[Page] AƲON A; OR A TRANSIENT VIEW Of the Benefit of making RIVERS Of this Kingdom NAVIGABLE.

OCCASIONED By observing the Scituation of the City of SALISBURY, upon the AVON, and the Consequence of open­ing that River to that City.

Communicated by Letter to a Friend at LONDON.

By R. S.

Sola est fiducia Nilo.

LONDON, Printed by T. R. & N. T. for John Courtney Book-seller in Sarum, 1675.

A Transient view of the be­nefit of making the Avon by Salisbury, and other Rivers of this Kingdom Navigable.
Communicated by Letter to his Friend at London.


TO maintain that Corre­spondence (of so very great satisfaction and ad­vantage on my part) be­gun betwixt us, I shall give you an account of something I met with in my way homewards from your great City, having nothing else ready at present; But [Page 2] by the next, I shall entertain you with some not inconsiderable observations made about these parts, and some very useful experiments, now almost perfected.

I am sure you remember, that the Inha­bitants of Salisbury obtained an Act for making their River Navigable; but, as if that had been enough, they have hitherto spent all their first vigour in discourse; But now, at my return, as if they meant to proceed effectually, they talk of nothing, but of procuring subscriptions for raising Money; of agreeing with some able Per­son to undertake the work; And the Mayor and Commonalty of the City, have taken forth a Commission under the Broad Seal, to impower them to go on with it: So that if they could not agree, 'tis proba­ble some short time may give beginning to the work; which, because I have some affection for, I shall give you my thoughts of.

The Avon (you must know, having its Spring in the North-parts of Wiltshire, holds on a course from North to South, of about Twenty Miles, by Ʋp-Avon, Enford, Ames­bury, and by Stratford under the Old Sor­biodunum, to New Salisbury, upon its ap­proach [Page 3] to which City, divers small Chan­nels are derived from it; by which, part of it is conveyed through most of the Streets: The residue, in a large Bed, passes on the West-side of the Town; and ha­ving run the whole length of the City and Close, it receives at the South-West Angle of the Close, the Wily, and the Nadder: The former of which, rising about War­minster, and passing by Heytsbury, and re­ceiving several Rills by the way, meets with the Nadder about Wilton; and from thence, they both pass towards Salisbury, and joyn with the Avon at the place before named.

The Avon increased by these two Ri­vers, (either of them near Twenty Miles distant from their first Springs, before this their last confluence) runs under Harnham Bridge, (which is that we pass over in our way to the City from the Western-parts) and within two or three Furlongs, receives another not inconsiderable River, from the North-East, at a place called Muttons Bridge; (betwixt which two Bridges, all those several Rills which the City had bor­rowed out of the Avon, are returned again into its Channel) with the access of which, [Page 4] and several others in its course afterwards by Downton, Forthingbridge, and Ringwood in the New-Forrest, it runs on to Christ-Church (about Twenty Mile from Salise) and there discharges it self into the Sea.

Whoever shall consider the largeness of the River here at this place, and the conti­nual increase of it in its passage to the Sea, will rather wonder, (as I have often done) that no benefit has been hitherto made of it, then any ways doubt, that it is able to answer the greatest they can reasonably expect from it: it reflecting very much upon the Inhabitants of this place, That when Nature had so opportunely provided a sufficiency of Waters, They should be so much wanting to themselves, as not to afford those Waters a convenient Chan­nell.

But, what you and I talked of the other day, of the several Genius's of Ages, may have place here: And therefore, without being too severe to the discretion of this particular place, we shall be contented to charge this long oversight, upon the Geni­us of the foregoing Ages; which, its evi­dent, was not so quick and active in ap­prehending the means of improving what [Page 5] lay before them, as the present is: as is daily seen, not only in the great advance­ments of Art, and useful knowledge; in the improving of our Lands, &c. but in the same kind too: As appears by the ma­ny Acts lately passed for making several of our Rivers Navigable; divers of which are since prosecuted to effect; A searching, thriving Genius; reserv'd for this present Age to wait on, and perfect that Felicity which the past Calamities, it has safely emerg'd out of, will make it at last seem worthy of, and set off with a greater Lustre: if our own supiness, in not laying hold on those opportunities it offers, suf­fer it not to escape us; since the particular Genius of every Age, (moving on upon the same Wheel that time does) being once pass'd, is as irrevocable as that time that presented it; both of them as they enter, so passing off together. And this is it may possibly awake the Inhabitants of this place, to endeavour to make a further use of the opportunity of their Scituation, and not to sit down any longer contented with that little contrivance, which pleas'd their Ancestors so very much, of cutting those Channells I mention'd but now, and ma­king [Page 6] but this only use of the Avon, To keep their Streets clean. But to endea­vour to improve it to those nobler advan­tages, which the bounty of the River will most certainly afford e'm.

