Who was Beheaded by Base and Barba­rous hands January 30, 1648.

AND Interred at WINDSOR, February 9, 1648.

WITH His ANNIVERSARIES Con­tinued untill 1659.


Qui orat & exorat, Vivat, veniat, Vincat Carolus Secundus. Et sit Carolo Magno Major, Amen.

LONDON, Printed by John Clowes for the Author, 16 [...].



THat Your Majestie may vouchsafe to give these Anniversaries a gra­cious Reception, is the Petition to, That Your Majestie may be Blest with a Long Life, with a quiet Reign, with a Faith­full Councel, with a Pious Clergie, with a Valiant Souldiery, with a Loyal People, and be preserved from a new Rivalry of Presbytery and Independency, is the Petition for, Your Majesty, By

Your Majesties Loyall Subject THOMAS SWADLIN D.D.

Anno Dom. 1648.

2 SAM. 1.14.‘How wast thou not afraid, to put forth thine hand to destroy the Annointed of the Lord?’

IN qualia tempora reservasti nos Domine? O Lord God, In what sad times do we live? Times, wherein sins of the high­est size are comitted, Sacriledge and Rebellion, and not controuled; Nay, They are countenanced, and not checkt; Yea, to check them, and controule them, is accounted a greater sin, and can expect no greater Reward, then an heavy punish­ment.

So sad are the Times we live in, Sacriledge and Rebellion com­mitted, countenanced, commanded; To discountenance them, to discommand them, to rebuke them, is accounted a greater sin, and must expect as great if not a greater punishment.

But what then? Shall we dry our Eys and not weep for them? Shall we harden our Hearts, and not sigh for them? Shall we muzzle our Mouths, and not declaime against them? This indeed would involve us in the Guilt, and [...]y us liable to a greater pu­nishment; Not only to an Hatchet, to an Halter, to a Rack, to a shame, to a Torment here; but to Fire and Brimstone, to stormes and Tempests, to Tortures and Devils hereafter. A hard choice I confesse; But for all that, They that have more [Page 2]care of their Bodies, then of their Souls; They that have more respect to their Posterity then to their Eternity, may consent by silence; For my part, Liberabo animam meam, whatsoever becomes of my Body of my Wife, of my Children, I will, if pos­sibly I can, deliver mine own Soul; not only by not consenting to, but also by dissenting from, and increpating of those Royal Blood-suckers, those Sons of Belial, those Regicides and King-Killers; not only in the Distillation of mine Eyes to bedew a Royall Coffin, not only in the Compunction of my Soul, to bewaile the losse of a Royal Person; but also in the Objurgation of my Tongue, by chiding those who were so Disloyal, as not to be afraid to put forth their hands to destroy the Annointed of the Lord.

And that you may deliver your Souls too, I beseech you, Joyn your Tears with mine; Joyn your Prayers with mine; Joyn your Sorrows with mine, until God shall be pleased to establish King Davids seed in King David's Throne, to increpate those bloudy Actors in this Expostulation and Disquisition of so bloody an Act; How wast thou not afraid? &c.

These words at first view seem to be nothing but an Interoga­tion, the asking of a Question, and no more; But upon a second and better Inspection, they will appear an heavy Indignation, and resolve themselves into this strong Negative,

No man may, None but a fearlesse; i. e. a gracelesse man dare, put forth his hand against, much lesse, destroy the Lords Annoin­ted; and offer to our consideration these particulars.

Division —

  • 1. Whether all Kings, bad and all, be the Lords annointed? I resolve it, Yes, They are.
  • 2. Whether such a Person, though had, may be resisted, depo­sed or murthered? I resolve it, No, He may not.
  • 3. How fearful a sin is it to do such an Act? Besides what I shall resolve upon this anon, I must add, Time will discover.

I begin with the first; Whether all Kings, bad and all, Par. [...] be the Lords Annointed? Yes, I say, They are.

For it was in a Phrensy mood, when Ajax took Kings for Up­starts, rising and standing of themselves; Cowards get victory by God, saith he, but I will win, whether God will or no.

And it was in as desperate a sit, when Antiochus said, The Persons of Kings are of Force or Fortune; [...] Let him take the Kingdom, to whom Fortune or the sword shall give it.

And a foolish Dream of wise Homer it was, when he said, That Kings are the spawn of Jupiter, nursed and fostered by Jupiter.

And t [...]eir Speech is as full of Folly and Madness, whether Pa­pist or Puritan, or him that hath out-stripped them both, the In­dependent, who say, That the King is the Peoples Creature, The People the Kings Creatour; The King whosoever he be, quâ King, is King but Precario, by the Peoples Courtesy.

And those Texts they alleadge for the proof of their Opinions, are foolishly if not foully mistaken by them. viz.

All the People went up to Gilgal, and made Saul King there; and therefore the King is the Peoples Creature: so again,1 Sam. 11.15. 2 Reg. 14.21. All the People of Judah took Azariah, and made him King for his Fa­ther Amaziah: and therefore the People are the Kings Creator.

For in Propriety of Speech, The People did then, and do now only declare him to be King, who was so appointed by God; and therefore the Context runs thus; Samuel said to the people, Come, let us go to Gilgal, and renew the King [...]om there: i▪e. Let us acknowledge, and make known him to be King, 1 Sam. 11.14. whom the Lord hath chosen, as it is in the 24 verse of that chapter.

Outward Solemnity and Coronation the King hath from the People; but Power, Right, and Authority he hath from God; from God immediatly, and Dependent upon God only; and Inde­pendent [Page 4]from the People, whether Diffusive or Collective, whether Representative or Essenciall.

Look ye else upon the first Rulers Gods first Church had, the Church of the Jewes; Who made Moses to be Ruler over Israel? God: Act. 7.35. Num. 27.16 Judg. 2.16. The People had no hand in it: who appointed Joshua over the Congregation of Israel! who but God? Who raised up the Judges! who but the Lord? Who appointed, yes, to come to the word of my Text, who annointed Saul to be Captain over Israel! who but the Lord? 1 Sam. 10.1 Samuel poured on the Oyl, but God annoin­ted him.

That for the first King of Israel, SAUL; He was appointed to be King, and annointed by God: And so again for the second, King of Israel, DAVID; Who found him, and who annointed him? Not the People, I assure you; not the better sort of them, The Elders of the City Bethleem, 1 Sam. 16.4. They were astonished when Sa­muel went upon that errand from God; Nor the best sort of the People neither; Not the Saints; They dream't of no such mat­ter, until God told them on't by a Dream and Vision, as you may read in the Psalmes; God spake in a Vision to his holy Ones, and said, Ps. 89.19. I have exalted One chosen out of the people; chosen a ex­alted out of the People by God; Not chosen and exalted out of the People by themselves; No, nor yet by Samuel the Prophet neither; For if he had been left alone, we had not had King Da­vid for the second King of Israel, but King Eliab; for so he said, when he lookt upon Eliab, 1 Sam. 16.6. 1 Reg. 1.7. Surely the Lords annointed is before me: No, nor yet Abiather, the High-Priest; For if he might have had his will, we had not had King Solomon for the third King of Israel, but King Adonijah.

No, no, neither People nor Prophets, nor Saints nor High-Priest, are King-founders, but only God himself; and therefore certainly neither King-founders, nor King-confounders are of [Page 5] God, who lay the Foundation of Kings upon any other then God alone; and so God-self tells us, saying, I have found David my Servant, with my holy Oyl have I annointed him. Ps. 89.20.

The words there are Emphatical, and worth your marking; It is not Reperi, I have found him by adventure, or I have stumbled upon him by chance; but it is Inveni, I have taken pains by seeking to finde him out; and so it is elsewhere expressed; Quaesivit Deus hominem; The Lord hath sought him a man; and in the Psalm it is, Inveni Davidem servum meum, 1 Sam. 13.14. I have found out David my servant.

But mistake not; I repeat not these words, nor do I comment upon these words, to give you leave to think, God needed either to seek him, or finde him, but to let you know, How God stood affected to the having of Kings; He was so set upon them, that rather then not have them, Hee would do as we do, Take the pains to seek them, and find them out; and yet not do as we do too often; so soon as we have sought a thing and found it, by and by to loose it again: No, but God so sought and found out Kings, as to have them continued; and therefore it follows in that place, Oleo meo sancto, with my holy Oyl have I anointed him.

Were it no more but Oyle; why yet that alone were enough to show both the Sovereignty and perpetuity of Kings; For mingle what you will with Oyle, it will be uppermost; and though those Colours which are laid in water, fade by and by; yet the Colours of the Crown being laid in Oyle, it is to let us know, They should, yea, and notwithstanding the craft of Royal Horse­leeches, they shall last and hold out all weathers: Yea, and to let them know too, Kings themselves, what they should be, smooth, gentle and supple as Oyle; no Acrimonie in them at all.

If it were no more but Oyle, We should learn so much, and They should learn so much; We, That Kings should continue: [Page 6]and live out their dayes, because they are annointed with Oyle, not with water; They, that they should be gentle to their Subjects, because they are annointed with Oyle, and not with Wine.

But it is more then Oyl, It is holy Oyl, & Gods holy Oyl; and this is to tell them, Kings, That they should be holy, and as they bear an Image of Gods power in the sublimity of their places: so they should also of Gods purity in the sanctity of their persons: And this again is to tell us, That their Function is like their Unction, Holy; and therefore not to be touched with the hand of violence by any: They that offer violence to Kings, offer vio­lence to God himself: because God finds them, and makes them Kings: because God annoints them, and sacres their persons.

This happily may be granted for David, and such good Kings as hee was, who with the Sanctity of their Functions, received al­so Sanctity, into their Persons: But is it so with bad Kings too? Are they found out by God, and annointed by God? Yea, that they are; and this I shall shew you first in Generall; and second­ly in some particulars.

First in General, Per me Reges regnant, By me Kings Reign; Per me, Ia. Iae. Prov. 8.15. By me; not per lumina, by the Position of the Stars; By Jupiter or Venus, or some other good Planet in their Ascendent; Nor is it per se▪ By their own Bow or Sword; Adonijahs regnabo sail'd him: But it is, Per me, By me, and that is, By God him­self; In 13. al Rom. and therefore saith St. Chrysostome, Reges quòd sunt, per Deum sunt, Kings are Kings by God; and it was once the usual style of Popes themselves, in writing to Kings, to wish them health, In co per quem Reges regnant, In him by whom Kings do Reign; and that was neither Saint, nor Angel, nor Pope, nor People, but only God; A Deo, saith St. Paul, The Powers that be are ordained of God: Rom. 13. Per me, says Solomon, By God Kings Reign.

And this per here is not only Permissivē, by way of Toleration only, though the Latine will bear such a construction, as Per me licet, you may if you will for all me, I hinder you not: And so some Priests of the Latine Church, and some Presbyters in the English Church: The Priest there, and the Presbyter here is a solo Deo, et Jure Divin [...], by Divine Right, and of Gods consti­tution; But the King is ex importunitate Populi; That there be Kings, and that Kings Reign, it is upon the Peoples importuni­ty, and God only bears them, or rather bears with them: and so They make Per me Reges regnant permissivé only, and at no hand Positivé; and yet the Apostle says expresly,Rom. 13.2. It was [...] the Ordinance of God himself: and so of Gods Institution.

Indeed however per in the Latine may bear it, yet [...] in the Greek cannot; the Idiome of that Tongue rejects permission, and says clearly, Kings are of Gods Ordination and Institution; By the Institution of his Power: so is the Context, I have strength, By me Kings Reign, By the institution of his Will. Prov. 8.14. 1 Pet. 2.13.15. Haec est voluntas Dei, says St. Peter, This is the Will of God, that ye submit your selves to the King, By the Institution of Gods good Will and Love; Because God loved his People, 1 Chro. 2.11 says Hyram King of Tyre, he hath made thee King.

And this per me, is as well for Saul a bad King, as for David a good King; as well for Cyrus an Heathen King, as for Solo­mon a Jewish King; as well for Constantine a Christian King, as for any of the rest: and so for all other Kings whether Jewish, Heathen, or Christian, Good or Bad. That in Generall.

2 Secondly in particular, Saul was as bad a King, as well could be, a Monster rather then a Man; There were not many sins against God or Nature, wherein he transgressed not, and yet his excesse was not punished either by Sacerdotal Synod, or by the secular Senate; either by an Assembly of Levites, or by an [Page 8] Army of Souldiers; David for bad it twice in his life time, and revenged it after his death, and for no other reason but this; Quia unctus Domini, quia Christus Domini, Because he was the Lords annointed, Sauls unction was the cause of his immunity, Quaero si Saulus non habebat Sacramenti sanctitatem, Contr. Patil. l. 2. c. 48. quid in eo David venerebatur says St. Augustine. If Saul had not the ho­linesse of unction, I wonder what it was, that David reverenced in him, David reverenced Saul for his holy unction.

Saul a bad King was Gods annointed, though bad; and it is to let you know, That annointing doth not signifie any spiritual grace or vertue; For then Saul had not been King, and yet, when he was at the worst, he was still Gods annointed.

Nor secondly does Unction signifie Religion; For then Cyrus a meer Heathen had not been King; yet King he was, and Gods annointed too.Isa. 45.1.

Unction or annointing then, signifying neither confirming in Religion, nor conferring of any spiritual grace, it must and will s [...]grisie that Dominion and Sovereignty, which God gives that man, whom He chooses out of the rest to be King, whether he be good or bad, either in the beginning of a Royal Race, or in the Succes­sion of a a Royal Birth; And the Primogeniture of Sovereignty, (I must tell you) is enough to prove one Gods annointed.

At first, God made Kings and his annointed immediatly by him­self: so Moses; Then Mediatly by Men: so Joshua by Mo­ses: so Saul and David by Samuel: and so Solomon by David, and these were extraordinary waies: The ordinary waies are by Succession or by the Sword, (For Elective Kings are rather Regu­li then Reges, Jud. 2 Reg. 24.1. Isa. 45.1. and titular then reall) Abimelech got it by the Sword: so did Nebucadnezzar: and so did Cyrus, and still they were Gods annointed. But this we durst not say to you, if Gods word did not say so to us. The surest was by Succession, or Birth­right, [Page 9]which belongs to the eldest Son; and thus Rehoboam suc­ceeded Solomon, &c. and they that so come to the Crown are Gods annointed: and therefore may not be resisted, deposed, or murthered; which is my second part, and thus proposed:

Whether such a Person as the King, and Gods annointed, Part: 2. though bad, may be resisted, deposed, or murthered? I answer it, No; and thus I undertake it.

And that you may clearly, and to the full, understand the truth of this; I shall leave it to your choyce, whether you will believe Papists and Puritans, without the word of God, or the Primitive Fathers and Doctors, with the word of God.

The Jesuites of Rome tell us, That Kings may be deposed by Popes; The Puritans of Geneva tell us, That Kings may be de­posed by the People; Both, in some cases: and the spawn of both, the Independents, have done it de facto in England, without any Case or Cause at all; will you hear them speak?

1. Say they of Rome, If the King be a Tyrant, i. e. If instead of protecting the People, he destroy them: If instead of feeding the People, he fleece them: If instead of enriching his Subjects, Bellar. de he impoverish them: If instead of doing them Justice he be un­just unto them: Let him be, as lawfully he may be, deposed.

Potest: Papae. 2. If the King usurp power in spiritual things, i. e. If he call himself Defender of the Faith, or under Christ the Head of the Church; If he call a Council without leave of his Holinesse, the Bishop of Rome; If he shed the bloud of Priests by the Secular Power, and Civil Sword; If he alienate Monasteries, Nunneries, and other Demeasus of the Church; Let him be, as lawfully he may be, deposed.

3. If he be an Heretique, i.e. If he be not of the Romish Faith and Religion; If he favour it not, If he promote it not,Lib. 5. If he practise it not, If he persecute the Professors of it, If he enact [Page 10]and execute Penal Lawes against them; Let him be, as lawfully he may be, deposed.

4. If he be a Fool, (had I been the Cardinal, instead of Fatuity, I would have said, If he be a Demoniack) i. e. If he be possest with the Devil, or an evil Spirit: if he have compacted with the Devil: If he be so sierce that no man may speak unto him: If upon every, or any light occasion, he throw his Javeline to nail men to the wall,Cap. 1. and draw his Sword to cut their Throats; Let him be, as lawfully he may be, deposed.

These are ruled cases in Rome, to legitimate, that spurious Doctrine of King-deposing and King-killing, and all these made good by those hell-hatcht Distinctions of Proprié, & Improprié, of Directé, of Simplciter & secundam quid, of Ab­solute & in ordine ad spirituali [...], by the Popes Absolute and Rela­tive Authority.

And the same Doctrine of Sedition, of Deposing, of Regicide and King-killing, Loc. Com. Theol. Loc. 77. p. 845. is as stifly, but not so subtly maintained by the Puritans, else hear them speak:

1. Subditis, si sit publica et manifesta savitia, licet fieri suppli­ces implorare anxilia ab alijs, et suscipere eorum defensionem aliis Regibus licet saith Bucanus: when Subjects suffer Publick & ma­nifest wrong, they may lawfully become Suppliants unto Forreign Magistrates, and implore their aid against their own Princes; and other Kings ought to take upon them their Defence and Protection.

2. Si legibus Dei Magistratus transgrediantur &c. says Chri­stopher Goodman; If Magistrates transgress Gods Lawes them­selves,Tract. de obed. p. 119. and commend others to do the like, they loose that ho­nour and obedience, which is otherwise due unto them, and ought no more to be taken for Magistrates, but to be examined and punished as private transgressors.

3. Licuit, says Eusebius Philadelphus from Edengburgh, Dial 2. p. 57 It was as lawful for his Brethren of France, to defend themselves from the Tyranny of Charles 9. King of France, as for wayfaring­men to resist and repel Thieves, and Wolves; Nay, saith he I am of opinion with the old people of Rome, That of all good action, the Murther of a Tyrant is most commendable.

4. Oritur nobilis quaestie, says Danaeus, in his Christian Policy; Lib. 3. c. 6. Here arises a noble question, Whether it be lawful for Subjects to change and alter their Government? Yea, whether it may be done by godly men with a good Conscience? Yes, says he, It may; and his Reason is this, Reges summi (que) Magistratus, Kings & chief Magistrates are the Vassails of the Kingdom & Common-wealths where they Rule; and therefore may be dispossest and dejected, when they attempt any thing against the Fundamental Lawes thereof; and as it is truly said, A General Council is above the the Pope; so the Kingdom or Peers of the Land are above the King.

5. Hunc tollent, vel Pacificé, vel cum bello, qui eá potestate do­tati sunt, ut Regni Ephori, vel omnium ordinum publicus conven­tus, commended by Cartwright, the Presbiterian-founder in England; The Peers of the Kingdom, or the publick Convention of the States ought to destroy a Tyrant, Lib. 5. c. 13. pag. 1 85. either by peaceable practi­ses, or by open War, says Fennerus, in his Sacrâ Theolog.

6. Jus humanum, Naturale, Nationale, Positivum, Prt. 1. cap. 4. pag. 72. says Dole­man, All Lawes, Humane, Natural, National, Positive, do teach, That Common-weals, which gave Kings ther Authority for the Common-good, may take the same from them, if they abuse it to the common ill.

Thus you see the Kings of Christendom crucified, as Christ was between two Thieves, the Papist, and the Puritan; All the difference is, The Papists give this Power to the Pope; The Puri­tans [Page 12]give it to the People; and yet, in that, rather then fail, they do sometimes agree; But,

I pray take notice, when this seditious Learning came in, It is but of yesterdays standing; but 220 years old at most, by any Publick Record: Then, and not till then, did Joannis de Parissis bring it in for the Pope, and a great while after did John Calvin bring it in for the people; and therefore with your favour, we will look a little higher.

1 And first I will begin with that great School-man of Rome A­quinas, by whom I dare encounter with either Papist or Puritan, to justifie almost every point of that Religion, wherein I have been born and bred, and in which, God willing, I intend to dye; For the present, This we have now in hand:

Kings, though bad, may not be resisted, deposed, or murthered; Esset enim multitudini periculosum, et ejus rectoribus; For it would be as dangerous to Subjects, as to Soveraigns, if any man should attempt to take away the life of Princes, though Tyrants; For commonly not the well-disposed, De Regin. Princip. l. 1. c. 6. but the ill-affected men thrust themselves into that danger; the Government of good Kings being as odious to bad men, as the Rule of Tyrants is to good People; and the Kingdom by this presumption will be rather in danger to forgo a good Prince then a wicked Tyrant; and his Answer to that Objection which was even now delivered by the Scottish Eusebius Philadelphus, 2a. 2ae. 4.41. a. 2. ad. 3. viz. That it is praise worthy to murther a Tyrant, is, Sedition is a mortall sin.

2 Secondly before him, when Pope Paschalis had perswaded Ro­bert the Son: Ep. Laodi­ensium apud simonem scard. p. 116. to Rebel against his Father Henry the Emperour, and had excommunicated the Bishop of Liege or Lions for his Loyalty, All the Church-men of Liege; All, Nemine contradi­cente, none excepted, writ an Apolegy for themselves, the sum whereof is this, We are excommunicated because we obey our Bishop; [Page 13]Our Bishop is excommunicated, because he takes part with his Lord the Emperour; yet who can justly blame him for taking his Lords part, to whom he hath sworn Allegiance? Perjury is a great sin, whereof they cannot be ignorant, who by new Schisme, and novel Tradition, do promise to absolve Subjects from the guilt of Perjury, that forswear themselves to their Lord and King. And at last they conclude thus, Nihil modo pro Imperatore no­stro dicimus; At present we say nothing in defence of our Em­perour; but this we say though, Were he as bad as you report him to be, we would endure his Government, because our sins have deser­ved such a Governour; Be it we must needs grant against our will, That the Emperour is an Arch-heretick, an Invader of the Kingdom, a worshipper of the Symonaical Idol, and accursed by the Apostles and Apostolical men, as you say of him, why yet, even such a Prince ought not to be resisted by violence, but to be endured by patience.

Aquinas is against Rebellion for Tyranny, and a whole Church is against Rebellion for Heresie.

3 Before both these, says John Damascene, Though wicked Kings, and their wicked under-Officers be Thieves, Paralel. l. 1. cap. 21. though they be unjust, or otherways tainted with any other crime; yet they must be regarded, we may not contemn them for their impiety, but we must reverence them for their Authority.

Rebellion, Deposing, Murthering of Kings, is not allowable in the case of Tyranny, by the judgment of Aquinas, nor in the case of Heresie, by the judgment of the Church-men of Liege, nor in the case of Impiety, by the judgment of Damascene.

4 St. Augustine is as positive against Rebellion in the case of Apostacy; Julianus extitit Imperator infidelis; Julian was an unbelieving Emperour; for he was an Apostate, for he was an Oppressor, for he was an Idolater; and yet Christian Souldiers [Page 14]served this Emperour; Indeed when they came to the cause of Christ, they would acknowledge no Lord, but him that was in Heaven; when they were commanded to adore Idolls, and to offer Sacrifice, In Ps. 124. they preferred God before their Prince; But when he called upon them to War, and bad them invade any Nation, they presently, as they ought, obeyed: They distinguished their eternal Lord from their temporal King; yet they submitted themselves to their temporal Lord for his sake who was their eternal King.

5 What means the Apostle, says St. Chrisostome, to command us to pray for all men, and for Kings by name; seeing Kings serve not the living God, In ep. 1 Tim. cap. 2. ver. 1. (as they did not in his time) but live in infide­lity? Why surely, it is to teach us, That Kings, though they be never so wicked, yet they may not be resisted, less may they be depo­sed, least of all may they be Murthered.

Tyranny cannot justifie Rebellion if Aquinas may be believed; Heresie cannot justifie Rebellion, if the Church of Liege may be credited; Impiety cannot, if Damascene gains upon your Faith; Apostacy cannot, if St Austin speaks truth; Obstinacy in all these cannot, if St. Chrysostom be a true man.

6 I add, If Nazianzen have repute with you who for his admi­rable Learning and Piety, was called, The Divine, and lived un­der five Emperours; four of them bad enough, and the fifth no better then he should be, viz. Constantius, Julianus, Valens, Valentinianus, and Theodosius. There is no remedy against the Tyranny, Heresie, and Apostacy of Princes, but Prayers and Tears.

7 No though a King be a Persecutor of the Church, yet may he not be resisted, deposed or killed, either by Pope, by Peers, or People; if Hosius, who for his Age, Experience excellent Lear­ning, and holy conversation was admired and esteemed by all men, may be believed; For thus he stoutly answered the wicked de­mand [Page 15]of Constantius the Arian Emperour; Hosius apud Athan. ad solitarié vi­ventes. Ego confessionis mu­nus implevi, cùm persecutio moveretur ab avo tuo Maximiniano; I was then a Confessor, when your Grandfather Maximinian persecuted the Church; and if you now raise a Persecution, I am ready to endure any thing, rather then to betray the Truth; I know that whosoever with an envious eye maligneth your Impe­rial Majesty, ctntemneth the Ordinance of God; yet I may and do beseech you, Take heed of the Arian Heresie.

No, neither these, nor any thing else, if Justin Martyr, Appol. ad Anton. pag. 113. Tert. ad Scap. Cypr. contr. Demetr. Ter­tullian and Cyprian may have credit given them, can justifie Re­bellion; For they all jumpt in this; That the Majesty of Kings and Emperours is ordained of God: and therefore their Govern­ment not to be reviled; much less by force and violence may they be resisted, deposed, or murthered.

And now, Beloved, chuse you whom you will believe, these Grandees and Fathers of the Church, these Martyrs and Saints of God; or those Punies, the Jesuit of Rome, with the Presby­terian and Independent of England: Or if you will have the word of God carry it from all parties, why then in a word take it thus?

1. Saul was a Tyrant in Davids judgment, if those two Psalms were penned in respect of Saul, as most Commentators are of opinion; In the one it is sayd,Ps. 54.3. Tyrants that have not God before: heir eys seek after my Soul. In the other, Under the sha­dow of thy wings shall be my refuge, Ps. 57.1. until this Tyranny be over­past.

2. Saul was an Usurper, and that upon the Priests Office, and in the highest part of his Office too, in the judgment of Samuel; 1 Sam. 13.19. For he offered burnt-offerings upon the Altar.

3. Saul was a Persecutor, and shedder of blood; 1 Sam. 22.18. For he slew the High-Priest, and 84 inferior Priests upon one day.

4. Saul was a Demoniack, 1 Sam. 28.8, and possessed with a Devil.

5. Saul was a Necromancer and consulted with Witches; and yet for all that says David to Abisai, 1 Sam. 26.9 Nè perdas, Destroy him not; and to the Amalekite in my Text, who thought he had done God some service, and David a great curtesie, in belying himselfe to be a Regicide, and a spiller of Sauls blood, Quommodo non timuisti, How wast thou not afraid to put forth thy hand to destroy the Annointed of the Lord?

But this is Old Testament, and not worthy credit with an Ar­my of Saints; Take it therefore from the New too, from true Saints. Nero was a Tyrant, a Persecutor, a Murtherer, & as bad as you can imagine him; and yet for all that says St. Paul once, Let Prayers be made for him; and again, Let every soul be sub­ject to him; 1 Tim. 2.1. Rom. 13.1. For he was the Power St. Paul then spake of.

Domitian was a Tyrant, a persecutor: a Murtherer, a Blasphe­mer, and almost as bad as Nero; and yet says St. Peter, Be ye subject unto him; 1 Pet. 2.15. For he was the Supreme St. Peter there in­tended.

And if for a Nero St. Paul had his prayers and subjection, If for a Domitian St. Peter had his Obedience, If for a Saul David had his Nè perdas, while he lived, and his Quomodo non temuisti, when he was dead; O God! what would that Prophet and these Apostles, and all the Primitive Fathers have said, if they had li­ved now? Now, wherein a King, and such a King as was An­nointed, and Annointed by God, with Oyle, with his Oyle, with his holy Oyle, as well in his Person, as in his Function, and [...]at above his Fellows too, (for what Age can parrallel him for his Vertues, for his Graces?) was first resisted, then imprisoned, then deposed, then condemned, then murthered; And yet who knows for what?

For with what Vices hath the world branded his repute? Did [Page 17]ever his high Diet, his strength of Body, his Sovereign power, warpe him to any luxurious vanity? Had he ever any Attorney to his Royal lust? No, he remains a President, and so will till Domes-day of unblemisht chastity; and therein out-vied those two great Favourites of God, David and Solomon.

Had he ever any Cateror or Bottleman to pomper up his wan­ton Palate, with choice Wine, and curious Viands? No, he re­mains a Pattern, and so will till Doomes-day, of Temperance and sobriety; and therein equalled Samuel.

Had he ever any Zany to magnifie his Mercy, or to sell his Justice, to reward a Service or to pardon an offence? No, he remains the example, and so will till Doomes-day, of Inexora­ble Justice, and of Admirable Mercy; and therein he exceeded Ely.

But something there was, and for ought I can yet find, This it was; King Charles was like to Jesus Christ: so like to him, that I can find but this difference betwixt them; Jesus was Chri­stus Dominus, the Lord Christ; and Charles was Christus Do­mini, the Lords Christ.; both in his Graces, and in his Crosses.

1. For his Graces, look upon him in his Patience; therein he exceed Job; For he never cursed the day of his Birth, or desi­red the day of his Death; Notwithstanding the Winnow he un­der went by Sathan, and his Instruments; notwithstanding all the Indignities and Affronts were offered him by his vassalls; In all which he comes only short of Christ; and yet as Christ the King was led like a Lamb to the slaughter and opened not his mouth, but only in the behalf of his Disciples, saying, If ye seek me, let these go their way: Joh. 18.8. so King Charles offended not in his Lipps by any impatient expression; and when the Blood-thirsters urged him to deliver up his Friends into their hands; No, says he, here am I, pray let my friends live in peace and safety.

2. Look upon him in his Content, and therein he vies with St. Paul; Philip. In omne conditione, In every condition; and only comes short of Christ; Mat. 8.20. and yet as Christ said, The Foxes have holes and the Birds of the Aire have nests, but I have not where to lay mine head: so said King Charles to his loyal followers, Gentle­men, go you and take your rest; for you have houses and homes to go to, and Beds of your own to lodge in; but I am deprived of these comforts, I must intend my present affairs, and return this night from whence I came; And this he said at Wrexam, in Denbigh­shire, when he had travelled thither from Shrewsbury: And to as­sure you, this was no complement, look upon the Text, as you have it in the 14. chapter of King St. Charles, [...] at the first verse, O God, make me content to be overcome, when thou wilt have it so.

3. Look upon his wisdom, and therein he comes near Solo­mon, yet as it is said of one greater then Solomon; The Wisdom of God dwelt in him bodily; so when the Treaters were last with King Charles, it was confest by some Lords and many Divines, That such illustrious wisdom, as King Charles was Owner of, could claim little or no Birth from Flesh and Blood; yes, before that, Mr. Hynderson himself declared him to be, A most pious and learned Prince; yes, and Mr. Caryll confest, That he found King Charles another Selomon.

4. Look upon him in his Mercy, and therein he out-strips that King that forgave his servant 10000 talents; Mat. 18.27. Luk. 23.34. and onely comes short of Christ; and yet as Christ said, Father forgive them: so said King Charles, I do freely pardon for Christs sake those that have offended me in any kind, nor shall my hand ever be against any man, to revenge what is past, in regard of any parti­cular done to me. And this in his Solitudes he said at Holmeby as you may read in the 41 verse, of his Penitentialls.

I could go on, but expede Herculem, and by these Four; His [Page 19]Patience, His Content, His Wisdom, and His Mercy, you may see King Charles was Christus Domini, and very near a Kin to Christus Dominus, in the Unction of his Graces, and so you may again in the Unction of his Crosses.

1. Look upon him in the Crosse of Conspiracy, Men of several minds and manners, of divers Sects & Factions, Sadduces and Pharisees, at deadly Feud between themselves, yet bandy toge­ther against Christ; so was King Charles assaulted by men of several Opinions, Anabaptists and Antinomians, Presbyterians and Independents, at Daggers drawing between themselves, do yet combine in their oppositions against him; and all the diffe­rence was this, The one brought him to the Block, and the other chopt off his head.

2. Look upon him in the Crosse of his ignomity; The Devil is in him, Why hear ye him? said the Sanhedrin of Christ, Joh, I dare not repeat what our Pharisees have said of King Charles; and yet I dare not but repeat on speech of theirs, Do any of the Worthies of Parliament believe him, or give any respect to any things that proceeds from him?

3. Look upon him in the Crosse of Cruelty and Malice, As Christ was belyed and betrayed, bought and buffeted by his own, scorned and derided in his very Devotions, and numbred amongst the greatest Transgressors; and for fear he should make an escape, had an Ordinance, put out by the Great Council, requiring, If a­ny man knew where he was, he should discover him: John. 11.57. So was King Charles betrayed by his serva [...]ts, bought and sold by his Subjects, belyed by his Enemies, denied by his Friends, and least he should make an escape, Look upon the Order of Munday, May 4. 1646 where it is said, Ordered be it, and it is hereby declared, by the Lords and Commons in Parliament assembled, That what Person soever shall harbour or conceale, or know of harbouring or conceal­ing [Page 20]the Kings Person, and shall not reveale it immediatly to the Speaker of both Houses, shall be proceeded against as a Traytor to the Common-wealth, and forfeit his whole Estate, and dye with­out Mercy.

4. Look upon him in the Cross of his Accusers, accusation & Judge.

1. His Accusers, many false Witnesses; many false Witnesses sought against Christ: Mat. 27. and many false Witnesses sought against King Charles.

2. His Judge a Heathen Deputy President, for the true and sworn Judges of that Kingdom durst not condemn him: so because the sworn Judges of this Kingdom durst not, and by Law could not, therefore Legi-serviens is made his Judge, and made to condemn him.

3. Because the Evidence of witnesses gave no ground to Pilate to condemn Christ; the Souldiers cry out, He makes himself a King, Joh. 19.12. and therefore is not Caesars friend; and his very Accusati­tion over his Head upon the Cross is no more but this, J.N.R.J. and just so is King Charles served, because he was a King, and would maintain Monarchy, he is no friend to the Parliament, and His Accusation can bear no Title but this, C. A. R. O. was put to death January 30. 1648. for no other cause but because he was the best King England ever had; and so like to Jesus Christ, in the Unction both of his Graces and also of his Crosses.

And to make them yet more paralell as God would have it, the very pretence of their enemies is the very same; In salutem po­puli, Joh. 11.47. The fafety of the people, Better one man die, thou all the peo­ple perish, said Caiphas of Christ; so, that the Common-wealth of England might be preserved, let Charles the King of England be condemned, said Mr. John Bradshaw; and it is a fine way I con­fesse, to preserve the Body by cutting off the Head.

So like to Christ was King Charles, and now very near to Christ is King Charles, even at his right hand; where that we may also be, God of his infinite mercy pardon all our sins past, and keep us from all sin to come, and especially from this sin, which is so fearful a sin, Rebelling against, Deposing and Murthering of Gods Annointed, thorough Jesus Christ, Amen.

And how fearful a sin that is,Part. 3. my third and last part will tell you in a word. 1. It is Murther, and that is a fearful sin; For it is not only Peccatum quia prohibitum, which is bad enough, but it is Prohibitum quia peccatum, which is a great deale worse; It is not sin only because it is forbidden; but is therefore forbidden because it is sin. And yet 2. It is far worse in this case, because it is in conjunction with Sacriledge and Rebellion; and so in di­rect opposition against Almighty God himself.

Davids nolit [...] tangere Christos me [...]s, Touch not mine annoinetd, Touch not my Christs, proves it Sacriledge; St. Pauls Qui ob­sistit, whosoever resists the King, Rom. 13.2. resists the Ordinance of God▪ proves it Rebellion: And whether of these two, Sacriledge or Rebellion be the sin against the Holy-Ghost, hath been controver­ted by some Divines; but that both concurring are, if not the sin against the Holy-Ghost, an unpardonable sin, hath been deter­mined by many Divines; and this Demonstration I offer for it.

The Antecedent to the sin unpardonable is Knowledge: Ignorant men cannot commit it; The subsequent to that sin is Irrepentance; The Penitent men have not committed it: And both these Know­ledge and Irrepentance, are in Sacriledge and Robellion; Know­ledge goes before to teach, Irrepentance follows after to sinpify; Knowledge shews the sweet of Rule in Rebellion, and the sweet of Profit in Sacriledge: The sweet of profit begot [...] Delight. and nurses it to Presumption; The sweet of Rule conceives Fear, and nurses it to Despair; each of which finds Irrepentance upon the bed of Death.

For the truth of this, view all Records, Sacred and Prophane, read all Histories, Canonical, Apocriphal, and Ecclesiastical; and see if you can find one, but one either Sacrilegis or Rebell, that ever died in an outward possibility of Salvation.

What sign, what Symptom of Repentance in Cain the first, in Saul a Second, in Jeroboam a third, in Ananias a fourth sacrile­gious person? In Corah the first, in Absolon a second, in Sheba a third, in Bigthan a fourth Rebellious person? It is much feared they all went from the sweet of Sin to the smart of Pain, from the Darkness of Sin to the Darknesse of Hell.

I speak of Principals, 2 Sam. not of Accessaries, many of them go in the simplicity of their Hearts; and for them I pray with my Sa­viour, Father forgive them: Luk. 23.34. but for the rest, They that commit these sins wittingly, wilfully, malitiously, to them, I sear, belongs the Epilogue of Rebells, Damnation because their Prologue was Resisting the higher powers, which is a wilfull Perjury in the breach of their Allegiance; if St Paul speak Scripture when he said,Rom. 13.2. [...], They that resist the higger powers, shall receive to themselves damnation: They may fear it, and let them pray, Acts 8.22. whom it concerns, and Repent, if perhaps God may forgive them: And for our selves, though we are not mali­ciously concerned in this sin, yet because we are cowardly concer­ned in this sin, I pray,

God Almighty deliver us from the punishment of it, Pestilence, Famine and Sword, in this world, and from damnation in the world to come, and assure us thereof, by an holy conformity of our lives to his Law, all our dayes, and by an holy perseverance in our obedience to himself, and to his Annointed, King Charles the Se­cond, whom God restore unto, and establish in his Fathers Throne, brough Jesus Christ; Amen, Amen, Amen.

January 30. 1649.

ACTS 3.15.‘The Prince of Life whom ye killed,’

BUt that I know, and am sensible of the occasion, I would read the following words; whom God raised from the dead: and then I should tell you; This Text were Janus like, and looks two wayes, Uisione reflexâ, backwards upon Good-Fryday last; Visione rectâ, forwards upon Easter-day, next.

As it looks backward, it speaks nothing but Passion; Ye have killed the Prince of Life, and makes the Sermon Funeral.

As it looks forward, it speaks nothing but Resurrection, Whom God hath raised from the dead, and makes the Sermon Nuptial.

But alass, I am only for the Passive part of this verse, and look upon these words positively and personally, as they intend April 4. 1649, years since, and Jesus Christ the Prince of Life whom ye then killed: and I look upon these words again Relatively and yet personally again, as they relate to January 30. 1648: and King Charles, a Prince of life whom ye killed.

Well, Look upon the words either waies, either Litterally and possitively, or Relatively and personally, They will require Tears, Tears being commonly the Followers, if not the Friends of Fu­neralls; and whatsoever the Followers do, the Friends will weep; And indeed, whether to speak or weep my time out, upon this Text, I could willingly question, since we in it commemorate the Exequie [...] both of Jesus Christ, and one very like him, as ye heard the last year, King Charles of Great Brittain and Ireland the first; And can we follow these to the Grave without a Tear.

It was done upon Good-Fryday personally, on Christ, 1649. years since; the first Good-Fryday that ever was, and that day [Page 24]the streets below were hung with Blacks, and the Heavens above with blackness: For no Sun was seen in Jury, for three hours; but only the Sun of Righteousness, whom the Darkness compre­hended not.

That day, both the Heaven above, and the Earth beneath were astonished, if not ashamed, at the Apprehension, condemnation and execution of Jesus Christ; And shall not we follow the Son of Man, Nay, the Son of God to the grave with a Tear.

The Poet pointed out the Spectacle of sorrow, when he said, Hinc ille Lachrymae, and wept, when it may be he aimed at the Tombe, certainly at the Tormentor.

But now that Spectacle of sorrow may question, Undè haec la­chrymarum indigentia, whence proceeds this want of Sorrow, whence this Drynesse?

Is it from Obedience to that command, Weep not for me; but then why do we not weep for our selves? Is it not rather from the hardness of our hearts, which dams up the moisture of our eys?

Can you see a King killed, and not Weep? Why behold, Princeps trucidatus, The King is killed.

Can you see a Good King killed, and not weep? Why behold Princeps vitae trucidatus, The Prince, the King of life is killed, That King, that Prince of life, of whom we said, Under his shade we should live in peace, he is killed.

Can you see that Good King, that Prince of Life whom your selves have killed, and not weep? Why behold, Interemistis tru­cidastis vos, Ye have killed the Prince of Life.

And upon these three parts I shall spin my Discourse.


  • 1. Quid, What was done; Killing.
  • 2. Quis, Who was Killed? Princeps vitae, the Prince of life.
  • 3. Qui, Who killed him? Vos, ye, you and myself.

I begin with the first, Quid, What was done upon April 4. Good Fryday, An. primo salutis nostrae, In the first year of our redempti­on? Killing; upon Jan. 30. Anno 1648. salutis nostrae, In the thou­sand, six hundred, forty & eight year of our Redemption? Killing.

1. Had it been only Passus est, He suffered; It had been an hard word; For it is an hard thing to suffer; especially for great Persons such as Christ was, and all Kings are; If great Persons do great things, it is no wonder; Their very Genius does natu­rally incline them to it; But to suffer, yes any small thing, for them is more, then to do many great things: Doing is good, if it be well doing; but suffering is hard, though we suffer well for well doing; yea, though doing be sometimes hard labour; yet suffering is harder of the twain, yet Christ suffered: so in the Creed he suf­fered under Pontius Pilate: So in St. Peter, 1 Pet. 2.21. Christ suffered for us.

2. Had it been Mortuus est, He Died, It had been harder; Add shame to Death, and then it is harder yet; For as I take it, shame and Death are the hardest things that can be suffered; nothing so precious to us as our Life, unlesse it be our Reputation: and nothing therefore so hard to suffer as the losse of both these, Life and Reputation.

