THE HISTORY OF THE Turkish Empire, From the YEAR 1623, to the YEAR 1677.

CONTAINING THE REIGNS Of the Three last EMPERORS, VIZ. SULTAN MORAT, OR AMURAT IV. SULTAN IBRAHIM, AND Sultan MAHOMET IV, his Son, The Thirteenth EMPEROR, now Reigning.

By Sir PAUL RYCAUT, Late CONSUL of Smyrna.

LONDON, Printed by J.D. for Tho. Basset, R. Clavell, J. Robinson, and A. Churchill, MDCLXXXVII.

The Epistle Dedicatory to the KING.

May it please Your most Excellent Majesty:

I Cannot, without some despondency of Mind, and awful fear of the Greatness of Your Majesty, make an Offering at Your Sacred Feet of so small an Esteem and inconsiderable Value, as these following Histo­ries. For having travelled long in remote Countries, and resided no less than eighteen Years in Turky, the World may reasonably expect some rich Returns unto Your Majesty in Persian Silks, and Tyrian Purples, or in the finest Carpets, and other Gayeties, in which the softness and luxury of the Lesser Asia did anciently abound: and may now judg me a Bankrupt, or ill Husband of my Talent, when they see me at Home trembling in Your Royal Presence, with a Gift no more worthy than a few Sheets of Paper; which being a Sacrifice inferior and beneath the acceptance of so Great a Monarch, I might reasonably fear, that they would take fire at the heat of Your just dis­pleasure, were they not with all humility and reverence consecrated to the Royal Clemency. For in this glorious Title and Attribute, Your Majesty (as is notorious to the World) exceeding all the most Serene and most Clement Emperors that ever were, expects not from me, either Gold or Jewels, but rather a true Account of my Time, how I have spent it in the Service of God, and of your Majesty: and how I have administred that Publick Trust and In­terest which was committed to my Management. Accept therefore, GREAT SIR, these following Discourses, to discharge part of the Account of my Time, with other Treatises which have been the Employment to fill up my vacant Intervals: the remaining account of my Hours are not to be justified by my own Report, but by the Testimony of others, whose Wisdom and Goodness will be as ready to own my Industry and Faithfulness in their Concernments, as they will be to excuse and pardon my Infirmities.

Ever since the time of Your Majesty's happy Restauration, my Lot hath fal­len to live and act within the Dominions of the Turk, and there to move in a Publick Capacity; which though it was in an Administration of one of the lowest Note and Degree, yet the great Influence which the flourishing Estate of that Trade hath on the common Good of England, nourished in me a secret Pride and Satisfaction in that Employment, which called and raised up all my Endeavours to acquit my self therein with Prudence, Faithfulness, and In­dustry; there being the same Regularity required in the Stars of the lower, as in those of higher Magnitude.

This hath been the first, and indeed the only Affair I ever managed for the Publick: for before Your Majesty's blessed Return, the Character noted on my Family of being Loyal, as it made them at first active and zealous in the Service of Your Glorious Father, so afterwards it famed them for their Suffer­ings, and rendred them and me uncapable of Office. But Your Majesty re­turning like the Sun, to animate and cherish all living Creatures, with an equa­lity proportioned to their several Capacities, hath been pleased also to bestow a Ray of Your benign Influence on my self; whereby having received Com­fort and Refreshment, I do with all sense of my Duty, and with entire Devo­tion, pray unto the King of Kings for the Happiness, long Life, and immor­tal Glory of Your Majesty, and with all reverence and humble submission, devote and consecrate my self, for ever to remain,

Your Majesty's most Humble, most Dutiful, and most Obedient Servant, PAUL RYCAUT.
MORAT AVT AMVRATHES IV TVRCARVM IMPERATOR VNDE CIMVS 1623 ☽
My Brothers folly, and my want of years
Let loose the reignes of Rule to Mutiniers;
But as wth time my strength, and wit improve,
I all reforme wth feare, and not by love.
By mighty force I Babylon subdue,
From whence a peace with Persia doth ensue,
And when gainst Christiā foes, I do designe
To turn my armes, dye with excesse of wine.

THE REIGN OF Sultan MORAT, OR AMURAT IV. The Eleventh EMPEROR; AND Twenty first MONARCH OF THE TURKS.

THE weak Understanding of Sultan Mustapha, and his inability for Rule, caused the Affairs of State, both at Home and Abroad, to move disorder­ly and irregular. Where Violence and Injustice pre­vail, there is so little distance between the most emi­nent Height of Grandure, and the lowest Abyss of Misery, that a Prince may in a moment step from one unto the other. The Janisaries and Military Officers commanded more now than the Civil, all things being guided by the Air and Fancy of the Souldiery, who placed and displaced with that wind of Favour and Displeasure, which is agreeable to the Humour of a Multitude, and the Licentiousness of Arms. For at the same time there were three Emperors, seven Great Viziers, two Captain-Pasha's, five Aga's of the Janisaries, three Treasurers, six Pasha's of Cai­ro; and in proportion, the Changes and Altera­tions were as many in all the Provinces of the Empire. All this Confusion evidently proceed­ing from the weak and almost sensless Under­standing of Mustapha; the Ministers and People concurred, as it were, in an universal Consent to dethrone him a second time, and exalt into his Place Sultan Morat Brother to Osman, who was murdered the Year before. The Principal Actors in this Contrivance, were Kiosem the Mother of Morat, and the Mufti. But in the execution hereof, three Difficulties occurred: The first was Chusaein Pasha the Great Vizier; who by reason of the Inabilities of Mustapha, being become absolute Lord and Soveraign of all, would be unwilling to assent unto that Proposi­tion, which might degrade him of his Dignity, and divest him of his Power. A second Obsta­stacle was the Fancy and Humour of the Soul­diery, who having with much Zeal and Passion exalted Mustapha to the Throne, it might be doubted, that in maintenance of the same Hu­mour, they would with equal obstinacy perse­vere in their Election. A third was the Poverty or low Ebb of the Exchequer, which at that time was in no capacity to supply that Dona­tive to the Souldiery, which was usual and cu­stomary at the Inauguration of every Sultan. To forward and hasten this Change, and ripen this Plot, the News of the Rebellion of Abassa did much contribute; who with a Body of fif­teen thousand Horse, roved over all the Plains of Kara-hisar, calling himself Avenger of Sul­tan Osman's Murder, and Enemy of the Jani­saries; by whose Mutiny and Conspiracy he was put to Death: in satisfaction for which, he not only killed all Janisaries which fell into his hands; but their Wives, Children, and those allied to them, he destroyed with implacable Malice and bloody Rage. Upon this Advice, the Janisaries at Constantinople being moved with equal Fury and desire of Revenge, applied themselves to their Aga, proposing a speedy Union with the Spahees, for suppressing this Rebellion before Time gave it greater growth, and made the Hu­mour more stubborn and difficult to be purged. At the same time also came Letters from Cicala Pasha, (who was dispatched into Asia with a strong Party, to give a stop to the farther Pro­gress and Advance of Abassa) advising that up­on his near approach to the Enemy, so general a Fear possessed his Souldiery, that most of them [Page 2]disbanded and forsook their Colours; and that at present he had no more than five hundred Ja­nisaries, and two hundred Spahees under his Command, which he found to be an unequal Match to contend with the increasing Power of Abassa. This Intelligence served happily the occasion of the Mufti, Vizier, and Aga, to give a turn to the desired Change, and supplied them with an Answer to the Janisaries, that they were ready to yield compliance unto their Address, but that the Incapacity of their Soveraign ob­structed their Proceedings, and that the Defect in the Principal Wheel disordered all the Mo­tions of good Government. At which Reply the Janisaries becoming more unquiet, assembled themselves in a tumultuous manner at the Mosch of Sultan Solyman; where making anAyack in Turkish signifies a Foot. Ayack Divan, (so called, because they sit not down, but stand on their Legs, to denote the present haste and urgency of their Affair) it was en­acted, by an unanimous consent of the Civil and Military Power, That young Morat, or Amurat, should be promoted to the Throne, and that Mustapha should be deposed: And because the Exchequer was at its lowest Ebb, and wholly exhausted by miscarriage of the Officers, the Souldiers were contented to dispense with their Donative; which they relinquished in conside­ration of the Publick Good, reserving still their Title and Claim thereunto at times of a more happy Inauguration. With this News the Vi­zier immediately mounted on Horse-back to sig­nify this Universal Decree to Mustapha; but he found him so stupid, as if he had been insensible of the Message; and his Mother wanting Power to resist this strong Convulsion, gave way to Ne­cessity, and seemed to embrace what she could not oppose.

Thus Mustapha falling from the Heaven of his Throne to the Abyss of his Prison, seemed to return unto his Centre; for being only by the Wild-fire of Fortune carried as far aloft, as the force of popular Powder could reach, he after­wards by the meer weight of his earthly Temper returned with the like quickness of Motion to the place from whence he ascended.

Hereupon Sultan Amurat, a Youth of about fourteen years of Age, was brought forth to the People, and placed in the Throne with all the Acclamations and Rejoycings of the People. And being taught by his Mother in a feigned man­ner to refuse acceptance of the Empire, he pre­tended that the Exchequer was exhausted, and that therefore he was not able to demonstrate the Affection and Esteem he had for them; and that since they had killed their former Sultans, he was fearful lest the tenderness of his Age should be­tray him to the like Violence: but the Souldiery having not the patience to hearken to his Excuses,Amurat installed. immediately carried him to the Divan, where ha­ving cloathed him in White, they seated him on a Safraw, erected with four Pillars, studded with precious Stones; the Covering of which was of Crimson-Velvet, richly embroidered with Gold and Oriental-Pearl. And being so seated, the Mufti with all reverence approached, and kissed his Hand; and then turning to the People, he de­manded of them, If they were contented with that Prince whom they now beheld in the Seat of the Ottoman Kings? To which they having gi­ven assent by their loud Acclamations; Morat, with a becoming gravity, encharged the Mufti to take care that Justice and the Law be executed, and so retired to his Lodgings with general satis­faction. The next morning he was carried by Water to the Mosch of Jub in the Suburbs of Constantinople, where according to the Solemnity of the Ottoman Empire, having performed hisWhich is a dispensing of Mutton to the Poor. Corban, or Sacrifice, and having his Cemiter grit to his Side by the Emirsheriff, he mounted on Horse-back, and with a magnificent Train en­tred by the Gate of Adrianople. In the mean time Mustapha, who was more worthy to bear a Fool's Cap than an Imperial Diadem, was con­ducted to Prison, and more narrowly guarded than formerly; howsoever no Man offered to take away his Life, the Persons of Fools and Idiots being sacred in esteem of the Turks, and the least Injury offered to them accounted Irreligious and Unlucky.

