A TREATISE OF SPOUSALS, OR Matrimonial Contracts: WHEREIN All the QUESTIONS relating to that Subject are ingeniously Debated and Resolved.

By the late Famous and Learned Mr. HENRY SWINBƲRNE, Author of the Treatise of Wills and Testaments.

LONDON, Printed by S. Roycroft for Robert Clavell at the Peacock in St. Paul's Church-yard. 1686.

TO THE READER.

I Need not spend much time (I hope) in recommending this Treatise to Publick perusal; 'tis sufficient, I suppose, to give it a Reputation in the World, when I assure you, that it was composed by the Learned and Ingenious Mr. Henry Swinburne, Author of the Treatise concerning last Wills and Testaments. If any Man should question the Truth of this, I dare appeal to his own Judgment, after he has considerately perused some few Leaves of the ensuing Discourse, whether the exactness of the Method, the plainness of the Style, the fa­miliar and easie way of Arguing, the pertinency of the Marginal Quotations for proving of every Point of Law that he asserts or lays down (as the peculiar custom of that Author was) do not suffici­ently convince him, that the Treatise of Wills, and this of Spousals were pen'd by one and the same Hand: But, if occasion required, the Rea­der [Page]might be yet more fully satisfied by the Ori­ginal Manuscript, all writ by Mr. Swinburne's own Hand, which is yet extant, and may take a­way all possibility of question or scruple.

The Subject of this Treatise is a matter of the highest moment and importance, the Questions and Difficulties, that arise about it, are of the greatest Variety and Niceness, and the frequent occasion there may be, for the Matters here dis­coursed of and debated, to fall out in Practice, cannot but render the Treatise useful, as well as pleasant, and by consequence very acceptable. 'Tis possible at the first sight some Men may imagine, that Spousals are now in great measure worn out of use, and by consequence that Discourses of that Nature can yield little or no benefit to the Rea­der. But to this I answer, That the Rules concern­ing Spousals are for the most part as well applica­ble to Marriage as them, and that there is no difference in Substance betwixt. Spousals de praesenti (which make up a principal part of this Book) and Matrimony, only the Publick Office, and greater Solemnity of the Act, toge­ther with the Benediction of the Minister, are by Law requisite to compleat the Matrimony, be­fore it be capable of those Legal Effects of Dow­er and Legitimation of Issue. But in foro [Page]conscientiae they are as much Man and Wife, as if all Legal Requisites and Solemnities had been performed. Nay, as to some Legal Effects also, a Contract de praesenti has the same force that a lawful Marriage has; for the Contract is indissoluble so long as the Parties live; and if either Party shall after such Contract attempt to marry elsewhere, that Marriage is null and void ratione praecontractûs, as much as if the Parties contracting had been lawfully married together; and the Parties marrying elsewhere, after such Contract made, are to be Divorced, and the Persons contracting may by Course of Law be compelled to Solemnize Matrimony ac­cording to the Rites and Ceremonies of the Church. And besides, in all Marriages Solem­nized after the most strict manner, the Contract of the Parties is the principal Ingredient and most essential Part, all other Matters being only as it were Foreign and Extrinsical to its Na­ture; although (I must confess) Divine Invo­cation and the Minister's Benediction have ever in all Ages been accounted necessary to its right Celebration and Performance. So that 'tis plain the most difficult Cases that can relate to Mar­riages must be considered of and discussed under this Head of Contracts or Spousals.

In ancient Times Spousals did regularly precede Marriage, Nam Mos fuit Veteribus Stipulari & Spondere sibi Uxores futuras. l. Sponsalia 2. ff. de Sponsal. And in some pla­ces the Woman, after these Spousals, presently cohabited with the Man, but continued unknown till the Marriage-day. In our Publick Office of Marriage, Spousals and Matrimony are uni­ted, and performed in one continued Act; When the Minister demands, Wilt thou have this Woman to thy wedded Wife, &c. And the Man answers, I will, and so the Woman vice versâ, there's a Specimen of Spousals de futu­ro. When the Man repeats the Words, J.N. take thee N. to my wedded Wife, &c. and so the Woman vice versâ, there's the form of Spousals de praesenti, which in Substance are perfect Ma­trimony, (as I said before) though not as to all Legal Effects. When the Minister adds his Be­nediction, and pronounces them to be Man and Wife, then 'tis a perfect Marriage to all constru­ctions and purposes in Law.

It may possibly be wondered at, that a Piece of this Nature, treating upon so rare and useful a Subject, & pen'd by a Person of that Fame in the World, should lye so long conceal'd, and ne­ver in all this time be committed to the Press. But [Page]then it is to be considered, that Manuscripts of this Nature commonly fall into the Hands of Men of the same Profession, and these commonly preserve them for their own private use, and think it not their Interest to communicate that Know­ledge at so easie a Rate, which perhaps, has cost them many years Study and Experience, and no small Charge in Ʋnderstanding and Attaining to. Nay, some go so far as to think, that the fewer Books there are published of their Profession, the more Advantage it will still be to the Practition­ers, seeing Men will be then necessitated upon every Point to have recourse to Counsel. But as to the first, Certainly the Publick Advantage ought in all reason to be preferred before any Man's Private Ʋtility, which is too mean a thing to stand in competition with it: The Be­nefit that may redound to the Generality of Men by its Publication, will in reason far out-weigh the Private Profit, that any Person may get or propound to himself by its Concealment and Suppression. And, as to the second, Certainly it is the Honour, and must be the Advantage of the Profession, to have Men of Sense write Books, and make it Easy and Intelligible. Men com­monly have a kindness for what they know and understand; and on the contrary, that which they [Page]are not versed in, and cannot attain without great Pains and Difficulty, they are apt to de­spise and hate: I am so far from thinking it the Interest, that I take it to be a manifest Injury and Misfortune to so Ingenious a Study and Pro­fession, to be kept conceal'd, and the Knowledge of it confin'd to so few Hands, we ought in all reason to expect and presume, that the more 'tis known, and the justice and reasonableness of its Rules considered, the more it will be courted and admired, and the Practice advanced and enlarged; that strength of Reason, and variety of good Learning, accompanied with those great Advantages of Method and Style, with which the Books writ in that Science do generally a­bound, will, when they are well known and weighed, rather, in all probability, force its Re­ception and Entertaiment even amongst Men, whose Interest it is to suppress and keep it low, much more among Persons disinteressed and un­byassed, and make it flourish in despite of oppo­sition.

I have been credibly enformed, That the worthy Author of this Discourse had a design to oblige the Publick, by writing three Treatises, upon three several Subjects, which were look't upon as the Principal, and most considerable Mat­ters [Page]belonging to the Cognizance of the Ecclesi­astical Courts of this Realm: The first con­cerning Wills and Testaments; The second con­cerning Marriages; The third concerning Tithes; And, had he liv'd to have accomplish't his De­sign, no doubt he had cleared many Questions re­lating to those Matters, which at present are not so generally known, or throughly understood, but labour under great Obscurity. The first of these he liv'd to finish and see publish'd; and all men grant it to be an excellent Piece in its kind, and has acquired him no small Fame amongst Po­sterity. This indeed was a Subject properly be­longing to him, and wherein he may well be supposed to be very conversant and knowing, he having been Judge of the Prerogative Court at York for many years before he dyed; which Place he executed with great Integrity and Applause. After his Death his Friends Erected a fair Mo­nument to his Memory in the Cathedral Church of York, where he lyes Interr'd, with this Epitaph or Inscription.

Non Viduae caruere Viris, non Patre Pu­pillus,
Dum stetit hic Patriae, Virque Paterque suae.
[Page]
Ast, quod Swinburnus Viduarum scripsit in usum,
Longiùs aeterno Marmore vivet opus.

The second, concerning Marriages, he designed to have divided into three Parts. The first whereof was to treat of Spousals; The second of Marriages; The third of Divorces. The first of these Parts he liv'd to finish, as may be seen by perusing the ensuing Treatise. But as to the two last Parts, and his Piece of Tithes, he only left some rude Materials, not formed or digested into any Method or Order. And 'tis not improbable but that they, in whose hands the Manuscript so long remained, might think it an Injury to the Authors Memory, to commit a Piece to the Press, which remained unfinish­ed and imperfect, and wanted the Authors last Hand at his Death. But though the Piece be imperfect in respect of what the Author design­ed, yet this particular Tract concerning Spou­sals, being absolutely finished, and the Subject very delightful and pleasant: And considering that no Englishman (that I know of) has put forth any thing material of this Nature before, and that there is nothing which could be writ by such an Author, specially relating to his own [Page]Profession, but what very well deserved to be read, and must be very enforming, I thought the publishing of it might be very pardonable, if not obliging and grateful. And 'tis possible that the printing of this Piece, may provoke and engage some ingenious Pen of the same Profession to be­gin where the Learned Author left off, and hap­pily to finish and perfect, what he lived not to perform.

Some Persons of Critical Disposition, may per­haps censure our Author, for being oftentimes too elaborate, and spending over much time in re­solving Questions, which at the first sight, and even to a mean Capacity may seem very easy and trivial, and in which there can be little or no difficulty, and think that his Style is too prolix and tedious, and that in some places he seems too pedantick, &c. But to this I say, That the Author designed this Treatise, as formerly he had done that of his Wills and Testaments, for the benefit and Instruction of the meaner Sort. If he had writ for Fame and Ostentation, or for Satisfaction of the Learned, and such as were well versed before hand in the Profession, he knew as well as any man, how to have applyed himself to them in a more succinct and concise way, and to have talk't to them in their own [Page]Terms of Art, and such as were proper to the Profession; and this would have been much more easy and less trouble to him; but it would have rendred the Treatise in great measure useless to the generality of People, for whose Benefit he chiefly intended it. And besides, many Grains of Allowance are to be given him, in respect of the Age in which he writ, which was fuller of Affection, and far less Polite and Accurate than the present. We find Scraps of Latin, much less to the purpose, and much more Pedantry and Affectation used, by a Man of great Fame and Worth in another Profession, who lived many years after our Author, and had many more Ad­vantages of Conversation and Improvement. And I make no question but that the pertinency and closeness of our Author in most places, will sufficiently compensate, and make an Attonement for his Prolixity or Affectation in others.

The way that he used in quoting his Autho­rity for every Point of Law that he deliver'd, is fair and candid (however it may seem to some Persons superfluous) and may be of singular use to those that study the Profession, especially to young Practitioners, there being scarce any Question, that can occur, relating to Spousals or Matrimonial Contracts, that is not here [Page]ingeniously debated, and judiciously resolved; and then he that desires more ample Satisfaction, is directed how he may consult those Authors, from whence this Judgement was drawn and collected, and where he may find the Matter much more amply discussed, and receive all the Satisfaction he can desire.

In short, I hope, that Care has been taken in the Impression, that the Piece may do due Ser­vice to the Publick, and no Injury to the Me­mory of the Author, and that is all I aim at in the Publication.

THE CONTENTS.

  • § 1. OF the manifold signification and ac­ceptation of this word Spousals, and whence it is derived. Page 1.
  • § 2. The definition of Spousals. Page 5
  • § 3. The division of Spousals. Page 8
  • § 4. Of the great importance of the first division or distinction of Spousals de futuro and Spou­sals de praesenti. Page 11
  • § 5. What Persons may Contract Spousals de futuro. Page 15
  • § 6. Of Spousals contracted by Infants. Page 18
  • § 7. Of Spousals contracted by Children betwixt Infancy and ripe Age. Page 24
  • § 8. Divers Questions about Marriages contra­cted by Children. Page 29
  • § 9. Of ripe or lawful Age for Marriage. Page 45
  • § 10. By what form of words Spousals de futu­ro are contracted. Page 55
  • § 11. By what form of words Spousals de prae­senti [Page] (being in Substance Matrimony) are con­tracted. Page 74
  • § 12. Of the form or manner of contracting Sim­ple and Conditional Contracts, and those also which be referred to a day. Page 109
  • § 13. Of contracting Spousals either betwixt Parties present or absent. Page 154
  • § 14. Of publick and private Spousals. Page 193
  • § 15. Of contracting Spousals by Signs. Page 203
  • § 16. Of Spousals confirmed by Oath. Page 213
  • § 17. Of the Effects of Spousals. Page 222
  • § 18. By what means Spousals are dissolved. Page 236

OF SPOUSALS.

SECT. I. Of the manifold signification and accep­tation of this word Sponsalia, Spou­sals, and whence it is derived.

1. ALbeit this word Sponsalia (Englished Spousals) being properly understood, doth only signifie Promises of future Marriage l. 1. de Sponsal. ff. Pa­nor. & Felin in rub. de Sponsal. ext. Covar. de Spons. prima parte c. 1. nu. 4. in fine., yet is it not perpetually tied to this only Sense, for sometimes it is stretched to the signification of Love Gifts and To­kens of the Parties betroathed L. 1. C. si Nupt. ex re­script pet. l. Deo nobis C. de E­pis. & Cler. Co­var. d. c. 1. nu. 2. Alciat. pererg. l. 1. c. 2. in fine.; as Bracelets, Chains, Jewels, and namely the Ring Anto. Gubert. Costan. Tract. de Spousal. c. 2. nu. 12. Plin. lib. 33. c 1.; being often used for the very Arrabo or assured Pledge of a perfect Pro­mise Genesis 24. v. 22. c. 38. v. 18. c. nostrates, 30. q. 5. Covar. Tract. de Spons. secunda parte, c. 4. nu. 4. Mascard. Tract. de probat. concl. 100. DD. in c. fin. de despons. impub. extra.: Sometimes it is taken for the Portion of the Goods which is given for and in consideration of the Marriage to be Solemnized Lib. 1 Reg. c. 18. v. 25. Covar. Tract. de Spons. prima parte, c. 1. n. 2.; and sometimes for the Feast or Banquet at the Celebration of the Marriage Cicer. lib. 2. Epist. ad Quintum fratrem. Anto. Gubert. Co­stan. Tract. de Sponsal. c. 2. n. 3., and of others it is otherwise used V. Gubert. Covar. & Alciat. ubi supra..

2. Our Temporal Lawyers they do usually con­found these Terms of Espousals and Marriage, using them promiscuè, or one for another Fitz. Abridg. tit. Bastardy. Brooke eodem tit. & passim al [...] Auteres Angl. plus m [...]e locis, Quamvis communis usus loquendi Fran­ciae, unde leges nostrae munici­pales jam diu ortae sunt, diffe­rentiam faciat inter fiancée & mariée, Re­buff. in l. pro­nunciat. §. Ma­tres Familias de verb. signif. ff. Id quod Tho­losanis (inquit) prodest scire. quippe qui lu­crantur dotem nutae praemo­rientes, sed non Sponsae, ita videlicet Statutente eorum Consuetudine, nostris legibus non admodù dissimili., yet do not they confound the Natures with the Names; for until the Celebration of the Marriage, they do not repute the affianced Couple for one Person, nor deem of their Is­sue as lawful, nor doth he gain any Propriety in her Goods, nor she any Dower in his Lands by force of the Contract of Matrimony only without Solemnizati­on Perkins tit. Feoffments, fol. 40. v. Rebuff. in l. pronunciatum. §. Matrem familias de verb. sign. ff. referente, Theolosanos lucrari dotem praemorientes nuptae, sed non Sponsae. Vid. Kirchovium The­saur. com. op. verb. Sponsus..

3. The Civilians, though seldom they use the word Spousals for Matrimony l. 1. de Sponsal. ff. & DD. ibidem., but rather for a preamble or preparation thereunto Sichard. in rub. de Sponsal. C. n. 3. Wesemb. in tit. de Spons. ff. Tiraq. in l. 14. de leg. connub. Socin. Jun. cons. 30. vol. 2. nu. 5., making no less difference betwixt Spousals and Matrimony, than betwixt the Pro­mise and the Performance of the Act Doctores in l. si quis Officium. De ritu nupt. ff. & in l. solet. de his qui not. infam. ff. Jo. Frigeus de Sponsal. in fine Inst. quibus (si placeat) velim adhibeas. Theod. Beza, Tract. de divortiis in prin.; yet both the Civilians and Canonists in favourable Cases general­ly Sichard. in rub. de Sponsal. C. nu. 10. l. non sine C. de bon quae lib. Tiraq. de leg. connub. l. 14. verb. neque. v. Kirkhov. Thesaur. com. op. verb. Sponsus in fin. Anto Gubert. Tract. de Spons. fol. 16, n. 12, 13, 14., in matters indifferent, often, and sometimes in strict and penal Cases Bart. in l. cum Pater ff. de paricid. Soarez Thesaur. com. op. litera S. nu. 158. Julius Clarus §. Adulterium nu. 9. sc. quia eadem ratio in [...]tro­que casu militet, Rebuff. in l. pronunciatum, §. Matrem Familias ff. de verb. sign. v. And. Gail. pract. obs. lib. 2. obs. 80., deem of Spousals like as of pure and perfect Matrimony.

4. The Canonists be somewhat more diligent indeed in the Observation of Terms; for they do not only distinguish between Matrimony and Spousals Ut per tot. tit. de Sponsal. & Matrimoniis extra., but Peck. Tract. de test. conjugum, l. 4. c. 11. n. 4. l. Seia. l. cum hic Status §. pen. ff. de donat. inter virum & ux. Pan. in c. 3. de praesumpt. extra in fine & ibi Felin. nu. 4. Summa Silvest. verb. Sponsalia q. 1. in fine. [Page 3]descending further, they do also discern betwixt one kind of Spousals and another, being the first Inventors of the several Names of Spousals de futuro, and Spou­sals de praesenti c. pen. de Spons. extra Co­var. de Sponf. prima parte c. 1. n. 4. Schneid. Tract. de Nupt. fol. 18. Q. quot funt species., and yet nevertheless oftentimes they make no difference, or very little, betwixt the Natures and Effects of Spousals de praesenti, and of Matrimony solemnized and consummate c. Per tuas. Qui filii sunt legitimi extra. Felin. in rub. de Spons. extra. Gl. in Clem. unic. de Consang Covar. tract. de Spons. prima parte c. 1. n. 2, 3, 4. Hiero. Schurff. inter consil. matrimon. confil. ibidem 24. Imò nihil videntur Sponsalia de praesenti, quàm matrimonium initiatum. Vigel. method. juris Pontif. fol. 792. Adde Panor. in rub. de Sponsal. extra. ubi in favorabilibus etiam Sponsa de futuro..

5. Thus is this word Spousalia, Sponsals, diversly used, though properly and naturally (as I first shewed) it sig­nifieth nothing else but Promises of future Marriage Covar. Tract. de Spons. prima parte, c. 1. n. 4. Pan. in Rub. de Spons. extra. Tiraq. de Leg. Connub. l. 14. verb. neque huic. l. oratio ff. de Sponsal.; and it is derived of the Verb Spondeo, which is to pro­mise l. 2. ff. de Sponsal.: and hence it is that the Parties betroathed or affianced (not yet married) are called Sponsus & Sponsa, that is to say, promised, being so called Sponsi, promised l. 3. ff. de Sponsal. rather than Spondentes, or Sponsores, promising or promis­sors, because in former Ages (as some probably do con­jecture) such was the Authority of Parents, and such the Obedience of Children, as the Parents did make Promises of their Children's Marriage, and not the Chil­dren themselves Alciat. pa­rerg. lib. 1. c. 2. Et spondere di­cebatur Pater filiae, despondere autem Pater a­dolescentis. Teste Brecheo in l. Sponsio ff. de verb. fignif., who neither could Hiero. Franc. in I nup­tias de Reg. Jur. ff. n. 11. Alciat ubi supra; quod verum puta, inspecto jure Civili, secus Jure Canon [...]o ut infra., neither would, without their Parents consent, presume to make any kind of Promise concerning Marriage; much less to pro­ceed to the actual Celebration and Consummation of Marriage, without the Parents liking De consensu Parentium, v. Schneid. Tract. de Nupt. fol. 36. cum seqq. & Melch. Kling Tract. de Caus. Matrimonial. fol. 77. & infra., being contra­ry to the wicked Examples of cursed Children in these days, thereby dishonouring their Parents, and breaking the Commandment of the Almighty.

6. The Verb Spondeo (by the Opinion of Varro Lib. 4. de Ling. latin. and others Rebuff. in l. munus, de Verb. Sign. ff. We­semb. in tit. de Sponsal ff., is as much as Sponte do, that is, to give freely or without constraint, insinuating thus much, That how great soever the Authority of Parents is in that behalf, yet the Children or Parties promised or espoused, are to give their consent freely and voluntari­ly; or at least, that they are not to be constrained thereunto against their Wills, by the rigor of covetous Parents L. filio fa­milias. l. Spon­salia, de Spon sal. ff. c. cum locum de Spon­sal. extra., or by any other sinister means L. non co­gitur, ff. de ritu nupt. d. c. cum locum. Et ibi DD. Gail. l. 2. pract. obs. 93. obs. Everard. consil. 19. Jo. Frigeus Tract. de Spons. in fi­ne. Inst. f. 264.; other­wise the Contract of Spousals or Matrimony, made through fear, is utterly void ipso jure c. 1. de Despons. Impuberum, c. cumlocum, &c. cum veniens. el. 2. de Sponsal. extra. & ibi Panor. l. 1. consil. Matrimonial. consil. ibidem 15. nu. 13. Andr. Gail. Pract. observ. l. 2. observ. 95. Reusner. de Caus. matrimo. qu. 6. Menoch de praesump. l. 3. praesump. 129. & de Arb. Jud. Cas. 138..

7. Finally, whereas the word Sponsalia, Spousals, doth want the singular number, we may collect, That the single Promise Unde Vocabulum Sponsio de omni stipulatione, premissioneque, etiam nulla inter­rogatiaene praeviâ univocè praedicatur, L. Sponsio ff. de verb. sign. Et ibi DD. sed dictio Sponsalia proprie sumpta, ad nuptias tantùm refertur, L. 1. ff. de Sponsal. of either Party alone doth not make Spousals, as in the approaching Definition more fully doth appear.

SECT. II. The Definition of Spousals.

1. SPousals are defined after this manner, Sponsalia sunt mutua repromissio futurarum Nuptiarum, ri­tè inter eos, quibus jure licet, facta c. nostrates 30. q. 5. l. 1. de Sponsal. ff. Junctis We­semb. in eund. tit. nu. 2 & Mo­raldo. Tract. de Matrim. tit. de. Sponsal. in prin.. Spousals are a mutual Promise of future Marriage, being duly made between those Persons, to whom it is lawful. In which definition I observe three things especially: One, That this Promise must be mutual; Another, That it must be done ritè, duly: The last, By them to whom it is lawful.

2. First, whereas this Promise is described to be mu­tual, it proveth that it is not sufficient if either of the Parties alone do promise c. si inter. c. tua nos. de Sponsal. c. debi­tum. de biga­mis ca. de Spon­sa duorum ex­tra.: And therefore if the Man (for Example) say to the Woman, I do promise that I will marry thee: But the Woman doth not make the like Promise to the Man; or contrariwise, the Woman doth promise, but not the Man, this is a lame Con­tract (having as it were but one Leg) and so not be­ing able to walk upright, is not of any force in Law Praeposit. & alii in d. c. si in­ter. & in c. 1. de Sponsa. duorum extra. l. 1. Consil. Matrimon. con­sil. ibidem 84. nu. 4. & lib. 2. consil. ibidem 4. n. 1. & consil. 5. nu. 1. in fine. v. addit. ad Ho­stiens. Sum. in fit. de Sponsal. §. quot sint.: Neither is the silent Party in this Case presumed to consent, unless the consent appear, either by words, or at least by sufficient Conjectures Lib. 1. Consil. Matrimon. consil. ibidem 84. nu. 6. Pan in c. tuae de Sponsal. & in c. 1. de Despons. impub. extra. l. 2. consil. Matrimon consil. ibidem 34. n. 34. versic. 3.. As when the Father or Mother do contract Sponsals, or promise Mar­riage for their Child; for the Childs silence in this Case (being present and hearing the same) is taken for a con­sent and approbation thereof c. 1. §. fin. de Despons. im­pub. in Sext. juncta gl. ibidem, quod tamen intellige, ut per Felin. post Abb. in c. nonne. de praesumpt. extra n. 8.; though it be other­wise, [Page 6]if any other Person than the Parents take upon him to speak, or answer for the Party; for there the Parties silence doth not prove any consent at all Innoc. Ar­chid. Jo. And. & Phil. Franc. in d. §. fin. quorum opinio communis est — teste Covar. Tract. de Spon­sal. secunda parte c. 4. nu 7..

3. Secondly, Whereas this Promise is to be done ritè, duly, we are to consider that this word ritè being strictly understood hath relation only to the Formali­ties of the Act or Contract Bart. in l. 2. de inoff. test. ff. Cardin. in Clem. Testibus. de Testibus Al­ciat. & Rebuff. in l. haec verba in stipulatione. de verb. sign. ff.; but being understood in a more ample signification, it comprehendeth what­soever is included within the compass of the word rectè, namely whatsoever doth respect the Justice and Equity of the matter Lucas de Penna in l. si quando de benis vacan. lib. 10. C. Decius in l. lecta. Si certum pet. ff. n. 22. Alciat. in candem l. nu. 27. in fine.. In this definition it seemeth to comprehend both the one and the other, and so this Promise of Marriage must not only be formal, but just and right also L. semper de ritu Nupt. ff..

4. Concerning the Form, so precise were the ancient Romans in the observation thereof, that they did not for a long time admit any other manner of contract­ing Spousals, but by stipulation L. 2. de Sponsal. ff. An­to. Gubert. Tract. de Spon­sal. c. 2.; that is to say, by a certain conception of words consisting of Question and Answer Inst. de verb. Oblig. in prin. Spiegel. Lexic. verb. Stipulatio.: For Example, The one Party asking, Wilt thou marry me? The other answering, I will Sichard. in Rub. de Spons. C. nu. 9.. Nevertheless, forasmuch as it is the Consent alone of the Parties whereby this Knot is tied, and whereby this Desponsation or Affiance is sufficiently wrought L. 4. de Sponsal. ff. c. sufficiat. 27. q. 2. c. cum apud de Sponsal. extra., being the very Substance (and as it were the Life and Soul) of this Contract d. l. 4. de Sponsal. ff. & ibi DD. Summa Host. tit. de Matrimonio §. qualiter paulò post prin. Socin. consil. 28. vol. 1.; therefore the necessity of observing that former prescript Form of Stipulation was not with­out just Cause abolished (p), and liberty granted to [Page 7]contract Spousals by whatsoever form of words Summa Host. de Spon­sal. §. qualiter. Inst. jur. Can. eodem tit. §. 1. quod tamen non sic intelligen­dum est, ac si interim non li­cerat, per stipu­lationem con­trahere, Azo. in d. tit. de Sponsal. C. & ibi Si­chard. nu. 11., or by any other means, as Writing, Signs, Tokens, &c. Inst. jur. can. tit. de Sponsal. §. 1. Anto. Gu­bert. Tract. de Sponsal. fol. 27.28, &c. Schneid. Tract. de Nupt. fol. 18. Covar. Tract. de Spon­sal. secunda parte c. 4. in prin. whereby this mutual Consent might appear; and so at this present, there is no one Form of Desponsation more lawful than another, but it is sufficient if the Consent of the Parties do appear by any form L. suff. cit. ff. de Sponsal. Summa Hosti­ens. tit de Spons. §. quali­ter Sichard. in d. Rub de Spons. C. nu. 11. Schneid. Tract. de Nupt. fol. 18..

5. Concerning the Justice and Equity of Spousals (if we shall extend this word ritè so far) Dec. & Alciat. in l. lecta. Sicert. pet. ff. Lucas de Penna in l. 3. de bon. vacan. C. c. sicut 32. q. 2. we may learn That seeing the same must be just and right as well as formal, all unjust and wrongful means and causes there­of, as Violence c. cum locum, de Sponsal. extra & ibidem communiter DD. & infra., Threats c. requisivit. c. gemma de Spons. extra lib. consil. matrinion. consil. ibidem 46. nu. 2. & consil. 77. nu 25. And. Gail. lib. 2. pract. obs. 93. obs. Reusner. Tract. de caus. matrimon. q. 6., Fraud And: Gail. Praeall. obs. 93. nu. 11. in fine, Reusner. Tract. de Sponsal q. 7., with such sinister Practices and Errors likewise are excluded.

6. Thirdly, By these words of the Definition [inter eos, quibus Jure licet, facta] made between those Parties to whom it is lawful, we may easily collect, That it is not lawful for every person to contract Spousals, namely, not for Infants before they be Seven years old L. in Sponsal. ff. de Sponsal. c. literas de Despons. Imp. extra.; nor for any Person prohibited to contract Ma­trimony L. oratio­ne de Spons. ff. c. cum quod de Reg. Jur. in Sext., as they which be of Kin within the Levi­tical Degrees Stat. Hen. 8. Anno 32. c. 38., and such as be already married L. 2. C. de incest. Nupt. l. eum qui C. de Adult. Cardinal. in c. pen de Spom. extra nu. 4. Palaeot. de Nothis & Spur. c. 6. in prin. lib. 1. Consil. matrimon. consil. ibidem 15. n. 24., with many Persons more ranged in a more ample Field than is here allowed to conduct them.

7. There be other words in the Definition, viz. [fu­turarum Nuptiarum] of future Marriage, in which words both the Matter and the End of the Spousals are com­prized. c. l. 29. q. l. Covar. Tract. de Sponsal. secunda parte, c. 3. §. 7. Reusner. de Spons. q. 5. [Page 8]The Matter of Spousals is nothing else but Marriage Wesemb. in tit. de Sponsal. ff. nu. 5.: The End, that by Solemnization of the promised Marriage the Parties betroathed may become perfect Husband and Wife Wesemb. e­odem loco, n. 7.. Of which Marriage, with the Causes, Effects, and Impediments, because there followeth a several Discourse, I shall not now need to dwell any longer in this definition.

SECT. III. The division of Spousals.

1. FIrst and principally Spousals be either de futuro, of that which is to come, or else de praesenti, of that which is present c. si inter &c. pen. de Sponsal. extra.: Spousals de futuro are a mu­tual Promise or Covenant of Marriage to be had after­wards Wesemb. in tit. de Spons. ff. Jo. Frigeus Tract. de Spons. in fine. Inst. fol. 272.: As when the Man saith to the Woman, [I will take thee to my Wife] and she then answereth, [I will take thee to my Husband c. is qui fi­dem, c. si inter de Sponsal. ex­tra. Kling. Tract. de Cau­sis Matrimonial. in prin. Schneid. Tract. de Nuptiis, fol. 18. nu. 5.]. Spousals de prae­senti are a mutual Promise or Contract of present Ma­trimony Wesemb. tit. de Sponsal. ff. Jo. Frigeus. Tract. de Spons. in finc. Inst. fol. 273.; as when the man doth say to the Wo­man [I do take thee to my Wife] and she then answer­eth [I do take thee to my Husband c. pen. de Spons. extra, & ibi omnes DD. Covar. Tract. de Spons. secunda parte, c. 4. §. 1. in prin.].

2. But here methinks some man doth pull me by the sleeve, and tell me in my Ear. That this distincti­on fighteth with the former definition of Spousals, [Page 9]because if Spousals be only futurarum Naptiarum repro­missio, a Promise of future Marriage l. 1. de Spons. ff., it cannot abide Spou­sals de praesenti, being a Covenant of present Matrimo­ny Wesemb. tit. de Spons. ff. nu. 3. Kling. Tract. de Cau­sis Matri­mon. fol. 6.: And therefore either the definition is insufficient, comprehending only Spousals de futuro, or if it be per­fect, it destroyeth this member of Spousals de praesenti Huc perti­n [...]t quod Scrip­tum reliquit. And. Gail. lib. 2. obs. 80. nu. 5..

3. To this Objection I answer thus: True it is, that Spousals de praesenti are improperly called Spousals Jo. Frigeus. Tract. [...] Spons. in fine. [...]st. fol. 274. Pan. & Fe­lin. in Rub. de Spons. extra. & in c. 3. de prae­sump., being in nature and substance, rather Matrimony than Spousals c. penult. de Spons. extra, c. ex parte. Qui fil. sunt legiti­mi. & Pan. in d.c. pen. Peck. Tract. de te­stam. conjugum lib. 4 c. 11. nu. 1 Schneid. Tract. de Nupt. fol. 21. nu. 19. Melch. Kling. Tract. de Cau­sis Matrim. fol. 8. Moraldus Tract. de Ma­trimonio, f. 29.: Nor was this distinction known to the Makers of the Civil Law Schneid. Tract. de Nupt. fol. 18. Q. Quot species nu. 3. Covar. Tract. de Sponsal. prima parte, c. 1. nu. 4., nor to Frontonius, who first devised the definition of Spousals above One thou­sand years ago Frontonius l. 1. de Sponsal. ff. Frontonius autem floruit longè ante Justinianum, qui anno post natum Christum, 536. edidit librum Digestorum, in quo extat haec definitio., but invented since by the Cano­nists Schneid. d. fol. 18. c. pen. de Spons. extra. & ibi Pan. Olden. de Spons. fol.—. And yet nevertheless (if we will be patient) there is no such enmity or disagreement betwixt that definition, and this distinction, but that they may be reconciled: For this word Nuptiae, Marriages, is not e­vermore referred to the Substance and indissoluble Knot of Matrimony only Spiegel. Lexic. verb. Nupt. l. 1. de ritu Nupt. ff., but doth often signifie the Rites and Ceremonies observed at the Celebration of Matrimony only c. nec illud 30. q. 5. Genes. c. 24. v. 66. Imò ut di­versa non rare ponuntur Nuptiae & Matrimonium, Wesemb. tit de ritu Nupt. ff. nu. 1. Adde Re­buff. in l. pronunciatum. §. Matrem familias, ff. de verb. sign., which thing being true, then is it not false, that seeing a man may contract present Matrimony, and yet refer the Solemnization thereof till another time, in respect of this future Solemniza­tion; The Contract de praesenti may justly be defended and verified to be futurarum Nuptiarum repromissio, a promise of future Marriage Panor. & alii in d. c. pen de Sponsal. extra. Palaeot. de Noth. & Spur. c. 5..

4. Secondly of Spousals, some be pure and simple, and some conditional Tit de con­dic. appos. in Despons. Sum­ma Hostiens. e­odem tit. Merich. Kling. Tract de caus. Matrimon. fol. 3. & Fri­geus. ubi supra. Reusner. de Sponsal. q. 2.. Pure or simple Spousals be they, wherein is no Condition: As, [I take thee to my Wife] [I take thee to my Husband,] &c. Frigeus de Sponsal. [...] 75. Pan. in [...] super co. de [...]ic. appos. extra. Schne. d. Iract. de Nupt. fol. 26. Summa Sylvest. verb. Sponsalia q. 5.. Condi­tional Spousals are they whereunto some such Quality is annexed, as thereby the validity of the Contract is suspended or stayed; as, [I will marry thee if my Father consent] &c. c. super eo. de condic. ap­pos. extra. & ibi Pan. & Praepos. Covar. Tract. de Spons. se cunda parte, c. 3. in prin. Frigeus & Schneid. ubi su­pra.. Unto which distinction it may be ad­ded, that some Spousals be referred to a day; as, [I will marry thee before the first day of May c. sicut de. Sponsal extra. & ibi Pan. & alii.].

5. Thirdly, Spousals be contracted either betwixt them which be present, or betwixt them that be ab­sent Melch. Kling. Tract de causis Matrimon. fol. 1. & 2. Covar. Tract. de Spons. secunda parte c. 4. nu. 8. c. f. nal. de procurat. in sext. Anto Gubert. Tract. de Spons fol. 24. nu. 18. &c. Summa Sylvest. verb. Sponsalia q. 2 in fine.. Present, I mean, when the one Party is per­sonally subject to the others Sense Glos. in Clem. dudum. de Sepul. §. Statuimus. verb. praesentari.. Absent, when the one Party doth neither see, nor hear, nor appre­hend the other with any Sense, but are espoused by intercession or mediation of a third person Melch. Kling. fol. 2. Sum. Hostiens. tit. de Spons. §. qualiter..

6. Fourthly, Spousals be either publick or private Tit. de Cland. despons. extra. Jo. Frigeus. Tract. de Spons. in fine. Instit. fol. 265. Pan. & Praeposit. in c. cum inhibitio. eodem tit. hic, nu. 5. ille, nu. 6. Reusner. de Sponsal lib. 1. q. 1.. By Publick, I do hereby understand such as be contracted before sufficient Witnesses Schneid. Tract. de Nupt. fol. 22. Jo. Frigeus Traci. de Spons. fol. 265.. By Private or Clande­stine Spousals, those which are contracted betwixt the Parties without the presence of Witnesses Schneid & Frigeus, ubi supra Sum. Host. tit. de Clandest. despons §. quor modis, nu. 1..

7. Fifthly, Of Spousals, some are contracted by Words, and some by Signs Pan. c. tuae. de Spons. extra. Anto. Gubert. Tract. de Sponsal. fol. 31. nu. 16. Covar. Tract. de Sponsal. part. 2. c. 4. in prin. nu. 1, 2, 3.; as the giving and re­ceiving a Ring c. si quis uxorem despons. 27. q. 2. Anto. Gubert. Tract. de Spons. fol 29. Covar. ubi supra Lapus. alleg. 57. Pan. in c. 1. de Sponsa duorum. Menoch. de praesump. lib. 3. prae­sump. 2. in corroboration of Matrimony.

8. Finally, Of Spousals, some be sworn and some un­sworn; that is to say, some Spousals be confirmed by an Oath c. 2. &c. c. requisivit. de Spons. extra., and some contracted without an Oath Kling. Tract. de Caus. Matrim. sol. 3..

SECT. IV. Of the great importance of the first Di­vision or Distinction betwixt Spou­sals de futuro and Spousals de prae­senti.

1. WHen we shall view the small difference be­twixt those words, whereby Spousals de futu­ro, or de praesenti De quibus (infra) eadem parte §. are contracted, it cannot but seem strange that from so small difference of Forms, so great diversity of Effects should proceed: For in truth, so very little (very often) is the odds betwixt the Form of words of these two Contracts, that the best Learned are at greatest variance, whether such Words make Spousals de futuro, or de praesenti DD. in c. ex literis, &c. ex parte de Sponsal. extra. Covar. Tract. de Spons. secun­da parte, c. 4. §. 1.. Neither is it unknown to the youngest Students in this Facul­ty, That words of future time do not evermore im­port Spousals de futuro c. ex parte de Sponsal. ex­tra. & ibi Pan. Soarez. The­saur. Com. op. verb. Matrimonium, nu. 9.; neither words of present time always Spousals de praesenti Veluti, si duo impuberes Matrimonium per verba de praesenti contraxerint, c. de illis &c. fin. de despons. impub. extra. Pan. in c. à nobis. tit. Praeall. nu. 2. & Praepos. nu. 4. c. unic. §. 1. de despons. impub. in Sext. & ibidem Geminianus & Francus, Adde dec. in l. Nup­tias de Reg. Jur. ff.. Again, That [Page 12]some words are so untoward, that it is a question whe­ther they make any kind of Spousals at all Praepos. in c. ex literis de Spons. nu. 4. & 5. Covar. Tract. de Spons. s [...]nda parte, c. 4. §. 1. nu. 6. & 7. Sum. Angeli­ca. verb Ma­trimonium q. 2. nu. 13. Praepos. in d. c. ex parte, nu. 8. & infra eadem parte.; and contrariwise, some words so flexible, that they may easily be stretched to make, either th'one, or th'other Summa Hostiens. tit. de Matrimonio. §. qualiter. Vivius Thesaur. com. op. verb. Matrimonium.. And finally, that some have utterly condemned this great diversity, which others do admit betwixt [I will] and [I do] Mar­tinus Lutherus, Libell. de caus. Matrimon. Schneid. Tract. de Nupt. fol. 19. Jo. Frigeus de Sponsal. fol. 274. in fine. Instit. lib. 2. Consil. Matrimonial. consil. 1., as captious, and the Mother of ma­ny Quarrels; the rather, for that the ruder sort, not being able to discern the force of Terms, are either snared or intrapped themselves, or deceived of that they verily expected of others Schneid. post. Luther. ubi supra. & Jo. Frigeus fol. 274. lib. 2. Consil. Matrimon. confil. ibidem. 1..

2. But yet for all this, least this distinction betwixt Spousals de futuro, and Spousals de praesenti (most com­monly received throughout all Christendom, and which all the Consistories in England do still retain) might, in any man's opinion, seem to be of no less importance, than it is, or not so much regarded as it ought, I thought it convenient, e're I did proceed any further, to deliver some different Effects of importance be­twixt these two kinds of Spousals, to remove this er­roneous Conceipt: Understand therefore, that that man and that woman, which do contract Spousals de futu­ro, as [I will take thee to my Wife; I will take thee to my Husband] are not very Husband and Wife c. requisivit c. si inter de Spons. extra. Pan: & Felin. in rub. de Spons. extra. quibus (si pla­ceat) adjungas. Theod. Bez. Tract. de di­vorc. in prin. post. Latera­nense consilium part. 6. c., neither so reputed in Law l. in eo Jure §. hoc caput. ff. de ritu Nupt. l. solet. §. ult. ff. de his qui not. infam. c. 2. requisivit de Sponsal. extra., except in certain Cases hereafter expressed Infra eadem parte §. 17., which excepted, they may by mutual agreement dissolve those Spousals, and safely [Page 13]match themselves elsewhere c. 2. de Spousal. extra. &c. requisivit eodem. Summa Host. tit. de Spons. §. ult. vers. Item 3.; or if but th'one of them alone shall renounce, and thereupon adventure indeed to marry otherwise, or to contract Spousals de praesenti with some other Person, in these Cases, by the Laws Civil l. 1. de Spon­sal. C. and Ecclesiastical c. sicut. c. si inter. de Spons. extra., this Marriage or Contract de praesenti shall stand firm and lawful, not­withstanding that Precontract of Spousals de futuro: The reason is, because, like as when a man doth pro­mise, that he will sell his Land, the Land is not there by sold in deed, but promised to be sold afterwards Gl. in l. e­mentis C. de contrahend. empt. Jas. & alii in l. servi elec­tione de Legat. 1. ff.; so whiles the Parties do promise only, that they will take, or will marry; they do not thereby presently take or marry Melch. Kling. Tract. de caus. Matrimon. fol. 1. Pan. & alii in c. ex literis el. 1. de Spons. extra.: But deferring the accomplishment of that promise, until another time, the Knot in the mean time is not so surely tied, but that it may be loosed, whiles the matter is in suspense and unperfect c. praeterea c. requisivit de Spons. extra.. But that woman, and that man, which have contracted Spousals de praesenti; as, [I do take thee to my Wife] and [I do take thee to my Husband] cannot by any A­greement dissolve those Spousals, but are reputed for very Husband and Wife in respect of the Substance, and indissoluble Knot of Matrimony c. Conjux. c. cum initiatur 27. q. 2. Mo­rald. Tract. de Matrim. fol. 29. Melch. Kling. Tract. de caus. Matrim. fol. 7. in fine. Pan. in c. cum locum. de Sponsal. ex­tra, nu. 3. Hiero. Schurpf. lib. 2. consil. Matrimon. consil. ibidem 24. nu. 2. Schneid-Tract. de Nuptiis. fol. 18. n 4.; and therefore if either of them should in fact proceed to solemnize Matrimony with any other person, consummating the same by Carnal Copulation, and Procreation of Chil­dren: This Matrimony is to be dissolved as unlaw­ful c. si inter. de Spons. extra. & ibidem Card n. Praepos. & Pan. Kirkhovius The­saur. com. op. verb. Matrimonium., the Parties marrying to be punished as Adulte­rers c. 2. de Sponsa duorum, & ibi DD., and their Issue in danger of Bastardy Host. Sum­ma tit. de clandest. despons. §. quam penam, nu. 2. verb. nunquid Innoc. in c. cum Inhibitio eodem. tit. nu. 4, & Cardin. ibidem in fine & infra..

3. The reason is, because here is no Promise of any future Act, but a present and perfect Consent Schneid. Tract. de Nupt. fol. 18. nu. 5. & 6. & fol. 21. nu. 19., the which alone maketh Matrimony L. sufficit ff. de Sponsal. c. sufficiat 27. q. 2. c. cum apud Sedem. de Spons. extra., without either Publick Solemnization c. 1. de Spons. duorum extra. c. nec illud 30. q. 5. l. Si donatio­num C. de Nupt. lib. 1. consil. ma­trim. fol. 273. nu. 1. & 2. Hie­ro. Schurpf. l. 2. consil. Matrim. consil. ibidem 24. nu. 4. or Carnal Copulation L. Nuptias de Reg. Jur. ff. Morald. Tract. de Matrimonio fol. 29. versic. Sponsalia. Reusner. lib. 1. de caus. Matrimon. q. 2. nu. 35, 36, & 37. Panor. in c. cum locum. de Sponsal. extra. nu. 3. & Apostilla ibi­dem litera E.; for neither is the one, nor the other of the Essence of Matrimony, but Consent only d. c. nec illud, & Praeall. l. Nuptias. And. Gail. lib. 2. observ. pract. obs. 80. nu. 4. Palaeotus de Nothis & Spuriis, c. 5. Hiero. Schurpf. inter consil. Matrimon. vol. 2. consil. ibidem 24. nu. 2, 3, 4. Pan. in c. cum locum. de Sponsal. nu. 3. cum addit. ibidem litera E.: Such a Wife was the blessed Virgin Mary c. beata Maria. c. quod autem. c. priusque, c. inventa 27. q. 2. Ex authoritate Augustini, Gregorii, Chrysostomi, & Orige­nis., that is to say, betroathed to Joseph, but neither solemnly married with him, nor secretly known by him, at the Conception of Christ Praeall. c. beata Maria. c. quod autem. c. priusque, &c. inventa 27. q. 2. Hen. Smith. de praeparat. matrim. fol. 2. qui refert Christum quidem conceptum fuisse post Sponsalia, natum autem post celebratum Matrimonium, ut utrumque statum, nempe Virginitatis & Conjugij commendaret.; and yet nevertheless termed Wife in the Holy Scrip­tures Matth. c. 1. vers. 20.: For as well the Sacred Scriptures Deuter. c. 22. vers. 23, 24. Kling. Tract. de. caus. Matrim. fol. 8. Schneid. Tract. de Nupt. fol. 22., as the Civil l. si Sponsa. de Jure. dot. l. ex Julia. de fundo do­tali. ff. and Ecclesiastical Laws c. institutum, c. conjux 27. q. 2. Panor. in rub. de Sponsal extra., do usually give to Women betroathed only, or affianced, the Name and Title of Wife, because in truth the man and woman, thus perfectly assured, by words of present time, are Husband and Wife before God and his Church c. cum initia­tur 27. q. 2. Everard. consil. 11. c. cum apud. de Sponsal. extra. Praeposit. in c. cum Inhibitio. de clandestin. despons. extra. in fine. Palaeotus de Nothis & Spur. c. 5. Melch. Kling. Tract. de caus. Matrim. fol. 8. Schneid. fol. 18. nu. 4. & fol. 22. nu. 19. Pan. in c. pen. de Spons. extra. nu. 2. Hiero. Schurpf. inter consil. Matrimon. vol. 2. consil. ibidem 24. nu. 2. Morald. Tract. de Matrimonio, fol. 29..

4. Worthily therefore was that Branch of the Sta­tute of noble King Henry the Eighth Anno 32. c. 38, establishing, [That Marriages contracted and solemnized in the Face of the Church, and consummate with bodily knowledge, or Matth. c. 1. versic. 18. Luc. c. 1. vers. 27. desponsata quidem sed per verba de praesenti, Gl. in d. c. inventa.[Page 15]fruit of Child or Children, should be judged and taken for lawful and indissoluble, notwithstanding any Precon­tract of Matrimony, not yet consummate with bodily know­ledge, &c.] worthily, I say, and upon good ground was this Branch of that Statute (established by the Father) repealed and made void by his gracious Son King Ed­ward the Sixth Anno 2. c. 23., for Spousals de praesenti, though not consummate, be in truth and substance very Ma­trimony l. Nuptias de Reg. Jur. ff. lib. 1. consil. Ma­trimon. consil. ibidem 5. nu. 2. Reusner. lib. 1. de caus. Ma­trimon. q. 2. nu. 9, 10. & nu. 35, 36, & 37., and therefore perpetually indissoluble c. fi inter. de Sponsal. c. 1. de Sponsa duo­rum extra., except for Adultery c. Praecepit Dominus 32. q. 5. c. quemadmodum. De Jure jur. extra.: Although by the Common Laws of this Realm (like as it is in France and other places) Spousals not only de futuro, but also de prae­senti be destitute of many legal Effects wherewith Mar­riage solemnized doth abound, whether we respect le­gitimation of Issue, alteration of property in her Goods, or right of Dower in the Husbands Lands.

SECT. V. What Persons may contract Spousals de futuro.

1. SInce it appeareth that the distinction betwixt Spousals de futuro and de praesenti, is not an idle distinction, or to little purpose, but of very great use, and no less importance, we are now to descend somewhat lower, and to prosecute either kind of Spou­sals severally and particularly.

2. Wherefore beginning with Spousals de futuro, let us examin first, What Persons may contract Spousals de futuro Infra ea­dem §. & Para­graphis seqq.: Next by what Form of words this kind of Spousals is contracted Infra ea­dem parte. § 10.: Thirdly, what are the Effects thereof Infra ea­dem parte, §. 17.: And fourthly, by what means the same may be dissolved Infra ea­dem parte, §. 18..

3. Concerning the Persons I find two Rules, the one Affirmative, the other Negative: The Affirmative Rule is this, What Persons soever may contract Matrimony, the same Person may contract Spousals de futuro Ho [...]ens Summa tit. de Spons. §. quis possit. Sichard. in Rub. de Spons. C. nu. 15. Summa Sylve­strina. verb. Sponsalia. q. 2.. But every Person which hath discretion to consent, and therewithal to perform the duty of Marriage, may con­tract Matrimony Summa Hostiens. tit. de Matrim. quis possit., if otherwise he be not prohibi­ted Hostiens. ubi supra.; and therefore every such Person may lawfully contract Spousals: which Rule is very reasonable, being put affirmatively, because to whom that is lawful which is great, that which is less, is much more law­ful: Now it is a greater matter to contract Matrimony than Spousals, for by lawful Marriage the Knot is made for ever indissoluble Quod Deus conjunxit homo nè separet. Marc. c. 10. vers. 9.; but Spousals are many ways subject to overthrow and dissolution Kling. Tract. de caus. Matrim. fol. 5. Praepos. in c. de illis de Spons. extra. in fine. lib. 1. consil. Matrim. consil. ibidem 15. nu. 11.. Marri­age was ordained of God in Paradise Genes. c. 2. vers. 21, 22, 23, 24., Spousals long after by Man Anto. Gubert. Tract. de Spons. fol. 7. nu. 4. Exod. c. 22. v. 16. Deut. c. 22. vers. 28.: By Marriage the Man and the Wo­man are made one Flesh Genes. c. 2. in fine. Epist. ad Ephes. c. 5. vers. 31., so are they not by only Spousals c. Institutum 27. q. 32.. To be short, Marriage is that great My­stery representing that Spiritual Marriage betwixt Christ and his Church Epist. ad Ephes. c. 5.32.; but Spousals are utterly destitute of this mystical Effect c. Institutum 2 [...]. q. 2. Praepos. in c. 1. de Spons. duorum, nu. 1. Anto. Gubert. Tract. de Spons. fol. 43.: And therefore since Marriage is greater than Spousals, it followeth by a sound Argument à majori ad minus Everard, & Olden. Loco a Maj. ad minus., That those c. cui de Reg. Jur. in Sexr. [Page 17]Persons which may contract Matrimony, may also con­tract Spousals.

4. The Rule Negative is, That whosoever is prohi­bited to contract Matrimony, the same Person is also prohibited to contract Spousals l. Oratio de Spons. ff. & ibi Bald. & alii.; because where the End is forbidden, there the Means also, whereby the End may be atchieved, is prohibited c. cum quod de Reg. Jur. in Sext. Bart. in d. l. Oratio.; which Reason might be illuminated with sundry Examples Dyn. Phil. Franc. & Peck. in d. c. cum quod.; but for that this Negative Rule hath sundry apparent Fal­lacies Sichard. in rub. de Spons. C. nu. 15, 16. &c. Addit. ad Bart. in l. Oratio de Spons. ff., I will not strive to make it seem infallible, let this one suffice, namely, That Children cannot con­tract Matrimony l. minorem ff. de ritu nuptiarum, c puberes. &c. de illis de despons. impuberum extra. vivius lib. 2. consil. matrim. fol. 209. col. 1., and yet may contract Spousals de futuro c. à nobis de despons. impuber. extra. &c. fin. ibidem. Anto. Gubert. tract. de sponsal. fol. 21. nu. 7.. And now because indeed this is the chief and principal Exception of this Rule, I think it here convenient to entreat of the Age wherein Spousals de futuro may be contracted.

SECT. VI. Of Spousals contracted by Infants.

1. THere be three Ages considerable in this Mat­ter of Spousals Host. Sum. tit. de despons. impub. §. quis dicatur.: The first is Infancy c. 1. de de­spons. impub. lib. 6. & Host. ubi supra.: The second is the Age between Infancy and ripe Age eodem c. §. 1. & Host. ubi su­pra., (which, if it please you, we will call Childhood): The third is ripe Age eodem c. §. ult. & Host. ubi supra..

2. Concerning the first Age, this Rule is delivered both by the Civil l. in Sponsal. & l. 2. de Spon­sal. ff. and Canon Laws c. 1. de de­spons. impub. lib. 6., That In­fants cannot contract any kind of Spousals: Upon which Conclusion, divers, as well Ampliations as Limitations, do attend ut infra hoc ipso §.. But before they be admit­ted into presence, it shall not be unprofitable to exa­mine what Persons be accounted Infants.

3. By Infants therefore, if we respect the Nature of the word, are understood those Younglings and Babes which as yet cannot speak Calepin. verb. infans. Jas. in l. 1. ff. de Verb. Oblig. nu. 22. Menoch. de Arb Jud. lib. 2. cas. 57. nu. 8., for so this Substantive [Infans] an Infant, doth import Menoch. de Arb. Jud lib. 2. cas. 57. nu. 17. Jas. ubi supra., being compounded of in and fando Veluti inutilis, infoelix, incertus, Calepin. Diction. Verb. In., of not speaking, the Praeposition (in) standing for [non]; in which Sense the Roman Poet doth use it, writing ‘Infandum Regina jubes renovare dolorem;’ for ‘non fandum, or ineffabilem dolorem Virgil. lib. 2. Aeneid. in prin. Siquidem vix dici potest quantus sit viro forti dolor se victum confiteri. Servius & Donatus in illo loco..’

4. Our Temporal Lawyers no less significantly than usually, do call them Insants which have not attained yet to the Age of One and twenty years Dr. & Stud. lib. 1. c. 21. lib. 2. c. 28. Terms of Law. Ve bo Gardein. Brooke Abridg­ment. t [...]t. Co­verture. pl [...]ri­bus locis., because until that time they are as it were Tongue-tied, being unable to speak, at least effectually; and though they speak naturally, yet do not the Laws understand, or acknowledge their words to be of any force, either for Alienations or other Contracts, more than if they were young Infants, naturally destitute both of Speech and Judgment Dr. & Stud. nbi supra cui adde Spiegel. Lexic. verb. In­fans..

5. In Germany Spiegel. Lexic. verb. In­fans., Spain Extravag. 1 Jo. 22. tit. de Judaeis. & ibi Gloss. verb. In­fans Rebuff. in l liberorum, §. final. de Verb. Sign., and other Countries viz. apud Judaeos, teste Hiero. in c 20. Genes. & apud Gallos, teste Re­buff in d. l. li­berorum, in fine., he that is Heir, though otherwise he be of lawful years, and how old soever, yet so long as he yet liveth, to whom he is Heir (as the Son during the Father's Life, or the younger Brother during the Life of the Elder) is usually called Insant Spiegel. Lexic. verb. Infans. & Re­buff. ubi supra., because he hath no power to meddle with the Inheritance, the Laws having set a Lock before his Lips, so that he is not to speak in these Affairs, the Care and Amdinistration whereof is yet in another Person ibidem..

6. We read also that Servants or Bondslaves are sometimes called Infants Spiegel. Lexic. verb. In­fans.: And in other places this word [Infans] hath other significations, and is attribu­ted not to Men alone, but to Beasts also Calepin. Lexic. verb. Infans..

7. In the Civil l. Infans. ff. ad l. Cornel. l. 1. C. de fals. monet. l. si Infanti C. de jure deliberand. l. in Sponsalibus, el. 2. ff. de Sponsal. and Ecclesiastical Prooem. lib. 6. decre­ral. & gl. ibidem verb. perfectus.Laws, by Infants (most commonly) are understood those Chil­dren which have not as yet accomplished the Age of Seven years; and so is the word accepted in this place l. in Sponsalibus, el. 2. de Spons. ff. c. 1. de despons. impub. in Sext..

8. Wherefore to return to the right Path of our pur­posed Journey, where it is delivered, That Infants can­not contract Spousals; it is understood of those Chil­dren which be under the Age of Seven years c. Juvenis. de Sponsal. c. ad literas de de­spons impub. ex­tra. &c. 1. eo­dem tit. lib. 6. & ibi DD.: They therefore which are not Seven years old cannot con­tract Spousals; which Conclusion hath so much the more Reason, by how much these young Infants want Reason and Judgment to judge of these Affairs l. i. C. de fals. monet. l. In­fans. ff. ad l. Corneliam de Sicar., being fitly compared to them which are asleep Clem. de homicid. & i­bidem DD.; who albeit they speak many things, or do something in their sleep, yet do they not perceive what they say or do, nor sleeping yield their consent thereto d. Clem. Zaf. in l. possessio §. adipiscantur in fin. de acquir. poss. ff..

9. The Ampliations and Limitations of which Rule are these: First, albeit the one Party be above the Age of Seven years, yet the other Party being under Se­ven years, the contract of Spousals betwixt those two, is of so small force, that if the Party which is of full Age, do contract Matrimony with a third Person, though that third Person be near of Kin to the Infant, the Marriage is good, notwithstanding the former Con­tract c. literas. c. accessit. de despon. impub. gl. in c. Juvenis. de Sponsal. ex­tra, & ibi Pa­nor. Praepos. & alii..

10. Secondly, Albeit the Infants have attained to the Seventh year of their several Ages, yet are those Spousals void d.c. literas, cum c. seq. An­to. Gubert. tract. de Spon­sal. fol. 19. nu. 1.; for it is requisite that they have wholly and fully accomplished the Seventh year when they do contract Spousals; at least, saving for two or three days Pan. in d. c. literas nu. 3. Praepos. nu. 2. Covar. tract. de Sponsal. prima parte, c. 2. nu. 2. Henr. Boic: in c. accessit, & in c. attestationes. de despons. impub. extra..

11. Thirdly, Spousals contracted during Infancy are utterly void, whether the Infants themselves, or their Parents for them, do make the Contract c. 1. de despons. impub. lib. 6. & ibidem Domin. nu. 2. in prin..

12. Fourthly, Albeit both the Infants after the Con­tract do attain to a great number of years, yet the [Page 21]Spousals contracted during their Infancy are not there­by confirmed Praeall. c. unic de despons. impub. & gl. lib. 6. &c. literas de despons. ex­tra., without other proof of mutual Con­firmation eodem c. in prin. Covar. tract. de Spon­sal prima parte, c. 2. in fin..

13. Fifthly, The Contract made during Infancy is void, whether the Contract were celebrated by words of present time, as [I do take thee, &c.] or by words of future time, as [I will take thee, &c.] Jo. And. in c. unic. de de­spons. impub. in Sext.; for as In­fants cannot contract Spousals, so they cannot Matri­mony c. ubi &c. puberes de de­spons. imp. extra cum Similibus, & Pan. in d. c. ubi., because they which cannot do the lesser, cannot do the greater Peckius in c. cui licet de Reg. Jur. in Scat. Everard. loco à minori..

14. The Limitations are these; First when the In­fants, after they have accomplished their several Ages of Seven years, do either by express word ratifie c. 1. de de­spons. impub. in Sexto in prin. and confirm the Contract made during their Infan­cy, or by other words of like importance, as by cal­ling and naming each other Husband and Wife gl. in d. c. 1.; for by the reason of this new consent the Contract (otherwise void) is become of no less force than if they had new made a new Contract Anto. Gu­bert. Tract. de Sponsal. fol. 20. nu. 3..

15. The second Limitation is when as by Deeds on­ly they do approve and confirm the Contract made during their Infancies c. unic. de Sponsal. lib. 6. in prin. Covar. tract. de Spons. prima parte c. 2 in fine., as if they lye together, im­brace, or kiss each other, or give and receive Gifts and Tokens either of them, to or from the other, af­ter both their Ages of Seven years; for by Deeds the former Spousals are confirmed, as well as by Words Covar. tract. de Sponsal. prima parte, c. 2. in fine, & glos. ubi supra. pro c. dilecti &c. ut nostram. de App. extra..

16. The third Limitation (like unto the second) is, when the Infants, after the accomplishment of their said several Ages, do mutually cohabit or dwell together c. unic. de despons. impub. in princ. lib. 6., and are not ignorant of the Contract made be­twixt Glos. in d c. unic. ibi, vel fa­cto quam se­quitur Domini. & Phil. Perus. Baptist. Thesaur. com. op. verb. Sponsalia nu. 92. Licet Hostiens in diversam eat Sententiam. [Page 22]them, during their Infancy; for otherwise they do not ratifie that which they know not Dominic. & Phil. Franc. in d. c..

17. The fourth Limitation is, when two contract Spousals, of whom the one is more than Seven years old, the other near Seven years c Juvenis de Sponsal. ex­tra., suppose six and a half Jo And. Host. Praepos. & alii commu­niter in d. c Ju­venis.; if these Persons ever, during the Infancy of the younger Party, do either lye together Host. d. c Juvenis & ibi Praepos. verb. tertius Intel­le [...]s., or coha­bit together Card & Pa­nor. in d. c. Ju venis & ibi Praepos. verb. quartus Intel­lectus., by occasion whereof it remaineth doubtful, whether they have essayed to know each o­ther; in this Case the Contract hath like effect as if the Parties had both accomplished the Age of Seven years d. c. Juvenis & ibi DD..

18. The fifth Limitation is, when the Infants which do contract Spousals are of that Wit and Discretion, that albeit they have not as yet accomplished the full Age of Seven years, yet doth their supraordinary Un­derstanding fully supply that small defect of Age, which thing is not rare in these days, wherein Children become sooner ripe, and do conceive more quickly than in former Ages Damhouder. pract. Criminal. c. 84. nu. 5.: Wherefore in this Case, by that O­pinion which savoureth more of Equity Dom Anto. in d. c. Juvenis & ibi Pan. in fin., and which (as I take it) is more commonly received Sum. Ho­stiens. tit. de Spons. §. qualis sit effectus. verb. effectus est Cardinal. Dom. Anto. in c. Ju­venis de Spons. extra. & ibi Praepos. versic. primus Intel­lectus. Summa Sylvest. de Spon­sal. q. 2. Covar. de Sponsal. prima parte, c. 2. nu. 1. quorum opinio communis est, ut ex eisdem Author. patet., this Con­tract is not void, but of equal force as if these Infants had out-grown their Infancy when they were Espoused. I confess this Opinion hath many and mighty Adversa­ries Panor. in d. c. Juvenis, Socin. Sen. cons. 3. vol. 1. gl. in Inst. Juris Can. tit. de Sponsal. §. non tamen verb. minores., affirming confidently, That it cannot be pro­ved by Law, that Infants may contract Spousals before the end of Seven years, though otherwise their Pru­dence did supply the want of Age Panor. in d. c. Juvenis in fin.. But yet for all this, considering that by the very Text of the Law, not only (after the accomplishment of those numbers of years, severally prescribed to the Man and Woman for [Page 23]Marriage, he or she may lawfully contract Matrimony, but also before those years, in case their natural Abili­ties supply the want of Age c. puberes c. de illis. de de­spons. Impub. extra. & ibi DD. Kling. tract. de caus. matrim. fol. 15. Guber. Costan. tract. de matr. fol. 66. nu. 15, 16, &c., that is, suffice to per­form the Duty of Marriage Panor. in c. de illis. el. 2. nu. 3. Kling & Costan. ubi su­pra., then à fortiori (by all reason) may those Persons contract Spousals, whose Pru­dence doth supply the other want of Age Praepos. & communiter DD. in d. c. Ju­venis. Covar. tract. de Spons. prima parte, c. 2. Summa Syl­vest. tit. de Spon­sal. q. 2., both be­cause Spousals are more easily dissolved than Matrimo­ny Schneid. tract. de nupt. fol. Melch. Kling. tract. de caus. matrim. fol. 6. Summa Hostiens. de Sponsal. §. ult., in case of the Parties disliking, as also because consent alone is of the Substance of Spousals, without that natural Ability requisite in Marriage l. sufficit. de Sponsal ff Sum. Sylvest. tit. de Sponsal. q. 2.: Hence it is that the Laws make no difference betwixt their A­ges who do contract Spousals, namely, because consent alone is sufficient Ant. Gu­bert. tract. de Sponsal. fol. 21. n. 6. Faber. & Angel. in §. 1. Inst. de nupt.; whereas in the Contract of Mar­riages there is regard had, not only of the Parties Judg­ment and Understanding, but also of the natural Abi­lity of their Bodies c. puberes, c. de illis. cum Similibus de despons. impub. extra., as a thing very necessary in that behalf DD. in d. c. puberes. &c. de illis. Co­var. de Spons. prima parte, c. 2..

19. Here may be demanded, What if two Infants contracting Spousals by words of present time, do not only confirm the same after that they have overpassed their Infancy, but also after they be come to lawful years of Marriage, whether is this Contract to be ad­judged more Spousals or Matrimony? In this Question the Writers do vary Jo. Andr. Archid. Phil. Franc. & alii. in c. 1. §. 1. de despons. impub. l. 6. Decis. Rotae. 463., and it dependeth of other Points to be examined before we can conveniently come to the Solution, which cannot be here handled without confusion; but as soon as opportunity serveth it shall be satisfied.

SECT. VII. Of Spousals contracted by Children be­twixt Infancy and ripe Age.

1. THe second Age to be regarded in Persons contracting Spousals is Childhood, which Age how far it reacheth is needful to be known: Children therefore, in respect of their Age, are so termed of some, until they be twice Seven years old Aristot. Histor. Animal. lib. 5. c. 14. Ma­crob. de quo Al­ciat. in l. pueri de Verb. Sign. ff. Anto. Gubert. tract. de matr. fol. 67.; of some till they be thrice Seven years old, that is One and twenty Tract. de repub. Angl. lib. 3. c. 5. & Alciat. post Macrob. u­bi supra., sometimes Children are so called until they be of the Age of Two and twenty years l. 1. § Pueri ff. de postulan­do, Servius Tul­lus Rex Rom. de quo Aul. Gel. lib. 10. c. 28., sometimes until they be of the Age of Eighteen l. mella. ff. de alimen. leg., sometimes nu­til they be Twenty Rebuff. in l. Pueri de Verb. Sign. ff. versic. quintò non tenentur., and sometimes till they be Five and twenty tit. de minor. vigint. quinque ann. ff. l. impuberibus, de acquir. hered. ff. & ibi gl. secundo Intellectum., according to the variety of the subjected Matter and Meaning of the Author Alciatus Rebuff. & Bracheus in l. Pueri ff. de Verb. Sign.. In the holy Scriptures we read, Puer centum annorum morietur Esaias c. 65. vers. 20.; that is, a Child of an hundred years shall dye, if we translate it after the Letter.

2. By Children in this place, I understand them which have exceeded their Infancy, but have not as yet attained to that Age wherein nature (by the Providence of God) bestoweth Corporal Ability of performing the Act of Generation c. Puberes. de despons. impub. extra. & DD. ibidem.; these Children the Laws Ci­vil [Page 25]and Ecclesiastical, do call Impuberes Alciat. in I. Pueri. de Verb. Sign. ff. Spiegel. Lexic. verb. Im­puberes. & verb. Pueri. Instit. qui­bus. mod. Tutel. sin. § 1., as it were young Plants, without Buds or Blossoms, being the out­ward Signs of inward Vigor Unde pubes­cere, id est, la­nuginem circa pudenda emit­tere. Praepos. & alii in d. c. pube­res., and they are also called Pueri, as some conjecture quasi puri Alciat. in d. L. Pueri. ff. de Verb. Sign. Spie­gel. Lexic. verb. Pueri., that is, pure, or as Virgins clean from Carnal Pollution: But whether Pueri have their denomination à puritate, I will not contend: I remember Brechaeus jeasting at this E­tymology, affirmeth, That by the same Reason we might say purus quasi purus aer Brech. in d. L. Pueri in principio.; but let the names go, and come we to the thing it self, Pueritia, Child­hood is the Age betwixt Infancy and ripe Age fit for Marriage Hostiens. Summa Tit. de despons. impub. §. quis dicatur Impubes & DD. in d. c. puberes..

3. During this Age Children cannot contract Ma­trimony or Spousals de praesenti, but only de futuro c. de illis el. 1. & DD. ibi­dem. Summa Hostiens. Tit. de despons. impub. § & quae Spon­salia. Hen. Boic. in c. puberes de despons. impub. extra., which excellent Conclusion is not only adorned with sundry Limitations of Importance, but enriched with many profitable Questions.

4. The first Limitation is pro bono pacis, for the good or benefit of Peace c. ubi de despons. impub. extra., and therefore if two Princes, after long or cruel Wars, concluding a friendly Peace, do for more assured confirmation thereof match their Children in Marriage, this Marriage the Laws do tole­rate as lawful, being made upon such urgent Cause, though otherwise for divers wants the same were un­lawful d. c. ubi & ibidem DD..

5. The second Limitation is Quando malitia supplet aetatem, that is, when natural Ability to pay the Mar­riage Debt doth supply the want of Age c. de illis el. 2. de despons. impub. extra, latiùs infra., for so this word malitia doth signifie in this place Al. in Praeal. c. nu. 3. Archid. in c. unic. de despons. impub. in Sext. Kling. Tract. de caus. matrimonial. fol. 15. Gubertus Costan. Tract. de ma­trimon. fol. 76. nu. 50.: But where­fore it doth so signifie, I cannot, as yet, perfectly ap­prehend, no more than wherefore our Temporal Law­yers use this word [mulier] (which doth signifie a wo­man [Page 24] [...] [Page 25] [...] [Page 26]which is not a Virgin) for one that is Legitimate, or that is not a Bastard Terms of Law. verb. Mulier.; it sufficeth we know the meaning, which is, That albeit the Laws do not pre­sume any Man or Woman to be able to perform the Act of Generation, until a certain number of years (hereafter described) be accomplished Instit. quib. mod. Tutel. fin. §. 1. l. minorem de ritu nup. ff. Gubert. Costan. Tract. de matri­mon. fol. 66. nu. 15. Summa Hostiens. Tit. de despons. impub. §. quis dicatur. nu. 1. Henric. Boic. in c. pube­res. codem Tit.: Nevertheless if it do appear, that in the mean time, and before the expiration of those years, they are able to perform the Act aforesaid, then it is lawful for them to contract Spousals de praesenti, or to marry c. puberes c. de illis el. 2. c. à nobis. de despons. impub. extra. Hostiens. Summa tit. de despons. impub. §. quis dicatur. Panor. & Prae­positus in d. c. puberes..

6. Thirdly, Albeit Children cannot contract Spou­sals de praesenti so effectually, that the same shall enjoy the very force and virtue proper thereunto, yet obser­ving the form of Spousals de praesenti in their Contract, as [I do take thee to my Husband, I do take thee to my Wife, &c.] this Contract is not utterly void, but by the Interpretation of Law, obtaineth the force of Spousals de futuro c. unic. §. 1. de despons. im­pub. in Sext.: Divers (I deny not) of the Ancient Law­yers were of a contrary Opinion for a long time Viv. in c. à nobis. de de­spons. impub. & alii de quibus Hen. Foic. cod. c. & Hostiens. Summa Tit de despons. impub. §. & quae Sponsalia. Bart. in L. prima §. Si quis ita; de verb. Obl. ff. nu. 2., holding, That if by these words the Parties did intend to contract Matrimony, then the Contract was utterly void, not having any force either of Matrimony or of Spousals gloss. post. Alan. in d. c. à nobis & disputat. Hen. Poic. eod. c.: Not of Matrimony, because if they would, they could not make any such Contract gloss. in d. c. à nobis. & in c. unic. §. 1. verb. Matrimonrum.: Not of Spousals, because albeit they might, yet they did not intend to make any such Contract Gloss. ubi supra & re­sert Covar. Tract. de Sponsal. parte 1. c. 3. nu. 2. quem vide.: And so ei­ther because they could not, or would not, the Con­tract did not prevail at all, either as Matrimony, or as Spousals; howbeit in the end this Opinion was dasht by later Laws made for that purpose, whereby it was and is established, That if two Children do contract [Page 27]Spousals by words of present time, intending also there­by to contract Matrimony, yet this Contract shall pre­vail as Spousals de futuro Text. in c unic. §. 1. de despons. impub. in Sext. Hen. Boic. in d. c. à nobis extra eod. tit. & Co­var. Tract. de Sponsal. prima parte c. 3. nu. 2.; and so it is if one of the Parties be of ripe Age, the other not d.c. unic. §. 1. de despons. impub. in Sext..