But Christ suffered both, Death and shame both; The Crosse cost him his Life; and the shame of the Crosse bereft him of his Honour, viz. with the Jewes: He put his Shoulders to the Cross, and endured it to the losse of his life; Hebr. 12.2 He set his Feet upon the shame, and despised it to the losse of his Honour.

Of the Philosophers [...], five terribles, Death is the most terrible; and what Christian, be he as strong as a man, or weak as a women; what will not He or she suffer, in Physick or Chirurgery, in Purging, Vomiting, Cutting or Cauterizing, so that they may not suffer Death.

But Death, many a man may suffer, and desire it too; Simeon [Page 26]did;Luk. 2.29. Domine nunc dimittis, Lord now lettest thou thy servant depart; Philip. 1. so did St. Paul, Cupio dissolvi, I desire to be dissolved.

But yet did ever any man desire to be hanged? I do not think Judas senior did, who betrayed his Master, nor Judas junior nei­ther, who condemned his Soveraign: True, They both hanged themselves; but for all that, I do not believe, that either of them desired to be hanged.

If I must die, let me die any Death, rather then a shameful, then an accursed Death? and yet the Apostle doubles that word upon Christ, Philip. 2.8 Christ suffered death, mortem autem crucis, yea, the death of the crosse, i. e. He suffered the most shameful and accur­sed of all deaths.

For as all Lifes are not equally comfortable; so all Deaths are not equally miserable: the Cottage is not like the Pallace for life; nor is the Water like the Halter for Death.

The Jewes had four kindes of Death, for Malefactors, Sword, Fire, Stone, and Towel; the Towel was the easiest; yet there was Dolor, Pain in that: the Sword was next, yet there was sanguis Blood in that; Fire was worse then the Sword; for there was scandalum, shame in that; Stoning was worse then all three, yet there was not maledictum a curse in that; but crucifying was worse then all Four:Colos. 1.14. Act. 2.24. Gal. 5.11. Gal. 3.13. for it was Bloudy, and therefore called the Blood of the Crosse; For it was painful, and therefore called the Pain of the Crosse: For it was shameful, and therefore called the shame of the Crosse; For it was cursed, and therefore called the curse of the Crosse.

To dye by Age, no man is against; It is a Natural Death; a Debt we owe to Nature; to die by War, no Soldier is against; It is an honourable Death; so that they die pro Rege, et Lege, for their King & Country; but if against their King, it is Rebel­lion and damnable; to die for Religion, no good Christian is [Page 27]against; It is a glorioas Death, the Death of Martyrs; But to dye the Death of the Crosse, violently, untimely, penally, cursed­ly; Oh, this goes against the haire, It strikes to the heart, This,

Cursed it was, That is without all question: Cursed is every one that hangeth on a Tree, Deut. 21.23 Galat. says St. Paul by way of Transcript from Moses's Original.

Untimely it was: For he was now in the prime of his Age, about thirty three years old, not more by any ones account that I remember: His Body most Active now, and now his Soul most contemplative, both most vigorous.

Violent it was; For they nail'd him, and stab'd him, spikt His Hands & Feet, that he might neither shew a nimble pair of heels, nor a valiant pair of Hands; and last of all they pierced him thorow the Heart, the very Fountain of Life, least peradventure he might have recovered after three hours crucifixion.

Painful it was: For it is a pain to prick a Vein, a greater pain to boar the Hand and peirce the Heart; yes, a cruel pain it was, the cruellest of pains; and thence as I take it, are Dolores acermi called cruciatus.

A pain it was, when He bled in Gabbatha, where they scourged him with Rods, and Crown'd him with Thorns: more painful it was in Golgotha, where they printed his Hands and Feet with Nails and Spikes, and peirced his Heart thorow with a Spear; and the more long, the more painful; It is some ease if Gravis be Brevis: but if it be Acuta too, Oh, then it is painful indeed!

Add but to this, the Blood he lost in Gethsemane, the Blood of his Soul; and without all question, you will confess, that if this Text had run but in mortuus est, He dyed, It had been hard enough.

But Death may still be suffered, a painful and shameful Death may; but when cruelty and malice are joyned to the shame and [Page 18] Pain; Oh, then it is hard indeed; Indeed hard it is to say, whe­ther cruelty or shame have the upper hand. Saul chose rather to fall upon his own Sword, 1 Sam. 31.4 then to die shamefully by the han's of the Philistines.

Well, but what shame did Christ suffer? or rather, what shame did he not suffer?

1 1. He suffered first the shame of the whip, which was a punish­ment only for Slaves and Bond-men then, amongst the Romans, and for Vagrants, and Wanderers now amongst the English: so it was once answered by a Freeman, when he was threatned with a whip; Loris, saith he, Liber sum, Whip me? Do if you dare; I am a Freeman; Acts 16.37. and St. Paul himself intimates so much saying, After they have beaten us openly, uncondemned, being Romans, they have cast us into prison, and now would they put us out privi­ly; and more expresly afterward,Acts 22.25. Is it lawful for you to scourge one that is a Romane and not condemned?

2 2. He suffered secondly the shame of contempt, and disgraceful usage; Herods white Sheet, ct Pilates blew Livery, were put up­on him: so St. Luke and St. John describe his Apparrel. Herod with his men of war despised Jesus, and mocked him, and arrayed him in white, Luk. 23.11. says St. Luke; And the Souldiers, (Pilats Soul­diers) platted a Crown of Thorns, and put it on his Head, and they put on him a purple garment, says St. John: And then they hood-winkt him, John 19.2. playd at blind-man-buff with him, pull'd him by the hair, and spet in his Face.

3 3. He suffered thirdly the shame of despight and malice; In the depth of his distresse, they would not afford him a dragm of com­passion; but railed, reviled, scoft, scorn'd & derided him in his very prayers; and in his extream thirst, denied him that which was never denied to any but the damned in Hell;John 19.36. A drop of Wa­ter, and instead thereof offered him a Spunge dipt in Vinegar.

He suffered fourthly the shame of shames; For to make the world believe, His Death was an Act of Justice, they add the Solemn formality of a new erected, and never before heard of Court of pretended High Justice; For they knew too well, That no Legal Court of true Justice could take away his Life.

In a word, Had it been Occidistis, You have killed him, though by Assasination, It had not been so much; because that Act would have workt all honest men to pitty his condition; but it [...], Trucidastis, you have impetuously, without any judicial proceeding, but that of pretence and formality, and cru­elly, without any Relenting and Compassion, saving that of Hy­pocrisie and Dissimulation, killed him, i. e. in plain English murthered him: and if you will believe Mr. Beza, and in this you may believe him, though he was Dr. of the Chaire at Geneva; Trucidare is more then Occidere; For Occidere is but to Kill: It implies neither shame nor cruelty; but trucidare is guilty of both. And therefore the Poet expressing the shame, and cruelty, and subtlety, and malice, and Revenge to boot, which the Greeks used towards the Trojans, gave it by this very word, saying.

Fit via vi rumpunt aditus,
primos (que) trucidant.

By this time I believe your Intellectuals are weary of so sad a Theam, and rueful Discourse; I shall now speak a word to your Affections, If it prove sad there too, you may not think much of it, since it was upon the Prince of Life, which is my second Consideration, In

Quis, Who was killed? [...], The Prince, Pars. 2. the Author of Life.

1. The Author of Life, who gave life to us. 2. The Prince [Page 30]of Life, who preserves life in us; Corporis anime, et utrins (que), tám conjunctim, quám seperatim; The Prince and Author of all our Animal Life: For by him were all things made, and without him was not any thing made that was made, John 1.1. Acts 17. says St. John; For in him we live, we move, and have our being says, St. Paul.

The Author and Prince of our spiritual life; I live now, says, St. Paul, Gal. 2.20. yet not I, but Christ liveth in me; and that I now live in the flesh, I live by Faith in the Son of God, who hath loved me and given himself for me; and so he speaks of us as well as of himself,Eph. 2.1. saying, You who were dead in sins, hath he quickened toge­ther, in Christ, by whose grace ye are saved.

The Prince and Author of our eternal life, and that three ways:

  • 1. By Preordination,
    He hath decreed it to us from all eternity, He hath predestinated us to be adopted thorow Jesus Christ to sit together in heavenly places.
  • 2. By Purchase, He hath bought it for us, and us to it, by the price of his blood;
    1 Cor. 6.20.
    Ye are bought with a price, says St. Paul, and so bought, and with such a price, as neither Man, nor Angel did administer any help in the Satisfaction; Torcular calcavi solus, says the Prophet Isaiah in the Person of Christ;
    Isa. 63.2.
    I have trodden the Wine-presse of my Fathers wrath alone, and of all the people there was not one with me; and so bought, and with such a price, that neither man nor Devil, can hinder us from the fruition of it; Nec sublimitas, nec profunditas, says St. Paul, Neither height, nor depth, nor life, nor death, nor sword, nor peril, nor any other thing, shall be able to separate us from the love of God in Jesus Christ our Lord.
    Rom. 8.39.
  • 3. He is the Author and Prince of our Eternal life by Donati­on, were it put upon our Desert & Merit, we might not only doubt of it, but utterly despair of it; For all our works, whether of Obedience, or Patience come infinitely short of it; and there­fore [Page 31]said one Father, Etiamsi millies servirem, Though I could & should serve God unreproveably a thousand years, yet should I not thereby deserve to be one half hour in Heaven; and there­fore said another Father, Etiamsi millies paterer, Though I could and should patiently suffer all the pains of Hell for ten thousand years, yet should I not thereby deserve to be one minute in Heaven; But being that Heaven and eternal Life is Gods gift, we may rest assured that no thing, Man nor Devil, is able to take it out of his hands, and therefore we shall have it.

But oh! for Tantus, so great an Essence, so good an Essence, as the Prince of Life, of our corporal Life, of our spiritual Life, of our Eternal Life, should be made Tantillus, so little a thing as never was lesse; Agnus, a Lamb, Jer. 11.19. Psal. as the Prophet Jeremy calls him, pittifully slaughtered; Vermis, a Worm, as King David calls him, spitefully trod upon; me thinks is able to melt Stones into Tears, and Hearts of Rock into Hearts of Flesh.

To see a Lamb lye pittifully bleeding, it is a pittiful spectacle; To see a Worm scornfully trod upon, is a sorrowful sight: But Lambs were made to be slaughtered, and Worms to be trampled on.

Be it so; But yet for a Man to be made a Worm, and no man; for a Lion to be made a Lamb, and no Lion; and that without any demerit of his own: To see an Innocent and a Noble person suffer; to see a great and a gracious King to be trucidated; to see God, the Prince and Author of our Life to be killed; cer­tainly it is a heavy, a very heavy spectacle, and enough to make our Bowels yearn.

The Sun was asham'd of it, and therefore withdrew his light; the Temple was afeard of it, and therefore rent it self in twain; the Farth trembled at it, and therefore fell into an Ague; And shall not we be moved at it? to them it appertained not; For [Page 32] he came not to Redeem Sun, Temple or Earth, but to Us it doth; For he was killed for us, Justus pro injustis, He for us; The Righteous for the Unrighteous; and he by Us, Justus ab Injustis, The Righteous was killed by the Unrighteous; which is my third consideration.

Qui, Pars. 3. Who killed him? Vos, Ye. If you charge his death up­on Judas, the Traytor, who sold him for thirty pence, or upon Caiphas, the High-Priest, who accused him of Envy; or upon Pilate the Lord president, who condemned him of cowardise, and against his conscience, you take your aime amiss; We wretched sinners, that we are, were the principal; They but the Accessa­ry & Instrumental Killers of Christ; The Executioner doth not Kill the Man, He doth but execute the Sentence; The Judge doth not Kill the Man, He doth but pronounce the Sentence; No, Solum peccatum est homicida, only sin is the Murtherer: so then, the true Construction of this Text, is this; You have kil­led the Prince of Life, i.e. Our sins, or we by our sins have kil­led the Prince of Life.

And upon the thought of this, Can we do lesse then weep? Can we see the Sun asham'd, and cover his Face, and our selves not blush? Can we see the Temple rent in two, and we not rend our Hearts? Can we see the Earth quake, and our selves not tremble? Can we see Christ pati, suffer for us, and we not compati, suffer with him, and if need be for him too?

Can we see his soul heavy to the death, and hear him complain of it too,Marke 14. My soul is exceeding heavy, even to the death, and our souls be light with, and delight in sin?

Can we see Christ Trucidatus, killed at, and transfixus, peir­ced through the Heart, and we not be compunctus, prick't at the Heart?

Can we see the Jewes spet upon his Face, that did when he [Page 33]pleased out-shine the Sun, and we not wash our Face With Tears.

Can we see them buffet him on his Face, and we not smite our Breasts, and cry out, God be merciful unto us miserable sinners?

Can we see his Head Crown'd with Thornes? Crown'd to de­ride him! Crown'd with Thornes to torment him, and we not cover our Heads with Ashes?

Can we think upon Revenge to them, that offer us Indigni­ties, and yet will we not be Reveng'd upon our sins, which offer­ed Christ so many Indignities?

If this Text works lesse with us, we gain no more benefit by this Text, then they did by the brazen Serpent, who never lookt upon it; but I hope, it hath workt no lesse; and if so much, why then, Behold, Sampsons Riddle is again unfolded: And as out of his strong came sweet, and ont of his Eater came Meat: Judic. so out of Christs Crosse, upon which he was killed, comes this com­fort to us, that we shall live; For if you aske, Why God gave his Son? St. John tells you, It was, That whosoever believes in him should not perish, but have everlasting life; If you aske,John 3.16. Why Christ came into the world? He tells you himself, It was to seek and save us that were lost; If you aske, Why Christ was killed upon the Crosse? I can tell you, and I tell you truth in it, It was that his Hands might be stretched, to embra [...]e and receive us in­to Heaven.

For the Crosse by vertue of Christ upon it,Rev. is become Clavis Caeli, The Key of David, which shuts, and no man opens, which opens, and no man shuts, Ps. which opens the everlasting door of Hea­ven that we may go in to the Prince of Life, to the King of Glory.

For the Crosse by vertue of Christ upon it, is become Baculus Jacobi, Jacob's Staffe; and by the help of it, we may safely passe [Page 34]over the Jordan of this world into the Land of Canaan. Gen. 32.10.

For the Crosse by vertue of Christ upon it, is Virga Moysi, the Rod of Moses; and with it we shall passe thorow the Red Sea of this world into the Kingdom of Heaven. Exod. 14.16.

For the Crosse by vertue of Christ upon it, is become Lignum or Arbor Moysi, Exod. 15.16. he Tree of Moses, and with it we shall make all the bitter waters of this world sweet to our tasts, pleasant to our smells, and comfortable to our souls; Nullus cibus tam amarus, qui, si recordatione aceti et fellis Christi temperetur, non statim fit dulcior, says St. Barnard; No water so bitter, which his Crosse cannot sweeten: No meat so unsavoury, which his Gall & Vinegar upon the Crosse will not make rellishable. Nihil tam durum, says St. Gregory, Nothing so hard, so heavy, which his Crosse will not make easy; especially if we apply to our selves the Apostles inference, Tim. If we suffer with him (yes or for him) we shall also Reign with him.

For the Crosse by vertue of Christ upon it, is become Citharae Dabidis, Davids Harpe, and by touching the strings of it, we shall lay all those evil Spirits, 1 Sam. 16.23. which molest and trouble our Hearts.

For the Crosse by vertue of Christ upon it, is become Gladius Dabidis, Davids Sword, and by the use of it, we shall slay the Goliah of Hell, 1 Sam. 17.51. and vanquish all the Philistines of Tentations.

For the Crosse by vertue of Christ upon it, is become Clypeus Jehosuae, Josuahs Shield, with which if we guard our selves, we shall batter the walls of Jericho, and put to flight all the Armies of the Flesh, Jos. the World, and the Devil.

For tell me, tell me, O my Soul! whether if thou thinkest upon that Vinegar and Gall, which Christ tasted at his death, it will not allay and quench the fire of thy hottest Lusts.

Tell me, tell me, O my Soul! whether if thou thinkest upon [Page 35] Christs Pater remitte on the Cross, Father forgive them, it will not fright thee from Revenge, and work thee into Charity? Did Christ forgive them who killed him, and wilt thou be revenged upon them who do but displease thee? God forbid.

Tell me, tell me, O my Soul! whether if thou thinkest upon that Spear, with which Longinus (so we have received his name) stab'd Christ to death, thou wilt not fear to swear another Oath? For thy Oaths stab him deeper then that Spear could.

Tell me, tell me O my Soul! whether if thou thinkest upon Christs great and incomparable meekness, all the while he was killing, that when he was reviled, he reviled not again, when he was slaughtered, he threatned not: thou darest for those petite Injuries, which thou supposest are unjustly offered thee, and maliciously laid upon thee, swerve to Impatience?

No, I am confident, thou wilt not sin again, if thou but re­membrest Christ was killed for thy sins: or if thou doest, I shall be sorry.

Neither wilt thou despair of Gods mercy, if thou remembrest, That as he was killed to expiate thy sins, so he was raised again to justifie thy Person.

But I read not that for any part of my Text, nor shall I now make it any part of my Sermon; my Sermon ends with the 30 day of January, the day wherein King Charles was kill'd and murthered by you, by you and us, and all of us; For if all of you had not an hand in the Actual murthering of him, yet you are all guilty of his murther, if all the Fathers and Schoolmen are right in their Expositions of Guilt, and how we may stand guilty of sin; They number nine waies, and every one is very naught. I shall name them, and when we confesse our selves guilty of any one way of the nine, God have mercy upon us.

The first is not to hinder it, when thou canst; 1 For by this [Page 36]means thou makest thy self second in the sin, and givest it the helP of thy hand, because thou didst not hinder it with thy hand: And was it not in our power to hinder the Kings murther? Had we not six hands to two? Were we not three to one thorowout all the Kingdom? Well, God have mercy upon us, and encline our hearts to redeem this Law, by bringing home King Charles II. and settle him in his Fathers Throne, King Charles I. that was murthered.

2 The second is, Not to reprove it. when we should; For by this means we make our tongues Advocates for it, and give it License by our Silence, And where was one of us, or if one, by name Dr. Gauden, who did reprove it, in tempore opportuno? Well, God have mercy upon us, and open our mouths to pray for restoring King Charles II. and may God and the King forgive us all for not reproving them who murthered K. Charles I.

3 The third is, to Council sin; For by this means, we become a Mother to it, and give it Wombe by conceiving it in another; And for this let them look to it, who fram'd Petitions, and caught the giddy multitude to cry for Justice, until King Charles I. was most unjustly murthered: and if there were such a one who told Oliver Crumwel, That he stoop'd to low in creeping too, and supplicating the King, then his prisoner, and afterwards told the King, It was admired, that his Majesty should so Court such a Rebel, and told the Rebel then again the Kings answer, which was supposed to be the hastening cause of that murther; Let him repent, and pray if God may possibly forgive him.

4 The fourth is to command sin, For by this means, they beget it, they give it Seed, and become the Fathers of it: And for this: Let the Long Lifed Parliament, Lieutenant General Crom­well, and others whom it concerns, water their Bedds, and wash their Couches every night with tears for fear they exchange [Page 37]their Evill Dayes into an Everlasting Night of Evill.

The fifth is, to consent to it; For by that means they own it, 5 and maintain it, and become Adopted Fathers to it. And for this, Let the High Court of Justice, President Bradshaw, Whaley, Pride, and others that sat there, and gave Vote, to the most un­just sentence that was ever pronounced, Pilates only excepted, abhorr themselves in dust and ashes, least their memories be ab­horred by all good men on Earth, and their Souls in Fire and Brimstone.

The sixth is, to commend it; 6 For by this means, they give it suck & Dugg, and become a Nurse to it: And for this, Let them who have presented Books to John Bradshaw, and given him Eulogies for the greatest Vaelogy was ever spoke in England, severing the Head of King Charles I. from his Body.

The seventh is, To entertain and maintain the Actors of it; For by this means, they give it Shoulders, they support it, 7 and become Protectors of it: And for this, Let him who hath made himself Protector with his Stately Counsel, consult how they may avoid the curses of so many thousand innocent Widdows and Or­phans, whom they have made so, that they might kill as the Jewes did, the King of Life, the King of England, Charles the I.

The Eighth is, To keep Silence, and to be mute at it, when it is done; For by that means, 8 they become Friends to it, and give it Heart and Hand; And for this, Let him or them, or both, who have out-stript Dioclesian, and Julian, by mnzzleing the Mouths of all the Orthodox Clergy of England, least they should declaim against it, look to it and weep, and groan, if perhaps they may out-cry that cry which the Blood of CHARLES the I. makes to Heaven for vengeance.

The ninth and last is, to partake of it; For by that means they give it Arm and Face, and become Benefactors to it: And for this, Let the present Soldiers, whether Voluntiers or other, whe­ther before or since, consider with themselves, whether they be not guilty of the violent, painful, shameful murther of King Charles I. and presently forsake their Usurper, and joyn to bring in the true Heyre of these Kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland, King Charles II. whom as God hath hitherto miracu­lously preserved, so may he make a Miracle of his mercy in resto­ring him to a Glorious Crown here, and receiving him to a Crown of Glory hereafter, thorow Jesus Christ, Amen.

Anno Dom. 1650.

PSALM 112.7.‘He is not afeard of any evil tydings; For his heart standeth fast, and believeth in the Lord.’

ANd yet King David was no Stoick, For this Psalm is an Exegesis or Exposition of the last verse of the former Psalm. And that Psalm ends thus; Timor Domini initium sapientiae; The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom; Ps. 111.10. and this Psalm in answer to that begins thus: Beatus qui timet Dominum: Bles­sed is the man that feareth the Lord. Ps. 112.1. Wisdom seeks Blessedness, and by the Fear of God finds it, and finds it in four degrees.

  • 1. In the Happiness of his Posterity; His seed shall be migh­ty upon Earth. Ver. 2
  • 2. In the Happinesse of his Prosperity; Wealth and Riches shall be in his house. Ver. 3
  • Ver. 6 3. In the Happiness of his Stability; He shall never be moved.
  • [Page 37]4. In the Happiness of his Security, He shall not, he will not be afraid, or, He is not afraid of any evil tydings.

And this, though the last, is not the least degree of his Happi­ness: his good Fear banisht his evil Fear; He fears God, and therefore he fears not any evil tydings. And that he fears God, he is assured of it too; for his heart standeth fast, and believeth in the Lord. In which words you have observable these three Parts.

  • 1. Quis non timet? Who feareth not? Times Dominum, He that feareth the Lord, feareth not.
  • 2. Quid non timet? What is it he feareth not? Ab auditione malâ, He feareth not any evil tydings.
  • 3. Quare non timet? Why doth he not fear any evil tydings? quia paratum est, stabilitum est, confirmatum est cor ejus, confi­dens in Jehovâ because his heart is prepared, because his heart is est ablished, because it is confirmed, and standeth fast, believing in the Lord.

I begin with the first, He fearet not, he shall not be afraid: Pars 1. And this at first sight seems a strange commendation, or a strange Prohibition; Construe it as you please, by the Present, or Future tense: Timor enim Domini est Janitor cordis, et virtutis custos▪ saith St. Hierome: Fear (of the Lord) is the Guard Royal of the heart, and keeps out forbidden lusts, like unbidden Guests; Fear is the Treasurer of Vertue, & keeps it in a close Cabinet, like a precious Jewel, least it should take Wings like Riches and fly away.

Fundamentum salutis, says Tertullian, Fear is the Foundation of Hope: and like that house which is built upon a Rock, let the Sea roar, and the Rain fall, and the winds blow, It stands fast, it is unshaken.

Tuta Armatura says St. Chrysostome, Fear is a safe Armour, [Page 40]whosoever puts it on, hath such a Coat of Male, as is Sword, Pike, Pistol, and Canon proof.

Initium sapientiae, Pro. says Solomon; Fear is the beginning of Wisdom; not a Student in the Accademy of Fear, but is sure to commence Doctor of Wisdom.

Vita omnium operum, says Melancton, Fear is the vivacity of all our Actions; whatsoever we do without Fear is dead in the very doing: and Solomon gives the reason of it; Officium enim est totius hominis, Eccles. 12. For this is the whole duty of man, To fear God and keep his Commandements.

Religio, Majestas, Honor metu constant, says Lactantius, where Religion is neglected, confusion enters: nor can Religion subsist without Fear; For what is not feared, is contemned: and what is contemned, is not worshipped; Religion, Majesty, Honour; The Religion of God, the Majesty of the King, and the Honour of the Nobility, are all preserved by Fear; Take away Fear, and take away all.

This Age, this unhappy miserable Age, gives us too sad & feeling an example of it; The Kingdom of England hath lost Religion, The King of England hath lost his Majesty: the Majesty of England hath lost his Head: the Nobility of England have lost their Honour; And all this, because the Commons of England have lost their Fear, the Fear of God.

St. Barnard advises most divinely, Cúm adest Gratia, time, [...]ē non digné, operis ex eâ, substractâ Gratiâ, magis time, quia te reliquit custodia tua; si redirit gratia, multò amplius time, ne forté contingat, pacis excidium. If Grace be present, Fear lest thou answer not the expectation of that Grace: If Grace be absent, Fear more, because thou art left unto thy self: If Grace return again, Fear much more, least thy Security ruine thy Peace.

And if Fear be so necessary a Vertue by the Verdict of so ma­ny Fathers and grave Authors, what means King David here to give the blessed man this Character, He feareth not.

Do but you distinguish of the Subject, Fear; and look upon the Object, what the blessed man fears; and you will presently confesse, There is neither Adaxie nor Paradox, neither Absur­dity nor Ambiguity in this Character, He feareth not.

Some have made six sorts of Fear; 1. Natural, which re­spects Beeing; and this is in all Living creatures. 2. Humane which respects Life, and this is in all men. 3. Mundane, which respects Riches, Liberty, Beauty, Honour, and the like; and this is in all covetous and cowardly wretches. 4. Servile, which respects pain and punishment, and this is in Slaves, Reprobates, Rebels, and Devils. 5. Initiall, which respects sin; and this is in all good Christians, and Loyal Subjects, who chuse rather to suffer in Gods cause, then to participate with the sins of a more successfull party. 6. Filiall, which respects God; and this is in all Noble Martyrs, and Glorious Saints, who therefore fear to sin, because they will not offend God.

You may contract these six into these two, Filial & Servile; because under Servile may be comprised Humane and Worldly; and under Filial, Initial and Natural fear.

Filial fear looks upon God as a Father, and honours him, and is resolved to honour him, though there were neither Heaven to reward him, nor Hell to torment him.

Servile fear looks upon God as a Judge, and shuns him; and if now and then in a Fit he yields God any obedience, it is, Formidine paenae, onely for fear of punishment.

Filial fear is an Ornament and Vertue of the Soul; Servile fear is a Passion and Distresse of the Soul.

Filial fear is in the Regenerate, both in the Church Militant [Page 34]and Triumphant; but in several considerations. Here by two Actions, Evitando malum, et faciendo bonum, by eschewing evil, and doing good; There only by doing good.

Perficitur in Patriâ, non abolebitur reverentia Timoris, says St. Augustine, Reverential fear shall not be diminished in Heaven, but encreased; It shall not be abolished but perfected.

Servile fear is not in them, not in them at all, so far as they are Regenerated; As men, they may fear their Lifes, as covetous they may fear their Estates; as Carnal, they may fear their Li­berties; But he that fears either, or the losse of either, Liberty, Estate, or Life, can never be good Souldier, or Loyal Subject, can never be good Christian, or Gods servant; He may fear God, as God is just: and so Fear is a Passion & Distress of the Soule; He doth not fear God, as God is good; for so Fear is a Grace and Ornament of the Soul.

As Fear is a Passion of the Soul, you may understand that speech of St. John, Many of the Rulers believed in Christ, but for fear of the Jewes they did not confesse him, least they should be put out of the Synagogue; for they loved the praise of men more then the praise of God. I may add, They feared the Inju­stice and punishment of men, more then the Justice and Judgment of God: and therefore says Christ, Fear not them which kill the Body, but are not able to kill the Soul; but rather fear him, who is able to destroy both Soul and Body in Hell. Mat. 10.28.

The words in the Original, are worth the marking, Fear not, [...], them that kill the Body; it is not them that can kill the body: they do it by a permissive power; They cannot do it by any Inherent power of their own, [...]; but the Soul they neither may nor can, [...], but rather fear him, who hath power to destroy Soul and Body in Hell.

I wish the late Renegado's had seriously considered these Texts; Those men I mean, who served the late King, and tar­ried with him so long as the Sun shined, and the weather was calm; but so soon as ever the Rain began to fall, and the Winds to blow, they presently ran away to compound and save some­thing, a little wealth and some few dayes, but they did forget that God could, Luke 12. (and it may be will) cast both Soul and body into Hell. And then as Christ says, Fools, whose shall these things (your Riches and your Daies) be?

Yes, He both can & will, without a great deal of Repentance; For their Sin was far more desperate then the first Rebells; They ran into the Sin out of Rashnesse and Inconsiderately; But these men put God into one Scale, and the World into another: and therefore to them especially belongs that fearfull doom. The fearful shall be cast out, Apoc. 21. i. e. Such men as fear the losse of their Estates, more then the losse of Gods favour, and the losse of their momentary Lifes, more then the losse of their Eternal Lifes; They forsook their King, and God will forsake them.

And God have mercy upon us all, and forgive us our following the Apostles in their worst Act, and forsaking our Soveraign upon the Scaffold, as they did their Saviour upon the Crosse; and give us grace to redeem that fault, by living, for the time to come, Loyal Christians, and dying stout Romans, to continue obedien­tially, and not fear man, who can kill but our Bodies, and dye couragiously in the fear of God, that we may not fear any evill tydings.

It is my second consideration;Pars. 2. Quid non timet timens Dominum, what he fears not that fears God? Ab auditione ma­là non timet, Ab auditu malo, non timebit; He is not afraid, He shall not be afraid of any evil tydings.

At first sight again, this Object encreaseth my wonder, Fear [Page 44]not any evill tydings! Why, the Kings wrath is evil tydings, for it is the messenger of death; And shall I not fear him?

Solomon says, Fear God and the King; St. Peter it at the same,Prov. 1 Pet. 2. Fear God, and Honour the King; St. Paul is at it for con­science sake; Be subject to the higher powers, not only for wrath, but for conscience. Rom. 13.5. And is the Son of David against either? Fear not them that kill the Body? Or is the Father of Christ against either? Fear not any evil tydings? not the wrath of Kings?

No at no hand; This is no Absolute, no General Prohibition; but only a Relative, and Comparative; God is to be feared, and the King is to be feared, where their commands are not in oppo­sition, Fear belongs to them both; both Natural fear, and Filial fear; But when they stand in competition, and my obeying the King will dishonour God, and my fearing the King will displease God; where sin is the subject of a Tyrants command, and Gods Law must thereby be transgressed.Act. Then I am at the Apostles resolution, Whether it be fit to obey God or man, judge ye; I am then at King Davids blessed man, I fear God, and therefore I fear not any evil tydings.

This will appear more evident, if we look into the diverse ac­ceptions of Auditus malus, Evil tydings; and what is the true construction of evill tydings?

1. It signifies sometimes Calumnies, Contumelies, Checks, Taunts, and Reproaches, wherewith they that fear the Lord are slaundered; Thus gluttony, blasphemy, and sedition were objected to Christ; And now his Servants, and the late & present Kings liege people are called, I should have said miscalled, Malignants. Delinquents, Papists, evil Counsellours, enemies of the Church & troublers of the State▪ Haec autem perferre difficile; and this is a very heavy burthen to bear: Generosis enim animis cruciatus corporis, Plutarch. quám jacturam famae facilius est perferre. A noble [Page 45]mind had rather have his Body to be bruised, then his credit blasted; yet he that is truly noble (et sola virtus vera Nobilitas) the Noble Christian that feareth God, is so far from being afraid at these evil tydings, that he neither forsakes the Truth, nor de­clines his Loyalty: He is not afeard of the evil tydings.

2. Sometimes evil tydings signifie Famam sinistram quam im­probi culpâ suâ contrahunt; that evil report which base people deservedly bring upon themselves; Thus Shemei is called a Rayler: thus Doeg is called an Accuser: thus Absolon is call­ed a Traytor: thus Achitophel is called a Conspirator: thus Co­rah, Dathan, and Abiram, and all such as rise against the Lords Annointed, their lawful King, are called Rebells.

But they that fear God, and such as are Loyal Subjects, fear not such aspersions; If they are cast upon them by evil Tongues, they readily answer as St. Augustine did Petilian, upon a like scandal, I know no such thing by my self, and I think I know my self better then he knows me; but believe you which you please, and judge as you please, whether he that writes, and fights against the King, or he that writes and fights for the King be a Rebel, a Delinquent, a Malignant; I am not afeard of these evil ty­dings.

3. Sometimes evil tydings signifie dangers and Calamities, Jobs messengers; One tells us, Our Cattel are plundered: A se­cond tells us, Our houses are fired: A third tells us, Our Chil­dren are murthered: A fourth tells us, Our Soldiers are mutined, Our Garrisons are betrayed, Our Armies are disbanded, and Free-quarier is denied.

Why yet, Non succumbit justus, non deficit; He that fears God, faints not, fails not, looses not his courage, yea, though he knows Death to be the Guerdon of his not yielding to a Conque­rors pleasure, he looks upon his Saviour, and fears not him that [Page 46]kills the Body: he looks upon King David, and fears not [...]ay evil tydings.

These times offer as fit a case as this Text requires, King Da­vid pronounces the man blessed that feareth the Lord; My fear of God is best evidenced unto me by my Obedience to my Pa­rents, for that is Gods Commandement; my great Parent is the King, He is, Pater patriae, and the higher power: so St. Paul calls him, The Supream power, so St. Peter calls him: There­fore I to be subject to him; and not to resist him is St. Pauls in­ference: Therefore I to honour him, and to fear him is St. Pe­ters inference.

But of late there were a pack of men met together, against Charles I. the long liv'd Parliament, & so there are now against Charles II. the too long being Protector, with his too long fit­ting Council of State, who did and do call themselves a Power above the King; who did command us, who do command us to take their part against Charles I. then, against Charles II. now: who did and do threaten us with Sequestration of our Estates, That's Beggary, with Registring our names in the black Book; That's Infamy, with bringing us to the Barr of Justice, of their Justice, or more truly, To the Barr of their Court of their high Injustice, That's Death.

We know, If we did forsake Charles I. If we do forsake Charles II. and take part with them against the King, we sin, we resist; If we resist, we incur damnation: The word is [...], Mr. Marshall did qualify and linify it by the construction of Judgement) and that signifies the destruction of Soul and Body here and for ever.

Now here is the tryall, If we did stand to the late, and do to the present King, and do our Duties: If we were and are re­solved, as Ittai was,2 Sam. Wheresoever my Lord the King is, whether [Page 47]in Life or Death, there will thy servant also be. Then we fear God, and therefore fear no evil tydings.

But if we did go back to them that opposed, and deposed, and mur­thered, the Father, or if we do go back to them, who resist, and keep out, and calumniate, and hunt after the bloud of the Son, let it be upon what consideration it may, I shall leave my Wife and Children beggars else, I shall be a Slave and Prisoner all the dayes of my life else, I shall be han'gd else; And these pettire thoughts fright me out of my Duty: I have then ruined, my bless­ednesse, I am not blessed, I have lost my Evidence, I am witnesse against my self, I am afeard of evil tydings, basely and slavishly afeard, and therefore I fear not God.

Well fare that Heathen, who was resolved for all Fortunes, and will rise in Judgement against many, very many cowardly Christians in England.

Non fulminantis magna Jovis manus
Terrebit justum: And again,
Etiamsi fractus illibatur Orbis
Impavidum ferient ruinae.

Let the world totter, turn round, and fall, I will not be afraid, I will fear God.

But a Heathen is not fit to be our Schoolmaster, look we up­on the Primitive Christians; and amongst them well fare old Hilarion, who being in the hands and power of his Persecutors, and by them demanded, Antimeret, If he were not afeard of those evil tydings they brought him? For they came to strip and plun­der him. To which he returned an Answer as full of gallantry as mirth, Nudus latrones non timet, An empty Ship fears not a Pyrate: A naked man fears not a Theif.

They then th [...]eaten him with Terribilium terribilissim [...], the Hyperbole of evil tydings, sed occidemus te, we will put thee to most exquisite torments, and in the end will kill thee. Non times [Page 48]mortem? Art thou not afeard of death? and he returns as great a Hyperbole of gallantry, Non timeo mortem, quia paratus sum mori; No, I fear not death, because I fear God, and am there­fore prepared to dy.

Well fare St. Chrysostome, who being threatned with banish­ment from the Empresse of a good name, but bad condition, Eudoxia, Et vult me exulem Regina? And will the Empresse banish me? said he, Agat, Let her do it; Domini est terra, the Earth is the Lords, and the fullnesse thereof.

Another bids him hide himself and save his life, For the Em­presse would sawe him; secet, Content says he, let her sawe me, I am not afeard to follow the Prophet Isaiah in his way to Heaven.

A third bids him shift aside, For the Empresse would cast him into the Sea; Immergat, said he, Content still, let her drown me, I doubt not to find as good a plank, as Jonas did, to preserve me from perishing in the waters.

A fourth adviseth him to secure himself, For the Emperesse would cast him into a Furnace of fire: Injiciat, said he, As she pleases, I am not afeard of a fiery Chariot; The three children will bear me company: and the Son of God will drive the Coach so fast, that the Flames shall neither scortch my Flesh, not singe my cloaths.

A fifth bids him take Sanctuary, For the Emperesse would throw him to the wilde Beasts; Jaciat, said he, let her do it: I make no question, but the Angels will muzzle them for hurting me.

Yet a sixth perswaded him to convey himself away for a while, that the Church of Christ might receive some further benefit by him, else the Emperesse would have him stoned to death; Fiat voluutas Dei, said he, Let Gods will be fullfilled, and hers too; [Page 49]I will use all lawful means for my preservation, being persecuted in this City, I will fly into another: but with this resolution still; I am not afeard to follow St. Stephen, thorow a whole shower or Quary of stones into the Kingdom of Heaven.

If these Examples be procul, at too far a distance for us to fol­low; Look we then upon a late Noble Glenham, who was more conquered by an empty dish, then by an insulting and increasing Foe; and yet was afeard of neither, but left his Garrison with more honour, then his Enemies possest it.

Look upon a valiant Fawcet, who was more conquered by the mutiny of his unfaithful Slaves, (for they are not worthy the name of Soldiers that will mutiny) then by his thundring Ene­mies; and yet was afeard of neither, but came off with more ho­nour, then he left behinde him.

Look upon a Loyal Compton, who notwithstanding the impro­bability of relief, and the continuation of an hard Siege, and the multiplication of a cruel Enemy, yet resolved not to be afeard of any evil tydings.

Look upon an undaunted Arundel, who being Summon'd to de­liver up the Remainder in the West, and whether threatned or al­lured thereunto, I know not, because the Kings party was ut­terly defeated, returned an Answer as full of Resolution as Reli­gion, as full of Courage as Christianity, and such as became both a Souldier and a Christian; I have lived untainted threescore & seven years, and I have not any minde to go a Rebel to my Grave.

Remember if you revolt, you turn Rebells: and if you dye in that Apostacy, you dye Rebels, and leave an Odium upon your Name, and a curse upon your Estates.

Look we upon those Gentlemen, but look we upon them with the Eyes of imitation, who in the year 1646, when all Royall [Page 50]hopes were low enough, and Rebellious Ambitions high enough, came from Plimouth & Excester; what brought them so many weary steps, when they might have lived quietly there, or gone safely to [...]heit own habitations; but the Example of a Loyall Wagstaffe, and the fear of being tempted unto a Rebellion, and desire to live and dye in his late Majesties service?

Look we upon his late Majesty, who notwithstanding so many Waves of the Sea, and so much madness of the People, in the losse of Shrewsbury & Hereford, in the losse of Bristol & Bridgewa­ter, in the losse of Excester & a brave Cavalry, was yet so far from being afeard of those evil tydings, that he doubted not to recover all, or at least to requite all his and his loyaly Subjects miserys, with the blessing of Peace and honourable Conditions.

And when all this fail'd by a Scotch treachery, which surpassed that of Judases by two hundred thousand pounds, bating but thirty pieces of Silver, and by a breach of Faith and Trust, in his Par­liament, and their Army; why yet his admirable constancy and perseverance, his yet unimitable piety and patience, bid us look upon him again with Sighs and Tears, that so good a King should have so bad Subjects, to present him with so evil tydings, as the dark hurrying of him from Holmby to Hampton from Hampton to the Isle of Wight, from the Isle of Wight to Windsor, from Windsor to St. Jameses, from St. Jameses to White-Hall, and there to a Decollation, to a Beheading, to the losse of his Life, was not yet afeard; He was not afeard of any evil tydings.

And now look we upon his present Majesty, whom the late Majesty, his Father, desired might be rather Charles le boon, then Charles le Grand, and I doubt not, nor need you, but that he will be Charles le Grand, because he is Charles le Boon, in his Enterprize of this year, advancing from Scotland as far as Worce, [Page 51]ster, into England, where when he was betrayed by the Cowardise or Treachery of the Scots, I know not which, I am sure by the obstinacy and obduracy, was yet preserved by a Miracle from the Bloody hands and hearts of those, who pursued him as a Par­tridge, and still perseveres in his Fathers steps, without fearing any evil tydings, expecting faithfuller hands, fairer opportuni­ties, and better successes.

And better successe he will have, by Gods providence, sooner then by Humane reason, I can hope within these six years; For as Tych [...] Brachy said, The year 1640, would be Totius Mundi insania erga Reges, An universal madnesse of the World against Kings: so will that year 1656, prove Totius Mundi benevolen­tia erga Reges, An universal goodnesse of the world towards Kings.

Sooner by Gods providence, he may be established in his Birth, and Undoubted Rights, without any worldly assistance, but then by Gods providence, and the worlds subservance, He will be re­stored, and my Divine reason for it is, As his Father appeared the best of men, in being his Subjects Martyr: So will he ap­pear the best of Kings, in being his Subjects Master, because his heart standeth fast and believeth in the Lord.

It is my third and last Consideration; Quare non timet ab au­ditu malo? Why he that feareth God, feareth not any evil tydings? Pars. 3. Paratum est cor ejus, or, Confirmatum est cor ejus; Read it which way you please, His heart standeth fast & believeth in the Lord: or, His heart is prepared to believe in the Lord.