Morat was of a lively Countenance, full-fac'd, dark Hair, of a black and lively Eye, ruddy and sanguine Complexion, and in every degree of a promising and hopeful Aspect: but his exteriour appearance did not correspond with the internal Cruelty of his violent Spirit, having some simili­tude with the Swan, which hath white Feathers and black Flesh.

The Great Vizier who assisted at this Solemnity, was (as we have said) Chusaein Pasha, a Person of Self-interest, who had wasted and consumed the Treasury, and converted a great part there­of to his own Benefit; he was a Tyrant, hated of all Men, and supported himself by no other Art than bribing of the Souldiery: And to his other Crimes he added, that of having unjustly persecuted Halil Pasha, and deprived him of his Office, his Power not reaching to the taking a­way his Life; which being reserved for better Times, he was again recalled from his Retire­ment, and by special Command of the Sultan, was unwillingly restored to the Office of Vizier, being best pleased with a quiet and pacifick Life, to which his melancholy Temper had naturally disposed him. In the mean time Chusaein Pasha being terrified by the sensible touches of his own Conscience, took his flight by way of the Black Sea; and being out of the reach of Justice, a Fine was set of Five thousand Zechins, and of Lands to the Revenue of an hundred thousand Aspers a Year, to be given unto him who should bring his Head. Many of those who had sold him their Friendship and Favour, being affrigh­ted with this Sentence, voluntarily disgorged the Rewards they had received; and amongst the rest, the last Aga of the Janisaries, who had been his Kahya or Steward for the space of three months, restored 8 hundred thousand Dollars as an Atonement for his Sin, and a Ransom for pur­chasing his own Life and Office. At length, by force of the foregoing Reward, Chusaein Pasha was betrayed and taken alive; and being brought to Constantinople, was immediately strangled be­fore the Gate of the Divan.

Many were the Difficulties which this young Sultan was to encounter; the greatest of which was the Insolence of the Janisaries, who feeling themselves empty of Mony, began to repent of the prodigal and easy remission of their Dona­tive, and in a tumultuous manner to redemand it again. There was no Argument or Debate to be used against Men of the Sword, who hearkned to no other Reason than their own Wants, and to satisfy them, there was no other Remedy than Compliance; wherefore all Officers and Persons not employed in Military Affairs were forced to contribute towards a large Tax, and a shame­ful Demand was made for the Loan of Thirty thousand Zechins from the four Christian Am­bassadors resident at the Port, that they also as Friends might yield an assisting hand towards the present Urgency of Affairs: so little consi­deration [Page 3]and shame have Turks to lay open the Nakedness and distress of their Country even to Strangers and Enemies of it. And indeed such was the Insolence and uncontroulable Power of the Souldiery, that their Desires and Commands were Laws, and their Determinations Rules for their Sultan and his Subjects.

This Humour of Usurpation and unlimited Power, wearied all the Officers of the Empire, and inclined them secretly to approve the Cause of Abassa Pasha of Erzirum, who declared and stiled himself Enemy to the Janisaries; and of Bechir Pasha of Babylon, who was joined with him. The Vizier also finding his Power abrid­ged by the Arbitrary Will of the Souldiery, mo­ved slowly and coldly into Asia, where all the Force he could make, consisted of no more than fifty thousand new and unexperienced Men, such as were uncapable to contend with a more nume­rous Army of veterane Souldiers; to which al­so the Beglerbei of Anatolia joined himself, as did all other the chief Timar-Spahees, who con­spired together to confound and destroy the Pride and Government of the Janisaries. The Vizier also was of the same Party, and coldly at first answered the Request of the Janisaries, when they earnestly pressed him to lead them a­gainst Abassa their common and mortal Enemy: At length, being fortified with the Force of the Timar-Spahees, he told them plainly, That if they would go and fight, he would be a Specta­tor of the Success, but would not engage him­self in a Quarrel wherein the Blood of Mussel­men might be spilt on one side and the other: by which means the Rebels in Asia took Head, in­creased in Force, and every day rendred them in a more formidable and dangerous posture.

But this was not all the Trouble which ensu­ed; for the Tartars having refused that King whom the Grand Signior had appointed them to receive, declared for Mehmet his Brother: who was seconded by the Votes of the Generality, and maintained by the strongest Nerve of that Nation. The Vizier was unwilling to ingage in this Quarrel, alledging, That a Civil War was the worst of Evils, and that it was better to connive at a present Inconvenience, than in this distracted Time of Affairs, to pollute the Empire with the Blood of Tartars, who were their Brethren, and of the same Religion and Alliance with them. Howsoever the Divan was of ano­ther Opinion, and resolved to dispeed the Cap­tain-Pasha with a Force sufficient to re-instate Gherey (for so the Elder Brother was called) in the Government of that Kingdom. But yet the Instructions given, rather directed him to act with Dexterity than with Force, supposing that the Authority of the Turks abetted with the presence of a considerable Force, would create an inclination in the Tartars to Obedience, so soon as they discovered them to appear on their Coast. The Captain-Pasha being arrived atThe chief City of the Krim Tar­tar. Caffá, declared, That he was sent by the Grand Signior, not to exclude either one or other of the Pretenders, but only to be Witness of a free and fair Election; that so all Civil Discord ceasing, that Party might be chosen who was most pleasing to the generality of the Peo­ple. To which end two Standards were erect­ed, one forGherey the Name of the Family. Gherey the Elder Brother desired by the Turks, and the other for Mehmet beloved of the Tartars. The People in multitudes ran to the Standard of Mehmet, and but few to that of Gherey; which demonstrated at how mean a rate the Tartars esteemed the Protection and Fa­vour of the Port. The Captain-Pasha vexed hereat, denied to give his Assent to the Confirma­tion, on pretence, that he was first to demand the Grand Signior's Pleasure; but at length was perswaded by Gherey to land a Force of about eight thousand Men to own and maintain his Cause, on hopes, that rather than ingage against the Turks, the People would condescend to Terms in his Admission and Favour. The Tar­tars not being in the least dismayed hereat, ar­rayed themselves in a warlike Posture, and feign­ing Fear and Flight, allured the Turks to a pur­suit of them, until they had brought them to a place where thirty thousand Horse lay in ambush; which on a sudden arising and encompassing them round, had entirely destroyed them, had not Salil the Brother of Mehmet given a stop to the slaughter, on hopes, that such a testimony of Friendship would reconcile the Spirits of the Turks, at least might render his Brother's pre­ferment more tolerable and grateful to the Turks. In this conflict, Ibrahim and Chusaein who were Viziers of the Bench, the kahya and a Capigi­bashe of the Seraglio were slain, whose Bodies were afterwards transported to Constantinople, six hundred Janisaries and as many Sea-men were kil­led, and fifteen hundred Prisoners were taken, whose Liberty was procured at a mean Ransom, for the sake of that Faith and Religion which they jointly professed; they also took thirty Pieces of Cannon, and might also have become Masters of the whole Fleet consisting of thirty six Gallies, had they been desirous to have prose­cuted their Victory to the utmost advantage: and moreover in that conjuncture of Affairs, when a general consternation had overspread the principal parts of the Ottoman Dominions, when the Councils were feeble and faint, and that a languishing Pulse beat in all the Government, had the Tartar with an Army of fifty thousand Horse then ready to march, made up to the Walls of Adrianople, it might have proved such an opportunity for dividing and destroying this Empire, as hath not offered at any time since that Occasion. But the two Brothers, Mehmet and Salil, stiling their War forced and defensive, used that moderation in their Victory, which might not provoke a desire of Revenge in the Turks. The Captain-Pasha being thus permit­ted to depart from Caffa with his Fleet, sailed to Varna, a Port in the Black Sea, about two hundred miles distant from Constantinople; where the News of this Defeat being arrived, put all the City into confusion, and raised the Viziers at midnight to consult of those Remedies and Ex­pedients which were agreeable to the present e­mergency of Affairs. The Great Vizier Ali was of opinion, that the Grand Signor ought to condescend to Terms of Accommodation, tho to the disadvantage and disreputation of his Power; and that accordingly a Letter should be wrote to Mehmet the Tartar, beginning with the usual Complements of Friendship and Saluta­tion; and afterwards declaring, That it was ne­ver the intention of the Port to ingage in a War against him, the late conflict having only pro­ceeded from a mistake and misinterpretation of Orders; and that there was no other design, than to compose the Civil Differences amongst themselves, by advancing that Prince to the Kingly Dignity who was most pleasing and grateful to the People. This Advice was appro­ved by the rest of the Council, and a Messenger dispatched with the Letter, accompanied with a Cemiter and Vest of Sables, which are the Sig­nals of the Sultan's Favour. In the mean time the People murmured at the pusillanimity of the [Page 4]Government, saying, That they had sent an Ambassador to thank the Tartar for not seizing their whole Fleet, and acknowledg their Obliga­tion to him for the Blows and Wounds he had gi­ven their Army. The Tartars also gloried in this submission, and took the boldness to vaunt of their Linage and Descent to be more Ancient and Noble than that of the Ottoman Family; and that in this time of decay and degenerate proce­dure of that Monarchy, it appertained to the Greatness of the Tartars to stir up the Fire and snuff the Lamp, that the Splendor of that Em­pire might become more bright and shining than in former Ages. And so little respect did they now maintain for the Port, that they surprised two Ambassadors sent from the Moscovite in their way to Constantinople, robbed and killed them, as also the Turkish Chiaus that was with them, lest his Testimony should be brought in for an evi­dence against them.