For, to doubt of such advantages to be made by making such Rivers as this is, Na­vigable, (as at my being here, some Gen­tlemen living thereabout in the Hill-Coun­trey (as they call it) did) is but a piece of stupidity as is not worth a refuting; it being all one, as to question whether Navigation be advantagious or no? There­fore, as when things evident from sense and experience are denied, we supersede arguments, and bid our adversaries only to make use of their senses, and confute themselves: So here, let any one who thinks otherwise, but only look about him, and observe the vast disproportion between the wealth of such places (other­wise equal) which are open to drive a Trade by Sea, and those which are bound up within the Land, or, which is all one, the difference betwixt the Estate of a Tradesman and of a Merchant.

But there is more advantage to those places, which being seated far within the [Page 7] Land (as this is) do enjoy the benefit of Commerce by Sea, by some Navigable Ri­ver, then to those Port-Towns which are seated in some Creeke or Bay only, and are (as I may call it) Land-lock'd, having no passage up into the Land but by Carriages; as we see in Poole and Lynn, in Dorset, and in a number of other Port-Towns of like Scituation in other parts quite round the Island: For such places, though the Sea brings in commodities to them, yet they can neither without great charge convey those commodities higher up into the Land, nor, without the like charge, receive the Inn-land commodities to export again: Whereas, Cities seated upon Navigable Rivers far within the Land, look like some Noble Exchange of Natures own design­ing; where the Native and the Forreigner may immediately meet, and put off to each other the particular commodities of the growth of their own Countreys; the Native (as a Merchant) receiving the Forreign Goods at the first hand, and ex­changing his own for them at the very place where they are made, or grow; or at most, going no further to it, then to his ordinary Market.

[Page 8] And, as there is more of profit in such a Scituation, so there is of Health and Pleasantness; for we know, That Scur­vies, Quartanes, and other lingring Di­seases, are more frequent near the Sea, then higher within the Land, where the Air coming to us from the Neighbouring Plains, Fields, and Woods, is more spright­ly and stirring, and brings along with it the peculiar Health and Amenities of those places it came from: Whereas, the Inha­bitants nigh the Sea must be content to take (as we use to say) one with t'other; And, as they enjoy the benefits which flow in upon e'm thence, so must they abide its inconveniencies too: But in such Scituations as this, all the advantages of the Sea are fully and equally enjoyed with those places seated nigh it, and only the injuries left out. And (if there be any thing in so slight a Remarque) the Scitu­ation of those places far within the Land upon some River, or in draught of the Sea, seems to carry more of State; when the Inhabitants, being remov'd at a di­stance, (as in London, Antwerp,) and the wealth of the Sea waits on e'm at home, then when they go forth and attend it on the Shoar.

[Page 9] But it is not so much the pleasure, or Healthiness of a place that usually takes the Common Inhabitant, much less its Scituation in point of Honour (as we may call it) as the profit and advantage he shall find in it. And this, as the Inha­bitants of Salisbury in patticular may assure themselves of, so may you and I, and the whole Kingdom, look upon this, and all other of like Nature, as upon works of a National and Publick Emolu­ment: for when so many considerable places shall be enabled to look out toward a Trade at Sea, our strength in Shipping and Mariners will be increased; Numbers of Lazy and Idle Persons set on work; And that Royal Trade of Fishing, of so vast concernment to these Kingdoms, for which His Majesty has laid such excellent Foun­dations, will be very much advanc'd from the Number and Quality of Persons in and nigh those places. (and all almost such Rivers in their course to the Sea) who, from the opportunity of their Scituation, will see themselves so much concerned, for their own benefit, to pursue those publick ends, which are inseperably woven their private ones.