Sure I am the very Object, Lord, is enough to make our Heart stand fast and believe.

Were it but El, There is a Magazine of strength in that, and we shall have relief enough,El if we believe in him as He is a strong God.

Were it but Shaddai, there is a Panacea of sufficiency in that, and we shall have Succour enough, if we believe in him as He is God All-sufficient.

Were it but Elion, there is a Mountain of Hope in that; and we shall have supply enough, if our Heart standeth fast in him, as He is the most High God.

Were it but Tsebaoth, there is an Army of Protection in that; and we shall have Victory enough, if our Heart standeth fast, and believeth in Him, as He is the Lord of Hosts.

Were it but Adonai, there is a Rock of Preservation in that, and we shall be upheld enough, If we believe in Him, as He is the strong Foundation.

But it is more then all this; for it is Jehovah, the most Essential & Excellent Name of God; If El implies His Omnipo­tency; If Elion implies his Soveraignty; If Shaddai implies his Immutability; If Tsebaoth implies his Irresistability; If Ado­nai implies his Fidelity; sure I am, Jehovah implies all, whe­ther you take it in the construstion of our own Divines, or in the Derivation of others.

1. In the Construction of our own Divines, it signifies three things.

First, Habere esse a seipso, that he hath his Being of himself.

Secondly, Dare esse omnibus, that He gives a Being to all things that be.

Thirdly, Dare esse Verbo, that He gives a Being to his word, and we therefore need not fear, if we believe the truth of his word, but He will give the Rebells their due, and settle the Crown to flourish upon the Kings Head.

2. Or if you take the meaning of Jehovah in the derivation of others, either with Oleaster, as it is derived from Hovah, which signifies Destruction; then we have reason to believe, He will [Page 53]be mighty in the Destruction of His Enemies; or whether you take it with Galatinus, as it is derived from Hajah, which signi­fies to Be, then we have reason to believe, He will be mighty amongst us in our preservation.

Let your Hearts then stand fast in Jehovah; And e're long, He will either divert our Enemies from thirsting af­ter any more of our Blood, as He did Saul from hunting after David: or, He will divide our Enemies in their Con­sultations, as He did destroy the Counsel of Achitopel by the Counter-Counsel of Hushai; or, He will give our Ene­mies to Self-Destruction, as He did Abimelech, and the House of Millo, and as He hath one of the late King-Tryers, to Hoyle himself; or, He will call back our Ene­mies by strange rumours, next time the present KING comes to claim his own as He did the Assyrians.

All these wayes, and many more: God can do it, so we may have no need to be afeard of any evil Tydings; and He will be perswaded to do it, if we fear him; For when we fear him, then, as it was when the Dictator Ruled in Rome, all other Offices ceased; so when the Fear of God is in us, then all other Fears vanish.

This was acknowledged by that once magnanimous Earle of Essex, but afterwards the Rebel-Father of a Rebel-Sonne; Sometimes, said he, when I have been in the Feild, and encountered the Enemy, the Weight of my sins have layn so heavy upon my Conscience, because I was not reconciled to my GOD, that my Spirits were quelled, and I have been the most timerous man upon the Earth.

I wish our Gentlemen of the Sword, when King Charles II. [Page 54]shall have occasion to use them, that they would not batter our walls more within by sins, then the Rebell enemy can do without by Guns; that they would not storm themselves more by Oaths, and ruine themselves more by Mutining, and undo themselves more by Treachery, then a Rebel enemy can do by strength, And you that hear me this day,January 30. 1650. Let your hearts stand fast, and believe in the Lord; And that all our hearts may, and that the Heart of King Charles II. may; Pray we for Him and for our selves.

Help the King, O God, and help us, O God, for vain is the help of man; Though thou hast cast him a great way off, and sea­soned the morning of His daies with bitternesse; yet be not dis­pleased too long, but turn thee unto Him again, and return Him unto us again; but return Him either with an Olive of Peace, or with a Laurell of Conquest; And as thou hast strangely and wonderfully delivered Him from those who eagerly hunted after his Life: so let it appear to them, that thou hast not done this, to make him more miserable, or to continue him in the conditi­on of an Exile, but rather that thou hast reserved him for faith­fuller hands, then the Scots, for fairer opportunities, and more prosperous successes, then in the year 1650. for Jesus Christ his sake, Amen.

Anno Dom. 1651.

1 SAM. 10.27.‘But the Children of Belial said, How shall this man save us? and they despised him, and brought him no presents.’

THis latter, and therefore this wicked Age hath broached three Seditious Questions; the false resolving of which, was a chief cause of the Decollation and Martyrdom of our late and blessed King, Charles I. and the true resolving whereof will, I trust, be a leading cause for the Restauration of our present and glorious King, Charles II.

The Questions were brewed heretofore by Bellarmine and his fellow-Jesuites, by Bucanan and his fellow-Puritans: and this Age, this Jesuitical, Puritanical Age, hath Practically broached what they speculatively brewed, viz.

1. Whether God or the People be the Author and Efficient of Regality, of Monarchy, of Kingship?

2. Whether the King be only singulis Major, and Universis Minor, greater then every particular man, but lesse then the As­sembly of men?

3. Whether it be lawful to contribute for the maintenance of a War against the King? And this Age, this wicked Age, re­solves these Questions just to the Peoples humours.

  • 1. The People are the Author and Efficient of Monarchy.
  • 2. The whole People or the People in a Body Representative, are above and greater then the King.
  • 3. It is lawful to contribute to a War against the King.

But to make good that old Adagy, Quod vulgo placet sapienti displicet, That which pleaseth the People displeaseth the wise, the Prophet Samuel in this Chapter, in this Text resolves clean contrary.

Samuel's Rosolve. 1. That God, not the People, is the Efficient of Monarchy; so he says, See ye him, quem elêgit Deus, not quem populus, whom the People have chosen? Ver. 24 No, but, See ye him whom the Lord hath chosen? The King hath his power, not precariò, by the curtesie of the People, but Dei graciâ, by the Grace of God.

2 That the King is greater then the Body, not only in peice­meale, and particulars, but also in grosse and in the whole; so he says, He the King, stood amongst the people, and was higher then all the People by the Shoulders and upwards; Ver. 23.24. not only in Stature but also in power, and therefore the People shouted, and said, God save the King.

3. That Contributions to maintain a War against the King are unlawful; because He is to be assisted in his War; and there­fore they are marked cum carbone, for children of Belial, who brought hius no presents; Certainly then they are ten times more the Children of Hell, who bring presents against the King.

Indeed this Text within it's own Verge, resolves these three Queries.

  • 1. In the Description of Rebels, They are Children of Belial.
  • 2. In the Expostulation of Rebels,
    How shall this man save us?
  • 3. In the Condition of Rebells; the Condition Positive, and the Condition Privative; Positively they despise the King; Priva­tively they bring him no presents.

The Result of the whole falls into these Particulars, thus.

1. They accounted the King as one of themselves, and as one chosen by themselves; and therefore they said, How shall this man save us? and therefore they are called the Children of Be­lial. Had they looked a little higher, and observed how God chose him out of them, they would then have believed, That God by him would save them; because God chose him to be King over them, and Protector of them.

2. They looked upon themselves, Aggregatim, and in Con­junction, and thought themselves in that Bulk and Aggregation, or Collection or Representation, greater then Him; and there­fore they despised him: and therefore they are called Children of Belial. Had they looked upon him, as Head of that Body, whereof they were Members, they would have confest, That neither some of the Principal Members Representatively, nor all the Members Collectively, had been worthy of Comparison with him, and that He, the King, had been greater, not only then any one a sunder, but then altogether.

3. They looked upon their Enemies, how strong they were, and upon themselves, how numerous, how copious, how many, how rich, and therefore how well able to defend themselves, and therefore brought him no presents; and therefore they are called the children of Belial; and therefore not only by Symbolical, but also by Rational and Logical Divinity, It is unlawful to con­tribute to a war against the King.

I begin with the first, And the Children of Belial said, How shall this man save us? and of the first Question, Pars. 1. resolved there­upon, The King is Gods, not the Peoples Creature; God, and not the people is the Efficient of Monarchy.

The Children of Belial; What is meant by Belial? Why, as Christ tacitely tells you, That there are diverse kinds of Devils, when he says expresly,Mat. 17.21. This kind goes not out but by Fasting and Prayer: so I tell you That there are divers names of Devils, or, The Devil hath divers Names, and this of Belial is not the best. As sometimes, he is called Daemon for his Knowledge, sometimes Satan for his Malice: sometimes Baalzebub for his Filth: Belial, what? sometimes Diabolus, either for his Defluxion, and falling down from Heaven, or for his Traduction, and seducing of men, some­times, as here, Belial, for his Rebellion and casting of the yoake [Page 58]of Obedience; for contending against him, as much as in him lies, by whom he should, and shall at last be controuled; For Belial signifies Abs (que) jugo, or Abs (que) domino, a meer Masterlesse Sir.

Children of Belial, who and how?But what then? Did the Devil beget these men in my Text? or else, how are they called the Children of Belial? No, the Devil cannot beget any children; neither as 1. the Common Cause; For so Sol et homo generant hominnem, the Common Cause, is the Heaven. Nor 2. as the proper Cause; For every thing begotten of the Proper Cause, is begotten either a simili genere, as the Mule that is begotten by the Horse and Asse: or else a simili specie, as a Child begotten by a Man; but Satan is a Spi­rit, and hath at most and best, when he hath any, but an assumed Body; but the Child hath a Body begotten of the Father; and therefore are our Fathers called,Hebr. 12.9. the Fathers of our Flesh; and this is proper only to a Natural Father; and in this sense Satan cannot be called Father; Besides every Childe so begotten is bound to honour his Father; but no Creature is bound to ho­nour the Devil; Nay, every Creature is bound to the contrary; Nor 3. can the Devil beget Children as the Material cause; For all Generation is, [...], as speaks the Apo­stle, Heb. 11.11. Through faith Sarah her self received strength to conceive seed, or as the Prophet speaks, Ex commixione seminum, I will sow the house of Israel and the house of Judah with the seed of men: Jer. 31.27. They are then here called, the Children of Belial, not by Naturall or vertuous Generation, but by vitious and sin­full Immitation; Joh. 8.44. As therefore Christ told the Jewes, They were of their Father the Devil, because they sought to kill him, and be-lye him; and gives this reason of it, because the Devil is a murtherer from the begining, and the Fa­ther of lyes: so Samuel here calls these men the children of Be­lial, i. e. of the Devil, because they by his example and tentati­on [Page 59]sought to shake and cast off the yoake of obedience; and there­fore barely apprehended the King as a Creature of their own, and chosen by themselves, saying, How shall this man save us? and this brings me to the examination and resolution of the first Question, viz.

Whether God or the People be the Author and Efficient of Mo­narchy? To this it is answered by the children of Belial, 1 a. 1 ae. for the People, saying, How shall this man, This man, and no more save us? but by the Prophet of God, it is answered for God, saying, See ye him whom the Lord hath chosen? and now Beloved, judge your selves, whether it be fit to obey God or man, as the Apostle speaks in another case,Act. 4.19. whether it be fit to obey the children of Be­lial, who from their Father have learnt to speak nothing but a lie, or the Prophet of God, who from the Holy-Ghost can speak no­thing but Truth.

But that the falsity of this populous opinion, and the verity of this Prophetical Assertion, may more fully appear, either to call you by Repentance to acknowledge the Truth, and to do your Duty, or that you may wander with more security, and with less excuse to Hell, I shall endeavour as much brevity and perspicuity as I can, to examine this Question to the full.

When God first made the world, He made many Angells; but one man; and yet God could, if he had pleased, as well, and as easily have made and created a Company, a Colony, a Countrey, a Kingdom, a whole world of men upon Earth with his own one Faciamus, Let us make, as he did create so many Legions of Angels in Heaven; and so might, if he had pleased,Gen. 1.26. have given these several Countries, or that whole world of men leave to make choise of their own Commander. He could have done this by his power; For his power; had no bounds; but he did not so: So his Wisdom did mannage his power; he made many Angels, [Page 60]by his Power; but in his wisdom he made but one Man.

And would you see a Reason of that? I dare not pry into this Cabinet; yet I shall shew you the outside of it; God found not Heaven it self free from Mutiny amongst a multitude of Inhabi­tants; and therefore to take off all colour to contention, to with hold all pretext of disobedience, to Soveraignty, He made but one man, one and no more; thereby teaching us, That the pow­er of a King, over his Subjects is as Natural, as the power of a Father over his Childe: That as Naturally there can be but one Father of one Child: so Polittically there should be but one King over one people; and all this to tell us, That not only the King should have as great and pious a care over his Subjects, as a Fa­ther hath of his children; but also, that the Power of Monarchy is from God, and not from the People, and so to be acknowledged by the People: That's the Duty of a King, the Duty of a peo­ple; He to use his power paternally, and they to render their sub­jection Filially: sic fuit ab initio, Thus it was from the beginning.

And this is acknowledged by Aristotle himself,Lib. 1. cap. 8. Polit. who was led only by Nature, and saw as far into the Lawes of Nature, as ever man did; At first, saith he, Regal power belonged to the Father of the Family; and he gives this Reason for it, Because in the Infancy of the world the Fathers were so Grandevous, and lived so long, that each Father begate such a Numerous poste­rity, as might People a whole Countrey:Gen. 4.17. so we read, That Cain built a City: Certainly it was for his own Colony, and that Co­lony certainly was his Natural generation: and so he was at once as well their King, as their Father; and his Regal power over them, as his Subjects, was no lesse from God, then his Paternall power over them as his Children.

And Justine, though he did not see so well, nor so far into Nature as Aristotle did; yet he saw so far as to acknowledge so [Page 61]much, saying, Principio rerum, gentium, Nationum (que) imperium penes Reges erat; The Rule of Nations (of all Nations) was in the hands of Kings from the beginning; and the People, had no more right to chuse their Kings, then to chuse their Fathers: because the Kingly Right pertained to the Father of the Fami­ly; Therefore in the beginning, if we believe these two lights of Nature, Kings are of God not of the People; sic fuit ab initio, Thus it was from the beginning.

But hath not Moses since given a Bill of Divorce, Hath it been so ever since, and in all places? It is a spacious and large demand; and I shall, as I am able, for the present resolve, it, though briefly, yet plainly.

Nor here will I tyre your Ears, with the four steps or Ascents to Royalty, viz. 1. Of Inheritance. 2. Of Donation. 3. Of Election. (In which only the People can claim some colour for chusing the person, but not for bestowing the Power, or at most for Administration of the power, but not for Foundation of the power it self) 4. Of Conquest. Nor yet with the three Origi­nals of Kingdoms. 1. Natural, which may also be called Civil. 2. Violent, which you may rather call Martial. 3. Mixt of both, In which last, though the People had somewhat to do, yet not any Absolute power, and in the two former nothing at all; God only therein is the Authour and Institutour.

Nor here will I tell you, How Melchesedech, Abraham, and the Patriarchs, were Kings, and saluted Patres Patriae, Arist. loco prae dicto. the Fa­thers of their Countrey, where they inhabited, without any Efficiency, so much as of Curtesy from the People, because Regal Power belonged to the Pater-familias, so descended by Right of Primogeniture to the Eldest Sonne, according to that Natural, Moral, Positive, Divine Law, That the younger should be subject to the Elder. Gen. 4.7.

I look first upon Moses, who first efected Municipal and Na­tural Lawes amongst the Jewes, and was the first Catholick visi­ble King of & over the Jewes, (for the Sanhedrim was but Moses his Privy Council, or as Deligated Judges, because of the nume­rous multiplicity of businesses) and he as good a man as he was, and enabled and endued with extraordinary abilities, and fully perswaded that he was the Instrument appointed by God, to be Israels deliverer; Exod. 2.12.14. yet because he sought his Commission from the People, Acts 7.25. before he had received his Commission from God, he was fain to expiate the errour of his self-led Zeal, with Forty years exile in the Wildernesse; Exod. 3.10. and then, and not till then, God called him, not the People, for their approbation, but to Pharaoh.

And all this was, as for some other ends, so also for this in par­ticular, To tell the People, That they have nothing to do, that yet they had nothing to do in the appointment of a King; but that God himself, and he only is the Author and efficient of Monar­chy: And that by him, he, Moses ruled Israel Forty years: after him, God appointed Joshua, and he ruled Israel Sixty years; and after these two Worthies died, then God appointed Judah, then Othniel, then Ehud, then Shamgar, then Deborah, then Gede­on, then Tolah, then Jeptha, then Sampson; still God appointed, called and authorized them, not the People.

These, I confesse, were not Kings so properly and absolutely as the former were; They were yet Loco Regum, instead of Kings, and chosen and called by God.

When after God left them to themselves, and gave them no Kings, and that Monster the Multitude took the Power into their own hands: Oh, what hideous births did they produce? The Danites instead of Libertie, the Subjects Liberty, betook themselves to Licenciousnesse; the Benjamites instead of Proper­ty, the Subjects property, Judg. 19 gave themselves to Rapes and Rapines; [Page 63]and in a word, The whole Jury of the Tribes gave themselves to Revenge, and have given up no Bill to their Posterity, Judg. 20. but Asto­nishment; and enough of that to affright any people, unlesse they have lost their sense with their Conscience & their Reason, with their Religion from affecting Anarchy, or almost any kind of Go­vernment, whereof God is not the Efficient and Immediate Au­thor,

Well, After this, when God in mercy looked upon their misery, and gave them a little refreshment in the succession of two Judges, Heli and Samuel, and they were a weary of this Government, and would needs have a King to govern them, as the Nations had; why even then, God did not give them leave to chuse one them­selves, but he himself appointed one over them, even Saul of whom Samuel here says, See ye not him, the King, 1 Sam. 10. whom the Lord hath chosen? It is still to tell us, That God is the efficient of Monarchy, and not the People.

And was it not God that afterward appointed David, and after him Solomon? and so of all the Kings both of the Jewes and of the Nations, was God the efficient, 2 Sam. 5. Prov. 8.15. if you will believe Solomons Per me for the Kings of the Jewes, By me Kings Reign; and Isaiahs Unctus Cyrus for the Nations, Isa. 43.1. where the Lord calls Cy­rus his Annointed; or that of Daniel, for both;Dan. 4, 25. The most high ruleth in the Kingdom of men, and gives it to whomsoever he will; Mark it, The Lord gives it, not the people: and the Lord gives it to whomsoever he will, not to whomsoever the people will.

But soft, I have here committed a great Errour, and given an open way to a very fair Objection; For some Monarchomachoi, Objection. some Anti-Royalists, and Fighters against the King say, People are the Author and efficient of Monarchy: and they give Scri­pture for it,1 Reg. 12.20. The people sent and called Jeroboam unto the Congre­gation, [Page 64]and they (the People) made him King over all Israel.

Yet now I think upon it again,Resp. this Errour of mine was not so great, nor the Objection so strong, but that I can fairly salve the one, and easily solve the other; and in Answer, I confesse, That the People did make Jeroboam King, and that by God too; But How by God? and, How by them? Not by God Efficiente, ap­proving of it, but only Permittente, permitting of it; and, By them, not Authoritate, by any Authority they had acquired, but Rebellione, by Rebellion they had incurred.

Jeroboam was King indeed, and indeed of the Peoples making, but in Fact, not in Right, because not of Gods appointing, fur­ther then by way of Permission; God blest him not Immediatly by himself, No Prophet of God annoinaed him, nor was there any Ceremony used for and at his Inauguration, more then a Rent; Ahijah the Prophet rent a new garment in twelve pieces, and bid Jeroboam take ten; 1 Reg. 11.31. In all which God only punished Solo­mons sin, but did not make Jeroboam King.

And what a heavy Judgment God intends, that people whom he permits to chuse and make a King unto themselves, the sad pro­gresse of this Story will demonstrate; and that was this in a word.

When they had made a King of their own, why then they and their King would have a Religion of their own; and to effect this, They banish, or silence, or imprison all their old Priests, and Orthodo [...]al Clergy, as absolute impediments to their new intended government; and by and by they take as much Anthority over God, as before they took Liberty over their King; and Jerobo­am confesses himself to be but an Usurper, though a King of the Peoples making,1 Reg. 12.27. saying, This People will return unto their Lord if they do sacrifice in Jerusalem; And indeed, when they had made an Usurper their King, their King and they made a Calf [...] [Page 65]their God; and this sin of Idolatry stuck so close to their King, and that sin of Rebellion stuck so close unto themselves, that He is made an example to Sovereignty, they to Subjects, least if Kings do as he did, and become Idolaters, and worship another God, or Subjects do as they did, and set up another King, then whom God hath placed over them, the Kings become Castaways, and the Subjects first Rebels, and ever after Slaves.

You see, This Objection hath done the Objector little good, All that it says is, God may give way to people to make an Usur­per King, but punishes them soundly for it; and is still him­self the Author of lawful Kings, and the Efficient of true Mo­narchy.

And as it was in the daies of Moses, so it was in the daies of Christ: He would rather be without his own Right, then re­ceive it in a wrong way, or from a wrong hand; and therefore to let the People know, That they had no power to conferr Crowns, Joh. he would by no means accept of that Dignity when they, the Peo­ple, would by no means accept of that Dignity when they, the Peo­ple, would have made him King. He likewise acknowledged Pilate, though he were but a Deputy-King, to have received his power De super, from above:Joh. 18. and St. Paul maintained the same Doctrine, saying, The Powers that be are ordained of God. Rom. 13.1.

Not doth the Reply any way foile this truth, where, St. Peter saith,Replic. 1. Pet. 2. That that is the Ordinance of man, which St. Paul calls the Ordinance of God.

For the same Act is often times ascribed, both as well to the one as the other, sometimes to the Mediate, Reasons. and sometimes to the Immediate Agent: so it is said,1 Sam. 11.15. 1 Sam. 10.1. All the people went to Gilgal, and there they made Saul King; and yet in the Chapter afore it is said, The Lord hath annointed thee to be Captain over his inheritance; and the like is said of David, They the people, annointed David King over Israel; and yet it is said again,2 Sam. 5.3. The [Page 66]Lord annointed Dauid King over Israel▪ 2 Sam. 12.7 i. e. God as the Ma­ster of the Substance makes Kings, and gives them their Regall power, the Prophets as Masters of the Ceremonies, powred on the Oyle, and declared them Kings, and the People as under-Officers received them into the Possession of that Right, and admitted them to the Exercise of that Authority, which God had given them.

Or you may take the Answer thus, whereas St. Peter calls the Supream Power, or Monarchy the Ordinance of Man, there he speaks of the Final cause of Power▪ q. d. Power, the Supream power, Kingship and Monarchy it self, is ordained for the good, peace, and welfare of man; not but that God is the Efficient Cause of this power as St. Paul speaks.

And Paraeus himself, who was no great Royalist, indeed no friend at all to Monarchy, In Rom. 13. pag. 1327. tells us, That the Authority of Kings is primarily the Ordinance of God, and he answers this very Ob­jection thus; [St. Peter, saith he calls the Magistrate, [...], An humane Creation or Ordination; not causally, as if it were invented by man, or brought and begotten by the Will of man, or as if man were the Author of it; but this he speaks, 1. Subjectively, because it is executed by man. And 2. Objectively, because it is used about the Government of humane Society. And 3. [...] or Finally because God ordained it for the good and help of markinde. And in the close he adds; The wordused by the Apostle [...], Creation ad Deum primum au­torem nos rev ocat, sheweth plainly, That God is the first Author of it.

Hitherto then it holds right and true, That God, not the Peo­ple is the Author and Efficient of Monarchy. I descend, and shall endeavour to make it good downwards;Libr. ad Scupul. and I begin with the testimony of Tertullian; A Christian is enemy unto no man, [Page 59]much lesse to the Emperour; for he knows, that the Emperiall Majesty is ordained of God: He is next to God, Soveraign ever all, and Subject to God alone.

Hosius who lived in the time of Constantine the Great, Apud Ath. ad s [...]litari­am vitam agentes. gives in the same evidence, saying to the succeeding Emperour, Con­stantius; God hath entrusted your Majesty with the Empire, and he that with an envious eye maligneth your Majesty and Imperiall Sovereignty, contradicteth the Ordinance of God.

Liberius to the same purpose, thus bespake the same Em­perour, Apud Ath. an Arian; Fight not against, God, we beseech you, who hath bestowed the Empire upon you.

And Athinasius himself confesses as much, saying, That the Power of Kings is of God, God is the King over all the world, Ad Anti­och. 9.55. and the King (by God) is over all Earthly men.

Beda tells us, That David spared Saul for two Causes, Lib. 4. Ex. posit. in Sam. 1.21.6. one whereof was, because Saul was his Lord, and the Lords An­nointed.

Walthramus, in the succeeding age,Ep. Wald. quae habetur in appendice Marian scot. when this truth first began to be call'd in question, and a contrary damnable Doctrine to be broached, tells us, Either that is false which some men prate a­mongst silly women, and the vulger sort, viz. That we ought not to be subject to the Kingly power, or else that is false which the Apostle teacheth, viz. Let every soul be subject to the higher Power, because the higher power is the Ordinance of God.

Aquinas the great Schoolman tells us the same, saying,De Regi [...] Princ. l. 1. c. 6. They who are the Kings by succession are above the reach of all men, subject to none but God, in whose only power it is to mollifie the heart of a King if he turn Tyrant, All Kings are Gods Ordi­nance; wicked Kings are exalted by Gods permission to punish the Pe [...]ples sins.

Aeneas Silvias exhorts all men to acknowledge themselves [...]e ortu et author. Im­perij▪ c. 2 [...] [Page 68] subject, to their Prince, and give reverence to him whom God hath made his Vice-gerant on Ea [...]th.

Luther speaks the same Language, saying, Ye ought not to re­ject your Prince, whom God hath set over you.

Hitherto from Adam to Abraham, from Abraham to Moses, from Moses to Christ, from Christ to Luther, it hath gone cur­rant, That Kings are beholding to God only, not to the people, for their Crown and Royall Authority.

It only remains now to enquire, Whether the Kings of Eng­land receive their Power from God, or the People? and this I shall dispatch suddainly.

And here I say first, That the people could not give this Power, because the People never had this power; Nihil dat quod non ha­bet; and that the people never had it, it is plain; because it is against the Nature of Regality to be in more then one; Rex unicus esto; The Sun in the Firmament cannot be multiplyed, the Firmament admits but of one Sun, nor England of more then one King: It is not with England as it was with Rome; Leges a Magistratu, proponuntur, a populo, jubentur; The Ma­gistrate proposes the Law, and the People ratifie it; but the clean contrary, Leges a populo proponuntur, a Rege jubentur; The People propose Laws, but the King makes the Laws, and the Reason is plain▪ The People of Rome elected the Magistrates of Rome, but the God of Heaven hath appointed the King of England.

And this appears, 1. By his Right to the Crown, to which he is not elected, but Born; He hath it not by the Peoples Votes, but by Gods blessing, & Heriditary Succession; King Charles II was King of England so soon as ever King Charles I. was be­headed, by the Law of Birthright; and so is, though he never receive the Ceremony of Coronation.

This is plain in the Case of Henry 6. who was not Crown'd until the 9. year of his Reign. Speed l. 2. c. 16. Cook 7. Re. p. 256.

2. By his Power, his Power Military, the People cannot, the King may Proclaim War, and establish Peace: His Power Curial; No Court, not the Court of Parliament can meet,Polyd. Virg. Lib. 11. but by the Kings Authority; yea, the Court of Parliament it self was at first devised, framed, and instituted by the King; and they have fairly rewarded it in the Decollation of one King, and Banish­ment of another: His power Official; Smiths Com. wealth l. 2. cap. 4. et 5. He chuses and establishes all Officers, the Superiour by himself Immediatly, the Inferionr by others in Authority under him; His power universal in and over all Causes and Persons, as well Ecclesiastical as Civil; and lastly, by his Power Titular, and that runs thus; Carolus Dei gratiâ, and not Carolus electione populi; It is not, Charles by the election of the people, but,Fol. 34. a.b. Charles by the grace of God King of England. The King, says Bracton, hath under him Freemen and Slaves, but he is under none but God; and it is said of our King, as it was said of Solomon, in his Chair-Royal, That he then sits not in Solium populi, upon the Peoples Throne, as though they made him King, but In Solium Domini, upon the Throne of the Lord, because He is what he is, King of England, Scotland, and Ireland by the grace of God.

And may Almighty God, with that grace, by which he design'd him King by his Birth, restore him to the possession of his King­doms, that he may punish all those men of Belial who said, They made his Father King, and he should no longer Reign over them, and therefore murthered him: Yea, O God, let all such men of Belial, tast of thy mercy and the Kings Justice, who dare say, How shall this man save us? and so deny his Authority to come from thee, and despise him, because they esteem him lesse then the whole Body, though greater then the particular members, Amen.

It is my second part, and to be examined next year; Till when, and ever,Pars. 2. God blesse King Charles II. thorough Jesus Christ Amen.

Anno Dom. 1652.

1 SAM. 10.27.‘How shall this man save us? And they despised him.’

THis day Twelve-moneth, you heard from the beginning of this verse, The Children of Belial said; That God, not the People is the Author and efficient of Monarchy, you shall, God willing, from the second part and middle words of this Verse, hear, That the King is greater then the People, not only in piece­meale, and particulars, but also in grosse, and in the whole; not­withstanding they say, How shall this man save us? and they despised him; whence they raise this Question, Whether the King be lesse then the Representative Body of the Kingdom? and first here I shall examine what is meant by these words, They de­spised him.

The meaning of this consists in three branches; and they are these;

1. They did Male-cogitare, think evil of him in their hearts; and so came within the compasse of Solomons prohibition, Curse not the King in thy thought; Eccle. 10.20. A thought of despising the King is Treason as well as a Word, and a Word as well as an Action: so says the Scripture of the Intention of Bigthan and Teresh, Tray­tors they were; and yet they never came to an Insurrexerunt, or any Act of Treason; Ester 2.21.23. but only to a Voluerunt, an Intention, they sought, or they thought to lay hands upon King Ahasuerus; [Page 71]and for this very thought of Treason, they were hang'd; And as the Law of God, so the Law of this Kingdom doth construe a bare purpose against the King, a despising thought of the King, to be Treason, and makes it deadly, My prayer therefore is,

Convert them O God; if they will not be Converted. confound them, O God, and let them perish, as many as have evil will against the King, and do Male-cogitare, despise him in their thoughts.

2. They did Male-dicere, despise the King with their tongues, and speak evil of him, saying, How shall this man save us? and this is the second Branch, whereby the meaning of this word is explained, They despised him, i.e. they speak evil of the King, and so came within the compasse of Moses's prohibition, Thou shalt not speak evil of the Ruler of thy people; Deut. 27.16 A Word against the King is Treason, as well as a thought or Action; Greater Trea­son then a thought, and lesser Treason then an Action; And they that Word it against the King, if they be of the Clergy, they are of Balaams Ordination, Numb. 23. because they Curse whom God hath blessed, and he was killed with the Sword: If they be of the Lay­ety, they are of Shimei's condition,2 Sam. 16.5. because they revile whom God hath annointed; and he was put to death. And of late by the Law of this Nation, there stood one Pym condemned for saying, He would if he could embrue his hands in the blood of King Charles the first; and many more in good time may be condemned and executed for saying, They will, if they can, em­brue their hands in the blood of King Charles the Second; My Prayer again therefore is,

Convert them, O Lord; if they will not be converted, confound them O God, and let them perish, as many as speak evill of my Lord the King, and do Male-dicere, Despise Him with their Tongues.

3 They did Male facere, Despise the King with their Hands; for they brought him no presents; and so came within the com­passe of King Davids prohibition, 1 Sam. 26.9. Thou shalt not stretch forth thy hand against the Lords annointed; I know King David there speaks by way of Interrogation, Who can stretch forth his hand against the Lords Annointed, and be guiltlesse? but I know withal, that Interrogative, Quis, Who can? is a most triumphant Nega­tive, and says, Nullus, No man can, and be guiltlesse; or, No man ought unless he will bring Guilt upon his own Soul; Absolon did, & was hang'd, 2 Sam. 10.9. Robert, late Earl of Essex, did against Elizabeth, our late Queen of England, and was beheaded; and how many, that were in the same Conspiracy, were hang'd, you may read in that Chronicle: My prayer therefore is gain,

Convert them O Lord, Convert them, and return them to their Duty of Loyalty to thine Annointed: If they will not be conver­ted, confound them O Lord, confound them, and as many as lift up their hands against, or withdraw their hands from my Lord the King, Amen.

You see what is meant by these words,1 a. 2 a. They despised him, will you now see, Why they despised him? why it was, Because they lookt upon him as a single man; How shall this man save us? Happily they thought him greater then any of themselves in par­ticular; but they thought themselves in a collective or Repre­sentative Body greater then him, the King: and this brings me to the unfolding of the second Question, which is,

Whether the King be singulis major, Question 2 greater then single persons, but Universis minor, lesse then collected Persons, or the Body Re­presentative?

I shall not need to speak of the first Branch of this Question, viz. Whether the King be Singulis major, Greater then any single Person? For it is not denied by any, or if by any, yet only [Page 73]by such, who are more Beasts then Men, and live more by Sense then by Reason, or Religion; or rather have lost both their Sense, their Reason, and their Religion; The enquiry therefore here must be, upon the other branch of this Question, viz. Whe­ther the King be Universis minor, lesse then the Body Representa­tive? For this was the thing in agitation in this late wicked Age, and affirmed by these wicked men, the Children of Belial, who did de facto, murther King Charles I. of blessed memory, and would have done as much upon King Charles II. if they could have fastened upon him at Worcester; but God, I trust, hath pre­served him for better times.

I must at first take leave to tell them, That the Ground on which they build is false, and meer Sophistry; That the assump­tion and Inference which they build is weak, and meer Fallacy For thus they argue:

The Fountain or Cause of a King is greater then the King; but the People Representative, is the Fountain and Casue of the King; Therefore the People Representative is greater then the King.

And here I say, The Ground is false, the Assumption is untrue, and the Inference therefore is so too.

1. The Ground is taken from an old Axiome, Quickquid ef­ficit tale, est ma gis tale; whatsoever effects a thing, is greater then the thing effected; This though true, Ante effectum pro­ductum, before the effect produced; yet it is often false, Post effect­us productionem, after the production of the effect, v. g.

The Fountain was once bigger then the River; but now the River is bigger then the Fountain: A spark of fire was once more Fire then all the Wood in the Chimney; but when the Wood becomes one Flame, the Wood is more Fire then the Sparke: You see the Ground is not ever true; and sure I am, the [Page 75] Assumption laid upon this Ground-work is never true, viz.

The People is the Fountain or Cause Efficient of the King; For God (as I have shewed you before, and whether I referr you) is the only Efficient of Monarchy: Only I add thus much;

Were it so that the People did make the King, yet it would not follow, That therefore the People is greater then the King; For this Axiome is true only in those Agents, in whom the Qua­lity by which they work is Inherent, and from whom it cannot be separated; But the People (if they had Power to make the King) have divested themselves of that Power, and the King is not un­der them, and Over them, not only Over them, Sigillatim, one by one, but also Conjunctim, over altogether: Else the Body Re­presentative need not petition him, for they might command him; They need not else call him their Soveraign, but their Fellow-Subject; They need not else write, To the Kings most Excellent Majesty; but, To my very Loving Friend: But you remember the usual style of the Body Representative:

To the Kings most excellent Majesty, We your Majestys most humble Subjects in this present Parliament Assembled.

And this I hope, is not a Complement, or Pro formá tantum, only for shew, or fashion sake; No, They meant what they said; for they called God to witnesse it: and so by their own Confessi­on and Practise, they acknowledged, The King, not only Sin­gulis, but Universis major, to be over as well the whole Body, as Particular Persons.

But alas, how suddenly they forgot and forfeited their acknow­ledgements and Duties, this day sadly remembers us, which was the Day wherein King Charles I. was murthered by Sonns of Belial, who despised him, and taught the world another Lesson, That the King is Universis minor, The Parliament, the House of Commons is above the King, the Army above all.

But the contrary will appear, and I shall make my Proposition good; 1. By Scripture. 2. By Fathers. 3. By Reason. And 4. By that which is grounded on all these, The Law of Eng­land.

And that I may not too far transgresse the time,1. By Scrip­ture. instead of ma­ny Texts, I shall referr you only to two or three, and first weigh seriously I beseech you, and ponder well those words of the Ar­my Royal, when they were to joyn in Battail, and to pitch the field against Absolon, the General of the Rebels, and his Rebelli­ous Army; When David had appionted three Chiefs over all his Cavelry and Infantry, viz. Joab, Abishai, and Ittai, and said withall, He would go forth himself; No, said they,2 Sam. 18.3. No, said they, The People, and the People represented, the Representative Body of the People, the Great Council, the Council of War, and the Coun­cil of State, the three Lords Generalls, the Lord Chancellour, the Lord Treasurer, and the Speakers of both Houses, and give him their Reason for their Negative Vote, and the best Reason in the world too, Salus Populi, Salus Regni; The safety of the People, and the safety of the Kingdom, both depending upon the safety of the King, saying, If we fly away: they will not care for us, neither if half of us dye will they care for us; but now, thou art better then ten thousand of us, i.e. Thou art worth us all, thou art over and above us all, thou art greater then us all.

In the next place, I beseech you to weigh seriously the words of St. Peter, 1 Pet. 2.13. Submit your selves to every Ordinance of man for the Lords sake, whether it be to the King as Supream; Mark the word, it is, [...], Submit your selves; It is not, Submit your self, every single man of you, one by one, but it is, Submit your selves, all of you together; and that not only to the Inferi­our Magistrate, but to the King, as the Supream over them, and you all.

Certainly St. Peter never intended an Absurdity, or an Impossi­bility, when he called the King, [...] Supream; yet he had committed both, an Impossibility, and an Absurdity, if the People were above the Supream, or [...] a Supream above the Supream; For so there should be two Supreams, which is an Absurdity, as absurd to suppose one Kingdom to have two Su­preams, as one Firmament to have two Suns, as one Heaven to have two Gods: and an Impossibility is it too; For the two Su­preams might be contrary Masters, & command contrary things, and command to be obeyed by one and the same Subjest; But no man can serve two Masters, says the Master of us all.

But St. Peter is clear from and against all such Absurdities and Impossibilities; and that you may clearly see, if you please to read the Context, which doth subordinate the Body Collective and Representative to the King.

The Body Collective is the People, and St. Peter expresly sub­ordinates them, saying Submit your selves to the King.

The Body Representative is the Inferiour Magistrates, the Peers, Nobles, and Counsellours, call them what you will, The House of Lords, and the House of Commons, And St. Peter doth expresly subordinate them too, saying, They are Governours sent by him, i.e. by the King; For [...] cannot Grammatically re­late to any word but [...]; The King is the Antecedent to Him the Relative, else questionlesse there is false Greek, and little lesse then Non-sence.

Who makes the Inferiour Governours but the Chief Gover­nour? Who is the Chief Governour but the King? God only as the Principal Efficient made the King; and the King only as the Instrumental Efficient from God made the Inferiour Magistrats; God only can De Jure unmake the King: and the King only can De Jure unmake the Inferiour Magistrates; For they are [Page 77]sent, or made, only by him, and the refore they are not Co-ordi­nate with him, but subordinate to him.

And so if you will believe either the Prophet Samuel, or the Apostle St Peter, The King is as well Universis as singulis major, greater both then every particular Person, and the Body Repre­sentative; i.e. In plain English, then People and Parliament, viz. where King and Parliament are distinguished, because the Parliament is sent, or called, or made a Parliament by the King.

Shall I commend to you one place more? I will do it in a word; and it is in the Psalms, where God says of the King, I have ex­alted one chosen out of the People; Psal. 89.20. and these words are worth your observation; Unum electum é populo, not á populo, One chosen out of the people by God, not by the people; and that one so chosen by God, God h [...] exalted; and over whom hath God exalted him? over the People, or over no body; and not only over this or that part of the People, but over the People, Indefi­nitely, i. e. over all the People Generally.

Secondly, I make this good by the Fathers; 2. By the Fathers. and I begin with Tertullian; We honour, says he, the Emperour in such sort, as is lawful for us, and expedient for him; we reverence him as a mortal man, next to God, of whom he holdeth all his Authority, subject to God; and so we make him Soveraign over all, in that we make him subject but to God alone.

Sicut in toto mundo Deus Rex est, Ad Antioch. 9.53. et potestatem exercet in om­nibus, says Athanasius; As God is King over all the World, and exercises his power in and over all Creatures, so the King is over all earthly men: (Over All.)

Cum super Imperatorem nemo sit nisi solus Deus, De Schism. Donat. lib. 3. says Optatus Milevita [...]us; Since there is no man, (no Representations of men) above the Emperour, but only God alone, which made the Empe­rour, [Page 78]Donatus by advancing himself above the Emperour, doth exceed the bounds of Humanity, and maketh himself a God ra­ther then a Man, in that he feareth and reverenceth him not, whom all men should honour next after God; (All men should honour him, and therefore All men are below him.

Siquis de nobis, Hist. lib. 5. c. 1. Rex, justitiae limites transcendere voluerit, &c. says Gregorius Turonensis to Childerick that wicked King of France; If any one of us, O King, do transgresse the bounds of Justice, you have power to correct; but if you exceed your lim­its, who shall chastise you? (Who shall chastise you? None, No man, no Assembly of men whatsoever,) who but God? And if none but God may chastise the King, surely the King is above all men because he may chastise any men.

I might be infinite this way;Ep. 170. ad Lud. Regem a word from St. Barnard, Si totus Orbis adversum me conjuraret, ut quippiam molirer adver­sus Regiam Majestatem, ego tamen Deum, &c. If the whole World should conspire against me, to the end that I should do something against the Kings M [...]jesty, yet I would fear God, and not dare to offend the King who is ordained by God, and by him appointed over me: (over me, and over all men) and so he says elsewhere, Quis vos excepit? who hath excepted any man?

And Aquinas himself tell us, That by the Faith of Christ, & Order of Justice,2 a. 2 ae. q. 104 Art. 6.all (All) Inferiours are bound to obey their Superiours; neither the Godly nor Faithful are either exempted, or excused, but even they are tyed by the Law of Christ to obey the secular Prince: Nay, he goes a little farther, saying; If a Successive King, or King by Inheritance turn Tyrant, Recur­rendum est ad omnium Regum Deum; We must fly to God, the King of all Kings, who only hath power over Kings. And cer­tainly, If God only be above the King, the King is above the People.