During these Troubles, the Cossacks taking advantage of the Captain-Pasha's absence in Tartary, entered the Bosphorus with about an hun­and fitty Sail of Saicks and Boats;The form of the Cossacks Boats. these Boats and Vessels which the Cossacks use, are built long and light, with ten Oars of a side, and two Men to an Oar; the Head and Stern are not unlike, so that they hang the Rudder sometimes at one end, and sometimes at the other, being not ob­liged to turn their Vessel, but without loss of time to proceed with that end which happens to be foremost. Each Boat carries fifty select Men armed with Fire-arms and Cemiter, in the ma­nagement of which they are very expert; and are a People sober, enduring Labour and hard Diet; and so speedy in their Incursions, that they forestal the Advices, and commonly strike be­fore they threaten. With these Boats and Peo­ple (as we have said) they entred the Bosphorus, where they burnt several Villages and Houses of Pleasure; on the Grecian side they burnt Boyuc­deri and Yenichioi, on the Asian side Stenia. The appearance of this Enemy so near the Imperial City, caused a general Consternation, not un­like that at London, when the Dutch entred the River of Chatham. To oppose this Force, there was not one Gally in readiness, so that Saicks, Chimbers, and small Boats were armed, to the number of four or five hundred, and man'd with such people as the present haste and expediti­on offered; the great Chain was then brought forth to cross the BOsphorus, which the Grecian Emperors used at the Seige of Constantinople: and Ten thousand Men were issued from the City to defend the Shoar from depredation and far­ther mischief. The Turkish Fleet faced the Cos­sacks to give them a stop, whilst they hovered about the middle of the Chanel in form of a Half-Moon, and so continued the whole day until Sun-set; when with the night they returned into the Sea, carrying with them, besides their Booty, Glory sufficient to have entred the Chanel, and without blows or opposition, to have braved the Capital Seat of the Ottoman Monarchy, and the most formidable City of the whole Word. Not many days after they returned again with a grea­ter Force than before, which put the City into the like consternation; and having hovered a­bout three or four days at the Mouth of the Black Sea, they burnt the Pharos or Lantern with certain Villages thereabouts, and being laden with Spoils and Glory, they again returned into their own Country. Thus we may observe, how bold Enemies are made with the weakness of a State: a Horse is soon sensible of his Rider, when backed by a faint Hand, and an unaccustomed Lightness, but a stiff Rein and a close Knee makes him obedient to his Ruler. All people having discovered the imbecillity of the Government, made head against it: and the young Sultan had those for his Enemies in the time of his Nonage, which in his strong and fiercer years became the most submissive and Fawning Slaves in the World.

And though at this time the Turkish Ministers were corrupt and rebellious, and the Souldiery mutinous; yet Bethlem Gabor Prince of Transylva­nia, Bethlem Gabor de­sires assi­stance against the Emperor. a Christian, was observant to the Port, de­manding Licence to wage War against the Em­peror, which was easily granted, and upon paiment of the usual Tribute of Ten thousand Hungars, the Ambassador, with thirteen of his Followers, received Coftans or Vests of Honour, and a promise of Succour and Protection, as the Condition of his Affairs should require. Thus we see, that whilst the Turks themselves endea­voured to rent in pieces their own Monarchy, to which one would have thought, that the Chri­stians had most reason to contribute; yet such was the unhappy Fate of Christendom, that Ga­bor was the only Person at that time to court the Turks; and that for no other Reason, than that he might be supported and abetted in a War a­gainst the Emperor and other Christian Princes of Germany.

The Army of Bethlem Gabor consisted of above Thirty thousand Men, with which he marched over all Hungary, having taken most Towns of consideration, unless Presburg, alias Possonium, Rab, and Komorra. But if we penetrate into the depth and foundation of this War, we shall find that it had a deeper Interest than that of Gabor, and had its Original from the Discord and Civil War of Germany. For the House of Austria be­ing at that time in a condition to render it self formidable, and in a posture to create a jealousy in all the Princes subjected to it, did under co­lour of subduing the Palatine of the Rhyne, op­press also the Liberty of the Empire, and of the several States which composed it. For after the Emperor, against the Constitutions of the Gol­den Seal, and the Sense of the Electoral Colledg, had divested the Palatine and his Children of their Estates and Dignity, not so much by Force of Arms, as by Deceit and Breach of Promise; instead of disbanding the Army, which was to have been performed according to Agreement, new Troops were added; and though the Pro­testant League was dissolved, yet the Catholick Combination, with all its Adherents, remained armed and immoveable to compel the Protestants to a restitution of the Ecclesiastical Revenue, notwithstanding the Articles of Peace to the con­trary: so that the Princes and Towns of the Lower Saxony entring into a new League, raised an Army under the Command of Christian of Brunswick Bishop of Alberstadt. Bethlem Gabor having his Interest adjoyned to this Party, enter­tained the same Desires and Intentions, to sup­press the Greatness of the Emperor; and ha­ving the just complaint to alledge of wanting his annual Pension of Fifty thousand Crowns, as was agreed by the Treaty of Niclasbourg, he re­solved to force it by Arms, and take part with the Princes of the Protestant Religion which he professed: but because his Srength and Power was not sufficient, without the assistance of the Turks, he not only obtained their permission and approbation of this War, as we have said be­fore, but by paiment of Fifty thousand Dollars presented to the first Vizier, and of Forty thou­sand by way of annual Tribute, he procured an [Page 5]Auxiliary Force of Fifty thousand Turks and Tar­tars; with part of which, commanded by Budi­ani, he made an Irruption into the Lower Au­stria; and with the other, Bethlem himself, a­bout the beginning of October, entred into Mora­via, defeated the Regiment of Tiffenbach, re­took the Town of Turnova, and routed the Count of Montenegro General for his Imperial Majesty before the Town of Ghoding on the Fron­tier of Moravia, which he afterwards beleagu­red and held besieged until the 20th of Novem­ber, when Stanislaus Turzow a Hungarian Palatine became Mediator of the Peace, and at length obtained a Truce: the principal Articles of which were as followeth.

  • 1. That on both parts Arms be laid down for ten months, and all Acts of Hostility cease; that on neither side any attempt should be made ei­ther by force or fraud to take any Castles, Forts, Cities, or places of Defence during this time; and that both Germans, Hungarians, and Turks should be alike comprehended.
  • 2. That if the Emperor were desirous to treat and conclude a final Peace with the Grand Signi­or, he should use Bethlem Gabor as Mediator, and do nothing therein without his privity.
  • 3. That all Places and Forts taken by the Prince of Transylvania in his late Expedition, and that all Cities and Castles now in possession of either, should so remain without any alteration.
  • 4. That all Passages should be open for free Trade of Merchants, and all other the Subjects and Friends of either side.

A Truce being thus concluded, the Turks in their return made great havock, carrying with them great numbers of poor Christians into Sla­very, which Gabor out of compassion seemed wil­ling to redeem with a low price at his own charge; which the Turks refusing, carried those miserable Wretches into Captivity. The Count Esterhasi Governour of Newhausel for the Empe­ror, being highly incensed at this treacherous Action, contrary to the Truce so lately conclu­ded, having drawn out a sufficient Force from the neighbouring Garisons, fell on the Rear of the Turks in their March towards Buda, and charged them so home on the Banks of the River Niter, that he killed five hundred of them on the place, took all their Baggage, with divers Prisoners, and gave liberty to many Christian Slaves. The next day but one after he charged another Party of them, as they attempted to pass a Bridg, which the night before he had caused to be bro­ken down; of which having killed a great num­ber, the rest saved themselves by swimming: howsoever many Christians procured their liberty thereby, and a considerable Booty was made of Horses, Camels, Waggons, and all Provisions. The other Troops consisting of greater numbers, were worse treated than the former; for Ester­hasi having received a Recruit of Horse from Reiffemberg Governor of Komorra, and Breuner of Jarvarin or Rab, he proceeded boldly to meet the Turks, and joyning Battel with them, he slew twelve hundred on the place, gave liberty to fourteen hundred Christians, took divers of their principal Commanders, with all their Bag and Baggage, besides a considerable quantity of Gold and Silver, in Plate and Mony. Nor were Reif­femberg and Breuner less successful over those who passed through their Quarters to joyn with the Garisons of Alba Regalis and Canisia, having killed seven hundred of them, and taken all their Baggage. Moreover Count Serini in his Jouney towards Vienna, defeated six hundred of them, and presented their Colours to the Empe­rour: and Esterhasi in like manner after his se­veral Exploits, offered thirty Cornets at his Feet, with six Prisoners of Quality, one o f which was Kins man of Bethlem Gabor.

These Rebuffs cooled the courage of the Turks a little, and altered the resolution of the Council for carrying forward the War on the side of Ger­many, as was intended, had the Success answered expectation: For these Misfortunes abroad, and intestine Troubles at home, with Pestilence and Famine, which at the same time greatly afflicted the parts of Constatinople (whereby an hundred thousand People died) abated the Mettle of the Turks, and caused them to take new Measures in all their Determinations: and for that reason Ambassadors were sent both to Vienna and into Poland to renew the Articles of Peace, and so to confirm the League, that whilst the Sultan was imployed in his Wars with Persia and the Eastern Countries, nothing should intervene from the Western Parts to trouble or obstruct his Pro­gress, or recal him from his Enterprise. For now the Rebellion of Abassa, joined with Bechir Pasha of Bagdat, growing daily more considera­ble, and his strength increasing to that conditi­on, that he was able to keep the Field in de­spight of the Grand Signiors Forces, he adven­tured to quarter within five days March of Con­stantinople: and at the same time Letters coming from Hafish Pasha General of the Army in the Province of Bagdat, that the King of Persia was entred into the Dominions of the Turk with a powerful Army, a general Consternation seized the whole Turkish Court, the wisest and stoutest having occasion to call up for all their Wisdom and Courage to assist at a Time when the Go­vernment was assailed on all sides, both at home and abroad. Various were the Counsels and Proposals in what manner to proceed in Times of such emergency. First it was resolved to pro­claim a War both against the King of Persia, and the Rebels in Asia, and that whosoever took of the Grand Signior Pay, from one Asper a day to higher value, should be in readiness to serve in the War, upon penalty of losing his Estate, of being accounted a Rebel, and his Wife and Chil­dren sold for Slaves. But the more sober and moderate sort judged it policy to take off A­bassa, by sending him a general Pardon, with a concession of all his Demands, upon condition, that he should turn his Arms upon the King of Persia, who was the common Enemy of their Country and Religion: but the Janisaries would by no means assent to this Agreement, with a Person to whom they bore a more inveterate ha­tred, than to the Persian himself, as he did also to the Janisaries. For that he might better justi­fie his pretence of Revenge, he declared, That being one day in a Mosch at his Prayers, the murdered Osman appeared to him, and taking him by the hand, said, My faithful Mussulman, since thou art the most generous of all my Slaves, I command thee to revenge my Death, with the Blood of sixty thousand Janisaries and Spahees; good Forture shall accompany thy Arms, and Victory shall crown thy Labours. During these Intrigues and Difficulties of Reconciliation, A­bassa, spoiled the Lesser Asia, and the Persian King conquered the City and Province of Bagdan, or Babylon, took Kur Asan Pasha, an old Souldier, Prisoner, possessed himself of Mosul and Leska on the Persian Sea; and meeting no considerable op­position, he divided his Army into four parts. The first was dispatched into Mesopotamia, com­manded by the King himself. The second made Incursions into Palestine. The third infested the [Page 6]Coast of the Black Sea: and the fourth marched towards Mecha, with hope and design of sharing all the parts of the Eastern Empire.