7. Fourthly, By what means Spousals contracted during Infancy, and therefore void at the beginning, are notwithstanding afterwards made strong and confirm­ed, namely by mutual Cohabitation, by Kissings, by Embracings, by giving and receiving of Gifts and To­kens, &c. Praeal. c. in princ. & ibi gloss. Dominic. & Franc. & a­lii., or by Words, expressing the continuance and perseverance of the mutual Consent; as by calling each other Husband and Wife d. gloss.: By the same means practised, after the Parties be of ripe Age, fit for Marriage, are those Spousals by them contracted in their Minority by words of present time (being then Spousals de futuro by interpretation of Law only) resolved or turned into Matrimony Abb. in c. fin. de Sponsal. extra. Lib. 1. confil. matrim. confil. ibidem 17. nu. 6, 7. Gloss. & DD. in c. 1. §. 1. de despons. impub. Lib. 6. Paris. consil. 51. & consil. 62. vel 4. Soarez. The­saur. com. opin. verb. Sponsalia. nu. 163. & ibi Baptista à Vil­lalob verb. Sponsalia, nu. 91. & est com­munis opinio, licet eam aegrè ferant, Covar. prima parte de Spons. c. 4. §. 2. nu. 4. & Molin. in addic. ad consil. Dec. 368. quos videas., from that time enjoying the same Properties and Effects belong­ing to Spousals de praesenti, contracted betwixt Persons of full and perfect Age Dec. consil. 368. & clariùs Paris. d. cons. 51. vol. 4. nu. 11. Card. in c. de illis. el. 1. de despons. impub. extra. nu. 1., unless the Parties, after they be come to perfect Age, do first dissent, and so dis­solve the Contract before they consent Henr. Boic. in c. At­testationes de despons. Impub. extra. versic. Item fallit, Menoch. de praesump. libr. 3. praesumpt. 2. nu. 26.: As for their dislent before they come to perfect Age, it hin­dreth not the exchange or passage of the Contract from Spousals (so termed by interpretation of Law) to Matrimony, by any the means aforesaid c. de illis el. 1. de despons. impub. in princ. & ibi gloss. verb. ullatenus, & Card. in princ. de c. & in fin. &c. à nobis eod. tit. & ibi Panor. nu. 2.. How­beit this is to be diligently noted in this place, That Spousals de futuro properly so called, those I mean which are contracted by words of future time, (as [Page 28] I will take thee, &c.) do not pass from Spousals to Matrimony by any the means aforesaid, or by any o­ther Act, other than by the very Act of Carnal Knowledge of the Parties so betroathed c. fin. de Sponsal. extra. & ibi Panor. & DD. Dominic. & Franc. in c. unic. de Sponsal. §. 1. lib. 6. Henr. Bo­ic. in c. Attestationes de despons. Imp. extra. Dec. cons. 368. Paris. consil. 51. nu. 8. lib. 4. & Co­var. Tract. de Sponsal. prima parte. c. 4. §. 2. nu. 2.: So that the endeavour to perform the Act is not sufficient in this Case d. c. fin. de Sponsal. extra. & ibi­dem DD. maxime Panor. & Praepos. ibidem lib. 1. consil. matrim. consil. ibidem 86. nu. 23, 24., which in the other Case is alone suffici­ent without accomplishment of the Act c. Attestationes & ibi Praepos. & Henr. Boic. de despons. impub. extra. Idem Praepos. in c. fin. de Sponsal. nu. 3. & Cardinal. nu. 2. cod. c. fin..

8. Fifthly, By the Laws of this Realm (as I take it) if a Woman, during her Minority, be married to a Man seized of Lands or Tenements in Fee-simple, or Fee tail, by Purchase or Discent, she shall be en­dowed of the third part of such Lands and Tene­ments, so that she have accomplished the Age of nine years at her Husbands death Fitzherbert Na. Br. fol. 149. l. Littleton. Tit. Dower. in prin. Kitchin fol. (mihi) 160, 161..

SECT. VIII. Divers Questions about Marriages or Spousals contracted by Children.

1. THE Questions which I speak of, and which are now to be propounded, are of divers sorts Vide Sum­mam Hostiens. Tit. de despons. impub. §. fin. & Covar. Tract. de Sponsal. prima parte, c. 4. & 5. by occasion of the divers Circumstances (whereby the Case, and consequently the Law is altered) incident to this Matter; for sometimes the Parties, which are be­troathed are both under Age., and sometimes th'one of them in Minority, and th'other of ripe and perfect Age: Wherefore we will first handle such Questions as be­long to the first Case, then those which belong to the second Case, and thirdly those Questions which belong to both Cases.

2. First, When the Parties betroathed are both of them Children at the time of the Contract, then this Question may be demanded, Whether that Party which first cometh to lawful Age, may then dissent, or must stay and expect till the other Party likewise come to lawful years de hac Q. DD. in c. de il­lis. el. 1. de despons. impub. extra. Covar. de Spons. prima parte, c. 5. §. fin.: Many are of this Opinion, That he or she who first cometh to ripe Age, must stay until the other Party attain to ripe Age also, and cannot in the mean time dissent; or dissenting or disclaiming in Deed, yet this disclaimer is not to be heard, nor this dissent regarded, the other Party yet standing in Mi­nority Gloss. in d.c. de illis & Sum­mar. ibi dem in medio, Schneid­win. tract. de nuptiis. fol. 32. nu. 13. Consil. matrim. lib. 1. consil. ibidem 14. n. 3.. Others are of a contrary Judgment, affirming, That it is not only lawful for that Party, who first [Page 30]cometh to lawful Age, to dissent Panor. Boic. & Praepos. in d. c. de illis, el. 1. Hostiens. Sum­ma Tit. de de­spons. impub. §. fin. versic. si ve­rò impubes quo­rum opinio com­munis est. Teste Covar. Tract. de Sponsal. pri­ma parte, c. 5. §. 1. nu. 2., but also that it is necessary so to do Hostiens. Boic. & Praepos. ubi supra, & haec opinio com­munis est ejus­dem Covar. te­stimonio, loco quo supra., even so soon as he or she shall first reach unto this lawful Age, or incontinently af­ter Henric. Boic. in d. c. de illis el. 2. de de­spons. impub.; otherwise he or she, by not dissenting, shall be deemed to have ratified the former Contract, at the least for his or her own part, and to have referred the matter to the power and election of the other Party to confirm or infirm the same Summa Hostiens. Tit. de despens. impub. §. in fin. versic. Sed si alter. Henr. Boic. in d. c. de illis. versic. unde quando. Praepos. eodem c. nu. 1. vers. & ideo.. And this Opinion, namely, That the Party who first cometh to lawful Age may then dissent, is imbraced of the most part, as the truer Opinion Te­ste Covar. in Tract. suo de Sponsal. prima parte, c. 5. §. 1. nu. 2. Summa Silvestrin. Tit. de Sponsal. q. 3. in fin.. The Reason in my Conceit is very plain; for seeing it is granted by them which hold the former Opinion, That even that Party which first co­meth to lawful Age may then dissent, when the younger Party cometh to the same Age Gloss. in c. de illis el. 1. de despons. impub. extra. verb. minoris aetat. ibi Tu. dic.; in vain then, and to no purpose is this expectation, whereof there is no effect Panor. Boic. Hostiens. & Praepos. in d. c. de illis 1. Covar. Tract. de Sponsal. prima parte, c. 5. §. 1. nu. 2. Summa Silvestr. verb. Sponsal. q. 3. in fin..

3. This Conclusion therefore, That the Party which first cometh to lawful Age may dissent during the o­thers Minority is extended, and doth proceed, albeit the Contract were made by words of present time, or the Marriage solemnized in the face of the Church Covar. Tract. de Spon­sal. prima parte, c. 5. §. 1. in prin. post. Praepos. & alios in c. de illis el. 1. de de­spons. impub. extra.: But in these Cases following this Conclusion is limited, namely, when after the Contract or Marriage the Par­ties know each other Carnally; for then though both the Parties should dissent, the Contract or Marriage con­summate cannot be dissolved Henric. Boic. in c. At­testationes de despons. impub. extra. versic. aut per tacitum, &c. Panor. in c. à nobis. eod. Tit. in sin Piaepos. in d. c. Attestationes nu. 5 Schneidwin. tract. de nuptiis, fol. 32. n. 13. in fin.; or if the Party, being [Page 31]near full Age, and of discretion to understand the na­ture and peril of an Oath, did swear to perform the Contract c. ex literis el. 2. de Spon­sal. extra. & ibi Panor. & DD. quorum opinio communiter est recepta refe­rente Covar. Tract. de Sponsal. prima parte, c. 5. §. 1. n. 3. quem videas de hac re copiose disserentem in utram­que partem.; or if the Party which first came to ripe Age did not by and by, but a good space after dis­claim Henr. Boic. in c. de illis el. 1. de despons. impub. extra. versic. aut quilibet. Praepos. in c. Attestationes eod. tit. nu. 4., in those Cases also the elder is to expect un­til the younger come to ripe Age, nor is to be licensed to marry elsewhere in the mean time Hostiens. Summa. Tit. de despons. impub. §. in fin. versic. sed si alter. Boic. & Covar. ubi supra..

4. The second Question concerning the first Case, (namely, when both the Parties betroathed are under Age) shall be this, What if the Parties during their Minority dissent, yet immediately after they be come to lawful years, do both of them express their mutual Consent by Conjectures only (as by Kissings, Embracings, Gifts, &c.) afterwards the one of them alone dissenteth, and marrieth a third Person, and doth consummate the same by Carnal Knowledge; Whether is this Marriage good in Law?

5. To this Question thus, If the former Contract were made by words of Future time (as, I will take thee, &c.) then the Marriage is good c. 1. de matr. contr. interdict. Ecclesiae, & ibi Panor. albeit not consummate d.c. 1. de matr. contr. interdict. Ecclesiae, in quo nulla fuit men­tio copulae, sed nuptiarum tan­tum cum tertio, Adde C. pen. de Sponsal. extra. & DD. ibidem.; the reason is this, more is not confirmed than was at the first contracted Baleus in l. 3. C. si adversus rem judicat. in fin., that is Spousals de faturo pro­perly so called, both because in form of words, and in the intent of the Parties they were so. But Spousals de futuro, albeit contracted by them of full Age, are taken away by Spousals de praesenti c. sicut c. penult. de Sponsal. extra. & DD. ibidem.. And there­fore in our Case the Marriage is good, notwithstanding Pa­ris. consil. 51. vol. 4. Dec. consil. 468. Gem. & Franc. in c. unic. §. 1. de despons. impub. lib. 6. [Page 32]the Spousals contracted in Minority, and confirmed af­terwards c. 1. de ma­tr. contr. inter­dict. Ecclesiae, & ibi DD. Cor­set. sing. verb. matrim. 178. Abb. & Praepos. ibidem Paris. consil. 62. vol. 4.. And this I take to be true, albeit the former Spousals had been confirmed by giving and re­ceiving a Ring Covar. tract. de Sponsal. prima parte, c. 4. §. 2. nu. 2. DD. in c. fin. de despons. impub. extra..

6. But if the former Contract were made by words of present time (as, I do take thee, &c.) then the Mar­riage, albeit consummate, is not good c. unic. §. 1. de despons. im­pub. lib. 6. & ibidem Gem. & Phil. Franc. & alii. Soarez. Thesaur. com. Op. verb. Spon­salia nu. 163. Card. in c. de illis el. 1. de despons. impub. extra & clariùs pro Paris. con­sil. 51. vol. 4. quod videas.. The Reason is, because this former Contract being in truth Matri­mony, if we regard either the form of words, or intent of the Parties Gem. Franc. Anchor. & Jo. Andr. in c. u­nic. §. 1. de despons. impub. in Sext. Paris. ubi supra. & Phil. Dec. consil. 168. and Spousals only by interpretation of Law DD. in d. §. 1., because of the instant defect of perfect Consent, which perfect Consent in due time once had, and the same mutually expressed, and so the former Contract thereby confirmed and ratified, is of no less force or efficacy than is the Contract of Spousals de praesenti, made betwixt Persons of perfect Age Paris. & Dec. ubi supra. & DD. in d. c. unic. §. 1. de de­spons. impub. in Sext., which cannot be dissolved by a second Marriage consummate with Carnal Knowledge, and Procreation of Children c. si inter. & ibi Panor. Card. & alii. de Sponsal. extra. quorum o­pinio est communis, Teste Kirkhovio. Thesaur. com. op. verb. Matrimonium.. As for the first Circumstance of this Instance, namely, The dissent of the Parties betrothed during their Mino­rities, it is not of any value Henr. Boic. in. c. Attestationes. de despons. impub. extra. Summam Hostiens. Tit. de despons. impub. §. fin. versic. Sed pro Deo.: The Reason is, because of the inconstancy and mutability of Children; for to day they will, to morrow they will not; the third day they will, and they will not, and so every day, In Dock out Nettle, until they come to years of discretion Summa Hostiens. Tit. de despons. impub. §. fin. versic. Sed pro Deo.; and therefore worthily in the mean season are their un­stable and doubtful dissents not regarded. By the So­lution of this second Question we may the better aim at [Page 33]the Answer to a third Question proposed e're while about Infants, viz.

7. If two Infants do contract Spousals by words of present time, confirming the same by divers Conjectures, not only after they have exceeded their Infancy, but also after they have attained to full and perfect Age, Whether this Contract ought to be judged as Spousals de futuro, or de praesenti Hostiens. ubi infra Arg. l. cum non so­lum §. filiis, & §. ubi autem, C. de Boni. quae lib. L. dubium C. de repub. Sed quid si ma­litia supplet ae­tatem? vide­tur adhuc eti­am nihil ope­rari dissensum vel consensum. Covar. de Spon­sal. prima parte, c. 4. §. 2. nu. 4. versic. haec ta­men post. Ruin. consil. 203. vol. 1. Boic. in c. pu­beres de de­spons. impub.: For though by the Com­mon Opinion this Contract thus confirmed is become very Matrimony Archid. in c. ult. 30. q. 2. Dominic. & Phil. Franc. in d.c. unic. §. 1. de despons. im­pub. in Sext. Decis. Rot. 462. Covar. in tract. de Sponsal. prima parte, c. 4. §. fin. in fin. ubi refert hanc op. esse com.: Yet is it certain that divers of great Authority do hold the contrary Jo. Andr. in d.c. unic. §. 1. Henric. Boic. in c. Attestationes. de despons. impub. extra. col. pen. Collector. decis. Rot. in nov. 462. Covar. Tract. de Sponsal. prima parte, c. 4. §. 2. in fin. Menoch. de praesump. Lib. 3. praesump. prima. nu. 66., grounding their Assertion upon this Reason especially, Because the Text of the Law, whereby it is provided, That Spou­sals may become Matrimony by other Signs and Con­jectures than by Carnal Knowledge, doth speak in these terms only, where the Spousals are contracted by those Children which have passed their Infancy Text. in d. c. unic. de despons. impub. in Sext. §. 1. & ibi Jo. Andr., and which are not void at the beginning, as are the Spousals con­tracted by Infants l. in Sponsal. ff. de Sponsal. d. c. unic. in princ. & DD. ibidem.; and therefore, that it were ab­surd Henr. Boic. in c. attestat. de despons. impub. extra. col. penul. versic. Aut per aliud. to extend the matter from Spousals, which are something, to Spousals which are not any thing. How­beit the common Opinion (besides that it is of more au­thority, and tending to the favour of Matrimony) ought therefore to be preferred Vide Coras. Tract. de communi o­pinione lib. 3. cas. 20., it is neither absurd nor destitute of reason; for seeing the Act confirmato­ry, is not otherwise to be understood, than according to the nature of the words of the Act confirmed Bald. in l. 3. C. si adversus rem judic. in fin. Dominic. post Anto. in c. unic. §. 1. despons. impub. & Phil. Franc. ibidem., [Page 34]the words being de praesenti, the Contract confirmed is to be adjudged accordingly, that is, as Spousals de prae­senti Gem. & Phil. Franc. ubi supra..

8. When the Case is such, That one of the Parties betrothed is of full Age, the other in Minority, then this Question may be demanded, Whether that Party which is of full Age ought to expect until the other come to full Age likewise? or if the elder will not stay, but marry a third Person during the minority of the younger, Whe­ther is this Marriage good, yea or no?

9. There is no question, but that the Party which is of full Age ought to stay, being so commanded by the ve­ry Text of the Law, and prohibited to marry elsewhere c. de illis el. 1. §. mulier au­tem. de despons. impub. Summa Hostiens. Tit de despons. impub. §. fin. in princ. Schneidwin. Tract. de nup­tiis, fol. 32. nu. 14.. But, if contrary to this Prohibition, the same Par­ty do adventure in deed to marry a third Person, du­ring the minority of the other Party, by the Opinion of the most and best Learned in the Laws Ecclesiastical, this Marriage now done is good Hostiens. Summa. Tit. de despons. impub. §. fin. col. pen. versic. quid. si pubes. decis. Rot. 450. in Nov. Schnedwin. Tract. de nuptiis, fol. 32. nu. 14. Covar. Tract. de Sponsal. prima parte, c. 5. §. 2. nu. 7. Praepos. in c. de il­lis el. 1. nu. 4. de despons. impub., for multa prohibentur fieri quae tamen facta convalescunt c. nec illud. 30. q. 5. decis. Rot. 450., many things are forbidden to be done, which notwithstanding being done, are available in Law.

10. And this Conclusion proceedeth not only when the former Contract is made by words of fu [...]u [...]e time (as, I will take thee, &c.) but also when it is made by words of present time (as, I do take thee, &c.) decis. Rot. 450. & Prae­pos. in c. de il­lis el. 1. nu. 4. de despons. im­pub. referens hanc opinionem esse communem. the Rea­son is, because this Contract which is made by words of present time betwixt two Parties, whereof the one is of full and perfect Age, the other but a Child, is un­derstood to be meer Spousals in respect of both Parties, and not Matrimony in respect of the elder, and Spousals [Page 35]in respect of the younger c. fin. de de­sponsal. impub. extra. Covar. Tract. de Spon­sal. c. 5. §. 2. nu. 5. versic. hinc constat. de­cis. Rot. 450. Praepos. in d. c. de illis el. 1. u­bi dicit hanc esse conclusic­nem auream.. The reason of this rea­son is, because such is the nature of Matrimonial Con­tracts, as it always requireth a mutual and equal harmo­ny or agreement betwixt either party; neither can a­bide to halt or suffer that the one Party be tied, and the other at liberty Hostiens. Summa de de­spons. impub. §. fin. versic. quid si pubes.; like as it is in Correlatives, where­of the one cannot consist without the other. And there­fore it is no more possible that this Contract should be Matrimony in the one Party, and Spousals in the other Party, than it is possible for a man to be a Husband without a Wife, or for a Woman to be a Wife without a Husband Hostiens. ubi supra.: Indeed the elder party, which marrieth against the Prohibition of the Law, is punishable c. 1. de ma­tr. contr. in­terd. Eccles. Henr. Boic. in c. praeterea de Sponsal. extra ubi distinguit., but the Marriage past, is not now revocable by the former Contract, having no greater force than Spousals de fu­turo Praepos. in c. de illis el. 1. de de­spons. impub. nu. 4. decis. Rot. 450. DD. in c. unic. §. 1. de despons. impub. in Sext..

11. The second Question belonging to this second Case shall be this, Two Persons contract Spousals by words of present time, the one of them only then be­ing of sufficient Age, the younger afterwards coming to years of consent doth ratifie and confirm the Contract, but the elder then dissenteth and marrieth a third Person, Whether is this Marriage good, yea or nay?

12. Some incline to this Opinion, That the Marriage is not good Summa Sil­vestr. verb. Matrimon. 5. q. 8. Gosadin. cons. 2. nu. 11.27, 28., supposing that it is not in the power of the Party, which was of full Age at the time of the Contract, to disavow the same Contract at any time after; but that it is in the Election of the younger Party only to consent or dissent, as soon as he or she shall attain to lawful Age Silvester. & Gosadin. ubi supra.: Like as in other Cove­nants and Bargains, where if one of lawful Age make [Page 36]a Contract or Bargain with another during his Non­age, this Contract is good against the Person of full Age Instit. Tit. de authoritate Tut. in princ., to whose folly it is imputed, that he would enter into Covenants, or become bound to one under Age L. qui cum alio. de Reg. Jur. ff. & ibi DD., but not against the Minor, who may better his Estate, but not make it worse by any Bonds or Co­venants Instit. de authoritate Tut. in princ. C. de contra­hend. & com­mittend. stipu­lat. L. neque, & L. 1. C. au­thor. praestand.. Others notwithstanding are of a contra­ry Judgment Covar. Tract. de Spon­sal. prima parte, in fin. per c. 1. §. 1. de despons. impub. in Sext. decis. Rotae 150. Schneid­win. Tract. de Nuptiis, fol. 32., esteeming that the former Contract of Spousals can never be resolved, or changed into Ma­trimony, otherwise than by a new and mutual Consent of either Party, expressed by Word, or insinuated by Deed, after they are both of lawful Age c. 1. §. 1. de despons. impub. in Sext. & ibi Gem. Franc. & alii.: And that in the mean time, and until this new Consent of both the Parties be expressed, the former Contract is not of any greater force or efficacy than Spousals de futuro c. fin. de Sponsal. extra. Praepos. in c. de illis el. 1. de despons. impub. extra. & ibi Henr. Boic. & alii., and therefore unable to impugn a second Contract of Marriage c. penul. de Sponsal. extra. Decis. Rot. 450. Covar. Tract. de Spons. prima parte, in fin. quem velim. videas.: And this Opinion, in my conceit, is the truer, and more agreeable to the Text c. unic. §. 1. de despons. impub. in Sext. & Covar. ubi supra. Co. Inst. fol. 79. b..

13. The other Questions common to both Cases (that is, in case both the Parties be under Age, or in case the one of them only) are these, viz.

Whether the Parties contracting Matrimony in Mino­rity are presumed to consent and to ratifie the same, if so be, when they, or either of them, attain to years of consent, they do not expresly dissent from or dis­claim the former Contract?

Item, By what Signs or Conjectures this Consent is proved?

Item, Before whom, and at what time the Parties [Page 37]are to disclaim, in case they, or either of them, do dis­like of the former Contract?

14. For the first Question, it may seem, That unless the Parties do expresly dissent, they are presumed to consent, and thereby to confirm the Marriage contra­cted during Minority; for it is a Rule of the Law, Qui voluntatem mutatam dicit, hoc probare debet Lenim qui. ff. de probac. Mascard. Tract. de probac. con­cl. 14, 16., whoso affirmeth one's mind to be changed, must prove the same: Howbeit the contrary is rather to be established in this place, namely, That this Consent is not hereby presumed, by reason of another more special Text, speak­ing in the terms of our Question, which saith, Nisi per Carnis Copulam vel aliquem modum aliunn eosdem contra­hentes, cum ejusdem perseverantiâ voluntate, ad puberta­tis tempora pervenisse, constiterit & evidenter, Matrimoni­um (quod, ut Matrimonium, non tenuit aetate prohibente) per lapsum dicti temporis non convalescit c. unic. §. 1. de despons. impub. lib. 6.; unless it shall appear evidently by Carnal Knowledge, or some other means, that the same Persons contracting do come to ripe Age with continuance of the same Will, the Matri­mony (which held not as Matrimony, young Age pro­hibiting) is not made forcible by Lapse of the time: Wherefore seeing the Law doth specially require an evi­dent proof of continuance of good Will, or Consent, by Carnal Knowledge, or other means, the general presump­tion of perseverance, grounded in the former Rule, is not sufficient in this Case Nam ubi lex requirit a­liquid probari quod alias prae­sumitur, non acquiescit illi simplici juris praesumptioni. Arg. L. pen. ff. de Var. & extraord. cogni. Menoch. de praesump. Lib. 5. c. 1. nu. 36. Covar. Tract. de Sponsal. prima parte, c. 4. §. 2. nu. 4. versic. se­cundo Matrimonio. Gem. in c. 1. §. [...]. de despons. impub. in Sext. not. 4..

15. Others concerning this Question make a differ­ence, Whether the Parties do cohabit or dwell together, yea or no Summa Hostiens. Tit. de despons. impub. §. ult. versic. Quid si pubes. gloss. in c. literas. de despons. impub. extra. gloss. in c. ubi. 30. q. 2.? If they dwell together in one House, [Page 38]then it is needful that they express their dissents, other­wise by this their Cohabitation they are presumed to yield their mutual Consents, and to ratifie and confirm c. ad id quod de Sponsal. c. Insu­per. Qui matr. accus. poss. c. significavit. de eo qui duxit in ux. quam. pell. & ibi DD. lib. 1. consil. ma­trim. cons. ibi­dem. 53. nu. 7. L. minorem. ff. de. ritu nup., which Conclusion is enlarged diversly.

16. First, Whether the House be his or hers, or any others Phil. Franc. in c. unic. §. 1. de despons. impub. lib. 6., by this the mutual Cohabitation in any of them, this Consent is presumed Gem. & Franc. in d. §. 1..

17. Secondly, Albeit either of the Parties, during their Minority, were constrained by fear to marry, (by reason whereof the same was utterly void) c. cum locum. de Sponsal. extra. & infra., yet by Cohabitation after years of Consent, this fear is purged, and the Marriage confirmed c. Insuper. Qui matr. accus. poss. c. ad id quod. de Sponsal. extra Co­var. Tract. de Sponsal. secunda parte, c. 3. §. 6..

18. Thirdly, Albeit the Parties did not cohabit toge­ther by the space of a year or more, but for some few Months or Days Immo vel unius Diei spontanea Co­habitatio pur­gat metum in­quit, Praepos. in c. ad id quod. de Spon­sal. extra. nu. 3. Crederem ta­men, ipso Judi­cis arbitrio re­linqui, quantum temporis sufficiat ad purgandum metum. Henr. Boic. in c. cum locum. de Sponsal. extra. & Panor. in d. c. ad id quod. nu. 4., after their coming to lawful Age, yet by this short Cohabitation as Man and Wife, they are presumed to yield their Consent, and to confirm the former Contract Hostiens. Panor. & Praepos. in d.c. ad id quod de Sponsal. extra. & Cardinal. ibidem, ubi distinguit inter matrimonium metu contractum & ma­trimonium inter impuberes celebratum.: And albeit in the Text there be mention of Cohabitation by the space of a year and a half Text. in d. c. ad id quod., yet this certain time is set down, not because there is any Mystery of Law thereby signified, but be­cause it did so fall out in the Fact there described Panor. & Prae­pos. eod. c. ad id quod..

19. Howbeit it is not perpetual, that the Parties be­trothed or married, dwelling together after their Mino­rity [Page 39]expired, are thereby presumed to yield their mutu­al Consents: For if this Cohabitation be coacted, not vo­luntary, it worketh no such presumption c. insuper. Qui matr. ac­cuss. poss. extra.; or if this Cohabitation continue divers years, yet if the disliking Party have not the opportunity of safe Escape, belike it doth not make any such presumption of Consent a­gainst the Party thus straitly kept Gloss. in d. c. Insuper. E­verard. consil. 19. quod etiam extat in lib. 2. consil. matr. consil. ibidem. 4. nu. 34. Mas­card. Tract. de probac. concl. 1054. nu. 30, 34., expressing his or her dissent from time to time d. c. Insuper & ibidem gloss., and proving the im­pediment, albeit also the Party were carnally known Gloss. & DD. in d. c. Insuper..

20. If the Parties betrothed or married, do not coha­bit or dwell together, then I suppose that this Consent is not presumed by lapse of time only, albeit the Par­ties do not expresly dissent Hostiens. Summa Tit. de defpons. impub. §. fin. versic. quid si pubes. c. unic. §. 1. de despons. impub. lib. 6. Covar. Tract. de Spons. prima parte, c. 4. §. 2. n. 3. versic. secun­dum Matrimo­nium., and therefore that it must be proved by the Party which affirmeth it, not by the Party which denieth it l. 2. ff. de probac.; I mean of such a Con­sent, whereby the former Contract, having the form of Spousals de praesenti, contracted by Children (and there­fore by interpretation of Law Spousals de futuro) are resolved into Matrimony d. c. unic. §. 1. de despons. impub. in Sext.. As for that Consent whereby the former Contract shall still prevail as meer Spousals, that was presumed from the beginning, and is still presumed to continue, albeit the Parties dwell not together, but far asunder c. ex literis. el. 2. de Sponsal. extra Boic. in c. de illis. el. 1. de despons. impub. col. 2. Boic. in d. c., unless they, as soon as they attain to lawful years, do express their dissent, and do disclaim from the former Contract Boic. in d. c. de illis. & in c. Attestationes. de despons. impub..

21. Concerning the second Question, namely, by what Signs or Conjectures this aforesaid Consent is pro­ved, whereby the Marriage contracted during the Mi­nority of both the Parties, or of the one of them, is con­firmed.

I said a little before supra §. 7. paulo ante fi­nem., That by what means Spou­sals contracted during infancy, are afterwards confirmed, when the Parties cease to be Infants; by the same means is the Marriage confirmed which was contracted during Minority, after the Parties come to years of discretion gloss. in c. unic. §. 1. de despons. impub. lib. 6. & ibi Gem. & Franc. Abbas in c. fin. de Sponsal. ex­tra. quam opi­nionem com­muniter recep­tam aiunt, Paris. cons. 51. & cons. 52. vol. 4. Baptista à Vallalob & Soa­rez. Thesaur. com. opinio. verb. Sponsalia. ille; nu. 91. hic; nu. 163. lib. 1. consil. matr. consil. ibidem 17. nu. 6, 7. Dec. consil. 368.. Which Conclusion, many (I confess) do deny to be simply true; namely, concerning those not so strong Conjectures, viz. of Kissings, Embracings, giving and re­ceiving of Tokens, the saluting or naming of each other by the Names or Titles of Husband and Wife, &c. Covar. tract. de Sponsal. prima parte, c. 4. §. 4. nu. 4. Carol. Molin. in addic. ad Dec. consil. 368. whereby Spousals contracted by Infants are afterwards confirmed gloss. & DD. in c. unic. de Sponsal. lib. 6. in princ.. In which Controversie, whether Opinion ought rather to be received, we may the better discern, if we shall first view the Reafons and Authorities of ei­ther Party.

22. This in the mean time is without Controversie, That if the Parties, after they be come to lawful years, being then free from former Contracts, do by plain and direct words, without fear or fraud, express their mu­tual Consents; as if they say [We do ratifie and confirm the Marriage contracted betwixt us, &c.] the Marriage (which before was no more but Spousals de futuro, in construction of Law) is now made true and undoubt­ed Matrimony Henric. Boic. in c. At­testationes. de desponsal. im­pub. extra. col. 2. versic. Ant. per expressum. Summam Sil­vestr. verb. Matrimonium 5. q. 8.. This also is without Controversie, That if the Parties willingly, or of their own accord know each other carnally, the Marriage before contract­ed in their Minority, is from henceforth of no less force in Law, than if the same were now again contracted by [Page 41]words of the present time, during their lawful Ages c. insuper. qui matr. accus. poss. & ibi Pa­nor. & Praepos. Henr. Boic. in d. c. Attestatio­nes.. By voluntary Cohabitation likewise, c. ad id quod. de Spon­sal. extra. & ibi gloss. & DD. (as I have before declared) and by Subarration, or giving and receiving of Rings gloss. Panor. & Praepos. in c. fin. de despons. impub. & in c. Tenor. de Reg. Jud. extra., (as hereafter shall be shewed) infra §. 15., is this for­mer Contract, having but the form of Marriage, indued with the virtue and very nature of true substantial Ma­trimony Covar. tract. de Sponsal. pri­ma parte, c. 4. §. 2. nu. 4. vers. Ego. Praepos. in c. fin. de de­despons. impub. extra. nu. 4. in fin. Paris. consil. 51. nu. 1. vol. 4.: And generally by whatsoever means Spousals de futuro, contracted by them of perfect Age, are resol­ved into Matrimony Covar. ubi supra Henr. Poic. in c. Atte­stat. de desponsal. impub. extra. col. pen.: The Reason is, because if there be any means of such power and virtue, as thereby those Spousals de futuro (which have neither form of Matrimony, nor intention of the Parties when they were first made) are distilled into Matrimony, much more easily by the strength and operation of the same means, are those Spousals converted into Matrimony, which both by form and intention of the Parties were Matrimony from the beginning Henr. Boic. in d. c. Attestationes..

23. Wherefore concerning these proofs, wherein there is not any Controversie, I will not enter into any fur­ther discourse, but return to those other more feeble Conjectures of Kissings, Embracings, giving and receiv­ing of Tokens, &c. which divers do reject, as altogether insufficient in this behalf, admitting no other Conje­ctures herein, but such as are evident and urgent, and equivalent to the presumption of Carnal Copulation Covar. tract. de Sponsal. pri­ma parte, c. 4. §. 2. nu. 4. Molin. in apostill. ad Dec. consil. 468.. Their Reasons are,

First, Because the very Text (as we heard) requireth that this Consent, whereby Spousals are turned into Ma­trimony, do appear evidentèr, evidently Text. in c. unic. §. 1. de desponsal. im­pub. extra..

Secondly, Forasmuch as to contract Matrimony is a matter of far greater prejudice than to contract or con­firm [Page 42]Spousals, therefore the presumptions ought to be so much the stronger to prove this Matrimonial Consent, by how much the prejudice is greater that doth depend and may ensue of Matrimony, than of Spousals Covar. & Molin. ubi. su­pra..

Thirdly, Because these Amorous Actions of Kissings and Embracings, Gifts, &c. are often practised as Pream­bles and Allurements rather to accomplish the accom­plishment of unlawful Lusts, and to quench the Flames of Youthful Desires, than to tye the indissoluble Knot of chast Wedlock, or to undergo the perpetual Burthen of so weighty a Charge vide Mas­card. de pro­bac..

24. Howbeit those, or whatsoever other Reasons not unprobable, nor lightly to be esteemed, to the contrary notwithstanding, the affirmative Sentence, viz. That these former Conjectures are sufficient, is most common­ly received, both of the ancient Gloss. in c. unic. §. 1. de despons. impub. lib. 6. & ibi Jo. And. Auch. & Gemin. Panor. in c. ult. de de­spons. impub. extra. and later Writers Paris. cons. 51. vol. 4. dec. cons. 468. Mas­card. de probat. concl. 1032. Menoch. de praesump. lib. 3. praesump. 1. nu. 64. Baptista. & Soarez. The­saur. com. opin. verb Sponsal., as the more safe Opinion in this conjectural State Hanc epi­nionem commu­nem & secun­dum eam judi­candum, pluribus fretus testimoniis, ostendit. Mascard. Tract. de probac. conclus. 1032. nu. 1. & 2., because it is more safe to judge for Matrimony than a­gainst Matrimony c. fin. de Reg. Jud. c. per tuas. de condic. appos. extra., and less danger to joyn them that are not Man and Wife, than to separate them which are Man and Wife d. c. per tuas. & ibi gloss. & DD.. And so the Law not prescribing any certain Conjectures, but allowing any other means, as well as Carnal Knowledge, for proof of this Consent, or perseverance of former good Will Text. inc. unic. §. 1. de despons. impub. l. 6., it was thought most reasonable, of the most part, to admit those Signs, or those Conjectures, for testimony thereof, which are most commonly used in this Case by those Persons which faithfully intend to become Husband and Wife DD. in d.c. unic. §. 1. de despons. impub. in Sext. Mascard. Tract. de probac. concl. 1032.; a­mongst which Signs and Conjectures, are there any more frequent than Kissings, Embracings, Gifts, &c? If none more usual, Then what reason to reject them as insuf­ficient?

Because the Law requireth an evident proof, be it so; but lawful Conjectures are an evident proof, and so al­lowed by the Law Barto. & alii, in L. licet Imperator ff. de Leg. 1. Menoch. de praesump. lib. 1. q. 45. ubi vult hoc non solum in conjecturis le­gis, sed etiam in conjecturis hominis.. An evident proof, you'l say, to confirm Spousals; And why not for the confirmation of Matrimony? Because it is a matter of greater preju­dice, you'l say, than Spousals Hâc rati­one nituntur, Covar. & Mo­lin. ubi supra.. Indeed thereupon it may be justly inferred, That those Conjectures which prove not the confirmation of Spousals, cannot prove the confirmation of Matrimony. But this Argument holds not; Spousals are thereby confirmed, Ergo not Matrimony. If you crave an Instance, Spousals are confirmed by Cohabitation c. unic. de despons. impub. lib. 6. in princ., and yet by Cohabitati­on is Marriage confirmed also Gloss. & DD. in c. ad id quod. de Sponsal. extra.. Yea, but (you will say) these Amorous Gifts are too general, and abused to Lust. An uncharitable Supposition, delictum non praesumitur c. per tuas de cond. app. & ibi gloss. & DD.. To conclude therefore, I subscribe to the common Opinion: Nor am I of his mind, who more confidently than concludently affirmed the same to be as false, as common, and as dangerous as false Molin. in addic. ad dec. consil. 468. Hanc tamen opinionem singularem Molinei, contra communem approbat Gentilis. Tract. de Nuptiis, fol. 506..

25. The last Question is, Before whom, and when, the Parties betrothed or married in Minority are to dis­claim, or to express their dissent in case they, or either of them, dislike the Match?

In Answering whereof, I need not to be tedious, be­cause the matter is not contentious: This therefore in short. The dissent is to be made and published before the Bishop of the Diocess where the disliking Party dwelleth c. de illis. el. 1. de de­spons. impub. §. si verò. Hosti­ens. Summa Tit. de despons. impub. §. fin. versic. Sed co­ram. Henr. Boic. in d. c. de illis. col. 2. vers. ista verò., or before his Chancellor c. 1. de fri­gid. & malef. extra. Hostiens. & Boic. ubi supra., or in their Arg. c. Cui de Reg. Jur. lib. 6. vide Si­chard. in Rub. de Sponsal. C. nu. 15, 16, &c. Addicad Bart. in L. Oratio de Spons. [Page 44]absence, before the Parochial Pastor or Minister, and other honest Witnesses Arg. c. Si justus metus. de appell. &c. c. Pastoralis. §. fin. de Offic. deleg. Hostiens. d. §. fin. de de­spons. impub. & Boic. in. d.c. de illis. eod. tit.. The time of manifesting this dissent, is so soon as he or she shall attain to ripe Age, or years of Consent Henr. Boic. d. c. de illis. de despons. impub. quem videas.; for to dissent before that time, is to no purpose Henr. Boic. eod. c. de illis. L. ejus ff. de Reg. Jud.; and to prolong the same afterwards is dangerous Effuge cum poteris ne consensisse puteris. Gloss. in c. ad id quod. de Sponsal. extra. Item si factus major non contradicit, illico Sponsalia quidem confirmantur, licet non ad effectum Matrimonij, tamen ad effectum Sponsalicrum. Gentilis Tract. de Nuptiis, fol. 506. Covar. Tract. de Spons. prima parte, c. 5. §. 1. nu. 2.. Now if any desire to know when the Parties are said to be of ripe Age, or of years of Consent, let him read the next Para­graph.

SECT. IX. Of Ripe or Lawful Age for Mar­riage.

1. THE third Age now to be considered is ripe Age, that is to say, that Age wherein it is lawful not only to contract Spousals, but also to So­lemnize true, perfect, and indissoluble Matrimony, and thereby effectually to become Husband and Wife, both before God and his Church; which Age, when it doth begin, is now to be discussed. In the Explication where­of, it is not my meaning to enter into any Philosophi­cal Discourse, by discovering what number of years the Ancient Philosophers, as Plato and Aristotle (whose chief regard was Natural Causes and Effects) did pre­scribe in this behalf; the one exacting of the Man Five and thirty years, and of the Woman Sixteen years Plato lib. 6. de repub. lib. 4. de legib. Tira­quel. de legibus Connub. leg. 5. versic. Plato.; the other Seven and thirty years of the Man, and Eighteen of the Woman Aristoteles lib. 7. politic. c. 16. Covar. Tract. de Spon­sal. secunda parte, c. 5. in princ. Tiraquil. de legibus. Connub. Lege. 5. vers. Aristote­les.. Neither is it my purpose in Historical manner to dilate what number of years hath been prefixed for Marriage in former Ages, and Forreign Countries: As how Lycurgus (famous for his prudent Laws among the Lacedemonians) perceiving great Mischiefs did attend upon untimely Marriages (as the bad Agreement betwixt the married Couple, the great danger of the young Mother in Childbed, and the weak and wretched Issue, whereby the Commonwealth was rather weakned than strengthened) denied his Country Folks Marriage, until they had attained to [Page 46]full ripeness of Years, ability of Body, discretion and constancy of Mind, likely to avoid all those dangers Anto. Gu­bertus Tract. de Nuptiis, fol. 76. in fin. & 77. in princ. Tira­quel. de legibus. Connub. Lege. 5. vers. Lycur­gus.. Or how (M. Pappius Mutilus, and Q. Poppaeus Se­cundus, being Consuls of Rome) Marriage was forbidden to Men above Sixty, and to Women above fifty years old c. quaedam. distinc. 2. Min­sing. lib. 3. Inst. tit. de Success. Libert. §. postea post Alciat. lib. 3. dispunct. c. 3. & 6., because they were not able to benefit the Com­monwealth by Procreation Anto. Gu­bertus Tract. de Nuptiis, fol. 77. nu. 55. gloss. in l. Sancimus el. 2. C. de Nuptiis, Tiraquel. de le­gibus Connub. Leg. 5. vers. Sed & si.. Or how that Law, be­ing called Lex Pappia & Poppaea Poppea non autem Pompeia, ut est in c. quaed. distinctio. 2. cu­jus errorem re­prehendit Alci­atus. lib. 3. dis­punct. c. 3. quem sequnti sunt And. Tiraquel. ubi supra. & Minsing. in §. postea. Instit. de Success. libert., after those two Consuls, was afterwards abolished by the Emperor Claudius, and liberty granted to old Men, albeit above Eighty years, to marry Women under Fifty Anto. Gubert. Tract. de Nuptiis, fol. 78. nu. 58.; for that it was then thought not altogether impossible for a Man of that Age to beget Children Tran­quillus in Claud. c. 23. Anto. Gubert. ubi supra. nu. 57.; like as it is re­corded of Masinissa King of Numidia, who being Eigh­ty six years old, begot a Son called Mathumatus Plin lib. 7. Nat. Hist. c. 14. Gubert. Tract. de Nuptiis, fol. 79. nu. 63. Minsing. in §. postea Instit. de Success. libert.; and likewise of Cato Censorius, who begot divers Children of the Daughter of his Client Salo, after Eighty eight Gubertus & Minsinge­rus ubi supra ex Plinio, Plutarcho, Solino, & aliis.: Or how others esteem of these Accidents as of Miracles Tiraquel. de legib. Connub. lege 5. versic. quod si quispiam, &c. pro quo facit Albertus magnus, lib. 5. de animalibus. Tract. 2. c. 1., and like unto that concerning Sarah Ge­nesis c. 21. vers. 2. Epistol. ad Hebr. c. xi. v. xi.: Or how some disputing of the Marriages betwixt Youth and Age, do utterly condemn the same, if not as un­lawful, yet as a most unseemly, unequal, unpleasant, inconvenient, and perilous Match; the one Party de­siring that thing most of all, which the other Party (of all things) is least able to perform Tiraquell. de legibus Connub. lege 5. vers. Sed & secuti: quem velim perlegas., the occasion of continual Jars, of filthy Adulteries, and sometimes also of cruel and wilful Murders Tiraquel. ubi supra.. Into these discourses or disputes I will not wade; my meaning in this place is to unfold, at what Age by the Laws Ecclesiastical of [Page 47]this Realm, now in force, it is lawful to contract, not Spousals only, but true and perfect Matrimony.

2. Understand therefore, That a Man so soon as he hath accomplished the Age of Fourteen years, and a Woman so soon as she hath accomplished the Age of Twelve years, may Contract true and lawful and indi­vidual Matrimony c. Puberes c. Attestationes, c. continebatur de despons. im­pub. L. quaesi­tum L. in Spon­sal. & ibi gloss. A. de Sponsal. L. mulierem de ri­tu nupt. ff. Sum­ma Hostiens. Tit. de despons. impub. §. 1. Co­var. Tract. de Sponsal. secun­da parte, c. 5. nu. 2. Panor. in c. Attestationes, de despons. im­pub. nu. 7. Lindwood in c. unic. de despons. impub. lib. 4. provincial. con­stit. Cant. verb. aetatem., in case there be no other impedi­ment to hinder the same: The Reason is, that because at these years the Man and the Woman are not only pre­sumed to be of discretion d.c. unic. de despons. impub. lib. 4. provinci­al. constit. Cant. verb. tempus discretionis., and able to discern be­twixt good and evil, and what is for their profit and disprofit Anto. Gu­bert. Tract. de Nuptiis, fol. 67. nu. 20. ubi assignat rationem cur adveniente pubertate sapiant.; but also to have Natural and Corporal A­bility to perform the duty of Marriage Covar. Tract. de Sponsal. secunda parte, c. 5. nu. 2. Praepos. in c. Tuae. dē despons. impub. extra. nu. 2., and in that respect are termed Puberes c. Puberes de despons. impub. extra, & ibi DD. Spiegel. Lexic. verb pubertas., as it were Plants, now sending forth Buds and Flowers, apparent Testimonies of inward Sap, and immediate Messengers of approach­ing Fruit Spiegel. ubi. supra. Anto. Gubert. Tract. de Nuptiis, fol. 69. nu. 23.. And albeit this Age may seem over-ten­der and over-timely to prevent those Inconveniencies so long ago foreseen by Lycurgus, Plato, and the rest de quibus Tiraquel. de legibus Connub. lege 5. versic. Lycurgus., yet considering the Lord and Maker of all Creatures, in the beginning of the World, hath by Divine Providence, for the propagation of his Church, proclaimed an uni­versal Liberty Crescite & Multiplicamini Genes. c. 1. versic. 28.. And therefore that this Liberty is to be denied to none, whom otherwise the Almighty hath naturally disposed and enabled to encrease and multiply Ho­stiens. Summa. Tit. de Matr. §. ubi. & §. quis. cum Addic. ibidem. Anto. Gubert. Tract. de Nuptiis, fol. 49.; considering also, that like as the little Sparks are to be extinguish­ed at the very first, least afterwards they mount to an unquenchable Flame: So whosoever have any such [Page 48]Sparks of Natural Provocation, whereby their hearts may be kindled, or set on fire by ungodly Lusts. To these Persons, albeit very young, the Remedy against Lust is not to be denied Epist. 1. ad Corinth. c. 7. v. 2. c. quic­quid c. sicut 32. q. 2. Addic. ad Hostiens. u­bi supra. Mel­chior Kling. Tract. de Causis Matrimonial. fol. 84., especially seeing it is bet­ter to marry than to burn Epist. ad Cor. c. 2. v. 9. Silva Nuptialis lib. 3. n. 21.. These things (I say) con­sidered, it is a large and clear case, That we may not so foresee the avoidance of Temporal Discommodities, with Lycurgus, or any other Philosophers, that we over­see greater Dangers by abridging the general Liberty of Generation, established without distinction of years by our eternal Lycurgus, and heavenly Law-maker; or by denying or deferring to any that are stinged with Car­nal Appetite, the blessed and Sovereign Remedy against this Poison, invented by Divine Philosophy.

3. But what may be the Reason wherefore Women are sooner ripe than Men?

I will not Answer with the Gloss, Quia citò crescit her­ba mala gloss. in l. 11. C. de his qui veniam aetate impetr., for this is but a Jest. Macrobius, (he saith) it is propter votorum festinationem i. e. propter desiderium ge­nerandi, & per­venientem vim naturalem. Anto. Gubert. Tract. de Nup­tiis, fol. 70. nu. 30. Seu propter malitiam sup­plentem aeta­tem. Ita Covar. Tract. de Spon­sal. secunda parte, c. 5. nu. 2. Tiraquellus de legibus Con­nub. leg. 5. vers. sed jam nunc., for the forwardness of their Desire: Some do yield this Reason, Quia faci­lius est pati quam agere Praepos. in c. puberes de despons. impub. per c. Juvenis. de Sponsal. extra. Lindwood in c. unic. de desponsal. impub. lib. 4. provincial. constit. Cant.; this is something but it is not all: Others, because the Female Bodies are more ten­der and moister than the Male Theo­phrast. lib. 1. plant. Anto. Gubert. Tract. de Nuptiis, fol. 69. n. 25.: And so Mens Bo­dies being harder and drier, they are more slow in ri­pening; and Womens Bodies, because they are softer and moister, are more quickly ripe; like as it is to be seen in Plants and fruits, whereof that which is more soft and moist is sooner ripe, than that which is hard and dry Anto. Gubert. ubi su­pra. post. Theophrast. Aristot. & alios.. And this I take to be the best Reason, and is agreeable to that which followeth, namely, That even that Fruit which is sooner ripe, doth sooner decay: So [Page 49]Women as they are sooner able, so they sooner become un­able to bring forth than Men to beget Panor. in c. 1. de despons. impub. extra. Tiraquel. de le­gib. Connub. lege 5. vers. nec erit imtempestivum..

4. The former Rule standing upon these Reasons and Foundations agreeable to the Law of God and Nature, is thus extended: First, Albeit he or she have not fully accomplished their several Ages of Fourteen and Twelve years at the time of the Marriage, the same peradven­ture being Solemnized within one, two, or three days next before the expiration of those several years, yet is the Marriage of no less force than if the last hours of those years had also been expired Panor. in c. Attestationes. de despons. im­pub. extra. nu. 7. in fin. ubi loqui­tur de uno tan­tum die. Henr. Boic. in c. pube­res eod. tit. prope fin. qui loquitur de tri­bus diebus. Ad­de Panor. in c. fin. eod. Tit. nu. 6..

5. The second Ampliation is, That albeit he that hath accomplished the Age of Fourteen years at the time of the Marriage, be not then able to pay the Debt which he oweth to his Wife, yet by the received Opinion (though some dissent) the Matrimony is not therefore by and by to be adjudged void, but she is to expect until he have over-reached the Eighteenth year of his Age Panor. Car­dinal. & alii in c. puberes. de despons. impub. extra. Covar. Tract. de Sponsal. secunda parte, c. 5. nu. 2. in fin., wherein plena pubertas is concluded L. Arrogato ff. de Adep. Spiegel. Lexic. verb. pubertas in fin. Anto. Gubert. Tract. de Nuptiis, fol. 69. qui tres offert ratio­nes aestimandi pubertatem plenam xviij. annis.; and if then also he be unable to pay his due, at the instance of the Woman the Marriage may be dissolved Panor. in d. c. puberes. de despons. impub., unless the Judge, up­on the consideration of the Qualities of the Persons, shall grant a longer time Puta unum aut alterum mensem. Henric. Boic. in c. puberes. de despons. impub. paulò ante fin. Melch. Kling. Tract. de Caus. Matr. fol. 32. b..

6. The third Ampliation is, That after the expirati­on of Fourteen and Twelve years, Men and Women, how old soever they be, may lawfully marry, notwith­standing [Page 50]any Prohibition of former Laws L. Sancinus. el. 2. C. de Nup­tiis, c. nuptiarum 27. q. 1. in princ. gloss. & DD. in c. quod Sedem de frigid. & malef. extra.. And al­beit not Women only in process of time become bar­ren and fruitless, but Men also (if we may believe the Learned) are at length (viz. after Eighty years) depri­ved and spoiled of the Ability of getting Children Albertus (tam re quam nomine mag­nus) lib. 5. de Animal bus. Tract. 2. c 1. Cujus verba sunt haec, homo masculus circa xxx. annes ha­bens Semen per­fectè maturum, petest generare ad lxx. annos, & rarò in va­l [...]nticribus ex­tenditur haec virtus usque ad lxxx. annos. Sed post hoc est labor & dolor, & non est aliqua virtus generatienis, Licet ceeat, &c. Tiraquel. de legibus Connub. L. 5. verb nec intempe Evum Socinus Jun. consil. 86. nu. 45. vol. 2. Menoch. Tract. de Arb. Jud lib. 2. cas. 89 nu. 54. &c., in whom, if any heat or warmth be then left, whereby by Nature or by Art they are provoked Melchior Kling. Tract. de caus. Matrim. fol. 32. in sin., this Act is not of force for Procreation Albertus magn [...]s, Tiraquel. So [...] & Menoch. ubi supra., which was the cause wherefore sometimes they might not marry Gloss. in L. Sancinus C de nup.; yet ne­vertheless so beneficial are the Laws Civil and Ecclesi­astical in these days, to them that be disposed to mar­ry, that none are barred by lapse of any years L. Sancinus C. de nuptiis. gloss. & DD. in c. quod Sedem. de frigid. & malef. extra., ut Matrimonium, quod in aliis est infirmitatis remedium, in Senibus sit humanitatis Solatium c. nuptiarum. 27. q. 1 in princ. Anto. Gubert. Tract. de Nup. fol. 80. verb. dubium.; That Matrimony, which is in others the remedy of Infirmity, may be in the Aged a Solace of Humanity. But I speak this ra­ther to defend the Marriage of the Aged from unlawful­ness, than to commend it for comliness consule Tiraquel. de leg Connub. Leg. 5. & Nevizan in Silva. Nuptial. lib. 2. nu. 13. &c..

7. The fourth Ampliation is, That albeit the Man and the Woman have not as yet accomplished his and her full Age of Fourteen years and Twelve, but proxi­mi pubertati, next unto ripe Age, or nearer ripe Age than Infancy; viz. he of the Age of Ten years and an half, and she of the Age of Nine years and an half, or up­wards, towards his or her several Ages of Fourteen and Twelve Covar. Tract. de Spon­sal. secunda parte, c. 5. nu. 4, DD. in c. de illis el. 2. de despons. impub., if during this time malitia supplet aetatem, natural Ability to perform the Duty of Marriage (for so [Page 51]the word malitia signifieth in this place, as I have shewn in another place supra §. 7., supply the Age, they may as law­fully marry, as if they had exceeded their several Ages of Fourteen and twelve years c. puberes, &c. c. de illis. el. 2. de despons. impub. extra & ibi Panor. Mel­chior. Kling. de caus. matrimo­nial. fol. 15.; or if those Persons be yet younger, viz. proximi infantiae, next unto Infancy, or nearer their Infancy than their ripe Age, yet having dis­cretion of mind and ability of body to conceive (the ef­fect of Marriage) and to pay the Debt thereunto be­longing, the Marriage is lawful and effectual Panor. in c. de illis. el. 2. de despons. impub. nu. 4. Summa Silvestrin. verb. Matrimo. 5. q. 2. gloss. in c. l. 20. q. 1. Attamen non sufficit sola coeundi poten­tia sine discre­tione. Covar. Tract. de Spon­sal. secunda par­te, c. 5. nu. 3. quem velim vi­deas.. And the Laws of our Realm say, That the Wife, which is of the Age of Nine years at her Husbands death, shall be endowed of the third part of his Lands and Tenements which he held either in Fee-simple or Fee-tail, and which he had either by Purchase or Discent Fitzherbert Na. Br. fol. 149. Litleton tit. Dower in princ.. Some go fur­ther, and say, That if a young Man of ripe Age marry an Infant, and have the use of her Body before she be Seven years old, that the Marriage is good Hostiens. in c. puberes de despons impub. per. c. Juvenis. de Sponsal ex­tra. Praepos. in d. c. Juvenis. nu. 7. fol. 3.: But o­thers (whose Judgments I do rather follow) do hold, That this Marriage is not good Panor. n c. continebatur. de despons. impub. extra. nu. 6. Covar. Tract. de Sponsal. secunda parte c. 5. nu. 3. in fine, qui tamen limitant hoc dictum, nempe nisi illa sit doli capax, & multum discreta; huc accedit, Summa Sylvestrin. verb. Matrimonium. 5. q. 2.; for, say that the Infant was known Carnally (which things is no less in­credible to be spoken than horrible to be heard) yet the Infant not having discretion to understand what is the Nature of Matrimony Covar. ubi supra., cannot give her Consent to that whereof she is ignorant L. si per errorem. ff. de Juris. omnium Judic., and consequently the Marriage cannot be good: For it is a clear Case, That without Consent there cannot be any Matrimony L. nuptias. de Reg. Jur. ss. c. cum locum. de Spons. extra.. And here note, That whensoever any Persons are mar­ried before their several Ages of Fourteen or Twelve years, two things are requisite to the validity and force of Marriage; the one is, Discretion to discern the the Na­ture and Force of Marriage; the other is, Natural Abi­lity [Page 52]to pay the Marriage Debt Covar. in Tract. de Spon­sal. secunda parte; c. 5. nu 3. versic. ex quibus Panor. in c. de illis. el. 2. de de­spons. impub. extra. nu. 4.. This Discretion is then presumed when the Parties be proximi pubertati Covar. ubi supra., that is, nearer ripe Age than Infancy: But that Ability is not then presumed, nor until the parties have accom­plished their aforesaid several Ages Henr. Boic. in c. puberes, de despons. impub. versic. unde licet. Praepos. in c. de illis. el. 2. nu. 1. in sin. Kling. de caus. matrim. fol. 15. vers. quarto loco., unless it be lawfully proved Henr. & Covar. ubi supra. Anto. Gubertus. Tract. de Nuptiis, fol. 76..

8. But how may this Ability to perform the Duties of Marriage be proved de hac. q. Praepos. in c. de illis. el. 2. & ibi. Panor. de desponsal. im­pub. extra. gloss. & DD. in c. 1. §. 1. de despons. impub. in Sext. Covar. in c. 5. n. 3. Tract. de Sponsal. parte 2.? or rather peradventure thou demandest, Whether it be possible for a Child to beget or bear a Child?

Indeed this Question Whether, must first be satisfied before that other Question How; for thy satisfaction there­fore, whether it be possible, I will deliver what I have re­ceived of others. An ancient Father of the Church, of no less Learning than Credit, Jerome by name, writeth thus Hierom. E­pist. ad Vitalem. Tiraquel. de le­gibus Connub. lege. 5. versic. & de alio. An­to. Gubert. Tract. de Nup­tiis, fol. 75. nu. 48.; Domino teste non mentior, Quaedam muliercula, quum expositum nutriret infantem, & instillaret Cibos, ac Nutricis officio fungeretur, cubaretque cum eâ parvulus, qui usque ad decimum jam pervenerat annum, accidit, ut (plus­quam pudicitia patitur) se mero ingurgitaret, accensâque li­bidine, obscaenis motibus ad Coitum duceret infantem, pri­ma Ebrietas iterata alterius noctis, & caeterarum deinceps, fecit Consuetudinem, nec dum duae menses fuerunt evolutae, & ecce foeminae uterus intumuit; Quid plura? providen­tiâ Dei factum est, ut quae contra naturam simplicitate parvuli in contemptum Dei abuteretur, à naturae Domino proderetur. The Lord is my Witness I do not lye (saith Jerome) a certain Woman, when she had nourished an Expositi di­cuntur insantes, qui sine Cura dimittuntur, ut solent egeni pa­rentes exponere infantulos & languidos ante Ecclesias, ut alii miseratione commoti eos colligant, & pietatis intuitu enutriant. Spiegel. Lex. & DD. in Tit. de In­fan. & languid. expos. extra. [Page 53]abject Child, and fed him with Meat, and performed the duty of a Nurse, with whom also the Child did lye till he was Ten years old; it fell out that (more than modesty will suffer) the Woman gorged her self with sweet Wine, and being inflamed with Lust, provoked the Child by her unchast Motions to commit the Act, the first Drunkenness being iterated the second Night, caused a Custom of the other Nights following. But e're two Months were past, behold her Belly began to swell. What will ye have more? by the Providence of God it came to pass, that she that did abuse the sim­plicity of the Infant, to the Contempt of God, was discovered by the Lord of Nature. Gregory likewise in a certain Dialogue Sed nullus talis Gregorij extat Dialo­gus, Inquit. Gubertus Tract. de Nuptiis, fol. 75. nu. 46. Sed Covar. contra, nem­pè quod extat lib. 4. dialog. c. 19., doth witness of a Boy in his time, which being of the Age of Nine years, begot his Nurse with Child, whose Testimony is without excep­tion received for true Gloss. in c. 1. 20. q. 1. Jo. And. Car­dinal. & Pa­nor. in c. pube­res. de de­spons. impub. extra. Hosti­ens. in suâ Summâ. Tit. de poeniten. §. Cui pueri. Jos. in La in pupillari. ff. de vulg. sub. nu. 11. Alex. ibidem nu. 6. Tira­quell. de logib. Connub. Leg. 5. versic. Sed quae divus Greg.. Albericus maketh mention of a young Damosel in his time, who being of the Age of Nine years, brought forth a Child Albericus Rosa. in suo Indice. Matrimonium 2.. Hostiensis reporteth, That in the Castle of S. Michael, within the Diocess where he dwelt, a Boy of Ten or Eleven years begot a Child Hostiens. in c. ult. de eo. qui cogn. consang. ux. Tiraquel. de legib. Connub. versic. Sed jam nunc, &c.. Henry Boich our Country­man, and of all Canonists the most methodical, telleth us of a Child, which was defloured in his time, when she was but Eight years of Age Henr. Boic. in c. puberes, col. 2. de de­spons. impub. extra.. How many years old was Solomon when he begot Rehoboam of the Daughter of Pharoah Lib. 1. Regum, c. 3. v. 1. 7.? or Ahab when he begot Ezechiah of Abiah, the Daughter of Zechariah Lib. 2. Regum, c. 18. v. 1, 2.? [Page 54]By the Testimony of sundry, both Divines Hierom. Epistol. ad Vitalem alias ad Ditamum 75., Ca­nonists Hostiens. Summa. Tit. de peniten. verb. cui pueri. Jo. And. in c. ult. de eo qui cog. consang ux. extra. Co­var. Tract. de Sponsal. secunda parte, c. 5. nu. 4., and Civilians Alex. & Jas. in L. in pupillari. ff. de vulg. sub. Addic. ad Bart. in eand. L., the Fathers were not past Ten or Eleven when they begot these Children. The Histories are rich and plentifully furnished with such Examples: Therefore it is not a thing impossible, That Children should beget and bring forth Children? neither incredible in these days, since we are so much the sooner ripe, as our Lives are now shorter than they were in former Ages.

SECT. X. By what Form of Words Spousals de fu­turo are contracted.

1. THat we may understand by what form of words Spousals de futuro are contracted, it is needful diligently to observe two Distinctions: The first Distinction is, That of words whereby Spousals are contracted: Some are of the present time, as [I do take thee to my Wife] and [I do take thee to my Hus­band, &c. c. Si inter de Sponsal. ex­tra. & ibi DD. Lancel. Instit. Jur. Can. Tit de Sponsal. §. 1. Summa Silve­strin. verb. Ma­trimon. el. 2. q. 9. Henr. Boic. in c. ex parte. de Sponsal. extra.] and some of the future time, as [I will take thee to my Wife] and [I will take thee to my Husband; &c. d. c. si in­ter. & DD. in c. ex parte. de Sponsal. extra Lancel. & Henr. Boic. ubi. supra. Melchior Kling. Tract. de caus. Matrimonial. fol. 1.].

2. The second Distinction is; That of words, some do sound or harp of the entrance or beginning of Mar­riages; as to Contract, to Espouse, to Marry, to Take, to Make Wife or Husband, &c. Panor. in c. ex literis. el. 1. de Sponsal. extra. n. 5. in fin. Praepos. eod. c. n. 6. Summa Silvestr. verb. Matrimo. 2. q. 9. Covar. Tract. de Sponsal. secunda parte c. 4. §. 1.. And some again do sound of the end and execution of Marriage, as to Have, to Hold, to Entreat, to Provide for, as Wife and Husband, &c. Panor. Praepos. Summa. Silve­strin. & Covar. ubi supra. Melchior Kling. Tract. de caus. Matr. fol. 6. & 7. Spec. lib. 4. Tit. de Sponsal. in princ. Henr. Boic. in c. ex parte. de Sponsal. lib. 1. consil. matr. consil. ibidem 60. Lib. 2. cons. 17. Eman. Soarez. Com. op. Thesaur. verb. Matrimonium, nu. 90. Menoch. de praesumpt. lib. 3. praesumpt. 3.. The use of which Distinction is this.

3. When the Parties contracting Spousals do use words of future time, these are Spousals de futuro, and not Spousals de praesenti c. penul. §. vertum de Spon­sal extra.; in case also, these words do sound of the entrance and beginning of Marriage Panor. & Praepos in c. ex literis. el. 1. de Spons [...]l. extra. alter nu. 5. alte:. nu. 6. Summa Silve­str. verb. Matri­mo. 2. q. 9. Me­noch. de prae­sump. lib 3. prae­sump. 3. nu 2., otherwise the Spousals are de praesenti, like as if they were contracted by words of the present time Panor. & Praepos. ubi su­pra. & Sum. Silvestr. ubi su­pra. lib. 1. con­sil matr. consil. ibidem lx. nu. 16.. For Example; Imagine that the Man saith thus to the Wo­man [I will marry thee c. sicut. c. requisit. de Sponsal. extra. & ibi DD.] or [I will Espouse thee Panor. in c. ex literis. el. 1. de Spons. extra. nu. 5. Silvest. ubi supra. Card. in c. penul. q. 2. & ibi Praepos. nu. 4. Id quod tunc demum procedit stante communi loquendi usu. Ut est apud No­strates, qui hoc verbum Espousals pro Matrimonio sumunt, sicut dixerim principio, alias crederem, quod per haec verba Sponsabo te, nec Matrimonium, nec Spoasalia contrahi, nisi dictum sit Sponsa­bo te in uxorem. Cardinal. in d. c. penul. q. 3.] or [I will contract Matrimony with thee Panor. in c. ex literis. de Spons. extra nu. 5. & ibi Praepos. nu. 6. verb. quandoque. Covar. Tract. de Sponsal. secunda parte, c. 4. §. 1. nu. 4. So arez. Thesaur. com. op. verb. Matrimonium, nu. 91. quorum opinio communis est. Ut est videre apud eos, & apud Vivium. Thesaur. com. op. verb. Matrimonium.] or [I will take thee to my Wife] or [I will make thee my Wife, &c. c. Si inter. §. 1. de Sponsal. extra. & ibi Panor. Praepos. & Card. Kling. Tract. de caus. Matrimo. fol. 1..] And that the Woman answering, saith; And [I will marry thee] or [I will Espouse thee] or [I will contract Marriage with thee] or [I will take thee to my Husband, &c.] By these, and such like words, Spousals de futuro are contracted Sum­ma Silvestr. verb. Matrimo. el. 2. q. 9. DD. in c. ex literis. de Sponsal. extra. Henr. Boic. in c. ex parte. eod. Tit. Covar. ubi supra..

4. The reason wherefore these words import no more but Spousals de futuro, I have before delivered, namely, because like as when a Man doth promise that he will sell and will pay, &c. this is no perfect Sale, nor pre­sent payment, but a promise of a future Sale or Pay­ment Gloss. in l. In venden. C. de contrahend. Emption. Jason & alii in l. ser­vi Election. ff. de leg. 1. lib. 2. consil. matr. consil. ibid. 2. nu. 6.: Even so whiles the Parties only promise that they will Marry, will Espouse, will Contract Matrimo­ny, will take or make each other Man and Wife, &c. this is no present Marriage, no present Espousals, no pre­sent [Page 57]Contract of Matrimony, no present taking or ma­king of Husband and Wife DD. in c. ex literis. el. 1. de Sponsa. extra. Melchi or Kling. Tract. de Caus. Matrim. fol. 1. Jo. Frigeus. Tract. de Spons. in fin. lib. Instit. Jur. Civil. fol. 272., nor that present Bond or Assurance which can never be dissolved, consisting of present Consent, as the only Cause and Essence there­of L. Nuptias ff. de Reg. Jur. c. sufficiat 27. q. 2.. The reason wherefore it is otherwise, when the words (albeit of the future time) do sound of the end and execution of the Marriage, shall then appear, when we shall entreat of the Form of Spousals de prae­senti infra §. 11..

5. Now forasmuch as there be divers, both Divines Martin. Lu­ther. in libello de caus. Matri­mon. and Professors of either Law Schneid. Tract. de Nup­tiis, fol. 19. Jo. Frigeus de Sponsal. in fin. lib. Instit. Jur. Civil. Heming. Goden. l. 2. con­sil. Matr. consil. ibidem 10. Mo­ral. Tract. de Matrimonio, fol. 30. which do condemn the difference which is here put betwixt these words [I will, and I do] affirming, That if the Party contracting say [I will take thee to my Wife] it is in effect as if he had said [I do take thee to my Wife,] and so importeth Spousals de praesenti, being in truth and substance in­dissoluble Matrimony. Therefore e're I proceed to the Ampliations and Limitations of the former Conclusion, I think it expedient to examine this Question, Whether there be any such difference betwixt these two Phrases, viz. [I will take thee] and [I do take thee] as is above described, Yea or No.

6. The first Reason or Foundation whereupon their Opinion is builded, which held That there is no differ­ence, is this, namely, Because in this Sentence [Ego volo accipere te in uxorem] I will take thee to my Wife, both the Verbs [Volo] and [Accipere] are of the Present Tense Heming. Goden. lib. 2. consil. Matrimo. consil. ibidem 1. n. 4. Schneid. Tract. de Nup­tiis, fol. 19. Mo­ral. Tract. de Matrimonio, fol. 30., and not any word of the Future Tense; and so the Sentence is in effect as if the Party had expresly said [I will at this present, or from henceforth now take thee for my Wife Goden & Schneidwin, ubi supra. Jo. Frigeus de Sponsal. fol. 274. in fin. lib. sui Institut. Jur. Civil. Morald. ubi supra.]. But if any man shall expresly say [I will at present, or from henceforth take thee for my [Page 58]Wife] It is all one as if he said [I do take thee for my Wift Praepos. in c. ex literis el. 1. n. 4. verb. secundo modo. in fin.,] and consequently there is no difference whe­ther the Party say [I will take, or do take thee].

