here­ford, was Wife to Herbert, Son of Herbert, and Grand-child to Henry Fitz-Herbert, Chamberlain to King Henry the First, by Sibill Corbet aforesaid.

3. MAƲD, Countess of Perch, Williel. Gemmet. p. 306 d. 307 a. & 311 a. a Natural Daughter of King Henry the First, was espoused to Rotrock, Earl of Perch, (cal­led also Consul of Moriton) with Lands and other rich Dower in England; and also the Town of Belismo, in Normandy, by the gift of her said Father.Eli. Reus­nerus, pag. 347. She was the first Wife of this Ro­trock, first of the name, Son of Arnolfe de Hesding also, first Earl of that County, and had issue by him, one onely Daughter, Magdelen, first Wife of Garcia IV. King of Navarre, Ordericus Vitalis, p. 787 c. 870 a. 891 a. (who died by a fall from His House, in the year of our Lord 1151.) and Mother of King Sancheo, surnamed The Wise, from whom the succeeding Kings of Navarre are derived.Speed, p. 443. col. 2. num. 73. She perished by Shipwrack with her Half-Brother Duke William, upon Friday the 26 of November, in the 20 year of her Fathers Reign, and of Grace M.CXIX.

3. MAƲD, Countess of Britain, another of that Name,Williel. Gemmet. p. 307 a. and Natural Daughter of King Henry, was married to Conan, first of the Name, surnamed The Grosse, Earl of Little Britain, (Son of Earl Alan, by Ermengard his second Wife, Daughter of Foulk Rechin, Earl of Anjou) and had issue Howel, pronounced Illegimate, Constance that died without issue; and Bertha, Speed, p. 443. col. 2. num. 73. the Wife of Eudes, Earl of Porrohet, Mother of Earl Conan the younger (or le Petit) who by Margaret, Sister of William, King of Scots, had issue Constance, His sole Daughter and Heir, mar­ried to Jeffrey Platagenet, Fourth Son of King Henry the Second.

3. JƲLIAN, Ordericus Vitalis, p. 810 c. 577. b. another of the Natural Daughters of King Henry the First, was married to Eustace de Pacie, the Illegitimate Son of William, Lord of Bretvile, Pacie, and Ivory, Son and Heir of William Fitz-Osborne, and Elder Brother of Roger, both Earls of Hereford in England. And this Eustace, Williel. Gemmet. p. 307 a. had he been lawfully begotten in wedlock, had been Heir to the Earl­doms of Hereford and Ivory, but notwithstanding he had a small part in that Inheritance of the Town of Pacie; Speed, p. 443 & 444. col. 2. num. 75. from which he took his surname, and had issue by this Julian his Wife, William and Roger of Pacie, his Sons.

3. N—another Base Daughter,Williel. Gemmet. p. 307. Speed, p. 444. col. 1. num. 76. mentioned by William Gem­meticensis, and John Tillet his follower, and is said by them to have been married to one William Goet a Norman, but nothing recounted of her Name, his Issue, Estate, or other Rela­tion.

3. CONSTANCE, Vincent, p. 712. ex Rotulo Charta­rum, An. 1. Johan­nis, p. 1. num. 72. Ordericus Vitalis, p. 900. c. Viscountess Beaumont, another Natural Daughter, to whom her Father, King Henry the First, gave the Mannor of Aielrischescote, in the Parish of Suthanton, and County of Devon. She was the Wife of Rozceline, Viscount Beaumont, (so named from Beaumont, a Town in the County of Maine in France) and by him, was Mother of Richard, Viscount Beau­mont, (Father of Queen Ermengard, the Wife of King William of Scotland, and of Constance de Toen, to whom King John, on the 22 day of September, Williel. Gemmet. p. 307. a. in the First year of His Reign con­firmed the Estate of the said Constance her Grand-mother) and of Ralph, Bishop of Angiers; mentioned by Robert the Abbot of Mount S. Michael.

3. N—Sixth,Williel. Gemmet. p. 307. a. Natural Daughter of King Henry the First,The Arms of this House of Montmorency (as Marc de Wison hath it) wear, Or, Cross Gules inter 16 Eag­lets displayed Azure. The Original of which Arms is con­siderable, for Bouchard, first of the name, Lord of Montmo­rency, added 4 Eagles to the Ancient Cross of his House, as a remark of 4 Imperial Ensigns taken by him in a Battel against the Emperor Otho II. When his Army was defeat­ed by the French, upon the Banks of the River Aisne, An. 978. Which number of 4. was afterwards augmented to 16. by Matthew de Montmorency, Second of the Name, in memory of 12 other Ensigns or Imperial Banners forced from the Soldiers of Otho the Fourth, at the Battel of Bouvinnes, in the year 1214. La Science Heroique. p. 333. was married to Matthew, the Son of Bourchard de Montemorenceio or Montmorency (who derived his original from Lysoye, a French Knight, Baptised with Clovis the First Christian King of France) from whom descended the Ancient House of that name,Marc de Wison, Sieur de la Colom­biere en la Science Heroique, p. 425. who afterwards came to be Earls and Dukes (being grown to be one of the greatest Families in France, next to the Princes of the Blood; both for Possessions, Alliances, and Honor) and in commemoration of this timely conversion, have always used this Motto, or Cry of War.

Dieu ayde au Premier Chrestein.
God assist the First Christian.

3. ELIZABETH, Williel. Gemmet. p. 307. a. the Seventh and youngest Natural Daughter of King Henry (by Elizabeth, Sister of Waleran, Earl of Melent) was married to Alexander, King of Scots, Bro­ther, and Successor of King Edgar: Which Alexander dying without Issue,Ordericus Vitalis, p. 702. b. was also succeeded by King David his youngest Brother (all three Sons of King Malcolme the Third) from whom the succeeding Kings of Scotland, to His most Sacred Majesty King Charles the Second, do derive their descent.

3. MAUD. The Empress, Daughter of King HENRY the First, and Lady of the English.
CHAP. V.

The Arms at­tributed to this Maud, were those of Her Father King Henry 1. viz. Gules, 2 Lions Passant Guardant, Or. And the Arms As­signed to Her Second Hus­band Geoffrey Plantagenet, Earl of An­jou, Gules, a cheif Argent, over all an Escarbuncle of 8 Rayes, Pometty, and Flowrey, Or. Which Coat is set up for Earl Geoffrey upon the, Cornish, on the Tomb of Queen Eli­zabeth in K. Henry VII. his Chappel. But the Seal of Maud the Empress, ex­hibited in the Front of this First Book, presents you not with any Arms of Her Self, or either of Her Hus­bands. Nor did Wo­men at that time make use of Arms, ei­ther upon Seals or otherwise, that I yet have obser­ved. AFter the death of Her Brother, William Duke of Normandy, drowned at Sea in his passage for England. This Maud came to be sole Heir to Her Father, King Henry the First; in the Fourth year of whose Reign she was born,Williel. Gemmet. p. 297 c. Ordericu [...] Vitalis, p. 763. Hoveden, p. 271 a. num. 20. and had not passed the Sixth year of Her age, when She was affianced at Ʋtrecht, nor the Ele­venth, when She was married to the Emperor Henry the Fourth, with a Portion of 10000 Marks. The solemnity both of their Nuptials and Coronation being celebrated at Mentz in Germany, with great splendor upon the Eighth of the Ides (viz. the Sixth day) of January, An. 1114. She was His Wife 12 years, but without Issue; so that the Emperor deceasing in the year 1126. the Empress Maud was remanded into England by Her Father King Henry, whither being returned, She had fealty sworn to Her by the Barons; the cheif of which, was Stephen Earl of Mortaign, Her Cosin-german; who being the first in course that made Oath, was also the first that made bold to break it, and seize upon Her Throne.

The most convenient match that King Henry could propose to Himself for His Daughter, the Empress, was Geoffrey the Consul, or Earl of Anjou (by reason his Dominion lay convenient for a conjunction with Normandy) Son and Heir of Foulk, King of Jerusalem, and of Eremburga, Daughter of Helias, Williel. Gemmet. p. 310 b. Robert of Glocester, p. 213 b. Earl of Mans His first Wife) called Plantagenet (id est, Planta Genestae) or Broome Plonte, as Robert of Glocester hath it, because he wore in his Cap or Bonnet, a Sprig of Broom) to whom He remarried Her at Mans, upon the Third day of April, An. 1127. Which Nuptials, with their Issue, are thus recorded by the same Robert in these Rhimes.

And after the Xxvii year of his Kingdome.
Ibidem, p. 217 b.
He yat her to Geffray, Earle of Angeo,
Whos Sustur, William his Sone, spoused er tho
That dreynt was in the Seé, as to fore is tolde.
And betweén th' Emperour and Molde no fruyt was,
For when the Emperour was dede of full age
The Empe­ror was not of age.
heo nas.
[Page 35]
Henry King loued hur muche, and well the more ich gesse,
Because she was heire, and also Empresse,
Of these Geffrey and Molde came ich vnderstonde
Henry Fitz-Empress, King of Englonde.

Earl Geoffrey Plantagenet, Chronica Norman. p. 984 a. after the death of his Father-in-Law, King Henry, set on foot his Wives title against King Stephen, but was by him forced to a pecuniary composition, and not long after died upon the VII. of the Ides of September, An. 1150. Who although no King Himself, yet was he both the Son of one, and the immediate Ancestor of that Royal House, from him called Plantagenet, which by a direct and uninterrupted Male Line, swayed Englands Scepter down to King Richard the Second; and then branching it self into the Families of Lancaster and York, end­ed in Richard the Third, the XIV King of that House, after it had ruled the English Scepter 330 years. This Geoffrey was a Man of great Justice and Charity, his death much lamented, and is noted to be the first Person that ever was admitted to a Burial place within the Walls of Mans; where he was interred in the Church of S. Julian before the Crucifix, with this Distick.

Huic Deus aeternum tribuat conscendere regnum,
Rbidem.
Quatenus Angelicis turmis conregnet in aevum.

The Empress Maud (Her Husband, Earl Geoffrey, being dead) undertakes Her own quarrel against King Stephen (managed by Her Half-Brother, Robert Earl of Glocester, and Milo, Earl of Here­ford, Her two Principal Cheiftains, with various success; in se­veral passages whereof, She her self was present) and at last takes King Stephen prisoner at the Battel of Lincoln, which in all likeli­hood might have put an end to the business; but that the Empress upon this Victory, by Her high and neglective carriage, so lost the hearts of Her party; but more especially of the Londoners, whose Request She had denied, that Stephen came to be set at liberty by exchange for Her Base Brother, Robert, Earl of Glocester (taken prisoner also not long after at the Battel of Winchester) and the Em­press finding London too hot for Her, was forced to flie privately to Oxford; and being twice worsted, makes Her escape by a wile. The first time at the said Battel of Winchester, by being carried away on Horsback, in form of a Dead Corps: And a second time from Oxford Castle, in a great Snow; when in the night, She, and some few others, cloathing themselves all over in white, made their escape unseen by the Guards of the Besiegers. But this deliverance out of Her Enemies hands, could not free Her from those fears that attended Her afterwards, and forced Her to quit the prosecution of the War, which Henry, Duke of Normandy, Her Son, was now happily grown up to continue, who Landing in England with fresh Supplies, and with His Army confronting that of King Stephen, the intended Battel ended in a composition, [Page 36]by which Stephen held the Kingdom, during life, and Henry was proclaimed His Heir, which had so real an effect, That after the death of that King, the Empress lived to see Her Son in possession of the Kingdom of England, and other large acquisitions, who is not so much as mentioned by Historians after this accommodati­on,Sir Rich. Baker in his Chro­nicle of the Kings of Eng­land. till the time of Her death, which is much to be wondred at, especially, that She being so stirring a Woman, as She was, should be so quiet upon a suddain, as not to have one word spoken of Her, in all the long time She lived after. And if she placed Her contentment so wholly in Her Son, that in respect of Him, She regarded not Her self at all, it deserves, at least, the encomium of such a Motherly Love, as is very unusual, and not always safe. But however it was, we must leave it as a Gordian Knot, which no Writer helps us to untie.

She was Earl Geoffreys Wife 23 years,Chronica Norman­niae, p. 1001 d. Chronica S. Stepha­ni Codo­mensis, p. 1019 d. Gabriel du Moulin en son Histoire Generale de Nor­mandie, p. 387. and his Widow 17. And being aged about 64 years ended Her life in the City of Roan, on the IV of the Ides (viz. the Tenth day) of September, An. 1167. in the Thirteenth year of the Reign of Her Son, King Henry the Second, and was buried in the Abbey of Bec, in Normandy, with Funeral Pomp. But Gabriel du Moulin tells us, That She had Her Interment in the Church of Nostre Dame du Pre, in the Suburbs of Roan; and that for Her, Arnulph Bishop of Lisieux, composed this Epitaph.

Regia progenies, stirps regia, Caesaris uxor,
Hic est magna brevi, clausa MATILDA loco,
Virtutum titulis humani culmen honoris
Excessit mulier, nil mulieris habens.
Septembris decima regno post regna recepto
Creditur aeternum, continuasse diem.

A Parallel hath been made betwixt this great Princess and Agripina, who was the Daughter of an Emperor,Ibidem, p. 387. the Wife of an Emperor, and the Mother of an Emperor; and our Empress Maud was the Daughter of King Henry the First, the Wife of Hen­ry the Fourth, Emperor of Almaine, and the Mother of King Henry the Second: Which relation of Her to these Three Royal Henries, is most emphatically expressed in this short, yet significant Memorial,Thus Eng­lished in Speed, p. 470. engraven on Her Tomb,Matthew Paris, p. 143. num. 56. mentioned by a Faithful Historian.

Ortu magna,
Here HENRY's Mother, Daughter, Wife, doth rest. By Birth much, more by Spouse; By Child most blest.
viro major, sed maxima partu,
Hic jacet HENRICI filia, sponsa, parens.

And now it were critical to imagine, that in memory of these Three Henries, She was the charitable Foundress of the Three Mo­nasteries, viz. Of Vieu, in the County of Caux; of Cherbourg; and of S. Andrew, in the Forest of Gouffer. She also for the pub­lick good of the Normans, bestowed much Money in laying the Foundation, and building the Bridge of Roan.

The Empress (in Her Grant of the Earldom of Hereford to Milo Fitz-Walter) stiles Her self,Vincent, p. 504 b. Matilda Imperatrix Henrici Regis filia, & Anglorum Domina; and in the circumference of Her Great Seal, Mathildis Dei Gratia Romanorum Regina. The Figure of which Seal, I have exhibited in the Front of this First Book.

Children of MAUD the Empress, by GEOFFREY, Earl of ANJOU, Her Second Husband.

4. HENRY FITZ-EMPRESS, Eldest Son and Heir of his Father and Mother, succeeded King Stephen in the King­dom of England, by the name of HENRY II. Whose History followeth in the First Chapter of the Second Book.

4. GEOFFREY, Earl of Nants, surnamed Martell, second Son of Maud the Empress, to whom his Father left the Earl­dom of Anjou, so soon as his Brother Henry should come to be King of England; and to that purpose made His Lords swear, not to suffer His Body to be Buried, until His Son Henry had taken his Oath to perform it: Which Oath Henry afterwards, in reference to his Fathers Body, did take; but as he took it unwillingly, so he willingly brake it, and presently sent to Adrian the then Pope, for a Dispensation of his Oath. Which granted, he enters Anjou with an Army, and takes from his Brother GEOFFREY (being not able to make resistance) not onely the Earldom of Anjou, but some Cities also, which his Father had absolutely given him for his maintenance.Chronica Norman­niae, p. 992 b. & 994 a. But out of Brotherly kindness in the year 1155. makes an agreement with him, by which he was to pay him yearly, a Thousand pounds English, and 2000 Livres of Anjou, which was so un­kindly taken by his Brother Geoffrey, that it brake his heart. He received the Honor of Knighthood from Theobald, Ibidem, p. 984 d. Ibid. a. Earl of Blois, An. 1150. was Earl of Nants in Britain, and deceased in the Moneth of July, and year 1157.

4. WILLIAM, Williel. Gemmet. p. 304 b. Third Son of Maud the Empress, and Earl Geoffrey, whom Ralph Brook, York Herald, and John Speed, call Earl of Poicton; but I find him not otherways mentioned then (Willielmus frater Regis Henrici) William, King Henries Brother. He departed this World at Roan, upon the III of the Kalends of February (viz. the 30 day of January) in the year of our Lord 1163.Chron. Norman. p. 999 c. And was Interred in the Church of our Lady in the said City.

4. N—. A Daughter of Geoffrey Plantagenet, Rogerus Hoveden, f. 323 b. numb. 30. and Maud the Empress, is mentioned by Roger Hoveden, to be the Wife of David, the Son of Owayn, Prince of North-Wales. But I do not find her noted by any other Author.

3. STEPHEN, An. Dom. 1135. King of ENGLAND.
CHAP. VI.

THe Male-Line of the Normans being extinct in King Henry the First,Several are the Opinions concerning the Arms of King Stephen, some attribu­ting to him the Two Lions of King Henry II. His Pre­decessor. Nich. Upton in his Book De Militari Officio (Lib. 4. p. 129.) saith, That King Stephen ha­ving entred upon the Go­vernment of England, in the Moneth of December, the Sun being then in the Celestial Sign Sagitta­rius, Stephen in memory thereof, Scu­tum portavit rubitum, in quo rabuit trium Leonum pedi­tantium cor­pora usque ad collum, cum corporibus humanis supe­rius, ad mo­dum Signi Sagittarii, de auro, did bear in a Shield, Gules, the Bodies of Three Lions Passant to the Neck, with Mens Bodies, Or, in Form of the Sign Sa­gittarius. And both Mills and Brook in their Cata­logues of Honor, attribute to King Stephen for Arms, Gules, a Sagittarius, Or, but without any cited Authority. And some again tell us, that these were not His Arms, but His Device. Repair we therefore to His Seals, two of which I have seen, both having the same Circumscription, disagreeing onely in the Reverses or Counterseals; upon one of which (being in my custody) and also exhibited in Speeds Chronicle, Pag. 455. The King is repre­sented on Horsback in His Coat of Mail, in His Right Hand He holds His Sword; and on His Left Hand hangs His Shield, half the Convex side of which is to be seen, without any Device thereon. Upon the Counterseal of the other, which I have represented to your view in the beginning of this First Book; and of which, I have seen Two Originals (one in the Registry of Westminster, and the other in the Chamber of the Dutchy of Lancaster) you have the Figure of a Man on Horsback, with a Blanck Shield also; but in His Right Hand in the place of His Sword, He bears a Lance, with a Streamer on the top thereof, Slit in Form of a Standard, with a Cross there­on. The same Standard you have also upon the Coyn of King Stephen, exhibited in Mr. Speed, Pag. 455. and His Daughter Maud, An. Dom. 1135. De­cemb. 2. the Empress, onely left, and She married to a stranger. This Stephen, Ordericus Vitalis, p. 374 b. Earl of Bologne and Mortaign, Thrid Son of Stephen, Earl of Blois, by Alice Fourth Daughter of the Conqueror, hasting into England, notwithstanding his for­mer Oath to Maud (by the procurement of his Brother Henry, Williel. Gemmet. p. 313 b. Bishop of Winchester, the Popes Legate, and Roger, Bishop of Salisbury; two, the most powerful Men at that time in the State, partly by Reasons, but more indeed by Force) was by the State received for King; and upon the 26 of December, being S. Ste­phens day, in the year 1135. about Twenty four days after the decease of his Uncle King Henry, Crowned at Westminster by William Corbell, Archbishop of Canterbury, in the presence of but three Bishops, few of the Nobility, and not one Abbot.

There were not wanting those that urged the Oath of the No­bles to the Empress to be salved,Matth. Paris, p. 74. num. 20, 30, 40. because no president could be found, that ever the Crown of England had been set on the Head of a Woman; and moreover, that that Oath being taken on condition, that Maud should marry at home; the condition being broken, the Obligation was null. But that which seemed most to colour King Stephens Usurpation, was, the Testimony of Hugh Bigot, who took a voluntary Oath before the Lords, that being with King Henry immediately before his death, he adopted, and chose Earl Stephen to be his Heir, because the Empress his Daugh­ter had at that time highly offended Him; for had Stephen pre­tended any Title by Blood, then must Theobald, Earl of Blois, his elder Brother have been preferred before him; and also Henry Fitz-Empress (if they refused his Mother) was nearer to the right Stem.

Stephen had also made fair promises to obtain the Crown, which [Page 39]he was resolved to establish by performances, and therefore he pleased the people by easing them of Impositions; the Clergy by forbearing the detention of Bishopricks and Abbeys, he oblieged the Nobility by giving them liberty to hunt his Deer in their own Woods, and besides, by advancing many of them in honor. And to secure himself abroad as well as at home, he stopped his Bro­ther Theobalds Title with a yearly grant of 2000 Marks, and married his Son Eustace to Constance, Daughter of the King of France. Add to all this the vast Treasure of his Predecessor a­mounting to 100000 Pounds in Money, besides Jewels of very great value: All which he seised into his own hands, and expend­ed not in Luxury, but in procuring Friends, and levying Soldiers out of Britany and Flanders.

The Crown was scarce set on His Head,Matth. Paris, p. 75. num. 10, 20. when He was forced to take the Sword in His Hand, for David King of Scots, engag­ing in the quarrel of His Neece Maud, enters Northumberland, and possesses Himself of the Towns of Carlisle and Newcastle, where King Stephen coming against Him, rather bought His victo­ry, then won it: For to recover Newcastle out of His Hands, He was forced to let King David hold Cumberland, and His Son Henry the Earldom of Huntington. The King returning home, found some defection in His Barons, that entertained Him a while; after which, He fell into so dangerous a fit of sickness, that it was re­ported He was dead. This created several doubts and suspitions in His Friends, and encouraged Geoffrey, Earl of Anjou, to surprise several Peeces in Normandy, to prepare for the recovery of his Wife Maud her Right; but to make the World see he was alive again,Ibidem, num. 32. Stephen passed into Normandy, overcame Anjou in Battel, and after makes peace with him; and upon the renouncing his Wives claim, Stephen is to pay him 5000 Marks per annum.

He was but newly returned out of Normandy, Chronica Norman­niae, p. 977 a, b. & 978 a. when David, King of Scots, encouraged by His former successes, invades the North parts a second time, in the year 1139. But notwithstanding the Active Valor of Himself and His Son, He was defeated with the loss of 11000 of his Soldiers, by Thurstan, Archbishop of York, and the Northern Lords; upon which, David begs a Peace, For the confirmation of which, his Son Henry was sent hostage to King Stephen. The quickness of whose success, making him pre­sume more of himself, caused him to fall upon those Rocks that dashed in pieces his future grandure.

Not long after, Stephen calls a Councel at Oxford, where oc­casion was given to put him out with his faithfullest Friends, the Clergy; For the Bishops, upon liberty given to build Castles, so outwent the Lords, in magnificence, strength, and number of E­rections, and especially the Bishop of Salisbury, that their great­ness was much envied by them, who to be revenged, put the King in Head, That all those Castles were built to no other intent, but for the entertainment of Maud, and her Complices; whereupon Stephen after a long dispute with the Bishops, takes them into his own hands.

In this juncture of time, the Empress accompanied with Robert, Earl of Glocester, arrives in England with a small party but is quickly strengthned by the wonderful access of many of the Eng­lish, and of Ranulph, Earl of Chester; with a number of valiant Welshmen. Whereupon King Stephen raising an Army, engages the Empress near Lincoln, An. 1141. doubtful it was for a long time, whose Head the Lawrels of Victory would crown, till at last the Empress had the day,Orderich Vitalis, p. 992 a, b. and King Stephen (notwithstanding His Herculean laying about Him with His Battel Ax) was taken captive, and committed Prisoner to Bristol Castle; while the Em­press possesseth the Kingdom, and as a Conqueress enters London in Triumph. Upon which, Matilda, King Stephens Wife, im­plores the Empress, that She might live a private life with Her Husband; and the Londoners press Her for the restauration of S. Edwards Laws; but She grants neither. Queen Matilda not enduring this denial, calls Her Son Eustace out of Kent with a company of choice Soldiers, who joyning with the Citizens (in­censed, that their request was denied) force the Empress to quit Her station in London, and to flie privately to Oxford, where She gives order, that King Stephen should be put into Fetters, and sends to Her Uncle, King David, to repair with all speed to Her assistance; upon whose arrival, they besiege Winchester, which Queen Matilda, and Her Son Eustace, with the Londoners, came to relieve. A fierce Battel was here fought,Gesta Sie­phani Re­gis, Ang p. 957 a. in which the Empress being worsted, was (to make Her escape) laid on Horsback, in form of a dead corps, and so conveyed to Glocester; Robert, Earl of Glocester was there made prisoner (disdaining ignoble flight) upon whom Queen Matilda retaliated the hard usage to the King Her Husband.

His Marri­age. The Arms of Bologne, are, Or, 3 Torte­aux, which I have seen up­on a Seal of Ida, Count­els of Bologne (Grand-Daughter to this Queen Matilda) on which Her Effigies is re­presented in the habit of that time, and on Her left hand a Dove, circumscrib­ed thus, Sigil­lum Ide Co­mitisse Bolo­nie; and on the Counter­seal which is round, in an antick Shield, are the 3 Roundels, and in the Circle these words, Secretum meum michi. Olivarius Uredius in Genealogia Comit. Flandriae, p. 30 & 31. Also in a Charter (in my custody) of this Queen Maud, wherein She grants Her Hospital, near the Tower, to the Church of the Holy Trinity, London; She writes Her Self, Mathildis Dei Gratia Regina Angliae. Her Figure with a Royal Crown, being represented on Her Seal, with a Scepter in Her Right Hand, and a Dove on Her Lest; but without any Reverse, Arms or Devise. E'Bibliothec [...] Cottoniana. This Matilda (that you may the better know her) was the Daughter and Heir of Eustace, Williel. Malm [...]h. fol. 107 b Henricus Hunting­ton, fol. 214 a. num. 40. Earl of Bologne (Brother of Geof­frey and Baldwine, Kings of Jerusalem) married to Stephen, by the procurement of King Henry the First his Uncle. A Woman (saith my Author) moulded for the proprotion of both Fortunes, acting Her Husbands part for Him, when He could not act it for Himself, not expecting that Fortune should fall into Her Lap, but rather industrious to procure it. Her Mother was Mary, Sister to Maud, Queen of England, Wife of King Henry the First. So that both She, and Stephen Her Husband, were Cosin-Germans to Maud the Empress. She was crowned at Westminster upon the 22 of March, being Easter day, in the First year of King Stephen, and of our Lord 1136. She founded S. Katherines Hospital, near the Tower of London. And having been Queen Fifteen years, de­ceased at Heveningham Castle in Essex, the Third day of May, An. 1151. and was buried at Feversham in Kent. Weever, p. 278. I. Bib. Cot­toniant. This Epitaph hath been found for Her in a nameless Manuscript.

Anno Milleno C. quinquagenoque prinio:
Quo sua non minuit, sed sibi nostra tulit.
MATHILDIS felix conjux STEPHANI quoque Regis
Occidit, insignis moribus & titulis;
Cultrix vera Dei, cultrix & pauperibus,
Hic subnixa Deo quo frueretur eo.
Femina si qua Polos conscendere queque meretur,
Angelicis manibus diva hec Regina tenetur.

After some fruitless Proposals in order to an Agreement, whether by connivance of their Keepers, but more probably by consent, both King Stephen, and Earl Robert, got to be at Liberty, and the Empress not long after is besieged by the King in Oxford; from whence She makes Her second escape. Nevertheless the pre­sent fear left such an impression upon Her, that She never after­wards had any mind to appear upon the Stage of War, but left it to Her Son, Duke Henry, who being grown up and able to bear Arms, did fortunately supply the places of Robert Earl of Glo­cester his Uncle, and Milo Earl of Hereford, another of his Mothers Captains, both lately deceased. Into England Henry comes with fresh supplies, and besieges Malmsbury, to give Stephen a diverosin at that time with an Army before Wallingford; who resolving to put the business to the tryal of a Battel, brings an Army far supe­rior to that of Duke Henry; Chronica Norman­niae, p. 989 b, c. but Floods and Storms kept them so long asunder, till an agreement was made by the Bishops, especi­ally by the Mediation of the Archbishop of Canterbury, and at Winchester was concluded upon these Conditions. viz. That King Stephen, during His Natural Life, should remain King of England, and Henry enjoy the Dukedom of Normandy, and be proclaimed Heir Apparent to the Kingdom of England. The Partisans of both, to enjoy their Ancient Rights and Titles. Things to be as they stood before Stephen was King; and all Castles built in His Reign, to be demolished.

After this Pacification, Henry returns into Normandy, and Ste­phen having attained (that which he never had before) Peace (which yet he enjoyed not two years) makes Progresses through most parts of the Kingdom, to reform those mischeifs that had grown up under the Sword, and then calls a Parliament at Lon­don: After which, having had a conference with Theodorick, Earl of Flanders, who met Him at Dover; He no sooner had dismissed Him, but He was suddenly taken with the Iliake Passion, mixed with His old disease,Henrie. Hunting. fol. 228 a. num. 50. Chronica Norman­niae, p. 990 b. the Emrods, whereof He died in the Mona­stery there, upon the 25 day of October, 1154. Eight days before the Feast of All-Saints, when He had ruled Eighteen years, and almost Eleven moneths, and was Interred in the Monastery of Feversham in Kent, which He and His Queen had founded, with the said Queen His Wife, and Prince Eustace His Son, who de­ceased but a short time before him. There His Body remained in [Page 42]quiet until the dissolution of the Abbeys, when for so small a gain, as the Lead Coffin, wherein it was wrapped, it was taken up, and thrown into the next Water.

He was (as a Modern Author renders Him) a Man so continu­ally in Motion, that we cannot take His dimensions, but only in passing, and that only on the side of War; on the other, we never saw but a glance on Him, which yet for the most part was such as shewed Him to be a very worthy Prince, and an expert Soldier, wanting nothing to make Him an excellent King, but a good Title. Those that read His Circumscriptions upon His Great Seal, may ad­mire why He that only stiled Himself in His Charters, STE­PHANƲS DEI GRATIA REX ANGLORƲM, should (having no Title, nor any Possession of Normandy) on the reverse thereof, write Himself also STEPHANƲS DEI GRATIA DƲX NORMANORƲM. But it may be answered, That His Right to both was much alike; and having an usurped Kingdom in Possession, He might better make bold with the Title of Duke of Normandy, to compleat that Reverse which His Predecessors had made use of before Him.

He kept His word with the State concerning the relievement of Tributes, and never had Subsidy that we find: But which is more remarkable, having His Sword continually out, and so many re­bellions against Him, He never put any great Man to death. More­over it is observed, That notwithstanding all these Miseries of War, there were more Abbeys erected in His Reign, then had been in an hundred years before; which shews, that though the times were bad, they were not impious.

Children of King STEPHEN, by Queen MAUD of Bologne His Wife.

4. BALDWIN, Eldest Son of King Stephen (bearing the name of Baldwin, King of Jerusalem, His Mothers Uncle) was born in the Reign of King Henry the First, His Fathers Un­cle, and died in his Infancy, during the same Kings Reign. His Burial place was in the Priory of the Trinity within Ald­gate in London; which was a House of BlackStows Survey of London. Canons of the Augustinian Order, founded by Queen Maud, first Wife of the said King Henry. The first Canon Regular in England being of this place, An. 1108. And the Prior thereof Alderman of London.

4. EƲSTACE, Earl of Bologne, Second Son of King Stephen and Queen Maud, so named from Eustace Earl of Bologne, Stevoa & Lovis de Sam. Mar­che, p. his Grand-Father, was Heir-Apparent to his Father, and also to his Mother, in whose Right (when Stephen came to be King) he was created Earl of Bologne. His Marriage. He married Constance, Sister of Lewis the Seventh, King of France, and Daughter of King Lewis the Gross; but dying without Issue, She was after re­married [Page 43]to Raymond, the Third Earl of Tholosa, or S. Giles. This Eustace was a Prince, more then of Hope; for he lived to the blossoming of much Valor, though it came not to maturity, being cut off at the age of Eighteen years: Some say by drown­ing, but others (upon better ground) by a stranger accident, which was, That being exasperated at the Agreement made betwixt his Father, and Henry Duke of Normandy (by which he was excluded from all hopes of Succession to the Crown) he in a fury went to the Abbey of Bury in Suffolk, and demanded Money of the Monks, to set forward his heady designs; which being denied him, he presently in a rage went forth, and set on fire the Corn Fields belonging to the Monastery; but after­wards sitting down to dinner,Chronica Norman­niae, p. 989 b. at the first morsel of Bread he put in his Mouth, he fell into a fit of madness, and in that fit died upon the Tenth day of August, in the Seventeenth year of his Fathers Reign, An. Dom. 1152.

This Prince was so beloved of his Father, that he had a pur­pose to have joyned him with himself in the Kingdom;Hen. Hun­tington, fol. 227 b. num. 40. but that the Pope upon complaint made to him of it by the Bishops, diverted him from it. However, being dead, he was buried in the Abbey of Feversham, where his Mother was Interred about Fifteen Moneths before him.

4. WILLIAM, Mills, p. 93. Earl of Mortaigne and Bologne, Lord of the Honors of Eagle, and of Pevensey, Third and youngest Son of King Stephen, who in the right of Issabel his Wife; was the Fourth Earl Warren and Surrey; she being the only Daughter and Heir of William, the Third Earl Warren and Surrey. This William after the death of his Father, restored to King Henry the Second, the Honor of Pevensey and Norwich, and all his Estate in England and Normandy, whereof he was possessed by gift from his Father, King Stephen. In exchange for which, King Henry gave unto him whatsoever King Stephen enjoyed before he was made King of England, Roger. Hoveden, fol. 281 b. num. 40. and also Knighted him at the City of Carlisle. He deceased accompanying the said King at the siege of Tholosa in the year 1159. (as Hoveden hath it.) ButSigeber­tus, p. 216. Rob. de Monte, p. 640. others An. 1160. without Issue, leaving his Sister Mary to be his Heir.

4. MAƲD, the Elder Daughter of King Stephen, and Queen Maud, was born before her Father was King, in the Reign of King Henry the First, her Uncle; in whose time she also de­ceased,Stows Survey, p. 105. being young (though some report she was Wife to the Earl of Millan) and was Interred at London with her Brother Baldwine, in the Priory of the Trinity within Aldgate, then commonly called Christ Church, and lately named Dukes-Place, because it came to the Duke of Norfolk by marriage with the Daughter and Heir of Thomas Lord Audley of Walden.

4. MARY Younger, but onely Daughter living of King Ste­phen, first became Nun and Abbess of the Nunnery of Ramsey in Hampshire; Vincent. p. 710. and after being secretly taken from thence, was married to Matthew of Flanders, the younger Son of Theodorick of Alsatia, Earl of Flanders; who after the death of William her Brother, was Countess of Bologne and Mortaigne, and bare to her said Husband two Daughters, Ida and Maud. Which Mary, the Countess, having professed Chastity,Bellefor­rest, p. 445. by the censure of the Church, was separated from her said Husband, and re­mitted back into her Monastery; yet her children were legiti­mated by Parliament, An. 1189. and left the Earldom of Bo­logne to her daughters. Ida the Eldest married to Reginald de Trie, Earl of Dammartin, and in right of his Wife, Earl of Bologne, who bare unto him one daughter, by name Maud, married to Philip, Uncle to S. Lewis, King of France, in May, An. 1210. who by her became Earl of Bologne.

Maud, the other daughter of Mary, and sister of Ida, Sam­marth, p. 91. Olivarius Ure dius in Genealo­gia Com. Fland. in probati­onibus Ta­bulae VII. M. was the Wife of Henry the First, Duke of Brabant, Father of Henry the Second, Duke of Brabant, &c.

Natural Issue of King STEPHEN.

4. WILLIAM, Ralph Brook, York He­rald. is mistaken of some to be the same William that was Earl of Bologn; others who knew that William Earl of Bologne was lawfully born, do think his Father had no other Son named William, but himself; wherein, let William Earl of Bologne be a lawful witness of himself; who having best cause to know it, doth best prove it. And in an ancient Charter of his, being written in those days, and extantin these, doth name him for a witness, and calleth him his Brother.

4. GERVAIS, another Natural Son of King Stephen, Reges, Reginae, Nobiles, & alii in Ecclesia Collegia­ta, B. Pe­tri West-monasterii Sepulti, p. 80. in Claustris. be­gotten on a Gentlewoman named Dameta, and born in Norman­dy, was brought into England by his Father, in the Fifth year of his Reign, An. 1140. And (by his procurement also) in the same year, made Abbot of Westminster, and so continued for the space of Twenty years. He deceased there the Twenty sixth day of August, in the Sixth year of the Reign of King Henry the Second, The Year of Grace, 1160. and lieth buried in the South part of the Cloyster, within the said Monastery, under a Stone of Black Marble, which yet remaineth. The Epitaph is almost wholly defaced, which was this Distick in Saxon Characters, viz.

DE REGUM GENERE PATER DIC GERV ASIƲS ECCE,
Camdens Remains, p. 356.
MONSRAT DEFUNCTUS, MORS RAPIT OMNE GENUS.

3. ROBERT, Consul, or Earl of GLOCESTER, Surnamed of CANE.
CHAP. VII.

AMong the Natural Children of King Henry the First,Ordcricus Vitalis, p. 920 b. this Robert (surnamed (de Cado­mo) of Cane, Gules, 3 Rests, Or. are the Arms attri­buted to this Robert Earl of Glocester, and were an­tiently de­picted upon the covering of a Tomb in the Abbey of Tewk shury, wherein was interred the Body of Gil­bert de Clare Earl of Glo­cester, deri­ving his de­scent from the Heir General of this Ro­bert. In seve­ral places of which Church are the Arms assigned to Robert Fitz-Hamon, the Father of Mabel, this Roberts Wife, viz. Azure, a Lion Ram­pant Guar­dant, Or. The said Robert being also interred in the same Church with this Epitaph, In ista Capella jacet Dominus Robertus filius Hamonis hujus Loci Fundator. Lib. in Officio Arm. L. 17. fol. 202 b. the place of his Birth) held the prime place, not onely in respect of his be­ing the first of that number, but also because his Mother was the most Noble of all his Fa­thers Concubines,Ralph Brook, York-Herald. viz. Nesta, Daughter of Rhees ap Tewdor, Prince of South-wales, (afterwards married to Gerald of Windsors Constable of Pembroke Castle, and Ancestor of the Earls of Kildare in Ireland) whom King Henry having begotten in his lust, yet to make amends to the Mo­ther, thought it love,Williel. Gemmet. p. 306 c. and charity to provide for; and there­fore bestows upon Robert an ample Inheritance in England and Normandy, and moreover procures a match for him, with Mabel the rich Daughter and Heir of Robert Fitz-Hamon, Lord of Cor­boil in Normandy, Cardiff in South-wales, and Tewskbury in Eng­land, by Matilda (some name her Sibilla) his Wife, Daughter of Roger de Montgomery. The Monk of Glocester expresseth King Hen­ries courting the Lady Mabel for His Son Robert in these Rhimes, and her refusal of him at first, for want of a Surname.

Sir shed saide well ich wote your hert upon me is
More for myne heritage,
Robert of Glocester, fol. 218 a.
than for me self I wis
And suche heritage as ich have,
That Sur­names were not in use in England be­fore the Conquest, we ma­observe in thy Charters ofe Edward the Confessor, one of which is thus witnessed ✚ Ego Haraldus Dux consensi.Ego Tostius Comes consensi.Ego Girth Comes consensi.Ego Edwinus Comes consensi.Ego Morker, &c. and several others without other addition, but onely of their Titles. But in Doomsday Book, in the Enchequer, Surnames (so termed by the French, because they were superadded to the Christian name) are first found, and brought then into England by the Normans, who not long before took them. Many of which were noted with de, such a place of their Habitation; as Albericus de Vere, Walterus de Vernon, Gislebertus de Venables: Or, with filius, as Guilelmus filius Osberni, Richardus filius Gisleberts; and Robertus filius Hamonis (the Father of this Mabel, who being Frenchi­fied, looked upon it as a high disgrace to take a Husband without his two names) several also took Sur­names from their Offices, as Eudo Dapifer, Guilelmus Camerarius, Hervens Legatus, Radulphus Venator. The Welsh used mab, and ap, as David ap Harry, Merruddeth ap Blethin; and the Irish, mac, as Mac Mahon, Mac Morrough, Mac William, which is the same with Filius or Fitz.
hit were to me grete shame
To take a Lorde but he hadde any surname.
Sir Robert le Fitz-Hayme my Faders name was, &c.
And thuike myght nat be hit that of his kynne nas.
Therfor Sir for Goddes love lete me no man owe
But he haue a surname, whethy to be know.
[Page 46]
Damseill quoth the Kyng thou seist well in this cas
Sir Robert Fiz-Hayme thi Fader name was
And as fayr name he shall have yf me may by see
Sir Robert Fiz-Roy shall his name be.
Sir quoth this Mayde, tho this is a fayre name
As ho seith all his lyf, and of grete fame.
But what shulde his sone hete, if one of him come,
So myght he not hote nemeth therof gome.
The Kyng vnderstode so she saide non vtrage,
And that Gloucester was chief of hur heritage.
Damsele he seide tho; thi Lorde shall haue a name
For him and for his heires fayr withoute blame.
For Robert Erle of Gloucester, his name shall be and is,
He shall be Erle of Gloucester, and his heires I wys.
In this fourme quoth hed ich wole, that all my thyng be his.
Thus was an Erie of Gloucester first I maked ther,
After the Conquest of all that ther wer.
This was xi. c. yet, and it yet a plight,
Afther that our sweet Lorde her on herthe Light,
And of the Kynges coronement in the it yet
That this Erle of Gloucester maked thus was ther.

Here we find this Robert to compleat his greatness,Williet. Gemmet. p. 306. d. created Earl of Glocester, An. 1109. in the Ninth year of King Henry the First. And well did he requite this bounty of his Father, in the faithful assertion of his Sister Maud the Empress, in her Wars against King Stephen, to whom he proved a continual terror, and laid the ground-work of those successes that afterwards were compleated in her son Henry Fitz Empress. He was indeed,Williel. Malmsb. fol. 108 a. num 20. the most valiant Captain of that age; and if we would know the true value which those of that time had of him, we must weigh him in the ballance against Stephen, that Martial Prince,Gesta Ste­phen. Re­gis, pag. 957 d. who thought not that his enemies did undervalue him, nor that his friends did him any ad­vantage, when (being both taken Captives) Robert was made his exchange. Nor could that conclusion have been grounded upon any other person so justly as himself: That a King for an Earl, and an Earl for a King, should set one the other at liberty.

He built the Castles of Bristol, and Cardiff in South-wales, and the Monastery of S. James at Bristol, and deceased on the last day of October, in the Twelfth year of King Stephen, An. 1147. and was interred in the midst of the Chore of the said Monastery of S. James.

To him William of Malmsbury dedicated his Book, entituled, Historia Novella.

Children of ROBERT Earl of Glocester, by MABEL FITZ-HAMON his Wife.

4. WILLIAM Eldest Son of Robert Earl of Glocester, was after his Fathers death, Earl of Glocester, and Lord of Glamor­gan. Vide Chap. 8. being the next following.

4. ROGER Second Son of Robert, Godwin. de Praesu­libus An­gliae Com­mentarius, p. 510. Chro. M.S. in Bibl. Cotton. f. 17. a Ordericus Vitalis, p. 897 a. Consul of Glocester, was consecrated Bishop of Worcester, An. 1164. He died at Tours in France on the Ninth day of August, in the year of our Lord, 1179.

4. RICHARD Third Son was Bishop of Bayon in Normandy, consecrated by Hugh, Archbishop of Roan, at the Command­ment of Pope Innocent, about the year 1133.

4. HAMON Fourth Son of Robert Earl of Glocester, Ibidem, p. 900 b. was slain at Tholouse with William King Stephens Son, in the year of our Salvation 1160. Or according to some, An. 1159. I find him witness to a Charter of Earl William his Brother.

Ralph Brook, York-Herald. 4. MABEL Elder Daughter of Earl Robert was married to Aubrey de Vere.

I have seen an Original Charter of this Ranulph, in which he confirms the gift of Willi­am de Rou­mara made to the Canons of Derham, the Seal Ap­pendant thereunto, is of Green Wax, the Form round, circumscribed ✚ SIGILLUM RANULPHI COMITIS CESTRIE. In the Sheild which is of a very antient Figure, there is a Lion Rampant with his Tail erected, and turned backward. In Camera Ducatus Lancastria. This Coat of Arms is thus Emblazoned, Or, a Lion Rampant, with his Tail erected, Gutes. 4. MATILDA Younger Daughter,Williel. Gemmet. p. 313 c. Ordericus Vitalis, p. 921 c. was the Wife of Ranulph of Ranulph Gernoniis Earl of Chester; by whom she had issue, Hugh the Fifth Earl Palatine of Chester, and Richard. This Ranulph was poysoned by the practice of this Maud his Wife, and William Peverell Lord of Nottingham, in the year 1155. For which act, Peverell was disinherited by King Henry the Second.

4. WILLIAM, Consul, or Earl of GLOCESTER, and Lord of GLAMORGAN.
CHAP. VIII.

I have in my custody, an Instrument of this William, who is written therein WIL­LELMUS CONSUL, but the Seal is lost. In an other Charter (of which I have seen a Copy) I find him stiled WIL­LELMUS COMES GLOCES­TRIE. The Figure of the Seal being Circular, and near three in­ches broad, containeth a Lion Passant Guardant to­wards the Sinister sider of the Roundel; the words in the Circle are obliterated, and the Counterseal, which is a very small Oval much defaced. Penes Hen. S. George Arm. Foecialem nom. Richmond. Lib. A. 27. fol. 144 a. Its probable he gave this Lion in memory of his Grand-Father Robert Fitz-Hamon, who (if we believe the Escocheons in Tewksbury Church Windows to be his) did bear a Lion Rampant Guardant; this William onely altering the Lion, by bearing him Passant Guardant. But yet after what I have here said, the Arms attributed to this William, and quartered for him by his Descendants, are the Arms of Earl Robert his Father, viz. Gules 3 Rests, Or. THis William was the Eldest Son and Heir of Robert Consul of Glocester (for Comes and Consul, Williel [...] Gemmet [...] p. 306 c. were the same Title in that time) whom he succeeded in that Earldom,Gesta Step. Regit Ang. p. 974. c. and was also Lord of Glamorgan in the right of his Mother, Mabell, Daughter and Heir of Robert Fitz-Hamon, who won the said Lordship from Justin ap Gurgan, Lord of Glamorgan, in the time of King Willi­am Rufus, and made his abode in the Castle of Cardiff, where he kept his Courts Monethly, and used therein Jura Regalia, ha­ving his Twelve Knights to attend him the first day, they having several Lodgings given them and their Heirs for ever, within the said Castle.

This William built the Abbey of Keynsham, and confirmed theChartae in Officie Arme­rum. Grant of Hugh de Gondevile to the Monks of Bordesley. He married Hawis, or Hadewise, Daughter of Robert Bossu Earl of Leicester, and departed this World in the year of our Lord 1183.

Children of WILLIAM Earl of Glocester, by the Countess HAWIS his Wife.

5. ROBERT the onely Son of Earl William, Glover apud Mil­les, pag. 360. was untimely taken away by Death in the year 1166. in memory of whom, his Father built the Monastery of Keinsham.

5. MABELL, Countess of Evereux, Rogerm Hoveden, fol. 316 a. num. 50. the Eldest Daughter of William Earl of Glocester, was married to Almerick Montfort Earl of Evereux, in Normandy; to which, Mabell, King Henry the Se­cond gave an Hundred pounds in Portion, because that William her Father had bestowed the Earldom of Glocester upon John his youngest Son, with Issabell her younger Sister. This Mabell and Almerick had issue Almerick Montford Earl of Evereux, who after the Divorce of his Aunt Issabell, from the above said John, the Kings Son, was the next Earl of Glocester, in the right of [Page 49]his said Mother Mabell, in the second year of King John. merick Montfort Earl of Glocester married Milicent, the Daugh­ter of Hugh Gourney; and deceasing without issue, was buried in the Monastery of Keynsham.

I have seen a Deed of this Richard, who wrote himself Ricardus de Clara Comes Herdford. His Seal of Green Wax is appendant thereto, the Circumscrip­tion is de­faced, but the Figure of the Earl on Horsback, is plainly to be seen, having on his long Triangular Shield, Three Cheverons. Ex. Gartis Dom. Henrici Com. de Peterborough. 5. AMITIA, Reger. Hoveden. fol. 316 a num. 50. Countess Clare, Glocester, and Hertford, Se­cond Daughter of Earl William, was the Wife of Richard Earl of Clare and Hertford, to her likewise King Henry gave an Hundred pounds upon the same consideration with her Sister Mabell; but her youngest Sister Issabell dying without issue, by her three Husbands, this Richard Earl of Clare and Hertford, had also the Earldom of Glocester, and his Posterity after him in the right of this Amitia.

This John, when he was Lord of Ire­land, and Earl of Mori­ton, did bear for Arms, Two Lions Passant, as appeareth by his Seal, ex­hibited in its proper place. 5. ISSABELL, Rogerus Hoveden. f. 316 a. num. 50. & 373 b. num. 30. Matth. Westm. p. 257. num. 10. Pat. 15. R. Johannis, p. 1. m. 4. Countess of Glocester, &c. the Third and Youngest Daughter of William Earl of Glocester, was married to John Youngest Son of King Henry the Second, to whom with Her, Her Father gave the Earldom of Glocester, An. 1176. with this Caution, that the Popes Licence and Dispensation might be obtained, which served this John after he had usurped the Crown, to Divorce Her upon pretences, as well for that She was Barren, as that they were within the degrees of Con­sanguinity; who a while after (reserving to himself the Castle of Bristol) passed Her over to Geoffrey de Magna-Villa, or Man­devile Earl of Essex for 20000 Marks, who thus over-marrying himself was very much impoverished, and shortly after died, to make way for Her third Husband Hubert de Burgo Earl of Kent; but She died at last without issue.

3. REGINALD, Earl of CORNWALL, Surnamed de DƲNSTANVILE.
CHAP. IX.

The Arms at­tributed to this Reginald by several Writers of Genealogy, were, Gules, two Lions Passant Guar­dant, Or, a Batun Azure. But I have not as yet met with any Seal of this Reginald, or other Author of the time to justifie the same, being assured, That it will be dif­ficult to find the distincti­on of a Bend­let or Batun to difference the younger, or Natural Sons of the Royal Family (or any other) of so early a date. When the first Bend which I find used, was that of Henry of Lancaster, Lord of Mon­mouth, (and afterwards Earl of Lan­caster) second Son of Ed­mond Earl of Lancaster) above 130 years after the death of this Earl Reginald. HE was the Third of the Natural Children of King Henry the First,Ordericus Vitalis, p. 915 d. Vitalis gives him the Surname de Dunstanvilla, I suppose because he was borne at that place. His Mothers name was Sibill, Vincents Discovery of Errors, p. 113. Daughter of Sir Robert Corbet of Alcester, in the County of Warwick, to whom, King Henry in favor of Her, gave that Lordship.

This Sibill was afterwards married to Henry Fitz-Herbert His Chamberlain, who by Her was Ancestor of a numerous Off-Spring. viz. The Fitz-Herberts of Derbishire, the Progers of Gwernddy in Monmouthshire, the Gwinns of Lansannor, in the County of Glamor­gan, the Williams of Lincolnshire, and the Joneses of Treowen.

As also the Herberts, Earls of Pembroke and Huntington, Ex M. S. Penes Dom. Edw. Baronem Herbert de Chir­bury, &c. the Earl of Winchelsey Baron Fitz-Herbert, and the Herberts of Colebrook. The Barons Herbert of Chirbury and Powis, and se­veral other Families; to which, I add the Morgans of Arkeston, Weston, and Lannihangell, and the Joneses of Lansonfreed. Several of which Houses according to the Welsh custom changed their names every descent, the Fathers Christen-name supplying the place of the Sons surname, as, William ap Thomas, Thomas ap William, Guillim ap Jenkin, &c. For surnames were not in use among the Welsh, till by Act of Parliament in the reign of Henry the Eight, the Principality of Wales was incorporated with Eng­land.

This Reynald was made Earl of Cornwall, Malms­bury, p. 106. a. and Baron of Castle­comb, in the Fifth year of King Stephen, An. 1140. and married N—Daughter of William Fitz-Richard, Gesta Sto­phani Re­gis, p. 950. a, b. a man of an illustrious descent, and a plentiful Fortune, who revolting from King Ste­phen, received Reginald into his Castle, and with his said Daughter, bestowed on him an ample Inheritance in that County. By which acquisition he was more capable of asserting the Interest of his Half-sister the Empress, who ever found a faithful friend of him, and besides other trusts reposed in him,Cronica Norman­niae, p. 985 b. Gesta Ste­phani Re­gis, p. 953 b. employed this Reynald in the Negotiation of the Marriage of Henry Fitz-Empress her Son, with Eleanor of Aquitaine, the repudiated Wife of Lewis the Se­venth, King of France. King Stephen outed him of his estate, and gave it to Earl Alan; but Stephen, being afterwards taken prisoner, and brought to terms, Alan was forced to a full restitution.

This Reginald departed this World at Chersey, in the year of our Redemption 1176.Rob. de Monte, p. 659. num. 20. Hoveden. p. 313. num. 40. Matth. Paris, p. 126. num. 20. As Montensis hath it (but Paris and Hove­den mention his death, An. 1175,) and was buried in the Abbey of Reading, leaving (besides Natural Issue) these Four Daughters His Heirs, viz.

Richard de Ripariis Earl of Devon did bear Gules a Grif­fon Sergreant Or. Which Griffon I have seen upon several of his Seals. Ex Cartis Edw. Walker Eq. Aurat. Prin. Regis Armo­rum. 4. HAWIS or AVICE, Countess of Devon, Eldest Daugh­ter, was the Wife of Richard de Ripariis, or Rivers Earl of De­von, and Lord of the Isle of Wight, who died An. 1162. leaving by her two Sons, Baldwin and Richard; both which were Earls of that County successively, and deceased without issue.

4. MAƲD, Countess of Melent, Second Daughter of Reginald Earl of Cornwal, was married to Robert Earl of Melent.

4. ƲRSƲLA, M. S. in Officio Armarum Sign. E. 2.118. & 119. Baroness of Castlecomb, The Arms be­longing to the Dunstanviles, Barons of Castlecomb, were, Argent, A Fret Gules, on a Canton of the Second, a Lion Pas­sant, Or. But I find that January de Dunstanvile descended from a Se­cond Brother, gave for his distinction, a Border In­grayled Sable. Which Coat was quartered by the late Earl of South­ampton, Lord Treasurer of England. Lib. in Officio Ar­morum, An­not. L. 10, fol. 62, 63. Third Daughter was the Wife of Walter Dunstanvile, Baron of Castlecomb, by whom she had issue Walter Dunstanvile, Baron of Castlecomb, Father of Walter and John.

Walter had issue Petronilla his Daughter and Heir, married to Sir Robert Montford Knight, and by him had issue William Mont­ford, who by Fine sold his Lands to Bartholomew Badelsmere, An. 3 Edw. 2.

John de Dunstanvile, Second Son of Walter, was Father of Nicholas, Father of Robert, Father of another Nicholas, who had issue Henry, Father of January; whose sole Daugh­ter and Heir Barbara, was the Wife of John Wriothesley alias Garter King of Arms; and they had issue William Wrio­thesley, York Herald, Father of Thomas Wriothesley, Earl of Southampton, and Lord Chancellor of England, Ancestor of Thomas, Fourth and last Earl of Southampton; and also Trea­surer of England. Who deceased on the Sixteenth day of May 1667. without Issue-male.

4. SARAH, Vicountess of Lemoges, the Fourth and youngest Daughter, was given in marriage to the Viscount of Lemoges.

Natural Children of REYNOLD Earl of CORNWAL.

Vincents Discovery of Errors, p. 130. HENRY FITZ-CONTE (filius Comitis,) the first mentioned Natural Son of Reginald (begotten by the most fa­mous of his Concubines Beatrix de Vannes, afterwards married to William Lord Breewer of Torbay) to whom King Henry the Third, in the Moneth of February, and first year of His Reign, An. 1216. gave the Earldom of Cornwal. But he enjoyed this [Page]new honor not long, not full four years: For as he had it be­stowed upon him in the First year of His Reign,Pat. An. 4 Hen. 3. p. 1. m. 6. so in the fourth, in regard this Henry retired Himself from the Court without the Kings leave or knowledge, He sent him his discharge; whereupon Henry (as it should seem) afterwards stood in Con­testation with the King for the said Earldom; but by the Me­diation of the Bishops of Norwich, Winchester, and Exeter, Pat. An. 4 Hen. 3. p. 2. m. 3. in dorso. of Hubert de Burgo, Chief Justice of England, and others, it was concluded, That Henry Fitz-Conte should restore to the King, the said Earldom of Cornwal, with all Homages, Services, and Appurtenances, as John King of England enjoyed the same before the War betwixt Him and the Barons,Penes Williel. Dugdale, Arm. Norroy Reg. Arm. Lib. AAI. p. 117. with a Salvo to the Right and Claim of the said Henry, when the King should come to age. But the death of this Henry put an end to this dispute about two years after, viz. An. 6 Hen. 3. in the year of our Lord 1221.

4. JOHN, Pat. An. 6. Johannis Regin. the Earls Son (Johannes filius Comitis) was another Base Son of Earl Reginald. He was Parson of Benburg, and Christned, as it seemeth, by King John; for he calls him (Filio­lum) his Godson.

4. NICHOLAS, Chart: Antiq. B. num. 2. another Natural Son of Reynald Earl of Cornwal, was a witness to his Fathers Grant of the Manor of Penhel, and other Lands in Widemue, in the County of Cornwal, to William Botterel, Son of Alice Corbet, his Grand-mothers Sister.

BOOK II. Plantagenet …

BOOK II. Plantagenets Undivided.

CONTAINING A Genealogical History OF THE KINGS OF ENGLAND, &c. From HENRY II. to EDWARD I.

From the Year 1154. to the Year 1272.

✚ HENRICVS DVX NORMANORVM ET COMES ANDEOGAVORVM

HEN. D. NORM.

✚ HENRICVS DVX NORMANORVM ET COMES ANDEGAVORVM
✚ HENRICVS DEI GRATIA REX ANGLORVM

HEN. II.

✚ HENRICVS NORMANNOR ET AQITANNO R ET COMES ANDEGAVOR

Generosissimo Viro. Domino IOHANNI BABER Equiti Aurato. Sigillorum hanc Tabulam H.D. FS.

HENRICVS REX ANGLORV̄ DVX NOR̄ANNOR ET COMES SAVDEGAVOR
VIGILANDO ET AGENDO
✚ RICARDVS DEI GRACI REX ANGLORVM

RICH. I.