Ali Pasha, who opposed the King in Mesopota­mia, was slain, and his Army wholly defeated, so that the Province became a Prey to the Ene­my: the success in Palestine was equally fortunate by the revolt of Damascus, a place of great Riches and Importance; the Coast of the Black Sea was greviously infested, and a Port taken near to Trapezond; and little opposition being made at Balsora, the Town was taken by that Army in their March towards Mecha and the parts of the Red Sea, where they rendered themselves Masters of Medina, the City of their Prophet Ma­homet.

To repair these losses, and to encounter num­bers so strong and valiant in all parts, the Vizier was dispeeded with a powerful FOrce to the Town of Bagdat; but by reason of Mutinies and Tumults amongst the Souldiery, Matters found not the success expected: and the Garison mak­ing valiant and vigorous Sallies against the im­becility of the Turkish Souldiery, which were al­ways most obstinate and stout to oppose their own Commanders, obtained an advantage in e­very Attempt; by which discouragement many forsaking their Colours,The Siege raised at Bagdat, & the Turks o­verthrown. the Siege was raised with dishonour, and the Interest of the Turk impai­red, and almost irreparably lost in those Provin­ces. This News arrived at Constantinople, that the Camp was risen and fled by Night, that they were forced to burn their Tents and Provisions, and to break their great Artillery and cast them into the Euphrates: that the Miseries in the Ar­my had been such by Famine and Pestilence, and want of all Provisions and Ammunition, that the like was never known: that the Vizier had be­headed three of his Pasha's, that so he might cast the whole blame upon them; and that now re­treating with his Army into the Turkish Domini­ons, the Persians pursued them in the Rear, and for ten days did execution on them making the best use they could of their Victory; which Re­lation filled the Hearts of all People with sad­ness, and disordered the Counsels with confusi­on. The Cause of which will Success, according to custom, being imputed to the General, he was deprived of his Office, and sacrificed to the Fury of the Janisaries.

These Troubles were increased at Constantino­ple, by the Addresses which the Prince of Tran­sylvania made unto the Port by his Kapi-Kahya or Agent, representing to the Grand Signior, That he wanting Heirs Male to succeed him in his Principality; the States at a Diet had, with common consent, elected his Lady for his Suc­cessor; and therefore desired confirmation from the Port. In excuse of her Sex, he alledged the urgent Necessity of the present Times, which perswaded rather to admit of the Government of a Woman, than that his Principality should, for want of an Heir, fall into the Hands of the powerful Family of Austria. To make good this Demand, Duke John of Weymar, and Count Mansfelt, Duke of Weymar and Count Mansfelt join with the Prince of Transyl­vania. arrived in Silistria, to whom the Prince of Transylvania joined his Troops: and Morteza Pasha of Buda wrote to the Port, that he was marching towards Vatz to meet the Prince, and confer with him concerning these Designs. The Emperor's Resident at Constantinople greatly ex­claimed against these Proceedings; which some­thing troubled the Counsels of the Turks, who in that Conjuncture were unwilling to give be­ginnings to a new War; so that besides fair Words, they promised to write such Letters to the Pasha of Buda, as should give a stop to the Investiture of the Princes. But, to say truly, the Instructions given were in such ambiguous terms, that they in effect left the whole Matter to the Discretion of Morteza to act, as he judg­ed most agreeable to the State of Affairs on the Frontiers, and security of the present Peace.

Thus did the Turkish Court seek to ward off the blow of a War with Germany, and yet se­cretly nourished and encouraged it, by giving Orders to the Pasha of Buda to take up his Win­ter-quarters with the Prince of Transylvania, and to follow his Directions; but yet so to go­vern Matters with Caution, as not to engage too far on uncertain Grounds or doubtful Hazard, but to embrace Propositions of Peace, if offered with Honour and Security. In prosecution of these Rules, Morteza observing, that Weymar and Mansfelt having united their Forces with Gabor, had formed a considerable Army, and were able to fight with Wallestein General of the Imperialists; joined also his Forces to theirs, judging it a prudent and politick Design to wage a War at the Blood and Expence of others. With these Encouragements, and with the fa­vour of a good Opportunity,The Empe­ror's Army defeated. the Confederates fell upon the Army of Wallestein near the River Gran; who not being able to withstand their Force and Fury, was put to flight, and pursued in the Rear with great slaughter; and endea­vouring to pass the River on two Bridges of Boats, were closely followed by the Prince's For­ces, who gaining the Pass, put the whole Army into great amazement, and resolved to pursue them to the Gates of Presburg, or Vienna.

Notwithstanding this Success, the Prince of Transylvania observing the backwardness of his Allies to contribute the Succours of Men and Mo­ny which they had promised; and fearing that the unfortunate Estate of the Turkish Affairs should cause the Sultan to disown the War, dispeeded a Messenger to the Emperor in the Winter-season, to excuse the Constraint upon him of taking up Arms, and to offer Terms of Accommodation and Peace. But the Emperor refused all Treaties, until such time as Gabor had separated himself from his Allies, and from asso­ciation with the Turk: Upon which Answer, Gabor retired to Cassovia, and Morteza to Pesth. This Compliance gave beginning to a Treaty at Komara, where the Commissioners on part of the Emperor, of the Grand Signior, and Prince of Transylvania, assembled. All Parties seemed inclinable to War, and yet with occult Intenti­ons to make Peace, being necessitated thereunto by the urgency of their distinct Interests. The Emperor was urged by his Wars with the Pro­testants of Germany, and apprehension of Forces from England in favour of the Elector Palatine, then King of Bohemia. The Grand Signior was encumbred by the unfortunate condition of his Wars in Asia: And Bethlem Gabor, jealous of being disowned by the Port, deserted by his Al­lies, and exposed to fight and contend singly with the Emperor. In short, Gabor concluded a Peace with the Emperor apart,Peace con­cluded be­tween the Emperor and Gabor. which gave some Jealousies and displeasure to the Grand Signior: Howsoever he dissembled his Discontent, and willingly interessed Gabor with Morteza as Com­missioner for him; who being variously dispo­sed, yet moved with the considerations of their common Advantage, work'd all Differences into a Composition of Peace; the Articles of which being brought to Constantinople by an Internuncio from the Emperor, and delivered in presence of the two Ambassadors of Gabor, they were [Page 7]accepted by the Chimacam, and ratified by the Grand Signior.

Articles of Peace concluded between the Emperor of Germany Ferdinand the Second, and Bethlem Gabor, in the Month of December 1626.

  • I. THE Prince of Transylvania doth promise, by the Faith of a Christian, never to move Arms, or use any Hostility a­gainst the Majesty of the Emperor, or the House of Austria, or their Successors, much less to enter into their Dominions with an Army; nor to aid his Enemies, or keep a Correspondence with them: Not to plot any Innovation in the Kingdom of Hungary, or other Christian Countries: Nor to stir up or provoke the Turks, Tartars, or others, to in­vade them: Not to entertain or assist in any evil Counsel against his Majesty, nor to give ear to the Request and Desires of his Ene­mies; but rather to reveal all their Conspira­cies and Wickednesses, which shall be made known unto him; and by all means to demon­strate and shew a sincere mind truly desirous of Peace, and sollicitous of the Common Good.
  • II. That the Prince shall instantly depart with his whole Army, out of the Territories and Cities of the Emperor; and that he shall restore as well all Goods belonging to the Im­perial Treasure, as those of his faithful Sub­jects.
  • III. That he shall remove from him the Rebel Mansfelt, and all other his Followers and Adherents, desirous to invade the Domi­nions of the Emperor: And that he shall not aid any Stranger whatsoever, who at his In­stance hath entered into the Territories of his Mejesty with Count Mansfelt; to whom Let­ters of Publick Safety shall be given, that they may return by twenty or thirty in a Troop, conditionally, that in no place of their Retreat they shall joyn with the Ene­mies of the Emperor.
  • IV. That seeing it is fit, for Establish­ment of the Peace, that the Inhabitants of Countries and Cities belonging to the Prince, by consent of the Emperor, should remain, during his Life, in Obedience and Fidelity to him; and that those Inhabitants should do Homage to the Emperor, (saving their corpo­ral Oath to the Prince) to keep inviolate these Articles, That they should have leave, by Let­ters of full Authority and Power, granted them by the Prince in their first Assemblies and Conventions, to make such Oath of Ho­mage.
  • V. That at the same time of performing the Homage and Oath, besides the Oath before the last War, they shall take a new Oath ac­cording to the Agreement between the Prince and the Commissioners of the Emperor.
  • VI. The Prince shall procure, that all Pla­ces upon the Confines, which were taken by the Turks in the last War, be restored; and that all Captives, taken Prisoners, shall be set at liberty: And that the Prince shall pro­cure the freedom of all such the Emperor's Subjects as shall be in the Turkish Capti­vity.
  • VII. That all the Subjects of the Empe­ror, lately incited and drawn to the Service of the Prince, shall be free from their Oath: and if the Prince hath any of their Writings Obligatory in his Hands, that he shall restore them: And that these Conditions being con­firmed, all other things formerly treated, shall remain in their former State and Vigour.
  • VIII. That if any other Difficulties arise, they shall be accommodated with Fidelity and Quietness by Commissioners on both Parts: And that all those who in the last Commotions have served the Prince, shall be absolved ac­cording to the Treaty and Agreement at Vi­enna.
  • IX. That all the Inhabitants of Cities and Countries, which have served the Prince, shall be absolved; only those excepted, who have voluntarily taken up Arms against the Emperor; for whom the Prince only shall in­tercede, excusing always private Men, who have done private Wrongs; for they shall, according to Law and Custom, seek their Re­stitution by Civil Action.
  • X. That all other Articles of Peace con­cluded at Nichilsburg and Vienna, shall re­main in their former Vigour and Force: And that all Goods of the Emperor's Clergy, possessed by the Prince from the Year 1619, to this present Day, shall be restored; except the Abbies of Replana belonging to the Se­minaries of Strigonium, for which the Prince shall pay yearly to the Emperor five hundred Florens.