7. I will not say this kind of reasoning so strictly from Tenses savoureth of a bare Grammarian, for I e­steem otherwise of the Men, than of naked Grammarians; nor will I enquire wherefore translating these words [I will take, &c.] into Latin, they chuse rather to say [Volo accipere] than [Accipiam,] let the best advantage be ta­ken to further Matrimony c. fin. de Reg. Jud. c. ex parte de Spons. extra. & ibi DD. lib. 1. consil. ma­trimonial. con­sil. ibidem 52. n. 6.; nor will I stand upon this Point, whether it be all one to say thus [I will now at this present] or [from henceforth take,] or thus [I do take,] say there is not any difference Praepos. in c. ex literis el. 1. n. 4. verb. Item nisi.; nor will I de­ny the Verb [Volo] to be of the Present Tense; say it is so Goden. lib 2. consil. matri­mon. consil. ibi­dem 1. n. 4. Schneid. Tract. do Nuptiis, fol. 19.; What is it then that I do deny in the former Reason forsooth? That these words [volo accipere] I will take, imports thus much, [I will now, or from henceforth take] this I deny: If it be urged, That both the Verbs are of the Present Tense, therefore [volo accipere] is as much as [I will take now presently Lib. 2. con­sil. matrim. con­sil. ibidem 1. n. 4. Schneid. Tract. de Nup­tiis. fol. 19. Mo­rald. Tract. de Matrim. fol. 30.,] I deny the Argu­ment: For Verbs of the Present Tense have not always the force of the Present Tense, but sometimes of the Future Tense c. unic. §. 1. de despons. impub. lib. 6. & ibi Gem. & Phil. Franc. DD. in c. ex literis de Sponsal. extra., no more than Verbs of the Future Tense have always the force of the Future Tense, but sometimes of the Present Tense, as hereafter appeareth. And to this effect is that which Anto. de Butrio and Prae­positus, with others, do write of the Verb (Volo) in these words, Sciendum est ante omnia quod verbum [Volo] de sui natura semper denotat voluntatem, sed quandoque volun­tatem suspensivam de futuro, quandoque voluntatem disposi­tivam de praesenti Praepos. post. Anto. de Butr. in c. ex literis el. 1. de despons. extra. nu. 6.: Before all things this must be known, that the Verb [Volo] doth of its own nature lib. 1. consil. matr. consil. ibi­dem 60. nu. 16. & lib. 2. consil. ibidem 17. n. 8. Summa Silvestr. verb. matrimo­nium, el. 2. q. 9. [Page 59]always import a Will, but sometimes a Will suspensive of that which is to come, and sometimes a Will dispo­sing of that which is present. The like is said of the Infinitive Mood, of the which it is thus written; Verbum autem infinitivum nihil perfecte significat, sed secundum a­lia verba determinabitur ad praesens vel ad futurum Summa Sil­vestr. verb. ma­trimonium, 2. q. 9. Jas. in L. ser­vi electione, de leg. 1. ff. Panor. in d.c. ex literis, nu. 5.: The Infinitive Mood signifieth nothing perfectly, but is by the direction of other words determined or referred to that which is present or to come: For Example, a Man saith [volo vendere] I will sell, notwithstanding that both the Verbs are of the Present Tense, yet have they not any force but of the Future Tense; or as if he had said [vendam] I will sell hereafter Gloss. in l. In vendentis C. de contrahend. Emption. DD. in L. Servi ele­ctione de leg. 1. ff.. If any do not conceive my meaning by this Example to this Man, I put this plain Case: Another Man being indebted unto him xxl. saith unto him [volo solvere] I will pay; whether is this a Payment of his Debt, yea or no? I know he will say it is not Lib. 2. con­sil. matr. consil. ibidem 2. nu. 6.; and withal Reply, That when the thing cannot be satisfied by Words, or by Will on­ly, but by an Act following, then these words must be understood of that Act which is to come Gloss. in l. In vendentis C. de contrahend. Emp. Bar. in l. Servi electione ff. de leg. 1. Col. fin. Card. in c. ex literis. de Sponsal. extra. op. 3.; but when the Case is such, that it doth not necessarily expect a future Act, but may be then accomplished without any subsequent Act, (as in Contracts of Matrimony, which Matrimony is made perfect by Will or present Consent only) in this Case the words have force of present time Cardinal. in c. ex literis. de Sponsal. extra. op. 3.. To this Reply, thus I make this Rejoynder; Al­beit that Case of [volo solvere] I will pay, doth much differ from this Case [volo accipere te in uxorem] I will take thee for my Wife de in l. Cunctos C. de Summa Trin. & in L. Servi e­lectione ff. de leg. 1.; yet in these Cases which are absolutely perfected by Consent alone, and which do meerly depend of the Will of the Speaker, even in these Cases the Verb [volo] joyned to the Infinitive Mood, sig­nifying the beginning, and not the end or execution of an Act, hath no more force but of the Future Tense. [Page 60]The Truth of which Conclusion may be proved by in­finite Testimonies Bar. Alex. Paul. Jos. Ripa. & alii. in d. L. Servi elect. Futr. Jo. And. Panor. & Prae­pos. in c. ex li­teris. de Sponsal. extra., I will produce but two Witnes­ses for all: The first an excellent Legist and Linguist, namely Alciate, hath these words; Quoties de Actu tra­ctatur qui à nostrâ pendet voluntate verbum [volo] cum In­finitivo adjunctum non disponit, sed primum voluntatis mo­tum innuit, veluti cum dico [volo eligere talem] non ideo eligo, vel cum dico [volo adire haereditatem,] non censeor adiisse; sic reus qui dicit [volo confiteri] non censetur his verbis confessus; sic cum quis dicit [volo relinquere Centum Titio] hoc solo non videtur reliquisse (ut receptior se habet Summa) Sic [volo Contrahere Matrimonium cum Titiâ] non creditur contraxisse, & siqua similia, non tamen pro­cedit Conclusio, quando verbum Infinitivi habet posteriorem significationem Alciat. in d. L. Servi electi­one.: As oft as that Act is handled which dependeth of our Will, the Verb [volo] I will] being joyned with an Infinitive Mood, doth not dispose, but signifie the first motion of Will: As when I say [volo eligere] I will chuse] I do not therefore chuse; or when I say [volo adire haereditatem] I will undergo the Execu­torship] I am not therefore denied to have undertaken it; as also when the Defendant, which saith [volo confi­teri] I will confess] is not by these words judged, as ha­ving confessed; or as when any saith, [volo relinquere Centum Titio, &c.] I will leave an hundred pound to John at Style] doth not seem by this only to have bequeath­ed it (as the more received Opinion doth hold); or as when a Man saith [volo contrahere Matrimonium, &c.] I will contract Matrimony with Jannet at Style] he is not thereby thought to have contracted; and such like. Notwithstanding, this Conclusion doth not proceed when the Verb of the Infinitive Mood hath an after sig­nification, that is sounding of the end and execution. The second Witness is Panormitan (the Captain of the Canonists) whose words are these: Verbum Infinitivum [Page 61]aptum est comprehendere tempus praesens aut futurum, se­cundum verba adjecta; nam de se Infinitivum verbum ni­hil perfectè significat, &c. unde si verbo [volo] adjiciatur Infinitivum, denotans Actum non dependentem à solâ vo­luntate proferentis, tunc non inducitur dispositio de prae­senti, sed declaratur dispositio in futurum, veluti si dico [volo ascendere arborem] sed si verbo [volo] adjiciatur verbum Infinitivum denotans Actum dependentem à solâ vo­luntate proferente, tunc aut verba denotant principium Actûs, & non inducitur dispositio de praesenti; utpote si dicam [volo te disponsare, seu tecum contrahere, &c.] aut denotant executionem Actûs, & tunc inducitur dispositio de praesenti, &c. Panor. in c. ex literis. el. 1. de Sponsal. ex­tra. nu. 5.. A Verb of the Infinitive Mood is apt to comprehend the present or future time, according to the words joyned thereunto; for the Infinitive Mood doth signifie nothing perfectly of it self, whereupon, if unto the Verb [Volo, I will] be joyned an Infinitive Mood, signifying an Act, which doth not depend of (or is not accomplished by) the sole Will of him that speaketh, then is not present disposition induced, but a suture purpose declared: As if I say, [I will climb into a Tree] but if unto the Verb [volo, I will] be joyned a Verb of the Infinitive Mood, signifying an Act solely depending on the Will of the Speaker: Then either the words do import the beginning of an Act, and present dis­position is not induced: As if I say [I will espouse thee] or [I will contract with thee] or else they do import the execution of an Act, and then present dis­position is induced. These two Witnesses being omni exceptione majores, I shall not need to use any fur­ther Testimony L. ubi ff. de probac., unless the Case were more doubt­ful than I conceive it to be, by occasion of this Gram­matical Argument deduced from the Tenses of the Verb [volo] or the Infinitive Mood; wherefore we will now come to their other Argument, and see whether it be of any greater force than the former.

8. The second Argument is drawn from the Simpli­city of the Vulgar sort, who albeit they intend to tye such a Knot as can never be loosed, and make the Con­tract so sure as it may never de dissolved; yet such is their unskilfulness and ignorance herein, that they can­not frame their words to their minds, nor know whe­ther it be all one to say [I will take thee to my Wife] or [I do take thee to my Wife Goden. lib. 2. consil. matrim. Consil. 1. n. 4. lib. 1. consil. ma­trim. consil. 52. nu. 5. Schneid. Tract. de Nup­tiis, fol. 19. lib. 1. Consil. matr. consil. ibidem 52. nu. 5.] much less do they know the difference betwixt these words [I will marry thee] and [I will have thee to my Wife] or betwixt these words [I will take thee to my Wife] and [I will hold thee for my Wife] or betwixt these words [I will espouse thee] and [I will intreat thee as my Wife] or betwixt these words [I will contract Matrimony with thee] and [I will provide for thee as my Wife] or betwixt these words [I will make thee my Wife] and [thou shalt be my Wife] with an hun­dred such differences wherein appeareth no dissimilitude. And therefore, since it is the very Consent of Mind on­ly which maketh Matrimony L. Nuptias de Reg. Jur. ff. c. sufficiat 27. q. 2. c. cum a­pud. de Sponsal. extra., we are to regard not their Words, but their Intents, not the formality of the Phrase, but the drift of their Determination, not the outward sound of their Lips, which cannot speak more cunningly, but the inward Harmony or Agreement of their Hearts, which mean uprightly c. ex literis el. 1. de Sponsal. extra. c. ex par­te, & eod. tit. & ibi DD. lib. 1. consil. matrim. consil. ibidem 52. vol. 1. n. 5. & lib. 2. consil. 1. n. 3. L. non aliter. §. 1. ff. de le g. 3. L. semper in stipulationi­bus. de Reg. Jur. ff. Henr. Boic. in d. c. ex parte, col. 1.: Which Con­clusion, as it is generally true, and is meant of all Per­sons L. semper in stipulationibus. de Reg. Jur. ff.; so especially it is extended to those of the ru­der sort Lib. 1. consil. matrim. consil. ibidem 52. vol. 1. n. 5. & lib. 2. consil. 1. n. 3. L. non aliter. §. 1. ff. de leg. 3., whose Sayings are to be expounded with all favour to the furtherance of Matrimony c. ex literis, &c. ex parte, de Sponsal. extra. & ibi DD., other­wise if we shall curiously descant upon every word pro­ceeding from a simple Conceit, we cannot but miss of their meanings, and with our fine and dainty Distincti­ons (which never came within the compass of their gross Understandings) incumber the Consciences of [Page 63]them which be coupled Jo. Frigeus de Sponsal. in fin. lib. Institut. Jur. Civil. fol. 274.; whereas in these Contracts of Matrimony, whereupon dependeth the peril of Soul, we are before all things to labour diligently to set their Consciences at liberty Lib. 2. con­sil. matrim. con­sil. ibidem 19. nu. 7.. Lest therefore any Man's Conscience (through ignorance of Terms) might be in­tangled in the Snares of this subtle and more captious Distinction of [I will, and I do] with the rest of the Differences more subtle and more captious than this; worthily, and upon just cause (as it seemeth) are the same to be rejected, and this reasonable and consciona­ble Conclusion received, Ʋbi duo intendunt contrahere Sponsalia de praesenti, ibi semper contrahitur Matrimoni­um, licet verba sonent consensum de futuro tantum Summa An­gel. verb. matri­monium 2. n. 13. lib. 1. consil. matr. consil. ibi­dem 52. n. 3. Henr. Boic. in c. ex parte. de Spons. extra. col. 1. Summa Hostiens. Tit. de Matrimonio. §. qualiter. col. 7.: Where two intend to Contract Spousals de praesenti, there is Matrimony always contracted, although the words import but future Consent only. To which Ar­gument thus I answer.

9. True it is, we are not to stand upon Terms, but upon truth c. ex literis de Sponsal. ex­tra. L. semper in stipulationi­bus. de Reg. Jur. ff. & ibi Hiero. Franc. in Fin., and any words will suffice to Contract Matrimony, so that the meaning do appear Henr. Boic. in c. ex parte. de Sponsal. ex­tra. col. 1. Summa Hostiens. Tit. de Matrimonio §. qualiter col. 7.. But herein is the Argument faulty, here is petitio principij De petitione principii succinctè Oldendorp. Topic. legal. eod. loco., whiles it is presupposed that these Parties did in­tend to Contract Matrimony, because of the rudeness or simplicity: For how can we know a Man's meaning but by his words Lib. 2. consil. Matrimonial. consil. ibidem 29. nu. 28. quod velim videas DD. in c. Tua. de Sponsal. extra. Baldus in L. si non Convitij C. de Injuriis.? shall we, if a simple man say one thing, conclude that he did mean another thing? furely this were a very strange and preposterous Col­lection L labeo §. caeterun. de Suppel. leg. ff. Bald. ubi supra. Braecheus in rub. de Verb. Sign. ff. n. 2. & n. 18. & n. 24.: For what are words but the Messengers of mens Minds Alciat. in Rub. de Verb. Sig. ff. in princ.? And wherefore serve Tongues, but to express mens meanings Alciat. & Braecheus in d. Rub. de Verb. Sig. ille. n. 1. iste. n. 2. & n. 24. Ruckerus, cujus consil. extant in lib. 2. consil. ma­trimonial. & est consilium ibidem 29. nu. 29. &c.? Indeed if this meaning [Page 64]of the Parties may appear, namely, That they did in­tend to Contract Matrimony, then although the words import no more but Spousals de futuro, the Contract is no less than Matrimony Henr. Boic. in c. per tuas. col. 1. de Spon­sal. extra. Card. in c. ex literis eod. Tit. Sum­ma Angel. verb. Matrimonium 2. n. 13.; but when this meanning doth not appear, then, howsoever the Rude and Vulgar sort do often abuse their terms, and speak improperly, we must be directed by the Text, which saith, Nón a­liter à significatione verborum recedi oportet, quam si mani­festum sit aliud sensisse proferentem L. non ali­ter. ff. de leg. 3. Braecheus in Rub. de Verb. Sig. ff. nu. 25.: We must not o­therwise depart from the signification of words, but in case it be manifest, that the Speaker meant otherwise. And to the same effect is it which Panormitan writeth, in these words, Nota contra Rusticos, qui post perfectum Contractum, dicunt se non concepisse vim verborum, debent eadem verba habere suam vim & proprietatem, secundum Juris Dispositionem, nec excusat contrahentem Juris Igno­rantia, unde si alter contrahentium diceret, quod credebat contrahere per illa verba Sponsalia, & non Matrimonium, vel è contra, non est sibi acquiescendum, sed accipientur verba secundum rectum & verum intellectum Panor. in c. ex literis. el. 1. de Sponsal. ex­tra. n. 4. Cave. per d. consil. viz. 52. lib. 1. consil. ma. & consil. 1. vol. 2.: Note against Rusticks, which after a perfect Contract say, they did not conceive the force of the words; for their words ought to enjoy their force and propriety ac­cording to the disposition of Law; neither doth Igno­rance of Law excuse the Party contracting; whereup­on if the one Party should say that he did intend to contract Spousals, and not Matrimony; or contrariwise (that is to say, Matrimony and not Spousals) it is not to be yielded unto him, but the words shall be taken according to their right and true understanding. Here I might also add that notable saying of noble Baldus, of whom for his Universal Knowledge in every thing, it is recorded (to his immortal Commendation) quod ni­hil ignoravit, that he was ignorant of nothing; his words are short, but sharp; Rusticus debet ire ad Civitatem pro [Page 65]Consilio, sicut ad Sylvam pro lignis, alias non excusatur ignorantiâ Juris Bald. in l. Juris ignoran­tiae. C. qui ad­mitti. n. 1.: The Country man ought to re­pair to the City for Counsel, as to the Wood for Few­el, otherwise he is not excused through Ignorance of Law Inno. in c. ex literis. el. 1. de Spons. extra.. But lest this Answer may seem more sharp than short, I will endeavour to satisfie their rough hu­mour by some milder means than by stiff Authority, yet not betraying the Truth. Know therefore, that these Distinctions betwixt words of the present and fu­ture time, and likewise betwixt words signifying the beginning and execution of any Act, are so far from the nature and property of Snares and Gynns, whereby to catch or entrap any Man at advantage against his mean­ing, or to incumber his Conscience with subtilty, that on the contrary, they may well be compared unto the Thred which Ariadne gave unto Theseus; for as with­out that Thred he could never have escaped out of that endless Labyrinth, wherein were so many diffi­cult Turnings and intricate Returnings, and Windings to and fro innumerable, and but one only Out-gate; so without Distinctions it is impossible to escape out of the confused Maze of such intricate Questions and infi­nite Errors, amongst the which there is but one only Truth: By Distinctions we discern the Scent and Foot­steps (as it were) of each Man's purpose and intent, thereby, like Blood-hounds, we are taught to trace and hunt out the very Center of each Man's thought Alciat. lib. 2. de Verb. Signif. fol. (lib. mei) 49. Mantic. de con­jectur. ul tim. volunt. lib. 8. Tit. 3. n 9., so far as it is possible with Human Industry, though the way be never so intricate: By Distinctions are am­biguous Questions resolved, confused Matters separated, Things variable discerned, and dark and obscure Enig­ma's cleared and made bright Alciat. ubi supra. L. apud C. de furtis, & ibi DD.. By Distinctions we apprehend the true meaning, not of Men only, but of God himself, as without the which the true meaning and sense of Scriptures cannot be attained Distingue tempora & concordabunt Scripturae, Bart. Bald & alii in L. apud C. de furtis.: Nay more, [Page 66]without Distinctions neither the Law, neither the Go­spel, can stand or be defended from Contrariety, I had almost said from Falsity Alciat. de Verb. Sig n. lib. 2. fol. 49.. Hence it is, that Di­stinctions are termed (of some) the next Neighbours of Truth Mantic. de Conjectur. ul­tim. volunt. lib. 8. Tit. 3. n. 9., being skilful and faithful Guides where­by Men escape the Erroneous By-paths of False Opi­nions, and are, at the least, brought unto the place where Truth is secretly seated Alciat. ubi supra. DD. in d. l. apud.: Wherefore seeing the use of Distinctions is so necessary, as thereby we are directed to the Truth of each Man's meaning, when other Means do fail, how can we with safe Conscience speak against Distinctions, unless we are able to shew this meaning, whereby we discern Mens Consciences and the secret meanings of the Parties, by other more certain means than by a simple Argument, drawn from the simplicity of the Persons contracting: For what a simple Argument, and how unworthy such Patrons is this, The Parties are simple or ignorant Per­sons which did Contract by these words [I will take thee, &c.] Ergo, they did intend to Contract Matrimony, and not Spousals de futuro; what else (in God's Name) is this but principium petere, & ignotum per ignotius pro­bare?

10. There remaineth yet one doubt to be absolved which is this. When the parties do Contract by these words [I will take thee to my Wife] and [I will take thee to my Husband, &c.] not expressing the time when, is it not all one as if either of them had said [I do take], seeing when no day is expressed, the thing promised or Act covenanted is to be done presently Olden. Topic. legal. loco à petitio­ne principii, L. In omnibus obligationibus. de Reg. Jur. ff. Instit. de verb. oblig. §. omnis Stipulatio. L. cedere diem. ff. de Verb. Sign..

11. I Answer, the parties are presently bound so far forth as the weak Bond of Spousals de futuro can tye [Page 67]them Summa Ho­stiens. Tit. de Sponsal §. quis sit effectus. in princ. c. 2. c. ex literis el. 2. de Sponsal. ex­tra & ibi Pa­nor.; but they are not at all tyed with that indisso­luble knot or Bond of Matrimony, because as yet they have not Contracted Matrimony Ergo Sub­latâ Causâ, tollitur effectus. Olden. & Eve­rard. loco à Causâ., for each several Contract doth bring forth a several Bond or Obligati­on, whereof it is the Mother Siquidem cum ex contra­ctu nasci obli­gationem legi­mus, L. 1. de Action. & Ob­lig. ff. Con­tract. Obligati­onis matrem non ineptè dicimus.; So long then as the Mother (that is the Contract) is unbegotten, so long the Daughter, (that is the Bond or Obligation) must needs be unborn. These things considered, I conclude, That it is not all one to say [I will take thee to my Wife] and [I do take thee to my Wife]; And that by the Form of words, [I will take thee, &c.] Spousals de fu­turo and not de praesenti are Contracted; which Con­clusion notwithstanding as it is diversly enlarged, so on the contrary it is restrained in divers Cases.

12. The First Ampliation is collected out of the Premisses, that is to say, albeit the parties contracted be rude and simple persons, yet these words [I will take thee, &c.] import no more but Spousals de futuro Panor. in c. ex literis el. 1. de Sponsal. ex­tra n. 4., unless it be otherwise proved that they did intend to Contract Spousals de praesenti DD. in d.c. ex literis. Cave..

13. The Second Ampliation is, albeit the Parties in­stead of the Verb [volo, I will] do use the Verb [pro­mitto,Summa Ro­sell. verb. Ma­trimonium. el. 3. col. 2. lib. 1. consil. matr. consil. ibidem 60. nu. 16.I promise] or the Verb [placet Panor. in c. ex literis. el. 1. de Sponsal. extra. n. 5. & ibi Praepos n. 6. in princ., it pleaseth or liketh me] or [contentus sum Lib. 1. consil. matrim. Consil ibidem. 60. nu. 16., I am content]; where­fore if the parties respectively say [I promise to take thee, or I am pleased to take thee, or I am content to take thee, &c.] these words or phrases import no more than [Volo accipere te, &c. I will take thee, &c. Panor. & Prepos. in d. c. ex literis lib. 1. Consil. matr. con­sil. ibid. 60. nu. 16.].

14. The Third Ampliation is, that albeit the Parties do confirm the Contract with an Oath, yet the same Contract being made by the words aforesaid, the na­ture [Page 68]thereof is not altered c. requisivit. de Sponsal. ex­tra. Covar. Tract. de Spon­sal. prima parte. c. 5. in princ.. And therefore if the Parties say, [I give thee my Faith and Troth to Marry thee Lib. 1. Con­sil. matrim. Con­sil. ibidem. 60. nu. 16., or I swear unto thee to take thee to my Wife, &c.] this is but Spousals de futuro Covar. Tract. de Spon­sal. prima par­te. c. 5. in princ..

15. The Fourth Ampliation is this, namely when ei­ther party doth say [promitto tibi Matrimonium, I do promise thee Marriage] for this is no more but Spou­sals de futuro Heming. Goden. inter Consil. Matri­monial. lib. 2. Consil. ibidem. 2. nu. 6.; nor is it all one to say [I do promise Matrimony] and [I do Contract Matrimony] no more than it is all one to say [I will Marry] and [I do Mar­ry Eod. consil.].

16. The Fifth Ampliation is when Children are Mar­ried together, for then albeit they use words of the present time, as [I do take thee, &c.] yet by Interpre­tation of Law these are no more but Spousals de fu­turo c. unic. §. 1. de despons. impub. lib. sexti & ibidem Gem. & Franc..

17. The Sixth Ampliation is, when after the speak­ing of such words as induce Spousals de futuro, the par­ties do add other words, which otherwise of themselves induce Spousals de praesenti; for Example. The one party saith [I do promise that I will Marry thee, and I will hold thee for my Lawful Wife], and the other party answereth, and [I promise that I will Marry thee, and I will hold thee for my lawful Husband Specul. Tit. de Sponsal. in princ. n. 7. Pa­nor. in c. ex parte de Spons. extra Summa Rosella. verb. Matrimonium 3. col. 2. Summa Silvestr. verb. Matrimonium. 2. q. 9. in fin. lib. 1. consil. Ma­trimonial. Con­sil. ibidem. 83. n. 25.]. Which words [and I will hold thee, &c.] being uttered alone, do induce Matrimony Covar. Tract. de Sponsal. Secunda parte, c. 4. §. 1. n. 4. Panor. in c. veniens el. 2. de Sponsal. extra. n. 3. & in c. ex parte eod. Tit. n. 7. Praepos. in c. ex literis el. 1. de Sponsal. ex­tra. nu. 6. in fin.; but here they are restrained by the words foregoing Panor. in c. ex parte despons. extra. n. 7. Arg. l. ultim. §. cui dulcia ff. de Tritic. vin. et el. legat. Alex. con. 152. vol. 5. lib. 1. consil. matrim. consil. 83. n. 10., which are to be regarded as Principal, and the words following, as accessary; and so in this instance they induce no more, but Spousals [Page 69] de futuro Specul. in Rub. de Sponsal extra. Summa Rosella. & Summa Silvestr. ubi supra lib. 1. consil. matrim. consil. Ibidem. 83. n. 25. Alex. consil. 152. vol. 5. n. 5. Menoch. de presump. lib. 3. presump. 3. n. 4. Rom. singul. 338., according to the nature of the former words [I will Marry thee, &c.]

18. The Seventh Ampliation is when the parties do use these or the like words, [I will take no other Wo­man to my Wife but thee, and I will take no other Man to my Husband but thee Alex. cons. 152. vol. 5. n. 3, & 4. lib. 1. consil. matrim. Consil. ibidem. 52. n. 1, 2, 5.], for it is in effect as if he or she had said [I will tak [...] thee and no other Siquidem haec dictio [nisi] post orationem negativam po­sita ponit & affirmat excep­tum, Spiegel. Lexic. verb. nisi. L. 2. §. fin. ff. de Custod reorum. Jas. in L. Actio C. de Transac. & Alex. d. cons. 152 lib. 1. consil. Matrim. consil. 52. n. 2. Ripa. Resp. 71.], how­beit this Ampliation doth not pass without difficulty, as hereafter more fully shall appear Infra..

19. The Eighth Ampliation is, that if either Party do not repeat the same words, viz. the one of them saying, [I will Marry thee, or I will take thee to my Wife, or I will Contract Matrimony with thee, &c.] The o­ther answering [I am content, or I am pleased, &c.] hereby are Spousals de futuro Contracted c. si iater. de Sponsal. ex­tra. & ibi Pa­nor. & Praepos., as if both parties had used the self same words.

20. The Ninth Ampliation is, that albeit the one party use no words at all, but signifie his or her consent by some Signs, as if the one party say [I do promise to Marry thee, and if thou be content to Marry me, then kiss me, or give me thy hand]; Whereupon the other party kissing or giving hand accordingly, Spousals are thereby Contracted Henr. Boic. in c Tuae. de Sponsal. extra. col. 2. lib. 2. consil. Matrimo. consil. ibidem. 34. n. 5. Summa Silvestrin. verb. Matr. 2. n. 8. Summa Angelic. verb. Matrimo­nium. el. 2. q. 4. in fin..

21. The Tenth Ampliation is, that Spousals are sometimes Contracted without express mention of fu­ture Marriage, or taking to Husband and Wife, &c. viz. when the parties mutually use these words [I will receive thee for my own c. pen. de Sponsal. extra. §. verum. dec. consil. 368, n. 2.].

22. Finally, if a Man, taking a Woman by the hand, do say unto her, (I give thee my Faith that I will take thee to my Wife] albeit the Woman say nothing, yet is the Man bound to Marry her if she will; but the Woman is not to be compelled if she will not Boer. consil. 40. n. 22. Sum­ma Rosella. verb. Sponsal. in princ. Sum­ma Angel. Eod n. 19., un­less it be proved at least by some Sign, that the Wo­man did consent; as if there were some Treatise before of Spousals to be Contracted betwixt them; or if she being required, did willingly give her hand to receive his promise Summa Ro­sella. ubi supra. Addic. Ad Ho­stiens. in Tit. de Sponsal. §. quot sunt. lite­ra (b) & Boer. d. cons. 40. n. 22. Andr. Barb. consil. 6. vel. 1.; Where I said that the Man is tyed if the Woman will, albeit she said nothing Silvestr. Pri­er. verb. Spon­salia. in prin­cip., that is true, if she will immediately after the Contract, otherwise it is not in her power afterwards.

23. The First Limitation of the former Rule is, when it appeareth that the Parties did intend to Contract Matrimony; For albeit the words import no more but Spousals de futuro, of their own Nature; yet by reason of the intent and present Consent (which alone is sufficient) Matrimony is thereby Contracted Summa Hostiens. Tit. de Matrimonio. §. qualiter. col. 7. Summa Angel. verb. Matrimo­nium. el. 2. n. 13. Henr. Boic. in c. ex parte. de­spons. extra. col. 1. lib 1. consil. Matrim. consil. 52. n. 3.. This Limitation is very General, the rest are more special, and do help to declare this intent and meaning.

24. The Second Limitation is, when the Contract is made by way of Interrogation and Answer, for then the Answer being made deliberately by this Word [volo] I will, doth induce Matrimony Covar. Epi­tom. de Spon­sal. secunda parte c. 4. §. 1. n. 4. Part. in l. gerit. ff. de ac­quir. haered. DD. in L. Ser­vi electione. ff. de leg. 1.; Albeit the other Verb hath relation to the beginning, not the Execution of Matrimony; for Example. The Man demanding of the Woman whether she will take him to her Husband, she answereth [I will]: And the Woman likewise de­manding whether he will take her to his Wife, he an­swereth [I will], in this Case Matrimony and not Spou­sals is Contracted Covar. ubi Supra. Praepos. in c. ex literis el. 1. de Sponsal. extra col. 2. Vers. & cum hac dist. lib. 2. consil. matr. consil. ibidem 1. n. 4. Vers. quod si. ex interrogatioen. Menoch. de Arb. Jud. lib. 2. centur. 5. cas. 496. n. 31 qui re­fert hoc procedere facta interrogatione ab ipsis contrahen. secus si ab altero..

25. The third Limitation is, when the Contract is made after Treatise of Matrimony to be had betwixt the Parties Cardinal. in Clem. unic. de Consang. q. 20. Covar. Epitom. de Sponsal. se­cunda parte c. 4. §. 1. n. 4. vide DD. in l. si quis cum aliter. de verb. Oblig. ff. Adde Sanchez. Tract. de Matri­monio lib. 1. Disp. 18. n. 27. fol. 53.; in which Case, by these words [I will mar­ry thee, or I will take thee to my Wife, &c.] Matrimony is induced Cardinal. & Covar. ubi supra lib. 2. consil. matr. consil. i­bidem 5. n. 14. in fin. Ripa. in Tit. de Sponsal. & Matrimonio. resp. 71. n. 1. Intellige de firmato, non de simplici tractatu. Jos. & Imol. in L. si quis cum aliter de verb. Oblig. ff. & Zas. in L. 1. §. Si quis simpliciter, ubi profert exemplum fir­mati tractatus..

26. The fourth Limitation is, When as over and a­bove the words, there is an Accumulation of some Act joyned therewithal, whereby those Spousals do pass into Matrimony Lapus Allegat. 57.. For Example: The Parties saying [I will Contract Matrimony with thee, &c.] by and by the Man delivereth to the Woman a Ring, and doth put it on her fourth Finger; hereby the Contract is presumed Matrimonial Lapus de Allegat. 57.; howbeit this Conclusion is not very sound Immo si Annuli traditio sequatur verba, ad Sponsalia solum apta, tunc Annulus solum denotat Sponsalia. Abb. in c. sin. de Spons. impub. n. 7. Paris. consil. 60. n. 49. vol. 4. nisi praecedat Tractatus de Matrimonio contrahendo. Paris. ibidem Adde Mascard. Tract. de probat. concl. 1023.: Wherefore it will be requisite that thou take the pains to read what I have hereafter written, of Subarration, or Giving and Receiving a Ring infra §. 15. Nota quod tractatus debet esse firmatus, alias non attenditur, quod observavi in Causa inter Pratt & alium, & ut quodam libro mearum Annotat. fol. 61. Adde Sanchez. Tract. de Matrimonio, lib. 1. Disp. 18. n. 27..

27. The fifth Limitation is, When the Parties do use this word from henceforth Praepos. in c. ex literis el. 1. col. 2. verb. Item nisi ex verbis. in the Contract; as [I will from henceforth take thee, &c.] for it is in effect as if they had said [I do take thee, &c.] inducing pre­sent Consent Praepos. ubi supra. Idem crederem dicendum, si dixerint [omnino] te in conjugem accipere volo, &c. Rîpa in l. Servi electi­one ff. de leg. 1. in fin. d. l. Adde Felin. in c. ex parte, el. 1. de offic. Deleg. quo locitradit xij. significationes hujus dictionis [omnino]..

28. The sixth Limitation is, When as by common use of Speech the words induce Matrimony; for the pro­priety of words ought to give place to the common use and acceptation thereof in this matter Cardinal. in c. ex literis. de Sponsal. extra. in. fin. Covar. Tract. de Spon­sal. secunda parte, c. 4. §. 1. n. 4. Praepos. in d. c. ex lite­ris, col. 2. verb. Item nisi com­munis. lib. 2. Consil. matr. consil. ibidem 1. n. 2.: If therefore while the Parties do say [I will marry thee, or I will Contract Matrimony with thee, &c.] it be the use and custom of that place by these words to Contract Matri­mony (although the words of their own nature induce no more than Spousals) indissoluble Matrimony is there­by contracted DD. in d. c. ex literis, & in c. ex parte. de Sponsal. extra. Jacob. Leoniss. inter consil. matrimonial. lib. 1. consil. ibidem 52. quod om­mno velim te videre..

29. The seventh Limitation is, When it is doubtful whether the words uttered by the Parties import Spousals de futuro or Matrimony, being apt and indif­ferent, by reason of the double sense thereof, to signi­fie either the one or the other. In which Case, that Sense is to be received which maketh for Matrimony Praepos. in c. ex parte, n. 6. in fin. de Spon­sal. extra. lib. 1. consil. matr. consil. ibidem 52. n. 6. DD. in c. ultim. de Reg. Jud. extra. Menoch. de praesump. lib. 3. praesump. 3. in fin., unless it be in prejudice of a second Matrimony undoubt­ed Inno. in c. illud de praesump. extra. facit decis. Tholoss. q. 172. Paul. Merenda, inter consil. matrim. lib. 1. consil. ibidem 86. n. 35. Menoch. de praesump. lib. 3. praesump. 1. n. 31, 32., or unless the former Contract be clandestine or secret Dionis. Francis. inter consil. ma­trim. lib. 1. consil. ibidem. 49. n. 2. & 3. & consil. 60. n. 21. Covar. Tract. de Sponsal. secunda parte, c. 6. in princ. n. 11. Panor. in c. cum Inhibitio. de clandestin. de Sponsal. extra. n. 6. & in c. 2. eod. Tit. in fin. Schneidwin. Tract. de Nuptiis, fol. 24.; or unless these doubtful words do follow other words, which, without doubt import no more but Spousals de futuro Galat. inter consil. matri­monial. lib. 1. consil. ibidem 83. nu. 23, 24, 25..

30. The eighth Limitation is, When the words do sa­vour of the Execution of Marriage, as [I will have thee for my Wife, &c. c. ex par­te de Sponsal. extra. & ibi DD.]

31. The ninth Limitation is, When the Parties, af­ter they have contracted Spousals de futuro, have Car­nal Knowledge together; for thereby the former Con­tract doth pass, and is (by interpretation of Law) transferred into Matrimony c. is qui fi­dem. c. veni­ens. el. 2. de Spons. extra. Melch. Kling. Tract. de caus. matr. fol. 7. Menoch. de praesump. lib. 3. praesump. [...] ubi haec conclusio multifariam & extenditur, & restringitur..

SECT. XI. By what Form of Words Spousals de praesenti (being in substance Matri­mony) are contracted.

1. WE must neither forget the two former Distin­ctions, viz. That of words used in contract­ing Spousals; some are of the present time, some of the future time supra. §. prox. c. si inter de Sponsal. ex­tra.. And Secondly, That some words have relation to the entrance or beginning, and some to the end or execution of Marriage Panor. Prae­pos. & alii in c. ex parte, de Sponsal. extra. Specul. in Rub. de Sponsal. in princ. lib. 1. consil. Matri­mon. consil. ibi­dem 60. & lib. 2. consil. 17.: The Examples whereof are before deliverd: Whereunto it may now, Thirdly be added, That some words have respect nei­ther to the beginning nor to the ending, nor to any Ac­cident, but to the Substance of the Act; as [I will be thy Husband, &c. Summa Silvestrin. verb. matrimon. 2. q. 9. Ferret. consil. 383. n. 10. lib. 1. consil. matrimonial. consil. ibidem 84. n. 25. DD. in L. Servi electione ff. de leg. 1. & ibi Ripa n. 18. Menoch. de praesump. lib. 3. praesump. 3. n. 5.]: From which three Distinctions flow three several Conclusions, yet tending to one and the same end: Which are these.

2. The first Conclusion is, That when the Parties do Contract Spousals by words of present time; as, [I take thee to my Wife c. pen. de Sponsal. extra. Menoch. Tract. de praesump. lib. 3. praesump. 3. n. 1.] or [I hold thee for my Wife Summa Angel. verb. matrimon. 2. n. 13. Abbas. in c. venias. el. 2. de Sponsal. extra.] or [thou art my Wife Melchior Kling. Tract. de causis matrimo, fol. 6.] or [I consent unto thee, as my supra. §. prox.[Page 75]Wife Specul. lib. 4. in Rub. de Sponsal. in princ. n. 6.] or [I commend thee for my Wife Specul. ubi supra.): By these kind of words (being uttered by either Party) are contracted Spousals de praesenti vide DD. in c. ex literis. el. 1. & in c. ex parte & in c. si inter. de Spons. extra. Menoch. Tract. de praesump. lib. 3. praesump. 3.; which kind of Spousals (as I have often foretold) are in Truth and Substance very Matrimony indissoluble supra. §. 4. c. conjux. c. cum initiat. 27. q. 2. c. si inter de Spons. extra. & ibi DD. lib. 2. consil. matr. consil. ibidem 24. n. 2. Melchior. Kling. Tract. de caus. Matrimonial. fol. 7. in fin. Panor. & Felin. in Rub. de Sponsal. extra..

3. The second Conclusion is, That when the Parties contracting Spousals, do use such words of the future time, as have relation to the end or execution of Marri­age; as [I will have thee for my Wife c. ex parte de Sponsal. ex­tra. & ibi Pa­nor. Boic. & Praepos. cum aliis.] or [I will hold thee for my Wife Inno. in d. c. ex parte. Me­noch. de prae­sump. lib. 3. praesump. 3. n. 3. Praepos. in c. ex literis. el. 1. de Sponsal. extra. n. 6. Specul. in Rub. de Spons. n. 6. Summa Silvestrin. verb. matrimo. 2. n. 9] or [I will entreat thee as my Wife Praepos. in d. c. ex literis. n. 6. Melchior. Kling. Tract. de Caus. Matrimonial. fol. 6.] or [I will provide for thee as my Wife Ho­stiens. in c. ex parte de Sponsal. extra. Specul. lib. 4. in Rub. de Sponsal. n. 6. Melchior Kling. ubi supra. Summa. Angel. verb. Matrimonium 2. n. 9.] or [I will keep my Faith unto thee as my Wife Panor. in d. c. ex parte, n. 2. & 3. & ibi Praepos. Specul. & Kling. ubi supra.], here­by (like as by words of the present time) are Spousals de praesenti contracted DD. in c. ex literis. & in c. ex parte. de Spons ex­tra. Menoch. de praefump. lib. 3. praesump. 3.; which Conclusion is (albeit rejected of some) commonly received of the ancient Writers Jo. And. Car­dinal. Floren. Panor. & Praepos. in c. ex literis. el. 1. de Spons. extra. August. Berojus. q. 6. Ema­nuel Soarez. lib. recep. sentent. verb. matrim. n. 91. Vivius Thesaur. com. op. verb. matrimonium. in fin. quorum opinionem communiter receptam fatetur. Covar. Tract. de Spons. secunda parte, c. 4. §. 1. n. 5. ut ipse ab eadem recedat., whose strongest Reason is, because, Qui vult consequens, velle videtur & antecedens, he which granteth the Consequent, or that which followeth, is thought also to grant the Antecedent, or that which goeth before Panor. in d. c. ex parte. n. 3. Praepos. in d. c. ex literis. n. 6.: For how can he truly have or hold her as his Wife, which is not first his Wife Panor. in d. c. ex literis. n. 5. in sin., no Mag. Sent. 4. Sentent. Distinct. 28. c. 2. de matr. Hadr. q. 13. Covar. Tract. de Sponsal. secunda parte, c. 4. §. 1. n. 5. Molin. in Addit. ad Dec. in c. juravit. de probat. extra. Alciat. in l. Actione. C. de transact. n. 28. [Page 76]more than a Man can have or hold Tenements or He­reditaments by any Deed, unless there be a Concedimus before the Habendum: Or how can he properly intreat her as his Wife, or provide for her as his Wife, or keep his Faith unto her as his Wife, which is not his Wife before Praepos. in d. c. ex literis. n. 6. in fin.? no more than it is possible that there should be any Effect without the Cause foregoing Oldendorp. Topic. legal. loco à Causa. Tiraquel. in re­gul. Cessante Causâ.: Wherefore like as by confessing the Effect we grant the Cause; so by promising the end, we are presupposed to have already promised the beginning, and consequently by the promise of having, holding, intreating, and pro­viding for, and keeping of Faith, &c. which words re­spect the end and execution of Marriage, we are now deemed to have turned over the Leaf, and to be past the first Lesson, I mean the Promise of Taking, Contract­ing, Espousing, or Marrying, which words do savour only of the beginning or entrance into Matrimony DD. in c. ex literis. &c. ex parte, de Sponsal. extra..

4. Others nevertheless, as well Divines Magistr. in 4. Senten. Di­stinct. 28. c. 2. de matrim. Ha­dria..... as Law­yers Covar. Tract. de Spon­sal. parte se­cunda, c. 4. §. 1. n. 5. Molin. in addit. ad Dec. in. c. Juravit de probat. extra. Alciat. in L. Actione C. de Transact. nu. 28., Men without all controversie, excellently learn­ed, and of sharp Judgments, are of another Opinion, contending earnestly, That by these words, [I will have thee] or [I will hold thee for my Wife, &c.] Spousals on­ly de futuro are contracted; affirming, that as by words of present time Spousals de praesenti, so by words of future time Spousals de futuro are contracted, without a­ny such Distinction as is above recited, of the beginning or execution of the Act; and that Spousals de praesenti are not contracted by any other words than such as do clearly, necessarily, and seriously infer and conclude pre­sent and perfect Consent Magistr. Covar. & Molin. ubi supra..

5. And here (by the way) we may note the contra­riety and extremity of Opinions amongst the Learned, [Page 77]for some make no difference at all betwixt words of present and future time Martin. Luther. Libell. de caus. ma­trimon. Schneidwin. Tract. de Nup­tiis, fol. 19. Jo. Frigeus de Sponsal. in fin. lib. Institut. Jur. Civil. He­ming. Goden. lib. 2. Consil. matrimonial. Consil. ibid. 1., esteeming that it is all one in effect to say [I will take thee to my Wife] and [I do take thee to my Wife] as appeareth in the former Para­graph supra. §. proxim.: But now these Men are so far from con­founding the Natures or Effects of those Terms [I will take] and [I do take, &c.] that on the contrary; they will not at any hand admit words of the future time to have the force of present time, or to induce Spousals de praesenti, albeit the same words have respect to the end or execution of the Act Alciatus Covar. & Molin. cum Lombard. & Hadria. ubi supra..

6. The former of these two Opinions, how errone­ous it is, and how unworthy the Patronage of such Learned Writers, is already discoursed supra. §. prox.. And here by order I shall detect the Error of this Opinion like­wise, which thing I would gladly perform, because it seemeth to be new and singular, and to oppugn the an­cient and received Opinion Communem DD. opinionem, & Consulendo & Judicando attendendam & amplecten­dam fore per­multis fretus testimoniis con­firmat Anto. Coratius. Tract. de Communi opinione, lib. 2. Inspectione 2.. Nevertheless, the fur­ther I enter into the Consideration of the Controversie, the further I am from the Accomplishment of my pur­pose, the aged Walls and Fortresses, that is to say, the Reasons and Arguments wherewith this ancient Opini­on is defended seeming more weak and feeble, so that they are unable to resist the force and fresh Assault of the Adversary, at least in every point of Law: For first and principally this Axiom, Qui vult consequens velle censetur antecedens De argu­mento à conse­quenti Consulas velim. Jo. Ol­dendorpii To­pic. legal. fol. (lib. mei) 126. & Nichol. Eve­rard. loco à concessione consequentis., being the strongest place of Defence, and the very Gates of the Castle, wherein is placed the greatest Force, for the Maintenance of the former Opinion, is by virtue of a strong Distinction (as by the might of some Martial Engin) in danger to be violently burst open and captivated by the Adversary, [Page 78]armed with this sharp Sentence; Ego autem tunc prae­sentem consensum Conjugio praestitum esse opinor, quando ex verbis prolatis, Consensus is de praesenti necessariò se­quitur; At in hâc questione, is Consensus non sequitur ne­cessariò, igitur Matrimonium non est, &c. nec obstat illa ra­tio, Qui enim vult id quod sequitur, Censetur omnino velle id quod permittitur necessariò illo tempore, quo consequens executioni tradendum est, unde qui habet aliquam faemi­nam in uxorem, actu promittit se cum illa Matrimonium contraxisse, non sic ille qui praesenti tempore actu non ha­bet, sed habere promittit in futuro, &c. Covar. Tract. de Spon­sal. & matr. se­cunda parte. c. 4. §. 1. n. 5. versic. Ego au­tem. & versic. nec obstat.. I am verily of Opinion (saith he) that present Consent for Marri­age is then performed, when as that present Consent doth necessarily follow of the words spoken: But in this Question, That Consent doth not necessarily fol­low, therefore it is not Matrimony, nor doth that a­foresaid Reason withstand; for he which granteth that which followeth, is presumed, at the utmost, to grant that which is necessarily presupposed at that instant wherein the Consequent is to be put in Execution; whereupon he which indeed hath any Woman to his Wife, promiseth that he hath contracted Matrimony with her; but so doth not he which actually at this present hath not a Wife, but promiseth that he will have hereafter, &c. By force of which Dictinction, the Gates of the former Axiom shew as if they were cleft asunder, and set wide open, so that we may perceive and understand, That an Antecedent is only then pre­supposed, when the Consequent is actually executed Covar. ubi supra., but not before; like as the Cause is then justly presu­med, when as the Effect is indeed really extant, and not before Siquidem effectus absolu­tam consumma­tionem seu rei perfectionem significat. Jo. Olden. Topic. legal. loco. ab effectu.; and therefore whiles any man saith, [Habebo te in Ʋxorem, I will have thee to my Wife] (see­ing the Promise is not yet executed, but is to be per­formed hereafter) he is not yet presumed to have taken [Page 79]her to his Wife, or to have contracted Matrimony with her in the mean time Covar. ubi supra. Hadr. in 4. Senten. q 13.. And hereby also appeareth the Answer to the Questions formerly demanded, viz. How can he have or hold her as his Wife, which is not first his Wife? &c. Whereunto it may be easily an­swered; That to have, and to hold, and to promise to have, and to hold, is not all one Covar. ubi supra. & Molin. in addit. ad Dec. in c. juravit. de probat. extra. qui respondet, quod in his verbis [habebo te in ux.] sub­est Conditio, ca­su quo in futu­rum velim ux­orem ducere; Item aliud est contrahere, ali­ud velle contra­here. lib. 1. Caus. matrimonial. consil. ibidem. 86. n. 17.: For say, that she cannot truly and properly be had, held, entreated, kept, or provided for as Wife, which is not first his Wife, of whom she is so had, held, entreated, kept or provided for Panon. & a­lii. in c. ex lite­ris. el. 1. &c. ex parte. de Sponsal. extra.; yet verily a Man may promise that he will have her to his Wife, which as yet is not his Wife Covar. Ha­drian & Molin. ubi supra.: And although when a Man promiseth that he will have her, be presently bound Panor. in d. c. ex parte. de Sponsal. extra. n [...]. & ibi Car­dinal. q. 1., yet is it ful­ly answered by Covarruvias, Quamvis sic promittens sta­tim teneatur illam habere in uxorem, dum tamen non ha­bet, Matrimonium non est Covar. Tract. de Sponsal. secunda parte, c. 4. §. 1. n. 5. versi Item quamvis.. Although he which so promiseth be forthwith bound to have her for his Wife, yet whiles he hath her not, it is not Matrimony. As for the Chapter Ex parte c. ex parte de Sponsal. extra., which divers do urge in con­firmation of the common Opinion, it is retorted upon their own pates; for in the Case proposed in that Chap­ter it is plain, that the Man did promise quòd eam ab eo tempore pro Conjuge teneret Text. in d. c. ex parte., That from that time he would hold her for his Wife; which words [ab eo tempore] from that time do imply present Consent, and consequently induce Matrimony Molin. in addit. ad Dec. in c. Juravit. de probat. extra. Covar. de Sponsal. parte secunda, c. 4. §. 1. n. 5. versic. ex quo ad Text. &c. Imo vero Martinus ita, quod nec per ista verba (ab hoc tempore tenebo te pro Conjuge) contrahitur Matrimonium, nisi partes hoc intendunt, de qua intentione (inquit) constare pocost per subsequen. cohabitationem, quae sequuta fuit in casu d.c. ex parte, quo facto Ille reliquit eam, &c. Vide Martin. in Addit. ad Hostiens. Summam. Tit. de Sponsal. §. quot sunt species litera 6., albeit the words otherwise import no more but Spousals de futuro Prae pos. in c. ex literis. el. 1. de Sponsal. extra. n. 4. verb. Item nisi ex verbis.. [Page 80]And therefore if the Man say [I will from henceforth take thee to my Wife,] which words [I will take thee to to my Wife] induce no more but Spousals de futuro; but by force of this word [from henceforth] present Matrimony is induced; like as if he had said [I do take thee for my Wife Praepos. ubi supra. Vide Inno. in c. ex parte de Spons. extra..] And so the Chapter Ex parte, is not of any such importance, as many do sur­mise. Thus we may behold how the Foundations of that ancient Opinion are battered, the Gates opened, and the Adversary entred; and that the same which heretofore so long triumphed in Peace, and hath been so highly advanced, and of so many honoured for the Truth, is now at last strongly besieged, hotly pursued, greatly distressed, and in danger to be captivated and condemned, as False and Erroneous, (and if I shall not dissemble) were it not that the Castle is better furnished with Men than Munition, I mean, if the Patrons and Favourers of this ancient Opinion, were not in number almost Infinite Cardinal. Zabarel. Hosti­ens. Anto. de Butr. Panor. Praepos. Henr. Boic. & alii. DD. in c. ex par­te de Sponsal. extra Summa Angel. Summa Rosel. & Sum­ma Silvestrin. verb. matrim. Melchior. Kling. Tract. de Causis matrimonial. fol. 7. Menoch. de praesump. lib. 3. praesump. 3. n. 3. Dec. in c. Juravit. de probat. extra. Anto. Galat. lib. 1. consil. matr. consil. ibidem 83. n. 23. in fin. lib. 2. consil. 2. n. 5. Alex. consil. 153. vol. 2. Boer. consil. 40. n. 54. Baptista Villalob. Thesaur. com. op. verb. matrimonium, n. 36. Vivius eod. lib. verb. matr. in fin. Soarez. eod. lib. verb. matrimon. n. 90. Berous. q. 6. n. 1. Jas. in L. Servi. Electione ff. de leg. 1. n. 50. Rip. ibidem n. 18., and their Power and Authority far more terrible De authoritate communis opinionis. Coras. & Macagnanus in suis Tract. de com. op. alter. lib. 2. Inspect. 2. alter. lib. 3. c. 6. & 7., than their Reasons or Arguments strong or forcible, I should conjecture, That this singu­lar Opinion would quickly prevail and reign as Con­queror; but because they be so many in number, and in Authority so mighty, because also it is not absolutely lawful for the Judge to pronounce Sentence, nor for the Advocate to give Counsel, against the common and received Opinion Corasius Tract. de com. op. lib. 2. Tit. 8. Inspect. 2. &. tit. 9. in princip. cum cas. sequen. Macagn. Tract. de com. op. c. 7. in princ., especially when it tendeth to the [Page 81]Confirmation of Matrimony c. ultim. de Reg. Jud. extra. & ibi Panor. & alij, Immò fa­vore Matrimo­nij judicand. est contra com. op. Hostiens. in c. 2. & ibi Panor. & alij de Cogna. Spi­ritual. extra. Corset. in suis singular. verb. opinio. Sed istud an sit ve­rum videre est apud Corasium Tract. de com. op. lib. 3. cas. 20. crudite de hac re differentem; for Tutius est pro Ma­trimonio quam contra Matrimonium pronunciare c. licet ex quadam in fin. de testibus extra. & ibidem Panor. & in c. 2. de Cogna. Spirituali. extra. n. 3. Coras. lib. 4. miscell. c. 4. in fin., it is more safe to Judge for Matrimony than against Matri­mony; and less peril to joyn them which be free, than to separate them which be bound c. Licet. de te­stibus extra. in fin. c. habetur c. scripsit. 27. q. 1.; the victory is like to rest doubtful. And therefore in the mean time, it were not far amiss to be unsuspected, saving that the state of this Question being plainly discovered and brought almost to an Issue, some do perhaps expect that I should give my Verdict therein, then, of how small moment it is, I easily grant in a matter of so great moment; but yet to satisfie my Readers request, and rather than I will be thought a Neuter, this is my present Resolu­tion.

7. That howsoever the singular Opinion doth seem more probable or more sustentable in the very point of Law, in respect of the last, in regard of [habebit] which must be referred to the future tense only; yet consi­dering the phrase of our native Language, which doth admit no equivocation herein; therefore I do conclude, when the parties do Contract themselves by such words as may be referred, not only to the future, but to the present time, as [I will have thee, &c.] which also have relation to the end and execution of Marriage; This is Matrimony Panor. & omnes Cano­nistae in c. ex parte. de Spon. sul. extra.: For although [habebo, tenebo, tractabo, &c. which is, I will have, I will hold, I will entreat, &c.] be referred to the future time; Yet [volo habere, volo tenere, volo tractare, &c. which is likewise, I will have, I will hold, I will entreat, is referred to the time present; And although these words [I will have thee to my Wife, &c.] being referred to the fu­ture [Page 82]time (as if the party had said [habebo]) it is a que­stion whether they induce Matrimony or Spousals; Yet being referred to the time present, As if the party had said (volo habere) it is no question, for ought that I have read, but these words [volo habere te in uxorem] induce Matrimony Panor. Prae­pos. & omnes DD. in c. ex literis el. 1. &c. ex parte de Sponsal. extra.: Now then seeing whiles any Man saith [I will have thee to my Wife] and [I will have thee to my Husband] it may be understood [I will now presently have] aswell as [I will have hereafter Lib. 2. con­sil. matr. con­sil. ibidem. 1. n. 4.]; in this Case that Sense is to be embraced, whereby Ma­trimony is advanced Anto. de Butr. & DD. in c. 1. ex parte de Sponsal. ex­tra. Menoch. de praesump. lib. 3. praesump. 3. u. 9..

8. The Third Conclusion is all one in effect with the second, namely, that when the parties shall Contract themselves, by such words, as do respect not any Ac­cident, but the Substance of the Act. As [I will be thy Husband], and [I will be thy Wife, &c.] hereby (even as by words which have relation to the Execution of the Act) Spousals de praesenti are contracted lib. 1. con­sil. matr. consil. ibidem. 83. n. 25. Silvest. Pri­er. verb. ma­trim. §. 2. n. 9. Ripa in L. Ser­vi Electione. ff. de leg. 1. nu. 18. Ferret. consil. 383. n. 10..

9. Out of these three Conclusions I collect this ge­neral rule, That when the parties do Contract Spousals by words of present time, or by words of the future time, having relation to the Execution or Substance of Matrimony, hereby are Spousals de praesenti Contra­cted Menoch­tract. de prae­sump. lib. 3. praesump. 3. Panor. & alij in c. ex parte de Sponsal. extra..

10. The Ampliations and limitations of which rule are these: The first Ampliation is, that Albeit the words be ambiguous, such as of their own nature inforce neither Matrimony nor Spousals, but by common use of Speech induce Matrimony, by these words true and perfect Matrimony is Contracted, aswell as if the words were naturally and properly Matrimonial c. ex literis cl. 1. de Sponsal. extra. & ibi Cardinal. Jo. And. ibidem. Praepos. in d. c. ex parte n. 7. in fin. per. c. fin. de jud. extra.. For exam­ple; the parties. Contracting use these words, [I will have thee for my Wife until the Earth cover mine Eyes] [Page 83]for by these words Panor. in d. c. ex literis n. 5. Covar. Tract. de Spons. 2. parte c. 4. §. 1. n. 13. Praepos. in. d. c. ex literis n. 4. verb. ter­tio modo., [until the Earth cover mine Eyes] is commonly understood until I be dead and buryed; and not until the Earth cover mine Eyes, whiles I am yet alive Panor. Prae­pos. & Covar. ubi supra.: So it is if the Parties say [I will not change thee for a better Hostiens. in c. fin. de sen. & Re. Jud. extra. Silvestr. Prier. verb. matrimo­nium. 2. n. 10. verb. Quintum Melchior Kling. Tract. de caus. Matrimon. fol. 6. Praepos. in c. ex parte de Spon­sal. extra. n. 8.], or thus, [none shall separate us but death Melchior Kling. Tract. de caus. Matrimonial. fol. 6. Moraldus tract. de Matrimonio. fol. 29. versic. Sponsalia verò de praesenti.], or thus, [I will retain thee perpetually with me Gloss in c. Solet. 32. q. 2. Silvestr. Prier. verb. Matrimonium. 2. n. 10. verb. sextum. lib. 2. consil. matrimon. Consil. ibidem. 34. n. 3.], or thus, [here I take thee for mine own Panor. in c. Si inter. de Sponsal. extra. in fin. & ibi Praepos. n. 2, & 3.], with a thousand like instances, wherein the obscurity or ambiguity of the Speech hindreth not, but that the common and usual acceptation thereof, doth inforce Matrimony Vide DD. in c. ex literis. cl. 1. c. ex parte. & in c. pen. de Sponsal. extra. & Specul. in Tit. de Sponsal. & Matrimonio.; neither is it material whether the Man or the Woman speak first Covar. Tract. de Sponsal. 2. parte. c. 4. n. 6. dicit tamen honestum esse ut faemina prius interrogetur. Potest enim (inquit) contingere, quòd foemina requisita à viro ut eum acciperet maritum, responderet, Accipe tu me prius in uxorem, & tunc demum Ego te accipiam in virum; Ac cum vir eam expresse uxorem accepisset, posset ipsa foemina illum irride­re, ac libere refragari..

11. Secondly, albeit the words of the Contract properly, or of their own nature induce Spousals de futuro, as [I will take thee for my Wife, &c.] Yet if by the Common use of Speech or Custom of the place where the Parties do dwell, and were contracted, they infer Matrimony; This being proved, the Con­tract is of that force, That, if either party should afterwards Solemnize Matrimony with some other per­son, yet that second Matrimony is unlawful, although it were confirmed by carnal knowledge, and procreati­on of Children lib. 1. consil. matrim. Consil. ibidem. 52. n. 3. vers. Sed du­bitatur. & n. 9. vers. Satis evi­denter. lib. 2. consil. Matr. ibidem. 17. n. 19..

12. Thirdly, when as the words of the Contract are partly doubtful, and partly undoubted; As [I will not [Page 84]Marry any other Woman to my Wife, and I do take thee for my Wife, &c.] howsoever these words of the Con­tract [I will not Marry any other Woman to my Wife] be doubtful and obscure, inducing rather Spousals than Matrimony Alex. consil. 152. vol. 2. lib. 1. consil. Matr. consil. ibidem. 52. Co­var. tract. de Sponsal. sccun­da parte c. 4. §. 1. n. 6. in f.n. Dec in L. Acti­one C. de Transact. n. 7. qui refert hanc op. esse com­munem licet ipse dissentiat. Praep os. in c. ex parte de Spon­sal. extra. n. 7.; Nevertheless, forasmuch as the words following are certain, and do undoubtedly import Ma­trimony; In this Case, the ambiguous words precedent are interpreted by the plain and certain words follow­ing, and so consequently the parties are in this in­stance adjudged to Contract Matrimony Menoch. Tract. de prae­sump. lib. 3. praesump. 3. n. 5. Jo. Baptist. Ferretus consil. 86. Idem Menoch. consil. 366. n. 36. vers. quintus. casus.; Whereas on the contrary, if the former words had certainly induced Spousals, and the words following Matrimony, but yet doubtfully, then the words following had received their interpretation of the words precedent, and so had induced no more but Spousals de futuro Hostiens. Abbas & Praepos. in c. ex parte de Sponsal. extra. Bom. sing. 338. Dec. in c. Juravit. de Sponsal. extra. Covar. Tract. de Sponsal. 2. parte. c. 4. §. 1. nu. 5. in fin..

13. Fourthly, albeit he or she had no meaning or intent to Contract Matrimony (for that perhaps the Mans purpose was no other but to deceive the Woman, and procure her to yield to his Lust) yet nevertheless, whereas the words of the Contract being such as do import Matrimony, the Judge is to give no Credit to his or her protestation of any sinister or sophistical mean­ing, other than the natural propriety and usual accep­tation of the words do import Hostiens. in c. ex literis el. [...]. de Sponsal. extra. & ibi Panor. n. 6.; and therefore the words themselves inducing Matrimony, the parties shall be adjudged thereby to have Contracted Matrimony c. tua nos. de Sponsal. ex­tra. Hostiens. & Panor. ubi supra. & Praepos. in d.c. ex literis eod. Tit. lib. 2. consil. Matrimonial. consil. ibidem 17. n. 19., although (before God) they be not Man and Wife; for he which is the searcher of the heart doth well know [Page 85]their deceit and defect of Mutual Consent Panor. in d.c. ex literis. el. 1. de Sponsal. extra. n 6. & DD. in d. c. Tua nos., without the which, there can be no Matrimony c. Tua nos. de Sponsal. extra.; and therefore, in his sight, they are not Man and Wife eod. c Tua nos. & ibi DD. Panor. in d. c. ex literis n. 9.. But mor­tal Man cannot otherwise judge of Mens meanings, than by their sayings c. Tua de Sponsal. extra. lib. 1. consil. matr. consil. 68. n. 9., for the Tongue is the Messen­ger of the heart L. Labeo. §. caeterum. ff. de supell. Legat.; and although it sometimes delivers a false Message, yet doth the Law accept it for true, when as the Contrary doth not otherwise lawfully ap­pear prealleg. c. Tua nos. de Sponsal. extra. & ibi Panor. Praepos. & alij. lib. 1. consil. matrim. consil. ibidem. 68. n. 9, 10. Silvestr. Prier. verb. matrim. el. 4. n. 1..

14. Fifthly, albeit he or she having Contracted Ma­trimony, whether it be by words of the present time c. si in­ter. de Sponsal. extra., or by words of the future time, having relation to the execution of Marriage c. ex parte. de Sponsal. ex­tra. & ibi DD., do afterwards Marry some other Person, yet is not the force of the former Contract thereby abated; but the Party which so Mar­rieth another Person (the same Person being dismissed) is to be compelled to Effect the first Contract d. c. si inter &c. ex parte lib. 1. consil. matrimonial. confil. ibidem. 52. n. 9.; Which Ampliation is undoubtedly true, the Contract being made by words of the present time, as [I take thee to my Wife, and I take thee to my Husband d.c. si inter. de Sponsal. ex­tra.]; but being made by words of the future time, as [I will have thee for my Wife] and [I will have thee for my Husband], howsoever the same words have relation to the execution of Marriage, the Ampliation doth not pass without difficulty Covar. de Sponsal. secun­da parte c. 4. §. 1. n. 5. Molinae­us in addit. ad Dec. in c. Jura­vit. de probat. extra. Mart. in addit. ad Sum­mam Hostiens. Tit. de Sponsal. §. quot sunt species, as may appear by the for­mer discourse of the second Conclusion, Supra hoc ipso. §. unless the parties had added some other words expressing their present Consent; as [I will from henceforth, or from this time have thee to my Wife, &c. Nam tunc essemus in terminis d. c. ex parte de Sponsal. extra.].

15. Sixthly, albeit both the parties contracting do not use the very same words, but other words, yet of the same importance, inducing present Consent; As if the one of them say [I take thee to my Wife], or [I swear that from hence forth I hold thee for my Wife], and the other answer [I am content Lib. 1. con­sil. Matr. consil. ibidem. 42. n. 1. Panor. in c. si inter. de Spon­sal. extra. n. 7. & Praepos. eod. c. n. 2. quorum opinio com. est teste Praepos. ubi supra.], or [I will have thee for my Husband Text. in c. ex parte de Sponsal. extra.], here is indissoluble Matri­mony Contracted, as well as if this party had repeated the very same words first uttered by that party DD. com­muniter in c. si inter. de Spon­sal. extra..

16. Seventhly, albeit the one party use no words at all, but signifie his or her present Consent by Signs on­ly; As if the one party say [I take thee to my Wife, desiring if thou likewise dost accept me to thy Husband, to receive this Ring], she receiving the Ring, it is in effect as if she had answered [I do accept thee for my Husband Gloss. & DD. in c. ultim. de Despons. impub. extra. Lapus Alleg. 57. Bap­tist. à Villalob. verb. Matrimonial. n. 37. Menoch. de praesump. lib. 3. praesump. 2. n. 4.].

17. Eightly, albeit neither the one party, nor the other, do utter the words of the Contract, but some third Person pronouncing the words; As if he say to the Man [dost thou take this Woman to thy Wife?] and he answer [yea, or I do, or what else?] and likewise to the Woman [dost thou take this Man to thy Husband?] and she answer [yea] or [I do so] or [what else?] it is of the same Efficacy, as if the Parties themselves had with their own Mouths pronounced all the words of the Contract, and said respectively [I take thee to my Wife] and [I take thee to my Husband, &c.] Summa Angel. verb. Matrimonium 2. n. 10. Hosti­ens. in c. Sponsam. de Sponsal. extra. lib. 1. §. si quis ita. ff. de verb. oblig. & ibi DD.. And if the Parents of the Children Contract Matrimony in [Page 87]behalf of the Children, though the Children say no­thing, yet being present and hearing the same, their silence is a sufficient proof of their Consent c. 1. §. ultim. de Despons. im­pub. lib. 6. & ibi gloss. & DD. and approbation.

18. Ninthly, albeit the words of the Contract, nei­ther of their own natural signification, neither yet by common use and acceptation conclude Matrimony Verbi gra­tiâ dicitur muli­eri, [vis talem? vel placet tibi talis?] & ipsa respondeat [volo, vel placet] & è contrario dici­tur viro [vis ne talem mulie­rem? vel [placet tibi talis?] & ipse dicat, [volo vel placet] Boic. in c. ex parte, de Spon­sal. extra.; Yet whereas the Parties do thereby intend to Contract Matrimony, they are inseparable Man and Wife Henr. Boic. in d. c. ex parte col. 1., not only before God, but also before Man; in case their meaning may lawfully appear Nam quod ad verba attinet­parum refert dummodo de Consensu appareat. Boic. ubi supra. Summa Hostiens. Tit. de Matrimo­nio. §. qualiter in fin. DD. in c. Tuae de Sponsal. extra..

19. Tenthly, albeit there be no Witnesses of the Contract, yet the Parties having verily, (though secret­ly) Contracted Matrimony, they are very Man and Wife before God Everard. consil. xi. lib. 2. consil. matr. consil. ibidem. 24. n. 2.; neither can either of them with safe Conscience Marry elsewhere, so long as the other party liveth) c. in fin. 30. q. 5. Everard. ubi supra.; for proof is not of the Essence of Ma­trimony Gloss. & DD. in e. Tuae. de Spons. extra. & in c. 1. & 2 de Cland. Despons. Hiero. Schurf. inter consil. Matrimon. lib. 2 consil. 24. n. 23.; and if it were, yet their Consciences shall be as a thousand Witnesses before the Tribunal of the immortal God c. Custod. &c. Inter. xi. q. 3., though it be otherwise in the Judg­ment of mortal Man c. Judicantem 30. q. 5. Everard. dict. consil. xi.. As after more at large appear­eth in the handling of Secret Contracts.

20. The Eleventh Ampliation is, that albeit the Parties do not Contract Matrimony together at one instant, by speaking and answering immediately one after another; but that some good distance of time doth [Page 88]pass, betwixt the promise of the one, and of the other; Nevertheless the Party whose promise is past, not ha­ving changed his or her mind, but persevering still in the same Will, until the other Party have likewise pro­mised, the Contract is of Equal force, as if they had both consented together, by speaking immediately one after another: Marry Praepos. in c. dilectus. &c. pen. de Spons. extra. & ibi Card & Henr. Boic. per c. ult. de procur. in Sext. Covar. Tract. de Spon­sal. secunda parte, c. 4. n. 7. whether, or how long that Party whose promise is already past, is presumed to continue or persevere in the same mind, is a question not altogether free from Controversie; the Solution whereof appeareth in that place where we intreat of Spousals contracted betwixt them that are absent infra §. 13..

21. The twelfth Ampliation is, That when the words of the Contract are indifferent or equally flexi­ble to the signification of Spousals de futuro, or Matri­mony; In this Case the Law presumeth Matrimony to be contracted Anto. de Butr. in c. ex parte, de Spon­sal. extra. n. 10. Lapus. Alleg. 56. Menoch. de praesump. lib. 3. tit. 3. in fin., except in certain Cases elsewhere specified supra. §. prox..

22. The thirteenth Ampliation is, That albeit this word Husband or Wife be not expressed, yet is it un­derstood; as when the Parties Contract in this Form [ac­cipio te in meum] accipio te in meamFerretus. consil. 383. n. 8.].

23. The fourteenth Ampliation is, When the Parties are contracted by these words [Non habebo aliam in ux­orem nisi te, &c. I will not have any other to my Wife except thee] and [I will not have any other to my Hus­band except thee] for, by the Judgment of the greater part, it is in effect as if the Parties had been contract­ed by these words [I will have thee to my Wife] I will have thee to my Husband Jo. Andr. Pa­nor. & Praepos. in c. ex parte. de Sponsal. ex­tra. Summa Silvestr. in verb. Matrimonium 2. n. 10. Bapt. à Villalob. The­saur. com. op. verb. matrimo­nium, n. 34. Soarez eod. Thesaur. verb. matrimonium n. 89. Jas. & Sichard. in L. actione C de transact. Menoch. Tract. de praesump. lib. 3. praesump. 3. n. 8.] which Sentence neverthe­less [Page 89](to confess a truth) hath a very hard passage, being mightily withstood by divers Writers of high regard Anto. de Butr. & Zochus in d. c. ex parte Contendentes Sponsalia tan­tùm esse contra­cta. Alciat. in L. actione C. de transact. n. 28. Covar. Tract. de Sponsal. se­cunda parte, c. 4. §. 1. n. 6, 7, 8 ubi audacter, per verba supe­riùs concepta, nec Matrimoni­um, nec Sponsa­lia contrahi., by whose Opinion, first of all, these words [I will not have any other to my Wife except thee] do not enjoy this sense [I will have thee to my Wife Specul. in Rubr. de Spon­sal. extra. in princip. n. 3. Anto. de Butrio. in d. c. ex par­te Summa Ro­sell. verb. ma­trimonium. el. 3. referens hanc Do. Anto. opini­onem satis esse rationabil', quamvis in contrariam tandem, cum Panor. descendit Sententiam, Anto. de Butr. Alciat. & alii recentiores, moti per l. si Sterilis. §. pen. de Action. Emp. ff..] And se­condly, if it were granted that these words [I will not have any other to my Wife except thee] did peaceably en­joy this sense [I will have thee to my Wife], yet since it is not without doubt and controversie, whether these words [I will have thee to my Wife, &c.] induce Matri­mony ut paulò superiùs hoc ipso §..; doubtless it cannot but be doubtful also, whether by these words [I will not have any other to my Wife except thee] Matrimony be induced; for if those former plain direct words be not Matrimonial, certainly these later indirect and obscure words are not Covar. Tract. de Sponsal. secunda parte. c. 4. §. 1. n. 6, 7, 8. &c.. But concerning this second Question, namely, Whether these words [habebo te in uxorem, I will have thee to my Wife] import Matrimony? I shall not need to discuss, having already uttered my full mind therein: Wherefore it shall be more requisite to return to the former Que­stion, and examine what is the true sense of these words [non habebo aliam, &c.] And whether they induce Ma­trimony or Spousals, or neither? for there be divers O­pinions herein.