Will you see the same confirmed thirdly by Reasons? 3. By reasons. I assume the Proposition again then, and say, The King is above the Peo­ple, not only Seorsim asunder, but also Conjunctim together; Because,

1. The King is, Sponsus Regni, the Husband of the King­dom, and at his Coronation is wedded with a Ring unto his King­dom; not to the Kingdom in the Natural capacity of the Peo­ple, to this and that particular man and woman; (for so the King should have many Wives) but in the Politick capacity of the people, as All the people make but one politick Bridegroom, (& so the King hath but one wife) And therefore as the Wife is to obey her Husband, and therefore the Husband to Rule his wife: Eph. 5.22. and therfore the Husband is over his wife: so the People, All the people are to submit themselves unto the King; and the King is over and above them, not only Divisim, one by one, but Con­junctim also, altogether.

2. The King is above the People, because the King is the Head of the People; The Head not of these or those particular Members, but of all the People; For all the People make but one Body; and one Body hath evermore a Head, and but one Head; Otherwise, if it have no Head at all, or more Heads then one, It is a Monster; And therefore as a Body Natural consists of many Members, and the Head is above, not this or that Member asunder, but all the Members together, as one Body: so the Body Politick consists of many Members, and the King is the Head of, and above, not this or that Member alone, but all the Mem­bers together; The Body Natural is ruled by one Head, and the Body Politick ought to be ruled by one King.

3. The King is above the people, because the King is Oecono­mus, or Pater, the Master [...] Father, and the whole King­dom is Familia, the Family [...] Childre [...] or Servants, He is [Page 80] Dominus, the Lord; and They are Domus, the House; Now as Dominus domui praest, The Lord bears Rule in his House, The Father is above his Children, The Master above his Servants; not this, or that Childe, or each Childe a apart; not this or that Servant, or each Servant apart; but all the Children, and all the Servants together: so the King is above all the People toge­ther.

Agesilaus fore-saw the danger of this Distinction, and the dan­rous consequence of it, if it were allowed, and therefore to a Ci­tizen of Sparta, who desired an alteration of Government, he returned this Answer; That kind of Rule which a man disdains in his own house is very unfit to govern a Kingdom by.

Beloved, make up you the Application your selves; It may be your Children and your Servants, which are the Representa­tive Body of your little Kingdom, your Family, hold together; Is it fit therefore that they should command you, or turn you out of dores? Will any but Unruly Servants, or Graceless Chil­dren say, They are therefore above, over, and greater then their Master, then their Father? Nor is it fit, though all the Sub­jects of a Kingdom conspire and combine together, that they should command the King; Nor will any but unruly, undutiful, unthankful, Gracelesse and Rebellious Subjects say, They are, or esteem themselves to be above the King; They that say so speak against Reason; For the King is the Husband, The People the Wife: The King is the Head, The People are the Members: The King is the Father, the People are the Children: The King is the Master, the People are the Servants of the Kingdom.

They that say so, speak against Learning; For it hath been the Universal Opinion of the Fathers, That the King is inferiour to none but God; and They speak against the Letter and Sense of [Page 81]the Scripture; For the Scripture calls such Despisers of the King, Children of Belial.

And lastly, they speak against the Common Law of England, which is my fourth and last way,4. By the law of Eng­land. I promised to make this good by, viz. That the King is above the People: and for the Common Law of England, I shall refer you to Bracton, Fortescue, Sr. Thomas Smith, Thomas de Walsingham, Cambden and others.

Bracton thus, Omnis sub Rege, Ipse sub nullo nisi tantùm sub Deo; Parem non habet in Regno suo, Lib. 1. cap. 8. De Chartis Regijs et factis Regum, nec privatae personae, nec Justitiarij debent disputare. Every one is under the King, and the King is under none but God; He hath no Equal, no Peer, (much lesse Superiour in his Kingdom; Of his Royal Graunts and Actions, none, neither private Persons, nor Judges may dispute.

Certainly, If the King be only under God; then neither the People, nor their Representatives are above the King; Indeed in Bulk the Body is greater then the Head, the People then the King; but in Virtue, in Power and Authority, the Head excel­leth the Body; the King is above the Parliament; For the Parliament by vertue of Representation is but the Body of the Kingdom, whereas the King is the Head of that Body, and the Representative of God himself; and certainly He that represents God, is above them that represents the People.

Thomas de Walsingham mentions a Letter written to the Bi­shop of Rome, from the Parliament held at Lincolne, in which Let­ter are these words, Scimus Pater sanctissime, et notorium est, Anno 1301. a primâ institutione Regni Angliae, quòd certum &c. We know most holy Father, & it is manifest from the very beginning of the Kingdom of England, as well in the times of the Brittains, as of the Angles, that the certain and direct Dominion hath belonged unto the King; neither have the Kings of England (by reason of [Page 82]the unbounded preheminence of the Royal Dignity and Custome observed in all Ages) answered, or ought to answer before any Judge Ecclesiastical or Civil.

Certainly the Pa [...]liament is either an Ecclsiastical, or Civil Judge or both; Be it which it will, or both, if it wil [...], The King is above both, because neither of them may call him to account; He is of an unbounded preheminence, and therefore by no means under the Peoples gir [...]le.

Nec populus Acephalus (says Fortescue) corpus vocari mere­tur, quia ut in Naturalibus Capite detru [...]cato, Cap. 13. residuum, non cor­pus sed Truncum appellamus, sic in Politicis sine Capite communi­tas nullatenus corporatur. A headless People, or a People with­out a Head, may not be called a Body, because as in a Natural Body, the Head being cut off, the residue or remaining part is not called a Body, but a Trunck or stump: so in a Politick Body, the Community or Representee, if without a Head, is not a Body Certainly then, If the King makes the Community a Body, and the Community without the King is not a Body, the King is above the Community, because the Head is above the Body.

He says, Object. I confesse, and from him it is objected; Ad [...]tutelam legis, subditorum, ac eorum corporum et bonorum, Rex erectus est, et ad hanc potestatem a populo effluxam ipse habet; A King is ordained for the defence of the Law of his Subjects, for the defence of their Bodys and their Goods; and hereunto he recei­veth Power of his People: and therefore, says the Objector, The King is accountable to his People, and therefore the People is a­bove the King.

But withal, the Objector may know, That in the same place, the Author answers the Objection, Answ. by distinguishing of a King, saying, Rex hujusmods, such a King; i. e. A King meerly Po­litick; or a King whose Government is meerly Policicall; but [Page 83]the Government of England is as well Royal as Political; Reg­num Angliae in Dominium Politicum et Regale prorupit; The Kingdom of England consists of a Regal and Politick Domi­nion; Et in utroque, tam Regali, quam Politico, Cap. 9. populo suo do­minatur, so are his words; And the King of England is the Go­vernour of his People, as well by a Regal, as by a Politick Domi­nion.

I add, In reference to his Power, he is a Regal King, and Rex Naturalis, a King by Birth; In reference to his Duty, he is a Politick King, or Rex Nationalis, a King by Law; but in both a King; and therefore above the People in both re­spects.

Nor is that any barr to the Kings Supremacy, Object. Fol. 56. which is alledg­ed either out of Brrcton; Rex sub lege est, quia lex facit Re­gem; The King is under the Law, because the Law makes the King.

For though the King be under the Directing power of the Law, as the Law is the Rule of Justice; yet He is above the Corrective power of the Law, as the Law is the Instrument of Justice.

Or out of Fleta; Rex habet in popule regendo superiores, De Iustic. subst. l. 1. c. 17. legem per quam factus est, et curiam suam, videlicet, Comites et Baro­nes; The King hath Superiours in the governing of his People; The Law by which he is made, and his Council▪ to wit, his Earles and Barons.

For the Law doth not make the King, Answ. by giving him any thing that was not his own before, but decla [...]ing his Right, to what was his own before; nor is the Counsel any other way above him, then to direct and advise him.

In a word, The Law declares and publishes the Kings right to the Crown; The People admit the King to the Possession of his [Page 84] Right; The Council advise him, and direct him in the safest way of Governing his People, and they are all but as Instruments and Servants to him, and so He is above them all.

The King the Life, the Head and Authority of all things that be done in the Realm of England, Lib. 2. cap. 4 says Sr. Thomas Smith in his Common-wealth of England.

The King of England, Summam et Supremam potestatem in omnes Regni ordines habet, Cambd. Elis. pag. 39. says Cambden, hath the chief and Su­pream Power ove [...] all Orders and sorts of People in the Kingdom, Supremam potestatem et merum Imperium apud nos habet, nec in Imperij clientela est, Brit. p. 132. nec investituram ab alio accepit, nec prae­ter Deum Superiorem agnoscit, says the same Cambden; He hath Soveraign Power over us, He is not under the Protection of the Roman Empire, not doth he take investiture from any other, nor doth he acknowledge any above him, but God alone.

Certainly then the Distinction of Universis minor, and Singu­lis major, was not yet coyned; For he that is under none but God, is above all the People, unless they be God.

And this is yet made as plain, if not plainer, by and in a Pre­face to a Statute in the Raign of Henry VIII. 24. Hen. 8. cap. 12. where it is said, By diverse sundry old Authenitque Histories and Chronicles, it is manifestly declared and expressed, that this Realm of England is an Empire, and so hath been accepted in the world, governed by one Supream Head and King, having the Dignity and Royal Estate of the Imperial Crown of the same, unto whom a Body Politick compact of all sorts and degrees of People, divided in termes, and by names of Spiritualty and Temporalty, have been boundened and owen to bear, next to God, a Natural and hum­ble obedience: and thus afterwards, This your Graces Realm recognizeth no Superiour under God, 25. Hen. 8. but only your Grace.

The words are worth your marking, We, the Realme of England; i. e. Surely the Subjects Conjunctim, or Vniversa­litas Angliae, All the People, whether Represented in Par­liament or otherwise; Owe the King a Natural Obedience; i. e. by the Law of Nature, or the Divine Law, not by Popular Pactions, or Politick and National Agreements, we are bound to obey the King; and the Reason is, Because the King is the Supream Head: i. e: properly Universorum, of all the Peo­ple; and all this is not obscurely implyed; but, manifestly ex­pressed, and that not by single and yesterday Pamphlets, but, by sundry old Authentique Histories and Chronicles.

Would you have it yet plainer? Look ye then upon the Oaths ye have taken in the presence of Almighty God; The Oath of Allegiance, The Oath of Supremacy, and your own Parliamentary Protestation. In each of these you have sworne to maintain the Kings Soveraignty, in all Causes and over all Persons Ecclesiastical and Civil.

A Soveraignty he hath, not onely over singular persons, but over all persons; and you have sworn to maintain it; and as you endeavour it so God will help you.

But you may fear, you may justly fear, If you have un-Sworne that, or Sworne against that, which you have so Solemnly Sworne to maintaine, That GOD will not onely not help you, but wound you, wound you while you live with the Infamy of Rebells, and a tormenting Conscience, (Witnesse Alderman Hoyle, Sr. Henry Phane Senior, and some more) and wound you when you are dead with the Eternity of Fire, and all the Torments of Hell.

From both which Almighty God deliver you for his Son, Jesus [Page 86]Christ his sake; and from which that you may be delivered, I pray God give you grace to acknowledge & esteem King Charles II. to be Universis as well as Singulis Major, Greater then, and over all; because, They that think lesse of him, do despise him, and are therefore the Chil [...]ren of Belial, as they are, and shall be in future Chronicles, who thought lesse of King Charles I. and therefore murthered him.

And so are they that bring him no presents, which is my third Consideration, and to be handled the next year. In the mean time, God in mercy, &c.

Anno Dom. 1653.

1 SAM. 10.27.‘They brought him no Presents.’

WEE are by the Grace of God, Pars. 3. met here again to re­member a sad and mournful day, That day, on which the best King, that ever England had, was murther­ed; I chan [...] [...] my Text yet, because I am yet to shew you the Privative cond tion of Rebels, or Children of Belial, from these words, They [...]ought him no Presents.

And I sha [...]l not spend much time in the Explication of these words; The [...] are obvious enough to the thinnest understanding, and th [...]yi [...] end thus much; These men, these Children of Beli­al di [...]no [...] contribute to the maintenance of the King, They did not [...]yd im, they did not assist him; They ayded him not with A [...]ms, they assisted him not with mony; They withheld his Vecti­ [...]li from him; They brought him not his Customes, his Crown-Re [...]enues,, his Subsidies, and Poll-monies.

I shall therefore spend my ensuing Discourse, in resolving that Question, which doth (almost Naturally) arise from these last words, viz.

Whether it be lawful to bear Arms, Quest. 3 or contribute for the main­tenance of a War against the King?

This Text resolves it Negatively, and says, It is not lawful: For they who brought the King no presents, were therefore Sons of Belial; and, therefore much more are they the Sons of Belial, who fight against, or contribute to maintain a War against the King.

And this I shall endeavour to make good, 1. Removendo, by removing all Objections that I meet withal, which colour this Opinion.

2. Moven [...]o, by commending to you some choise and preg­nant places of Scripture, which give the checkmate to this Opi­nion.

3. Propendendo, by explaining those places of Scripture by the practises of the Fathers.

4. Proponendo, by laying before your face some of those fear­ful Judgements, which have befallen some men who have born Arms against their Kings, as fearful Examples for them; who contribute to the maintenance of such Wars.

And first for the Objections, and the first of any validity I meet with, is that of David's taking up Arms against King Saul; Object. 1 and it is argued thus,1 Sam. 22.1, 2. 1 Sam. 24.18. David the Subject took up Arms against Saul the King, and was not rebuked for it, either by any Divines, or Lawyers, or States-men. Many of his Fellow Subjects, to the number of 600. took up Arms with him; and very likely many more contributed to the maintenance of that Army: nor yet were they reprehended either by any Rules of Divinity, Law, or Policy; and, Therefore Subjects may take up Arms, and con­tribute [Page 88]to the maintenance of a Warre against a King, if he be an Oppressour of their Properties, Liberties, or Religion.

And to this first colourable Objection, Answer. I Answer thus; The Allegation is false; For how can it possibly be imagined, That David took up Arms against Saul, when we find him con­tinually flying from, and never fighting with Saul? Yea,1 Sam. 24.6. so far was he from fighting with him, or taking up Arms against him, that when God had delivered Saul into his hands two several times,1 Sam. 26.9 once in the Wildernesse of Engedi, and once in the Hill of Hachilah, David durst not himself, nor would he suffer any man else, to stretch forth his hand against King Saul, and for this reason,1 Sam. 24.2 Because he was the Lords Annointed.

Certainly David neither raised, nor entertained these 600 men, to fight or encounter with or against Saul; For what are 600 to so many thousand as Saul had at Command?1 Sam. 26.2 He never went without 3000 men after him, David used these 600, only for Spies or Scouts, that they might give him Intelligence where Sauls ambushments lay, that so he might (as is said) the better a­void his fury. ver. 4, Certainly therefore David with his 600 mens is very unlearnedly urged as an Example of Disloyalty.

Nor will that Addition help it, viz. That David was 40000 strong in the days of Saul; and likely he would not lye still with that great Army; 1 Chr. 1.12. No, no, They had no such foolish Oath in those Loyal daies, as Never stir law, It is fit let the King know himself; It is high time King Saul were removed from his evil Counsellours, Doeg and his fellows.

For first, you cannot but know, at least you cannot deny, That these 40000 come not to David until Sauls death; if you ob­serve the story;Ver. 22. For it is said expresly, They came to David to help him, until it was a great Host, like the Host of God; And these are the numbers of the Bands, Ver. 23. that were ready Armed to the [Page 89]War, and come to David to Hebron, to turn the Kingdom of Saul unto him, according to the Word of the Lord; And what made these men come to David at this time? It was Sauls death; and they knew, David was appointed by God to succeed him.

But secondly, admit it for truth, That David was 40000 strong in the da [...]es of Saul; yet this is so far from being an Ar­gument to justisie Rebellion, or taking up Arms against the King, as that it doth altogether condemn it; For notwithstanding so great strength, yet David never pursued Saul, never sought after Saul, never discharged one Canon, one Murtherer, one Gun a­gainst Saul, but still fled from him; and to put him out of all such Fears & jealousies, got himself and his Forces out of Sauls Kingdom, and begged a place for his habitation of Achish the King of Gath. Let all Rebells follow David in the whole Ex­ample, and we shall both allow this Quotation, and also com­mend their Imitation; yes, and pray they may have so many Followers, that there may be no Rebel left to lift up an hand a­gainst the Lords Annointed.

The second Objection, I meet with, of any colourable strength; Object. 2 (For I shall passe all those frivilous ones; 1. Of the Peoples res­cuing Jonathan from Saul; Their whole Act. being nothing but a mediation in the behalf of Jonathan, and nothing lesse then a Rebellion against Saul, as any man may evidently percieve, if he reads the whole Story: and so Junius, Borrhaus, Osiander, and Willet himself say and determine of it; and Peter Martyr adds, That if the People did more then pray, if they pressed violently upon Saul in making a mutiny, they sinned; Liberaverunt says St. Jerome, Redimerunt says Tremelius, In Reg. c. 14 and so says Gregory Magnus, i. e. They delivered, they redeemed, they freed Jona­than that he dyed not; And how did they this? Certainly not [Page 90] Fustibus, but precibus, by Prayers, not by Pole-axes; For if the did more then pray, says Peter Martyr, they sinned.

I forbear likewise, 2. The Example of Elisha's shutting the door,2 Reg. 6.32. and holding fast the Messenger that came from King Jo­ram to take away his Head: For Elisha had Revelation from God, as well of Jorams repentance, as of his former and furious Mes­sage. And 3. Of Jehu who killed this King Joram; For this was by special and particular command from God, 2 Reg. 9.14.24. and not by any Law of God or Man; and extraordinary Oracles may not be our Examples; And 4. Of Ahikam, For he defended not the Pro­phet from the Tyranny of King Jehojakim, but from the fury of the people; Jer. 26.4. Had he had any hand in that tumultuous insurrecti­on with the People, he had been a Rebel like the People; but be­ing he did what he did, by that credit and authority which he had with and under the King, he shewed himself both a faithful Magistrate, and a Loyal Subject. And 5. the withstanding of Uzziah the King, by Azariah the Priest; For this was by words, 2 Chron. 26.17. not by Swords, and besides, God struck him with Leprosy; and so by the Law he was to be removed from the concourse of the people, for fear of of Infection. And 6. That of Deposing Athelia; For She was but an Usurper of the Crown.)

The second Objection, I say, of any seeming validity is that of Jeroboam; 1 Reg. 12. from whence it is argued thus; Rehoboam the Son of Solomon refused to ease the People of their burthens; and there­fore they rebelled against him, and set up Jeroboam to be a King over them; and this was so far (says the Objector) from being a sin, that the Text says, It was from the Lord; and Therefore Subjects may (in some cases) bear Arms lawfully against the King, and without sin.

And this Objection I answer thus, The Scripture here sets down Rei gestae veritatem, Answ. 2 non Facti aequitatem, the Truth of a [Page 92]thing done, not the Right of a Thing to be done; Quia factum legimus non ideó faoi [...]ndum credimus, says St. Austin, sectando enim exemplum, violemus praeceptum. If we follow the Example of men, we may break the Commandement of God; Nor can we any more be free from the breach of the 5. Commandement, and Disobedience, if we rebell against our King upon this Example, then we can from the breach of the 8. Commandement, & Theft, if we plunder and rob our Neighbours, upon Example, of the Is­raelites spoyling the Egyptians. In a word, God made Jeroboam King, and in that Act punished Solomons Idolatry, and Rehobo­ams folly; but notwithstanding, This Act of the People, in re­volting from Rehoboam, was Rebellion, and so called by God him­self, in two several places:1 Reg. 12.19. 2 Chron. 10.19. And Israel rebelled against the House of David unto this day. And Israel rebelled against the House of David unto this day.

And God punished this Rebellion of theirs so fearfully, that he first gave them up to Idolatry, and afterwards drave them out in­to Captivity. And I do assure you, That there are ten Exam­ples for one to shew, Rebels have been first Idolaters, and so ha­ted by God, and afterwards Slaves, and so hated by Man. That we may never fall into the one, or the other, either Idolatry or Captivity, Almighty God keep us from Rebellion.

And whatsoever some People say, and make shew of, I will make it good, That there is not one more Example in Scripture of any colour, or worth a straw to dispute, much lesse to justifie the taking up of Arms against the King.

There is one Objection made from the example of our own Object. 3 Progenitors, Richard the Second was deposed and deposed by Parliament, and therefore says the Objector, A King of England may be resisted. With shame and sorrow, I canfess the Factum, but without blushing, and in truth, Answer. I deny the Ius [...]um; [Page 92]The honest Bishop of Carlile opposed it, and howsoever the Rebells of those daies ended that good mans daies in prison, for his honesty; yet by this very Act of deposing King Richard, they brought such miseries and mischiefs, such Battails & Bloud­sheds, such Rapines a [...]d Murthers upon this Kingdom, that until two Kings, viz.

One Prince, ten Dukes, two Marquesses, one and twenty Earls, seaven and twenty Lords two Viscounts, one Lord Prior, One Judge, one hundred, thirty and nine Knights, four hundred one & twenty Esquires, Gentlemen of a vast number, and Common Soul­diers to the number of an hundred thousand, were slain in Civil Wars, England never saw happy daies. And setting Kings and Princes aside, I believe there hath been more lost in a latter Re­bellion against King Charles I. That we may yet see and enjoy Peace and Happinesse in our daies, God keep us all from bearing Arms against King Charles II. when he shall be enabled by Gods raysing him Friends abroad, and converting or consternating the Hearts of His Enemies at home, to require his own, Amen.

For it is altogether unlawful, as appears Secondly by Scrip­ture; 2. Scripture. and the first Scripture I offer to your Consideration is that of Moses; Exod. 22.28. Speak not evil of the Ruler of thy people. And this very place touched St. Paul so far that it brought him to a Pec­cavi, when he had suffered his Tongue to run a little over, and be to lavish but with the High-Priest; (and certainly the King is higher then the High Priest:) St. Paul would never have said, The Lord smite thee thou whited wall, if he had known the man, to whom he speak, Act. 22.3, 5. had been the High Priest.

But this place, because is may be extended to Rulers in Gene­ral, and therefore may meet with some colourable evasion, I shall give you some other Texts concerning Governours in particular, and especially and namely Kings, Eccl. 8.2, 3. viz. I Counsel thee says Solo­mon, [Page 93]to keep the Kings Commandement, and that in regard of the Oath of God; Be not hasty to go out of his sight; stand not in an evil thing, for he doth whatsoever pleaseth him; where the word of a King is, there is power; and who may say to him, What dost thou?

Mark the words, Beloved, and deal truely with your own Souls, as you will answer it at the dreadful, great and fearful day of Judgment, I Counsel thee, I that have more Wisdom then ever any man had before me, or shall have after me, I that am Directed by the Holy Ghost, I Counsel thee; i.e. I Command thee from God, To keep the Kings Commandement, i.e. What­soever he Commands thee, so it be not against the Word of God; And what did the late King Command thee? He Com­manded thee to assist him with men, mony, and Ammunitions He Commanded thee, not to furnish an Army that was raysed against him, by what Power soever, under whose Conduct or Command soever, with either men, mony, or Ammunition.

And Could any of you doubt, whether you were bound to observe and obey that Command? Solomon told you then, you were, and tells you now, you are, and tells you the reason why you were and are, Even in regard of the Oath of God; And what is that Oath of God? Why it is that Covenant thou didst make with, it is that Oath thou didst enter into, to thy late Sovereign Lord King Charles. viz. The Oath of Allegiance and Supre­macy.

But it may be thou wilt say, This was the Oath of man; It was so, but withal, It was the Oath of God too; For thou didst make and take these Oaths to the King, by and with Gods appro­bation; Thou didst call God to be the Witnesse of thy true Inten­tion, Endeavour and Resolution to perform those Oaths; and as­sure thy self, If thou dare so far to sin against thine own Soul for [Page 94]any by-respect whatsoever, either for fear of plundering and un­doing, by Death or Torment, or for hope of keeping thy Estate and getting more by Life and preferment, thou shalt find God to be a severe punisher of thee:Exod. 20.7. God will not hold him guiltlesse that takes his Name in vain. He that uses Gods Name to vanity, is damnable, and in a possibility of Damnation; and therefore, He that uses Gods name to Perjury, is damned, and in a certninty of Damnation.

Be not hasty to go out of his sight, i. e. says Tremelius, Né ab obsequio illius te subducito animo, perturbato. Do not draw thy neck out of this yoak, withdraw not thy self from his, the Kings, Allegiance, in an angry mood or discontentednesse of Spirit.

Stand not in an evill thing; i.e. Imperturbation et Rebellione quae tibi malum allatura erit, In thy fullinesse, in thy peevishness, in thy discontentedness, in thy Rebellion; If thou doest stand out and refusest, or neglectest the Kings offer of Grace and Pardon, This thy standing out will at last bring mischief and evil upon thee.

For He, the King, doeth whatsoever pleaseth him, i.e, He hath a long hand, and though for a while thou be sheltred from him, yet at last, He will reach thee, and condemn the to the Gal­lowes, if thou bear Arms against him; if thou contributest to main­tain a War against him.

Where the word of a King is, there is Power, Power to break a Loyal Subjects heart into Duty, and Power to break a Rebels heart into Death and Confusion; For a while, The word of a King, like the word of God, may be slighted and resisted, but in the end it will appear to be a word of power, and shall be suffered with Death, where it was not obeyed with Duty.

And who may say to him, the King, What doest thou? i. e. Questiones affirmativas resolvendo negativè, by the old Rule, [Page 95] None, may say unto the King what dost thou? ot call him to ac­count; None may not the Judges of his Bench, not the Captains of his Host, not the Grooms of his Stool, not the Masters of his Horse, not the Nobles and Gentlemen of his Chamber, nor yet his Great Council; None whatsoever may say it.

It is not fit, says Job, not fit for any man whosoeoer,Job 34.18. nor fit for any sort of men whatsoever, to say to a King, Thou art wicked, or to Princes, you are ungodly; and Solomon gives you the reason of it, saying, Against the King there is no rising up, Pro. 30.31. Nemo qui insurgit, says Junius, No man that rises up against him now; Nemo qui insurgat, says Clarius, No man that may rise up against him hereafter; No man, either Clergy or Layety, No man, ei­ther privat Persons or Representative Body; None, either Lords or Commons, Amen, say I, I would to God, there had been none of late, against King Charles I. If there may be none hereafter against King Charles II. If there be, they will find Power in his word, to punish those who resisted the word of his Father; and that when come to passe, they will find Answer enough against all Objections they can raise agafnst this last Passage.

Thirdly & Lastly, for I will not burthen you with many, though I could with a whole Volumn; I present you with that of St. Paul, even that which some Anti-Royallists, because they can­not evade it: countercolour it and excuse it, do scoffingly and contemptuously call our great and Goliah Text; viz. Let every Soul be subject to the higher Powers; Rom. 13.1.2. for there is no power but of God. The Powers that be are ordained of God; whosoever therefore resisteth the Power, resisteth the Ordinance of God; and they that resist shall receive to themselves damnation.

Here again let me advise you to deale ingenuously, sincerly, and truly with your own Soules; and here give me leave to ask you, or rather, do you seriously ask of, and enquire, and [Page 96]Catechise your own Soules; who, or what doest thou think is meant by the Higher Powers? Doest thou, canst thou think, That nothing is meant hereby but a Naked Authority? as Mr. Burrowes would have thee believe;2 Thess. 2.11. Take heed thou be not given over or givest thy self over, to believe a lye: Take heed, I say, take heed of such a construction, of such an Exposition; for admit that [...] did signisie Power in the Abstract, or the Power of the Law, without relation to the Person that made the Law; yet [...] must of necessity note the Person, and the Superiority of the Person that hath that Power conferred upon and given to him; and such Power no Person in England hath, but only the King of England: His great Council may Jus dice­re, propose Lawes, but He only can jus dare, make Lawes; They the Lords and Commons may give weight and Testimony to the Law; but He only, The King, can give Force and Authority to the Law: And therefore by Higher Power, we English men must needs understand the King of England; To whom, the King every Soul, i.e. All People in the Kingdom of England, must be subject, subject Actively, If He commands not what is against Gods word, Subject Passively, if He do; whether He do or do not, we must be so far Subject, as that we may not Resist: For if we do, we shall receive to our selves Damnation; Not the Plun­dering of our Goods at Home, not the hanging of our Bodies in the street or field; but the Damnation, the everlasting Dam­nation of our Souls and Bodies in Hell for ever.

Now search and examine your selves; Art thou any where in the whole word of God commanded to bear Arms, or to contri­bute to maintain a War against thy Lawful and Rightful King? Art thou any where forbidden by the word of God to Assist thy King in his just Wars? Nay, Doeth not the word of God forbid thee That, and command the This? It does, thou knowest it [Page 97]does; and so I conclude this Proposition from the Scripture, and say, Therefore it is not lawful for any man to bear Arms, or to contribute to the maintenance of a War against the King: For no man may curse the King in his thoughts, for no man may revile the King by his words, For no man may resist the King with his Hands; yea, Therefore every man must assist the King with Arms, and contribute to the maintetenance of a War for him with his Purse: because they that do not, are the Chil­dren of Belial; The Children of Belial said, How shall this man save us? and they despised him, and brought him no presents.

And this I shall endeavour to make good, Thirdly,3. Fathers. By the con­templation and conversation of the Fathers, by their Practise and by their Opinion; and that I may not tyre you, or my self; I shall give you but a Taste instead of a Feast, and name you but Few instead of Many.

I begin with Justine Martyr, Ad inquisitionem, vestram, Secund. A­polog. ad Anto. Imp. p. 113. Chri­stianos nos esse profitemur, &c. says he to Antoninus, an Empe­rour bad enough; At your Inquisition, we Professe our selves to be Christians, though we know Death to be the Guerdon and re­ward of our Profession. Did we expect an Earthly Kingdom, we would deny our Religion, that escaping Death we might obtain our desires; For the preservation of publick peace, we Christians, O Emperour, yield you our help and assistance.

We Christians, says Tertullian to Scapula the Vice-Roy, are defamed for Seditious Persons against the Imperial Majesty; Lib. ad Scap. but we were never yet found to be either Albinians, Nigrians, Cas­sians, or any other sort of Traytors; No, we know the Empe­rour is ordained of God; and therefore we love him, we honour him, we reverence him, we pray for him, and for the welfare of his whole Empire.

Una nox pauculis faculis, &c. says he,In Apolog. in his Apologetical De­fence [Page 98]of the Christians, One short night with a few Fire-brands, or Torches would work our deliverance, and revenge our wrongs, if it were lawful to requite evil with evil; Vetat autem Deus ut aut ab igne humano vindicatur Divina secta, aut doleat pati in quo probatur; But God forbid that the Christian Religion should be revenged with humane fire, or that Christians should grieve for suffering, because in suffering they are refined, and for suffering they are rewarded.

Apol. Atha. ad Constant. Holy Athanasius in the clearing of himself against the Accu­sation of the Arians, to Constantius the Emperour thus expresses his own Duty, and the Duty of all good Subjects; I am not so mad, neither have I forgotten the voice of God, which says, Curse not the King, no, not in thy heart, and backbite not the Mighty in the secreets of thy Chamber; for the Birds of the Aire shall tell it, and the winged Fowle shall bewray thee: It is not for any man to say otherwise then well of his Majesty, in the o­pinion of this holy man; and therefore certainly it is not for any man to do otherwise then well, To bear Arms, or to contribute to maintain War against the King.

Orat. 1. in Julian. Nazianzene the Divine, so termed for his Excellent Know­ledge and profound Learning, speaks to this purpose, Repressus est Julianus Christianorum lachrymis, quas multas multi profu­derunt, hoc unum adversus persecutorem medicamentum habentes; Julian that great Apostata, and persecutor of Christians, was restrained by the Tears of Christians, which many of them shed, and powred forth aboundantly unto God; nor had they any other remedy against the Persecutor, because they knew it to be unlawful, to use any other means then Sufferance, or else they might (having so much strength as they had) have repelled their wrong with violence.

St. Ambrose being commanded to deliver up his Church in [Page 99] Millane to an Arian Bishop, Contr. Aux. Ep. 31, 32, 33. & his people being very sorry for his departure, he thus resolves and comforts both himself and them; Quid turbamini? Volens nunquam vos deesram; Why are you troubled? I will never willingly leave you; Repugnare non novi, dolere potero, potero slere, potero gemere, adversus Arma, Milites, Gothos, Lach rymae meae mea sunt Arma; aliter nec debeo, nec possum resistere. If I be compelled, I have no way to resist, I can grieve and sorrow, I can weep and sigh, my Tears are my Wea­pons against Souldiers, Armors, Goths; such is the Artillery and Ammunition of a Priest; otherwise then with Tears, I neither may, nor must, nor ought resist.

St. Chysostome in one Epistle tells us,Ep. ad Tim. 2. That though Kings con­tinue obstinate in Infidelity, yet they must be prayed for, (they must not, they may not be resisted,) The Apostle commands pray­ers, supplications and intercessions to be made for all men, especially for the King: What he hath said in another, you have heard be­fore; and thither I refer you.

St. Augustine is of the same opinion, Julianus extitit Impe­rator Infidel is, Julian was an unbelieving Emperour, In Ps. 124. he was an Apostata, an Oppressor, a Tyrant, and Idolater; yet the Christian Soldiers served this anbelieving Emperour; They obeyed him in all things for Christ, and when he commanded them any thing against Christ, yet they resisted him not, though they did not obey. him.

Gregory the Great might, if he would,Ep. l. 7. Ep. 1. but would not though he could, destroy the Lombards; The Lombards, who were Pa­gans, Plunderers of goods, Robbers of Churches, Ransakers of Ci­ties, Persecutors of Saints, Oppressors of the Poor; These men he could have destroyed, but he would not, because he feared God.

Fulgentius tells us,Ad Thrasim Reg. That no kind of Sedition can stand with [Page 100]Religion, we may boldly maintain our Religion, but we may not by any Act come under the suspition of Disobedience; it is the Apostles Doctrine, and we must obey it, Fear God and Honour the King.

Quincunque, Coun. Toled. 5. Can. 2. whosoever of us, sayes the Council of Toledo, shall violate that Oath which he hath taken for the preservation of the Kings Majesty, whosoever shall attempt to destroy or depose the King; whosoever shall aspire to the Regal Throne, let him be accursed, cast out of the Church, and together with his Compli­ces be condemned with the Devil and his Angels eternally; let them be all tied in the bond of Damnation, who were joined in the society of Sedition: I forbear the Citation of more Fathers, onely I shall give you a remembrance or two from those Fathers already cited:

1. It may be, you will say, All those Kings whom those Fa­thers did obey, or command us to obey, were good Kings: No, they were not; some of them were as bad as Saul, whom Da­vid obeyed; some of them were as bad as Claudius and Nero, whom St. Paul and Peter commanded to obey; some of them were Heathens; some of them were Hereticks; some of them were Apostata's; some of them were Idolaters; some of them were Tyrants; most of them were bad enough.

2. If you say, The Christians did not resist, because they could not, because they had not strength and power enough.

Yes, that they had; Tertullian tells you so; Cyprian tells you so; Gregory the Great tells you so; The number of Chri­stians was a Principio from a few years after the Apostles, Ni­mius & Copiosus, Great and Numerous.

3. If you say, Christian Religion, and their Priviledges were not yet established.

Yes, that they were, Constantine the Great, and his Succes­sors [Page 101]both gave and established them, and daily added to their Im­munities.

And hence I advise you, I entreat you, I beseech you, I con­jure you, as you hope for Heaven, as you fear Hell, that you seriously think with your selves, who are like to speak truet' These antient Fathers, I have now named unto you, or the young' trenchor, flattering Ministers, come over from New England, or that never durst appear in Old England until now; And if you are not wilfully blind, you will in the end conclude, It is not lawful to bear Armes, or contribute to maintain a War against the King; They were children of Belial that brought King Saul no Presents; and the children of Belial much more are and were, all they that did bear Armes, and maintain a War against King Charles the first.

And this I shall endeavour fourthly to make good by those fearful Examples, 4. Punish­ments. Punishments and Judgments which God and Man have from time to time inflicted upon Rebels and Traytors, even such as have born Armes, and maintained War against their Kings.

And look ye first upon those Intentional Rebels, Rebels but meerly in Intention; They had but resolved upon a Mutiny; and Corah the Clergy Rebel, N umb. 16. Dathan and Abiram the Nobility and Layety Rebels; Fire from Heaven devoured Corah, and his 250 that usurped upon the Priests Office; The Earth ope­ned and swallowed up Dathan, and covered the Congregation of Abiram.

And it is thought by some, That that Fire from Heaven sent those Clergy Rebels into the Fire of Hell; Bafll. Hom. 9. and that the Laic Rebels fell thorow the Earth into the very Pit of the Damned.

So likewise Bigthan and Teresh, for but seeking to lay hands upon King Ahashuerus, were both hanged on a Tree. Ester 2.21.23.

Look ye next upon that Verbal Rebel Shemei; He did but move his Tongue, 2 Sam. 16. and rayl'd at King David, saying, Come out thou bloody man, and man of Belial; And for this he was put to an untimely and shameful death; though not by David, for some reasons best known to himself: yet by Solomon for some reasons best known to himself.

And if Intentional and verbal Rebels were so heavily plagued for the seed of Rebellion; Oh what punishment belongs to them that bring forth the Fruits of Rebellion and are Actually Rebels.

Achitopel, 2 Sam. 17.23. a subtle man, a great polition, yet because he gave mischievous Counsel in the matter, and for the effecting of Ab­solons Rebellion, for the lack of an Hangman, the fittest Servitor and Officer for a Rebel, went and hang'd himself.

Absolon who hatcht that Rebellion against David his Father, and actually levied and bear Arms against him, though he were a goodly man for Beauty and proportion, though he were a great man for Beauty and proportion, though he were a great man for Nobility and Extraction, 2 Sam. 18.7 though he was the Favourite of his Fathers love and affection, though he was a Popular man in the Peoples eyes and estimation; yet a Tree, a sencelesse Tree caught him by the haire of his head, and hang'd him in the Aire; and thence he could not stir until Joab the General of King Da­vids Army, had thrust him thorow the heart with three darts.

See see my Beloved, and seeing it tremble at Rebellion; It is not Goodlinesse of Person, it is not Nobility of Birth, it is not Favour of People, no, nor the Favour of the King himself, that shall or can save a Rebel from due punishment: God the King of Kings, is so offended with Rebellion, that rather then the Rebel shall go unpunished, Every tree shall be a Gallowes, and his own Haire a Halter to hang him.

Sheba likewise but for blowing a Trumpet and striking up the Drum, 2 Sam. 20.1.22. to raise another Rebellion, had his head cut off by the advice and means of a weak woman.

Look thorow the whole Bible, yea, and look both upon For­reign, and our own Domestick Chronicles, and see if ye can finde but one, even but one Rebel, or Traytor, or Abettor and main­tainer of Rebellion and Treason, that ever escaped unpunished, either by the Hand of God, in a troubled and perplexed Consci­ence, or by the hand of man, in an untimely and shameful death.

Look upon Brutus, with the same Dagger he kill'd his King Caesar, he kill'd himself.

That Seditious Ring-leader and Captain of the Jewes, who the more to fascinate them,Euseb. lib. 4. Cap. 3. and make them sure to his Rebellion against Adrian the Emperour, named himself Ben-chobab, i. e. Filius Stellae, or the Son of the Star, was suddenly kill'd, and after was scornfully remembred by the name of Ben-Cozba, the Son of a Lye.

Barnardino de Corte, rebelled against his Lord and Master the Duke of Millane, Dal. Aphor. lib. 4.39. pag. 176. and sold the strong Castle of that Town and Dutchy to the French; The French-men ever after in their or­dinary sport, when they were at Cards, and pulled for a Traytor, (a sort in their Packs as Knaves are in ours) would call for a Barnardino de Corte, to his perpetual reproach & Infamy; with the shame whereof, and the sting of a guilty Conscience, the Re­bel was so tormented, that he languished continually, until he dyed desperatly.

I have heard of a certain Commander, who would often wish he might rot, if ever he lift his Hand or drew his Sword against the King; Notwithstanding he did both, and God answered him in his wish; For he rotted within and dyed, this was at Worcester.

A certain Lord likewise I have heard of, a Great Ring-leader in a Rebellion; yet a great Pretender to Religion, and in his Ex­ercises of Devotion would often desire God, If the course he took were not right, if the cause he mannaged were not just, that [Page 104] God, would take him away suddainly; God heard him and an­swered him; For by the Shot of a Musket he was killed so sud­dainly that he had not so much time as to say, God be merciful unto me, and without any sign or symptome of Repentance dyed; This was at Liechfield.

I need not remember you of Pausanias, Ariobarzanes Rodolph Duke of Suevia, Catcline of Rome: Spencers, Dudlys, and many more of England.

Not one of them all, nor any other Rebel that I have read of, but if he lived, he lived the sco [...]n of honest men; and if he dy­ed, he dyed the shame of his Friends, the mirth of his enemies, and the example of all▪ God in the shameful and fearful punish­ments of them, telling us, That it is not lawful to bear Arms, or contribute to maintain a War against the King.

They that did so against King Charles I. God Almighty look upon them in so much mercy that they may look up to him with so much Repentance, that they may be forgiven, and their Souls saved, whatsoever becomes of their Bodyes; and that no man, none of us especially, may do the like against King Charles II. with the Church I pray.

From all Sedition and privy conspiracy, from all false Doctrine and Heresie, from hardnesse of Heart, and contempt of thy word and Commandement, Good Lord deliver us for Jesus Christ his sake, Amen, Amen, Amen.

Anno Dom. 1655.

1 REG. 21.19.‘Hast thou killed and also gotten Possession?’

THat a Rich man, that a Good man should be made first a De­linquent, and then a Malignant, is no news; For the Fact can prescribe time out of mind, even beyond the memory of Christianity.

Yet such a Fact may be suspected, and called in question, whe­ther it be Legal or Illegal, since it hath so bad a Founder as A­chab, and so great a Confounder as God: For it was God that sent Elijah the Tishbite, to meet Achab King of Israel, V. 17.18. with this expostulation, Hast thou killed, and also gotten Possession.