These Articles being thus agreed, and sig­ned, and approved by the Sultan, in the Month of September following 1627, the Articles between the Emperor and the Grand Signior were also agreed at Komara; the which are as follow, tran­slated out of the Turkish, word for word.

  • THAT seeing the Peace established for­merly at Zitwar, Vienna, Komara, and Chiarman, hath remained in the same State, and in the same Articles, without any alteration, it shall not be violated by any new occasion of Contention.
  • That the Differences of Vatz, whereof is made mention at the present, shall rest in the same State that the Commissioners on both sides shall agree.
  • That the new Forts built upon the Confines of Croatia, contrary to the Peace, shall be demolished. To which purpose our said De­puty Mehmet, and our Visier Mortesa Pasha, shall meet upon the Frontiers of Buda with [Page 8]your Deputies, at the Time appointed by the Treaty; and thereupon the places on both sides shall cause to be demolished the Forts built contrary to the Peace: Wherein if they find any Impediment, they shall chuse able and valiant Men to perform and execute the said Service.
  • That after the Approbation of this happy Peace, your great Ambassador shall come to Komara, and ours shall repair with our Im­perial Letters to Strigonium: and there one of them advising the other, yours shall set forward to our happy Port, and ours shall advance to you. For so it is agreed by our Imperial Order, both carrying with them the new Imperial Capitulations.
  • That all Complaints of Villages subject to both parts, shall be laid aside, and no Violences, Taxes, or Contribution, contrary to our for­mer Convention, shall be exacted. And all Forts built in the common Confines, shall be raised. And reciprocally it shall be made known, according to the ancient Treaty, what great Men do dwell amongst our Tributaries. And for the execution of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Articles of the Peace of Zitwa, the Tenth of Vienna, and the Fourth of Ko­mara and Chiarman (for such was then the Agreement) two Capigi-Pasha's of our high Port shall be deputed and dispatched, the one to this side, and the other to that side of the Danube. And upon your part you shall send two such qualified Persons to the same places: who being met together with the De­puties of Mortesa Pasha, and the Palatine of Hungary, shall rectify all Disorders, and see that good Justice be done on both Parties; for so it is our most High Pleasure.
  • That the Slaves which have been taken du­ring this our Treaty, shall be freed and set at liberty without any Ransom: And those who were taken before the said Treaty, shall be exchanged and Redeemed, according to their Qualities and Estates, by the interposition of Mortesa Pasha, and the Palatine of Hunga­ry deputed for that purpose.
  • For the Good of poor People on both sides, the Commissioners have thought fit to conclude this renewed Peace for Twenty five Years, from 1627. Whereunto we have given our Imperial Assent.
  • That all Merchants, and other our Subjects on both parts, shall have safe passage and conduct through both our Dominions: And we have given command to our Pasha's, Beg­lerbeghs, Generals, Beghs, and Captains, upon our Confines, to apprehend, bring into Justice, and punish all such as shall any way disturb or molest them contrary to the Peace. As likewise the Palatine of Hungary, and other your Ministers shall do on your part, if they find any such Offenders.
  • That our Beglerbeghs, Sanzacks, Captains, and Governors; and your Generals, Com­manders, and Captains, shall upon occasion imploy all such Persons as are lovers of the Peace and Common Good.
  • That there shall be no Damage or Hurt done to any of our Subjects in any of your Kingdoms or Dominions, neither by Sea nor Land; as there shall none be done to yours in our Dominions.
  • That all by-past Wrongs, Enmities, and Ʋnkindnesses, on both parts, shall be forgot­ten and laid asleep: and that this happy Peace shall be sincerely and firmly continued and kept inviolate.
  • Ʋpon Condition that the Emperor perform and observe all the aforesaid Articles, and that there follow no Action from any Mini­sters, contrary to the said Peace: We pro­mise and swear, by God our Creator, who made the whole World of Nothing; and by the Honour which we bear to our most high Prophet Mahomet Mustapha, That there shall not be done, during the whole Term of the said Peace, the least Hurt or Damage to the Subjects, Countries, Kingdoms, Castles, or Forts of the said Emperor, by any of our Ministers or Armies, nor to any Christian Slaves subject to our happy Port.

By these Articles we may observe, that both Parties were desirous of a present Peace, rather than one which was durable; for things are so slubber'd over to serve the present Occasion, that they leave all Disputes undecided, till Time should happen more proper to interpret them with the Sword, than with the Pen: like Sores ob­ducted by an unskilful Chirurgion, which feste­ring within, must be again opened before they are cured: howsoever they served the turn of Gabor, whose Interest it was to maintain an ill Correspondence between the two Emperors.

Peace being thus concluded between Ferdinand the Second and Sultan Morat, gave some reputa­tion to the Affairs of the Turks: so that not­withstanding the late success of the Persian in their War, by raising the Siege of Bagdat, and overthrow of the Turkish Army; yet that King finding himself now engaged alone, and singly to contend with the Ottoman Power, feared the Puissance of that Empire, lest being roused and heated with the sensible Pinches of the late Dis­grace, they should call up and invigorate all their Forces to a Revenge, which might at length tend to a ruin and destruction of Persia, unless For­tune, which attended the first auspicious begin­nings with Success, did also continue constant, and still accompany their Arms, which could hardly be expected.

Wherefore on these Considerations becoming more faint in prosecution of the War, the Per­sian dispatched an Ambassador to Constantinople, furnished with various Proposals and Projects for a Peace; but still Mattters driving so as to reserve the City and Province of Bagdat, or Babylon, in the hands of the Persian, the Treaty became in­effectual, in regard the Vizier (who was then called Halil Pasha) judged it a high and an irre­coverable disreputation to the Empire, to be dis­membred of so principal a part of it. Where­fore the Ambassador being dispatched away with some neglect, the Turks armed with that dili­gence and heat, that they entred Persia with an Army of an hundred and fifty thousand Men; with which appearance the people being dismay­ed, suffered Tauris to be taken without much op­position. From hence marching to Bagdat, they [Page 9]found the City well provided and defended with a numerous Garison, from whence many Sallies were made with variety of Fortune, till at length the Turkish Souldiers being wearied and tired with incessant labour and watchings, many of them fled from their Colours: and with such di­minutions, the Army being much abated in its Numbers, the Vizier withdrew them from the Persian Dominions.Another Ex­pedition in­to Persia.

Some Months after the Turkish Army being reinforced, the Vizier entring again into Persia, overthrew the Trucmen who opposed him in his March, and destroyed the Gregorians, who were Friends to the Persian, with a very great slaugh­ter; took Moroc their General, and cut off his Head: And adding to these Victories, the re­port of having taken some few inconsiderable Towns, his Expedition ended without other Ad­vantages, or Progress of their Arms. This ill Success much troubled the Councils at Constanti­nople; for they considered that they had now waged an expensive, laborious War, for the space of three Years, without any Effect agree­able to the Blood and Charge which maintained it, but rather to the Loss and Damage of the Empire. The Souldiers abhorred the length and tediousness of the Way, and the misery of the March, being to pass over vast Countries and Desarts, where there was nothing besides Rocks, Sands, and Barrenness. Many Horses, Camels, and other Beasts of Burden, perished for want of Nourishment; and where Provisi­ons were to be had, the Price was so excessive, that the Timariots and other Souldiers had not a Purse to defray their Charges. The Enemy likewise was very strong, for the Sofi was at the Head of forty thousand brave Horse, which dai­ly infested the Ottoman Camp, beat their Con­voys, and cut off their Provisions, and so ob­structed them that they could not advance.

The Vizier Halil, Proposition made by the Persian for a Peace. then General, being dis­couraged by these Disasters, was inclinable to accept of the Proposition made by the Persian, viz. That Babylon should remain to his eldest Son in Fee, and to his Heirs and Successors, acknow­ledging to the Grand Signior a Tribute as great as the yearly Revenue which proceeded from it, at the time when it was in the Hands of the Sul­tan. But this middle Way seemed an Expedi­ent dishonourable to the Greatness of this Em­pire, and that which argued pusillanimity and want of courage in the Government, and there­fore was rejected by the Council of State, as well as by the Military Men. Howsoever the Persians taking their Measures by the disposition they discovered in the Vizier thereunto, adventured to dispatch an Ambassador to Constantinople with tender of the same Project; but as he was cold­ly and faintly received, so he was in a few days dispatched with few words, and little respect, as if he had been sent as a Spy to discover the State and Condition of the City,Rejected by the Turk. and the Incli­nation of the Prince, rather than to obtain any Benefit by the Treaty. For now Amurat grow­ing into Years, increased in Spirit, and disco­vered a Martial Courage; he began to leave his Delights, and Walks in Gardens, and the society with his Mother and Women, and to assume thoughts of War and Government: such as en­tertained him in softness and luxurious Pastimes, were reproved by the Ministers about him, and by them perswaded to buckle on his Armour, and to delight in Martial Exercises: So that now new Measures were taken in all Affairs: And in the first place, Halil the Great Vizier was recal­led from being General in Persia, and the Pasha of Darbiquier put into his Place; and though he was Brother-in-Law to the Grand Signior, yet being esteemed at Court as a Person who had amassed great Riches in his Employment, he was forced to disgorge five hundred thousand Crowns as an ease of his Burden, and an Atonement to pacify the Sultan for the Fault of his Misfortunes and ill Success.