24. The first Opinion is, (as I said) That these words [Non habebo aliam in uxorem nisi te, I will not have any other to my Wife except thee] are equivalent and all one in effect to these words [habebo te in uxorem, I will have thee to my Wife Panor. & Praepos. post Jo. And. in c. ex parte. de Spon­sal. extra. Jason. Sichard. & alii in L. actione C. de transact. quorum opinionem communiter approbatam esse, Tesles sunt locupletissimi. Baptista Villalob. & Emanuel Soarez. Thesaur. com. op. verb. matrimonium, ille nu. 34. iste nu. 89. & Me­noch. Tract. de praesump. lib. 3. praesump. 3. n. 8.], which words, if the received [Page 90]Sentence be true, induce Matrimony Praeall. c. ex parte, de Spon­sal. extra. & communiter DD. in c. ex li­teris. el. 1. eod. August. Berous q. 6. Vivius & Soarez. The­saur. com. op verb. Matrimo­nium.. The Reason of this Opinion doth chiefly rely upon this adversative [nisi, except] for such is the efficacy or operation there­of, that it doth still put the Contrary to that which goeth before it L. Actione C. de transact. &. ibi DD. Spie­gel. Lexic. verb. [nisi].: As if the Sentence going before be an Affirmative, that which followeth is Negative L. 1. §. Idem Neratius. ff. de­posit. Rebuff. in L. verum de Verb. Sig. ff.; or if the Sentence going before be Negative that which followeth is Affirmative c. peccatum. de Reg. Jur. in Sext. Bar. & a­alii. in l. cum §. qui injuriarum ff. si quis cauti­on. & in d. L. Actionem. C. de transact.. For Example; say a Man writeth thus in his Testament [I give and be­queath unto thee all my Books except the Code L. nam quod liquide. §. ultim. de ff. de pen. Legat.], or contrariwise [I do not give or bequeath unto thee any of my Books, except the Code Alciat. in L. Actione. C. de transact. n. 25.]; In the former Instance this word [nisi] following an Affirmative Proposition, standeth Negatively; as though the Testator had said [My Code I do not bequeath unto thee d. L. nam quod. §. ultim. de pen. Leg DD. l. 1. de Reg. Jur. ff.]. In the se­cond Instance, this word (but) following a Negative Proposition standeth Affirmatively; as if the Testator had said [I do bequeath my Code unto thee Alciat. in d. L. Actionem n. 25. Licet (inquit) alii absque ratione diffentiant, ut Bald. in c. cum olim nobis. de elect. extra. n. 1. Tu vide Jas. in L. 2. C. de bonorum poss.]. And so in our Case, whereas any Man saith thus [I will not have any other to my Wife except thee], here this word (except) following a Negative Proposition, doth import an Affirmative; and so is in effect as if he had plainly said [I will have thee to my Wife Sichard. in d. L. Actione & communiter Canonistae in c. ex parte de Sponsal. extra.].

25. The second Opinion is, That by words above recited, Spousals only, and not Matrimony, is contract­ed Anto. de Butr. Cald. & Zochus in c. ex parte. de Spons. extra. Alciat. in L. Actionern. C. de transact. n. 28: The Reason of which Opinion is this, namely, Because by the Civil Law, if a Man Covenant with thee not to sell his House to any other except to thee L. fi sterilis. §. si fundum. ff. de action. Emp. & vend. nec refert quòd Jurisconsultus utatur dictione [quàm] nos verò loquamur de dictione [nisi,] Cum idem fit [dicere non vendam domum hanc nisi tibi] & [non vendam domum hanc alii quàm tibi] adnotante Laur. Vall. lib. 3. elegan. c. 54. & Covar. Tract. de Spons. secunda parte, c. 4. §. 1. n. 18.; [Page 91]albeit he ought not to sell his House unto any but un­to thy self; yet neither is he to be compelled precisely thereunto Jas. in L. si eum §. qui in­juriarum. ff. si quis Caution. n. 37. Zas. in L. qui Romae. §. cohaeredes ff. de verb. ob. n. 3., except in certain Cases De quibus Jas. ubi supra. post. Bar. in d. L. eum §. qui injuriarum. ff. Si quis Caution.; neither if he do sell it to any other, contrary to his Covenant, is the Sale therefore void L. Stipulati­ones non divi­duntur. versic. Celsus. ff. de verb. oblig. Cagnel. in L. 2. C. de pact. in­ter Emp. ex vend. n. 12. u­bi distinguit in­ter pactum de retro vendende, & pactum de restituendo., though otherwise he be an­swerable unto thee for so much as thou hadst interest, not to have been deceived thereby Carol. Mo­lin. in rep. L. unic. c. de eo quod interest. n. 46. d. L. Stipu­lationes. versic. Celsus. & ibi DD. Jas. in L. si eum injuriarum ff. si quis Cau­tion. n. 41.: And so (to ap­ply our Case to his) whereas the Man saith to the Woman [I will have none other to my Wife except thee], albeit he ought not to take another Wife, yet is he ra­ther to be monished than compelled to marry this Wo­man c. requisi­vit. de Sponsal. extra.; and if he do indeed marry another Woman, contrary to his Promise, this Marriage (according to this Opinion) is not to be dissolved Anto. de Butr. & Zochus in d. c. ex parte., howsoever o­therwise the Man be punishable propter laesionem fidei c. 1. de poenis. lib. 5. Provincial. constitut. Cant. for breach of his Promise Siquidem laeditur fides, violato promisso, etiamsi nullum intervenisset Juramentum. Lindwood. in d. c. 1. de poenis. verb. fidei transgress.: And this Opinion (even by the Confession of those which hold the contrary) doth seem very reasonable Summa Rosel. verb. Matrimonium. q. 3.. As for the fundamental Reason wherein the former Opinion is wholly rooted, it is thus answered: Admit the efficacy of the word [nisi] be such, that following a Negative it doth obtain the force of an Affirmative, yet this affirmation is not of a present Act, but of a future Ability or Possibility Anto. de Butr. in d. c. ex parte. & ibi Praepos. n. 7. Henr-Boic in c. de quarta. de praescript. extra.; for confirmation whereof, the Authors of this second Opinion do usually alledge two notable places, the one borrowed out of the Civil, the other out of the Canon Law: That of the Civil Law is this; One making his Testament, and disposing about the Liberty of his Bond­man Onesiphorus, saith thus [Onesiphore, liber nè esto, nisi rationes excusseris L. Titia. §. fin. de manumiss. Testam. ff. & ibi. gloss., Onesiphorus, be not thou free, [Page 92]except thou dispatch thine Accompts;] The Accompts be­ing dispatched, yet is not the Servant thereby set at Li­berty Immò poti­us audiri quam dari libertatem ex verbis quae proponuntur re­spondet. J. C. in d. §. ultim., but in possibility only to be made Free (in case the Heir will), whereas otherwise it was impossible for him to obtain a Freedom, the Testator having pro­hibited the same, except he made his Accompts Bar. in d. §. ultim. L. Titia. de manumiss. Testa. ff. Alci­at. in L. actio­ne. C. de trans­act. n. 33. Pec­kius in c. pec­kius in c. pec­catum de Reg. Jur. in Sext. verb. [nisi] Molin. in ad­dit. ad Dec. in d. L. actione.. The place of the Canon Law is extant amongst the Rules thereof, where it is thus written, Peccatum non di­mittitur, nisi restituatur ablatum c. pecca­tum. de Reg. Jur. in Sext.; the Sin is not re­mitted, unless the thing wrongfully taken be restored. Now the thing unlawfully taken being restored, yet is not the Crime presently remitted Phil. Franc. & Peckius in d. c. peccatum., for there be divers other things over and besides Restitution, necessary to the obtaining Remission Phil. Franc. & Peckius ubi supra. Alciat. in L. actione C. d. transact. n. 33.; so that by Restitution on­ly, that impossibility is cut off, which otherwise did hin­der the Remission Alciat. in d. L. Actionem. & Peckius in d. c. peccatum n. 4. & ibidem Franc. of the Offence; and that which before was denied to be possible, as the Case then stood, is now affirmed for possible, the Case being altered, and the Exception compleated Alciat. Franc. & Pec­kius ubi supra.: Wherefore it appear­eth by those two Authorities, That albeit the word [nist] following a Negative Sentence, have the force of an Affirmative, yet this affirmation is not of the Act it self, but of the possibility thereof Vide Covar. Tract. de Sponsal. secunda parte, c. 4. § 1. n. 6.. Howbeit, if we will take the pains to view these two last Examples with a diligent Eye, and confer them with our Case, we shall clearly perceive that they vary not a little from this; for in these two Cases (besides other dif­ferences Vide DD. in c. Actione. C. de Transact.), the Exception is governed by another Verb, and so the Sentence is made Conditional Jaf. in L. si eum §. qui injuriarum ff. si quis Caution. n. 26. Alciat. in l. actione. C. de transact. Henr. Boic. in c. quarta de praescript. extra. Covar. ubi supra., whereas in our Case the Exception is governed by the same Verb, and so the Sentence remaineth simple Al­ciat. in Praeal. l. actione. & Jas. ac alii in d. §. qui injuriarum. & in d. L. actione.; and [Page 93]therefore we are not to be removed from the former Opinion by these Examples, so far distant, and so ap­parently different from this Case of ours Ex seperatis non refertur L. ultim. ff. de Ca­lum. L. Papi­nianus de mi­nor. ff. & ibi Bart.. If you will not suffer me thus to pass, but pull me back a­gain to the Consideration of the first Reason and Ground of this second Opinion, and tell, that though you Covenant with me not to sell your House to any o­ther, except to me; In this Case the Exception is go­verned by one and the same Verb Alciat. in L. actione C. de transact. n. 24.29. Bar. in l. si eum §. qui in­juriarum ff. si quis Cautionib. n. 9. & ibi Jas. n. 26., and yet never­theless the House is not hereby perfectly bought and sold Angel. in L. qui Rom. §. cohaeredes. de verb. oblig. ff. & ibi Zasius n. 3. Jas. in L. fi eum. §. qui in­juriarum. si quis caution. ff. n. 37, 41. Molin. in rep. L. unic. de eo quod inter­est. C. n. 46., and so infer. That when as the Man saith [I will have none other to my Wife except thee] and she like­wise [I will have none other to my Husband except thee], this is no more a perfect Contract of Matrimony, than that a perfect and absolute Sale of the House. I deny the Argument: For admit a Man do Covenant by di­rect words, that he will sell his House to me for such a price; and I again do Covenant and Promise, that I will buy the same House for the same price; by this Cove­nant the House is not yet absolutely bought and sold Covar. Tract. de Spon­sal. secunda par­te, c. 4. § l. n. 6. verb. Sed ille. Text. gloss. in L. vendentis C. de contrahend. Empt. DD. in L. Servi ele­ctione ff. de leg. 1. & supra §.: But if a Man say to a Woman [I will have thee to my Wife], and she to him [I wil have thee to my Husband], this is a perfect Contract of indissoluble Matrimony c. ex parte de Sponsal. extra. & ibi Panor & caeteri Canonist. Menoch. de praesump. Lib. 3. praesump. 3., as hath been already proved supra. eod. §. 11.. Wherefore since it is apparent that divers words are sufficient to prove a per­fect Contract of Matrimony, which will not suffice for a perfect Sale gloss. in L. In vendentis. C. de contrahend. Emp. Jas. Alciat. & alii DD. in L. Servi electione. ff. de leg. 1., it followeth, That if any do reason af­ter this manner, these words suffice not to make the Sale perfect, Ergo they are not sufficient to make the Contract perfect Vide Co­var. d. c. 4. §. 1. n. 6. & vide supra hoc ipso §. 11., this Argument is not sound. Thus we see that this second Opinion, how weighty soever [Page 94]it seem at the first lift, yet being equally ballanced with the former, it is found to be the lighter, whether we respect the Credit of the Authors of either Opinion, or ponder the Gravity of their Reasons.

26. The third Opinion is, That these words [Non habebo aliam in uxorem nisi te, &c.] induce neither Ma­trimony nor Spousals Didac. Co­var. Tract. de Sponsal. secun­da parte, c. 4. §. 1. n. 7. & 8. Idem asserit Pa­lud. in 4. di­stinct. 27. q. 1. Artic. 1. col. 2., and that for two Causes. The first is, Because the words are meer Negative, at least, the Authors of this Opinion contend sharply that they be so Covar. & Palud. ubi su­pra., and therefore induce neither Matrimony nor Spousals Covar. & Palud. ubi su­pra. vide Bald. in L. actione C. de transact. op. prima. & vide L. decem. de verb. ob. & L. Julianus de repudiis ff. & ibi Bart. & DD.. The Argument is very strong; for if the Sentence be wholly Negative, it doth not affirm any thing, and if it affirm nothing, then doth it not affirm either Matrimony or Spousals Unde Versi­culus [Syllogi­zari non est ex particulari. Neque negati­vis recte con­cludere sivis.]; nor is the Antece­dent very weak, if the Case were to be examined and discussed by the only Precepts and strict Rules of Lo­gick Covar. ubi supra. Attamen Perierius non dubitat affir­mare, quod om­nes etiam dia­lectaci haec verba [non habebo aliam nisi te] sic exponunt [Habebo te & non aliam] Verb. Matri­monium 2. n. 10.; for if Caesar (that I may use their own Ex­ample) do promise that he will not fight this year, ex­cept against the Turk, he doth not hereby Promise, that he will fight this year against the Turk Covar. Tract. de Sponsal. secunda parte, c. 4. §. 1. n. 7.; nor can this Collection be justly defended for Infallible: No Man disputeth except Socrates, Ergo, Socrates disputeth only Covar. d. § 1. n. 8. verb. nec valet, &c.; it being first supposed that some Man doth dispute, which being a matter in Fact, is not to be pre­sumed L. In. bello. §. facti ff. de captiv. Lemancipati C. de Colla.. Marry, this thing being presupposed that some Man doth dispute, if then none else but Socrates doth dispute, it must needs follow then that Socrates disputeth Covar. d. §. 1. n. 8. in fin.; even so whiles any Man saith, That he will have no Wife, except thee; it doth not follow therefore he will have thee, unless he had first promi­mised to have some Woman to his Wife Covar. ubi supra. & Hadrian. in 4. quest. 12. de matrim.. The other [Page 95]Cause of this third Opinion proceedeth from the Con­templation of the Etymology, or proper Signification of this word [nisi] the which is ingendred or compound­ed of [non] and [si Jas. in L. si eum §. qui inju­riarum ff. si quis Caution. n. 32. Alciat. in l. a­ctione c. d. trans­act. n. 24. Di­ctionar. Coope­ri. verb. [Nisi] & Calepin. Cornucop. verb. [nisi] Addic. ad Laur. Vall. lib. 2. elegan. c. 19.] and doth properly signifie [si non, if not gloss. in l. Sancinius C. de donat. Calepin. & Cooperus ubi supra.], and so these words [non habebo ali­am in uxorem nisi te, I will not have any other to my Wife but thee] are thus to be understood, [non habebo a­liam in uxorem si non te, I will not have any other to my Wife, if not thee], which being true, the true Sense and Meaning is no other in Substance, than if the Party had said, If hereafter I shall resolve to lead my life in Wed­lock, of which thing I am not yet resolved, I do here promise thee, that when I am so resolved, I will have thee to my Wife, and not any other Woman Hunc esse illius oratienis sensum acriter contendit. Co­var. in. d. Tract. de Sponsal. se­cunda parte, c. 4. §. 1. n. 8. vers. Ex qui­bus audacter, &c. Cui acce­dit Molin. in addit. ad Dec­in c. juravit de probat. Nec longe a best Spe­cul. in Rub. de Sponsal. n. 3.. By which Promise, neither Matrimony, neither yet Spou­sals, are contracted, at least simply or absolutely; Therefore if the Party resolve never to Marry, but lead a single Life until his Death, neither is he to be urged to the contrary, neither can he be touched with the Breach of his Promise in this Case Covar. ubi supra. & Specul. in d. Rub. de Sponsal. verb. possibile. lib. 2. cons. matrim. consil. ibidem 5.. To re­turn to the former Cause, where it is constantly af­firmed, that the words be meer Negative Covar. Tract. de Sponsal. secunda parte, c. 4. §. 1. n. 7.. Surely how­soever this Assertion might peradventure (in regard of the Rules and Traditions of Dialectical Discipline) procure sundry Favourers in Schools and Places of Disputation, where singular and strange opinions are very plausible and acceptable, especially to such as have a good Con­ceit of their own Wit and Learning Audi quaeso Corasrum in Praefat. Tract. de communi op. sic scribentem, Communis (inquit) opinio quàm sit in Scholis contempta, nemo est qui nescit; Juris namque Interpretes ingenii tan­tum viribus confisi omnium rerum veritatem solâ disputatione consequi volentes, communem opini­enen m maledics dentibus nunquam desinunt lacerare, inde naseitur proverbium. Communis opinio. ergo falsa, &c.; Yet in regard [Page 96]of the meaning and intent of the speaker Quaemeus vel praecipuè attendenda est in hâc re. Bald. in l. Actionem C. de transact. n. 2., and in respect of the favour of Matrimony (k), it would find but few Patrons in Consistories and places of Judgment; Siquidem consulendo & judicando non licet à commu­ni opinione re­cedere, Aiunt Hostiens. Jo. And. Auto. de Butr. & Panor. in c. 1. de Constitut. the rather seeing the whole Army, even of the gravest and learnedest Writers, as well Civilians, as Canonists, do generally defend the Contrary Jo. And. Abb. Panor. Praepos. in c. ex parte de Spon­sal. extra. Sum­ma Angel. Ro­sel. & Silvestrin. verb. Matrimon. Baptista à Vil­lalob. Emanuel Soarez. The­saur. com. op. verb. matr. Jas. Sichard. & alii in L. actione C. de transact. Menoch. de praesump. lib. 3. praesump. 3. lib. 1. consil. matr. fol. 119. n. 1.; Indeed if the Party had said no more but this (I will not have any other to my Wife], in this Case I will not deny the Sen­tence to be negative; And if any Man say thus [there is none good], or thus [no Man may put away his Wife]; These (I confess) be meer Negative Propositions: But if he do not stay here, but shall add an Exception to these Negatives, and say, [there is none good but God Marc. c. 10. vers. 18. & Luc. c. 18. vers. 19.], or] no Man may put away his Wife except for Fornicati­on Matth. c. 19. 1 Epist. ad Co­rinth. c. 7.], what else (in good sooth) is this but to affirm that God is good; and that a Man may put away his Wife for Fornication? So in our Case, when as the Party after he hath said [I will not have any other to my Wife] doth not there stay, but doth add an excep­tion to this Negative, saying (I will not have any other to my Wife except thee] this exception following a Ne­gative Proposition, hath the force of an Affirmative Jas. & Si­chard. in. L. actione C. de transact. Panor. & Praepos. in c. ex parte, de Sponsal. extra.; And so (if we be not disposed to Frowardness) it is in ef­fect, as if the Party had said [I will have thee to my Wife and no other Sum­ma Silvestrin. verb. Matrimon. 2. n. 10.. Yea, but all this is not sufficient to satisfie the untoward minds of some Persons, that are ready to reply, That although it be so, that he which speaketh thus [none is good but God], doth affirm that God is good, and that he which saith [no Man may put away his Wife except for Fornication] doth affirm that for Fornication a Man may put away his Wife. This is true say they, non ex propria vi dictionis [nisi], Sed [Page 97]ex materiâ Subjectâ & naturâ rei Vide Covar Tract. de Spon. sal. secunda. parte, c. 4. §. 1. n. 8. ubi alia invenies exem­pla nostris non dissimilia, sed magis ignota Nostratibus., not by the proper force of this word [but, or except], but by reason of the subjected Matter, and nature of the thing. For it is necessarily supposed, ex naturâ rei, that some is good; for if none were good, the Devil (being wholly evil) would soon marr all c. visis. 16. q. 2. c. Nec mirum. 26. q. 5. Baldus in L. 2. §. 1. C. de leg.; Wherefore this being grant­ed, that some is good, Then none being good, but God, it followeth concludently, That God is good The like may be said concerning Divorce, where it is pre­supposed ex Subjectâ Materiâ, that for some Cause the Husband may put away his Wife; seeing then, not for any Cause, except for Fornication, the Collection is true, Ergo for Fornication she may be put away Id quod ip­se Covar. inge­nue fatctur, licet alijs exemplis, sed non tam familiaribus utatur, in d. §. 1 n. 8.. But in our Case (say they) neither the nature of the thing, neither the Subjected Matter doth inforce any necessity of this presumption, viz. That he which saith [I will not have any other to my Wife, except thee] did intend that he would have some Woman to his Wife Covai. d. §. 1. n. 9., because it may be that the Man in so saying, did mean neither to Marry her, nor any other Covarubi supra & Palud. in 4. distinct. 27. q. 1. ar. 1. col. 2. Molin. in addit. ad Dec. in c. Juravit. de probat. extra.; and therefore there is not the like Consequence in this Case, as in those Cases. To this Objection thus; Who doubteth, but it may be, that he which saith [I will have thee to my Wife], doth never mean to have her Quo casu ju­dicatur pro Matrimonio, in foro judiciali, secus in poeni­tentiali c. tua nos. de Sponsal. extra.; for some Men can say one thing, and think the contrary d. c. Tua & ibi DD.. And so it may be that he which saith [I will not have a­ny other to my Wife, except thee], doth no more mean to have her to his Wife than any other; but this is very unlikely Scil. ob Cau­sas inferiùs des­criptas.: Seeing then by all reasoinable Constuction the Contrary is more probable, I answer as doth that excellent Lawyer, who (for his manifold Distinctions fit and ready at every need) can never be sufficiently commended, namely Baldus, writing after this manner, Opponitur quod dictio [nisi] nil ponit, etiamsi negatio prae­cedat. Solutio, Si mens loquentis patitur tunc point; si [Page 98]mens loquentis non patitur, tunc non ponitin L. Actione c. de transacti­on. n. 2.. Its Obje­cted (faith Baldus) that this word [nisi, but, or except] doth affirm nothing, although a Negative go before. The Solution is this, if the meaning of him that speaketh doth suffer, it affirmeth, if his meaning do not suffer, it doth not affirm. Now in our case his meaning doth not only suffer this affirmation, but can hardly abide the Con­trary: Also sundry inconveniences and absurdities would ensue Ut autem evitetur absur­dum, & mens loquentis serve­tur usque adeo permissa est in­terpretatio, ut vel à proprie­tate verborum recedere licet L. nam absurdum ff. de bon liber. Baldus in L. Pomponius ff. de nego. gest.; for if his meaning were simply not to have any Wife at all (as is objected) To what end (I pray you) did he say [I will have no other]? But especially wherefore did he make any Exception, after he had said [I will not have any other to my Wife]? Verily this Ex­ception expressed in these words [except thee] had been wholly Superfluous Superfluitatis vitium quàm diligentissimè fugtend. L. si quando ff. de leg. 1. and idle, Bald. in L. ne quicquam 1. §. planè. de Of­sic. Proconsul. ff. aliquid operari debent verba. or rather fraudulent and deceitful Sed dolus non praesumitur. l. colum. C. de do­lo & ibi DD.. Now therefore lest either the words should be accounted idle Nullum verbum etiam minimum debet esse otiosum, Immò nec Syllaba, si fieri possit, debet esse Juperflua. Gloss. in c. solitae de major. & ob. extra. Bald. in Rub. de contrahend. Emp. C., in so weighty a Cause, or the meaning deceitful c. Tua nos, & ibi Panor. de Sponsal. extra., in so favourable a Matter, it is probably, justly, and charitably collected, That the true sense and meaning of these words [I will not have any other to my Wife, except thee] is all one as if the Par­ty had said [I will have thee to my Wife and no other Immò non solum Juristae, sed & omnes dialectici ita exponunt hujusmodi verba, inquit Silvester. Prier. verb. Matrimonium 2. n. 10.]; and consequently the Sentence is not mere Nega­tive. Well, now let us try whether the other Cause of this third Opinion be worthy of such an Effect. It is said that this word [nisi] being formed of [si & non Alciat. in l. actione C. de transac. n. 24. Jas. in L. Si eum. §. qui injuriarum. ff. Si quis cau­tion. n. 32. Gloss. in l. Sancimus C. de Donat. Calepin. Cornucop. verb. [nisi].], doth properly signifie [si non (l), if not]; and there­fore the sense of the former words, [I will not have any other to my Wife, except thee], is no more in effect, [Page 99]than if the Party had said [If I have not thee to my Wife I will never have any other Covar. tract. de Spon. sal. 2. parte c. 4. §. 1. Adde Molin. in addit. ad Dec. in c. juravit. de pro­bat. extra.], which words induce not Matrimony nor Spousals, &c.Covar. ubi supra. lib. 2. consil. matr. consil. ibidem. 5. Spec. in Rub. de Sponsal. ex­tra. verb. possi­bile.Whereunto brief­ly this is the Answer; This word [nisi] is sometimes pla­ced in the beginning of a Sentence, and sometimes it followeth a SentenceBar. Jas. & alii in L. Si eum §. qui in­juriarum ff. Si quis Caution.; when it is placed in the be­ginning of a Sentence, then doth it signifie [Si nonBart. in d. §. qui injuriarum. n. 9. & ibi Jas. n. 26. verb. su­bit Sunt tamen qui distinctio­nem hanc repre­hendunt, ut per Alex. in. d. §. n. 9. & Jas. ubi su­pra. Quinimò & ipse Bart. sibi non constat, Sentiens dispositionem semper praecede­re, attento rei intellect. in l. 1. ff. de Cond. Demon. Sed nos verborum ordinem respicimus., if not]; and so maketh the Proposition conditional L. Obli­gationum §. Conditio de action. & oblig. Bar. in d. L. Si eum §. qui Injuriarum. ff. Si quis Cau­tion. n. 9.. As for example, if any say [nisi venero, dabo tibi de­cem librasNisi quoties principium Sententiae est, judicativum desiderat, ait Laur. Vall. lib. 2. Elegan. sed apud. Bar. Nisi in principio orationis collocatum, subjunctivè jungitur, eò quòd nec ut rationale nec ut casuale, sed ut conditionale habetur.i.e. si non venero, except I come I will give thee ten pounds]; That is to say, [if I do not come], or as the Psalmist saith [nisi Dominus custodierit Civitatem frustra vigilant Custodes Psal. 127. ubi translator. quia nisi conditionaliter accipitur, licet in principio subjunctivum annectit., i.e. Si non custodierit, &c. Except the Lord keep the City, in vain do the Keepers watch, that is to say [if the Lord do not keep, &c.]: When it followeth a Sentence, then we are to consider, whether it be joyned to another Verb or not Bar. in L. Si eum §. qui injuriarum ff. Si quis Caution. n. 8.; if it be joyned to another Verb, then it doth also enjoy the Signification of [Si non, if not], as in the former Exam­ple, whereby the Proposition is made Conditional Bar. in d. §. qui injuriarum n. 8. verb. si vero. per. l. fidei commissi. § si fidei Commissum ff. de leg. 3. & L. 1. & 2. de In diem addi. , [non dimittitur peccatum nisi restituatur ablatum C. peccatum de reg. jur. in Sext., i. e. Si non restituatur, the Sin is not remitted, except the thing taken be not restored, that is to say, if it be not restored, &c.]: But if it be not joyned to another Verb, but is ruled by the Verb aforegoing, Then by the Opinion of the best and most Authors, it doth not enjoy the Signification of [Si non, if not,] nor maketh the Pro­position [Page 100]conditional, but standeth adversatively, establi­shing the Contrary, to that which went before it Bart. ubi su­pra. & in l. acti­one. C. de tran­sac. & ibi Bald. Alex. Jas. Dec. & A ciat.; So that if the Proposition aforegoing were affirmative, the Exception is negative; Or if the Proposition were negative, the exception is affirmative DD. in de L. actione., as hath been heretofore confirmed. Now in our Case the word [nisi, except] is not placed in the beginning of the Sentence, neither is it joyned to another Verb, but dependeth of the former; and therefore it doth not enjoy the signifi­cation of [Si non, if not) as is pretended, but rather of this word [praeter, or praeterquam, besides, or but] im­plying the Contrary to that which went before L. nam quod Liquide ff. de pen. Leg. §. pen. Bar. in L. Si eum §. qui injuriarum. Si quis Caution. ff. n. 6, & 7. & ibi Jas. n. 35. DD. in l. 1. ff. de pig. action. DD. in l. actio­ne C. de tran­sac.; es­pecially in favourable Causes Secus in Materia odiosa. Jas. in d. §. qui injuriarium n. 36. gloss. in clem. 1. de usuri. in verb. facere. Bald. in L. Seco. §. ux­or ff. de Ann. Leg.. Thus we may behold the weakness of this second Cause, and how unworthy it is of that Effect, which notwithstanding it hath wrought in some Mens minds.

27. The fourth Opinion is. That if the words be Conceived after this manner, [I will not have any to my Wife, except thee]; In this case Spousals are contracted Hardian. in 4. q. 12. de matrim. Cujus meminit Covar. in Tract. de Spon sal. 2. par­re c. 4. §. 1. nu. 6. versus fin.: But if the words be conceived in this form [I will not have any other Woman to my Wife, except thee], in this Case neither Matrimony nor Spousals is contracted Hadr. & Co­var. ubi supra.; The reason of which Opinion I cannot easily reach unto; and for ought I understand this is a distinction without a difference, that is to say, a little variation in words, but in sense none at all; which words also (me thinks) be more pregnant in the later Case, where not­withstanding they are condemned for barren and fruit­less. For while the Man saith [I will not have any o­ther, &c. de noturâ hujus dictionis (alius) vide Bald in L. Con­vent culam C. de Eipis. & Cler. & in L. si fugitivi C. de servis fugi.] it should seem that by excluding others [Page 101]he doth include her to whom he speaketh Specul. in Rub. de Spon­sal. & matr. extra. n. 3. quamvis ex hoc solo, quod vir mulieri dicat [non habebo aliam in uxo­rem] non opinor induci Matri­monium nisi etiam addiderit [nisi te.] Spec. in. d. Rub. n. 4. Summa Angelic. verb. matr. 2. n. 12. in fin.: Where­as in the former Case there is not the like Emphasis, for defect of like words, although aswel in the one, as in the other, the words be sufficient to induce Matri­mony, because of these words (except thee) uttered in both Cases, the which words following a negative, have the force of an affirmative (as I have often foretold) and so are as if he had said plainly [I will have thee to my Wife Panor. & Praepos. in c. ex parte. de Sponsal. extra. DD. in L. actione C. de transac.].

28. Fifthly, by the Opinion of most who labour in the defence of the second Opinion above delivered, If the words of the Contract be formed in the Present Tense, as [Nolo habere aliam in Ʋxorem, nisi te, I will, or I will not (now) have any other to my Wife, except thee] they induce present Matrimony Specul. in Rub. de Spon­sal. extra. n. 5. Auto. de Butr. in c. ex parte. de Sponsal extra. Jo. Brun. in tract. de Spon­sal. concl. 13. Jas. in L. actio­ne C. de transac. n. 4.: But if the words be framed in the Future Tense, as [Non habebo aliam in Ʋxorem, nisi te, I will not (viz. hereafter.) have any other to my Wife, except thee] hereby Spousals de futuro, and not Matrimony, are induced Anto de Butr. in d. c. ex parte. Al­ciat. in L. acti­one C. de tran­sac. n. 28. & Molin. in ad­dit. ad Dec. in eund. L.; except in certain Ca­ses, As when the Parties did before entreat of Matrimo­ny to be contracted betwixt them Specul. in Rub. de Sponsal. n. 3. verb. secus antem Caepol. con­sil. 1. col. pen. in civilibus dec. in L. actione C. de transac. n. 7. Pacianus Tract. de probac. Lib. 1. c. 35. n. 66. vers. mihi.; or where a Ring was given and received in manner as is accustomed at the contracting of Matrimony Menoch. Tract. de praesump. lib. 3. praesump. 3. n. 8. Caepol. d. consil. 1., or in such like Case Nempe quibus verba quae alias inspectâ suâ naturâ non nisi Sponsalia denotant, adhibitis quibusdam Circumstantijs inducunt Matrimonium, id quod non rarò contangit, ut pronimè tradi­dimus in superioribus Paragraphis.. The Reason whereby divers have been drawn in­to this Opinion, and perswaded that the words of the Contract, being framed in the Present Tense, Matrimo­ny; [Page 102]and being framed in the Future Tense, Spousals only are induced, is this; The word [nisi] say they, following a Negative Proposition, although it have the force of an Affirmative (for thus much they willingly confess with us Anto de Butr. in d.c. ex parte. de Sponsal. ex­tra. Coepol. d. consil. 1. col. pen. Alciat. in d. l. actione. n. 25.,) yet doth it not affirm any more than is before denied in the Proposition before going; so that if in the former part of the Sentence a present Act be denied, in the Exception following a present Act is affirmed: But if in the former part of the Sentence a future disposition or ability be denied, in the Except­on following no more is affirmed, than future dispositi­on or ability Anto. de Butr. Coepol. & Alciat. ubi su­pra.. And here I confess with them that they say truly Bar. in L. Si eum §. qui in­juriarum. ff. Si quis Caution. n. 4. verb. sed ad­vertend. & ibi Bald. col. pen. verb. respondit. & Alex. n. 8. nec contradicit Pa­nor. in d. c. ex parte. de Spons. extra. n. 8. vel Praepos. eod.c.n. 7., since the Exception is of the nature of the Rule Dec. Cag­nol. & Hieron. Franc. in l. 1. de Reg. Jur. ff.: This then being confessed on both sides, namely, That the Exception doth affirm no more than the Proposition doth deny; they proceed and say, That by words of the Present Tense a present Act, and by words of the Future Tense a future Disposition or A­bility only, is denied in the Negative Proposition, and consequently affirmed in the Exception following Specul. in Rub. de Spon­sal. extra. Anto. de Butr. in d. c. ex parte de Spons. extra. Coepol. d. con­sil. 1. Adde Prier. verb. Matrimonium 2. q. 10.. But here we do not altogether agree in every point; for though this may be safely yielded unto them, that the words of the Contract being conceived in the Present Tense, as [Nolo habere aliam in Ʋxorem, nisi te, I will not (now) have any, except thee] a present Act is here denied in the Proposition, and so a present Act affirmed in the Exception Praepos. in d. c. ex parte n. 8. Bar. Bald. & Alex. in L. Si eum §. qui injuriarum ff. Si quis caution. Silvest. Prier. verb. matrimonium. 2. q. 10.; yet when as they challenge fur­ther, That the words of the Contract being framed in the Future Tense, a future Disposition or Ability only is understood, This is not to be yielded unto them for sound or certain; since it is sure, that divers words (whereof [habebo] I will have, is one) which albeit they be formed in the Future Tense, yet nevertheless [Page 103]have the force of the Present Tense Supra hoc ipso §. in princ. DD. in c. ex literis el. 1. & in c. ex parte de Spon­sal. extra.; and though [non ha­bebo] signifie [I will not have hereafter], yet this [hereafter] is not a Year hence, nor a Month, nor a Seven-night, nor a Day, nor an Hour hence, but immediately and present­ly after the speaking of the words, without any distance or intermission ubi enim nullum apponi­tur tempus, sta­tim debetur. Pa­nor. in d. c. ex parte n. 8. in fin. §. ult. Institut. deinutil. Stipula. L. cedere diem ff. de verb. sig­nif. & ibi DD. at all; like as if the Party had said [from henceforth, I will not have any other to my Wife, except thee]; and therefore since the Exception affirm­eth no less than was before denied Bar. & alij in L. actionem. C. de transac. Dec. & Cagnol. in l. 1. de Reg. Jur. ff.; It followeth, That by the former words thus much is affirmed, at least in effect, though not in sound, [from henceforth I will have thee for my Wife], which words verily in­duce Matrimony, not Spousals c. ex parte de Sponsal. ex­tra.; and so it is not material whether a Man say [nolo habere, I will not have] in the Present Tense, or [non habebo], in the Future Tense. And if there were any difference, yet our Language considered, these words [I will or I will not] are no more proper to the Future Tense, than to the Pre­sent Siquidem [volo habere & habebo] (at­tento nostratis linguae idiomate) eisdem prorsus verbis exponuntur, [I will have] Silicet [nolo habere & non habebo, I will not have] sine ullo temporis discrimine.; and therefore being indifferent, ought rather to be referred to the Present Tense, in favour of Matrimo­ny Menoch. de prae­sump. lib. 3. praesump. 3. in fin. Lapus Alleg. 56. Praepos. in: d. c. ex parte. n. 7. in fin..

29. Thus having surveyed the sundry Opinions and conceits concerning these words [non habebo aliam in Ʋxorem, nisi te, I will not have any other to my Wife, ex­cept thee] I rest and stay with the received Opinion Hanc. enim. op. communem esse refert. Prae­pos. in c. ex parte de Spons. extra quod eti­am fatetur Co­var. Tract. de Sponsal. 2. parte. c. 4. §. 1. n. 6. & Menoch. Tract. de praesump. lib. 3. praesump. 3. n. 8.; Concluding, that they import thus much, [I will have thee to my Wife]; which Conclusion also (as I take it) hath place, when as the Parties instead of the word [nisi, ex­cept] do use some other exceptive words, as [praeter, [Page 104]quam, praeterquamde quibus dictionibus Bar. Jas. & Alex. in L. Si eum §. qui injuriarum. ff. Si quis cau­tion. & genera­liter DD. in L. actione C. de transac., besides, than, but], saying for Ex­ample, [I will have none other to my Wife, except thee, or than thee, or but thee]; for hereby also is signified [I will have thee to my Wife Saltem attento communi loquendi usu, cui omnino standum est, post­posita verborum proprietate. Praepos. in d. c. ex parte de Spons. extra. n. 7. per. c. ex literis el. 1. eod. Tit.]: Which words being mu­tually uttered by either party, induce Matrimony Panor. in c. ex literis el. 1. de Spons. extra. & ibi. Praepos. & alij & in c. ex par­te eod..

30. Now at last let us give place to the Limitations of the former Rule, which saith, That when the Parties do Contract themselves by words of the present time, or by words of the future time, having relation to the Execution or Substance of Matrimony, Spousals de prae­fenti (being in substance Matrimony) are thereby con­tracted; of which Rule, these be the Limitations which do now approach, marching one after another.

31. The first Limitation is when Children are Con­tracted together by words of present time; for albeit they say thus, [I take thee to my Wife, and I take thee to my Husband]; This by Interpretation of Law is not Matrimony, but Spousals c. unic. §. 1. de despons. impub. lib. 6.; Albeit, also they did thereby intend to contract Matrimony d. §. 1. cum Gloss. ibi­dem. contra an­tiquam quo­rund. opinionem, de quibus Henr. Boic. in c. à nobis de despons. impub. extra. & Hostiens. Summa Tit. de despons. impub. §. & quae Sponsalia.. By [Chil­dren] here I understand them which have past their In­fancy, but have not as yet attained to lawful years for Marriage vide supra. §. 7.; for during Infancy neither Matrimo­ny nor Spousals can be contracted c. 1. de despons. impub. in Sext. L. In sponsal. el. 2. ff. de Sponsal..

32. The second Limitation is when the one Party is of full Age, and the other a Child, which are con­tracted together by words of the present time, for this [Page 105]Contract is not Matrimony, but only Spousals de futu­ro as if they were both Children d. c. unic. §. 1. de despons. impub. in Sext. & supra §. 6..

33. The third Limitation is, when these words of the present time are uttered in Jeast or Sport, for such wanton words are not at all obligatory in so serious a matter as is Matrimony Jo. And. in c. fin. de despons. impub. Reperto­rium Nic. Milis verb. Matrimo­nium L. Obli­gationis sub­stantia ff. de a­ction. & oblig. & l. illud ff. de jure jur. allegan­ti tamen Jocum incumbit proba­tio, aliter non praesumitur, sed in dubio pro Matrimonio ju­dicabitur, Lib. 2. consil. matri­monial. consil. ibidem 34. n. 11..

34. The fourth Limitation is, when the words be meer negative: As [I will not have any other Woman to my Wife,] and [I will not have any other Man to my Husband,] or [I will never forsake thee,] or [I will never fail thee Covar. Tract. de Spon­sal. secunda parte, c. 4. §. 1. n. 3. in fin. & n. 7. in princ. Angel. de clavasio. verb. Matrimonium el. 2. n. 12. in fin. Summa Silvestrin. verb. matrim. 2. q. 13. Summa Rosella. verb. matrim. §. 5. versic. quid si dicat.;] for neither Spousals, neither Matri­mony, are hereby induced.

35. The fifth Limitation is, whereas the words be so general and uncertain that the meaning of the Parties cannot appear: For Example, these words; [Do tibi fidem Lib. 1. consil. matrimonial. con­sil. ibidem 5. n. 8., I give thee my Faith,] Nunquam tibi desici­am Silvest. Prior. verb. Matrim. 2. q. 13.] I will never fail thee,] Quo animo es? Vis me habere?] What chear? Wilt thou have me lib. 2. consil. matrim. consil. ibidem 5. n. 8.?] Or thus, [If ever I marry, I will marry thee lib. 2. consil. matr. consil. ibidem 14. in princ. & consil. 5. n. 1.,] with a hundred such like Instances standing afar off, and hang­ing in nubibus, which infer neither Matrimony nor Spou­sals, without special Circumstances, whereby it may be known, that the Parties did thereby mean and intend to contract Matrimony or Spousals lib. 1. consil. matr. consil. ibidem 60. n. 16. Henr. Boic. in c. Attestationes. de despons. im­pub. extra. paulò ante finem..

36. The sixth Limitation (not unlike the former) is, when the Parties do use these or such like words [Bibo tibi nomine Matrimonij Praepos. in c. ex parte de Sponsal. extra. n. 8. qui dicit ibi non induci Matrimonium, nisi consuetudo (inquit) interpretatur, quod [Hoc bibere] inducat Matrimonium., I drink to thee in token of [Page 106]Marriage,] and thereupon both of them drink; by this alone Matrimony is not contracted Vide Prae­posaubi supra. & Henr. Boic. in c. Attestationes. de despons. im­pub. extra. qui hoc dictum ibi­dem limitant..

37. The seventh Limitation is, when the one Party doth promise simply, the other conditionally: For Ex­ample; the Man saith [I take thee to my Wife,] the Wo­man answereth [I take thee to my Husband, if my Father consent;] this is a void Contract L. 1. §. Si quis simpliciter ff. de verb. ob­lig. Covar. Tract. de Spon­sal. secunda parte, c. 3. §. 1. n. 11., unless the Conditi­on were unpossible or unhonest; for then it is otherwise DD. in c. fin. de cond. app. extra. & in Anth. si ingressi. de Sanct. Ec­elesiis C., as appeareth in the next Paragraph.

38. The eighth Limitation is, when the one Party doth promise under one Condition, and the other Party under another Condition. For Example; the Man saith, I take thee to my Wife, if my Father consent,] and the Wo­man saith, [I take thee to my Husband, if thou wilt give me 100 l.] Here is neither Matrimony nor Spousals, but a void Contract Imol. Ro­man. Zas. & Molin. in l. 1. §. fi quis sim­pliciter. ff. de verb. oblig..

39. The ninth Limitation is, when the one Party doth answer with some further quality or addition im­pertinent to the Question. As for Example; the Man saith, [Vis esse Ʋxor mea? Wilt thou be my Wife?] The Woman answereth, [Volo, & quicquid vis, I will, and whatsoever thou wilt besides;] for hereby neither Matri­mony nor Spousals is contracted Lib. 1. con­fil. matrimonial. consil. ibidem 60. n. 16. post Rom. in Rub. de Arbitr..

40. The tenth Limitation is, when the words signi­fying the Essence or Execution of Marriage, and being conceived in the Future Tense, do follow other words which naturally or properly import no more but Spou­sals de futuro; as [I will marry thee, and I will hold thee for my Wife Panor. in c. ex parte. de Sponsal. extra. n. 7. in fin. Specul. in Rub. de Sponsal. n. 7. Menoch. de praesump. lib. 3. praesump. 3. n. 4.;] for howsoever these words [I will hold thee for my Wife] being uttered alone induce Matrimo­ny [Page 107] c. ex parte. de Sponsal. ex­tra. & ibi Pa­nor. & Praepos.; yet following other words of another nature, they are deprived of their own proper virtue, and as Accessory they undergo the nature of the Principal Arg. L. ul­tim. §. cui dul­cia ff. de vino tritic. vel ol. leg. Menoch. de praesump. lib. 3. praesump. 3. n. 4..

41. The eleventh Limitation is, when the Parties do promise that they will contract Spousals together, for as yet Spousals are not contracted Repertor. Nic. de Milis. verb. Sponsalia.: And as he which promiseth that he will acquit, hath not yet acquitted Boer. decis. 3. in princ. Ti­raquel. de Re­tract. Conven­tional. ad finem Tituli. n. 52. fol. (lib. mei) 380.; so they which promise that they will contract Spousals, have not as yet contracted, howbeit the Parties are bound in this Case to accomplish their Promises Covar. Tract. de Sponsal. prima par­te, c. 4. in princ., otherwise they are punishable for not performing the same c. 1. de Spons. duorum extra. Melchior Kling. Tract. de caus. matrimo­nial. fol. 5..

42. The twelfth Limitation is, when the Promise is not mutual: For Example; the Man saith to the Wo­man [I take thee to my Wife,] but the Woman doth not make the like Promise to the Man; or contrariwise, she doth promise Matrimony, but not he: This being a lame or halting Contract, is not of any force Praepos. in c. 1. de Spons. duorum extra. lib. 1. consil. matr. consil. ibidem 84. n. 4. & lib. 2. consil. 4. n. 1. & consil. 5. n. 1. in fin..

43. The thirteenth Limitation is, when there is some lawful impediment, wherefore the Parties cannot be mar­ried together, of the which we shall entreat here­after infra..

44. The fourteenth Limitation is, when as the Con­tract being made by words of the Future time sound­ing of the Execution of Marriage; as [I will have thee for my Wife, and I will have thee for my Husband,] the Parties do afterwards marry elsewhere, consummating the same by Carnal Copulation, for then by the Opini­on of divers, the second Marriage holdeth Covar. de Sponsal. secunda parte, c. 4. §. 1. n. 5. Molin. in addic. ad Dec. in c. Juravit. de probat. extra., unless [Page 108]the words be very pregnant, having some further addi­tion, as [I will from henceforth have thee, &c. Marti. in addic. ad Ho­stiens. Tit. de Sponsal. §. quot sunt species.]

45. Finally, Albeit they which do Contract Spousals de praesenti, be very Husband and Wife, in respect of the Knot or Bond of Matrimony, so that it is not law­ful for either of them to marry elsewhere, so long as they now live together c. Conjunx. c. cum Initia­tur 27. q. 2. c. si inter de Spon­sal. extra. & ibi DD. Panor. & Felin. in Rub. de Sponsal. ex­tra. Hiero. Schurff. inter consil. matr. lib. 2. consil. ibidem 24. n. 2. Mel­chior Kling. Tract. de Causis Matrimonial. fol. 7. Schneidwin. Tract. de Nuptiis, fol. 18. n. 4. Covar. Tract. de Sponsal. secunda parte, c. 7. in princ.; yet do not these Spousals produce all the same effects here in England Perkins Tit. Feoffments, fol. 40., which Matrimony solemnized in the face of the Church doth, whether we respect the Legitimation of their Children, or the Property which the Husband hath in the Wife's Goods, or the Dower which she is to have in his Lands Perkins ubi supra. Cui velim adjungas Rebuff. in L. pronunciatum §. matrem familias ff. de Verb. Signif. & Covar. Tract. de Sponfal. secunda parte, c. 7. §. 1. & §. 4.; of which Effects we shall have better opportuni­ty to deliver our mind hereafter infra cadem parte, §. 17..

SECT. XII. Of the Form or Manner of Contracting Simple and Conditional Contracts, and those also which be referred to a Day.

1. SEcondly, Spousals be either pure and simple, or referred to a day, or Conditional §. omnis. Institut. de verb. oblig. Lancel. Institut. jur. can. lib. 2. tit. de Sponsal. c. sicut de Sponsal. ex­tra. & ibi Pa­nor. Summa Hostiens. tit. de condic. oppos. extra.. Pure and simple Spousals are so called when as the Parties do ab­solutely promise Marriage each to other without interpo­sition either of Condition, or delay of Time Schneidwin. Tract. de Nupt. fol. 26. n. 33. Panor in c. su­per eo de cond. appos. de §. om­nis Institut. de verb. ob. facit L. cedere diem. ff. de Verb. Signif. & Lan­cel. ubi supra., so that both Obligation and Action is thereupon forthwith engendred and born, whereby the Parties are imme­diately bound and linked together, and are also com­pellable to solemnize and consummate the promised Matrimony accordingly, at the instance of either of them Schneidwin. ubi supra. Panor. in d. c. super eo. Covar. Tract. de Sponsal. secunda parte, c. 3. n. 2., unless the Party convented shew lawful Cause to the contrary Lancel. Instit. Jur. Canon. Lib. 2. Tit. de Sponsal. & infra §..

2. Concerning the Forms of these pure and simple Spousals, and how they are contracted is particularly described in the two former Paragraphs Supra §. 10. & §. 11., their sundry effects also do more plainly appear in a more conveni­ent place Infra §. 17., and thither I refer thee.

3. Spousals referred to a day are so termed, when as the Parties do refer the Contract or Marriage to a fu­ture time, without mention of any Condition c. sicut de Sponsal. extra. §. omnis Insti­tut. de verb. oblig. L. obli­gationum. §. 1. de action. & oblig & L. ce­dere de verb. Sig. ff. & ibi DD.; For Example, the Man saying to the Woman [I do promise thee to Marry thee at Whitsuntide next]; and she an­swering, and [I promise to Marry thee then, &c. DD. in d. c. sicut. Lancel. lib. 2. Institut. jur. Can. Tit. de Sponsal.]; Concerning these kind of Spousals, two Rules are to be remembred.

4. The first is, that the one Party cannot effectual­ly convent the other for Marriage, until the time pre­fixed be expired L. cedere ff. de verb. Sig. §. omnis Institut. de verb. oblig. Hinc est, quod vulgò circum­fertur. Anno si debes in fine te­neberis anni, Annua si debes, hinc-inspicitur caput anni.; Insomuch that if the Parties do covenant to be Marryed together within a certain time, as within a Month, or within a Year; Yet until that Month, or that Year be expired, the one Party cannot effectually convent the other L. qui hoc anno ff. de verb. Oblig. §. pen. Institut. de mutil. Stipul., much less when they promise to Marry together after such a time, can any Action be maintained in the mean time Nam in Stipulatione ex die, Actio interim non oritur, si Ripae credamus, in L. ita Stipulatus. ff. de verb. oblig. n. 84..

5. The other Rule is, that if he or she do not let or hinder the Marriage at or within the time appointed; the same time being past, he or she by whom it doth not stand, and wherefore the promise was not accomplish­ed, is from thence at liberty to marry elsewhere, as freely as if the former Spousals had not been c. sicut. de Sponsal. extra. ibi. nec. per eum stetit, &c. Covar. tract. de Spons. infra parte. c. 5. n. 8..

6. Against which Conclusion there be divers strong Objections Gloss. &. DD. in. d.c. sicut., but this especially; Say that I do Co­venant to pay unto thee x l. at or before the Calends of the next Month, at which time I am ready to pay the Mo­ny, and do indeed tender it accordingly, but thou canst [Page 111]not, or wilst not receive it: Albeit in this Case it doth not stand by me, wherefore I do not pay the Mony at the time appointed, and so do not incur the penalty in that respect, Yet I am not hereby acquitted from payment of the principal L. Celsus ff. de recep. Arbitr. §. 1. cum. Gloss. ibidem.: And the reason is, because when I promise to pay such a Sum at such a time, I promise two things, (th' one the payment of the Mo­ny, the other at the time appointed d. L. celsus. §. 1. & ibidem Bar. & Baldus.); And so though I have satisfied my promise in respect of the time, yet have I not performed my promise in respect of the Sum; and in this respect I am still subject to be sued for the principal, notwithstanding the lapse of the time pres­cribed d. l. Celsus Card. & Panor. in d. c. sicut.: Even so where the Man saith to the Woman, or she to him, [I will Marry thee at or before such a day], here two things be promised Arg. d. L. Celsus §. 1. &c. cum dilecti. de dolo & cont. extra., namely Marriage re­sembling the Substance of the promise Est enim re­ceptior opinio, factâ in diem obligatione, & obligationem, & actionem. statim ortam esse, sed obstare exceptionem, ne ante diem peta­tur. Alciat. in L. cedere ff. de verb. Sig. n. 10. Immo idem vi­ris est, etiamsi Stipulatio fiat ex die, & est com. op. teste. Grass. Thesaur. com. op. §. legatum q. 43. n. 5. quicquid in Contrarium statuat Ripa. in L. ita Stipulatus. de verb. oblig.; and time (be­ing as it were an accident or quality of that Substance) Sanè nemo nescit, quòd tempus non est modus vel inducendae, vel tollendae obligationis L. obligationem fere. §. placet ff. Card. in d. c. sicut. op. infra.; And therefore although this be lapsed, yet doth the other remain still to be accomplished. This is that strong Objection, in the answering whereof, if we should be­hold the manifold and intricate Solutions of the Wri­ters Gloss. in d. c. sicut. quae tripliciter solvit, aliter tamen solvit. Jo. And. aliter Hostiens. aliter Card. aliter Anto. de Butr. Panor. Praepof. & aliter Henr. Boic., wherein, whilst they strive amongst themselves by contradicting one another, each of them doth seem to overturn his fellow, and all of them to tumble toge­ther by the Ears Truffas esse solutiones glossae dicit Anto. ipsum tamen, in mentem glossae reincidere testatur Praepos. Panor. autem varia de hac. q. scribi per. DD. refert, cui etiam solutiones glossae non admodum placent, ut quae non funditus ob­jectionem tollunt, nec conveniunt inter se legistae in L. qui hoc anne. ff. de verb. oblig. prae cae­teris autem Bartolum venenatis dentibus acriter mordet. Zasius in d. l., the Sight of this their Tumult would be much more wonderful, than the rehearsing their several Assertions and Arguments could be profi­table, [Page 112]as tending rather to breed confusion than bring instruction Qui nimium emungit, elicit sanguinem, & nimia alterca­tione amittitur saepe veritas.: Wherefore I think it meet, out of these their troublesom Contentions, to pick out some of the easiest and soundest Distinctions, wherewith this hard and difficult Knot may be untyed: Understand therefore that in Contracts and Bonds the time is some­times set down to sollicite the performance or accom­plishment thereof, and sometimes to limit and deter­mine the same Panor. post. Gof. & Anto de Butr. in c. sicut de Sponsal. ex­tra. Covar. Tract. de Spon­sal. infra. parte c. 5. n. 8. verb. Secundo.; In the former case the lapse of time doth not work any dissolution of the Contract, or deli­verance of the Parties: In the second case it doth Anto. Panor. & Covar. ubi supra.; Now if we would know whether the time be set down to sollicite the performance of any Contract, or to ex­tinguish and determine the same, we have two notable Precepts delivered to that end Anto. de Butr. in d. c. si­cut, & post eum Panor. eod. c. n. 11. & Praepos. n. 7.; The first Precept is this; When the time is appointed in respect of some thing to be performed by one of the Parties alone, then it is deemed to be set down to sollicite the performance of the Covenant or Bond Anto. Pa­nor. & Praepos. ubi supra. Lan­cel. lib. 2. Insti­tut. Jur. Can. Tit. de Sponsal.; such is the case objected, where one Party alone is to pay the Money; and therefore the Principal Debt is not extinguished by the only lapse of time, howsoever the Party were then ready to have fully satisfied, whatsoever was by him to have been per­formed at the time prescribed L. Celsus. §. 1. ff. de arbitr. & ibi Bart. & Bald.; But when the time is appointed in respect of some things to be mutually per­formed by both Parties (as in our Case,) then is it deem­ed to be set down to finish and determine the Covenant and Bond Panor. in d. e. sicut post. Anto.; and therefore the one Party failing, in performing the Covenants at the time prescribed, the other Party by whom it did not stand, is thereby set at liberty as soon as the time of the accomplishment is past c. sicut de Sponsal. extra.; for when any Man promiseth that he will marry such a Woman at such a time, It is in­tended that he doth so promise, with this secret Condition, viz. if she will then also marry him; [Page 113]otherwise not Cardinal. Panor. Praepos. & DD. in d. c. sicut. Covar. Tract. de Spon­sal. prima parte, c. 5. n. 8. quem, si videbitur le­gito. facit L. cum quid ff. si certum pet. L. Triticum. de verb. oblig. ff.. The other Precept is this, Sometimes the time is set down to sollicite the accomplishment of a perfect Contract, and then the Bond is not dissol­ved by the only lapse of time L. cedere diem. ff. de Verb. Signif. & ibi Alciatus. n. 10. Anto. de Butr. & Panor. in d. c. sicur & ibidem Praepos.. Sometimes again it is set down to sollicite the beginning of a new Contract, to be made betwixt the Parties; and then it is dissolved by lapse of time Panor. in d. c. sicut. in fin. & Praepos. ibi­dem post. Anto. de Butr. Lancel. lib. 2. Instit. Jur. Can. Tit. de Sponsal.; for thereby either Party doth shew his unwillingness to proceed to the effecting of this imperfect Contract Panor. ubi supra.. Now in our Case the Parties did not first Contract pure and simple Spousals, and afterwards appoint a time for Solemnization of the Marriage; for then, the Contract being first perfect, had not been dis­solved by lapse of time agreed on afterwards & ita con­suluit Panor. ut ipse refert in fin. d. c. sicut. & consentit Covar. Tract. de Sponsal. prima parte, c. 5. n. 8. in fin.; but even at the very first, the time was concluded upon, and set down by both Parties, whereunto they referred the future Marriage, no perfect Contract going before; and therefore, by voluntary suffering the time to slide, without any offer of performance by either Party, the Spousals are dissolved Dom. Anton. in d. c. sicut. & ibi Panor. qui hanc secundam Theoricam tanquam clariorem, & veritati magis amicam laudat. Covar. Tract. de Sponsal. prima parte, c. 5. n. 8.. And this I take to be the plainest and surest Answer to the former Objection. But what if it doth not stand, either by the Man or by the Woman, wherefore they were not married at the time appointed, being hindred by some casual means, or by some third person, whether in this Case be the Spousals dissolved de hac q. Anto. de Butr. in d. c. sicut. & ibi Jo. And. & Praepos. n. 7. in fin.? I suppose not Cardinal. Henr. Boic. & Praepos. in d. c. sicut.; and that if either he or she marry elsewhere they are to be punished, howsoever the time prefixed be determined Praepos. & Boic. ubi supra.; for though the impediment do excuse from punishment, for not marrying at the appointed time, yet doth it [Page 114]not dissolve the Covenant Cardinal & Praepos. ubi su­pra. & facit L. quaesitum ff. de Reg. Jud.; wherefore the impedi­ment ceasing, they are to marry as soon as convenient­ly they may Praepos. in d. c. sicut. n. 7. in fin. ac­cedit c. cum di­lecti. de dolo & contumac. extra nec longè abest Archi. in c. nup­ti. 27. q. 1., unless some other cause, beside the former impediment, or lapse of time, do withstand the same veluti si cum aliâ perso­na per verba de praesenti con­traxerit d. c. sicut.. And here note, That if the Parties do pro­mise to marry together in such a Month, or at such a Feast, as [in the Month of May, or at the Feast of St. George, without saying next,] it is to be understood of the next Month of May, or at the next Feast of St. George, unless the contrary do appear L. eum qui Calendis. ff. de verb. oblig..

7. Conditional Spousals are they which be neither simple, nor referred to a certain day, but whereunto some quality is annexed, or wherein some event is ex­pressed, whereby the force or effect i. e. obliga­tio & actio su­spenduntur L. cedere diem. ff. de Verb. Sign. & ibi [...]lciat. Rebuff. & alii. of the Con­tract is suspended Schneidwin. Tract. de Nup­tiis, fol. 27. n. 34.. For Example; [I will take thee to my Wife if thou wilt give me 100 l. c. de illis. de Condic. appos. extra.,] or [I do take thee to my Wife if my Father shall consent, &c. c. super eo. de Condic. appos. extra.] By which Examples we may perceive, That not only Spousals de futuro, but Spousals de praesenti may be contracted conditionally Pa­nor. in d. c. super eo. n. 5. & in d. c. de illis. n. 2.; and although in the later Case the words be of the present time, yet have they not their effect presently, nor before the event of the Condition Panor. in d. c. super. n. 5. & ibi Praepos. n. 2. Schneidwin. Tract. de Nup. fol. 27. n. 34. Covar. Tract. de Sponsal. secunda parte. c. 3. n. 2. lib. 1. consil. matrim. consil. ibidem 64. n. 9..

8. Yet do not all manner of Conditions suspend the Contract, or enforce an expectation of the event there­of ut infra. hoc. ipso §.; for in some Cases the conditional Contract is reputed simple, and hath its present force, as if no Con­dition had been expressed; and in some Cases the Con­dition doth utterly destroy the Contract Henr. Boic. in c. si Conditi­ones, de condit. appos. extra. Summa Hosti­ens. in Rub. de Condic. appos. extra. §. quae conditio. Covar. Tract. de Sponsal. secunda parte, Paragraphis 1, 2, 3.: Wherefore [Page 115]that we may know when the event of the Condition is to be expected, when not; and likewise when the Condition doth destroy the Contract, when not; we must observe these Distinctions. Conditions therefore, are either of that which is past, or present, or to come: Conditions of future things be either secretly under­stood, or expressed; the expressed are either necessary, impossible, or possible; possible be either honest, or un­honest; unhonest Conditions are either against the Sub­stance of Matrimony, or not Has & alias Conditionum Species videre est apud Sum­mam Hostiens. in Rub. de Sponsal. extra. qui triplicem ibidem divisionem constituit, prima autem Conditionum divisio haec est. Alia (inquit) est tacita, alia expressa. Alia de praesenti, alia de praeterito, alia de futuro; & haec est aut possibilis, aut impossibilis; impossibilis rursus duplex, de Jure (quae & turpis dicitur) & de Facto. Secunda vero divisio est possibilium, quae sunt vel potestativae, vel casuales, vel mix­tae. Tertia denique (quam tradit) divisio est, hujusmodi Conditio vel est honesta & possibilis, vel inhonesta & impossibilis; vel honesta & impossibilis; vel inhonesta & possibilis; quae omnes si vi­debitur ibi perlustrare poteris. Et quidem hanc tertiam Hostiens. divisionem DD. fere omnes prose­quuntur, ubicunque de quaestione hic propositâ agitur, ut Henr. Boic. in c. si Conditiones, de Con­dic. app. extra. Melchior Kling. Tract. de Causis Matrimonial. fol. 73. cum seq. Schneidwin. de Nuptiis, fol. 27, 28. Covar. Tract. de Sponsal. secunda parte, c. 3. & nonnulli alii, Ego autem hanc nostram divisionem & magis perspicuam, & veritati magis amicam suspicor: Sed suum cui­que pulchrum, quantumvis non formosum.: As in this little Table which I have made for the help of thy Memory is de­scribed.

Condi­tions respect either the time

  • past
  • present
  • to come
    • expressed
      • necessary
      • impossible
      • possible
        • honest
        • dishonest
          • against the Sub­stance of Matrimony.
          • not against the Sub­stance of Matrimony.
    • secretly understood

9. Conditions referred to that which is past or pre­sent, do not suspend the validity, nor defer the effect of the Contract, but do presently either confirm or [Page 116]make void the same L. Institut. talis ff. de con­dic. & institut. L. cum ad prae­sens ff. si cert. pet. Jas. & Dec. in eand. L. cum ad praesens.. For Example, [I will have thee to my Wife if my Father be living, or were alive within this Month, &c.] The Father being alive at the time contained in the Condition, the Contract is pre­sently good, otherwise being dead, the Contract is pre­sently void d. L. In­stitut. & ibi DD. Henric. Boic. in L. si conditione de condic. appos. extra. Hostiens. Summa eod. Tit. §. quot Species. Institut. § pen. de verb. ob.: wherefore these kind of Conditions, which be referred to the time past or present, are impro­perly called Conditions Covar. Tract. de Sponsal. secunda parte, c. 3. §. 1. n. 9. per d. L. Institut. ff. de condic. & Institut. in fin. § pen. Institut. de verb. oblig..

10. Secret Conditions are these, and such like; [Si De­us voluerit, If God will; Si vixero, If I shall shall live; Si potero, If I shall be able Epistol. Jac. c. 4. §. 15. gloss. & DD. in c. unic. §. ultim. de Sponsal. lib. 6.;] and they be called Secret Conditions, because they are evermore secretly intend­ed, though they be not expressed Arch. in c. unic. de Sponsal. in Sext. in sin. vide Jo. Olden. Topic. legal. lo­co ab authorita­te, scu prejudic. ubi enumerat xx. tacitarum Conditionum exempla.; and therefore when the Parties do contract Matrimony or Spousals to­gether in this manner, [I do take thee to my Wife, I will take thee to my Wife;] and she likewise, [I do take, or I will take thee to my Husband,] without expressing any Condition, nevertheless these aforesaid Conditions, [If God will, If I live, If I may by Law, &c.] are always secretly understood, and yet nevertheless they do not make the Contract conditional, nor suspend the force or effect thereof Innoc. in c. debitores. extra. de Jure Jur. Ol­den. ubi isupra. Melchior Kling. de causis matri­monial. fol. 74. Henr. Boic. in c. si Conditiones. de cond. app. extra., which Conclusion is undoubtedly true; whereas these Conditions are not expressed, but understood Archid. in d. c. 1. de Sponsal. lib. 6. n. 12. Henr. Boic. ubi supra. Summa Rosell. verb. matrimonium. 5. in princ.. Indeed if the Parties shall express these Conditions in their Contracts, then it is not without question, whether the Contract be Simple or Condition­al [...]d quod manifestum est per Gloss. & DD. in c. unic. § ultim. de Sponful. in Sext. Silvestr. verb. matrimonium 8. q. 14. verb. Septim. & per Covar. Tract. de Sponsai. secunda parte. c. 6. §. 2. n. 4.; wherein whether Opinion is to be preferred, shall be satisfied (God willing) e're long Infra hoc §. paulò post..

11. By necessary Conditions, I mean those whereof there is an infallible natural Cause, by force whereof the Effect must needs follow Sichard. in Rub. de Insti­tut. & sub. C. n. 7.: and these Conditions do not suspend the Contract, nor make the same Con­ditional Henr. Boic. in c. si Condi­tiones. de con­dic. appos. extra. Summa Hosti­ens. eod. Tit. §. quae condic. verb. Quid si Contraho.; and therefore if the Parties do mutually promise Matrimony, [If the Sun shall rise to morrow] it is as if they had simply promised Melchior. Kling. Tract. de caus. matrimo­nial. fol. 73. Car­dinal. Hostiens. Panor. & Prae­pos. in c. per tuas. de condic. appos. extra.. But if the words of the Contract be referred to the time of the event of the Condition, then is the Contract Conditi­onal, and the virtue thereof in suspence until the Event do come, notwithstanding that the same be inevitable; as when the Contract is made thus, [If, and when the Sun shall enter into Libra, &c. Henr. Boic. in c. si Conditi­ones. de condic. appos. extra. Covar. Tract. de Spons. secunda parte. c. 3. §. 2 n. 11. & in hoc casu locum habet Gloss. in d. c. per tuas. quam sequuntur Jo. And. & Dom. Anto.] or thus, [If, and when my Father shall dye Jas. in l. impossibilis. ff. de verb. oblig. in fin. quem citat Covar. Tract. de Sponsal. verum dies istius Conditionis (si Titius meriatur) est incerta non solum quando, sed etiam an sit extitura. Quum Titius potest non mori, dum vivant contra [...]entes, Quod si dies sit incerta an & quando sit ventura, Contractus est Conditionalis, Id quod fatetur Cardinal. in d. c. per tuas de cond. app. in fin.]; and so it is in case the Event be certain; but not by reason of any natural Cause, as [If Antichrist shall be born Covar. Tract. de Sponsal. secunda parte, c. 3. §. 2. n. 11. in fin. post Adrian. q. 17. de ma­trim.:] If the Condition be conceived Negatively, under an impossible Condition, as [If thou shalt not touch the Skies with thy Finger;] it is in effect as if the Parties had contracted simply without any Condition Minsing. in §. si impossibilis. Instit. de inutil. Stipul. n. 8.: The Reason is, whereso­ever the Affirmative is impossible; there the Negative is necessary Bar. in l. impossibilis. ff. de verb. ob. & Minsing. ubi supra..

12. Impossible Conditions (in this place) are they whereunto Nature is an impediment, that they cannot be accomplished; as [If thou shalt touch the Skies with thy Finger; If thou shalt drink up all the Water in the Sea, &c. §. impossibi­lis. Instit. de inu­tilibus Stipulac. Minsing. in §. impossibilis. In­stit. de haered. in­stituend. n. 3.]. These Conditions are in favour of Matri­mony, [Page 118]utterly rejected and void, or as if they were not at all mentioned c. si Condi­tiones. de Con­dit. app. extra. Summa Hosti­ens. Rub. de Cond. app. §. quae Conditio. Henr. Boic. & omnes DD. in d. c. si Conditi­ones., and so the Contract qualified therewith is nevertheless reputed pure and simple Panor. in d. c. si Conditio­nes. n. 3. Et hoc verum est fa­vore Matrimo­nij, quemadmo­dum & favore Testamenti. §. impossibilis In­stit. de haered. instituend. In aliis autem con­tractibus, regu­lariter Conditio impossibilium vitiat, et non vitiatur, (si juri civili at­tendaturus) ut Institut. de inu­til. Stipulat. §. impossibilis. Jus autem mu­nicipale Regni nostri Angliae, quid de Condi­tione impossibili statuit, videre est apud Pereium, non ineruditè de hâc re differentem. fol. (Libelli mei) 142. Tit. Condition., which Conclusion is very true, the impossibility being naturally perpetual: But if the impossibility were not ever from the beginning, but did arise in process of time by some accident, then is not the Condition void, but maketh void the Contract; as when the Man and the Woman do Contract Spousals or Matrimony toge­ther conditionally, [If their Parents shall consent,] their Parents being already dead, and so impossible that they should give any Consent thereunto; for in this Case the Contract is void, notwithstanding the impossibility of the Condition Praepos. in c. super eo. de condic. appos. extra. n. 4. Covar. Tract. de Sponsal. secunda parte, c. 3. §. 2. n. 3. in princ. Specul. in Rub. de condic. app. extra. n. 4.; which thing is the rather received, as more agreeable to the Truth, whereas the Parties were then ignorant of the death of their Parents at the time of the Contract Ita distinguit Jo. And. ut refert Praepos. ubi supra facit L. Servo manumisso. ff. de cond. indebiti, nec dissentit. Covar. d. c. 3. §. 2. n. 3. verb. nifi possibilis videretur.; for where the Parties are per­swaded that the Condition is possible, although in truth the same be naturally and perpetually impossible, yet is it not rejected, but doth make void the Contract where­with it is qualified Covar. Tract. de Sponsal. secunda parte, c. 3. §. 2. n. 5. Aretin. in L. impossibilis. ff. de verb. oblig.; and therefore if the Parties, be­ing perswaded that the Stars of Heaven do sometimes fall down to the Earth, and there melt away, do Con­tract Matrimony together conditionally, [If some Star do fall from the Sky to the Earth before such a time] this Contract is made void by this impossible Condition Covar. ubi supra verb. si enim., because the Parties did not otherwise intend to Contract Matrimony, nor yield their Consents (but in Case this Case, which they thought possible) did come to pass Covar. ubi supra. Cui continuit Hadr. in c. de matr. quaest. 6, 7., [Page 119]without which Consent true Matrimony is never Con­tracted L. Nuptias. ff. de Reg. Jur. c. cum locum, & ibi DD. de Sponsal. extra.. And so where two contract Matrimony [If their Parents shall consent] it seemeth that they did not otherwise intend to marry, but in case their Parents should like and allow thereof c. super eo. in fin. de con­dic. app. extra. & ibi Praepos. n. 4. Covar. Tract de Spons. secunda parte, c. 3. §. 2. n. 5.: Howbeit if the Par­ties, when they did mutually promise Matrimony con­ditionally, if their Parents should consent, did know they were dead, and so could not consent, then is the Condition void, not the Contract Jo. And. in addic. ad Spe­cul. de condic. appos. litera (d) facit L. mulcta ff. de condic. & demon. & Bar. in L. 1. de condic. & Instit. ff. col. 2. Covar. Tract. de Spons. secunda parte, c. 3. §. 2. n. 3. verb. quod si in futur. &c., unless it appear to be the meaning of the Parties, by expressing an im­possible Condition, not to yield their Consents, but to dally the one with the other; for in such a Case ever­more the Contract is of no force, for want of true mean­ing and perfect consent Praepos. in c. super co. de Sponsal. extra. n. 4. per c. Tua nos. de Spons. extra..

13. The Sum of this that I have here delivered (that I may make it somewhat plainer) is no more but a Rule and three Limitations. The Rule is, That impossible Conditions are rejected. The first Limitation is, when the impossibility ariseth by some accident. The second, when the Parties did believe the Condition possible. The third, when they had no meaning thereby to Contract themselves, but to delude either the other. Whereunto a fourth may be added, namely, when as the impossi­bility indureth only whiles the Parties are alive together: As if the Man say, [I contract Matrimony with thee, if thou shalt come to my Funeral or Burial;] or thus [I will marry thee, if thou do not disclose such a secret,] with Conditions, because they are against the Substance of the Act, nor can be fully accomplished whiles the Parties are alive, resist the Nativity of the Bond or Obligation, and so make void the Contract Covar. Tract. de Spon­sal. secunda parte. c. 3. §. 1. n. 15. Adrian. in 4. de Matri­monio. q. 5.; neither doth Car­nal [Page 120]Copulation thereupon ensuing betwixt the said Par­ties, beget the presumption of Matrimony betwixt them in this Case Covar. post Adrian. ubi su­pra..