✚ RICARDVS DVX NORMANNORVMM ET AQVITANORVM ET COMES ANDEGAVORVM
✚ RICARDVS DEI GRATIA REX ANGLORVM

RICH. I.

✚ RICHARDVS DVX NORMANORVM ET AQVITANORVM ET COMES ANDEGAVORVM

Generosissimo Praclaro (que) viro Dno IOHANNI WALPOOL Equiti Aurato, nec non Serenissing Dn.o Regi CAROLO 11do Sti: patorum Nobisiumo Vexillario. Sigillorum hanc Tabulam. H.D. F S.

✚ SIGILVM IOHANNIS FILII REGIS ANGLIE DOMINI HIB̄NIE
✚ SECRETVM IOHANNIS
[blazon or coat of arms]
✚ IOHANNES DEI GRATIA REX ANGLIE DOMINVS HIBERNIE

K. IOHN.

IOHS DVX NORMANNIE ET AQITANNIE COMES ANDEGAVIE

Generosissimo Viro Dno THOMAEBOND Baroneted, nec non Sereniss: Dnae Regm [...]e Angliae &c. Dotariae Hospity Contrarotulatori. Sigillorion hanc Tabidā HD. FS.

HENRICVS DEI GRATIA REX ANGLIE DOMINVS HIBERNIE

HEN. III.

HENRICVS DVX NORMANNIE ET AQVITANNIE COMES ANDEGAVIE
[blazon or coat of arms]
✚ HENRICUS DEI GRACIA REX ANGLIE DOMINVS HYBERNIE DUX AQVITANNIE

HEN. III.

✚ HENRICUS DEI GRACIA REX ANGLIE DOMINVS HYBERNIE DVX AQVITANNIE
SIGILLVM ELE COMITISSE SARESBERIE
✚ ALIANORA DEI GRACIA REGINA ANGLIE ET DOMINA HYBERNIE
ALIANORA DEI GRACIA REGINA ANGLIE

Generosissimo Viro Dno: STEPHANO FOX Equiti Aurato. ad Sereniss: Dom: Regem CAROLUM II Computi Clerico: Sigillorum hanc Tubulam. HD. FS.

[blazon or coat of arms]
✚ SECRETV̄ ELE COMITISSE SARESBERIE
✚ ALIANORA DVCISSA NORMANIE ET AQVITANIE COMITISSA ANDEGAVIE
ALIANORA DEI GRACIA DOMINA HIBERNIE ET DVCISSA AQVITANNIE
SIGILLVM WILLELMI LVNGESPE
S ELE LVNGESPEYE COMITISSE WARWIC
S ELE LVNGESPEYE COMITISSE WARWIC
[...]IGILVM RICARDI DE VAREN
✚ SECRETVM WILLELMI LVNGESPE
A GENEALOGICAL TABLE Of the Second BOOK.
  • 4. HENRY II. of the Name, King of England, Duke of Normandy and Aquitaine, and Earl of Anjou, surnamed Fitz-Empress, p. 59. ELIANOR of Aquitaine, p. 60.
    • 5. WIL­LIAM Duke of Nor­mandy, Ob. S. P. p. 65.
    • HEN­RY crow­ned King, Ob. S. P. p. 66.
    • RICHARD I. King of Eng­land, Duke of Normandy and Aquitain, and Earl of Anjou, p. 73. BEREN­GARIA of Navarre, p. 76.
    • GEOF­FREY Duke of Britain, p. 67. CON­STANCE of Brittain, p. ibid.
      • 6. AR­THUR Duke of Bri­tain, p. 68.
      • ELIA­NOR. of Bri­tain, p. 69.
    • JOHN King of England, Lord of Ire­land, Duke of Normandy and Aquitain, and Earl of Anjou, p. 81. ISABEL of Engolesme, fol. 83. a.
      • HENRY III. King of England, Lord of Ire­land, and Duke of A­quitain, fol. 87. b. ELIA­NOR of Provence fol. 87.
        • 7. EDWARD I. King of England, &c. vide Book III. Chap. I.
        • EDMOND Earl of Lan­caster, p. 103. BLANCH Queen of Navarre, p. 105.
          • 8. THOMAS Earl of Lan­caster, p. 107. ALICE LACIE.
          • HENRY Earl of Lanca­ster, p. 109. MAUD CHA­WORTH.
            • 9. HENRY Duke of Lanca­ster, p. 112. ISSABEL Beau­mont, p. 113.
              • 10. MAUD Du­chess of Bava­ria, Ob. S. P. p. 113.
              • BLANCH mar­ried to John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, &c. p. 113.
            • BLANCH Lady Wake, p. 110.
            • MAUD Coun­tess of Ulster, p. 110.
            • JOA­NE La­dy Mow­bray, p. 110.
            • ISSA­BEL Abbess of Am­bresbu­ry, p. 110.
            • ELIA­NOR Lady Beau­mont and Coun­tess of Arundel, p. 111.
            • MARY Lady Percy, p. 111.
          • JOHN of Lancaster, Lord of Beaufort, p. 107.
        • RICH­ARD JOHN WILLI­AM, fol. 92. b. HENRY fol. 93. a.
        • MAR­GARET Queen of Scots, fol. 93. a.
        • BEA­TRIX Duchess of Bri­tain, fol. 93. a.
      • RICH­ARD Earl of Cornwall and King of the Ro­mans, p. 95. SAN­CHIA of Pro­vence, p. 97.
        • EDMOND Earl of Cornwall, p. 101. MARGA­RET de CLARE. Ibidem.
      • JOANE Queen of Scots, fol. 85. b.
      • ELIA­NOR, first Countess of Pem­broke, af­terwards of Leice­ster, fol. 86. a.
      • ISA­BEL Em­press of Ger­many, fol. 86. b.
    • MAUD Duchess of Saxo­ny, p. 69. ELIA­NOR Queen of Castille, p. 70.
    • JOANE first Queen of Sicily, after­wards Countess of Tho­louz. p. 70.
    • Natural Issue of King HENRY II. Viz.
      • WILLI­AM Longe­spee Earl of Salis­bury Ela de Eve­reaux, p. 114.
        • WIL­LIAM Longe­spee Earl of Sarum, p. 117. Idonia de Camvile.
          • WILLIAM Longespee, p. 118. MAUD CLIF­FORD, p. Ibidem.
            • MARGARET Longespee Wife of HEN. de Lacy, Earl of Lin­coln.
              • ALICE Lacy married to Thomas Earl of Lan­caster, p. 118.
        • RICH­ARD, STE­PHEN, Nicholas, ISSA­BEL. ELA. p. 116. IDA ELA, p. 117.
      • GEOF­FREY Archbi­shop of York, p. 71. MOR­GAN Provost of Be­verly, p. 72.
K HENRY II

K RICHARD I

KING JOHN

K HENRY III

4.An. Dom. 1154. HENRY II. King of ENGLAND, Duke of NOR­MANDY, and AQƲITAINE, and Earl of ANJOƲ, SURNAMED FITZS-EMPRESS.
CHAP. I.

NAtures last debt being paid by the Usurper King Stephen, I have exhibi­ted (in this Second Book, pag. 54.) the Figures of two Seals of this Henry; one of which he made use of when he was Duke of Nor­mandy, and Aquitaine, & Earl of An­jou, for so he is stiled in a Grant made to the Church of S. Mary of Sopwell, &c. Ex Cartis Gu­lielm. Piere­ponte Arm. The other is His Royal or Great Seal after He came to be King, in both which, the Concave sides of their Shields onely, are obvious: So that if there were any charge thereon, its not discoverable. Therefore for the Arms of this King Henry the Second, we have no other Proof then for those of the Norman Line His Predecessors, except we take the opinion of Modern Genealogists, who say, That this Henry, before His Marriage with Eleanor of Aquitaine, did bear Gules, 2 Lions Passant Guardant, Or. and that the Arms of Aquitaine, being also A Lion, Or, in a field Gules, did add the same in His Shield to His other Two Lions. The Arms upon His Monument at Fout Euraud, are on a Shield of a Modern Form; the same Monument being also adorned with Escocheons in which are both Em­palements and Quarterings, which were not used till above an hundred years after. this Henry (called Fitz-Empress from His Mother,Rogerus Hoveden. f. 281 a. num. 20. Gesta Steph. Regis, &c. p. 973 a. or Court-Mantle, because He was the first that brought the fashion of short Cloaks out of Anjou) the Undoubted Heir to the Crown, ascended the Throne (as being Eldest Son and Heir of Maud the Em­press, onely Child living of King Henry the First, by another Maud His Wife, Daughter of Malcolm the Third, King of Scots, and Margaret His Wife, Daughter of Edward, Son of King Edmund surnamed Ironside) in whom the Blood of the Saxon Kings was re­stored.

He was born at Ments in Normandy, An. 1133. in the 3¾ year of His Grand-father King Henries Reign,Ordericus Vitalis, p. 763 b. to whom His Birth was so welcome, that it seemed to make amends for His Son Duke Williams death, lost by Shipwrack not long before. His Child­hood was spent with His Parents, till being Nine years old,. He was brought into England, and at Bristol (by one Matthew his School-master) instructed in Learning; from whence being sent into Scotland, to His great Uncle King David, Roger. Hoveden. f. 280 b. He was by Him in­itiated in the Principles of State; and having now arrived to the Sixteenth year of His age, was by that King Knighted at Carlisle, An. 1148. When scarce able to bear Arms, He had also a taste of War under the Discipline of that famous Soldier Robert Earl of Glocester His Uncle, who (not long after deceasing) left Him capa­ble of supplying His conduct, and sent Him into Anjou to Earl Geoffrey His Father, who perhaps overjoyed in His presence, short­ly after died, and left Him in possession of that County, being now Nineteen years old; about which time (viz. An. 1150.) He also did HisChron. Norman. p. 985 a. Ibidem, p. 985 b. homage to Lewis King of France for the Dukedom of Normandy.

His Marri­age. In the next year followed Henries Marriage with Eleanor of Aquitaine or Guyen (Eldest Daughter and Heir of William, Scevole and Lovis de Saincte Marthe, p. 333 c. Fifth of that Name, but Ninth Duke of Aquitaine in Succession, by Eleanor of Chastelleraut His Wife) the repudiated Wife of Lewis the Seventh, called The Younger, King of France, but se­parated from Him by the Authority of Pope Eugenius the Third, at a Council held at Baugency upon the River Loire, at which, Lewis and Eleanor were with joynt consent divorced; for consan­guinity in the third or fourth degree. There are who report, that Lewis carrying this Eleanor into the Holy Land, She there behaved Her Self licentiously, and entertained familiarity with a Turk, which the King taking notice of, yet dissembled till he came home, and then waved the cause under colour of nearness of Blood. But this report was certainly nothing else but a Slander; for after Her Marriage with Duke Henry, She ever led a modest and sober life, without scandal or sensure. Others more judicious affirm, that the cause of this separation was, because Eleanor brought the King no Male-issue, which he earnestly longed for, but onely two Daughters,Saiacte Marthe, p. 338 b, c, d. & p. 339 a, b. which (being yet judged legitimate by the Church) were married; Mary of France the Elder, to Henry the First, Count Palatine of Troys in Campaigne, and of Brie, &c. And Alix of France, the younger daughter, was Wife of Theobald, cal­led The Good, Earl of Chartres and Blois, and Great Steward of France.

She was the prime cause of those Bloody Wars, which long after continued as Hereditary betwixt England and France, and the fomenter of that unnatural discord betwixt Her Husband, and His Sons. She so long over-lived King Henry Her Husband,Scevole & Lovis de Sancte Marthe, p. 334 b. as to see three of Her Sons in possession of the Crown, and two of them in their Graves;Her Death. and departed this World in the Castle of Mirabell [Page 61]in Anjou, the Twenty sixth day of June, in the year 1202. And was interred in the Monastery of Font Euraud, where Her Figure in Royal Robes, with Her Crown on Her Head, carved in Grey-Marble, is at this day to be seen, lying by Her Husband King Henry in that stately Monument, erected by the late Lady Abbess. Her Effigies is marked with the Letter B. and the Tomb is exhibi­ted in Sculpture at the later end of the Reign of the said King. Duke Henry about two years after the Death of His Father, came again for England, where after some velitations with King Stephen, they were at lastChron. Norman. p. 989 b, c. An. 1152. Vii Ides of Nov. reconciled, and His succession to the Crown of England, ratified by Act of Parliament; not long after which, he returned into Normandy, and laid siege to a Castle detained from Him by the King of France; where news was brought Him that King Stephen was dead, notwithstanding which, Henry (who had no competitor to fear) continued before it six weeks, until it was surrendred, and then came for England, and was Annointed, and solemnly Crowned at Westminster, Ibidem, p. 990 c. by Theobald Archbishop of Canterbury upon the Fourteenth of the Kalends of January, viz. the Nineteenth day of December, in the year of our Lord 1153.

He began His Reign with singular Prudence, making choice of the wisest men He could get for Counsellors, He expelled those strangers brought in by King Stephen, and demolished the Castles, the Nobility had built by His allowance (often proving Nurseries of Rebellion) and the Crown-Lands alienated by that King, He reassumed, judging it safer to offend a few, then disob­liege many: And for the furtherance of Justice (in the One and twentieth year of His Reign) He divided His whole Realm into six several Circuits, appointing in every Circuit Three Judges, who twice a year rode together to administer Justice; and to hear, and determine causes betwixt party and party.

His War with Owen Prince of Northwales, was rather account­ed an exercise to keep Him in motion, then to disturb His rest, yet notwithstanding, Owen was not so easily reduced, but that Henry de Essex the Kings Standard-Bearer, being oppressed by the Welsh, let fall the Royal Standard in Battel; for which he was cashiered for cowardise, shorn a Monk, and had his Lands seised into the Kings hands.

After which, Himself and Queen Eleanor His Wife were so­lemnly Crowned at Worcester upon Christmas-day, where they at the Offertory laid their Diadems upon the Altar, Vowing never to wear them after. This being the third time, at which, in three several places, Westminster, Lincoln, and this City, he had been crowned. To make His Dominions more entire, He seised into His hands the Earldom of Anjou, left by His Fathers Will to His Brother Geoffrey, allowing him in lieu thereof an annual pension; and also divested David, King of Scots, of the Earldoms of Cum­berland and Huntington, peeces granted him by King Stephen, and of Northumberland, the gift of his Mother the Empress, leaving [Page 62] David onely that of Huntington, with the condition of doing him homage for the same.Sancte Marthe. Tom. 1. p. 339 & 341. He married his second Son (but Eldest living) Henry, to Margaret Daughter of Lewis the Seventh, King of France, and affied his third Son Richard, to Alice another Daughter of the same King; and also, in the Thirteenth year of his Reign, matched his fourth son Geoffrey, to Constance, the Daugh­ter and Heir of Conan Earl of Little Britain, who dying not long after, left them that County.

If King Henry had hitherto managed his affairs with much Wisdom and Prudence, he now shews as much weakness and infirmity, in causing his son Henry to be made Copartner with him, in the Kingdom, and to be twice Crowned; theRobert of Glo­cester, p. 237 b. first time by Roger Archbishop of York, and a second time with Margaret his Wife, by the desire of her Father King Lewis, in the City of Winchester, by Rotrock of Warwick, Archbishop of Roan, where the Father descended so low, as to serve as a Sewer at the Table of his ambitious son, and made the Barons swear him Allegiance; which act proceeded partly from Indulgence to him, but more (it is believed) to ensure his Succession to the Crown, finding by experience, that Oaths for Succession are often evaded, but Oaths for present Allegiance, seldom are eluded. And now Henry the young King is blamed by his Father-in-Law, for that having entred upon the Government, and being Crowned, he would yet permit his Father to rival him in the Kingdom, and con­tent himself with being a Titular King onely, which easily en­flamed the youth with unjust desires: So that breaking out into open hate, many quarrels arose betwixt the two Henries, which were at length desided by sharp and bloody Wars: In all which, most unnaturally his sons, and most undutifully, Robert Earl of Leicester, and Hugh Earl of Chester, together with William, then King of Scots, taking part with the King of France, were con­tinually overcome by King Henry, forced to an Agreement, and all their Complices upon submission pardoned.

Long was the contention betwixt King Henry and Thomas Becket Archbishop of Canterbury, which though no equal match, yet it is hard to distinguish which had the Victory: The difference was, the King would have it ordained, that Malefactors of the Clergy should be tryed before the Secular Magistrate, as Lay-men were. This Becket opposed, urging it to be against the Liberty of the Church, and therefore against Gods honor, many Bishops sided with the King, some few with the Archbishop; at last Becket signs the Ordinance, yet with a Salvo ordine suo, which not being satisfactory to the King, he then signs absolute, without reservation, but im­mediately recants, and hath his Temporalities seised on; upon which he flies the Realm, and his Kinred are banished. Becket in this misery continued Seven years, till by the Popes threatnings of Ex­communication, or by the Mediation of the King of France, he was restored to his Archbishoprick, who still continuing his Pride, and interdicting those Bishops that had offended him, so much incensed [Page 63]King Henry, that it forced some rash expressions from him; which being noted by four Knights there present, viz. Reynold Fitz-Ʋrse, Hugh Morvile, Thomas Tracy, and Richard Britton, who thinking they should do an acceptable service to the King, by ridding him out of the way, came shortly afterwards for England, and murthered the Archbishop in his own Cathedral, upon the Thirtieth day of December, An. 1172. Which assassinates being ever afterwards abhorred of the King, died miserably; and the King himself being accused of his death by the Pope, purgeth himself by Oath; but yet is forced to do penance, and afterwards to Foot it three miles on his bloody bare Feet, to visit the Shrine of this Unruly-Saint; and further, suffered himself to be beaten with Rods by every Monk in the Cloyster. By which he is said to have appeased Beckets ghost (say some Authors) and to become victorious, not onely in his Wars in England and France, but also immediately thereupon made his Conquest of Ireland, begun by Robert Fitz-Stephen and Maurice Fitz-Gerald, prosecuted by Ri­chard Strongbow Earl of Striguile, of the Family of Clare, in behalf of Dermot (Son of Mac Murgh, King of Lemster) whose Daughter Eva, Strongbow took to Wife, and was adopted his Heir; whom they made promise, to establish in his almost lost Kingdom against Roderick King of Connaught, designing the Uni­versal Monarchy of Ireland. To Strongbows victorious progress, King Henry puts a stop; and least he should have the glory of a total reduction of that Kingdom, sails thither with a mighty Army, An. 1173.Chron. Norman. p. 1020 a. And keeping his Christmas in the City of Dublin, takes homage of the several Princes and Bishops, who by the consent of Pope Adrian receive him and his Heirs to be their King,Rogerus H [...]veden, sot. 301 b. num. 50. Rotherick onely excepted, who keeping himself in the Woods and Bogs, was yet after four years resistance constrained to submit as the rest; and afterwards John, the Kings youngest Son, was sent into Ire­land in the Thirtieth year of his Fathers Reign, to whom he gave that Dominion.

And now was King Henry possessed of the Kingdom of Eng­land, and Dukedom of Normandy, in his Mothers right, He suc­ceeded his Fathers in the Earldoms of Anjou, Touraine, and Maine, and had also by his Wife, the Dutchy of Aquitaine, and County of Poictou, with a Title to the Earldom of Toloza, and also by Conquest, Ireland: All which being united in his person, swelled his Empire, to a larger extent, then was at that time possess­ed by any Christian King; having also offer made to him of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, by Heraclius the Patriarch; as being son of Geoffrey, Novedent and Grandson of Foulk, King of Jerusalem. In the Reign of King Stephen he wrote in his Stile, and upon his Seal and ReverseVincent, p. 663. Charta in Custodia Roberti Cotton, Militis & Baronetti. See His Great Seals, p. 54 ✚ HENRICUS DUX NORMANO­RUM ET AQUITANORUM; and when he came to be king ✚ HENRICUS DEI GRATIA REX ANGLORUM; and on the Reverse, ✚ HENRICUS DUX NORMANORUM ET AQUITANO­RUM [Page 64]ET COMES ANDEGAVORUM. Un­der these Heads comprehending all his Dominions, except Ireland, which he bestowed on his youngest Son John, Surnamed Sansterre, being the first King of England that stiled Himself Dominus Hiberniae.

Not long after King Henries return out of Ireland, hapned the death of His Son Henry the young King, when Richard upon pre­text that his Father detained his Wife Alice (and instigated by Queen Eleanor his Mother, who continually vexed the King, by reason of his Ʋnlawful Love to the fair Rosamond, his Paramore) Confederates with Philip King of France, and raises a new broil, which ended in an Agreement betwixt the two Kings; and Queen Eleanor that had lately put Rosamond to death, was imprisoned and remained in durance till her son Richard coming to the Crown, set her at liberty. But this defection, together with the Rebellion of his other Children, moved such a Passion in King Henries per­plexed mind, as it suddenly struck him into a Feaver.Matth. Paris, p. 151. num, 37. So that not being able to support the Wounds of his Spirit, coming to Chinon he fell there mortally sick, and feeling the approach of death, caused himself to be born into the Church before the Altar, where after humble Confession and Sorrow for his Sins,His Death. he breathed out his last upon the Nones (viz. the seventh day) of July, An. 1189.Chronica Norman­niae, p. 1004 d. Chronica Sancti Stephani Cadomen­sis, pag. 1020 a. Matth. Paris, p. 151. numd 41, in the Fifty seventh year of his age, when he had Reigned Thirty four Years, Eight Moneths, and about Thirteen days, his Obse­quies being performed by the Archbishops of Tours and Trier. He was Interred in the Abbey of Fout-Euraud in Anjou, the manner of whose Burial was thus. He was Cloathed in Royal Robes, his Crown upon his Head, white Gloves on his Hands, Boots of Gold upon his Legs, Gilt Spurs upon his Heels, a great rich Ring upon his Finger, his Scepter in his Hand, his Sword by his side, and his Face uncovered, and all bare. As he was carried to be Buried, his Son Richard ran in great hast to see him, who no sooner approached the Body, but suddenly the Corps bled at the Nostrils a fresh; which though it were in Duke Richard no good sign of Innocency, yet his breaking instantly into Tears upon the seeing it, was a good sign of Repentance: He was honored with this Distick while he lived, containing his Kingly Vertues.

Nec laudem, nec munus amat, nec honore superbit,
[...]mdens Remains, p. 356.
Nec laesus laedit, nec dominando premit.

And because in his life time he was wont to say, That the whole World was not sufficient to satisfie the desires of a Couragious Prince, He had this Epitaph engraven on his rich Sepulcher.

Rex HENRICHS eram, mihi plurima Regna subegi,
Hieroni­mus Hen­ninges. Tom. 2. p. 93. Matthew Paris, p. 151. num. 54.
Multiplicique modo, Duxque Comesque fui
Cui satis ad votum non essent omnia terrae
Climata, terra modo sufficit octo pedum.
[Page 65]
Qui legis haec pensa discrimina mortis, & in me
Humanae speculum conditionis habe.
Sufficit hic Tumulus, cui non suffecerat orbis,
Res brevis ampla mihi, cui fuit ampla brevis.

The Effigies of this King Henry noted with the Letter A.I ow the pro­curement of this Tomb, and many other obliga­tions to the Favor and Interest of Dr. Durell, one of the Prebends of His Majesties Chappel Royal of Windsor. Nor must I omit a grate­ful acknow­ledgment to F. Pavillon a Monk of Fout-Euraud, for commu­nicating to me several Epitaphs of the Royal Fa­mily of Eng­land there In­terred. and also that of Queen Eleanor his Wife, being removed from the station in the Church, where they had been first fixed, were pla­ced in that stately Monument erected An. Dom. 1638. by the late Lady Abbess, Madam Jeane Baptiste de Bourbon Daughter of King Henry the Great, out of a high respect to the memory of our Kings and Queens, Interred in the Church of the said Monastery of Fout-Euraud. I have inserted the Figure of this Monument (affixed to the North Wall of the Chore) here betwixt the 64 and 65 Pages of this Second Book, sent to me by the said Lady Abbess, about three years before her death, and delineated by her own Scenographer. Unto which I refer my Reader.

In fine, the Story of this Kings Reign approveth him to have been Wife, Learned, and Valiant (except his indulgence to his Graceless Children) and what not a little adds to his commenda­tions, was, That albeit he was almost continually engaged in Foreign and Domestick Troubles, yet he never imposed upon his Subjects any extraordinary Tax whatsoever, yet left he unto his Third Son and Successor Richard, more then 900000 pounds in ready Coyn, besides Plate, Jewels, Houshold-stuff, and ample Provision for the War. And notwithstanding, in most things Pros­perity made him happy; yet in three things he was unfortunate.

First, In the Rebellion of the Fruit of his own Loyns.

Secondly, In his unquenchable Lust to his unseparable Con­cubine, the Beauteous Rosamond, who being admirably fair and taking, too much estranged his love from Eleanor his Renowned Queen. And

Thirdly, In that irreconcileable dissention betwixt him and the ingrateful Archbishop of Canterbury; yet had King Henry a singular esteem for the Church, and left proofs of his Piety in the Augmentation of the Monastery of S. Augustine at Bristol, Found­ed by Robert Fitz-Harding (and by King Henry the Eight erect­ed into a Cathedral;) and also the Foundations of the Priories of Dover, Basingwork, and Stonely; and several other charitable and necessary Works.

Children of King HENRY the Second, by Queen ELEANOR of AQƲITAINE, His Wife.

5. WILLIAM (so named in remembrance of the Earls of Poictou, and Dukes of Aquitaine, His Mothers Ancestors, Five of which had the appellation of William) the eldest Son of King Henry the Second,Chronica Norman­niae pag. 989 b. was born before his Father was King, being then but Duke of Normandy, in August, the Seventeenth [Page 66]year of King Stephens Reign, An. 1152. And about four years after (his Father being then King, in the second year of His Reign) the Nobility of England sware unto Him their Fealty at Wallingford in Berkshire, Ibidem, p. 991 a. as to the Heir-apparent of the Crown; but he deceased in the year following,Ibidem, p. 992 b. being the third of his Fathers Reign, and the fifth of his own age An. 1156. and was Interred in the Monastery of Reading, at the Feet of his Great Grand-father King Henry the First.

5.The Figure of this Henries Royal Seal (without a Reverse) is depicted in the 54 Page of this Se­cond Book, in which the said King is repre­sented in Royal Robes, with His Crown on His Head, in His Right Hand He holds a Globe with a Cross on the top thereof, and in His left a Scepter. By which I observe, that although King Henry His Father admitted Him Partner with Him in His Crown, Kingdom and Scepter, yet He kept the Sword in His own Hand, to defend Him from the am­bitious in­croachments of this Royal Rival. HENRY Crowned KING (so called after His Fathers name) the Second Son of King Henry and Qu. Eleanor, Robert of Glocester, fol. 246 a. Chron. Norman. p. 991 a. Chron. S. Stephani Cadom. p. 1019 c. Chron. Norman. p. 997 b. Et Ibid. p. 1003 b, c. Robert of Glocester, p. 234 a. Ibidem, 237 a. born at London the 28 day of February, An. 1155, was their Heir-apparent, after the decease of his Brother William. In the year 1159. (at Newborrow) He was affianced to Margaret the onely Daughter of Lewis the Seventh, King of France, surnamed The Younger (by Constance his Second Wife, Daughter of Alfonso the Eighth, King of Spain) to which King he did his homage for the Dukedom of Normandy; as also (An. 1168.) for the Earl­doms of Anjou and Maine; at which time he had given him by his said Father-in-Law, the Seneschalcy or Stewardship of France, as a Fief of the County of Anjou, and upon the Second day of February, in the same year, being at Paris, Henry did serve at the Table of King Lewis as Great Steward of France, or Major of the Palace; which Office had been formerly grant­ed to Geoffrey Grisogonella, Count of Anjou, by Robert King of France, as a reward for his assistance against Otho, Emperor of Almaine.

Not long after (viz. the Fifteenth day of July, An. 1170.Chronica Norman. p. 1003 d. Scevole & Levis de Sancte Marthe. Tom. 1. Livre VI. p. 339 & 304.) this Henry was by the command of His Father Crowned King of England at Westminster, by Roger Archbishop of York, and in the year 1173. His Marriage with Margaret His betrothed Wife was consummated; with whom he had the County of Vexin. After which He was a second time Crowned with the said Margaret at Winchester by Rotrock Archbishop of Roan, at the instance of Her Father-in-Law King Lewis, where King Henry voluntarily condescended to serve as a Sewer at His Sons Table. This Margaret out-lived Her Husband,Roger. Hoveden. fol. 360 a. num. 30. Ibidem, fol. 440 a. num. 40. returned to Her Father, and was remarried to Bela the Third of the Name, King of Hungary, and surviving Him also, undertook a Pilgri­mage to the Holy Land,Her Death. and died there in the City of Acres, in the year of our Lord 1198.

The Kingdom being thus divided betwixt the two Henries, the Son among other Ensigns of Royalty, caused His Great Seal to be made upon which he entituled Himself thus, viz.

✚ HENRICUS REX ANGLORUM,See His Great Seal, pag. 54. DUX NORMANORUM, ET COMES ANDE­GAVORUM.

HONI SOIT QVI MAL Y PENSE
‘MVTARE VEL TIMERE SPERO’

Illustrissimo et Potent Principi HENRICO Marchioni et Comiti de WORCESTER Baroni HERBERT de Raglano, Chepstow, et de Gorver, Principalitatis. WALLIAE Praesidi, Comitatum Glocestriae, Herefordiae, et Monemuthiae, Locum-te­nenti, è Secretioribus Consilijs Nobi­lissimi (que) Ordinis Garterij Eguiti &ct. Saenotaphij hane Heureill Ricardil Angliae Regum Regirtarum (que), Alianorae et Issabollae Figurā H.D.F.S.

And yet not content to equal his Father in Power (for Empire admits not a Rival) He resolved, either to be absolute in the Crown, or loose the Scepter; in which (being supported by a potent faction) he grew so insolent, that seeing he could not obtain a Surrender from his Father by fair words, he brake into an open Rebellion: So that after along contention, that which the Sword could not decide, Death put an end to by an extra­ordinary Judgment of God upon the young King, who falling into a violent Feaver, past hope of recovery, and touched with a lively Repentance and Sorrow for his fault, sent to his Father to crave his pardon; with which, King Henry being moved to Compassion, as a remark of his Clemency and Forgiveness, caused one of His Rings to be sent him: The which, the young King affectionately kissing, after humble contrition for his sins, rendred up his Soul in the presence of the Archbishop of Bour­ges, Chron. Norman. [...]004 d. at the Castle of Martell, in the Vicounty of Turenne, His Death. up­on the Eleventh day (viz. the Third of the Ides) of June, An. Dom. 1182.

As he had been twice Crowned,Rob. of Glocester. p. 245 b. so was he twice Buried, and not without trouble; as if the Factions, of which he was the cause in his life, did by a kind of fate not forsake him being dead;Ibidem, p. 246 b. & 247. for the Citizens of Mans having Interred his Corps in the Church of S. Julian, near to his Grandfather Earl Geoffrey, they of Roan (to whom the young King had bequeathed his Body) without Menaces,Chron. Norman. p. 10 [...]4 d. and the Fathers express Command­ment could not obtain it: Which thereupon was taken up again, and (on the Shoulders of several of the Cenomanian Lords) car­ried four days journey to Roan, and buried in the Cathedral Church of that City, on the right side of the High Altar.

So that whatsoever this Princes Life was, his Death certainly was not inglorious (but worthy to be set out in Tables as a Pat­tern to Disobedient Children) the manner of which being re­lated to his Father, he fell upon the Earth weeping bitterly, and (like another David for his Absalom) would not of a long time be comforted.

5. RICHARD, Third Son of King Henry the Second, suc­ceeded his Father in His Royalties, by the name of King Ri­chard the First, of whom mention is made in the next Chapter.

The Arms as­signed to this Geoffrey by our Modern Genealogists, are, Gules, 3 Lions Pas­sant Guardant Or, a Labell of 9 Points, Argent. But I cannot find as yet any Authority to justifie the same; nor do I believe, that the filial distinction of the Label was then used, it being many years after, that the Three Lions came to be the Successive Arms of the Kings of England. 5. GEOFFREY Duke or Earl of Britain, Chron, Norman. p. 994 b. Rob. of Giocester, p. 233 a. Ibidem, p. 235 b. and Earl of Richmond, the Fourth Son of King Henry the Second, and Queen Eleanor, was born upon the Ninth of the Kalends of October, (viz. the Twenty third day of September) in the Fourth year of his Fathers Reign, An. 1158. He took to Wife Con­stance, the Daughter and Heir of Conan, surnamed Le Petit, Earl [Page 68]of Britain, with whom Her said Father gave unto Him the Counties of Britain and Richmond, Robert of Glocester, p. 237 a. and did his homage to King Henry his Father for the same, and received also the Fealties of the Barons of Britain, An. 1168.Rogerus Hoveden, f. 331 a. num. 40. About Ten years after (viz. An. 1178.) Earl Geoffrey was Knighted by his Father at Wood­stock, and by His command employed in the War against his Brother Richard Duke of Aquitaine; in which he behaved him­self so perfidiously, that he acquired the appellation of, The Child of Perdition: Ibidem, p. 360. Nor are some Authors backward in telling us, That it was the revenge of his Disobedience, that pursued him to an untimely end. For being in a Tournament at Paris, he was trodden to death under his Horses feet,Matth. Paris, p. 559. num. 10. upon the Four­teenth of the Kalends of September (viz. the Ninteenth day of August,) An. 1186. in the Two and thirtieth year of the Reign of King Henry the Second, and buried before the High Altar, in the Church of our Lady, in the same City.

Constance his Widow was afterwards married to Ranulph Blandevile, Earl Palatine of Chester; Book of Rich­mond. Vincent, p. 62 & 63. from whom being di­vorced for Incontinency, she took to her third Husband Guy Viscount of Thovars, and had issue by him two Daughters, Alice and Katherine. Ex Chro­nicis Ce­strioe M. S. In Ypodig. Neustriae. ad Annum 1203. Hoveden. fol. 822. Alice was married to Peter de Dreux (sur­named Mauclere) who in her right was Duke of Britain; and Katherine was the Wife of Andrew de Vitre in Britain.

The Countess Constance departed this life in the year 1201 leaving also issue by this Earl Geoffrey her first Husband, a Son named Arthur, who succeeded him in the Dukedom of Britain, and a Daughter, called Eleanor the Damsel of Britain.

This Arthur is said to have borne the Arms assigned to his Father Earl Geoffrey. 6. ARTHƲR Duke of Britain, Ypodig, Neustriae. p. 452. num. 30. Matth. Paris, p. 138. num. 10. Hoveden, fol. 361 b. num. 10. and Earl of Richmond (the posthumus and onely Son of Earl Geoffrey aforesaid, and Constance his Wife the Heir of Britain) was born upon Easter-day in the year 1186.

King Richard the First his Uncle, when he undertook his Crossiade to the Holy Land, declared this Arthur his Heir, in case He should die without issue, as being the Son of Duke Johns Elder Brother. And also forced Tancred King of Si­cily to promise his Daughter to him in marriage, and to pay a good part of her Portion down in ready money: So that after King Richards death, this Arthur was Proclaimed King of England, and Duke of Normandy; and being aided by Philip Augustus King of France, (who made him Knight,Rigord. fol. 202. An. 1199. and affianced him to his Daughter Mary at Paris) he made War against King John his Fathers younger Bro­ther;Chronica Norman. p. 1005 d. but being taken prisoner at Mirabell in Normandy in the same year, he was carried to Roan Castle, where leaping from the Wall thereof, with intent to escape (say some) he was drowned in the Ditch; but others relate, that he was made away by his said Uncle John in the year 1200. leaving not any Issue.

6. ELEANOR (commonly called The Damsel of Britain) sole Daughter of Geoffrey Earl of Britain, Robert of Glocester, p. 230. and onely Sister and Heir of Earl Arthur, was sent into England by her Un­cle King John, and imprisoned in Bristol Castle, for no other crime then her title to the Crown; but that was suffi­cient to make her liberty both suspected and dangerous.Roger Hoveden, fol. 414. a. num. 50. And fol. 425 b. num. 40. In durance there she prolonged her miserable life, until the year of our Lord 1241. which was the Twenty fifth of King Henry the Third, at which time she died a Virgin, and lieth buried in the Church of the Nunnery at Ambresbury; unto which Monastery she gave the Mannor of Melkesham, with its Appurtenances.

5. JOHN (surnamed Sans-Terre) the Fifth and youngest Son of King Henry the Second, and Queen Eleanor, succeed his Brother King Richard in the Kingdom of England, &c. Of whom see more in the Third Chapter of this Second Book.

The Arms of this Henry the Fifth, Duke of Saxony were, Barry of Eight Pee­ces, Or, and Sable. For the Augmen­tation of the Chaplet was added by the Emperor Fre­derick Bar­barossa, at what time he confirmed Bernard of Anhalt (this Henries Suc­cessor) in the Dukedom of Saxony: For Bernard de­siring of the Emperor to have some difference added to the Ducal Coat, to distinguish him, and his, and his Successors from those of the former House; the Emperor took a Chaplet of Rue which he had then on his head, and threw it cross his Shield or Eschocheon of Arms, which was immedi­ately Painted on the same. Elias Reusne­rus, p. 435. 5. MAƲD, Dutchess of SAXONY and BAVARIA, Eldest Daughter of King Henry the Second, and Queen Elea­nor, was born in the Third year of her said Fathers Reign, An. 1156/7.Chronica Norma­niae, pag. 1000 a. Rogerus Hoveden, fol. 282 a. num. 40. And fol. 351 b. num. 50. Chronica Norma­niae, pag. 1002 a. Her Espousals with Henry the Fifth, surnamed The Lion, Duke of Saxony and Bavaria (Son of Henry, called The Proud, Duke of Bavaria and Saxony, and of Gertrude Daughter of Lothaire the Emperor) were concluded at Roan, by Reginald Archbishop of Cullen, and others, Ambassadors employed for that affair by the Emperor Frederick. And afterwards, viz. An. 1167. this MAƲD was sent into Germany with a rich Dower, and a Splendid Train, where her marriage was con­summated.

She had issue by Duke Henry, Elias Reusne­rus, p. 408 & 409. Rogerus Hoveden. fol. 390. a. num. 40. Henry the Sixth Duke of Saxony and Bavaria, (who by Agnes his Wife, Daughter and Heir of Courade, Count Palatine of the Rhine) was Father of Henry that died young. Agnes married to Otho, Count Palatine of the Rhine, in her right Duke of Bavaria, and Ixmengarde Wife of Herman, Marquess of Baden,) Otho the Fourth Em­peror of Germany, who had formerly been Earl of York, and afterwards of Poictiers, by the gift of King Richard the First and William (born at Winchester) Duke of Lunenburgh and Brunswick (Ancestor of the present Duke of Brunswick) who, as Tradition goes, did bear for his Coat Armor, Two Lious Pas­sant Guardant, Or, in a Field Gules, as King Henry the Second his Grand-father is said to have borne them, before his Marriage with Eleanor of Aquitaine. The Dutchess MAƲD had also issue two daughters, viz. Ingeburge Wife of Waldemar the Se­cond, King of Denmark; and Maud married to Earl Geoffrey the Son of Rotrock Earl of Perch; Rogerus Hoveden. fol. 373 a. num. 10. and deceasing in the first year of the Reign of King Richard the First, her Brother, she [Page 70]was buried in the Church of S. Blase in Brunswick, near to the Sepulcher of Duke HENRY her Husband.

5.The Arms of Castile are Gules, a Ca­stile, Or, which were first quartered with those of Leon, viz. Argent a Lion Rampant Pur­pure by Fer­dinand the Third, King of Castile and Leon. ELEANOR (Queen of CASTILE) Second Daugh­ter of King Henry the Second,Rogerus Hoveden. fol. 317 a. num. 50. so named in memory of her Mother Queen Eleanor, took her first breath in the City of Roan, upon the Thirteenth day of October, in the year of our Salvation 1162. she was married to ALPHONSO the Eighth, King of Castile, An. 1177. and was by Him the Mother of Three Sons, Sancheo, Ferdinand, and Henry; all which died without Issue; and of Four Daughters, viz. Berengaria, Blanch, Ʋracca, and Eleanor. Berengaria was espoused to Alphonso the Ninth, King of Leon, in whose Right He had also the Kingdom of Castile; and by Her Issue, Ferdinand the Third, King of Castile and Leon, who by Beatrix His First Wife, Daughter of Philip of Swenia, Emperor Elect, was Father of Alphonso the Tenth, King of Castile and Leon: And by Joan Countess of Poutive, His second Wife, He had issue Queen Eleanor, the Beloved Wife of Edward, First of the Name, King of England. Blanch was the Wife of Lewis the Eighth, King of France, and from them are issued the succeeding Kings of France; and Charles Earl of Anjou, and afterwards King of Sicily, &c. Ʋracca was married to Alphonso the Second, King of Portugal; and from them the Royal House of Portugal de­riveth its self. And Eleanor had to Her Husband James the First, King of Aragon.

The Arms used by this William the Second, King of Sicily, I cannot yet learn. For the Escoche­on, Or, Four Paletts Gules was the Arms of Peter King of Aragon, who added thereto the Two Flaun­ches Argent, charged with as many Ea­gletts Sable, (in the Right of Constance his Wife, the Daughter and Heir of Man­frey, King of Naples and Sicily, Natu­ral Son of the Emperor Fre­derick the Se­cond) by these Eaglets, shewing His Wives descent from the Imperial Line: The Escocheons Painted and Engraven within the Arch of the Tomb at Fout-Euraud for this Queen Joan, and Demidiated with those of King William Her Husband, are of a later date, being Or, Four Paletts Gules, on Two Flaunches Argent, as many Eaglets Suble. There are also on the same Monument, the Arms of Her second Husband, Raymond Earl of Tholouse, viz. Gules, a Cross Buttony voided, Or, Marshalled with them of Queen Joan in the same manner. 5. JOAN, Queen of SICILIE, afterwards Countess of THOLOUSE, the Third and youngest Daughter of King Henry the Second, and Queen Eleanor, Chronica Norman­niae, pag. 1000 b. Rogerus Hoveden. fol. 315 a. num. 20. was born in the City of Angiers in France, in October, An. 1164. At Twelve years old she was Married to William the Second, King of Sicily, Duke of Apulia, and Prince of Capua, upon Sonday the Thirteen of February in the year 1176. and Crowned Queen upon the same day in the City of Palermo. Issue She had by Him one Son, whom at his Christning His Father nominated Duke of Apulia; but that Childe first deceased, and then the Father, and left not any Issue. Queen JOAN being left a Widow, Her Dower was detained from Her by King Tancred Her Husbands Successor, which King Richard Her Brother (touching upon Sicily in His voyage to the Holy Land) forced Tancred to compound with Her for Twenty thousand Ounces of Gold in ready pay. She accompanied King Richard and Queen Berengaria to Palestine; and returning from thence into France, had to Her second Husband Raymond of S. Giles the [Page 71]Sixth of the Name, Earl of Tholouse, by whom she had Issue two Sons, viz. Raymond the last Earl of his Family, and Ber­trand of Tholouse; also Mary a Daughter married to Berald of Elbine, Prince of Orange. The Princess JOAN being sensi­ble of the approaches of death, took the habit of a Nun in the Abbey of Fout-Euraud, Memori­als in the Abbey of Fout-Eu­raud. and deceased upon the Fourth day of September, in the year of our Lord 1195. and was buried in the Church of that Monastery, under a Marble, upon which Her Effigies was carved. In the same Church was also Interred Her Son Earl Raymond, under another Tomb of the same Mat­ter, upon which his Portraiture was also embossed.

These Monuments were by Her Highness, the late LadyM. Jean­ne Batists de Bour­bon D. of K Henry the Great. Abbess removed to enlarge the Chore of the Church; but to perpetuate the memory of these Benefactors, she hath caused their Figures to be Carved in White Marble, both in a kneel­ing posture, and placed in that stately Mausoleum rebuilt by Her, An. 1638. That of the Countess JOAN at the Head of King Henry the Second Her Father, marked with the Letter E. And that of Count Raymond at his Grand-fathers Feet, strik­ing his Brest with his Right Hand, as he had ordained by his Will, noted with this Charracter F. Which Images are lively represented in the said Monument inserted betwixt the 64 and 65 Pages of this Second Book.

Natural Children of King HENRY the Second.

5. WILLIAM surnamed LONGESPEE, Natural Son of King Henry the Second, by the Lady Rosamond, to whom King Richard the First, his Half-Brother gave the Earldom of Salisbury, with Ela the Daughter and Heir of William Fitz-Patrick Earl of that place. See more of this William in the Eleventh Chapter of this Second Book.

5. GEOFFREY, Archbishop of York, another base son of King Henry the Second, was born of the Lady Rosamond afore­said. As his Brother William had been raised by the business of the Sword, so was this Geoffrey by the Church; for being inclineable to an Ecclesiastical Life, he was in his tender years made Archdeacon of Lincoln, Rogerus Hoveden, fol. 307 b. 348 b. num. 40. and after Bishop of that See, which he held about seven years without Consecration; and then making a Resignation thereof An. 1181. into the hands of his Father, and Richard Archbishop of Canterbury, he was made Chancellor of England, and afterwards by his Half-Bro­ther King Richard, was advanced to the Archbishoprick of York (being consecrated at Tours in France in the year 1191.Ibidem, fol. 373 b. num. 40. fol. 468 a.) which See he governed with singular approbation. But in the Reign of K. John also his Half-Brother, he under-went many dif­ficulties, [Page 72]by opposing the purposes of that King, who there­fore made seisure of his whole estate:Godwin Catalogue of Bishops pag. 461 & 462. Whereupon he departed the Realm, and lived in banishment five years, even until he was called to his long home by death,His Death. which was in the year 1213. So he continued Archbishop somewhat more then One and twenty years.

5. MORGAN, Provost of Beverley, Mr. Fer­rers. another Natural son of King Henry the Second, is thought by some to have been of no long life, and to be born in Wales, Rogerus Hoveden, fol. 468. a. where that Christen name is most commonly used, and whither this King did upon occa­sions often resort. But others (upon good ground) report that he was begotten on the Lady of one Sir Ralph Blower or Blewet a Knight, and lived both to be Provost of Beverly, and to be elected to the Bishoprick of Durham. Godwin Catalogue of Bishops p. 515. Exceptions being taken against this Morgan, for that he was a Bastard, and so by the Canons not capable of Ecclesiastical Preferment without special Dispensation; which the Pope being loath to grant,John Stow in the life of King John. advised him to call himself Blewet, and to alledge, that he was born in lawful wedlock. But he answered, that for any world­ly preferment whatsoever, he would not renounce his Father, or deny himself to be of Royal Blood. By which resolute answer, he not only lost his Bishoprick, but (for ought we find) never afterward obtained other preferment.

5. An. Dom. 1189. RICHARD I. King of ENGLAND, Duke of NOR­MANDY, and AQƲITAINE, and Earl of ANJOƲ, Surnamed COEUR de LION.
CHAP. II.

For Proof of the Royal Arms from William the Conqueror, to this present, Sir Hen, Spel­man in his As­pilogy, refers us to Authors of the Time, their Monu­ments, Coyns, and Seals; but having had no re­solves from the three first, we must now observe what satisfaction the Seals of this King Ri­chard the First can afford us (for He had two, both ex­hibited in the 55 Page of this Second Book) the Re­verse of both having Shields, and those Shields being charged with Arms. The first of these Two Seals he made use of, before His expedition into the Holy Land, being the first Proof for the Posture of the Lions (although its not to be doubted, but that the Kings of England did before this time bear Lions; as I have proved in my Observations upon the Arms of King Henry the First, (Book 1. Pag. 24. in the Margin.) Upon this Counterseal Richard is re­presented on Horsback, the dexter part of His Shield onely visible, and that charged with a Lion Rampant Senister, some would have another Lion Rampant imagined to be on the Senister half of the Eschocheon, and then His Arms were Two Lions Cumbatant; and of this opinion is the said Sir Henry Spelman, in Aspilogia, pag. 46. But whether His Royal Shield consisted of One, or Two Lions, certain we are, that Richard in his Fathers life time, being then onely Earl of Poictou, did bear a Plurality of Lions, as you may observe by these Verses of Guil. Brit. Armori­canus in Philippeidos, Lib. 3. uttered in the person of Monsieur William de Barr, ready to encounter him. Ecce comes Pictavus agro nos provocat, ecce Nes ad bella vocat, rictus agnosco Leonum, Illius in Clypeo, stat ibi quasi ferrea turris, Francorum nomen blasphemans ore protervo. Under His other Great Seal, He confirmed many Grants and Charters, after His return from Jerusalem, and His chargable Captivity in Austria and Germany; by which means He refurnished His exhausted Exchequer; upon which, King Richard is represented on Horsback in His Coat of Mall. His Helmet is adorned with the Planta Genestae, or Broom Stalk, and on His Shield are plainly represented, The Three Lions Passant Guardant; which from this time became the Hereditary Arms of His Successors the Kings of England; from which age, Arms seem to have taken their rise and original in this Kingdom, and by little and little to become Hereditary, it being ac­counted most honorable to carry those Arms, which had been displayed in the Holy Land, in that service, against the professed Enemies of Christianity; but became not fully established, until the later end of the Reign of King Henry the Third. THis Prince,Robert of Glo­cester, fol. 233 a. Chronica Norman­niae, p. 993 b. Robert of Clocester, p. 233 b. Sancte Marthe. Tom. 1. p. 341. Chron. Norman. p. 1003 b. the Third Son (but Eldest living) of King Henry the Second, and Queen Eleanor; was born in the Kings Mannor-House at Ox­ford (since the White Fryers) in September, An. 1157. in the Third year of his Fathers Reign. He proved a Prince of great Valor, and therefore had the French surname of Coeur de Lion, in English, Lions Heart. In his Infancy he was contract­ed to a Daughter of Raymond, Count of Barcelona; and being grown up, was affianced to Adela or Alice, Daughter of Lewis the Seventh, King of France, but took to Wife neither. His Father created him Earl of Poictou, and in the year 1168. he did homage to the King of France, for the Dutchy of Aquitaine. Alice his affianced Wife, being put into his Fathers hands, till she should be of age sit for marriage, was then demanded by Richard, but by King Henry detained; its believed, because the King loved her Himself, and had made her unfit for his Son; and if Richard for this cause fell into a defection, he was not so faulty as his Brethren, [Page 74]seeing that the Bonds of Love and Affection are much stronger then those of Duty. Afterwards when he might have had her, he slighted her, but sent her home with a sum of Money. And if for this our Richard were distastful to his Father, yet did he usher in his Government with duty to his Mother;Matth. Paris, p. 152. num. 27. whom he re­leased after Twelve years imprisonment (a Pennance she had suf­fered for Rosamonds Death) and raised to as high Authority, as if she had been left Queen Regent: In which condition she man­aged affairs with wonderful Moderation, Integrity, and Judg­ment, until King Richard having setled His Estate in Normandy, came home, and was upon the Third day of September, Rogerus Hoveden. fol. 374 a. in the year 1189.His Corona­tion. Anointed and Crowned at Westminster, by Baldwin Archbishop of Canterbury; the manner of which Coronation was as followeth.

First, The Archbishops of Canterbury, Roan, Triers, and Dublin, with all the other Bishops, &c. apparrelled in rich Copes, and having the Cross, Holy Water and Censers carried before them; came to fetch the King at the door of His Privy Chamber; and there receiving Him, they led Him to the Church of West­minster, till they came before the High Altar, with a solemn Pro­cession. In the middle of the Bishops and Clergy, went Four Barons bearing Candlesticks with Tapers; after whom came Geoffry de Lucy bearing the Cap of Maintenance, and John Mar­shall next to him, bearing a Massive Pair of Spurs of Gold; then followed William Marshall Earl of Pembroke, who bare the Royal Scepter, in the top whereof, was set a Cross of Gold; and William Fitz-Patrick Earl of Salisbury, going next him, bare the Warder or Rod, having on the top thereof a Dove; Then came three other Earls, viz. David, Brother to the King of Scots, Earl of Huntington, John Earl of Mortaign the Kings Brother, and Robert Earl of Leicester, each of them bearing a Sword upright in his hand, with the Scabbards richly adorned with Gold; the Earl of Mortaign went in the midst betwixt the other two. After them fol­lowed six Earls and Barons bearing a Checker Table, upon which the Regalia were placed; and then followed William de Mandevile Earl of Albemarle, bearing a Crown of Gold before the King, who followed, having the Bishop of Durham on His right hand, and Reynold Bishop of Bath on His left; over whom a Canopy was borne; and in this order He came into the Church at Westminster, where before the High Altar, in the presence of the Clergy and the People, laying His hand upon the Holy Evangelists, and the Relicks of certain Saints, He took His Solemn Oath; which done, He put off all His Garments from His middle upwards, but onely His Shirt, which was open on the Shoulders, that He might be Anointed; then the Archbishop of Canterbury Anointed Him in three places, on the Head, on the Shoulder, and on the right Arm, with Prayers in such case accustomed. After this He covered His Head with a Linnen Cloath hallowed, and set His Cap thereon; and then after He had put on His Royal Garments, and His upper­most [Page 75]Robe, the Archbishop delivered Him the Sword, with which He should beat down the Enemies of the Church; which done, two Earls put His Shooes upon His Feet, and having His Mantle put on Him, the Archbishop for bad Him on the behalf of Almighty God, not to presume to take upon Him this Dignity, except He faithfully meant to do those things He had sworn to perform; whereunto the King made answer, That by Gods Grace He would perform them. Then the King took the Crown be­side the Altar, and delivered it to the Archbishop, which be set upon the Kings Head, delivering Him the Scepter to hold in His Right Hand, and the Rod-Royal in His Left Hand. And thus being Crowned, He was brought back by the Bishops and Barons, with the Cross and Candlesticks, and Three Swords, passing forth before Him to His Seat. When the Bishop that sung the Mass came to the Offertory, the two Bishops that brought Him to the Church, led Him to the Altar, and brought him back again; the Mass ended, He was brought with solemn Procession into His Chamber. And this was the Form of the Kings Coronation, which solemnity was hancelled with the Blood of many Jews, (though utterly against the Kings will) who pressing into the Ab­bey to see His Coronation, were in a tumult furiously mur­thered.

No sooner was He Crowned, but (by the instigation of the Pope) He was engaged with Philip King of France, Leopold Duke of Austria, and many other Christian Princes in the famous Crosiade for the winning of Jerusalem, at that time possessed by the Souldan Saladine; therefore for the raising of Money for this intended Pilgrimage, He rather chose to furnish Himself out of His own Estate, then to burthen His People; which He did by selling Pri­viledges, Deameans, Immunities, and Cities; among which, He sold Berwick Castle and Roxborrow, to the King of Scots for Ten thousand Pounds; and the Earldom of Northumberland, to Hugh Pudsey Bishop of Durham, for much Money, (at whose Creation King Richard told the standers by, That he was a good Craftsman, that had made a new Earl of an old Bishop) and also did protest, That for the performing of so just and honorable a Service, He was not unwilling to sell His City of London its self (if any there were able to purchase it) rather then to be chargeable to others.

As for Men and Soldiers, the Clergy that undertook the cause, had stirred up innumerable; but the onely main danger of the State, was His Brother John, whose aspiring minde he endea­vored to moderate by making it appear, how much the bounty of a Brother did exceed the hardness of a Father; for he conferred on him the-Earldoms of Cornwal, Lancaster, and Dorset; and by the Marriage with Isabell, one of the Daughters and Heirs of Wil­liam Consul of Glocester, he had that Earldom also; many other peeces likewise he enjoyed, in all amounting to Four thousand Marks yearly: But having made him thus powerful, Richard yet takes away that opportunity which might put him upon the Usur­pation [Page 76]of the Crown, by leaving others in trust with the Govern­ment in His absence, and by confining John to live in Normandy till His return; but for the last, their Mother, Queen Eleanor, be­came Johns surety. So that the Kingdom being left to the Go­vernment of several Men of Power, Wisdom, and Loyalry; of which, William Longchamp Bishop of Ely, and Chancellor of England, was cheif, and Robert Earl of Leicester set over Normandy. King Richard appoints His Nephew Arthur to be His Successor, in case He should fail in this Expedition.

Chronica Sancti Stephani Cadom. p. 1020 a, b. And now having prepared an Army of Thirty thousand Foot, and Five thousand Horse, and appointed to meet Philip King of France in Sicily; at the end of June, An. 1190. sets forward him self by Land to Marseilles, and there stays the coming about of his Ships; but his Navy being driven by Tempest to other parts, the King that brooked not delay, shipped himself and his Army, and passed forward to Messina in Sicily, where also arrived Lewis King of France, and not long after his own Fleet. Here Richard affronted by the Messinians, assaults their City, and Tancred King of Sicily that detained the Dower of Richards Sister Joan, Wid­ow of William King of Sicily his Predecessor, was by him forced to pay it, and also to promise to marry his Daughter to King Ri­chards Nephew, Arthur Earl of Little Brittain, and to give a good part of the Portion in hand. King Philip not well pleased with these conditions, in the Spring sails with his Army for Ptolema is (or Acon) which the Christians had long besieged, and with them he joyns, while King Richard taking with him his Sister Joan, and Berengaria the King of Navars Daughter, puts to Sea for the same Port, but is by Tempest thrown upon the Coast of Cyprus; Ibidem, p. 1020 b. where being refused Landing by the Islanders, he subdues it, and these old Rhimes will tell you with what Weapon.

This King Richard I vnderstond,
Matthias Prideaux, M. A. p. 320.
Yet he went out of Englond,
Let make an Are for the nones,
Therwith to cleaue the Saracens bones.
The head in South was wrought full Weéle,
Thereon ware twenty pound of Steéle.
And when he came in Ciprus lond,
This ilkon Are he tooke in hond.

The King of Ciprus is also taken prisoner, who made it his request to King Richard, that he might not be put into Irons; this Richard grants, but lays him in Silver Fetters.Elias Reusnerus, p. 347. And in this Island he solemnised his Marriage with the beforenamed Berengaria. His Marri­age. She was the Daughter of Sanche, Fourth of the name King of Na­varre, Rob. of Glocester p. 260 b. and Beatrix his Wife, Daughter of Alphonso the Seventh, surnamed The Wise, King of Castile, a match procured by his Mother, Queen Eleanor. The King neglected her company for a while, yet upon more setled thoughts, he afterwards retained [Page 77]her to his affection; for she was a Royal, Eloquent, and Beauteous Lady, and for love of him had adventured through many dangers, both by Sea and Land. What became of her after her return into Sicily in order to her voyage for England, is not known, more then that meeting King John at Chinon, Rogenis Hoveden. p. 819. An. 1201. He there satis­fied her her Dower, upon the Testimony of Philip Bishop of Durham, and others, who were present at, and witnessed her Mar­riage; and that King Henry the Third,Pat. An. 4 Hen. 3. in the Fourth year of His Reign, compounded with her for the same, until which time, its certain she lived. She died without issue, and the place of her burial is not known.