In these Times of Licentiousness and Revolt, the Pirats of Algier and Tunis, began also to cast off their Respect and Reverence to the Ottoman Empire;The Pirats of Tunis and Algier trouble the Seas. for being become Rich by the Prizes they had taken on Christian Vessels, they resol­ved to set up for themselves, and to esteem the Peace which Christian Princes had made with the Grand Signior, not to concern them; but as if their Governments had been independent, de­manded a particular Treaty, and distinct Arti­cles with themselves: So that now daring to do any thing, six Vessels of Tunis chased some Chri­stian Ships into Rhodes, and there attaqued them, notwithstanding that the Castle shot at them. They afterwards took a Dutch Ship, which had laden at Alexandria: and entring the Port of Salines in Cyprus, they engaged with two Vene­tians; the lesser Ship made a good resistance, but having no help, she was thrice fired, and at last burnt: the other being a Ship of eight hundred Tuns, was cowardly set on fire by the Mariners, and abandoned, escaping ashore with their Boats. Then they sailed for Scanderone, where finding a Dutch Ship and a Polaca, they took both, and then landed. The Aga of the Scale, with all the Inhabitants, fled; so that finding no opposition, they ransacked and robbed all the Ware-houses, and afterwards set them on fire: The greatest Loss fell upon the English and Dutch, the first lost about ten thousand Dollars, and the latter about thirty thousand.

Of these Losses, and breach of Peace, the Christian Ambassadors much lamented; and complained, that if some Remedy were not ap­plied thereto, all Trade must be given over, no Security being to be expected in the Articles and Faith of the Grand Signior: To which, though the Vizier and Great Men did seem to yield a fa­vourable Ear, and promise Redress: Yet being corrupted with some share of the Spoils, and sweetned with part of the Robbery, they began to reject the Memorials of the Ambassadors, and to allow the Pleas of the Pirats, as grounded on some solid Foundation of Reason and Religion: suffering them to publish Discourses, that the Turks were obliged to maintain a perpetual War with the Christians, as Enemies to their Law and Alchoran; and though Policy may suggest some Conveniencies by Peace with them, yet those Considerations are Matters of Sin rather than of Reason.

To make all this good, the Divan of Tunis sent two Deputies to remonstrate the great Benefit and Advantage the Port received by the Depre­dations and hostile Acts which they committed on the Christians: And to inculcate this Argu­ment the better, they declared, That they had lately taken two Gallies of Malta, out of the Spoils of which, they presented unto the Sultan two Stirrups of Gold, with divers Slaves; two of which were Cavaliers, one of the Roman, and the other of the French Nation: those which were Youths, and comely in shape and feature, were entred into the Service of the Seraglio; and the more strong and robustous, were com­mitted to the Service of the Gallies; so that the Turks were inwardly pleased with these Piracies, howsoever gave good words to the Christian [Page 10]Ambassadors, promised much, and effected no­thing.

At that time Trade flourished greatly in those Parts, and had done much more, had it not been interrupted by the Piracies of Barbary; and the Trade was especially so great with Venice, that a Turkish Merchant called Rodul Aga, whose whole Negotiation and Dealing was for that place, died worth a Million of Soltanees; of which, for want of Children, the Grand Signior became the sole Heir.

But one Accident happened about this Time on the Seas, worthy to be recounted: The Seas (as we have said) swarming then with Pirats, the General of Candia, with three Gallies, coast­ing on the Seas for defence and protection of Merchant-Ships, arrived in the Port of Andro; from whence espying a Gally plying close under the Shore, and believing her to be a Corsaire, or Pirat, made up to her; and because it was a about the glimpse of the Evening, so that she could not be well known or distinguished, the General rashly charged her; and meeting a stout resistance, many were killed before it was known that the Gally belonged to the Archipelago, A Fight at Sea by mi­stake. com­manded by Dervis Bei, one of the Grand Sig­nior's Captains: but so soon as the Mistake was discovered, the Candiot General demanded of the Turk a thousand Excuses, returned him his Gally and Slaves again, and whatsoever was ta­ken from him, bestowing with them an infinity of Complements, supposing that thereby the Spirit of the Turk being somewhat appeased and mollified, he would represent this Encounter with the more favourable Terms and Advantage at the Port. Notwithstanding which Offices of Kindness, Dervis Bei, without farther loss of time passed up to Constantinople, bringing his Gally in without Lantern, shot thorough, ill treated, and shattered, feigning himself also to be wounded; related, that he had lost forty four Levents, and seventy seven Slaves which were killed; and that all the Haratch or Tribute-Mony, which was collected for the Grand Signi­or's Service from the several Islands, was rob­bed and embezled by these Candiots. His Com­plaints were aggravated by many Circumstan­ces, and being assisted with the Clamours of other Beys or Captains of Gallies; the Noise and Dispute was exceeding high in the Divan, urg­ing, that the Venetians were obliged to make good a Loss, which they had caused rather out of Malice than Mistake.

At that time Georgio Giustiniano resided at Con­stantinople for the most Serene Republick; who to oppose the high Clamours of these Complai­nants, shewed Courage, and accompanied his Answers with Prudence and Resolution, which are often very convincing in the Turkish Court. They alledged, that the Peace was broken. He answered, That it would not be the first time; and that they ought not to yield entire Credit to the Relation of Persons passionate and partial in their own Cause: that such Accidents as these, were as ordinary and common in the World as Cold and Heat, as fair and foul Weather; and that so soon as the Error was discovered, and the Gally known not to belong to Barbary, but to the Grand Signior, it was punctually and en­tirely, restored, with all the Excuses imagina­ble.

In short, this Business which had so bad an Aspect at the first, by the dexterity of this Mi­nister, and giving something to Dervis Bei, where­by to stop his Mouth, the Complaint ceased, and all farther Proceedings were superseded.

The Wars in Persia being unsuccessful, it was proposed in Council, that a Peace should be made, if possible, with Abassa Pasha; that his Demands,Proposals of Accommo­dation with Abassa. whatsoever they were, should be granted, and promises given him of Honours and Preferment: But the inveterate Enmity and Hate which the Janisaries bore him, and the difficulty there was to perswade Abassa, that the Overtures made him were free and candid, and not mixed with Treachery and Design, were Obstructions not to be obviated or overcome. Wherefore Abassa keeping mutual Intelligence with the Persians, and receiving assistance and succours from them, was become very formidable and strong, and the Town of Erzirum well fortified with Works and a numerous Garrison. Howsoever the Jani­saries, his mortal Enemies, pressing the Vizier to proceed against him, at length obliged him to besiege the Place; which having done, and closely begirt it,Erzirum besieged. the most forward and brave a­mongst the Janisaries, were the first to scale the Walls, but were repulsed by the valour of stout and resolute Souldiers; for they knowing that there was no other safety but in their Arms, and no other Mercy than an ignominious Death, be­ing the just Reward of their Rebellion, refused to give or receive Quarter: Wherefore they made frequent Sallies on the Enemy, and as ma­ny Janisaries of them as they took Prisoners, they immediately hanged about the Walls, as a spectacle of Horror to their Associates. This Resolution and Cruelty, deterred the Turks from their frequent Assaults and Storms made upon the Town; and the many Batteries and Fortifi­cations, rendred the Place almost impregnable; so that there seemed no other hopes to remain, but to overcome them by a long Siege and Fa­mine: But Abassa had so well provided against this Danger, with such plenty of Provisions, that the Turkish Army began to be more strait­ned for want of Sustenance than the Besieged: so that becoming weary and discouraged amidst so many Difficulties, they raised the Siege with such disorder and haste,The Siege raised. that they left several Pieces of Cannon behind them; and retiring with some confusion, were charged in the Rear, so that many Janisaries fell a Sacrifice to the hate and revenge of the Enemy.

The News of this Success coming to Constan­tinople, was ill received; but the Disaster there­of, according to the usual Custom, was attribu­ted to the Vizier who was General; for which Cause he was deprived of his Office, and the Se­lictar Aga (who carries the Sword before the Grand Signior) was put into his place, a Per­son of a fierce, bloody, and cruel Disposi­tion.

To these,New Trou­bles from Tattary. new troubles were added out of Tartary. For Mahomet the King of that Coun­try, exalted to the Princely Dignity (as we have already declared) by the Favour and Election of that People, though contrary to the sense and pleasure of the Port, was now fallen from the good esteem which they conceived for him, be­cause he gave some hindrance to their usual In­cursions on the Polonians and Cossacks, out of memory and gratitude to the assistance they had contributed towards his Election; for which rea­son being, as it were, famished for want of their usual Depredations, they refused to obey his Commands; and then openly threw off their Obedience to him as their Prince. The Turks, who always envied this Dignity to Mahomet, rejoiced to see this Discord between him and his People, and therefore thought it time to make use of this occasion to re-instate Gherey the elder [Page 11]Brother into the possession of his Kingdom; whom the Turks, for his better security, having placed at Rhodes, the usual Retirement of the Tartarian Princes, dispatched a Squadron of Gallies to fetch him from thence to Constantinople; where being arrived, he was received with a magnificent and Princely Entertainment by the Sultan: that so the Fame thereof forerunning his arrival in Tartary, the people might be better prepared to concur with the Port in their ac­ceptance of him for their King. He was after­wards conducted to Caffa, the Grand Signior's Town in Tartary, with a strong Fleet of fifty Gallies, where at his first landing he was received by Cant-Emir, a rich and powerful Tartar, and Chief of the Turkish Faction, and by many o­thers with great honour and solemnity, with whom also a considerable Party most willingly en­gaged. But the Cossacks of Poland and Circas­sians, Friends to Mahomet the Brother, joyning their Troops to his Forces, became too Strong for the Turks; for giving them Battel near the Inclosures of the Danube, at a place called Ban­det, they defeated them, and killed three or four thousand of their Men, putting all to Fire and Sword round about; and entring on the Seas with their Fleet of Boats, took five of the Tur­kish Gallies: with which ill Success, the Tar­tars, which took part with Cant-Emir, being discouraged, abandoned their Colours and fled; so that Cant-Emir was forced to take Sanctu­ary in Caffa, which being a Town belonging to the Grand Signior, it was hoped, that the re­verence they owed to that Name, would cause them to refrain all Violence thereunto. But the Tartars, provoked by this late effusion of Blood, lost all respect to that Government; so that be­sieging the Town, they assaulted and took it, and therein the Son of Cant-Emir whom they cut in pieces, the Father escaping in a disguise from the City.