But soft, Is not this Text corrupted or mistaken? for Achab killed not Naboth; rather the False Witnesses that testified against him, or the false Judges that condemned him, or Jesabel that commanded both to be done, and him to be stoned.

Truely they had their Guilt and Punishment▪ yet as if they had been but Accessories, Achab is pickt out for the Murtherer, because without his Seal to the Letter, & his Covetousness after the Vineyard, Naboth had not been markt out for a Delinquent, nor put to death for a Malignant; Nor had Achab received this Increpation from God by the hand of Elijah, Hast thou killed, and also gotten Possession? In handling of which words, I shall observe;

  • 1. Two Persons.
  • 2. Two things belonging to each Person.

The two Persons are,

  • 1. The true Malignant, Achab.
  • 2. The pretended Malignant, Naboth.

1. In the pretended Malignant, I look upon the two Causes Why he was so pretended:

  • 1. He was a Rich man, & would not part with his Inheritance.
  • 2. He was a Good man, & would not yield to an Arbitrary Go­vernment.

2. In the True Malignant, I look upon the two Causes that so Branded him:

  • 1. His Murther, Anoccideris? Hast thou killed?
  • 2. His theft, (you may call it Plunder or se­questration) Ac etiam jure haeriditario pos­sidias? and hast thou gotten Possession?

Of these, God willing, orderly, and first of the first; The pre­tended Malignant, Naboth.

Naboth hath three Significations.

  • 1. It signifies Conspicuus, visible; and so he was a Delinquent and a malignant, de Fronte, for his honesty.
  • 2. It signifies Sessio, stable, and so he was a Delinquent, and a Malignant, de pede, for his Constancy.
  • 3. It signifies Exclusio, expelled, and so he was a Delinquent, and a Malignant, de Facto, and sequestred both from his liveli­hood and Life▪

But for a man visibly honest, whose Heart and thoughts you may read in his Face and Front, without fraud or guile; For a man unmoveably constant, whose Persevera [...]ce in honesty keeps company with his Life, without halt or Apostacy; For a man who will not part with the sincerity of his Intentions, nor the In­tegrety of his Actions, for the Frowns of Kings or fear of death; For such a man to be made a Delinquent, and under sequestration [Page 107]to be made a Malignant, and put to Death, me thinks is some­what strange and Illegal.

It is strange indeed, but indeed it is true too, de Facto, that he was served so, though not true, de merito, that he deserved so.

It was Illegal too, against Law, and without president, yes, a­gainst old Lawes and former Presidents; But a new Law may come forth by an Ordinance, upon a day of Humiliation, under a Privy Signet, by the subtilty of Jesabel, which signifies Cove­tousness; as you may read in this Chapter.

Jesabel wrote Letters in Achabs name, and Sealed them with his Seal, and sent the Letters to the Elders, and to the Nobles, Ver. 8. that were in his City dwelling with Naboth.

And she wrote in the Letters, saying, Proclaim a Fast, and set Naboth among the Chief of the People. Ver. 9.

And two wicked men before him,Ver. 10. and let them witnesse against him, saying, Thou didst blasphem God and the King; then carry him out, and stone him that he may dy.

And the reason of all this is double; 1. Because Naboth was a Rich man, and would not part with his Inheritance; which is my second Consideration, and prima, primae.

So you have it in the 2. and 3 verses, Naboth had a Vineyard by the Kings Pallace; Achab desires it for a Garden of Hearbs; 1a. 1ae. but he would not part with it because it was the Inheritance of his Fathers.

In Riches there is a Felicity, and an Infelicity; Happiness and misery both in Riches.

Happiness because Wealth gets a man esteem in the World: Misery because it gets a man Envy in the World; Happiness because it enables a man to do good in the W [...]ld▪ Misery be­cause it tempts a man to do mischief in the World; Happiness because a Man may make Friends by the Mammon of Iniquity; [Page 108]Misery because commonly Mammon is the Friend of iniquity; Happiness because many times it frees a man from the stroak of Justice; Misery because many times it lays a man obnoxious to stroak of Injustice.

For what made Naboth a Delinquent, and put him under a Se­questration, but onely because he had a Vineyard too near the Kings House, and he was a Rich man?

Benedixit Deo et Regi, He blasphemed God and the King was but a Forgery, and a meer pretence of Jezabels, as you may per­ceive in the Context.

Set two wicked men before him, and let them Witnesse against Him, Ver. 10. saying, Thou didst Blaspheme GOD and the KING; where you see Wicked men subborn'd to bear false Witnesse; and therefore yon know it was a meer For­gery.

The true Cause you may read in the other Context; Then Jesabel said unto Him, Ver. 7. (to her Husband Achab) Doest thou now Governe in Israel? Up, eat Bread, and be of good chear; I will give thee the Vineyard of Naboth the Iz­reelite.

Naboths Vineyard lay fit for Achabs Pleasure; and fit there­fore upon refusal to make him a Delinquent.

And indeed, had Naboth abused his Vineyard unto Drun­kennesse, he had merited the name of a Delinquent; For Drunkennesse is one of those Seaven deadly sinnes, which brings a Deliquium upon a Man, and ranges him under a Delinquency; because by the Commission of that sin, he does Delinquer [...] Hominem, cease to be a Man, and becomes a Beast.

For this sin, this very sin of Drunkenness, Noah became a Delinquent, and so did L [...]t; and one of Noahs Children, Cham by name, and Lots two incestuous Children, Moab and Ammon, lay under a Sequestration for many hundred years.

But alas! Naboth had no such fault laid to his charge; All the guilt I find him stained with, is; 1. He was a Rich man, and would not part with his Inheritance: 2. He was a Good man, and would not yield to an Arbitrary Government.

Secunda Primae.Which is my Secunda Primae, and my Third Consideration, and thus begins: That a Rich man should be made a Delinquent, is no great wonder; no, not in a well governed Kingdom, for it is possible, there may be ill Governours in a well governed King­dom, Justices and such subordinate Magistrates, who from some Puny Divines may suck in false Doctrine, and believe, That Gods temporal Blessings, and the Goods of this world belong onely to themselves, because Dominium fundatur in Gratiâ, non Natu­râ, none but the Babes of Grace have right to the blessings of the Earth.

But for a Good man to be made a Delinquent, quâ talis, be­cause he is a Good man; This certainly argues the Kingdom to be very bad, the Government to be ill, and the Governours to be worst of all; which seldom happens in any but an Apostate King­dom, where the Subjects have resisted their true Governours, and parted with their Allegiance under the Pretence of Religion, but in truth, for Rebellion and Licentiousness; And such was the state of Israel at this time,1 Reg. 12.20. Jereboam the son of Nebat rebel­led against Rehoboam the Son of Solomon; and by that Rebellion got ten parts of the twelve,1 Reg. 15.29. and his Race was finished and expired in his son, and next Successor Nadab; For Baasha smote them all, and left none alive to Jeroboam.

Elah his son Reigned in his stead; and Zimri served him [Page 110]with the same sauce, and slew all the house of Baasha, 1 Reg. 16.6. not leaving one to piss against the Wall.

Omri succeeded him by a like Legerdemain, onely he had the compact of the major part of the people, 1 Reg. 9.11. V. 16. and Achab his son succeeded him.

By the way I beseech you mark, The Kingdom thus got by Re­bellion, first changed their Religion and their Clergy; 1 Reg. 12.27. For whereas before the People exercised their Religion in the House of God at Hierusalem, now they exercised it to two Golden Calfes in the house of the High Places, and the the lowest of the People took upon them the Priests Office, and became, as a man might say,V. 31. Tub-preachers.

Next, This Kingdom thus gotten by Rebellion, changed the Peoples Prosperity into Poverty, their Liberty into Slavery, and dasht out the Magna Charta of Meum & Tuum, so that no man could say, Any thing was his own; For Naboth was therefore made a Delinquent, because he layd claim to his Vine­yard, which came to him by the Inheritance of his Fathers, and would not part with it at the will of his King: i.e. Because he was a Rich man, and would not part with his Estate; because he was a Good man, and would not yield to an Arbitrary Go­vernment.

And good reason for it; For in an Arbitrary Government, as was singularly well observed in the late long Regnant never to be forgotten Parliament, by that man of Noted M [...]mory, Mr. John Pym; Lust becomes a Law; Covetousness becomes a Law; Revenge hecomes a Law; and every sin becomes a Law.

What his Intention was in that Speech, I list not to enquire here; but sure I am, herein he spake truth; For when it once comes to this pass, stat pro ratione voluntas, when one mans will becomes every mans Law, why then the Chaste Wife, and Pure [Page 111]Virgine are ravisht before the face of the miserable Husband, and more miserable Parent; Neutroque contradicente, neither the Husband able to relieve the Wife, nor the Father to rescue his Daughter, from that Villany.

This was rhe case of pittiful Uriah, who durst not relieve Bathsheba, and of the more pittiful Absolon, who could not re­scue his Sister Thamar against the wilful lust of David and Ammon.

When one mans will is every mans Law; why then the goodli­est Cities are set on flaming fire, and turn'd to Dust and Ashes, Nemine abstante, the Citizens not daring, or altogether unable to resist the ambitious Conquerour.

This was the case of the most pious City Jerusalem, and of the most famous City Troy, the one rased to the ground by the Ro­mans, the other level'd to the earth by the Greecians; and the deplorable Motto to this day stands, Jam seges est ubi Troja fuit [...] The Corne grows where Troy stood.

When one mans Will is every mans Law, Why then there is no Charter nor Freedom of the People, no distinction of the Magi­strate and the Plebeian.

This was Englands case once, when Cade, Straw, and Tyler durst beard the King, and give Laws from their wills; It was Englands case again, when John Hambden, John Pym, Oliver Crumwel, and such other Patriots, had a greater Influence upon the People then King Charles I. I pray God it be not Englands case again in King Charles the seconds time, least the Nobles and Peers of this Land, be perpetually made the scorn of Coblers' Tinkers and Taylors.

When one mans will becomes every mans Law, Why then, All Priviledges, All Immunities cease, and cease to every man, save to him, whose Power is equal to his Will; The Crown is trampled [Page 112]upon, the Mytre is thrown to the Dunghil, The Garter is laid in the Dirt; No Law but Power and Lust▪ No Justice but spoile and Rapine; No Religion but Schism and Heresy.

T [...]i, was Englands case once, when Henry III in the Barons Wars at the Battle of Lewis in Sussex was overthrown by them. I pray God the Issue of that may be Englands case again; when not long after at the battle of Eversham in Worstershire, the King defeated the Barons, became the Conqueror, & rid his Neck from the yo [...]k of the Twelve Peers, that had been put upon him, and had long time been grievous to Him, and to the whole Kingdom.

For whosoever parted not with his inheritance to their side; and yeilded not to their Arbitrary Government, was presently made a pretended Delinquent, and brought under a Sequestration for his Estate; and a pretended Malignant, and brought under an Execution for his Life; whereas in truth They themselve▪ were all the while the true Delinquents, and the true Malignants; which is my second general part, in the Person of Achab.

And what signifies Achab? Pars 2. I find but one signification of his Name; and that is Frater Patris, The Fathers Brother; Nor can I in this signification, fasten upon him the Truth of malig­nancy, unlesse it be in the Poets transposition and observation; Fratrum quoque gratia rara est, The Love, the Friendship, the courtesie of Brethren, is a very rare thing in this World, and sel­dom to be seen.

And in this sense, I find the first & eldest Brother in this world a true Malignant, Cain, who pretended Malignity to his Bro­ther Abel, because he se [...]ved God better then himself, and slew him for it; and so were Ten Sons of Jacob, who pretended Ma­lignancy to their Brother Joseph, because Jacob loved him best; because Iacob their Father loved him best, and prescribed Ru­ben.

But this is not an Universal Truth, and therefore I shall not fasten the Title of Malignant upon Achab from the significati­on of his Name, the rather because the Interposition of Non makes the verse false, though the English true,

non Rebus conveniu [...]t nomina saepè suis.

And therefore I shall seek for another Appellation is given him, whereby we may call him the true Malignant, and that is in t [...] first Book of Kings, where it is said, Achab malum in con­ [...]p [...] Domini super omnes qui fuerunt ante [...]um fecit; Achab [...] worse in the sight of the Lord, C. 16. v. 30. then all that were before him.

How! worse then all that were before him! why so I beseech you? An quia Idololatra fuit? Was it because he was an Ido­later? Not so, For Solomon fell into Idolatry. 1 Reg. 11 4

An quia vineam alienam? Or, was it because he took away another mans Vineyard, and did more then Decimate the Royal Party? This indeed was one cause which made him a true malig­nant, but this was not the cause which made him the worst in Gods account; for Jeroboam did Decimate over and over,1 Reg. 12.20. when he took away the whole Kingdom of Israel from the right heir.

An quia unum Naboth injustissimè occidit? Or was it because he put Naboth to death most unjustly? This indeed was another cause which made him a true Malignant; but yet this was not the cause which made him the worst in Gods account; For Saul killed fourscore and five Priests which wore a linnen Ephod in one day. 1 Sam. 28.18.

Why then was Achab accounted the worst of the Kings of Is­rael? Quia plurimis non solúm suppliciis, sed etiam beneficiis excitatus fuerat ad impietatem deserendam, et ad sanctitatem ob­servandam, because God sought to reclaim him by many Punish­ments, [Page 106]and by many Benefits, In li. 1. Reg. cap. 12.11, 12. and yet he still remained obstinate [...] as Mendoza notes, with whom Paulus Burgensis agrees, saying, Magis fuit rebellis, et contumax, có quód tempore suo sloruit He­lias, qui quam plurimis signis et prodigiis ipsum exhortaretur, et tamen semper remansit in abstinatione suâ▪ He was therefore the most wicked, because God by the ministery of Elias would have reclaimed him, but he still remained stubborn.

And with both these agrees St. Ambrose, saying, Debuit intel­ligere quód Helias vero Deo serviebat,In Ps. 35.cùm videbat in verbo Heliae clausum coelum tribus a [...]nis, et trilus mensibus; et ad preces ejus pluvias esse demissas, ut arida omnia rigarentur▪ se [...] [...]oluit intel­ligere; Achab saw Heaven shut up, three years and three Moneths at the word of Helias; and upon his prayers, he saw the Heaven opened; by both whic [...] he might have understood, that Helias served the true God, and therefore he should have repented, but he would not understand: And hereupon my Au­thor concludes him to be the worst of men, because he would not be frighted by Punishments, nor wooed by Favours.

Now lay all these together, He robbed Naboth of his Vine­yard, He robbed Naboth of his life, He despised the Prophets, and would have silenced the Clergy, He was the worst of men; And then tell me, or rather tell your selves, Whether Achab were not the true malignant?

If you ask why? my prima secundae tells you in Quia occide­ri [...]? Hast thou killed? An occideris? An tu occideris? An tu­te occideris? Hast thou killed? Hast thou thy self with thine own hands killed? for so the Prophet intends to bring Achab to the Bar, and to implead him guilty of the murther.

And yet it is not [...], He killed him with his own hands, though Covetousnesse, like wrath be [...], a self Executioner.

But this of Elijah to Achab, is somewhat like that of Nathan [Page]to David; There was the hand of the Ammonite that killed Uriah, there was the hand of Joab that set him in the Fore-front of the Battail, and there was the hand of David that invented and commanded all this; and yet Nathan past by them, and said to David, Thou hast killed Uriah the Hittite with the Sword.

So here were the false witnesses, who testified against Naboth, and stoned him; here were false and new erected Judges that condemned him, here was Jezabel the Queen who commanded this, and here was Achab the King whose Seal gave Authority to all this; and yet Elijah past by all the rest, and said to Acha [...] only, Hast thou killed? i. e. Thou hast killed.

Thou who shouldst have been [...], the Shepherd and feeder of my People, art [...], the Pest and Butcher of my People: Thou who shouldst have been Pater patriae, thy Peoples Father, art Lanio thy Peoples Killer: Thou who mightst have in some cases, Tondere, fleece and clip thy Subjects wooll, didst what in no case thou shouldst do, Deglubere, flawe and shed thy good Subjects blood.

But is it not lawful to kill! why?2a. 2a. that my secundae secundae shall tell you; and it tells you, It is lawful for some men to kill in some Cases; but it is not lawful for any man to murther in any Case.

Clamitat in Goelum vox sanguinis; Murther is the first and loudest crying sin of the four; and who dare say, It is lawful to have a Scritch-owle in ones Conscience.

Diabolum habet Patrem, The Devil is the Father of it, as ap­pears by that Increpation of Christ upon the Jewes, when he told them, They were of their Father the Devil, who was a murtherer from the beginning. Et quis occidit? John 8.44. And who dares say, It is lawful to be the Devils Son?

The Discoveries of it are many and wonderful, commonly the [Page] Wound, it self bleeds a fresh in the Presence of the Murtherer, and in a manner cryes out for vengeance;Apoc. How long Lord, how long dost thou cease to be avenged?

Jacob would not part with God without a blessing, I will not let thee go except thou blesse me. Gen. 32.16. Murther will not part with God without a curse; The voice of thy Brothers Blo [...]d cryeth out unto me from the ground, Gen. 4.10. and now thou art cursed from the Earth. Et quis occidet? and who dares say, It is lawful to deserve a [...]urse?

Murther is most severely punished of all other sins; Adams sin was not so severely punished as was Cains, For the Earth yielded her strength to Adam upon his good h [...]sbandry, but to Cain, though he did till the Earth, it did not; Adam for all his sin had leave to eat his bread in the sweat of his face; Gen. 3.18. but Cain was a vagabond, Gen. 4.12. & had neither leave nor leasure to eat his bread.

In a word, Murther is a sin against Nature; For Omnia ap­petunt esse, Nature seeks her own preservation; Murther de­prives her of it.

It is a Beastly sin, Ferina Rabies est sanguine et vulnere de­lectari, None but Beasts delight in Bloud.

It seeks to annihilate God, and to destroy his very Essence; In the Image of God, God made man: and therefore he that kills man unlawfully, does the best he can to kill God.

As Phydias painted the Image of Minerva, and his own so cunningly together, that be said, whosoever should marr the Image of Minerva, should marr the Image of Phydias: and whosoever should marr the Image of Phydias, should marr the Image of Minerva: so hath God so place his Image in man, that whatsoever defaceth his Image defaceth man, and whosoe­ver killeth man, killeth his Image.

The Image of God, I confesse, is in the Soul, tanquam in pro­prio [Page]objecto, and that cannot be killed; yet it is in the Body too, you will not deny, tanquam in Orga [...]o, and in the Blood, tanquam in copula, et per concomitantiam, both which are destroyed by Murther: And because the Soul depends upon the Sences, and the Sences upon the Vital Spirits, and the Vital Spirits are carried by the Blood, Therefore he that taketh away the Bloud, causeth the Vital Spirits to fail; He that takes away the Vital Spirits, causes the Sences to fail He that takes away the Sences, causeth the Reasonable Faculty to fail, and he that causeth that to fail, destroyeth the Image of God, & so doth every Murtherer, and so did Achab.

Achab the Magistrate, the King, did better acquaint himself with θ to take away life against his Duty, then with ζ to pre­serve life, which was his Duty; And that which adds [...]o his sin, he did not do it by [...] interficiendo, which a King may in some cases do; but by [...], Trucidando▪ which a King may not do in any case.

No may [...] might not Achab a King, shed blood? yea, he might, so he did it as he might; and there are 4 grounds that make it lawful.

Si ex just [...] causâ, If the occasion be just, 1 and the Crime so re­quires; I instance in this particular, whosoever shedeth mans blood, by man shall his blood be shed; Gen. 9.6. not that every man may be his own Judg; but in necessitate instanti, as Moses tells us, If a thief be breaking up a house, in the dark, and he be smitten that he dye, In this case God requires not the shedding of blood for him.Exod. 22.2.

The same Rule holds in the defence of our lifes, when it once comes to this push, either kill or be killed; else if there be not a Necessity, an Absolute Necessity, It is unlawful; Nay, though there be a Necessity, an Absolute Necessity, yet in some Cases, it is not lawful; I propose the Case of Duels, Rebels, Tyrants.

  • 1. Duels, that for private Revenge shed the Blood of Peace in War.
  • 2. Rebells, that for Publick Revenge shed the Blood of War in Peace.
  • 3. Tyra [...]ts that for publick or private Revenge shed the Blood of Innocence, by turning Peace into War; no pretence whatsoe­ver can make shedding of Blood lawful in these cases.

To affect Magnanimity is Heroical and lawful; but to forget Christianity is Diabolical and unlawful, let Duellists remember Cain, Gen. 4. Kill and Despair.

To affect Liberty is Generous and Lawful but to purchase it by disloyalty is odious & unlawful; Let Rebels remember Corah, Absolon, Num. 16.2 Sam. Rom. 13.1. Sheba, Resist the Powers of God, and receive damna­tion.

To settle Crowns becomes Kings, and argues spirit; but to do it by Cruelty and Injustice, becomes not Kings, and argues an evil spirit; Let Tyrants remember Pharaoh, Achab, He [...]od, secure their Crowns by Blood, and loose their Souls for ever.

The King himself sins, if he kills sine justâ causâ It was King Achabs fault; For what cause in Naboth that he should be kil­led? Capiat qui capere potest.

And secondly, 2 Si sine ordinariâ potestate, If his Power be not Good and Right, and such Power is only in the Magistrate in the Supream Magistrate, and such as are delegated from him; None but the Supream hath the Sword borne before him; No may he for all that Sword take away every mans life.Rom. 13. The life of the Innocent he may not; the life of Malefactors he may and must.

Solomon was not Reus homicidi [...], guilty of murther for shed­ding Adonijahs, though his Brothers Blood, because he was a [Page 119] Malefactor, the worst of Malefactors a Rebel; But Achab was guilty of Murther for shedding Naboths blood, though his Sub­ject, because Naboth was Innocent, and guilty of nothing that we read of, but his Inheritance, which made him a Delinquent, and merited a sequestration; and his goodness, in not yielding to an Arbitrary Government, which made him a Malignant, and merited a Trucidation.

And thirdly, Is he guilty of murther who kills sine justo ordine, 3 without true proceedings; and herein was Achab guilty again; Due proceedings, I confesse, he observed by way of Formality; For the Court was erected, and Naboth was Arraigned; but Due proceeding there was not for want of Reality; For it was a new Court, not a true Court of Justice that was erected: Had the Execution issued without any Conviction, it had been Judicium temerarium, a Rash Judgment; but because the Execution issued upon a Formal Conviction only, it was Judicium hypocriticum, a false Judgment; and therefore doth this man of God, Elijah from the God of man, question him for it, and charge him with it, saying, An occideris? Hast thou killed? i. e. Thou hast mur­thered [...].

And fourthly, He was guilty of murther in killing Naboth, 4 Quia non ex recto animo for want of Regular intention; For a King inflicting Death upon true proceeding & a just Cause, may yet be guilty of murther, when he doth it rather, Ex libidine irae, Timoris, Vindictae, Avaritiae then ex amor [...] Justitiae, more for Revenge, for Anger, for Fear, for Convetousnesse, then for Justice, And three of these Vices were very eminently in Achab.

  • 1. He desired Naboths Vine-yard; There was his Covetous­nesse.
  • 2. He was displeased with Naboth for denying his Vine-yard; there was his A [...]ger.
  • [Page 120]3. And then He engrossed his Covetousnesse, and reak'd his Anger, by murthering of Naboth; There was his Revegene.

And now, Beloved, Judge your selves, who was the true Ma­lignant, Naboth that was murthered, or Achab who murthered him.

But withal, Judge again; If the murthering of Naboth but a Subject, made Achab a Malignant, though a King; whether then Naboth, the Subject, had not been a Malignant, if he had murthered Achab the King, though a bad King? Certainly the Position holds more strongly A majore adminus, then a minore admajus.

And if you add to the murther of Naboth, the Plundring, the sequestring and robbing of Naboth, It is too evident, That A­chab was a very great Malignant.

Which is my tertia secundae, 3a. 2ae. and last Consideration in these words; An etiam jure haeredita [...]io possèdisti? Hast thou killed, and also taken possession? i. e. Thou hast killed, and that was e­nough to make thee a Malignant; but thou hast yet done more, Thou hast also taken possession, i. e. Thou hast robbed, robbed not only the Father and the Husband, but also the Wife and Chil­dren, and this makes thee the greater Malignant.

The words are worth your marking; For it is Jure haeredita­rio possèdisti, It is not, Impetivisti, Thou hast made an Invasion, like a Thief; but, Thou hast taken Possession, like an Heire; and yet thou hast no right to it, no Inheritable right.

A man may have a Title to what he doth not as yet Possessè, and a man may wrongfully Possesse what he hath no Title to.

Naboth had a Title to his Vineyard; It was, saith he, the Inheritance of my Fathers; At length, Achab possest it, without any Title, for ought I know, I am sure without any law­ful or just Title, unlesse perhaps, It were some new Law in that [Page 121]Apostate Kingdom, That the Husband should succeed him, whom the wife had murthered; or, the Son should succeed him, whom the Father hath murthered; or, the Lievetenant should succeed him whom the General had murthered; The General should suc­ceed him whom the President had murthered.

And therefore doth the Prophet here increpate, and chide him for it, saying, Hast thou killed, and also taken possession? Hast thou broken two Commandements at once? the sixth by murther, and the eighth by theft? For theft or stealing is the taking away another mans Goods against his will; whether it be by unlawful getting, or by unjust detaining; or as the Schoolmen speak, In ablato, or In deposito.

And Achab was guilty of every branch in this Definition of theft; because he took away Naboths Vine-yard against his will, by an unlawful Ablation, and kept away Naboths Vine-yard, by an unlawful Detention; Nor was there any way to excuse his will or to ease his Conscience, whatsoever.

Not the consent of the Absolute and Supreme Lord; for the Egyptians could not complain of the Israelites for theft, 1 though they took away their Jewels and Ear-rings, without their consent, and against their will, because God himself, who was the Abso­ute and Supreme Lord, both consented to it, and commanded it; and there it is very Emphatical, in the Original, where it is said Vaniat Zelu Eth Mizrajim, They spoyled the Egyptians, Exod. 12.36. q.d. They had as good right to those Jewels, as Soldiers in a lawful War, have to the spoyl of their enemies.

But here Naboth the Inferiour Lord, consented not; Nay, he denied it; and God the Superiour Lord disallowed it; yes▪ and condemned it; and therfore sent his great Prophet Elijah, with this Increpation, Hast thou killed, and also taken Possession? Was it not enough for the to play the Murthe [...]er, but thou must also play the Thief.

Nor Secondly, had he any Necessity to excuse him in the sup­ply of his wants; For in Necessity, Absolute necessity, it is not Theft, though a man take his Neighbours goods away against his consent: because Division of goods was brought in after the Fall; whereas before the Fall all things were common, and the Second must give place to the First, Institution, in the Case of a Mans extream Necessity to save his life; and therefore as before the Fall every man might take as much as would suffice him, without wrong to another: so in extream necessity, a man may take as much of another mans goods, as will supply his wants, without the Owners consent, and not be guilty of Theft.

This is implyed in the Law given by Moses, which though it be in it self Judicial and Judaical, yet the Morality of it belongs to and lyes upon us.

A man might go into his Neighbours Vine-yard, and eat as many Grapes as he pleased▪ and this he might do Jure charitatis by the Right of Charity; but he might not carry any away with him, because he had not Jus proprietatis, any Right of propriety.

This is also exemplified in David, 1 Sam. 21. who in his Necessity are, the Shew-bread to satisfy his Hunger; Mat. 12. and this is alleadged by Christ to justify his Disciples for pulling the Ears of Corne.

By all which it appears, That Christians may do the same; But Achab had no excuse of Necessity, and therefore no Jus charita­tis to Naboths Vine-yard, and Dominium unius rei penes plures in s [...]lidum jura non patiuntur, say the Jurists; The Law suffers not many to have the Absolute Dominion of one thing.

Much lesse had he Jus proprietatis in it, because Naboths Plea of Inheritance to it, was no way dissolved; & therefore was Achab guilty of theft, as well as of Murther, which made this great Pro­phet thus increpate him; Hast thou killed, & also taken possession?

Nor thirdly, had he any Prescription to excuse him in this [Page 123] Case; For Praescriptio est adjectio Dominii per continuationem Possessionis a lege definiti; Prescription is a long continuation of Possession, which the Law presumeth equivalent to the tacite con­sent of the former Possessor, says Modestenus, and truly.

Therefore did Jepthe plead a right Title to that Land for the Israelites, by Prescription, because they had possest it for 300 years, or as we speak here in England, Judg. 11.12.13. Time out of mind.

Now then to draw this Argument to a conclusion, we joyne issue, thus; because Achab had neither Gods commandement for his Warrant, nor the Law of Nature for his Necessity; nor the tacite consent of Naboth for his Prescription; He was therefore guilty of theft for taking away Naboths Vine-yard: and because guilty of theft, a Milignant.

And now Beloved, as in the former, so I say again, Judge your selves, If Robbing of Naboth, but a Subject, male Achab a Malignant, though a King; Whether then, Naboth the Subject had not been a Malignant, if he had robbed Achab the King, though a bad King.

And this day, the 30th of January will yearly remember them to be the true Delinquents and Malignants, who robbed King Charls, and murthered King Charls; whether their Names were Fairfax, or Ireton, or Whaley, or Pride, or Baxter or Bra [...] ­shaw, or whosoever else; especially Cromwel, because after he had kill'd, he took possession; For you, for my self, and all Loyal Sub­jects I pray.

From robbing and murthering, either our Superiours or Infe­riours, God deliver us, and encline our hearts to keep these two Lawes, Thou shalt not kill, Thou shalt not steale, that neither our Neighbours goods, nor blood may cry for vengeance, or bring Judg­ments upon us here, or hereafter, for Jesus Christ his sake▪ Amen, Amen, Amen.

Anno Dom. 1655.

1 Cor. 9.16.‘Necessity is laid upon me, and wo be to me, if I preach not the Gospel.’

GOD did once open the mouth of an Asse to teach a Pro­phet his duty;Num. so merciful is God, that rather then a Prophet should miscarry in his Duty, an Asse shall teach it him; But now the Prophets mouths are shut, that they may not teach men their Dutys; so merciless is man, that rather then men shall learn their Duties, the Prophets mouths shall be muzzelled.

I pray God, this be not a sad Omen of more miserie then we have already felt, two ways; 1. That the shutting of our Mouths, whereby we might be kept from starving, be not the wounding of your Souls, Rom. whereby you may be kept from Believing; For how shall you believe without hearing? and how shall you hear without preaching? and how shall we preach, if we be not sent? if we be shent when we go, being sent about our Masters errant, to preach.

But 2. I pray God, this silencing the Clergy do not prove a worse Omen then the starving of your Souls, even the darkening of your Souls here, and the sending of them into darkness here­after, at the least, the Souls of your innocent Posterity.

For how shall they, when the Orthodox and lawful Clergy are silenced from preaching, ever learn to acknowledge the Articles of their Faith, and particularly that one most necessary Article of the Trinity, 1 Joh. 5.7. since there is but one Logical Text in the whole Bible that proves it? Many Symbolical Texts there are that [Page 125]shew it, but only one Logical Text, I say, that proves it; And when we are silenced, both from preaching and reading the Com­mon Prayers, in which Book the Creed of Athanasius is the only Piece that expounds that Logical text of the Bible, (the Hete­rodox Clergy never or seldom troubling themselves with that Master-piece of Faith) How shall your Posterity learn to be­lieve in a Trinity in unity, and in an Unity in Trinity! God di­vert it.

But if you observe Gods works, you will find them all, and a­mongst them all, his Judgements to be done in Number, Weight, and Measure; when he resolves to punish a People for their crying sins, He commonly begins at their Bodys, and either di­vides their Civil Governours, as in the case of Rehoboam the law­ful King, and Jeroborm the usurping King of the Jewes; and with such a Civil Division commonly arises a Spiritual Division, and the lowest of the People are made, or make themselves Priests, and wrest the word of God, to successful Principles; yet there was then an Orthodox Priesthood remaining, to maintaine the Purity of Gods Word and Worship, and happy are the People that are converted then.

But if they go on still, and side one with another, and having made an Head, justle out the Truth, and the Prophets may no more preach at Bethel, because it was the Kings Court, nor in Jerusalem, because it was the Metropolis, the Chief City, end the Kings Chamber.

Though the Judgment of taking away Kings e [...]eavy, (and we have felt it) yet the next is heavier, when the Judgment rises so high, as to take away the Priests too; And therefore as the Church was wont to pray; From Famine, Plague, Pestilence, Battail, Murther and suddain death, Good Lord deliver us: so answerably I pray now, From suddain death, Murther Bat­taile, [Page 126]Pestilence, Plague and Famine, but especially, From the Fa­mine of the Word, Good Lord deliver us: Amos the Prophet makes that the greater Judgement; and God deliver you from it.

For it any of you do think, there lyes no Necessity upon you so hear us preach; yet I think there lyes a Necessity upon us, and wo be to us if we preach not the Gospel, That's the Text, and in it I observe;

  • 1. The Duty, To preach the Gospel.
  • 2. The Duty performer, Me, to me; every lawfully ordained Minister, St. Paul was ordained thereunto; and therefore did it; and we that are called thereunto, must do it too.
  • 3. Why must we do it? Necessitatis Causâ, for Neecssity sake?
  • 4. What is that necessity? Why besides other Necessities, which I shall look upon, There is a woful Necessity, if I do it not; Vae mihi.

When I have dispatcht these, I shall by way of Antithesis [...]ook upon the Text another way, not as it is in the Bible, but as [...]t is in the Alchoran; Necessity is laid upon me, and wo be to me if I do not preach the Gospel.

I begin with the first, The Duty, [...]; and what is the Gospel? Pars 1. Why this word Gospel signifies two things;

  • 1. That Sacrifice, which the Heathens, used to offer to their Gods, when they received any good news or tydings; In this sense Cicero takes it, O suaves Epistolas, Quibus Evangelium deberi frater,
    Ad [...] Attic.
    O sweet Epistles! O excellent Letters, which I account worthy of an Evangel; i.e. Of such a Sacrifice.
  • 2. It signifies the bringing of good news; and here Appropri­atly, it signifies the glad tydings of our Redemption by Christ: so says the Angel,
    Luke 2.
    Fear not, [...], For behold I bring you glad tydings, i.e. Good news, then which, there is, [Page 127]there can be no better; For it is of a Pardon to a Condenmed Malefactor, and it is not only to o [...]e, but to All, to all you, To you in the City of David, the Royal City of the Anointed King, is born a Saviour, which is Christ the Lord.

The English Etymology speaks as much; For it is therefore Gospel, quasi Good-spel, or the Charm of the Soul; A Spell, a Charm, like Davids Harp, or rather far better then it, That drove the evil Spirit out of Saul only; but This, the Gospel drives the evil spirits of all our sins out of all our Souls.

A rare thing then it is, and the rarer yet, if you but consider whose Gospel it is; It is sometimes called the Gospel of God, as in the Epistle to the Romans, because He is the Author of it; Rom. 1.1. and sometimes it is called the Gospel of Christ, as in the same Epistle, Rom. 1.16. because he is the subject of it sometimes It is called the Gospel both of God & Christ, not only to distinguish it from Pha­risaical Traditions, which are but Doctrins devised by Men, but also to tell us, It is the only means whereby we may be saved; For if Jesus be the only Name under Heaven, in whom we may be saved, then the Gospel of Christ is the only means under Heaven by which we may be saved. Acts 4

For it is the Grace of God, the only free Grace of God, so free that we deserved it not, that we sought it not, that we desired it not; No, He was found of us when we sought him not, Isa. says the Prophet, I indeed, He found us when we were so far from seeking him, that we ran away from him. If he had not pursued us, with an Adam ubi es, we had never answered with a Deus ubi es tu. Gen. 3.

For it is the Truth of God, the only promised Truth of God, which He promised afore by the mouth of his holy Prophets, which have been since the world began; Luk. as you heard not long since in this place, from a Reverend and Learned Gentleman, for which if there were, no more worth in him,Dr. H. as there is much every man­ner of way, he deserves Honour and Respect.

For it is the Counsel, the chief Counsel of God, whereby He predestinated us to be saved, Eph. Luk. To be saved from our enemies, and from the hands of all that hate us.

For it is the Power of God, the only emphatically revealed Pow­er of God, for salvation unto every one that believeth, to the Jew first, Rem. 1.17. and also to the Gentile.

And the grace of God, the Free grace of God, the Truth of God, the promised Truth of God, the Counsel of God, the Eternall Counsel of God, the Power of God, the only revealed Power of God unto salvation, who will not that lawfully may preach it? who will, who dares deny them to preach it? but of that by and by.

In the mean time, What is to preach? It is not only Docere, to Teach, That may intend to make something known, that was not known before, by a new way of Illumination, which might have proved happy to this Nation, if it had not been Enthusiasted and made known now by a pretended Infusion, but indeed, a De­vilish Illusion; but it is Praedicare, to Preach, i.e. To inculcate matters pertaining to our salvation, by an intended acquisition af­ter the old way, in which they that walk are safe, if you will give credit to the Prophet.

A new way it was and dangerous, which Dioclesian took, when Sustulit Episcopos, he took away Bishops, the Persons of Bishops, whether by the Hatchet, or by the Halter, by Fire and Faggot, by Men or Beasts, or by Beasts in the shape of Men.

A newer way it was, and more dangerous, which Julian took when Sustulit Episcopatum, when he took away Episcopacy, and the very Office of Bishops, as a needlesse thing, whether by Sacri­ledge or for Avarice, whether by prophanness or for wantonness having cloyed themselves with that Heavenly Manna, or willing to glut themselves and fill their Purses with that Aurum Tholo­sanum, and Heavenly Treasure.

Sure I am as Wise and Conscientious a Lord, as this latter Age brought forth, forbad his Posterity to reap the First Fruits, E. Strafford Tythes or Holy ground, for fear of an after-clap; and sure I▪ am, as Wise and Pious a King as the Christian world ever had, [...] pag. 103. who said, He had rather live on the Churches Almes, than vio­lently take the bread out of the Bishops and Ministers mouths.

And therefore it is the Newest and most dangerous way, which some men since, at this very time have cook, O. C. with his Counsel, when sustulerunt Clericatum, They took away the Execution of their Function from the Clergy, and musselled the mouths of all the Orthodox and Lawful Clergy of the Land.

Would you see what belongs to this New and Dangerous way of Dioclesians; to this Newer and more Dangerous way of Julians; to this Newest and most Dangerous way of Cromwell. Take it in Three Curses, Gods Curse, a Kings Curse, and an Ecclesia­stical Curse.

  • 1. Gods Curse is set down by Moses thus, Smite thorow the loins of them that rise against Levi,
    Deut. 33.11.
    and of them that hate him, that they may rise no more; It is Gods Curse, this; and it is a fearful Curse, a Curse for this life, they dye suddenly or vio­lently; So did Dioclesian; so did Julian; and it is a Curse for the next life, they dye Eternally, without a great deal of Repentance, which God Almighty send them whom it concerns.
  • 2. The Kings Curse is King Jua's,
    Anno 725.
    Quisquis hujus meae mu­nificentiae testamentum quovis deinceps tempore, &c. and it is as sad Curse, for the sense of it is,
    Sr. Henry Spel.
    Whosoever, upon what cause or occasion soever, shall rob the Church or Church-men, of what was collated upon them by his Royal munificence, let him be condemned with Judas, to the Flame of Hell: But my Zeal is not so hot, and therefore I pray for them that are in this way guilty of Juda's sin, God Almighty give them both Juda's Re­pentance, [Page 130]to make Restitution, and St. Peters Repentance to keep them from Confusion.
  • 3. The Ecclesiastical Curse is this, as it is recorded by Ra­scall;
    Tit. Excom.
    By the Authority of Almighty God, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost, we excommunicate, accurse, and from the benefits of our Holy Mother the Church, we sequester all those, that willingly and maliciously deprive or spoil the Church of her Rights; and all those that by any craft, or wiliness, do violate, break, diminish, or change the Church-liberties, and free Cu­stoms, contained in the Charter of the Common Liberties; we also excommunicate, &c.

This is the Ecclesiastical Curse, and it is both a sad and fearful Curse: But I am not for Cursing, I am for Preaching the Gos­pel; and therefore I pray and say, God forgive them who have prohibited the Clergy, the Lawful Clergy to Preach, and dissolve that prohibition; and till then, whether it be fit to obey God or man, judge ye, since wo be to me if I Preach not the Gospel, I.

It is my second Consideration; Pars 2. The Duty performer, me, I, wo be to me, if I, St. Paul personally, and every lawfully ordained Minister successively.

St. Paul was chosen to it; St. Paul was separated to it; se­parate me Barnabas and Saul, Act. 9.15. Act. 13.2. Rom. 1.1. 1 Cor. 1. called them; St. Paul was called and appointed to it, and in this Epistle is the very same, St. Paul called to be an Apostle of Jesus Christ through the Will of God: St. Paul himself, nor none other of the Apostles durst Preach, until they were called; and being called, they durst not but Preach.

They, the Apostles, in their Calling, had something confer­red upon them personally, and peculiar to themselves; and some other things which generally concern all their Successors, viz. Bi­shops primarily, and other Inferiour Priests, and Pastors secon­darily.

They, the Apostles, had an immediate Calling from Christ, in Person; Our Calling is, though not of men, yet by men; Theirs neither of men, nor by men; They had an Universal Mission, an unlimitted jurisdiction, and an Infallible Assistance of the Spirit the gift of Tongues, to speak several Languages, and the gift of Miracles, to do many supernatural works.

And all these were Extraordinary Priviledges, and did not out-live their Persons, were not entailed to their Successors; But the Warrant of their Commission, and the Work of their Commission, generally and equally belongs to us with them; None may usurp the charge of a Bishop, or Inferiour Minister, until a Necessity be laid upon them, and when Necessity is laid upon them, then wo be to him that lays it by, and Preaches not, or takes it off, and will not suffer him to Preach; But of that anone: In the mean time, I beseech you give me leave, to commend unto you two Lessons, of some, if not great Impor­tance, and worthy of your Consideration, and mine own.