Robert of Glocester, fol. Ciprus being left in good hands, Richard puts to Sea, and in his passage for Ptolemais, boards a Saracen Dromond, where he lays about him, with almost incredible valor takes her, and puts the Turks well nigh all to the Sword; after which, he arrives at Ptolemais, besieged by the Christians, and defended by Saladine, who fearing the increase of the Christian Army, propounds con­ditions, which being accepted, it is delivered in August, An. 1192.

And here fell out an accident, which though it was an Honor to King Richard, yet proved afterwards both troublesome and chargable: For Leopold Duke of Austria, having first set up his Colours upon the Wall of Ptolemais, King Richard caused them to be pulled down, and his own to be set up in their place; which drew upon him Leopolds hatred, and King Lewis his valiant Acts, being darkned by those more valiant Actions of King Richard, under pretence that the Air agreed not with his Constitution, with­drew himself by consent, and returned home. So that Souldan Saladine who had dismantled all the adjacent Fortresses, and was upon the point of surrendring Jerusalem its self; when he saw the King of France was departed, not doubting but the rest would soon follow, grew more confident then before.

At this time Guy of Lusignan was possessed of the City of Tyre, and with it of the right of the City of Jerusalem, with whom King Richard makes an exchange for the Kingdom of Ci­prus, and then prepares for the sacking of Jerusalem, and had certainly taken it; but that by ill counsel, and the backwardness of Odo Duke of Burgundy, General of the French Forces, who envied that King Richard should have the Honor of so great a prise; he was diverted, until that Saladines Army being encouraged with the division of the Commanders, and the continual decay of the Christian Army, concludes a Peace with Richard, upon terms not very honorable for the Christians; which King Richard was forced to do, to defend his Estate at home, embroiled by the pride of Longchampe Bishop of Ely, and his Brother John, and his Dutchy of Normandy, invaded by Philip King of France, contrary to his oath.

Order being therefore taken for the transporting of his Army, with his Wife and Sister for Sicily, and so for England; himself, [Page 78]with few in his company, go by the way of Thrace, and were by Tempest driven into Dalmatia: From whence, being to pass through Germany, and particularly through Duke Leopolds Coun­trey, remembring the old grudge, he disguised himself.Chronica Sancti Stephani Cadom. p. 1020 b. No sooner 0204 02 came he to Vienna, but being discovered, he was by the Duke seised and imprisoned, An. 1192. The Emperor Henry the Sixth informed thereof, desires the Royal Prisoner,Rogerus Hoveden. fol. 410 b. under pretence of safer custody, but indeed really to share in his ransome; which by severe imprisonment was raised to the sum of One hundred thousand Pounds. King Richard, besides the affront to Duke Leopold was charged with the Murder of Conrade Marquess of Tyre, whose innocency, though it appeared by the Testimony of Lim­boldus, Author of that Murder, yet the pretence served to de­tain him in prison till Eighty thousand pound was paid in hand, whereof the Emperor had two parts, and the Duke one; and for the rest, Hostages were given; but the Emperor outlived this purchase very little, so that his Successor not having the Consci­ence to take the remaining Money, discharged the Security, and the Duke of Austria falling from his Horse in a Tourment, brake his Leg, and was forced to save his life by turning Cripple. King Richard being released on these hard terms, returns for England Four years elder then he went out; and thus ended his journey to the Holy Land.

Being come home, he thanks his Lords and People for their fidelity to him in his absence, and their great love to him (ap­pearing by the value of their Supply for his Ransom, and the dif­ficulties they underwent to procure it) and then according to his vow at the Shrine of S. Edmond he offers up the rich Standard of Cursar King of Ciprus, which he took among the spoils of the Griffons Camp; but for his Brother John, both Ingrateful and Ambitious, he deprives him of all those Possessions he had before given him; and now upon the Seventeenth day of April,Rogerus Hoveden. f. 420 b.An. 1194. at Winchester, causing himself to be Crowned a second time (least the People should forget they had a King, who had been so long without one) he obtains a Subsidy, and then in all haste sets sail for Normandy, to finde out his old enemy the King of France, who then lay with his Army before Vernoil; but not daring to stay King Richards coming, raised his fiege in hast, and with dishonor left the Field.

Much time was afterwards spent betwixt them in skirmishes, taking of Towns and Prisoners (nor were there wanting Confe­rences betwixt the two Kings in order to Peace, moved by such as religiously tendred the effusion of Christian Blood.) Among which actions, the Battel of Gysorz is not to be forgotten, where Richard in his own person did wonders,Ex Veteri Codice M. S. Pe­nes Ger­vasium Holles Armig. pag. 23 & 24. and made it appear that he was as expert at the Launce as the Battel-Ax; for therewith he threw to the Earth Matthew de Montmorency, Alan de Rucy, and Philip de Guillarvale, Three valiant Knights, and took them Prisoners, The Motto of DIEU ET MON DROIT is attributed [Page 79]to him, ascribing this victory he had at Gizors, not to Himself but to God, and His Might; He was afterwards reconciled to his Brother John, who had expiated his fault by several Signal ser­vices; and not long after received his deaths wound by an Arrow in his Arm, shot at him at the siege of Chalons or Chaluz in Limo­sin, by one Bertrand de Guerdon, in revenge of his Father, and Brethren, whom the King had slain; which Bertrand resolutely avowing before the King, the King not onely pardoned him, but is said to have ordered him a considerable reward in Money; nevertheless after the Kings death, one Merchades getting him in­to his hands, first caused his skin to be fleaed over his ears, and then hanged him alive upon a Gibbet.

Rogerum Hoveden, fol. 449 b. num. 20. Ibidem, fol. 450 a. King Richard by violence of sickness (increased by the an­guish of his incurable would) departed this life, without issue,His Death. upon the Sixth day of April, in the year of our Lord, An. 1199. when he had lived Forty three years, Reigned nine and about nine Moneths, and had his Body buried at the Feet of His Father, in the Abbey of the Nuns at Fout-Euraud in the County of Anjou; His Heart at Roan, in remembrance of the Hearty-love that City had always borne him; and His Bowels at Chaluz, for a disgrace of their unthankfulness.Matth. Paris, p. 196. Wherefore an English Poet imitating the Epitaph made of Pompey, and his Children, whose Bodies were buried in divers Countreys, made these Verses following of the Glory of this One King, divided in these three places by His Funeral.

The Poitevin and Land of Chalus keep
The Bowels of this Great Victorious Prince:
His Body at Fout-Euraud doth sleep;
His Heart at Roan, buri­ed long time since.
Three places thus, are sharers of His fall.
Too little, one, for such a Funeral.
Pictavus exta Ducis sepelit,
Mills, pag: 120.
tellusque Chalutis
Corpus dat claudi sub marmore Foutis Ebraudi
Neustria tu tegis cor inexpugnabile Regis,
Sic loca per trina se sparsit tanta ruina.
Nec fuit hoc funus, cui sufficeret locus unus.

Camdens Remains, p. 358. At Fout-Euraud also where his Body was Interred with a Gilt Image (e [...]hibited to your view in the 6⅘ Page of this Second Book marked with the Letter C.) were these six excellent Verses written in Golden Letters, containing his greatest and most glori­ous atchievments: As his victory against the Sicilians, his con­quering of Ciprus, the sinking the great Galeass of the Saracens, the taking of their Convoy, and the defending of Joppe in the Holy Land against them.

Scribitur hoc tumulo Rex auree,
Ibidem.
laus tua, tota
Aurea, materiae conveniente notâ.
Laus tua prima fuit Siculi, Cyprus altera, Dromo
Tertia, Carvana quarta, suprema Joppe.
Suppressi Siculi, Cyprus pessundata, Dromo.
Mersus, Carvana capta, retenta Joppe.

On both His Great Seals (for He had Two) He wrote Him­selfSee His Great Seals, p. 55. ✚ RICARDUS DEI GRATIA REX ANGLORUM. And on the Reverse,See His Two Great Seals in the 55 Pag. of this Second Book. ✚ RICARDUS DUX NORMANORUM ET AQUITANO­RUM ET COMES ANDEGAVORUM.

Natural Issue of King RICHARD the First.

6. PHILIP, a Natural Son of King Richard (mentioned by Roger Hoveden) to whom His Father gave the Castle and Honor of Cuinac; Rogeru [...] Hoveden. fol. 452 b. num. 30. but I finde not any thing else Recorded of Him, or any other Issue of this King, either by His Wife or Concubines, except we reckon as Fulco, a Priest in Normandy did, who told King Richard He had three Daughters; and the King marvelling who they should be, seeing He knew of none He had: Yes (said the Priest) you have three Daughters, Pride, Coveteousness, and Lechery: Which the King taking merrily, called to the company about him, and said; I am told by a Priest here, that I have three Daughters, and desire you to be witnesses, how I would have them bestowed. My Daughter Pride I give to the Templers, for they are as proud as Lucifer; my Covetousness to the White Monks of the Cistercian Order, for they covet the Devil and all; but for my Lechery, I cannot bestow it better then on the Priests and Prelates of our time; for therein have they their most Felicity. Doubtless those Marriages have proved so fruitful, that their Issues have over-spred the whole Earth.

5. An. Dom. 1199. JOHN, King of ENGLAND, Lord of IRE­LAND, Duke of NORMANDY and AQƲITAINE, and Earl of ANJOƲ, Surnamed SANS-TERRE.
CHAP. III.

QUeen Eleanor, Robert of Glocester, p. 276 b. not long after Her return out of Normandy, I have seen Three Grants of this John, in which He is stiled COMES MORI­TONIE; Two of these are in the Chamber of the Dutchy of Lancaster; and the Third in Sir John Cottons Li­brary. To these three the Impress of the same Seal is Appendant, in which He is represented on Horsback, in His Right Hand He holds a Sword, and about His Neck hangs His Shield, upon which are Two Lions Passant, evi­dently appa­rent. The Seal is cir­cumscribed SIGILLUM JOHANNIS FILII RE­GIS AN­GLIE DO­MINI HI­BERNIE; and the Counterseal being a small Oval, represents you with a Mans-head, with this word or motto SECRETUM JOHANNIS, which are the first Arms I have seen upon any Seal of the Royal Family, being in the Reign of King Henry the Second. This Seal is falfly depicted in Mr. Speeds Chronicle, for the Lions in that are Passant Guardant, and Johns Horse is Caparisoned, a thing not in use in the Kingly Family, till the time of Edward the First. When He came to be King, He did bear the Arms of His Brother King Richard, viz. Gules, Three Lions Pas­sant Guardant, Or; for which, vide His Great Seal, Pag. 56. And the Arms Painted for Queen Isabell His Wife on the Tomb at Fout-Eurand are Lozengey, Or, and Gules. in the year 1166. was delivered in the Kings Mannor-House at Oxford of this JOHN, Her Fifth and youngest Son, upon Christmas Eve, in the Thirteenth year of the Reign of King Henry the Second Her Husband, who was wont jestingly to call Him Sans-Terre or Lack-Land, large Provisions having been made for His Brethren, and nothing seeming to be left for Him.

He was much beloved of His Father,Matthew Paris, p. 127. num. 6. and was not above seven years old, when to supply this want, the King assured Him certain Lands in England and Normandy; and in the year 1173. and Moneth of February, a Marriage was agreed upon for Him at Montferrant in Averne, with Alice the Elder of the two Daugh­ters and Coheirs of Humbert the Second, Earl of Maurienne, now called Savoy (whose Mother Clemence was the Daughter of Be­rold the Fourth of the Name, Duke of Leringen, the divorced Wife of Henry the Lion, Duke of Saxony) He should have en joyed with Her, Her Fathers Dominions, but all altered by Her untimely death, and the remarriage of Her Father, from whom the Dukes of Saxony are derived.

In camera Ducatus Lanc. & in Biblio­theca Cot­toniana. He was afterwards Earl of Mortaigne in Normandy, as I find by several of His Charters, in which He is stiled JOHANNES COMES MORITONIE. And King Henry His Father in a Parliament at Oxford, granted Him also the Kingdom of Ire­land, having obtained from Pope Ʋrban the Third a Grant, That [Page 82]it should be lawful to Crown which of His Sons He pleased, King of Ireland, who sent him also a Crown of Feathers interwoven with Gold (in his Grant (as other Popes had done before) reserving to himself the Peter-Pence) whereupon the King conferring upon Earl John the Order of Knighthood at Windsor, sent him with speed into Ireland, where he was received by the Archbishop of Dublin and the State; but having wasted, through ill Govern­ment, the better half of his Army, he returned home without effecting much;Carta in Bibliothe­ca Cotto­niana. who though Hoveden give him the Title of King of Ireland, yet was he never Crowned, nor used other stile in his Seal then SIGILLUM JOHANNIS FILII REGIS ANGLIE DOMINI HIBERNIE.

What John was possessed of, at the death of his Father, was rather Titular then Real; but his Brother King Richard taking the Scepter, bestowed on him the Counties of Cornwal, Dorset, Rogerus Hoveden, fol. 373 b. Matth. Westm. p. 257. num. 10. Matth. Paris, p. 152. num. 55. and Somerset, Nottingham, Derby, and Lancaster; the Castles of Marlborough and Lutgarshal; and the Towns of Wallingford and Tickhill; and several other Lands, having had the Earldom of Glocester, His Second Marriage. in the Right of Isabel his Wife, the Third and youngest Daughter and Coheir of William Earl of Glocester, Son of Robert Consul, Natural Son of King Henry the First (from whom he was afterwards divorced when he came to be King, upon pretence of Consanguinity) by which bounty he seemed to make this his Bro­ther John a sharer with him in his Kingdom, which yet satisfied not his aspiring mind, but rather enabled him to attempt the So­veraignty, which he endeavored in his absence in the Holy War, and Captivity in Austria and Germany.

But notwithstanding this, King Richard before his death be­came reconciled to him, and some say appointed him to be his Heir. After whose decease, the Faction of the Clergy cast the Crown upon this JOHN by Election (whereas Arthur the Son of Geoffrey his elder Brother was the right Heir;Matth. Paris, p. 197. num. 11.) so that he was Crowned at Westminster upon Ascension-day, viz. His Corona­tion. The Sixth of the Kalends of June, An. 1199. by Hubert Archbishop of Canter­bury, with more solemnity then joy.

Several were the Moral advantages which this John had of his Nephew Arthur; but yet he well knowing the Title at last would come to be judged by the Sword,Ibidem, p. 196. num. 34. employed all his endea­vors to fortifie himself with Arms; and therefore hasting unto Chinon, he seised upon the Treasure which his Brother had left in those parts;He is created Duke of Nor­mandy. and also used such means, that Walter Archbishop of Roan girt him with the Ducal Sword of Normandy, Ibidem, p. 196. num. 53. and Crowned him with a Coronet of Golden Roses. This Ceremony being per­formed in the Cathedral of that City.

His two great Antagonists, were Pope Innocent the Third, and Philip King of France; but the first tempest was depending from his Nephew Arthur, whose Kingdom he had not onely deprived him of, but also seised upon his Dukedom of Normandy, leaving only to Arthur the Dutchy of Anjou; wherefore his Mother Con­stance [Page 83]craves aide of Philip II. surnamed Augustus, King of France, who received the young Prince into his protection, raises an Ar­my, with which he makes good Anjou to Arthur, and then in­vades Normandy. Upon this, King John takes a Journey into Normandy, and upbraids King Philip for breaking the Truce made with his Brother King Richard for five years, yet for all this they fall not presently to blowes, but agree on fifty dayes Cessation of Armes:Du Ches. in add. ad Mais. de Guines. fol. 678. Philip Earl of Flanders being utterly against it, forsakes King Philip, makes Peace with the English, and takes Counsel how to wage Warr with France.

But King John being now (as he conceived) free from the care of Warr,An, 1200. strikes hands with the King of France, Matth. Pa­ris, p. 199. n. 48. upon unjust Termes, which the Earl of Flanders took so ill, that he once more joyned with the French, and restored the Warr of Jerusa­lem; nor are the Barons better pleased with the King at His re­turn into England, conceiving themselves, dishonour'd by these base Conditions. The Emperour Otho IV. also, upon a like dis­gust (by His two Brothers) makes demand of the City of Eve­reux and County of Poicton, which his Uncle King Richard had granted unto him, in Exchange for the Earledome of York.

Matth. Pa­ris, p. 200. n. 23. Matt. West­monast. p. 263. num. 31. Hoveden ad annum 1200. fol. 830. Hippod. Neust. ad annum 1200. And having been lately Divorsed from his second Wife Isa­bell aforesaid (she is also called Hadewise) the Daughter and Co-heir of William Earl of Gloucester, for consanguinity in the third degree) King John, in the year 1200 took to Wife Issabell, His Third Marriage. the Daughter and Heir of Aymer, Earl of Engolesme, (by Alice Daugh­ter of Peter Lord of Courtenay, The Armes of Queen Issa­bell of En­golesme, are Enamelled in several pla­ces upon the Tombe of William de Valence, Earl of Pembrook, her Son (half-Brother to King Henry III.) in the the Chappel of St. Edmond in the Abbey of Westmin­ster, being Lozengy, Or, and Gules. Fifth Son of Lewis le Gross King of France) she was Crowned at Westminster by Hubert Arch-bishop of Canterbury on the VIII. of the Ides of October (Matthew Paris saith on the Sunday next before the Feast of St. Dionise, (An. 5 H. 3.) in the same year, and surviving him, wasRob. of Glocester, p. 289. b. Remarried to Hugh Brun Earl of Marche, and Lord of Lusignan and Valence in Poictou, to whom she was pre contracted, and it seemeth continued her af­ter-affection to him, by him having also divers Children, high­ly advanced by King Henry the III. their half-Brother, and as much Maligned by His Subjects. This Issabel also outlived her Second Husband, and taking upon her a Religious Habit in the Monastery of Fount-Euraud in Anjou, deceased there, and was In­terred in the Church of that Abbey, her Figure Marked with the Letter D. being placed in that stately Monument (on the left side of that of King Richard I. her Brother-in-Law) represented in Sculpture betwixt the 64 and 65 Pages of this Second Book. The Body of this Queen Issabell having been buried in the Church­yard of Fount-Eurard, Matth. Pa­ris, p. 898. n. 25. was by her Son King Henry III. removed into the Church, and deposited in a Monument there, An. 1254.

King John, after this Marriage, imposes also Three Shillings upon every Plough-Land, to raise 30000 Markes, which he was to give with His Neece Blanche of Castile, Daughter of His Sister Eleanor, to the Dolphin, in pursuance of the late Peace. The Collection whereof is opposed by Geoffery Arch-bishop of York, [Page]and the Sheriff by him Excommunicated; but, by the Mediation of Four Bishops, and as many Barons, the matter was afterwards accommodated:Anno 1201. And the King Summons the Barons to be ready with Horse and Armour to attend Him the Whitsontide following beyond the Seas,Matth. Paris, p. 206. n. 6. which they totally refuse till Confirmation of their Priviledges; Whereupon he seizeth their Castles, and not­withstanding goes over himself, and is with His Queen Magnifi­cently entertained by King Philip at Paris; Where,Mat. West. p. 163. n. 53. at instance of the Popes Legate, both Kings grant a 40 part for one year of all their Subjects Revenues, towards the succour of the Holy-Land: Whilst Hugh le Brun, to revenge the Rapture of his Wife, con­spires with Prince Arthur against King John, whose quarrel is also favoured by the King of France, Ibidem. p. 164. n. 26. Matth. Pa­ris, p. 27. n. 30.40. and His Daughter Mary given him in Marriage; upon advice whereof, King John comes into Normandy, Anno 1202. defeates the Confederates, takes Arthur, Hugh Earl of Marche, and 200 Knights prisoners, which are disposed into se­veral Holds in Normandy and England; Prince Arthur is murthered in Prison, and several of the Hostages and Prisoners barbarously Executed;Anno 1203. which so exasperated the Nobility of Bretaigne, Anjou and Poictou, that they unanimously Arme, and the next year af­ter he became deprived of all his Possessions in those parts.

Then over He comes into England, Fines the Barons a Seventh part of their Goods for not Aiding Him, and spares neither Church nor Commons. Arch-bishop Hubert is Collector for the Clergy, Matth. West. p. 265. n. 26. and Geoffery Fitz Piers for the Laity: but this not sufficient for His Ends,Anno 1204. a Councell is called at Oxford, wherein is granted two Markes and an halfe of every Knights Fee, and equivalent of the Clergy, with which He goes to Warr again into France, but forced to a Truce for two years, and to come into England for fresh supplies, and to lay an other Imposition upon all Movea­bles and other Goods, both of the Clergy and Laity, which is again opposed by the Arch-bishop of Yorke, who Solemnly Cur­ses the Receivers thereof, and then secretly conveys Himself out of the Kingdome.

Hence arose a miserable breach between the King and His Peo­ple; The Contention not ceasing till the Great Charter was ob­tained of the King, to be the Standard of the Soveraign Prero­gative,Anno 1205. and the Subjects Priviledge.Matth. West. p. 266. n. 11. But that which compleated these Misfortunes was a Clandestine Election of one Reginald the Sub-Prior (Hubert the Arch-bishop being lately dead) to the See of Canterbury: which Design not taking as was expected, the King was Petitioned for a Conge d'Eslire, in which the King nomi­nated John Grey Bishop of Norwich, Anno 1206. who is also chosen:Matth. Paris, p. 213. n. 32. p. 214. n. 1. And Helias de Branfield, sent by the King to Rome for a Confirmation of the latter Election, whilst the Monkes endeavour to promote the former:Anno 1207. So that neither agreeing upon any one person, both Elections were declared void; and Stephen de Langhton a Cardi­nall (but born in England) greatly to the Kings dissatisfaction ad­vanced to the Chair, which the King expostulates briskly with [Page 84]the Pope, and sends Fulk de Cantelup, and Henry de Cornhill, to expell all the Monkes the Kingdome, and to seize their Goods. The Pope, he injoynes the Suffragans upon their Obedience, to receive this Stephen for their Pastor: with a Mandate to the Bi­shops of London, Ely and Worcester, to endeavour the Reform­ing of the King, or otherwise to Interdict His whole Kingdome, which accordingly is done.

In return whereof, all Prelates with their Servants are banished,Anno 1208. the Bishopricks, Ibidem, p. 226. Abbies and Priories deputed into the hands of Laymen, all their Goods seized; and, least these Proceedings should cause a Revolt of the Nobility, Hostages are taken of them,Matth. Pa­ris, p. 230. n. 22. Matth. Westmo­nast. p. 268. n. 53. and they which refused severely punished, as was the Lady of William de Breause and her Children. Having also distast against the Londoners, He removes His Exchequer to Northampton, Anno 1209. and Marches with an Army towards Scotland: but, the Peace is con­cluded upon the King of Scots paying 11000 Markes, and giving His two Daughters Hostages for His performance.

The Interdiction having now continued two whole years, and the King not at all Reformed, the Pope Excommunicates His Person; upon which, one Geoffery Arch-deacon of Norwich, con­ceiving it not safe to live in the Obedience of an Excommunicated King, retires home, but is apprehended by William Talbot, clapt into Prison, put into a Sheet of Lead and starved to death: and, notwithstanding all this, most of the Nobility and Chief Officers adhere still to the King;Matth. Pa­ris, p. 230. who,Anno 1210. supplying Himself out of the Jewes purses, upon notice of some Revolt in Ireland, Anno 1211. makes an Expedi­tion thither, reduces the Country, and there establishes the Lawes and Customes of England, setting John Gray Bishop of Norwich Justicior: and, after three Moneths stay, returnes Himself into England, and at London Condemnes the Clergy in a Mulct of 100000 l. Sterling, and Two Markes of every Knights Fee, that attended Him not in the Warr; with which He subdues Wales that had Rebelled, takes 28 of the Chiefest Mens Children Pledges, which, poor Innocents, upon an Insurrection of some inconsiderable persons upon the Borders, the King caused to be Hanged in His presence at Nottingham, Matth. Pa­ris, p. 230. n. 43. before He would sit down to Dinner.

The King is now pleased to receive Pandulphus and Durandus the Popes Agents, for a Mediation between Him and the Clergy; who, condescends to their returne, but, not to make any Resti­tution: wherefore, all His Subjects are Absolved their Allegiance, forbid His Councell and Conferences. And now, Absolute De­position is Pronounced by the Pope: And, the King of France, with the assistance of other Princes, Commanded to expell King John, and possess His Dominions for himself,Anno 1212. and his heires for ever; who, to that end, against the Spring, makes great Levies for an Invasion: and King John, for His defence, at Dover, Fe­versham, Ipswich, &c. by Easter hath an Army of 60000 Men, be­sides a Navy farr exceeding that of France. But two Knights [Page]Templars, sent out of France by Pandulphus, prevaile with the King to descend to a Treaty with him,Mat. Pa­ris, p. 236. 237. & 247. n. 10. who no sooner had notice thereof,Anno 1213. but he hastned to the King, and wrought so effectually with Him, that He not only grants entire Restitution and Indemnity to the Arch-bishop and Clergy, but also layes down His Crown, Scepter, Mantle, Sword and Ring (the Ensignes of His Royalty) at the Feet of the Legate, and submits Himself to the Judgment and Mercy of the Church: after two dayes (some say six) he received the Crown from Pandulphus, with condition, that he and his Successors should hold the Kingdome of England and Lordship of Ireland from the See of Rome, Ibidem, p. 237. Tributary at 1000 Markes Sil­ver, which he confirmed by his Charter at a House of the Tem­plars near Dover. But the Interdiction still continued, and his Absolution deferred, till full Satisfaction should be made to the Clergy. And hereupon the King of France being unexpectedly Commanded to desist, turnes his Fury upon Ferdinand of Por­tugall Earl of Flanders, for refusing him his assistance: Ferdinand craves Aide of King John, who dispatches 500 Saile, with 700 Knights into Flanders, under the Conduct of His Base Brother William Longespee Earl of Salisbury, Richard Earl of Boleyne, &c. who utterly defeated the French Forces both by Sea and Land. This success incourages him to renew his attempt upon France, but is denyed Aid by the Barons, and by reason thereof, himself and his Allies discomfited; for the which, intending to Chastise them at his returne, he is by the Menaces of Excommunication of the Arch-bishop diverted: upon which, he is necessitated to call home the Exiled Clergy; and at Winchester is, by Pandulphus, with great Penitence Absolved, upon promise of restoring King Edwards Lawes.

Anno 1214. This respites things whilst he Bribes the Pope, Mat. West-monaste­riensis, p. 172. n. 40. and so his Inter­diction is also taken off, and he at liberty to renew his former de­signes upon France: which He, the Emperour, and the Earl of Flanders accordingly do, but without success: and the Barons still pressing their Priviledges, to avoid their Importunities He takes upon Him the Cross, whilst they seize several of his Castles, and are received with great Triumph at London.

Anno 1215. The King abandoned by all,Ibidem, o. 273. n. 49. holds a Parley with them in Run­ning Meade (which is between Windsor and Staines) wherein an Agreement is made, but not long observed; for,Matth. Pa­ris, p. 255. n. 26. & p. 264. n. 47. the King having now good correspondence with the Pope, retires into the Isle of Wight, and there procures his late Articles to be vacated, the Barons to be Excommunicated, and a supply of Forreigners;Ibidem, p. 270. n. 37. & 281. n. 45. with which, in half a years time, He recovers all His Holds, and forces the Barons to call in the King of France, Anno 1216. whose Son Prince Lewis (af­terwards King Lewis VIII.) understanding the Popes Prohibition and Excommunication, arrives at Sandwich with 600 Ships, and at London receives Homage of the Barons, but nothing considera­ble was done on either side.

Upon this King John Marches with his Army Northwards, and [Page 85]coming to Walpool, he and some few others passed the Washes; But, His Army, Carriages and Treasure hurrying on,Anno 1213. and missing the Foords, were wholly immerged; with grief of which disa­ster,Matth. Pa­ris, p. 288. and perhaps distempered in His body before, he fell into a Fever, and was let blood at Swineshead-Abbey, where Surfetting upon green Peaches and new Ale (some report He was Poysoned with a Dish of Pears by a Monk of that Convent) He fell into a Looseness, and grew so weak, that there was much adoe to get Him to Newarke; where, receiving the Eucharist, and taking what Order He could for the Succession of His Son Henry (which was facilitated by the returne of several of the Barons to their Alle­giance) He departed this life on the 19th day of October, His Death. An. 1216. having Reign'd 17 years, 6 Moneths, and 13 dayes, aged about 50 years. His Bowels were buryed at Croxton-Abbey, and in

Illustrissimo Domino Dno. GULIELMO Comiti de CRAVEN. Vicecomiti Craven de Vffington et Baroni Craven de Hamsted. Marshall Serenissimi (que) Dom: Regis Caroli 2di. a Secretioribus Consilijs, Tumuli hanc IOHANNIS Regis Imaginem. H. D. F. S.

VIRTVS ACTION CONSISTI

pursuance of His Will, His Body was Interred in the Cathedral Church of Worcester, betwixt the Holy Bishops St. Oswald and St. Wulstan. His Tombe of Gray Marble is placed between the Choire and the High Altar; the Figure of the King as big as the Life, and the two Bishops at his head, in little, with their Censors in their hands, are carved in one Stone, which seemeth to be as an­tient [Page]as the time of Henry III. But, the Altar-Tombe on which it is placed, is of a Modern Fabrick. The Representation of which Monument is exhibited in the precedent Page, upon which there is no Inscription, but in Matt. Paris I find this Epitaph, P. 288.

Hoc in Sarcophago sepelitur Regis imago,
Qui moriens multum sedavit in orbe tumultum,
Et cui connexa dum vixit probra manebant.
Hunc mala post mortem timor est ne fata sequantur.
Qui legis haec metuens dum cernis te moriturum,
Dicito quid rerum pariat tibi meta dierum.

The Figure of His Great Seal is exhibited in the 56 Page of this Second Book, upon which He is stiled, JOHANNES DEI GRATIA REX ANGLIE DOMINUS HIBERNIE (being the first King of England that had the Title of Lord of Ireland) and, on the Counter-Seal, JOHAN­NES DUX NORMANNIE ET AQUITAN­NIE COMES ANDEGAVIE.

And now, if we look upon King John in relation to his Workes, he will in them appear a worthy Prince, having transcended all his Subjects of his time in Acts of Charity; for, he Founded the Abbey of Bowley in the New Forrest in Hampshire, also an Ab­bey of Black Monks in the City of Winchester, the Monastery of Farendon, and the Abbey of Hales-Owen in Shropshire: He also re-edified Godstow, and Wroxel, and enlarged the Chappel of Kna­resborrow: But as to his Actions, He neither came to the Crown by Justice, nor held it with Honour, nor left it in Peace. Yet, having had many good parts, and especially His Royal Posterity continued to this day, we cannot do less than Honour His Me­mory.

Children of King JOHN by Queen ISSABEL of ENGOLESME, his third Wife.

6. HENRY, The Eldest Son of King John succeed his Father in the Kingdom of England, and his other Dominions, by the name of King Henry III. whose History followeth in the Fourth Chapter of this Second Book.

6. RICHARD, Second Son of King John, by Issabel of En­golesme, was King of the Romans and of Almain, and Earl of Poictiers and Cornwall, Alexander II. King of Scots, did bear Or, a Lyon Ram­pant Gules, within a dou­ble Tressure Flowery Counter-Flowery of the Second. of whom see more in the Fifth Chapter of this Second Book.

6. JOANE, Queen of Scots, Matth. Pa­ris, p. 313. n. 13. Eldest Daughter of King Iohn and Queen Issabell, was the first Wife of Alexander II. King of Scots, Marryed to him at the City of York in the presence of King Henry III. her Brother, upon the 25th day of Iune, Pat. An. 4 & 5 H. 3. An. [Page 87]1221. in the fifth year of his Reign, whom, many years after coming into England to Visit, she deceased at London without issue,Matth. Pa­ris, p. 468. n. 34. upon the fourth day of March Anno 1238. and was in­terred at Tarente (in Dorcetshire) a Nunnery Founded by Ri­chard II. Bishop of Durham.

6. ELIANOR, Countess of Penbrooke and Leicester, The Armes of this William Marshall Earl of Penbrook, are Painted in a Glass-window in the Chapter-house of Sa­lisbury, viz. Party per pale Or and Vert, a Lyon Ram­pant Gules. second Daughter of King Iohn, Pat. An. 10 H. 3. n. [...]. a Tergo. was Marryed to William Marshall the younger Earl of Penbrooke, in the tenth year of King Henry III. her Brother, who was at first much displeased with the Earl a­bout this Match with his Sister, but afterwards became recon­ciled unto him, who deceasing without issue An. 1231. The King (after seven years Widdowhood) gave her with his own hand to Simon Montfort Earl of Leicester and Steward of Eng­land (Son of Simon Earl of Montfort in France, Matth. Pa­ris, p. 455. n. 41. by Amitia Daugh­ter and Co-heir of Robert Blanchmains Earl of Leicester) to whom she was Re-marryed in St. Stephens Chappel in the Kings Pallace at Westminster, Claus. 19 H. 3. m. 1. upon the seventh day of Ianuary 1238.Her Second Husband Si­mon Montfort Earl of Lei­cester did bear Gules a Lyon rampant queave forchè Argent, which Armes are Carved in Stone, and Painted upon the North-wall in the Abbey of Westminster. Anno 22 H. 3. and had a Dower se [...]led upon her by Earl Si­mon, out of his Estate in Ireland, Pat. an. 28 H. 3. Anno 28 H. 3. in the 45 year of whose Reign, this Simon Earl of Leicester and Elianor his Wife,Pat. an. 45 H. 3.20 Julii, n. 17. fell into the displeasure of the King her Brother, by Heading the Barons against Him, which (though the Queen of France was chosen Umpire to decide the quarrel) never had end, till the Battel of Evesham finished both the dispute and this Earles life in the year 1265. (An. 49 H. 3.) after whose death the Countess Elianor and her Children were inforced to forsake England, so that she died in the Nunnery of Montarges in France.

Henry Montfort their Eldest Son,Matth. Pa­ris, 998. n 26. Ralph Brook Yorke-Herald. was slain with his Father at Evesham. Simon, Second Son, was Earl of Bigore, and Ance­stor of a Family of Montforts in that part of France. Alma­ricke her Third Son, was first a Priest, and Treasurer of the Cathedral Church of Yorke, and afterwards a Knight, and a valiant Servitor in several Warrs beyond Sea. Guy, the Fourth Son, was Earl of Angleria in Italy, and Progenitor of the Montforts in Tuscany: and of the Earl of Campobachi in the Kingdom of Naples. Richard, the Fifth Son, remained pri­vately in England, and changing his Name from Montfort to Welesborne, was Ancestor of the Welesbornes in England. She had also a Daughter named Elianor, born in England, edu­cated in France, and married into Wales, to Prince Ll'ewellen ap Gruffith.

6. ISSABEL, Matth. Pa­ris, p. 414. n. 80.415, 416 & 417. Empress of Germany, Third Daughter of King John, born An. 1214. was, in the one and twentieth year of her age, with great splendor sent into Germany with the Bishop of Exeter and the Arch-bishop of Cullen, who pronouneed her [Page]Empress, as Proxie from the Emperor Frederick II. to whom she was married in the City of Wormes, upon the XIII of the Kalends of August (viz. the 20th day of July) in the year 1235.Frederick II. Emperor of Almain did bear, Or, an Eagle display­ed Sable, which Arms are car­ved in stone, and painted upon the wall of the North-Isle in the Abbey of Westminster. with a Portion of 30000 Markes, a rich Imperial Crown imbellished with precious Stones, and many other Jewels. She had issue by Him Henry, appointed to be King of Sicilie, Matth. Pa­ris, p. 889. n. 46. Matth. Paris, p. 578. n.15. who dyed in the Moneth of May, An. 1254. and Margaret, Wife of Albert Lantgrave of Thuringen; she was his Wife six years, and then, to the great grief of the Emperor, died in Child­bed, on the first day of December, An. 1241. The Triumphs both in her Journey, and at the Solemnization of her Nuptials are particularly recited by my Author Mathew Paris: As also the Letter at large sent from the Emperor Frederick II.Mat. West. p. 306. n. 43. to his Brother King Henry III. to condole with him after her death, highly expressing his grief and sadness for the loss of so excel­lent a Consort.

Natural Issue of King JOHN.

6. RICHARD, Who Married Rohesia, Tho. Milles p. 134. Matth. Pa­ris, p. 298. n. 47. the Daughter and Heire of Fulbert de Dover, who built Chilham-Castle in Kent, and by her had that Castle and a fair Inheritance, and likewise two Daughters and Co-heirs, viz. Lora, Wife of William Marmion of Polesworth in Warwickshire, from whom are des­cended the Dimocks of Scriuelby in the County of Lincolne, the Ferrers of Tamworth and Baddesley, the Willonghbyes of Wol­laton, and the Astons of Staffordshire. Issabel, their Second Daughter and Co-heire, was Marryed to David de Strabolgy Earl of Athol, who by her had Chilham in Kent, whose heires general were the Lord Burgh, and the Zouches of Cod­nor.

E Biblia­theca Cot­toniana. Ricardus filius Regis Johannis (I suppose this Richard) so stiled in his Confirmation of the Lands of Hugh de Byre in Chappellangere, to the Church of our Lady de Cleue, hath his Seal of Green-Wax affixed thereunto, in which are Two Ly­ons passant guardant, and circumscribed SIGILLƲM RICARDI DE VAREN… The Figure of which is in the 57 Page of this Second Book.

6. GEOFREY FITZ-ROY, another Natural Son, who,Thomas Milles p. 134. when his Father King John was not permitted by Hubert Arch-bishop of Canterbury, to transport His Army at Portsmouth into France, was sent over with the same Army to Rochell, and there died.

6. SIR JOHN COƲRCY (these are the words of Robert the Monke of Glocester) was King Johns Son Bastard,Rob. f Glocest. p. 247. b. and nou­rished [Page 87]at the Priory ofIf not Stoke Garsey. Stegurcy in Somersetshire in youth, was made Earl of Ʋlvester in Ireland the first of English-Tongue, and after him the kindred of the Burghes.

6. OSBERT GIFFORD, Claus. 17 Johan­nis. pars 2. m. 16. 21. No­vembris. Another base Son of King John, to whom, His said Father in the Seventeenth year of His Reign, commanded the Sheriff of Oxfordshire to deliver 30 l Land of the Estate of Thomas de Ardern in that County.

6. OLIVER, Claus. 1. H. 3. p. 2. m. 23. Claus. 2. Hen. 3. p. 1. m. 9. Mat. West­minster, p. 278. n. 46. Thomas Milles, p. 134. A Natural Son of King John (called Olivarius frater Regis Henrici tertii) mentioned in Records in the Reign of King Henry the Thrid. He was at the Siege of Damieta with Saher de Quincy Earl of Winchester, and William de Albaney Earl of Arundell, and several other Noblemen of England.

6. JOANE, A Natural Daughter of King John, was Married to Llewellen the Great, Prince of North-wales, to whom her Father with her gave the Lordship of Ellesmere in the Marches of North-Wales, Pat. An. 13 H. 3. she had issue by him David, who did homage to King Henry III. at Westminster, upon the 13th day of October, An. Pat. an. 16 H. 3. 1229. in the 16th year of whose Reign this Joane had safe conduct to come to the Town of Salop.

She had issue also by Prince Llewellen two Daughters,W. 174. viz. Wentelina (called also Joane) Married to Sir Reginald de Brewes, Geneale­gia in Of­ficie Ar­m [...]rum. and Margaret the Wife of John de Brewes (Son of the aforesaid Reginald) by whom she had issue William de Brewes Lord of Gower, &c. from whom many Noble Families derive their descent.

6. HENRY III. An. Dom. 1216. KING of ENGLAND, LORD of IRE­LAND, DUKE of NORMANDY and AQƲITAINE, and EARL of ANJOƲ surnamed of WINCHESTER.
CHAP. IV.

King Henry the III. did bear the Armes of his Father, viz. Gules, 3 Ly­ons passant guardant, or, which are yet standing in se­veral Win­dowes in the Abbey of Westminster, and also Car­ved, Painted and Gilt on the Wall of the South-Isle in the said Abbey. And the Shields on both his Seals represented in the 56 Page of this Second Book are charged with the same Armes. Up­on which counter-Seals the King is represented on Horseback, ac­cording to the Custome of His Prede­cessors, but with the ad­dition of a Crown upon his Helmet in both of them: Upon what occasion he assumed it in his first Seal I cannot guess, but when He abridg'd His Stile, He wrote Himself King of England on His Counter-Seal also, and therefore might add a Diadem to His Figure on Horseback. The Seales of Queen Elianor of Provence His Wife, pag. 57. are charged on the Reverses with Shields of King Hen­rics Armes only (for Impalements were not then in use) but in the Windows of the said Abbey there remain intire Escocheons of Her Armes, being Or, four Paletts Gules. And also the like Shield is Embossed, Painted and Gilt in the South-Isle of Westminster-Abbey, and superscribed RAIMUNDUS COMES PROVINCIE; for her Father, who, being a Branch of the Royal House of Arragon, did bear the Armes of that Kingdome, transmitted to them from Geaffery the Hairy Count of Barcelona, who fighting valiantly for the Emperour Lewis le Debonnaire against the Normans, and after the Battel coming to the Emperour all covered with Blood, which ran out of his wounds, he dipped his four Fingers therein, and drew them down the Earles Shield of Gold, which afterwards came to be the Armes of Arragon, and are so continued to our time, among the Quarterings of the King of Spain, for that King­dome being as I said before, Or, four Paletts gutes. IN this Distraction of the Kingdom, Prince Henry (the Eldest Son of King John and Queen Issabel of Engolesm His Third Wife,Robert of Glocester, p. 284. a. born at Winchester upon the Feast of St. Re­migius, being the First day of October, in the Eighth year of His Fathers Reign, An. 1206.) a Child of about Nine years old, is Crowned with great Solemnity at Glocester, Ibidem, p. 288. b. upon the V. of the Kalends of November, (viz. the 28 Day of October.) An. 1216. by the Bishops of Winchester and Bathe; And the Administration of the Government, with the tuition of His Person,Matth. Pa­ris, p. 289. n. 12. Matth. West. p. 277. n. 5 committed to William Marshal the valiant Earl of Penbrook; who, with Guallo the Popes Legate, and the Bishops of Winchester, Bath and Wor­cester, use all meanes for the returne of the Barons to their Natural Prince, from Prince Lewis this Excommunicated stranger, who still held London and the parts adjacent, and their endeavours (the confession of the Viscount Melun a Frenchman, Ibidem, p. Ibidem, n. 28. of Prince Lewis his design, utterly to extinguish the English Nation, contri­buting) had such effect, that first William Earl of Salisbury, with many others by his example, left him, and Swore Fealty to King Henry, who keeps about Bristol, Worcester and Glocester, till oppor­tunity was found of drawing the Enemy from the Head into the Body of the Kingdom, for the relief of the Castles of Mountsor­rill and Lincoln, which City the French being Masters of,Matth Pa­ris, p. 294. n. 30. was by the Earl of Penbrook and his Son William, the Bishops of Winche­ster and Salisbury, the Earls of Chester, Salisbury, Ferrers and Albe­marle, and many other Barons, with all the power of the young King assaulted and taken, with many prisoners of note, the Earl [Page 88]of Perch killed, and the French Forces utterly defeated; where­upon Lewis sends for fresh Succors out of France, which also be­ing overthrown at Sea by Philip d'Aubeny, Hubert de Burgo, and the Forces of the Cinque-ports:An. 1218. On the Eleventh of September he comes to an accord, to take 15000. Markes for his Voyage, Ab­jure his Claime, and endeavour to dispose his Father to the Re­stitution of our Claimes in France, which, when himself came to be King, he promised freely to do. Whereupon about the Mi­chaelmas following he is honourably attended to Dover, a General Pardon granted; the Legate and the Protector on the young Kings behalf undertaking to the Barons for all their Priviledges.

And, as well to keep them in Action whom the War had bred, as to unburthen the Country of strangers, Ranulph Blundevile Earl of Chester, Matth. Westm. p. 278. n. 42. Sear de Quincy Earl of Winchester, and William de Al­beney Earl of Arundel, are sent out with great Forces to the Holy Land; when, to the great regret of the Kingdom, William Mar­shall Earl of Pembroke dies, and his Charge is conferr'd on the Bi­shop of Winchester, with other great Councellors.

The young King is again Crowned,Matth. Pa­ris, p. 309. n. 36. and an Escuage of Two Markes upon every Knights Fee granted Him by Parliament;Anno 1219. and being encouraged from Poicton and Guyen to some design upon France, Ibidem, p. 313. n. 14. to strengthen his Alliance at home,Anno 1220. he Contracts his Sister Joane to Alexander King of Scots, who gives his Sister Margaret to Hubert de Burgh, lately made Chief Justiciar of England. Anno 1222. The King in a Parliament at London is now by the Arch-bishop of Canterbury put in mind what had been promised for Him upon the Peace with Prince Lewis, as to the restoring the Peoples Rights, which was then again by Him promised, but by the Artifice of some deferr'd, which causes the Earles of Chester and Albemarle at Leicester to design the removal of Hubert de Burgo and others the supposed obstructors,Matth. Westm. p. 283. n. 3. but by the interposition of the Arch-bishop of Canterburies Spiritual power,Anno 1223. they submit.

And two years after, in a Parliament held at Westminster, Anno 1225. a Fifteenth of all Moveables of the Clergy and Laity is demanded for recovery of his Possessions in France witheld by Lewis (now King) contra­ry to his Promises in England; which Subsidy, upon the Confirma­tion of their Priviledges and Disforestations (both grateful things to the Subject) is likewise granted: But, this happy state lasted not above two years, for in a Parliament at Oxford, as much to their dissatisfaction, the King (being now at age) abrogates the Charter of Forrests, as granted in his Nonage; and, by Procla­mation causes all Grants to be renewed under His Great Seal, for which Arbitrary Fees are extorted by Hubert de Burgh, which be­gets a new Insurrection, for the Barons taking advantage of the difference between the King and his Brother Richard Earl of Corn­wall about the Castle of Berkhamsted, gain him to their party, who at Marleborough meets William Marshall the younger Earl of Pem­brook, Matth. Pa­ris, p. 337. n. 11. and afterwards at Stamford with the Earles of Chester, Anno 1226. Gloce­ster, Warren, Herefore, Ferrers and Warwick, where they perme­ptorily [Page]require right to be done to His Brother, the Restitution of the Charter of Forrests, &c. or otherwise they would right them­selves by their Swords; This the King is forced to condescend unto, by a Parliament at Northampton, and to give His Brother his Castle,Anno 1227. and all His Mother had in Dower, with the Estates of the Earles of Bretagne and Bologne.

King Lewis being lately dead, and an Infant King, and the Queen Regent having disoblig'd the Nobility, King Henry is by Hugh le Brun his Father-in-Law incouraged in this juncture to In­vade France, but returnes without honour or advantage, and pre­sently upon his arrival in England a Marriage is proposed to Him with the King of Scots Sister, but the motion is altogether dissiked, since Hubert de Burgo his Chief Justiciar had Married the Elder. And having now no other expedient to reward the Poictavins for their aide in His sate Warr upon France, Anno 1232. he Fines and displaces the said Hubert, with several of His Chief Officers,Matth. Paris, p. 376. n. 35. to make way for their Preferment, which so exasperates the Nobility, that Richard Marshall Earl of Pembrook, with many Barons, contrive for the pub­lick defence; And the King to suppress them sends for vast num­bers of Poictavins, and calls a Parliament at Oxford, whither the Barons, notwithstanding three several Summons, refuse to repaire; or to that at Westminster, till the Bishop of Winchester and the Po­ictavins were removed from the Court, which causes the King to take Pledges of the Nobility, and commands all that held by Knights-service to repaire to him at Glocester by a certain day, which Marshall and his party refusing to do, they are declared Out-laws, their Lands seized and given to Poictavins; The Earles of Che­ster and Lincolne are bought off from Marshall, who hereupon withdrawes himself into Wales, Matth. Pa­ris, p. 388. n. 13. and makes a League with Llewel­lin, and there Hubert de Burgo (escaping out of the Vize-Castle,Anno 1233. where he had been Prisoner since his removal from his place) joynes them. The King Marches with an Army against them, is worsted and returnes to Glocester; but the Warr rages still all over the bor­ders to Shrewsbury: And, since by all meanes possible they could not reclaime Marshall, meanes are found out to draw him into Ire­land, to defend his Estate there seized by Authority under the Kings Hand and Seal, where by treachery he lost this life, to so great a regret both of his Friends and Enemies, as the King Himself dis­ownes the Commission.

These Miseries continued two whole years,Anno 1234. when in a Parlia­ment at Westminster, the Bishops admonish the King by His Fathers Example and His own Experience, to be at Union with His Peo­ple, otherwise they must proceed against Him and His Counsel­lors by Ecclesiastical Censure; who, seeing no other remedy, calls home the Lords out of Wales, removes the strangers, and restores them to their places and possessions.

Things being now in pretty good order,Anno 1236. He bestowes His Sister Issabel upon the Emperour Frederick II. with a Dowry of 30000 Markes, but this Alliance answers not the aimes of either Prince, [Page 89]nor doth His own Marriage prove more advantageous to Him with Elianor, His Marriage. the Second Daughter and co-heir of Raymond Berengar Earl of Provence and Forcalquier, son of Earl Alphonso, Vide, the Claimes of the Great Offi­cers at Her Coronation, Mat. Paris. p. 420 421. & l: 15, fol. 55. a. Miscellania in Officio Arm. son of Alphonso II. King of Aragon; which notwithstanding is Solemniz'd with great State at Canterbury, Matth. Pa­ris, p. 419, & 420. upon the XIX of the Kalends of February, (viz. the 14th day of January) An. 1236, in the 20th year of His Reign, by Edmond Arch-bishop of Canterbury, and Crowned at Westminster on the 19th day of the same Month by the said Arch­bishop. Her Mother was Beatrice Daughter of Thomas Earl of Savoy, Sister to the Earls Amides and Peter, and Bonniface Arch­bishop of Canterbury. Her three Sisters were also Queens, Mar­garet the eldest being Wife of St. Lewis, St. Marche p 386. the IX. of the Name, King of France (this Elianor was the second Daughter.) Sanchia the third Daughter was Married to Richard King of the Romans, King Henries Brother; and Beatrix the fourth and youngest was the Wife of Charles King of Sicilie, Hypodig. Neustrie, fol. 476. Brother to the said St. Lewis. This Queen Elianor was His Wife 37 years, His Widow 19,Her Death. and dyed a Nun at Ambresbury upon the 25th day of June, in the Twentieth year of the Reign of Her Son, K. Edward I. An. 1291 and was buryed in Her Monastery the 11th of September following.

She made use of two Seals,Ex Regi­sterio Westmo­nast. An. 3. H. 3. E Camera Ducat. Lanc. An. 55 H. 3. and in Her last abridg'd Her Titles, as did King Henry Her Husband, as you may observe in the Page of this Second Book, where the Figures of them are represented, having on the Counter-Seales the Armes of England (viz. 3 Lyons passant guardant) in Triangular Escocheons hanging upon Trees.

In another Parliament at London, by reason of the Ex­pence of His Sisters Marriage,Anno 1237. a 30th part of all Moveables both of the Clergy and Laity is required,Mat. West minster, p. 296, 297. which, after much adoe, upon the Kings Promising to remove the Strangers, and to use the Councel of the Naturalls, and to preserve to them their Liber­ties, is granted, so it be Collected by Four Knights of every Shire, and put into the respective Castles and Abbeys till some great ne­cessity, but nothing of all this is performed on the Kings part; and, to the farther vexation of the Subjects, the Leavies are made with great extremity. The Earl of Provence is sent for to parti­cipate of this Treasure, and William de Valence becomes the only Mignion of the King;Matth. Paris, p. 465. n. 41. Queen Blanch of France also entertains Si­mon de Montford a Frenchman,Anno: 1238. and secretly Marries him to Elia­nor the Kings Sister, who is, in right of his Mother, Daughter to Blanchmains, made Earl of Leicester. These concurrences of Disgusts and Oppressions so incense the Nobility, and other Sub­jects in general, that it begets a new Confederation, into which Earl Richard the Kings Brother is drawn, whom, as being Heire to the Crown it is argued to eoncerne, and he is sent to King Henry to reprove Him for the vast profusion of His Estate, His Indul­gence to Strangers, and neglect of the Natives. The King fear­ing the consequence, and finding the Londoners favour them, by advice of the Legate calls a Parliament at London, Anno 1239. whether the [Page]Lords come Armed; but, Montford, making his Peace with the Kings Brother and the Earl of Lincoln, the business cool'd, and the Miseries of the Kingdom continue.

Besides the great Exactions of the King, the Pope is not wanting in his, who requires 300 Italians to be Preferred to the first Va­cancies in England, which forces the Arch-bishop of Canterbury to an Exile in the Abbey of Pontiniac, and the rest of the Clergy to a Submission.Anno 1241. And the King in the mean time makes an Expe­dition into Wales, which being at discord within its self, with the shew only of His Army obtaines Prince Davids Submission and Fealty, and is now again Courted by the Poictavins into France, which Matter and Supplies to that end is moved in Parliament, but no Money given; however, by Loans and otherwise he procures 30 Barrels of Silver, and with that (leaving the Arch-bishop of Yorke Governor) he goes into France, Mat. Paris, p. 583. n. 35.588 & 589. but is forced to a disho­nourable Peace.

Upon occasion of a Revolt in Wales and Scotland, Anno 1244. He Marches first into that Kingdom, with the Officious Ayde of the Earl of Flanders, which is also ill taken of the Barons, but a fair Peace is concluded: and then Money must be had for an Expedition against Wales, and to pay His Debts, which, with one Voice was refused in this Parliament,Anno 1246. which put the King upon other courses: London is Amerc'd 5000 Markes, and great Fines exacted of the possessors of Inforrestations, or else to be sold to others. This gives occasion to enquire into the Popes yearly Exactions, which were found to be 60000 Markes (more then the Revenue of the Crown of England) which being Complained of in a General Council then held at Lyons, the King forbids, under a Penalty, any further Contributions, but wanted Resolution to conti­nue it.

His necessities now cause another Parliament, wherein,Matth. Pa­ris, p. 743. n. 45. notwith­standing He ruffles with them, they boldly Tax Him with the Breach of all His Promises, and will not be brought to grant any thing,Anno 1248. so that He is constrain'd to sell His Land and Jewells, pawn Gascoyne, and the Ornaments of St. Edwards Shrine, and give over House-keeping, to wring out of the Londoners 20000 l. and beg of the Clergy some small sums;Anno 1249. The Barons urge still his Promises concerning the Election of Officers, but obtain nothing.

The Marriage is now Solemnized at Yorke betwixt Margaret the Kings Sister and the King of Scots, to which that Arch-bishop is extravagantly generous. And the Pope sollicites the King to take the Cross, for which he grants a Tenth of the Layety and Clergy, which in a Parliament called to that purpose is absolutely denyed. But in the next,Anno 1252. the Charters being once again Ratified,Matth. Paris, p. 866. and Sen­tence of Excommunication Solemnly Pronounced against the In­fringers, a Tenth of the Clergy for the Holy Warr, and Scutage, and three Markes upon every Knights Fee is granted. Gascogny complaining of Earl Richards Government, to quiet them, the King revokes His Grant thereof to Him, and gives it to His Son [Page 90] Edward, sending the Earl of Leicester thither as Governour, with whom they are no better pleased,Matth. Pa­ris, p. 832. n. 34. and he is sent for over, who, in Councel, disputes it very undutifully with the King, but returns nevertheless to his Charge, which he executes now with more ri­gour then ever; wherefore the Gascoignes put themselves under the Protection of the King of Spain, and King Henry is forced to take a voyage thither in stead of the Holy Land. Leicesters Com­mission is nulled by Proclamation, who thereupon comes into England, and the King, after He had quieted Gascogne (to take off the King of Spain, Matth. Pa­ris, p. 890. n. 16. who pretends likewise to Aquitaine) con­cludes a Marriage for His Son Edward, Anno 1254. with Elianor that Kings Sister, who thereupon quits his Claime to both, and arriving in England Fines the Londoners and Jewes for not aiding Him.

In Easter-Terme another Parliament is called, but yields no re­turnes but those of Grievances; and the Pope, to support His Wars against the Emperour, demands a Tenth of England, Scot­land and Ireland, and the better to dispose the King thereunto, Ab­solves Him of His Oath for the Holy Land, invests Edmond His second Son in the Kingdom of Sicilie, and in consideration of that Promotion of His Nephew, desires to borrow 500 Markes of the Earl of Cornwall, but his Answer was, He would not lend them Money on whom he could not distraine.

At Winchester the Gascogne Merchants, by the Prince their Pa­tron, complain of the taking their Goods without pay, which is ill resented by the King; and the Princes Servants commit so many outrages in Wales (of which he had now the Government) that it revolts, for the quieting whereof Prince Edward requires Money of his Father, but He is so farr from that, that to supply His own necessities, He commands every Sheriff, and other Offi­cers to bring in their Money by a precise day, upon severe penal­ties, and daily, upon one quarrel or another gets Money out of the Londoners; Matth. Pa­ris, p. 939. n. 48.952. n. 32. when, great hopes of Honour and Advantage is conceived to accrue to His Crown,Anno 1257. by the Election of Richard Earl of Cornwall to be King of the Romans, and the Arch-bishop of Cologne is sent to conduct him over, who hath a Present of 500 Markes, and a rich Mitre, and Richard is accordingly Crowned at Aquisgrave, Ibidem, p. 979. n. 45. much to the dissatisfaction of France and Spain. The King, to sound the affections of the People, as to the Election of His Son Edmond to the Kingdom of Sicilie, in a Parliament then Summoned, brings him clad in Apulian Habit, and declares His Obligation of 140000 Markes for obtaining the said Kingdom, to­wards which he declares a Tenth and First-Fruits of the Clergy were granted Him by the Pope, and therefore hopes they will not be backward; but, nothing will be done but upon the usual Con­dition of Magna Charta; and then they promise 52000, which sa­tisfies not: For, the next year, in a Parliament at London, de­claring His Engagements to the Pope, and His disappointment of the Kingdom of Sicilie, Matth. Westm. p. 364. He is plainly denyed, and the Parliament Adjourn'd to Oxford till Barnabas-day;Anno 1258. in which time the Earles of [Page] Leicester, Glocester and Hereford resolve the effecting of their De­signes by force, which puts the King to His shifts for Money, and when the Parliament meet again they come thither Armed, and force the new Confirmation of their Priviledges, and Twelve Con­servators to Govern the Kingdom.