[Page 10] And here, give me leave to take a view, as they who having gained the top of some Mountain do, of a fair, but distant Landschap towards which they are Travelling; whose extremities, though they appear faint, shady, and confus'd; And the particular objects seem broken; undistinguish'd, and blended together; yet the vastness of them is not the less considerable from that Indistinction, (it being rather an access and reputation to Greatness, then any diminution to ren­der it indesinite) of the future Glory, which the effecting the present design of making our Rivers Navigable, will un­doubtedly advance this Kingdom too: I would not have you think me too con­fident in saying thus; for all the past and present experience of the whole World, will bear witness, of what infallible con­sequence Navigation is to Opulence, Greatness, and Empire: And that, as those People who Trade by Sea, shall al­ways more abound in Wealth then the Inn-landers, so if a contest happen be­tween two such People, the Maritime People shall always be of greater abili­ty to maintain the Ware-And (the vir­tue [Page 11] of the People, and of their Chiefs, being otherwise equal) shall in fine prevail.

Look back then upon the Phaenicians, elder than Storv, (for they flourish'd in the Fabulous Age) and you will find e'm great in themselves, and greater in their Descendants and Colonies; power­ful even to a Proverb; the extent of the Tyria Maria, being as vast, as the bounds of the then known Sea; To all which, the dread of their Power gave Law and Name: And that one City Tyre, sustain­ing the whole force of the Chaldaean Mo­narchy for thirteen years▪ when in its oppugnation by Nebuchadnezzar. Every Head was made Bald, and every shoulder was Peel'd: (by carrying those Materials which filling up the Seas that divided the Island on which Tyre stood, from the Con­tinent, enabled him to make his approaches by Land) abounding in all the plenty the Neighbouring Regions and Islands could afford e'm; in exchange for their fam'd Tyrian Purple: whilst in the mean time, the Mountainers, and Hill-Country Gentlemen of Syria (like their Posterity [Page 12] the present Wild Arabs) were forc'd to live upon the dry revenue of a barren desert; their expeditions being chiefly un­dertaken against the next Neighbouring Flocks and Heards; and instead of cloa­thing themselves in Vests of Silk, and Purple; acknowledg'd themselves, in this only, obliged to the Indulgence of their Clime, which affording them Sun enough, might excuse e'm from wearing any.

Look next upon the Issue of the con­test betwixt those two famous Cities, Athens and Sparta, in the Peloponnesian War; when, the Spartans, who lived upon the revenue of their Lands, those Lands being wasted, were utterly disabled any longer to maintain the War; nor could they, by all those difficult habits of Sufferance and Frugality, buy up their Fortunes; But to the till then unknown dishonour of the Spartan Name, which upon the strength of a peculiar Discipline, had bore it self up for four hundred years, were enforc'd to sue for an unworthy Peace: Whereas the Athenians, their Territories being in like manner wasted by the Spartans, and their City block'd [Page 13] up towards the Land, liv'd, during that restraint, in all plenty; and recovering themselves by their Trade at Sea, carryed over the War to the Spartans Domini­ons, and prevailed over them in despight of virtue.

The same is evident from the different abilities of the Romans and Carthaginians in the second punick War; for, though the Carthaginians had bought the first Peace of the Romans for two Thousand two Hundred Talents, to be paid in Twen­ty years; of which, a proportionable quantity was paid before the breaking out of the Second War; And though, in the same intervall, the Romans unjustly extorted other Twelve Hundred Talents (upon pretence, that some preparations which the Carthaginians made for the re­covery of Sardinia, were intended against Rome) and consequently, at the begin­ning of the Second War, the Romans were as much richer then the Carthaginians, as the access of those Sums could make e'm; And the Carthaginians (besides the loss of those Sums, being also in that interval, exhausted by a dangerous War against [Page 14] their Mercenaries) were so much poorer then otherwise they would have been; yet in that Second War, the speedy growth of the Carthaginian Wealth by their Sea-Trade, sufficiently appears; When Han­nibal, carrying over the War into Italy, brought it before the Gates of Rome; and when, had the virtue of the Cartha­ginians been equal to that of the Ro­mans, or of their own General, affording him those necessary supplies which were in their power to have yielded; Rome had been inevitably lost; and the Senate wait­ed upon Hannibals Triumph: When con­trariwise, the Romans, whose Revenue came from the Fruits of their Ground, were reduc'd by that War, to such ex­tream want, that they were not able to redeem their Prisoners taken at Cannae, though at that time they were in so great want of Men, that they were enforced to enroll their (Praetentati) Boyes in their Legions; and to borrow Eight Thousand Slaves of their Masters, to be paid for when the War was ended. This, Cato well observ'd in his usual Close, Deleatur Carthago! And the Senate fulfilled in their [Page 15] Decree, to remove Carthage higher up in­to the Land; for, it was not Carthage that the Romans dreaded, but its Navigation; which had twice rais'd that City, greater out of its ruines; and would at length have given the Empire of the World to Carthage, and made Rome Tributary, had not its Twelve-miles removal from the Sea, founded an Inland-Carthage, which could no more be dreaded. And conform to this, you cannot but have observed, That the constant custom of a prevailing power over its Emulous Adversary, is, To re­duce the number of its Vessels.