First, The Authour of all lawful Vocation to the Ministry, Nota. is the Lord Christ; Onely Christ, I say, Exclusively to all men, not to the two other Persons in the glorious Trinity, which all e­qually concur to this External Work; God the Father placed in the Church, Apostles, Prophets, Teachers, &c.1 Cor. 12.28. Act. 13.2. Ghost commanded, saying, Separate me Paul and Barnabas for the Work whereunto I have called them: and God the Holy Ghost it was that ordained the Bishop of Ephesus: Act. 20.28. Indeed, To whom else can it belong? The Harvests Gods; Mat. 9.38. Mat. 14 48 The Clergy are but Labourers; and they may not go before they are called. The Church is Gods House; The Clergy are but Stewards in that House, and no man may dare to take that Office before it be given him.

Secondly,Nota 2. Ministers of the Gospel must have their Power and [Page 132] Placing from Heaven; Nor is he now a Lawful Minister or Messenger from Heaven, who is not sent and called by God and the Church; St. Paul in my Text did not intrude himself into this Commission, he did not assume this Holy Office, until Christ laid upon him the necessity to Preach; and little less than Antichristian is he, that forbids such to Preach.

The Calling necessary to every Lawful Pastor at this day is twofold: 1. One Inward from God: 2. Another outward from the Church.

The Inward Calling is that, whereby God [...]eacheth the Heart of a man with an holy desire, to consecrate himself to the Ser­vice of his House, and enables him by his Grace to edifie his Church by Word and Work.

The Principal Evidences of this Calling are two: 1. The Testimony of a mans own Conscience, that he enters not into holy Orders for any Carnal or by-respects, but onely, or chiefly to honour God, by his Labours: And secondly, a Competent measure of Learning and Piety, of Zeal and Discretion, of Wisdom and Elocution, and such other gifts as are requisite to the discharge of so high an Office.

The Reason is plain; Gods Sending and Gifting go still toge­ther; He sends not to his People either Headless or Heartless Messengers, but men of Science and Conscience; and when He calls us, he either finds us, or makes us fit for his Service.

A Minister grosly ignorant, or Scandalously prophane, goes upon his own Errand; God never sent him, Christ never laid a Necessity upon him to Preach the Gospel: How can they Preach except they be sent, sayes the Apostle? They must have Skill and Power, Rom. 10.15. else they may not Preach; without Skill cannot; without Power they may not: If they want these they are of them whom God complains of by his Prophet, Jer. 23.21. I have [Page 133]not sent these Prophets, and yet they run: But God enters not, nor entertains any Voluntiers into his Clerical Army; and He is so far from accepting or appointing that Voluntary Service, which they force upon him, that He seldom punishes any sin more Severely or Exemplarily then this saucy, if not Sacrile­gious Intrusion; Uzziah, though a King, 2 Chron. 26.18. 2 Sam. 6.6. for putting hand to the Incense, and usurping upon the Priests Office, was suddenly smitten with Leprosie; Uzzah was struck suddenly dead but for touching the Ark, yes, but for peeping into it, 50000. Bethshemites died of the same disease.

It is an holy Function, The Ministry is, and therefore must have a holy Vocation; Christ himself submitted to this Rule; nor did he Preach until he was very solemnly ordained thereto by a voice, from Heaven; He took not this Office upon him, until his Father called him; Mat. 3. nor did the Apostles until Chris called them.

And this Inward Extraordinary Calling was enough for the Apostles; but besides this Inward Calling from God, which may settle ones Conscience, we must have an External Calling from the Church, and be installed or ordained by Publick Solem­nity, before we may adventure upon the Exercise of this holy Service; Our Life and Learning must be gravely and duely examined: The Church of God must approve us, and the Hands of the Bishop must ordain us, and a [...]mit us; else we may not enter upon this holy charge: If we do, we can unlawfully, we go unsafely; and wo be to them that Preach so.

No man may take this honour unto himself, Hebr. 5.4. but he that is cal­led of God, as was Aaron, sayes the Apostle; whosoever he be that thrusts himself into the Ministry, and runs into this Of­fice, when the Lord hath not sent him, as the Prophet speaks, his own Conscience will one day accuse him, and God at the last [Page 134]day will condemn him, when he shall say to him, Friend, how camest thou in hither? Who called thee into the Ministry?

He that enters in like a Fox, by the Window of Craft and Subtilty, as Absalon sought the Kingdom of h [...]s Fa [...]her under the pretence of Justice and Humility, may w [...]ll fear, he shall dye like a Dog, because he that c [...]mes no [...] [...] the door of lawful Admission, is but a Thief and R [...]

If thou wouldst have thy Calling [...] th [...]e, as it is Honourable in it s [...]lf, be sure to have a [...] [...]ion by the Impositio [...] of Episcopal Ha [...]d [...] [...]l Calling, and an Infallible Confirma [...] [...] [...]ing, by the Illumination and Sanctification [...] [...] [...]ost; and when thou hast both these, then look to it [...] thee, if thou dost not Preach; which brings me to [...] [...]hird Conside­ration, the Reason, why we [...] Preach the G [...]el.

Necessitas mihi incumbit; Necessity is laid upon me; The word here used,Pars 3. is [...]; and this word hath diverse signi­fication, especially two.

1. Affliction, Tribulation, Misery or Trouble; so by Saint Paul in this Epistle, I suppose then this to be good for the present Necessity: 1 Cor. 7.26. i.e. Because the Saints are daily subject to many Crosses, and continually tosted up and down by Punishments and Banishments; For this Necessity sake it is good, that they mar­ry not in these dayes; And so it is used by my blessed Saviour, [...], There shall be great di­stress in this Land: Luk. 21.23. Distress, rendred, Necessity; and there­fore Wo be to them that be with child, and give suck in these dayes: And the Reason is, because [...], and [...], in the Greek Idiom, are of the same signification: And St. Augu­stine in his Annotations gives us a very fair Glosse for it, saying, Afflictiones ideo vocantur Necessitates, In Ps. 25.19. quod necesse sit eas usque [Page 135]ad finem tolèrare, ut salvemur; Afflictions are therefore called Necissities, because there is a Necessity upon us to bear them to our lif [...]s end, that we may be saved: But I do confess, This is not the signification of it in this place: For it is not a Mi­sery; no, It is a Glory to Preach the Gospel.

2. [...] is taken by Antithesis and opposition to [...]; So St. Peter, Pascite Dei gregem qui penes vos est, 1 Pet. 5.2. illius inspe­ctioni vacantes, non coactè, sed Libenter: Feed the Flock of God which dependeth upon you, caring for it, not by Constraint (or Necessity) but Willingly (or Freely:) and so St. Paul to Philemon, VVithout thy mind I would do nothing, Philem. 14. that thy be­nefit should not be as it were, [...], of Necessity, but VVillingly: and so again here in my Text, Ne­cessity is laid upon me; i.e. I am trusted, I am commanded: And so I Preach not [...], as a Voluntier, and a man gifted, but [...], as a Pressed and Commanded man; That which I do [...], Freely and Voluntarily, is that I make not use of that Power which I have, to receive and demand maintenance from you for Preaching the Gospel to you; and so St. Augustine expounds it, saying, Potuit beatus Paulus ex Evangelio sibi victinam quaerere; Blessed Paul might get his Food by Preaching; Quod maluit operari, amplius erogabat: In that he chose to labour with his hands, he erogated the more, or did more in Gods service, than by any particular precept was required of him: But that which I do [...], of Duty, is that I Preach the Gos­pel, because the Necessity of a Command from God lyes upon me.

I would to God an Act of Parliament did not lye upon us in these times, now another Act of State lyes upon us; The Act of State forbids us to Preach the Gospel; The Act of Parliament (yet unrepealed) forbids us to enterfeer, or meddle [Page 186]with other Trales then Preaching, You, And the last long Par­liament thought, Preaching the Gospel was work enough for any man to employ himself in; and therefore accounted it a great pru­dence to take all Acts of Magistracy out of the Preachers hands, and to divest them of being so much as a Justice of Peace.

Now lay these together, An Act of Parliament forbids us to work with our hands, An Act of State forbids us to preach with our Tongues: What shall we then do? shall we starve? No, Divine Providence running thorow the Channels of your Cha­rity denies that; and blessed be that Divine Providence by our Acknowledgments; and may the same Devine Providence bless you for your Charity, by our Devotions thorough Jesus Christ; and may the same Divine Providence too bless us with this remembrance, That the Act which forbids us to preach, is but a humane necessity, &, The Act which commands us to preach is, a Divine necessity: & therefore to put on the Apostles courage and resolution, Whether it be fit to obey God or man, let God and man judge: the rather, because,

Wo unto us if we preach not the Gospel, Pars. 4. which is my fourth and last consideration.

The wo here intended is the wrath of God here and hereafter; for this sin of Omission in the Clergy, if they preach not the Go­spel.

But what if this wo be encountred with another wo, wo to us if we preach, says a man of power; Wo to us if we preach not says the God of power, Now which of these Powers shall fear', which shall we obey? Why the Choice will be soon made if we look upon the Differences, 1. Of the Powers. 2. Of the Woes.

1. And first, what Power is that, which says, Wo to us if we preach? Why, It is but a humane Power at most; and if lawful, it is the worst and last of Humane Powers too; For Successive is [Page 137]the first and best, because by way of Inheritance; Donature is the second, and the second best, because by Deed of guift; Ele­ctive is the third, and better than the fourth, which is Martial and the last, and worst: because in the former three God shews a hand of Mercy; but in that of the Sword, God shews nothing but Judgment, or at best, Justice; Now so far as Mercy exceeds Justice: so far doth the Title of Succession, of Donation, of Ele­ction exceed that of the Sword; and So far as the Comparative exceeds the Possitive, and the Superlative the Comparative: so far doth Donation exceed Election: so far doth Election ex­ceed Conquest: and so far doth Succession exceed them all; and the Reason of all is plain; God keeps the Key of Succession in his own hand, Clavis Uteri, They Key of the Womb no hand can turn, but the hand of God. The other Keys, Clavis Donationis, the Key of Donation, God sometimes rents out, to punish the peevish affections of some Princes; and Clavis Electionis, the Key of Election God sometimes lets out, to punish the wanton­nesse of some Subjects; and Clavis Gladii, the Key of Conquest, God sometimes farmes out, to punish the Madnesse of the Peo­ple.

Would ye see this exemplified? Look then upon the Jewes in Rehoboams time, and look upon the English in King Charles his time; The Jewes then thought King Rehoboam loyns too heavy; and therefore they made an Election of Jeroboam, ne­ver dreaming that his little Finger would be heavier, in the Levies of Taxes for the payment of Soldiers, to maintain his usurped Power, and raysing up the basest and lowest of the People to be Priests, and become their Teachers.

The English thought Ship-mony in King Charles his time, to be a Tax unsufferable, and therefore first set up Essex, and found out an easy way of Excise, and the First and Twentieth parts, and [Page 138]a Bankrupt Publick Faith, to maintain a Rebellious Army; and when that would not do, they then set up a New Modelled Ar­my under the command of Fairfax, with a lighter burthen of 60000 li. and 120000 li. the Moneth, to reduce the King to obedience; and then did Cromwell finely juggle him out, and gave himself by deed of Gift the Protaectordom of England, which he hath fairly safe-guarded, by running it into a vast Debt, and silencing the Orthodoxal Clergy, for fear by their Preaching the people might be recovered of their madness, and cherishes in their room an Anabaptistical Sect to keep them still in Bedlam; But in the mean time they forget a Power which is in Heaven, that will e're long laugh all these powers of Earth to scorn, and esta­blish Him whom by Succession he hath assigned, to the Crowns of England, Scotland and Ireland, King Charles II.

But till then, Wo be to us, if we preach, says the Humane power; Wo be to us if we preach not, says the Divine power: and So you see which power, both by Reason and Religion, we should rather obey: And now

2. You may see, which wo, either Mans wo, or Gods wo, we should rather Fear.

1. The wo, which Man threatens us, if we preach, is the wo of imprisonment, and the wo of banishment; The wo of impri­sonment for three Moneths, the first time we preach; The wo of imprisonment for six Moneths, the second time we preach, and he wo of banishment the third time we preach.

Now, may not these woes be borne by us? Certainly they may, if we think upon Joseph in his Prison, or the Jewes in their Banishment; for Gods hand is not shorter now, than it was then, but He can preserve us as well in, and deliver us as well out of prison, as he did Joseph. Nor is his ear heavier now than it was then, but He can as well provide for us in, and restore us from [Page 139] Exile, as He did the Jewes, and bring us back as well as them, to re-build our Church and worship him with our former Reve­verence, Unity and Order.

2. But the wo which God threatens us, if we preach not, is the Wo of the worst Goale, Hell; the Wo of the Banishment from Heaven, and both these Eternal, from which their is no Redemp­tion; and to bear which there is no Ability; For who is able to dwell in those everlasting burnings? Isa.

But then, why do we not preach the Gospel? Why Beloved, It may be we do; For the Pulpet doth not make a Sermon, or if we do not, It proceeds not from fear of either, the Humane power or wo; but because we believe, God will be pleased more with our Obedience, than Sacrifice. Mistake me not, I mean not Obedience to the Power which forbids us to preach, but Obe­dience to the Providence which hath made our silence our punish­ment; and also because we hope and pray that power, which hath all things at his dispose to Restore King Charles the Second, into the Throne of King Charles the First, to Reign as he did Justly and Mercifully, not to be Murthered as he was Barberously and Cruelly: And then Wo be to us if we preach not the Gospel; And as we believe and pray, so be it unto us for Jesus Christ his sake, Amen.

Anno Dom. 1656.

APOCALYPS. 14.13.‘Blessed are the Dead that dye in the Lord, from henceforth, even so faith the Spirit, They rest from their labours, and their workes follow them.’

THis Book is not Apocrypsis, a Covering, but Apocalipsis, a Discovery; and therefore may be lookt into: Were it Apocrypsis, a Concealment, It were only for God; For secret things belong only to God; Deut. But being as it is, Apocalypsis, A Re­vealement, or a Revelation, It is for us, and ours: For things re­vealed belong to us, and to our Children.

In this Book, I confesse, are Multa Mysteria, Many Myste­ryes, and so not fit for vulgar eyes; But in it too are Multae Hystoriae, Many Historys, and so fit for all Eyes; The Myste­rys indeed are for the Schools; but the Histories may be for the Pulpit.

My Text hath not one jot of Mystery in it, It is all an Hi­story, a plain History for the understanding; For who under­stands not, That they which dye in the Lord are blessed? It is a sweet History for the Affections; For what more desired then Blessednesse? And it is a short History for the Memory; For it consists but of three parts, and who remembers not three? Those three parts are these;

1. An Affirmation, or a Proposition, Beati abhoc tempore, posthac, amodo, qui in Domino, Domini causâ moriuntur; Blessed henceforth are they which dye in the Lord, or for the Lords Cause.

2. A Witnesse, or a Deposition, to justifie the Truth of the Proposition, Etiam, dicit Spiritus, Even so saith the Spirit.

3. A Comment or Exposition; Quoniam requiescunt a labori­bus, et opera eorum sequntur eos; They rest from their labours, and their works follow them.

The Proposition comforts us, The Deposition assures us, The Exposition enlightens it and us; For if any man should say of the Proposition, Blessed are the dead which dy in the Lord, Durus hic Sermo, This is an hard sentence, who can understand it? why here is a Glosse to expound it and explain it; and the Glosse tells you, They are doubly blessed.

1. In Deliverance and Relaxation, They rest from their la­bour. Pars. 1.

2. In Reward and Retribution, Their works follow them.

If the time confines me not, I shall D. V. speak of each; And 1. of the first, Blessed are the dead which dye, &c.

Blessednesse is a large word, and comprises all those Mercies and Favours which appertain to this Life or the next: so we read in the Psalms, Blessed is the man that fears the Lord; and that Blessednesse is as well Earthly as Heavenly; His Seed shall be mighty upon Earth, Wealth and Riches shall be in his house; There it is earthly, His Righteousnesse endures for ever; Here it is Heavenly.

But the Blessedness in any Text is not of this extent, It is not extended to the Living, and therefore is not earthly; It is restrained to the dead, and therefore only Heavenly; Blessed are the Dead, saith my Text.

And here again, least any one should quarrel with the Text and say flatly: It is false because of all Terribles Death is the most Terribles, and therefore said Mecaenas, Facito debilem Pede, facito debilem manu vita dum superest, bene est, Lay what Pain [Page 142]you will upon me, Sursingle me, with the Collick; shackle me with the Gout, Torment with the Stone; Lay all Di­seases upon me Physicians can name, let me but live and I care not.

Or least any one should wrong the Text, and make Cleombortus his hast, dye before he should dye, Preposterously, and make a­way himself out of a Co [...]ceipt of being Blessed.

Or lastly, least any one should make this Text an enemy to o­ther Texts, and say, If the Dead are Blessed, then none are Cursed: Not Cain the Brother-Killer, nor Judas the Sa­viour-killer, nor Ravilliac the King-killer, but all are saved; The Period is not at Mortui, Blessed are the dead, but at In Domino, Blessed are the Dead which dye in the Lord.

To keep the Text from splitting upon any of these Rocks, I shall shew you in this part of it,

  • 1. The Subject, Mortui, Who, the Dead.
  • 2. The Object, what, Beati, They are Blessed.
  • And 3. The Subject quallified, and restrained, which of the Dead are Blessed? In Domino; They that dye in the Lord; they are blessed.

And yet because of the Order of these words, I shall crave leave to speak, 1. Of the Object, Blessed, and of it, as it is here restrained, to the next life, to the Dead, Blessed are the Dead.

And what is this Blessednesse? 1a. 1ae. Blessednesse Comp the Fruition of the Soveraigne Good; no Compleat Bles­sednesse untill then; And what this Soveraigne Good is these two Charecters tell us; Optimum et Maximum, The great­est thing, and the Best thing.

1. Optimum it must be, The Best; Else it will not siste­re appetitum, Give us content; For enjoy a man what he can or will, either Bona, the gifts of Fortune, Riches, and such External Blessings; or Meliora, the gifts of the Mind, Wis­dom and such Internal Blessings; yet the Mind is never con­tent, until it have Optimum, the Best, which is the Eternal Blessing.

2. And as it must be Optimum, the Best, to give us content; so it must be the Maximum, the Greatest, else it will not Im­plere appetitum, and satisfie our Desire; For enjoy a man what he will or can, either Magna, the great Chair of Priesthood; or Majora, the greater Throne of Majesty; yet is the Desire never satisfied, (Unus Pellaeo juveni non sufficit Orbis, Alexan­der wonted Elbow-room in a whole world) until it have Maxi­mum, the Fruition of what is greatest.

The Positive is too low, whether it be Bonum or Magnum, Good or Great; For the Good men would be Better, and the Great men would be Greater; The Yeoman a Gentleman to be Greater, and the Priest a Bishop to be Better. And yet then, The Comparative is not high enough; For be he Better then the Good or Greater than the Great, yet we are not so Good or Great as we would be, until we enjoy both Maximum and Opti­mum, the Best and the Greatest; The Best to content us, and the Greatest to satisfie us.

And the Reason hereof is very plain, plain in that plain and old Resemblance of the Mind or Heart of Man; The Heart of Man is the Greatest Figure, and the Heart of Man is the Best Figure; For it is Triangular: Now, the Bona and the Magna, The Good and the Great, the Majora and the Melio­ra, The Better and the Greater, Gifts and Places are all but Globular; and therefore Impossible that any of them, being all [Page 144] Globular and Round, should content and satisfie the Heart of Man, which is altogether Triangular and three square; No­thing can content that, but what is hoth for Eminence and Cir­cumference Triangular; And so Nothing is, but onely that which is Optimum & Maximum; The Best and the Greatest.

And now of whom may those two Attributes and Characters be predicated? Who do enjoy Him in whom these two Cha­racters meet? Surely none below, For there is none that doth good upon the Earth, sayes the Psalmist, no not one: Some be­low are Comparatively good, Saints in respect of Sinners, Be­lievers in respect of Infidels are good; Good they, but none Ab­solutely good; None so good as to be Optimus, but God; nor none but Him is Maximus neither; onely God is Almighty, and All good: He onely is Omnipotentia and Omnibmentia, Omnipotence and Omnibonence; He only is Almighty in Him­self, and over All; He onely is All good in Himself and to All; 1 Tim. 6.15. and therefore onely Blessed, as the Apostle onely Blessedness, which Blessedness till we enjoy, we can never be, or be truely said to be, Blessed.

But against this, there lye two Objections, One on Gods part, propter Essentiam, for his Essence, and one on our part, propter Absentiam, for our Absence.

On Gods part, Object. 1 the Octjection is framed thus, God is Essentia simplex, A simple Essence; we are of a Compound Nature, and therefore God, because simple as He is, cannot satisfie us, because Compound as we are: This is the Objection.

And thus I answer it, God is simply good, but so that He is al­so Manifoldly good; Answ. 1 Innos eminenter, He is a Manifold Good to us; In se simpliciter, He is a simple Good in Himself; That way He doth satisfie us, though This way He doth not satisfie us; and we are thereby Blessed.

On our part, the Objection is framed thus, Object. 2 God is in Hea­ven, we, upon Earth, and therefore we cannot, see Him, and there­fore we cannot enjoy Him, and therefore we are not Blessed.

And I answer this Objection thus, Answ. 2 It makes nothing against my Text, for my Text speaks of the Dead, and sayes, The are Blessed; and the Dead are not upon Earth, where they cannot see God, and live; but in Heaven, where they live, because they see God; and therefore they are Blessed, because they see Him, and enjoy Him, who is both Optimus and Maxi­mus, All-mightiness, and All-goodness.

But least any man living should think himself unblest, because my Text ascribes Blessedness onely to the Dead, I enlarge my Answer thus.

There is a Twofold presence of God: 1. In his Scepter, Ester. and that is gracious, like Ahashuerus's: 2. In his Throne, and that is glorious, like King Solomons: Gods Scepter is his Word; Here we see Him darkly, and but Darkly, because we appre­hend this Presence onely by Faith; Gods Throne is his glory, or his Kingdom, or his Heaven of Heavens; and There when we are (and God Almighty once bring us thither) we shall see Him clearly, even Face to Face.

The Presence of Him in his Word, though is be a Dark, yet it is a True Sight of Him, and the Pledge of a Clearer in Heaven.

For when we believe in God, In God the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, we are then Blessed in the Church Militant, be­cause we have Peace of Conscience, and are thereby assured, That therefore we shall be Blessed in the Church Triumphant, be­cause we shall then and there have the Peace of God.

When we believe in God, and consider in Him, as our Ma­ker, of Nothing, as our Redeemer from Sin, as our Sanctifier [Page 146]against as our Preserver from Sin and Danger, from the Sin of Rebellion, which was this Day acted to purpose, and from the Danger of Rebels, which for this Dayes Rebellion, will ere long be executed on them to the purpose; as our Judge, accor­ding to the Clearness of our Hearts, and Cleanness of our Hands, we are then Blessed, Spe in Regno Gratiae, by Hope in the Kingdom of Grace, because we have the Forgiveness of our sins, and are thereby assured, that therefore we shall be Blessed, Re in Regno Gloriae, by way of Possession in the Kingdom of Glory, because then we hall have Everlasting Life.

And this is the upshot of all Blessedness; And this Blessed­ness will not be had until we be Dead; nor can it be had, un­less we Dye in the Lord.

It is my next Consideration, 2a. 1ae. my Secunda Primae, proposed thus, Who are Blessed? And disposed thus, The Dead; They are the Subject of this Object, The Dead are Bessed; and their Qualification is, If they Dye in the Lord.

By Dead here is not meant St. Pauls Dead, which he speaks of to Timothy, 1 Tim. 5.16 The wanton Widow who is Dead whiles she lives, she is not Blessed, because Dead, but therefore Cursed, because she is Dead whiles she lives; For howsoever she drawes in the Life of Nature, yet she never breaths out the Breath of Grace.

And this I prove by those three parts which are the best Indi­cations of a Dead or Living Body: The Pultse, the Heart, the Mouth; If a mans Pultse beat, If his Heart pants,, If his Mouth speaks or breaths, we are sure he lives; but if all these are silent, and stir not, we conclude He is Dead.

1. Now for the Pultse of a wanton Widow, the Pultse of her Soul, her Conscience, If it beat at all, yet it beats unevenly, and out of tune, either too high by Desperation and Presump­tion, [Page 147]or else too low by Security and Supiness; And by this we know she is sick; For the most part, It beats not at all; It gives no warning before, It starts not at the temptation to sin, It gives no Remembrance after, It checks not at the Commission of sin; and by this we conclude she is Dead.

And so her Heart too; If that pants at all, It is after sensual Pleasures, and things forbidden; like the Harlots in the Proverbs, Come and let us take our fill of love; Prov. Broken Cisterus that can hold no water; It is not after the Fountain of living waters, like Davids, Come and let us go into the house of the Lord. Psal.

3. And so her Mouth too; That speaks not the Language of Canaan, and such as becometh Saints; but the Language of Ashdod, and such as becometh Devils: By which it ap­pears, she is Dead, but not Blessed.

Nor by Dead here is meant those Dead which Christ speaks of, Let the Dead bury the Dead, i.e. The Deal in sin bury them that are Dead for sin; As elsewhere He speaks to the Jews, Yee shall dye in your sins.

And they that are so Dead, Dead in their sins, while they live, or so Dye, Dye in their sins, when they leave this life; They that give sin leave to reign in them, while they are here, and over them when they depart hence; They that obey the commanding power of it now, and sink under the Condemning Guilt of it then; They are not Blessed, though Dead, but Cursed; Cursed in their finishing of sin, because that sin brings forth Death; as St. James speaks: i.e. Eternal Death. Jam. 1.

But by Dead here is meant, not Universally, All, but Indefi­nitely, Many; Those that Dye in the Lord: It is my next Consideration, my Tertia Primae; And here I shall shew you first, What it is to dye in the Lord; by way of Doctrine and [Page 148] Explication: And secondly, How we may dye in the Lord, by way of Use and Application.

And first,3a. 1ae. What it is to dye in the Lord? Why, To dye in the Lord, or, To dye in Christ, or, To dye in Faith; (for all these are Synonima) is, either, To suffer Death for Christ, like a Martyr; or, To end our life in firm Faith in Christ, as a Confessor.

The Romanists contend earnestly for the Former, and will have the Text to be understood of Martyrs onely; and so they take In for Propter, To dye In the Lord, is, To dye For the Lord.

Now be it, That the Martyrs are here Specially meant; yet sure I am, That they arc not here onely meant; For I do not read,Luk. 16. That Abraham was a Martyr; yet I read, That he was Blessed in Heaven with Glory; nor do I read, That the Thief upon the Cross died for Christ; Luk. 23. yet I read, That he was Blessed in Paradice with Christ.

He, whosoever he be, that doubts of the Martyrs Blessed­ness, His that dyes for Christ, is scarce worthy himself to have any part in Christ; It is a thing so little doubted, That Saint Augustine sayes, Injuria est, He does the Martyr wrong that prayes for him: For by praying for him, he doubts of his Sal­vation; and Christ himself sayes, He that looseth his life for my sake shall find it.

And certainly,Mat. If he wrongs the Martyr that prayes for him, then he that grieves for him, wrongs him much more; For he either doubts of his welfare, or repines at his happiness.

To see Clouds in the Clergies face for the departing of our late most reverend Father in God, William Laud Arch-bishop of Canterbury; To see Furrowes in the faces of the remaining Greenvills, Smiths, or Boules; To see water in the eyes of the [Page 149]surviving Cavendishes, Lyndseies▪ or Gardiners, To hear Plaints from the Tongues of the being Bourcheris, and Yeomans, Tomp­kins and Challoners, for the not being of their Fathers, Sons, Brothers, Kindreds, and Friends, is equally to doubt of their being Martyrs, and therefore Blessed, as of our Enemies being Rebels, and therefore Murtherers; which for mine own part, I no more doubt of either, then of success in the End, or mine own Salvation.

It hath been questioned, I know, by the Church-men of Rome, Whether Souldiers may be Martyrs; and their Reason is, Quia bonum Reip. licet maximum inter bona humana, non potest esse Causa Martyris, sed solummodo Divinum: Yet I know withal, It is resolved by them again, Quod bonum humanum officitur Di­vinum, si referatur ad Deum, est Causa Martyris: Aq. 2.2. q. 124. Ar. 5. ad. 3. a Subjects fighting and dying for their King, or King fighting and dying for his Subjects, did Fight and Dye for God, they did it of late; For of late, Gods, and the Churches, and the Kings Cause consentred in one; The King endeavoured to maintain that Religion, and that publicly Service of God, which Gods own right hand planted, and his blessed Martyrs watered, watered with their Blood; and therefore blessed, because they have so done; Etiam dicit Spiritus, so sayeth the Spirit, bles­sed are the Dead which dye in the Lord.

Had it been onely to maintain the publick Service of God, established by Law, even that alone would have made them Martyrs; For not a Tittle of it, but it was by the Dictate of the Holy Ghost; and I should think my self accursed, if I were not able to maintain it; and would now, if it were not beside my Text and Purpose; yet blame not my holy Zeal, if I do vindicate that saving-Book against the Schismaticks greatest Ex­ceptions: And that is in the Office of Marriage: That Office [Page 150]consists of Substance and Ceremony; The Substance, Prayer, The Ceremony, a Ring.

Look you upon both, and first the first Prayer in that Office, It beseeches Almighty God to bless the Couple to be married, As Isaac a [...]d Rebecca; whence I a [...]gue thus:

This Prayer was dictated by the Holy Ghost to the Compo­sers of the Common Prayers, or made by those Composers with­out the Dictate of the Holy Ghost; But not by them, without his Dictate; Therefore by his Dictate to them.

If by them without him, then they would have made it ac­cording to Humane Reason, and so have said, bless them O Lord, as thou didst bless Ab [...]aham and Sarah, or as thou didst bless Jacob and Rachel; and they had humane Reason for it: for Abraham was Gods fi [...]st Friend, Jacob was Gods great Favou­rite: But sayes the Holy Ghost, Not so, nor so; but let it be, bless them as Isaac and Rebecca; and there is no Humane Reason for this, but a Divine Reason there is, and that is this, Abraham had his Hagar in Sarahs time, and this Keturah af­terwards: Jacob had his Leah, his Zilhah and his Bilhah; but Isaac had none but his Rebecca; and therefore sayes the Holy Ghost, let it not be, Bless them as Abraham and Sarah, Bless them as Jacob and Rachel; for then people may be apt to think they may have many Wifes at once, if not some Concu­bines; but, let it be, Bless them as thou didst bless Isaac and Rebecca; let them know, One man should have but one Wife, especially at one time.

Then secondly look upon the Ring, The Ring must be round without end, and the Ring must be of Gold without mixture; so must the Husbands love be to his Wife perpetual, and to be terminated onely by Death; and withal his Love must be pure, and not given or imparted to any other, but to his Wife onely.

Certainly therefore, Blessed they which dye in maintaining that Service-book, which can without contradiction father the very Ceremonies of it upon the Holy Ghost.

But add to this, Obedience to the King, Unity to the Church, Liberty to the Subject, and many more commanded by God; and deny He that can or dare, Blessed is William Laud Arch­bishop, for dying for the Churches Unity; Blessed are Caven­dish Greenvile, &c. for dying for Obedience, and to keep the Kings Crown upon his Head; Blessed is King Charles the first for dying for both, and to preserve the Subjects Liberties.

And if they are Blessed, why then do any mourn, as if they were lost? But alas! Nature will have her course, and on Gods Name let it; but let Nature give you bounds to Natures course stillate volo, non currere; let your Eyes drop Tears like pretious water out of a Still; not run like common water out of a spout: So said Seneca from Nature.

Yes, Nature hath taught it not onely by Speech, but also by Example; what else meant that Heathen Priest, who so soon as be heard of his Sons Death, presently put off his Crown, and vented his Sorrow by his Tears; but hearing withal, That his Son died Valiantly, he assumed his Crown again, and finished his Sacrifice: So you B. hearing your Friends death, lay aside your Crowns and melt your selves into Tears; but knowing, They died for God, for the Church, for the King, for the Countrey, for the glory of God, for the Unity of the Church, for the Honour of the King, for the Lawes of the Countrey, and that the King himself was Murthered and Martyred for all these: Put on your Crowns again, and finish your own Christian course with Joy; Give not back, though you are bur few: Fall not back, though Gods, the Churches, the Kings, and your Ene­mies have got the Trophees; you know not whether God hath [Page 152]chosen for his Gedeon a Reserve, that his own Glory may be the greater and your own blessedness as sure by Dying In the Lord, as your Friends that have dyed For the Lord.

Their blessedness is not doubted, They that dye For the Lord They that seal the Truth of Gods VVord and Religion with their blood: Nor Catholique, nor Papist call their blessedness into question. They that were slain in the late quarrel: And cer­tainly their blessedness too, your own, needs as little doubt, who are resolved to dye In the Lord; you who lead a holy life, and believe in the Lord Jesus, and will continue therein to the end, They are, you are, blessed.

For questionless St. John is blessed, though he died in his bed, and was but banished, as you are, as well as St. Peter, though he died upon the Cross, and was put to Torment, as our glorious King, and many of our Friends were: And it is to you as well as to them, to you that are but Confessors, as well as to them that were Martyrs, that Christ speaks, Come ye blessed of my Fa­ther, possess the Kingdom prepared for you from the begin­ning.Mat. 25.34.

But this, for my part, shall make no quarrel between Rome and England, or Amsterdam; If they will yield to us in some Substances, we will easily yield to them in this Circumstance, Let them decline to the killing of Kings, and we will soon yield, That Martyrs onely are blessed, and so by consequence, They onely dye in the Lord: But with this Proviso, That they take not, nor understand this word Martyr, in the common use of speech, & secundum vulgus: For so it is one that seals his witness to the Gospel with his blood, and suffers death for Christ; but in the Grammar sence, & secundum Cleres: For so it means but a Witness, One that lives and dies in Faith; as the Apostle speaks, All these, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and [Page 153]many more, died in the Faith: i. e. They were all Martyrs, Heb. 11.13. or, they were all Witnesses, to the truth of Christs Religion, both in their Life and Death, They died in the Lord.

And thus you see, what it is to dye in the Lord; or who may be said to dye in the Lord? Now for Application of this Point; How may we dye in the Lord? Appl. And that I shall tell you plainly and quickly.

If you would Dye in the Lord, you must Live in the Lord; Live in him you must by a Faith that purifies your hearts, and then Dye in him you may by a Faith that justifies your Souls; Live in him you must by the Faith of water to Sanctification; Act. 15.9. and then, Dye in him you may by the Faith of Blood to Justifi­cation.

We may not with Balaam desire to dye the death of the Kigh­teous, and live Covetously; N [...]b. but we must with David lead the life of the Righteous, and dye Comfortably.

If we would dye in the Lord, and receive the end of our Faith, which is the Salvation of our Souls, we must first Live in the Lord, by laying the Foundation of Faith, by doing the Act of Faith, and by bringing forth the Fruit of Faith.

1. Fundamentum autem Fidei quid? But what is the Foun­dation of Faith? Why it is Cognitio Dei & nostri, the Know­ledge of God, and of our selves; The Knowledge of God the Father, and our Fall; He made us upright, and we found out many inventions; He made us in his Image, and we defaced it: The Knowledge of God the Son, and our Redemption; we were lost, and He sought us; we were sold, and He bought us; 1 Cor. were slaves, and He enfranchised us.

The Knowledge of God the Holy Ghost, and our Sanctifica­tion by Him; Such we were, Dru [...]kards, Revilers, Fornica­tors, &c. But we are sanctified by the Spirit of our God: 1 Cor. This is the Foundation of Faith, and it must be laid by Knowledge.

2. The Act of Faith; and it must be effected by Applying, Actus autem Fidel quid? And what is the Act of Faith? Why it is Fiducia, A perswasion that God the Father so loved me, Joh. 3.16. that he gave his onely begotten Son for me: A perswasion that God the Son so loved me, That he came in the similitude of sinful flesh, Rom. 8.3. and for sin condemned sin in the flesh: A perswasion that God the Holy God so loved me, that he hath baptized me into the death of Christ, and hath thereby made me the Temple of Himself, a Member of Christ, and the Child of God. In a word,1 Tim. 1.15. when I believe, Though I am the greatest of all sinners, yet Jesus Christ came into the world to save me.

3. Fructus autem fidei quid? And what is the Fruit of Faith? Why it is Charitas, Charity; Charity to God by Prayer; Charity to my self by Fasting, and keeping my Body under; Charity to the Poor by Almes: These, These are the precious Fruits that grow upon the precious Tree of Faith; Faith believing in God, thorow Jesus Christ, by the Holy Ghost, to be saved, does therefore pray to God against sin, and keeps the Body under from sin, and gives Almes to the Poor.

And when we do this, why then as Christ saies, you shall know the Tree by his fruit; we live in the Lord, and therefore we shall dye in the Lord.

The word of my Text is not, Qui vivunt, They which live, but Qui exeunt, They that dye in the Lord; Nor did I say this to deviate from my Text, but to tell you, How you may fulfil the Text, and dye in the Lord; and no way for this, but by living in the Lord, for otherwise the Lord may be said to Dye in us; we cannot be said to Dye in the Lord.

Nor yet did I say this, That the man that lives not in the Lord, cannot dye in the Lord: For God can fetch water out of the flinty Rock; but to tell you, That ordinarily, Few dye in the Lord, that do not first live in the Lord: They that live in [Page 155]sin, may dye in the Lord, and such A course may speed: But it is a dangerous and indiscreet pare to venture a Soul upon such an hazard: This course is sure to speed', They that live in the Lord, do alwayes dye in the Lord.

It is storied that the French ad judged certain ground to the Irish, against the Scotch, because Spyders, Toads, and such poy­sonous Creatures did presently dye, if they were put there: So you may be our own Judges, and know to what Master you belong; If si [...]ful lusts, words and works dye, when they come upon the Ground of your Souls, you belong to the Lord; He lives in you, and you shall dye in him.

Once more, Would you dye in the Lord? Why then as St. Paul sa [...]es, Dye daily: i. e. Master your Lusts, Subdue your Wrath, Humble your Pride, Resist all Temptations; v.g. more plainly.

Suppose Covetousness were now breeding in my heart, and Money perswaded me to become another Judas, to betray my Soul, my Saviour, my King, my Countrey: Yet remember I it is but a sad bargain I am about, No profit to gain the whole world, and loose mine own Soul; And what I say of this sin, I say of all sin, Take them while they are but little ones, Mat. even but Temptations, and dash them against the stones; Against the stones of Mortification and Repentance; Obey the Precepts of God, and resist sin; Believe the Promises of God, and relye on Christ, and so you shall live in the Lord; Continue in this Obedience to the Law; Persevere in this Belief of the Gospel; and though you do sometimes fall, (and God forgive us all, for who falls not often?) yet Rise again by Repentance, and at the Hour of your Death: Then six your Faith upon the Mer­cies of God in the Merits of Jesus Christ; and you shall Dye in the Lord; And Dying so, you shall be blessed; Etiam sic dicit Spi­rius, For so saith the Spirit.

It is my second General; Pars 2. I called it the Witness to assure the Deposition, to confirm the truth of the Proposition; and I must tell you, It is beyond all exception; Etiam sic dicit Spi­ritus; For so sayes the Spirit.

But of this I shall not need to speak much; For I hope in Christ, There is no Athist here to deny the Truth of God, or of his Word; No Schismatick, or Heretick here, I hope, to deny this Book of Revelation, though penned by St. John, to have proceeded from the Spirit; Not any Carnal, or Private Spirit, not any Giddy or worldly spirit, but the Holy and Bles­sed Spirit; and therefore I forbear to prosecute this Point, and thank your Piety for saving me the pains.

Nor shall I dare to trespass upon your Patience, Pars 3. in speaking much of my Third General; This Depositaries Exposition of the Proposition; And yet least I should injure your Expecta­tion, I shall venture upon a word or two.

If any one askes, wherein are the Dead Blessed, They that dye in the Lord, wherein are they blessed? Loe, The Spirit makes answer, and sayes, They are blessed two wayes: 1. In Relaxation, They rest from their Labours: 2. In Retribution, Their Works follow them.

They are two Blessednesses, and two such Blessednesses, as this world cannot afford, Ease and Glory both; In this world, If sometimes we have Rest in our Studies, by Divine Contempla­tion, yet there we have no Glory; we are but poor Schollars still: And if sometimes you have Glory in the Court, by Royal admission, yet there you have no Rest, you are but Observing Courtiers still▪ But in Heaven, Both you and we shall have Rest and Glory both.

1. Rest: 1 a. 3 ae. Job. 14. When we are born, we are born to Labour, sayes Holy Job; when we dye, we dye to Rest, sayes holy John, If [Page 157]we dye in the Lord; Every man while he lives, Psal. hath many Troubles, sayes holy David; even the Righteous; Every one, when he dyes, hath not many, hath not any Comforts; For some are tormented in Hell, sayes holy Abraham; But the Righ­teous have many Comforts, sayes holy Isaiah; Isa. 31.17. The work of Righteousness shall be Peace; The End of Righteousness shall be Quietness and Assurance for ever.

The Righteous, while he liveth, is troubled in his Body by Diseases; In his Soul by Temptations; In his Goods by Plun­der; In his Name by Ignominy: But when he is Dead he hath a Quietus est from them all; His Body feels no Sicknesse; His Soul fears no Temptation; His Goods fear no Miscarriage; His Name feels no Reproaches; For he rests from his La­bours.

No [...] is this Rest like mans in the Night, Natural, by sleep from the Sorrowes of the Day; nor like Servants, every Sunday, Ceremonial, from the Labours of the Body; not yet meerly like Christians, upon those Sacred Festivals, spiritual from sin; but it is Eternal, like that of Angels, from sin and sorrow both.

And here you are to mark, That this Rest follows Labour: q. d. No Labour here, No Rest the [...]e; If you labour not while you live, but sit down to Eat and Drink, and Rise up to Play, no Rest when you Dye: And therefore labour here, la­bour after a sanctified Rest while you live, that you may enjoy a Glorified Rest when you Dye.

And here again you may mark, That the Allegory of this Word compares Death to sleep For as they that sleep, Rest; so they that Dye, If they Dye in the Lord, Rest: The difference in onely this, All that sleep, Rest; All that Dye, sleep, but All do not Rest; some Rest not at all: To make it hold in all to [Page 158]you, I beseech you to mark one thing in our Common Rest; we never sleep so well at Night, as when we work hard in the Day: No Rest to the Labourers: It is an old Proverb, and true: So, That you may sleep, when you Dye, Rest [...]n [...]ha [...] sleep, I beseech you again, and again, To labour, and to labour out the Salva­tion of your soul, though it be with Fear and Trembling, as the Apostle speaks,Phil. 2.12. That when you have slept the night of D [...]ath, you may Rise in the Morning of your Resurrection, to Rest [...]om your Labours, and have your Works follow you.