And now Leicester, Glocester, and l'Despenser inforce the King to call a Parliament at London, wherein the Authority of the 24 is de­livered unto them, and they absolved from their Allegiance if these things were not made good;Matth. Pa­ris, p. 983. n. 50. when Richard King of the Ro­mans comes over into England, Anno 1259. but could not by the Barons be permitted to Land, till he had condescended to take an Oath not to alter the Government of the Kingdom as then established. Notwithstanding the King uses all meanes to revoke this, and re­cover His Power, and in order thereunto seeks to be absolved from Rome, hath Aides out of Scotland, and, to be secure from France, for 300000 l. resigns His whole Interest to Normandy, Anno 1259. Anjou, Nangius de Gest. S. Lud. Fran. Reg. Matth. Paris, p. 989. n. 13 Poictou, Tourain and Main (does homage for Guien, Limosin and Quercy) and thenceforth abridg'd His Stile, and changed His Seal, using a Scepter in place of a Sword, whereupon these Mon­kish Verses were written.

MCCLIX God grant
Firm Peace thou fix,
Poictou, Anjou, Normans
To France range you,
New Seales are made,
Old Stiles forsaken,
Down laid the Blade,
Scepters up taken.
Est MCCLIX utinam concordia foelix,
Johannes Tilius.
Andegavis, Pictavis, Neustria, gente relicta
Anglorum, dantur tibi France, Sigilla novantur,
Nomina tolluntur, fugit Ensis, Sceptra geruntur.

The Figures of both His Great Seals being delineated in the 56 Page of this Second Book, will more particularly satisfie the Rea­der in this Alteration; in the first of which He is stiled HENRI­CUS DEI GRATIA REX ANGLIE DOMI­NUS HIBERNIE; and on the Counter-Seal HENRI­CUS DUX NORMANNIE ET AQUITAN­NIE COMES ANDEGAVIE, on which he is Figu­red sitting on His Throne, with a Sword in His Right hand, and a Globe in His Left. But, in His Second Seal He omits Norman­dy and Anjou, using on both sides of His Seal this Circumscription, viz. HENRICUS DEI GRATIA REX AN­GLIE DOMINUS HIBERNIE DUX AQUI­TANNIE; and in place of the Sword in His Right Hand, He holds the Scepter of St. Edward, or the Dove.

The Barons on the other side use all arts to strengthen their asso­ciation, and France is made Arbiter of the Quarrel,Matth. Paris, p. 992. n. 4. who condemns the Provisions of Oxford, but allows the confirmation of King Johns Charter,An. 1263. upon which Henry Son to the Earl of Cornwall, Ro­ger de Clifford, Roger de Leyborne, Hamon l'Estrange, and many others depart from the Barons. The Earl of Leicester shortly after ha­ving combined with Llewellin Prince of Wales, Matth. Westm. p. 382. n. 18. invades Mortimers Lands in those parts, who is aided by the Prince, whilst Leicester [Page 91]recovers the Castle and Town of Glocester, Matth. Paris, p. 992. n. 52. makes the Citizens to Redeem themselves with 1000 l. and subduing Worcester; Anno 1264. Shrewsbury, and the Isle of Ely, begins to grow very consi­derable; which, the King fearing, calls a Parliament, and a Peace is concluded, upon Condition, That all the Kings Castles should be put into the Barons hands; The Provisions of Ox­ford observed; And, all the Strangers to depart the Kingdom: But, the Prince still holding out Windsor-Castle, it is besieged and taken by the Earl of Leicester. Ibidem. p. 993. n.

The King calls another Parliament, and therein gaines seve­ral Lords to His Party, and with them (the Prince, Richard Earl of Cornwall, Henry his Son, and William de Valence) Marches to Oxford, whither many Scotish and Northern Nobili­ty repaire to Him,Mat. Paris, p. 385. n. 29. and thence with all His Forces to Nor­thampton, where young Montford the Earl of Leicesters Son, with fourteen of the Principal of the Faction are made Prisoners; thence to Nottingham, making spoil of all the Barons Possessi­ons in those parts. In the mean while Leicester drawes towards London, and offers 30000 Markes to the King for Damages done in the Wars, so that the Statutes of Oxford might be obser­ved; which, not being accepted,Battel of Lewes. The King in this battel had a Dragon car­ried before Him for His Royal Ensign, and Simon Montfort, to signifie the justness of His Quarrel, cau­sed his Soldi­ers to put white Crosses upon their Armour. the Earl is constrained to put it to the hazard of a Battel near Lewes in Sussex, Matth. Pa­ris, p. 995. & 996. Matth. Pa­ris, p. 387. n. 6. where, by a Stra­tagem he gaines the day, 5000 are slain upon the place, the King, Prince, Earl of Cornwall, and his son Henry, the Earles of Arun­del and Hereford, and all the Scotish Lords taken prisoners, Valence and Marshall save themselves by flight. Leicester carries the King along with him a whole year and a half to countenance his Acti­ons, in which time he takes in most of the Strong Holds of the Kingdom, only the Prince escaping out of Hereford Castle gathers some Forces, and gaining the Earl of Glocester, brought many more hands to him, with several places of strength both in England and Wales, Matth. Pa­ris, p. 997. & 998. and with them in a Plain near Evesham gives Battel to Si­mon Montfort Earl of Leicester; who,Battel of Eve­sham. finding himself not able to withstand Prince Edwards Forces, said,An. 1265. Let us commit our Soules to God, for our Bodies are theirs; and so undertaking the weight of the Battel, like another Cateline, fell there, accompanied in his death by his son Henry and eleven other Barons.

The Captive King thus freed by His victorious Son,Anno 1266. calls a Parliament at Winchester, wherein all the Barons of Leicesters party (who still maintain several strong Holds in the Kingdom) are disinherited, and the King Marches against them, and at Northampton two of Leicesters sons submit; but, they that es­cape the Battel at Evesham, Matth. Westm. p. 398. n. 20. make good the Isle of Ely, where the Prince goes to reduce them, causes Bridges to be made of Boates, enters the Island in several places, and constraines them to yield. Then revenge must be taken upon Llewellin for succoring Mont­fort and Glocester, Matth. Pa­ris, p. 1004. n. 47. but he redeemes Himself with 32000 l. Ster­ling.

The next year Prince Edward undertakes the Holy Warr, and for supplies Pawnes Gascoigne to France for 30000 Markes, and two yeares after,Anno. 1269. with His Wife (then as it prov'd) young with Child, sets forward, with great resolution,Matth. Pa­ris, p. 1006 n. 36. towards the Holy Land, but effects no great matter. And, whilst this pre­paration is in hand, King Henry labours to establish the Peace of the Kingdom, and to reforme the excesses which the Warr had bred, and the same year Assembles His last Parliament at Marle­borough, where the Statutes of that Title were Enacted; from whence not long after He went to Norwich, where He punished several of the Citizens for a Riot commited upon the Monkes of that place,Anno 1271. and burning their Church; and, returning by St. Edmondsbury, and doing His Devotions at St. Edmonds Shrine, He there fell somewhat ill, from whence hastning to London His sickness so much increased upon Him, that calling before Him His Lords, and especially Gilbert de Clare Earl of Glocester, He Exhorted them to be true and faithful to His Son Prince Edward, who was at that time farr from home, and therefore had the more need of their care, which consisted chief­ly in their agreement one with another, and within few dayes af­ter He departed this Life in His Pallace at Westminster, His Death. Anno 1272. upon the 16th day of November, Matth. West. p. 401. n. 41. Ibidem, n. 44. An. 1272. having lived 65 years, and held the Scepter 56 years and twenty seven dayes.

Upon the 20th day of the same Moneth, being the Feast of St. Edmond, King Henry was Interred in the Abbey of West­minster (before the High-Altar) which he rebuilt from the ground, and laid the first Stone, having ordained by His Will, that His Heart should be buried at Font-Eurand, which to that end was delivered to the Abbess of that Monastery by the Ab­bot of Westminster, in the presence of many of the Nobility, upon the Monday next before the Feast of S. Luce the Virgin, Pat. An. 20 Ed. 1. n. 3. An. 20 E. 1. had been also the Founder of a Church in London for Converted Jewes, an Hospital at Oxford for Passengers and Diseased Per­sons,Matth. Pa­ris, p. 572. n. 34. and caused a Chest of Gold to be made for the laying up the Relicks of K. Edward the Confessor in the said Church of Westminster.

Upon the North-side of which Saints Shrine, in the Chappel of the Kings, King Edward His Son erected for Him a Magnificent and Elevated Sepulcher of Mosaick Work of Grey Marble, Che­quered with Gaspers and Opalls, and other rare Stones, and inlaid with large Tabets of Porphire and Serpentine, which He brought out of France in His returne from the Holy Land: Upon the Su­perficies of which, being Copper Guilt, (and Carved Lozenge, every Lozenge containing a Lyon passant Guardant) lies the Figure of the King in his Royal Robes, with his Crown on his head, and his feet placed upon two Lyons all of the same Met­tal (but by Sacrilegious hands dispoiled of his Globe and Scepter) as you may observe more exactly by this Representation. About the Verge of which Tombe I find this Inscription in Saxon Capi­tals embossed, beginning on the South-side at the head, [Page 92]

Illustrissimo Domino Dno RICARDO Comiti de DORSET, et Ba­roni (Sackoile) de Buckhurst, hanc Tumuli Regis Hen­rici tertij Figuram, humilimè D.D.D.F.S.

[Page] ICI: GIST: DENRI: IADIS: REY: DE: ENGLETERE: SEYGNVR DE: DIR LAUNDE: DUC: DE: AQUITAYNE: LE: FILZ: LI: REY JOHAN: IADIS: REY: DE: ENGLETERE: A: KI: DEU: FACE MERCY: AMEN.

And upon the North-side of the said Monument this Memorial in Gilt Characters.

TERTIUS HENRICUS EST TEMPLI CONDITOR HUJUS. 1273 DULCE BELLUM INEXPERTIS.

Also upon a Tablet hanging on a Pillar, near the Tombe of King Henry III.Thus English­ed on the same Tablet.

The Friend of Piety and Almes-deed:
Henry the Third whilome of England King,
Who this Church brake, and after his meed
Again renewed into this fair building:
Now refleth here, which did so great a thing.
He yield His meed that Lord of Deitie,
That as one God raigns in Persons Three.
Tertius Henricus jacet hic pietatis amicus,
Ecclesiam stravit istam, quam post renovavit
Reddet si munus qui regnat trinus et unus.

Children of King HENRY the Third, by Queen ELIANOR of Provence, His Wife.

7. EDWARD, The eldest Son of Henry the III. was King of England, after His Fathers decease, by the Name of Ed­ward I. and continued the Succession, Vide Book III. Chap. 1.

7. EDMOND, Second Son of King Henry III. by Queen Elianor of Provence, was Earle of Lancaster, &c. from whom the Earles and Dukes of that House derive their Descent, as you may see in the VII. Chapter of this II. Book.

7. RICHARD, Third Son,Brook, fol. bearing the Name of his Uncle Richard, King of the Romans and Almain, deceased in his youth, and lyeth buried at Westminster, on the South-side of the Choire.

7. JOHN, Fourth Son, deceased in his Infancy,Milles, p. 145. and was In­terred in the Abbey of Westminster.

7. WILLIAM, The Fifth Son of King Henry III. dyed al­so young,Milles, p. 145. Weever, Fun. Mo. p. 443. and was buryed at the New-Temple in London about the year 1256.

7. HENRY, The Sixth Son of King Henry the Third and of Queen Elianor of Provence his Wife, departed this World al­so in his Infancy.

7. MARGARET Queen of Scots, Matth. Paris p. 829. n. 36. Pat. An. 36 H. 3. eldest Daughter of King Henry III. and Queen Elianor, The Seal of King Alexan­der III. is ex­hibited by O­livarius Vre­dius in Genea­logia Comi­tum Flandriae; p. 15. upon both sides of which he is stiled, ALEXAN­DER DEO RECTORE REX SCOTTO­RUM, On the Re­verse he is fi­gured on Horsback with his Shield on his left Arm, and Caparisons upon his Horse, upon which The Ly­on of Scotland within the Tressure is embossed. In the South Isle of the Abbey of Westminster, his Shield al­so is carved in stone upon the Wall (next to that of his Father in law King Henry III.) which is Or [...] Lyon rampant within a Tressure flowry; counter-flowry Gules; and is over-written, ALEXANDER TERTIUS REX SCOTORUM. born in the year 1241 (Anno 26 H 3.) was the first Wife of Alexander II. King of Scots, a youth of nine years old, being married to him at the City of York upon St. Stephens day Anno 36. of his Reign, and year of our Lord 1251. who was there also knighted by her said Father King Henry III. and did him homage for the King­dom of Scotland. Matth. West. p. 550. n. 48.

Their Nuptials were celebrated with all splendor and mag­nificence imaginable, both the Kings being present thereat, with many of their Nobility, a thousand Knights of England and six hundred of Scotland, Matth. Pa­ris, p. 830. n. 19. attired in rich habit, besides a multitude of people; all which were notably feasted; for be­sides other provisions, the Archbishop of York contributed 600 Oxen towards this grand Entertainment.

Queen Margaret had issue by Alexander III. two Sons,In Arch. Flandriae. Hector Boetius fol. 99. b. & 301. b. Alex­ander and David, and a Daughter called Margaret; Alexan­der took to Wife Margaret Daughter of Guydo Earl of Flan­ders and Marquiss of Namur, and deceased without issue in the life time of his Father King Alexander, David also died Childless; and Margaret their Daughter was the Wife of Erick King of Norway, by whom she had issue Margaret the Heir of Scotland and Norway, that died unmarried. She was Queen of Scotland 22. years, lived 33. and deceased before her Hus­band in the 23th. year of his Reign, and the first of her Bro­ther Edward's in England, and was interred in the Abbey of Dunfermling in Scotland.

7. BEATRICE Duchess of Britain (so named after her Grandmother Beatrice of Savoy, Matth. Pa­ris, p. 594. n. 28. Matth. Westm. p. 308. n. 49. Pat. An. 37 H. 3. [...] tergo. Countess of Provence) was the second Daughter of King Henry III.I have in my Custody a Confirmation of this Duke John (of a Charter of Mary Lady of Medelham Widdow to Robert the Son of Sir Ro­bers de Nevill) dated in February Anno 1287, in which he is stiled, JOHANNES DUX BRITAN­NIE COMES RICHMUNDIE; to which, a large Seal of Green Wax is appendant. On the one side of which is the Portraiture of the Duke in his Coat of Mail, his Surcoat, Shield, and the Caparisons of his Horse are charged with his Arms: which were Chequie, Or and Azure, a Border Gules (being the Arms of the Counts of Dreux, of which Family he was) over all a Canton Ermine, the Coat Armour of the Earls and Dukes of Britaine. His Border is plain, not charged with Lyons, as Mr. Vincent makes it to be, p. 66. nor was he dead in the 13th. year of the Reign of Edw. 1. 1284, or 85, (as he would prove by an Esceatr. of that date; against the au­thority of Heuninges, Albitius, the Book of Richmond (by him cited against himself) and many other authentick Authors; who truly say that this Duke John died Anno 13 [...]5.) but lived to seal this Inspeximus above-recited in February 1287. which was two years after; and Anno 16 of Edw. 1. so that it appears much more unlikely that this Duke should seala Grant two years after his death, then that he should survive it 18. years, to die Anno 1305, as all those Authors do aver. She was born at Bour­deaux in Gaseoigne (in Crastino Nativitatis Sancti Johannis Bap­tistoe, viz.) upon the 25th. day of June in the year 1242. An­no 26 H. 3. in the 37th. year of whose Reign there were Pro­posals [Page]of a Marriage betwixt this Beatrice and the Eldest Son of the King of Arragon, which took not effect. But she was afterwards (Anno 44. of her Fathers Reign,Matth. Westm. p. 371. n. 29. Hennin­ges p. 65. Albicius fol. 4. and of our Lord 1260.) married to John de Dreux Duke of Britain in France and Earl of Richmond in England, slain at Lyons by the fall of a Wall Anno 1305. at the Inauguration of Pope Clement V. one of the Reins of whose Horse he held; and interred in the Church of the Carmelites of Ploermel, which he had found­ed. By this Duke John she had issue

Arthur their Eldest Son,Scevole & Louis de Sante Mar the in Comit. & Ducibus Britanniae. Duke of Britain after the death of his Father, who marrying two Wives, had issue by the first of them (viz. Beatrice Vicountess of Lymoges) John Duke of Britain, who notwithstanding his triple marriage, died is­sueless; and Guy Earl of Ponthieure. This Arthur by his second Wife Yoland Daughter and Heir of Almerick Earl of Mount-fort, had also issue another John surnamed Breno, after the death of his Brother John, Duke of Britain and Earl of Montfort, who taking part with King Edward the Third against the French King, had those Honours seized; whereupon the said King Edward gave him the Earldom of Richmond. He was the Father of John Mountfort, surnamed The Valiant, Duke of Britain and Earl of Richmond, deposed from that Earldom by Act of Parliament, Anno 19th. of Richard the Second, who by marriage with the Daughter of Philip of Evereux, had issue Richard of Britain, Count of Estampes, who by Margaret of Orleance his Wife had issue Francis Duke of Britain, who married Margaret of Foix, and had also is­sue Anne the Heir of Britain, Wife of Lewis the Twelfth, by which Marriage that Dukedome immerged in the Crown of France.

Peter and Henry, the second and third Sons of John de Dreux Duke of Britain, and Beatrice Daughter of King Hen­ry III. died young.

John de Dreux, fourth Son of John Duke of Britain and Duchess Beatrice of England, was by King Edward I. made Earl of Richmond. He died Anno 1330. having been a No­ble Benefactor to the Grey Fryars within Newgate in London, to whom he gave Three hundred pounds towards the re­building of their Church, and glasing their Windows, in which (on the North side the Church) stood his Arms painted in Glass, being Chequie Or and Azure, a Border Gules char­ged with 8. Lyons passant guardant of the first, over all a Canton Ermine. The same Escocheon of Arms is painted on the North Wall of the Abbey of Westminster, with this Super­scription, JOHANNES DE BRITANNIA COMES RICH­MUNDIE. In both which Shields his Border is charged with Lyons of England, not only as a distinction from his Elder Brother Duke Arthur, who did bear a Plain Border Gules, but also to shew his descent from a Daughter of the King of England.

Alice their Eldest Daughter, was Lady Abbess of Font-Eurand.

Mary their Second Daughter was married to Guy Earl of St. Paul, and Blanche of Britain their youngest Daughter, was the Wife of Philip Seigneur de Conches and Damfront, (Son and Heir of Robert Earl of Artois) who had issue (besides other Children) Robert of Artois, Earl of Beaumont le Roger, Pair of France, Ibidem. Lord of Conches and Mehun, and Earl of Richmond in England, who first moved King Edward III. to set on foot his Title and Claim to the Crown of France.

The Duchess Beatrice when she had been Duke John's Wife 12 years, and lived about 30. died in Britany in the first year of the Reign of King Edward I. her Brother; and her Corps being brought into England, received a De­pository in the Choir of the Grey Fryars Church within New­gate, in the City of London.

7. KATHERINE Third and youngest Daughter of King Henry III. and of Queen Elianor of Provence, Matth. Paris p. 879. n. 18. was born at London on St. Katherines day, being the 25th. day of Novem­ber (the Name of which Saint was given her at the Font by Boniface Archbishop of Canterbury) her Great Uncle and God­father, Anno 1253. in the 38th. year of her Fathers Reign; she deceased young (not five years of Age) and in the Abbey of Westminster, her bones lie interred, with two of her Bre­thren, in the space betwixt the Chappels of St. Edmond and St. Bennet.

SIGILLVM RICARDI COMITIS CORNVBIE

RICH E. OF CORN

☽ SIGILLVM RICARDI COMITIS CORNVBIE

RICH K. OF ROM.

✚ RICARDUS DEI GRATIA ROMANORVM REX SEMPER AVGVSTUS
S EADMUNDI DE ALEMANIA COMITIS CORNUBIE

EDM. E. OF CORN

S EADMUNDI DE ALEMANNIA COMITIS CORNVBIE
[blazon or coat of arms]
S EADMVNDI COMITES CORNVBIE

Generosissimo Viro EDWARDO KYNASTON de Ottley in agro Salopiensi Armigero [...] Sigillorum hanc Tabulam. D.D. E.S.

E DE [...]A CO CO[?]

6. RICHARD, King of the ROMANS, and of ALMAIN, and Earl of POICTIERS and CORNWAL.
CHAP. V.

This Richard being Earl of Poictou and Cornwal, did not bear the Arms of King John his Fa­ther with a Label or Bor­der, as the younger Sons of the Kings of England afterwards did, but took the Arms of Poictou, being Argent a Lion Rampant Gules, Crown­ed Or, within a Border of the Ancient Earls of Corn­wal, which were Sable Bezanty, by which he in­cluded the Ensigns of both his Earl­doms in one Escocheon, as you may ob­serve in his Seal exhibited in the 94 Pag. of this Second Book, the Re­verse of which contains a large Shield of those Arms before men­tioned. The like examples were (much about that time) in the Royal Family of France: For Hugh the Great, Earl of Vermaudois, Third Son of Henry the First, King of France, taking to Wife Alice the Heir of that County, did bear Chequy Or and Azure. Robert of France Earl of Dreux, Fourth Son of King Lewis the Gross, gave for Arms also Eschequy Or and Azure a Border Gules. And Peter of France, Fifth Son of the said King, Mar­rying Isabel Lady of Courtenay and Montargis gave the Arms of Regnand de Courtenay her Father, viz. Or three Torteaux, and called himself by that Surname. This Richard being afterwards Elected King of the Romans, gave Or an Eagle displayed Sable, which is Carved on the Wall of the North Isle in Westminster Abbey; and also over the Gate of the Abbey of Ruley near Oxford, Founded by the said Richard. KIng John had Issue onely Two Sons, Henry that succeeded Him in His Kingdom, &c. by the Name of King Henry the Third. And this RI­CHARD, his second Son (both by Isabell of Engolesm his third Wife.)Robert of Glocester, p. 284 a. Lib. The­okesburiae M. S. Vincent, p. 135.) He was born in the year 1209. the Tenth of His Fathers Reign, who when He died, left him very young, not eight years old.

Afterwards this RICHARD was by King Henry the Third, his BrotherMatth. Paris, p. 311. num. 50. made Knight on Candlemas-day, An. 1225. And in the same year (viz. The Ninth of Henry the Third)Ibidem, p. 312. num. 10. created Earl of Poictiers and Cornwal; by which Titles he wrote himself in aEx Car­tis Edv. Walker Militis Gart. Prin. Re­gis Armo­rum. Grant, whereunto his own Seal is annexed: Dederat ei Rex (as Paris recites it) antequam illum miserat ad partes transmarinas Cornubiae Comitatum cum tota Pictavia, unde ab omnibus Comes Pictavensis vocabatur. In the Twelfth year of whose Reign the said King gave him all the Lands in England, belonging to Regi­nald Dampmartin Earl of Bollogne, and after the death of William Earl of Holland, Emperor of the West. This RICHARD was elected King of the Romans, Lib. The­okesburiae M. S. Pat. An. 41 Hen. 3. a tergo. Rob. of Glocester. p. 293 a. Ibidem, p. 295 b. An. 1256. and the next year (viz. 1257.) he went into Germany with a Noble Train, and was upon the Twenty seventh day of May, being Ascension-day, Crowned King of the Romans and of Almain, at Aquisgrave in Germany, by Conrade Archbishop of Cullen. In a Letter to Simon de Montford and Gilbert de Clare, he wrote himself RICHARD By the Grace of God King of the Romans, ever Augustus

To give you His Charater, He was a Prince both skilful and valiant in the time of War: so prudent in His Councils, that what Fortune denied him in Battel, He supplied by his Wisdom and Advice. And though it was feared, that those unkindnesses [Page 96]which he received from King Henry his Brother in the beginning of his Reign, might have inclined him to take part with the Ba­rons: Yet came they to so timely a good understanding, that he ever after faithfully adhered to him in all the changes of his For­tune, being taken prisoner with the said King at the Battel of Lewes, Pat. An. 55 Hen. 3. num. 23. & a ter­go. and having with others been twice constituted Governor of England, during the Kings absence, and employed in several other Commands both abroad and at home.

He got much Money by Farming the Mint, and the Jews of the King; and had so great an Estate in England, that he is reported to be able to dispend Four hundred Marks per diem du­ring Ten years, being indeed as well furnished with Wealth, as his Brother was needy: Whereupon, as if Money had made the way to his New Kingdom, this Verse was common in every ones Mouth.

Nummus ait pro me, nubit Cornubia Romae.

For me my Money sayeth this,
Cornwal to Rome now wedded is.

Or thus.

Money saith, that for her sake,
Rome did Cornwal to wife take.

But now as he who pays dear for an Office, expects that it should repay him again; so Earl Richard having given infinitely to compass his advancement, looked to re-emburse himself by the place; and this, and the desire he had to revenge himself upon those that had opposed his Election, put him upon such violent courses, that he came soon to be dispossessed, forsaken, and forced to return into England, a poorer King, then he went out an Earl.

Of Wives this RICHARD had a Pair Royal, His First Marriage. Three; the first of which,Rob. of Glocester, p. 290 b. was Isabel the Third Daughter of William Marshal Earl of Pembroke (Sister and Coheir of Anselm Marshal Earl of Pembroke, Marshal did bear Party Per Pale, Or, and Vers, a Lion Ram­pant, Gules. Which Arms are Painted in the Chapter-House of the Cathedral at Salisbury. Brother to William, Richard, and Gilbert; and Brother and Heir to Walter, all Earls of Pembroke successively) Widow of Gilbert de Clare Earl of Glocester, whom he took to Wife in the year 1230. An. 14 Hen. 3.Milles, p? 553. Vincent. p. 135. In the Mar­gin. She wrote herself Countess of Corn­wal and Glocester, and deceasing, her Body was buried at Bellum­locum or Belleland, but her Heart she ordained to be sent in a Sil­ver Cup to her Brother, the Abbot of Theokesbury, to be there In­terred before the High Altar, which was accordingly done. Upon which, these following Verses were composed.

Postremo voto legavit Cor Comitissa,
Pars melior toto fuit hic pro corpore missa,
Lib. M. S. in Officio Armorum Notat. L. 15. p. 2.
Haec & dimisit Dominum recolendo Priorent
Huc Cor quod misit verum testatur amoreni.

His Second Marriage. His Second Wife was Sanchia, Cart. 36 Hen. 3. part 1. m. 10. Robert of Glocester, p. 290 b. Matth. Paris, p. 587. Milles, p. 553. Third Daughter and one of the Heirs of Raymond Berengar Earl of Provence (Sister to Queen Eleanor, Wife of his Brother King Henry) married to him An. The Arms of Raymond Earl of Pro­vence, were, Or, Four Pa­lets Gules, which are Carved in the South Isle of Westminster Abbey, and Painted in the Chapter-House Windows, and several other Windows in the said Abbey. 1243. Being one of those Four Daughters of an Earl, that by Marriage came to be exalted to the Thrones of so many Kings; an Example not to be paralelled in any History. She was Crown­ed with her husband, and died at Berkhamsted on the Fifth of the Ides of November, An. 1261. and was buried at Hayles.

His Third Marriage. A Third Wife he had called Beatrice, married to him An. 1267. (Neece to Conrade Archbishop of Cullen, that Crowned King Richard at Aquisgrave) who survived him, as appeareth by good Authority;Escaetr. 4 Edw. num. 44. a Matth. Paris, p. 975. num. 50. Matth. Westm. p. 401. num. 30. Vincent, p. 136. for after her husbands death, there grew some question betwixt Edmond Earl of Cornwal her Son in Law, and her self for the Mannor of Weldon in Northamptonshire, and other Lands wherein she claimed her Dower.

Lastly, For thea Death of RICHARD King of the Ro­mans it bears date An. 1271. at his Castle at Berkhamsted in Hert­fordshire, whose Epitaph I find thus written.Thus Eng­lished in Milles, p. 552.

Richard Plantagenet lieth here intomb'd,
That Brother was to Henry, England's King,
Of Poictou and of Cornwal, he was Earl,
Whose Mind did always such contentment bring,
As he was never found Ambitious.
Th'Electors made him King of Almaine, where
His Noble Mind procur'd, both Love and Fear.
At length with Charles his Crown was Royaliz'd,
By which the Eagle in his Shield he wore,
(Excelling other Kings in Wealth and State)
And scorn'd the Lion, which he bare before
But Kings and Kingdoms have this certain Fate.
That though their Reign on Earth be just and even,
Yet Time says they must die to live in Heaven.
Hic jacet in Tumulo RICHARDUS Theutonicorum
Rex, vivens propria contentus sorte bonorum
Anglorum Regis Germanus, Pictaviensis
Ante Comes dictus, sed tandem Cornubiensis,
Demum Theutonicis tribuens amplissima dona,
Insignitus erat Caroli rutilante Corona.
Hinc Aquilam gessit clipeo, sprevitque Leonem
Regibus omnigenis praecellens per rationem.
Dives opum mundi, sapiens conviva modestus
Alloquio, gestu, dum vixit semper honestus,
Jam Regnum Regno Commutans pro meliore
Regi Coelorum summo conregnet honore.

The Body of King RICHARD being removed from the Castle of Berkhamsted, received Burial at his Monastery of Hayles in Glocestershire of the Cistercian Order,Robert of Glocester, p. 300 a. Ibidem. Rossus Warwi­censis. which he Founded in the year 1246. But his Heart at Oxford in Reuly Abbey of the Order of Fryers Minors, also of his Foundation, under a Pyramis of admirable Work; of which there is not at present any Remains. In his Grants he stiled himself Ricardus Comes Pictavie & Cor­nubie; and the Seal of his Earldom was charged with these words, SIGILLUM RICARDI COMITIS CORNUBIE. But his Royal Seal was Circumscribed thus, RICARDUS DEI GRATIA ROMANO­RUM REX SEMPER AUGUSTUS. Both which Seals are exhibited in this Second Book, Pag. 94.

Children of RICHARD Earl of Cornwal, (afterwards King of the Romans) by ISABEL MARSHAL His first Wife.

7. JOHN the Eldest Son died young An. 1232.Milles, p. 553. and it seemeth was buried at Reading in Barkshire, near to King Henry the First.

7. HENRY, Lib. The­okesbury M. S. Second Son of Earl Richard was born in the year 1235. upon the Fourth of the Nones of November; and Knighted on the day of his Fathers Coronation:Matthew Paris, p. 922. With whom he was taken prisoner by Simon Montfort Earl of Leicester, at the Battel of Lewes in Sussex. Pat. An. 53 Hen. 3. num. 45. There was a Treaty of Marriage be­twixt him and Constance the Daughter of Gastion Viscount of Bearn, at Westminster, the Sixth day of March, An. 53 Hen. 3. King Henry the Third his Uncle,Pat. An. 50 Hen 3. num. 73. gave him the Mannor of Norton in Northamptonshire, upon the forfeiture of William Marshal Earl of Pembroke the Kings enemy. An. 50 H. 3.

This Henry afterwards undertook the Crosiade for Siria, and being in Italy on his return from that voyage, was murther­ed (at his devotion in the Church of S. Laurence in Viterbium) by Guy and Simon, Sons of Simon Montford Earl of Leicester, Robert of Glocester, pag. 300 a. in Revenge of their said Fathers Death, slain in the Barons Wars in England, (as Rishanger says) An. 1271.Rishanger in Conti­nuatione, Matth. Paris, p. 975. num. 30. in the Five and fiftieth year of Henry the Third. Another delivers it An. 1272. Which if so, he outlived his Father, and consequently was Earl of Cornwal, for Earl Richard his Father died, An. 1271. Whereupon those of Viterbium, in memory of this HENRY de Alemannia thus assassinated, caused the manner thereof to be depicted upon the Wall of the said Church, which one beholding, versified upon, as you may observe in Vincent, pag. 135. To whom I refer my Reader.

7. RICHARD, Third Son of Richard Earl of Cornwal, and Isabel his first Wife, died without issue.

7. NICHOLAS (the Fourth and youngest Son of Earl Ri­chard and Countess Isabel) was Christned in hast;Matth. Paris, p. 505. num. 40. for my Au­thor tells me, That his said Mother being dangerously sick of the Jaundis, and great with Childe, fell in Travail;Vincent, p. 136. and in the end, with some difficulty, was delivered, who together with her little Babe, Adhuc vivo, sed non vivido, & idcirco statim Baptizato, cui nonien Nicholaus aptatum est, migravit ad domi­num. Within a small time died.

7.Lib. The­okesburiae ISABEL of Cornwal, Onely Daughter, born in the year of our Lord One thousand two hundred thirty and three. Died the next year about the Feast of S. Faith, and was buried at Reading near to her Brother John.

Children of RICHARD King of the Romans by SANCHIA of Provence his Second Wife.

7. EDMOND Earl of Cornwal Fifth Son, and at length Heir of Richard King of the Romans, whose History followeth in the next Chapter.

7. RICHARD Sixth Son of Richard King of the Romans, but Second by Queen Sanchia his Second Wife, was slain at the Siege of Barwick with an Iron-shot in his head, An. Dom. 1296.

Natural Children of RICHARD King of the Romans.

7.This Family of Cornwal doth bear for Arms, Ermine a Lion Ram­pant Gules, Crowned Or, within a Bor­der Ingrailed Sable, Bezan­ty. Their Pe­degree tells us, That Sir Geoffrey Cornwal Kt. (who married a Daughter and Coheir of Hugh Mor­timer, Lord of Richards Ca­stle and Bur­ford) having taken prisoner the Duke of Britain, had given him in reward, The Field Ermine; being the Arms of Bri­tain, whereas before he did bear his Lion in a Field Argent. RICHARD de Cornwal, Chart. An. 5 Edw. 3. num. 70. B. 197. One of the Natural Sons of Richard King of the Romans, was Ancestor of the Knightly Families of the Cornwals, commonly called Barons of Burford, in Shropshire; and of those of Berington in the County of Here­ford.

7. WALTER de Cornwal, another Base Son of Richard Earl of Cornwal, and King of the Romans; to whom Edmond Earl of Cornwal Granted 18.Pat: An.28 Ed. 1. B. 197. Libratas Terrae in his Mannor of Branel, by the name of Waltero de Cornubia fratri suo. These two Brethren (viz. Richard and Walter) Nothi erant (saith my Authority) and will you know his Reason. Nam Rex fuit Consanguineus & Haeres propinquior dicti Comitis, Meaning Earl Edmond their Brother; which if they had been lawfully begotten, they had had a right of Succession in the Earldom of Cornwal: But it seemeth the King was by all In­quisitions, after the decease of Earl Edmond, found to be his Heir.

7. ISABEL de Cornwal, Vincent, pag. 136. a Natural Daughter of Richard King of the Romans, whom King Henry the Third, called his Neece. She was the Wife of Maurice, Lord Berkley, from whom all those flourishing Families of the Berkleys now, and formerly (except those of Dursley) derive their descents. It seemeth she was in [Page 100]the end driven to some want; for the said King by Warrant dated at S. Pauls on the Tenth of August, in the Eight and fortieth year of his Reign, commanded the Sheriff of Kent to deliver the Mannors of Herietesham and Trottesclive in the said County. Isabellae uxori Mauritii de Berkele nepti nostrae, cujus paupertati non mediocriter compatimur, ad sustentationem suam, & liberorum suorum; which fell into the Kings hands, by rea­son of the Minority of Stephen de Cressies Heir.

7. EDMOND Of ALMAINE, Earl of CORNWAL.
CHAP. VI.

THis Edmond was the Fifth Son of Richard Earl of Cornwal, This Edmond Earl of Corn­wal did bear the Arms of his Father, viz. Argent a Lion Ram­pant Gules Crowned Or, within a Bor­der Sable Be­zanty, with the addition of the Roman Eagle to shew his descent from his Fa­ther, as King of the Ro­mans, which Eagle is re­presented on his Counter-seal, holding the Escocheon of Cornwal in his Beak. Vide pag. 94. in which Seal he also stiles himself EAD­MUNDUS DE ALE­MANNIA. I have seen two Deeds of this Edmond with the said Seal annexed, The first bears date at Ash­rugge the fifth day of March. An. 11 Ed. 1. And is in the Registry of the Abbey of Westminster; and the other is dated at Berkley in the One and twentieth year of the said Kings Reign. Penes Eliam Ashmole Ar. Fecialem nomine Wind­sor. Edward Bysshe Esquire (now Sir Edw. Bysshe Knight, Clarenceaux King of Arms) in his Notes upon De Bado Aureo, p. 92. hath exhibited the Figure of the Seal of Margaret de Clare, this Edmonds Wife, in which their Arms are demidiated, or impaled in the same Escocheon; hers being Or, three Cheverons Gules. Which is thus, Both Escocheons being Parted by a Perpendicular Line, Or per Pale, the Dexter side of the Husbands Shield is joyned to the Senister side of the Wives. This sort of bearing for Women was much in use in this time (viz. Temp. Edw. 1.) and of more Antiquity, then the Impalement or Conjunction of both the intire Arms. Isabella de Fortibus Coun­tess of Albemarle and Devon, and Lady of the Isle of Wight, (An. Regni Regis Edwardi filii Regis Henrici—) being Sister and Heir of Baldwin de Rivers V. and last Earl of Devon of that Surname,Penes Edv. Wal­ker Eq. aurat Gar­terum Princ. Re­gem Ar­morum. hath her Seal circum­scribed with this Pentameter, very much to the purpose NON CARET EFFECTH QUOD VOLUERE DUO, In which her Arms are demidiated with those of her Husband William de Fortibus Earl of Albemarle, according to the fashion of that time; for I cannot find as yet, that Arms of Women were joyned in one Escocheon with those of their Husbands, of a more ancient date. I could exhibit several other Examples, but let these two suffice. (but Eldest by his Second Wife Queen Sanchia) and after the Death of his Brethren John, Henry, Richard, and Nicholas, Sons of his said Father by the first Venter, came to succeed him in his Earldom of Corn­wal. He with Gilbert de Clare Earl of Glocester, his Brother in Law, had the Government of England, in the ab­sence of King Edward the First, beyond the Seas; and also, when that King went to meet Philip King of France. Pat. An. 7 Edw. 1 This Edmond with the Bishops of Worcester and Hereford, and Henry de Lacy Earl of Lincoln, were also appointed the said Kings Lieutenants, during his abode in France. He espoused Margaret the Daughter of Ri­chard de Clare. Earl of Glocester and Hertford, and had not any Issue, she was divorced from him in the Two and twentieth year of King Edward the First,Pat. An. 22 Ed. 1.2. pag. 235. and compelled before the Bishop of Rochester (Vitam vivere coelibem) to live a single life. After which, I finde not that Earl Edmond did ever marry, but deceased without Issue at Ashrugge in Buckinghamshire, where he had built an Abbey of the Order of Bonhomes, Inq. An. 28 Ed. 1. num. 44. Inquis. post mor­tem Ed­mundi Comitis Cornubiae, An. 28 Edw. 1. num. 44. Rutland, &c. Rex est proxi­mus Haeres dicti Ed­mundi Comitis, &c. (the Inquisitions after his death say) in the Twenty eighth year of King Edward the First (who is in all of them found to be his Cousin, and next Heir) and was buried by his Father in the Abbey of Hayles. He wrote himself, Nos Eadmundus Clare memorie Ricardi Regis Alemannie filius, & Comes Cornubie. And upon his Seal used this Circumscription, S. EAD­MUNDI DE ALEMANNIA COMITIS CORNUBIE, as you may see in the 94 Page of this Second Book.

✚ S EADMVNDI FILII REGIS ANGLIE
EADMVNDVS FILIVS REGIS ANGLIE DNS MONEMVT
G COMITIS CASTRI
SIGILLVM THOME COMITIS LANDASTRIE ET LEYDES TRIE SENESCHALL ANGLIE
[blazon or coat of arms]

Generosisimo Viro Domino NICHOLAO SLANNING de Morestoro in agro Devoniae, Militi Balnei et Baronetto sigillorum hanc Tabulam. HD. FS.

[blazon or coat of arms]
[blazon or coat of arms]
⋆ SIGILLVM THOME COMITIS LANCASTRIE ET LEYDESRIE SENESCHALLI ANGLIE
SGILLVM HENRICI DVCIS LANCASTRIE
EADMUNDUS DEI GRACIA SICILIE REX

7. EDMOND, Earl of LANCASTER, LEICESTER, DERBY, and CAMPAIGNE, Lord of MONMOƲTH, and Steward of ENGLAND, Surnamed CROUCH-BACK.
CHAP. VII.

KIng Henry the Third had Issue by Queen Eleanor His Wife,There are in the Office of Arms two Deeds of this Edmond Earl of Lancaster with Seals of Green Wax Appendant thereto, the Figures of which, are ex­hibited in the 102 P. of this Second Book, in the first dated the Se­venteenth day of April, An. 1273. (viz. An. 1 Ed. 1.) he hath no other additi­on then Ead­mundus illus­tris Regis Anglie filius. The Seal of which being a Roundel, is Circumscrib­ed thus, SI­GILLUM EADMUN­DI FILII REGIS ANGLIE, and hath within the Circle the Bodies of Three Lions concentering in one Head. In the other Charter he is stiled Dominus Edmundus inclite Recordationis Henrici Regis filius, and in the Circum­ference of his Seal, EADMUNDUS FILIUS REGIS ANGLIE DOMINUS MONE­MUT: In which, there is an Escocheon charged with Three Lions Passant Guardant, on a Label of Three Points, Nine Flowers de Lize. Upon his Monument at Westminster he is figured on Horsback in his Coat of Mail, having upon his Surcoat, and the Caparisons of his Horse, his Arms Embossed and Depicted, viz. Gules Three Lions Passant Guardant Or, a Label of Five Points Azure, each charged with Three Flowers de Lize Or. Sometimes using the Label of Three Points, and sometimes that of Five Points, as his Seals, and other places, would most con­veniently receive them. Second Daughter and Coheir of Ray­mond Earl of Provence, two Sons, Edward that succeeded Him in His Kingdom, by the Title of Edward the First; and this EDMOND, His Second Son,Matth. Paris, p. 635. born on the Feast day of S. Marcellus the Pope, being the Sixteenth day of January, An. 1245. in the Thirtieth year of his Fathers Reign.

He was Surnamed Crouch-back, from the bowing of his Back; others say he was so denominated from his wearing the Cross (an­tiently called A Crouch) upon his Back, which was usually worn of such as vowed Voyages to Jerusalem, Pat. An. 54 Hen. 3. num. 8. as he had done An. 54 Hen. 3. grounding their conceits upon the word Crouch (the Wooden-supporter of Impotent and Lame Men, made like a Cross at the top,) further confirming their opinions, from the name of Crouched Fryers, that wore a Cross upon their Garments, and bore the Cross for the Badge and Arms of their House.

Upon the Twenty fifth day of October, Pat. An. 49 Hen. 3. m. 2. num. 7. Chart. An. 49 Hen. 3. m. 1. in the Forty ninth year of his Fathers Reign, An. 1264. (upon the forfeiture of Si­mon Montford Earl of Leicester, who was slain at the Battel of Evesham in Worcestershire) he obtained the Earldom of Leicester, and the Seneschalcy or Stewardship of England.

Then in the One and fiftieth year of King Henry the Third,Chart. An. 51 Hen. 3. m. 4. he had given him the Earldom of Lancaster; and afterward, when Robert de Ferrers Earl of Derby, in the Civil Wars lost his Titles, [Page 104]

Honoratissimo. Viro Dn.o THOMAE CLIFFORD Equiti Aurato, ad Hospitium Dn. Regis CAROLI Secundi, The­saurario: et è Secreti oribus Majestatis ejusdem Consiliis. Tumuli hanc AVELINAE, Comi­tissae LANCASTRIAE Figuram, H.D.F.S.

[Page 105]and a great estate also by forfeiture; they were likewise added to this Earl Edmonds, Pat. An. 7 Edw. 1. m. 22. Pat. An. 8 Edw. 1. together with that of Campaigne; on whose person was originally founded the great contention betwixt the two Royal Houses of Lancaster and York.

This Edmond was prevented of the Kingdoms of Sicilia and Apulia; Pageant of Popes. Lib. 6. p. 118. into which, Pope Alexander the Fourth had invested him in vain (Conradus King thereof being still alive,) by sending un­to him a Ring, not without ridiculous disgrace to our English Na­tion, and caused in honor of him (the better to scrue himself into the good opinion of this Ambitious, although but Titulary-King) certain Peeces of Gold to be stamped with this Inscription, Ai­mundus Rex Siciliae, having first in this regard sucked a great mass of Money from him.

His First Marriage. Fortibus did bear, Gules a Cross Flowry Vair; which is Embossed and Painted on the Monu­ment of Earl Edmond her Husband in Westminster Abbey. Earl Edmond was twice married; the first of his Wives being Aveline the Daughter and Heir of William de Fortibus Earl of Albemarle; Robert of Glocester, p. 299 a. Pat. An. 53 Hen. 3. m. 16. Robert of Glocester, p. 299 a. by Isabel Daughter of Baldwine, Sister and Heir to Baldwine de Ripariis (or Rivers) Earl of Devon, married to him in the Three and fiftieth year of King Henry the Third, upon the Sixth of the Ides of April, An. 1269. by whom Edmond had a right to the Earldom of Devonshire, and the Isle of Wight. But it seemeth she deceased without Issue in the same year of our Lord 1269. and was interred in Westminster Abbey, in a Monument of Grey Marble (with her Figure thereon, Painted and Gilt) on the North side (and in the next Arch to that where her Husband was afterwards buried,Weever, p. 478. parallel with the High Altar) contiguous to the Tomb of Aymer de Valence Earl of Pembroke; the form of which I have represented in the precedent Page, copied from the Original now in being An. 1671.

His Second Marriage. The Arms of Robert Earl of Artois, were Azure, Seme of Flowers de Lize Or, a Label of Three Points, Gules, each charged with as many Castles of the Second. Which Castles he did bear to shew his de­scent from the Kings of Castile, his Mother being a Daughter of that King. The aforesaid Arms are de­picted for Qeen Blanch upon the said Monument in the Abbey of Westminster. In the Fourth year of King Edward the First,Pat. An. 4 Edw. 1. Vincent, p. 293. Mr. Vin­cent pag. 660. in a Pedigree under his own hand, writes her name Blanch. I find this Ed­mond married to his Second Wife Blanch, Queen of Navarre, Countess Palatine of Campaigne and Brye, Daughter of Robert Earl of Artois, (Brother to S. Lewis King of France) Widow of Henry of Campaigne, King of Navarre, unto whom she bare Joan, married to Philip the Fair, King of France) and by her had Issue Three Sons. Vincent, against the Authority of Reusnerus, Heninges, Albitius, Favianus, and others, would prove this Queen of Na­varres name to be Eleanor, onely depending upon the Authority of one Record for the same; but with the current of so many Authors, I have seen above half a douzen Records, that plainly prove her name to be Blanch, and not Eleanor.

This Earl of Lancaster, Tho. Wal­singham in Ypodig. Neustr. 483. num. 13. Matth. Westm. p. 428. num. 40. Hol. Vol. 3. p. 296. being sent with an Army into Gascoign, performed notable service, which he survived not two Moneths; for in the year 1296. he deceased at Bayon, was brought over in­to England, and Interred in the Abbey of Westminster, on the North side of the High Altar. The Figure of his Monument is re­presented in the following Page, being of Grey Marble, having in the Niches on the sides thereof, several Statues of the Kings and Queens of England, and others of his Relations and Kinred, and adorned with Escocheons of their Arms in proper Colours. [Page 106]

Illustri [...]imo et Potenti Domino In CAROLO Comiti de CAR­LILE, vicecomiti HOWARD de [...]MORPETH Baroni DACRES de Grilleland, Sereniss: Regis CAROLI IF in Comitatibus Cumbriae et Westmor­landis Locumtenanti, et ò Secretio­ribus Regis ejusdem Concilijs; hanc Tumuli Edmundi Comi­ [...]hs Lan [...]asstri [...] figuram, Humilè D.D.F.S.

[Page 107] Chap. 8. The Tomb is inlaid with coloured Glass, and neatly Painted and Gilt.Thomas E. of Lancaster

Children of EDMOND Earl of Lancaster, by BLANCH Queen of Navarre his second Wife.

8. THOMAS of Lancaster Eldest Son succeeded his Father in his Honors and Estate, and was afterwards beheaded at Pon­tefract without Issue. Vide the next Chapter.

8. HENRY of Lancaster Second Son, was Lord of Mon­mouth, and after the death of his Brother Thomas, had the Earl­dom of Lancaster, &c. of whom you may see more at large in the Ninth Chapter of this Second Book.

8. JOHN of Lancaster, Third Son of Edmond Earl of Lan­caster, died in France with Queen Joan his Half-Sister, being un­married. He was Lord of Beaufort, and of Nogent-Lartauld in France.

8. THOMAS, Earl of LANCASTER, LEICESTER, DERBY, and LINCOLN, and Steward of ENGLAND.
CHAP. VIII.

I have exhibi­ted the Figures of Two several Seals of this Thomas Earl of Lancaster, pag. 102. The one is in the Office of Arms affixed to a Charter dated An. 14 Edw. 2. The other is in Sir John Cottons Library (a very large one) upon which Earl which Earl Thomas is re­presented on Horsback in his Coat of Mail, and Surcoat of his Arnis. Up­on his Helmet stands a Wivern or Dragon, and from his Crest his Lambrequin or Ancient Mantling extends its self; which is the first Crest and Mantle that I have observed in the Kingly Family. His Horse is Caparisoned also with his Arms, viz. Gules Three Lions Passant Guardant Or, a Label of Three Points Azure, each charged with as many Flowers de Lize, Or. The Wivern also being fixed upon his Horses Head. The Great Shield on his Counterseal is charged with a Label of Five Points. THis Thomas was the Eldest Son and Heir of Ed­mond, Surnamed Crouch-back Earl of Lancaster, (by Blanch of Artois his Second Wife) after whose death he possessed all his Honors.

He sided with the Barons against King Edward the First, in hatred of Pieres Gaveston, for whose death he had a pardon, upon the 16th day of October, Pati An. 7 Ed. 2. p. 1. m. 15. in Sche­dula Pen­dente. An. 7 Edw. 2. Which King Granted and Con­firmed unto him several Priviledges and Lands in the same year. A second time also he took up Arms for the expelling and banish­ing of Hugh le Despencer the younger, another Favorite of that King, whom he, with the Barons, prosecuted to death. But after­wards, the Army of Earl Thomas, and his Confederates, being de­feated by the Kings Forces, he was taken prisoner at Borrough-Bridge, by the treachery of Robert Holand and Andrew of Herkeley [Page 108](An. 15 Edw. 2.) And within few days afterwards beheaded at his Castle of Pontefract, Pat. An. 15 Ed. 2. p. 1. m. 25. on the Monday after our Lady-day in Lent. His death was followed by the execution of several of his Confederates, whose Blood the King sacrificed to his Beloved Gaveston, and the Spencers. After this Thomas had lost his Head, the common people (honoring him as a Canonised Man) made great resort to his Picture hung up in S. Pauls Church, attributing great things to him; of which, the King being informed, know­ing him to have been an open enemy to the State, sharply repre­hended Stephen then Bishop of London for suffering the same;Claus. 16 Edw. 2. m. 2. in dorso. and withal, charged him upon his Alleageance, to restrain them, and not to suffer any such Adoration. The King it seemeth grew after­wards sensible of the loss of this great Man, which he discovered upon this occasion; some about him making earnest suit for a par­don for one of this Earls followers, and pressing the King hard to it, he fell into a great passion, exclaiming against them as unjust and wicked Counsellors,Bakers Chron. p. 160 d. who would urge him to save the life of a notorious Varlet, and would not speak one word for his near Kinsman, the Earl of Lancaster; Who (said he) had he lived, might have been useful to me, and the whole Kingdom; but this fellow, the longer he lives, the more mischief he will do: And therefore, By the Soul of God, he should die the death he had deserved.

His Marri­age. There had been (An. 18 Edw. 1.Pat: An. 18 Ed. 1.) some Proposals for a Mar­riage between this Thomas (in his Fathers life time) and one Bea­trice, the Daughter of Hugh, In Pale, Gules Three Lions Passant Guar­dant Or, a Label of Three Points Azure, each charged with as many Flow­ers de Lize Or, and Or a Lion Rampant Purpure, are the Arms of this Alice Lacy. Vide Lib. D. 4. fol. 43 b. in Officio Armorum. a Son of the Duke of Burgundy, but it came to nothing. And he afterwards took to Wife Alice, the Daughter and Heir of Henry Lacy Earl of Lincoln, by Marga­ret Daughter and Heir of William Longespee, and Grand-daughter of William Longespee Earl of Salisbury, in her right he was Earl of Lincoln, but by her had not any issue. So that his Inheritance came to his Brother Henry Lord of Monmouth.

This Alice had to her second Husband Ebulo Lord Strange, Fines An. 9 Edw. 3. num. 42. who in her right obtained the Title also of Earl of Lincoln, he deceased An. 9 Edw. 3. in Scotland. Fines An. 10 Ed. 3.8 July. She was thirdly married to Hugh de Frenes, who usurped the Title of Earl of Lincoln in her right. Which Alice having no Issue by her Four Husbands (if we may call that match of hers with Richard de S. Martin, in the life time of her first Husband, a marriage; for indeed she was of very light behavior, which was no small stain to her good name) her large inheritance divolved upon Heury of Lancaster, Son of her first Husbands Brother. She deceased in the Two and twentieth year of King Edward the Third, upon the Thursday next after the Feast of S. Michael. Fines An. 22 Ed. 3. Term. Mich. An. 22 Ed. 3. Upon the Seal of this Thomas (full as large as those of King Edward the first or second) is this Circumscription, SIGILLUM THOME COMITIS LANCAS­TRIE ET LEICESTRIE SENESCALLI ANGLIE. See an exact copy of it in the 102 page of this Second Book.

8. HENRY, Earl of LANCASTER, LEICESTER DERBY, and PROVENCE, Lord of MONMOƲTH, and Steward of ENGLAND.
CHAP. IX.

This Henry did bear Gules Three Lions Passant Guardant Or, a Beadlet A­zure. Which Arms are Painted upon the Tomb of Earl Edmond his Father in the Abbey of Westminster. The same Arms are up­on His Seal (the Figure of which is exhibited in the 102 Page of this Second Book) annex­ed to a Grant dated 34 Ed. 1. in which he is stiled Henri de Lancaster Seigneur de Monemuth. AFter the death of Thomas Earl of Lancaster (be­headed at Pontefract as aforesaid) this Henry of Lancaster, Lord of Monmouth, his younger Brother, came to be Heir to him; and also to their Father Edmond. For upon the Tenth day of May, Fines An. 17 Ed. 2. An. 17 Edw. 2. it was agreed at West­minster by that King and his Council (saith the Record) that Henry de Lancaster, (Brother and Heir of Thomas de Lancaster, and Son and Heir of Edmond Earl of Lancaster) who did his Homage, and had Livery, &c. the Nine and twen­tieth day of March last past, should have the Name and Honor of Earl of Leicester, and that in the Kings Court, and other places, he should be written unto, by the Title of Earl.

He took part with Queen Isabel afterwards for the setting up of her Son Prince Edward, against his Father the said King Edward the Second; who being taken prisoner, was put into this Earl Henries custody, and used no worse then was fit for a Captive King; although he could not forget that that King had taken off the Head of his Brother Thomas. The Queen finding Earl Henry no fit Instrument for the execution of Her wicked intentions, took the King Her Husband out of his hands, under pretence that he gave him too much Liberty, and by the advice of the wicked Bishop of Hereford caused him to be murthered.

He girt King Edward the Third with the Sword of Knight­hood immediately before His Coronation;Pat. An. 1 Edw. 3. Pars 2. in. 13. and in the first year of His Reign, had the Stewardship of England granted to him and the Heirs of His Body, as belonging to the Earldom of Leicester. And King Edward the Third also in the Ninth year of His Reign,Pat. 9. Ed. 3. Pars 1. confirmed to this HENRY the County of Provence, being the Inheritance of Queen Eleanor, Wise of King Henry the Third, and had been granted by the said Eleanor to Thomas de Lancaster, The Arms of Chaworth, are Barry of Ten peeces Argent and Gules, an Orle of Martlets Sable. and this Henry Her Grand-children.

He married Mauld the Daughter and Heir of Sir Patrick (de Cadurcis or) Chaworth Knight, Lord of Kidwelly and Ogmore in Wales; 2. pag. 220. and by her having several Children, deceased at Leicester [Page 110]in the year One thousand three hundred forty and five, and was there buried in the Monastery of the Canons.

Children of HENRY Earl of Lancaster, by MAULD CHAWORTH his Wife.

9. HENRY of Lancaster, Earl of Derby, onely Son, succeed­ed his Father in his Honors, and was afterwards created Duke of Lancaster; of whom you may read more in the next Chapter.

9.The Arms of This Blanche are upon her Seal in the 102 Page of this Second Book, impa­led with those of Thomas Lord Wake her Husband, viz. Or, Two Bars Gules, in cheis Three Torteaux. BLANCHE of Lancaster Lady Wake, Eldest Daughter of Henry Earl of Lancaster, was married unto Thomas Lord Wake of Lydell, who died without Issue upon the Fourth day of July, An. 1349. leaving his Sister Margaret Wake his Heir, Wife of Edmond of Woodstock Earl of Kent, Sixth Son of King Edward the First. In the 102 Page of this Second Book, you have the Figure of herEx Gar­tis Domin [...] Hen. Co­mitis de Peterbe­rough. Seal, which is of Red Wax, to a Deed dated the Fourth day of June, An. 24 Edw. 3. in which she stiles her self, Blanche Wake, Dame de Lydell.

9.The Arms of Ulster are Or, a Cross Gules, which I have seen upon the Figure of a Seal of Wil­liam Earl of Ulster. MAƲD of Lancaster Countess of Ʋlster, Second Daugh­ter, was twice married. Her first Husband being William de Burgh Earl of Ʋlster (son of John de Burgh, who died in the life time of his Father; and of Elizabeth his Wife, third Sister and Coheir of Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Glocester and Hertford) by him she had Issue her onely Daughter and Heir Elizabeth Burgh, Wife of Lionell of Antwerp, Duke of Clarence, Third Son of King Edward the Third.

The second Husband of this Maud, Inq. 21 Edw. 3. num. 59 [...]. was Sir Ralph Stafford Knight, a Son of Ralph Earl of Stafford.

9.Now bray did bear Gules a Lion Rampant Argent. JOAN of Lancaster Lady Mowbray, third Daughter,c. p. 256. Lib. in Custodia Gulielmi Dugdale Arm. Norroy Regis Ar­morum. was the Wife of John Lord Mowbray of Axholme, by whom she had issue John Lord Mowbray, that married Elizabeth the Daughter and Heir of John Lord Seagrave, by Margaret Dutch­ess of Norfolk his Wife, Daughter (and at length Heir) of Thomas of Brotherton, Earl of Norfolk, Fifth Son of King Ed­ward the First.

From this Marriage are descended all the Dukes of Norfolk, and Earls of Nottingham, of the surname of Mowbray and Howard, the Earls of Suffolk, Berkshire, and Peterborough, the Viscounts Stafford and Mordaunt; and the Barons Howard of Escrick, and Castlerising, and several other Noble Families.