I need not name Venice to you; Their own Proverb will tell you what made e'm Rich (Il bianno & il nero (cive Pope & cottone) vanno futto Venetia ricca) White and Black (viit Pepper & Cottin, those inconsiderable small Wares) have made Venice Rich: And you may then tell your self what made e'm potent.

The most admirable instance of this, are the Hollanders; by whose Navigation it came to pass (says Grotius) ut Batavo­rum inter arma foelicit [...], non alicnam m [...]do [Page 16] pacem, sed & suam vinceret. That the felicity of the Netherlanders in the midst of War, did not only exceed that of the Peace of others, but of their own.

But you will ask me, To what purpose is all this, since every body sufficiently knows it? I confess, the truth is so evi­dent, that I ought to ask Pardon for telling you over what all the World acknow­ledges; But you will certainly excuse me, when you shall consider, That notwith­standing this confessed evidence, yet most Men know it to no purpose, refusing to guide themselves by that knowledge: Ei­ther out of a dull heavy temper, which restrains e'm within the ancient narrow Bounds which their Forefathers have cast up about e'm; as if they knew and did all that was ever possible to be per­form'd; (which is the Common Errour of the Vulgar) and that to advance any further, and to pass over those Bounds, were a Trespass, and a true Transgressi­on: Or out of a ridiculous Pride, (the errour of many of a better rank) which the wiser of our own, and other Nations justly deride us for, accounting it beneath a Gentleman, to employ himself about any [Page 17] other thing, but the contriving how to pass away his time the most vainly and unprofitably he can; running counter thus to all the wiser parts of Mankind; who, truly sensible of the brevity of Life, and the long atchievments of Knowledge and Art, did from those very reflections, quicken and excite their industry; and by a generous impatient ardour, made that very infelicity a step to virtue; by hus­banding that inestimable, but wasting treasure of time, to the utmost advan­tage: Whereas we, on the contrary, not knowing how to employ our time, find it to be tedious to us; and complain of the length of those hours, which all the know­ing World lament for their Brevity, and accuse only of too much Wing: And therefore, finding our time to lie upon our hands, and to press us as a heavy Burthen, we study only how to spend it: And to this purpose, (and not for Diver­sion, after some more then ordinary in­tentions of the Mind, but as our sole business, worthy to take up all the Man, and the whole grand affair of Life, we pursue follies; and add to the already too speedy course of our Hours, a more mo­mentary [Page 18] flight by those swifter vanities; which upon that account, we celebrate for the most excellent Pastimes; as ha­ving by them, attained the utmost End of all our endeavours and deep contri­vances. To have yet further shortned and reduced our Span; and made our Age more nothing then it was, by passing its time away most insensibly and to no purpose: As if a worthy employment, either in any ingenuous (though Manual) labour by which Art might be advanc'd, which the greatest Monarch of the Earth, the Grand Seignior refuses not; Or the pro­moting such publick works as these, for the good and honour of our Country; or the vouchsafing to descend to reap the benesits accruing by them, by Traffick and Com­merce; which the Princes of Italy them­selves, disdain not; but think the so im­ploying their Vessels, to be altogether as well as to Fight with them; (and by which means the Italian Gentry do (at least) preserve their ancient Patrimony) were not far more generous, then either to be Idle, or to become Slaves to our Vices, in doing the dull sensual Labours of Intemperance; and so commit the [Page 19] charge of all other business to our Ser­vants, and reserve to our selves only, the greater trouble of our own undoing.