That's one Blessedness of the Dead mans; 2a. 3ae. ; his Relaxation, He rests from his labou [...]s: And this is another, His works follow him: For by this Phraise is meant Reward, because God rewards us according to our works.

But here you must take heed of Popery: It is not for the merit of our works that we are rewarded, but by the Mercy of our Rewarder that our works follow us.

We press Good works as hard as they; They are necessary, and so necessary to salvation, that without them we cannot be saved: For how shall They follow us, if we have none of them?

But they do it to make their Proselytes proud: We, to make you and our selves Fruitful: We are Trees, and the Hus­band-man is not beholding to the Tree, if it bears him Fruit, when he hath bestowed much cost upon it: It is the Duty of a Tree to bring forth Fruits, and it is the Duty of Christians to bring forth Good works: For that the Tree is spared from Bur­ning, and suffered to continue in the Orchard, because their Fruits follow them from Year to Year: And for this, we are spared from Hell, and suffered to enter into the Joyes of Hea­ven, that our works may follow us from Generation to Generation, for Ever and for Ever: The Tree by his Root is entitled to the [Page 159] Orchard, but by his Fruit, it hath Possession of the Orchard: And we by our Faith have Dominion, a title to Heaven; but by our Good works, we have Possessionem, i. e. Pedis Positionem, the Possession of Heaven.

Labour therefore for Faith, that as Abraham by the Promise of God had a Title to Canaan, so you by Faith in the Mercies of God may have a Title to Heaven: But let this Faith Tra­vel with, and bring forth Good works, that as Abraham by his Travel took Possession of Canaan, so you by your Good works may take Possession of Heaven.

One thing more for the Necessity of Good works, It is here said, They follow you: It is to let you know, They are your Servants; and therefore you must cloath them with Good Live­ries, such as may do you service and credit both: For if they be of a Course Wool, or a False Dye, They will do you neither: Let your works then be sincere, i. e. sine Cera, without any Wax or Gum: Let your Works of Piety, Prayer and Fasting, be without Hypocrisie: Let your VVorks of Charity, Almes and Benevolence, be without Vain-glory: Let your VVorks of Loyalty, your Armes, in bringing home King Charles the se­cond, And punishing the Murther of that Blessed Martyr, King Charles the first, be without self-ends: Do none of these to be seen of men, but in secret, Ma [...]. That your Father which seeth in Heaven, may reward you openly.

And an open Rewarding you shall have: For Angels and Devils, Heaven and Hell, Saints and Reprobates shall see you follow the Lamb, to the Glory of God; and they shall see your works follow you, to the Glory of your selves.

This, This is the Blessedness of them that Dye in the Lord, and of the late King, and all his Souldiers who have Dyed for the Lord: And now what greater Blessedness can there be than [Page 160] this? For here is Rest, and here is Glory; Rest from your La­bours, and Glory in your Followers.

Nor do you tarry long for this after your Dissolution, though the Papist would have it so to maintain their Fire of Purgatory: Nor can you blame them for it; for if it be once quenched, it will presently sta [...]ve the See of Rome, and make the Kitching in St. Angelos Castle very cold: But St. John saies, It is Amodo, Immediatly, Henceforth, so soon as ever the Soul is gone out of the Body, By and by, the Body rests from sickness, and all External Labour, The Soul rests from sin, and all Internal La­bour; and both their works follow them, till at Doomes-day, They shall both be reunited, and Crowned with ternal Glory, to follow the Lamb wheresoever he goes, Even so saith the Spirit: And so may He say to us now, by the Assurance of Faith, that then we may have it by the Assurance of Fruition, thorow Jesus Christ: Amen, Amen, Amen.

Anno Dom. 1657.

PSALM 106.29.‘Thus they provoked him to Anger with their own Inventions, and the Plague brake in upon them.’

NOW I have read the words, you may happily think, It is such a Plague, as sometimes reigns in this City; The Plague of Pestilence: But I think not so.

For though every Pestilence be a Plague, yet every Plague is not a Pestilence: All the Plagues of Egypt were not Pestilen­ces: And the Plague spoken of in my Text, was, Occidat [Page 161]unusquisque proximos suos, qui initiati sunt Baal Peor, Slay ye every one his Brother, that were joined to Baal Peor: Num. 25.5 as you may read in the History.

And is not there such a sin, or such sins amorgst us? Have not we found out suc [...] Inventions, which have provoked God to inflict such a Plague upon us?

For from Moses in the North, and from the Seventy in the South, ther [...] came out many such Edicts, as said, Occidat uans­quisque, Kill and Slay.

And this was, you know it was, I and God knows it was a Plague, a very great Plague; God have mercy upon us and at last divert it.

Divert it O God altogether, or at least, O God, from Occidat unusquisque Proximes suos, into Occidat qui jure potest Ad in­ventores: Let it not, O Lord let it not longer be, Slay every one his Neighbour: But let it be, Let that Magistrate, King Charles the second, to whom thou hast by Birth designed the Sword of Justice, punish them, who unjustly took the Sword of Justice from King Charles the first, and more unjustly with the Sword of Injustice chopt off his head and provoked thee with their own Inventions, whereby a Plague is broken in upon us.

Thats the Text for this Anniversary 1657. wherein you have observable, two parts.

  • 1. A provocation in the first' words; Irritaverunt eum adin­ventionibus suis, They provoked God to anger by their own Inven­tions.
  • 2. An Execution upon that Provocation in the last words; Et irruit in eos Plaga, And the Plague brake in upon them.

In the first, The Provocation, I enquire, 1. Qui, the Persons provoking, They: 2. Quis, the Party provoked, God: 3. Quo, The means whereby they provoked God to Anger, Their own In­ventions; [Page 162]They provoaked, God to Anger by their own inventions. In the second, The Execution, I enquire, 1. Quid, What this Plague is? 2. Quid fecit? What this Plague did? Irruit, It brake in upon them.

Or, to fit my parts to the meanest Capacity, and that the Greenest Cloak-man may as well carry away the Sermon as the gravest Gown-man: I propose my parts by Question, thus:

  • 1. Who provoked? They.
  • 2. Whom did they provoke? God.
  • 3. By what did they provoke God? By their owne Inven­tions.
  • 4. What was the fruit of this Provocation? Or, What did they get by all this? The Plague brake in upon them.

Of these, and each of these, may I by Gods blessing so speak, and you so hear, and you and I, and all of us so repent of our own Inventions, whereby God hath been provoked, that the Plague which hath a long time brake in upon us, may be cast out from us thorow Jesus Christ, Amen.

I begin with the first, Pars 1. Qui, who provoked; They. And who were They; Why? They were not onely Fax populi, The Dreggs and Skum of the People, though they began it by Tumults; but, They were also Flos Populi, The Cream and Flower of the people, who did not suppress those Tumults; One amongst the rest was Zimri, Num. 25.14 the Son of Salu, a Prince of a chief house amongst the Simeonites: Not onely the common people therefore, but also the Princes of the people: Not one­ly the Moabites, who knew not God; but also the Israelites, who entred into Covenant with God; and amongst them, They the Chiefest, so well as They, the Meanest; and therefore it is said, Tolle omnes Principes, sive Primarios, Take all the Heads or Chief of the People, Num. 25.4. and hang them up before the Lord, a­gainst the Sun.

Such weakness in them, The best of the People, that They may fall into sin, and provoke God, as well as such wickedness in them, the worst of the people, who do nothing else but sin, and provoke God: Ever since Adam brake the Covenant with God, there is none righteous, no not one: None so Spiritual, but that he is in some part also Carnal, None so much bent to please God, but that he may, if sometimes he doth not, pro­voke God; Homo enim est, & habet mutabilem naturam, saies Theodoret, though he be Regenerate, yet he is a man, and there­fore hath a changeable and mutable condition: To day Clean, and in the State of Grace, to morrow Foul, and in the State of Wrath; Sensu saltem suo, In his own Sense and Apprehen­sion at least.

Let it go for Truth, A justified man shall never fall from the Grace of God; Fall Finally, Totally and for ever: Yet as true it is, such a man may fall, fall for a time, and Partially, and thereby provoke God.

It is not long since, That there was no perverseness in Israel, nor Iniquity in Jacob for God to see;Num. 22.21 It is but in the 22. Chap­ter of the Book called Numbers; and yet in the 25. Chapter▪ There is so much Iniquity and Perverseness, Num. 25. that thereby they provoked God.

I could tell you the like of this Age, It is not long since, but Anno 1641. that that Nigrum Parliamentum, promised by their old Oath of Allegiance, to make King Charles the first, the most glorious King, that ever England enjoyed, Feared abroad, and Loved at home: A while after, in Anno 1642. they sung ano­ther Song, and by a New Covenant, and all that is cursed, made him inglorious both at home and abroad, and left not, until they had made him shorter by the Head; and whereby they provoked God.

Posse peccare. A Possibility to sin is the Portion of every mor­tal man: In Galat. 6.1. He that stands, may fall; For we all walk in the midst of snares, saies St. Jerome, and therewith censured some Hereticks of old; and they were like some Schismaticks, if not some Hereticks, that live now: They say, A righteous man is such a Tree, as can bear no bad fruit; but can they shew a Tree, that did never bear an untimely fruit, that did never bear an unkindly fruit? Was there ever Tree, that was never bla­sted? Never blasted either in the Blossom by Wind, or in the Bud by Hail? Then may they shew a man who is so oft compa­red to a Tree, that did never si [...], that did never provoke God.

But all men have sinned, The Faithfullest Abraham, The Meckest Moses, The Strongest Sampson, The Holiest David, The Wisest Solomon, The Confident'st Peter, The Zealousest Paul; And which of you that overcome a Temptation to day, and thereby please God, may not fall under a Temptation to morrow, and thereby provoke God; They did; The very best of the People; They.

Docet hic locus, saies Estius; upon another place, homines etiam spirituales non esse de sua stabilitate securos: In Cal. 6.1. The Apostle teacheth, That even spiritual men may sin; and therefore no man ought to be secure: But he is a Jesuit, and happily you will not believe his Resolves.

But Prosper may happily be believed; and saies he, Ex re­generatis quosdam relicta fide, Resp. 7. ad Cap. Fir. &c. We see by many lamentable Examples, that some Regenerate men have forsaken Faith and good manners.

And saies St. Austen, Licet sancti de suae perseverantiae prae­mio certi sunt, de ipsa tamen perseverantia reperiuntur incerti; They, the Heads of the people, the Holiest of the people, are sure of a Reward if they persevere, but they are not sure to [Page 165] persevere: They that repented yester day, and cryed God mer­cy, provoked God to day by new Inventions.

And so the Catholick Doctrine is as it was, Nec beatum dixe­ris quenquam ante mortem; quamdiu enim vivimus, in certami­ne sumus; & quamdiu sumus in certamine nulla certa est victo­ria; Call no man blessed before his death, for so long as we are here, we are in a warfare, and so long as we are fighting in a war, we are not sure of the Victory.

In a word; this Psalm was penned, partly to tell Gods peo­ple of their labile condition, that they may provoke God; and partly to tell them again, How to appease God, being provo­ked.

They did, They, Principes populi, The best of them; and therefore we may, the best of us; For the best of us do but walk in the same world they did; and this world is no better to us, than it was to them: A world of Provocations to us, as it was to them, whereby we provoke God, as they did.

If here be a Covetous Achan, the Devil provokes him with a Wedge of Gold; He sees it, He takes it, He steals it;Josh. and by that Invention of theft he provokes God.

If there be an Ambitious Absalon, the Devil provokes him with a Crown of Gold, and to atchieve it,2 Sam. he insinuates into the Subjects hearts, promises them Priviledges, Immunities, a clear and free passage of Justice; So He aspires, Rebels, and provoke God by that Invention, until some 20000. of his Confederates be slain with the Sword, and himself hanged on a Tree.

If there be a Voluptuous Sichem, the Devil provokes him by a wandring Dinah; He lusts after her, He lies with her,Gen. and provokes God by that Invention.

If there be a Potent David, the Devil provokes him by a Multitude of Subjects; He Numbers them, He boasts in them,2. Sam. 24. [Page 166]and provokes God by that Invention, until 70000 be slain by the Pestilence.

If there be a Wise Solomon, the Devil provokes him by a Multitude of Wives; He loves them, They turn him to Idola­try; and he provokes God by that Invention, until Ten parts of his Kingdom be lost.

And as these did, so which of us, the best of us all may not provoke God, either by Avarice, or Ambition, or Idolatry, or Luxury, or Self-confidence, or All?

We may, Thats out of doubt; For they did; And do not we too often?Appl. 1. God knows we do: The just men fall seven times a day; and seven to one, if in one of those seven, hee provokes not God: But we miserable Wretches, God have mercy upon us, fall 70 times 7 times; and 70 to 7, if in 7 of those 70 we provoke not God: Now, because we may, we must be fearful, and fearful that we may not provoke him; Because we do, we must be Humble, and Humble under the mighty hand of God, that He may deliver us from the Executions of our own Provocations; and Careful we must be too, least we be overta­ken with another Provocation.

He that thinks he stands, videat né cadat, let him take heed lest he falls. Cor. It is the advice of the Apostle, and better advice we cannot follow; and did we follow this advice as we should, we should not provoke God so often as we do, nor continue in our provocation so long as we do.

When therefore thou hast robbed thy Neighbour by Theft, or deceived thy Customer by Trade: when thou hast resisted thy Su­periour by sawcinesse, or oppressed thy Inferiour by Imperious­nesse: when thou hast fooled thy Neighbour by Drunkennesse, or beasted thy Neighbours Wife by uncleannesse; Thou hast provo­ked God, highly provoked God; Continue not in these provoca­tions, [Page 167]least God provoke the Devil to carry thee into Hell; but humble thy self, Fast and Pray; Punish thy Flesh, Afflict thy Soul, and beseech thy God to be appeased and forgive thee; and Ten to One if God forgive thee not in the Name of Jesus Christ.

But if thou hast not yet provoked God, and so needest not to humble thy self; Why yet remember, They did, they as good as thy self: and therefore, Thou mayest, and be fearful that thou mayest not. Do not say with Peter, Luk. 22. Though all men forsake Christ, yet thou wilt not forsake him; For thou readest how shamefully, and how soarly he did forsake him.

If thou hearest a man of God say, as Elisha did, Thou mayest commit these and these sins, set on fire strong holds, slay young men with the sword, dash children in pieces, rip up Women with childe; Do not thou say as Hazael did, Thou wilt not; 2 Reg. 8. For he did, and thou art a man as he was; and it is Gods mercy, if thou provokest not as he did.

Whosoever thou art, whatsoever thou art doing, be not self-confident, but Fear; If thou art praying, Fear; least thou be distracted, and send up one ejaculation to Heaven, that God would fasten thy intention, and quicken thy Devotion, that thou mayest not sin whilst thou prayest against sin, that thou mayest not provoke by sinful prayers.

If thou art Trading, Traffick to Heaven, that thou mayest not deceive thy Neighbour by buying or selling. If thou art Drink­ing, Fear, the next Cup after the Cup of Recreation: It com­monly provoks to a Cup of Madnesse; If thou art in the Compa­ny of Women; Fear the next Kisse after the Kisse of Saluta­tion; It proves too oft an undeniable Tentation.

Do not run into the Pest-house upon the presumption of an Antidote: and because thou hast prayed this Morning, and doest [Page 168]please God now, this Noon, yet do not at Night take poyson, be­cause thou hast formerly taken a Preservative; Do not say, Thou wilt not provoke God all day, For they whom God had blessed in the former Chapter, provoked God in this; They provoked God.

It is my second part, wherein I must resolve this Question, Whom did they provoke? Pars. 2. and it is resolved, God: Provocave­runt Deum: or Irritaverunt Deum; It is an hard word, This, and it is a strange word, This; To provoke God, A hard word; To provoke God to wrath, a strange word.

Had it been vocaverunt, They called to God, or had it been In­vocaverunt, They called upon God, It had been a Devout word, and a work of Devotion: or had it been Revocaverunt, They re­called themselves They revaoked their own deeds and renounced their own waies, It had been as good as good could be; but being as it is, Provocaverunt, They provoked God, It is as bad as bad may be.

For it is as much as to challenge God to fight, and to desy him in the Battail, and to insult in that dishonour they did him; and whoever did so, but he was a looser by the bargain? For so God himself comments upon the word, and gives it such a construction, saying, Do they provoke me to wrath, and not rather themselves to the confusion of their own faces? Jer. 7.19. Such a hard word it is, To pro­voke God.

And it is a strange word too, To provoke God to wrath, is, strange that God should be provoked at all, and stranger that God should be provoked to wrath; strange that God should be provoked at all; For Ego Domirus et non mutor, I am the Lord, and I change not. And if He be not changed, Mal. 3.6. how can he be provoked? For he that is provoked commonly takes Weapons in his Hands, Fur [...]ows into his Brows, Fire into his Eys, and Revenge into his Heart.

True it is so with Man, He is changed when he is provoked, and puts on those Addresses; but it is not so with God, He is not changed, when He is provoked; Our sins do provoke him, but our sins do not change him; No, He is provoked, and we are changed. v. g.

A man stares upon the Sun, and would out-face it: In the end his Eyes are scortched, and he cannot see himself; Here is a change, not in the Sun, but in the Man: The Sun would have helpt his Eyes to see, if he had been modest; but provoking the Sun with too much sawciness, the Sun consumes his Eyes, Just so it is, God is the Sun, Psa. 84.21. so long as we look upon him with Modesty and Devotion, we are enlightned with the Beams of his Grace; but when we grow bold, and pry into him by presump­tion, we are struck blind, and our sight is taken from us; For to them that provoke him, He is a consuming fire; but the change is not in God, it is in our selves.

Again, a man desires the Physician to make him whole, the Physician prepares him Physick and brings it him, He instead of taking it, throws it into the Physicians face; yet still intreats the Doctor to do him good; bnt now the Doctor will not. At last, the Patient is bound with Coards, and then the Doctor gives him what is fitting, and he is cured. What then? Is the change in the Physician? No, but in the Patient, His Body is now fit­ted for such Physick, It was not before: Just so it is, God is the Physician, we are the Mad-men when we sin; In a Fitt or so, we desire God to bless us: God sends us Mercies, we will none of them, but we grow worse and worse; In the end, God hampers us, and binds us with the coards of a Plague, of a Famine, of a War; and if we call upon Him in that trouble, He hears us, and He helps us. What then? Is there any change in God? No; but in us there is, out former sins provoked God, and made us un­fit for these blessings.

Once more; A man in a Boat, puts his Staff upon a Rock, and there thrusts; It seems to a Fool, the Rock farther from the Boat; whereas a Wise man knowes, the Boat is thrust farther from the Rock; Just so it is; God is the Rock, we are the boat, this world is the Sea, Sin is the Staff; we thrust, but not God farther from us; but us farther from God; God is the Rock, still unmoveable, & unchangeable; Provoked He may be to dash us in peices; Changed He cannot be, though He be Provoked.

Strange though it be,Isa. that God should be Provoked; and as strange it is, if not stranger, that God should be Provoked to Wrath; For sayes God Himself, Anger is not in me; and yet he saies againe, I was wrath with my people, and is it not strange, that He that hath no Anger should be in Wrath! That he should be in Wrath that hath no Anger in him! A strange Rid­dle it is; and thus it is unfolded;

He cannot be Provoked to Wrath Materially, i. e. His Blood cannot be inslamed; you cannot move him to Choller; But he may be Provoked to Wrath Formally; i. e. You may by your sins set him upon a Revenge; and the Formall part of An­ger is a desire to be revenged;

Or, then God may be said to be Provoked to Anger, when he doth carry himself Ad modum hominis erritatie, after the man­ner of a man provoked to Anger; and so doth the Learned Aquinas, and the Devout'st Barnard, both fasten Anger upon God: Aquinas thus; Ira est in Deo, non ut Passio, sed secun­dum, similitudinem effectus; ut punitio; Anger is in God, not as a Passion, but as an Effect of that Passion; and so St. Barnard; Omnia haec habet Deus non secundum Naturam sed [...]ffectum; All these things God hath, Eyes, Ears, Armes, Leggs, and all other Members of the Body; Anger, Greif, Love Joy, and all other Passions of the Soul; All these he hath Effectually, but he hath none of these Naturally.

And what is the Effect of Anger? why it is Punishment; so we usually say; the Father is angry with his Child if he doth but whip him; and yet the Father is but moved, he doth but make a shew of Anger, he is not Angry indeed, not Angry with his Child, though happily with his Fault; and so we have God set out, somtimes in the Nature of Love, somtimes in the Na­ture of Anger, throwing himself froward to the froward, and pure to the pure; as we give him occasion;Psal. 18.26. None but a Stoick is senceless of an injury; Our sins can Provoke God to Wrath, and make him Angry.

I put a Period to this in this plain similitude; God Provoked, and man Provoking, are like the Sun and Moon; They both work upon the earth; but the Moon is first altered her self, e're she alters any thing; she waxes and wanes, e're she produce Flux or Reflux in humors, whereas the Sun, though it turnes all things in this lower world, yet continue still the same, and when it scorches most, is never a whit the warmer, not a jot war­mer in Summer, when we feel it most, then in VVinter, when we feel it least; so we, like the Moon, anger not God, but are first angred our selves, whereas though God changes from one Estate to another, yet in himself continues still unchangeable: More plainly thus: God at first gave us his law, and required our obe­dience; we failed in our obedience, and thereupon followed Gods displeasure, and our disquietness; Gods holiness offended, and Gods Justice Executed, are the effects of our sins; That as VVrath in God Formally, this as VVrath from God Materially, and Effectually.

Thus you see, God can be Provoked to VVrath; will you now see, what it is that Provokes him! Part. 3. It is my third Consideration in revealing that Question, wherewith, or, by what did they Pro­voke God to Anger? Operibus suis: so Calvine and Molleras; [Page 172]by their works, wicked works they were: facti suis; so Amesi­us, by their Deeds, Evil Deeds they were, Adinventionibus suis, so St. Hierome, which our Translation followes, by their own Inventions.

What those Inventions were, the former verce tells you, they joyn'd themselves to Baal Peer, and ate the offerings of the Dead: But in that verse, verse 28. they are but succinctly set down; you may read their Inventions more at large in the book of Numbers: They committed VVhoredome, verse 2.3. with the Daughters of Moab;Cap. 25. They ate the Sacrafice of their Gods, i. e. the Dead and they joyn'd themselves to Baal Peer, of which I shall give a Compendious, and short Paraphrase, that you may understand what their sins were; and would to God we had not found out worse Inventions our selves?

1. Fornicatus est populus; They committed VVhordome; and an Invention this was, and an Invention of their own too; For it was against Gods Proscription, He proscribed it in his 7th Commandement; Non Maechaberis, Thou shalt not violate that good order which should be between Person and Person, by unruly Lusts, by unclean Deeds.

The Consequences of this sin are commonly a Diseased Body, an empty Purse, a shamefull name, and without Gods great mercy, a Damned Soul; For Harlots are the high way to the Devill; when you look upon them with Delight, you begin your Voyage; when you chat with them, you make haste; when you lie with them, you are at your journies end: In this age it is called a trick of youth; But I pray God have mercy upon us, and forgive us the sins of our youth, and encline our hearts to keep this Law; Thou shalt not commit VVhordome, least we Provoke God to more VVrath by our Invention.

2. The second was, Commederunt sacrificia, they at the sacri­fices of the Dead; and they were called the Sacrifice of the dead, either because the Gods of the Moabites were dead Gods, to whom the Sacrifices were offered: so Musculus, or else, because they were offered for dead men, so St. Austen, or else, They were Oblations devoted to Gods service, to God-self, by men that were Dead whilst they lived.

And they ate them, i. e. They devoured them by sacriledge, and robbed God of them.

Either of these Expositions is an Agravation of their sin; For whereas the Israelites were fed with those Sacrifices which were offered to the True God, and thereby put in minde, that the Covenant betwixt God and them, was as firm and familier, as betwixt Man and VVife, who eat at the same Table: They did hereby divorce themselves from the True God, and marry them­selves to a false, and confirm it by eating the Sacrifices of the Dead: A meer Invention, This:

The third was, Copulati sunt Baal Peer, they joyned them­selves to Baal Peer, and what was Baal Peer?

Baal Peer was a false God, an Idoll, not such a God, quem De­us fecit, nor so good neither, which God made, of whom He saies himself, Dixi Dij estis, I have saied yea are God; but a God, Psal. 82. quem fecit homo, which man made, of whom the man of God saies, they are no Gods, but the works of mans hands.

They call'd him Baal for his honour, for Baal signifies a Lord; Psal. and Peer they call'd him for his Residence, for his Abode was up­on the Hill or Mountain Peer, so Lyranus; Others, and a­mongst them Justinianus saies, that Baal Peer is Idolum Ignomi­nie, by way of contempt, the blind God; he had eyes, but he saw not; he saw not his Preists launcing themselves; he had ears, but he heard not; he heard not Elias mocking him, nor [Page 174]his own false Prophets crying unto him: Others says, Baael Peer signifies Deum hortorum, the Garden God: Whatsoever it signifies, sure I am, it was a meer Invention, this; For Gods in­junction was, Thou shalt have no other Gods but me.

You see, what their Inventions were, I wish they were not a Map of ours: yes, I wish, we did not outvy them in Inventions: So many are our Inventions, that I cannot give you the Tythe of them; and in that word, Tythe there lyes one of our Inven­tions.

1. Come, let us make the Lease of this House for 6. l. per annum Rent; but let the Income by another Indenture be 16. l. per annum more: A meer Invention, this; for saies God, Bring ye all the Tythes into the Store-House; Malac. 3.10. that is one Inven­tion.

2. Come, and let us goe and play the Good Fellowes, and drink an Health or two: A meer Invention, this; for saies God, VVoe be to him that is strong to power in strong drink, and again in the New Testament, Isa. Be not overcome with VVine, where­in is excess: That's a second Invention.

3. Come, let us goe and play a Trick of Youth, and lie with yonder VVench, Exod. 20. a meer Invention, this: For saies God, Thou shalt not commit Fornication; Mat. 5. 1 Cor. and again, Thou shalt not look up­on a VVoman to Lust after her; and again, Thou shalt not touch a Woman, that's a third Invention.

4. Look, yonder goes a Reprobate, a meer Invention, this; for God made no man on purpose to Damne him, because God selfe saies,1 Tim. 2. He hates nothing that he hath made, and St. Paul from God saies; God would have all men to be saved: that is a fourth Invention.

5. A Child of God cannot sin, a meer invention, this: Jac. 1 Joh. 1. For saies St. James, In many things we sin all: For saies St. John, If we [Page 179]say we have no sin, we deceive our selves, and the truth is not in us: That is a fifth Invention.

6. Come, saies the Merchant, let us ingross this Commodity, and raise the Rate, a meer Invention, this: For saies God, The people shall curse him that with-holds the Corne: that's a sixth Invention.

7. Sirrah saies the Shop-keeper to his Apprentice, pare that Yard, a meer Invention, this: For saies God, Thou shalt not have a short measure: Deut. that's a seventh Invention.

8. Christ did not descend into Hell, a meer Invention, this: For saies David of Christ to God, Thou shalt not leave my soul in Hell; and saies Athanasius, VVhosoever beleives not this, Psal. 16. that Christ went down into Hell, without doubt he shall perish everlastingly: that's an eighth Invention.

9. No Necessity of Baptizing Infants: a Meer Invention, this: For saies Christ, Suffer little Children to come to me, Man. 10. and saies St. Peter, Be Baptised every one of you, for the promise is made to you, and to our Children; Act. 2. and saies the Counsell of Milevitary Placuit, ut quicun (que) parvulos recentes ab ut reteris matrum baptisandos negat, Anathemasit whosoever denies Baptisme to Children, let him be accursed, and saies Origen, propter hoc, Ec­clesia ab Apostolis Traditionem accepit, etiam parvulis dare Baptissimum; Rom. 6. Because we are all conceiv'd and born in sin the Church hath received a Tradtion from the Apostles to Baptise Children; and saies St. Austin, Consuetudo matris Ecclesia, &c. The Custome of our Mother the Chu ch in Baptizing Infants is not to be slighted, because it is an Apostolicall Tradition; De Gen. ad li. c. 23. That's a ninth Invention.

10. If we believe and have Faith, It is no matter for good VVorks, or how we live, a meer Invention, this: For saies St. James, faith without work is dead; and saies St. Paul, Jac. 2. neither [Page 165]Circumcision nor uncircumcision availeth any thing but Faith which worketh by Love; That's a tenth Invention.

11 He is gone to Hell, For he dyed of the Plague; A meer In­tention, This; For many of Gods dear Servants do dye of the Plague. 2 Sam. 24. David was desirous to dye of it when he prayed, Let thy hand I pray thee be against me and my Fathers house, but sure he would not have been so desirous to dy of the Plague, if he must have gone to Hell for it; That is a 11th Invention.

12 Subjects may take up Arms against their King; For the King is Universis minor, though he [...]e singulis major; Lesse then the Collective Body, though greater then any particular Person; If he be a Tyrant, If he be Sacrilegious, If he be an Idolater, He may be Resisted, He may be Deposed: A meer Invention's this; For Saul was greater then all the People, because he was their King; and Saul was a Tyrant, a sacrilegious person, an Idola­tar, a Consulter with Witches; and yet David durst not resist him, durst not depose him, and only for this cause, Because he was the Lords Annointed: and therefore the Lords Annoin­ted, because the King; And this hath been the Judgement of all Divines, until of late; and therefore, This is another twelfth Invention.

13 Bishops and Presbyters are of equal Authority; They are all one, For Bishops are called Presbyters in the word of God; A meer Invention, This, and a false Conclusion; For Presbyters are never called Bishops, either in the Book of God, or in any other book unlesse in the Books of Hereticks, or Schismaticks: And that is a Thirteenth Invention.

14 A King may be Deposed by an High Court of Justice, and un­justly sentenced to death, as a Tyrant, Traytor and Murthe­rer, and Publick enemy, by severing his Head from his Body: A meer Invention, This, though pronounced by

  • John Bradshaw, Lord President, so called.
  • Oliver Crumwel, L. General.
  • Henry Ireton Commis. General.
  • Col. Hardresse Waller.
  • Col. Harrison.
  • Col. Whaley. Col. Pride.
  • Col. Ewer.
  • Lord Gray of Grooby.

Sir John D'Anvers, with many more who are not worth the remembring, unlesse Dr. Dorislaus and Justice Aske, Coun­cellours for the Common-wealth.

Cook Sollicitor General, Broughton, and Phelps, Clarks to the Court; Danby, Mace-Bearer.

Humphrey, Sword-Bearer, and King Cryer; And this was an Invention beyond all the Jewes Inventions.

And a great many more Inventions yet, have we found out; but I have tyred you and my self already, with these, and by these, though there were no more, I am sure, we have provoked God to wrath, for the Plague is broken in upon us.

It is my fourth and last consideration, in resolving that Questi­on, What is the fruit and effect of these Inventions, Pars. 4. of these Pro­vocations? The Plague brake in upon them, Irruit, It brake in. Magno impetu invasit, It came with a mighty violence and could not be resisted; Tanquam aqua exundas, like a suddain Flood of water, Maltiplicata est in eis ruina, A multiplyed destruction came upon them; Factis est in eis gravis ultio, God took an hea­vy and grievious revenge upon them: twenty four thousand of the common people and Princes were slain; and this tells you, what Plague it was is here meant.

It was not the Plague of Pustules, or the Plague of the Pesti­lence, or as the common people call it, the Plague of Gods Tokens, [Page 178]or as we of late have had, the Plague of the Guts, which was ne­ver heard of in any Kings Reign, but only in the first Reign of a President, and in the second Reign of a Protector; but it was the Plague of a Civil commotion, raised by the Madness of the people, for a former madness of their provocation, and the small number of the slain then, but 24000, shews and proves their provocations to be lesse then ours: because the Plague of an Uncivil civil war amongst us, hath slain many score of Thousands, some Hun­dreds of thousands, and proves our provocations to be greater then theirs.

However I wish not the rest of the Rebels may either Hoyle or Phane themselves; I wish them not confusion here, or Dam­nation hereafter; The worse that I wish is, That God would be pleased to take them as the Rods of his Justice into the Hands of Mercy, and bring in King Charles II. with power to recover his own Dominions, and to sit upon the Throne of his Father, King Charles Is the Royal Martyr of blessed memory, who upon this day January 30. Anno Dom. 1648, was murthered by bar­barous hands, for seeking to preserve the Churches Rights, and the Peoples Liberties, and Reign over us, and our childrens chil­dren in peace and prosperity, thorough Jesus Christ, Amen.


Anno Dom. 1658.

ACTS 13.28.‘And though they found no cause of death in him, yet desired Pilate to kill him.’

THere are not many steps betwixt Princes, Prisons & Graves; Mat. 2. Christ was the King of the Jews, so confest by the Magi; and the People would have proclaimed him so; But Pilate the Lord President, and Cajaphas the High Preist having Him de­livered into their hands by the Treason of Judas, for a far less price then 200000 l. even 30. pieces of Silver, and though they found no cause of death in him, unless it were Negatively, because he had not Ahab-like took away Naboths Vineyard, or plunder­ed any of his Subjects Illegally; nor Jesabel-like took away Na­boths life, or put to death any of his Subjects Extrajudicially, or Affirmatively, had healed their sick, cured their lame and their blind, ear'd their deaf, raised their dead, delivered them all from the Kings Evil, and made them happy to their Enemies En­vy, and their Friends Admiration, yet they desired Pilate to kill him.

That's my Text, and in it I observe two parts, and they are these.

  • 1. A VVonder; they found no cause of death in him; for a VVonder it is, that a King, who hath so many Prerogatives and Advantages to Blaspheme, to Rob, to Rabe, to Murther, to Ido­latry, (and more causes I find not to kill any man) should have no cause of death found in him.
  • 2. A Murther, and a monstrous Murther: Yet they desired [Page 180]Pilate to kill him, for a monstrous Murther it is, that Subjects, who have so many tyes of Obedience upon them, towards their Kings, should first desire Pilate a Judge, and having obtained leave upon their desire, should add to their desire, endeavour, and to that endeavour, the act, and actuall Execution to kill him, it is a monstrous Murther: This

If it be a monstrous Murther for Servants to kill their Master; If it be a monstrous Murther for Sons to kill their Father; If it be a monstrous Murther for a VVife to kill her Husband; why look ye, here are all, Subjects which are but serci Domini Re­gis, Servants to their Lord the King, Subjects, which if more then Servants, are but Filij Patri Patriae, Sons to the Father of the Country, the Kings Subjects, which if more then Sons, are but sponsa Marito Gentis, the Spouse to the Husband of the Country, the King, yet these Servants, these Sons, this VVife, desire to kill, and kill their Master, their Father, their Husband; and that which makes this monstrous Murther, more then, and above measure monstrous, they can find no cause of death in their Master, in their Father, in their Husband, in their King, which is all.

In the first of these, the wondea, I enquire: 1. VVhy there was no cause of death in him! 2. If there had been cause of death in him; whether they might desire to have him killed!

In the second, The monstrous Murther, I enquire: 1. VVhy they desired Pilate to kill him? 2. VVhat end they had in killing him?

I begin with the first; the wonder, they▪ found no cause of death in him: Pars. 1.

The Jews had four sorts of death in use amongst themselves: 1. Lapidatio, Stoning: 2. Combustio, Burning: 3. Decolla­tio, Beheading: 4. Suffocatio, Strangling.

Other sorts of death, in number six, they borrowed from o­ther Nations: 1. Crux, the death on the Cross: 2. Damnatio ad bestias, to dye by wilde Beasts: 3. Serra dissectio, cutting one in sunder with the Saw: These three they borrowed from the Romans: 4. [...], the VVheel: 5. [...] udgel­ling one to death: 6. [...] Drowning one in the Sea: They bor­rowed from the Greek. and this they borrowed from the Greeks and Romans.

These severall sorts of death, had their several causes of in­flicting them: I shall but name them.

1. There were eighteen Causes for Stoning one to death: 1. He that lieth with his own Mother: 2. He that lieth with his Fa­thers VVife: 3. He that lieth with his Daughter in Law: 4. He that lieth with a betrothed Maide: 5. He that Coupleth with a Male: 6. He that Coupleth with a Beast: 7. The VVo­man that lieth down to a Beast: 8. The Blasphemer: 9. He that worshippeth an Idol: 10. He that offereth his Seed to Molech: 11. He that hath a familiar spirit: 12. The Wisord: 13. The private intiser to Idolatry: 14. The publique drawer to Idolatry: 15. The VVitch: 16. The prophaner of the Sab­both: 17. He that Curseth his Father or his Mother: 18. The Rebellious Son.

Now of none of these 18. did they accuse him, but only of Prophaning the Sabbath, and Blaspheming in calling himself the Son of God; in neither of which they found no cause of Death in him.

For he disproved his profanation of the Sabbath by works of Charity, and proved himself guiltless of Blaspheamy by his own constancy, and by his Fathers Testimony; His Father witness­ed twice that he was his Son; once at his Baptisme, Mat. 3.15. Mat. 17.3. and againe at his Transfiguration; at both which times a Voyce was heard from Heaven, saying, this is my beloved Son; His own Constancy [Page 182]also quitted him, since his first words, and his last words, when he died,Luk. 23.34. Luk. 23.46. were Father forgive them; and, Father into thy hande I commend my Soul.

No cause therefore to stone him to death, and as little cause could they find to burn him to death; for none but 10. sorts were adjudged to burning. 1. The Preists Daughter which com­mitted Whordome. 2. He that lieth with his own Daughter. 3. He that lieth with his Daughters Daughter. 4. He that lieth with his Sons Daughter. 5. He that lieth with his Wives Daughter. 6. He that lieth with his VVives Sons Daughter. 7. He that lieth with his VVives Daughters Daughter. 8. He that lieth with his Daughter in Law. 9. He that lieth with the Mother of his Mo­ther in Law. 10. He that lieth with the Mother of his Father in Law.

None of these ten, did they accuse him of at all; and less cause did they find of death in him, to be burnt to death.

And less cause they had to behead him; for they beheaded only two sorts of Malefactors. 1. The Murtherer. 2. He that stole a Soul of Israel: But of Murther they accused him not, nor indeed could they, since he rather chose a Crown of Thornes, then to exchange that of Gold, for one of Lead, whose embased Flexi­bleness, might be forced to comply and bend to the various,Ps. 33.20. and oft-contrary dictates of any Factions: nor did they accuse him of stealing any Soul of Israel, Ps. 36.10. since he complained, the difference in Religion was the only thing that troubled him.

Neither of these two did they accuse him of; and less cause of death did they find in him to be beheaded.

And less cause yet had they to strangle him: For they stran­gled but six sorts of Malefactors. 1. He that smote his Father or his Mother. 2. He that stole a Soul of Israel. 3. An Elder which contradicted the Consistory. 4. A false Prophet, and he that pro­phesied [Page 183]in the name of an Idoll. 5. He that lay with another mans Wife. 6. He that abused the Body of a Preists Daughter.

Now none of these six was he accused of; and therefore no cause did they, or could they find in him of death, to be strangled to death: And for the other six punishments they borrowed from other Nations, the Cross. 1 The Saw. 2. The Beasts. 3. The Wheel. 4. The Sea. 5. The Cudgell. 6. They found as little cause of death in him.

And if you aske, why they could find no cause of death in him, my prima seconde will tell you, and it tells you thus.

1. Becauses the Hearts of Kings are in the Hands of God; and Christ was a King, yet, and He was God too; and so had his Heart in his own hands; & therefore Impeccable, because God can­not sin; for if he could, he were not God: And for the King that my discourse in this Anniversary and Text aimes at, though he were not Impeccable, because a Man; yet such a man he was, that his most malitious Enemies could find no cause of death in him, and therefore framed, or caused Petitions to be made in the Names of the Soldery and common-people, to cry out for Justice; that he might be killed, though they could find no cause of death in him; Christ, the King in my Text, was free from all cause of death; for no cause of death, but Originally Corruptions or Actuall Transgressions; But Originally Corruption He was free from; because He was conceived by the Holy Ghost, and born of the Virgin Mary: and Actuall Transgressions he was cleared of, not only by the Verdict of St. Peter, who tell us from the Holy Ghost, He did not sin, neither was any guile found in his lips; 1 Peter. but also by the sentence of Pilate himself, who told the Jews, who importuned to have him Crucified, I have examined him, but can find no faults in him: And Charles the first, King of England, John. Scotland, France and Ireland, for whose Commemoration, and [Page 184] his 8 Anniversary, I chose this Text, though he was conceived in sin, and questionless guilty of Actual transgressions, yet not such Transgressions as made him worthy to be Killed, and murthered, by the ancient Laws of this Kingdom.

And that's a wonder, A wonder that King Charles I. should rather with Constantine cover other mens Errors, and discover His own.

A wonder it is,P. 146.4. that Charles I. would continue an Angel of Reformation, when the Devil of Rebellion was up in Arms against him.

A wonder it is,p. 207.1. that Charles I. would rather suffer himself, and his to be destroyed, then give way to alter a settled Orthodox Religion.

A wonder it is,p. 186.3. that Charles I. would rather chuse the woe of Vae soli, and Solitude, then of Vae vobis Hypocritae, and Hypo­crisie.

A wonder it is,p. 127.28. that Charles I. should chuse rather to be reck­oned among the Misfortunate, then in the black List of irre ligious and Sacrilegious Princes.

A Wonder it is,p. 165.20: that Charles I. should seek to set up Christs spiritual Kingdom, by pulling down his own Temporal King­dom.

A Wonder it is,p. 135.4. That Charles I. should rather ascribe the set­ling of Bishops to the wisdom and piety of the Apostle, then to the favour of Princes, or Ambition of Presbyters.

A Wonder it is, that Charles I. should be so judicious to de­termine some mens Zeal for Bishops, p. 141.8. Lands, Houses, Revenues, set them on work to eat up Episcopacy, Root and Branch.