9. IS ABEL of Lancaster, Fourth Daughter of Henry Earl of Lancaster, was Abbess of Ambresbury.

9. ELEANOR of Lancaster, c. pag. 256. Ibidem. Lady Beaumont, The Portrai­ture of this Eleanor, Countess of Arundel, is curiously Painted in the great Window of the Chancel in Arundel Church in Sussex, her Mantle being adorned with the Arms of Earl Richard her Husband, viz. Quar­terly Gules, a Lion Rampant Or, and Che­quie Or, and Azure; and upon her Kir­tle, Gules, Three Lions Passant Guar­dant Or, a Labell of Three Points Azure, each charged with as many Flowers de Lize Or, being her own Arms. In the same Window is also the Essigies of her Husband Richard Fitz-Alan Earl of Arundel, in his Surcoat of Arms aforesaid. Vide C. 27. Page 153 & 154 in Officio Armorum. and after­wards Countess of Arundel, Fifth Daughter of Henry Earl of Lancaster, was first married to John (Son and heir of Henry de Bellomonte, (or Beaumont) Earl of Boughan in Scotland) who deceased, An. 36 Edw. 3. And from them did descend the Viscount Beaumont, and Lord Bardolph, attainted in the fist year of King Edward the Fourth; and also the Beaumonts of Cole-Orton and Gracedieu in the County of Leicester.

This Eleanor was afterwards the second Wise of Richard Fitz-Alan Earl. of Arundel, third of that Surname (who died An. 49 Edw. 3.) in Arundel Castle, and was buried in the Priory of Lewis in Sussex.) And from them all the succeeding Earls of Arundel, both of the Family of Fitz-Alan and Howard, the Earls of Linsey, and Lords Willoughby of Parham, and others, are derived.

And lastly,Inq. An. 49 Ed. 3. num. 3. the Countess Eleanor departed this world in the Nine and fortieth year of the Reign of King Edward the Third.

9.Henry Lord Piercy did bear Or a Lion Rampant A­zure which Arms are set up in Painted Glass in seve­ral Windows in the Cathe­dral Church at Tork. MARY of Lancaster, Vincent. p. 611. Lady Percy, Sixth and youngest Daughter of Henry Earl of Lancaster, was espoused to Henry Lord Percy of Alnwick, and had issue Henry Lord Percy, First Earl of Northumberland, and Sir Thomas Percy Earl of Worcester, beheaded at Shrewsbury without issue. But Earl Henry his elder Brother, by Margaret his first Wise, Daughter of Ralph Lord Nevil, had issue Henry Lord Percy Surnamed Hotspurre, Ancestor of the late Earl of Northumberland, and Sir Thomas Percy the younger, who took to Wise Elizabeth eldest Daughter, and Coheir of the last David de Strabolgy Earl of Athole, and by her had issue Sir Henry Percy of Athole Knight, and afterwards died in Spain.

Which Sir Henry by Elizabeth his Wife, Daughter of Sir Matthew Bruce of Gower Knight, was Father of Two Daugh­ters his Heirs, viz.

Elizabeth Percy, married to Thomas Burgh Esquire, by her Ancestor of the late Lord Burgh, &c. And

Margaret Percy, first espoused to Henry Lord Grey of Codnor (by whom she had not any Childe;) and then after his death, she was the Wife of Sir Richard Vere Knight.

9. HENRY, Duke of LANCASTER, Earl of DERBY, LINCOLNE, and LEICESTER; Steward of ENGLAND, and Lord of BRƲGGIRACK and BEAƲFORT, Surnamed GRISMOND or TORT-COL.
CHAP. X.

THis Henry Surnamed Grismond, To a Charter of this Henry Duke of Lan­caster, bearing date the first day of June, An. 33. Ed. 3. (in which he is stiled, Duc de Lancastre Counte de Derby & de Leycestre & Seneschal d'Angleterre) his Seal of Red Wax is Appendant, upon which is his Atchieu­ment, Viz. On a Shield Three Lions Passant Gaur­dant, a Label of Three Points charg­ed each with as many Flow­ers de Lize. And for his Crest upon a Chapeau turned up Er­mine, A Lion Passant Guar­dant, crowned, and gorged with a Label of Three Points, each charged with as many Flow­ers de Lize. Vide, the Fi­gure of this Seal, Pag. 102. The Original being in the Office of Arms. from the place of his Birth, being Grismond Castle in the County of Monmouth or Castrum de Grosso Monte; and also Tort-col (or with the Wry Neck) was the onely Son of Henry Earl of Lancaster, Second son of Edmond also Earl of Lancaster, the Second son of K. Henry the Third.

He was created Earl of Derby to him and his Heirs (upon the Sixteenth day of March, An. 11 Edw. 3.Chart. An. 11 Ed. 3. num. 50 & 68.) his Father being yet alive; after whose death he had the Earldoms of Lancaster, and Leicester, and the Stewardship of England. Upon the Twentieth day of August, An. 23 Edw. 3. he was created Earl of Lincoln; Claus. An. 23 Ed. 3. pars 2. m. 5. Pat. An. 25 Ed. 3. p. 1. m. 18. and at a Parliament held at Westminster, the Sixth day of March, An. 25. of the said Kings Reign, he was created into the Dignity of Duke of Lancaster; it being the second Dukedom that had been erected in England since the Norman Conquest, the Dutchy of Cornwal (granted to Edward the Black Prince) being the First.

This HENRY when he was onely Earl of Derby, had the command of Twelve hundred Men at Arms, Two thousand Arch­ers, and Three thousand other Foot, with which he took in most of the Towns of Xaintoigne and Pictou, and also besieged and sacked Poictiers, returning triumphant with his spoils to Bourdeaux. He performed many other signal services in France, and when a Peace was concluded betwixt that Crown, and this of England. Duke Henry for some disgraceful words, supposed to be spoken by him against the Duke of Brunswick, was by the said Duke chal­lenged to a single combate, before John King of France, which this Henry willingly accepted of, and at the appointed time, they being both provided, entred the Lists with much courage for the tryal of their Fortune; but King John reconciled them, to the [Page 113]great satisfaction of the Duke of Lancaster. He was a great fa­vorer of the Person of John Wickliff a Divine, and an extoller of his Doctrine, and Integrity of Life; insomuch, that by his ad­herence to him, there grew so high a distaste betwixt the Duke, and the Bishop of London, that the City of London never favored him afterwards.

His Marri­age. He took to Wife Isabel the Daughter of Henry Lord Beau­mont (Consin-German to Queen Isabel Wife of King Edward the Second) by whom he had two Daughters his Heirs.Beaumont did bear Azure, a Lion Rampant and Seme of Flowers de Lize, Or.

In his Will made at Leicester Castle,Out of the Book of Wills, called I slip. Vide also Z. 220. upon the Fifteenth day of March, An. 1360. he is stiled, Henry Duke of Lancaster, Earl of Derby, Lincoln, Leicester, Steward of England, Lord of Bruggirack and Beaufort: In which Will also, he desires to be Buried in the Collegiate Church of our Lady at Leicester (where his Father is Interred) which was accordingly performed, he dying of the Plague in the Five and thirtieth year of the Reign of Edward the Third.

Children of HENRY Duke of Lancaster, by ISABEL BEAUMONT his Wife.

10.The Arms of the Duke of Bavaria, Embossed and Depicted up­on the South side of the Tomb of Q. Philippa, Wife of King Ed­ward the Third in the Abbey of Westminster, Being, Paly, Beudy, Lozeugy, Argent and Azure, in the First and Fourth Quarter: and Quarterly Or, a Lion Rampant Sable; and Or, a Lion Rampant, Gules, in the Second and Third Quarter. MAƲD of Lancaster Dutchess of Bavaria, Pat. An. 35 Ed. 3. m. 17. Inq. An. 35. Ed. 3. Elder Daugh­ter and Coheir of Henry Duke of Lancaster, Two and twenty years old at the death of her Father, was married to William the Fifth of the Name, Duke of Bavaria, Earl of Henault, Holand, Zealand, and Friezland, but died without Issue soon after her marriage, leaving her younger Sister Blanch her Heir.

10.On the same Monument on the North side are also the Arms of Blanch of Lancaster, Viz. Gules, Three Lious Passaut Guar­dant, Or, a Label of Three Points Azure, each charged with as many Flowers de Lize of the Second, Impaled with the Arms of John Duke of Lancaster her Hus­band, Being quarterly Azure, Seme of Flowers de Lize, Or, and Gules, Three Lions Passant Guardant, Or; over all a Label of Three Points Ermine. BLANCH of Lancaster Dutchess of Lancaster Inq. An. 35 Ed. 3. Orig. An. 36 Ed. 3. Rot. 6. Vide V. 115. younger Daughter, Fourteen years old at her Fathers death, was the Wife of John of Gaunt, Earl of Lancaster and Richmond (after­wards Duke of Lancaster) she was Coheir to her Father, and Soleheir to her Sister; and from this Match are descended the Kings of England of the Royal House of Lancaster; the Kings of Spain and Portugal, and many of the Nobility of this King­dom.

5. WILLIAM, Earl of SALISBƲRY and ROSMAR (a Natural Son of King HENRY the Second) Surnamed LONGESPEE.
CHAP. XI.

Azure Six Lions Ram­pant Three, two, and one, Or, were the Arms of this William Lon­gespee Earl of Sarum, which are Painted on his Tomb, and Embossed upon his Shield in the Cathedral Church of Salisbury. Having mar­ried Ela the Daughter and Heir of William Fitz-Patrick Earl of Salisbury, he took the Arms of his said Father-in-Law; for in the Cathedral Church of Mans in the County of Main, the Figure of William d'Evereux or Fitz-Patrick is Enammelled upon a Copper-Plate, affixed to a Pillar in the South-Isle, near the Cross of the said Church, being about a Foot and half high, Armed in Mail, and with his Left-arm leaning upon his long Triangular Shield, upon which are the Six Lions; but by reason of the Embowing thereof, onely Four of the Lions are obvious to your sight. Sir Edward Walker Knight, Garter, Principal King of Arms, being in those Parts, upon his view of the said Cathedral, made this observation, An. 1647. BEfore we come to speak of this William the Son,Rob. of Glocester, p. 290. b. (Surnamed Longespee, from a Long-Sword which he usually wore) it will not be impertinent to mention something of his Mother, Rosamond the Beautiful Daughter of Walter Lord Clifford, and the most Beloved-Concubine of King Henry the Second.Baker his Chronicle. Her the King kept at Woodstock in Lodgings so cunning­ly contrived, that no stranger could find the way in, yet Queen Eleanor did, being guided by a Thred. So much is the Eye of Jea­lousie quicker in finding out, then the Eye of Care is in hiding. What the Queen did to Rosamond, when she came in unto her, is uncertain, (some report she poysoned her) but it is most true, that Rosamond outlived this visit but a short time; and deceasing, lyeth buried at Godstow near Oxford, with this Epitaph,

Rose of, not to the
World, here Rosamond lies,
Sweet onec she was,
But now 'tis otherwise.
Hic jacet in Tumbo Rosamundi, non Rosamunda,
Non redolet, sed olet, quae redolere solet.

His Marri­age. By this Rosamond, King Henry the Second had Issue this Willi­am, Robert of Glocester, p. 290. b. who marrying Ela (born An. 1196.The Figure of the Seal of this Ela Countess of Salisbury is represented in the 57 Page of this Second Book. Having upon the Counter seal, an Escocheon charged with The Six Lions inscribed a­bout the Bor­der with these words, SECRETUM ELE COMITISSE SARESBERIE. Ex Cart. Edw. Walker Eq. Aur. Gart. Prin. Regis Arm.) the Daughter and Heir of William Fitz-Patrick Earl of Salisbury. King Richard the First his Half-Brother gave with her to him, the Earldom or Salisbury, and restored unto her the Earldom of Rosmar in Normandy, which belonged also to the said Ela, by Right of Succession, as being descended from Edward de Saresbury, Son of Walter d'Evereux Earl of Rosmar.

This Countess Ela for her Souls health,Lib. La­cock, fol. 19. as also of her Hus­band, and of all her Ancestors, Founded two Monasteries in one [Page 115]day. The one was Lacock, Founded the Sixteenth of the Kalends of May, in the Morning, An. 1232. The other was the Priory of Henton, of the Carthusian Order, whose Foundation bears date on the Evening of the same day; the Foundress at that time being in the Forty fifth year of her age. She outlived her Husband se­ven years, and died in her Widowhood about the year M. CC. XXXIII.

Brooks Casalogue of Honor. This William Longespee Earl of Salisbury, was Constable of Dover Castle, and sailing with Richard Earl of Cornwal his Ne­phew, and Philip de Albaney, into Gascoign (An. 10 Hen. 3.) re­covered Poictiers, which was before lost by King John; and in their return into England, hardly escaped shipwrack, being strangly cast upon the Cornish shoars.

He departed this life (he was poysoned (as is reported) by Hubert de Burgo Earl of Kent, Matth. Paris, p. 317. num. 10. and Cheif Justice of England) in the Nones of March, An. 1226. and his Body was buried at Old Sa [...].

Honoratissimo et No­bilissimo Domino Dno. IOHAN­NI Baroni FRESCHEVILLE, de Staucly, WILLELMI Comitis SARVM cognomine Longespe, hanc Tumuli Figuram. H.D.D.D.F.S.

From thence his Corps was removed and brought to the New City, I Copied this Tomb from the Original. and Interred in a Monument on the North side the Chappel of our Lady, in the Cathedral Church, in a Tomb of Wood richly Painted, Diapred, and Gilt; his Effigies lies thereon of Grey-Marble, in his Coat of Mail; his Sword by his side, and upon his Antick Shield are Six Lions Rampant Embossed; the [Page 116]like number of Lions are Painted also upon his Surcoat, which by reason of the many Foldings thereof, are not easily perceived. The Figure in the precedent Page exactly represents the said Tomb, which is now in being An. 1670. Matthew Paris gives him this Epitaph,In Speed, pag. 513. thus Englished. alluding to his name.

Royal born William,
Flower of Earls lies here.
A Sheath thus short,
Doth Longsword serve to bear.
Flos Comitum Willielmus obit, Stirps Regia,
Matth. Paris, p. 317. num. 10.
Longus
Ensis vaginam caepit habere brevem.

Children of WILLIAM LONGESPEE Earl of Salisbury, and of ELA his Wife.

6. WILLIAM Longespee, Eldest Son and Heir succeeded his Father in the Earldom of Salisbury; of whom see more in the next Chapter.

6. RICHARD Longespee, Lib. La­cock, p. 19. M. S. Penes Ed. Walker Eq. Aura­tum, Gar­terum, &c. Second Son of William the first Earl of Salisbury, was a Canon of Salisbury. He witnessed a Grant of his Elder Brother William made to Stephen Longespee his younger Brother, of the Mannor of Bamberge with the Appurtenances. He lieth Interred at Lacock.

6. STEPHEN Longespee Third Son,Lib. La­cock, pag. 19. M. S. was appointed Cheif Justice of Ireland, by King Henry the Third. He took to Wife Emelina Countess of Ʋlster, in whose right he was Earl of Ʋlster, and by her had issue his onely childe Ela Longespee, married to Roger de la Zouche, by whom she had issue Alane de la Zouche, Father of two Daughters his Heirs, Elena de la Zouche, first married to Nicholas S. Maur; and secondly, to Alan Charleton, Father of John Charleton; and Matilda de la Zouche Wife of Robert Holand.

The Body of this Stephen Longespee was Interred at Lacock, but his Heart received Burial at Bradenstock.

6. NICHOLAS Longespee Fourth Son of William Earl of Salisbury, was consecrated Bishop of Salisbury, An. 1291.Robert of Glocester, p. 290 b. Godwin in Presu­libus Sa­rum, p. 280. whose Body lies Intombed in our Ladies Chappel in the Ca­thedral Church under a large Marble Stone, sometime Inlaid with Brass, and Adorned with the Arms of their House. His Heart was Interred at Lacock, and his Bowels at Ramesbury. He deceased in the year of our Lord 1297.

6. ISALEL Logespee Lady Vescy, Pat. 10 H. 3. Claus. 10 H. 3. m. 17. Eldest Daughter of William Earl of Salisbury, was the first Wife of William Lord Vescy.

6. ELA Longespee Countess of Warwick, Lib. La­cock. M. S. Second Daughter was first married to Thomas the Seventh Earl of Warwick; after whose decease, in her Widowhood she Grants in Frank Al­main [Page 117]for the health of her Soul, and of the Souls of her An­cestors, all her Lands and Tenements in the Town of Doding­ton; Ex Cartis Ed. Wal­ker Equi­tis aurati. Garteri Principalis Regis Armorum. to which Deed is annexed her Seal (of Yellow Wax) having on the one side her Picture, and on the Counter seal a Shield with Six Lions Rampant thereon, Circumscribed on both sides thus. S. ELE LUNGESPEYE COMI­TISSE WARWIC. The Figure of which Seal is ex­hibited in the 57 Page of this Second Book.

Her Second Husband was that worthy Gentleman Philip Basset, Milles, p. 793. the Son of William Basset Cheif Justice of England, as it appreareth by a Charter of the said Philip and Ela, bearing date the Forty seventh year of King Henry the Third. She died the Eighth of the Ides of February, An. 1297. in the Twenty sixth year of King Edward the First, on a Sunday, and was buried at Osney, near Oxford, without issue.

6. IDA Longespee, called also Camvile, Third Daughter of William Earl of Salisbury, was the Wife of Walter Fitz-Robert, by whom she had issue Katherine and Lorica, who took upon them the habit of Nuns at Lacock.

6. ELA Longespee the younger, Fourth Daughter, mentioned also in the Book of Lacock, was married to William d'Oding­selles, by whom he had issue Robert, &c.

6. WILLIAM LONGESPEE, Second of the Name, Earl of SALISBƲRY.
CHAP. XII.

HE was the Eldest Son and Heir of William Longes­pee the First, and of Ela his Wife aforesaid;See his Arms upon his Seal P. 57. being Azure Six Lions Ram­pant Or, Three, two and one. after whose death he was seised of the Castle and Town of old Sarum, and the Sheriffwick of Wiltshire. But this William afterwards presuming to go out of the Kingdom, without the Kings Licence first had and obtained,Matth. Paris, p. 709. num. 50. King Henry the Third made sei­sure of the said Castle, Town, and Office, and detained them in his own hands.

By the name of William Longespee (without any other Additi­on or Title) he gave to Stephen Longespee his Brother,Penes Ed­wardum Walker Eq. Aura­tum, Prin­cipalem Regem Armorum, Titulo Garteri. of Sutton near Banneburgh, with the Hundred thereunto belonging. To this Grant his Seal of Arms (in Yellow Wax) is annexed. On the one side of which is his Shield, with the Six Lions; and on [Page 118]the Reverse, his Sword (having reference to his Name) with this Circumscription, SECRETUM WILLELMI LUN­GESPE. Vide, the form thereof in the 57 Page of this Second Book.

He took to Wife Idonia the Daughter and Heir of Richard de Camvile, Fines, 17 Reg. Johan. m. 3. Claus. 10 Hen. 3. m. 4.12, 17. Fines, 12 Hen. 3. m. 4. and of Eustace his Wife Daughter of Gilbert Basset, by whom he had issue a Son, and a Daughter, and afterwards was slain in the Holy Land, manfully fighting against the Infidels, in the year of our Salvation M.CC.XLIX.

Children of WILLIAM LONGESPEE Earl of Salisbury, by IDONEA de CAMVILE his Wife.

7. WILLIAM Longespee Third of the name, Elder Son, of whom see more in the next Chapter.

7. EDMƲND Longespee Second Son of William Earl of Sarum.

7.Audley, Gules Fretty, Or. ELA Longespee, Lady Audley, Claus. 17 H. 3. m. 8. Vincent, p. 447. onely Daughter of William the Second Earl of Salisbury. By Idonea de Camvile his Wife, was married to James Lord Audley of Heleigh, from whom the Lords Audley, and Earls of Castlehaven are derived.

7. WILLIAM LONGESPEE Third of the Name.
CHAP. XIII.

Longespee, Azure Six Lions Ram­pant Or, Three, two, and one. THis William Longespee Third of the Name,Lib. La­cock. pag. 19. onely Son and Heir of William Longespee Second of the Name (whom King Henry the Third de­prived of the Earldom of Salisbury) by Idonea Daughter and Heir of Richard de Camvile) espoused Maud the Daughter of Walter Lord Clifford, Inq. An. 27 Ed. 1. num. 55. V. pag. 11. (afterwards the Wife of John Lord Gifford, Baron of Brimmesfield in Glocestershire) by whom he had issue his onely Daughter named Margaret Longespee, married to the Illustrious Man (saith my Author) Lord Henry de Lacy Earl of Lincoln; and by her the said Henry had issue, Edmond Lacy drown­ed in a Well in Denby Castle, in the life time of his Father,Vide W. p. 129. John de Lacy, who also deceased before his Father, and Alice Lacy his onely Daughter and Heir, married to Thomas Earl of Lancaster, by whom she had no issue. So that her inheritance divolved upon Henry of Lancaster, Son and Heir of her Husbands Brother.

BOOK III. Plantagene …

BOOK III. Plantagenets Undivided.

CONTAINING A Genealogical History OF THE KINGS OF ENGLAND, &c. From EDWARD I. to HENRY IV.

From the Year 1272. to the Year 1400.

REGIS ANGLIE ⚜ EDWARDVS

Genero sissimo Viro Dno RICARDO GRAHME de Netherby in Com Cum­brioe Baronetto. Sigillorum hanc Tabulam H. D. F. S.

SIGILLVM EDWARDI FILII HENRICI REGIS ANGLIE ⚜
[blazon or coat of arms]
✚ EDWARDVS DEI GRACIS REX ANGLIE DOMINVS HYBERNIE DVX AQVITANIE

EDW I.

✚ EDWARDVS DEI GRACIA REX ANGLIE DNS HYBERNIE DVX AQVITANIE
[blazon or coat of arms]
ALIANORA DEI GRATIA REGINA ANGLIE
ALIANORA DEI GRA DN AQVITANNIE
[seal]
[blazon or coat of arms]
S ELISABET COMITISSE HOLLANDIE ZELANDIE Z DNE FRICIE
[blazon or coat of arms]
✚ EDWARDVS DEI GRACIA REX ANGLIE DOMINVS HYBERNIE DVX AQVITANIE

EDW II.

✚ EDWARDVS DEI GRACIA REX ANGLIE DNS HYBERNIE DVX AQVITANIE

Generosissimo Viri Dno. THOMAE PLAYER Equiti auraw Civilatis LONDINI Cole berrima Came rario D. THOMAE, PLAYER Eq [...]t [...] aurati, Camerarij Civi­tatis Ejusdem primogonito. Sigillorum hanc Tabulam H. D. F. S

[blazon or coat of arms]
[seal]
[seal]
✚ EDWARDVS DEI GRACIA REX AḠLIE DOMINVS HIBERNIE ET DVX AQVITANNIE

EDW III.

✚ EDWARDVS DEI GRATIA REX ANGLIE DNS HIBERNIE ET DVX AQVITANNIE
[figure]
✚ sigillum margarete comitisse norfolehte et domine de segraue

Generosissimo Vir [...] Domino ROBERTO ATKINS Equiti Aurato, primogenito Dn [...]Roberts Atkins Militis Balnei Sigillorum hanc Tabulam. H. D. F. S.

[blazon or coat of arms]
✚ EDWARDVS PRIMOGENIT (US) REGIS ANGLIE DVX AQVITANIE COMITIS CESTRIE PONTIVI ET MONTISSTRO [...]
✚ S EDWARDI (PRI)MOGENIT REGIS ANGLIE DVCIS AQVITANNIE COMITIS CESTRIE PONTIUI ET MONTISSTROLLI
EDWARDVS DEI GRACIA REX ANGLIE DNS HYBERNIE DVX AQVITANIE

EDW III.

✚ EDWARDVS DEI GRACIA REX ANGLIE DNS HYBERNIE DVX AQWITANIE

Generosissimo Viro Dno: ROBERTO CLAYTON Eqi [...]iti au­rato, nec non Civita tis LONDINI cele [...] berrimoe, Senatori Sigillorum hanc Tabulam H. D. F. S

[blazon or coat of arms]
sigilum s.e. Fon. comitis huntington
✚ sigillum anne regine francie et anglie et domine hibernie
✚ EDWARDVS DEI GRACIA REX FRANCIE ET ANGLIE ET DOMINVS HIBERNIE

EDW III.

☞ EDWARDVS DEI GRACIA REX FRANCIE ET ANGLIE ET DOMINVS HIBERNIE
sigillum thome de holand comitis kantil
⋆ SECRET PHILIPPE DE HANONIA REGINE ANGLIE

Ornatissimo Consultsimog [...] Viro D [...]IOSFPHO WILLIAMSON Equiti Aurato. In Supremis Reqiti [...]s Comitijs Senatori Regioe Ma. ab Archivis Status 'et Sanctiori Consilio à Secretis Sigillorum hanc Tabulam L. M. D. F. S

[blazon or coat of arms]
S EDVARDI PRIMOGENTI REGIS ANGLI PN̄CIPIS AQVITANNIE ET WALLIE DVCIS CORNV ET COMITIS CESTRIE

EDW PR WAL

S EDVARDI PRIMOGANITI REGIS ANGL PN̄CIPIS AQVITANNIE ET WALLIE DVCIS CORNVBIE ET COMITIS CESTRIE
S edwardi primogeniti regis angt franc principis [...]all ducis canu [...] A comit cestr
Angletere le seal s du roy duc de gloucestrie
le seal alianore duchesse gloucestrie countesse de
s thome ducis glocestrie
Siḡ thome filij regis anglie ducis gloucestrie comitesse et buk ar constabularii anglie

Clarissimo Gener osissimog [...] Viro. Dno: EDWARDO DERINGE de Sur­renden Deringe in agro Kantiano Baronetto; Sigillorum hanc Tabulam H. D. F. S.

[blazon or coat of arms]
A GENEALOGICAL TABLE Of the Third BOOK.
  • 7. ELIANOR of Castile first Wife, p. 129.
    • 8. JOHN, HENRY, ALPHON­SO, 138.
    • EDWARD II. King of England, Lord of Ireland, and Duke of Aquitaine, p. 145. ISSABEL of France page Ibidem.
      • 9. EDWARD III. King of England and France, and Lord of Ireland, p. 158. PHILIPE of HENAULT, page 158.
        • 10. EDWARD Prince of A­quitaine and Wales, Duke of Cornwal, and Earl of Chester, p. 181. JOANE Countess of Kent, 184. & 215.
          • 11. ED­WARD of Engo­lesme, p. 189.
          • RICHARD II. King of Eng­land and France and Lord of Ireland, p. 191. ANNE of Bohe­mia, p. 193. ISSABEL of France, p. 192.
        • WIL­LIAM of Hat­field, p. 177.
        • LIO­NEL of Antwerp Duke of Clarence, p. 219. ELI­ZAB. Burgh. page 219.
          • PHILIPE wife of Ed­mond Mor­timer Earl of March, p. 221.
            • 12. ROGER Mortimer Earl of March, p. 224. ELIANOR Holand, p. 224.
              • 13. EDMOND Mortimer Earl of March. p. 225.
              • ROGER Morti­mer dyed young, p. 225.
              • ANNE Morti­mer Wife of Ri­chard Earl of Cam­bridg. p. 225.
              • ELEA­NOR Countess of Devon. ob. s. p. page 226.
            • Sir ED­MOND Mortimer, p. 222. Sir JOHN Mortimer, p. 222.
            • ELIZA­BETH Lady Percy, p. 223.
            • PHILIPE Countess of Pem­broke and Arundel, p. 223.
        • JOHN of Gaunt Duke of Lanca­ster, Book IV. Ch. I.
        • EDMOND of Langley Duke of York-Book V. Chap. 1.
        • WIL­LIAM of Wind­for, p. 178.
        • THO­MAS of Wood­stock Duke of Glocester p. 227. ELIA­NOR Bohun, p. 227.
          • HUM­PHREY Earl of Buck­ing­ham, ob. s. p. p. 231.
          • EDMOND Earl Staf­ford first Husband, p. 232.
            • HUM­PHREY Stafford Duke of Buck­ingham, p. 232.
          • ANNE eldest daugh­ter, p. 232.
          • WILLIAM Bourchier Earl of Eu second Hus­band, p. 233.
            • HENRY Bour­chier Earl of Essex, p. 233.
          • JOANE Lady Talbot, p. 234.
          • ISSABEL p. 234. PHILIPE p. 234.
        • ISSABEL Duchess of Bedford, p. 178. JOANE de la Tour, p. 179.
        • BLANCH de la Tour, p. 179. MARY Duchess of Britaine, p. 179. MARG. Count. of Pembroke p. 179.
      • JOHN of El­tham Earl of Corn­wal, p. 153.
      • JOANE Queen of Scots, p. 155.
      • ELIANOR Dutchess of Geldres, p. 155.
    • ELIANOR Countess of Barr, p. 139.
    • JOANE of Acres Coun­tess of Gloce­ster and Hertford p. 139.
    • MARGARET Dutchess of Brabant, p. 143.
    • PEREN­GAR, p. 143. ALICE, p. 143.
    • MARY, p. 143. ELIZA. Countess of Holand and Here­ford, p. 143.
    • BEATRIX, p. 144. BLANCHE p. 144.
  • EDWARD I. of the Name, King of England, Lord of Ireland, and Duke of Aquitaine, p. 127.
  • MARGARET of France second Wife, p. 133.
    • THO­MAS Earl of Nor­folke, p. 205. ALICE HALYS p. 206.
      • ED­WARD died, fi. prole, p. 206.
      • JOHN Lord Segrave first Husb. p. 207.
        • ELI­ZA­BETH Segrave wife of John Lord Mow­bray, p. 208.
          • JOHN Mow­bray E. of Not­ting­ham, ob. s. p. 208.
          • THOMAS Mowbray Duke of Norfolke, and Earl Marshal of England, p. 210.
            • THOMAS Mowbray Earl Mar­shal dyed, s. p. 211.
            • JOHN Mow­bray Duke of Nor­folke, p. 211.
              • JOHN Mowbray Duke of Norf [...]ke, father of Iohn Mow­bray Duke of Nor­folke, Father of Anne Mowbray, wife of Richard of Shrew, bury, second Son of Ed. 4. who dyed s. p. p. 212.
            • MARGA­RET Lady Howard, p. 212.
            • ISSA­BEL, Lady Berkley, p. 212.
        • ANNE Segrave Abbess of Bar­king, p. 208.
      • MARGA­RET Duchess of Norfolke, p. 207.
      • Sir WAL­TER Man­ny second Husb. p. 207.
        • THO­MAS Manny, ob. s. p. 208.
        • ANNE Manny, Coun­tess of Pem­broke, p. 208.
          • JOHN Hastings Earl of Pem­broke, ob. s. p. p. 209.
      • ALICE, Wife of Edward Montague, p. 208.
    • EDMOND Earl of Kent, p. 213. MARGA­RET Wake page 213.
      • EDMOND E. of Kent, ob. s. p. JOHN Earl of Kent, ob. s. p. page 214.
      • JOANE Countess of Kent, and Prin­cess of Wales, p. 215.
    • ELEA­NOR, p. 144.
K EDWARD I

K EDWARD II

K EDWARD III

RICHARD II

An. Dom. 1272 Novem­ber 16. 7. EDWARD I. KING of ENGLAND, LORD of IRELAND, and DUKE of AQƲITAINE, Surnamed LONGSHANKS.
CHAP. 1.

THis Prince Edward (from the talness of His Stature called Longshanks) Eldest Son of King Henry III. and Queen Elianor of Provence, This Edward in a Charter dated at Bri­stol upon the 9th day of December, in the 52 year of the Reign of K. Henry 3d. His Father, (An. 1267.) is stiled Edwar­dus illustris Regis Anglie primogenitus. (Ex cartis Dom. Henrici Com. Peterborow) His Seal (of Green Wax) is appendant thereto, the representation of which you have in the 120 Page of this Third Book: On the one side whereof He is delineated on Horseback, in His Maile and Surcoat, a Sword in His Right Hand, and a Shield in His Left charged with the 3 Lyons of England, and differen­ced by a File of 3 Points: and upon the Counter-seal in a large Triangular Escocheon are also 3 Lyons, and a File of 5 Lambeaux contiguous to the Chief thereof, and interwoven with the Tayle of the uppermost Lyon; which is the first addition or distinction that I find to be born in the Kingly Family. Writers differ in the signification of these La­bels, for Honorius reporteth that one of the 3 Points betokeneth the Father of the Bearer, the other His Mother, and the middlemost Himself. And Leigh saith, that the File of Five Lambeaux is the difference of the Heire whilst the Grandfather liveth; but, His Grandfather being deceased, then He leaveth this, and taketh that of Three, which was His Fathers difference. But here I find, that this Edward (Eldest Son of King Henry III.) did in one, and the same Seal and Reverse bear a Label both of 3 and of 5 points, and yet had no Grandfather living. The like Labels of three and five Lambeaux are upon the Seals and Counter-Seales of the two succeeding Edwards His Son and Grandson, in the life-time of their Fathers Kings of England, as appears in those exhibited in the 122 and 123 Pages of this Third Book. The Seal also, and Reverse of Robert Count of Nevers, eldest Son of the Earl of Flan­ders (An. 1272.) is charged with a Label of 3 Points, and another of 5. Olivarius Vredius in Sigilla Com. Flan­driae, p. 50. And as this Edward was the first Son of a King of England that differenced His Atmes with a File, so was He the first King of England that bare His Armes upon the Caparizons of His Horse, as you may observe in His Royal Seal exhibited also in the 120 Page of this Third Book. born at Westminster upon the XV. of the Ka­lends of July, Matth. Westminst. p. 300. n. 39. Matth. Pa­ris. p. 488. n. 38. (viz. the 17th day of June) An. 1239. was within four dayes after Christ­ned by Otho the Legate, and Confirmed by Ed­mond Archbishop of Canterbury, by the Name of Edward. Which Name He had given Him in Memory of the Glorious King and [Page 128]Confessor St. Edward, whose Corps lie Magnificently deposited in the Abbey of St. Peter in the City of Westminster, whom King Henry III. ever honoured as His Tutular Saint, at whose decease viz. An. 1272. our Prince Edward His Son was in Palestine; and though the Estates of England knew not whether He were then li­ving or dead, they Proclaim Him King,Ibidem, p. 401. n. 55. cause a New Seal to be made, and appoint fit Persons for the Custody of His Treasure and His Peace; who, having fortified Acon which He went to Relieve, He returnes homewards, is received with great Honour by all the Princes through whose Territories He passed, and at the foot of the Alpes is met by many of the Nobility of England. Two years more He spends in setling His Affaires in Aquitaine and those parts, which being ended,Matth. Westmin­ster. p. 407. n. 32. He is with Elianor His Queen Crowned at Westminster by Robert Archbishop of Canterbury upon the XIV. of the Kalends of September (viz. the 19th day of August) An. Dom. 1274. at which Solemnity were present Alexander King of Scots, and John Duke of Britaine the Kings Brothers-in-Law, who dying not long after, turned the Joy of this Coronation into Mourn­ing.

And now whilst King Edward had the Opinion and Reputation of His Subjects, He though it His fittest time to pursue His De­signs of abating the Power Ecclesiastical; to which end He takes away the Return of Writs from the Abbot and Convent of Westmin­ster, Matth. Westmin­ster, p. 409. n. 7. abridges the Liberties of many other famous Monasteries of England; and lastly, causes the Enacting of the Statute of Mort-Maine, to hinder the encrease of their Temporal Possessions for the future.

The Subduing of Wales, which had ever strugled for Liberty, and the rule of a Native Governor, is His next enterprise, and the quarrel grounded upon this occasion: Prince Leoline having refu­sed to come to His Coronation or Parliament, the King Marches against Him with a powerful Army; and besides the Fine of 50000 l. Sterling, and payment of 1000 l. per Annum for what He held, which was only for his life, He forces him to accept a Peace upon such conditions, that made his Principality differ but little from the tenure of a Subject; but this his haughty spirit could not brook long, for within three years Llewellin, and with him his brother Da­vid (on whom the King, besides many other graces, had conferred the Order of Knighthood) makes a Revolt, and a Roll of their Grievances (as the cause thereof) is sent to the Archbishop of Canterbury, who endeavors to perswade them to a Submission, but could not prevaile, so strong was the conceit of a Prophecy of Mer­lin (that Ginn of Error) That Llewellin should one day possess the Diadem of Brute. The King thereupon sets forth from the Vizes in Wilts with great Forces against him, Llewellin is slain in Battel, his Head cut off by a private Souldier, and presented to the King,An. 1283. who causes it to be Crowned with Ivy, and placed upon the Tower of London, David is afterwards taken,Matth. Westmin­ster, p. 411. n. 33. drawn at a Horse­taile through the streets of Shrewsbury, and then beheaded, his quar­ters [Page 129]set up at the four great Towns of York, Bristol, Winchester and Northampton, and his Head sent to accompany that of his Brother. After whose death, Edward, the Kings Eldest Son then living, by His appointment, born at Caernarvon in North-Wales, was, in regard of the place of His Nativity, with consent of the Welsh, made Prince of Wales, being the first of the Sons and Heires apparent of the Kings of England that bare that Title, which afterwards became ordinary to most of the rest.

Having effected His Work here, He goes over into France, An. 1286 to confirme such conditions as His State required in those parts, with the new King Philip IV. Intituled Le Bell: where He Reconciles the Kings of Sicily and Aragon; and paying 30000 l. for His Ran­some, Redeemes Charles Prince of Achaia Prisoner in Aragon: and after three years and a half being abroad He returnes into England, where, upon Complaint of the ill Administration of Justice in His absence, He Fines 13 of His Chiefest Officers in above 100000. Markes, and the next year to the no less ease of the People He Ba­nishes the Jewes, for which the Kingdome very willingly granted Him a Fifteenth, they had before offered a Fifth, but then the Jewes out-bid them. The King Confiscates all their Immoveable Tal­lies and Obligations to an infinite value, making thus His last Com­modity of this miserable People, never under other Protection than the Will of their Prince, and made to serve their turnes upon all occasions.

The Crown of Scotland (upon the death of King Alexander III.) is now in controversie, and had Six Competitors; but Two especi­ally betwixt whom the Right lay, John Baliol Lord of Galloway, and Robert Bruce Earl of Anandale; all the best Civilians of France are consulted in this Affair, and King Edward makes Himself Arbi­trator, who,Placita coram Re­ge & Con­silio suo ad Parl. 21 Ed. 1. Rot. 2. in dor­so. Matth. Westmin­ster. p. 414. n. 28. the better to sway the business with His presence, takes His Journey Northward, but by the way,An. 1290. in the House of one Richard de Weston at Herdeby in Lincolnshire, upon the V. of the Kalends of December (viz. the 27th day of November,) An. 1290. in the 19th year of His Reign,The death of Queen Elia­nor. dyed Queen Elianor that Honour of Womanhood, who sucked the Poyson out of the Wounds given Him by an Assassin in the Holy Land, when no other means could preserve His life,Q. Elianor did bear Quarterly, Gules, a Castle Or, and Ar­gent, a Lion Rampant pur­ple, the Third as the Second, the Fourth as the First, which were the Armes of Ferdinand IIL. King of Castile, and Leon Her Father, and Quartered by Him, when both those Kingdomes were united in His Person, and are noted to be the First two Coates that were borne Quarterly in one Shield, which our King Edward III. next imitated, when He Quartered France and England. I have seen these Armes standing in a Glass Window on the West-side of the North-Cross in Westminster-Abbey, which (with those of Her Mother the Countess of Pontiue, viz. Or, 3 Bendlets Azure within a Border Gules) are Carved in Stone in several places upon the Cross (Erected to Her Memory) near Northampton, and also on both sides of Her Tombe in the Abbey of Westminster. The Figure of Her Seal (of Green-Wax) is represented in the 120 Page of this Third Book, annexed to a Char­ter dated the second day of February, An. 9th. Edw. 1. in which She is stiled Alianora Regina Anglie Domina Hi­bernie & Ducissa Aquitannie, on the one side of which Seal is the Effigies of the Queen, standing betwixt a Castle and a Lyon on her right hand, and a Lyon and a Castle on Her left, demonstrating Her to be of the Royal House of Castile, &c. And upon the Counter-Seal, in a large Escocheon hanging upon a Tree, are the Armes of Her Husband K. Edward I. viz. 3 Lyons passant guardant. Penes E. Ashmole Ar. Fae. nom. Windsor. and He in extream grief returnes with Her Corps to Westminster, where it was Interred upon the XVI. of the Kalends of January next following, Erecting goodly Crosses at Stamford, Northampton, Waltham, Cheapside, Charing, and in all other places [Page 130]where Her Body rested, to Her grateful Memory. She was Sister to Alphonso King of Castile, Daughter of Ferdinand III. and only Child by Joane His second Wife, Daughter and Heir of John Earl of Pontiue. She was Married to Prince Edward at Bures in Spain, An. 39 of King Henry III. His Father, in the year of our Lord 1254. was Crowned with Him, and lived His Wife (in lovely participation of all His Troubles and long Voyages) 36 years. Her Bowels were buried in our Ladyes Chappel in the Cathedral Church at Lincolne, where King Edward erected a Cenotaph for Her, upon which is placed Her Figure, of Gilt Copper, on the Verge whereof you may read this Inscription in Saxon Capitals.

✚ HIC: SUNT: SEPULTA: VICERA: ALIANORE: QUAN­DAM: REGINE: ANGLIE: UXORIS: REGIS: EDWARDI: FILII: REGIS: HENRICI: CUJUS: ANIME: PROPITIETUR: DEUS: AMEN: PATER: NOSTER.

King Edward also Erected for Her (in the Chappel Royal in the Abbey of Westminster, at the feet of His Father King Henry III.) a goodly Tombe of Gray Marble (the Figure of which I have re­presented in the following Page) having upon the North-side the Armes of England, Castile and Leon quarterly, and Pontiue, curiously carved in Shields hanging upon Oake-Trees and Vines, on the Super­ficies of the Monument (engraven with the Armes of Castile and Leon in Lozenge) lies the Figure of Queen Elianor as large as the Life, of Copper guilt: about which Tombe this Epitaph is Circum­scrib'd, and Embossed also in Saxon Letters.

✚ ICI: GIST: ALIANOR: JADIS: REYNE: DE: ENGLETERE: FEE: AL: REY: EDWARD: FIZ: LE: REY— — VNTIF: DEL: ALE: DE: LI: DEV: PVR: SA: PITE: EVT: ERCI: AEN.

And on a Tablet of Wood hanging in an Iron Chain near to Her Tombe, these old Verses are written in Latin and English, viz.

Queen Elenor is here Interr'd,
A worthy Noble Dame,
Sister unto the Spanish King,
Of Royal blood and fame.
King Edwards Wife, first of that Name,
And Prince of Wales by Right:
Whose Father Henry just the Third,
Was sure an English wight,
Who crav'd Her Wife unto His Son,
The Prince Himself did goe
On that Embassage luckily
As chief with many moe.
This Knot of Linked Marriage
Her Brother Alphonse lik'd;
And so 'tween Sister and this Prince,
The Marriage was up-strik'd.
The Dowry rich and royal was,
For such a Prince most meete:
For Pontiue was the Marriage Gift,
A Dowry rich and great;
A Woman both in Counsel wife,
Religious, Fruitful, Meek,
Who did encrease Her Husbands friends
And larg'd His Honour eke.

LEARNE TO DIE.

Nobilis hispani jacet hic soror inclita Regis
Erimii Consors Aleanora thori,
Edwardi primi Wallorum principis uxor
Cui pater Henricus tertius Anglus erat.
Hanc illa uxorem gnato petit: omine princeps
Legati munus suscipit ipse bono:
Alphonso fratri placuit felix Hymeneus,
Germanam Edwardo nec sine dote dedit,
Dos preclara fuit, nec tali indigna marito,
Pontiuo Princeps munere dives erat.
Femina consilio prudens, pia, prole beata,
Aurit amicitiis, aurit honore virum.

Disce mori.

Illurtrissimo et Potentiss: imo Domino Dno MOVNTAGV BERTY Comiti de LINDSEY Baroni WILLOVGHBY et BEC de ERESBIE Magno Camerario Angliae, et serenissimo Reoi CAROLO IN a secretioribus Consilijs. Nobilissimi (que) Ordinis Garterij Equiti hanc Tumuli Reginae ELIANORAE Vxoris & Regis EDWARDI Primi Fi­guram humilime DDD. F.S.

HONI SOIT QVI MAL Y PENSE
‘LOYAVLTE [...] OBLIGE’

The Funeral of Queen Elianor being Solemnized, King Ed­ward returnes back to His Scotish business, to Bruce, who had the weaker Title,An. 1292. but the more Friends, to him He offers the Crown if he would yield him fealty and homage, but Bruce refuses, the like offer is made to Baliol, An. 9312. which he accepts, and accordingly at Newcastle upon Tyne (where King Edward then lay) all the Chief of the Nobility (except Bruce) doe him homage;Matth. Westmin­ster, p. 419. n. 4. Tho. Wal­singham, p. 56. n. 31. p. 59. n. 46. but an Ap­peale from the Sentence of K. Baliol to the Court of England, be­ing made by the Brother of the Earl of Fife, which Earl had been slain by the Family of Abernerth, Baliol appears in the Parliament of England, but being denyed to Answer by a Procurator, is for­ced in the ordinary place to defend his Cause himself, with which indignity he is so disgusted, that he thereupon makes a League with France (glad to embrace any thing to the prejudice of Eng­land) and defies King Edward, who counter-leagues with other Princes, proposes his Son Edward to the Daughter of Guy Earl of Flanders, Marries one of his Daughters to Henry Earl of Barr, and another to John Duke of Brabant, and buys the Emperours Alli­ance for 15000 l. Sterling:An. 1297. having made these Confederates,Tho. Wal­singham, p. 65. n. 13. Ed­mond Earl of Lancaster, the Earls of Lincoln and Richmond, with 28 Banners, 700 men at Armes, and a Navy of 36 Saile are sent into France.

In the mean time King Edward sets upon Baliol, Ibidem, p. 66. n. 9. wins Barwick with the death of 15000 Scots: the Castles of Dunbar, Roxbo­rough, Edinburgh, Sterling, St. Johns Town are Surrendred, King John Baliol submits himself, and again takes his Oath of Fealty, but notwithstanding is sent Prisoner into England; Ibidem, p. 68. n. 8. & n. 36. Then a Parliament for Scotland is held at Barwick wherein all the Nobility (except William Douglass) do homage, and confirm it under their Seals; John Warren Earl of Surry and Sussex is made Warden of Scotland, Hugh Cressingham Treasurer, and Ormesley Chief Justice, with Com­mission to take the Fealty of all that held of that Crown.

And now the French business is wholly intended, for which in a Parliament at Bury an Eighth part of the Goods of the Citizens and Burgesses of Great Towns, and a Twelfth of the Lesser is granted, but the Clergy upon a Prohibition of Pope Boniface, procu­red by themselves, refuse to give any thing, and are there­upon put out of the Kings Protection (a Strain of State beyond any of his Predecessors) and were thereby to have no Ju­stice in any of his Courts, which so amazes them, that for their Peace the Archbishop of York, the Bishops of Durham, Ely, Salis­bury and Lincoln yield a Fifth of their Goods, which the Arch­bishop of Canterbury refusing, had all his Seized, and all the Mo­nasteries within his Diocess and part of Lincoln taken into the Kings hands, only necessaries allowed to the Monkes, but the rest to the Kings use.

The King of France having notice of our Alliance with Flan­ders, invites that Earl to Paris, and there makes him and his Daughter Prisoners. He by great Mediation is released, but She [Page 133]remains still in durance, who therefore (presuming upon the strength of his Confederates) defies the King of France, who comes against him with 60000 Men; and King Edward, notwith­standing the revolt of Scotland, and the discontentment of His own People, goes with 500 Saile and 18000 men at Armes for his reliefe; but finding Flanders distracted with popular Factions, after he had obtained a further supply of a 9th Penny of the Layety, and a 10th of the Clergy of the Province of Canterbury, and of York a 5th in a Parliament held there by the Prince in His absence, upon the Confirmation of the great Charter, and Indemnity to all that attended Him not in this Journey, of which Humphrey de Bohun Earl of Hereford, High Constable of England, Roger Bigot Earl of Norfolke, Lord Marshal, were Chief: He concludes a Truce with France for two years, and so returnes into England to reduce Scot­land once again to obedience, which by the encouragement of one William Wallice a private Gentleman,Tho. Wal­singham, p. 73. n. 15. had beaten His Officers and People almost out of the Kingdom, kill'd Cressingham, with 6000 English, recovered Barwick and many Castles; The King, to bring His work the nearer together, Removes His Exchequer and Courts of Justice to York, and at Roxborough Musters 7000 Horse, and an Army of Foot proportionable; the Earles of Hereford, Norfolke and Lincolne, Ibidem, p. 75. n. 50. (notwithstanding their former contempt) lead His Vaunt-guard, and won the famous Battel of Fonkirke, An. 1299. wherein were slain 30000 Scots, 260 Knights; but Wallice escaping was afterwards betrayed and sent Prisoner into England, where he suffered as for Treason, though he would never own the Jurisdiction of Eng­land, alledging, he never Swore Fealty to that King. The Ti­tles and Estates of the Scottish Lords that stood out, were given to the English: And in another Parliament for Scotland held at Saint Andrews, all the Nobles Sware Fealty again to King Edward, who carried away Captive all such as had the least possibility of stirring, Establishes the English Laws, brings away their Regalia and Anti­quities, and sends to Westminster the Stone, wherein as the vulgar were perswaded, the Fate of the Kingdome consisted, according to the old Distich.Camdens Remains, p. 19.

Ni fallat fatum, Scoti quocunque locatum
Inveniunt Lapidem, regnare tenentur ibidem.

By the Mediation of Pope Boniface a peace is concluded with the King of France, Matth. Westmin­ster. p. 432. n. 17. and King Baliol permited to live a private life in that Kindom.His Second Marriage. At which time also King Edward takes to His Se­cond Wife Margaret, Ibidem, Walsing­ham, fol. 94. Sister to Philip IV. Surnamed the Fair King of France, eldest Daughter of Philip the Hardy, Son of St. Lewis, who was Married to Him at Canterbury upon Thursday the VIII.The Seal of Queen Mar­garet (of Red-Wax) represented in the 120 Page of this Third Book, is affixed to a Pardon Granted to Johan de Daylyngrigg, dated at London upon the 14th day of November, An. 9th of King Edw. II. Her Son in Law. She is stiled therein Margarite par la Grace de Dieu Royne d'Engleterre: and on the said Seal Her Armes (viz. Seme of Flowers de Lize) are demidiated with King Edwards, being the first Queen of England that did Beare Her Armes with Her Husbands in one Escocheon; which kind of bearing is more antient then the impaleing of the intire Coates of Armes, as you may observe in my Annotations, Book 2. Page 101. day of [Page 134] September, in the 27th year of His Reign, An. Dom. 1299. after al­most Eight years Marriage, surviving Him, She remained a Wid­dow Ten years, and departing this life in the 10th of Edward II. Reign, An. 1317. was Interred in the Gray-Fryars in London, in the Choire before the Altar, which Monastery Her Self had Built.

Besides this Marriage of King Edward with Margaret of France, he had Contracted the Prince his Son to that Kings Daughter, upon which the French King made Restitution of all he had usurped in Gascoigne. Burdeaux returnes to the obedience of the King of England, and had 150000 l. paid them for his Brother Edmonds Expences in the late Warrs.

The Scots being excluded in this Peace, send their lamentable Complaint to Pope Boniface of the King of Englands Usurpation upon them, but have no redress: for, in a Parliament at Lincolne (upon a Confirmation of their Charters) a Fifteenth is granted, with which King Edward makes a Fourth Expedition and a Fourth Conquest of Scotland, after which He removes His Exchequer from York, Feasts His Nobility at Lincolne; And being received with great Solemnity at London, there He renders Thanks to God and St. Edward for His Victory. Then he began to shew his Re­sentment of the Stubborness of his Nobility in times past, and so terrifies them, that the Lord Marshall makes him heir of all his Lands, though he had a Brother living. Hereford escapes by death, the rest redeeme themselves with great Sums: the Archbishop of Canterbury is sent over to Pope Clement (who succeeded Boniface) to be crusht by him, who being a Native of Burdeaux, and ha­ving received a great present from the King, gratifies his desire in this, and also absolves him from all his Covenants made to his Sub­jects in the three last Parliaments. But all this was quashed by the appearing of a new King in Scotland, Robert Bruce Earl of Car­rickt, Son to the Competitor with Baliol, who escaping out of Eng­land where he was a Pentioner, becomes the head of that distract­ed People, and is Crowned their King, of which advice being gi­ven to King Edward, by John Comin, Bruce his Cosin German, a titler also himself, he is violently pursued by Bruce, and by him Murthered in Dunfrayes Church.

The King vowes to revenge Comyns death, and himself upon the perjured Scots, adjuring his Son and the Nobility, if he dyed in the attempt, to carry his Corps about Scotland, and not to bury it, till the Usurper and Country were subbu [...]d. Aimer de Valence Earl of Pembroke, the Lords Clifford and Percy are sent with a strong power to relieve his Wardens of Scotland, retired since this revolt into Barwick, whilst himself prepares to follow, 300 young Gentle­men, the Sons of Earles and Barons, at the Feast of Pentecost, re­ceive with great Solemnity the honour of Knighthood from the Prince at Westminster, and presently after with a great Army, and these honourable Attendants he sets forward, but before he arrives in Scotland, the Earl of Pembrook with the Aide of the Family of Comyn, in a Battel near St. Johns-Town, had routed the whole Ar­my [Page 135]of the new King, who escaped very hardly in a disguise. His Brother Nigel Bruce and two Priests were Executed as Traytors at Barwick; the King notwithstanding to terrifie the Scots, and to shew them His power, passes all over Scotland with his Army, ma­king strait inquisition for the Abettors of the Murther of Comyn, of which he spared neither Sex, Age, nor Quality. The Earl of Atholl, though of the Blood Royal, found no other favour then to be Hanged on a Gallows higher then the rest; the Wife of Robert Bruce is sent Prisoner to London, and her Daughter to a Monastery in Linsey, the Countess of Boughan put into a Wooden Cage, and hung out for a spectacle over the Walls of Barwick: King Robert Bruce shifts privily from place to place, attended onely by the Earl of Lenox and Gilbert Hay, who never forsook him in any of his fortunes.

The King spends this Summer in Scotland, An. 1307. and Winters in Car­lisle, to be ready against the next Spring,Matth. Westmin­ster. p. 458. n. 8. about which time ap­pears the hidden King, surprizes the Earl of Pembrook, and gives him a great Overthrow, forces the Earl of Glocester into Air Castle, and there besieges him, till the Castle being relieved by the Kings Forces, he was again driven to his former Retire­ments.

King Edward hereupon commands all that held by Knights-Ser­vice, by Midsummer to attend Him at Carlisle, and sending the Prince to London about his Marriage, in July following, although he found himself not well, with a fresh Army he enters Scotland, but finding His distemper (which was a Dysentery or Bloody-Flix) increase upon him, he returned to Carlisle, where he sent for the Prince his Son, whom, besides many Admonitions to Piety, He Commanded three things especially; That He should carry His Bones about with him through Scotland till he had subdu'd it: That he should send his Heart to the Holy Land, with Sevenscore Knights to that Warr, and the 32000 l. he had provided to that purpose: And that he should never recall Piers Gaveston from Banishment. And soon after he dyed at Borrough upon the Sands on the VII. day of July, Ypodigme Ncustriae, p. 499. Matth. Westmin­ster, p. 458. [...]. 18. in the year 1307,His Death. when he had ruled the Scep­ter 34 years and 8 Moneths wanting nine dayes, and lived 68 yeares.

Being dead, his Corps was brought to Waltham, and there re­mained the space of sixteen weeks, and after on Simon and Jude''s day (viz. 280 October) was buried in the Abbey of Westminster, at the head of King Henry III. his Father, on the North-side of the Shrine of St. Edward. His Sepulchre (the Figure of which is re­presented in the following Page) is composed of 5 gray Marbles, two compose the sides, two the ends, and a fifth covers it (a plain Monument for so great and glorious a King) upon the North­side whereof are pencill'd these words, ‘EDWARDUS PRIMUS SCOTORUM MAL­LEUS HIC EST. 1308. PACTUM SERVA.’

EDWARDVS [...] SCOT [...] MALEVS HIC EST [...] [...]

HONI SOIT QVI MAL Y PENSE
‘POST TOT NAV FRAGIA PORTVM’

Illustrissimo Domino Dn:o EDWARDO Comiti SANDWICI, vicecomiti Hinchinbroke, et Baroin Mountagu de St. Neots; regiae Classis Vicepraefecto; Magnae Garderobae Custodi; Dn.o Regi Car: 2do. a Secretioribus Consilijs; Nobilissimi (que) Ordanis Garterij Equiti; hanc Tumuli Regis EDWARDI Primi Figuram; Humil:inc D.D.D.F.S.

And upon a Tablet this Epitaph in Latin and English.

Death is too doleful which doth joyn
The highest Estate full low:
Which coupleth greatest things with least,
And last with first also.
No man hath been in World alive,
Nor any may there be
Which can escape the dint of Death,
Needs hence depart must we.
O Noble and victorious Man,
Trust not unto thy strength;
For all are subject unto death,
And all must hence at length.
Most cruel fate from worldly stage
Hath wrest a worthy wight;
For whom all England mourned loud
To see his doleful plight:
Edward is dead, which was adorn'd
With divers graces here,
A King or fragrant Nardus height,
A gracious Princely Peere.
In heart the which was Lybard-like,
Right puissant voide of fear:
Most slow to strife, discreet and wise,
And gracious every where.
In Armes a Giant fierce and fell,
Attempting famous facts,
Most prudent, did subdue the proud
By feate of Martial acts:
In Flanders fortune gave to him
By lot right good success:
In Wales he wan: the Scottish rout
With Armes he did suppress.
This King without His like alive;
Did firmly guide His Land:
And what good nature could conceive
He had it plight at hand.
He was in Justice, and in Peace,
Excelling: Lawes took place,
Desire to chase all wicked workes
Did hold this Kings good grace.
He now doth lie Intombed here
Which furthered each good thing:
Now nought He is but dust and bones,
Which was a worthy King.
The very Son of God whom erst
This King did love right deere,
Hath given to Him immortal bliss,
For his good living here.
Whilst liv'd this King by Him all things
Were in most goodly plight:
Fraud lay hid, great peace was kept
And honesty had might.
Mors est moesta nimis, magnos que jungit in imis,
Maxima mors minimis, conjungens ultima primis;
Nullus in orbe fuit homo vivens nec valet esse
Qui non morte ruit; est hinc exire necesse.
Nobilis & fortis, tibi tu confidere noli,
Omnia sunt mortis, sibi subdit singula soli,
De mundi medio magnum mors impia movit,
Anglia pre tedio satis anxia plangere novit:
Corruit EDWARDUS vario veneratus honore,
Rex nuper ut Nardus fragrans virtutis odore,
Corde Leopardus, invictus & absque pavore,
Ad rixam tardus, discretus & eucharis ore,
Viribus armorum quasi gigas ardua gessit,
Colla superborum prudens per prelia pressit,
Inter Flandrenses fortuna sibi bene favit,
Ut quoque Wallenses & Scotos suppeditavit,
Rex bonus absque pari strenue sua regna regebat:
Quod natura dare potuit bonitatis habebat,
Actio justitie, par regni, sanctio legis,
Et fuga nequitie premunt precordia Regis:
Gloria tota ruit, Regem capit hec modo fossa,
Rex quandoque fuit, nunc nil nisi pulvis & ossa:
Filius ipse Dei quem corde colebat, & ore,
Gaudia fecit ei nullo permista dolore.
Dum vixit Rex & valuit sua magna potestas,
Fraus latuit, pax magna fuit, regnavit honestas.