Whether it be any of these, or what­ever else it is that thus emasculates and befools us, It will not be thought imperti­nent, by remembring the Bravery of the Tyrian, the ancient Spartan and Athenian Fate and Glory; Carthage even neere conquered, The fear of Rome; The no­ble Duration and Grandieur of Venice; And the Opulency of the Hoghan Moghans, to endeavour to awake us to the laying hold on those Opportunities which are before us; viz. The easie work of ma­king all our Rivers, capable of it, Navi­gable; which when we shall have finish'd, and given our Island more Shoar then Na­ture has afforded it, (the Sea, not only as now compassing, but entring us) That safety from without, which our most ad­vantagious Scituation already gives us, of being of difficult approach to its Ene­my, and of easie descent for the Native, will be far more assur'd by the vast increase of our Shipping; which surrounding this our Island by their Wooden Walls, will afford it a protection greater then its [Page 20] own; A safety beyond what the Oracle promised Athens; and will be, and con­fer, that Glorious Impress which incloses His Majesties Coynes, (and may it always His Septer!) Deus & Tutamen.

Our safety from within too will be more assured: For People too numerous for the place that bred e'm, become, through want of employment, Poor, and consequently discontented, restless, and unquiet; As Spirits in depauperated Li­quors, grow iejune, and acid, exalting the terrene faculent parts: But as those Spirits, by the affusion of some more ge­nerous Body, grow more benigne, sedate, and temperate; so the Poor and Idle, be­ing put upon a full employment, their Me­lancholly eager Spirits will convert all their powers on that; and be saded with the bounty of that employment; and the wealth that will wait on it: Which mu­tually advancing each other, the employ­ment first begetting wealth, and then that wealth a greater employment, shall establish (what Art could never yet find out, nor Nature in particulars did ever yet perpetuate) a constantmotion, excited by [Page 21] it self, and by it self continued and ad­vanc'd: Which inceslantly moving on, and like a glorious Torrent, gathering New force and vigour from its progress, shall raise up a power and Felicity, inde­terminate, and boundless as the Causes which built it up; so far exceeding any of theirs we have before nam'd, as the diversions of our Island, enlarg'd by those vaster Shores which our industry shall lay open, are, to the single Haven of one City, Tyre or Carthage; Athens or Venice; Or to the narrow Shores of a Province or two: So that we shall no more need to reckon up the Examples of others, when we our selves shall be the Greatest; nor to remember their Felicities, but to at­tend our own; and that Opulence, Gran­dieur Empire which will undoubtedly fol­low it.

And having thus gain'd to our selves Safety and Plenty; and a Power able to assure them to us, and be the warranty of those Blessings, we may then have leisure to attend those further noble Superstru­ctures, which so firm and safe Foundations will assuredly sustain.

[Page 22] Knowledge will be advanc'd; for when our selves shall have more fulfill'd that leading part of the Prophecy, Multi per­transibunt, That infallible Oracle which gave it forth, will compleat the following one, Augebitur Scientia. For when the whole Book of Nature shall be laid open, and the Story of her written over all the Face of the Earth, be made more legible, That Truth, which the World has in vain hitherto attempted, and sought out of the dark Cells of Contemplative Philoso­phers, (in which Pits she has been hitherto buried) will then emerge, and manifest it self, when the Conceptions we imagin, and frame in our selves, of those umbra­tile Schematismes, those very ways, and viewless paths, which Nature signes and moves in, shall follow and be agreeable to the same real Truths of those her ways in things, which our long, and most accurate Observation and Experience, shall first discover in those things, scatter'd through­out the whole extent of her Dominion; and not, when we shall first make Worlds of our own, and giving New Phanatick Laws to motion, shall endeavour to make Nature obedient to Scheme; and obtru­ding [Page 23] it with the greatest earnestness and Pride imaginable upon others, shall per­mit none else to e'm in quiet; but shall arrogate to our selves the sole authority of being perpetnal Dictators both to Men and Nature. And then, those Noble Per­sons, whom the inadverting part of the World vainly censures, for their so care­fully treasuring up, the many little (as such esteem them) and mean Occurrences of Nature (as if there were any thing in the design or conduct of her Actions, mean; and but of small regard; and that the most obvious; every-days wonders, did not discover a Wisdom, high, and remo­ved, to the utter dishonour and confusion of ours; and to the astonishment and highest veneration of all persons, but on­ly of the unwise Man who doth not well consider it; and of the Fool, who will never understand it) shall receive the full, though late honour due to their Me­rit; when Posterity, by disposing toge­ther those scatter'd Leaves of Natures Oracles, gathered up by the diligent Ob­servers over all parts of the World, and deposited with those Candidates of Wis­dom, shall have establisht those great and [Page 24] general Truths, which all those dispers'd particulars shall consent in, and bear wit­ness to; And, as with fit materials, shall have erected that August Temple of Sci­ence; but slowly, and by degrees, as is the procedure of Nature in her own Ope­rations, when she designs any thing firm, glorious, and permanent.