The News hereof arriving at Constantinople was greatly displeasing, and caused many serious Debates and Consultations thereupon; the wisest and most sober of the Council was for dissem­bling the Matter, and with their usual dexterity to suffer what they could not remedy: for that it was by no means advisable in the present con­juncture of Affairs, to proceed unto an open Rupture with the Tartars, fearing lest the Chri­stians, Persians, and other Enemies should make a benefit of this Occasion, and joyning with a Nation so strong in Horse, should dangerously press upon the Empire, and force them to the ultimate extremity of Affairs. Wherefore an Envoy Extraordinary was sent to the Tartars, who covering the inward sentiments of Regret and Anger, which the Sultan conceived for the late Disgrace, seemed to wonder at the Cause and Reason of the last Engagement, as if it had been acted without the knowledg or order of the Grand Signior; and thus with gentle Terms in­sinuating, that the Surrender of Caffa would be very acceptable to the Port, and that which would atone for all miscarriages, and be such an offering of Pacification, as would reconcile all past Differences, and restore a perfect Correspon­dence between the Sultan and them: the Tartars readily assented to the Demand, upon condition, that the Turks should impose no other King upon them than him, whom by general consent they had elected for their Prince.

Though Differences were thus concluded with the Tartars, yet the Cossacks continued still their Enmities, entring the Black Sea with eighty Saicks, which they so infested, that the Turks could for that Year avail themselves little of their Navigation in those Seas: so that the Turks, to curb these Insolencies, gave Orders to build two Forts at the Mouth of the Black Sea: the Polish Ambassador made Complaint hereof, and protested against it, as an Act contrary to the Capitulations of Peace; but the Turks esteem little of the Air of Bravadoes, whilst they are not accompanied with something else more solid than their own Levity.

But the grand Concernments which busied the Thoughts of the Turks, was the Rebellion of Abassa, and the War in Persia, the management of which was the charge and care of the Selictar Aga lately made Vizier, called Serches Pasha. His Head-quarters were at the beginning of this Year taken up at Iconium, called by the Turks Conie; and Abassa was encamped at Kaisaria, a­gainst whom the Vizier marched; and being nearly approached, the Janisaries earnestly ur­ged, that Battel might be given the Enemy; but the Vizier having received Instructions not to en­gage, if possible, but rather to enter into a Trea­ty, and to propose Terms of Accommodation, delayed the Time, and with various Excuses, eluded the present premures of the Janisaries; at which they became so angry, that they flew into an open Mutiny,The Janisa­ries mutiny. cutting the Cords of his Tents, stoning him, and wounding him in the Head: by which open Violence, the Vizier being compelled to make known his Orders, he assem­bled the chief Commanders of the Spahees and Janisaries, giving them to understand, that the Grand Signior's Pleasure was, to make up the Difference with Abassa, as the only means to con­clude an intestine and unnatural War, and to be able to withstand the Persians, and regain the Country and Reputation which the Turks had lost. This Proposition seemed plausible to the Commanders at the General Assembly, and more especially, because it was the Pleasure and In­junction of the Grand Signior; but more difficult it was to incline the rough and obstinate minds of the Janisaries to a resolutian so different to their Natures, and so contrary to that Revenge which they had deeply rooted in their Hearts, and sworn to execute: howsoever the perswasions which the Officers used to their inferiour Souldiers, put­ting them in memory of the Blood of their Com­panions, and how destructive the continuance of such a War must necessarily prove for the future by those large effusions of Blood which they must expect farther to make, were so prevalent upon them, that at length they condescended to a Treaty,They consent to treat with Abas­sa. and to receive Abassa for a Friend and a Fellow-Souldier. Abassa at first suspecting some Treachery, refused to give a private meeting to the Vizier; but the Vizier giving his Brother the Beglerbegh of Caramania, and the Pasha of Anatolia for Hostages, the Day and Place for a Conference was appointed; where both Parties meeting, Articles were agreed, That Abassa should still continue to be Pasha of Erzirum, his Son Pasha of Bosra, his Cahya, or Lieutenant, to be Pasha of Marasch, (all which were Places on the Confines of Persia) a general Act of Par­don and Amnestie was to be given to Abassa and his whole Army, and the Articles sworn unto in the most solemn manner by the Vizier, and confirmed in the publick Camp of the Janisaries, who also promised to maintain this Word and Promise of the Vizier; to all which the Grand Signior gave his Hand, and affixed his Royal Sig­nature.Abassa re­conciled to the Grand Signior.

A Reconciliation being in this manner, com­pleated, the City of Erzirum resigned it self to [Page 12]the Obedience of the Grand Signior, and the Army of Abassa was employed on the Confines of Persia, and converted against the Enemy. The Vizier also was appointed to proceed on the same Enterprise; but his Army was so ill provided of all Necessaries, that he made his Ex­cuse, and refused to march forward: But on the contrary, he returned to Constantinople in company with Abassa; where, with many demon­strations of Friendship and Respect, he was conducted to the presence of the Grand Signior to receive Honour, and the Reward of his Peni­tence, and return to Obedience. The approach of these two great Personages near to Constanti­nople, made much noise and rumor in the City; some blamed the weakness of the Government for accepting an Enemy unto Favour, and that the crowning of his Rebellion with Rewards, was to encourage others in the like Practi­ces.

The Vizier was also murmured against for leaving the Army and the War,The Vizier and Abassa make their Entry into Constanti­nople. contrary to the Royal Command, by such as were emulous of his Greatness: But as Envy is converted into Veneration, and ceases as Smoke doth, when it is blown up by the Flame of Success and Glory; so those who were emulous of these Persons, sub­mitted to all obsequious Offices towards them; and dissembling their Malice, went to meet them as far as Scutari, that they might add to their Train and Equipage, and help at the Solemnity of their Entrance. All People now cast their Eyes on the Vizier and Abassa, as the two great Men of this Age; the first was esteemed for his dexterous and successful management in bring­ing over Abassa to his Submission and Obedience; for though he was not famed much for his great Feats of Arms, yet this Reconciliation of Abassa was accounted a Master-piece of Policy, and better Service than a Victory. Abassa also drew the Eyes of the People, who crowded to see so great a Captain, that could contend with the Port, and put all Asia into Disturbance, and in conclusion could make the same Arms serve his Master, which had lately before given a check and stop to all the Ottoman Force. The Vizier was the first introduced to the Royal Presence, where being graciously received, he was presen­ted with a Vest of Sables and a Cemiter set with Jewels. Abassa was afterwards admitted, and having performed his Obeisance by touching the Ground with his Forehead after their fashion; he declared, That he never was other than a faithful Vassal to the Sultan, and that he had ta­ken up Arms for his sake, that he might subju­gate the insolence of the Janisaries, and with their Blood revenge the Death, and sacrifice to the Ghost of his murdered Brother Osman, that they might learn to reverence their Princes for the future, & learn to know how sacred the Blood is of their Soveraign. The Grand Signior seemed kindly to accept this Apology, and as a Token thereof, bestowed three Vests upon him; which was a treble Honour of that kind, and made him Pasha of Bosna; on which employ­ment he immediately entred: And though when such offices are bestowed, it is commonly the cu­stom for that Person, who is invested in the Em­ployment given, to kiss the Sleeve of the Grand Signior publickly by way of Thanks: Yet, lest such Demonstration of Honour should ill affect the Eyes of the Janisaries, and cause murmuring and repinings amongst the most envious of the Souldiery, his last Audience was designed pri­vately, and his Dispatch procured in more se­cret and familiar manner, and therefore more obliging than was usual.

To yield some assistance to the present grow­ing Charges of the Empire, the Vizier imposed a heavy Tax on the Christians and Jews; on the first it was levied with all severity;The Jews at Constan­tinople how treated but the Jews found more favour by their Arts, and secret ma­nagement of Affairs, for they are a People of some Authority and Power in Turkie: they are cursed by particular Persons, but caressed by the generality: they are Slaves in all Countries, and yet acquire somewhat of Mastership and Pro­priety: they are Vagabonds, and yet every Country is their own: they cannot buy lands, and yet daily increase their Fortunes: they mul­tiply in abundance, because they all marry, and are not destroyed by Wars: they are great Con­fidents of the Turks, and Enemies to the Chri­stians. In short, Covetousness in Constantinople is like a publick Courtisan, to whom the Jews are the Panders and Ruffians.

The Grand Signior passing one day through the Streets, unhappily met with the Ambassador of the Prince of Transylvania; who because he did not immediately descend from his Horse in token of Reverence, he caused him and his whole Family to be imprisoned; but being afterwards excused by the Chimacam, to have only been a matter of inadvertency, his Omission was par­doned, and so released from his Restraint.

The Souldiery having for a long time been go­verned by a loose and gentle hand, continued their licentious way of living, committing ma­ny outrages on the Merchants and Inhabitants of Constantinople; against which many Decrees having been published, and Proclamations made, without any effect or notice of the Souldiery, the Vizier was unwilling to dally longer; and therefore taking a Spahee and a Janisary, hanged them up, and cut off their Heads: and with such course and method of Severity, he so aba­ted the haughty Stomachs of the Souldiers al­ready mortified by the assumption of Abassa into favour, that they began to yield unto Command, and to behold their Rulers with an eye of Respect, as those which were seated in some degree above themselves; for till now there was scarce a com­mon Janisary, but who thought himself to be the Creator or Elector of his General, and therefore to be little inferior to him in Power and Dignity.

And as this Vizier was severe towards the Souldiery, so he demeaned himself with equal rigour towards the Pasha's and Grandees of the Court; which though it was an Humor in the Vizier at that conjuncture, laudable and necessa­ry, yet it procured him such enmity, as removed him at a distance, and caused him to be sent into Persia to command the Army, and by that means to expose him to the hazard and difficulties of doubtful Success in a dangerous War.