The Seal of King Edward I. (the Figure of which is exhibited in the 120 Page of this Third Book, and also that of Queen Elia­nor his Wife) is annexed to a Confirmation of the Great Char­ter of King Henry III. his Father, dated upon the 28th day of March, Penes Eli­aus. Ash­mole Arm. Faecia­lem nom. Windsor: An. 28 Ed. I. Circumscribed on both sides, ✚ EDWAR­DUS: DEI: GRACIA: REX: ANGLIE: DO­MINUS: HYBERNIE: DUX: AQUITANIE: Upon the Counter-seal the King is figured on Horseback, in his Coat of Maile and Surcoat, his Shield is Charged with the Three Lyons of England, and the same Armes are Embossed on the Ca­parizons of his Horse.

Also in a Grant of the Marriage of Duncan, son and heir of Duncan Earl of Fyf, to Gilbert de Clare Earl of Glocester and Hertford, Dated at Barwick upon Tweed the xxv. day of June, in the 20th year of his Raign, he is stiled Edwardus Dei gracia Rex Anglie Dominus Hybernie & Dux Aquitanie, & Superior Domi­nus Regni Scotie, &c. In cujus rei testimonium has literas patentes Si­gillo regimini Regni Scotie deputato fecimus sigillari. The Circum­scription of which Seal is obliterated, but the Figure of the Cru­cifixion of St. Andrew on the one side, and the Armes of Scot­land (viz. a Lyon Rampant within a double Tressure Flowry) on the reverse are apparent.

Children of King EDWARD I. by Queen ELIANOR of CASTILE his First Wife.

8. JOHN, The eldest Son of King Edward and Queen Elia­nor, Walsing­ham, fol. 94. Ypodigmae neustriae, p. 499. n. 25. was born at Windsor in the Reign of King Henry III. his Grandfather, before His Fathers voyage into Syria; He was committed to the Charge of Richard King of the Romans, and dyed in his youth.

8. HENRY, The Second Son of King Edward, Ibidem, p. 499. n. 25. &c. deceased also being a Child.

8. ALPHONSO, Third Son,Walsing­ham, fol. 94. Ypodig. Neustr. p. 499. n. 25. Matth. Westmin­ster, p. 411. n. 54. was Borne at Maine in Gascoigne: As his Father and Mother returned into England from Jerusalem, he offered up a Golden Coronet of Llewellen Prince of VVales, and other Jewels at the Tombe of St. Ed­ward at Westminster, which remained there to Adorne his Shrine, and dyed in the Eleventh year of his age, upon the XIV. of the Kalends of September (viz. the 19th. day of August) in the year of Grace 1284, and his Body was buried in the Abbey of Westminster, on the South­side the Shrine of the before-named Confessor Saint Ed­ward, among his brothers and Sisters that lie there Inter­red.

8. EDWARD, Walsing­ham, f. 94. Ypodig. Neustr. p, 499. n. 25. Fourth Son of King Edward I. and Queen Elianor of Castile his first Wife, borne at Caernarvon, was the First Prince of Wales of the Royal House of England, and after the death of his Father, succeeded him in his Kingdome, and his other Dominions, by the Name of Edward II. whose history followeth in the II. Chapter of this III. Book.

8.Henry Earl of Barr did bear Azure 2 Bar­bels hauriant endorsed, and some crusuly fitched or. I have seen an Acquit­tance in French of Joane de Barr Countess of Surrey his Daughter (in the custody of Thomas Lee Esquire, Che­ster. Herauld) bearing date en la feste de noel l'an du Roy Edward tirs apres la Conquest de son Regue d'Engleterre vint & primier & de France oytiesme, under her Seal of Red-Wax, in the Center of which are the Armes (in Lozenge) of her Husband John Earl Warren, and of Surrey, viz. Chequie, Or and A­zure betwixt 4 Lozenges of the Armes of England and Barr in Cross, and 2 Lyons and 2 Castles in Saltire, So that although the Diameter of the Seal be not above an Inche and a half, yet it comprehends the Armes of her Father, her Mother, her Husband, and her self; the Figure of which is delineated in p. 122. ELIANOR Countess of Barr, Eldest Daughter of King Edward I. was born at Windsor in the 50th year of the Reign of King Henry III. her Grandfather: She was Espoused by Proxy to Alphonso King of Aragon, who deceased before the solemnization of their Marriage. And afterwards, An. 1294. this Elianor was Married at Bristol, Pat. an. 22 Ed. 1. Walsing­ham, ful. 60 & 94. Ypodig. Neustr. p. 499. n. 26. to Henry Earl of Barr in France, and by him had issue Edward Earl of Barr, from whom the Dukes and Earles of that Country are descended. And Joane de Barr Countess of Surrey, the Wife of John Plantage­net, Earl Warren and of Surrey and Sussex, who dyed An. 1347. by whom she had no issue. The said Countess Elianor was the Wife of Henry Earl of Barr five years, and deceased in the year of our Lord 1298.

8. JOANE of Acres, or Acon, Countess of Glocester and Hertford, Walsing­ham, fol. 94. Ypo­dig. Neu­striae, p. 499. n. 27. second Daughter, she was born at a City in the Ho­ly Land called Acon (but formerly Ptolomais) in the year 1272. where her Mother remained during the Wars her Father had with the Sarazins. I have here exhibited the figure of Gil­bert de Clares Seal, which I copied from an Original in the hands of the Honoura­ble William Pierepont Esquire, on the one side of which he is represented on Horseback as Earl of Hert­ford; both his Shield and the Caparisons of his Horse being charged with the 3 Cheveronells, and on the re­verse as Earl of Glocester, with the same Armes on his Shield, but without Ca­parisons upon his Horse. She was the second Wife of Gilbert de

SIGILL GILEBERTI DE CLARE COMITIS HERTFORDIE

SIGILL GILEBERTI DE CLARE COMITIS GLOVERNIE

Clare, surnamed the Red, Earl of Glocester and Hertford, who had lost the favour of the King her Father, in refusing to go beyond Sea with him, to the ayde of Guy Earl of Flanders, against the King of France, Leland, Col. vol. 1. p. 663. for which cause King Edward seized all his Lands; But, the breach was made up in this Marriage, consum­mated at Westminster on the second day of May, An. 1290. in the 18th year of her age, without any Dower on the Kings part; which done, King Edward I. re-granted all the Lands so seized, confirming them to the said Gilbert and Joane his Wife, and the issue begotten of their two bodies, in Fee-farme. This [Page 140]Earl Gilbert dyed in the Castle of Monmouth the VII. of the Ides of December, An. 1295.Pat. An. 18 Ed. 1. Pat. an. 19 Ed. 1. Leland, Col. vol. 1. p. 182. and was buried in the Priory of Tewkesbury by his Father, leaving his Wife a Widdow (she was afterwards Marryed to Ralph de Mounthermer) and also issue by her a Son named Gilbert, and three Daughters, Elianor, Marga­ret and Elizabeth.

9. GILBERT DE CLARE Earl of Glocester and Hertford, He did bear the Armes of his Father, viz. Or 3 Che­veronells Gules. These were painted upon his Sur­coat, which he had forgot to put on at the Battel of Striueling, where he lost his life. The Family of Clare was so Great and E­minent in the Reign of K. Henry. III. that the Arms of Richard de Clare Earl of Glocester, stand embos­sed and painted on the North-Wall of Westmin­ster Abbey, next to those of St. Lewis K. of France. There being few Cathe­drals or Reli­gious Houses in England, in the Reigns also of the Kings Edward I. and II. the Windows' of which were not adorned with the 3 Cheveronels Gules in a Field Or, so vast were the Revenues of this Illustri­ous Family of Clare. their only Son, to whom his Father-in-Law Ralph de Mounthermer surrendred the said Earldomes (who had en­joyed them during this Gilberts Minority) in the first year of King Edward II. An. 1307. In which year young Gilbert be­ing at age, was admitted to his Lands and Honours, and sate in Parliament alwayes after as Earl of Glocester and Hert­ford. He Marryed Matilda Daughter of John de Burgh, son and heir of Richard Earl of Ʋlster in Ireland, and had issue a son named John, which dyed in his infancy, and was buryed at Tewkesbury.

This Gilbert being with King Edward II.Leland. Col. vol. 1. p. 785. Ibidem p. 292. Tho. de la Moore, p. 594. n. 32. in Scotland to raise the Siege of Strivelyn, was at Bannoksborrow near the same place slain (with near 300 Barons and Knights) upon the 24th day of June, An. 1314. when the Scots would gladly have saved him for ransome; but, he had that day neglected to put on his Sur-Coat of Armes over his Armour. King Ro­bert Bruce caused the bodies of this Earl Gilbert, and Sir Ro­bert Clifford, to be sent to King Edward, being then at Bar­wick, to be buryed at his pleasure, demanding no reward for the same. He was born at Tewkesbury in the year 1291. and was there buryed near to his Father, Grandfather, and Great Grandfather, leaving his Inheritance to be divided be­twixt his three Sisters his heires, which Partition was made in the 10th year of the Reign of the said King Edward II.

9. ELIANOR DE CLARE, Lady Le Despenser, Eldest Daughter of Gilbert, Quarterly, Argent, and Gules a Frett or, over all a Bendlet Sa­ble, were the Armes of Hugh le De­spenser, which are carved in Stone on two several Tombs in the Abbey of Tewkes­bury, and al­so on a Key Stone in an Arch of the Cloyster of Westminster-Abbey. and Sister and coheir of Gil­bert, Earles of Glocester, &c. was Marryed to Lord Hugh le Despenser the younger, son of Hugh Earl of Winchester, who in the 15th year of Edward II. was adjudged to be dishinhe­rited, and exiled out of the Realm for ever. This Elianor by Lord Hugh her husband, had issue Edward le Despenser, Fa­ther of another Edward, Father of Thomas Lord le Despen­ser, Created Earl of Glocester in the Feast of St. Michael, An. 22 Rich. II.Rot. Parl. An. 21 R. 2. but being deposed from his Earldome by Act of Parliament, An. 1 Henry IV. was beheaded at Bristol in the year 1400. This Thomas le Despenser Earl of Gloce­ster, Marryed Constance daughter of Edmond of Langley Duke of Yorke, by whom he had issue Richard, that dyed the Kings Ward; Elizabeth that deceased also young; and Issabelle Despenser first Marryed to Richard Beauchamp Earl of [Page 141] Worcester, by whom she had Issue Elizabeth, &c. and second­ly to Richard Beauchamp Earl of Warwick, and had issue also by him Richard Beauchamp Duke of Warwick, and Anne Beau­champ, &c. Of the Descendents of this Issabel see more in the History of Edmond of Langley Duke of York.

9.The Armes of Gaveston were Vert 6 Ea­glets Or, 3, 2, and one, which stand painted in the fourth Window, on the South-side the body of the Cathedral Church at York. And although in his Seal exhi­bited by Ed­ward Byshe Esq in his Notes upon Upton, present you only with 3 Eaglets, it was because there wanted room for three more. The like example I find in a Seal of Humphrey de Bohun. Earl of Hereford, who wanting place therein for his 6 Ly­ons, did beare his bend and Cotires be­tween two Ly­ons supplying a greater, by a lesser num­ber. MARGARET DE CLARE Countess of Corn­wall and Glocester, second sister and coheir of Gilbert de Clare Earl of Glocester, was the Wife of Piers Gaveston (a Gas­coigne born) created Earl of Cornwall, An. 3 Ed. 2. who re­ceived this stranger into so high favour (notwithstanding the commands of King Edward I. his Father to the contrary) that he thereby highly disobliged His Nobility, and through his ill Counsel was carried away into many unkingly actions. This Piers Gaveston (having been twice Banished) was upon his return into England taken by Guy Beauchampe Earl of War­wick (whom he had formerly in a jearing way called,Rob. of Glocester, p. 312. b. the Black Hound of Arden) and Beheaded near Warwick, at a place called Gravershithe (or Blacklow) and buryed in the Fryers at Laughtey, Pat. an. 5 Ed. 2. p 2. m. 19. Claus. 10. Ed. 2. m. 8. in dorso. leaving issue by Countess Margaret a daughter called Joane Gaveston, whom her Father intended to have Marryed to Thomas the son of John Wake; but, he taking another Wife without the Licence of King Edward II. was fined to pay 1000 Markes to Thomas de Moulton of Egre­mond, which Thomas by Indenture (bearing date the 25th day of May, An. 10 Edw. 2.) betwixt him and the said King, had engaged to Marry this Joane to his son John, as soon as they should come to age. But this new-borne Joane dyed young,Chart. an. 11 Edw. 3. m. 14. n. 34. Inq. an. 16 Edw. 3. n. 36. Esceat. an. 21 Ed. 3. n. 59. and was buried at Malmesbury.

The Second Husband of Margaret Countess of Cornwal, was Hugh de Audley (after her Brothers death) created Earl of Glocester (at a Parliament holden at Westminster) upon the 16th day of March, An. 11 Ed. 3. in the year 1336.Hugh de Audley Earl of Glocester did bear Gules a Frett or, and a Border argent. This Coun­tess Margaret deceased An. 16 E. 3. and was buried at Tunbridge. And Hugh Earl of Glocester outliving her about five years, de­parted this World upon the 10th day of November, An. 1347. and was Interred in the same place with his Wife, leaving Is­sue their only Daughter and Heir Margaret Audley, 18 years old at the death of her Mother, and at the same time Wife of Ralph Baron of Stafford, afterwards created Earl of Staf­ford, March 5th, An. 25 Ed. 3. in the year 1350. and from this Marriage all the Earles of Stafford, Dukes of Bucking­ham of that Surname did descend, and the Viscountess Staf­ford now in being is derived.

9. ELIZABETH DE CLARE Lady Burgh, third Daughter of Joane of Acres, In her Grant (in my Custo­dy) dated up­on the 24 day of April, An. 29 Ed. 3. This Elizabeth is stiled La tres honorable Dame Elizabeth de Bourg Dame de Clare. In her Seal are the Armes of Clare, impaleing Bourgh (viz. 3 Cheveronels and a Cross) within a Border gutte, which since have been, and are the Armes of Clare-Hall in Cambridge of her Foundation. by Gilbert de Clare Earl of Glo­cester, and Sister and co-heir of Earl Gilbert, was Marryed [Page 142]three several times. Her first Husband being John de Burgh that dyed (in the life-time of his Father Richard Earl of Ʋl­ster) in the year 1313. and by him she had issue William de Burgh Earl of Ʋlster, who Marryed Maud, Sister to Henry Duke of Lancaster, and one of the Daughters of Henry Earl of Lancaster; and left issue Elizabeth their only daugh­ter and heir, wife of Lionel of Antwerpe, Duke of Clarence, third Son of King Edward the Third.

This Elizabeth de Clare had to her 2d. Husband Theobald, Lord Verdon; after whose decease she was the third time Married to Sir Roger Damory Baron of Armoy in Ireland. She Founded Clare Hall in Cambridge, and lyeth buryed by the same Sir Roger in the Church at Ware, with this Epitaph, Hic jacent Rogerus Damory Baro tempore Edwardi se­cundi, Weever, p. 544. & Elizabetha tertia filia Gilberti Clare Comitis Glocestrie & Johanne uxoris ejus filie Edwardi primi vo­cate Johann. de Acris…

Edw. Bysshe Esquire (now Sir Ed­ward Bysshe Knight, Cla­renceaux King of Armes) in Nicholaum Upton Notae, p. 63. repre­sents you with the Seal of this Ralph de Monthermer Earl of Glo­cester, &c. (much like that of Thomas Earl of Lan­caster, exhibi­ted in Page 102. of this 2 Book) on the one side of which he is represented on Horseback in his Coat of Maile and Surcoat. His Shield and the Capari­sons of his Horse are charged with an Eagle (his Armes being Or, an Eagle displayed, vert) and up­on his Horses head, and his Helmet is pla­ced the like Eagle (from which issueth his Mantleing or Lambre­quin) On his Counter-seal is a large Es­cocheon of the Eagle hanging on a Tree, betwixt two collateral Wivernes in the place of Supporters. Which Seal is Circumscrib'd on both Sides with these words, S. RADVLPHI: DE: MONTE: HERMER II: EOM: GLOV [...]RE: ET: HERTFORD: comprehending all those parts which make an A­chievement compleat, viz Coat of Armes, Healme. Creast, Mantling and Supporters. Which said Joane de Acres, after the death of Gilbert de Clare Earl of Glocester her first Husband, was Marryed to a Ser­vant of his named Ralph de Mountehermer, in the year 1296. which being done without the knowledge of her Father King Edward I.Ypodigmae Neustriae, p. 499. n. 28. this Ralph was committed to Prison in the Castle of Bristol, and all those Lands and Castles formerly made over to Earl Gilbert and Countess Joane, seized into the Kings hands. But by the Mediation of Anthony Bec Bishop of Dur­ham, Peace was made betwixt the King and His Daughter,Pat. An. 6 Ed. 2. p. 1. and her new Husband, and her Lands restored with advan­tage, and not long after Ralph summoned to Parliament by the Title of Earl of Glocester and Hertford, which he enjoyed till his Son in Law, Earl Gilbert de Clare came of Age, and had the same Honours; and afterwards in all Parliaments was sum­moned and sate as Lord Mounthermer, who by the said Joane of Acon or Acres had Issue two Sons Thomas and Edward de Mounthermer, Pat. An. 4 Edw. 2. pars prima to whom King Edward II. granted the Mannour of Warblington in general taile: Sir Thomas de Mounthermer Knight had issue his only Child Mar­garet, Marryed to John Mountague, by whom he had issue John Mountague Earl of Salisbury, from whom the Earles of Manchester and Sandwich, and Baron Mountague of Boughton derive their original. The Countess Joane lived 38 yeares, and deceased on the 10th day of May, An. 1305. in the first year of Her Brother King Edward II. Raign, and was buri­ed in the Church of the Augustine Fryers at Clare, Weever, p. 734. usq ad 739. in a Chappel of her Foundation. At whose Tombe that Dialogue in Latin and English, betwixt a Secular Priest and a Fryer is fancied to be spoken (exhibited in Weevers Funeral Monu­ments) [Page 143]containing the Lyneal descent of the Lords of the Honour of Clare.

The Armes of Brabant, are Sable, a Lyon Rampant, Or. 8. MARGARET Duchess of Brahant, Walsing­ham, fol. 94. Ypo­dig. Neu­striae, p. 499. n. 29. third Daughter of King Edward I. and Queen Elianor his first Wife, was born at Windsor in the third year of her Fathers Reign, An. 1275. when she came to be 15 years of age she was Marryed at Westminster, upon the 9th of July, Anno 1290. in the 18th year of her said Fathers Reign,Pat. An. 18 Edw. 1. to John II. Duke of Brabant, and had a Dower of 3000 pounds per Annum, and issue by him John III. Duke of Brabant, Father of Margaret, Wife to Lewis of Mechlin Earl of Flanders, and Mother of the Lady Margaret the Heire of Brabant and Flanders, who was Marryed to Philip Duke of Burgundy.

8. BERENGER, Fourth Daughter, dyed an Infant.

8 ALICE, Fifth Daughter, deceased in her Childhood.

Walsing­ham, fol. 94. 8. MARY, Sixth Daughter of K. Edward I. by Queen Elianor, was born at Windsor the 22th day of April, in the 7th year of her Fathers Reign, and of Salvation 1279. and at ten years of age, An. 1289. she took a Religious Habit in the Monastery of Ambresbury in Wiltshire, Pat. An. 20 Ed. 1. and An. 20 Edward I. I find her to be a Nun in the Abbey of Font-Euraud in Anjou.

8.Thomas Walsing­ham, fo. 94. Ypodig. Neustr. p. 499. n. 31. ELIZABETH, Countess of Holland and Hereford, In the 121 Page of this 3 Book is the Figure of this Countess Eli­zabeths Seal, Coppied out of Olivarius Uredius his Genealogia Flandrica, p. 80. in which her Portrai­ture stands betwixt 2 Col­lateral Esco­cheons. That on her right hand is charg­ed with a Ly­on Rampant, (the Armes of Holland being Or, a Lyon Rampant Gules) and that on her left with the 3 Lyons of England. The Seal be­ing thus Cir­cumscrib'd, S.ELISA­BET.CO­MITIS­SE: HOLLANDIE: ZELANDIE: ET: DOMINE: FRICIE. The Armes of Humphrey de Bohun Earl of Hereford, &c. were Azure, a Bend Argent, inter 2 Cotises, and 6 Lyons Ram­pant, Or. se­venth daughter of King Edward I. by Queen Elianor his first Wife, was born at the Castle of Ruthland in Flintshire, in the 13 year of her Fathers Reign, An. 1284. In the 14th year of her age she was Marryed at London to John, first of the name, Earl of Holland, Zealand, and Lord of Friesland (and had a Dower of 8000 l. per an.) who deceased within two years without issue, and made way for her second Husband Humphrey de Bohun Earl of Hereford and Essex, Ibidem. Lord of Brecknock and Constable of England, (who had no other Portion with her but the Kings fa­vour, which he before had lost by refusing to go with him into Flanders) by whom she had issue John and Humphrey, both Earles after their Father, and dyed without issue. Edward and William Twins,Parlia­ment, An. 3 H. 6. M. 1. & 2. art. 12. & sequent. vincent, p. 241. and two Daughters, Margaret de Bohun marryed to Hugh Courtney Earl of Devon, from whom did descend the Archbishop of Canterbury of that Surname, the Courtneys Earles of Devonshire, and Marquesses of Exeter, and the Courtneys of Haccombe and Powderham: And Elianor de Bohun the Wife of James Butler (Pincerna Hiberniae) Earl of Ormond, from whom the present Duke, Marquess and Earl of Ormond, and several of [Page 144]the Nobility of the Kingdom of Ireland, derive their des­cent.

William de Bohun, fourth Son of Humphrey Earl of Hereford, Chart. an. 11 Edw. 3. m. 24. n. 49. Claus. an. 14 Ed. 3; p. 2. m. 8. &c. by Elizabeth aforesaid, Daughter of King Edward I. was created Earl of Northampton upon the 16th day of March, An. 11 Edw. 3. and taking to Wife Elizabeth Daughter of Bartho­lomew de Badelismere Lord of Leeds Castle in Kent, had issue by her Humphrey de Bohun the last of that Surname, Earl of Nor­thampton after the death of his Father, and Nephew and Heire of Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Hereford and Essex, and Con­stable of England, whom he succeeded in all his Honours, and by his Wife Joan daughter of Richard Fitz-Alan Earl of Arun­del left two Daughters his Coheires marryed into the Royal Fa­mily, Elianor de Bohun the Elder espoused to Thomas of Wood­stock Duke of Glocester, and Mary de Bohun the younger was the Wife of Henry of Bullingbroke Earl of Derby (who in her right was created Duke of Hereford) afterwards King of England, by the name of Henry IV.

  • Of King Ed. I. and Qu. Elianor dyed in their Childhood.
    • 8. BEATRIX, the eighth daughter
    • 8. BLANCH, the ninth daughter.

Children of King EDWARD I. by Queen MARGARET of France his second Wife.

8. THOMAS of Brotherton, the Fifth Son of King Edward the First, and eldest by Queen Margaret, was Earl of Norfolk and Marshal of England, of whom see more in the VI. Chapter of this III. Book.

8. EDMOND of Woodstock, the Sixth Son of King Edward I. and second by Queen Margaret of France, was Earl of Kent, whose History followeth in the VIII. Chapter of this III. Book.

8. ELEANOR the Tenth daughter, and sixteenth Child of King Edward I. and only daughter of Queen Margaret, deceased in her Childhood.

8. EDWARD II.An. 1307. Iuly 7. KING of ENGLAND, LORD of IRELAND, and DUKE of AQƲITAINE, Surnamed of CAERNARVON.
CHAP. II.

AFter the death of John, Ypodigmae Neustriae, p. 499. n. 25. Henry, and Alphonso, The Armes of this Edward, when he was Prince of Wales, are Embossed up­on his Seal (delineated in the 122. Page of this third Book) upon one side of which He is represented on Horseback, His Shield and the Ca­parisons of His Horse being charg­ed with 3 Ly­ons passant guardant, and a file of 3 points. And upon the re­verse on a large Esco­cheon, are al­so 3 Lyons, with a Label of 5 Lambe­aux. Charta in Officio Ar­morum. Vide His Royal Seal in the same Page, differing from that of his Fa­ther only by the addition of 2 Castles, one on each side his Throne. The Armes of Is­sabel His Queen were Azure seme of Flowers de Lize Or, which are de­midiated with those of her Husband in one of her Seales, p. 121. and in her other Seal (there also exhibited) her Ef­figies is placed betwixt an Escocheon of the Armes of England on her right hand, and on her left a Shield, contain­ing the Armes of France, impaleing Navarre, Queen Joane her Mother being the Daughter and Heire of Henry the First, King of Navarre. the three eldest Sons of K. Edward I. and Queen Elianor of Castile his first Wife; this Edward their Fourth Son succeeded Him in the King­dom by the Name of EDWARD II. He had His Surname from Caernarvon in North-wales, the place of His Birth, where, by the appoint­ment of His Father, Queen Elianor was delivered of Him, (upon St. Markes Day, viz. the 25th of April, An. 1284.) who in his Charter upon the 24th day of March, Matth. West. p. 411. n. 52. Charta in Officio Armorum. dated in the 33th year of his Fathers Reign, is stiled Edwardus illustris Regis Anglie filius, Prin­ceps Wallie, Comes Cestrie Pontini & Montistrolli.

Never came Prince to the Crown with a more general applause of the Nobility and People, and not without reason; for He had seen the excellent Government of His Father, been initiated in the Principles of State, left Governour of the Kingdom, and presided in Parliament in His Fathers absence, and now succeeded to His Crown at 23 years old, a fit age for bearing the weight of a Scep­ter: These indeed were rare advantages, but soon lost He this good opinion, when by His Management of Affaires, He seemed to do nothing less then either to imitate His Father, or to performe those three positive Commands He had enjoyned Him by His Will;Ypodig­mae Neu­striae, p. 499. n. 47. Walsing­ham, p. 95. n. 41. for, in opposition thereunto, Gaveston is recalled from ba­nishment, and gratifi'd with the 32000 l. designed for the Holy Warr, and Walter de Langton, Bishop of Chester, the then Lord Treasurer, who was busie in preparing for the Burial of the deceas­ed King (for an old Grudg) Imprisoned at Wallingford.

His Fathers Funerals performed,Thomas Walsing­ham, p. 95 & 96. over He passes with His Gani­med to Boloigne, where His Marriage with Issabel the daughter of Philip IV. of the Name, surnamed Le Bell, King of France (Sister [Page 146]to the Lewis Hutin Philip le Long, and Charles le Bell also Kings of France) a Lady of 12 years old,Ibidem. Tho. de la Moore, p. 593. n. 4. Ibidem. was solemniz'd in the Church of our Lady, upon the V. of the Kalends of February (viz. the 28th day of January) 1307. and graced with the presence of 4 Kings and 3 Queens, besides the Bride, who having been His Wife twenty years, and His Widdow thirty, deceased in her great Climaterical year (viz. 63.) at Risings near London, the 22th day of August (an Inquisition Records it, upon Wednesday before the Feast of St. Bartholomew) in the 31 year of the Reign of Her Son King Edw. III. An. 1357. and was buried in the midst of the Choire of the Gray Fryars Church in London the 27th of Septem­ber following. At this Grand Solemnity Gaveston exceeds all the Company in Bravery and Richness of Attire, which vanity of his, together with his filling the Court with Buffoons and Parasites, so stings the Nobility,Escheatr. An. 32 E. 3. n. 43. that at the instant the King and Queen were to be Crowned, they require Gaveston might be removed from the Court and Kingdom, otherwise they would hinder His Coronati­on at that time; to avoid which disgrace He was forced to promise that what they desired should be performed the next Parliament,Walsing­ham, p. 96. n. 42. Tho. de la Moore, p. 593. n. 5. and so on the VII. of the Kalends of March (viz. the 23 day of February) An. 1307. He and His Queen were Crowned at West­minster, by the hands of Henry Bishop of Winchester (by Commis­sion from Robert Archbishop of Canterbury, Walsing­ham, p. 95. n. 25. being then in Exile) and the Solemnity performed with great hast, but little reverence, wherein Gaveston carrying St. Edwards Crown before the King, aggravates the hatred already conceived against him.

And accordingly in the next Parliament the Clergy and Nobili­ty procure his Banishment,An. 1309. and away he is sent into Ireland, Ibidem. p. 98. n. 2. & n. 12. Thomas de la Moore, p. 593. n. 27. Thomas de la Moore. p. 593. n. 9. where he lived not as an Exile, but as Lieutenant of the Country; yet the King never left working till He had recalled him again, and matched him with His Neece Margaret, the Daughter of Joane de Acres, and Sister to Gilbert de Clare Earl of Glocester, a man highly esteemed of the Nobility, hoping he might thereby find the more favour; but, such was his insolency, and the Kings immoderate bounty to him, that the Barons sent plain word to the King, that unless He put Gaveston from Him, they would rise against Him as a Perjur'd Prince, so that He is again forced to condescend to his se­cond banishment, and in Flanders he lives a while,Walsing­ham, p. 98. n. 45. but in great danger, and finding no where any security, back he returnes into the Kings bosome, by whom he is received with as great joy as ever, and to be the further out of the eye of Envy,An. 1311. is carryed with Him into the North parts: But the Barons with great Forces under the command of Thomas Earl of Lancaster follow Him, beseeching the King, either to deliver Gaveston into their hands, or send him and his Trayn out of England. An. 1312. The King withdrawes to Newcastle, but having notice of the strength of the Lords,Ibidem, p. 100. n. 59. & p. 101. n. 9. embarquing Himself there, lands at Scarborrow Castle, whereinto He puts Gaveston with the best Forces He could provide for his defence. The Earles of Pembrooke and Warren lay Siege to the Castle, which he surrenders, [Page 147]and begs he might once more speak with the King,Chap. 2. which Pembrook undertakes for;Edward II. but as he was going under Guard of some of the Earles servants, he is taken from them by the Earl of Warwick, committed to his Castle, and there notwithstanding the Kings earnest Solicitation for his life,Walsing­ham, p. 101 n. 50. &c. Beheaded.

The Barons having had their desires in this, with great Forces, as far as Dunstable on their way towards London, An. 1313. where the King then lay, urge the Confirmation of the Articles formerly granted; the great Prelates of the Kingdom, the Earl of Glocester, with two Car­dinals (sent expresly from the Pope to that purpose) labour a Reconciliation, which the King consenting unto, they yield to Him such Horses, Treasures and Jewels as they had taken from Ga­veston. And although the King in the next Parliament complains of the stubborness of His Barons, yet by the Mediation of the Queen, the Prelates, and the Earl of Glocester, they are not only brought to a Submission, and thereupon received into favour, but particular­ly pardoned for the death of His dear favourite Gaveston.

Walsing­ham, p. 103 n. 59. Thomas de la Moore, p. 594. n. 3. Whilst the State of England stood thus diseased at home,An. 1314, Ro­bert Bruce King of Scots, both recovers most of his own Country, and layes waste all the borders; so that King Edward awakened by the Complaints of His People, with most of the Nobility and especial Men of England, with an Army consisting of 100000 men enters Scotland (the Earles of Lancaster, Warwick Warren and A­rundel refused to go, for that the King protracted the execution of the aforesaid Articles) and near Striueling is this numerous Army defeated by the Scots, Walsing­ham, p. 103. n. 1, 2, &c. being the greatest overthrow given to Eng­land that ever it received.The Battel of Striveling. There dyed in this Battel Gilbert Earl of Glocester, Ibi occubuit Gilbertus co­mes Gloce­striae, quem Scoti liben­ter ad re­demptionem servassent si cognovissent, at vero is To­gam propriae Armaturae eo die induere neglexerat. Tho. de la Moor, p. 594. n. 32. the last of the surname of Clare (whose Body lay a­mong the dead for some time undiscovered, he having that day for­got to put on his Coat of Armes) the Lords,Thomas de la Moore, p. 594. n. 16. Mawle, Clifford and Tiptot, &c. and 700 Knights and Esquires; the slaughter of the common Souldiers was very great, though not so great as Hector Boetius speaks of, who saith they were 50000. Humphrey de Bohun Earl of Hereford, with many other persons of Quality, were taken Prisoners, The King Himself, with the Bishops, and some few of the Nobility escaped by flight. This sad disaster is accompa­nyed with a great Dearth, and so extreame a Pestilence, that for three years the Living could scarce bury the Dead.

Walsing­ham, p. 107 n. 18. Thomas de la Moor, p. 594. n. 45. This defeate put Scotland into Armes and Money,An. 1315. and King Ro­bert sent his Brother Edward Bruce with an Army into Ireland, whereof he got a great part, and the Title of a King, which he held for three yeares, whilst himself having Berwick betrayed unto Him, advances as farr as York, where he had like to have surprized the Queen.

Upon this a Parliament is called at London, Walsing­ham, p. 3. n. 25. & 57. Tho. de la Moor, p. 595. n. 1. wherein an Ayde of Men is granted against the Scots, An. 131 [...] London sets out 200 Men, Can­terbury 40, St. Albans 10, and so all other Cities and Borroughs according to their proportion. The King laid close siege to Bar­wick, and was in great probability of regaining the Town, (had [Page 148]not Lancaster (perceiving the Kings intentions of giving the keep­ing thereof to the Lord Hugh le Despenser, successor to the Office,Walsing­ham, p. 112. n. 7. and private favour of Gaveston) withdrawn himself upon discon­tent.An. 1319. York and the Countryes adjacent being the Seat of Warr, receiving inestimable damages by the Scots, raise an Army of 10000 men, and encounter them at Milton upon Swayle, but are defeated with the loss of 3000 Men, so that King Edward is forced to conclude a Truce for two years, and again returnes with dishonor from those parts.

Lancaster, An. 1320. since his deserting the King at Barwick, becoming the refuge of Male-contents,Walsing­ham, p. 113 n. 45. Thomas de la Moor p. 595. n. 8. at Sherborne with the Earl of Hereford, and divers other Barons, enters into a Confederation to procure the Banishment of the Spencers, Father and Son, as the Seducers of the King, and Oppressors of the State; and coming armed to St. Al­bans, by the Bishops of London, Salisbury, Hereford and Chichester, sent from the King to mediate a Peace, requires the banishing the Spensers, and Indemnity to themselves and adherents: But, not receiving a satisfactory answer, they advance to London, and lodge in the Suburbs, till they had the Kings leave to enter the City, where they renew their Demands, and by the mediation of the Queen and the Prelates obtain it: Hugh le Despenser the Father keeps beyond Sea where he then was, and Hugh the Son absconds in England to expect the returne of a better season.

Queen Issabel is in her progress denyed Lodging in the Castle of Leedes belonging to the Lord Badlesmere, An. 1321. which Indignity she com­plains of to the King,Ibidem, p. 114. n. 53. Tho. de la Moore, p. 595. n. 29. who thereupon besieges the Castle and takes it, hangs the Governour, sends Badlesmeres Wife and Children pri­soners to the Tower, and seizeth all his Goods and Treasure, and at Cicester Armes against the Barons; the Lords Audeley and Berkeley with many others, seeing the Kings Power increase, submit them­selves to Mercy,An. 1322. but are notwithstanding made Prisoners. Lan­caster and Hereford retreat Northwards,Walsing­ham, p. 115. n. 52. and at Burton upon Trent where they had made Head, are put to flight; and seeking to es­cape farther Northwards, are again encountred at Burrough-Brigg by Sir Simon Ward Sheriff of Yorke, and Sir Andrew Harkley Con­stable of Carlisle. The Earl of Hereford is slain in gaining the pass, and Thomas Earl of Lancaster and many other Lords are taken by Harkeley and brought to Pomfract, where the King Himself sitting in Judgment with His Brother Edmond Earl of Kent, the Earles of Pembrook and Warren, and Hugh le Despenser lately created Earl of Winchester; Lancaste is Sentenced to be Drawn,Tho. de la Moor, p. 595. n. 15 [...] Walsing­ham, p. 116 n. 33. Tho. de la Moor, p. 596. n. 20 [...]. Hanged and Quartered; but, in regard of his Princely blood, the rigor was in­dulged him, so that on the same day he was Beheaded before his own Castle of Pomfract: By the like Judgment were condemned the Lords Roger Clifford, Warrin Lisle, William Touchet, Thomas Maudit, Henry Bradborne, &c. and Executed at Yorke. Shortly after Henry Lord Teyes is taken, Drawn, Hanged and Quartered at London, and others of the Nobility were executed after the same manner in other places, to make it more exemplary over the King­dome. [Page 149]And, whilest the terror of this lasted, with a mighty Ar­my he marches again into Scotland, Walsing­ham, p. 117. n. 32.36. but returnes very unsuccessful­ly,An. 1323. and the Earl of Richmond is taken Prisoner. And now Misfor­tune makes Him have a sence of the death of the Earl of Lancaster, with which He upbraides His Counsellors,Ibidem, p. 118. and Sir Andrew Hark­ley who took the Earl Prisoner, and was therefore made Earl of Car­lisle, upon a suggestion of a correspondence with Scotland, was for­mally Degraded, Hanged and Quartered.

The King this Parliament requires a Subsidy for the Redempti­on of John of Britaine Earl of Richmond, but is denyed.An. 1324. The Bishop of Hereford is Arrested for aiding the Kings Enemies in the late Rebellion,Walsing­ham, p. 119. n. 32. but refuseth to answer, he being a Consecrated Bishop, and twise by the Archbishops of Canterbury, York and Dub­lin, and their Suffragan Bishops, with their Crosses erected, taken from the place of Judgment. Then the King causes enquiry to be made Ex Officio Judicis, where he is found guilty, and all his Goods and Possessions seized, which quite lost him the Clergy.

A Summons is now sent from France to King Edward, Ibidem. p. 120. to do Homage for Gascoigne, which He omitting, all His Territories are adjudged forfeited,Tho. de la Moore, p. 597. n. 37. and many places of importance seized by the French. Edmond Earl of Kent the Kings half-brother is first sent over, but could effect little, and therefore the Queen puts her self on for the Accommodation of the business,An. 1325. which She going over into France does, upon condition, that the Duchy of Aquitaine and the Earldome of Ponthieu should be given to Prince Edward, and he to do Homage for the same, which the King with great difficulty yielded unto, but Queen Issabel therein had Her desire, for then with the young Lord Mortimer Her Mignion, She has pri­vate Consultations, which being discovered to the King by the Bishop of Exeter, she is sent for back; but delaying her returne,Walsing­ham, p. 122. n. 16. Tho. de la Moore, p. 598. n. 15. Walsing­ham, p. 123. n. 19. she and her adherents are Proclaimed Enemies to the Kingdom, where, finding no great encouragement from Her brother the King of France, She applyes Her self to the Earl of Henault, to whose Daughter Philippa she contracts the Prince, and having got Men and Money, with the Earles of Kent and Pembrook, the Lord Mor­timer, and John brother to the Earl of Henault, with 2000 Heno­wayes and Flemings she arrives at Harwich, and to Her flock all the discontented Nobility and others, especially the Bishops of He­reford and Lincolne.

The King, upon notice of Her arrival, commands that none up­on pain of death should aide the Queen, but destroy all the Inva­ders, excepting only Her own Person, the Prince, and his brother Edmond Earl of Kent, and offers a 1000 l. for the Head of Roger Mortimer, and having committed the Ward of the Tower to His younger Son John of Eltham Earl of Cornwall, He departs toward the West, hoping there to have the same ayde He formerly had against the Barons, but finding none regard Him, after having put1326. Hugh le Despenser the Father into the Castle of Bristol with what [Page 150]Force He had, the King hides Himself first in the Isle of Lundy, and afterwards in the Abbey of Nesh. Tho. de la Moore, p. 599. n. 9. Walsing­ham, p. 124. & 125. Tho. de la Moore, p. 598. n. 50.

The Queen (whose Army daily increased) followes Him first to Oxford, and thence to Glocester, where the Lord Percy and other Ba­rons with the Northern Forces meet Her, thence to Bristol, which Castle She wins, and causes Hugh le Despenser, lately made Earl of Winchester, without forme or Tryal of Law, to be Drawn, Hanged and Quartered on the common Gallows in his Coat of Armes. This done she passes to Hereford, where Proclamation is made, that if the King would return and Govern as He ought; He should be received with the General Consent of the People; but He not daring to trust this offer, advantage is taken of making the Prince Guardian of the Kingdom, and hath Fealty sworn to him.

After which, it was not long ere King Edward was discovered, and by Henry Earl of Lancaster, brother to the late Earl Thomas, William Lord Zouch, and Rice ap Howel, conveyed to Kenelworth Castle. Hugh le Despenser the younger,Walsing­ham, p. 125. & 126. Thomas de la Moore, p. 599. n. 52. Ibidem. p 600. n. 12 Robert of Baldock the Chancellor, and Simon Reading are taken with Him; Glocester like­wise in his Coat Armour, on which was written Psalme 52. Quid gloriaris in malitia, to the Verse Ego autem sicut Oliva, is Drawn and Hanged on a Gallowes 50 Foot high: upon whose Execution a certain Author thus Versifieth,

Funis cum lignis, a te miser, ensis, & ignis
Hugo securis, equus, abstulit omne decus.

Reading was hanged 10 foot lower then Spencer, and Baldock be­cause a Priest Pined to death in Newgate. And a little before Ri­chard Fitz-Alan Earl of Arundel, John Daniel, and Thomas Mi­cheldene, at the instance of Mortimer are all three beheaded; In the mean time the Commons of London possess themselves of the Tower, and put to death Weston the Constable, and the Bishop of Exeter.

After a moneths stay at Hereford Queen Issabel returnes to Lon­don, Walsing­ham, p. 126. n. 30.40. & 50. where the Parliament being assembled agree to Depose the King, and Elect His Eldest Son Edward in His place, which He hearing refused, unless his Father would freely resign.Thomas de la Moore, p. 600. n. 40. Where­upon by common Decree, 3 Earles, 2 Bishops, 2 Abbots, 4 Ba­rons, the Knights of every Shire, and a certain number of Burgesses of every Citty and Borrough are sent to the Imprisoned King to Kenelworth-Castle, to require His Renuntiation; who being brought in Mourning Robes before the Assembly (and the Bi­shop of Hereford declaring the cause of their coming) as soon as His Passion would give Him leave, answered them, That as He was much grieved His People should be so hardened against Him,Ibidem, p. 601. n. 16. as utterly to reject Him, so it was some comfort to Him, that they would yet receive His Son to be their Soveraign:Ibidem. n. 21. After which William Trussel Speaker of the Parliament, in Name of the whole Kingdome Pronounced a Forme of renouncing all Allegiance to [Page 151] Edward of Caernarvon, which was the first example of a De­posed King; no less Dishonourable to the State, then to Him.

After His Deposing,Walsing­ham, p. 127. n. 37. he remained a Prisoner at Kenelworth-Castle, with an Allowance of 100 Markes a Moneth; but, not being thought safe enough under the Custody of his Cosin the Earl of Lancaster, Thomas de la Moor p. 601. n. 58. he is committed to other Guardians, the Lord Maltravers and Thomas Gourney, and removed to Berkeley-Castle, and thence to Corfe-Castle, and so carried up and down to disap­point his Friends, if any Plot should be laid for his Restauration; and, to disguise him the more, Gourney caused this miserable King in the open Fields to sit upon a Mole-hill whilst his Barber shav'd his head and beard with water out of the Ditch;Ibidem, n. 33. many other vile Reproaches these Villains put upon their Soveraign as they carryed him back to Berkley-Castle, where many wayes were attempted to take away his life,Ibidem, n. 10. by vexing him in his dyet, lodging him in a Chamber over Carrion, and also by Poyson, none of which succeed­ing, that Pestilent Achitophel, Adam Torleton Bishop of Hereford devised a Letter to his Keepers, blaming them for giving the King too much liberty,Ibidem. p. 602. n. 53. and for not performing the Service which was ex­pected from them, and finish'd his Epistle with this Line.

Edwardum occidere nolite timere bonum est.

Which admitting of a double construction, both the Keepers might find sufficient Warrant, and himself sufficient excuse; for, if you place the Point between nolite and timere it forbids: but, if between timere and bonum it exhorteth them to the committing of the Fact, in which Sense (guessing at Torletons meaning) they took it, and put it in execution;Walsing­ham, p. 127 & 128. Tho. de la Moor, p. 603. n. 29. for finding the King in bed, they stifled Him with heavy Boulsters, and not satisfied with that, heated an Iron red hot, and through a Pipe, thrust it up into his Fundament, that no marks of violence might be seen; but when the Fact was doing he was heard to roare and cry all the Castle over. The Queen and Bishop Torleton disavowing the Command,Ibidem. n. 39. threaten to question Gourney and Maltravers for the Kings death; who, in stead of the expectation of a Reward, are forced to fly beyond Sea, Gourney into France, from whence about three yeares after he was taken, and beheaded at Sea in his return for England; And Maltravers into Germany, Ypodigmae Neustriae, p. 508. where he had the Grace to Repent, but lived ever after miserably.

Thus dyed King Edward II. more then half a year after his De­posing,Walsing­ham, p. 126, 127, & 128. upon the 25th day of January, An. 1326. His Death, in the year 1326 (Wal­singham saith An. 1327.) and 43 of his Age, when he had Reign­ed 19 years, 6 moneths, and 18 dayes. His Body was carried to Glocester, and there without any Funeral Pompe buryed in the Mo­nastery of St. Peter (since a Cathedral) by the Benedictine Fry­ers, where King Edward III. His Son erected a Monument of white Stone, with His Portaiture thereon of Alablaster,See the Figure of His Tomb in the follow­ing Page. in the se­cond Arche, and on the North-side the Altar, betwixt two Pillars [Page 152]

Honoratissimo et Nobi­lissimo Domino, Dno: GEORGIO Baroni BERKLEY, Mowbray Segraue et Breuse de; Gower hanc Tumuli Regis EDWARDI Secundi, Figuram. H.D.D.D.F.S.

[Page 153]of the Tuscan-Order, about which (near to the Capitals) are painted the Figures of several Staggs, with which (as common Fame tells us) His Corps was drawn thither from Berkley-Castle: In the same place also the King His Father erected a Chantry to Pray for His Soul, &c. Nor did King Edward II. leave Posterity without remarkes of His Charity, having Founded Oriall Colledge, and St. Mary-Hall in Oxford, and built a Church for Fryers at His Ma­nour of Langley, where the Soul of Gaveston should be Prayed for.

Penes Eli­am Ash­mole Ar­migerum. Windsor. On His Royal Seal (the Figure of which is represented in the 121. Page of this Third Book) He used the same Circumscription as did His Father King Edward I. viz. ✚ EDWARDUS DEI GRACIA REX ANGLIE DOMINUS HIBERNIE DUX AQUITANIE, distinguishable from His Fathers Seal only by the Addition of two Castles, one on each side His Throne (Queen Elianor His Mother being of the Royal House of Castile and Leon) and some small difference in the Grate of the Kings Helmet. This Seal (of Green-Wax) is an­nexed to a Charter dated at Westminster upon the 20th day of No­vember, in the 14th year of his Reign, Anno Dom. 1320.

Children of King EDWARD II. by Queen ISSABEL of France His Wife.

9. EDWARD, the Eldest Son of King Edward the Second and Queen Issabel, after the Deposition and Death of His Fa­ther, succeeded him in his Kingdom by the Name of King Ed­ward III. vide the III. Chapter of this Third Book.

9. JOHN of Eltham Earl of Cornwall, John Earl of Cornwall did bear Gules 3 Lyons passant Guardant, Or, within a bor­der of France, which are Em­bossed and Painted upon the North-side the Tombe of Queen Phi­lippa Wife of King Edward III. and also upon his Shield in his Monument depicted in the following Page. Which Border was not only a Bri­zure to distinguish his Armes from those of King Edward III. his brother, but also to signifie his being descended from a Daughter of the Flowers de Lize, as was Queen Issabel his Mother. The Figure upon his Monument (there exhibited) is adorned also with a Diadem composed of a Circle of greater and lesser Leaves or Flowers, and is the most antient Portraiture of an Earl (in my observation) that hath a Coro­net. For the Effigies of Henry Lacy Earl of Lincolne, sometime lying on a fair Tomb in the East-end of St. Pauls Church, had the head encompassed with a Circle only, and that of William de Valence Earl of Pembrook (cover­ed with Copper) in St. Edmonds Chappel in Westminster-Abbey, hath only a Circle of the same Mettal enriched and embellished with Stones of several Collours, but without either Points, Raies or Leaves. second Son of King Ed­ward II. (so Surnamed from the Kings Manour-House of El­tham in Kent, Ypodigmae Neustriae, p. 502. n. 41. where Queen Issabel was delivered of him upon Assumption-day, An. 1315. in the 9th. year of King Edward II.) was in a Parliament held at Salisbury, Tho. Walsing­ham, p. 129. n. 7. An. 1328, and second year of the Reign of his brother King Edward the III. created Earl of Cornwall, at which time Roger Mortimer, and James Butler of Ireland were created Earles, the one of March, and the other of Ormond.

Upon the 25th of May, Apud Do­ver, Pat. an. 3 Ed. 3. pars 1. m. 16. Pat. an. 7 Ed. 3. pars 1. m. 17. Anno 3 Edw. 3. He was Constitu­ted Custos of the Kingdome of England, and the Kings Lieute­nant during his absence beyond Seas, &c. in the 7th year of whose Reign there were Proposals of a Marriage betwixt this Earl John and Joane the Daughter of Ralph Earl of Eu. [Page 154]

Nobilissimo et Potent. Dom̄: HENRICO Comiti de ARLINGTON Vicecomiti The [...] ford Baroni Arlington nec non Hos­pitij Dni Regis Car: IIdi. Cameraria, a secretioribus Consilijs, Nobilis­simi (que). Ordinis Garterij Equiti Tumuli hanc IOHANNIS Comitis Cornubia figuram H.D.FS.

HAVD FACILE EMERGVNT

[Page 155]The year following (viz. An. 1334.) there was also a Treaty of Marriage between him,Pat. a. 8 Edw. 3. pars. 1. and Mary Daughter to the Count of of Blois, neither of which taking effect, made way for a third, with Mary the Daughter of Ferdinand of Spain, Lord of Lara, which was agreed upon betwixt Blanch Countess of Savoy, Ibidem, pars. 2. in behalf of the said Lady Mary, on the one part, and this John of Eltham Earl of Cornewall on the other, Dated at London the 28th day of September, An. 1334. and confirmed by King Ed­ward III. upon the 30th day of the same Moneth.Pat. a. 8 Edw. 3. m. 26. This doubt­less had proved a Match had not the Obligation been Cancelled by the death of Earl John, which although it happened in the next Moneth, being October, yet deceased he at St. Johns-Town in the most remote part of Scotland: From whence his Corpes being brought into England, had a Solemn Interrment in St. Edmonds Chappel, on the South side of the Choire in West­minster Abbey; (for which the Prior and Convent claimed 100 pounds Fine, in lieu of horses and armour offered there upon the day of his burial) where his Tombe of White Stone with his Effigies of Alablaster lying thereon remains intire,Clausae de a. 27 E. 3. m. 27. in the forme expressed in the precedent Figure.

9. JOANE Queen of Scots, The Figure of this Joane Queen of Scots stood in a Niche on tue North-side the Tombe of Queen Phi­lippa Her Si­ster in Law, in Westminster. Abbey, under which on an Escocheon of Alablaster, her Armes are Carved and Painted, Being per Pale Scot­land and Eng­land, viz. Or, a Lyon Rampant within a double Tressure, flowry Counter-flowry, Gules: And Gules 3 Lyons passant guar­dant, or. eldest Daughter of King Ed­ward II. and Queen Issabel of France his Wife, born in the Tower of London, Ypodigma Neustriae, p. 510. n. 37. was, being yet a Child, Marryed at Barwick (on the 18th day of July, Anno 3 Edw. 3. in the year 1329.) to David Prince of Scotland, Son and heir apparent of King Ro­bert Bruce, whom, within halfe a year after he succeeded in the Kingdome at the age of seven years: Being the second King of Scotland of the name of David.

Queen Joane was his Wife 28 years, and being come into England to visit her Brother King Edward III. she deceased here without issue in the two and thirtieth year of his Reign, An. 1357. and was buryed in the Church of the Gray Fryars in London.

9. ELEANOR Duchess of Geldres, In 2 Niches on the South-side of the said Queen Phi­lippas Tombe sometime stood the Sta­tues of this Raynold Duke of Gel­dres, and Duchess Elia­nor his Wife in Alablas [...]er, long since de­faced, but there still remain the Escocheons of their Armes; The Dukes being, Azure, a Lyon Rampant queve forche, or, crowned proper. And the said Coat impaleing, Gules, 3 Lyons passant Guardant, or, under the Nich [...] where stood the Effigies of the Duchess Elianor. second Daughter of King Edward II. and Queen Issabel, was the second Wife of Reynald II. Earl of Geldres, Marryed to him with a Portion of Fif­teen Thousand pounds, Anno 1332. being the sixth year of the Reign of King Edward III. her Brother.

This Earl Reynald being Vicar-general of the Empire to the Emperour Lewis of Bavaria, he created him first Duke of Gel­dres. The Duchess Elianor had issue by him two Sons, Reynald [Page 156]and Edward, who were Dukes successively after their Father, and both dyed without issue. The latter of them leaving his Duchy and his Wife to his Nephew William Duke of Gulick, his half Sisters Son.

9. EDWARD III.Anno 1327. KING of ENGLAND, and FRANCE, and LORD of IRELAND, Surnmed of WINDSOR.
CHAP. III.

THis most Renowned King Edward III,The Seal of this Edward (in vita patris) be­ing of Green­wax, is annexed to a Grant, bearing date in the year 1325. An. 19 Ed. 2. upon the cir­cumferences on both sides thereof He is stiled, ED­WARDUS PRIMO­GENITUS REGIS ANGLIE DUX AQUITANIE COMES CESTRIE PON­TIVI ET MONTISTROLLI. The Figure of this Seal is exhibited in the 123. Page of this Third Book, on the one side of which He is represented on Horseback, with His Shield, Sur-coate, and His Horse Capari­zon'd: All which are charged with 3 Lyons passant guardant, and a Label of 3 Points: On the Reverse is a large Esco­cheon, on which are also 3 Lyons passant Guardant, with the distinction of a File of 5 Points. This Instrument is in the Library of Sir John Cotton Baronet, a Gentleman as generously free in communicating, as his Grandfather Sir Robert Cotton was curious in collecting those excellent Manuscripts, and rare Antiquities. Being King, Edward made use of 3 several Great Seals, upon the first of which (delineaed in the 123 Page of this 3d. Book.) He is figured on his Throne between 2 Collateral Flowers de Lize, to denote his descent from a Daughter of France. This Grant beares date at Roxborrow (in Scotland) the 16 day of January, An. 8 E. 3. and is in the Registry of Westminster-Abbey His Second Royal Seal affixed to a Deed dated at Windsor upon the 20th day of September in the 13 year of his Reign, An. 1339. differs materially from the former only in this particular, That the King on his Throne is seated betwixt 6 Ly­ons passant guardant, on each side 3, all respecting His Royal Seat. The Circumscriptions on both these Seals are the same with those of Ed. 1. and Ed. 2. his Grandfather and Father, viz. EDWARDUS DEI GRATIA REX ANGLIE DOMINUS HIBERNIE ET DUX AQUITANIE. This Instrument is in the Chamber of the Duchy of Lancaster; and the Figure thereof is delineated in the 122. Page of this Third Book. The Figure of His Third Great Seal represented in the 124 Page of this Third Book, in which He is stiled EDWARDUS DEI GRATIA REX FRANCIE ET ANGLIE ET DOMI­NUS HIBERNIE is affixed to a Charter dated at Westminster upon the second day of May, in the 15 year of His Reign of England, and of France the Second; in which Seal He leaves out the Title of Duke of Aquitaine, it being immerged in His new assumed Title of King of France. On one side thereof the King is represented on his Throne with a Scepter in His Right Hand, and a Globe on His Left, betwixt two collateral Escocheons of France and England, Quar­terly The same Quartering is also upon His Shield, Surcoat, and Caparizons of His Horse on His Counterseal; and so careful have the Kings his Successors been ever since in Marshalling the Armes of both Kingdoms in the same shield, that when Charles VI. King of France changed the Semee Flowers de Lize, into Three, our King Henry V. did the like, and so hath it continued ever since. As Edward III. was the first of our Kings, who Quartered Armes in His Seal, so was He the first King that on His Counter­seal represents you with a Crest, being a Lyon passant guardant crowned upon a Chapeau, with which His Figure on Horseback is adorned, and which our succeeding Monarchs down to Edward VI. inclusive, have continued in their Royal Seals. And furthermore we must observe, that in the Margin of this Counterseal, near to the point of the Kings Sword, is represented the Hand of Justice, being an Ensign of Royalty peculiar only to the Kings of France; for although the Monarchs of the Lillies carry in their Right Hands a Scepter of Gold (which is common to other Princes) yet in the other they bear The Hand of Justice, being a Rod of a Cubit in height, having on the top thereof a Left Hand wide open, of Ivory, pure white, framed out of the Tooth of the Elephant, which among all four-footed Beasts is observable for his Devotion and Piety, love to his Governors, and also for his Equity: The reason why the Left Hand is here preferred before the Right, is said to be because that the Left Hand not being employed to the working of many dishonest actions, or violent, without art, deceipt, or industry, is much more proper to represent and signifie the Rudder or Sterne of Justice, than the Right Hand: Most aptly therefore was this Hand of Justice placed at the point of King Edwards Sword (in His Counterseal,) seeming to intend, that as the Sword of Force in the Right Hand of Power, was to be used in obtaining that Kingdom; yet that Sword only pointed out to the hand of Justice, for the Rule and Government thereof. You may find this hand so placed in the Counterseals of His Successors Richard II. and Henry IV: Henry V. omitted it in His Seal, and Conquering France, both placed that Crown on the Head; and the French Scepter, and this Rod of Justice in the Hands of his Son and Successor King Henry VI., was the Eldest Son of K. Edward the Second,Scevole & Louis de Saincte Marthe. Liv. VII. Chap. IV. and of Queen Issabel his VVife, Daughter to Philip IV. Surnamed the Faire, King of France (whose sons Lewis, Philip and Charles, all Kings of France successively) dying without Issue-male, this Prince challenged the Crown of France as the next Heir-male thereunto, in the Right of his said Mother.