And, as Knowledge, so will be Arts fur­ther advanc'd; not only by importing those of the product of other Countreys, (a Negotiation not so much heeded, as perhaps were fitting) but the active part among us, will be encouraged to confer new Donatives on the World; which they may as yet attempt with some unwilling­ness: For, since those (properly) Me­chanick Arts, which with greater Power, Speed, and Felicity, perform the Opera­tions of many, by making use of other Aids then the immediate Hands of Men, may receive yet further advancement; but being advanc'd, since those Multitudes of Hands, with which we already too much abound, will be then un-employed, whose helps are now requisite; Those no­ble Inventors, whose sole End is the good [Page 25] of Mankind, imagine they should▪ fail of that great End, when by purchasing to themselves, the honour due to inventing and cultivating such helps, they shall de­fraud the necessitous; whose necessary sub­sistence depending upon their immediate Labour, to excuse their Labour, were to take away their Bread: Whereas, when our many Hands shall be otherwise em­ployed, all helps will be acceptable; and the inventers of them receive their due Honours, not blasted with the Curses of the Indigent.

I know you will be apt to smile at this, as a Fancy only; But let me ask you, how many Thousand Pens are excus'd since the Art of Printing was invented, and our Libraries are no longer Manuscripts? Which therefore must necessarily press in for a Livelyhood among other Arts, and overtook those Professions. How many poor Families would starve, if the inven­tion of Sawing Mills were not (as out of Charity) suspended? But to go no further for an instance then this very Salisbury; Some few years part, the mode [Page 26] of drawing Wyer, otherwise then by the Hand was brought into that City, by some from London; How did the poor Men of that Profession (the Common Wyer-Drawers) suffer by that Intrusion? Who, as Men whose Countrey some po­tent Enemy had possess'd, being cast out of their Employment, were enforc'd to seek out New Labours, or starve upon their Old, not being able to work to their Masters so cheap as the Engine could: Which process, how obvious was it to have been found out sooner? Or, for want of invention, how easily might it have been had from the famous Mer­sennus? who reported it as the practice of his Countrey many years ago?

And the same will at all times fall out, when the unassisted Arms of Men shall contend with the force of Engine; which latter therefore being preferr'd, shall ex­clude the former; and the Invention, though worthy of all Honour, yet un­happily approv'd to use, shall become a Grievance; and engrossing all Employ­ment into some Engines Dead Hand, [Page 27] must awake the Laws in defence of the oppressed to wrest it out thence, and arm it self anew against that second Mort­main.

But (having first made way for the in­nocent use of such Aids, and when to those Aids, we shall add our own dili­gence (as some other Nations do) we shall not be obliged to envy the Industri­ous; but managing our Labours with as few Hands as any, and as great a dili­gence, shall have no cause to complain that others can afford the proceeds of their Labours at a cheaper rate then we, and under-sell ours, to the impairing and discouragement of Trade; but shall find, that ours will yield us as full returns as theirs, whenever we shall bring as suffi­cient Aids as they, and an equal industry.