14. Possible Conditions are those which be neither necessary nor impossible, but being placed in the midst betwixt both extreams, are indifferent either to be, or not to be Summa Ho­stiens. de cond. app. extra. §. quae conditio. Sichard. in Rub. de instit. & sub. C [...]n. 9. Mel­chior Kling. Tract. de caus. Matrimonial. fol. 73.. These possible Conditions, (if they be honest withal, (that is to say) not against Law, nor re­pugnant to good and wholsome Manners) do suspend the Contract c. de illis. c. super eo. de cond. app. extra & ibi Jo. And. Card. Panor. & Praepos., so that, in the mean time, the Par­ties contracting Spousals or Matrimony, under any such Conditions, are neither bound, nor suable, until the Condition be extant d. c. de illis. &c. super, & ibi DD. Schneid­win. Tract. de Nuptiis, fol. 27. Melchior Kling. Tract. de caus. matrimonial. fol. 74. §. sub conditione. & §. ex conditio­nali. Instit. de verb. oblig. L. cedere ff. de Verb. Sign. & ibi DD.. For Example, [I will contract Matrimony with thee, if thou wilt give me 100 l. c. de illis. de cond. app. extra.]; or thus, [I do contract Matrimony with thee, if thy Father shall consent c. super eo de cond. appos. extra.,] depending the Condition (that is to say, until thou give 100 l. or until thy Father consent) there is neither Obligation nor Action, either for Spou­sals or for Matrimony Summa Hostiens. in Rub. de cond. appos. extra. §. quae conditio. in princ. Schneidwin. Tract. de Nuptiis, fol. 27. n. 34. d. c. super eo. & ibi DD.. And albeit in the second Example the words be uttered in the Present Tense, yet by means of the Condition thereunto annexed, the force and efficacy of the Contract is suspended, until the event of the Condition Panor. in d. c. super eo. n. 5. & ibi Praepos. notab. 6.: For if we will speak properly, Matrimony is not contracted, but when the Consent is pure and without Condition, as well as pre­sent Co­var. Tract. de Sponsal. secunda parte, c. 3. n. 3. & facit L. actus legitimi ff. d. Reg. Jur.; wherefore I cannot chuse but think that they did plainly err, and wander far from the right Path, who thought and taught, That present Consent, albeit Conditional, did forthwith induce Matrimony, not­withstanding the Condition were not as yet extant unic. in d. c. super eo. & Specul. in Rub. de condic. appos. extra. n. 2.; [Page 121]and contrariwise, that their Opinion is guided by the straight line of Equity and truth, who do hold that the words, being conceived in the Future tense, (as in the former Example) neither Matrimony, neither Spou­sals is contracted, before the accomplishment of the Condition Innoe. in c. 1. de cond. ap­pos. extra. Jo. And. in c. de illis. & Henr. Boic. in c. si conditiones. eod. tit.; and that the words being framed in the Present tense, (as in the later Example) they have the force of Spousals only Panor. in c. super eo de condic. appos. extra. n. 7., or rather not so much Covar. tract. de Sponsal. 2. parte c. 3. n. 2. per text. in c. 1. §. ultim. de Spons. in Sext., until the Condition be extant; Indeed, the Conditions being performed, then are they Spousals in that Case, and Ma­trimony in this Innoc. in c. 1. de condic. appos. & Henr. Boic. in c. si Conditiones. eod. tit. extra. Covar. tract. de Sponsal. 2. parto. c. 3. nu. 2.: Whereby we may gather two Rules concerning those kind of Contracts, The one, that de­pending the honest possible Condition, the Contract is suspended Innoc. in. c. 1. de cond. appos. extra. c. de illis. &c. super eo. eod. Tit. & ibi Panor. & Praepos. Hostiens. Summa Tit. decond. appos. §. quae Condi­tio. Schneidwin. Tract. de Nuptijs fol. 27.. The other, that the foresaid Condition being performed, the Contract is then purified, or as if no Condition had been expressed d. c. de illis. &c. super eo. & ibi DD. L. po­tior ff. qui potiores in pig. hab. c. fraterintatis. de frigid. & malef. extra.. Either of which two rules hath two several Limitations thereto belonging.

15. The Limitations of the former Rule are these; First when the Parties after they have contracted Condi­tional Spousals de praesenti, or de futuro, do before the event of the Condition know each other Carnally, for by this corporal Copulation they are deemed to have renounced the Condition; and presently to yield their mutual Consents to Contract and consummate pure and perfect Matrimony c. per tuas. de condic. appos. extra. & ibi gloss., which Conclusion is diversly both enlarged and restrained Menoch. Tract. de Prae­sump. lib. 3. praes. 1. Covar. tract. de Spons. prima parte. c. 4. §. 1.; as when we shall en­treat of the effect of carnal Copulation more plentiful­ly shall appear Infra. §. 17..

16. Secondly, when the Parties, after the Conditio­nal Contract, do simply, or without any Condition express their mutual Consents by words of the present time, fit for Matrimony; for in this Case also they are deemed to have renounced the Condition; and are pre­sently joyned in simple Matrimony, as if no Conditi­on had been before expressed c. de illis. de condit. appos. extra. & ibi gloss. c. de illis. de despons. im­pub. extra. & ibi DD..

17. The Limitations of the second Rule are these; First when the Condition was infringed, before it was compleated, for being once infringed, the accomplish­ment following is not regarded L. bones. §. Sermone ff. de verb. Signif. Praepos. in c. super eo. de condic. appos. extra. n. 4.: For Example; the Parties having Contracted Matrimony [if their Parents shall consent], So it is, that their Parents do first dissent, but afterwards upon further advisement their minds being altered, they become willing, and do now yield their Consents thereunto, this new Consent doth not re-establish the Matrimony before dissolved by their dis­sent Praepos. in d. c. super eo. Ti­raquel. in d. §. hoc sermone. verb. octogesi­mo primo. Clavas. in Summa Angel. verb. Matrimo­nium. el. 3. in tertio impedimento. n. 2.: Albeit some Writers (but without sufficient Warrant I fear) do hold the Contrary, in case the Par­ties do still persevere in their former purpose, until their unwilling Parents do at the last yield their Consents thereunto Cardinal. in c. super eo de condit. appos. extra. Silvester. Prier. verb. Matrimonium el. 3. n. 4. vers. tertium. in fin..

18. Secondly, when as one of the Parties depending, the Condition doth Contract pure and perfect Matrimo­ny with some other Person: This second Matrimony simply contracted, is not overthrown by the succeeding Accomplishment of the Condition of the former Con­tract c. 1. §. ultim. de Spon­sal. in Sext. & ibi DD. gloss. in c. per tuas. de condic. appos. extra. & Panor. in c. super eo. eod. tit. n. 7. & facit. c. quamvis. de rescrip. in Sext. Praepos. in d c. per tuas. n. 7.: For Example; a Man and a Woman do contract [Page 123]Matrimony conditionally, [If their Parents shall consent thereunto] before which Consent the Man doth, with­out any Condition, contract perfect Matrimony with another Woman, after which Contract the Parents yield their Consents to the former Contract: In this Case the second absolute Contract, doth prevail against the for­mer conditional Contract Panor. ubi supra. Praepos. in c. per tuas de condic. appos. extra. n. 7. & ibi gloss. Schneidwin. Tract. de nuptijs. fol. 28. Summa Rosella. verb. Matrimonium el. 5. vers. quid si quis, &c..

19. Against this Limitation it is commonly objected; That a Condition purified is understood to be retired back again, to the time wherein the Contract was first made; and to be of force, not ex nunc, but ex tunc, that is to say, not from the time of the actual perfor­mance of the Condition, but as if it had been even then accomplished at the very beginning L. potior. ff. qui potior. in pign. hab. fa­cit. l. haeres quandocunque. de acquir. hae­red. & [...]. quod dic. de terto. Mil. ff.; or rather as if the Contract had always been pure and simple Gloss. in c. per tuas. de condic. appos extra. Reusner. tract. de Causis Matrimo­nial. consil. 2. n. 40, & 41. Socin. Jun. consil. 35. n. 2. vel. 1..

20. To which Objection, this is the ready Solution. That the purified Condition is then supposed to be reti­red backward, when as the Case in the mean time is not altered, nor the way stopped, or the passage hin­dred Panor. in d. c. per tuas. in fin. & ibi Prae­pos. n. 7. Bar. in l. si indebi­tat. §. 1. ff. rem. rat. hab. &c. quamvis de rescrip. lib. 6.; But in our Case the way is intercepted, and the return letted by means of a perfect Contract, sub­stantially made; and finished during the imperfection of the former Contract Quippe, quia pendente Conditione, actus non dic. necessa­rio perfectus §. quod si penden. de peric. & com. rei vend. Paris. consil. 82. vol. 4. n. 6. Reu­sner. tract. de caus. Matrimonial. consil. 2. n. 5. qui tandem in Contrarium labitur Sum­ma., by force whereof the ac­complished [Page 124]Condition is repelled, and not suffered to have recourse to the first Fountain, from whence it did originally issue, or proceed Panor. & Praepos. in c. per tuas. de condic. appos. extra. alter nu. 8. al­ter. n. 7. Schneid­win. tract. de nuptijs fol. 28. Melchior. Kling. Tract. de causis Matrimonial. fol. 74. in fin.; And it is so much the more forceably repelled, when as the second Contract is consummate with carnal Copulation; for then, as well by the Civil Law Reusnerus. Tract. de caus. Matrimonial. consil. 2. n. 26. cum Seq. per l. semper in con­junctionibus. ff. de rit. nup. & per Auth. ita­que C. comm. de Success. Ex­emplo L. quoti­es de rei vendic. & L. five au­tem. §. Si dua­bus. de pub. in rem. act. ff., as by the Canon Law c. per lite­ras. de Sponsal. extra. Reusne­rus bui supra., this consummated Contract doth overthrow the former condi­tional Contract: Marry Sir, if the Condition expressed in the former Contract, be not a voluntary Condition, but such a Condition, as had it not been expressed, yet, nevertheless is secretly understood; Then whether this Contract prevail against the second Contract of Matri­mony, wherein no Condition at all is expressed, is a doubtful Question; wherein some do affirm Archid. in c. unic. de Sponsal. in Sext. in sin., and some deny Cardinal. in d. c. unic., and some leave it doubtful Clavas. Summa Angel. verb. Matrimoni­um. Impediment. 3. versic. Sed nunquid. qui sane obscurè loquitur, dum necessarium per necessa­rium & contingens distinguere videtur, Id quod animadvertit. Silvestr. verb. Matrimonium. 8. q. 14. vers. Septimum in fin.; or if the Condition of the former Contract were a voluntary Con­dition, before the accomplishment whereof, one of the Parties contracted, did not actually proceed to any Con­tract of Matrimony with any other, but verbally dis­sented and disclaimed from the Contract made, Whether by this dissent only, the conditional Contract be dis­solved is a question, wherein all Men are not of one mind Ut per gloss. & DD. in c. super co. de condic. appos. ex­tra.; and yet aswel this, as that, no less needful to be known to us, than doubtfully delivered by them; in regard whereof, it shall not be in vain, I hope, if we review either Case a little more diligently, and so grow to some certainty.

21. In the former Case therefore, that is to say, when two Persons do contract Matrimony together expressing this Condition, viz. [Si Deus voluerit, if God will, or [Page 125] Si vixero, If I shall live; or Si potero, If I shall be a­ble, &c.] some (as I said) affirm that this is a pure and simple Contract Archid. in c. unic. de Sponsal. in Sext. in fin. Henr. Boic. in c. si Conditiones. de condic. appos. extra. in princ. Melch. Kling. tract. de caus. Matr. fol. 73. in fin. & 27. in princ.; and therefore good against a second Contract, whose reason doth chiefly rest upon this Con­clusion, Expressio eorum quae tacite insunt nihil operatur L. 3. de lega. 1. L. condit. de cond. & demon. ff., the expressing of those things which be secretly included worketh nothing. And so the expressing of that Condition which is secretly included in the Contract, doth not make it Conditional Henr. Boic. in c. si Condi­tiones. de con­dic. appos. ex­tra. ubi aliam assignat ratio­nem, nempe quia ista Conditio [Si deus volue­rit] licet quoad verba sit de fu­turo, tamen quoad verita­tem (inquit) est de praesenti, ide­oque non suspen­ditur.; for those Conditions [If God will Epist. Jacob. c. 4. v. 15. c. be­atus 22. q. 2. Innoc. in c. de­bitores de Jure jur. extra., If I live Epist. Jacob. ubi supra L. ultim. ff. Si quis cautionibus, If I may L. impossibilium ff. de Reg. Jur. L. continuus. §. illud. de verb. oblig. ff.], are se­cretly included in every disposition, be it never so sim­ple, or never so pure, never so not conditional; be­ing therefore called tacitae Conditiones, Secret Conditions, and legitimae Conditiones Jo. Olden. Topic. Legel. loco. ab authoritate fol. (mihi) 105. legal Conditions, because the Law doth supply and understand these Conditions, though the Parties do omit them: To which purpose writeth Oldendorpe in these words, Multa saepenumerò insunt negotijs etiamsi non exprimantur nominatim, ut sunt Conditiones legitimae, non ex voluntate seu Consensu homi­num, Sed ex authoritate Juris procedentes, & haec qui­dem non faciunt negotium Conditionale Olden. ubi supra.. Therefore there be many things in our affairs very often, although they be not expressed by name, as are legal Conditions, proceeding not from the Will or Consent of Men, but from the Authority of Law; and those do not make the Act conditional. Seeing then they do not make the Act conditional, not being expressed, being expres­sed they make it not conditional; for Taciti & expressi par virtus, aequalis potestas, eadem ratio Eve­rard. loco ab. expresso ad tacitum., & contra.; tacitae Conditionis expressio non reddit dispositionem conditionalem Bar, Jas. Zas. & alij DD. in L. 3. ff. de leg. 1., of that which is secret, and that which is expres­sed, Summa Hostiens. in Rub. de condic. appos. extra. Dominic. & Phil. franc. in c. unic. de Spons. in Sext. in fin Bar. & alij in L. 3. ff. de leg. 1. [Page 126]there is like vertue, equal power, and the same reason; the expressing of a secret Condition doth not make the disposition conditional; which Position being true, then it followeth necessarily, that the second Con­tract is not good; For if any Man do simply contract Matrimony with two several Women, the first Contract shall prevail c. si inter de Sponsal. extra.; Contrariwise some do stick to this O­pinion, That the Contract of Matrimony, wherein these Conditions [if it shall please God, if I shall be a­live, if I shall be able, &c.] be expressed, are conditi­onal Covar. tract. de Sponsal. 2. parte c. 6. §. 2. n. 4. Felin. in c. 2. de Sponsal. ex­tra. in princ. Hostiens. in c. ad audientiam. de Sponsal. ex­tra gloss. in c. unic. de Spon­sal. in Sext. viz. col. 4. & ibidem Cardi­nal. Prier. in Summa quae dic. Silvestrin. verb. Matrimo­nium. el. 8. q. 13. versic. Seplin.; and therefore, if either of the Parties do sim­ply Contract Matrimony with some other Person, the second Contract is good, notwithstanding the former Siquidem Contractum, pendente Condi­tione, simplici­ter factum va­lere. Communis est Summa. gloss. & DD. in c. per tuas. de condic. appos. extra.; and certainly I must needs say, that if the antece­dent be sure, the consequent is sound, that is to say, if the former Contract be conditional, the second Con­tract not conditional is good Gloss. in c. per tuas. & Panor. in c. super co. de cond. appos. extra. c. unic. de Sponsal. in Sext. c. quamvis de rescrip. in Sext.: So that hic labor hoc opus est, here is the very pinch; and this is the bleeding point, whether this foresaid Contract be conditional or not: Now that it is conditional they prove in this wise; All Marriages (say they) are not made according to the Will of God Clavas. in summa, quae dicitur Angelica verb. Matrimonium. Impediment. 3. [...]ersic. sed nunquid. in fin. Silvestr. Prier. verb. Matrimoninm. el. 3. n. 3. ubi distinguit inter voluntatem beneplaciti, & voluntatem Signi., in asmuch as sundry Persons, sun­dry times match together in Wedlock, which neverthe­less are forbidden, both by Gods Law, and Mans Law: As they which be a kin within the Levitical Laws and Degrees Levitic. c. 18., or these which be already Married L. eum qui. C. de adul. lib. 1. consil. Matr. consil. ibidem. 15. n. 24.; and they which only seek to satisfie their foul Lusts, like brute Beasts, never considering the true Causes, for which Matrimony was ordained Silva nuptialis fol. 135. n. 11 Praepos. in c. tua nos. el. 1. de Sponsal. extra. notab. 1. Socin. consil. 28. col. 3. versic. tertio.; and such like Infra. 2. parte §.: [Page 127]Wherefore when any Man doth contract Matrimony under these terms [if it please God, or if I may, &c.] it is in effect as if he had thus said [I am not certain whether it be Gods Will, or whether the Laws will permit, that I Marry thee; for it may be thou art my near Kins­woman, or thou art already assured to another Man, or some impediment there may be, which at this present I do not know; But if it shall appear, that there is not any such impediment either by Gods Law, or Mans Law; but that we may be joyned together in Wedlock, and live to­gether as Man and Wife, I do here contract Matrimony with thee Covar. Tract. de Spon­sal. secunda par­te, c. 6. §. 2. n. 4. Prier. in sua Summa, quae di­citur Silvestri­na. verb. Matri­monium. el. 8. q. 14. versic. Septi­mo, qui tamen ibi distinguunt quos velim vi­deas ipse.]: And there is a very strong Text for this Construction, where it is written, That if a Man do bequeath any thing in his Will to any other Person, with this Proviso [Si volet L. Si ita le­gatum. §. 1. ff. de leg. 1. & Covar. ubi supra., If he will] this Legacy is con­ditional eod. §. 1., because these words [Si volet, If he will] do carry this sense, If it appear that he be willing Bar. Jas. & alii DD. in d. L. si ita.. And so in our Case these Conditions [Si Deus voluerit; Si po­tero, &c. If God will; If I may,] are thus to be under­stood, [Si apparuerit Deum velle, vel me posse Prier. verb. Matrimonium. el. 3. n. 3. Covar. Tract. de Spon­sal. secunda parte, c. 6. §. 2. n. 4., If it shall appear that God be willing, or that I may:] There­fore until it appear whether God be willing; that is to say, until it be known, whether there be any thing in God's Law, or Man's Law, to hinder this Marriage; in the mean time the Contract is suspended as a Conditi­onal Contract Prier. & Co­var. ubi supra.. To the Reasons or Grounds of the former Opinion, namely, That the expressing of those things which be secretly included hath no operation, or that there is like virtue, equal power, and the same Reason of that which is secret and that which is ex­prest; or that a secret Condition exprest doth not make the disposition Conditional, &c. One Answer is yielded to them all, (the Positions being all but one in Sense and Substance) which Answer is this; That these Po­sitions are all true, quando tacitum non aliter exprimitur [Page 128]quàm inest Bart. in l. si it a legatum. §. 1. & leg. 1. n. 2. & ibi Paul. de Castr [...]n. 5. Pa­nor. in c. signifi­casti. de elect. n. 6. & Felin. in c. ad audientiam el 2. n 10., when this Secret is not otherwise expres­sed outwardly, than it is inwardly; that is to say, when the sense and meaning of that which is expressed, doth not differ from that which is included; for when they both agree in one meaning, then both have one effect Bar. Paul. de Castr. Panor. & Felin. ubi supra., and so the Contract is pure and simple, and not con­ditional: And although this Condition [Si Deo placuerit, If it shall please God,] in respect of the words, be of the Future Tense, and so may seem to suspend the Con­tract Gloss & DD. in c. unic. de Sponsal. in Sext., at least for a while; yet (as our old Country­man Boic writeth very pithily) quoad veritatem ista Con­ditio est de praesenti Henric. [...]oic. in c. si conditic­nes de cond. ap­pos. extra. in princ., In respect of the truth this Condition is of a thing present, and so the Contract doth not admit any further delay or expectation of future e­vent Henr. Boic. ubi supra. & in c. ad audienti­am de Sponsal. extra., and therefore not conditional Quippe quae ad praesens, vel ad praeteritum refertur Condi­tio, nec suspendit actum, nec con­ditionalem red­dit, etiamsi con­trahentes lateat extitisse Condi­onem. L. cum ad praesens. si cer. pet. ff. & ibi gloss. & respici­endum est, Non quid nos ign. re­mus, sed quid in natura sit; i. e. in veritate facti, Inquit. J. Ctus. in L. respiciend. codem Tit.; I mean, when this Condition [Si Deo placuiret, If it shall please God, &c.] is so expressed as understood Praepos. in c. ad audientiam. de Sponsal. extra. col. ultim., that is, re­ferred to the secret Will of God, against the which no­thing can be done Dominus exercituum decrevit quis pote­rit infirmare? Inquit Isaias c. 14. vers. 27. & Paul. Epist. ad Roman. c. 9. vers. 19. voluntati ejus quis resistit? 22. q. 2. c. beatus.; not to his Will revealed, against the which many things are done Genes. c. 3. vers. 11. Rom. c. 5. n. 12. c. merito. &c. ita. 15. q. 1.; for then, as I said before, the Contract is conditional, because it is other­wise expressed than is included Praepos. in c. ad audientiam de Sponsal. extra. ultim. col.; for being expressed, it is referred to the Will revealed Silvest. Prier. Verb. Matrimonium. el. 3. q. 3. in sin., which some call voluntatem signi Ibidem.; whereas being not expressed, it is referred to his secret Will, which they call voluntatem beneplaciti Ibidem.. But you will say, What hath this Di­stinction of God's secret and revealed Will to do, where the Condition is not [If God will, If it please God, &c.] but [Si vixero, If I live; Si illa vicissim in me consen­serit, If she likewise consent to me,] and such like. You [Page 129]say well; therefore to meet with this and the like Que­stions, divers Authors have devised divers Distinctions Summa Angel. verb. Matrimonium, Imped. 3. n. 1. Summa Silvestr. verb. Matrimo­nium. §. 3. q. 3. & §. 8. q. 14. vers. septimum Adrian. in 4. de Matrimonio §. circa q. 4.: Some make difference, whether this secret Conditi­on be necessary to the Act, as [If I live;] or to the Consent, as If it shall please the Church Adrian. ubi supra.:] Teaching that in the former Case, the Condition being expressed, doth not make the Contract conditional, but in the la­ter it doth Adrian. ubi supra. quem se­quiter Covar. Tract. de Spon­sal. secunda par­te, c. 6. §. 2. n. 4. Others have invented this Distinction; That some Conditions are so necessarily included, as without the same the Contract cannot hold Prier. verb. Matrimonium §. 8. q. 13. versic. septimum post. Clavas. verb. Matrimonium impediment. 3. vers. sed nun­quid.; and these, albeit expressed, do not suspend the Contract, nor make it conditional Prier. & Clavas. eisdem locis.: Of this sort are these Conditi­ons, [If I live, If she likewise consent, &c. Prier. & Clavas. ubi supra.]. And some again are not so precisely necessary, as without the which the Contract doth utterly perish, but are ra­ther included de benè esse, and for avoiding of sin Summa Angel. verb. Matrimonium Impediment. 3. versic. sed nunquid & Silvestr. Prier. verb. Matrimonium. §. 3. q. 3. & §. 8. q. 13. versic. septimum.; of this sort are these foresaid Conditions, [Si Deo non dis­plicuerit, Si Jura non contradixerintSilvestr. Prier. de §. 8. versic. septimum qui tamen tbi profert exempla praesentis temporis, nempe nisi Deo displiceat, nisi sit contra Jura, &c.; If it shall not displease God, If the Laws will not gainsay it.] And these Conditions being expressed make the Contract conditi­onal, and do suspend the Act, until the truth thereof do appear Silve. str. ibidem..

22. Now to the other Controversie not altogether so difficult, whereof the Case is this; A Man and a Wo­man contract Matrimony together, expressing some vo­luntary Condition, viz. [If their Parents shall consent,] before the accomplishment of which Condition (that is to say, before their Parents do consent,) one of the Par­ties expresly then dissenteth, and disclaimeth from the [Page 130]Contract; which done, their Parents do consent; whe­ther in this Case the conditional Contract be purified and made perfect Matrimony, is a Question, wherein all Men are not of one Judgment Gloss. & DD. in c. super eo. De condic. ap­pos. extra.: For some say that it is Panor. in d. c. super eo. n. 7., others that it is not Anto. de Butr Phil Franc. & Praepos. in d. c. super eo. Co­var. Tract. de Sponsal secunda parte, c. 3. n. 6. in princ. Summa Rosella. verb. Matrimonium 5. vers. quid si quis. Summa Silvestrin. verb. Matrimonium §. 3. q. 4. in princ.; howbeit, the Authors of the Affirmative, as they are but few in number Solus enim stat Panor. in hac Sententia, si is stare sit di­cendus, & non vacillare potiùs, qui dubitanter loquitur in d. c. super eo., so are their Reasons weak and feeble Argumen­ta glossae sunt L. si mandassem ff. mandati. c. ex parte, de re­script. &c. mandato. de procur. ff. sed malè ut refert. Praepos. in d.c. super eo. unde Glossa, eis postea relictis, in contrariam Sententiam descendit, ratio verò quâ nititur Panor. Sumitur ex L. Potior ff. Qui pot. in pig.; for their strongest Reason (that I read of) is this, They which have contracted Matrimony together condition­ally, are to expect the event of the Condition, and ought not to revoke their Consent in the mean time Panor. in d.c. super eo. perd. l. potior. & ibi glossa. per c. de illis. de despons. impub. extra.; and therefore if either of them notwithstanding do re­voke his or their Promise, this revocation being prohi­bited by Law, is not to be regarded Ex quo (inquit Panor. in d. c. super eo) obligavit se sub conditione; non po­tuit ab illâ obligatione recedere., and conse­quently the Condition being accomplished, the Con­tract is to be deemed, as if no dissent had ever been in­terposed; that is to say, for a pure and absolute Con­tract of Matrimony. Whereunto it is fully and truly answered, That albeit the Parties, conditionally contra­cted, are to expect the event of the Condition Id quod utrinque cenceditur, Praepos. in d.c. super eo. n. 3. in fin. Covar. Tract de Sponsal. secunda parte. c. 3. n. 6., be­ing an honest and possible Condition, as this is, yet doth it not follow, that if either Party do indeed dissent and disclaim, the same ought therefore not to be regarded; for who knoweth not this Lesson, Multa prohibentur fi­eri, quae tamen facta firmitatem obtinent c. ad applicam, de regular. & transeun. extra. c. nos novimus. 17. q. 2. &c. si vir. 27. distinct., Many things are forbidden to be done, which notwithstanding, being done, are of force; which Conclusion is beautified with no less than twenty Cases or Examples collected by Ja­son Jas. in l. pr' surioso. ff. de his qui sui, vel al jur. the Civilian (no less famous for his Golden Le­ctures; [Page 131]than Jason of Thessaly for his Golden Fleece). A­gain, If this Prohibition were of that strength and might, that it did overthrow all contrary Acts, atchieved and executed, depending the Condition of the former Con­tract, then also the second Contract of Matrimony made before the accomplishment of the Condition of the former Contract, should be overthrown by force of the said Prohibition Eâdem e­nim ratione in utroque casu militante, & i­dem nos consti­tui oportet, nec Casus diversitas sed rationis i­dentitas inspici debet. Cavetta consil. 190. vol 1. n. 2. & consil. 183. n 3., for the less being prohibited, the greater is the rather prohibited Peckius in c. cui licet. de Reg. Jur. in Sext. in princ.; that is to say, if the Parties be prohibited to dissent only, much more are they prohibited to contract Matrimony with any other Person depending the Condition of the former Contract. But even by their own Confession, who plant their chief hold upon this Prohibition, the second absolute Contract is good, notwithstanding the suspense of the Condition of the former Contract, and notwithstand­ing that the same Condition is afterwards accomplished Panor. in c. super eo. de con­dic. appos. extra. n. 7.; nor that only, but they do also yield a Reason there­of, namely, That the conditional Contract hath no more force, but of Spousals de futuro, depending the Condition Panor. ubi supra.; and therefore by their own Reason they overthrow their own Assertion; for if a conditional Contract of Matrimony have no more force than Spon­sals de futuro (as indeed it hath not, neither yet so much Covar. Tract. de Spon­sal. secunda parte. c. 3. n. 5., during the suspence of the Condition;) Therefore if either of the Parties withdraw their consent before the accomplishment of the Condition, then cannot these Spousals by the Fathers consent become Matri­mony Praepos. in d. c. super eo n. 3. & ibi. Cardinal. in fin. Covar. ubi supra n. 5. & 6.: For this is without question, That without pure and perfect consent of both Parties, Matrimony cannot be contracted c. sufficiat 27. q. 2. L. Nup­tias ff. Reg Jur. c. cum locum. de Sponsal. extra. & ibi DD.. And to be brief, this is the principal Reason which the Authors of the Negative O­pinion do use for proof thereof, namely, the defect of [Page 132]pure and perfect Consent d. c. suffici­at. & d. L. nup­tias DD. in c. super eo. de cond. appos. extra. Covar. tract. de Spon­sal. 2. parte c. 3. n. 5, & 6.. This is that Wall of Brass which the Adversaries may well shoot at, but are never able to batter, nor make any breach into; neither is it material whether the other Party or Parents were witting or ignorant of this dissent Ant. de Butr. Phil. franc. & Praepos. in d. c. super eo. Arg. c. ultim. de pro­cur. in Sext. & Covar. ubi supra.; for neither in the one Case, nor in the other, can there be any perfect Matrimony for want of the Parties perfect Consent, at such time as the Parents yield their Consent Silvestr. Prier. verb. Matrimonium §. 3. q. 4. in princ.; for even then also ought both Parties to agree Gloss. in c. super eo de condic. appos. extra. Summa Rosella. verb. Matrimonium. el. 5. versic. Quid si. in one and the same Mind, otherwise there is not Consensus, i. e. simul sensus Geminian. in c. si ob­lato. de literis contestat. in Sext., and consequently no Matrimony.

23. Well, let us vary the Case a little, and see what will become of it. Say that the Parties having contrac­ted Matrimony together conditionally, [If their Parents shall consent] do neither of them dissent, but do both persevere still in the same purpose until their Parents be acquainted therewith, who make no shew to or fro, by expressing either Consent or Dissent; Whether in this Case is it to be adjudged for Matrimony, or not?

24. Some are of opinion, That forasmuch as the Pa­rents did not precisely perform the Condition, that is to say, formally express their Consents, therefore it is no Matrimony Clavasius in Summa, quae dicitur Angeli­ca. verb. Matri­monium Im­ped. 3. versic. Sed quid si.: But the greater part incline to the contra­ry Opinion Cardinal. post. Hostiens. in c. super eo de condic. appos. extra. & ibi Piaepos. n. 4., Because in favourable Cases, he that is silent doth seem to consent c. qui licet. de Reg. Jur. in Sext. Inno. in c. genesi. de elect. extra. Felin. in c. Nonne de Praesump. extra. Reg. 4. & Praepos. ubi Supra.; and so Matrimony be­ing a very favourable Cause c. in fin. de Reg. Jud. extra. Felin. in Rub. de Sponsal. extra., it is as if they had formally and expresly yielded their Consents DD. in d.c. super eo..

25. To that, that Conditions are to be precisely per­formed L. qui haere­di. §. 1. & L. Maevius. ff. de condic. & de­mon., it is answered; That's true generally in o­ther Contracts; but in a Contract of Matrimony it is special, that the Condition is sufficiently performed by other aequivalent means, as well as by precise observa­tion of the strict form of the Condition Cardinal. & Praepos. in d. c. super eo.; and so the Common Opinion is to be preferred, at least if the Par­ties do not afterwards break off, and bestow themselves in Marriage otherwise Quod si ad secundavota de­ventum fuerit, tunc alteram opinionem, uti veriorem amplectitur, Clavasius in sua Summâ Angelica. verb. Matrimonium. Imped. 3. vers. Sed quod Si..

26. What shall we say to this case? A Man and a Woman do contract Matrimony conditionally, [if he give her 100 l. at such a time]; Which Woman after­wards doth also contract Matrimony with another Man, under the same Condition, that is, [if he give her 100 l. at the time aforesaid]: Which time being come, either of these Men giveth to this Woman 100 l. at one and the same instant; in this Case Whether Con­tract shall prevail?

27. By the Common Opinion of such as write upon this question, neither Contract shall prevail Jo. And in c. 1. de cond. app. extra. qui rejectis tribus opinionibus quartam jam ocitatam ponit, quam tenent Gasper. Cald. Jac. Zochus & Praepos. in d. c. 1., by reason of the uncertainty Arg. L. si fuerit ff. de reb. dub. L. Duotitij ff. de testa. c. ex literis. el. 2. de Sponsal. extra.; for since it is uncertain which Condition was first performed, it cannot be cer­tain, whether Matrimony is to be perferred: And therefore it is of no more force, than if she had con­tracted Matrimony with two several Men at once Summa An­gelic. verb. Matrimonium imped. 3. vers. sed. pone. Jo. And. & Praepos. in d. c. 1. de condic. extra. Prier. verb. Matrimonium §. 3. q. 6.; And although it may seem, that the Matrimony first contracted, is first to be effected Prior tempore potior Jure. c. qui prior. de Reg. Jur. in Sext. L. quotiens. de Reg. Jur. ff., because the Con­dition being purified, the Contract is reputed as if it had [Page 134]been absolutely and simply made at the first L potior. ff. qui potior in pig. hab.: Yet that is so understood, when as it is in the power of the Par­ty to prejudice the second Contract, otherwise not Bart. in l. fi indebitatum. §. 1. ff. rem. rat. hab. Panor. in c. per tuas. de cond. app. in fin. & Praepos. in c. 1. cod. tit.: Howbeit, if either Condition had been performed be­fore the other, that Contract were to be preferred, whose Condition was sooner compleated, though it were but a very little Prier. verb. Matrimonium. el. 3. q. 6. in fin. facit Tiraquel. de Judic. in reb. exig. Lin. 3..

28. Unhonest Conditions are they which be contra­ry to Laws or good Manners L. impossibi­lis. ff. de verb. Ob. & ibi DD.; and are often called im­possible, that we should think each thing impossible to be done, which is unlawful to be done L. Si filius. ff. de condic. institut..

29. Unhonest Conditions against the Substance of Matrimony, are they which be repugnant to any of the three Substantial good things, or Blessings for which Matrimony was ordained DD. in c. fin. de cond. appos. extra. namely bonum prolis, bonum fidei, & vinculum individuum Covar. tract. de Sponsal. 2. parte. c. 3. §. 1. n. 1. Silva nupti­alis. lib. 2. in princ. n. 9., the good of Issue, the good of Faithfulness, and the Bond inseparable; Which others call Sacraments, though improperly c. omne 27. q. 2. ex Au­gustino de bono conjugali vei potius de nuptijs & Con­cupiscentiâ. c. 11, & 12. ut animadvertit. Covar. Tract. de Sponsal. 2. parte c. 3. §. 1. n. 2. in fin. Praepof. in Rub. de Sponsal. ex­tra. n. 14.; For, for these three ends was Marriage invented and esta­blished; first, for the procreation of Children to be brought up in the fear of God, whereby his Church may be continued and increased c. omne 27. q. 2. c. pudor. & sequent. 32. q. 2. Praepos. in Rub. de Sponsal. ex­tra. n. 11, & 12. Anto. Gubertus. Tract. de Sponsal. fol. 49. n. 1.. Secondly, for the avoid­ing of Fornication; and that either Party shall be Faith­ful to other, keeping their Vessels undefiled c. quicquid. c. sicut. 32. q. 2. Praepos. ubi Supra. Epist. Paul. ad Corinth. 1. c. 7.. Third­ly, for the mutual Cohabitation and comfortable help [Page 135]and Society, never to be dissolved, so long as the Married Couple should live together, whether it were in prosperity or adversity c. Nuptia­rum. 27. q. 1. c. omne. 27. q. 2. Praepos. in c. ult. de cond. ap. pos. n. 3.. Wherefore these Condi­tions [Si prolis generationem evitaveris, if thou shalt a­void generation of Children, Si adulterand' te tradide­ris, if thou wilt play the Adulteress, Donec inveniam meliorem, until I find a better].

30. These Conditions, I say, and every of them are not only unhonest, but also against the Substance of Matrimony, for that they be opposed to those things, without the which true Matrimony cannot consist Text. in c. ultim. de con­dic. appos. ex­tra. & ibi Prae­pos. n. 5. Covar. tract. de Spon­sal. 2. parte c. 3. §. 1. n. 1. Sil­vester Prier. verb. Matrimo­nium §. 4. q. 5.; and therefore if two Persons shall contract Spousals or Matrimony together, under any of these aforesaid Con­ditions, this their Contract is void in Law d.c. ultim. infra parte. c. aliquando. 32. q. 2. faciat L. cum lic. §. Si praeter. ff. de transac.: Whereas if the Condition were only unhonest, but not against the Substance of Matrimony, the Condition were rejected, and the Contract good eod. c. ultim. secunda parte.; either of which Rules have their several Ampliations and Limitations: But before we descend thereunto, it is requisite to foresee what may be objected against the former general Rule.

31. First therefore, where I affirmed this Condition [Si prolis generationem evitaveris, if thou shalt avoid the generation of Children] destroyeth the Contract c. ultim. de condic. app. ex­tra. c. aliquan­do. 32. q. 2., be­cause it doth withstand the first and principal good of Matrimony, viz. bonum prolis Praepos. in d.c. ultim. n. 2. Covar. tract. de Sponsal. 2. par­te. c. 3. §. 1. in princ., the good of Children. It may be objected; That if a Man do contract Matri­mony with a Woman conditionally, [if she shall lead her life in perpetual Continency] doth not make void the Contract Bald. in. 4. di­stinct. 30. q. 2. conclus. 2. de quo Covar. ubi su­pra.: This Condition (albeit directly against the first and principal end of Marriage, namely bonum prolis, the good of Children) is not void, which obje­ction is the rather confirmed by the example of Joseph [Page 136]and Mary, betwixt whom there was true, perfect and inseparable Matrimony, notwithstanding the true, per­fect and perpetual Continency and Chastity, vowed and performed by the blessed Virgin vide Covar. Tract. de Spon­sal. 2. parte c. 3. §. 1. n. 3.: Nevertheless this Ex­ample doth not prove the former Position; For though it be very true, that the blessed Virgin had determined and resolved with her self faithfully to keep the Vow of Virginity; Yet as the Doctors do testifie, proposuit se servaturam virginitatis votum in Corde, ipsa autem votum non expressit ore c. Beata Ma­ria. 27. q. 2. post. August. de bono conjugali. Gloss. in c. sufficiat. 22. q. 2. verb. voti virginalia., She purposed to keep the Vow of Virginity in her Heart, but she did not express this Vow with her Mouth: And so the blessed Virgin did so Vow Virginity, as therein she did not any thing against the Substance of Matrimony Covar. tract. de Sponsal. 2. parte c. 3. §. 1. n. 4.. Like as on the other side, she did so consent to Matrimony, as she did nothing con­trary to Virginity; Consensit enim, non in actum Copulae, sed in potentiam, certior divinitùs facta Josephum in eodem Castitatis voto permansurum, nec eam cogniturum Covar. ubi supra. post. Tho. in 4. distinct. 30. q. 2. ar. 1. c. Con­jux. 27. q. 2. ex Augustino. de nuptiis & Con­cupiscen. c. 11, & 12. unde Grati­anus assumpsit, tametsi in L. de­cretorum tribu­atur. August. in lib. de bono Conjugij. ut refert Covar. ubi supra.; She consented not unto the Act of Copulation, but unto the power, being divinely assured that Joseph was to continue in the same Vow of Chastity, and would not know her. Again in this sacred Marriage betwixt Joseph and Mary, there were all these three good things above recited, That is to say, bonum prolis, quia Christus natus; bonum fidei, quia nullum adulterium; vinculum individuum, quia nullum divortium d. c. omne. 27. q. 2. ex eod. Augustino ubi supra & gloss. in d.c. omne.. The good of Issue, because Christ was born; the good of Faithfulness, because no Adul­tery; the Bond inseparable, because no Divorce.

32. Secondly, where I affirmed, that this Condition [si adulterand' te tradideris, If thou wilt become an A­dulteress] destroyeth the Contract of Matrimony c. ultim de condic. appos. extra., because it is contrary to the second good, for which [Page 137]Matrimony was ordained, which is bonum fidei Praepos. in d. c. ultim. n. 4. Covar. in tract. de Sponsal. 2. parte c. 3. §. 1. n. 1., it is objected and affirmed by others, that this Condition is not against the Substance of Matrimony, (and there­fore doth not destroy the Contract) unless this also had been added, that she should deny to pay her due to her Husband Angel. de Clavas. in Sum­ma. verb. Ma­trimonium. Im­ped. 3. n. 11.; But it is answered, that this faithful­ness doth not only include the debt of Marriage, which one of them ought to yield to other; But this also is excluded, That either of them should yield their Bodies to any other Covar. tract. de Sponsal. 2. parte c. 3. §. 1. n. 2. Prier. in Sum­ma Silvestr. verb. Matrimo­nium. el. 4. q. 6. post Tho. in 4. distinct. 31. q. 1. ar. 2.; And therefore not only that Conditi­on is contra bonum fidei, when they indent not to pay their dues to themselves, but that Condition also of committing filthiness with any other Covar. ubi supra. Licet magis fortasse sit contra bonum fidei, nega­re debitum conjugale quàm alteri commisceri, quemadmodum & ad bonum prolis pertineat, non solam suscipere, sed etiam educare prolem susceptam, at illud principaliùs secundum. Silvestr. verb. Matrimonium. cl. 4. q. 6..

33. Thirdly, where I affirmed that this Condition, [Donec inveniam meliorem, until I find a better] doth make void the Contract Text. in c. ultim. prima par­te de cond. ap­pos. extra., because it is against the third good of Matrimony, id est, vinculum individuum Gloss. & DD. eod. c. ultim. Covar. Tract. de Spon­sal. Secunda parte. c. 3. §. 1. n. 1. in fin. est enim inseparabi­litas essentialis Matrimonij. Teste Silvestr. Prier. verb. Ma­trimonium sect;. 4. q. 5., the inseparable band: It may be objected that this Contract is not Conditional, but Modal, by reason of this word [Donec Zas. in L. centesimus §. fin. ff. de verb. ob. n. 8, & 9. ubi refert se in consilio quodam sal­vasse mulierem, quod non administraret sub Conditione, sed sub modo, facta dispositione quod liberè administret bona relicta, donec permanserit vidua., until]; and therefore the contract is to take place, and so to continue, [donec, until], that accident come to pass L. legatum ff. de annuis leg. Praepos. in c. verum. de Condic. appos. extra. n. 1. & 9.; which because it can never hap­pen (for that the exchange of Wives and Husbands was and is perpetually unlawful Genes. c. 2. vers. 24. Math. c. 19. vers. 6. DD. in d.c. ultim. de cond. appos. extra.; therefore is the Con­tract to continue for ever Imo rejicitur modus contra substantiam actus, censetur quod actus omnino validus L. cum precario. ff. de precar. & in c. ultim. de precar.: Nor is it strange that [Page 138]this word [Donec] should signifie a perpetuity of time, if we will listen unto the Divines, upon these and the like Cases [Donec ponam inimicos tuos Scabellum pedum tuorum Psal. 109. 1.2. Epist. ad Heb. c. 1.13. d. Hieron. contra. Jovinianum. lib. 1. circa. prin., until I make thine Enemies thy Foot-stool; Donec peperit primogenitum filium, until she brought forth her first begotten Son, &c.] Matth. c. 1. in fin. Hyeron. ubi supra. Zas. in L. contissimus. §. ultim. n. 10. ff. de verb. oblig. Moreover suppose the Contract were not Modal, but Conditional L. pater se­verinam. §. ul­tim. ff. de cond. & demon. Bart. in L. 1. eod. Tit., the dif­ferences whereof I have deciphered in my Treatise of Testaments fol. 137. n. 5.; Yet may it be objected, forasmuch as this Condition is not suspensive, but resolutive or ex­tinctive Praepos. in c. ultim. de cond. appos. extra. n. 3. Paul. de Castr. in L. sufficit ff. de Cond. in deb. n. 5. & ibi Jas. n. 5, & 6., that is to say, not hindering the nativity or birth of the Bond or Obligation, but threatning a death or destruction to that which is born Paul. de Castr. ubi su­pra. Cardinal. in c. verum. de Condic. app. ex­tra. Bar. in L. 1. ff. de cond. & demon. n. 15. Tiraquel. de retract. Conven­tional. §. 2. gloss. 1. n. 74. fol. 343. ubi apertissimè docet, quòd Conditio resolutiva non suspendit actum, nec eum facit conditionalem, sed tantum ex eventu eum resolvit, qui interim judicatur ut purus.; forasmuch also as privatio praesupponit habitum L. decem. ff. de verb. oblig. & l. manumissiones. de justit. & jur. ff., as the Logicians teach us Everard. loco à privatione. & Olden. Topic. legal., therefore this resolutive or extinctive Condition doth presuppose a former Act; and such an Act as is to continue, [donec, until] the Condition be extant L. 2. ff. de in diem addict. cum gloss. Paul. & Jas. in d. L. sufficit. Tiraquel. de Retract. conventionel. fol. 347. n. 74. Dec. & Cagnol. in L. is damnum. §. quod pendet. de Reg. Jur. ff., which if it never happen, then remaineth the Contract ever firm and good L. 1. & 2. de in diem addic. ff. & ibi gloss.: So that whether the Contract be Modal or Conditional, it still returneth to this end, that it is not a void Contract per ea quae su­perìus tradita [...]nt, quibus adde Panor. in. c. 1. de cond. app. extra. n. 2. ubi Post. Antho. dicit, quod si contraho Matrimonium tecum, & si non donaveris mihi Centum, volo te reliquere; Centum nunquam datis, Matrimonium, quod à principio tenuit, non potest dissolvi.. To both these Objections one answer might suffice, namely, That whether we imagine the Contract to be Modal or Con­ditional it is not material; for as Conditio doth destroy the Contract when it is against the Substance of Matri­mony, (as is before confirmed), even so doth Modus; So writeth Silvester Prierius Prisc. in suâ summâ verb. Matrimonium. §. 3. n. 12. Accedit Covar. tract. de Sponsal. Secunda parte c. 3. §. 1. n. 8., in these Terms. Idem [Page 139]de Modo dicendum, quod de Conditione, & secundum ean­dem distinctionem; Nam si est contra jus Matrimonij, & apponitur in ipso Cantractu, vitiat Contractum, &c. The same thing is to be spoken of the Mean, which is spo­ken of the Condition, and according to the same di­stinction; for it be against the Law of Matrimony, and be put in the Contract it self, it destroyeth the Contract; To whom I may joyn Covaruvias writing thus; Non tantum per Conditionem contra Substantiam Matrimonij vitiatur ipse Contractus, Sed etiam per Mo­dum Contractus adjectum; Not only by a Condition a­gainst the Substance of Matrimony, is the Contract de­stroyed, but also by a Mean adjoyning to the Contract Covar. tract. de Sponsal. se­cunda parte c. 3. §. 1. n. 7.: But to answer to either Objection severally; where it is said, that the Contract which is made Sub modo, is forthwith to take effect; and so to continue until that quality be extant L. legatum. de an. leg. ff. Zas. in l. cente­simus. §. ultim. de verb. ob. ff. n. 8, & 9. Addic. ad Summam Ho­stiens. in Rub. de condic. appos. §. quae conditio in fin.: That is not true in case this Modus, wherewith the Contract is interrupted, be a­gainst the Substance of the Act Prier. verb. Matrimonium. §. 3. q. 12. c. ul­tim. de cond. app. extra. Co­var. tract. de Sponsal. 2. parte. c. 3. §. 1. n. 8.; Indeed if a Man and a Woman contract Matrimony Sub modo, which is not against the Substance of Matrimony, nor unho­nest, nor unlawful, [As that he shall give her 100 l. at such a day], though he do not give her the Sum pro­mised at the time appointed, yet is not the Matrimo­ny dissolved Prier. ubi su­pra. Summa Rofella. verb. Matrimonium. el. 5. versic. quae est differentia, Idemque Juris est, si sub Conditione resolutivâ Matrimonium sit contractum. Panor. in c. 1. de cond. appos. extra. n. 2.; but it is otherwise in other Contracts L. 1. & 2. ff. de addict. in diem.; and in testamentary dispositions L. pater Severinam. §. ultim. ff. de cond. & demon., from whence these objected Arguments being deduced, prove no­thing against our former assertion Ex separapis non infertur. L. uitim. ff. de Calum. L. neque natales C. de pro­bac. Everard. loco à separatis.: And whereas it is further objected, that this Condition being resolu­tive, [Page 140]doth presuppose a former Act Paui. de Castr. & Jas. in L. sufficit ff. de cond. indeb. Praepos. in c. ultim. de condic. app. extra. n 3., like as priva­tio praesuppoint habitum L. decem. ff. de verb. ob­lig. Everard. loco à privatio­ne.. I answer that a Condition resolutive (properly so called) doth presuppose a former Act DD. in L. pecuniam quam. ff. si cer. pet. Tiraquel. de retract. Novel. fol. 343. n. 74. Panor. in c. ul­tim. de cond. ap­pos. extra., in which Case the Contract is said to be, purus in Capite, conditionalis in Caudâ DD. in L. centessimus §. ultim. praeser­tim. Zas. de verb. oblig. ff., pure or simple in the Head, conditional in the Tail: But in our Case the Con­dition is not properly resolutive; and therefore doth not work any such Supposals, which thing appeareth by Panormitan in these words, Notabis, Quòd Conditio contra Substantiam Matrimonii Contractum impedit, non solum quando est Suspensiva, sed etiam Resolutiva, licet aliqui (sed malè) haec non animadvertentes putarant quòd ex quo semel Matrimonium tenuit, Conditio resolvens debet haberi pro non adjecta, quod est falsum; Nam dico quòd nunquam fuit Matrimonium, & sic proprie non potest dici Conditio resolutiva Panor. in c. ultim. de con­dic. appos. extra. n. 2.. Thou shalt note, that a Con­dition against the substance of Matrimony doth hinder the Contract, not only when it is Suspensive, but also when it is Resolutive, although some Men (but wrong­fully) not marking it, that since the Matrimony once held, this resolving Condition ought to be accompted for rejected, which is false; for I say, that there was never Matrimony, and so the Condition cannot proper­ly be termed resolutive.

34. To conclude therefore whether the Condition be against the first good of Matrimony, as [if thou shalt avoid generation of Children], or against the second good [as if thou shalt play the Adulteress], or against the third good, as [if I shall not find a better, or until I find a better], In every of these Cases (the former objections notwithstanding) the Contract is utterly void, and of none effect Textus est apertissimus in c. ultim. de condic. appos. extra. prima parte. Adde c. solet. &c. aliquando. 32. q. 2., except as followeth after the Amplia­tions of this Rule, which Ampliations are these.

35. The first Ampliation is collected out of the last Objection, that is, whether the Condition be suspen­sive or resolutive; yet resisting the Substance of Matri­mony, it overthroweth the Contract c. ultim. de condic. appos. extra. & ibi. DD..

36. The second Ampliation flowing from the same Fountain is this; Whether the Contract be conditional or modal, yet being against the Substance of Matrimo­ny it is utterly void and frustrate Covar. Tract. de Spon­fal. secunda parte, c. 3. §. 1. n. 7. Silvestr. verb. Matrimo. nium. §. 3. q. 12..

37. The third Ampliation is, That albeit the Parties thus contracted should know each other Carnally, yet should the Contract still remain destitute of legal force and virtue Henr. Boic. & Panor. in c. ultim. de Spon­sal. extra. Co­var. de Sponsal. secunda parte, cap. 3. §. 1. nu. 12. & 16..

38. The fourth Ampliation is, That albeit the Reso­lutive Condition be neither unhonest or unreasonable; yet fighting with the Substance of the Act, it doth mor­tally wound the Contract without hope of recovery Hyppol. de Marsil. Singular. 286. Panor. & Covar. ubi su­pra. Bombin. consil. 35. Are­tin. consil. 82.. For Example; A Man contracteth Matrimony with a Woman conditionally [If she shall live honestly, or If she do never commit Adultery,] whereunto the Woman expresly giveth her Consent. In this Case, howsoever this Resolutive Condition seem very honest and very reasonable, yet because it doth so mightily fight with the perpetuity or third good of Matrimony, which is individuum vinculum, by the received Judgment of all the Interpreters (almost) of the Laws Ecclesiastical, the Contract is dead in Law Panor. Hyppol. Bombin. & Aretin. ubi supra. Covar. Tract. de Spon­sal. secunda. parte, c. 3. §. 1. n. 10. Cardinal. & Praepos. in c. 1. de cond. ap­pos. extra.; insomuch that if the Par­ties so contracted should lye together, and Carnally deal together, yet could not this Conjunction preserve the life, or give any strength to the aforesaid Contract Panor. & DD. in c. ultim. de cond. appos. extra. Hyppol. Singul. 286.. This verily is the Judgment of most Writers in this Case, which also they have generally delivered for a singular and memorable Cautele, whereby any Man (if peradven­ture he were urged to contract Matrimony with any Woman against his liking) might not only seem to con­tract Matrimony with her, but also indeed lye with her, [Page 142]and yet nevertheless be at freedom, and disappoint them of their purpose, who urged him against his Will Hyppol. d. Singul. 286. fa­tetur se hanc Cautelam pri­mum ab Anto. de Burges Hi­spano didicisse, quam etiam plaribus extol­lit Laudibus, veruntamen hujusmodi Cau­telae usus, non passim est pro­bandus, sed tum demum, quum quis opprimitur injuriâ, inquit Covar. Tract. de Sponsal. secunda parte, c. 3. §. 1. 16.. And one Petrus Gerardus de Petrâ Sanctâ, doth confirm it with a pretty History to this effect Gerard. Singular. 21.: Whiles Ge­rardus was Student at Bononia, a fresh Scholar there, a tall and streight Stripling, of a Sanguine Complexion, springing towards the Age of Twenty years, whose Pa­rentage was neither base nor poor, having more delight to be abroad in the City, than to be shut up within a solitary Study, more desirous to behold the fair Faces of beautiful Virgins, than to pore upon an unpleasant Book, or to be acquainted with such as Bartolus and Baldus, and carrying a greater Zeal to examin and try the sharpness of Womens wits, with some pleasant par­ley, than to be urged with subtle Arguments, or oppo­sed with serious Disputations in the Schools: And final­ly, esteeming it in those days (which none doth in these days, neither in Oxford nor Cambridge, nor in the Inns of Courts) a far greater blessedness secretly to kiss the Civil Text of Womens Lips, than publickly to fre­quent the Solemn Lectures of Profound Doctors, inter­preting whatsoever Text either Civil or Divine: This gallant Youth, whose Purse was as well furnished with Tempting Angels, as his Head fraught with pleasant Conceits, often recreating his unwearied Wits, and daily refreshing his untired Senses, after he had taken a diligent Survey of all the whole Army of the amiable Amazons of Bononia, espied one Virgin amongst others, whose excellent Beauty, fine Complexion, courteous Conditions, womanly Modesty, seemly Grace, and o­ther Vertues of Body and Mind, were such, as for the same she was worthily preferred before the rest, albeit they in respect of Wealth, Honour and Friendship, were to be preferred before her (so adverse is Fortune to Na­ture;) Well noteth this Scholar all her Perfections of [Page 143]Nature, and all her wants of Fortune; by the one he is inflamed to Love, by the other he is in hope to speed: Forward therefore he proceedeth, sparing neither Vows nor Gifts, whether to obtain Marriage, or but to reap the only Fruits thereof, let the Sequel shew; but whe­ther this or that it skilleth not; for so perswasive was his Eloquence, as the simple Maid mistrusted not, and of such force were his Gifts, as the poor Soul misliked not: Nevertheless, lest she might seem too credulous to believe all that he spoke, or too amorous to grant all that he desired; to prevent the one, she tried her wo­manly wit with his Scholarly skill, opposing to his fair Promises many grievous Perils; and to avoid the other, she shewed no want of maidenly modesty, by often de­nying his earnest Demands, preferring that one Jewel, which he so desired, before all the Jewels which he had bestowed: In no wise therefore would she yield, and yet would she be conquered in any wise: He perceives and pursues, attending only for opportunity: During which time, her aged and long experienced Parents, un­derstanding the rash Resolutions of the young Couple, did see, but would not see the same, intending indeed by this Bait of their Daughters Beauty to catch the Youth in his own Net, and to force him to marry her, and maintain them. They therefore make fair weather, inviting him to their House very friendly, and there en­tertaining him very civilly. And long it was not, till by the subtilty of the expert Parents, an opportunity was offered to these fervent Lovers, to have accom­plished what they long desired. The Scholar thought verily that now he had got Fortune by the Forehead. But when they were alone, and safe together (as they thought) suddenly her vigilant Parents, with a multi­tude of Kinsfolks, rush upon them, threatning even to kill the Scholar, unless he would presently marry their [Page 144]Daughter. Judge you in what a quandary my young Master now stood, seeing himself thus entrapped, and brought to this Dilemma, either to marry a Woman of poor and base Kindred, or else to hazard the loss of his own life. In vain doth he now wish, that he had been fast at his Book; In vain doth he now repent him, that he preferred Pleasure before Study; and in vain did he oft and earnestly crave a further time to answer; but they were peremptory: Wherefore seeing no other Re­medy, he willed them to send for a Notary, promising that before his departure he would contract Matrimo­ny with their Daughter, which pacified them for the time; and in the mean time, with all speed, he dispatch­ed a secret Messenger to an old Doctor his Tutor, to whom the Case being imparted, he craveth his Coun­sel, in making such a Contract as might satisfie the Pa­rents, but not bind himself. The Tutor adviseth his Pupil to contract Matrimony conditionally, [If she shall live honestly,] or [If she shall not do with another as she she had done with him,] or under some like Resolutive Condition. The Scholar upon the return of the Mes­senger, and the receipt of this Answer, he was adver­tised; wherewith, not only the Party herself, but the Parents also were well appaied, thinking the Conditi­on to be both reasonable and lawful. Which done, the Scholar escaped joyfully, thanked his Tutor heartily, and thence forward applyed his Study more diligently. The covetous Parents, who thought they had been sure of a rich Son in Law, after they had consulted with o­thers, perceived that they were deceived. The young Woman, who lately was a Virgin, remained very sor­rowful, not so much for the loss of that which could not be recovered, as for the loss of her new supposed Husband. Thus whether we respect Histories or Au­thorities, we may perceive how all the Interpreters, [Page 145]with one common Consent, conspire in this, That al­beit the Condition do seem reasonable and honest, yet be­ing Resolutive, it doth utterly destroy the Contract of Matrimony wherewith it is mixed. Only one Writer Melchior. Kling. Tract. de causis matrimo­nial, fol. 75. (of all that I have read) doth run a contrary Course, affirming that this Condition [Si honeste vixeris, If thou shalt live honestly; Si non maechaberis, If thou wilt not commit Adultery] is a secret Condition, such as, were it not expressed, is secretly understood, and therefore that the Contract is not thereby made Conditional, but that the same is pure and simple, as if no such Conditi­on had ever been expressed Arg. l. Condi­tiones extrinse­cus. ff. de cond. & demon L. non recte. C. de side juss.. Howbeit, I do not see how it may be justified, that these be secret Conditions: For albeit to live honestly, and not to commit Adulte­ry, be one of the ends for which Matrimony was insti­tuted, and so always understood and secretly promised, though it were not expressed in the Matrimonial Con­tract c. nuptiarum. 27. q. 1. c. omne. 27. q. 2. Praepos. in c. ultim. de cond. appos. ex­tra. n. 3. Silva nuptialis, fol. (mihi) 135. nu. 9., yet that this formal Promise is understood as a Condition, (that is to say) that if either party should live unhonestly by committing Adultery, the Matrimo­ny were thereupon ipso facto dissolved Nam defici­ente Conditione, ipso jure corruit dispositio, tam inter vivos quam in ultimis voluntatibus. Tiraquel in rep. L. si unquam. C. de revoc. donec. n. 47. quo casu non opus est Ju­dice, Summâ Bald. in L. 1. C. de secund. nup. Cardinal. in Clem. 1. de poenis, vel sufficit declaratoria., (for such is the nature of a Condition) doth not follow Topicus namque lo­cus à fine, tenet solum in bono & malo, inquit Jo. Casus Oxon. in suâ Summâ dialect. fol. 239.: Of which Question nevertheless, and whether for Adultery Matrimony be dissolved à vinculo, or only à mensa & thoro, we shall hereafter discourse more fully: But in the mean time, I dare not trust to this one Man's opi­nion alone, especially against so many. Again, if it were granted, That this Condition [Si honestè vixeris, If thou shalt live honestly,] is tacita Conditio, a secret Condition, Doth it therefore follow that the Contract wherein this secret Condition is expressed, is pure and simple, as if [Page 146]it had not been expressed Nec ipso Jure dissolvi Matri­monium propter Adulterium sed expectandum esse Ecclesiae Ju­dicium, etiamsi Crimen sit noto­rium, Commu­nis est Doctorum opinio. in c. porro. de divor­tiis extra. Mo­raldus Tract. de Matrimonio, fol. 98. qui tum a­liter sentit, si Causa sit noto­ria. Gloss. in c. unic. §. ultim. de despons. im­pub. lib. 6.; Is not that also very doubtful? I refer thee to that I have written of the Nature of secret Conditions supra. eod. §.. Indeed Spousals de futuro may be contracted under this resolutive Conditi­on, [If thou shalt live honestly, &c. Et ita for­tasse voluit ipse Melchior. Kling. loco praed. dum scripsit, Si con­trahentes ita dicunt, promitto tibi nuptias si honestè vixeris, non habetur pro conditione, &c. quae verba (si verum amemus) Sponsalia potiùs quam Matrimo­nium denotant. Goden. lib. 2. consil. matrimonial consil. ibidem 2. n. 6.], because it is certain that such Spousals may be dissolved for Fornica­tion, albeit the Contract were pure and simple, with­out mention of the former Condition c. quemadmodum, de Jure jur. extra. §. Ita si quis.; much more when this Condition [If thou shalt live honestly, If thou shalt not commit Adultery c. de illis. de condic. appos. extra.] is expressed, unless the Parties so espoused do first know each other Carnally, for then it is all one as if they had simply contracted Matrimony d. c. de illis. c. is qui fidem. de Spons. ex­tra. & DD. ibidem., which, as I said, is not utterly dissol­ved for Adultery Intellig as velim hoc procedere Jure tantùm Canonico, quo propter Adulterij delictum separatur quidem Matrimonium, non à vinculo, sed à mensâ & thoro tantum. Panor. in c. ex literis. de divor. extr. n. 5. & omnes Canonistae ibidem.: Moreover, if the Matrimony were separable even à vinculo in Case of Adultery (as some do hold de quibus Schneidwin. Tract. de nuptiis. [...]l. 50. cum seq. Wesenbec. in Tit. de divortiis & repud. ff.,) yet who dare say that in that Case it is dissolved ipso facto Sanctium enim fuit in consil. Carthaginensi (cui interfuit Augustinus) ut nullus conjugatus uxorem dimitteret, nisi probatâ priùs a­pud Episcopum Causa. c. Seculares. 33. q. 2. c. porro. de divortiis extra.: For what if the Party innocent will remit the Fault, and continue the Band of Matri­mony c super eo. de haeretic. in Sext. Memoch. de praesump. l. 3. praesump. 1. n. 19, 20. Schneidwin. de nuptiis, fol. 52. Sed tamen impro­bè Neptunum accusat, qui iterum Naufragium facit.; nay, the Innocent may not only so do, but is severely to be admonished thereunto Schneidwin. ubi supra. vide infra.: Wherefore this Condition [If thou shalt live honestly, or If thou shalt not commit Adultery,] is not a secret Condition, such as is necessarily understood in every Matrimonial Contract (inasmuch as Matrimony may consist, and not be dissolved, the Condition being infringed) but ra­ther a Condition against the Substance of Matrimony, (inasmuch as it is opposite to the perpetuity of Marri­age) [Page 147]and therefore doth overthrow the Contract of Ma­trimony whereunto it is joyned, accordingly as is a­foresaid Panor. in c. ultim. de con­dic. appos. extra. Gerard. Sing. 21. Hyppol. Sing. 286..

39. The first Limitation of the former Rule (viz.) That a Condition against the Substance of Matrimony doth make void the Contract c. ultim. de condic. appos. extra.,) is when the other Party doth directly dissent or gain-say the same Condi­tion, consenting only to the Contract without the Con­dition 32. q. 2. c. aliquando. In­noc. Henr. Boic. & alii in c. ul­tim. de cond. appos. extra.; for in this Case the Contract is good, and shall prevail as Spousals Hostiens. Pa­nor. Praepos. & a­lii in c. ultim. de cond. appos. extr. quorum opinio communis est. Teste Covar. Tract. de Spon­sal. secunda parte, c. 3. §. 1. n. 11. quam & ipse ibidem con­firmat adversus Adr. in 4. q. 9., which by Carnal Copula­tion become true and perfect Matrimony iid. ubi infra..

40. The second Limitation is when the other Party doth neither expresly dissent nor consent to the said Con­dition (yielding Consent to the Contract only); for un­less both the Parties do yield to the Condition the Con­tract is not utterly overthrown: So that the Silence of the one Party doth work the same effect in this Case, which manifest Contradiction did in the former Inno. Boic. Hostiens. Cardi­nal. & Praepos. in c. ultim. de cond. appos. ex­tra..

41. The third Limitation is when as the Parties do first Contract Matrimony, and then the Contract be­ing perfect, add a Condition against the Substance of the Act; for then, albeit both Parties do expresly give their mutual Consents to this Condition, yet doth it not hurt the former perfect Contract Praepos. in d. c. ultim. de condic. app. facit L. per Servum. §. 1. cum L. seq. ff. de usu & hab. ubi di­stinguitur an in eadem oratione vel diversâ adjiciatur Conditio, vel modus, contra Substantiam Actus..

42. Unhonest Conditions, which be not against the Substance of Matrimony, do not hinder the validity of the Contract of Spousals or Matrimony, whereunto they be joyned c. ultim. de cond. appos. extra. secunda parte. Praepos. in c. 1. de Spons. duo­rum. extra. n. 4. ubi refert quod communi DD. opin. text. d. c. ultim. qui loquitur in Matrimonio extenditur ad Sponsalia., but are reputed for rejected, and that in favour of Matrimony DD. in d. c. ultim. Covar. Tract. de Sponsal. secunda parte, c. 3. §. 1. n. 1. & 2., for it is otherwise in other Contracts by the Civil Law L. impossibilis ff. de verb. oblig. §. Si impossibilis. Instit. de mutil. sti. pul.; and therefore if [Page 148]a Man and a Woman do contract Spousals or Matrimo­ny together, conditionally if he or she shall commit Theft or Murder, this Condition is rejected, and the Contract pure and simple Summa Ho­stiens. in Rub. de condic. appos. §. quae conditio. Melchior. Kling. Tract. de caus. Matrim. fol. 76. Covar. tract. de despons. secun­da parte c. 3. §2. in prin. per d. c. fin. de cond. app. extra.; Nevertheless, it is not per­petually true that the unhonest Condition is rejected in Matrimonial Contracts; for if the Parties do believe the same condition to be honest Covar. Tract. de caus. Matrimonial. secunda parte. c. 3. §. 2. n. 16., or if the unhonest Condition be only of a thing past or present, and not future Idem Covar. d. §. 2. n. 2.; or when the Parties do expresly covenant not to consent, unless that unhonest Condition be ac­complished Hadrian. in 4. de Matrimonio. q. 6. & Covar. d. §. 2. n. 5., in these Cases the Condition is not re­jected, but maketh void the Contract.