He was born in Windsor-Castle upon the 13th day of November, being Monday, in the year 1312.Claus. 6 Ed. 2. m. 22. in dorso. Pat. a. 19. Edw. 2. p. 1. m. 25. Tho. Wal­singham. p. 102. n. 33. Claus. de eodem, An. m. 28. in Dorso. E. Biblio­theca Cottonia­na. Claus. 20 Ed. 2. m. 3. Dorse. An. 6 Ed. 2. who on the se­cond day of September, in the 19th year of his Reign, first gave to this Edward, his Heires and Successors Kings of England, jure haereditario imperpetuum, the Counties of Ponthieu and Monstroile, and on the 10th day of the same Moneth (at Dover) Granted to him the Dukedome of Aquitaine, and all the Lands he had, or ought to hold in the Kingdome of France, for which (passing in­to France) he did his Homage to that King. In His Charter da­ted upon the Sunday before Christmass-Day, An. 1325. He is stiled Eddouart fuis ainzne du Roy d' Angleterre Duc d' Aquitaine Conte de Cestre & de Pontyu.

Shortly after his return into England he was unanimously Chosen Custos of the Kingdome (the King his Father being fled into Wales) not long after which followed his Fathers Resignation of the Crown, upon which great preparations were made for this young Princes Coronation, which was Solemnly performed at Westmin­ster, Tho. Wal­sing. p. 127. n. 18. by Walter Archbishop of Canterbury, upon the first day of Fe­bruary, An. 1327. An. Dom. 1327. so that he began his Reign not at the Death, but Deposition of his Father, which so great a crime can in no wise be attributed to this King, being then but 14 yeares of age; the whole cause of that horrid blame too apparently remaining upon the Queen His Mother, and her Minion Roger Lord Mortimer (though Countenanced by a Parliament, and forced Resignation) who usurped all to themselves; notwithstanding, for meer shew of the contrary, Twelve especial Men are Elected to manage the Af­faires till the King was fit to Govern of Himself. VVhereupon, to busie the present Times, and uphold this Change, an Expedition is immediately set on foot for Scotland, wherein all the Hainowayes and other strangers still retained with the Queen,Ypodigma Neustriae p. 509. n. 50. since her last re­turn from France and Hainault are principally employed, under the conduct of John Lord Beaumont; which being very much disgust­ed by the English, a Commotion is raised, some Blood spilt, and the Tumult hardly appeased. At Stannop-Parke,Tho. Wal­singham, p. 127. n. 46. in the Bishoprick of Durham both Armies met, where the English, though thrice the greater in number, could not be said to have obtained the Victory, the Scots all without hurt escaping, by Treason of some of the En­glish great ones, as is more than probably suspected.

In the year also 1327,Ypodig. Neustriae p. 510. n. 13. King Edward's Marriage is Solemnized at York, In a South-Window of St. Mary Bothaw Church near London-stone, (An. 1665.) stood in painted Glass an Escocheon of the Armes of Q. Philippa, viz. Or, 4 Lyons ram­pant in quadrangle, the first and fourth Sable, the second athird Gules, impaled with Gules 3 Lyons passant guardant, or, set up in that Window before King Edward III. Quartered the Armes of France: But afterwards I find them impaled in diverse Windows with France and England Quarterly. Upon Her Privy Seal of Red-Wax (See the Figure thereof, p. 124.) is this Circumscription, SECRETUM: PHILIPPE: DE: DANONIA: REGI­NE: ANGLIE: about a Shield charged with the Armes of England and Henault Quarterly. This Indenture beares date at Westminster, the 24 day of June, An. 33 Ed. 3. and is in my custody. The like Armes of this Queen are in a Window of Leyer Church in Leicestershire: And I find that Q. Anne Wife to King Richard II. Quartered Her Armes with the Armes of France and England; but neither of these being Heires, these two Examples do absolutely thwart the true Rule for Quartering of Armes. with Philippa the Third daughter of William Earl of He­nault [Page 159](she was Crowned at Westminster on the first Sunday in Lent in the same year) Sister to William IV. of the name,Walsingh. p. 129. n. 28. Scevole & Louis de St. Marthe Tome 1. p. 451. Tho. Wal­singham, p. 128. n. 16. Earl of Hol­land and Henault, slain by the Frisons, without lawful issue, and to Margaret of Henault VVife of the Emperour Lewis of Bavaria. Her Mother was Joane the eldest daughter of Charles Count of Valois, younger Son of Philip the Hardy King of France, and Sister to King Philip de Valois; notwithstanding which Alliance she pro­ved a most constant, and true-hearted Lover of the English Nati­on, and highly assisted King Edward III. her husband in the prose­cution of his claime to the Crown of France, being a Lady of great honour and virtue.

During this time the Deposed King Edw. II. is Murdered in Berkley Castle by the Lord Maltravers and Thomas Gourney; Thomas de la Moor. p. 602. n. 53. The Murderers, though they had a Commission, and great hopes of a reward, yet not daring to avow so monstrous a Fact fled their Coun­try. Gourney is three yeares after taken in France, Ibidem, p. 603. n. 39. and being upon his return for England is put to death at Sea, least by his arrival more of the Villany might be revealed; though before Divine Justice had sufficiently fallen, and was still lighting, not only on the heads of the Contrivers themselves, but the whole Kingdome. A Parli­ament is held at Northampton, where a most dishonourable Peace is made with the Scots, the King quits His Interest in that Kingdome, delivers up the Evidence called Ragman-Roole, the Black Cross of Scotland, together with all Fealties and Homages whatsoever, &c. and in a Parliament at Winchester, An. 1329. Edmond Earl of Kent is accused to have endeavoured the Restauration of the late deposed King his Brother,Ypodigma Neustriae, p. 510. n. 38. for which he is condemn'd, and lost his head.

Another Parliament is held at Nottingham, where, on the contra­ry,An. 1330. the Power of the Queen and Mortimer are quite pluckt up by the rootes,Ibidem, p. 510. n. 52. she reduced to the maintenance of 1000 l. per annum. Mortimer accused of the Kings Death, The Scots escape at Stanhop Parke, The young Kings late Marriage with Philippa of Hainalt, The dishonourable Peace with the Scots, To have wasted the Treasure of the Kingdome, and been too familiar with the Queen, for which he is Condemn'd, sent up to London, and hang'd at Ty­burne.Ibidem, n. 57. Thus did this Noble young Prince (being now arrived at somewhat more maturity of years) begin to wipe out the staines which during His Minority had blemished the State of His King­dome.

Notwithstanding upon the Coronation of the new King of France, He being Summoned to do Homage for the Dukedome of Guien, and other Lands which He there possessed, was about this time induced to render this Homage at Amiens, according to the arrogant demands of the King of France, with more then due or decent submission, for which, in short time after, the new Sove­raign and His whole Nation paid severely. For full of indignation, and swolne for Revenge, He returnes for England, Ypodigmae Neustriae, p. 511. n. 31. where first a fit occasion is offered Him to rectifie the abuse He had received by the late ill concluded Peace with Scotland; An. 1332. Edward Baliol now ap­pearing [Page 160]out of France to question His Right to that Crown, from which His Father John had 32 yeares before been unjustly Depo­sed, with whom he goes against Barwick, and after three Moneths siege took it, and the Scots Army, which came to its reliefe,Hollin­shed Chr. p. 350. a. utter­ly defeated at Hallydowne Hill;Battel of Hal­lydown-Hill. An. 1334. where were slain 7 Earls, 90 Knights and Bannerets, 400 Esquires, and about 32000 Common Souldi­ers. The year following King Edward Baliol doth His Homage to the King of England, Ypodigma Neustria, p. 511. n. 60. and takes His Oath of Fealty for Himself and His Successors for ever, delivering up several Counties adjacent to the borders, that thereby He might for the future secure Himself with more quiet, with which His own Subjects were not so con­tented, but often rebelled; against whom, K. Edward of England went as often in Person, and never returned but with Victory. Scotland being thus quieted for some yeares, gave King Edward opportuni­ty to look towards France, which afterwards became the Scene of all His Martial Glory. For Robert d' Artois (a Prince of the Blood, and near Kinsman to Philip VI. King of France, Surnamed of Va­lois) being discontented at the Sentence, wherein King Philip had given the Earldome of Artois from him to Maud Countess of Bur­gundy, let fall some dangerous words, and they being laid hold on, force him into England, where he is honorably received,Froiss. Chron. Lib. 1. Chap. 28. and ad­vises King Edward to set on Foot His Claime to the Crown of France, An. 1337. whereunto he is easily inclined, and by the advice and as­sistance of His Father in Law the Earl of Henault, Confederates with the Dukes of Brabant and Geldres, the Archbishop of Cologne, and other Princes of Germany, and from the Emperor Himself ob­tained to be made Vicar General of the Empire. The Flemings also, by Jaques d' Artuell a Citizen of Gaunt, Ibidem, Chap. 29. are wrought to His Party, who were ready to assaile the French upon all occasions, so that having thus prepared his Confederates abroad, all meanes are devised to raise Money at home, which by a Parliament held at Northampton is by diverse ways effected with which He, His Queen,Ypodig. Neustriae, p. 513. n. 19, & 32. and Children go for Flanders, An. 1338. and reside at Antwerp, where by the perswasion of the Flemmings He takes upon Him, the Stile, Title, and Armes of the king of France, that they might thereby justifie the Oath which they had formerly made, never to bear Armes against the King of France; standing ingaged also in the Popes Chamber in Two Millions of Florens upon the same account. King Edward therefore upon His return into England, delivers His New Great Seal to Sir John de St. Paul in the Cage-Chamber at Westmin­ster, See His d3 Great Seal, p. 124. An. 1339. upon the First day of March in the year 1339.Claus. 14. Edw. 3. p. 1. m. 42. dorso. An. 14 Ed. 3. on both sides, thus Circumscribed, ✚ EDWARDUS DEI GRACIA REX FRANCIE ET ANGLIE ET DOMINUS HIBERNIE.The first ex­ample of the Quartering of Arms is found in Spain when the Kingdomes of Castile and Leon were united under Ferdinand III. and here followed by King Edward III. by Quarter­ing the Armes of France and England, An. 1338. And afterwards in the year 1349, Humbert the last Dauphin of Viennois enjoyned Philip of Valois King of France, when he granted him that Dauphinate or Province, that the eldest Son of the French King should for ever bear the Title of Dauphin, and quarter the Armes of the Dauphinate with those of France. But in a Charter to which the said Seal is affixed,Ex Regi­stro West­monasteri­ensi. He is stiled Edwardus dei Gratia Rex [Page 161]Anglie & Francie & Dominus Hibernie, Teste 2do Die Maii, Anno Regni nostri Anglie quinto decimo, Regni vero nostri Francie secundo; Giving England precedence in the Charter, and France in the Seal, on which the King is represented sitting on his Throne, holding His Scepter and Globe betwixt 2 Collateral Escocheons, each contain­ing the Armes of France and England quarterly, which Armes are also upon His Shield, Surcoat, and the Caparizons of His Horse, in the Counter-Seal.

The preparations of the French King were in all respects equi­valent both at home and abroad, so that they Warr upon the bor­ders of each others Countryes: King Edward sets upon Cambray, and King Philip seizeth on the Dutchy of Guyen; a great Navy he had at Sea, which committed much Spoil upon the Coasts of Eng­land: King Edward enters France by the way of Vermandois, and the Armies of both Kings lodge between Viron Fosse and la Flemen­guere, where they only face each other, and withdraw, the French King to Paris, and the King of England into Brabant; from whence (leaving His Queen there) He returnes for England, Ypodigma Neustriae p. 513. n. 40. and finding the Tower of London unguarded (with which He is highly offend­ed) He sends for the Lord Mayor of London, whom He command­ed to bring before Him the Chancellor and Treasurer, with the Offi­cers of His Receipt, commits them all to Prison (except the Chan­cellor) as He did diverse other Officers of Justice and Accompt­ants, upon inquiry made of their unjust proceedings.

In Lent following He called a Parliament at London, Ypodig. Neustriae p. 513. n. 42. wherein a great Subsidy is granted Him of all sorts of Merchandable Commodi­ties, &c. And much about the same time William Montague Earl of Salisbury, Tho. Wal­singham, p. 148. n. 2. Ypodigma Neustriae, p. 514. n. 7. and Robert Ʋfford Earl of Suffolke, left in Flanders to oppose the proceedings of the French, having performed diverse great exploits with happy success, and presuming overmuch upon their fortune, were in an incounter about Lisle both taken prisoners and sent to Paris, which so encouraged the French King, that to im­pede the return of King Edward, Tho. Wal­sing. p. 148. n. 35. he sets forth a mighty Navy, con­sisting of 200 Saile of Ships, besides Gallyes;Anno 1340. whereof King Ed­ward having advise, with as numerous a Fleet sets out to Sea, and on Midsummer-day encounters His Enemy near Sluce, with such force and courage, that He utterly defeated their whole Navy, took or sunk all their Ships, slew 30000 Men, and Landed there with as great Glory, as such a Victory (the greatest at Sea that ever before by the English was obtained) could yield.

This loss, though it much abated the power of the French King, yet with great industry it is soon supplyed, so that out of His own Dominions and those of His Confederates, He makes a mighty head against this Victorious King of England, who now lay before Tourney with His whole Army,Tho. Wal­singham. p. 149. n. 21. Tho. Wal­singham p. 149. n. 29. who from Chyn sends his Chartel, July 17, to Philip de Valois at St. Andrews les Aire, both places not far distant from Tourney, Declaring, That He was come with the Power of His own Kingdom, and Aid from the Flemings, to recover His due Right to France, which since He could obtain by no other [Page 162]means then the Sword, to avoid the shedding of Christian blood, seeing the business was betwixt them two, He offers to try the same by Combate in Close Campe, Body to Body,Ibidem, p. 149. n. 34. or with 100 choice Men of a side, or to strike Batrel within ten dayes after, before the City of Tourney.

Upon the last day of July the King of France returned his An­swer,Tho. Wal­singham, p. 149. n. 37. That whereas those Letters and requests appeartained not to him, and so from him required no answer: But, since that contrary to his Oath and duty of a Liege-man he had with his Forces inva­ded the Territories of his Liege-Lord; by the Divine assistance he would endeavour to beat Him out, and make Him a weary of the War which He had so unjustly begun, and, as their History reports, added, That King Edward by His Chartel, adventured nothing of His own, but only exposed the Dominion of another, but if He would venture the Kingdom of England against that of France, he would enter Combate with Him in close Camp, on Condition the Victor should enjoy both, but that they say King Edward would not do. Three Moneths the Siege continued before Tourney, and nothing done but devastation of the Country thereabouts, when Jone de Valois sister to King Philip, and Mother of Queen Philip­pa, leaving her Monastery, never rested, though often denyed by both the enraged Kings, until she obtained a day and place of parley; whereupon a Truce for a year is concluded.

This sudden Truce thus condescended unto by King Edward, had indeed no other motive than want of Supplies, which notwith­standing the aforesaid great Impositions,Tho. Wal­singham, p. 150. n. 13. came short of His expecta­tion, upon which (with his Queen, and two of his Sons) he re­turnes for England, from whence he had now been absent 3 yeares, where in great displeasure He removes His Chancellor, Imprisons his Treasurer, with other Officers (most of them Clergy-men) and still held them in durance;Ibidem, p. 1 [...]2. n. 17. n. 57. & p. 154. n. 31. Walsing­ham, p. 154. n. 37. whom John Stratford Archbishop of Canterbury, by his Letters to the King boldly undertakes to vin­dicate, to whom, upon examination of the matter, the neglect of the Kings Supplies is in all Mens Judgment imputed.

Shortly after the King is much pressed in Parliament, and earnestly Petitioned by the whole Assembly of the Three Estates, that the Great Charter of Liberties, and the Charter of Forests might be duly ob­served, and that whosoever of the Kings Officers had infringed the same might lose their Places, and that as in formers times, the High-Officers of the Kingdom should be Elected in Parliament. The King stood stiff upon His own Choice and Prerogative, yet yielded (in regard to have His own turne served, as Himself afterwards con­fessed) whereupon a Statute was to that purpose made, but not long after revoked.

The Truce agreed upon before Tourney yeilded some Cessation of Armes,Anno 1342. but not plotting more mischief;Ypodigma Neustriae, p. 514. n. 58. Ibidem, p. 515. n. 3. for Lewis de Bavaria, Intituled the Emperor, is won to the French King, but in stead of so remote a Confederate, Fortune brought another out of their own Country unto us. A Controversie is there raised between [Page 163] Charles de Blois, and John de Montfort for the Duchy of Bretague, and by the Parliament of Paris adjudged to Blois, whereupon Montfort enraged comes for England, Tho. Wal­singham p. 160. n. 37. and tenders his Homage to King Edward, who receives him with Applause; and, however his Title is looked upon in France, it is here made good. Furnish­ed therefore with some assistance from King Edward, he returnes for Bretagne, encounters with his Enemy, and is taken Prisoner, whereupon his Wife, Sister to the Earl of Flanders, prosecutes his Quarrel, craves Aide of the King of England, which, for his own Designes sake he denies her not, but sends the Earles of Salisbury, Pembrooke and Suffolke, the Lords Stafford, le Despenser, and Bour­chier, together with Robert d'Artois (now Earl of Richmond) with great Forces to the Ladies assistance,Ypodig. Neustriae, p. 515. n. 7. where at the Siege of Vannes Robert receives his last wound, but dies in England, after he had served the English six yeares.

After which King Edward goes thither in Person,Tho. Wal­singham, p. 160. n. 19. and before Vannes endeavours to encounter the Duke of Normandy, eldest Son to King Philip, but before they come to Engage, a Truce is made betwixt then by the Mediation of two Cardinals sent thither by Pope Clement the Sixth,Ypodigm [...] Neustriae, p. 514. n. 52. and concluded for three yeares. The Isle of Man about this time is taken by William Montague Earl of Sa­rum, whom King Edward causeth to be stiled King thereof.

Many Solemn Tournaments,An 1344. and other Exercises of Warr are performed at Dunstable and Smithfield, but more especially at Windsor, where King Edward designed the Restoration of King Arthur's Round Table, Tho. Wal­sing, p. 164. n. 33. in imitation of which He caused to be erect­ed a Table of 200 Foot Diameter, where the Knights should have their entertainment of Dyet at His Expence, amounting to 100 l. per Week. In Emulation of these Martial Associations at Wind­sor, King Philip of Valois practised the like at his Court in France, to invite the Knights and valiant Men of Armes out of Italy and Al­main thither,Ibidem, [...]. 1344. least they should repair to King Edward, which, meet­ing with success, proved a Countermine to King Edward's Main Design, who thereby finding that His Entertainment of Stranger Knights was too general,Samuel Daniel History, fol. 233. and did not sufficiently oblige them His in the following Wars, at length resolved on one more particular, and such as might tie those whom he thought fit to make His Asso­ciates, in a firm bond of friendship and honour.

Order of the Garter Institu­ted. Wherefore having given forth his own Garter for the Signal of a Battel that sped fortunately (which with du Chesne we conceive to be that of Cressy, Histoire General d'Engle­terre; &c. p. 670. fought three yeares after his setting up the Round Table at Windsor) he thence took occasion to institute this Order, and gave the Garter (Assumed by him for the Symbol of Unity and Society) preheminence among the Ensignes thereof, whence that select number (being Five and twenty besides the Sove­raign) whom he Incorporated into a Fraternity, are frequent­ly stiled Equites Periscelidis, vulgarly Knights of the Gar­ter.

The Patron of this Order is St. George, on whose day (viz. the 23d of April) their Feast is kept, from whom they are also called Knights of the Order of St. George. For Satisfacti­on in all parti­culars con­cerning this Order, I re­fer my Reader to that labori­ous and excel­lent History in Folio, written by Elias Ash­mole Esquire, Winsor He­rald, Intituled, The Instituti­on, Lawes and Ceremonies of the Most No­ble Order of the Garter, Printed at London, An. 1672. Their Habit is a Surcoat of Crimson Velvet, Hood of the same, and a Mantle of Purple Vel­vet lined with white Sarcenet, on the left shoulder whereof is an Escocheon of the Armes of St. George, (viz. Argent a Cross Gules) embroydered within a Garter, with the Motto, Hony soit qui mal y pense. About the neck they weare a Collar of Gold, compo­sed of red Roses within the Garter, and Knots, inamelled, appen­dant unto which is the Figure of St. George on Horseback killing the Dragon, enamelled also and enriched with Stones of great value: And about the left Leg a Garter, the Buckle and Pendant of Gold Enamelled, and set with Diamonds, the Garter enrich­ed with Gold, Pearle, and other Stones, with the Motto before mentioned.

Besides these Exercises of Armes, this great and provident King during this Truce takes especial care for the Government of His Kingdome, and Reformation of the abuses thereof, a Parliament at Westminster is called, wherein upon the Grievous Complaint of the Lords and Commons,Ypodigma Neustriae, p. 515. n. 13. against the Collation of Benefices upon Strangers, Letters are sent to the Pope by Sir John Shordich, whose reception in that Court was so unwelcome, that from thence he re­turned without regard or Answer, which notwithstanding the King proceeded to the prohibition of all such Provisions and Collations within His Realme, upon pain of Imprisonment and Death to whomsoever should for the future admit any such person or per­sons.

In another Parliament held at London, Anno 1344. a Tenth is granted the King by the Clergy,Ypodigma Neustriae, p. 515. n. 50. Tho. Wal­singham, p. 164. n. 55. and a Fifteenth by the Laity for one year. Edward the Kings Son is created Prince of Wales, and General Musters taken throughout the Kingdome. The King Himself goes to confirm the Flemmings unto him, at Sluce; whereunto their Commissioners from their Chief Towns repaire, where a motion is made, that either Lewis their Earl should become a Homager to King Edward, or be disinherited, and the Prince of Wales Elected, for the King Promised to Grace them with a Dukedom; one d' Artuel is forward to entertain the Motion, but the rest not wil­ling to disinherit their natural Lord, require leave to acquaint the Towns that sent them. D'Artuel undertakes to bring them to it, and with a Guard of Welshmen returnes to Gaunt, where one Gerard Denis Provost of the Weavers opposing him, and the Peo­ple, whom he had often led to Mutiny now rising against him, a Cobler with an Axe knockt out his braines, whereby King Ed­ward lost his chief Agent: However the Townes excused them­selves of the Accident, laying the fault on the turbulent Gauntois, promised to perswade the Earl to become homager, and to en­deavour a Match between the Earles Son and the Kings Daughter, the League thus renewed, he returnes for England.

But now in Guyen the War grew hot,An. 1345. the Sword out before the [Page 165]Truce expired, the Earl of Derby on one side, and the Duke of Normandy on the other take several Castles,Tho. Wal­singham, p. 165. n. 20. Ypodigma Neustriae, p. 516. n. 11. Ypodigma Neustriae, p. 516. n. 46. and Citties, whereof the French King layes the blame on the King of England, and He the same on him, neither it seems any longer holding their hands from the fatal work of destruction.

Wherefore upon the fifth of July, An. 1346.An. 1346. with the greatest Fleet that ever crossed the English Seas for France, He passes over into Normandy (leaving for Wardens of England in His absence the Lords Percy and Nevil, taking the Prince with Him, about Fif­teen yeares of Age, to shew him the way of Men. Upon His land­ing he divides his Army into Three Battels, the one Marched on His right hand along the Sea-side,Tho. Wal­singham, p. 166. n. 23. the second on his left (both which were conducted by his Marshals Godfrey de Harecourt, and Thomas Earl of Warwick) and Himself with the third in the mid­dle. The first Town He took was St. Lo in Constantine, next Caen, after which he plunders Lisieux, and spoils the Country of Eureux, and leaving Roan, he passes to Gaillon and burnt it, with Vernon, Pont de l'Arche, and all the Country thereabout, having overrun and wasted Normandy and Bretagne, he passes the River Seyne, and spreads His Power over the Isle of France, to urge King Philip to Combate, giving out, that He would Wrestle with him before His Capital Citty of Paris.

King Edward having staid sometime at Poissy to expect the French King, Marches through Beauvoysin Burning and destroying all before him, the Castle of Angiers and Town of Porke run the same fate;Thomas Walsing­ham, p. 166. n. 27. and, drawing near to Abbevile, he endeavours to passe the River of Soame at Blanchtaque, the Foord was guarded on the other side by 12000 Soldiers, commanded by Sir Gomar du Foy, which King Edward resolves to gain, or dye in the Attempt, and so He plunges Himself first into the Water, saying, Those will follow me that love me; whereupon every one striving which should be foremost, the Pass was gained, and the routed Enemy driven to Abbevile.

There lay King Philip with his Army,Thomas Walsingh. p. 160. n. 32. composed of Lorrainois, Almaines, Genowaies and French: Inraged at this defeat, and resol­ved (though against the consent of his Counsel) to fall immediate­ly upon the English with an assured hope of a Triumphant Victory; when King Edward Fortifying himself near a Village called Cressy in Ponthieu, formed his Army, consisting of 30000 Men,Battel of Cres­sy, An. 1346. Aug. 26. into three Battels, the first of which was led by the Prince of Wales, the se­cond by the Earl of Northampton, and the third by himself, mount­ed on a white Hobby; who rid from Ranke to Ranke to encourage every Man to have regard to his honour.

The French Kings Army, both greater in number and advantage, compos'd of above 60000 Combatants well Armed, were also di­vided into three Battels, the Vanguard he commits to his Brother, the Rereward to the Earl of Savoye, Ypodig. Neustriae, p. 517. n. 21. and the Main Battel he leads; after a long and doubtful fight, the Victory remains on the English side, and the honour of the day to the Prince of Wales; there [Page 166]being slain on the French part near 30000. the Chief of which were, John King of Bohemia, the Duke of Lorraine, the Dau­phin of Viennois, the Earles of Alanson, Flanders, Harcourt, Blois, and St. Paul, &c. Barons, Knights, and Gentlemen 1500. This Memorable Victory happened on Saturday the 26 day of August, An. 1346. The French King fled to Bray-Castle with Five Ba­rons only, and thence to Amiens. Several Troops coming to the Kings Supply on the next morning, fell also into the hands of the English and were cut off: so that according to report the number slain in pursuit, and stragling, were more then in the main Bat­tel.

Nor was this all the good Fortune which befell King Edward this year,Tho. Wal­singham. p. 167. n. 4. for the King of Scots (being set on by the French) Invaded England with 60000 Men, which by the Archbishop of York, the Bishop of Durham, and the Northern Lords,Ypodigma Neustria, p. 517. n. 40, & 47. were utterly over­thrown, David Bruce their King taken at Merington, David King of Scots taken prisoner. by John Cop­land an Esquire of Northumberland, and several of their Nobility, with the Bishop of St. Andrews, made Prisoners: Besides, another great Victory is now obtained in France by the Countess of Mont­fort in Bretagne, against Charles de Blois (pretender to that Dukedome) whom she takes Prisoner, and thus all fell before the Sword of England.

King Edward next layes Siege to Calais, Ypodigma Neustriae p. 517. n. 35 Tho. Wal­singham, p. 167. n. 44. which was most stout­ly defended for a whole year,An. 1347. and then surrendred; the King ha­ving condemned six of the Burgesses (which came with submissi­on, in their Shirts, and Halters about their necks) they were by the Queens humble intreaty upon Her knees, Pardoned, and set at Li­berty. A Collony of English he there planted, and having sent the Inhabitants to seek out new dwellings, returnes with his Queen for England, after he had concluded a Truce for some Moneths. And, to add yet to his Glory, the Electors sent him word, that they had chosen him King of the Romans, but in regard that it seemed out of his way, King Edward refused it. But to allay the great joy that was now throughout this Kingdome, a most conta­gious Pestilence arose over all Christendome; and in England took away, as is reported, one halfe of the Men: in London, between New-years-day, and the first day of July, 57374. persons.

After which,Ypodigma Neustriae, p. 519. n. 28. the next Action is the Lord Geoffrey Charney's at­tempting to corrupt Sir Amery de Pavy an Italian, Anno 1349. then Governor of Calais, to betray the Town to him for 20000 Crownes, which Sir Amery accepts, but privately sent King Edward word, who, the night that it should have been delivered (the summ being payed) arrives there with 900 Soldiers, surprises the Persons that brought the Money, and issuing out of the Town on Foot and in disguise,Tho. Wal­singham, p. 168. n. 50. under the Banner of Sir Walter Manney, meets Charney and his For­ces, where he happened to encounter one Eustace of Rybemont, a valiant Knight, who having struck him twice on his knees, was at last mastered by the King, and taken prisoner, who,Froissard. c. 1.52. for his valour forgave him his Ransome, and honoured him with a rich Chaplet of [Page 167]Pearle which himself wore upon his head; Charney is likewise ta­ken, and the whole Force defeated.

King Philip not born to see better Fortune leaves the World; but his distressed Kingdom to his Son John: An. 1350. and King Edward the next Year is in Person with a Fleet to encounter certain Spanish Ships passing from Flanders, Ypodigma Neustriae, p. 519. n. 38. Tho. Wal­singham. p. 169. n. 6. Laden with Cloath and other Com­modities, which, after a sharp Fight, he mastered, revenging him­self upon that People, who, in the River Garrone, had taken away several Ships, and slain diverse of his Subjects. In Guyen also his Soldiers continue in Action; and several hot encounters there are between the Widdow of Montfort, and the Wife of Charles of Blois Prisoner in England, eager Defenders of eithers pretended Right to the Dukedom of Britain.

Diverse overtures of Peace had been made by Legates sent from the Pope, and the Commissioners met to the great expence of both Princes, but nothing effected. The King in discontent with the Flemmings for being disappointed of a Match between their Heire with his Daughter,Anno 13 [...]. withdrawes the Staple of Wooles from their Townes,Ypodig. Neustriae, p. 520. n. 31. and placeth it at home. Charles of Blois long here a Prisoner, buyes his Ransome for 40000. Florins, which to raise, he is permitted to return into Brittain. Great Mediation is made by the Pope for Peace, upon this Article, That the King of England should enjoy the Dukedom of Aquitaine without homage,Tho. Wal­singham. p. 170. n. 16. which the Frenchmen resolutely deny, though in the end, at a Treaty in Britany, they were forced to condescend unto.

But the Commissioners returning without effecting any thing at this time, King Edward grew so much displeased, that he would not any longer prorogue the Truce, but appoints the Prince,An. 13 [...]. with considerable Forces,Ypodigmae Neustriae, p. 520. n. 48, & 57. to go for Gascoigne, and at Michaelmas Him­self follows with a great Army, endeavouring by all means possible to draw the French to a Battel, whose Distemperatures are mightily encreased by Charles II. King of Navarre, a subtil and haughty Prince, who, being descended from Jane, the Daughter of Lewis Hutin, late King of France, and put by the Inheritance of the Crown in regard of their Salique Law, holding himself wronged of the Counties of Campagne and Bry, falls violently on the Con­stable of France, at l' Aigle in Normandy, and rushing himself in­to his Chamber (with his Brother, and two of the Harecourts) Murthers him in his Bed, and returning home justifies the Act. The French King highly displeased thereat, Summons the King of Navarre to appear before him at Paris; promising, That if he would come and ask pardon, he should have it; but, upon his ap­pearance, commits him to Prison: Three Queens become suitors for him, by whom his enlargment is obtained, which he immedi­ately imployes (by way of revenge for that indignity) in the Ser­vice of the King of England, by withdrawing the People of Nor­mandy from their Obedience to the King of France; however, coming to visit Charles his Son, newly invested in the Duchy of Normandy, he is at Roan surprised (the two Harecourts slain, seve­ral [Page 168]others Executed or taken prisoners, and sent under Guard to Arras) which so amaz'd the Partizans of Navarre, that Philip his Brother, and Geoffry Uncle to the two Harecourts, come im­mediately for England, sadly complaining of the Injustice of King John, and offering to King Edward all their Towns and Havens, to let him into Normandy; whereupon Henry Duke of Lancaster, Tho. Wal­singham, p. 171. n. is sent with an Army thither, and with their assistance, won ma­ny strong Towns.

Mean while King Edward with another Army Marches to reco­ver Barwick; Anno 1356. which, during the time that he was at Calais, Ypodigma Neustrioe, p. 521. n. 16. Tho. Wal­singham, p. 171. n. 25. had been taken from him by the Scots; where he not only reobtaines that place, but hath the whole Kingdome of Scotland resigned unto him by Edward Baliol himself, yielding to be content with a Pention. At which time Prince Edward enters Guyen, passes o­ver Languedock to Tholouse, Narbon, and Bruges, without any encoun­ter destroyes, and laden with booty returns to Burdeaux.

King John thus distressed, on all sides, Assembles the Power of his whole Kingdom 60000 fighting Men, and marches first against his Enemies in Normandy, recovers many of his lost Towns, and then turns all his Force upon the Prince of Wales, Battel of Poictiers. An. 1356. September 19. whom he fol­lowed through Tourain and Pouicton, and within two Leagues of Poictiers had him at a great advantage; when, at the instant,Ypodigmae Neustria, p. 521. n. 38. two Cardinals come from the Pope to Mediate for Peace; which the French King (supposing he had all at his mercy) would by no means hearken unto upon any less Condition, Then the surrender of the Prince himself, and the whole Army.

The Prince, whose Army consisted of 8000 Men only, was con­tent to yield all that he had gotten upon the French King, without prejudice to his Honour, for which he stood accomptable to his Fa­ther and Country, but that would not satisfie King John, who, presuming of Victory, because his Army was above six to one, would lose no time, but instantly sets upon the Prince, who now, in so great a strait, took all the advantage he could of Ground, and placing his Archers among the Vineyards, the French Horse were so intangled therein, that without danger they galled them at plea­sure, and, in a short time, put all their Army into such a disorder, that they became utterly defeated. The King, after a brave re­sistance, was made Prisoner (by Sir Denys Morbeck a Knight of Artois) with his Son Philip, afterwards Duke of Burgundy, who, for his valiant defending of his Father that day, was called the Hardy; most of the Nobility of France, and 2000 Knights, Es­quires, and Gentlemen; insomuch, that the Conquerors not hold­ing it safe to retaine so great a number, let many of them go, upon Promise, of appearing with their Ransomes at Burdeaux. By their own Report there dyed in this Battel (fought upon the 19th day of September, An. 1356.) 1700. Gentlemen bearing Coat-Ar­mour, of which 52 Bannerets,Thomas Walsing­ham, p. 172. n. 29. the most eminent Peter de Bourbon Duke of Athens; the Constable of France, John de Clermont Marshal, Geoffery de Charmy High Chamberlain; Sir Reginald [Page 169]Camian, who that day bare the Oriflamb, was slain, and an hundred En­signes taken; three of the Freneh Kings Sons escaped, viz. Charles the Daulphin, Lewis, afterwards Duke of Anjou, and John Duke of Berry. This Victory might seem enough to have subdu'd all France, a greater than which never was obtained by the English with so few hands, but all this blood-letting was not sufficient to make that great Body faint.

The Prince of Wales, as he won this Battel with the greatest Magnanimity and Courage, so with as much Heroick Courtesie he visits the Captive King, and with all reverence and regard of Ma­jesty, assures him of faire entertainment, and having providently accommodated his Affaires,Tho. Wal­singham, p. 172. n. 45. Ypodigma Neustriae, p. 522. n. 14. returnes with his Prisoners to Burdeaux, and thence for England, An. 1357. having rewarded most of the Principal Actors in this great work, whose names ought not to pass unremem­br [...]d, viz. The Earles of Warwick, Suffolke, Salisbury, Oxford and Stafford; the Lords, Cobham, le Despenser, Berkley and Basset; of Gascoignes, the Capitow de la Bouch, Pumier and Chaumont: James Lord Audeley won immortal renown here, where he receiv'd many wounds, and shared the Princes Gift of 500 Markes in Feesim­ple among his four Esquires, who had continued with him in all the brunt and fury of the Day.

The King of France is Lodged in the Savoy; many Prisoners at a reasonable Ransome, and some upon King Johns Word for them are sent honorably home. David King of Scots here also a Prisoner about eleven yeares, by the earnest Solicitation of his Wife Joane, King Edward's Sister, is likewise set at liberty. Four yeares King John remained here a Prisoner,Thomas Walsingh. p. 173. n. 1. divers overtures are made for his delivery by the Daulphin his Son, who Govern'd all during this time, but with his own People could effect nothing, unless Charles II. King of Navarre were delivered,An. 1358. which being at last agreed upon, he comes to Paris, and is triumphantly welcomed of the Factious Citizens, which now put all thoughts of redeeming King John out of mind: But the Daulphin, not at all remiss, tra­vels from place to place to obtain Aid, leaving his Brother Philip Duke of Orleance at Paris, to keep them in the best order he could during his absence. Languedoc is renowned in their Histories for making the first and largest offers for their Kings Releasment, but nothing could move the Parisians to do any thing, the King of Na­varre had so debauched them from their Obedience and Humani­ty, so that the Daulphin upon his return to Paris had his House beset by the Provost of the Merchants (with 3000 Artificers in Armes) who,Vignier, fol. S. Marth. Tome. 1. p. 841. rushing into his Chamber, slew John de Constance and Robert de Clermont Marshall of France, two of his Chief Coun­sellors before his face, whereat the Daulphin cries out, Will you set upon the Blood of France? the Provost replyed, Fear not, it is not you we seek, it is your disloyal Servants, and evil Counsellors; and herewith takes the Daulphins Hat, and puts his own party-colour­ed Hat upon the Daulphins head, intimating thereby, that he was [Page 170]but a Member of their Corporation, and only fit to wear the Cit­ties Livery.

The Dauphin with much adoe gets out of this Tumultuous Cit­ty thus disgraced, and at Vertus assembles the States of the Coun­try, whom he found Loyal, the rest of the great Townes, with much disdain, refusing to joyn with the Citty of Paris, offer him their Aide, so that thereby he is now in some heart, and hopes to effect his desires. But the King of Navarre on the contrary raised still new Broiles against him; besides, the Peasants, that had been all this while eaten out, and trodden under foot by the Soldiers and their Lords, rise up in Armes for themselves against the Gentry, and in the Country of Beavoyfis commit great outra­ges, burning their Houses, killing their Wives and Children, all within a Kingdom so much already in Confusion, could be thought no other then to draw on an utter Subversion.

And so much less likely is the redemption of their King to be ex­pected,An. 1359. whose Ransome King Edward now longed to have in His Treasury, requiring besides infinite Sums of Money, that the French should do Homage, and hold the Crown of France of the Crown of England, which King John refused; whereupon King Edward resolves to end the Controversie by the Sword, and with a Fleet of 1100 Sail Landed at Calais, Ypodigma Neustriae, p. 523. n. 10. Tho. Wal­singham, p. 174. n. 2. & 9. from whence dividing His Army into three parts, one whereof is led by the Prince of Wales, the second by the Duke of Lancaster, and the third by Himself: He Marches to Arras, which within three dayes he won; thence to Campaigne, An. 1360. where the Citties of Sens and Nevers are rendred unto Him; the Duchy of Burgoine terrified with the others example buys her Peace for 70000 Florins of Gold:Ypodigma Neustriae p. 523. n. 18. Thus furnished with Treasure by the way, He Marches to Paris, where the Daulphin, (who now had the Title of Regent, and had overcome the Facti­on, and Executed many of the Principal Mutineers) with a great Force which he had there raised,Tho. Wal­singham p. 175. n. 50. would by no Provocation be drawn out to hazard his Army, but stood only upon his defence, which King Edward seeing, raised his Siege, and returned into Bri­taine; during which time, the Regent Stores and Fortifies the City so, that at His return, finding little good to be done there, He takes His way to Besiege Chartres, but being terrified with horrible Tempest of Haile,Froissard, l. c. 211. Ypodigma Neustriae, p. 523. n. 51. Tho. Wal­singham, p. 175. n. 15. & n. 51. p. 176. n. 13. Rotulo de Tractatu pacis Franciae, An. 34 Ed. 3. m. 10. Thunder and Lightning that fell upon His Army, He Vowed to make Peace with the King of France up­on any reasonable Conditions. Which was done shortly after (viz. upon the 15 day of May, An. 1360.) near Chartres, by a Treaty Managed between Edward Prince of Wales, and Charles Regent of France, in the Name of both Kings, upon these Articles, viz. That the Dukedome of Aquitaine, the County of Poicton, the Ficfes of Thouars and Belvile, the Country of Gascoigne, Agenois, Perigort, Limosin, Cahors, Torbe, Bigorre, Rovergne, and Engolmois, remain to the King of England and His Heires and Successors, in So­veraignty, with the Homages of the Lords thereof: That Mon­struel on the Sea, Ponthieu, Calais, Guines, La Merke, Sangore, [Page 171]Bologne, Hames, Vales and Oye, should also be to the Kings of England, besides three Millions of Scutes of Gold, whereof one half in hand, and the other half at two payments within three yeares af­ter.

And the King of England for Himself and His Successors did re­nounce all Claime unto the Crown of France, the Countries of Normandy, Touraine, Anjou and Maine, with the Duchy of Bri­taine and Earldome of Flanders; for Assurance of which Accord He had Hostages given, the Kings Brother, and two younger Sons, with about 22 more of the Chief Nobility of France; Whereup­on King John is delivered at Calais, Ypodigma Neustriae, p. [...]24. n. 14. Tho. Wal­singham, p. 177. n. [...]9. after near upon five year Impri­sonment in England, An. 1361. from whence both Kings part with great kindness; the one is with much Joy received of his subjects, and the other with as great Triumph returnes with his Hostages for England.

Where to attend this inexpressible joy, a most woful Pestilence sweeps away many of the Nobility, one whereof is Henry Duke of Lancaster, a great Pillar of the Nation, whose Daughter Blanch was lately Married to John of Gaunt, whereby he is now created Duke of Lancaster. Tho. Wal­singham, p. 178. n. 5. Ypodigma Neustriae p. 524. n. 43. The Prince of Wales is made Duke of Aquitaine, Anno 1362. and with his Wife and Family sent into Gascoigne: and Lionel Earl of Ʋlster is also created Duke of Clarence in the 50th year of his Fa­thers Reign, an Year of great Jubile, in which King Edward; among many other gratious Acts made for the good of His Peo­ple, caused the Lawes heretofore written in French to be Transla­ted into English: Whose Honour is now so great in the World, that the Kings of France, Ypodigma Neustriae, p. 525. n. 8. Tho. Wal­singham, p. 179. n. 43. Scotland and Cyprus become His Visi­tants;An. 1363. the first of which, as if not willing to part from his old Pri­son, resigned His last breath in the Savoye, much lamented by King Edward, (who Solemnly Accompanied his Corps to Dover, whence it was conveyed to St. Denis, and there Interred) being succeeded in His Kingdom by his Son Charles the Daulphin.

And now are we come to the Fortieth year of the Reign of this Mighty King, at this time the most Glorious Prince in the Christi­an World; notwithstanding, during these remaining Ten yeares, Charles the V. King of France (Intituled the Wise) the late Daul­phin,Ypodigma Neustriae, p. 526. n. 12. & 55. Tho. Wal­singham, p. 181. n. 40. won much advantage upon him.An. 1367. The Prince of Wales ha­ving aided and restored Peter the ungrateful King of Castile, is by him sent back to Aquitaine, without the least pay for that great Ar­my which he had brought to His Assistance, for which, being for­ced to raise Money amongst his Subjects at home, they Rebell against Him; The Lords of Armaignack and Albret, and many others in France make Protestations against King Edward, by whose Example the Cities of the County of Ponthieu render themselves to Guy de St. Paul, An. 1368. and Guy de Chastilion. Ypodig. Neustriae, p. 527. n. 16. The King of England Complaines of this Breach of Peace to the Emperor Charles the IV. who took a Journey into France to Reconcile the two Kings;Tho. Wal­singham, p. 183. n. 44. but, not desiding the Matter, King Edward sends over His Son John Duke of Lancaster, An. 1369. with a mighty Army to Invade [Page 172]the French on that side, whilst the Prince of Wales strives to reco­ver the revolted Towns on the other; but little being effected, the Duke returnes, and Thomas Beauchampe Earl of Warwick with fresh Supplies is sent in his stead, and dies in the Journey; then Sir Robert Knoles, an eminent Man both for Counsel and Valour,Ypodigma Neustriae, p. 527. n. 40. is made Leader of that Army, against whom the Great Ones mur­mur, in regard of the meaness of his quality, by which they over­threw themselves and that Action.

In the year 1369.Death of Qu. Philippa. on the 15th day of August Deceased Queen Philippa the Wife of King Edward III.Tho. Wal­singham, p. 184. n. 22. (having been Married 42 yeares) An. 43. of his Reign, and was buried in the Abbey of St. Peter at Westminster, in the Chappel of the Kings, where She hath a fair Tombe, at the Feet of Her Husband, of Black Touchstone, with the Garnishing, and Her Portraiture thereon of Alablaster; about which Monument were placed the Figures, and now remain the Shields of Armes (Carved and Painted) of these Persons fol­lowing, viz. at the Head, of Edward Prince of Wales, Lewis the Emperour, King Edward III. John King of France, and William Earl of Henault the Queens Father: On the South-side, of Joan Countess of Henault the Queens Mother, William Earl of He­nault the Queens Brother, Margaret Empress of Germany the Queens Sister, Reginald Duke of Geldres, Elianor Duchess of Gel­dres, John of Bavaria Earl of Henault, Mary Duchess of Britain, Lewis Duke of Bavaria, Margaret Countess of Pembrook, Charles of Valois Son to the King of France, and John Duke of Brabant: On the North-side, of Joan Queen of Scots, John Earl of Corn­wall, Joan Princess of Wales, Lionell Duke of Clarence, Issabel Countess of Bedford, John Duke of Lancaster, Elizabeth Duchess of Clarence, Edmond Earl of Cambridge, and Thomas Earl of Buck­ingham: And at the Foot, of the Kings of Navarre, Bohemia, Scotland, Sicily, and Spain.

The Forme of this Tombe is represented in the following Page, near unto which on a Tablet you may read this Epitaph;

Gulielmi Hannonis soboles postrema Philippa,
Hic roseo quondam pulchra decore jacet.
Tertius Edwardus Rex ista conjuge letus
Materno suasu nobiliumque fuit:
Frater Johannes Comes Mauortius heros,
Huic illam voluit consociare viro.
Hec junxit Flandros conjunctio sanguinis Anglis:
In Francos venit hinc Gallica dira lues.
Dotibus hec raris viguit regina Philippa,
Forma prestanti, Religione, fide.
Fecunde nata est proles numerosa parenti,
Insignes peperit magnanimosque duces.
Oxonii posuit studiosis optima nutrix
Regineas edes, Palladiamque scholam.
DISCE VIVERE.

Faire Philip, William Henaldes Child,
And youngest Daughter dear,
Of roseat hue and beauty bright,
In Tombe lies hilled here.
Edward the Third, through Mothers will,
And Nobles good consent,
Took Her to Wife, and joyfully
With Her His time He spent.
His Brother John, a Martial Man,
And eke a valiant Knight,
Did linck this Woman to this King,
In Bonds of Marriage right.
This Match and Marriage thus in blood,
Did binde the Flemings sure
To Englishmen, by which they did
The Frenchmens wrack procure.
This Philip flowr'd in Gifts full rare,
And Treasures of the Minde,
In Beauty bright, Religion, Faith,
To all and each most kind.
A fruitfull Mother Philip was,
Full many a Son she bred,
And brought forth many a worthy Knight,
Hardie and full of dred.
A careful Nurse to Students all,
At Oxford She did found
Queens Colledge She, Dame Pallas School,
That did Her fame resound.
LEARN TO LIVE.
REGINA PHILIPPA CONIVNX EDWARDI IACET HIC REGINA PHILIPPA [...]CE VIVERE

Illustrissimo Nobilissimo (que) Principi IOANNI LAVDERDALIAE Duci, Marchioni Marchiae, Comiti Lauderdaliae, Vice comiti Maitland, Baroni de Thirlestone, Musselburgh Bolton, &ct. Serenissimo CAROLO II. Mag: Britanniae, Franciae, et, Hiberniae, Monarchae, ab. Intimis et Sanctioribus utrius (que) Regni Consilijs, et Nobilissimi Or­dinis Periselidis Equili; Tumuli hanc PHILIPPAE Reginae Edwardi III Con­sortis, Imaginem. HD.FS.

Upon the Ill-management of Affaires by the English, Charles V. King of France grows both in Power and Alliance, having obtain­ed Margaret the Daughter and sole Heir of the Earl of Flanders for his Brother Philip, whom King Edward endeavoured for His Son Edmond; Tho. Wal­singham p. 183. n. 42. Ibidem, n. 34. whereupon He reassumes His Title to the Crown of France, requires Aide of His Subjects, and hath 50000. l. granted Him from the Clergy,An. 1370. and as much from the Laity. John Duke of Lancaster with Edmond Earl of Cambridge are sent with Forces into Aquitaine to assist the Prince of Wales, who after he had Sack­ed the City of Limoges which had Revolted, his health failing him,Ypodigma Neustriae, p. 528. n. 27. leaves the Prosecution of the War to his Brothers, and with his Wife, and young Son Richard, born at Bourdeaux, returnes for England.

After the Princes Departure,An. 1372. John Duke of Lancaster did little,Thomas Walsing­ham, p. 186. n. 25. but his Wife being lately dead, Marries a Daughter of the before-mentioned Peter King of Castile and Leon, (one that through his own wickedness scarcely ever enjoyed it, as appeareth by his speedy extirpation, after his base Ingratitude to our Prince of Wales) by whom he obtained the empty Title of King of those places.Thomas Walsingh. p. 186. n. 39. So that the Earl of Pembrook being sent with a Fleet to the Relief of Rochel, is set upon by the Spaniards, and after a long Fight utterly lost: Which King Edward seeing, and how all things without him went backward, prepares another Navy and goes in Person, but the Winds not favouring Him, He returnes to Sum up the Charge of this Expedition, which cost Him 900000. Markes. And shortly after the Duke of Lancaster Lands with an Army at Calais, An. 1373. passes through France by the way of Avergne, Ibidem, p. 187. n. 16. where, among the Mountains he lost most of his Men, and all his Horse, and with the rest almost starved for want of Victuals gets to Bour­deaux, An. 1374. makes some few Attempts upon the Enemy,Ypodigma Neustriae, p. 529. n. 54. and the next year returnes for England, not only without Victory, but also with the sad News of the Defection of the whole Duchy of Aquitaine, excepting Bourdeaux and Bayon.

The Prince of Wales His Sickness continues,An. 1376. which ever since he had aided Peter King of Castile hung upon him,Tho. Wal­singham. p. 190. n. 10. and now proved his end, to the great sorrow of the whole Kingdom, whose death changed the face of all Affairs in the Nation. The Duke of Lan­caster, the Lord Latimer, Sir John Sturry, and Dame Alice Pierce the Kings Concubine,Ypodigmae Neustriae, p. 530. n. 34. Tho. Wal­singham, p. 190. n. 4. who were upon Complaint in Parliament amoved from the Court, are all recalled to their former places: The Duke of Lancaster is now Regent, and Governs all. Sir Pe­ter de la Marre, at the Suit of Alice Pierce, is committed to perpetu­al Imprisonment at Nottingham, who was Speaker of this Parlia­ment, called, The Good; So much could the Impudence of this Woman work upon the Age and Weakness of the King, that she would sit in the Publick Courts of Justice, to see that whatsoever she had a mind to Prosecute should go forward.Tho. Wal­singham, p. 190. n. 21. Ypodigma Neustriae, p. 531. n. 53.

But the King however noting the greatness and ambition of the Duke of Lancaster, to prevent disorder in the Succession, provi­dently [Page 175]setled the same in Parliament upon Richard of Bourdeaux His Grandson,Tho. Wal­singham, p. 190. n. 21. Ypodigma Neustriae, p. 531. n. 53. Knighting him at Windsor, and having Created him Earl of Chester and Prince of Wales; which, though it put by Duke John of what he really intended, yet with much imperious­ness he behaves himself in the State that he had, wherein he displa­ced the Earl of March; and asserting John Wickliff and his Do­ctrine against the Bishop of London, thereby breed ill Blood be­twixt the Court and City.

And now the Kings Age,Tho. Wal­singham, p. 192. n. 4. Grief (for His Son Prince Edward's Death) and Sickness,An. 1377. having overcome Him, He is forced to for­sake the World, as the World before His Breath had forsaken Him; His Concubine first, with all that she could snatch, even to the Rings of his Fingers, all His Counsellors and Servants follow­ing her example, with all they could get, left Him alone, to fight with Death; which, a poor Priest by chance in the House, seeing, went to his Bed-side, and perceiving Him to Breath, Calls upon Him to Remember His Saviour, and to aske Pardon for His Offen­ces; at which, shewing all Signes of Contrition, His last Breath expresses Jesus. Ypodigma Neustriae, p. 531. n. 55. And so died this Victorious and Mighty King (a perfect Example of this Worlds Vanity) at His Manour of Shene (now Richmond) in Surrey, The Death of King Edward III. the 21th day of June, An. Dom. 1377. in the LXIV. Year of His Age, having Reigned L. years IV. Moneths and XXVIII. dayes, from whence His Body was conveyed by four of His Sons, and others of His Lords, and So­lemnly Interred on the South-side of the Royal Chappel in the Abbey of St. Peter at Westminster; where (betwixt two Pillars parallel with the Tomb of King Edward the Confessor) He hath His Monument of Grey Marble; upon the Superficies of which lies His Portaiture of Copper Guilt, and upon the Verge of this Tombe these Verses in Latine are Engraven, beginning on the North-side at the Foot, in which (saith my Author) you must bear with the breaking of Priscians Head, for it is Written of a King that used to break many, and in an Age when the Sword was preferred before the Pen.

Of English Kings here lies the beautiful flower
Of all before passed, and a mirror to them shall sue:
A merciful King, of peace conservator,
The III. Edward, the death of whom may rue
All English men, for he by Knighthood due,
Was Libarde invict, and by feate Martiall
To worthy Macabe in vertue peregall.
✚ Hic decus anglorum, flos regum preteritorum,
Forma futurorum, rex clemens, pax populorum
Tertius Edwardus regni complens jubileum,
Invictus pardus, bellis pollens machabeum,
Prospere dum vixit regnum pietate revixit,
Armipotens rexit: jam celo celice rex fit.

On a Tablet near to His Monument, part of this Epi­taph is thus Englished;

Tertius Edwardus fama super aethera notus.

Illustrissimo & Potent. Dōm THOMAE Comiti de SOUTHAMPTON & Chichester; Baroni Wrlothsley de Tichfield, summo Angliae Thesaurario Serenissimo Dom Regi Carolo II [...]e secretioribus Consilijs, Nobilissimi (que), Ordinis Garterij Equiti.

Tumuli hanc Regis. EDW III Figuram, HD.F.S.

‘HONI SOIT QVI MAL Y PENSE’
VNG PA [...] TOVT

Inuictus pardus bellis &c.

TERTIVS EDWARDVS FAMA SVRER AETHERA NOTVS PVGNA PRO PATRIA 1577

R Gaywood fecit

On both sides of this Tombe are the Figures of all the Sons and Daughters of King Edward III. in solid Brass: on the South-side (a prospect of which is represented in the preceding Page) in se­veral Niches, are Edward Prince of Wales, Joan de la Tower, En­tituled Queen of Spain, Lionel Duke of Clarence, Edmond Duke of York, Mary Duchess of Brittain, and William of Hatfield, under which their several Escocheons of Armes enamelled, are placed, and also under them the Armes of St. George and King Edward III. upon four large Shields also of Brass enamelled. On the North­side were the Statues, and still remain the Armes of Issabel Lady of Coucy, William of Windsor, John Duke of Lancaster, Blanch de la Tower, Margaret Countess of Pembroke, and Thomas Duke of Glocester; near to which Sepulcher they shew you the Sword which (it is said) this King used in His Conquest of France, being seven Foot long, and weighing Eighteen pounds.

Those Lawrells placed upon His Head in His life time became withered with Age, and faded in His Death: But now let us take notice of Him Crowned with the immortal Bayes of His Charity, and Works of Piety, which followed Him after death, and those were many,Stow, fol. 117. as the Founding of Eastminster an Abbey near the Tower of London; a Nunnery at Deptford, Kings Hall in Cambridge for Poor Schollars, an Hospital for the Poor at Calais, and St. Stephens.-Chappel at Westminster (now the House of Commons) with the endowment of 300 l. per annum to that Church. He also aug­mented the Chappel at Windsor with the Provisions for Churchmen and 24 Poor Knights: His Buildings were great and many, as the Castle of Windsor, which he Re-edifyed and Enlarged; the Castle of Quinborrow, Fortifications at Calais and other pla­ces.

Children of King EDWARD III. by Queen PHILIPPA of Henault His Wife.

10. EDWARD of Woodstock Prince of Wales, Eldest Son of King Edward III. and Father of King Richard II. whose Histo­ry followeth in the next Chapter, being the IV. of this III. Book.

10. WILLIAM of Hatfield, Ypodigma Neustriae, p. 112. [...] [...] Second Son of King Edward III. and Queen Philippa, born at Hatfield in the County of Hertford (from whence he took his Surname) An. 1336. in the 10/12 year of his Fathers Reign. He had his Christen Name from William Earl of Henault his Grandfather, deceased in his Childhood, and was interred in the Cathedral of York.

10. LIONELL of Antwerp Duke of Clarence, Ypodigma Neustriae, p. [...]13. n. 31. Third Son of King Edward III. of whom see more in the XII. Chapter of this III. Book.

10. JOHN of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, Thomas Wa [...]sing­ham, p. 148. n. 12. fourth Son of King Edward III. Ancestor of the Royal House of Lancaster, menti­oned at large in the IV. Book of this Genealogical History, vide Chap. 1.

10. EDMOND of Langley Duke of York, fifth Son of King Edward III.Ypodigma Neustriae, p. 514. n. 56. He was the Root from whence the Kingly Fami­ly of York Branched it self, of which I shall discourse at large in the V. Book of this History. See the first Chapter.

10. WILLIAM of Windsor (a Second William) is named among the Sons of King Edward III. but dyed so young, that other mention is not made of him, but that Windsor was the place of his Birth, and Westminster of his Burial; where, in the Chappel of St. Edmond, is to be seen a Tombe of Grey Marble, on which lye the Figures of this William and his Sister Blanche de la Tour, carved in Alablaster in the Habit of that time, each about a foot and half in length. The Fillet of Brass which contained their Epitaph is torn away.