What remains to be atchiev'd, (if what went before were not abundantly so too) will be Honour and Glory: For when Navigable Rivers shall be the Bounds of Villa's; and of those the Ocean; and of it, the utmost extent of Nature; The [Page 28] opportunity of those Scituations will ex­cite the more Generous among us to in­vade those its furthest Borders; and in particular, that forlorn Company of Su­pernumeraries, who by a kind of Fatality are become a Proverb to the World, and rank'd among the other indigent Grandees of our Neighbour Nations (the Dons of Spain, the Minsieurs of France, and the Barons of Germany, the younger Brothers of England, if they bring a virtue equal to their Poverty (and their Parents may do well to train e'm up eminently to the First, since they endow them sufficiently with the latter) will have a large Scheme open to exercise that virtue in; by disco­vering, and planting those many yet un­known, and uncultivated Regions of the World; (for we are yet Strangers to those vast Southern Tracts, nor do we know the amplitude of those Continents whose Shores we inhabit) and by redu­cing Salvage People to Humanity and Re­ligion; not by those ways the Spaniards heretofore took in the Indies, who by their incredible ravages, having rendred themselves, and for their sakes, Heaven [Page 29] it self, abominated to the Indians, (for being courted to embrace our Religion, whose reward they were told, was the same Heaven that the Spaniards preten­ded too; the Poor Wretches refused the Condition, and would not accept of Hea­ven in the Company of the Spaniards) observed an ill Method to perswade e'm to that Religion which was the Way to that End which they at first had taught them to abhor. Nor (as you remember we observed with Indignation out of Li­gon's History of the Barbado's) as our own Country-Men do there (and our Brethren in divers other places) who re­fuse to make any Negro a Christian, least they should loose the Slave; defacing at the same time that Christianity in them­selves, which they refuse to the Negro's; and converting all that loud zeal, and those famous pretences of compassing Earth and Sea, for gaining Proselytes to Heaven; to get poor Heathens to work their Plantations; and resolving still to keep e'm such: Most unhappy Wretches! condemn'd to a first heavy thraldom here, and (as far as in us lies) to a second in­tollerable [Page 30] one hereafter. From which, though their present Owners, (for whose sakes only these poor Wretches seem to breath) believe, that they could present e'm with the only effectual means of their deliverance, yet, not to sustain the da­mage, by their Conversion, the hazard of the 30 pieces (the usual price of a Man­ Negro, and the fatally preferred one to a rejected Saviour) they with-hold it from e'm; and refuse to offer e'm a Redeemer from either Bondage; as altogether mind­ing, instead of Religion, and the Gospel, the Planting of Tobacco onely, and Su­gar-Canes.

But, when these our more generous Colonies, shall have prosecuted Nobler Ends, more beseeming Men and Christi­ans; and propagated that Religion and Humanity abroad, which they shall have first Planted at home in their own Bosoms; They shall be no more a burthen to them­selves and their Relations, but an Honour to both, and to their whole Nation: Their Names shall be Registred among those of the Noblest Order and Sense of Mankind; [Page 31] Columbus, Americus, Magellane, Drake, Raw­leigh, Smith, &c. And by subduing the minds of Men, more then their Bodies, shall be enobled with as great, but far more innocent Triumphs than Cortes and Pirarro for the Conquests of Peru and Mexico; In defect of Patrimony and Lands here; new Coasts, and unknown Regions shall sub­mit to e'm, and bear their Names: And, instead of owing all their Reputation to some Ancestors expiring Merit, they shall gather fresh Honours from their proper virtue, and become the Sons of their own Fortune.

As for that particular place, the Consi­deration of which, first led me to this Re­marke: Whenever the present, or the fu­ture Inhabitants of Salisbury, by under­standing the advantage of their Scituation, shall have converted the Avon to more pro­per uses, becoming so Noble a River, then those very little ones it now serves for; They will then reap the true benefit of their descent from the Old dry Hill where their City was first seated; and shall celebrate their Names and Memories, who shall emi­nently [Page 32] lead on, and advance the work, with their Churches Magnificent Founder, the famous Richard Poore; or their Canoniz'd Osmund. The Adventurers and Subscri­bers, besides the Honour of being Regi­stred for the promoting so noble a work, will find a fuller and more certain return for their Moneys, then had they purchased Land; or employed it at Interest; or any other known way amongst us.

The Merchants Company will not only be such in Name, but will be truly such, when they shall receive and export their Goods by Water at their own doors; and not, as now, make Voyages by Land to distant Haven Towns, and embark all their Merchandizes in Carts. The Magistrates will not need to put in practice any of their former petty ways of relief (as some call d e'm; but others, Grievances) as their New-Brew-house, and Leather-Tokens, &c. nor be enforc'd to burthen the Inha­bitants with more Monethly Rates then there be Moneths in the year; when they shall be able to set all their Poor sufficiently on work; the employment of the place, [Page 33] being rather like to want Hands to manage it, than any Indigent Person want employ­ment. And generally, all conditions of Men, in, and nigh the place, will share in the benefit the River will afford them; And the City which depends now for its subsistence, upon an Inn-land Trade, and the Western Road, will acquire the Repu­tation of a Port; and in the Catologue of the Cities of this Kingdom, be rank'd with Bristoll.


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