43. What if a Man contract Matrimony or Spousals with a Woman conditionally, If she shall suffer him to have the use of her Body carnally, or to beget her with Child, Whether is this Contract pure and simple or conditional De hac L. vide gloss. & Doctores in c. 1. de Spons. duorum. extra.? Divers hold, that whether the Parties do mean of unhonest and adulterous Copulation, or of Matrimonial Conjunction, the Contract is still pure and simple Gloss. in c. 1. de Spons. duo­rum extra. verb. si Permiserit. in princ.: In the former Case it is pure and simple (say they), because unhonest Conditions are rejected from the Contract, when they be not against the Substance thereof Gloss. in d. c. 1. per. c. ultim. de condic. ap­pos. extra. Boer. consil. 40. n. 128. Panor. in d. c. 1. n. 6.; and in the second Case much more is the Con­tract pure and simple, because Matrimonial Copulation is a secret Condition necessarily understood Gloss. praeall. & Praepos. in d. c. 1. de Spons. duorum n. 4.; and to that end especially is Matrimony contracted §. cum ergo. 27. q. 2. Praepos. ubi supra.; Others make difference, whether Matrimony be contracted under the foresaid Conditions or Spousals only Prier. in Summa quae dici­tur. Silvestrin. verb. Matrimonium. cl. 3. q. 7. Cardinal. in c. 1. de Spons. duorum. extra. q. 1. versic. in proposito.: When Matrimony is contracted under the foresaid Conditions, [Page 149]As [I do take thee to my Wife, if thou shalt suffer me, &c.] then is the Contract pure and simple Cardinal. in c. 1. de Spons. duorum extra. q. 1. verb. in proposito, quod verum existimo sive de fornica­rio Coitu sit in­telligend', quo Gosu rejicitur conditio, utpote turpis & inho­nesta, & sic erit Matrimoni­um, vel ante copulam. Clavas. in Summa An­gelicâ verb. Ma­trimonium im­pediment. 3. n. 9. sive de Matri­moniali Coitu, & tunc ex ipso partium Consen­su in hujusmodi Copulâ starim efficitur Matri­monium, ponde­rando verba, in­quit Cardinal. ubi supra.; And these words [if thou shalt suffer me, &c.] are to be under­stood causative, or as though the Party had said [be­cause thou shalt suffer me, &c. Tancred. in c. 1. de. Spons. duorum ex­tra. de quo ibidem gloss. & Praepos. n. 4.:] When Spousals are contracted under the Condition aforesaid, as [I will take thee to my Wife, or I will contract Matrimony if thou shalt permit me, &c.] Then if the Parties did mean of an unlawful Conjunction, the Condition by the O­pinion of divers Silvestr. Prier. verb. Matrimonium §. 3. q. 7. verb. mihi autem, &c. & Boer. consil. 40. n. 128. Panor. Post. gloss. in c. 1. de Sponsâ, duorum. n. 6. & ibi Cardinal. q. 1. in fin. Quod tamen non placet omnibus, & fortasse communis est opinio, quod ista verba (Si permiserit se cognosci) tum demum Conditionem faciunt, quando de fornica­rio Coitu intelligantur, nempe quando Conditio aliter exprimatur quam inest. Vide Praepos. in d. c. 1. n. 6. & Melchior Kling. Tract. de caus. Matrimonial. fol. 75. in fin. is rejected; and so in effect, as if they had contracted Spousals simply c. ultim de Spons. extra.: But if they did not mean of any unlawful Conjunction, then is the Contract conditional, and is suspended until the Con­dition be accomplished Cardinal. in d. c. 1. de Spons. duorum op. secunda in fin. Prior. verb. Ma­trimonium §. 3. q. 7. vers. Si vero sit honesta. Contrarium tamen tenet Praepos. in d. c. 1. n. 4. Ubi dicit hanc Conditionem nihil operari quia non aliter exprimitur quam inest.. If it do not appear whe­ther the Parties did mean of a lawful or unlawful Con­junction, for the avoiding of Sin the Law presumeth they meant honestly Covar. Tract. de Sponsal. secunda parte. c. 3. §. 2. in fin. Praepos. in c. 1. de Spons.duorum. n. 5. verb. In contrariam.; whereby the Contract is made conditional, and is suspended (as is aforesaid) un­til the Condition be performed Cardinal. in c. 1. de Spons. duorum. op. secunda. in fin. Prier. verb. Matrimonium §. 3. q. 7., which Condition being once performed, it is a question whether these Spousals remain Spousals, or they do pass from Spou­sals into Matrimony de quâ q. DD. in c. 1. de Spons. duorum extra.; Wherein some affirm that they be no more than Spousals still Vincen. in d. c. 1. de Spons. duo­rem extra. & post eum Jo. And. ibidem Silvestr. Prier. verb. Matrimonium §. 3. q. 7. versic. Si verò sit: honesta.: And although the Condition be now accomplished, whereby the Spou­sals, [Page 150]which before such accomplishment were conditio­nal, are now purified, and as it were without Con­dition c. de illis. &c. super co. de cond. appos. ex­tra. & ibi DD. & in c. fraterni­tatis. de frigid. & malefic.; Yet this removing of the Condition hath no further force, save only to make that simple, which before was conditional: So that whereas these Spou­sals were at first conditional, the Condition being re­moved, they become of Conditional Spousals, simple Spousals d. c. de if lis., but yet Spousals still, not Matrimony Unicen. & Jo. And. in d.c. 1. de Spons. duorum.. Like as when two Parties contract Spousals condi­tionally, by promising that they will Marry together, if their Parents shall consent Contrahunt. namque sub conditione sponsalia, etiam de futuro c. de illis de cond. appos. & ibi Panor. n. 2., the Parties consenting, it is no more than if they had promised simply to Marry Panor. in. d. c. de illis., which promise of future Marriage (albeit simple and without Condition), doth import no more but Spousals L 1. de Spon­sal. ff.: Nevertheless it is confessed by the Au­thors of this Opinion, that if the Parties contracting Spousals conditionally, [If she shall suffer him to have the use of her Body] proceed to the second Act of Ge­neration, then, as by the first Act the conditional Spou­sals are made simple, so by the second Act, these simple Spousals are translated into Matrimony Unicen. Jo. And. & alii in c. 1. de Spons. duorum. Henr. Boic. in c. ultim. de cond. appos. in fin.; Others (whose Opinion is more commonly received) do affirm, that even by the perfection of the first Act of genera­tion, the foresaid Spousals are not only purified from the foresaid Condition, but are also turned into Ma­trimony Praepos. in c. 1. de Spons. duorum extra. n. 5. verb. in con­trarium. Covar. Tract. de Spons. 2 parte. c. 3. §. 2. n. 13. Summa Rosella verb. Matrimonium. el. 5. versic. Quod si quis contraxit, &c. Melch. Kling. Tract. de caus. Matri­manial. fol. 75. in fin.. Whose reason is, that forasmuch as the Parties did mean of an honest and lawful Copulation, they did thereby intend a Matrimonial Consummation; and consequently by the accomplishment of that in­tended Condition, the aforesaid Spousals became Ma­trimony Covar. tract. de Sponsal. secundâ parte. c. 3. §. 2. in fin. Cardin. in c. 1. de Spons. duorum. Summa Rosella ubi supra., none otherwise than when two Parties [Page 151]contracting Spousals conditionally, viz. That they will Marry, if their Parents will consent; and dealing toge­ther Carnally before the accomplishment of the Condi­tion, are not only said to have thereby renounced the Condition, but also in the same moment to have tran­slated the same Spousals into Matrimony DD. & prae­sertim. Panor. & Praepos. in c. de illis de cond. appos. extra.; And so I take it to be, when as the Parties do contract Spou­sals in this form, [If thou wilt permit me to have the use of thy Body, I will Marry thee, if ever I Marry Summa An­gel. verb. Mo­trimonium. im­pediment. 3. n. 9. Addic. ad Ho­stiens. Summa. in Rub. de con­dic. appos. §. quae conditio. in fin. Summa Ro­sell. verb. Ma­trimonium. el. 5. versic. quid si quis contrahat. in fin.], that is to say, if the Parties meant unhonestly the Condition is rejected, if honestly the Contract is suspended, but the Condition being once accomplished, the Spousals are not only purified, but turned into Ma­trimony ibidem.. But if the Contract be made in this wise If thou wilt suffer me, I will never forsake thee] albeit she do suffer him, yet thereby neither Matrimony, nei­ther Spousals are contracted or confirmed Baptista in Summa Rosella. verb. Matrimo­nium el. 5. verb. quid. si dicat. Silvestr. Prier. verb. Matrimo­nium el. 2. q. 13. facit. Covar. Tract. de Spon­sal. c. 4. §. 1. n. 3. in fin.; for albe­it the Condition being accomplished, the Contract seemeth to be purified, or as though no Condition had been expressed c. de illis. &c. super eo. de condic. ap­pos. extra. & DD. ibidem.; Yet this admitted, it relieveth not, because these words [I will never forsake thee], being uttered simply, or without any Condition, infer nei­ther Matrimony nor Spousals Baptista & Silvester. post. Monald. ubi supra., because they be meer negative; And therefore, unles it may appear by some other Conjectures, that the Parties did thereby intend to contract Matrimony or Spousals, it is as if the Par­ties had not spoken any words at all Iidem ibidem, quibus adde Covar. Tract. de Sponsal. 2. parte c. 4. §. 1. n. 7.; Or if the Contract be conceived alternatively in these Terms [If thou shalt suffer me, &c. I will take thee to my Wife, or I will give thee 100 l. Summa Rosella, & Summa Silvestrin. ubi supra.] though she do suffer him, yet is it in his Choice (by the received Opinion) whether [Page 152]he will Marry her, or give her 100 l. Silvestr. Prier. verb. ma­trimonium. el. 3. q. 7. in fin. Cla­vas. verb matri­monium, 3. n. 8. Baptista verb. matrimonium. el. 5 versic. quid si dicat. si permiseris, &c.; and if he give her the Mony, he is delivered from Marriage Nam Regu­la est, quod in alternativis, debitoris est e­lectio. L. ple­runque. ff. de Jur. Dot. L. quid autem. § si ma­ritus. ff. de do­na vit. vir. & ux. L. eum qui certarum. §. ul­tim. de verb. ob. ff. quam tamen regulam multi­fariam limitat Ripa. in c. in­ter caeteras. de Rescr. extra.; but if he refuse, or delay to give her the Mony, he is bound to Marry her Arg. L. mancipiorum. ff. de opt. leg. Franc. Ripa. in c. inter caeteras. de Rescr. extra. n. 72..

44. What shall we say to this Condition, [Si te Vir­ginem invenero, Si in primo Coitu mihi placueris; If I shall find thee a Virgin, If thou shalt please me when I first deal with thee?]

45. Some hold that this is an unhonest Condition, and therefore rejected Innoc. in c. de illis. de cond. appos. extra. post gloss. ibidem., and consequently that the Contract is pure and simple, Whether she be a Maid, or not a Maid; or whether she please or displease at the Trial Hostiens. in Rub. de condit. appos. extra. §. quae conditio. verb. quid si contraho; de quo Melchior Kling. Tract. de caus. matrimonii. fol. 75. in princ. & Wessenb. in Tit. de ritu nupt. ff. n. 8. verb. Quid si quòd ipsi Theologi, &c. Summa Rosella. verb. matrimonium. el. 5. vers. quid si dicat accipiam, &c.. Others hold, That albeit the Act be unho­nest, yet is the Condition not unhonest, and therefore not rejected, but suspendeth the Contract until the Act be compleated, whereby it may appear whether she be a Maid or no Henr. Boic. in c. si Conditiones. de condic. appos. extra. versus fin.; and then if it appear that she be a Maid the Contract is good, but if she appear to be no Maid, the Contract is void Henr. Boic. ubi supra. & Melchior Kling. Tract. de caus. matrimonal. fol. 75.; else she being privy to her own Fault, should reap a benefit by her own De­ceit Sed ex dolo nemo debet reportare commodum, nec dolus dolo­so prodest L. verum §. hoc quoque ff. pro Socio. Bald. in L. si infantem. C. de legatis.; wherefore going about to deceive another, she remaineth without remedy, if she be deceived herself Dolo Dolus ommpensatur L. demum in fin. ff. de contrahend' Emp. sed viro decepto subvenitur, qui forte voluit vitare bigamiam, inquiunt Henr. Boic. & Melchior Kling. ubi supra.. And they say further, That in case she be not a Maid, and the truth cannot appear, the Man is not tied in Conscience to retain her for his Wife Henr. Boic. in c. si Conditiones. de cond. appos. extra. Kling. Tract. de caus. matrimonial. fol. 75.: Nevertheless, as well for the defect of proof, as for the scandal which otherwise would ensue, the Law will charge him to en­tertain [Page 153]her as his Wife Boic. & Kling. ubi su­pra.. A third sort (whose Judg­ment is commonly received) do put a difference in the Understanding of these words, [If I shall find thee a Virgin, &c. Cardinal. & Praepos. in c. per tuas de con­dic. appos. extra. Summa Angel. verb. matrimo­nium. Impedi­ment. 3. n. 7.] for she may be found a Virgin by ho­nest means, that is to say, by the view and inspection of her Body by honest Matrons. The words therefore being taken in this Sense, that is to say, [If I shall find thee a Virgin by the view of honest and skilful Matrons] the Condition is honest, suspending the Contract until the event of the Condition Cardinal. & Praepos. in d. c. per tuas.; and then, if being thus viewed, she be found a Virgin, the Condition is purifi­ed, and the Contract made pure and simple Cardinal. & Praepos. ubi su­pra. Clavas. in Summa Angeli­câ qui dicit quod hanc opi­nionem DD. communiter se­quuntur.; or if by the same means she be found no Virgin, then is the Contract dasht, and of no force, unless before the view he himself do know her Boer. consil. 40. n. 129.: But when these words [If I shall find thee a Virgin,] are not referred to the Trial by Matrons, but by Carnal Copulation, then is the Condition rejected as dishonest, and the Contract pure and simple, whether she be a Maid or no Maid gloss. in d. c. per tuas. & ibi Cardinal. & Praepos. Covar. Tract. de Spons. secunda parte, c. 3. §. 2. n. 12.: With greater reason then is this Condition rejected, [Si mihi in primo Coitu placueris] albeit he were deceived of his expectation; And though she peradventure carried a deceitful meaning in so promising, yet without perad­venture he did carry a sinful mind in exacting the per­formance of such an unhonest Condition Inno. in c. de illis de con­dic. appos. extra. Vide Wessenb. in Tit. de ritu nup. ff..

ibidem.

SECT. XIII. Of contracting Spousals either betwixt Parties present or absent.

1. THirdly, Spousals be contracted either betwixt them that be present, or betwixt them that be absent Melchior. Kling. Tract. de caus. matrimo­nial. fol. 2. c. ul­tim. de procur. in Sext. Covar. Tract. de Spons. secunda parte, c. 4. n. 7. Anto. Gubert. Tract. de Spon­sal. fol. 24. n. 18. Summa Silve­strin. verb. Spon­sala. q. 2. in fin. lib. 2. consil. matrimonial. consil. ibidem 13. n. 2. cum seq. & consil. 17. n. 3.. Present (I mean) when the one Party is within the compass of the others Sense, especially of hearing, &c. Gloss. & Cardinal. in Clem. c. dudum de Sepul. §. statui­mus. verb. praesentari.. Absent when the one doth not hear nor apprehend the other with any Sense L. absentem. & ibi gloss. & DD. de Verb. Sign. ff.. When they which be present Contract Spousals or Matrimony to­gether, it is a question whether it be necessary to the Validity of the Contract, that both the Parties do at one time express their mutual Consents, and uttering the words of the Contract immediately one after another; or whether it be sufficient that the one Party do signi­fie his or her Consent at one time, and the other Par­ty at another time de hac q. omnes fore DD. in c. dilectus. & in c. pen. de Spons. extra. & Covar. Tract. de Sponsal. secunda parte. c. 4. in princ. n. 6. & 7..

2. In which Question some pull this way Et quidem non esse necessa­rium, utriusque consensum eodem tempore exprimi tenent Hostiens. Jo. And. Praepos. quorum opinio ut est communior. Teste Covar. ubi supra. ita & aequior, Teste Panor. in. d. c. cum dilectus. licet ipse refragetur., and o­thers draw that way At simul consentiend', & incontinenti respondend', docent Specul. in Tit. de Sponsal. per l. continuas. & l. 1. in princ. ff. de verb. ob. Panor. in d. c. dilectus. in fin. Antonius consil. 64. & hanc opinionem in jur' tutiorem & veriorem affirmat Panor. loco praealleg.; but they may be reconciled by [Page 155]this distinction; for either doth that Party, whose Con­sent was first uttered, persevere and continue in the same mind and purpose, without change or alteration, until the other Party do promise and express the like Consent; and then is the Contract good notwithstanding the long distance of time coming betwixt the expressing of their several Consents Henr. Boic. in c. cum dile­ctus. de Sponsal. extra. Zas. cons. 4. n. 8. in fin. vol. 2. Anto. Quetta. Cujus consil. extant in lib. 2. consil. matrimonial. consil. ibidem 13. n. 16. versic. & quidem per distinctionem, &c. Cardinal. in c. pen. de Spons. q. 1. Paris. con­sil. 55. n. 16. Prier. verb. ma­trimonium. el. 2. q. 6.; or else doth not that Party, which first spoke the words of the Contract, persevere and continue still in the same mind, until the other Party likewise yield express Consent, but doth repent in the mean time, and then is not the Contract of any force at all Anto. Quetta. d. consil. 13. n. 7. Henr. Boic. ubi supra. Praepos. in c. si inter. de Sponsal. extra. notab. 3. Paris. consil. 55. n. 16. Za s. d. cons. 4. vol. 2. n. 8. in fin. Alciat. in L. 1. §. qui praesens. ff. de verb. oblig n. 12. Summa. Silvestr. verb. matrimonium. §. 2. q. 6.: For howsoever it be not necessary, that the Parties contracting Spousals or Matrimony, should speak both at once, or signifie their mutual Consents immedi­ately one after another Covar. Tract. de Sponsal. secunda parte c. 4. n. 6. in fin. Ferret cons. 246. n. 6.; yet is it more than necessa­ry that both their Consents concur together at one and the same instant c. si inter. de Sponsal. extra. ibi mutuo. & Praepos. in eod c. notab. 3. facit gloss. in L. consensu. ff. de action. & oblig. Molin. in l. 1. §. 1. de verb. obl. ff. n. 13 cum seq. Accedit c. quia propter. &c. cum post. de elect. extra. lib. 2. cons. Matrimonial. consil­ibidem 13. n. 7. Boic. in d. c. cum dilectus., which thing also the propriety of the word Consent doth import; for [Consensus] is as much as [simul Sensus Dominicus. de S. Gem. in c. si oblato. de li­tis contest. in Sext. Spiegel. lexic. verb. consentire.,] an agreeing together at one time, without which Consent or mutual Agreement at one and the same Instant, certainly neither Matrimony nor Spousals can consist c. Tuae, &c. si inter de Spons. extra. L. nuptias ff. de Reg. Jur. de consil. 13. n. 7..

3. But now having crept out of one Question, we slip into another no less doubtful, nor no less needful to be known than the former; for what if it do not appear by any outward Act, whether the Party, [Page 156]whose Consent was first expressed, do persevere in the same mind or not, whether shall this Party be pre­sumed still to continue thus aminded, until the other Party likewise signifie his or her mind, yea or no de hac q. [...] Zasius. consil. 4. & 5. vol. 2.? Here again is hard holding and drawing amongst the Doctors DD. in L. 1. §. qui prae­sens. ff. de verb. oblig.; for some tell us that he is pre­sumed Dominic. in c. 2. de Lit. cont. in Sext. Ferretus consil. 246. n. 6. Zasius consil. 5. vol. 2. n. 7. vers. Sed nunc habeo, &c. Menoch. de prae­sump. lib. 6. concl. 37. lib. 2. consil. matr. consil. ibidem 13. n. 7. in fin. to persevere in the same mind still, when the contrary doth not appear; others teach the contra­ry Praepos. in c. si inter. de Sponsal. extra. notab. 1. Anto. Gubert. cujus Consilium extat in lib. 1. consil. matrimo­nial. consil. ibidem 83. n. 16. lib. 2. cons. matr. consil. ibidem 7. n. 14. Zas. consil. 4. vol. 2. n. 8..

4. The Reasons of the Affirmative are chiefly these, Mutatio non praesumitur L. eum qui ff. de probat. c. majores. de Baptist. extra., inconstantia reprobatur Menoch. de praesump. lib. 6. praesump. 37., Change or Alteration is not presumed, Inconstancy is reproved; which Rule is beautified with many Cases and Examples Menoch. ubi supra. Mas­card. de probat­concl. 1082. & concl. 14, 15., which because they be not so per­tinent to our purpose, I omit. Again, thus speaketh the Text; Si praesens interrogavit, & antequam respon­deretur discessit, & reverso responsum est, obligat L. 1. §. qui praesens. ff. de verb. oblig.; If one present do interrogate and depart before answer, and returning, being answered, it bindeth.

5. The Reasons of the Negative are these: To per­severe is to do L. quicquid iracundiae calo­re. ff. de Reg. Jur. L. diffamari §. si igitur C. de ingen. manu­miss. L. divor­tium. ff. de divor. & repud.; now this is a common Rule, Facta non praesumuntur nisi probentur L. in libello. §. facta. ff. de captiv. & posthum. c. Cum Johan­nes. §. verum. de fide Instrum. extra. Mascard. de probat. conclus. 732., Facts are not pre­sumed unless they be proved, and therefore to persevere is not presumed, when it is not proved. Again, there is a Text which saith thus, Si post interrogationem aliud agere cae­perit, nihil proderit quamvis eâdem die spospondisset L. continuus. de verb. oblig. ff., [Page 157]If any after he be interrogated begin to do any other thing, it shall not profit, though he promise the same day; So we see here in this question, here is Opinion a­gainst Opinion, Reason against Reason, and Text a­gainst Text.

6. But howsoever Men be contrary in Opinions, nei­ther is reason nor Law contrary to it self L. cum qui­dam. §. suum. & ibi Bart. de ac­quir. haered. ff.; Thus therefore is the Contradiction reconciled, The distance of time betwixt the promise of the one Party, and of the other is to be regarded, namely whether it be long or short Zasius. consil. 5. vol. 2. n. 13. quod quidem consilium fuit Ant. Quettae. ut patet. lib. 2. con­sil. Matrimoni­um. consil. ibi­dem 13. Idem Zas. consil. 4. vol. 2. at istud consilium est Pa­risij, id quod ex illius subscripti­one clarum est. n. 34. & inve­nitur apud eund. Paris. lib. 4. con­sil. 55.; if long, then is not the Party, which first promised presumed to persevere in the same mind until the other Party likewise promise Zas. consil. 5. vol. 2. n. 13. lib. 2. consil. Matr. cons. ibidem 13. n. 13. Covar. Tract. de Sponsal. 2. parte. c. 4. in princ. n. 7. DD. in L. 1. §. 1. ff. de verb. oblig.; And therefore (for example) if this day the Man do promise unto the Wo­man, that [he will, or that he doth take her to his Wife]; and she make the like promise to him the next day, this Contract is not good Zas. de consil. 5. n. 14, & 15. lib. 2. cons. matr. consil. ibidem 13. n. 14, 15. Covar. ubi supra. Paris. consil. 55. vol. 4. n. 14. in fin. Jas. in l. ait praetor §. Si neque ff. n. 3. & 10. & commu­niter DD. in l. 1. §. 1. ff. de verb. ob., nor is the Man presumed to persevere so long in the same promise Zas. Jas. Paris. & Covar. ubi supra. Molin. in d. §. qui praesens n. 4. Alciat. ibidem n. 12. & ita exaudiendi sunt Praepos. in c. pen. de Spons. extra. & alij tenentes, non praesumi perseverantiam con. Dominic. in c. 2. de litis contest. in Sext. 6. & alios contrarium statuentes.; For it is a­greed upon, and concluded generally amongst all the Writers almost, of Fame and Estimation, That the space of one day is a long time in this matter of Contracts, wherein mutual Consent is requisite Bar. in l. 1. §. 1. ff. de verb. ob. ff. n. 1. quem ibi sequuntur commu­niter DD. nempe Imol. & Jas. n. 9. & Ripa. n. 15. qui monet nè discedamus ab. op. communi. Zas. d. cons. 5. n. 14.; much less then if the Woman promise this day, and the Man next day, is she presumed to persevere so long, the fragility and mutability of the faeminine Sex considered Menoch. de praesump. lib. 6. Praes. 37. n. 42. dec. consil. 163. n. 26. c. forus. de verb. sig. extra.; In this Case therefore that Rule, Mutatio non praesumitur hath no place, neither that Text, Si praesens interrogavit, &c. [Page 158]Where it is said, if one present do interrogate and depart before answer; and returning, answer be made, this is a good Contract; for it followeth in the very next Sen­tence, Intervallum enim medij temporis modicum non vi­tiat obligationem L. 1. §. qui praesens. in fin. ff. de verb. ob., The distance of the mean time be­ing small, doth not destroy the bond. So that it is evident, that that Text doth not speak in our case, where the distance is great.

7. Nevertheless this Conclusion, that by long distance of time the Continuance of this mutual Consent is in­terrupted, and so the Contract void quam con­clusionem, viz. longum inter­vallum solum, sine alio actu contrario vel extraneo contra­ctum vitiare communi DD. calculo con. Gloss. & Paul. de castro, recep­tam ostendunt Jas. in d. §. 1. n. 8. Alciat. ibi­dem n. 21. Ripa n. 7. quibus ac­cedit Covar. Tract. de Spon­sal. n. 7., is not free from all Exceptions Vide Ripam in l. 1. §. 1. ff. de verb. ob. n. 11. ubi tradita est regula tribus limitationibus illustrata.: First therefore, if the Parties conti­nue still present without departure from the place; and without dealing in any other Act, contrary or imper­tinent to the matter in hand, the long distance alone doth not interrupt, or hinder the validity of the Con­tract Paul. de Castro. in d. §. qui praesens. vers. Recoillige, &c. Ripa ibidem. n. 12. ubi hanc limitationem va­rijs confirmat medijs. Alciat. quoque codem §. n. 24. qui tum in fine labitur.: As for the purpose, the Man deliberately pro­nounceth the words of the Contract before the Woman, and asketh her, whether she be content to make the like promise to him. She answereth, I will first confer with my Friends, or with my Counsel; which Confe­rence perhaps continueth a whole day, or somewhat more, the Man still attending her answer Secus enim esset, si discederet & ex intervallo rediret, quia palam est, actûs contumacionem per discessum (nisi statim revertatur) interrumpi. d. §. qui praesens.; And in the end without any new interrogation, she pronoun­ceth the like words to him as he did to her, This I hold for a good Contract Ripa in d. §. qui praesens. n. 12. post. Castrensem ibidem. Adde Molin. eod. loco. d. 9. quorum opinio eo faciliùs procedit in Con­tractu Matrimonali; quo hic alijs Stipulationibus est favorabilior Zas. in L. Si Stipuler. §. fin. n. 7. & hoc Casu procedit opinio Archid. quem sequitur Dominic. in c. si oblato de lit. contest. in Sext. Ferretus cons. 446. n. 6..

8. Secondly, if a certain time be appointed wherein to deliberate, as if the Man do promise this day, and the Woman obtaineth respite for her answer, until the next day; whereupon the Man departeth, and return­eth at the time appointed; if then the Woman make the like promise to the Man, not dissenting then, nor having erst repented of his former promise; I suppose the Contract to be of like effect, as if there had not been either, distance of time, or departure from the place Alciat. in L. 1. §. qui praes. ff. de verb. ob. n. 24. & Ripa ibi­dem n. 11. Imol. in L. Si Stipuler. §. fin. de verb. oblig. Alex. consil. 107. vol. 1. idem affirmant Jas. in l. Si stipuler. §. Si in locando. ff. de verb. oblig. & Molin. in d. §. qui praesens. n. 17. si viz. & quatenus constet de perseverantiâ alterius. vide Addic. purpurat. ad Jas. in d. § qui praesens..

9. Thirdly, If the Party, who first promised, do at the promise of the other Party, following a long time after, accept the same, and consent thereunto; then is the Contract good, by reason of this new Consent concurring with the late answer L. si Stipu­ler. §. Si in lo­cando. ff. de verb. oblig. & ibi Imol. & DD. Molin. in d. §. qui praesens. ff. de verb. oblig. n. 17..

10. If the time betwixt the promise of the one Par­ty and of the other, be not long, that is to say, not above a day Bar. & post cum DD. in l. 1. §. 1. de Verb. oblig. (I mean a natural, not Artificial day) Zas. consil. 5. vol. 2. n. 15. quod consil. ex­tat. lib. 2. con­sil. Matr. consil. ibidem. 13. n. 15. naturalis dies ex antiquorum Summâ, id tempus dicitur, quod à luce est ad tenebras, non spacium 24. horarum, quamvis Accurs. Paul. de castr. Rom. & Jas. diem hunc qui 24. horarum spacio conficitur, Matrimonialem appellant, sed errantèr, si credimus Alciat. in l. 2. de verb. Sig. Tiraquel. de Retract. Lignagier. §. 1. gloss. xl. n. 3, 4, 5. Spiegel. Lexic. verb. dies. Rebuff. in d. L. 2. & aliis. Ego verò Molineum sequutus, nec octodecim quidem horarum spacio contractum viciari, si tamen constat partes in eodem actu gerendo, perseveras­se. Vide Molin. in L. [...]1. §. qui praesens ff. de Verb. oblig. n. 9., then is that Party who first made promise, presumed to continue his Consent, until the other Party have made the like promise Zas. ubi supra. Covar. Tract. de Sponsal. 2. parte. c. 4. n. 7. Alciat. in l. 1. 5. qui praesens ff. de verb. oblig. n. 12.; and so the Contract is of like force, as if they had promised both at once Ibidem..

11. As for the Argument, That facts are not presu­med L. in libello. §. facto ff. de captiv. & postlim. c. cum Johannes. §. ve­rum. de fide instr. extra., but to persevere is a fact L. divortium non est de divor. & repud. L. quicquid. de Reg. Jur. ff. cum similibus.; therefore not presumed, it may easily be retorted; for if facts be not presumed, then mutation being a fact is not pre­sumed Mascard. de probac. conclus. 1082. Ubi tra­dit regulam non paucis auctioni­bus roboratam, quòd mutatio non praesumitur.; And certainly much more properly is muta­tion a fact than perseverance, for perseverance is but the continuation of a former Act Bald. in L. quicunque C. de ser. fug. n. 23. & in L. quidam col. 9. C. de jure delib.; Whereas mutation or change, is a new contrary Act L. certi. §. fin. L. singularia ff. si cer. pet., and therefore not so easily presumed; and as for the Text, Si post interro­gationem, &c. L. continuus. ff. de verb. ob. ff. in princ. which saith, That if after interrogation, the Party begun to do another Act, it profiteth not, though he answer the same day; This Text doth not only not hinder, but further this presumption of perse­verance; for in that it is said, if the Party begun to do another thing, it profiteth not, if he answer the same day, &c. we may thereby gather (by an Argu­ment à contrario sensu) that if the Party do not begin another Act, then it profiteth if he answer the same day Vide DD. in d. L. continuus. & in L. 1. §. qui praesons. ff. de verb. oblig.; But doth every mean Act between the former, and the second promise interrupt the continuance of the Parties Consent, and so make void the Contract? The regular Conclusion is, that it doth Hanc regulam constituit Franc. Ripa. in d. §. qui praesens. per. d. L. continuus., but alloweth these Limitations.

12. First, when the Act is naturally necessary L. cum an­tiquitùs C. de testam. Bar. & alii in L. 1. §. 1. ff. de verb. oblig.; and therefore to make Water, or to exonerate the Bo­dy, or to Dine or Sup, doth not interrupt the continu­ance of Consent Ripa. in d. §. qui praesens. n. 18. Molin. n. 19. Alciat. n. 9. qui omnes indistincte sic docent, quamvis non desunt, qui quoad Pran­dium vel Caenam differentiam faciunt inter sanum & aegrotum, quam distinctionem refellit. Ripa. loco praeall., especially in so favourable a Case as Matrimony Zas. in l. Si Stipuler §. ultim. n. 7. de verb. oblig. ff..

13. Secondly, when the Act is accessory or adhae­rent to the principal matter, as to call for Witnesses, or to confer with their friends, therein it worketh no in­terruption Jas. in d. §. qui praesens. in fin. Ripa. n. 17. Molin. n. 9..

14. Thirdly, when the Act consisteth only in words, as to sing a Song of Robin Hood, albeit it be neither necessary nor pertinent to the Cause, it maketh no breach or interruption Paul. de Ca­str. & Alex. in d. 3. & ibi. Rip. n. 18. in fin..

15. Fourthly, when the Act is very short and brief, it hath not to interrupt the Consent; as to salute any Person, to read a Letter, to Seal a Process, &c. Molin. in d. §. n. 9. & hoc. quidem verum est in actu mo­dico, non haben­te effectum Ju­ris, alias secus, puta cum alio contrahere; ad­vocatum per­unam aut alte­ram horam a­gere, Zas & Ri­pa. ibidem.].

16. Fifthly, when the Party promising departeth forth of the place; and returneth shortly again, here is no interruption, but that the like promise being made by the other party upon his return, it is as if there had been no departure Text. in §. qui praesens. L. 1. de verb. ob. ff. ibi si vero, &c. nec reputa­tur discessus om­nino extraneus actus, nisi inter­veniente longo intervallo (in­quit Castrens. ibidem.): What if the Party, having first promised Matrimony, depart forth of the place, and whiles he is going forth, the other Party maketh the like Promise? For Example; The Man saith to the Woman, [Here I take thee to my Wife,] and then de­parteth from the place; and as he is going, the Woman saith to him, [And here I take thee to my Husband,] Whether is this a good and sure Contract, yea or no?

17. In respect of divers Circumstances the Answer may be divers: If the Man did not hear the Woman, the Contract is of no more force, than if the Woman had not spoken at all Paul. de Ca­str. in L. 1. §. qui praesens. ff. de verb. oblig. & Prier. post eum. Jas. etiam in priac. Alciat. n. 1. Zas. n. 3.: If the Man did hear the Woman, it is material, whether he departed suddenly without expectation of her Answer, or not? If so, it is holden that the Contract is not good, and that this sudden departure, is an Argument that it repented him of his former Promise Francis. Ripa. in d. §. qui praesens. n. 6. in princ. Alciat. ibi­dem. n. 1. vers. unde magis placet, &c., unless having heard her voice, [Page 162]he did stay to understand her Answer; for this his stay is an Argument that it did not repent him of his former Answer Ripa. d. n. 6. versic. Ex quo infertur, &c.: If otherwise, that is to say, if the Man did not depart immediately after he had uttered the words of the Contract, but expected her Answer: This slow and unwilling departure, is an Argument rather of per­severance, than of Repentance; and therefore the Con­tract is rather to be adjudged for a good Contract in this Case Ripa. d. n. 6. Si vero expecta­to responso, &c..

18. Not only such Persons as be present, but those Persons also which are absent may contract Spousals or Matrimony together L. sufficit & L. fin. de Spon­sal. ff. c. ex parte tua. de convers. coming. extra. c. ultim. de procur. in. Sext. & ibi Dom. de S. Gem. & Phil. Franc. Covar. Tract. de Sponsal. secunda parte, c. 4. n. 8. Coras. lib. 3. Miscell. c. 3. n. 2. lib. 2. consil. matr. consil. ibi­dem 13. n. 2. & consil. 17. n. 3.. So did Isaac and Rebecca, as it appears in the Sacred Scriptures Genes. c. 24. Prier. verb. matr. §. 5. q. 9. gloss. in c. nec illud. 30. q. 5.. Betwixt them that be absent, Spousals or Matrimony may be contra­cted three manner of ways; that is to say, by Mediation of their Proctors c. ultim. de procur. in Sext. & ibi DD. quamvis hic procurator nuncius censeri debet; potiùs, inquit Covar. Tract. de Sponsal. secunda parte. c. 4. n. 8. in fin. Franc. in c. ultim. §. ult. de procur. in Sext. n. 7. in fin., or of Messengers L. ultim. ff. de Sponsal., or of Let­ters ead. L. ultim. Summa Hostiens. Tit. de Sponsal. §. qualiter.; provided nevertheless in every of those Cases, that the Parties have some notice or intelligence the one of the other, at least by Fame or Report Gloss. in c. nec illud. 30. q. 5. Melchior Kling. Tract. de Sponsal. fol. 2. Dominic. in c. ultim. de procur. in Sext. n. 2.; for unto those who be utterly uknown to us, we cannot yield our Consent d. gloss. & Dominis. ubi supra., (without the which it is impossible to con­tract Matrimony or Spousals) no more than it is possi­ble for us to love them, of whom we have never heard Phil. Franc. in c. ultim. de procur. in Sext. n. 4. & ibi Dominic. de S. Gem. §. 1. paulò ante finem. gloss. in c. 1. §. 29. q. 1..

19. When Spousals or Matrimony is to be contracted by a Proctor first of all, it is needful that the Proxy (or Letter of Attorney) be Special Text. in d. c. ultim. qui tum loquitur ubi ma­trimenium con­trahitur, sed idem Juris, vel in Sponsalibus esse, firmant Dom. & Franc. in princ. d. c., that is to say, ex­pressing [Page 163]a certain Person, with whom Matrimony or Spousals are to be contracted Jo. And. Dom. de S. Gem. & Phil. Franc. in d. c. ultim.; As, [I make such a Man my Proctor, to contract Matrimony or Spousals for me, or in my Name with A. B. &c. gloss. in d. c. ultim.]. Nor is it suffici­ent if the Proxy be thus, [I make A. B. my Proctor to contract Matrimony for me with any Woman,] for the Per­son must be expressed certainly, either in the Proxy, or at least by some other means, &c. gloss. & DD. in d. c. ultim. Summa Angel. verb. matrimo­nium el. 2. n. 19.: Neither is it sufficient though Special Clauses be added, the Proxy being general; as, [I make A. B. my Proctor or Attorney for all my Business and Affairs, judicial and extrajudicial, with power and authority to do for me all and singular whatsoever I my self could do, if I were personally pre­sent, &c. ead. gloss. quam intellige nisi aliquis fortasse Ar­ticulus, speciale mandatum exi­gens sit expres­sus, nam tunc mandatum cum bujusmodi-Clausulâ exten­ditur ad alia exigentia spe­ciale manda­tum, dum tamen sint consimilia, & non majora casu expresso. Dominie. in c. qui ad agendum. de pro­cur. in Sext. Ad majora autem expressi [...] non extenditur illa Clausula, cujus tamen Conclusionis Li­mitationes aliquot videas apud Felin. in c. Sedes de rescrip. extra. verb. Clausula. &c. n. 5.] Neither yet is it sufficient, though the Proxy were sufficient, if it be revoked in the time of the Contract, albeit also the Party do afterwards ratifie and confirm the Contract Mo­linous in No. intellect. L. sufficit. de Sponsal. Idem Molin. in Themate consil. Alex. 146. vol. 5.; but this Conclusion is not to be eaten now, especially of a weak Stomack; for as it is hard of digestion, so it is likely to breed ill Humours (I mean erroneous Opinions Vide Ancharan. in c. ratihabitione. de Reg. Jur. lib. 6. Anto. de Butr. consil. 64. Alex. con. sil. 146. vol. 5. Praepos. in c. 2. de coming. Servorum. extra. Felin. in c. ex parte Decani. de re­scrip. extra. Dom. de S. Gem. in c. ultim. de procur. in Sext. §. sane. n. 4. cum addic. ibidem.,) if the Sto­mack be not prepared, and the thing it self seasoned, and made apt to be digested: Anon therefore, when thy Stomack is a little stronger, and the matter riper, thou shalt feed on that which now thou hast but only a tast of Infra eod. §..

20. The Proxy being sufficient, the next thing con­siderable herein is the form or matter of words to be [Page 164]confidered and observed by the Proctor in contracting Spousals or Matrimony, wherein some do hold that the Proctor ought not to frame the words in his own Name, or as Proctor Petr. An­char. in c. ul­tim. de pro­cur. in Sext. n. 2. & 3., but in the name of the Party, like a Messenger Petr. Anchar. ubi spura.; and if he do otherwise, that the Contract is void Anchar. in d. c. ultim. per l. multum. C. si quis alteri, vel sibi.: And therefore if he say thus, [I being such a mans Proctor, do here promise that I will marry thee;] or thus, [Here I take thee to Wife in the Name of such a man whose Proctor I am,] this is a void Contract Ibidem per d. L. multum.; whereas if he had said thus, [I being such a mans Pro­ctor, do promise that he will marry thee;] or thus [Such a man doth take thee to his Wife by me being his Proctor,] this is a good Contract Summa Ho­stiens. in Rub. de Sponsal. §. qua­liter. Prier. verb. matrim. §. 5. in fin., she making the same An­swer to him again, viz. [I do promise thee in his Name, and him by thee, that I will marry him;] or thus [I do take him to my Husband by thee, being his Proctor;] for in the one Case Spousals, and in the other Case Matri­mony is contracted Hostiens. & Prier. ubi supra. Dom. de S. Gem. & Phil. Franc. in c. ultim. de procur. in Sext.. The reason of the difference is this, because where a Proctor, as a Proctor, doth make a Contract with another Person, there by the Civil Law, he which did constitute the Proctor, hath not a direct or immediate Action against that third Per­son for the performance of the Contract L. per pro­cur. ff. de pro­cur. ubi DD. communiter di­cunt quod regu­lariter per pro­curationem actio non acquiritur Domino, sine cessione, secus per nuncium L. multum. & ibi Bar. C. Si quis alteri, vel sibi.: But other­wise it is when the Contract is made by a Messenger, who comes not in his own Name, but in his that sent him, being as it were the voice of the others mind, and the Picture of his Person Phil. Franc. post Jo. And. in c. ultim. de procur. in Sext. n. 7. vide (praecor.) Bar. in L. qui autem constituere. ff. de const. pec.. Now then, because in a Contract of Matrimony it is requisite, that the one Par­ty should be bound immediately to the other, and that either of them should have direct Action against the other Bar. in l. qui bona. §. si alieno. ff. de damno infect. n. 3. per L. fin. ff. de Sponsal., it is behoveful (by this former Opinion) that [Page 165]the Proctor frame the words, not in his own Name, or as Proctor, but in his name who did constitute him, and as his Messenger Anchar. in d. c. ultim n. 2. & 3. & ibi Franc. n. 7..

21. Others nevertheless (whom I rather follow) re­ject this former Distinction, as consisting rather upon a Quiddity than Equity, and stuffed with rigour instead of favour Covar. Tract. de Spon­sal. secunda parte. c. 4. n. 8. Alex. cons. 149. vol. 5. n. 13. Bar. in L. qui bona. §. a­lieno. ff de dam. infect. n. 3.; Wherefore it is not material, whether the Contract be formed in these words, [I do Contract Ma­trimony with thee in the Name of such a Man, whose Pro­ctor I am, &c.] or in these words, [Such a Man doth con­tract Matrimony with thee by me his Proctor;] for as well by the former words, as by the later, Matrimony is contracted Bar. Alex. & Covar. ubi supra., although more properly by the later Covar. d.c. 4. secunda parte. n. 8. Bar. in L. qui bona. §. si alieno. ff. de dam. infecto.; for (if we will speak properly) a Proctor thus appoint­ed to contract Matrimony, is deemed a Messenger ra­than a Proctor Procurator quamvis fa­ciat actum procurateris nomine, tamen censetur gerere officium Nuncij, & perinde est, ac si Domi­nus ipse directè faceret, inquit Alex. consil. 149. vol. 5. n. 14..

22. Furthermore, It is not only necessary that the Proxy be sufficient, and that the Contract be made in due form, as aforesaid; but it is requisite also that the Party which did constitute the Proctor, do persevere and continue in the same mind and purpose, until the Contract be finished Zas. consil. 5. vol. 2. n. 7. per c. si inter. de Spon­sal. & per c. 1. &c. duas. de Sponsâ duorum. extra. Summa. Rosell. verb. matrimo­nium. el. 2. ver­sic. quid si ali­quis.; for if he repent in the mean time, or revoke his Proctor (which thing is lawful for him to do Instit. Tit. de mandato. §. recte L. si vero non. §. si mandavero. ff. mandat. c. quam­vis. de procur. in Sext. though he had covenanted Cyn. in L. 2. C. de Jure Emphyt. Jo. And. in c. 2. de procur. in Sext. Addic. ad Felin. in c. ex parte Decani, n. 12., yea and sworn Gloss. in c. ultim. de procur. in Sext. verb. re­vocatus Felin. in c. ex parte Decani. de rescript. extra. Bar. in L. cum praecario. ff. de praeca. Phil. France in d. c. ultim. n. 5. & ibi Dom. §. sane. n. 4. not to revoke him) the Contract is utterly void c. ultim. de procur. in Sext. §. sanè., which Conclusion hath place, albeit the Proc­tor were ignorant of the Parties repentance or revocati­on [Page 166]of the Proxy d. §. sane, licet enim regu­lariter et revo­catio sortiatur effectum ad procuratoris no­ticiam perve­nire debet, fallit tamen in hâc contrahendi specie, quia ubi verus Domini consensus est adhibendus in actu gerendo (ut hîc) nec sufficiat fictus, ut passim alibi, maximè in Judiciis; Ideoque opus non est ut hujusmodi revocatio sit Procuratori intimata, Dom. de S. Gem. de Phil. Franc. in d. c. ultim. de procur. in Sext., seeing the perseverance and conti­nuance of the Parties Consent, which did constitute, is so necessary, as without the which the Contract is not of any force.

23. A third thing worthy the Consideration and Un­derstanding in this Case, is this, namely, Whether the Party be presumed to persevere and continue in his for­mer purpose, when it doth not otherwise appear by any external Act?

24. Which Question, albeit it may seem to be decided by the distinction of the great or small distance of time betwixt the constituting the Proctor and the making the Contract; that is to say, if the distance be small, then perseverance is presumed, otherwise not Zas. cons. 5. vol. 2. n. 11, 12, 13. Covar. Tract. de Spon­sal. secunda parte, c. 4. in princ. n. 7., according­ly as hath been heretofore disputed and discussed; yet that distinction is available, and to be regarded only where the Parties be present, and may answer each other with­in the circuit of one day Covar. ubi supra, sic ibi lo­quutus, et haec quidem (inquit) locum habent, ubi praesentes contrahere vo­lunt matrimo­nium; at Zasius (fateor) loquitur etiam, ubi absentes contrahere volunt, qui tamen non aliter audiendus est, quàm quando mulier ad quam mittitur procurator non statim, sed ex intervallo non modico, responsum dedit, vide cundem Zas. d cons. 5. n. 11. & n. 16. in fin. & 17. in princ. quod quidem Cons. ex­tat etiam in L. 2. consil. matrimonial. & est consil. ibi. 13., (as is there shown) not where they be absent, and cannot within so short com­pass of time (by reason of the long distance of place betwixt the one Party and the other) express their mu­tual Consent Zas. d. consil. 5. n. 6. Bal. in L. 1. ff. mand. lib. 2. consil. matr. consil. ibidem 17. n. 5. Id quod ante illos innuit Host. in Tit. de Spons. §. qualiter, Dum voluit tenere Sponsalia inter absentes contracta, Licet is qui procuratorem destinâsset nullam inde cogitationem haberent, nempe propter juris potestatem quà absentes contrahe­re valeant.; otherwise if neither the Man should be presumed to continue, till the Woman had notice of his Consent, neither yet the Woman until the Man was [Page 167]certified of her acceptance of his offer, Impossible it were for such as were absent (above one days Journey) to contract Matrimony together, because they did ne­ver consent together Hoc ipsum Argumentum ab impossibili deductum sibi ipsi objicit Za­si. d. consil. 5. n. 6. cui quomodo satisfaciat ipse videto.; But it is certain that they which are absent and distant many days Journey asunder, may nevertheless contract lawful Matrimony together Covar. Tract. de Spon­sal. secunda parte. c. 4. in princ. n. 8. et omnes uno ore DD. in c. ul­tim. de procur. in Sext. Id quod firmatur etiam sacrarum Scrip­turarum testi­monio. Exempla sunt nobis Isaac et Rebecca, Gen. c. 2.4. gloss. in c. nec illud 30. q. 5.; and therefore it is absurd in this Case, not to presume Con­tinuance of Consent, without the which the Contract were not lawful L. nuptias. ff. de Reg. Jur. c. sufficit 27. q. 2. c. 1. de Spon­sal. extra. Sum­ma Rosella. verb. matrimo­nium. el. 2. vers. quid si aliquis.: Wherefore I do reverently imbrace the worthy Opinion of Hostiensis, absolving this Que­stion in this manner, Quid si nec consentit, nec dissentit, nec de hoc cogitat qui procuratorem misit, tempore quo puella dissentit? Dicas standum esse Sponsalibus, tum pro­pter favorem Matrimonij, tum etiam propter Juris pote­statem, secundùm quam etiam inter absentes Sponsalia contrahuntur Hostiens. in suâ Summâ Tit. de Sponsal. §. qualiter, col. 2. quem Sequitur Prier. verb. Matrimonium. §. 5. q. 10 Baptista in Summa quae dicitur. Rosella. verb Matrimonium. el. 2. & alij alibi contrarium tamen tenet Jacob. Henrick. lib. 2. consil. Matr. con­sil ibidem 16. n. 2. & 3.. What (saith Hostiensis) if he which sent, the Proctor, neither consent nor dissent, nor think of it, at such time as the young Woman yieldeth her Consent? say, we are to stand to the Spousals in regard of the favour of Matrimony; and also in respect of the power of the Law, whereby Spousals may be contracted betwixt the absent. Another Reason may be collected out of that Text, which saith, That if the Proctor be revoked, the Contract made afterwards is void c. ultim. de procur. in Sent., Ergo, if he be not revoked, the Contract is good Arg. 2 contrario Sensu.; Which neverthe­less could not be, presuming defect of Consent Zas. consil. 5. vol. 2. n. 17.. In­deed this seemeth reasonable and agreeable to the truth, that if the Woman do not immediately or shortly after the Proctor have imparted to her the cause of his com­ing, and pronounced the words of Spousals or Matri­mony, according to his Commission, express her mu­tual Consent thereunto, but a long time after; in this [Page 168]Case the mans Consent is not presumed to endure so long, if he affirm the Contrary Zas. d. con­sil. 5. vol. 2. n. 11. & n. 16. in fin. & 17. in princ. Paris. consil. 55. vol. 4. n. 14. lib. 2. consil. matr. fol. 111. n. 2. & 3.; and consequent­ly the Contract void Ibidem., unless both the Parties after­wards ratifie and confirm the same, for then it is made good by their new Consent Jacob. Hen­ric. in quod. consil. extat. in lib. 2. consil. ibi­dem 16. n. 3..

25. These things being well considered, we may the better attain to the true Solution of this hard Question, (whereof I spake a little before) Whether the Party ha­ving first Secretly revoked his Proctor at the time of the contract of Spousals or Matrimony, and yet neverthe­less afterwards ratifying and confirming the same, the Contract be good, yea or no? Wherein that the truth may appear more evidently, instead of putting an ima­gined Case, I thought good to rehearse that famous and true History, which befell above 200 years past, betwixt the King of Cyprus, and a noble Lady of Italy, as followeth; About the time aforesaid, there was a noble Man of the most honourable and mighty House and Dukedom of Millain, who had two Daughters, the praise of whose excellent Beauties, and Superexcellent Vertues, Dame Fame (who never smothered her thoughts in Silence) had so mightily magnified in all the Coun­tries thereabouts, that thereby the two noble Virgins were no less admired for their goodly and Godly orna­ments of Body and Mind, than reverenced for their honourable Parentage; The name of the Elder Daughter was Agnesia, of the Younger Catherina, both of them of years marriageable, neither of them without Store of sundry Suitors; and those so highly renounced for dignity and desert, as happy was that Man, that could get but a sight of them; yet more happy they, when they could get a fair look of their Mistresses; but most happy and thrice blessed he, that could win his sweet Ladies favour, to become his Loyal Wife (such is the blessed and happy Estate of Virgins, in their prime and marriageable Years). Well Sir, the most excellent King [Page 169]of Cyprus, after that his Ears had been filled with the report of both these brave Ladies, and their rare ver­tues, especially of the Younger, his heart was by and by inflamed with hot desire to become an humble Sui­ter unto her for Marriage; for as he was then Wifeless, so was he meet to undergo the sacred Match in each res­pect. Spurred on therefore on the one side, with a burning desire to obtain his joyful wish; and the other side, with a freezing fear to be prevented of his wished Joy, forthwith in all hast he dispatcheth an Ambassa­dour with a large Commission, of many and great as­sured Offers; and with a special Mandate to contract for him, and in his Royal Name true, pure and lawful Matrimony with Agnesia, the Noble Daughter of the mighty Duke of Millain, Supposing her to be the youn­ger Sister, whom he meant to Marry. To Ship straight goes the joyful Ambassador, and in very short time at­tained Italy and Millain, leaving the Island to the King, and the King to his Muses, who meditating still on the matter, and conferring diligently with such Persons, by whom he might receive further intelligence herein; un­derstood at last, that he had mistaken her name, whom he meant to make his Wife; whereupon presently he revoketh the Mandate, which he had made of contract­ing Matrimony with Agnesia: But the faithful Ambassa­dor ignorant thereof, proceedeth effectually in his charge, and therein had so good Success, as (to be short) he con­tracteth Matrimony in the Kings Name, with the ver­tuous Agnesia; and she thereupon carrieth her self thence forwards in gravity as a Wife, (having received the nup­tial Ring), and in Majesty as a Queen, being esteemed and honoured of others for no less: Which done, the Ambassador returneth triumphantly to Cyprus, and there maketh a just discourse unto the King, how happi­ly he had sped; but the King was as sad to hear as the [Page 170]other glad to report the success: Nevertheless after ma­ny doubtful deliberations, considering it did not become the Constancy of a Man, not to perform his promise, much less the Majesty of a Prince to reclaim his word of Honour, especially in a matter of such Moment, and with Persons of so great Might, as one perswaded by force of reason, more than provoked by the instinct of Love; and foreseeing the dangers likely to ensue his re­fusal, more than expecting the future Joys of his ac­ceptance, was rather contented, than pleased with the Match; and so in the end ratified and confirmed the er­roneous and discomfortable Contract: But when the a­forenamed Agnesia heard tell, that it was not the Kings meaning to have married her at the first, nor yet liked the Match very well, when it was done; Lord! how she took on without all measure; how suddainly were all the powers and qualities of her mind altered, and turned upside down; her highest joys into deepest for­rows, her faithful love into deadly hate, her shineing hope into darke despair, and her pleasant Conceits in­to dreadful and tragical Resolutions: And even as the angry Sea, when it is tossed with the tempestuous blasts of the mighty Winds, doth furiously rage, and terri­bly roar, disdaining, (as it were) to be controuled by any other Creature, of whatsoever power or puissance; So Noble Agnesia despiteing that her Loyal Love should be despised, her Princely Vertues contemned, or her Ho­nourable Sex disgraced by any Man, though he were an Emperor; fretteth, chafeth, and exceedingly grieveth at these, so bitter Storms, and violent blasts of frown­ing Fortune, and in her raging mood, she teareth the Wedding Garments from her Back, and plucketh the Nuptial Ring from her Finger, and violently throweth it into the Flaming Fire, swearing and protesting with many Damnable Execrations, that she will never ac­knowledge [Page 171]the King of Cyprus for her Husband, but that she will presently marry another Man; Whereup­on her Father and Friends seeing her resolute mind, took Counsel of the most famous Lawyers, that were in those days (namely of Antonius de Butrio Butr. consd. 64. & inter. consil. Ancho­ran. 129., and Pe­trus de Anchorano Anch. consil. 124. alias 128. sic incipien. A. duas filias.), whether she might so do or not; which Grave and Learned Men considering diligently of the Case, thought it needful to discuss two other questions, arising out of the Fact, before they did decide the main question proposed. The one, Whether the Kings Error were in her Person whom he intended to Marry, or in her Quality Verum non in qualitate sed in Corpore Re­gem errasse consultum fuit, ut per Anto. de Butr. & Anchor. ubi supra. & per eundem Anchor. in c. Ratihabitionem de Reg. Jur. 8. in Sext., (as in her Age or Name); But of this question more conveniently elsewhere Infra.. The other, Whether the Kings Ratification and Appro­bation aforesaid, did fortifie and make good the former Contract; which Question before it was concluded was seriously argued to and fro; and sundry Reasons al­ledged for the Confirmation, first of the affirmative, and then of the Negative part.

26. The Reasons of the affirmative, viz. That the Contract was made good, and whole and sound by the subsequent Ratification, were these. First, because it is a Notorious Rule, both of the Civil and Canon Law, Ratihabitio retrotrahitur & mandato comparatur L. semper qui non prohi­bet ff. de Reg. Jur. c. ratihabi­tionem de Reg. Jur. in Sext.: Which Rule hath place even in those Actions, which require a special Mandate or Proxy Alex. consil. 146. vol. 5. n. 3. Paul. de Castr. in L. multum. C. Si quis sibi vel al. n. 2. Peckius in d. c. ratihabitionem. n. 9. Dec. in d. l. semper. nu. 7. ibidem Cagnolus nu. 15. Alcia­tus in c. cum non ab homine de Judic. extra. n. 71. Felin. in c. Nonnulli. §. sunt & alij. de rescrip. ex­tra. cum addic. ibidem in fin. Tiraquel. de Retract. §. 1. glo. 10. fol. 94. & quidem magis com­muniter tenetur quam ratificatio, dum validat gesta per falsum procuratorem, etiamsi sit major, & summa pro se lata & Casus talis qui exigat Speciale Mandatum, ut in Addic. ad Felin. ubi supra.; Secondly, because it is thus Written by divers Interpreters, Generale Man­datum de Nuptijs contrahendis non sufficit nisi Mandatis Ratihabitio subsequatur Bald. & alij in l. generale ff. de ritu nup.: A general Mandate to con­tract Marriage is not sufficient, unless his Ratification, [Page 172]which made the Mandate, do follow. Thirdly, for that we read this Conclusion, Nullitas actûs, proveniens ex defectu Consensûs superveniente Consensu purgatur, & actus confirmatur Anchor. in c. ratihabitionem de Reg. Jur. in Sext. col. pen. per c. 1. de des­pons. impub. lib. 6.: The nullity of an Act proceeding of the defect of Consent, when the Consent cometh, is purged, and the Act confirmed. Fourthly, whereas by the Ci­vil and Canon Laws, the Contract of Matrimony is void, where the one Party doth erre in the Servile Condition of the other L. cum An­cillis C. de in­cest. nup. c. 2. de conjug. servo­rum. extra., (as if the Man suppose the Woman to be a Free-woman, which is found to be a Bond-woman); Yet nevertheless, if when the Error is detected, he do ratifie and confirm the Contract, then the same is of no less force than if he had not erred at all d. c. 2. §. mandamus de conjug. serv. extra..

27. The Reasons which make for the Negative part are these. First, because the Acts of a revoked Pro­ctor, or Mandatory cannot be ratified Paul de Castr. in L. Si Tutor. in fin. C. in quib. caus. restitut. non est necess. Jas. in L. licet C. de pro­cur. n. 10. Limi­tat. tertia; ve­rum ista Conclu­sio non procedit indistinctè, dic. igitur ut per Bald. in L. falsus C. de fur. & servo corrup. n. 23. Cui convenit Bar. in L. Pom­ponius ff. de Reg. gest., for one thing cannot be reproved and approved L. dispensatorem. ff. de Solu. Adde Praepos. in c. 2. de conjug. Ser. ex­tra. n. 10. in fin. qui aliam assignat rationem.. Secondly, because the Acts done in the name of a false Messenger, cannot be ratified Cyn. Bar. & alij in l. multum C. Si quis alteri, vel sibi. Idem Bar. in l. qui autem. §. constituere. ff. de Constitut. pecu. Jas. in L. Licet. C. de procur. in fin. Atque haec ratio est omnium petentissima, teste Molin. in Themate. consil. Alex. 146. vel. 5.. Thirdly, because it is not likely that the deceived Woman would have consented or contracted Matrimony, if she had known that the other Party had not likewise consented, or that the Proctor had been revoked at the time of the Contract Praepos. in c. proposuit. de conjug. ser. extra. col. penul. lib. 1. consil. Matr. con­sil. ibidem 64. n. 14. Reusner. de Caus. Matrimonial. q. 7. n. 10. & n. 39.; Which reasons considered, it was concluded, that, forasmuch as before the time of the Contract, the King had revo­ked his Proctor, or rather his Messenger, being then also a false Messenger, by reason of the said Revocation; and she likewise being then in an Error (than which no­thing [Page 173]is more contrary to Consent) it was concluded (I say) by the aforenamed Anto. de Butrio, and Petrus de Anchorano, that this Ratification, made by the King of Cyprus, was not of sufficient force in Law to bind the said Agnesia to be his Wife, and consequently that she might lawfully marry elsewhere Anto. de Butr. consil. 64. Anchor. confil. 228. Quibus accedunt Felin. in c. ex parte Decani. de re­scrip. extra. n. 10. Praepos. in c. 2. de conjug. Serv. extra. col. penul. Dominic. in c. ultim. de procur. in Sext. §. sanè n. 4. cum addic. ibi­dem. & Molin. in Themate consilij Alex. 146. vol. 5.. Howbeit, after the death of Anto. de Butrio, Anchoranus (the Question being publickly disputed in the University of Bononia) is thought to have altered his Opinion; and that the Ratification did sufficiently confirm, and make good the Contract Anch. in c. Ratihabitio­nem de Reg. Jur. in Sext. ubi producit 5 Ar­gumenta ad partem affirma­tivam; sed mi­hi videtur quod haec sua disputatio non fuit completa, intercedente morte seu alio impedimento.; which Opinion others also have follow­ed in the like Case, especially Alexander of Imola Consil. 146. vol. 5., to whom for his sound Judgment in doubtful Questi­ons of Law, this great Commendation is given, Alex­andro duce vinces de Laudibus Bart. Bald. Paul. Alex. & Jas. legito Alciat. lib. 2. pererg 42. & Ne­vizan. Sil. nup. lib. 5. n. 27., as if he were as victorious in his Counsels, as was Alexander of Macedonia in his Con­quests; but as great Alexander, for all his Puissance and Policy, was sometime forc't to retire, so this Alex­ander, as in other Cases sometimes, even in this Case, (I trow) must be forc't to recant, notwithstanding all his Learning and profound Judgment, not only by rea­son of the great multitude of mighty Adversaries in this quarrel Butr. consil. 64. Anth. ubi contrarius consil. 228. Felin. in c. ex parte Decani de rescrip. extra. n. 10. Praepos in c. 2. de conjug. Ser. Dom. in c. ultim. de procur. in Sext., amongst whom one M [...]linaeus challengeth the two Captains in this bold manner; Sed ego dico, quod malè scripsit Anchoranus, & pe [...]ùs Alexander, quan­tumvis artificiosè & elaboratè Molin. in Themate. confil. Alex. 146. vol. 5.; But I say, (saith Mo­linaeus) that Anchoranus wrote ill, and Alexander worse, though skilfully and painfully, but also by reason of the weakness and feebleness of their own Weapons, that is, their Arguments and Authority Molin. ubi supra. & in novis intellect. in l. sufficit cum l. seq. ff. de Sponsal..

28. For first, this Rule Ratihabitio retrotrahitur, &c. although it hold even in those Cases where special Man­dates are requisite Dec. & Cag­nol. in l. semper qui non prohi­bet. de Reg. Jur. ff Peckiu in c. ratihabi­tione. de Reg. Jur. in Sext. Alciat in c. cum non ab homine. de indic. extra. Felin. in c. non-nulli. §. sunt & alij. de restr. extra. Tiraquel. de retract, §. 1. gloss. 10. fol. 94. Paul. de Castr. in l. multum C. si quis sibi vel alteri. n. 2., (notwithstanding divers do de­ny Phil. Franc. in c. ratihabitione de Reg. Jur. in Sext. n. 5. verb. Sexto. gloss. in c. nonnulli §. sunt & alij. de rescrip. extra. Aceurs. in L. per procur. ff. de acquir. haered. & in l. si maritus C. mandati.,) yet doth it fail when the Mandate is revo­ked Paul. de Castr. in L. fi tutor. C. In quib. Caus. restit. non est necess. Jas. in L. licet C. de procur. Sed ista conclusio non est perpetuò vera; Quare distingue, ut per Bald. in L. falsus C. de fur. & Serv. corrup. n. 23. & per Bar. in l. Pomponius n. 24. de neg gest. ff. Dyn. in c. ratihabitione. de Reg. Jur. in Sext., at least where the Mandatary is a Messenger rather than a Proctor Cyn. Bar. Angel. & alij DD. in l. multum. C. fi quis alteri vel sibi Jas. in l. licet. C. de procur. Bald. in l. falsus. C. de fur. in 22. Roman. Singular. 697. cum addic. Gabr. Sarayna ibidem. Molin. in Themate. consil. Alex. 146. vol. 5. ubi inquit matri­monium non potest esse in pendenti, quead sui vinculum, nec potest contrahi per verum procurato­rem, sed per verum Nuncium; per falsum autem Nuncium contractum ratificari non potest sed dun­taxit per novum, verum, dispositivum Consensum., as in this Case where he is said to be the voice of his Master's mind; or rather not so much, but only an Organ Pipe (as it were) or hol­low Instrument through which the Master himself doth speak Bar. in l. Qui autem. §. constituere. n. 3. ff. de constitut. pecun. Gabr. Sarayna. in addic. ad Rom. Singul. 697. Bald. in L. multum C. si quis alteri vel sibi.; in which Case, if any pretend himself a Messenger when he is not, his Acts cannot be ratified to his Masters benefit Rationem assignat Baldus in d. L. multum. his verbis, Si Nuncio de­ficiat mandatum non reperitur ibi persona five subjectum, Nuncius enim nihil in se c [...]ncipit, sed portat in ore suo verbum Domini; et si Dominus non mandavit, nihil est, nihil loquitur: Porre quum per Nuncium contrahitur, ipsi principales originem contractui dant: Consensus autem debet esse in­ter eos qui dant originem contractui, Sed ubi non est mandatum, non est Consensus. Ergo nihil potest ratificari, scias etiam quod obligatio non potest esse sine radice, nec radix sine Consensu, nec Consensus sine Actu, unde cum tria habeant substantiare Contractum, scilicet persona, quantum ab habilitatem; voluntas, quantum ad Consensum; potestas, quantum ad Nuncium, haec tria d [...]sunt in falso Nuncio, quia nec est persona, nec voluntas, nec popestas, concipit etiam verba, in persuna quam non repraesentat, voluntatem ejus annunciat, quae non est, denique in se nihil omnino, in a­lio directè non potest, quare resultat omnino impossibile, de jure verò impossibilium nulla est obligatio, Haec ille..

29. Secondly, where it is collected that the Con­tract of Matrimony made by a general Mandate may be ratified Bald. in l. generale ff. de ritu nup., this Conclusion is not so general in sense, [Page 175]as in words; for the Case of that Law whence this Conclusion is drawn, is this: The Father doth consti­tute a Proctor to get a Husband for his Daughter Vide Text. in d. L. gene­rale. ff. de ritu nup.; the Question is, Whether this Mandate be sufficient? It is answered Negatively, (that is to fay) That the Daughter hereby cannot contract Matrimony gloss. in. d. L. generale., unless the Father do ratifie the same d. L. gene­rale.; for thou shalt under­stand, that by the Civil Law (where this Case is put) the Child cannot contract Matrimony without the Fa­ther's consent Instit. de Nuptiis in princ. ibi dum tamen L. nup­tus ff. de ritu nup.; but yet in this Case, if the Father ratifie the Contract, it sufficeth d. L. gene­rale ff. de ritu nup.. And this is the particular meaning of that general Conclusion, which how far it is distant from our Case, and impertinent, is easily discerned; for there the Parties themselves con­tract Matrimony, and the Question is, Whether the Fa­thers consent may be supplied by Ratification? But here both of the Parties do not contract together, and the Question is, Whether the Parties consent may be sup­plied by Ratification? There the Mandate is general, but not revoked; here special, but erroneous and revo­ked; wherefore although Ratification be sufficient in that Case, yet doth it not follow that therefore it suffi­ceth in this Case Ex separa­tis non infertur. L. ultim. ff. de Calum. Adde quòd omnis Doctor intelligendus est secundum legem quam allegat. J [...]s. in L. filiofam. de leg. 1. ff. n. 129..

30. Thirdly, Where it is affirmed that the nullity or invalidity of an Act, occasioned through the defect of Consent, so soon as the Consent cometh is purged, and the Act confirmed Anchar. in c. ratihabitionem de Reg. Jur. in Sexto per c. 1. de despons. im­pub. eod. lib. 6.: That is true when both the Parties afterwards give their mutual Consents, otherwise not d. c. 1. de despons. impub. & DD. ibidem. Covar. Tract. de Spons. prima parte, c. 5. §. 1. Felin. in c. ex parte Deeani, de rescrip. extra. n. 11. ampli. 4.. For Example; Two Children Contract Matri­mony [Page 176]together, this Contract is void for want of their consent c. ubi de despons. impub. extra.; for Children can neither consent nor dis­sent d. c. ubi L. ejus est nolle. ff. de Reg. Jur.; afterwards, when they be of ripe Age, they both mutually consent: By this Ratification the Contract is made good, and so is the former Conclusion to be un­derstood Viz. quod nullitas disposi­tionis ex defe­ctu Consensûs proveniens, pur­gatur superve­niente Consensu, ad cujus Conclusionis confirmationem Anchor. allegat. c. 1. de desp. impub. in Sext. quod quidem c. loquitur, ubi impuberes contrahunt, quorum nisi uterque post pubertatem consentiat, unius tantum Consensus nihil operatur, DD. in d. c. 1. Covar. Tract. de Sponsal. prima parte, c. 5. §. 1. & infra.: But if one of them alone should ratifie the former Contract, the other not, (as in our Case) it were to no purpose Immo si pubes cum impubere contraxerit, qui factus pubes expressim ratificaverit, dissentiente tamen altero, & ad secundas Nuptias convolante, tenet hoc secundum Matrimonium, Testibus Ho­stiens. in Tit. de des pons. impub. §. quid juris. n. 15. & Covar. Tract. de Sponsal. prima parte, c. 5. §. 1. n. 8., and so this third Reason is of no force.

31. Finally, whereas it is concluded, That albeit the Error be such as doth destroy the Marriage, yet never­theless, if when the Error is detected, the Party do ra­tifie and confirm the Contract, it is of no less force than if the Party had not erred c. 2. de conjug. Serv. extra.. This Conclusion is true, if there be not somewhat else to hinder the effect of this ratification vide Henr. Boic. in c. mu­lieres de Sen. ex extra.; and therefore if a Freeman marry a Bondwoman, although by the Civil L. cum An­cillis. C. de In­cest. nupt. and Canon c. 2. de conjug. Servo­rum extra. Law, the Marriage be void, yet by the Man's ratifica­tion thereof, after the Error be detected, the Marriage is made good d. c. 2. de conjug. Serv., as is aforesaid: And so likewise if the Man do err in the Person of the Woman, as did Jacob when he was married to Leah, instead of Rachel Genes. c. 29. versic. 20. cum sequen. Praepos. pos. in c. proposuit. de conjug. Serv. extra. n. 4., yet ratifying the Marriage (as Jacob did) he confirmeth the same, and maketh it good d. c. 2. de conjug. Serv. & ibi DD. Prae­pos. Melchior Kling. Tract. de caus. matrimonial. fol. 11. quem videas distinguentem., which otherwise was void and of none effect, by reason of the said Error c. 1.29. q. 1. §. Sed error c. 2. de conjug. Serv. extra. Covar. Tract. de Sponsal. secunda parte c. 3. §. 7. n. 1. Summa Hostiens. Tit. de matrim. §. qualiter impediatur. Summa Rosella. verb. impedimentum. cl. 2.. [Page 177]But whenas over and besides his Error, there is some­what else which doth hinder the force and efficacy of the ratification, then it is, as if there were no ratifica­tion Vide Boic. & Praepos. in c. proposuit de conjug. Serv. extra.: Now in our Case, the King of Cyprus did not only err in the Person of Agnesia, (if the Error were in her Person, and not in her Quality, viz. her Name and Age, whereof afterwards Infra.,) but before the Contract made he revoked the Mandate and Messenger; so that at the time of the Contract the King did not speak by his Messenger DD. maxime Bald. in l. mul­tum. C. Si quis alteri vel sibi., whereby she the said Agnesia was de­ceived Praepos. in c. proposuit de conjug. Serv. extra. col. pen. & licet dici soleat quod de­lus dans Cau­sam contractui non habeat Matrimonium impedire, fallit tamen, ubi talis & tantus intersit dolus, utpote qui Consensum impediat. lib. 1. consil. matrimonial. consil. ibidem 64. n. 14. Reusner. de caus. matr. q. 7. n. 10. 39.; and therefore the King's ratification alone is not sufficient to confirm the Contract Anto. de Butr. consil. 64. Anch. consil. 228. Molin. in Themate, Consil. Alex. 146. Felin. in c. ex parte Decani. de rescr. extra. n. 10. & Praepos. ubi supra., without the new Consent of her the said Agnesia concurring there­withal Dom. de S. Gem. in c. ultim. §. sane. n. 4. de procur. in Sext. Molin. ubi supra. & in nov. intellect. in L. sufficit. cum seq. de Spons. ff. Praepos. in d. c. proposuit n. 10. in fin. Felin. in c. ex parte Decani. de refcr. extra. n. 11. Ampl. 4..

32. Thus we see (to return to the general Question) That if the Party revoke his Proctor, and afterwards ratifie the Contract made by him so revoked, this rati­fication doth not make good the Contract: Something (I confess) may be objected probably against the Reasons of this Negative Conclusion Veluti quod revocati Procu­ratoris acta tunc demum ratificari non possunt, quando revocatio facta fuit respectu ipsius actus, secus si intuitu personae vel quando dubitat quo respectu. Bald. in l. falsus C. de furto. Item quod falsi Procuratoris seu Nuntij gesta non possunt ratificari, ubi verba Contractus sunt concipienda nomine absentis; Id quod hic necessarium non est. Alex. cons. 149. vol. 5. denique quod dolus non viciat matrimonium etiamsi det causam Contractui. Abbas in c. cum dilectus. de his quae vi metúsve Caus. extra., but not sufficiently Nam quod ad primum fundamentum attinet, Mandatum revocatum fuit, non intuitu personae procuratoris, sed actûs; secundum autem fundamentum solidissimum permanet, quicquid in contrarium objicitur; Nec valet istud Argumentum in contrahendis Nuptiis, Non opus est proferre verba in no­mine Domini, Ergo ratificari possunt falsi Nuncij gesta. Postremò non tam adfuit dolus Regis quam abfuit Consensus Agnesiae. [Page 178]in my Opinion; wherefore the same Conclusion hath place, not only when the Proctor is certified of the re­vocation, but also when he is ignorant thereof c. fin. de procur. in Sext., as is aforesaid; nor then only when the Party doth by ex­press words revoke his Proctor Covar. Tract. de Spons. secunda parte, c. 4. n. 11. in princ., but also when he doth any Act which doth imply a revocation, as when he doth make a second Mandate to contract Matrimo­ny with any other Woman c. si duo. de procur. in Sext. Covar. ubi su­pra.; nor then only, when the Party (which contracteth Matrimony with the revoked Proctor) is certified of the others error and revocation Praepos. in c. 2. de conjug. Serv. extra. n. 10., but also whiles such error and revocation is yet un­known, may the same Party marry elsewhere, either before or after the ratification Praepos. ubi supra.. Indeed, if both Par­ties, notwithstanding the said error and revocation, give their mutual Consents to be Man and Wife, the Contract is good from this time of their new Consent, but not from that time of their first Contract Praepos. ubi supra. DD. in c. ultim. de pro. cur. in Sext. gloss. in c. di­lectus de Spons. in fin..

33. As by a Proctor c. ultim. de procur. in Sext., so by a Messenger L. sufficit. L. ultim de Sponsal. ff. Ho­stiens. Summa. Tit. de Spons. & Matrimonio §. qualiter ex­tra., Spou­sals or Matrimony may be contracted betwixt them that are absent. Of Messengers there be two sorts DD. in c. ultim. de pro­cur. in Sext. & in L. Multum C. si quis alteri vel sibi.: The one having a sufficient Mandate or Authority to deal in the behalf of the Party from whom he is sent: The other having no such Authority or Warrant, but imployed only about the Expedition of a bare Fact, as the delivery of a meer Message, or sole portage of a Letter, &c. Ibidem.