A Wonder it is,p. 103.10. that Charles I. should esteem it his greatest Title, and chiefest Glory to be the Defender of the Church, both in the true Faith, and its just Fruitions, and equally abhorr both Sacriledge and Apostacy.

A wonder it is,p. 103.21. that Charles I. should rather chuse to live on the Churches Alms then violently to take the Bread out of Bi­shops and Ministers mouths.

A wonder it is,p. 104.17. that Charles I. wounld not repair the Breaches of the State, by the Ruins of the Church.

A wonder it is,p. 103.6. that Charles I. should rather chuse Pharaohs Divinity, and Joseph's true piety, then to sell the Priests Lands.

A wonder it is, that Charles I. should esteem the Church a­bove the State, and Gods Glory above his own, p. 92.13. and the Salva­tion of his soul above the preservation of his Body, Estate, and Posterity.

And yet a greater wo [...]der it is, That in none of all these, nor any thing else, neither Judge, nor Jury, nor Rable could sind any cause in him, King Charles I.

But now suppose, They had found cause of death in him, 2a. 1ae. yet might they desire to have him killed?

That my 2a. 1ae. is to tell you, and it tells you, No; It is not awsul for Subjects to desire to have their King killed, though [...]hey could find cause of Death in him.

No, God forbid, we should desire to have Christ the King kil­led, since he came to he killed for us, that we might not be killed. A most unthankful part this would be, and therefore most abo­minable, to requite so much Mercy with so great Injury.

Yet so unthankful and so abominable were the Jewes, They de­sired to have Christ killed; and I would to God, some Christi­ans, yes, and all Christians, were not so abominably unthankful▪

But I must tell you, so abominable and unthankful are we all, that we daily wound him, if we do not kill him; yes, that we daily wound him and kill him; Wound him by our Miseries, or kill him with our sins; we renue his Agony by our consticts, or his [Page 186]Passion by our Guilts; We never suffer as Christians, but He suffers with us; we never sin as Beasts or Epicures, but we kill him by those sins.

We have more need to say, Blessed be God the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who gave his Son to be killed on Earth for a time, that we might not be killed in Hell for ever, and, Bles­sed be God the Holy-ghost, who did annoint Jesus to be our Christ, and gave him Inauguration to his Crown of Thorns, and Blessed though most bloody Function; and blessed be our Lord Jesus Christ, who gave himself up to death, that death might not swallow us up: yes, rather say we, Blessed be the Holy Trinity, then to desire that Christ should be killed.

And God forbid again, That we should desire to have that King killed, whom I in this Text aim at; For it is against the Law, against the Law of God, against the Gospel of Christ, and against the Law of men too.

1. Against the Law of God, Exod. 27.22. Thou shalt not speak evel of the Ruler of thy people, says Moses; much lesse mayst thou do evil to him;Prov. for says Solomon Against the. King there is no rysing up; but to desire his death, to desire that he may be killed, is both to speak evil of him, and do evil to him.

2. It is against the Gospel of Christ; For Christ himself says, Give to Caesar the thing, that are Caesar; and what things are Caesars, St. Paul tells you, when he says, Be subject to him; Give him Honour, Rom. 13. Tribute, Obedience; Take not any thing from him; and all this for Conscience sake; which argues their little or no Conscience which desire to have him killed; for in so do­ing they take all things from him; and St. Peter puts it further home, when he says next to Fear God, Honour the King, which shews, and it it as if the Apostle had said, They have little or no Fear of God, that have so little Honour for their King, [Page 187]as to dishonour him by desiring to have him killed: or as the Royal Expositor hath it, They cannot appear good Christians p. 165.20. that approve not themselves good Subjects; Nor can it be safe for a King to tarry amongst those men, who shake hands with their Allegiance, p. 37.15. under pretence of laying faster hold on their Religion and certainly that is no Religion, or a very bad one, which allows it lawful for Subjects, to desire to have their King Killed.

But I have spoken at full heretofore, That no cause whatsoever in the King, though Murther, Wit [...] h [...]raft, Idolatry, &c. can au­thorise Subjects, to Rebellion, from the Law of God, from the Gospel of Christ, from the Judgement of all the Primitive and later Orthodox Divines, as To kill their King.

3. And therefore I hasten to shew in the next place, That such a desire to have the King killed, is against the Law of Man, and particularly against the Law of the men of this Nati­on, even of those men who did Kill King Charles I.

And that I may do it truly, and according to the Law of this Nation, I shall only repeat the words of Judge Jenkins, who tells us, His Oath as a Judge, runs thus;p. 174.

  • 1. Well and truly to serve our Sovereign Lord the King, and his People in that Office.
  • 2. To do right to all manner of People, Poor and Rich, af­ter the Lawes and Usages of this Realm.
  • 3. Truly to Counsel the King, and his Counsel to conceal and keep.
    p. 174.
  • 4. Not to suffer the hurt, or disheriting of the King, or that the Rights of the Crown be decreased by any means as far as he may let it.
  • 5. If he may not let it, he shall make it clearly, and expresly to be known to the King with his advice and Council.
  • [Page 188]6. And that he shall do and purchase the Kings profit in all that he reasonably may, as God him help, and the Contents of Gods Book.

And after he tells us,p. 175. That the House of Commons this Parlia­ment, (some call'd it the Long Parliament, gave in charge to Mr. Sollicitor (St. Johns I think) upon the Prosecution of the Bill of Attainder against the Earl of Strafford, to declare the Law to be, That Machination of War against the Laws or Kingdom, is against the King; They cannot be severed.

He tells us again,p. 1676. That Mr, Pym had in charge likewise upon the same Prosecution to Declare, That the KING and his People are obliged one to another in the nearest relations; He is a Father, and the Childe in Law is called Pars Patres; He is the Husband of the Common-wealth, They have the same Inte­rests, they are inseperable in their condition, be it good or evil; He is the Head, they are the Body; there is such an Incor­poration as cannot be dissolved without the destruction of both.

Once more,p. 198. after this, he tells,

  • 1. To Imprison the King is High Treason.
  • 2. To remove Counsellours from the KING by force is High Treason.
  • 3. To alter the Laws establisht in any part by force is High Treason.
  • 4. To usurp the Royal Power is High Treason.
  • 5. To alter the Religion establisht is High Treason.
  • 6. To raise rumours and give out words to alienate the Peoples affections from the King, is High Treason.
  • [Page 189]7. To sesse Souldiers upon the People of the Kingdom, without their consent, is High Treason.
  • 8. The execution of Paper Orders by Souldiers in a Military way is High Treason.
  • 9. To counterfeit the Great Seal, is High Treason.
  • 10. Th [...] Commissions of Array is in force and no other.
  • 11. None can make Judges, Justices, Sheriffs, &c. but the King [...]he King makes every Court.
  • 12. The Great Seal belongs to the Kings Custody, or to whom he shall appoint, and none other.
  • 13. Ordinances of one or both Houses, are no Lawes to binde the people.
  • 14. No Priviledge of Parliament holds for Treason, Felony, or breach of the Peace.
  • 15. To Levy war against the Person of the King, is High Treason.
  • 16. To impose unlawful Taxes, to impose new Oaths, is High Treason.
  • 17. It is a pernicious Doctrine to teach Subjects, They may be discharged from the Oath of Allegiance.

Good God, of what a complicated Treason then was that party of that PARLIAMENT Guilty, who after they had taken up Armes against KING CHARLES I. did did then slaunder him, did then Imprison him, did then desire to have Him Kill'd, and did then Actually Kill Him.

And so Committed a Murther, a monstrous murther, which is my second Generall Part;Pars. 2. And thus I discourse it.

Had they but desired to kill him, they had committed a mon­strous Murther. For as to Lust after a Woman is Adultery in Christs Exposition of they Commandement; Mat. 5. so to be Angry with a man, to call him Fool, or Raca is Murther in his Expositi­on of the sixth Commandement; but they, the Jews, called Christ a Wine-bibber, a Samaritan, a Devil, and at last desired to have him killed, and thereby committed a monst [...]ous Mur­ther.

King David tells us, that the Lord a [...]horreth the blood-thirsty and deceitfull man; Psal. 5.6. and the deceitfull man, as the best Expositors tell us, is such a one as longeth after, or desireth the blood of his Neighbour.

But they went further, they did not only desire to have him killed, but they actua [...]y killed him: Pilate indeed gave the sen­tence upon their importunity; and they executed that sentence by their own Cruelty, and so Murthered him in their heart by desire, in their tongue by detraction, and in their hand by Executi­on, and so committed a monstrous Murther,

  • 1. Monstrous. 1. as being against Nature; Omnia appetunt esse, Naturally all things love their being.
  • 2. Monstrous 2. as being against Reason, Quod tibi non vis fieri, alteri ne feceris; Reasonably no man should do that to another, which he would not another man should do to him.
  • 3. Monstrous, as being Devilish: He is a Mu [...]therer from the beginning, and the Author and Father of a Murther; and who would be called a Malignant,
    Joh. 44.8.
    or the Son of the De­vill.
  • 4. Monstrous. 4. as being Beastly, Ferina rabies vulnere et sanguine laetari, saies Seneca, it is a savage Cruelty to delight in blood.

And yet if these Jews had thought, that for this sin of Blood, this monstrous Murther of Christ, they should have been cursed upon earth, and have been Vagabonds all the dayes of their life, certa [...]nly they would never have committed so unnaturall, so unreasonable, so devilish, so beastly a sin in defiring Christ to be killed by the Cross; nor would the English have done the like, by desiring Charles to be killed by the Hatchet.

But why did they desire Pilate to kill Christ? and why did some others desire John Bradshaw to kill King Charles? why that my prima secundae is to tell you, and it tells you thus in one suppositive, and in one Positive Quare.

1. It may be, the speak truth, when they said to Pilate, Joh. 18.31. It is not lawfull for us to put any man to death, and some latter Jews tells us; by name, Moses Kots, in Sanhedrin, that all po­wer of Capitall punishments was taken from them, forty years be­fore the destruction of their second Temple.

But this I dare not conceive: For though power in Criminalls, in the Generall, was taken from them, yet in this particular, Pilate gave them power, when he said,Joh. 18.31. Take yea him, and judge him according to your Law. Nor could they object against this, their Law could not condemn him, if he had transgressed their Law; because they confest, they had a Law, and by their Law he ought to dye: All that can excuse him in this, is,Joh. 19.7. the Holiness of that time, made them say▪ It was unlawfull; because they held it unlawfull upon their daies of preparation to sit on life and death; and Friday on which our Saviour was condemned, was the preparation of their Sabbath: But, 2. My positive Quare is this, They desired Pilate to put him to death, because if they had let Christ alone, all men would believe him, et venient Romani, the Romans will come, and take away both their Place and Na­tion.

This was the causeless cry they made against Christ, and the causeless end they pretended in desiring Pilate to kill him, and here you may see how just the Judgment of God was: We desire you Pilate to kill him; for fear the Romans come upon us, and destroy us; and the killing of Christ was the cause that brought in the Romans upon them, so justly did God punish them with that which they pretended most to fear.

I would the Application were not too visible; 1. That gal­lant and wise Earl of Strafford must be beheaded, because he plotted the Alteration of the Fundamentall Laws of this King­dome, and raising of the standing Army: 2. The constant and learned Arch-Bishop of Canterbury must be beheaded, because he plotted the Alteration of Religion, and bringing Popery into this Church: 3. King Charles the first, that most Wise, most pious, most Learned Religious Defender of the Faith, must be beheaded too, because He listened to such (evil) Counsellors, which God hath punish'd with an evil Counsell, with the raising & con­tinuing of an Army, against the Fundamental Lawes of this King­dome, & with an Harvest of the Popes, besides with the Glean­ings of a Medley of many Sects, and Schismes, Anabaptists, Inde­pendants, Quakers, Shakers, Brownists, & the Mother & Father of these and many more, the Presbyterians, to the utter undoing almost of the most glorious Church Christ ever had upon the Earth, since the Apostolicall and Primitive time? God Al­mighty in his good time, send a Charles the second to restore Vigour to the Fundamentall Lawes, Peace to the people, and true Religion to the Church, through Jesus Christ Amen.

But what end had the Jewes in killing Christ? why that my seconda secondae, and last disquisition must informe you, and thus it doth it.

1. It may be they had Jeroboams end, to make Preists of the lowest of the people; and it is observable that after they had kill­ed Christ, they never had, nor to this day have a worthy man for their High Preist.

2. It may be they had Jehu's end, to make away all the Seed and Blood-Royall and it is observeable again, that after they had killed Christ, Herod the Son killed James also, the Cozen-Ger­man of Christ, and therefore of the Blood-Royal from David, that so none of that Family might ever after inherit the Crown of Judea.

3. Or it may be they had Omries end, to erect new Statutes, contrary to the old, Statutes of a new Invention, contrary to, or diverse from th [...]se of Gods first Institution.

4. Or it may be they had Je abels end, that when Christ the King was killed, they might without controule make honest, loyall, constant, Consciencious men Delinquents and Malignants, and plunder them of their [...]states, and take away their life.

5. Or if they had none of these ends, (and I cannot positively say they had) yet questionless, their end was that in the Parable, This is the Heire, come let us kill him, and the Inheritance shall be ours; He being killed, our Glosses and humane Traditions, and Inventions shall go for Currant, and all the world will be of our Religion; and thereout shall we suck no small advantage.

And this end had some Judaized Scots and English in killing King Charles the first: They desired the Deputy, or Governour, or President Bradshaw to kill him, that the Possession of Crown and Soveraignty being of out his hands, or podibility to recover them, and his Heire and Issue banished, he the President by name, John Bradshaw might quietly and Conscientiously enjoy the Lord Cottingtons Estate, and part of the Earl of St. Albons; worth 4000. l. per ann. Sr. Thomas Fairfax part of the Duke [Page 164]of Buckinghams; Oliver Cromwell part of the said Dukes, part of the Marquess of Worcesters, with a great deal more, who of late upon the third of September this year, forfeited his usurped Protectorship, with all his ill-gotten wealth, and Honours, and surrendred his Soul into the hands of God, with this Manifesto of his Repentance? O Lord, how wilt thou deal with me? O Lord, what Judgements and Torments hast thou prepared for me: I dare not say, so let them and the Kings enemies perish, O Lord, and yet I do say, How long O Lord, how long will it be ere thou re­turnest King Charles II. with power to recover his Dominions, and with Wisdom to settle Peace and Religion in these Kingdoms; which we yet wait for patiently, and do beg earnestly for his sake whom the Jewes killed; Jesus Christ, Amen.

Anno Dom. 1659.

ROM. 1.32.‘Who knowing the Judgement of God, that they which commit such things are worthy of death, not only do the same, but have pleasure in them that do them.’

MAny Inditements hath the Apostle brought in against the Gentiles in this Chapter, from the 29. verse to this 32. Two and twenty as some have tallied them; Others add this to the former, and read them Three and twenty.

[...], Fornication the first; [...], Wickedness was the second, [...], Covetousnesse was the third [...], Malici­ousness was the fourth, [...], Envy was the Fifth, [...], Mur­ther was the sixth, [...], Debate was the seventh: [...], Deceipt; [Page 195]was the eighth: [...], Malignity the ninth: [...], Wnispering was the tenth: [...], Backbiting was the elea­venth: [...], Hating of God was the twelfth: [...] De­spitefulness was the thirteenth: [...], Pride was the 14th [...], Boasting was the fifteenth: [...], Invention of evil things was the sixteenth: [...] Disobedience to Parents was the seventeenth: [...] without Understanding was the eighteenth: [...] Covenant-breaking was the nine­teenth [...] Without Natural affection was the twenti­eth: [...] Implacability was the one and twentieth: [...] Unmercifulness was the two and twentieth: and this I take to be the last of his Inditement.

And this I have now read unto you, howsoever some men ac­count to be a three and twentyeth Inditement; yet I take it to be an aggravation of, and not an addition to the former Indite­ments; and withal a preoccupation of all excuse; For they might say, That we have done, as you have charged us, we can­not deny; but that we are therefore Reprobates, we hope not; For what we have done hitherto, we have done ignorantly; we knew not our sins to be so Capital; and we trust God will wink at our sins of ignorance.

Nay, says St. Paul, you cannot plead ignorance; For you know the Law of God, and that they which do such things are worthy of death; and yet you did them: Yes truly, they reply, we have committed those sins against our knowledge; but what then must we needs be damn'd for that? will not God pardon the frailties of our youth? though we have not done these ignorantly, yet we have done them of infirmity; Nay says St. Paul, by your leave, that you have not neither; For if you had committed these sins by way of infirmity in your selves; you would then con, [Page 196]demn them in others; but you not only do them your selves, but you also take pleasure in them that do them.

Before I proceed, give me leave to wish that those Indite­ments were not as justly chargeable upon a great part of English Christians, as they were upon the Roman Gentiles; not upon all; no, there are many Chast, Plous, Religious, Meek, Patient and Loyall Souls amongst them; who are not liable to any of St. Pauls enditement in this Chapter; nor yet upon the Parliament neither, that long Parliament: no, God forbid I should have or ha [...]bour such a thought of Parliament, of a true Parliament, which represents the blessed Trinity in Power, Wisedome, and Sanctity, where the King, as Head, directs the Lords Spirituall and Temporall, as heart enlivens, and the Commons as the infe­riour Members, put all things into execution.

I speak only of a Faction in that Parliament, who by their Ser­pentive sedulity and subtlety, engros'd the power of all, cut off the Head of the Head, the Kings Head, and voted down, or ra­ther out, the Heart of the Hearts, the Lords Spirituall and Tem­porall: and did not only do these things themselves, Malignity, Murther, Deceipt, Debate, but also took pleasure in them that did them; and vent one degree further, commanded others to do them too: In which words the Apostle,

  • 1. Accuseth them for doing things worthy of death.
  • 2. Aggravates that fault; And were blessed St. Paul now liv­ing, he would further aggravate it.
    • 1. From their knowledge of Gods Law.
    • 2. By delighting in others for doing the same.
    • 3. By Commanding all others, and compelling many to do the same; witness the [Page 197]
      • 1. Engagement.
      • 2. Oath of Abjuration.
      • 3. Subscription against the common Enemy, King Charles the second.

I begin with the first Agravation, (so the Accusation is too plain, indeed too plain, that who so runs,Psal. 1. may read it) and the Observation thence is this: Knowledg Aggravates Sin: Joh. 9.41. For saies Christ, If yea were blind, yea should have no sin: i. e. Nullum non simpliciter, sed nullum Comparative; None not simply, but no sin Comparatively; and when Christ extenuates their sin that crucified him, he prays thus for them; Father, Luke. 25. forgive them, for they know not what they do: and if I, if you, am that Servant, which knew my Masters will, and prepare not my self to do according to his will, I yes and you, yes and they, whosoever they are, shall be beaten with many stripes.Luke 12.

If Christ had not come, and spoke to you, and them, and me,Joh. 15.22. we had not had sin; but now, because Christ hath spoke to us all, we have no Cloak for our sin: If you, and they,Joh. 4.17. and I know how to be good, and do it not: (know how to abstaine from sin, and abstaine not) to us it is sin.

If I sin of Ignorance only, I want both knowledge and good will; having a will only to the deed, not to the sin; but if I sin willingly, I want both good will and inclination to leave my sin; having a will at once both to the deed and sin; and therefore the more sinfull, because when I knew the deed to be sin, yet I would do it.

More sinfull therefore I am then other men, because my know­ledge makes my sin a willfull neglect of Gods Authority; He is the immediate Law-giver, and hath revealed it to me▪ as well as [Page 198]to Adam and Eve, as well as to Moses and Aaron, as well as to the Prophets and Apostles; More sinfull therefore I am then ig­norant people, because my knowledge makes my sin a Prophane Contempt of the Law-givers Authority; and He hath reveal­ed it more to me, and you, and them, then to the Gentiles.

Yet may no man hence more prophanely in far, welcome Ig­norance; for though ignorance lessors both Sin and Damnation, yet it makes not my sin to be no sin; and it is but a miserable comfort for a So [...]omite to think that a Capernaise is worse then himself, when he is in the burning Lake; for he too is damned everlastingly,Luk. 12.46. though less tormented: Science, in the knowing sin­ner, shall have the more stripes, yet no more stripes then his sciene is capable off; Ignorance in the unknowing sinner, shall have fewer stripes, yet no fewer then his Ignorance is capable off. As the tender and soft flesh is more sensible of the sharpness, by incision or stripes, then the tough and hardned flesh; yet they both have enough, though not equally the same.

Nessire to be invincibly Ignorant, is damnable simplicity: Nolle scire, to be wilfully Ignorant, is hainous Impiety: Scire et nolle facere, to know good, and not to do it, is intollerable Obstenacy; or, scire et contra facere, to know good, and yet to do the contrary against the light of that knowledge, is a very near▪ borderer upon that unpardonable sin, the sin against the Holy Ghost, which shall never be forgiven: This is the Aggrava­tions of the Gentiles sins; they knew those severall acts to be sins; yet they did the sins.

Now before we go on, let us examine whether some of our English Christians did not know, the Dethroning the deposing, the killing, the Murthering of King Charles the first were not a sin, and a great, a very great sin.

Certainly they did know it; they knew it: 1. By the Law of [Page 199]God; they knew it: 2. By the Example of Christ; they knew it: 3. By the Native, Positive, and Statute Lawes of this King­dome, all which they were bound and sworn to observe to fol­low, and yet against their knowledge and Oath both. They (quod horrendum est dicere, quod infandum est renovare) They dethron'd him, depos'd him, kill'd and Murthered him.

1. They knew it by the Law of God; It is expresly said, Thou shalt do no murther; but this it may be is too generall, what think you then of that particular prohibition, Nolite tangere Christis meos; Touch not mine Annointed: Doeth not this con­cerne Kings in particular! For they were Annointed: or rather, doth it not concerne you in particular, that howsoever you touch other men, yet you would forbear to touch Kings; i. e. to touch them with any hand of violence; He, whosoever he be that doth it, commits no less sin then Crimen laesae Majestatis; High Treason; Touch not mine Annointed is all one with,Prov. Job. lay no violent hands on Kings: no, nor tongues neither, speak not irreverently of them, no nor hearts neither, think not unworthy of them.

But it may be, some have got, and others follow the new gloss of these words; Touch not mine Annointed; i. e. touch not my Prophet, touch not my Saints, touch not my holy ones;Prov. This concernes not Kings.

Well, be this admitted, though it be not granted: yet what say you to that of Solomon? Fear God and the King, and that in respect of the Oath: Is not this home to this particular? The King next to God, and the King joyned with God in the duty of Feare? q. d. If you fear not the King when you have seen, you fear not God, whom you have not seen; and is not that Aggravation of the sin, in not fating God for want of fearing the King, and an Aggravation of another sin, in not fearing the King, for want of fearing God.

But the Aggravation is yet further and higher; and that in respect of the Oath; Take the Oath which way you please, ei­their the Oath of Universall obedience to God, wherein the King is not left out; or the Oath of particular Allegience and Supre­macy to the King, wherein the King is especially put in, and yet God not left out; for the Oath is to the Ki [...]g b [...]fore God; and that God, before whom you took this Oath, will be a most severe revenger upon you that have broke this Oath of Allegi­ance to the King before God, and the Oath of Obedience to God before the Church.

2. They knew that Murthering of King Charles the first was a sin, and a very great sin by the Example of Christ, when he was upon the Earth Cloathed with the Garment of our Humani­ty: Having at his Command and beck twelve legions of Angels for his assistance and rescue,Joh. 19. and Pilate told him, he had power to loose him, and power to Crucifie him, Christ was so far from Commanding his Angels, or to resist Pilates power, that he com­manded St. Peter to sheeth that sword which he drew in his de­fence; and said no more to Pilate, but, thou should'st have no power over me unless it were given thee from above; therein acknowledging all Royall Power on earth to be a Dorra­tive and Derivative from Gods power in Heaven; therefore to be feared, obeyed, and submitted unto, at no hand to be resisted. But whether the Murthering of a King be the resisting of Regall Power, and a sin, yes and an Aggravation of that sin, because they knew it, Judge your selves.

Again from Christs Example,Mat. when these Crafty and Fox-like Pharisees come to Christ, that they might en­tangle him; and therefore demanded, whether it were he asketh whose lawfull to give Tribute unto Caeser or no; superscription was upon their money; and when he heard it con­fessed from themselves, that it was Caesers; why then quoth he, [Page 201]give unto Caser the things that are Casaers and to God, the things that are Gods; thereby denying God and the King to be [...] or Incompatible, and commanding us as well to give the King our Goods and Bodies to him service, as to do give God our Souls and Bodies in his service. And doth not this Aggravate their sin, who against their knowledg, are so far from paying or giving the King his Tribute, that they plunder him of his life.

3. They knew, that Murthering of the King was sin, a great sin, a very great sin, by the Native, Positive, and Statute Laws of this Kingdome; All which Lawes do say, It is High Treason to Imprison the King; certainly then, much Higher Treason to Murther the King: And this last Aggravation of their sin, con­cerning their knowledge, that Murther'd King Charles the first at his own Royal Pallace-Gate, Jan. 30. 1648. and I conclude it with this prayer for you and my self.

Give us grace, O God, to labour for knowledge; Joh. 13.17. and give us more grace to add practise to our knowledge, that we may be blessed in knowing good, and doing well, through Jesus Christ, Amen.

Cursed am I, if I know, and will not do, not because I know, but because knowing, I will not do what I know, and so sin a­gainst my knowledge; as these Gentiles did?

They knew the Law of God, This was the object of their knowledge; some Translations read the Righteousness of God; some, the Judgement; some the Justice of God.

They all come to one, so I here understand by the Law, not the Law written; either Morall or Judiciall; for this was the Jewes Prerogative; but the Law unwritten, whereby every man knowes in generall, what is good, what is evil, what is to be done what is to be forborn; and this was a priviledge which God vouchsafed the Gentiles, and that three waies.

1. By the light of Nature; which Philosophers called the Law of Nature; Lex and Lux not differing much either in Sig­nification or pronuntiation; E. and U. In pronuntion, light, i.e. the light of the minde, which direct, and Law, the Law of the minde, which perswadeth.

2. By Conscience, which is the lights light, or the Lawes Law, and is therefore quiet, and commends the minde for well doing, but is restless, and condemnes the mind for ill doing; and so the next Chapter tells us, their Conscience (or thoughts) accusing, or excusing; accusing when any thing is done co [...]tra scientiam against knowledg; excusing, when the mind thinks, or the mouth [...]peaks, or the hand doth cum scientia, according to knowledge; ever writing like that Lex Acilia among the Romans, one of these letters to be read, either A. or C. if A. it was Absolution; if C. it was Condemnation.

3. By examples of Vengeance upon evil doers, which may be called the judiciary Law of God; and so is the word here, [...] (Righteousness, Law, or Judgment) injusti facti Correctio, the punishment of an unjust act; especially of that which is the unjustest of unjust Sects, whether it be Homicidium, Parricidium: or Regi-cidium, [...]urthering of a man which is bad, or the mur­thering of a Father, which is worse, or the murthering of a King which is worst of all.

Had we been before Christ, or were we now without Christ; yet we should have the Law, at least, the knowledge of the Law of God; and this the Apostle proves to every one of us two wayes. 1. A Facto, by Fact 2. A Testimonio by Witness.

1. By Fact thus: Though they have not the law, yet by Na­ture, they do the things contained in the Law;Rom. 2.14. by Nature, by the light of Nature; For by the light of Nature.

Plutarch thus justifies the first precept of the Decalogue, say­ing, [Page] Omnes hoc uno ore dicunt, esse Deos; In amator in Tim. 3. pag. 416. Notwithstanding all the tentations of the Devil to perswade men like Diagoras, Theodo­ras, and others, who made a profession of Atheisme, to say there is no God, yet upon better consideration they were com­pell'd to confess, with one mouth, as it were;De nat. Deer lib. 2. pag. 203. De leg. lib. 1. pag. 313. That there is a God, and Cicero, that Eloquen [...]'st of Orators to the same pur­pose; Omnibus innatum est, & quasi insculptum, esse Deos, De leg. lib. 1. pag. 313. It is naturally engraven in the mindes of all men to beleive, there is God; and elsewhere, Nulla gens ne (que) tam immansneta, nequetam fera & barbara est, quae etiamsi ignoret qualem habere Deum de­ceat, tamen habendum sciat; There is no people so feirce, so un­civil, so barbarous, though they be ignorant what God to have, yet they are perswaded, they ought to have a God; and with the Athenians, rather then they will have none, they will sacrifice Ignoto Deo, to an unknown God? and Cato tells us,Act. 17.25. that God is a Spirit, and therefore pura mente colendus, to be worshiped with a pure mind.

De bello per­sio, contra Gravos.By the light of Nature Strabo justifies the second precept, which is an Inhibition of Idolatry, when he tells us: The Persi­ans in detestation of such impiety, pull'd down and burnt the Images of the Grecians in their Temples: and Cornelius Tacitas reports, that the ancient Germanes held it very absurd to immure the incomprehensible Majesty of an Immeasurable God within private Walls, and to paint the Invisible Godhead by any Hu­mane shape: And Plutarch tells us, that Numa Pompilius, the second King, and first institutor of Religions Rites amongst the Romanes held it hainous to worship God in or by any Image.

3. By the light of Nature, Theophras [...]us justifies the third precept, which is a prohibition against Blasphemy, when he tells us, that Paricles was an irreligious fellow, because he used Charmes, thereby to invocate and abuse the name of God; and [Page 164] Tullush Hostilius, as we are told, was struck dead, because he Blasphemed the name of Jupiter.

4. By the light of nature, both Thomas Aquinas, and Dr. Bird, from the very Heathen justify the fourth Commandement, which Commands the Sanctifying of the Sabboth, when they both tell us, that the Heathen had many Lawes to sever certain daies from their worldly affaires, as to dedicate them to the ser­vice of God; and deputed a certain time to refresh and feed their soul by their service to God, and they did every day nourish and feed their bodies by food and sleep; and howsoever they could not, or did not hit upon the right day, yet by the directi­on of meer naturall reason, they acknowledged, a day ought to be sequestred from common business, and consecrated to God worship.

5. By the light of Nature Menander justifies the fift Com­mandement, which is, to honour our Parents, when he tells us [...] Have thy Parents in all honour.

6. Romulus by the light of Nature justifies the sixt Comman­dement, which forbids Murther, when he accounted it of that ex­ecrable Nature with Parracide, and devised such exquisite pun­nishments to be inflicted upon Homicides, and all man-slayers, that if Halicarnassus his report be true, there was not a man slain within the Walls of Rome for above 600 years.

7. By the light of Nature the very Peot justifies the seventh Commandement; when he saies,

Nupta virum timeat, rata sit custodia nupta,
Hoc decet, hoc leges, jusque pudorque jubent.

The Lawes, Common Right and Honesty teach all men and [Page 199]women to live Chastly, and to keep their Faith, each one to ano­ther, and so another by name Tibullus ah, pereat, didicit foller [...] siqua virum: Let that Wife perish which deceives her Husband, yes, and that Husband which deceives his Wife: and so the great Philosopher, Non debet homo sanae mentis ad quamcunque mulie­rem mittere semen suum; No man of a sound mind may defile his body with a strange Woman: and Geraldus tells us, that among the Spartans they were so chast, that it was almost incredible that any Adulterer should be found amongst them.

8. Cicero by the light of Nature justifies the eight Comman­dement, which forbids theft or stealing; when he saies, Detrahere aliquid alteri, To steal or take away from our Neighbour, to increase our own wealth, and decrease his, Magis est contra Na­turam quammors, quam dolor, quam caeter a quae possunt, aut corpo­ri accidore, aut rebus externis; it is worse then death, and more against Nature then Greife, or any other externall thing; and Draco the Athenian Law-giver punisht Theft with Death.

9. The Poet again by the sight of Nature justifies the ninth Commandement, which forbids false-witness-bearing, when he saies Non bene conducti vendunt perjuria testes; they very much offend that sell or hire themselves to testifie any falshood: and therefore such Lawes were made to hinder all false testimony, that none should be a Witness in his own cause; that none should be admitted to testifie against his Enemy; that if any man should thrice bear false Witness, and presume again to testi­fie any thing before a Judge, he should be condemn'd to dye.

10. By the sight of nature, Sophocles justifies the tenth Com­mandement, which forbids us to Covet another mans good, when he saies; This very affection is a most furious Commander: and when Xerxes would have perswaded Leonides to this sin, he an­swered, if thou knewest what were honest, thou would'st for­bear [Page 206]to Cover what is another mans: for my part, I had rather dye then do it.

All these things the Gentiles know by the light of Nature on­ly; and yet for that the Apostle aggravates their sins, because they know it, and yet did it: first by Fact.

Secondly by Witness: Kom. 2.15. for so in the next Chapter againe he saies; Their Conscience bearing Witness, and their thoughts ac­cusing or excusing one another: and elsewhere he saies, God left not himself without Witness, in that He did good, and gave us raine from Heaven,Act. 14.17. and fruitfull seasons, and filling our hearts with food and gladness; and this the very Heathens called Hae­riditaria fama omnium mortalium, the Inheretance of all men.

Take you and my self therefore heed of that Religion, which grants dispensations for Murthers, and marrages within degrees prohibited, and makes them not only commendable, but in some cases also meritorious, yes, worthy of Canonization too For it is a Transgression of the Law of God, because of the Law of Na­ture, both which the Apostle here makes all one.

And againe, take you and my self heed, how you or I lay the guilt of our sin, or the paine of our Condemnation upon God; let us not charge him with Cruelty, but our selves with folly and impiety: The Law of God teaches you and my self, when we are idle in the Pismire, to provide in Summer against Winter, to be sober in the Horse, and drink no more then will do us good: be­ing Unchast or Lacivious in the Dove, and know no woman but out own Wifes: being Cruel or Unnaturall in the Storke, and to maintain our Parents, Children, Freinds; that if we do such things, we are worthy of death.

Worthy of death, of death temporal; so Draco by the light of nature appointed Death for all great Transgressions: but that [Page 207]is not all our Apostle here means; but worthy of death eternal too; and this the very Gentiles knew, by assigning their Elisy­an fields to some sinners, and Hell, or their Stygian Lake to o­ther sorts of sinners:

Take you and I therefore heed of all sorts of sins, and do with every sin, as David did with his water, which his Worthies brought him with hazzard of their lives, powre it & them on the ground, and say, God forbid we should commit these sins, because if we do we are worthy of Death, of Death Temporal, and Death Eternal.

Especially take we heed, that we delight not, that we take not pleasure in, that we applaud not them that do them: For this is desperate impiety, the hight of and the great aggravation of the Gentiles sin, here used by this great Apostle; which is my second consideretion, They do not only do them, Psal. 2. Put also take pleasure in others for doing the same.

Some read it Consent, so Lyranus, Tolet, and others; and make the Aggravation lesse.

But Theophylact Paraeus, Piscator and others read it, Patro­cinantur, favour, delight, take pleasure in; yes, Applaudunt, Applaud and defend them that do such things; and so make the Aggravation greater: either way, It is bad enough.

Alexanders murthering of Clytus, was not the lesse, though Anaxarchus the Epicurian Phylosopher told him, All was law­ful that Princes did; though Aristander the Stoical Philosopher told him, it was Fate and Destiny: Davids murthering Uriah was not the lesse, though the Ammonite slew him,2 Sam. 12.9. because he commanded it.

Achitopels killing of Absolom was not the lesse, because his Counsel brought him to his death.2 Sam. 16.21.

Saul was not lesse guilty of St. Stephens death,Act. 7.59. though the Jews stoned him,Act. 22.20. because he consented to it.

Achab was not lesse guilty of Naboths death, though some Sons of Belial bare false witness against him, and others condem­ned him,Reg. 21.13. and others stoned him; because he authorized and countenanced it with his Seal.

Esau was not the lesse guilty of Jacobs destruction, though Forreigners,Obed. 11.12. carried him away captive, because he did not rescue him.

All the Tribe of Benjamin was not guilty of the Concubines Death and Rape in the Act of it,Jud. 19.22. Jud. 20.13.14. yet they were guilty of the sin, because they sheltered the Actors and Doers of it.

The Modern or latter Jews were not the less guilty of the old Prophets death,Mat. 23.34. though their Fathers and Grand-Fathers slew them, because they were Heire, as well of the Murthers, as of their Fathers.

Nor were they less guilty of King Charles, blessed King Charles the first his death, who brought him to the Block, though others chopt off his head; because they then withstood it not, nor ever since called any of them to account for doing of it.

Nor are you, or my self the loss guilty of that sin, which ano­ther man commits, if, lying in our power, we do not hinder it, if we do not reprove it, if we counsell'd it, if we consented to it, if we commanded it, if we concealed it, if we entertain'd the Actors of it, and gave them applause, or took pleasure in them for do­ting of it.

I end this second part with Prayer. O God, we have much guilt of our own, too much, if thy mercy be not the greater; suffer us not we beseech thee to partake of other mens sins, or communicate in other mens guilt; but give us Courage to hinder it, Zeal to reprove it, Power to forbid it, Wisdome to dispraise it, Anger to [Page]discountenance it, Strength to resist it, Hearts and Tongues to de­claime against it: The burthens of others miseries give us Chari­ty to bear; but the burthens of other mens sins give us piety to for­bear; and the burthen of our own sins do thou ease, and the guilt of our own sins do thou forgive, for his sake, who hath borne that burthen, and washt away that guilt by his pretious and invaluable blood, Jesus Christ; Amen.

And now I come to the last part I proposed; That if the Apo­stle were now living,Pars. 3. he would certainly further aggravate this sin upon the English Christians, then he did upon the Romane Gentiles, who have out-stript and exceeded their doing these sins themselves, and their delighting in those that do them, by com­manding all others, and compelling many to do the same, by 1. An Engagement. 2. An Oath of Abjuration. 3. A sub­scription of Opposition against the Common Enemy, whom they at least some of them, I am sure one of them, with the Approba­tion, if silence gives consent, declared to be Charles Stewart, whom we acknowledge to be Charles the second, King of Eng­land, Scotland, and Ireland, and for whose return we do and will pray, with Power from above to recover his own Rights, with mercy from above to forgive his Rebellions Subjects, and with Wisdome from above to lettle this Church of God, and his three Kingdomes in Peace and Truth, untill the second comming of our Blessed Lord and Saviour, Jesus Christ, Amen.

That Engagement (with the Covenant) was the first;1. Engage­ment. and ei­ther of these bad enough, since there is not one Engagement in the whole Book of God, save those of the Rebels, Corah and his Complices, Absolom and his Conspirators, Shaba and his Peu­fellowes, nor is there one Covenant in that whole book, but they were all given and taken by the Kings Authority, not a Covenant amongst them all, (and they are but six in number) imposed with­out, [Page]much less against the Kings Authority; and besides, they were all meerly Religious Covenants, not one Politick or state Covenant amongst the whole six:Joshua 24.25. The first, of which six was made by Joshua with the people: The second, was made by Jeho­jada the High Preist, in behalf of the young King Joash with the people,2 Reg. 11.4. the sum of which Covenant was that the people should be true to God, 2 Cron. 15.12. the King, and the Church: The third was made by King Asa with the people to seek the Lord God of their Fa­thers with all their heart, and with all their soul: The fourth was made by King Hazechiah with the people, when they were in great distress for want of Religion: and therefore said the King, I have purposed to make a Covenant with the Lord God of Israel, that he may turn his feirce wrath from us; This was the Kings Covenant and Engagement with God for the people,2 Cron. 29.10. not theirs against him: The fift was made by Josia, King of Is­rael with God, that he, (and his People) would walk after the Lord, and keep his Commandements, and his Testimonies, and his Statutes, with all his heart, and his soul, and that he would accomplish the words of the Covenant, and he caused all the peo­ple to stand to it:2 Cron. 34.30. The sixt and last was requested by the people of the Captivity from Ezra, who was then Instar & loc [...] R [...]gis, in these words; now therefore let us make a Covenant with our God to put away all our strange Wifes: These are all the Cove­nants I have read of, or can remember in the whole Bible; and all these were made by and with the severall Kings,Ezra. 10.3. none with­out or against them: But the English Engagement and Cove­nant was made without and against the King of England: and howsoever those were commendable, and extenuated the Isra­elites sins; yet this must needs aggravate the English sins, and condemne them who contrived it, and took without much Re­pentance in themselves, and more mercy in God and the King to which mercy God incline the heart of the King for Jesus Christ his sake, Amen.

And [...] [...]orse then the former; for the former [...] on­ly engage against the Kings person,2. [...] ­tion. and the other part of it pro­mised and pretended to fight for him in order to the preservation of Religion, which might and did easily beguile many simple, and well minded people; but this same Oath of Abjuration was against the Kings Posterity; not one of his Race or Name to raign over us any more; nay, against Lords of both sorts, Ecclesiasticall and Temporall; yes against the office of Episcopa­ [...]y; so that we should not have had so much as a Skeleton of Monarchy, nor a shape of any one of the Royal Tribes, none of Benjamin or Nepthali; none of Asher or Ephraim, not a Duke, Marquess, Earl, Lord, or Barron; nor any one of an Apostoli­call Church, not a successor of Aaron, not a successor of St. Peter [...] St. Paul or any other of the Apostles; some of the Tribe of Levi we might have had in a settell'd Presbytery, to the loss of the Eng­lish, and gaine of the Romish Church; And had not this been a greater Aggravation of our Countrymens sins, in compelling some to be their Prosolites, and ten times more the Children of Satan then themselves, then a bare knowing and doing those sins, with delighting in others that do the same, comes short of com­pelling others to do those things which we know to be sin: De­lectation comes short of Compulsion, and therefore once more I pray.

O thou Eternall and Mercifull God, suffer not againe such Commanders to rule over us; or if thou had'st not yet suffici­ently punisht us for our former Malignity and Murther, yet give us not over to obey such evill Commands, that when thou mak­est Inquisition for blood, for common blood, for sacred blood, or Noble blood, for Royall blood, our souls may be sprinkled with the saving and all sufficient blood of Jesus Christ.

[...] [...] ­scription, which these Master Murtherers required, and would have compelled us to do, under the specious pretence of, against the Common Enemy, but in truth, with the horrid guilt of shut­ting out, if possible, for ever, of King Charles the second, whom, God Almighty preserve to these three Kingdomes, England, Scotland, and Ireland, till in a good old age he be received into the Kingdome of Heaven, for Jesus, for Jesus, for Jesus Christ his sake: Amen, Amen, Amen.


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