10. THOMAS of Woodstock Duke of Glocester, Thomas Walsingh. p. 171. n. 49. youngest Son of King Edward III. and Queen Philippa, concerning whom, and his Descendants, you may read in the XV. Chap­ter of this III. Book.

10.On a Shield of Copper ena­melled, on the North-side of K. Edward III. Tombe in Westminster.-Abbey, are the Armes of this Lady Issabel, viz. In Pale Ba [...]ry of 6 pieces, varry Argent and A­zure, & Gules. And quarterly France semee and England. ISSABEL Lady Coucy, and Duchess of Bedford, Pat. a. 41. E. 3. p. 2. m. 18. Eldest Daughter of King Edward III. and Queen Philippa, was Mar­ried at Windsor with great Pompe to Ingelram de Coucy (Son of Ingelram by Katherine Daughter of the Duke of Austria, Orig. de a. 2 R. 2. Lord Coucy, and Earl of Soyssons; and, after his Uncle Peter, Arch-Duke of Austria) who was by his Father in Law King Edward the III created Earl of Bedford, An. 1366. This Issabel was bu­ried in the Church of the Fryers- Minors without Aldgate, leav­ing Issue by Her said husband two daughters, Mary and Phi­lip.

11. MARY de Coucy, was the Wife of Robert de Barr, to whom She bare Robert de Barr, and Joan Married to Lew is of Lux­emburg Earl of St. Paul.

11.Rex concessit, (viz. Ricardus 2 dus) Roberto de veer facto Marchioni Dublin, quod [...]pse quamdiu [...]iverit & ter­am & Domi­nium Hiber­niae habucrit, gerat Arma de Azureo cum tribus Coronis aureis & una circumferentia vel Bordura de Argento, 1 pars Pat. an. 9. R. 2. m. 1. With this augmentation, being Azure 3 Coronets or, a border Argent, Marquess Robert did quarter his Paternal Coa [...], viz, Quarterly Gules and Or, in the first quarter a Mullet Argent. PHILIP de Coucy was given in Marriage to Robert de Vere Duke of Ireland, Marquess of Dublin, Pat. [...] 9 R. 2. p. 1. [...]. 1. (a Title be­fore his time unknown in England) and Earl of Oxford, who in the height of his fortunes forsook this Noble Lady, and Married one Lancerona a Joyners daughter (as is report­ed) who came with King Richard the Seconds Wife out of [Page 179] Bohemia; notwithstanding which affront to His Kins­woman, King Richard endeavoured to justifie him, (like ano­ther Gaveston) in all his pride and greatness, which drew upon him the hatred of the Nobility, so that by their pro­curement he was Banished the Realm, for abusing the Kings Eare, to the hurt of the State, and dyed at Lovaine in great vexation of Mind, and extreame penury, An. 1392. His Corps was brought into England, and honorably Interred at Earles-Colne in Essex by King Richard II. leaving his Uncle Aubrey de Vere his heir.

10.Quarterly Gules a Castle or, and Argend a Lyon Ram­pant purpure, impaleing quarterly France semee and England. These Armes are enamelled in an Escoche­on, on the South-side K. Edward the III Tomb in West­minster-Abbey and stand under the Figure of this Joane. JOANE, Entituled Queen of Spain, second daughter of King Edward III. was born in the Tower of London, An. 1335. and ninth Year of her Fathers Reign. Being 14 years of Age, she was desired in Marriage, by Solemn Embassy, from Alphonso King of Castile and Leon, Tho. Wal­singham, p. 148. n. 60. Son of King Ferdinand IV. was Espoused by Proxie, Intituled Queen of Spain, and con­veyed into that Country, where She presently deceased of the Plague that then raged; so as the King coming to meet Her, to solemnize the espousals, with extreame grief accompanied Her to Church, only at Her Funeral, in the 22 Year of Her Fa­thers Reign, An. 1348.

10. BLANCHE DE LA TOƲR, Tho. Wal­singham, p. 148. n. 60. Ypodigma Neustriae, p. 514. n. 49. Third daughter of King Edward III. and Queen Philip, so called from the place of her Birth, the Tower of London; dyed an Infant, and was In­terred in the Abbey of Westminster, in the year of our Lord 1340. Her Figure of Alablaster lies by the side of that of her Brother William of Windsor, on their Tomb in St. Edmonds Chappel in the said Abbey.

10.This Mary Du­chess of Bri­taine did bear Pale Ermine, being Britain, and quarterly France Semee, and England, which are on the South side of her Fathers Tomb in West­minster-Abby. MARY, Duchess of Britain, fourth Daughter of King Edward the III.Ypodigma Neustriae, p. 516. n. 9. was the Wife of John Montfort, Surnamed the Valiant, Duke of Britaine (who slew the Earl of Blois) and by him had Issue John Duke of Britaine, called the Sage (Father of Peter and Francis both Dukes of Britain, who dyed with­out issue) Richard Count of Estampes, and Arthur III. of the Name also Duke of Britaine.

10.The Armes of this Margaret, Impaled with her Husband's John Hastings Earl of Pem­broke, are ena­melled on a Shield upon the North-side of K. Edward III. His Tomb in the Abbe of Westmin­ster. MARGARET Countess of Pembroke, Thomas Walsingh. p. 167. n. 24.24. Ypodigma; Neustriae, p. 517. n. 54. Claus. 24 E. 3. p. 1. m. 13. youngest daughter of King Edward III. and Queen Philip, born at Windsor upon the Third of the Calends of August (viz. the 30th. day of July) in the Year 1346. was the first Wife of John Hastings Earl of Pembroke. He being sent by King Edward III. to raise the Siege of Rochel, fell into the hands of the Spainards at Sea, and re­mained a Prisoner in Spain two years, after which he was sold to a Noble Man of France, with whom, having agreed for his Ran­some, was at his departure Poisoned at a Banquet, An. 1375. without issue by this Wife; being the first Subject which fol­lowed [Page 180]the example of King Edward III.John Hastings Earl of Pem­broke, the first Subject in Eng­land that quar­tered Armes. in Quartering of Armes, as you may observe in his Escocheon yet remaining on the North side King Edward the Thirds Tombe in Westminster-Abbey, upon which He beareth Quarterly, or, a Manch Gules, by the Name of Hastings: and Barry of 12 pieces Argent and Azure, an Orle of 8 Martlets Gules; being Valence, Impaleing, France Semie, and England, Quarterly.

10. EDWARD, PRINCE of AQƲITAINE and WALES, DUKE of CORNWALL, and EARL of CHESTER, Surnamed of WOODSTOCK.
CHAP. IV.

Quarterly A­zure, semee of Flowers de Lize, or: and Gules three Lyons passant guardant, or, over all a La­bel of three points, argent, are the Armes of this Edward Prince of Wales, as you may observe in his Seals, page 125. and on his Tombe at Can­terbury, page 188. also upon the Monument of K. Edward III. His Father at Westminster, page 173. and many other places. THis Magnanimous and Great Prince Edward, Ypodig. Neustriae, p. 510. n. 50 Ex Chron. Tho. de la Mars. Tho. Wal­singham, p. 130. n. 47. born at Woodstock in the County of Oxford, upon Fryday the 15th of June, at 10 of the Clock in the morning, An. 1330. (Walsingham saith, in the year 1329.) was the Eldest Son of King Edward III. and Queen Phi­lip; The Newes of his Birth was so welcome to his Father,Pat. An. 5 Ed. 3. p. 1. m. 33. 4 Feb. that He gave the Messenger thereof a noble reward, and Pentions to others to be concerned in his Education. He had not passed the 3 year of his Age,Charta 7 Edw. 3. m. 4. when K. Edward by his Char­ter dated 18 of May in the seventh year of His Reign, granted him by the Title of Edward His most dear and eldest Son, the County of Chester, the Castles of Chester, Beston, Rothelan and Flint, with many other Lands and Places in England and Wales, from whence­forward he had the Title of Earl of Chester added to his Stile,Pat. 7 Ed. 3. p. 1. m. 13. and in the same year other Provisions made to him for Maintenance thereof.

In the Parliament held at Westminster, Chart. An. 11 Ed. 3. n. 55. Claus. An. 11 Ed. 3. [...]. 1. m. 19. An. 11 Ed. 3. he was crea­ted Duke of Cornwall by a Charter bearing date the 17 of March in the same year, and invested by the Sword only; this being the first Precedent for the Creation of the Title of a Duke with us in England, setling on him diverse Manours and Franchises for the better support of the State and Honour of that Dignity; And from this Prince Edward the Dukedome of Cornwall hath ever slept in the Crown: for the Eldest Son and Heir apparent of the King of England is Duke of Cornwall by Birth, but he is Prince of Wales by special Creation, Investiture, and Donation of the Lands thereunto belonging.

Into this highest Dignity of Prince of Wales Duke Edward was likewise Created by the King his Father in the Parliament held An. 17 Ed. 3. Investing him with a Coronet,12 May, Chart. An. 17 Edw 3. m. 24. n. 27. a Gold Ring, and a [Page 182]Silver Rod: and for the better support of his State as Prince of Wales, granted him several Lands, particularly innumerated in a Writ, to be delivered to this Prince or his Attorney with this dig­nity. So that he became the second Prince of Wales of the Royal Family of Plantagenet (for I find not that King Edward III. his Father was at any time so stiled) King Edward the First, after the death of Lewellin ap Griffith, having created Edward His Eldest Son, born at Caernarvon, Prince of Wales; which Principality is ever since annexed to the Crown, and the Portion and Appennage of the Eldest Sons of the Kings of England and Monarchs of Great Brittain.

In the 16 year of his Age he entred upon the stage of Warr, ac­companying King Edward his Father into France, where at his land­ing he received the Honour of Knighthood from that Martial Kings hands,Battel of Cres­sy, An. 20 E. 3. 1346. Aug. 26. and at the Battel of Cressy led the Van-guard,Stowes Chron. p. 241. b. Tho. Wal­singham, p. 166. n. 32 [...] where after a fierce encounter with the French, being somewhat distrest from the Enemies breaking in among his Archers (though soon reliev­ed by his own Soldiers) notice of his condition was sent to the King commanding the Reer-ward, who asked the Messenger if the Prince were dead or wounded; He answered, Neither, but stood in need of His Assistance: Well, (said the King) Return, and bid them send no more to Me so long as my Son lives, Froissard, cap. 130. for I will have him this day win his Spurs, since I design him the Honour of this Expedition. The compleatness of which Victory fully conferred it upon him, as did King Edward's Acknowledgment after the Bat­tel, when Embracing Prince Edward and Kissing him, He said, Fair Son, God give you resolution to pursue Honour; Ibidem, c. 131. you are My dear Son, and have acquitted your self Nobly, you are VVorthy to Govern a Kingdom, Among many Eminent Persons which died that day on the French part,Tho, Wal­singham, p. 166. n. 48. John of Luxemburgh King of Bohemia fell by the Conquering Hand of Prince Edward, who deplumed his Casque of those Ostrich Feathers, which in Memory of this Victo­ry became his Cognizance, sometimes useing one Feather, some­times three (as appeareth in his Seales and on his Tombe) with Scroles containing this Motto, ICH DIEN, that is, I serve: John King of Bohemia meaning thereby, that He Served the French King in His Wars, and was His Stipendary:Camdens Remains, p. 214. Others make in Prince Edward's Devise, alluding to the words of the Apostle, that, The Heir while he is a Childe differeth nothing from a Feathers and this is the more probable conjecture, seeing that the Feathers and this Motto, have been ever since born by our Princes of VVales Heires apparent to the Kings of this Realm, with the addition (by the more Moderne) of a Coronet, within which they are encircled. Nor were these Feathers and Motto so confined to the direct Line of these Princes, but that they have been made use of as a De­vice (with due distinctions) by collateral Branches, both of the Royal House of Lancaster and York evidence their Seales, exhibi­ted in several places of this History, upon which the Feathers and Scroles are delineated.

The year following a Truce being agreed upon at Calais, was lengthned by several Prorogations till Anno 29 Edw. 3. without effecting any thing of Peace.An. 1355. In which year both Kings provide again for Warr,July 10. Rot. Vas. 29 Edw. 3. m. 6. Tho. Wal­singham, p. 170. n. 54. Ibidem, m. 8. and the King constitutes Prince Edward His Lieutenant in the Dukedom of Aquitaine and other places in France, whither he should happen to March, to reforme the State of that Dukedome, and to recover His Lands possest by the Re­bels; with power also to receive Homage and Fidelity from the Nobility and others of Aquitaine and France: Armed with which Powers, and accompanied by the Earles of Warwick, Oxford, Sa­lisbury and Suffolke, Ex Libro Miscellan. Rob. Glo­ver, Somer­set, fol. 29. in the head of a good Army he takes Shipping and Lands in Gascoign; Having entred the River Garronne, he makes his way into Languedoc, and burning the Town of Carcasso­na, thence passes to Narbon, destroying the Country with Fire and Sword, endeavours to encounter the Earles of Clermont and Armaignac, who upon his approach retire, and after eight weeks returns to Bourdeaux, with many Prisoners, and store of Pil­lage.

Intelligence of Prince Edwards taking the Field the following Summer, being brought to King John of France, he resolved to fight him,Hollingsh. p. 387. who now with about 8000. Men had entred the Coun­try of Berry, and taken the Towns and Castle, of Vierzon and Re­morentin by Assault:Tho. Wal­singham p. 171. n. 48. Ibidem, p. 172. n. 1. Ypodigma Neustriae, 521. n. 42. Froissard, cap. 64. and passing into Anjou and Tourain (wasting those Countryes) he intended to return for Bourdeaux. But after this long and wearisome Journey, drawing near to Poictiers, Battel of Poictiers, An. 1356. Sept. 19. he had information that the French Army, consisting of 60000. fighting Men, was not far distant (here the Cardinal of Perigort endeavou­red an Accommodation, but the French Demands were so high, that it proved ineffectual) whereupon the Prince prepared for the Battel, which joyned in the Fields of Beauvoir, three Leagues from Poictiers, and, after some space, with his Archers broke the Van of the French Cavalry, when the Main Body, led by the Duke of Normandy, consisting also of Horse, finding the other routed, fell also into disorder, which encouraged the Prince of Wales to attaque the Reere commanded by King John, at whose approach the Main Body of the French Army left the Field. The King behaved him­self valiantly, and maintained the Fight for some time, but was at length taken Prisoner by Sir Denys Morbeck a Knight of Artois (to whom the Prince afterwards gave 2000.Froissard, chap. 64. Nobles to support his Estate) whilst the pursuit continued to the Gates of Poictiers, and a compleat Victory was obtained; In which so many Noble Men were slain, or made Prisoners, that there were few left to Manage the Affairs of France. Among diverse of the English Nobility who be­haved themselves with signal courage in this Memorable Battel, James Lord Audley won Honour,Ypodigma Noustriae, p. 521. n. 53. both by his valour and his boun­ty, who having vowed to be formost in this Fight, performed his word, and sealed it with many wounds; for which the Prince ha­ving rewarded him with the gift of 500 Marks Feesimple in Eng­land, he presently gave it to his four Esquires: whereupon the [Page 184]Prince demanding it he accepted not his Gift? answered, That those Men had deserved the same as well as himself, and had more need of it: with which reply the Prince was so well pleased, that he granted him 500 Markes more in the same kind.

And now though King John had the misfortune to fall into the hands of his Enemy,Thomas Walsingh. p. 172. n. 42. yet had he the happiness to be captivated by a Noble Enemy, Prince Edward, who used him with such respect and observance, that his Confinement little differed from Liberty, whom the Prince led to Burdeaux, Anno 1357. and there remained till April following, at what time the Prince took Shipping for England with his most eminent Prisoners, landed at Plymouth, Ibidem, n. 47. and on the 24th of May in a stately Cavalcade rode through London, his Royal Priso­ner by his side on a white Courser, and himself on a black Hobby, and so proceeded to Westminster-Hall, where he presented King John to his Father, from whence he was conducted to his Lodgings, and not long after had the Savoy furnished for his Entertain­ment.

His Marriage. Three several Marriages having been proposed for Prince Ed­ward in his Minority,Tho. Wal­singham, p. 178. n. 16. Pat. An. 5 Ed. 3. p. 2. m. 28. Rot. Al­man. 12 E. 3. part. 1. m. 17. Pat. 19 E. part. 3. m. 11. Tho. Wal­singham, p. 178. n. 176. The first with a Daughter of Philip King of France, An. 5 Ed. 3. The second An. 12 Ed. 3. with Margaret one of the Daughters of John Duke of Braband and Lorrain. And a third with a Daughter of the King of Portugal, An. 19 Ed. 3. All which being of others providing, and not taking effect, at length (in the year 1361. An. 35 Ed. 3.) He took to Wife a Lady of his own choice, namely Joane Countess of Kent, Daughter of Edmond of Woodstock Earl of Kent (fifth Son of King Edward the First, but second by his second Wife Margaret, Daughter of Philip the Hardy King of France) Sister of Edmond, and Sister and heire of John, both Earles of Kent successively, who dyed without issue; She was the repudiated Wife of Thomas Montague Earl of Sa­lisbury, and the Relict of Sir Thomas Holand Knight of the Garter, Earl of Kent in her Right, and commonly called (for her excellent Beauty) the Fair Maid of Kent: whom the Prince having Marry­ed notwithstanding nearness of Blood betwixt them, and Christ­ning of her eldest son which she had by Sir Thomas Holand; it was thought necessary to have a Papal Absolution from Excommu­nication,Id. Sep­temb. ex Lib. in Offic. Can­tuar. vo­cat. Islip. fol. 177. b. 17 & 18. a. and dispensation for Marriage, both which were obtain­ed from Innocent the Sixth, in the Ninth year of his Popedom: She survived the Prince her third Husband, and deceased at Wal­lingford in the Ninth year of the Reign of her Son King Richard the Second.

In Pale, quar­terly France semee and England, a la­bel of 3 points argent, and Gules 3 Ly­ons passant guardant or, a border Argent are the Armes of Joane Princess of Wales, being carved and painted on the North-side the Tombe of Queen Philippa in Westminster-Abbey. Some years after the Battel of Poictiers, King Edward having prepared for another Expedition into France, this Prince accompa­nied him (as did also his three Brethren) and Commanded the Rear of that Army, which making its way through the Bowels of France, at Bretigny near Chartres a Peace was concluded, and all Controversies, touching that Kingdom, brought to a happy com­posure, [Page 185]by which King Edward became possessed of a considera­ble part of the Territories of his own Inheritance, or Invested in him by the said Peace, to enjoy without resort, or Soveraignty to the Crown of France. Wherefore the Nobility of these Provin­ces desiring to be Governed by a Prince of their own, rather than by the Kings Lieutenants as before, address themselves to King Edward, to confer the Government thereof on this Prince, and send him thither, where he had so great Possessions and Revenues; whereupon the King Created him Prince of Guyenne the 19th day of July, Rot. Vasc. 36 Edw. 3. m. 16. 19. Julii. An. 36 Ed. 3. 1362. and gave him Guyenne and Gas­coigne, by the Name of a Principallity, during his life;Prince Edward created Prince of Guyenne. where­upon (taking along with him his Princess) he hastes thither, and having received the Fealty of the Barons and Knights his Homa­gers, keeps his Court at Burdeaux with great State and Magnifi­cence.In Came­re Duca­tus Lanca­striae. In pursuance of this Dignity, in an Instrument dated the Eighth day of October, in the year 1370. An. 44 Ed. 3. (where­by he grants to his Brother John Duke of Lancaster, the Castle, Town and Chastellane of la Roche sur Yon) he writes himself Prince of Aquitaine, viz. Edouard ainsne filz du Roy de France et d'En­gleterre Prince d'Aquitaine et de Gales duc de Meaning Cornwal. Cornville Comte de Cestre Seigneur de Biscaie et de Castre d'Ordiales: Appendant to which in Green Silk-strings is his Seal also of Green-Wax (vide the Figure thereof, p. 125.) on which he is represented in his Robes sitting on a Throne, with a Circle on his head, and a Scep­ter in his right hand as Duke of Aquitaine, betwixt two Ostrich Feathers and Scroles, over which are the Letters E. P. (viz. Ed­wardus Princeps) in Capitalls: on the Reverse he is figured on Horseback, his Surcoat, Shield, and the Caparizons of his Horse charged with the Armes of France and England quarterly a Label of 3 points; and for his Crest, a Lyon passant guardant, crowned, and gorged with a Label also of 3 points. The Seal and Reverse are Circumscribed thus in Saxon Capitals, S. EDVARDI. PRIMOGENITI. REGIS. ANGLIE. PRIN­CIPIS. AQUITANNIE. ET. WALLIE. DU­CIS. CORNUBIE. ET. COMITIS. CESTRIE. But after he had resigned the Principality of Aquitaine (in a Grant under his Privy-Seal,Ex Char­tis Dom. Henrici Comitis de Peter­borrow. dated at London the 14 day of February, An. 49 Ed. 3. in the year 1374) his Titles were these only, Ed­ward eisne filz du Roi d'Engleterre et de France, Prince de Gales, Duc de Cornewall et Comte de Cestre, And the Seal of Red-Wax is Circumscribed, S: Edwardi primogeniti regis anglie franc: principis wall: ducis cornub: et comit: cestr: and upon this Seal are his Armes, Healme, Crest and Mantlings, placed betwixt two Feathers and Scroles, the Figure thereof being delineated in the 125. Page of this Third Book.

Not long after,Holling­shed. Chron. p. 397. (viz. An. 39 Ed. 3.) this Noble Prince was induced to re-establish Peter King of Castile, who had made a Per­sonal Application to him in his so great distress, being driven our of his Kingdom by his base Brother Henry, whose Quarrel Prince [Page 186] Edward freely undertakes, and recalling those English Forces late­ly disbanded upon the Peace with France, and now in the Service of Henry the bastard, and receiving Assistance from King Edward, conducted by his Brother John Duke of Lancaster, enters into Ca­stile with 30000. Horse and Foot, where Don Henry confronts him with an Army of 86000.Tho. Wal­singham, p. 182. n. 3. Ypodigmae Neustriae, p. 526. n. 12. The Battels joyn between Nazar and Naveret on Saturday the third of April, Battel of Na­zar. An. 1367. An 40 Ed. 3. and here Prince Edward, after a bloody fight, restores King Peter to his Throne, and is a Third time crowned with the Laurels of Victo­ry; whereupon King Peter repairing to Sevil, promises to send the Prince Money for the payment of his Army; but, after four Moneths stay and expectation he is forced to return into Aquitain without any Satisfaction from that Ingrateful King, so that he was forced, for payment of his Soldiers, to Coine his Plate, and also in this Voyage contracted such a Sickness that he never recovered,Thomas Walsing­ham, p. 182 n. 46. which his Phisicians and Chirurgians judged to be an incurable Dropsie, others, that he was Poisoned. To which indisposition of Body may be added his Discontentment of Mind, for not ha­ving Money to pay his Soldiers, who now being returned home, prey upon the Countrey, and grow outragious.Ypodig. Neustriae, p. 528. n. 24. The Bishop of of Rhodes, An. 1370. his Chancellor, devising a new way of Imposition, by Levying a Frank upon every Chimney throughout the Princes Territories in France, to continue for five years, towards the pay­ment of his Debts, the Poictovins, Xaintons, and Lymosins in a sort consent thereunto, but the Counts of Armignack and Albret, and many others so distast it, that they take Armes, and complain thereof to the King of France as their supreame Lord; He Sum­mons Prince Edward to appear in Person to answer the Complaint; who replies, That if he needs must appear, he would bring 60000. Men in Armes to appear with him: and had certainly brought his Army against Paris that Summer, had he not fallen into Symptoms of a Dropsie,Tho. Wal­singham, p. 182. n. 47. which (Walsingham saith) was wrought by En­chantment. Notwithstanding which he still prosecutes the Warr against the Dukes of Anjou and Berry, who with great Armies en­ter upon his Territories;Ypodigmae Neustriae, p. 528. n. 25. when News being brought him of the taking of Limoges (the Bishop of which place was his especial Friend) he resolves to regain it at any price,Tho. Wal­singham, p. 185. n. 36. and not to spare a Man which had a hand in delivering it up; whereupon, taking it by force, he commanded to Sack and Pillage it, and would not be stayed by the Cries of the People, casting themselves at his feet; till, passing through the Town, he observed three French Cap­tains, who themselves alone had withstood the assault of his Ar­my, and moved with the consideration of their Valour, abated his anger, and for their sakes granted Mercy to all the Inhabitants. This was the last Martial Act of this most Heroick Worthy, with whom the good fortune of England, as if it had been inherent in his person, flourished in his Health, languished in his Sickness, and expired in his Death; (with whom, saith my Author, died all the hope of English Men:Ypodigmae Neustriae, p. 530. n. 47. during whose life they feared no Invasion [Page 187]of the Enemy, nor encounter in Battel: for he assailed no Nation which he overcame not,The. Wal­singham, p. 190. n. 15. and besieged no City which he took not) which followed shortly after, for leaving the prosecution of the War to his Brethren, John Duke of Lancaster, and Edmond Earl of Cambridge, Ypodigma Neustriae, 528. n. 30. Thomas Walsingh. p. 190. n. 9. Lib. in Of­fic, prin­cipal. Cant. vocat. Sud­bury. fol. 90. b. he sets sail for England with his Princess and young Son Richard, where his Sickness increasing upon him, he resigned his last breath in the Royal Palace at Westminster on Trinity Sun­day, the eighth day of July, in the year of our Lord 1376.His Death, 1376. July 8. By his Will, made in the Kings Great Chamber the day before his death, he disposed of his Body to be buried in the Cathedral Church of the Trinity in Canterbury; and such was his care to gratifie those who had done him Service, that he charged his Son Richard by his Will, to continue the payment of those Pentions which he had given them. In order to his Interment, his Corpes being Imbalmed, was wrapped in Lead, and kept till Michaelmas (the Parliament being then to meet) to be buried with greater So­lemnity, which was performed at Canterbury, on the South-side, and near the Shirne of St. Thomas Becket, and over his Grave a stately Monument erected of Grey Marble, with his Portraiture lying thereon, of Copper Gilt; the ends and sides thereof are garnish­ed with Escocheons also of Copper, enamelled with his Armes and Devises, and superscribed with the words Houmont, and Ich dien. On an Iron Barr over the Tombe are placed the Healme and Crest, Coat of Maile, and Gantlets, and on a Pillar near there­unto his Shield of Armes richly diapred with Gold, all which he is said to have used in Battel. The Figure of this Monument is de­lineated in the following Page, upon which this French Epitaph is circumscribed on a Fillet of Brass, beginning at the Head.

Cy gist le noble Prince Monsieur Ed­ward, aisnez filz du tresnoble Roy Ed­ward tiers: jadis Prince d'Aquitame & de Gales, Duc de Cornwaille & Comte de Cestre, qi morust, en la feste de la Trinite, qestoit le v [...]ii four de Iuyn, l'an de grace mil trois cenz septante sisine, Lalme de qi Dieu eit mercy Amen.

Tu qi passez our bouche close
On the South-side the Tomb.
Par la ou ce corps repose
Entent ce qe te dirai
Sycome te dire le say.
Liel come tu es autiel fu,
Tu seras tiel come je su.
De la mort ne pensai je mye
Tant come javoi la vie:
En tre avoi grand richesse
Dont je y fis grand noblesse
Terre, Mesons, grand tresor,
Draps, chivaur, argent, & or.
[Page 188]
[figure]

Illustrissimo Domino Dn: IACOBO Comiti de NORTHAM­TON, et Baroni COMPTON, necnon Locum-tenenti Serenissimo Re­gi Carolo Secundo, in Comitatu Warwici, hanc Tumuli EDWARDI PRINCIPIS WALLIAE cogno minanti NIGRI figuram; H.D.D.D.F.S.

[...] come le su [...] la mort argent [...]or

Donmout

Ich dien

Donmout

Ich dien

Donmout

Ich dien

W Hollar fecit
[Page 189]
Mes ore su jeo poures & chetifs
At the Foot of the Tombe.
Perfond en la tre gis
Ma grand beaute' est tout alee:
Ma char est tout gastee;
On the North-side
Moult est estroit ma meson;
En moy na si verite non.
Et si ore me veissez
Ie ne quide pas qe vous deissez
Qe je eusse onques home este
Si su je ore de tant changeé
Pour dieu priez au celestien Roy,
Qe mercy ait de l'alme de moy
Touz ceulx qi pur moy prieront,
Ou a dieu macorderont,
Dieu les mette en son Paradis
Ou nul ne poet estre chetifs.

Thus Englished by John Weever in his Funeral Monuments, p. 204 & 205.

Here lieth the Noble Prince, Monsieur Ed­ward, the Eldest Son of the most Noble King Edward the Third, in former time Prince of Aquitaine, and of Wales, Duke of Cornwall and Earl of Chester, who dy­ed on the Feast of Trinity, which was the Eighth day of June, in the year of Grace 1376. To the Soul of whom God grant Mer­cy, Amen.

Who so thou be that passeth by
Where these Corps interred lie,
Understand what I shall say,
As at this time speak I may:
Such as thou art sometime was I,
Such as I am, such shalt thou be.
I little thought on the Houre of Death,
So long as I enjoyed Breath.
Great Riches here I did possess,
Whereof I made great Nobleness;
I had Gold, Silver, Wardrobes, and
Great Treasures, Horses, Houses, Land:
[Page 189]
But now a Caitife poor am I,
Deep in the Ground, lo here I lie.
My Beauty great, is all quite gone,
My Flesh is wasted to the Bone.
My House is narrow, now, and throng,
Nothing but truth comes from my Tongue.
And, if ye should see me this day,
I do not think but ye would say,
That I had never been a Man,
So much altred now I am.
For God sake Pray to the Heavenly King,
That he my Soul to Heaven would bring.
All they that Pray, and make accord
For me unto my God and Lord,
God place them in his Paradice,
Wherein no wretched Caitiffe lies.

Children of EDWARD Prince of Wales, by JOAN Countess of Kent his Wife.

II. EDWAR'D of Engolesme, Tho. Wal­singham p. 180. n. 39. eldest Son of Prince Edward, whose Name he did bear, was born at Engolesme in the Year 1365.Ypodigma Neustriae, p. 525. n. 39. An. 39 of King Edward III. his Grandfather. He de­ceased in Gascoigne in the seventh year of his Age; some assert he died younger.

II. RICHARD of Burdeaux, Ypodigma Neustriae, p. 525. n. 49. born An. 1366 second Son of Edward Prince of Wales, succeeded his Father in the Principali­ty of Wales, and his Grandfather King Edward III. in the Kingdom of England, by the name of Richard II. whose Hi­story followeth in the V. Chapter of this III. Book.

Natural Issue of EDWARD Prince of Wales.

II. Sir JOHN SOƲNDER, a Base Son of Prince Ed­ward, of whom I have not found other mention made, then of his Name.

II. Sir ROGER de CLARENDON, He did bear. Or, on a Bend Sable 3 Ostrich Feathers ar­gent the Quills transfixed through as many Scroles of the first, vi­de l. 10. fol. 39. Lib. in in Collegi [...] Armerum. another Natural Son of Edward Prince of Wales, so surnamed from Clarendon in Wilt­shire (its probable) the place of his Birth. To this Sir Roger, the Prince his Father by his Will gave a Silk Bed, with all thereto blonging. He was afterwards made one of the Knights of the Chamber to King Richard II. his half-brother; to whom the said King also the first of October,Claus. 14. R. 2. m. 13.An. 13 R. 2. granted 100. l per An. during life out of the Issues of His Subsidies in several Counties. He was attainted in the Reign of King Henry IV. and is thought to be the Ancestor of a Family of the Smithes in the County of Essex.

Sigillum ricardi principis wallie ducis cornubie et comitis cestri
⋆ Sigllum ricardi principis wallie ducis cornubie et comitis cestrie pro officio Suth wallie
Ricardus Dei Gracia Ref Arancie et Anglie et Dns hibernie

RICH II

Ricardus Dei Gracia Ref Francie et Anglie et Dns hibernie

Viro Generosissimo Dno [...]ANCISCO LAWLEY de Cannall in agro Staffordiensi Baronetto, Sigillorum hanc Iabulam, HD. [...] S.

[blazon or coat of arms]

II. RICHARD II. KING of ENGLAND and FRANCE, and LORD of IRELAND, Surnamed of BURDEAUX.
CHAP. V.

EDward Prince of Wales, that shining Star of Military Glory, eldest Son of King Edward III. had issue, by His most beautiful Princess Joane Countess of Kent, two Sons; the elder born at Engolesme, named Edward, who dy [...]d at the age of 7 years; and the other this Rich­ard, their second Son, a Native of Bourdeaux (and so Surnamed) born in the year 1366. and at his Baptisme honoured with the Pre­sence of two Royal Godfathers,Tho. Wal­singham p. 181. n. 4. Richard King of Navarre, Ypodigma Nenstriae, p. 525. n. 46. and James King of Majorca.

This Richard had not compleated his seventh year, when His Grandfather King Edward upon His last Expedition into France (by Commission bearing date at Sandwich the 30th day of Au­gust, Pat. An. 46 Ed. 3. pars 2. m. 25. in the 46th year of Ed. 3. (An. 1372.) constitutes him Cu­stos of the Kingdom, and his Lieutenant, during his absence be­yond the Sea, &c. in which he is stiled Ricardus filius primogeni­tus Edwardi Principis Aquitaniae et Walliae, &c.

During that Parliament (called the Good) held at London, Ypodigma Neustriae, p. 530. n. 51. An. 1376. deceased Prince Edward His Father, and this Richard was then created Earl of Chester, Thomas Walsingh. p. 190. n. 21. and not long after He succeeded him in the Dukedom of Cornwall and Principality of Wales. On His Royal Seal de­picted in the 190. Page of this 3 Book, K. Richard beares Quarterly. France semee, and England, as did His Grandfather King Edward III. But in Es­cocheons of Glass of His Armes set up in his time, and now in being in the We [...]t-Win­dow of the Ab­bey of S [...]r [...]ws­bury, and of se­veral Princes of the Royal House there also depicted with their di­stinctions; the Armes of England are placed in the dexter quar­ter; As also in a large Escocheon in an East-win­dow of the North-Isle of Christchurch in London, there remain­ing till the late Dreadful Fire, An. 1666. K. Richard II. having chosen St. Edward the Confessor to be his Patron, impaled his Coat being Azure; a Cross Flowry, inter 5 Mart­lets, or, with the Armes of France and England, Quarterly (which were so Painted in a North-window of St. Olaves Church in the Old-Jewry, and also now remain in a South-window of the Church of St. Bartholomew the Lesser, near Smith field) which Holy Kings Armes, King Richard of his meer Grace and Favour granted, as an augmentation to Thomas Mowbray Duke of Norfolk. without any distinction, to be impaled with his paternal Coat as you may observe in this Dukes Seal exhibited in Mr. Vincent, Page 389. notwithstanding Henry Howard Earl of Surrey lineally descended from him was attainted, among other pretences for so bearing the same. To Thomas Holland Duke of Surrey He gave the same Armes, differenced with a Border Argent; and to John Holland Duke of Exceter, with the distinction of a Label of 3 points Argent, whose Escocheon stands depicted in a South-window of St. Bartho'omews Church the Lesser near Smithfield. I also find the Armes of St. Ed­ward, with a Border gobony argent and azure, in a South-window of the Chappel in Ʋnive [...]sity-Colledge in Oxford, Im­paleing the Coat of one of the Beausorts. He was the first of our Kings that had his Escocheon supported, as you may observe in his Armes, and those of St. Edward the Confessor over the Porch at the North-door of Westminster-Hall by Him erected, which are there (and in diverse other places) held or supported by two Angels, beneath both which Escocheon, is His Devise, viz. a white Hart couchant gorged with a Gold Coronet and Chaine, under a Tree. The same Hart is Painted bigger then the Life on the wall in the South-cross of Westminster-Abbey, and expressed in Coloured-glass over the Portraiture of this King in a South-window of the said Monastery. This Embleme without doubt he derived from that of Princess Joan his Mother, which was, a white Hind Couchant under a Tree, gorged and chained as the other: For wearing this His Badge of the Hart some after His Deposition lost their lives. He used also a Pescod branch, with the Cods open, but the Peas out, as it is upon His Robe in His Monument at Westminster. About which time He caused a Seal to be made, upon the one side of [Page 192]which He is represented on Horsback in His Surcoat, with His Shield, and His Horse Caparizon'd, all charged with,Penes Eli­am Ash­mole Arm, Faecialem nom. Windsor. Quarterly, se­mee of France and England, a label of 3 points (in the life-time of Prince Edward His Father He bare a File of 3 points Argent, the mid­dlemost charged with the Cross of St. George, as you may observe in the Catalogue of the Knights of the Garter) on the Reverse is a large Escocheon of the same Armes, thus Circumscribed, Sigil­lum: ricardi: principis: wallie: ducis: cornubie: et: comitis: cestrie: pro officio suth-wallie. This Seal is al­so annexed to a Grant dated Kaermerdyn 16 day of April, in the ninth year of his Reign, the Figure thereof being exhibited in the 138. Page of this Third Book.

In the following year,Ypodigma Neustriae, p. 531. n. 53., (viz. 1377.) upon the Feast of St. George, He had the Order of Knighthood conferred on him at Windsor by King Edward III. who also to prevent disorder in the Succession, settles the Crown in Parliament upon this Richard His Grandson, who shortly after (by His death) becomes possessed thereof, at the age of eleven yeares.

Upon the 16th day of July, Anno 1377. in the same year 1377.Tho. Wal­singham, p. 195. n. 11. Ypodig. Neustriae, p. 532. n. 9.. His Coro­nation is Magnificently performed at Westminster by Simon Sudbury Archbishop of Canterbury; at which diverse Noblemen and others put in their Claimes (by their Tenures) for their respective Of­fices in the Solemnity, and were admitted accordingly. To John Duke of Lancaster, and Edmond Earl of Cambridge, the Kings Uncles, with some other Lords and Bishops, is committed the pre­sent management of the State, and the tuition of the young King to Guischard d'Engolesme.

Those Princes that had now any quarrel with England, Tho. Wal­singham, p. 198. n. 55. thought this the fittest time of Action, and the opportunity is presently em­braced by the French and Scots; The first burning Rye, Hastings, Portsmouth, Dartmouth, Plymouth, on the Coast; and, the later making havock upon the Borders,Ypodigma Neustriae, p. 532. n. 43. Tho. Wal­singham, p. 200. n. 34., and taking the Castle of Barwick, but were both repulsed with considerable loss; and, to compleat the return upon the French, Sir Hugh Calverley, Deputy of Calais, burnt 26 of their Ships in the Haven of Bolloigne; though in the mean time one Mercer, Anno 1378. a Scotch Pirate, who infested the Coast about Scarborow, is with his Fleet taken by John Philpot a Citizen of London, with a Navy set out at his own charge,Ypodigma Neustriae, p. 532. n. 32 Tho. Wal­singham, p. 211. n. 30. & 44., which being done without Commission, he is called in question for; But, the Service was so eminent, that it was thought fit to dispence with his object­ed contempt of Authority, and to acquit him with a great deal of reputation. Other Attempts upon the French and Scots, and theirs again upon us, were as divers as their Events; But,Tho. Wal­singham. p. 231. n. 56. Ibidem, p. 247. n. 43. our most unhappy,Anno 1379. the loss of many of our Ships by storme under the com­mand of Sir John Arundel, &c. that were designed for Britaine; and the Insurrection of Wat Tyler, Jack Straw, John Lettestere, Robert Westbrom, &c. with the Commons of Kent, Essex, Hart­ford, Cambridge, Suffolke and Norfolke, who by the Instigation of one John Ball a Seditious Malecontent, and Hypocritical Preacher, [Page 192]intended to destroy all Gentlemen, Lawyers, Clergy-men, and whosoever were of any account, either for their Estates, Family, or Authority in the Common-wealth. The Kentish Rebels muster­ed 100000 on Blackheath, Ypodigma Neustriae, p. 535. n. 13. whence they Marched to the Savoy, the Duke of Lancasters Pallace, which, with the Lawyers Lodgings at the Temple, and the Priory of St. John near Smithfield, they set on fire, thence to the Tower where the King lay, and after some rude­nesses offered to the Princess Joane the Kings Mother,Thomas Walsing­ham, p. 250. n. 39. they behead Simon Sudbury alias Tibold Archbishop of Canterbury Lord Chancellor, and Sir Robert Hailes Lord Treasurer, on Towerhill; neither were Sacred places exempt from their Insolencies, for ha­ving drawn 13 Flemings out of the Augustine Fryers, and 17 others out of other Churches, they cut off their heads in the open streets: King Richard Proclaimed Pardon to all that would lay down their Armes, which the Essex men did, but not they of Kent; But at length their Leader Tyler, after many insolencies committed, is by the valour of that valiant Citizen William Wal­worth Lord Mayor of London (the King being present) killed in the head of his rabble,Ypodigma Neustriae, p. 535. n. 18. whom King Richard to pacifie, desires to follow Him as their Leader into the Fields to receive their De­mands. In the mean time Walworth Armes 1000. men in the Citty, puts them under the command of Sir Robert Knolls, who leading them into the field, so daunted the Rebels, that they imme­diately submitted;Thomas Walsing­ham p. 254 n. 6. notwithstanding which, the King gave them a Charter of manumission, though afterward he revoked it; and for this their good service, the King Knighted the Lord Mayor and five Aldermen, and augmented the City Armes, with a Dagger in the dexter quarter. The Rebels of Norfolke, Cambridgshire and Suffolke are dispersed by the Bishop of Norwich, and 1500 of them in several places exemplarily put to death.

In the time of this uproar the Duke of Lancaster had been sent into Scotland, Tho. Wal­singham, p. 278. n. 54. where he concluded a Truce for two years, before ever they heard of the Rebellion in England; and, being in his re­turn denyed entrance into Barwick by the Earl of Northumberland, is highly incensed against him,Ibidem. p. 279. n. 57. and offers to lay divers things to his charge at the Parliament there beginning; But King Richard, by whose mistake the offence was given, interposed, and made them friends.

After the Feast of Epiphany, Walsing­ham, p. 281 n. 42. Ypodigma Neustriae, p. 535. n. 26. (the 22th day of January) An. 1382. King Richard took to Wife the Lady Anne, His first Mar­riage, An. 1382. daughter to the Emperour Charles IV, and sister to Wenceslaus Emperour and King of Bohemia; which Lady was formerly promised and assured to Him, as one whom the King did particularly affect; though the daughter of Barnabas Duke of Millan was also offered with a farr greater Dower. She was with much pompe and glory Crowned at Westminster by William Courtney Archbishop of Canterbury, and having been His Wife 12 yeares,Tho Wal­singham, p. 350. n. 43. then deceased issuless at the Kings Mannor of Shene in the County of Surrey in the year 1394, to the extreame grief of the King, who so passionately loved Her, [Page 194]that He ever after not only abandoned, but cursed the place of Her death.Ypodigma Neustriae, p. 547. n. 17. Her Corps was solemnly interred in Westminster-Ab­bey,Queen Anne did bear, Quarterly an Eagle dis­played with two heads, sa­ble, being the Imperial Armes, and, Gules, a Lyon rampant queue forchee, argent, crowned or: the Armes of Bohemia impaled with those of King Richard II. her Husband, viz. quarterly France semee, and England, which are painted on the inside the Canopy, over the Tombe of K. Richard II. in the Abbey of Westminster. In a North-window of the Choire of the Parish-Church of St. Olave in the Old-Jewry London, was an Escocheon, di­vided into 3 parts, per Pale, The dexter part whereof was charged with the Armes of St. Edward the Confessor, on the Pale were the Armes of France and England quarterly, and on the Sinister side the Armes of the Empire and Bohemia quarterly, which last was the Coat of Queen Anne. Whose Seal (depicted in the 124 Page of this 3d. Book.) represents you with a large Shield crowned, and charged with the King her Husbands Armes and Hers, in pale, differing from the former in this particular, That the Eagles are single-headed; from which we may observe, that at the time of making that Seal, her Father was only King of the Romans and Bohemia, and had not yet been Emperour. This Seal is circumscribed, Sigillum: anne: regine: francie: et: anglie: et: domine: hibernie. But in her Indenture, unto which the said Seal is affixed, dated at Lon­don the 15th day of July, An. 15 Rich. 2d. England is first named, for therein she is stiled Anne par la grace de Dieu Royne d'Engleterre et de France et Dame d'Ireland. Ex Chartis Johannis Philpot quondam Somerset. where Her Effigies is now to be seen of copper guilt, lying hand in hand with that of King Richard II. Her Husband on that Tombe erected for Him by King Henry V. with this Epitaph.

Hoc jacet Anna loco Britonum redimita corona,
Cui vir Richardus jure secundus erat:
Cui pater illustris, guata, generoque superbus,
Rome ter felix Induperator erat.
Wenceslaus illam magna comitante caterva,
Londinum misit letus ovansque pater:
Cujus in adventu ludi, spectacula fiunt,
Regali pompa, regia virgo venit:
Sed bona sunt hominum tenui pendentia filo,
Reges, Reginas mors capit, omne rapit.
Hec Regina fuit magna de stirpe Quiritum,
Omnibus illa fuit femina chara viris.
Larga coloratis virtutum splendida gemmis:
Nunquam leta parens, nam sine prole jacet.
Queen Anne, Richard the Seconds Wife,
Lieth buried in this place:
Adorned with the Britaines Crown,
With whom she found much grace.
Whose noble Sire of daughter proud,
Of Son-in-law full glad,
Qu. Anne was Sister, and not Daughter to the Em­perour Wencesla­us.
Of Rome thrice happy Emperour was,
And that large Empire had.
Wenceslaus so call'd by name,
Who thus in joyful plight
Sent her to London, guarded well
With valiant men of might.
Against whose coming Playes were made,
And sights and shewes were seen,
With Princely Pompe, to gratifie
This noble Virgin-Queen.
But all mens treasures last not long,
They hang but on a twine,
Or slender thread: death Kings and Queens
Doth all catch up in fine.
This Queen was of the Royal Race
Of Romanes by descent:
Of all belov'd, most dear to most,
In honour relucent.
Full Liberal and Bountiful,
Adorn'd with vertues rare:
No Child she had, but issuless,
She lies without such care.

The Queens Nuptials and Coronation being finished,Thomas Walsing­ham, p. 281 n. 50. the Parlia­ment (which by Her arrival was interrupted and prorogued) began again (and William Ʋfford Earl of Suffolke fell down dead suddenly on the staires as he was going up to the Lords House) in which, many things concerning the excess of Apparel, transportation of Coine, &c. were enacted, all which came to nothing, for the King with His Privy-Counsel was wont to abolish,Tho. Wal­singham, p. 281. n. 56. what by the whole Com­mons and Nobility of the Kingdom, had in former Parliaments been agreed upon. With the good liking of this Parliament Sir Richard Scroope Knight was made Chancellor,Ypodigma Neustriae, p. 535. n. 35. Tho. Wal­singham, p. 290. n. 20. and Sir Hugh Sea­graue Treasurer; but it was not long before the Chancellor deny­ing to pass such large Gifts under the Great Seal as the King in His youthful humor had imprudently granted to His still craving Cour­tiers, fell into His undeserved displeasure, and was forced to surren­der the same; not long after which,Ypoligma Neustriae, p. 535. n. 43. Robert Braybroke Bishop of London was made Chancellor in his place: By this act, and His prodigality towards those strangers which accompanied the [Page 195]Queen out of Bohemia, He renders Himself uneasie to His People.

Henry Spenser the valiant Bishop of Norwich, Ypodigma Neustriae, p. 535 n. 52. Thomas Walsing­ham, p. 293 n. 43. having procured himself to be sent over with an Army into France, Anno 1383. on the behalf of Pope Ʋrban, against the Antipope Clement, performes several ex­ploits with happy success, and having been Victor in a battel against 30000 abettors of Clements claime, sends afterwards to King Richard, that if ever he meant to take Armes against France, now was the time, which newes the King receiving as He sate at supper at Daventry, rose immediately, and rode post to London, intending to have gone Himselt in Person, but afterwards thought if fitter to send the Duke of Lancaster, Ypodigma Neustriae, p. 536. n. 36. who is so tedious in his preparations, that the Bishop returnes,Anno 1384. and the opportunity is lost, so that the Dukes voyage only produces a short Truce, to continue from the present Christmass till Midsummer.

The Duke being returned,Tho. Wal­singham, p. 308. n. 40. Ypodigma Neustriae, p. 536. n. 40., he, and his brother Thomas Earl of Buckingham lead an Army into Scotland, where things are so or­dered, that the Scots having had time enough to withdraw their goods and persons, left him no other enemy to dispute with then hunger and cold, so that effecting little he returnes inglorious; not long after which he is accused by an Irish Fryer,Tho. Wal­singham, p. 309. n. 15. Ypodigma Neustriae, p. 536. n. 43. in the Parliament held at Salisbury, to conspire the death of the King, and the Usur­pation of the Crown, of which the Duke of Lancaster purgeth him­self, and the Fryer is secretly put to a cruel death;Anno 1385. notwithstand­ing which, it was not long ere the King himself intending to have Ar­raigned the Duke upon some points of Treason, before the Lord Chief Justice Sir Robert Tresilian (whereas he ought to have been tryed by the Peers) he stands upon his guard in his Castle of Pont­fract, Tho. Wal­singham, p. 314. n. 56. Ypodigma Neustriae, p. 537. n. 24. till by the Mediation of the Princess of Wales, the King is pacified, and an Accommodation procured between them; But, these disgraces came unseasonably upon the Duke of Lancaster, whose head was no doubt full of designes how to pursue the con­quest of Spain, which he intended, and to which end he had ear­nestly laboured for a sure and firm Peace with France and Scotland, Thomas Walsingh. p. 316. n. 10. but Scotland being supplyed with Forces under the command of John de Vienna Admiral of France, prepares for an Invasion of the North parts, and King Richard with an Army of 120000 men enters Scotland, Ibidem, n. 52. Ypodig. Neust. p. 537. n. 36. but, as formerly, not being able to bring the Scots to a battel, burns Edenburgh and several other places, and so returnes.

But, let there be War or Peace with France and Sotland, the King, that had disobliged the Duke of Lancaster, Anno 1386. now finds a way both to gratifie him,Tho. Wal­singham, p. 321. n. 41. Ypodig. Neustriae, p. 538. n. 35. and be rid of his company; which he effected by raising him an Army for to be employed in the Con­quest of Spain, which Kingdom he claimed in right of his Wife the Duchess Constance, daughter and co-heir of Peter, surnamed the cruel King of Castile and Leon; and in order thereto, the Duke and Duchess having received two Diadems of Gold from the King and Queen,Tho. Wal­singham, p. 321. n. 56. with 20000 Men, of which at least 1000 were Knights and Esquires, and a brave Fleet, set sail for Spain, whereof he is stiled King; and, in his passage, freeing the Castle of Brest from [Page 196]the French, lands at the; Groyne; thence passes to Compostella, where he gave the King of Portugal the meeting;Ypodigma Neustriae, p. 538. n. 39 and there a Marriage is concluded betwixt him and the Lady Philip the Dukes Daughter, who was honourably attended into Portugal. Some incursions they make into the Confines of Castile, and the Coun­try de Campo; but, at length, a Peace is concluded, upon the consideration of a Marriage between the King of Spaines eldest son Henry Prince of Asturgus, and the Lady Katherine of Lanca­ster, and so all the Dukes claim to cease, and to have during the life of him and his Dutchess 10000 pounds yearly, and in hand 200000 Nobles.

The French, Ypodigma Neustriae, p. 544. n. 51. who thought that England could not furnish ano­ther Army to oppose them, now prepare a Navy of 1289 Ships, and 100000 Soldiers, for an Invasion, with no less than assurance of an absolute Conquest, which its to be doubted they had effect­ed had not the Winds for a long time proved adverse; For, King Richard could not (without Capitularions made by Thomas Duke of Glocester his Uncle) obrain any Aides of Money for the pub­lick defence. And, though he thought himself more free by the Duke of Lancasters departure, yet had he left behind him spirits very untractable; those popular Lords, by this gentle Prince arm­ed with power and grandeur, to His own ruine, who, under the specious pretence of reforming abuses in the Government, sacrifi­sed the whole Kingdom to their pride and malice.Tho. Walsing­ham, p. 323 n. 18. Ypodigma Neust. p. 539. n. 6. This Armado of the French, had, for their more security, prepared a Timber inclosure 3 Miles in compass to incamp in, a great part of which was taken by William Beauchamp Captain of Calais; and the French Army so distressed for want of Provisions at Sluice, that they gave over the Enterprise.

Robert de Vere Earl of Oxford was lately created Marquess of Dublin (an Honour not heard of before this time in England) and now Duke of Ireland; and, the year before Michael de la Pole, Ypodigma Neustriae, p. 539. n. 23. Tho Wal­singham, p. 320. n. 53. & p. 323. n. 7. & p. 324. n. 2. a Merchants Son, had been made Earl of Suffolke and Lord Chan­cellor. The King being now at age, and thus honouring unde­serving Men, so disgusts the Parliament, that upon demand of a Subsidy, none would be granted till they had fined the Chancellor 20000 Markes, and then half a Tenth and half a Fifteenth was gi­ven, but not to be issued but by order of the Lords. A Design was about this time laid to Murther the Duke of Glocester, Ypodigmae Neustriae, p. 539. n. 34. Tho. Wal­singham, p. 324. n. 39. Thomas Walsing­ham, p, 325. n. 1. and others that opposed the Kings Designes, but is discovered; upon which the Lord Chancellor and Lord Treasurer are displaced, others put into their roomes, and 13 Lords constituted to have over-sight (under the King) of the whole Realme. The Duke of Ireland is removed from the Court, and is to receive 30000 Markes, which the French were to give to the heires of Charles de Blois, upon condition that before Easter he should go into Ireland, to recover such Lands as the King had given him there, this the King was forced to give way to, but upon the dissolution of the Parliament, the Duke and the Earl of Suffolke were received into greater favour then before.

About this time the King nominated Roger Mortimer (son of Edmond Mortimer Earl of March, Ypodigma Neustriae, p. 539. n. 57. The. Wal­singham, p. 325. n. 57. and Philippa his Wife daugh­ter and heir of Lionel Duke of Clarence, third son of King Ed­ward III.) for His Successor in the Kingdom.Anno 1387. And in the begin­ing of March the Earles of Arundel and Nottingham took 100 Ro­chel Vessels laden with Wines, relieved Brest, demolishing two Forts the Enemy had built against it: But, this good service was rather envied then encouraged by those about the King, and indeed by the King himself, because not countenanced by the Duke of Ireland, Ypodigma Neustriae, p. 540. 42. Thomas Walsing­ham, p. 328 n. 56. & 329. n. 5. who now puts away his lawful Wife the Lady Issabel, one of King Edward III. Grand-daughters, and Marries a Joyners daughter of Bohemia; at which Indignity the Duke of Glocester her Uncle took such displeasure, that new Plots are forged by Suffolke, Sir Robert Tresilian, &c. to take away his life; as also of the Earles of Arundel, Warwick, Derby, (son of the Duke of Lancaster) Nottingham, and such others as they thought fit to clear themselves of; Easter being now past, K. Richard pretends to send the Duke of Ireland to the waterside, but after some stay in those parts brings him back again with him, and at Coventry 2000 persons are Indicted by the L. Chief Justice;Ypodigma Neustriae, p. 540.59. and at Nottingham where the King and Queen lay, Robert Belknap Chief Justice of the Common-Pleas, and other Judges, by the Kings command attend him, to whom He pro­pounds several Questions of the unlawfulness of the proceeding of the Parliament and Lords, and what Penalties they had incur­red: They declare them unlawful, and the Abettors guilty of Treason, which the King having effected, not only those Justices, but all other Justices and Sheriffs were thereupon summoned to Nottingham, Ypodigma Neustriae, p. 541. n. 5. Ypodigma Neustriae, 541. n. 7. to know what Forces they could raise for the King against the Lords, and to take care that no Members should be chosen in the Parliament he then intended, but such as the King should approve of; Furthermore, the King and the Duke of Ireland send all over the Kingdome to dispose the People as much as pos­sible to their party, as to their Elections, and in the mean time en­deavour to surprise the Duke of Glocester and the Earl of War­wick (who had got a great Power of Men about them) and also sends to the Lord Mayor to know what Forces he could raise for Him in the City of London, Thomas Walsing­ham, p. 329 n. 22. who promised 50000 Men, but could not perform, the Cittizens refusing to fight against the Kings Friends, and Defenders of the Realme, as they called them. Whereupon King Richard, by advice of the Earl of Northamp­ton, requires the Lords to come to Him, which by reason of an Ambush laid for them (though without the Kings knowledge) they forbore at that time,Thomas Walsing­ham, p. 330 n. 56. but afterwards upon safe-conduct came, and the King receives them seemingly with all kindness, and agrees to them, that at the next Parliament all parties should be indiffe­rently heard, and in the mean time to remain in his Protection; upon which the Favourite Lords not daring to come to the Test, withdraw from the Court; But the King not enduring their ab­sence, commands the Constable of Chester to raise an Army, and [Page 198]to conduct the Duke of Ireland to him, who is by the way en­countred and overthrown by the Earl of Derby: Ypodigma Neustriae, p. 542. n. 46. Tho. Wal­singham, p. 332. n. 8. Ibidem, p. 332. n. 27. Ypodigma Neustriae, p. 542. n. 52. The Duke very very narrowly escaping flies beyond Sea, and at Lovaine, after two or three years ends his life. The Earl of Suffolke also, in disguise, retires to Calais, where he is discovered and sent back into England, but by the King is permitted to go at large.

The Lords having now,Anno 1388. as they thought, matter enough to ju­stifie the taking of Armes, march to London with 40000 Men, and to the King then at the Tower, the Duke of Glocester, and the Earles of Derby and Nottingham declare their Grievances; and pro­duce Letters from the Duke of Ireland, Tho. Wal­singham, p. 333. n. 39. for his levying an Army for their destruction, and also another of safe Conduct, written to him by the French King, to come into France to do Acts to his own and the Kingdomes dishonour: The King promised He would come the next day to Westminster to Treat further of these matters, but repenting that promise,Ypodigma Neustriae, p. 543. n. 1 & 3. they peremptorily send him word, That if He did not come and hearken to his faithful Coun­cil, they would choose another King: so that the next morning He went, and there with no small regret condescended to the removal and imprisonment of all those whom the Lords required, Alexan­der Nevil Archbishop of York is removed from the Parliament, all the Judges except one are Arrested on the Bench and sent to the Tower; Tho. Wal­singham. p. 334. n. 20. Sir William Tresilian Lord Chief Justice is hanged at Ty­burne, and the rest of the Judges banished, and the King bound by Oath to abide by such Rules and Orders as the Lords should make, and the same imposed throughout the whole King­dom.

After much adoe a Peace is concluded for 3 yeares,Anno 1389. Thomas Walsing­ham, p. 337. n. 39. Ypodigma Neustriae, p. 544. n. 23. Ypodigma Neustriae, p. 544. n. 45. Thomas Walsing­ham. p.