34. Of the former of these, I have spoken before, for whosoever hath a sufficient Mandate to contract Matrimony, is usually called a Proctor c. ultim. de procur. in Sext. Summa Silvestr. verb. matrimo­nium. §. 5 q. 9. n 9. Summa Angel. verb. matrimonium. el. 2. n. 18. Immo omnis Nuncius dicitur Procurator, sed non omnis Procurator Nuncius, Bald. in L. multum. C. si quis alteri vel sibi. n. 7., although [Page 179]in nature (so far as I can learn) he be nothing else but a Messenger Covar. Tract de Sponsal. se­cunda parte c. 4. n. 8. in fin. Alex. consil. 149. n. 14. Gem. Franc. & alij in c. ul­tim. de procur. in Sext., betwixt whom and a Proctor (properly understood) there is this notable difference often to be remembred; The voice of the Messenger is the sound of his Masters Will Ear. in l. qui autem §. constituere ff. de constit. pec. n. 3. Bald. in l. mul­tum n. 4. C. Si quis sibi vel al­teri., whose mind being uttered by the others Mouth Quâ de Cau­sâ DD. commu­niter dicunt Nuncium esse pi­cam seu organum quo Dominus vocem suam in alterius audi­tum transferat., the Master is immediately tyed to the other Party, with whom the Contract is made; and which Party is likewise directly tyed and bound to the Master, by the promise made to the Messenger, as if the Parties themselves were both personally present together, and with their own Mouths did speak each to the other, and with their own Ears hear each other speak DD. in L. multum C. Si quis alteri vel sibi.: But a Proctor, albeit as a Proctor, and not in his own name, he do make any Contract with another Person, This Contract is originally rooted in the Proctor, and thence derived to the Master L. per pro­curatorem de procur. l. fi pro­curator. cum LL. seq. mandati L. possessio quousque. §. & si possessio. de acquir poss. ff., who by the Civil Law hath no direct action against the other Person, for perfor­mance of the Contract without Cession, or grant first made by the Proctor An autem ex Con­tractu Procuratoris vel Nuncij acquiratur nobis actio ipso jure, vel mediante cessione, si quis scire cupiat, Angelum velim perlegat sic distinguentem. Si aliquis contrahit ut Nuncius, Domino acquiritur Actio directa, Si ut Procurator, tunc aut est subjectus Domim potestati (veluti filius vel servus) & acquiritur Domino absque alia concessione, aut om nino est illius potestati Subditus: Et tunc quoad jura realia, facta scilicet, vera traditione Procuratori, acquiruntur dominium & possessio, absque aliâ cessione; quoad verò actiones personales, si contrahit praesente Domino, Domi­no quaeritur Actio sine cessione, quod si absente eo contrahit, tunc aut super re Domini, aut su­per alia re, re Domini venditâ, quaeritur Domino utilis, sine cessione actio, In altero Casu semper est necessaria cessio. haec Angel. in L. multum C. si quis alteri vel sibi, &c.. The former of these two I may compare to a Merchants Prentice or Servant, the other to his Factor or Dealer beyond the Seas; The Apprentice having sold and delivered his Masters Wares forth of the Shop, the Merchant by and by hath a di­rect Action, and may in his own name prosecute a­gainst the buyer for the price thereof, as if he himself [Page 180]had sold and delivered the Wares Sicut enim qui servum pro­prium Instito­rem proposuit, sibi acquirit actionem, atten­tenta Juris Ci­vilis dispositio­ne L. 1. de in­stitor. actione ff. Ita qui fa­mulum ad mer­ces vendendas etiam liberum constituit (res­pectâ lege Reg­ni nostri muni­cipali) Id quod nostratibus notissimum est.; But if the Fa­ctor Per Factorem, Institorem intellige, quos enim Jus appellat In­stitores Vulgus nuncupat Factores, Wesemb. in tit. de Instit. actione. ff. in princ. Capyc. dec. 180. & decis. Gem. c. 14. n. 43. buy or sell Wares beyond the Seas, by the Ci­vil Law, the Merchant hath no direct Action against the Buyers and Sellers in that behalf Utcunque enim qui Institorem praeposuit poterit conveniri, convenire tamen nequit, Si vel liberum hominem, vel etiam servum alienum Institorem habe­at L. 1. ff. de Institor. act.; (except in certain Cases) Wesemb. in Tit. de Institor. act. ff. L. Julianus. §. Si Procu­rator. de action. Empti. ff. & ibi DD.; and therefore if he will sue them, the Action being first grounded in the Factor, must be de­rived or translated to him by Cession from the Factor, e're he can prosecute the same himself L. 1. de Institor. act. ff. & ibi Bar. Bald. Castrens. & alij.: Hence it is that the Acts of a revoked Messenger are utterly void, al­beit he be not certified of the revocation c. ultim. de procur. in Sext. & ibi Dominic. de 8. Gem. Phil. Franc. & Anch.; but the Act of revoked Proctor is good until he be certified thereof c. mandata de procur. extra. L. Si. mandassem ff. mandati c. ex parte Decani. de rescr. extra., as is aforesaid.

35. When as the Messenger hath no Mandate, being charged only with the bare dilivery of a Message or a Letter, divers questions are moved. First, what if the Party to whom the Message or Letter importing Con­sent of Matrimony, being delivered, do immediately upon the receipt thereof express the like Consent, Whe­ther is the Contract hereby fully finished? Or whether is it to be expected, that the Party which sent the Let­ter or Message do first understand thereof, and approve the same?

36. The Answer is, That albeit, it may seem at the first view that the Approbation of the Party which, sent the Letter or Message is to be expected Vide An­gel. de Clavas. verb. Matrimo­nium el. 2. n. 21., because as yet there doth not appear a Consent, that is, a mu­tual agreement at one instant, without the which there [Page 181]cannot be a perfect Contract c. Tuae. de Sponsal. extra., in as much as one of the Parties doth consent at one time, and the other Party at another time; yet nevertheless, because the Party which did first consent is still presumed to conti­nue and persevere in the same Mind, until the time of the others Consent Id quod pro­cedit etiamsi is qui procurato­rem misit, nec consentiat nec dissentiat, nec interim de eâ re cogitet. Hostiens. in Rub. de Sponsal. §. qua­liter. col. 2. Pri. er. verb. matr. el 5. q. 11., as hath been heretofore declared, it followeth, that there is a mutual Consent at one and the same instant Siquidem ubi est Continu­atio Consensus, ibi Consensus dicitur esse si­multaneus, Teste Zasio. con. fil. 5. lib. 2. n. 22.; By which mutual Consent the Contract is fully perfected and finished Summa An­gel. verb. matr. el. 2. n. 21. versic. Sed nunquid.: Whereupon it is concluded by the general Consent of such as do handle this question, that as soon as the Party, to whom the Message or Letters of Matrimony is sent, doth con­descend thereunto, by expressing like Consent as the Message or Letters do import (whether it be Ma­trimony or Spousals only), The Contract is by and by perfect, without any expectation Zas. consil. 3. n. 8. & con­sil. 5. n. 6. vol. 2. Summa Ange­lic. ubi supra Anchor. consil. 228. Butr. consil. 64. Summa Rosella verb. Matr. el. 2. sed cum non.; unless it appear that the Party which sent the Message or Letter did dissent before the others Consent Anto. Guber. Tract. de Sponsal. fol. 25. n. 19. Summa Angel & Summa Rosella ubi supra.; but if this ap­pear not, then albeit privily the Party indeed dissent, yet for defect of proof it shall be adjudged, as if the Par­ty had not at all dissented Summa Ro­sella. lcco praealleg. Anto. Gubert. tract. de Sponsal. fol. 25. n. 19.: Idem est non esse & non apparere L. in lege & ibi Bar. de contra [...]end. Emp. ff., Not to be, and not to appear, is all one in Construction of Law.

37. Secondly, It is demanded whether the Woman may contract Matrimony by a special Messenger or Let­ters, as well as the Man? To this question it is answer­ed, That albeit by the Civil Law it seemeth that she can­not Jure enim civili non vi­detur uxor esse nisi deducatur in Dominium Viri. L. mulie­rem & L. seq. ff. de ritu nup.; Yet nevertheless by the Canon Law (which Law prevaileth in this Case) L. 1. Consil. Matr. consil. 25. n. 2. communiter Canonistae in c. In praesentia de Sponsal. extra. Schneid. tract. de Nuptijs fol. 48. n. 13., it is concluded that she [Page 182]may Benedic. de Caper. Thesaur. com. opin. verb. Lex. n. 23.; and that there is no difference of Sex, in this respect Hostiens. in Rub. de Sponsal. §. qualiter versic. Hoc tamen ne, viz. ad imparia judicentur vir & uxor. Summa Hostiens. ubi supra. per c. Gaudemus. de divortiis extra..

38. Thirdly, What if one Man hearing another say, [that he hath a great affection towards such a Woman for Marriage; or that he will have her for, or to his Wife,] do thereupon of his own accord and proper motion, go unto her; and declaring what he had heard, contract Matrimony with her in the other Mans name, Whether is this a good Contract, yea, or no? It is answered that it is not lib. 2. con­sil. Matr. con­sil. ibidem 17. n. 4. vers. quod autem., for a Messenger must be specially sent for that purpose d. consil. per. gloss. in l. 1. in fin. de contrah. Emp. ff. & gloss. in L. consensu ff. de act. & oblig. lib. 1. consil. Matr. consil. ibidem. 83. n. 13..

39. In contracting Matrimony or Spousals by Let­ters, this one thing principally is to be observed, name­ly, That as it is necessary for that Party, which send­eth the Letters containing words fit for Spousals or Ma­trimony, [As I promise hereby that I will, or that I do take thee to my Wife, &c.] do still continue in the same mind without alteration, until the time of the o­thers Consent Summa An­gelic. verb. Matrimonium. el. 2. n. 20. Zas. cons. 5. n. 6. versic. & qui­dem & in 7. vol. 2.: So on the other side, it is necessary, that that Party to whom the Letters are sent, upon re­ceipt thereof, or shortly after do express the like Consent, either to him which brought the Letters or to some o­thers, or else by Letters to the former Party Summa An­gelic. & Zas. ubi supra. Idem Zas. consil. 2. n. 26. lib. 2. cons. Matrimonial. consil. ibidem 10. n. 2. Silvestr. Prier. verb. Matrimonium. el. 5. q. 12. Dom. de S. Gem. in c. ultim. de procur. in Sext. §. fane n. 3. Archid. in c. nec. illud. 30. q. 5. n. 4, & 5., which thing being performed on either Party, the Contract is good ubi supra & facit c. honorantur. 32. q. 2. Paris. consil. 55. vol. 4. n. 8. Ar­chid. & DD. in c. ultim. de procur. in Sext.: But if either the Party which sent the Letters [Page 183]repent in the mean tim [...] Arg. c. ul­tim. de procur. in Sext. Paris. de consil. 55. n. 8, & 9., (which thing notwithstand­ing is not presumed, [...]less it be proved Hostiens. Summa Tit. de Sponsal. §. qua­liter Silvester. Prier. verb. Ma­trim. §. 5. q. 10. Zas. cons. 5. n. 6. vol. 2. Dom. in c. 2. Menoch. de praesump. lib. 6. praesump. 31.), or the Party which received the Letters, do not then, or short­ly after Zas. cons. 5. n. 20. vol. 2. Anto. Quaetta. lib. 2. consil. Matri­monial. consil. ibidem. 13. n. 18, 19, 20. Summa Ange­lic. verb. Matri­monium. el. 2. n. 20. the receipt thereof, deliver expresly like mutu­al Consent, it is in effect, as if neither of them had e­ver consented Zas. ubi su­pra. Paris. con­sil. 55. vol. 4. n. 8, & 9. Prier. [...]. verb. Matrimo. nium. el. 5. q. 12 Dom. ubi supra & Arch. ubi supra.; if the Party delivering the Letters do in­wardly repent, or the Party receiving the Letters, do in heart consent (howsoever towards him which is the Searcher of the Heart, there is no difference betwixt secret and manifest Repentance, or manifest and secret Consent), yet towards his Church, and by Constru­ction of Law, this inward Repentance of the one, or secret Consent of the other is not regarded, when it is not proved Prier. verb. Matrimonium el. 5. q. 12. Summa Rosella verb. Matrimonium. el. 2. vers. sed cum Summa Hostiens. Tit. de Sponsal. §. qualiter. col. 2. c. honorantem. 32 q. 2. & ibi DD. Aetiologia est, Ecclesia non judicat de occultis c. consuluisse 2. q. 5.; Although by the Opinion of some it may seem, that if the Party receiving and reading the Letters, do not expresly contradict or dissent, it is of like force, as if the Party had expresly consented August. Berous in subscriptione ad Consil. Zasij lib. 2. consil. 4. col. pen. vers. adhaereo. per l. fr filius fa. el. 2. de S. Cto. Macedon. & ibi Saul de Cast. Bar. in L. Titius de constitut. p [...]c. & in l. quo enim §. 1. Rem rat. hab. ff. & facit clem. 1. de procur.: But I dare not deliver this Opinion for currant; For what if for modesty or other like Consideration, the Par­ty think good not to reveal the secrets of the Letter; Surely he were very hasty, or rather Captious in my Conceit, that would account this modest or discreet Si­lence, for a resolute Consent Archid. in c. nec. illud 30. q. 5. n. 4. & 5. Dom. de S. Gem. in. c. ultim. §. fanè de procur. §. n. 3. Prier. verb. Matrimonium. el. 5. q. 12. Summa Ange­lic. verb. Matrimonium el. 2. n. 20. Zas. confil. 5. n. 6, & 7. vol. 2. Baptista in Summâ quae dicitur Ro­sella. verb. Matr. el. 2. versic. Sed cum non sufficiat, Qui omnes uno ore concludunt Consensum non notificatum nihil operare, Quantum autem ad authoritates in Contrariam productas, maxime ve­ro ad L. Si filius fa. el. 2. de S. Cto. Maced. ff. & ad clem. 1. de procur. respond. ut per Bald. in L. 1. man­dati ff. vel dic. ut per Molin. in addic. ad Alex. consil. 78.; especially in a mat­ter of such moment, as Matrimony, than which there is not any Action of greater moment in this life Gloss. & DD. in c. Mulieri. de jure jur. extra. Bald. in L. bonae fidei C. de reb. cred. & in c. ad nostram de probac. extra. Zas. consil. 5. vol. 2. n. 25. cum seq.; [Page 184]and therefore not to be undertaken suddenly, or con­cluded without due premeditation or deep deliberati­on c. qui Sitit. 33. q. 5..

40. If any object this Rule, Qui tacet consentire vide­tur c. qui tacet de Reg. Jur. lib. 6.. To him might be objected the very next Rule fol­lowing, Is qui tacet non fatetur, sed nec utique negare videtur c. is qui eod. tit.: But because the Brocardes or contrary Conclusions, rather breed brabbles, than pacifie Con­tentions, this I think a more indifferent answer: In strict and proper signification, he which holdeth his peace, doth neither consent nor dissent Felin. in c. Nonne de prae­sump. extra. n. 5. vers. prima re­gula, &c. Est enim tacere medium quod­dam inter ex­pressam volun­tatem & contra­dictionem.; Neverthe­less in Construction or interpretation of Law, he is some­times said to consent according to the former Rule; and sometimes not, according to the second Rule Felin. in d.c. Nonne. ubi ponit quatuor regulas cum suis fallentijs.: The af­firmative Rule hath place, when the matter tendeth al­together to the benefit and favour of the Party Panor. & Canonistae. in d. c. Nonne. Bart. & Legistae in l. quae dotis ff. Sol. Matr., for then to be silent is to consent, except in certain Cases Felin. in d. c. Nonne. n. 20, &c.; but the Case being altered, the Law is likewise al­tered; for if the matter be such as may be greatly pre­judicial to the Party, then the negative Rule hath place, that is to say, To be silent, is not to consent. Now it is generally concluded; that Matrimony is a matter of ve­ry great prejudice, and a kind of Servitude or Bondage L. 2. de libero hom. exhibend. ff.; Inasmuch as thereby, aswel the Husband as the Wife are deprived of their former liberty, and power over their own Bodies; for after they be Married, the Husband hath now no power over his own Body, but the Wife Epist. 1. ad Corinth. c. 7. vers. 3.; neither the Wife over her own Body, but the Husband I­bidem.. Yea, and (as Baldus saith) it is Dura Servitus, a hard Servitude, because it is for ever indissoluble Bald. in L. In bonae fidei C. de reb. cred. n. 1. versic. Item in Causis., how hard soever the Match be; whereas every other Servi­tude, may at any time be dissolved, the Lord or Master Canonistae in d.c. Nonne. Le­gistae. in d. L. quae dotis. Qui­bus adde Pecki­um in c. Is qui de Reg. Jur. C. in Sext. [Page 185]being pleased. I confess there be many good things in Marriage Neviza. in Silva nuptiali. §. est nuben­dum fol. 203. cum sequen.; and that there is one Author who hath reckoned an hundred Commodities issuing from Mar­riage Gilbertus in question. Oeco­nomic.; but the same Author hath also numbred two hundred Discommodities thereto belonging Idem Gil­bertus ubi su­pra.: Where­fore in a matter subject to so many perils, and so great prejudice, it savoureth not of Equity, that Silence should be reputed for Consent Archid. in c. nec illud. 30. q. 5. Gem. in c. ultim. de procur. in Sext. Summa Angel. & Rosella. verb. matrimonium. el. 2. Zas. consil. 5. n. 6. & 7. vol. 2. Prier. verb. matrimonium. el. 5. q. 12., except as elsewhere is de­clared Viz. ubi parentes con­trahunt praesentibus & tacentibus liberis. c. 1. §. 1. de despons. impub. in Sext. ut supra. §. 11..

41. Again, If that Opinion were true, to wit, That the Party receiving the Letters, and not contradicting the same, were to be judged to have consented there­unto Quam ta­men non puto omnino veram in praepositâ facti specie., yet there be divers things requisite to work that Effect Ut per Ma­chesil. notab. 22. Coepol. cautel. 9. & Francis. Ripam. in c. cum M. de constitut. extra. n. 132.. First therefore it must be proved by suf­ficient Witnesses that the Party did read the Letters Mathesil. Coepol & Ri­pa ubi supra. gloss. in clem. 1. de procur. Au­gustin. Berous in Subscrip. consil. 4. Uldalrici Zasij vol. 2. Alex. in L. quo enim §. 1. ff. rem rat. hab.. Secondly it is requisite that the Witnesses did under­stand the tenor thereof ibidem.; for if it be not proved that the Letters were read, the Party is presumed to be igno­rant of the Contents thereof Mathesil. d. notab. 22. Gabriel. l. 1. com. conclus. Tit. de praesump. concl. 2. n. 11., and being ignorant cannot consent thereunto, since nothing is more con­trary to Consent than Ignorance L. Ignorans. C. de Dom. L. si per errorem. de Juris. om. Jud. ff.; or the reading of the Letters being proved, if the Witnesses did not un­derstand the Contents of the Letters, they are not able to depose concludently Zas. d. cons. 4. vol. 2. in Subscrip. Matthesil. d. not. 22., seeing it may be some o­ther Letter than they imagined, which the Party received and read Traditur igitur Cautela, ut literas transmissurus, easdem in praesentiâ testium scribat, & Copiam (ut dicunt) earundem cisdem tradat, ac illósmet Latores faciat, ut in eorum praesentiis lectio fiat. Ripa. in d c. cum M.n. 132. post Coepol. d. Cautel. 9. & Matthosil. d not. 22..

42. What if the Party which sent the Letters, ex­pressing an assured Promise of Matrimony, after the Woman have received the same, and yielded her full Consent thereunto, misliking the Match, deny that he wrote or sent any such Letters, and there be no Wit­nesses to prove the same, Whether is proof made by Comparation or Similitude of hands, a full and suffici­ent proof, yea or no?

43. Some say it is not Alex. consil. 76. vol. 3. n. 8. & 9. Molin. in a­postil. ad Alex. consil. 114. vol. 7. Hyppol. in Rub. de prob. C. n. 289. Pa­nor. in c. 2. de fide instr. extra. n. 8. vers. Sed certè Jas. in rep. L. admonendi ff. de jurejur. n. 139. Bald. & Sal. in L. in fin. C. de Ed. di. Adr. toll., because not only many mens hands are oftentimes so lively counterfeited, as the Witnesses viewing and comparing the same are very hardly able to discern betwixt the true and counterfeit Writing Panor. in d. c. 2. de fid. Instr. n. 8. & Jas. in rep. L. admo­nendi ff. de jure­jur. n. 139. in fin., but also for that no Man doth always write like unto himself Mascard. de de probat. verb. comparatio. n. 1. & 2. gloss. in Anthen. de trien. & semiss.: For Example; That which is writ­ten hastily, is not like that which was written leasura­bly, yet both of one hand Idem quo­que si manus aliquo opere (ut contingere solet) priùs defatiguta fulsset. Anto. Gravat. in Addic. ad vestrium. in sua praxi. lib. 6. c. 1.; a Sick man's hand is not like his own hand written in health; and diversity of Pens makes one man's writing seem to be of divers mens hands ibidem.; by occasion whereof they conclude, That the proof made by comparing of hands, is but half a proof Panor. in d. c. 2. de fide Instr. extra. n. 8. Hyppol. in Rub. de probat. C. n. 289. Jas. in Rep. d. L. admonendi. n. 139.; Others are of a contrary Judgment Bar. in L. nuda ratio. ff. de donac. n. 7. Alex. consil. 114. vol. 7. n. 4. Anto. Grava. in Ad­dlc. ad praxim octav. vestrij. lib. 6. c. 1. n. 27. Tindar. Tract. de testibus. lib. 2. c. 8. n. 7. Lan­franc. in c. quoniam con. §. Instrumentorum. n. 49, affirming, That although in other Writings, as Bills and Obligations, &c. wherein Witnesses be commonly re­quired, proof by Collation of hands be but half proof Anthen. & si contractus. C: de fide Instr. Bar. in d. L. admonendi. n. 26. & in d. L. nuda. n. 6. Felin. in c. 2. de fide Instr., in which Case only the former Opinion proceedeth; yet in other Writings Si­quidem ut verior ita & communior opinio est, quòd L. comparatio, C. de fide Instr. non est cor­recta in Epistola, Teste Mascard. de probat. conel. 330. n. 23. in fin., where Witnesses are not usu­ally [Page 187]called (as Epistles and private Letters Quomodo enim potest ille, cui transmit­tantur literae, adhibere testes ad proband', per quem fuerunt scriptae, ergo in­tuitu, istius difficultatis, faciliùs creditur comparationi, Fulg. Paul. de Castr. & Alex. in d. L. admo­nendi. Mascard. Tract. de probat. concl. 330. n. 12. Vivius Thesaur. com. op. verb. Comparatio.,) this proof by Comparation is to be taken for a full suffici­ent proof Vivius d. verb. Comparatio. Fulg. Castrens. Alex. & Rip. in d. L. admonendi. Gravat. in. add. ad vestr. lib. 6. c. 1. n. 27. per quem petet hanc opinionem communiter observari in practicâ., otherwise it were impossible to prove a­ny secret Contract by Letter, to be written by the true Author Mas­chard. de probat. concil. 330. n. 12..

44. A third sort more indifferent, leave it to the dis­cretion and Conscience of the Judge Menoch. de Arbitr. Jud. lib. 2. c. 114. n. 24. Dec. consil. 219. in fin. Covar. Tract. lib. pract. q. c. 22. n. 7., who upon due Consideration of the state and condition of the Parties, and of the circumstances and merits of the Cause, to­gether with the likelyhood or unlikelyhood thereof, can better and more certainly determine of the sufficiency or insufficiency of the foresaid proof, than can be gene­rally prescribed, without particular view of the Premis­ses Covar. d. c. 22. quem vide.: In which contrariety of Opinions, I do think, that the Judge, unless by diligent Examination of the Fact he be otherwise induced, or perswaded by some special presumption, or suspition of sinister dealing, he is to follow the common or most received Opinion Coras. Tract. de com. op. lib. 2. c. 1., which is, That proof made by comparing or conferring of hands is of it self a full and sufficient proof Mascard. de probat. conclus. 330. n. 12.; the Comparation or Collation being duly and orderly made, that is to say, these Requisites or Observations follow­ing being performed Zas. de cons. 4. vol. 2. in fin..

45. First of all therefore (as touching the Order and Form of this Comparation of hands) it is requisite that two Writings be produced and exhibited, namely, the Letter it self containing the Promise of Matrimony, being the Writing in Controversie, and another Writing, be­ing certainly and without dispute or controversie of the [Page 188]Parties hand Bar. in L. comparationes. n. 1. Bald. n. 5. Angel. n. 5. Castrens. n. 3. C. de fide Instr. Zas. de cons. 4. in fin. Panor. in c. 2. n. 13. de fide Instr. extra.; for according to the Rules of Logick, Id quod probat, debet esse certius & clarius eò, quod pro­bandum est Sichard. in d. L. compara­tiones. n. 17.; That which doth prove ought to be more certain, than that which is to be proved: Of which two Writings, the one, that is the clear and undoubted Wri­ting, is termed Scriptura à quâ, the other ad quam Bar. Bald. Angel. Castrens. Sichard. & alii in d. L. compa­rationes. Ripa. in L. admonen. di. de Jurejur. ff. n. 108., because from this faithful Writing (as from a trusty In­terpreter which will not lye) Collation or Comparation is made unto that other Writing in controversie DD. in d. L. comparatio­nes. Menoch. de Arbitr. Jud. lib. 2. cas. 114. n. 29., for trial whether it be a Counterfeit or not; In which respect also the one Writing is called the Agent extream, and the other the Patient extream Bald. in d. L. comparatio­nes. n. 5.: The Agent is produ­ced to prove the Identity of the other Writing: The Patient is that whose Identity is to be proved, and which is used for the obtaining of that which is demanded Angel. in d. L. compara­tiones connex. Anth. & si con­tractus, C de fi­de Instr.. But as Mercury is not made of every Wood (accord­ing to the old Proverb) so every Writing is not fit to be that fundamental Writing à quâ, or Agent extream, from the which Comparation is to be deduced Sichard. post alios. in d. L. comparatio­nes. Menoch. de Arbitr. Jud. cas. 114. n. 29.; For what if the Writing, which is to be used as a true Touchstone, stand in need it self to be touched or com­pared, I mean, what if it cannot otherwise appear to be of the Parties hand, but by Comparation of other Writings? Surely this Writing is utterly unfit for this purpose Menoch. d. cas. 114. n. 29. in fin., for that were to prove ignotum per ignotius, and to protract the matter in infinitum, always abiding and dwelling upon uncertainties Me­noch. d. cas. 114. n. 30..

46. In ancient time therefore, so precise were the Law-makers in this Case, that they did admit no more but three kinds of Writings, from the which Compara­tion might be made Julianus prae­sectus praetor. in Text. L. compa­rationes. §. Ideo­que Sancinus C. de fide Instr., viz. a Writing subscribed by [Page 189]three Witnesses, (two of them at least testifying the same) a Judicial Writing, that is, some Act written be­fore a Judge; and a publick Instrument or Writing made in Solemn Form, by a publick Notary d. §. Ideo­que. & §. et­enim in d. L. comparationes. & ibi Bald. n. 8., where­unto afterwards two others were added Anthen. Adhaec. C. de fide Instr., viz. that the Writing produced there be confessed by the Party Anthen. ad­haec. in princ. Sichard. in d. L. comparationes. n. 7. in fin. Bar. in Anthen. & si contractus. C. de fide, Instr. n. 2. Quinimo idem juris est, ubi quis expressè confitetur Scrip­turam esse su­am, nec mirum cum expressa confessio sit fortior tacitâ. Bald. in d. L. comparationes. n. 10. Menoch. de Arbitr. Jud. Lib. 2. cas. 114. n. 29. versic. Sumeretur, Cravetta consil. 216. n. 18. Paul. de Ca­str. consil. 312. vol. 2. n. 3., and the Writing extracted from some Register or Place where faithful Records be kept d. Anth. Adhaec. Quod si quis objiciat hanc additionem esse superfluam, & comprchendi sub tertio genere Scripturarum, de quo in d. L. comparationes; Re­spondeas quod quamvis Text. in d. Anth. dicat Literas ex Archiepiscopo productas habere testimoni­um publicum, per hoc tamen non sequatur ipsam Scripturam esse publicam, utpote quae carens publi­ci Instrumenti solennitatibus; Nihilominus in loco publico recondita, & per ministrum publicum registrata, non immeritò publicum testimonium prohibeat. Bart. in d. Anth. & Sichard. in d.L. com­parationes. n. 8. & 9.. Howbeit at this day, by the common Consent of the best Writers, any manner of Writing, either Publick or Private, Judicial or Extrajudicial, of what nature or quality soever, (so that it appear undoubtedly to be of the Parties hand) is suf­ficient to be the Agent extream, or Writing from the which Comparation is to be made Sichard. in d. L. comparationes. n. 10. post Sabir. ibidem col. 4. Ripa. in L. admonendi. de jurejur. ff. n. 111. Menoch. de Arbitr. Jud. lib. 2. cas. 114. n. 29. vers. Sumeretur. Cravetta. consil. 216. n. 18.; or if there be no such Writing at all, the Judge may command and compell the Party to write, that thereby (Comparation being made) the truth may appear, whether both the Writings be of one hand, or not Bald. in L. comparationes. C. de fide Instr. n. 10. Panor. in c. 2. de fide Instr. extra. n. 13. Ripa. in L. admonendi. n. 110. ff. de. jurejur. & Latè Menoch. de cas. 114. n. 12. Bart. autem in Anth. & si contractus. C. de fide Instr. contrari­um tenuit, Gui Baldus ob eam rem inurit maculas Erroris, quam Zas. (lib. 2. sing. respons. c. 25.) diluere tentavit, sed frustra; nam si Judex posset compellere partem, ut respondeat probationibus ad­versarij, ad relevandum eum ab onere probandi, à fortiore potest partem compellere ad scribendum, ut inde fiat comparatio, Inquit Panor. in d. c. 2. post. Card. ibidem & Paul. de Castr. in d. L. com­parationes in fin..

47. Secondly, It is requisite that the Party which pro­cureth this Comparation, do swear, That he hath not a­ny other fit or sufficient proof Anth. Tit. de Instr. fide & Cautel. §. Si verò nihil gloss. in d. L. comparationes in fide, unde patet quòd comparatio est remedium subsidiarum, non aliter competenS quam quaudo non aliter sit probatio. Zas. d. consil. 4. in fin., and that he hath not done, nor endeavoured any thing thereabouts, which peradventure might suppress or hide the truth d. §. Si voro nihil. Sichard. in d. L. comparationes. n. 2. Id quod pro mirabili traditur, & singulari nimirum, ut bis de Cu­lumniâ in eadem Causa juretur. Gloss. in d. L. comparationes. in fin. at qui ratio iterati juramen­ti est, quia etsi quis in genere juraverit se nullam admissurum Calumniam; Tamen illud speciale Juramentnm, altiùs animâ infigitur, & magis, afficit semper, cum magis timerentur ea, quae. in specie fiant, quam quae in generale. Gloss. in §. Si verò moriantur. Anth. de Instr. Cautel. & fide Sichard. ubi supra..

48. Thirdly, It is requisite that the Notaries or others skilful in writing, to whom the Judge doth commit this Comparation, be sworn, That they shall not do any thing therein either for favour or gain, or fear or disfriendship, or other sinister affection L. compara­tiones. C. de fide Instr. Sed an­non ipse Judex. debet per se fa­cere comparatio­nem? Dic quod debet quidem per se, a [...]hibitis tamen Nostra­tiis & scribendi peritis. Sichard. post Ang. in d. L. comparationes., but that they shall upright­ly and diligently view the Writings, and compare them indifferently, and then make true relation to the Judge what they have done, and what they judge or believe Nam quum. decipi pos­sint similitudine tractatus jurabunt, non de veritate praecisâ, Sed de credulitate tantùm. Sichard. ubi supra. in their skill, concerning the identity or diversity of the hands.

49. Fourthly, It is requisite that these Notaries or skilful Persons, in viewing and comparing these foresaid Writings, do not only consider the simple Letters or Grammatical Elements, subject to Corporal sense, but also the Stile and Phrase thereof, subject to Reason and understanding Bald. in L. comparationes C. de fide Instr. n. 18. Menoch. de Arb. Jud. lib. 2. cas. 1.14. n. 31. Sichard. in d. L. comparationes. n. 11.; for as a Bird is known by her Tune, or a Harp or other Instrument by the sound, so by the Conso­nance of the Stile we may judge probably of the Au­thor Bald. ubi supra..

50. Fifthly, It is requisite that these aforesaid Notaries and Writers make relation or report unto the Judge (by virtue of their Oaths) of their Proceedings, and what they have done or deemed, and judge of the Similitude or Dissimilitude of the foresaid Writings Creditur ta­men sufficere, quod semel ju­ravit ant equam comparationem faciunt, ideoqu [...] non esse necesse ut nunc denuò tempore relatio­nis, secundum Juramentum subeunt, Me­noch. d. casu. 114. n. 28.: Others have added other Requisites, namely, That relation being made by the Notaries and Witnesses of the similitude of the Hands, the Judge ought to interpose his interlocutory Sentence of the Identity of the Writings, that is to say, that they were both written with one Hand Scil. in d. L comparatio­nes col. pen. Me­noch. d. cas. 114. n. 32..

51. Some also have been of this mind, That whereas there be five kinds of Writings above recited, whereby Comparation might be made, in their Opinion, not only all other kind of Writings were excluded Salic. ubi su­pra. Cur. Sen. in L. admonendi. de jurejur. ff. n. 114. Menoch. de cas. 114. n. 32., but also the Writing in Controversie could not be compared but by another Writing of the same kind; as if the Writing in Controversie were a publick Writing, then to be tried by a publick Writing; if a private Writing, then by a pri­vate Writing, &c. In quâ opi­nione steterunt Bar. in Anth. Et si contractus C. de fide Instr. n. 2. & Angel. in L. comparationes. eod Tit. n. 8. Quibus subscripsit Augustinus Berous in Addic. ad Zas. consil. 4. vol. 3. & Paris. cons. 19. n. 38. vol. 3. Howbeit this Opinion is generally condemned; for any kind of Writing in question may be tried by any other kind of Writing, being without question of the Parties hand Hugolin. de quo Sichard. in d. L. comparationes. n. 9. & alii de quibus Bald. ead L. n. 11..

52. Finally, There is to be noted, that in all other Ju­dicial Proceedings and Decrees, it behoveth the Judge to have plu [...]beos pedes Bald. in d. L. comparationes n. 11. qui dicit op. esse veriorem. & Sichard. ead. L [...]u. 10. qui re­fert eandem op. communiter te­neri, & practi­cari, Quibus convemunt Ri­pa in L. admo­nendi ff. de jure jur. n. 111. Menoch. d. cas. 114. n. 29. Cravetta consil. 216. n. 18., Feet of Lead; so in this matter of Comparation, especially it behoveth him to have & plumbeos pedes, & Lynceos coulos, not only Feet as heavy as lead, but Eyes also as clear and sharp as Lyn­ceus, of whom it is reported, that he was able to see through a Milstone Zas. lib. 2. sing. re­spons. c. 25. in fin. Covar. pract. q. c. 22.; for if the Judge be either so [Page 192]swift, that he run to this Comparation without observati­on of these Requisites above recited, doubtless the Com­paration will be of little force Acron. in Horatium.; and so his great hast shall make but small speed; or if his Judgment be not very Sharp, and more Subtle than the Serpent, how orderly soever he proceed to work about the Examinati­on of these Writings, yet happily he may be deceived by counterfeit Instruments Zas. cons. 4. lib. 2. in subscrip. Sichard. in L. comparationes de fide Instr. n. 5. Paris. consil. 19. n. 35. vol. 3.; for it is a thing generally complained on in all Ages, namely the great Cousenage that hath been practised by Forgery, or making of Coun­terfeit and Adulterous Writings; Amongst others I re­member Zasius (the most famous Lawyer that ever Germany bred) maketh mention of a certain Monk of the Monastery of St. Ʋdalrick in the City Augusta, that was so passing skilful, that if he had looked up­on any Writing, he would have imitated the same so lively, as it should seem rather to be the very original it self, than like unto it Hyppol. in Rub. de prob. de prob. C. n. 317. Maschard. Tract. de probat. con­cl. 330. n. 3.. I wish we had no greater store of false Forgeries than of mumbling Monks at this day in England, a thing rather to be wished than hoped, the more is the pity; for though the famous Forger of Ripon in Yorkshire be dead, whom I marvail Mr. Green hath not numbred amongst his Cony Catchers, yet I fear there be a great many Whelps of the old Dog left alive, that had rather bite than bark. And therefore since this matter is so subject to their Impostures, it standeth the Judge in hand to be so much the more circumspect, lest he himself be caught for a simple Cony. Zas lib. 2. sing. resp. c. 25. Gravat. in addic. ad praxin o­ctav. Vestrij lib. 6. c. 1. n. 26. Zas. lib. 2. sing. respons. c. 25. in fin.

SECT. XIV. Of Publick and Private Spousals.

1. FOurthly, Spousals be either Publick or Private Reusner. de Sponsal. Lib. 1. q. 1. Panor. & Praepos. in c. cum Inhibitio. de clandestin. despons. Schneid. tract. de nup. fol. 22.; publick Spousals are they which are con­tracted before sufficient Witnesses, and wherein are ob­served all other Solemnities requisite by the Ecclesiasti­cal Law c. nostrates. 30. q. 5. Reusn­er. de Sponsal. lib. 1. q. 1. n. 1.: For so careful were the ancient Law-makers to avoid those mischiefs, which commonly attend up­on secret and clandestine Contracts, that they would have the same Solemnities observed in contracting Spousals, which be requisite in contracting Matrimony Panor. in c. cum inhibitio. de clandestin de Spons. extra. n. 6. Praepos. eod. c. n 5. Summa Rosella verb. Impedimentum. el. 1. vers. Quae­ritur.; Which Solemnities what they are shall afterwards be declared insra parte 2. §.: Private Spousals are they, at the Contracting whereof, are omitted some of those Solemnities aforesaid d. c. nostrates &c. aliter. 30 q. 5. Reusner. lib. 1. de Sponsal. qu. 1. nu. 2. gloss. in c. 4. de cland. desponsatione. extra. vide Schneidwin. Tract. de nuptijs fol. 22. ubi refert Sponsalia sex modis dici posse clandestina. ex Hostiens. in Rub. de clan­dest. despons. extra., but es­pecially when as there be no Witnesses present at the Contract c. 1, 2, & 3. de clandestin. despons. extra. Schneidwin. ubi supra Mel­chior Kling. Tract. de Matrimonio fol. 68. Jo. Frigeus Tract. de Sponsal. pag. 266.: In which Case these questions following are usually propounded.

2. First, whether such secret Contracts be good in Law, yea, or no? And it seemeth they are not good, by reason it is thus written in the Text of the Law, Nullum pactum, nullam conventionem, nullum Contractum inter eos videri volumus subsequutum, qui lege contrahere prohibente, contrahunt L. non. dubi­um &. de legib. c. nullum. 30. q. 5.; We will that no part, no Covenant, no Contract, shall be thought to follow, [Page 194]betwixt them which do contract, when as the Law doth forbid them to contract; But the Law doth forbid all Persons to make Secret Contracts of Spousals, or Ma­trimony d. c. nullum & Titul. de clandestin. des­pons. extra. per totum.; and that justly, considering the manifold discommodities depending thereupon, namely, for that hereby it cometh to pass oftentimes, that the Parties se­cretly contracting, are otherwise formally affianced, or so near in Blood that they cannot be Married; or being free from those impediments, yet do they alter their purposes, denying and breaking their promises, whence Perjuries, Adulteries, and Bastardies, with many more intollerable mischiefs do succeed Schneidwin tract. de nuptijs fol. 23. Covar. tract. de Spon­sal. secunda. parte. c. 6. in princ. n. 7.; and therefore such secret Pacts, Covenants, and Contracts are worthily re­puted, as if they had not been made at all d. c. nullum. 30. q. 5. arg. d. L. non dubium C. de legib.. Again, this is a Common Conclusion, Idem est in lege non esse & non apparere, It is all one in Law not to be, and not to ap­pear L. in lege ff. de contrahend. Emp. & ibi DD. lib. 2. consil. Matr. consil. ibidem. 2. n. 1.; Wherefore seeing secret Contracts cannot be proved, it is all one in effect, as if they were not Reusner. de Sponsal. q. 1. n. 32, 33, &c. Socin. sen. cons. 119. vol. 3. vers. Secunda Conclu­sio..

3. Others are of another Opinion, holding the Con­tract for firm and indissoluble Panor. in c. 1. de cland. despons. extra. n. 2. Dec. consil. 163. n. 4. Prae­pos. in Rub. de clandestin. des­pons. n. 2. Eve­rard. cons. 10. Covar. tract. de Sponsal. secunda parte c. 6. n. 7. Hyero. Schurf. lib. 2. cons. Matr. consil. 24. n. 1, 2, 3, & 4.; for the Confirmation whereof, they alledge a very round Text, extant in the Body of the Law, the words are these, Clandestina Con­jugia contra leges quidem fiunt, Contracta tamen dissolvi non possunt c. nec. illud. 30. q. 5., Secret Marriages are done indeed against the Law, but being contracted, cannot be dissolved; Yielding this reason, that because these Solemnities are not of the Substance of Spousals, or of Matrimony, but consent only Panor. in c. 1. de clandestin. despons. extra. n. 2.; for (as another Text saith), suffi­cit [Page 195]nudus Consensus ad constituenda Sponsalia L. sufficit. de Sponfal. ff., Naked Consent is sufficient to make Spousals; And therefore if bare Consent is sufficient, these Solemnities are not so necessary as without the which Spousals cannot consist Arg. c. 2. de clandestin. despons. extra. cum gloss. ibi­dem. gloss. in c. sufficiat. 27. q. 2. verb. Solus Pa­nor. in c. Tuae. de Sponsal. ex­tra. n. 2. in fin. Hieron. Schurf. lib. 2. cons. Matr. Consil. ibidem 24. n. 2, 3, 4., being no more than Accidents, the which (as the Logicians teach us) may be either present or absent, with­out the destruction of the principal Subject Ideoque accidens omnium praedicabilum indignissimum dici solet Jo. Casus. Oxon. de accidente fol. 68.; So that it may be justly inferred, that the only want of Solem­nity doth not hurt the Contract Clandestinitas sola non vitiat Matrimo­nium, inquiunt Cardinal. & Praepos. in Rub. de Sponsal. extra. Panor. in c. 1. ecd. Tit. n. 2. Dec. consil. 163. n. 4. Linwood. in c. humana. de clandestin, despons. lib. 4. provincial. Const. Cant. verb. clandestina. in fin..

4. To the Reasons whereupon the contrary Conclusi­on is collected, it is thus answered: First, that no Pact, no Covenant, no Contract, shall be thought to be made betwixt them, whom the Law doth prohibit to contract, &c. That's true, when the Act is simply forbidden, but when the Act is not simply forbidden, but only in res­pect of some quality, which is not of the Substance thereof; Then the Act done without that Quality, is not to be accompted for undone Bald. in d. L. non dubium. C. de legib. n. 15. alij aliter solvunt, ut Prae­pos. in Rub. de Despons. extra. & Antho. Gu­bert. Tract. de Matrimonio. fol. 163. nu. 122. Vide Peckium in c. quae contra jus. de Reg. Jur. in. Sext. & Hyero. Schurff. lib. 2. consil. Matrimonial. fol. 134. n. 10, 11, 12.; now to contract Spousals is not simply forbidden, but in some respects only Hiero. Schurff. lib. 2. consil. Matrimonial. consil. ibidem 24. n. 11.; And therefore being done without the observati­on of those unsubstantial Circumstances, is not to be reputed for undone.

5. As for the other Reason, That not to appear, and not to be, are both one in Law, that's true Jure fori, non [Page 196]jure poli Gloss. & DD. in c. 2. de cland. despons. extra. & ibi Praepos. in fin. Melchior. Kling. Tract. de causis matrimonial. fol. 68, 69. Eve­rard. consil. 11. Lindwood. in c. Humana. de clandestin. de­spons. lib. 4. Provincial. Const. cant. verb. clandestin. in fin. Baptista Ferret. consil. 174. n. 2., Before Man, not before God; for the Church indeed doth not judge of secret and hidden things, whereof there is no appearance c. consulu­isse. 2. q. 5. c. si omnia. 6. q. 1. c. Tua nos. de Sponsal. extra. gloss. in c. 2. de cland. despons. in princ.. But most true it is, that Almighty God being [...], before him bare Conscience alone is as a thousand Witnesses Bald. in Tractat. Schismat. col. 3. c. literas de restitut. Spol. extra.; Where­fore I do admonish thee, that hast in truth contracted secret Matrimony, that thou do not marry any other Person; for doubtless this thy pretended Marriage, how lawful soever it may seem in the eye of Man, who judgeth only according to the outward appearance, is nothing, but meer Adultery in the infallible sight of God's just Judgment, whose Justice rewards every Man according to his Works, and before whose Tribunal thou must at last appear to give an accompt of this thy foul Misdeed.

6. But now admit thou art willing to marry, and the other Party is not only unwilling, but utterly denieth the intent or consent to any Marriage; Whether in this Case maist thou with safe Conscience marry else­where? It seemeth at the first view, That thou canst not marry so long as the other Party liveth, to whom thou didst so assuredly give thy faithful Promise of Matrimo­ny, as appeareth by thine own Confession, making a full and strong proof against thy self: Nevertheless, the Case being rightly scann'd, I am of their Opinion which hold that thou maist with Safety, not of Law only, but of Conscience also, proceed to marry any o­ther Person.

7. First, Seeing the other Party constantly denieth the intent and consent of Marriage, for his or her part, with­out which Consent, as well on the behalf of that other [Page 197]Party, as on thine own behalf, it is a clear Case, That no Matrimony can consist, neither in Law nor in Con­science, for the Consent must be mutual and reciprocal, as I have often confirmed. Is it possible for a Man to be a Husband without a Wife? Or a Woman to be a Wife without a Husband? Seeing (I say) the other Par­ty so constantly denieth this necessary Consent thou maist safely from thy Conscience act according to this constant denial, and perswading thy self that the same is true, then art thou at liberty to marry elsewhere, without any let in Law, or Scruple in Conscience.

8. This Case thus absolved, let us vary the Case a little. A Man and a Woman are first secretly, yet tru­ly and before God, contracted in Matrimony either of them, mutually giving there, their full and perfect Con­sent to the other therein; afterwards the Man is pub­lickly contracted to another Woman in Matrimony, the former Woman practiseth all good means, as well by Suit as otherwise, to recover him for her Husband, but prevaileth not, for want of sufficient proof; Whe­ther may she with safe Conscience marry another Hus­band? Albeit this Question may seem to appertain to the determination of Divines, yet will I adventure to signifie mine own Opinion, having first resolved another Question preparatory thereunto; which Question is this.

9. A Man doth secretly (I mean without the presence of Witnesses) contract Spousals or Matrimony with one Woman, and afterwards publickly and before a suffici­ent number of Witnesses, doth make the like Contract with another Woman; after which second Contract the former Woman chargeth him, and he likewise confesseth that he was formerly contracted unto her, Whether in this Case, shall the former secret Contract, or the second publick Contract prevail De hac q. vide DD in c. 2. de cland. de­spons. extra.?

10. It seemeth, because the same being (in truth) first made, this truth now appearing by the Confession of both Parties, is to be preferred before the second pub­lick Contract Veritas o­pinioni praefe­renda, inaxime in Spirituali­bus. c. veritate. 8. Distinct. Card. in Clem. 11. §. 1. q. 5. de poen. & remiss. Bald. in l. 2. C. de Ingen. L. poen. §. mulier alias. L. Impe­ratores. §. ultim. ff. probat. & ibi DD., and that not only in foro poli, and before the Tribunal of the Infallible Judge, to whom all things (how secret soever) be all naked and open; but also in Courts Everard. consil. 11. and Consistories of mortal Men, whose Judgment is directed according to that which ap­peareth, and is proved Unde pro­batio dieitur quasi vehicu­lum, quo Judex fertur ad Sum­mam. Mantic. de conjectur. ultim. vol. lib. 4. Tit. 11. n. 43.. And as no Man can dye with two Testaments at once L. Jus nostrum. ff. de Reg. Jur. L. Sancimus C. de testa., so no Man can live with two Wives at once L. eum qui duas C. de Adult. L. 2. C. de incest. nup.: Howbeit Testaments and Contracts be in this point, of a contrary Condition; for of Testaments the latter is the better, and maketh void the former §. posteriore Instit. Quib. mod. testa. infirm.; but of Contracts, the former is the better, and maketh void the latter Intellige, si utraque Sponsalia sint de praesenti, vel utraque de futuro. Henr. Boic. in c. 1. de Spons. duorum extra. secus. Si Priora sint de futuro, posteriora verò de praesenti. Boic. ibidem.: Wherefore, the Man having first given his Faith to one Woman, cannot afterwards give the same to another Woman Everard. d. consil. 11. n. 3. in fin.. And so the former Contract, albeit at the first secret, yet afterwards published and made known, is to be pre­ferred before the second publick Contract Henr. Boic. in c. cum Inhibitio, de clandestin. despons. extra. 1. Distinct. versic. aut quaeris de tertio. Ruckerus cujus consil. extant. in lib. 2. consil. matrim. & est consil. ejus lib. 36. n. 6..

11. Others nevertheless (whose Opinion is generally received) are of this Judgment, That howsoever, before God, the secret Precontract, though it were never pub­lished, is to be preferred before the like subsequent Con­tract, how publick soever Everard. consil. 11. gloss. in c. 2. de clan­destin. despons. extra.; yet before his Church it is otherwise Panor. in c. quod nobis. de clandestin. de­spons. extra. n. 6. Et omnes DD. ibidem. Schneidwin. Tract. de Nuptiis, fol. 24. Reusner. de Causis matrimonial. lib. 1. q. 1. lib. 2. consil. matrimonial. consil. ibidem. 36. n. 12, 13, & 14. Paris. consil. 57. n. 40. vol. 4.; neither is the sole Confession of both [Page 199]the Parties, pretending themselves to be Pre-contracted, in secret sort, betwixt themselves alone, to be credited in prejudice of a sufficiently testified Contract, and pro­ved by Witnesses gloss. in c. Si quis Divinis. 30. q. 5. Rucke­rus. Cujus con­silium videre est lib. 2. Con­sil. matrimonial. fol. 189. quod velim videas. n. 12. 13, & 14. Covar. Tract. de Sponsal. prima parte, c. 4. nu. 5. Paris. consil. 57. vol. 4. n. 40. Panor. & alii in c. 2. de clandestin. despons. extra. lib. 1. consil. matr. consil. ibidem 19. n. 3.; because otherwise it were a very easie matter for such, as were truly contracted, und [...]r pretence of a Pre-contract, at their pleasures whenso­ever they were displeased either with other, to undo the undoubted Contract, by suborning one, of whom they had better liking, to affirm a former secret Contract Schneidwin. Tract. de Nuptiis, fol. 24. lib. 2. con­sil. matr. consil. ibidem 36. n. 13.: A mischievous Inconvenience in no wise to be tollera­red Schneid. & Rucker. ubi supra. DD. in c. super eo. de eo qui cogn. consang. ux. extra..

12. As concerning the reason of the contrary Opi­nion, viz. That the truth is to be preferred when it ap­peareth c. veritate distinct. 8. L. pen. §. mulier. ff. de probat. in fin.. That's true, if it appear by lawful and sufficient proof Henr. Boic. in c. Cum Inhi­bitio. de cland. despons. extra. distinct. 1. in fin. lib. 2. consil. ma­trimonial. consil. ibidem. 36. n. 12.; but the sole Confession of both the Parties, is not a lawful or sufficient proof, in prejudice of another Contract lawfully and sufficiently proved, by the testimony of Witnesses gloss. in c. si quis divinis. 30. q. 5. lib. 1. consil. matrimonial. consil. ibidem 19. n. 3. & consil. 83. n. 20. Panor. & alii in c. 2. de clandestin. despons. extra. quorum opinio procedit licet secundum matrim. non sit contractum in facie Ecclesiae, sed coram duobus tantum testibus. Praepos. in d. c. 2. n. 4. & Socin. Sen. consil. 270. col. 2.. Indeed if it were not in prejudice of another Contract, the bare Confession of the Parties would suffice Gloss. & Panor. in c. super eo. de eo. qui cogn. consang. ux. extra Dec. consil. 163. col. 1. Bald. consil. 48. vol. 4. Rom. Sing. 616. alias 620. incipien. Tu audivisti. Immo parte absente probat contra con­fitentem ipsius confessio, de aequitate Canonicâ, Mascard. de probat. concl. 1029. n. 4. & communiter DD. in c. si Cautio. de fide Instr. extra.: Or if this Confession of both the Parties were made before the second Contract was made, then also peradventure it might suffice a­gainst the second Contract Johan. de Canibus, inter consil. matrimonial. lib. 1. consil. ibidem 19. in fin. Jacob. de Zochis & alij in d. c. super co. Covar. Tract. de Sponsal. prima parte, c. 4. n. 5., because at that time the [Page 200]Confession cannot be suspected of any Collusion Arg. de c. super eo. Jo. de Canib. d. consil. 19. in. fin.: But the Confession being made after the time of the se­cond Contract, which Contract is proved by two suf­ficient Witnesses, in this Case, not only the Confession of the Parties is not sufficient to prove a Pre-contract, but also if besides the Confession of the Parties, there were one Witness who did likewise depose of the same Pre-contract Regulariter autem unus te­stis de contra­ctu, & alter testis de partis confessione plenè probant matri­monium. lib. 1. Consil. matri­monial. consil. ibidem 16. n. 14. & consil. 51. n. 5.; yet were not the Testimony of this one Witness joyned with the Parties Confession, able to overthrow the second Contract, proved by two able Witnesses Socin. Sen. consil. 270. col. 2. versic. Ista Conclusio. &c. Jacob. Henric. in lib. 2. consil. matr. consil. ibi­dem 16. n. 5. Praepos. in c. 2. de clandestin. despons. extra. quorum opinio procedit concur­rente etiam fa­mâ, cum isto te­ste & partium confessione, ut per Bonacoss. Thesaur. com. op. verb. matrimonium. & per Socin. Praepos & Jacob. Henr. ubi supra.. Likewise the testimony of one Witness, together with a common voice and fame of a Pre-con­tract, is not able to overthrow the second Contract pro­ved by two sufficient Witnesses Vincen. & post eum Canonistae. in c. 2. de cland. despons. contra Cardinal. in d. c. communiter reprobatum, ut per Panor. & Praepos. in d. c. 2. quibus accedat Corsetus singularis. 246. verb. Probatio. Dec. consil. 163. n. 11. Felin. in c. 1. ut Lite non contestat. col. 2. Socin. consil. 119. vol. 3. decis. Tholoss. q. 172. Bonacoss. Thesaur. com. op. verb. matrimonium.; for this Conclusi­on is commonly received. That when the proof of the second Contract is more clear than of the former Con­tract, there the second Contract is to be preferred Panor. in d. c. 2. de clandest. despons. extra. in fin. Hostiens. in Summa eod. Tit. §. verum clandestina matrimonia. Paris. consil. 53. vol. 4. Praepos in d. c. 2. n. 4. Corset. d. singul. 246. & Aufrer. in addic. ad Decis. capell. Tholoss. ubi refert se. judicâsse pro secundo matrimonio manifestè probato, contra precedens matrimoniam, vel ex illo tantum capite quod testes de primo matrimonio non erant omni exceptione majores. Et quae dicta sunt de clandc­stinis Nuptiis, habent quoque locum in clandestinis Sponsal. de futuro. Nimirum quod publica prae­ferantur clandestinis. Kling. Tract. de caus. matr. fol. 70., saving in these Cases following, viz. When the second Contract is made depending the Suit, about the former Contract Covar. Tract. de Sponsal. se­cunda parte. c. 6. n. 11. Dec. consil. 163. n. 11. Imol. cons. 125.; for the Contract made depending the Suit loseth that Priviledge, which otherwise it should en­joy Arg c. Tenor. de re Jud. extra. & DD. ibidem. Covar. ubi supra. Imol. d. cons. 125.: Or when the second Contract is made under this Condition, if there be no Pre-contract before going, or if the Pre-contract be frustrate and Void Covar. d. c. 6. n. 11. Andr. Barba. consil. 40. col. 2. vol. 3. Quod si posterior contractus sit simplex, licet non fuerit publicatus in facie Ecclesiae, tamen initus coram duobus testibus, tanquam certior & clarior, praefertur alteri, de quo extat unicus testis cum famâ & confessione partium. Praepos. in d. c. 2. Soc. cons. 270. lib. 2. consil. matrim. fol. 112. n. 5., or [Page 201]when the former Contract comprehendeth Spousals de praesenti, the other Spousals de futuro Boic. in c. 1. de Spons. duo­rum extra.; or when as over and besides this one Witness and Fame, there be other Adjuments or Helpers, such as may suffice to in­duce the Judge to give Sentence for the former Con­tract Aretin. con­sil. 82. col. 4. Covar. & Tract. de Sponsal. se­cunda parte. c. 6. n. 11. in fin­Bald. consil. 51. alias 48. vol. 4.: In these Cases the former Contract proved by one Witness with the Fame, &c. is preferred before the second Contract proved by two intire Witnesses.

13. Another Question incident to secret Contracts, is this, A Man and a Woman are first secretly, yet truly and before God contracted, either of them mutu­tually giving their full and perfect Consent thereunto; Afterwards the Man is publickly contracted to another Woman; The former Woman practiseth all good means as well by Suit as otherwise, to recover him for her Hus­band, but prevaileth not for want of sufficient proof; In this Case whether may she with safe Conscience Mar­ry another Husband? It seemeth that she may Arg. c. 1. &c. nullum. 30. q. 5. Theod. Beza. tract. de divor­tijs fol. (lib. mei) 87. & 164. Ubi docet quod clandestina Sponsalia, nem­pe quae absque consensu paren­tum contrahun­tur sunt ipso Jure nulla., for having endeavoured to the utmost of her power, nor able to continue any longer; It were not only against Law, but against Reason and Equity, that she should be bound to an impossibility L. Impossibilis. de verb. ob. ff. c. Nemo. de Reg. Jur. 6. & ibi Dyn. & Peckius.; And therefore of two Evils (where­of the one is inevitable) the less is to be chosen L. Si Procurator. ff. de doli except. L. exigend. C. de procur., that is to say, it is better for her to marry than to burn in the Fire of Lust and Concupiscence E­pist. 1. ad Cor. c. 7. vers. 9..

14. Contrariwise it seemeth that she may not Ambros. in lib. de Patriarch. de quo in c. nec illud. & in c. seq. 30 q. 5.; for he and she being once very Husband and Wife before God d. c. nec il­lud. &c. Si quis eum c. fin. 30. q. 5., the Woman is in subjection to the Man, and is bound unto him while he liveth Epist. Paul. ad Rom. c. 7. vers. 2., nor is delivered, until the Man be Dead ibid.; So that if while the Man [Page 202]liveth, she take another Husband, before God it is A­dultery Eod. c. vers. 3.; only then, when her Husband is Dead, she is at liberty to marry with whom she will in the Lord, and not before Epist. ad Cor. c. 7. vers. 39.; unless this be true that by rea­son of the Husbands Adultery, she may Marry another, (of which question we shall have better opportunity to discourse more at large in another place Infra parte tertia. §.;) or un­less in contracting Spousals, the consent of Parents be necessary, the which being awanting in the former Con­tract, the Spousals therefore may be broken without peril; (of which Question also I mean to deliver my O­pinion hereafter) Infra parte secunda.; or unless the former Contract contained Spousals de Futuro, and the second de Praesen­ti; for then also the former Spousals are dissolved c. Si inter de Sponsal. ex­tra., and the Party at liberty to marry elsewhere, both in Law and Conscience; and by the Opinion not of Lawy­ers only Canonistae in c. Si inter. de Sponsal. extra. Legistae in L. final. de donat. ante nup. C., but of Divines also Beza. Tract. de divor. pag. 6, & 7. Lombard. lib. 4. dist inc. 27, 28.. What other Que­stions or matter may seem to appertain to secret Con­tracts, shall be more fully handled in the Treatise of se­cret Marriages.

SECT. XV. Of Contracting Spousals by Signs.

1. IT is an old and a tough Controversy, whether words be necessary in contracting Spousals or Ma­trimony Gloss. & DD. in c. Tuae &c. Si inter de Sponsal. extra. Covar. tract. de Sponsal. secunda parte c. 4. in princ. Summa Silvestrin. verb. matrim. §. 2. q. 7. & 8.; Wherein divers do hold the affirmative Inno in d. c. Tuae de Spons. extra. part. Gloss. ibidem. Bar. in L. nuptias de Reg. Jur. ff. Luc. de penna in L. 1. C. de vetera­nis. lib. 12., at least as touching the Church, (which doth not otherwise determine of that which is conceived inwardly, but that which is expressed outwardly c. consuluisse. 2. q. 5. c. Is qui 32. q. 2. Innoc. ubi supra.); and for this affirma­tive Opinion, there is a ready Text, extant in the bow­els of the Law, containing these words, Matrimonium in veritate contrahitur, per legitimum Viri, & Mulieris consensum, Sed necessaria sunt (quantùm ad Ecclesiam) verba Consensum exprimentia, &c. c. Tuae. de Sponsal. extra. Accedit etiam Textus in c. si inter. eod. Tit. ponderando haec verba, Itaque unus alterum mutuo consensu verbis consuetis expresso, &c. Matrimony in truth is contracted by lawful Consent of Man and Wo­man, But words expressing Consent be necessary, as touching the Church, &c. Others nevertheless hold the negative Ho­stiens. in d. c. Tuae. quem sequuntur Anto. Card. & Panor. eod. loc. Boer. decis. 1. n. 18. Covar. Tract. de Sponsal. secunda. parte. c. 4. n. 1. Socin. Inn. consil. 29. n. 3. vol. 3., by reason of another Text, which saith, sufficit ad Matrimonium solus illorum Consensus, de quo­rum Conjunctionibus agiturc. cum apud. de Sponsal. extra. Cum igitur sufficiat Consensus, verba non sunt praecisè necessaria, quia illud Do­ctores sufficere, quo posito nihil aliud requiritur ad substantiam actus. Angel. Clavas. verb. Matrimo­nium. el. 2. q. 4.(id est) Their Consent a­lone is sufficient for Matrimony, of whose conjunction there is any ado; and it followeth in the same place, that he or she which cannot speak, may contract Matri­mony; the Reason there yielded is this, Quod verbis non potest, Signis valeat declarari d. c. cum apud. unde si mutus possit contrahere Matrimonium per signa, multo magis ille qui loqui valeat. arg. D. Nutu. ff. de leg. 3., That which can­not [Page 204]be expressed by words, may be declared by Signs. Seeing then sole Consent is sufficient; and seeing they which be Dumb and cannot speak, may lawfully contract Matrimony by Signs, which Marriage is lawful and a­vailable, not only before God, but also before his Church, it followeth that words are not so precisely necessary, as without the which Matrimony cannot be contracted; and this Conclusion is most commonly received of all, or the most later Writers Hostiens. Ant. de Butr. Cardinal. & Panor. in c. Tuae de Spons. extra. Socin. Jun. cons. 29. n. 3. vol. 2. Covar. Tract. de Spon­sal. secu [...] parte c. 4. n. 1. Soarez. The­saur. com. op. verb. Matrimo­nium n. 87. & & Vivius eodem libro. & eod. verb. Cagnol. de Reg. Jur. ff. n. 5. Sed-prae caeteris doctissimè & elegantissimè Nichol. Boer. consil. 45. qui nihil intactum reliquit, quòd pro hujusce opinionis clypeo facere videatur, aliósque pro hac parte consuleun' diligentissimè signavit: Ad hunc igitur tanquam ad uberrimum fontem, si opus fuerit pro explendo tuae Siti, recurrere velis, moneo..

2. To the former Text, which saith (as concerning the Church) words be necessary, &c. Diverse answer diversly: Some, that by this word [necessaria], is meant [utilia Cardinal. Zabarel. in c. Tuae de Spon­sal. extra.] profitable: Others that by the word [verba] is also understood [Signa Prier. verb. Matrimonium. el. 2. q. 7. Covar. Tract. de Spon­sal. secunda parte c. 4. n. 1. Intellige tamen, Si modo signa sint Equipollen­tia sive Consen­sum exprimen­tia. Signs]: Others that words be necessary indeed, yet not for the form or essence of Matrimony, but for a more certain or readier proof thereof Imol. in rep. de c. Tuae. col. 7. Panor. eod c. in fin. Boer. consil. 40. n. 25. Praepos. in c. Si Rector. distinct. 43. quem videas.; and others yield other Answers thereunto Pa­nor. & alij in c. Tuae in fin. Dicontesque hic non statuitur jus novum, sed respondetur à consulto Q. propositae, consultus enim qualiter, num verba requirantur ad Matrimonium? respondet, Quod solus Consensus requiritur, assignans rationem, nempe, quòd, mutus recte contrahit Matrimonium, Ergo verba non sunt necessaria; nec obstat quod Ecclesia non potest certificari aliter quam per verba, Quia Immò potest Certificari tam factis, quam verbis, Inquit. Praepos. in d c. Si Rector. distinc. 43.: But none of these Answers can satisfie the Authors of the first Opinion, who albeit, that they cannot but grant, that such Persons as cannot speak, may contract Spousals or Matrimony by Signs, expressing their Con­sents c. Cum apud. de Sponsal extra.; yet will they not at any hand yield that such as can speak may contract Matrimony or Spousals by Signs only Debile refugium: Nam si mutus potest contrahere matrim. multo magis ille qui loqui potest Arg l. nutu de leg. 3. ff.; And for Confirmation thereof, they [Page 205]do accumulate many Reasons Vide Prae­pos. in d. c. Tuae. ubi producit 16 argumenta., which because they be more tedious than forceable, I willingly omit, Reply­ing with this only Argument, viz. If words be of the essence or substantial Form of Matrimony, Then cannot such, as cannot speak, contract Matrimony Covar. Tract. de Sponsal. se­cunda parte c. 4. in princ.: But Dumb Persons may (even by their own Confession), and therefore are not words of the essence of Matrimony Covar. ubi supra Nichol. Boer. consil. 40. n. 24..

3. There is yet a third Opinion, defended by divers, who labouring studiously to reconcile the two former O­pinions, have devised this distinction, (viz.) That in case any treatise of Spousals or Matrimony did go be­fore, then Signs alone without words be sufficient: But if there be no such precedent treatise, then sole Signs are not sufficient Jo. And. in c. Tuae de Sponsal. extra. Archid. in c. si Rector. distinct. 43. in fin. Henr. Bo. c. n d. c. Tuae.. But this third Opinion is not altoge­ther sound Panor. in c. Tuae de Spon­sal. extra n. 2. Boer. consil. 40. n. 18. cum. Seqq.; for though the former part thereof be true, that is to say, that Signs be sufficient, where there is a treatise precedent, yet is not the second part able to withstand the Canon Shot, I mean the Reasons of the Canon, whereby the first Opinion is overthrown, but must needs also fall and be battered with the same Bullet Nempe quia verba non sunt de formâ essen­tiali Matrimo­nij, idcirco nec opus est, ut prae­cedant verba, si modo aliter. per signa con­stare possit de mutuo contrahentium Consensu.. Indeed it is true, that if the one Party express his or her Consent by words, the other by Signs, this Contract is of no less force, than if they had both ut­tered their Consents by the same words Henr. Boic. in c. Tuae de Spons. extra. col. 2. Clavas. in Summa Angel. verb. Matrimonium el. 2. q. 4. in fin. lib. 2. Consil. Matr. consil. 34. n. 5. Menoch. Tract. de Praesump. lib. 3. praes. 2. n. 2. Prier. verb. Matr. el. 2. q. 8.: As for ex­ample, the Man saith to the Woman [I do promise that I will Marry thee, and if thou wilt Marry me, then kiss me or give me, thy hand], or thus, [The Man saith, I take thee for my Wife, desiring if thou accept me for Gloss. & In­no. in d c. Tuae & d. c. cum apud. de Spons. extra.[Page 206]thy Husband, to receive this Ring, or to pledge me in a Cup of Wine; In the former of which Cases the Wo­man kissing or giving her Hand accordingly, Spousals are Contracted; And in the Second Case receiving the Ring or pledging him, Matrimony is as sufficiently con­tracted, as if she had expressed her Consent, by the same words, or others of the like importance Boic. Clavas. Prier. & Me­noch. ubi supra Lapus Alleg. 57. d. consil. 34. n. 5. lib. 2. con­sil. matr.: Like­wise albeit neither of the Parties express any words at all, but some third person recite the words of the Contract, willing them if they be therewith content, to joyn their hands together, or to embrace each other; the Parties so doing, the Contract is of like Efficacy, as if they themselves had mutually expressed the words before recited by that third Person Panor. in c. 1. de Matrimo­nio contrah. in­terd. Ecclesiae. n. 2. & ibi Praepos. Boic. in d.c. Tuae de Spons. extra. Clavas. verb. Matr. el. 2. q. 4, & 5. Summa Hostiens. in Rub. de Matrimonijs. §. qualiter paulò post princ. facit. Imol. in c. tenor. de Re. Jud. extra..

Nevertheless this is not all, for not only then when the one Party useth words, and the other Signs; or when a third Person uttering the words, both the Par­ties use Signs of Consent, is the Contract good, accor­ding to the former branch of the aforesaid distinction: But even there also, where no words at all be uttered, neither by the Parties, nor by any third Person, may Spousals or Matrimony be contracted by Signs only, (so that the same be Significant) contrary to the se­cond Member of the same distinction, because it is a common Rule of Law, Ex Equipollentibus utrum fiat nihil interest L. fidei commissa. §. Si Cui. de leg. 3. ff. & Bar. in Eund. §., Of things equally forceable, it skilleth not whether be done; Which Conclusion is especially true in these Cases, where a precise and essential form is not prescribed Gloss. in clem. 1. in verb. tertio. de vita & hon. Clericorum Bar. in L. non sunt liberi. ff. de Stat. hom. Tiraquel. de retract. Ligniagier. §. 1. Gloss. xxi. n. 11., as in this, for if words were pres­scribed [Page 207]for such a form, then could not such as cannot speak contract Matrimony, or Spousals Covar. tract. de Sponsal. se­cunda parte. c. 4. in princ. Boer. consil. 40. n. 27. Summa Angel. verb. Matrimo­nium. el. 2. q. 4., as is a­foresaid; Which thing because they may undoubtedly do c. apud. Sedem de Sponsal. extra., It followeth that deeds are equivalent to words Clavas. in Summa Angel. verb. Matrimonium. el. 2. q. 4. Hostiens. in c. Tuae de Sponsal. extra., so that the same be Significant, expressing the mutu­al Consent of either Party Covar. Tract. de Sponsal. secunda par­te. c. 4. in princ. Silvester. Prier. verb. Matrimonium. el. 2. q. 7, & 8. Praepos. in c. Si. Rector. di­stinc. 43..

5. By what kind of words Spousals or Matrimony may be Contracted, is elsewhere declared at full Supra. ead. parte. Paragra­phis. 10, & 11.; Now then it remaineth, that we speak of such Signs, whereby Spousals or Matrimony is contracted; And forasmuch as Subarration, that is the giving and receiv­ing of a Ring, is a Sign of all others, most usual in Spousals and Matrimonial Contracts DD. in L. ultim. de Des­pons. impub. ex­tra., I think it re­quisite to speak of it, before all other Signs; the rather because the Writers upon this Sign have diligently des­cribed unto us, what Persons did first devise the same, and to what end; and what was the matter, and what the form thereof, on which Finger it ought to be worn, and what is the Signification of each of those Circum­stances, with divers other Observations which I will briefly run over.

6. The first Inventer of the Ring (as is reported) Alberic. de Rosa. in suo Dictionar. in verb. Annulus. Corsetus in suoc Repertorio, in Lecturas Panor­eod. verb. An­nulus., was one Prometheus; The Workman which made it was Tubal-Cain ibidem., of whom there is mention in the fourth of Genesis, that he wrought cunningly in every Craft of Brass and Iron vers. 22.: And Tubal-Cain by the Counsel of our first Parent Adam (as my Author telleth me) Alberic. & Corsetus ubi supra., gave it unto his Son to this end, that therewith he should espouse a Wife, like as Abraham delivered unto his Servant Bracelets and Ear-Rings of Gold, [Page 208]which he gave to Rebecca, when he chose her to be Isaacks Wife, as we may read in the same Book of Ge­nesis c. 24. ver­sic. 22.. But the first Ring was not of Gold, but of Iron, adorned with an Adamant Nevizanus in Silva nuptial. lib. 3. in princ. n. 13. Alberic. & Corsetus ubi supra, Ille in Dictienario, hic in Repertorio, uterque in verb. Annulus, Alex. ab. Alex. de die genial. lib. 2. c. 19. pag. 229., the Metal hard and durable, signifying the continuance and perpetuity of the Contract Corsetus d. verb. Annulus.; the vertuous Adamant drawing the Iron unto it, signifying the perfect unity and indissolu­ble Conjunction of their minds, in true and faithful love unde anti­quum Carmen, Ut ferrum Mag­nes, sic ad se nos trahit Agnes.; Howbeit, it skilleth not at this day, what Me­tal the Ring be; The form of the Ring being circular, that is, round, and without end, importeth thus much, that their mutual love and hearty affection should round­ly flow from the one to the other, as in a Circle, and that continually, and for ever c. foeminae. 30. q. 5. Anto. Gubertus. de Sponsal. fol. 30. n. 14. Ne­vizanus d. lib. 3. n. 13.; The Finger on which this Ring is to be worn is the fourth Finger of the left hand d. c. foeminae. Nevizanus & Gubertus ubi supra. Covar. tract. de Spon­sal. secunda. par­te. c. 4. in princ. n. ibidem 3., next unto the little Finger; because by the re­ceived Opinion of the Learned and Experienced in Rip­ping up, and anatomizing Mens Bodies Appion. in libris Aegiptiacis. Aulus Gellius lib. &c. 10. Polidor. Virgil. de Invent. lib. 2. c. 21. Plin. lib. 33. c. 1., there is a Vein of Blood which passeth from that fourth Finger un­to the Heart, called Vena amoris, Loves Vein c. foeminae 30. q. 5. in fin. Alex. de die genial. lib. 2. c. 19. fol. 229. Kling. de Causis Matrimonial. fol. 70. Covar. Tract. de Sponsal. 2. parte. c. 4. n. 3.. And so the wearing of the Ring on that Finger signifieth, that the love should not be vain or fained, but that as they did give their Hands each to other, so likewise they should give their Hearts also, whereunto that Vein is extended d. c. foeminae. cum gloss. ibidem Kling. & Nevizanus. ubi supra. Praepos. in c ultim. de despons. nup. n. 4.. Furthermore I do observe, that in former Ages it was not tolerated to single or unmarried Per­sons to wear Rings, unless they were Judges, Doctors, or Senators, or such like honourable Persons Alex. ab. Alex. de die genial. lib. 2. c. 19. DD. in c. pen. de vitâ & hon. cler. extra.: So that being destitute of such Dignity, it was a note of Vani­ty, Lasciviousness, and Pride for them to presume to wear a Ring Hostiens. & alij in d.c. pen. Lindewood in.c. exterior de vita & hon. cler. lib. 3. provinc. const. Cant., whereby we may collect how greatly [Page 209]they did honour and reverence the Sacred Estate of Wedlock in times past, in permitting the Parties affian­ced to be adorned with the honourable Ornament of the Ring: As also the Vanity, Lasciviousness, and intollera­rable Pride of these our days, wherein every skipping Jack, and every flirting Jill, must not only be ring'd (forsooth) very daintily, but must have some special Jewel or Favour besides, as though they were descended of some noble House or Parentage, when as all their Houses and whole Patrimony is not worth the Ninth part of a Noble; or else, as if they were betrothed or assured in the holy Band of Wedlock, when as indeed, there is no manner of Contract betwixt them, unless peradven­ture it be such a Contract as Judah made with Thamar, that was, that he should lye with her, which bargain he con­cluded by delivering her a Ring, and afterwards perform­ed the same by committing Filthiness with her, and be­getting her with Child Genes. [...]. 38..

7. But let these things pass: Come we to the other Observations, and consider, Whether this Subarration be a sufficient sign or proof of Matrimony or Spousals? Wherein we are first of all to regard, Whether any words of Matrimony or Spousals were uttered at the delivery of the Ring, yea or no? If any words were uttered, the delivery and acceptance of the Ring is no more but a Confirmation of such a Contract as those words do im­port Panor. in c. ultim. de de­spons. impub. ex­tra. n. 7. & ibi Praepos. n. 4. La­pus allegat. 57. Menoch. de praesump. lib. 3. praesump. 2. n. 2.; that is to say, if the words did import Matrimony, the Ring confirmeth Matrimony, and if the words did import Spousals only, the Ring betokeneth no more but bare Spousals Panor. & Praepos. ubi supra. Hostiens. in Tit. de Sponsal. §. quot sunt species. August. Beronus q. 6. n. 5. Menoch. ubi supra.; and that not only when the Ring is delivered at the same time of speaking the words, but at any time after Covar. Tract. de Sponsal. prima parte, c. 4. §. 2. n. 2. Innoc. & communiter alii in c. ultim. de despons. impub. contra Praepos. ibidem.; and if it be doubtful, whether the [Page 210]words import Matrimony or Spousals, it is to be judged Matrimony Menoch. de praesump. lib. 3. praesump. 2. n. 12. Caepol. lib. 1. Consil. ci­vil. n. 14. Berous q. 6. n. 6. circa medium. Praepos. in c. ultim. de despons. impub. n. 4.: If also no words were uttered at or be­fore the delivery or acceptance of the Ring, then we are to respect whether it were delivered in sport, or in ear­nest? If in jeast, it doth not betoken either Matrimony or Spousals Henr. Boic. & Card. in c. ultim. de de­spons. impub. extra c. illud. 15. q 1. L. obligati­onum substan­tia. §. 1. ad fin. ff. In dubio ta­men non censc­tur quis jocosè agere. Praepos. in d. c. ultim. in fin.: If in earnest, then the manner of deli­very and acceptance thereof, is to be regarded; for if it were not delivered in solemn manner (as if he did not put it on her fourth Finger, but gave it her otherwise in­to her hands) it doth not signifie Matrimony Panor. in c. Illud de prae­sump. n. 12. ex­tra. Praepos. in c. ultim. de de­spons. impub. extra. Covar. Tract. de Spon­sal. secunda parte. c. 4. n. 3. in princ. Maschard. de probat. conclus. 1023. in fin. Berous q. 60 in fin., no more than when a Man sendeth a Ring to a Woman by a Mes­senger, which is understood to be a Gift or Token of good will, and not a sign of Matrimony or Spousals Paris. Consil. 55. n. 44. & consil. 60. n. 50. vol. 4. Zas. cons. 4. n. 31. vol. 2.. And albeit by the Opinion of some it may seem, that the Ring being delivered by the Party himself into the Womans hand, without putting the same on her Finger, Spousals are thereby presumed to be contracted betwixt them Menoch. de praesum p. lib. 3. praef. 2. n. 10. Innoc. in c. Tuae. de Spons. extra. Lucas de penna. in L. 1. c. si Libertas. L. 10. Qui­bus accedere videtur Praepos. in c. ultim. de despons. impub. n. 4. & Galea Malvet. in consil. matri­monial. cons. ibidem 83. n. 21.; yet dare not I deliver this Conclusion for cur­rent, as well because in this Case, it seemeth rather a Gift or an Argument only of friendly good will, than an earnest penny of Spousals Paris. cons. 55. n. 44. & consil. 6. n. 50. Zas. consil. 4. n. 31. vol. 2. Anto. Gubert. Tract. de Sponsal. fol. 29. in princ. Panor. in c. Illud. de praesump. n. 12. extra. Praepos. in c. ultim. de despons. impub. extra. in fin. Berous. q. 6. in fin.: As also, for that by this means, as by a Bait, many simple Maids might ea­sily be hooked, e're they were advised, and so con­tracted before they consented; a matter no less unreason­able than unlawful c. cum locum de Sponsal. extra. L. nuptias. de Reg. Jur. ff..

8. If the Ring be delivered in solemn Form, and put on the Womans fourth Finger, by the Party himself, and she [Page 211]willingly, not only accept the same, but wear it accord­ingly; In this Case, by the Opinion of sundry Ancient and Reverend Writers, it is to be presumed for Matri­mony Anto. de Butr. in c. ultim. de despons. im­pub. & ibi Prae­pos. nu. 4. & Pa­nor. in c. Illud de praesump. extra. n. 12. quem Felinus cod. c. sequu­rus refert quod Panor. perfecte loquitur Aretin consil. 13.; whose Opinion the rather may seem to be received, because by the general Custom of this Realm, and by the Form prescribed in the Book of Common Prayer, the Man is to give unto the Woman a Ring, and to put it on upon her said Finger at the time of their Mar­riage Lib. publ. orat. in Ecclesiâ Angl. ibi de for­mâ Solemniza­tionis Matri­monij.: For in case there were not any such Custom proved, yet by reason of the said solemn Subarration, Ma­trimony is presumed to be contracted betwixt them Panor. in d. c. illud. n. 12. Praepos. in d. c. ultim. de de­spons. impub. n. 4. & Anto. de Butr. ibidem. Arctin. consil., (if this former Opinion be true) much more than when as the Custom of the Country is answerable thereunto Menoch. de praesump. lib. 3. praesump. 2. n 9. in fin. Covar. Tract. de Spon­sal. secunda parte, c. 4. in princ. n. 3. in fin. Panor. in c. ultim. de despons. impub. extra. Paris. consil. 55. vol 4. n. 43. Zas. consil. 4. vol. 2 n. 31.; howbeit when there is not any such Custom, then I fear the former Opinion is scarce sound (unless some Speech or Treatise of Matrimony had gone before) not only because it is encountred by common Opinion Cardinal. in c. ultim. de despons. Imp. extra. Lapus Alleg. 57. Zas. cons. 4. n. 31. vol. 2. Maschardus Tract. de probat. conclus. 1023. u. 2. Covar. Tract. de Sponsal. secunda parte. c. 4. n. 3. Paris. consil. 55. vol. 4. n. 43. Menoch. de praesump. lib. 3. praes. 2. n. 9., but al­so for that certain of the chief of them, which did de­fend the former Opinion, do afterwards upon better ad­visement seem to shrink from it, and cleave to the con­trary Panor. qui (in c. illud. d. prae­sump.) Scriptum reliquit, quod non probatâ consuetudine, Annulo per virum posito in mulieris digi­to, praesumitur matrimonium; At postea (viz. in c. ultim. de despons. impub.) scripsit quod si nec verba intercesserunt, nec appareat de consuetudine, non judicatur pro matrimonio ex immissione An­nuli; Idem ferè dicend' de Praeposito. in d. c. ultim.: And therefore, whereas I have alledged that the Solemnity of the Ring is usually observed within this Realm at Marriages, forasmuch, as that is true indeed, when as the Marriage is celebrated in the face of the Church, according to the Book of Common Prayer, but not at the contracting of Spousals, albeit de praesen­ti, for ought I can learn: Therefore the former Opini­on is not the rather to be received by that Allegation, [Page 212]unless the Custom be otherwise proved, which being proved accordingly, then I esteem it a Case free from all dangerous Contradiction, that by the Solemn delivery and acceptance of the Ring, in form aforesaid, the Par­ties are thereby presumed to have mutually consented to be Man and Wife, and so to have contracted Matrimo­ny, albeit they used not any words, nor had any for­mer Treatise sounding of Marriage Panor. in c. ultim. de de­spons. impub. extra. n. 7. vers. aut constat de consuetudine, &c. Covar. Tract. de Spon­sal. secunda parte. c. 4. n. 3. ibi, vel quando est consuetudine inductum. Cardinal. in d.c. ultim. q. 1. ibi. Sed de consuetudine Paris. consil. 55. n. 43. vol. 4. Menoch. de praesump. lib. 3. praes. 2. n. 6. Zas. consil. 4. n. 31. vol. 2.. Thus much of Subarration, the first and principal sign of Matrimony; of the other signs, namely, of Traduction, of Cohabita­tion, and of Entreating each other as Man and Wife, &c. then shall we speak more fully when we entreat by what means Matrimony may be proved.

SECT. XVI. Of Spousals confirmed by Oath.

1. SIxthly, Spousals be sometimes contracted with­out an Oath, and sometimes they are contracted with Confirmation of an Oath Summa Ho­stiens. Tit. de Spons. §. quot sunt. Melchior. Kling. Tract. de Caus. Matri­monial. fol. 2. c. 2. &c. requisi­vit de Sponsal. extra.; The former of them are called unsworn Spousals, of which kind are all those whereof hitherto we have discoursed; The other be termed [jurata Sponsalia DD. in c. 2. &c. requisivit de Sponsal. extra. Kling. de Causis. Matrimonial. fol. 2.Sworn Spousals], concer­ning the which I find divers Questions handled.

2. First, whether these Spousals may be dissolved by the mutual Consent of both the Parties, notwithstand­ing their Oaths: Wherein, to be brief, It is flatly resol­ved that they may c. praeterea. §. Si autem de Sponsal. extra.; So that if a Man and a Woman do swear that they will Marry each other, yet is it in their power, by mutual Consent to release the Oath, and to dissolve this Contract Pan. Praepos. & DD. in d. c. praeterea. Covar. tract. de Spon. sal. 1. parte. c. 5. in princ. Kling. tract. de caus. Matrimonial. fol. 2..

3. Against this decision it is ordinarily objected, That albeit the Parties have Authority peradventure, to dis­solve the Contract, being no more but Spousals de futu­ro L. nihil tam naturale. de Reg. Jur. ff. d. c. praeterea de Sponsal. extra.; Yet it is not in their Power or Authority to violate their Oaths, no more than it is within the Com­pass of their Commission to Sin, and to take the [Page 214]name of the Lord our God in vain Arg. c. vinc. 32. q. ultima.: And there­fore they are by all means and ways to be induced to the Observation of their Oath c. 2. de Sponsal. extra..

4. To this Objection it is diversly answered; some do think that the Parties do sin herein haec est opi­nio vulgi Inquit Panor. in d. c. prae­terea n. 5. At qui eand. op. tenuit Hugo ut refert. Felin. eod c.n. 16.; but yet, lest a greater mischief should follow d.c. praeterea. ibi ne forte de­terius inde con­tingat, &c., and lest their Sin should more and more encrease, and still grow greater by dayly disagreement, in case they were compelled to marry against their Wills; they are tollerated to depart Unde existi­marunt Qui­dam, dissolvi posse quidem Sponsalia jurata dissensu mutuo, non tamen ex ipsa dispositione Juris communis, sed ex quadam dispositione com­parativâ; quasi sine peccato id fieri non potuit, sed tollcrante Ecclesia ad evi­tand' majus ma­lum, quae ta­men opinio, ma­gis communiter reprobatur. Quorsum enim inducta fuisset similitudo dissolvendae Societatis juratae, Si non mero Jure remittatur Juramentum, vide Panor & Praepos. in d. c. praeterea.: Others say that the Parties do not Sin in this Case Henr. Boic. Panor. Praepos. & alij, post Innocent. in d. c. praeterea. de Sponsal.; But that as an unlawful Oath may lawfully be bro­ken c. 1. cum sequen. 22. q. 4. c. non est obligatorium. de Reg. Jur. 6. c. Si vero. de Jure jur. extra.; So that Oath, which is made for another Mans benefit, being willingly by him remitted, may there­upon be unperformed Panor. post. Inno. in d. c. praeterea. n. 6. & Praepos. post. Jo. Andr. & alios in d. c. n. 7. & Felin. n. 13. & n. 33. Covar. tract. de Sponsal. prima parte. c. 5. in princ. ibi, ac si homo, &c., without violation, aswell of Gods Law, as of Mans Law: As for Example, a Man promiseth and confirmeth it with an Oath, to pay unto thee x l. at Easter next, before which day thou dost forgive him the Debt; In this case, it is con­cluded without Contradiction, that he may without breach of Law, or touch of Conscience, not pay the x l. Melchior. Kling. Tract. de Causis Matrimonial. fol. 2. in fin. & fol. 3. in princ. Henr. Boic in c. 1. c. praeterea. de Spons extra. col. r. in fin. versic. aut non tenentur, &c. Praepos. cod. in c. n. 5.. And so they do not distinguish betwixt lawful and unlawful Oaths; but they make a difference betwixt lawful Oaths, For of these say they, some are made for Gods Cause Henr. Boic. Panor. & Praepos. in d. c. praeterea. de Spons. extra.; as for the advancement of Religion veluti Ecclesiam edificare, auasdam orationes dicere, &c., or amendment of Mans Life Ut Adulteram abjuraret. c. cum haberet de co. q. dux. in matr.; and some are made for Mans Cause DD. in d. c. praeterea, as in the former Example; In the one Almighty God is said to be a Party, in the other a Witness ibidem.; Now, not to observe that Oath wherein the [Page 215]Almighty is a Party, it is plainly confessed by each Party to be a Sin DD. ubi su­pra. c. vinc. 32. q. ult. c. quod Deo. 33. q. 5.: And therefore it is generally hol­den, that if a Man in respect of piety and Godly Devo­tion, swear that he will Marry such a poor Woman, and so contract Spousals with her, he cannot afterwards dissolve this Contract, though she would also consent thereunto Praepos. in d. c. praeterea. n. 8. & Panor. ibidem in fin.: But not to perform the Oath whereunto God is a Witness only, when it is remitted by the Par­ty, in whose only favour and sole benefit it was made, is no Sin, say they Henr. Boic. in d. c. & ibi Pa­nor. Anto prae­pos. And. & alij.; and so when a Man and a Wo­man, not of Religion, but of affection, do swear, that they will marry together, the Oath being mutual­ly remitted, the Contract may very well be not perfor­med DD. in d. c. praeterea.: Marry, whether this be good Divinity or not, I know not; For there be divers Cases delivered in Law wherein this Rule [Jusjurandum serva] may be broken, for which there is but little Warrant out of Gods Word; And therefore I refer this Question to the determination of the Godly and Learned Divines: But howsoever the Case may seem to stand clear in respect of the Laws, either Humane or Divine, forasmuch as it needs must be scandalous to the Church and Congregation, that a Christian Man, and a Christian Woman, having sworn to marry together, should not perform their Vows in so serious a Cause, and so Godly an Action Vide Gloss. final. in c. prae­terea. de Spon­sal. extra., the Par­ties are by all means to be urged to the performance of this their Oath and promise c. ex literis. el. 2. de Sponsal. extra.; But if they will not be admonished, but do obstinately resist d. c. praeterea §. Si autem., then in­deed, lest a worse thing should betide them, by reason of their mutual hatred, the Law doth permit them to depart, and dissolve the Contract d. c. praete­rea in fin..

5. But what if the one of the Parties contracted in manner aforesaid be willing, and the other unwilling, whether doth the single dissent of the one Party dissolve the Contract, or whether is the dissenting Party to be [Page 216]compelled to marry the other willing Party? To the for­mer part of the question, it is generally concluded by all Interpreters, as well of the Civil, as of the Ca­non Law; That it is not in the power of either Party a­lone, without the Consent of the other to renounce or dissolve the Spousals confirmed with an Oath Legiftae in I. 1. C de Spon­sal. Canonistae in c. requisiv it de Sponsal. extra.: Indeed if the Spousals were not contracted with confirmation of an Oath, by the Civil Law, either Party might re­nounce such unsworn Spousals; and afterwards marry elsewhere, without any danger or fear of punishment L. 1. de Sponsal. & Ar­ris. C. & Si­shardus ibidem. [...]. [...]. tamen patitur poenam ar­rarum. L. ultim. eod.: Because Spousals are not Matrimony, but a pre­amble or preparation thereunto Sichard. in L. 1. de Spons. C. n. 6.; and the Civilians do think that the Canon Law is not contrary to the Civil Law in this point Gloss. Cyn. & Sichard. in d. L. 1.; howbeit the Canonists for the most part are of another Opinion Panor. in c. requisivit. de Spons extra. n. 6. Nic. Everard. consil. 178. n. 7. ubi refert quod licet Sponsalia non sunt jurata, tamen ad illo­rum Solemniza­tionem & ob­servationem, Sponsa ab initio voluntaria, & postea renitens, & invita com­pelli potest nisi urgentissima Causa supervenerit vel subsit, & quod ita tenent communiter DD., because by their Law, Ex nudo pacto oritur Actio c. 1. de pactis extra. & ibi DD. Panor. in c. requisivit. de Spons. n. 6. vers. In contrarium, &c. & in c. ex literis el. 2. n. 3. Summa Hostiens. Tit. de Sponsal. §. quis sit. effectus. n. 9; And there­fore they conclude that the one espoused Party, cannot renounce the Spousals or dissolve the Contract, albeit unsworn Panor. in d. c. requi­sivit. Everard. consil. 178. n. 7., without the Consent of the other Vide Henr. Boi. in c. requisivit. de Spons. extra. & Covar. Tract. de Sponsal. 1. parte. c. 4. n. 2, 3, 4, 5, & 6.; Indeed this is a clear Case, even by the Canon Law, that if the one espoused Party do (as they term it) de facto contract perfect Matrimony with some other Person, the second Contract prevaileth, albeit, the Spousals had been confirmed with an Oath c. sicut. &c. si inter de Sponsal. extra., otherwise not: For the second part of the question, at least, without just and urgent Cause Everard. d. cons. 178. quod videto. Covar. tract. de Spons. 1. parte c. 4. n. 2, 3, &c., whether the unwilling Party may be compelled to marry the other, willing according to their mutual promise, confirmed by Oath; There be two several Texts, which at the first sight seem contrary the one to the other, The former affirming that the un­willing [Page 217]Party may be compelled c. ex literis. cl. 2. de Sponsal. extra., the second pro­nouncing that the Party is rather to be admonished c. requisi­vir. de Spons. extra.; For the reconciliation of which two places divers di­stinctions have been devised Gloss. & DD. in d. c. ex lite­ris.. First, that the former Text is true by the rigour of the Law; the second by the mercy and equity thereof Gloss. in d. c. ex literis. verb. compellas. in princ. Arg. c. praetera eod. Tit. ne, viz. deterius inde contingat.. Next, that the former Text proceedeth not simply, but conditionally; and that the second Text hath place, if otherwise the Party cannot be made willing d. gloss. arg. c. Vides 23. q.. Thirdly, that the former Text pro­ceedeth simply, and that the Party is to be compelled precisely by reason of the Oath Praealleg. gloss. Arg. c. Sacerdotes &c. Ecce Crimina. 24. q. 3.; and that the later Text is thus to be expounded, the word [potius, rather] is to be turned into [prius, first] d. gloss. in fin.; and so where it is there said, that the Party is rather to be monished than compelled, the Sense is, the party is first to be moni­shed, and then compelled praeall. gloss. quam sequitur Gubertus [...]osta­nus, Tract. de Sponsal. fol. 32. n. 5.; thus they go about to reconcile the two places: But the true and common ap­proved reconciliation is this; either there is just Cause of refusal, or not Henr. Boic. in c. requisivit. de Sponsal. ex­tra. & ibi Pa­nor. n. 4. Praepos. in c. ex literis. cl. 2. eod. n. 8. quam distincti­onem DD. com­mumter probant, ut per Praepos. ibidem.; if there be just Cause already mi­nistred, as if the other party have committed Forni­cation Praepos. in c. ex literis. el. 2. n. 8., or be stricken with Leprosy, Palsy, or some notable deformity Vide Melchior. Kling. Tract. de caus. Matrimonial. fol. 5. in fin., or that some impediment have hap­ned Puta Consanguinitatis, vel affinitatis, &c. gloss. in d. c. ex li­teris. verb. rationabilis Causa., for the which Spousals may be dissolved (where­of hereafter), In this Case the Party may be monished, but not compelled to the Observation of his Oath Henr. Boic. Panor. & Praepos. ac communiter DD. in c. re­quisivit. &c. ex literis. de Sponsal. extra.: For in every promise and Action, a just and reasonable Cause is still excepted Henr. Boic. in d. c. requisivit. Kirkhov. in lib. 2. consil. Matrimonial. consil. ibidem. 27. n. 23., being a secret Condition e­vermore understood, though never expressed: If there be not just Cause precedent, then the unwilling Party is to be admonished; and if he yet obstinately refuse, he Tacitarum Conditionum varia Exempla, vide apud Olden. in Topicis legal. Loco ab auctoriate fol. 105, 106. [Page 218]is to be compelled by the Censures Ecclesiastical to So­lemnize the Matrimony, by him before promised and Sworn Praepos. in d. c. ex literis. de Sponsal. ex­tra. n. 8. & ibi Panor. n. 5. & in c. de illis. de despons. im­pub. n. 6. Idem Panor. Consil. 48. vol. 1.; nor is he or she so refusing, to be absolved, unless there be just Cause of fear of future mischief, and greater danger like to ensue such hateful Conjunction (as Murthers, Adulteries, and such sad and tragical e­vents) left to the sound discretion of the. Wise and just Judge, by him to be uprightly weighed and indifferently ballanced Henr. Poic. in c. requisivit. de Sponsal. ex­tra. col. 1. vers. aut sive Panor. cod. c. n. 4. Co­var. Tract. de Sponsal. 1. parte c. 4. n. 5. Sichard. in L. 1. C. de Spons. n. 11, 12, & 13.; For in this Case the Judge is to abstain from further Compulsion, and to absolve the desperate Person Etiam non petenti impendenda est absolutio emnino pertinaci. Ita Praepos. post. Jo. And in c. ex literis. el. 2. in fin. de Spons. extra. alioq uiilla poena quae medicinalis dicitur, non ad constructionem sed ad di­structionem adhiberetur. Boic. in d. c. requisivit, lest that which is feared, come to pass to both their destructions, and publick Scandal of the Church Boic & communiter DD. in d. c. requisivit. Covar. tract. de spons. 1. parte. c. 4. n. 5..

6. The third Question is this, What if a Man do [swear that he will Marry such a Woman] which Wo­man is absent then, and ignorant of his Oath, but af­terwards being certified thereof, doth ratifie and confirm the same, which done, the Man and the Woman do lye together, whether is this Matrimony or no?

It is answered that it is Praepos. in c. ex literis. el. 2. de Despons. extra. n. 4. vers. sed opportune, &c., because by the presump­tion of Law Spousals are translated into Matrimony, by carnal Copulation c. is qui fi­dem de Sponfal. extra.; howbeit the aforesaid Con­clusion is then understood to be true, in Case the Man did continue and persevere in the same mind, until the Woman did also consent, without repentance, or revo­cation in the mean time, otherwise not Praepos. ubi supra.; as hereto­fore hath been disputed at large.

7. The last Question shall be this, a Man doth pro­mise and swear unto the three Daughters of such a Person, [Page 219]that he will Marry one of them, wherewith they are content; Afterwards he lieth with one of them, whether are these two hereby made Man and Wife, yea, or no? It may seem they are not, because they had not con­tracted Spousals before they did lye together Gloss. in c. ex literis. el. 2. de Spons. & In­no ibidem; And that appeareth by this, Until that time it was in his choice to have marryed any one of all the three Daugh­ters whomsoever; seeing then he might lawfully have marryed any one of all the three, it followeth that he had not contracted Spousals, otherwise he could not have marryed any one of them whom he would; where­fore no Spousals being first contracted Nimirum prepter publicae honestatis Justiciae impedimentum c. 1. de Sponsal. in Sext., no Matrimo­ny can follow, by their only lying together, or know­ing each other carnally Gloss. in d. c. ex. literis. quam sequuntur Inno. Anto. Henr. & Praepos..

8. Nevertheless, by the common Opinion, the Law presumeth Matrimony to be contracted betwixt the said Parties in this Case Hostiens. & Panor. in d. c. ex literis. Sil­vestr. Prier. verb. Matrimo­nium el. 2. q. 11. Covar. tract. de Sponsal. 1. par­te. c. 4. §. 1. n. 17. Menoch. de praesump. lib. 3. praesump. 1. n. 13. quorum hi duo testifican­tur hanc opini­onem esse com­munem.; for seeing he was bound to marry one of them three Nam cum licitum sit Juramentum, tenetur illud implere, Saltem ex officio Judicis, licet aliquam dictarum mulierum nondum cognovisset. c. Si verò, de Jurejur. extra. Henr. Boic. in d. c. ex literis, Innotentur ex vi promissionis, unam ex illis ducere in uxorem. Covar. ubi supra., he is presumed to have made choice of her for his Wife, with whom he had to do, as with his Wife Hostiens. & Panor. in d. c. ex literis. Covar. & Menoch. ubi supra.; for if a Man contract Spou­sals conditionally with a Woman, these are uncertain Spousals, so long as the Condition is in suspence; and yet nevertheless, if in the mean time he have access to her, as to his Wife, these doubtful Spousals do there­by pass into Matrimony Covar. tract. de Sponsal. infra. parte. c. 4. §. 1. n. 17. in fin. per c. super co. &c. per tuas de condic. appos. extra. Menoch. de praesump. lib. 3. praes. 2. n. 14.; and so in the question proposed, albeit the Spousals be uncertain, yet their lying together doth make the same uncertain Spousals, [Page 220]to become Matrimony, aswell as in the former Case Covar. & Menoch. in locis praealleg..

9. Again, that favourable Presumption is to be prefer­red in all doubtful Cases, whereby Sin and Wickedness may be avoided Panor, in d. c. ex literis el. 2. n. 7. de Spon­sal. c. Estote de Reg. jur. extra.: Now to presume that these two Per­sons had any other purpose in dealing together, than that which is agreeable to the Office and Duty of Husband and Wife, were to presume both Adultery and Perjury Panor. ubi supra.; and therefore this sinful Presumption is to be re­jected, and the contrary received Ibidem.: Where it is said on the other side, that there was not any precedent Contract of Spousals betwixt them two, and therefore no subsequent Matrimony to be presumed, by reason of their lying together; The Antecedent is to be denied Covar. de Sponsal. 1. par­te. c. 4. §. 1. n. 17. Menoch. de praesump. lib. 3. praes. 2. n. 14.: For seeing by his promise and Oath he was bound to marry one of them three Covar. & Menoch. in lo­cis praed., Certain it is, that he for his part had contracted Spousals, though uncertain; and on the other side the three Sisters they are likewise deemed eve­ry one of them to have consented, that she should be his Wife, whom he would chuse Hostiens. in c. ex literis. el. 2. de Sponsal. extra. & Prae­pos. ibidem. n. 6.. So that for their parts, there is also Spousals contracted, and so on both parts, though as yet uncertain; Which uncertain Spousals become Matrimony by carnal Copulation c. super eo. &c. per tuas. de Spons. extra., as is aforesaid. If any do reply, that he could not con­tract Spousals with three Sisters; True it is, that he cannot contract Spousals with three Women at once, (as I promise to marry you three) neither yet with three Sisters at several times; for being first espoused to one of them, by the Canon Law, he is forbidden to contract Spousals with any of the rest; albeit, the first contract were void d. c. primo. in princ., by reason of the impediment of the Ju­stice of publick honesty, whereof elsewhere: But if he promise to marry one of them three only, whom he shall chuse, and they agree thereunto, this Contract is not unlawful Hostiens. & DD. communi­ter in. c. ex lite­ris. el. 2. de Spon­fal. extra., for here each of them is presumed to [Page 221]consent conditionally, if he shall chuse her to be his Wife Praepos. in d. c. ex literis. n. 6.: In which Case if he lye with any one of them, he is presumed to have made choice of her for his Wife, and so to have purified the Condition Praepos. post. Hostiens. & Pa­nor. in d. c. ex literis.; And such is our Case: Wherefore by the received Opinion, the un­certain Spousals are made Matrimony by succeeding Co­pulation Hostiens. Panor. Prier. Covar. Menoch. & alij locis praealleg.: Which Conclusion hath place, when as he doth promise to marry incertam ex certis, an uncer­tain Woman of a certain Company, as in the former instance; but not when as he doth promise to marry, incertam ex incertis, an uncertain Woman of an uncer­tain Company; As for Example, A Man doth promise and swear to marry one of the Subjects of such a Prince; for albeit he do afterwards lye with one of them, yet is not this Matrimony Praepos. in c. ex literis. el. 2. de Sponsal. extra. n. 5. in fin. & ibi Panor. n. 7. in fin., because he may notwith­standing marry another of them Panor. & Praepos. ubi su­pra.; but when he doth lye with one of the Sisters, he cannot afterwards marry another of the Sisters, because of the affinity newly sprung up, by having Carnal knowledge of one of them before Hostiens. Panor. & Praepos. in d. c. ex literis. quorum opinio communiter tenetur ex relatione. Praepos. in d. c. n. 5. in fin..

SECT. XVII. Of the Effects of Spousals.

1. DIvers are the effects of Spousals, whereof the first and principal is this; The Parties which have contracted Spousals together, are bound by the Laws Ecclesiastical of this Realm, to perform their promise, and to celebrate Matrimony together accordingly Covar. Tract. de Spon­sal. 1. parte c. 4. in princ. Lindwood in c. Statutum verb. Soluturum. de testa. lib. 3. pro­vinc. constit. Lancelot. lib. 2. Instit. jur. can. tit. de Sponsal. §. initiatum Costan. de Sponsal. fol. 32. & nu. 2.: Which Conclusion is both extended and restrained, as may appear by the Ampliations and Limitations following.

2. The first Ampliation is this, that not only they which do contract Spousals de praesenti, but also they which do contract Spousals de futuro, are bound to the performance thereof c. de illis el. 1. de de­spons. impub. extra. & ibi Panor. & in c. ex literis. el. 2. de Sponsal. & ibi DD..

3. Secondly, the affianced Parties are bound to the performance of the Contract; Albeit the same were made without an Oath c. de illis el. 1. de Despons. impub. extra. ubi hoc notat. Abb. Hostiens. & Henr. Idem Covar. Tract. de Sponsal. 1. part. c. 4. in princ. nu. 2..

4. Thirdly, Albeit one of the Parties affianced do af­terwards also contract Spousals with another Person, and confirm the same with an Oath, yet is the first, though unsworn Contract, to be performed Jo. And. Abb. & Praepos. in c. sicut de Spon­sal. Covar. ubi supra. quem vi­deto..

5. Fourthly, not only they which have contracted Spousals are bound to perform the same, but they also which do promise, that they will contract Spou­sals Covar. tract. de Sponsa. 1. parte c. 4. in princ. per L. fi fidejussor. §. me­minisse. ff. de leg. 1. & per. L. Si quis Stipulatus sit Stichum. §. ultim. de verb. oblig. ff. Nich. Boer. decis. 13. n. 3.

6. Fifthly, the Parties, having contracted Spousals de praesenti, albeit, the one Party should afterwards marry another Person, in the face of the Church, and should Consummate the same by Carnal Copulation, and Procreation of Children, notwithstanding the first Contract is good, and shall prevail against the second Marriage c. Si inter. de Sponsal. ex­tra..

7. The Limitations of the former Conclusion are these. First, where the Parties espoused were not of Ripe Age at the time of the Contract; for coming to years of con­sent, they may lawfully dissent without danger c. de illis. cl. 1. de despons. impub. extra..

8. Secondly, when as the Spousals be conditional, the Condition not being performed, the Parties are not bound to marry together c. 1. §. ultim. de Sponsal. in Sext. c. super eo de Condic. ap­pos. extra., unless the Condition be impossible, or unhonest, as hath been before decla­red Supra §. 12..

9. Thirdly, when as either Party having contracted Spousals de futuro, doth afterwards Contract Matrimo­ny or Spousals de praesenti, with another Person c. sicut. &c. Si inter. §. ultim de Sponsal ex­tra.; or else contract Spousals de futuro with another Person, and then they lye with the same Person Jo. And. & Butr. in c. is qui fidem de Spons. extra. Menoch. de Praes. lib. 3. Praes. 2. n. 17.; For in both these Cases the former Spousals are dissolved by the later.

10. Finally, when as the Spousals be unlawful Summa Ho­stiens. Tit. de Sponsal. §. quis. sir effectus. in princ. ibi & Menoch. tract. de Praesump. lib. 3. praes. 2. n. 27. Sichard. in L. 1. C. de Sponsal. n. 16, 17, 18., whether it be by reason of impediment in the Per­son, [Page 224](for that they be of kin or allyed within the De­grees prohibited) or for want of Consent (as by occasion of fear, furor, drunkenness, &c.) in these and the like Cases Spousals are destitute of effect quod enim nullum est, exe­cutionem aut effectum non meretur. L. 4. §. condemnatum. de re. jud. ff. adde Pan. in c. Is qui fidem de Sponsal. extra. Praepos. in c. de illis n. 4. vers. & sic notate. de condic app. extra. Felin. in c. Cum M. Ferrariensis. col. pen. de constitut. extra. Menoch. d. Praes. 2. n. 27. Si­chard. in L. 1. C. de Sponsal. n. 16, 17, 18..

11. The second effects is, that Spousals de futuro do become Matrimony by carnal knowledge, betwixt the Parties betroathed c. Is qui fi­dem de Sponsal. extra. Menoch. tract. de prae­sump. lib. 3. praes. 2. n. 6. Melchior. Kling. de cans. Matrimonial. fol. 5.; The Ampliations of which Conclusion are these.

12. First, albeit either Party betroathed should after­wards marry another Person in the face of the Church, and should also lye with the said new married Person; Yet this Marriage solemnized and consummate notwith­standing, the Party so marrying is to be compelled to return to his or her foresaid Spouse, formerly known Eod. c. id. qui &c. veni­ens. de Sponsal. extra..

13. Secondly, albeit the Parties betroathed should protest before the Act done, that they did not intend thereby, that the Spousals should become Matrimony, yet this protestation is overthrown by the fact following c. per tuas. de condic. appos. extra. & ibi gloss. Panor. & alij Covar. Tract. de. Sponsal. 1. parte. c. 4. §. 1. n. 18.; for by lying together, they are presumed to have swarved from their former unhonest protestation Gloss. in d. c. per tuas. & ibi Panor. n. 6. de Condic. app. extra.; And so the former Spousals are now presumed honest Ma­trimony Panor. in d. c. per tuas Covar. ubi supra. Menoch. Tract. de praesump. lib. 3. Prees. 2. n. 15..

14. Thirdly, albeit, he or she which did contend that Matrimony was contracted, should after the deed done confess, that they did not thereby intend to make Ma­trimony; yet so strong is the presumption of Law Est enim praesumptio non juris tan­tum, sed juris & de jure. Gloss. communiter recepta. in d. c. is qui fidem. Abb. & Felin. in c. quanto de praesump. Alciat. tract. de praesump. in princ. n. 8., in favour of Matrimony, as this Confession doth not work any thing against it Abbas Praepos. & alij in d. c. is qui fidem. de Spous. extra. Covar. tract. de Sponsal. 1. parte. c. 4. §. 1. n. 3. ubi fatetur hanc opinionem esse com. à quâ tamen ipse postea recedit. ibidem. n. 4..

15. Fourthly, albeit, one of the Parties betroathed should commit Fornication, yet if after this Crime com­mitted, the said Parties formerly betroathed shall know each other carnally, the said Crime doth not hinder the passage of the Spousals into Matrimony Gloss. in c. de illis. el. 1. de despons. impub. Henr. Boic. & Praepos. in c. de illis. de Spons. extra. Mencch. tract. de praesump. lib. 3. praes. 2. n. 18., seeing the same Spousals were not dissolved, but dissoluble by oc­casion of Fornication Menoch. ubi supra. post. Covar. Tract. de Sponsal. 1. parte, c. 4. §. 1. n. 8..

16. Fifthly, albeit the Woman were betroathed a­gainst her Will, yet if she suffer her self to be known by him, to whom she was espoused, she is presumed to have consented unto him, as unto her Husband c. Signifi­cavit de eo qui dux. in matr. quam poll. &c. Insuper. qui matr. accus. poss., whereby the Spousals are made Matrimony d. c. Significavit. Menoch. Tract. de praesump. lib. 3. praes. 2. n. 21. & praes. 4. in fin..

17. Sixthly, albeit, the Woman be uncertain; As if a Man do swear to three Sisters, that he will marry one of them; for by lying with one of them, those Spousals become Matrimony Hostiens. & Panor. in c. ex li­teris. el. 2. de Spons. extra. Menoch. de prae­sump. lib. 3. praes. 2. n. 13.: As heretofore I have confirm­ed Supra. §. prox..

18. Seventhly, Spousals de futuro, be come Matri­mony by carnal Copulation, albeit either party had first contracted Spousals with some other Persons Jo. And. & Butr. in c. is qui fidem. de Sponsal. extra. Menoch. Tract. de praesump. lib. 3. praes. 2. n. 17. Silvestr. Prier. in Summa. verb. Sponsalia. q. 10. Covar. tract. de Sponsal. 1. parte. c. 4. §. 1. n. 10..

19. Eightly, Spousals do become Matrimony by carnal knowledge, albeit the Man were constrained, through fear of death to know the Woman Hostiens. in d. c. is qui fidem fecit, Covar, tract de Sponsal. 1. parte. c. 4. §. 1. n. 11. ratio quam ibi assignat haec est, illa eti­am Copula, si fornicario affectu peracta fucrit, etiam metu acerrimo, peccatum [...]erit mortale, Id quod praesumi non debet in Sponso, sed potiùs, secluso metu, affectum habuisse conjugalem; prae­terea coeunte viro, exclusus est metus, quia si interfuisset metus, cessaret coeundi desiderium, sine quo frustra adhiberetur coeundi conatus. Covar. ubi supra & Menoch. tract. de praesump. lib. 3. praes. 4. n. 33..

20. Finally, albeit the Man do by violence carry a­way the Woman, with whom he hath contracted Spou­sals, and have to do with her, hereby Spousals are become Matrimony Paul. de Castr. in L. Raptores, C. de Epis. & cler. n. 3. per. c. pen. de. rapt. extra. Menoch. de praesump. lib. 3. praes. 2. n. 23..

21. The Limitations of the former Conclusions are these: First, when as it doth appear that the Spousals were dissolved, either by mutual Consent, or by some other lawful means (whereof mention is made in the next Paragraph) before the Parties did lye together, for dissolved Spousals do never become Matrimony, albeit the Parties do afterwards know each other Menoch. de praesump. lib. 3. praes. 2. n. 26. Panor. in c. per tuas de cond. app. extra. Sichard in L. 1. de Spons. C. n. 4. in fin.; And so it is, if the Spousals were void from the beginning, by reason of any just Impediment, as of Consanguinity [Page 227]or Affinity within the Degrees prohibited, or such like Menoch. d. praesump. 2. n. 27. Panor. in c. Is qui fidem. de­Sponsal. extra. n. 5. vers. Secus si, &c. Praepos. in c. de illis de cond. app. n. 4. vers. & sic no­tate, &c..

22. Secondly, Spousals do not become Matrimony, when as the Parties did lye together before they were contracted, but not after Panor. in c. veniens. el. 2. de Sponsal. ex­tra. Henr. Boic. in c. Attestationes. ult. col. de despons. impub. Covar. tract. de Sponsal. 1. parte. c. 4. § 1. n. 13. contra. Hyppol. Sing. 500. Ubi citat alios ita tenuisse, qui tamen ita non tenuerunt, ut latiùs per Covar. ubi supra..

23. Thirdly, if the Parties having contracted Spou­sals de futuro, do afterwards know each other, but in truth not with that affection, which doth become Man and Wife, but (as Adulterers do) with a beastly purpose only to satisfie their foul Lusts, in this Case it is not true Matrimony in Conscience; neither are they Man and Wife before God Panor. in c. is qui fidem. de Sponsal. extra. n. 5. Covar. tract. de Spon­sal. 1. parte. c. 4. §. 1. n. 9. Socin. consil. 28. vol. 1. Prier. verb. Ma­trimonium. el. 2. q. 15., though it be otherwise in Mans Judgment per loca prae­alleg.; because the Law presumeth, that the Parties espoused in knowing each other, had no foul intent of committing Fornication, but an honest affection as is meet for marryed Persons Gloss. & DD. in L. Is qui fidem. de Sponsal. extra.; nor doth the Law permit that they should be credited in affirming the contrary c. Tua nos. de Sponsal. extra. & ibi Panor. & alij Covar. tract. de Sponsal. 1. parte. c. 4. §. 1. n. 9.: Hence is it, that if the one of them should marry another Person, This Marriage is good in­deed before God, but not in the Consistory or judicial place of Mortal Man Panor. Praepos. & DD. in c. is qui fidem de Sponsal. extra. Prier. verb. Matrimonium. el. 2. q. 15. Covar. d. c. §. 4.1. n. 9., whose Sentence is to be directed by the Rules and Precepts of the Law Lib. 4. Instit. Tit. de Offic. Jud. in princ.; and there­fore if the unmarried Party, with whom Spousals were first contracted, should commence Suit against the Par­ty precontracted, to solemnize Matrimony, and to per­form [Page 228]the duties of Marriage, notwithstanding the second Marriage, the Judge were to give Sentence accordingly Panor. & Praepos. in d. c. is qui fidem.; and yet in Conscience and before God, the same were unlawful, so that it were better for the Party con­vented to endure the Censures Ecclesiastical, than to undergo that Sentence Praepos. post Vincen. in d.c. is qui fidem. de Spons. extra. n. 3..

24. Fourthly, when as the Parties themselves be­troathed, do not verily and actually know each other, but only endeavour and assay so to do, the Spousals de futuro are not hereby resolved into Matrimony c. ultim. de Sponsal. ex­tra., unless they were Spousals by interpretation of Law on­ly; as when two Children are contracted by words of present time, for these Spousals are transformed into Matrimony by sole endeavour, after the Parties have at­tained to lawful Age c. Attestati­ones & ibi Praepos. & Henr. Boic. de Spons. impub. Idem Praepos. in c. ul­tim. de Sponsal. extra. n. 3. & ibi Card. n. 2. Paris. consil. 51. n. 9. cum Seq. vol. 4. & in cons. 62. n. 9. cod. vol..

25. The Third effect arising from Spousals is that impe­diment which is called publicae honestatis Justitia c. ad audien­tiam. et c. Spon­sam, de Spon­fal. & Matrimo­nijs. extra. c. 1. de Sponsal. lib 6., the Justice of publick honesty, whereby either Party ha­ving contracted pure and certain Spousals, albeit only de futuro, are prohibited to marry any of the others Kins­folks within the Degrees prohibited; So that the Man is not to marry any of the Kinswomen of the Woman, with whom he had contracted Spousals, neither the Wo­man to marry any of the Kinsmen of the Man, with­in the Degrees of Consanguinity prohibited d.c. Ad audi­entiam. &c. Sponsam, & DD. ibidem. Sichard. in L. 1. de Sponsal. C. n. 8.; which impediment of the Justice of publick honesty by the Laws Ecclesiastical, is not only prohibitory, but destru­ctory, that is to say, it doth not only forbid such Marriages to be contracted, but it doth destroy the same being solemnized Panor. in d. c. Sponsam in fin. c. unic. de Sponsal. in Sext. & ibi Dominic. de S. Gem. & Phil. Franc.; but whether this impediment be now of force within this Realm of England, shall appear hereafter.

26. The Fourth effect proceeding from Spousals, is the penalty whereunto the Party is Subject, which doth revolt from performance of the promise of future Mar­riage, which penalty by reason of many Laws is ma­nifold: By the Civil Law, whosoever having contracted Spousals de futuro, doth, without just Cause, refuse to deduce the same Spousals into Matrimony, doth not only lose the token (which is commonly a Ring) giv­en to the other Party in pledge, and earnest of the Con­tract L. Contra­ctus. §. illud C. de fide Instr. L. 3. C. de Spon­sal. Sichard. in L. is de don. ante nup. C., together, with all other gifts whatsoever simply bestowed in hope of future Marriage Sichard. in Rub. de don. ante nup. n. 8. & 9. ubi etiam videre licet Doctrinam inter donationem propter nuptias, & Sponsaliti­arum largita­tem.; but is bound to make two-fold Restitution for the tokens and pledg­es received in Confirmation of the said Contract L. ultim. C. de Sponsal. Quod verum quidem est, Si modo sit major 25 annis, sin vero minor, tunc solum tene­tur ad Arras quas recepit. eodd., whether they be Rings, Braceletts, Jewels, or other things, not consisting in weight, number or measure Arrae vero dari possunt, non solum in rebus quae numero, pondere, & mensurâ consistunt, ut quae facillimè duplicari possunt, verum etiam in Speciebus vel Corporibus, quae licet multiplicari non possunt, tamen aestimatio erit loco Corporis, & it a accipiens, in Arram, sundum, si resiliat absque Causa tenebitur restituere sundum, & deinde aestimationem, & haec opinio com­munis est contra Bar. reste Sichardo in L. 1. C. de Sponsal. n. 14 & 15., the which the Civil Law doth call Arrabo L. Arris & L. ultim. C. de Sponsal., being as it were the earnest peny, whereby any bargain is knit up, and fully concluded betwixt the Parties DD. in d. L. Arris & L ultim.; but if the Mar­riage did not proceed, and yet the Party is in no fault (whether it were by reason of Death or of Prohibition by the Superior Magistrate, or of new affinity overtaking them within the Degrees prohibited:) In this Case those gifts conferred in hope of Marriage, were not lost, but might be recovered L. cum veterum de donac. ante nup. C. & ibi­dem Sichard.; yet with this difference, that is to say, if the Woman betroathed, receiving those gifts, did bestow a Kiss upon her future Husband, then might she retain the one half thereof L. si à Sponso de don. ante nup. C., otherwise he might recover the whole Eod. L. Si à Sponso.; for so religious, or rather so ridi­culous were the Italians and Spaniards in this point, that [Page 230]they thought her half known if once she kissed a Man Anto. Gu­bert. Co. stan. tract. de Sponsal. n. 12, 13. c. nec. in aliqua 27. q. 1.; And so impatient is the Jealousie of those Husbands (though very unchast themselves) that (for the most part) they accompt it half Adultery if any other do but kiss their Wives Unde Ov idius, Oscula si dederis, fiam manifestus a­mator. Et alibi. Et dicam haec mea sunt, Inisci­amque manus, Oscula qui sumpsit, si non & caetera sumpsit, Haecquoque quae sumpsit pe dere dignus erat.; and it is severely punished as a grievous offence, if any do so Gubertus ubi supra. Bald­in c. tuae de procur. extra. gloss. in L. 1. de Extraord. crim. & in c. nec oportet 81. distinct. Text. in c. 1. Quibus mod. feud. amitt. Alciat. lib. 4. perergon. c. 10.. Wherefore seeing amongst them she is thought to be half defloured which kisseth a Man, no marvel if she retain half those gifts, which otherwise she should have retained wholly, if she had wholly surrendred the full possession of her Body into his power Intellige do­na simplicia, quae alias Spon­salitiaelargitatis nomine compre­hendantur; se­quutis namque nuptijs usque adeo valet hujusmodi donatio, ut soluto postea Matrimonio, res donata non venit restituenda viro, utcunque diversum obtineat in donatione, quae dicitur propter nuptias. Sichard. in Rub. & in L. 1. C. de donatione, an. nup. vide Perkins tit. Feofments. fol. 40. n. 195.: But the Civil Law in this respect is of no more force with us in England, than it is with them in France, of whose natures and Conditions, not varying herein from the manners and Customs of this Country, Guibertus Costaneus Senator of Tholosse doth write in these Terms; Apud Gallos urbanitatis officij & Salutationis ergô, viri & mulieris oscula vicissim praebent, etiamsi nulla Cogna­tionis vel Affinitatis gradu se contingant; Ergo propter solam osculationem, nihil apud nos lucrari debet Sponsa; alioquin ab omnibus, qui officij vel urbanitatis causâ disponsatam mulierem oscularentur, ea posset aliquid eo nomine petere, quod est prorsus ridiculum; valeant igitur illae leges, quae nulla ratione apud nos sustineri possunt, & apud Italos, Hispanos & alios qui invisam osculationem habent, vim su­am obtineant Tract. de Sponsal. fol. 35. n. 13.: With the French (saith he) Men and Women do kiss together in argument of Curtesy, Duty and Salutations, although they be not within any De­gree of Consanguinity or Affinity; And therefore the betroathed Woman ought to gain nothing for a Kiss on­ly; otherwise she might in that respect demand some­what of every one, which for Duties or Courtesies sake, should kiss her, being affianced, which is very ridicu­lous. [Page 231]Farewel therefore those Laws, the which by no reason can be sustained with us; and let them prevail with the Italians, Spaniards, and others which envy kissings, &c. Wherefore by the Laws of this Realm, what the Woman receiveth in Consideration of future Marriage; in case the same Marriage do not succeed, she is either wholly to restore, or wholly to retain, according to the variety of the Covenants and Conditions concluded upon betwixt the Parties D. Smith in tract. de repub­lic. Angl. l. 1.3. c. 6. in fin. vide Perkins. Tit. Feosment fol. 40. n. 194, 195.; nor doth the kissing or not kissing make any difference therein: And if it fall out, that she be in fault, yet is she not tyed to make double restitution Id quod plus est quam mani­festum per to­tum regnum Anglia.; albeit the things were given and receiv­ed as tokens and pledges of the Contract, which the Civil Law termeth Arra; And so it is if the Man be in fault.

27. By Laws Ecclesiastical of this Realm, if any ha­ving contracted Spousals, and being convented and ad­judged to celebrate Matrimony accordingly, do refuse to undergo the Execution of the Sentence pronounced by the Ecclesiastical Judge; after lawful admonition giv­en in that behalf, he or she so refusing may for his or Contumacy or disobedience therein, be Excommunicated c. ex literis. el. 2. de Spon­sal. extra. & ibi Praepos. n. 3. in fin. c. 1. de Spons. duorum & ibi Panor c. sicut ex literis. & ibi DD. de Spons. Gubert. Costanus tract. de Sponsal. soh 32. n. 2. c. Juramenti 22. q. 5.: And if the Party Excommunicate do still persevere in that State by the space of forty days, the Ordinary may by a Significavit or Certificate under his Seal, cer­tifie into the Chancery the Contempt of the Party; and craving the aid of the Secular Power Lindwood in c. praeterea. de Sen. Excom. lib. 5. provincial. Con­stitut. Cant. verb. regni Consuetudinem., Whereup on a Writ de Excommunicato Capiendo is to be directed to the Sheriff, for the apprehension of the Body of the same Party Excommunicated Articuli Cleri c. 12. Lindwood in d. c. praeterea. & in c. vinc. de cohabic. cler. & mul. Fitzherbert na. Brev. Breve de Excommunicato capiendo fol. 62. Terms of Law, verb. Excommengment.; who being apprehended [Page 232]by vertue thereof, is to be kept in Prison, without Bail or Mainprise, until he or she have humbled themselves, and obeyed the Monition of the Ordinary Lindw. ubi supra. Fitzher­bert in d. Br. de Excommu­nicato capien­do., which when it is done, and the Church and Party both satis­fied, then is the Ordinary to absolve the Party, and to certifie the same into the aforesaid Chancery Fitzherbert in d. Br. Stat. Eliz. An. 5. c. 23.: Where­upon a Writ is to be directed as before, for the release of the Parties Imprisonment, which Writ is called Bre­ve de Excommunicato deliberando Fitzherbert d. loco. Terms of Law. verb. Excommeng­ment.; To this punishment are they subject which have contracted Spousals de prae­senti, and afterwards refuse to undergo the holy Bond of Matrimony c. Si inter de Sponsal. &c. 1. de Spons. duorum extra. & DD. ibidem..

28. But as for such as have contracted Spousals only de futuro, if either of them do refuse to perform their promise, forasmuch as the Text saith, that such an one is rather to be admonished than compelled c. requisivit de Sponsal. ex­tra.; and lest that punishment should by practice grow mortal, which by Institution is medicinal Henr. Boic. in d.c. requisi­vir c. 1. de Sen. extra. lib. 6.: I do think that the Judge is not to proceed to the Significavit, but ra­ther to absolve that cursed Party which contemneth the Censures of the Church Imò non pe­tenti impenden­da est absolutio pertinaci, inquit Praepos. post Jo. And. in c. ex literis. el. 2. in fin. de Spon­sal. extra., albeit there be no Cause of favour, but fear of further mischief, by compel­ling them to go together, which hate one another Panor. Prae­pos. & alij. in d. c. requisivit. Co­var. tract. de Spons. 1. parte. c. 4. in princ. n. 5.. Yet is not this froward Party thus to be dismissed, but is to suffer pennance propter loesionem fidei, for breach of his promise c. 1. de Spons. duorum extra. Lindwood in c. 1. de poenis. lib. 5. provincial. constitut. Cant. Fitzherbert na. br. fol. 43. d. Stat. Ed. 1. An. 13. nec. opus est interpositione Jura­menti ad hanc poenam infligend. Lindwood in d. c. 1. verb. fidei. Panor. in d.c. 1. de Spons. n. 3. Adde c. Jurament. 22. q. 5.; nor is he or she either to be dis­missed, or absolved, if those Spousals de futuro (by reason of carnal knowledge, or some other Act Equi­valent) do become Matrimony; for in this Case, as [Page 233]in the former, where Spousals be contracted de prae­senti, the disobedient Party is to be Excommunicated c. 1. de Spons. duorum extra. & ibi DD., apprehended and imprisoned Lindwood. in c. de poenis. verb. fidei transgressione. Fitzherbert Na. br. in Brevi de Excommunicato capiendo, nor to be absol­ved or released before satisfaction Lindwood, & Fitzherbert ubi supra., or death, or other just Cause of divorce Wesembec. in Tit. de Sponsal. ff. in fin..

28. Other effects there be of Spousals, whereof some respect the Issue or Children begotten before Ce­lebration of the Marriage, betwixt those which have contracted Spousals; and some have relation to their Lands and Goods. Concerning their Issue, true it is, that by the Canon Law, the same is lawful c. per tuas. Qui filij sunt legitimi extra & Panor. super eod. c.n. 4. & Praepos. n. 7.: But by the Laws of this Realm their Issue is not lawful, though the Father and the Mother should afterwards celebrate Marriage in the face of the Church Stat. Mer­ton. c. 9. an 20. H. 3. Tract. de repub. Angl. pag. 103. prope fin. & pag. 104. circa princ.. Likewise concerning Lands by the Canon Law, the foresaid Issue may inherit the same d.c. per tuas. qui fil. sunt le­git. §. nos autem & ibi. DD.; for further declaration whereof the Canonists tell us, how the Children of Jacob which he had by his Handmaids, did inherit the Land with their lawful Brethren c. recur­rat. 32. q. 4. §. Juvenis., by reason Jacob did afterwards marry their Mothers Gloss. in c. non omnis 32. q. 2. Jason con­sil. 234. post eandem gloss.: But it is otherwise by the Laws of this Realm, for as the Issue is not legitimated by subsequent Mar­riage, no more can he inherit his Fathers Land; and as he cannot inherit, no more is she to have any Dower of the same Lands; for whereas by the Laws of this Realm, a marryed Wife is to have the third part of her Husbands Lands, holden in Fee Simple or Fee Tail, either General or Special, for her Dower, after her Husbands Death, during her Life, So that she be above the Age of nine Years, at her Husbands Death Littleton. Tit. Dower. in princ.; Yet a Woman having contracted Matrimo­ny, [Page 234]if the Man to whom she was betroathed dye before the Celebration of the Marriage, she cannot have any Dower of his Lands, because as yet, she is not his lawful Wife, at least to that effect M. 10. H. 3. Perkins. fol. 61.: Indeed it was sometimes holden for Law within this Realm of England, that if a Man affianced to a Wo­man, did carnally know her, and then make a Fe­offment to the same Woman of a piece of Land, and give her seizin thereof, and after that Marry her in the face of the Church; this Feoffment was void Perkins fol. 40. n. 195. Mich. 16. Ed. 3.4. Feof. 117., as being made unto his own Wife, to whom he had given his Faith, and whom he had carnally known, he and she being both one Person in Law Perkins ibi­dem.; which thing also is agreeable to the Civil Law, and to the Canon Law also, whereby the donations which are forbidden betwixt the Husband and Wife, are interpre­ted likewise to be forbidden betwixt them which have contracted Spousals de praesenti, or which having con­tracted Spousals de futuro, do afterwards lye together, whereby those Spousals are reputed Matrimony L. Scita. & L. cum. hic status. §. penult. ff. de donar. in­ter virum & uxorem. Peckius de testam. Con­jug. lib. 4. c. 11. n. 7. Bald. in L. solet. §. quae vi­rum. ff. de hijs qui no. infam. Panor. Praepos. & Felin. in Rub. de Spons. extra.. But afterwards the Temporal Lawyers of this Realm were of another Opinion, than they were in former times: And whereas long ago, they did seem to hold that the Feoffment was not good, as being made to his own Wife Mich. 16. Ed. 3.4. Perkins fol. 40. n. 195., now they do hold that it is good, as being made, not unto his Wife, but unto a single Woman, and another Person in Law Mich. 15. Ed. 4.3. Perkins ubi supra.: But a single Woman cannot have any Dower, as aforesaid; and therefore a Woman contracted only to a Man, can­not have any dower of his Lands.

29. Concerning Goods, the like may be said of them as hath already been spoken of Lands, that is to say, that although by the Civil and Canon Laws, where [Page 235]the Man doth gain any of the Womans Goods, or the Woman gain any of the Mans Goods, by reason of Marriage. Spousals de praesenti or de futuro, consum­mate with Carnal knowledge, have the same effect as hath Matrimony Solemnized Bar. in L. nihili interest. n. 1. ff. rer. amot. Castrens. in L. Si marito §. Si pater. n. 2. ff. Sol. Matr. Schurff. sil. 9. cent. 3. And. Gail. lib. q. 80. ubi dicit hanc opinionem veri­orem, & equita­ti magis consen­taneam, & in practicâ ser­vand.; yet by the Laws of this Realm it is otherwise: So that neither Spousals de praesenti, neither Spousals de futuro consummate, do make her Goods his, or his Goods hers Tract. de repub. Angl. pag. 103. circa finem.: And hence it is, that a Woman contracted in Matri­mony, dying before the celebration of the Marriage, may make her Testament, and dispose of all her Goods, at her own pleasure Perkins fol. 40.38. Ed. 3.12., which after Solemniza­tion of the Marriage she cannot do, without his license and Consent Lindwood. in c. Statut. verb. proprio­rum. lib. 3. pro­vinc. constit. Cant. Bracton de Legib. & Consuetud. Angl. lib. 2. c. 26. Brook Abridgment. Tit. devise. n. 34. & in Tit. Testament n. 21.: And on the other side the Man dying intestate before Celebration of the Marriage, the Wo­man to whom he was betroathed surviving, cannot obtain the Administration of his Goods Vide Rebuff. in L. pronunciatum. ff. de verb. Signif. fol. 340. circa fin. & Wesenbec. in tit. de Sponsal. ff. n. 9., as his Wi­dow, which otherwise, the Marriage being Solemni­zed, she might do Stat. H. 8. an. 21. c. 5.: And the like I read to be obser­ved in divers other Countries, as in France, Rebuff. in L. pronunciatum. ff. de verb. Sig. fol. 340., and Saxony Wesenbec. in Tit. de Spon­sal. ff. n. 9., where neither he, nor she gain any part of the others Goods by being affianced, unless the Marri­age be solemnized, if not consummate also Jus autem Saxenicum non solum caelebratas nuptias, sed etiam Thori ma­ritalis ingressum prorsus exigit. Wesemb. ubi supra..

SECT. XVIII. By what means Spousals are dissolved.

1. ALbeit Spousals de praesenti are as indissoluble as perfect Matrimony solemnized and consum­mate c. Si inter de Sponsal ex­tra. & ibi Car­dinal. Panor. Praepos. & alij Moraldus tract. de Matrimonio, fol. 29.; yet there be divers Cases wherein Spousals de futuro either be dissolved ipso Jure, or at least may be dissolved Sententia Judicis c. c. de Sponsal. extra..

2. The First Case is, when the Parties do mutually agree betwixt themselves to dissolve the Contract; for then they are not to be compelled to marry together, lest a worse thing happen unto them Eod. c. 2.: Which con­clusion is true, unless by lying together and knowing one another, or by some other aequivalent Act, the same Spousals were made Matrimony, before they did agree to dissolve the Contract, for then it is indissolu­ble c. Is qui de Sponsal. extra. & DD. ibidem Schneidwin. tract. de imp. fol. 20..

3. The Second Case is, when as a certain time is set down for the Marriage; for that day being past, the Spousals are dissolved c. sicut ex literis. cum ibi notat. de Spons. extra Melchior Kling. Tract. de Causis Matri­monial. fol. 6. quod intellige nisi tempus apponatur ad implend', non ad finiend' obligationem, veluti quando dies apponitur ex post facto, Sponsalibus purè contractis.; and that Party by whom it did not stand, wherefore the Contract was not per­formed, may marry elsewhere, without any danger; but the other Party which was in fault is punishable, propter laesionem fidei Silvestr. Prier. in Summa verb. Sponsalia q. 10. versic. 5. per d.c. sicut ex literis..

4. The third Case is, when as the Party hath been long absent, that is to say three Years, without the Province L. secunda C. de repudijs c. de illis de Spon­sal. extra. Co­var. Tract. de Sponsal. 1. parte c. 5. n. 7., or two Years within the Province Lib. 2. C. de Sponsal. dd. in d. c. de illis.; for after lapse of so long time the other party may marry, but not in the mean time L. 2. de re­pud. L. 2. de Sponsal. C. c. de illis de Sponsal. extra.; and if the absence be necessary, and upon a just impediment, then longer expectation is necessary L. Saepe ff. de Sponsal., unless the Ordinary, to avoid the peril of Fornication, grant License to marry with some other Arg. c. ultim. de eo qui cogno. ux. Covar. tract. de Sponsal. 1. parte. c. 5. n. 7. Schneid. de nuptijs fol. 20..

5. The Fourth Case is, when as the Contract is con­ditional, and the Condition infringed c. de illis de condic. appos. extra. Kling. de Caus. Matrimo­nial. fol. 6.; for the Con­dition being broken, the Bond is untyed, and the Par­ties at liberty to marry elsewhere d. c. de illis & ibi Panor. & alii.; or when as the Party doth promise to give so much in Marriage, as af­terwards he is not able to perform; In which Case the other Party is not bound to perform the Contract Prier. in Summa Silve­strin. verb. Sponsalia. q. 10. versic. nono. post Jo. And. in d. c. de illis. Covar. tract. de Sponsal. 1. parte. c. 5. n. 4. quem velim videas..

6. The Fifth Case is, when as the Spousals be con­tracted in minority; for the Minor coming to lawful Age may dissent, and so dissolve the Contract c. de illis el. 1. de despons. impub. extra..

7. The Sixth, when as the Party doth after the Contract made, commit Fornication, for the Innocent Party is at liberty, and may dissolve the Contract cc. quemad­modum de Jure­jur. extra. At Maechus re­silire non potest, Si modo Inno­cens velit secum. contrahere. c. 2. de transac. Praelat. Prier. verb. Sponsalia q. 10. vers. Septimo.; and so it is for Spiritual Fornication, that is to say, for Hae­resie, Apostacy, or Infidelity Prier. ubi supra dd. in c. quemadmodum de Jure-Jur. entra. Melchior Kling. Tract. de causis, Matrimonial. fol. 5. in fin. c. non solum 28. q. 1..

8. The Seventh is, when as the one Party doth hap­pen to be infected with some foul Disease, as Leprosy, or the French-pox, or to be afflicted with some notable deformity, as the loss of her Nose, or her Eye, &c. for in this Case the other Party is not to be pressed to marry that Person, so diseased or deformed d. c. quemad­modum de Jure-Jur. c. ultim. de Conjug. Lepro­sorum extra. Quod verum est si post Contractunt eveniat, secus si manifeste inierat tempore initi Contractus. Prier. Silvestr. verb. Sponsal. q. 10. vers. sexto..

9. The Eighth is, when some deadly enmity and unquenchable hatred is sprung up between the Parties affianced; for in this Case also the Spousals may be dissolved Summa Ho­stiens. tit. de Spons. §. quali­ter. dissol. verb. Sin autem capitalis. Prier. ubi supra, versic. octavo..

10. The Ninth is, when as some new affinity doth a­rise betwixt the Parties betroathed, within the Degrees prohibited c. 2. c. fra­ternitati &c. ex literis de eo qui Cogno. Consang. ux. suae extra. Sum­ma Hostiens. §. qualiter dis­solvantur versic. Item tertio; for Example the Man after the Contract doth know her Sister, or the Woman doth lye with his Brother Silvestr. Prier. verb. Sponsalia q. 10. versic. decimo c. Si quis Sponsam 27. q. 2.; for Affinity doth grow by carnal know­ledge only id quod verum est Jure canonico etiamst coitus sit illicitus. c. discre­tionem. juncta glossa in verbo. nec affinitas. de eo qui cog. sang. ux. & ibi Pan. n. 6. & notat Host. in tit. de affinitat. Melch. Kling tract. de Matrimonio fol. 51.: In which Case therefore, the Parties formerly betroathed may not marry c. 2. c. fraternitatis &c. ex literis de eo qui cog. consang. ux. fuae. Kling tract. de caus. Matrimonial. fol. 6. Henr. Boic. in c. de illis de Sponsal..

11. The Tenth is, when as there is a Fame or com­mon report, That there is some lawful impediment betwixt the Parties contracted; in which Case for fear of Scandal they are to be admonished, to abstain from marrying c. cum in tua de Sponsal. extra.; And if the impediment be lawfully pro­ved, [Page 239]then are they to be compelled to abstain Panor. Prae­pos. & alii in d.c. cum in tua & in c. super eo de Consang. & affin. extra..

12. The Eleventh is, when the one Party is so se­vere and cruel as the other dare not proceed in the Match, for in this Case the Spousals may be dissolved Panor. in c. veniens. qui Clerici. vel voven, extra. Prier. verb. Sponsalia. q. 10. vers. decimo quinto..

13. The Twelfth Case is, when as one of the Parties contracted doth contract Spousals de proesenti with ano­ther Person: For by the second Spousals de praesenti, the former de futuro be dissolved c. is qui &c. Si inter de Spons. extra., albeit they were confirmed with an Oath Ibidem.; and albeit the new espoused Party did before the Solemnization of the Marriage de­part this Life; for the former Spousals once destroyed, receive no force by the destruction of the second Spou­sals Praepos. in c. sicut ex literis. de Sponsal. ex­tra. n. 8., unless those Spousals de praesenti were de­stroyed from the first beginning, that is to say, unlawful at the first; for unlawful Spousals de praesenti do not de­stroy, nor yet hurt the former lawful Spousals de futuro Praepos. in d. c. sicut. n. 9. facit c. non praestat. de Reg. Jur. 6..

14. Finally and generally whensoever there is just and reasonable Cause c. ex. literis­el. 2. de Spons. extra. Prier. verb. Sponsalia q. 10. vers. deci­mo Septimo., (as there be a great many more Causes expressed in the Canon Law Clavas. in Summa Angeli­ca verb. Sponsa­lia. & Prier. in Summa Silve­strin. cod. verb. ubi enumeran­tur 17 Causae dissolvendi Sponsalia, Quibus adde Henr. Boic. in c. de illis de Sponsal. extra., of the lawfulness and reasonableness whereof I make some doubt, which is the Cause wherefore I have omitted them), Spousals de futuro may be dissolved d. c. ex literis el. 2. Melchior Kling. tract. de Caus. Matrimonial. fol. 3.; nor is either Party precisely to be compelled to the perfor­mance thereof against their Will, though otherwise they be punishable for their Contempt, as is before expressed, amongst the effects of Spousals.

15. There is one thing yet remaining, which may not be omitted, and this it is; Where I said that Spousals de futuro are sometimes dissolved ipso facto, and sometimes to be dissolved by the Sentence of the Judge, In what Cases are they forthwith dissolved, or to be dissolved according to that distinction? Briefly in all Cases the Authority of the Church is requisite, unless the Con­trary be expressed Jo. And. & al. j in c. de illis de. Sponsal. ex­tra Prier. verb. Sponsalia in fin. Covar. tract. de Sponsal. 1. parte. c. 5. n, 12., as in that Case of second Spou­sals de praesenti Henr. Boic. in d.c. de illis Melchior Kling tract. de Causis Matrimonial. fol. 6. dd. in c. fi inter de Spons. extra., or of the certain praefixed time expired Boic. & Kling ubi supra per c. sicut de Spons. extra.; for there they be dissolved ipso facto: Like­wise when the Cause of dissolution is notorious Silvester Prier. verb. Sponsalia q. 11., that is, known to a multitude L. ea quidem. & Bald. ibidem C. de Accus.; or when the Spousals be Secret, known to none but to themselves, then also they may be secretly released, without the Authority of the Church Prier. ubi supra. Summa Angelica verb. Sponsalia in fin..

FINIS.

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