The Vizier being departed, the Grand Sig­nior appeared in publick on Horse-back, toge­ther with his Brother by his side, an unusual sight amongst the Turks: But the Queen-Mother, who in absence of the Vizier ruled much, commanded that it should be so. The Grand Signior had this Year a Son born, which caused great rejoy­cing at Constantinople, because there were few Males at that time surviving of the Ottoman Line; but scarce was the Festival ended before the Child died.

But let us now for a while withdraw our Discourse from the Wars of Persia, and look to the Actions in Poland and Transylvania. Meh­met the late King of Tartary, who was so dis­pleasing to the Port (as we have already related) was now dead; to whom succeeded a Kinsman [Page 13]of his called Jembeg Gheray, universally pleasing and acceptable to that People.

This new King, to demonstrate his Prowess, and to act something acceptable to the Port, dis­patched forty thousand Horse into Podolia and Russia to sack and ravage the Country; which dividing themselves into several Parties, made their Incursions as far as Socal. But in the mean time the Polonians and Cossacks having formed a strong Body of Horse under the Command of Stephen Chmieleskie, met them at their return near to Burstinow, The Tartars overthrown by the Po­landers. where they gave them a total overthrow. And in like manner Stanislaus Lu­bomiskie, encountred another Party, and over­threw them, leaving thirty thousand slain on the plaee, and taking two thousand Prisoners, amongst which was the younger Brother of the Tartar King.

This Defeat, as it was the greatest that ever was given to the Tartars, so it is probable, that had it been well prosecuted at that time by the Polonians, they might have entred the Chersone­sus Tauricus, and without much opposition have put an end to that Kingdom: But Sigismond King of Poland had other Designs in hand; such mixed Monarchies as that, being better able to defend their own Dominions, than to acquire or conquer others.

To this News ill received at Constantinople, su­pervened the unexpected Death of Bethlem Ga­bor; The Death of Bethlem Gabor. unexpected, I say, because that though he had been long labouring under the Diseases of Dropsy and Asthma, yet the greatness of his Soul, and activeness of his Spirit, mastered for a long time his Indisposition, so that he seldom or never omitted his Counsels and Business; and to the very time of his Death, was meditating and contriving Designs, whereby to preserve his Dominions, and enlarge them. And in­deed the Government of Transylvania required no less than such a stirring Spirit: for being seated between two such powerful Monarchs, as the Emperor and the Turk, there was need of dexterity and courage to steer between the Rocks of such opposite Interests: Sometimes it was necessary to join with one, and anon with the other. So Sigismond Battori Prince of Tran­sylvania, uniting his Forces with the Emperor's, in several Conflicts overthrew the Turk, and kept the Scale in an equal Ballance. Gabor on the contrary inclined to the Turks, and suppor­ted his Interest with the Ottoman Power, fol­lowing such Maxims as had been more ruinous to Christendom, had he transferred them to a Son to imitate and pursue; but dying without Issue, the Government devolved to his Princess, by Vote of the States of the Country, and by Confirmation of the Turk, as we have already intimated.

Gabor knew so well how to deal and treat with the Turks, that he gained an abatement of ten thousand Dollars of the annual Tribute; he managed his Affairs so subtilly with the Empe­ror, that he was always invited to a Peace, and accordingly made his Advantage by the Treaty.

The other Princes of Christendom in like man­ner courted him, and particularly the Cardinal Richelieu employed one Bornemis, a Gentleman of Transylvania, a Lover of the French Interest, to be always about him; by whose means, and with the assistance of twenty thousand Crowns of yearly Pension, he obliged him to make War on the Emperor, at such Seasons as it should be in­timated unto him to be most conducing to the advantage of France.

At length, as we have said, giving way to mor­tality, he died on the 15th of November, after he had reigned eighteen Years: he was a Prince of great Abilities, but exercised them ill to the dam­mage of Christendom; howsoever he was a Soul­dier of extraordinary Courage and Conduct, ha­ving begun to manage his Sword at seventeen Years of Age; and as it is said, had been enga­ged in forty two several Fights. His Widow Ka­therine, Sister of the Elector of Brandenburgh, rendred an account to the Port of this Accident, and the Grand Signior immediately returned An­swer by Sulficar Aga, condoling the Misfortune, and encouraging her to a dependence on the Port: which she accepting with due Resentment, pro­mised Obedience to the Grand Signior, and beg­ged his Protection. But the weather was too boi­sterous and rude for a Vessel to be navigated well under the Pilotage of a Woman; for the situati­on of the Country, between two mighty and po­tent Monarchs, required more than a Feminine Mind and Courage to free and defend it from the Plots, Snares, and Violence with which it was, as with a toile, encompassed by those two great Nimrods of the East and West. And though the Sultan undertook to defend his Female Ally, yet the diversion of the Ottoman Arms in Persia, the intestine Distractions, and the Minority of the Emperor were such burdens on the Foundation of Empire, and obstructions to great and Hero­ick Atchievements in behalf of the distressed Prin­cess, that all the Promises made to her were un­available and ineffectual. For Stephen Bethlem, The Widow of [...] Gabor per­swaded to quit her Go­vernment. a Kinsman of the deceased Prince, a Man conspi­cuous in his own Person and Estate, as well as for the several Governments divided amongst his Sons, and the interest he had gained in his Coun­try, procured means to convoke the States at Claudiopolis; and insinuating the foregoing Incon­veniences of a Female Government, so prevailed with the Assembly, that they perswaded the Prin­cess to yield up her Soveraignty to Stephen Gabor, as one better capacitated for Rule and Soveraignty than her self. Stephen having thus obtained his intent, entred into a serious Consultation with his Friends and Relations, whether he should la­bour to confirm the Government to himself, and entail it to the Family, or renounce it to some other. The first seemed a Matter very dubious and difficult; for that Bethlem Gabor his Prede­cessor, had disobliged the principal Boyards or Barons of the Country, and thereby derived an envy and hatred to all his Family: His long and violent Government annexed to the Interest of the Turk, had not only rendred his Memory odious to his own People, but likewise to the House of Austria, which would be ready to continue the like prejudice and aversion to any of the same Family, as it did to the last there­of.

For which Reasons, after due and mature consideration, it was resolved to offer the Go­vernment to George Ragotskie, a Person rich in Mony, and of great Interest, by reason of the Jurisdiction and Castles which he possessed in Hungary, belonging to his own paternal Inheri­tance; and in pursuance thereof, they sent Ste­phen the second Son, and Solomon a Kinsman of that Family, for Ambassadors to Ragotski, re­presenting to him, that they had preferred his Merit before the Interest of their own Family;The Princi­pality offer­ed to Ra­gotski. and therefore desired him, that he would be pleased to take upon himself the Regency of the Principality.

The offer of Government was a savoury Bait to the Palate of Rogotski; which he embraced [Page 14]with singular affectation and contentment, and was easily perswaded on this occasion, to take a Journey to Waradin, one of the principal For­tresses and Places of consideration in that whole Province, and was there received by Stephen the Ambassador, Governor of the Citadel, with firing all the Cannon, and with the common Joy and Festivity of the whole City. But in the midst of this Mirth, an unexpected Messenger arrived with News, that the States had with com­mon consent elected another Prince, which was Stephen Bethlem, Father of the Ambassador, and Author of this Counsel.

Ragotski was strangely surprised with this In­telligence, and the Ambassadors were put to the blush to see their Negotiations under such a shameful defeat: Howsoever resolving to con­tinue constant to their first Election, and to re­nounce the Interest of their own Family, they still maintained the same obsequious Offices of Honour and Reverence towards Ragotski as for­merly.

And notwithstanding the Orders received from the States to abstain from any other demonstra­tions of Honour to Ragotski, than what were or­dinary towards a private Person of his Quality and Riches; and that he should retire from the Confines of Transylvania to the Precincts of his own Castles: yet they still persisted to execute their first Commission, and so to attract People to his Party; that the number thereof daily in­creasing, it was at length agreed, that the first Election not being fair, the Point in Controversy should be determined at Sazburg, a City of Saxony.

The States General being assembled, Ragotski accompanied his Pretensions with a large effusion of Gold, the most powerful and most convincing Argument imaginable: to which he added, That he had no design to affect the Principality, had not the same been first offered to him from Ste­phen Gabor the Father by the Hand of his Son: That it was very improper for that Person to offer a Dignity to another, which he affected for himself: that it was in the power of the Tran­sylvanians, not to have offered him the Princi­pality; but having once chosen him to it, they could not, without his disparagement and preju­dice, retract from their Election.

In short, these Considerations, assisted by the Interest of the Princess Dowager, so far pre­vailed, that Stephen Bethlem was put aside, and Ragotski, Ragotski chosen Prince. who attended the success of this Mat­ter at Waradin, was with common consent elected Prince; from whence being with great Accla­mations, and a general concourse of the People, conducted to Alba Julia; he there took the usual Oath with much Solemnity and Magnificence: and with Princely Magnificence, entertained and treated the two Ambassadors, Stephen and Solo­mon, and dispensed freely his Mony unto divers, who before being Enemies, were now reconci­led, and become his Friends and Admirers. Li­berality in a Prince, is the most resplendent Gemm in all his Crown, and is a Light so forcible, that it dazles Envy it self, and puts out all the Eyes of Suspicion and Jealousy.

By this time the Great Vizier was far advan­ced with his Army into Persia, having been en­couraged to proceed by the feigned Flight, or rather Retreat of the Enemy, who burned, de­stroyed, and laid waste all round them, as they retired; which put the Turks to such inextrica­ble Difficulties, that in two months March, they had all the Inconveniencies and Miseries to con­tend with, which commonly attend Armies in strange Countries; the Plains through which they travelled were abandoned by the Inhabi­tants, and void of Provisions; the Mountains were covered with Snow and comfortless: and what was worst, the Persians kept all the narrow Passages so strongly guarded, that the Vizier was now more in danger of Famine than of the Sword: but being a Person of great Sense and Experience in Military Affairs, he prudently dis­ingaged himself from the intricacy of these Dan­gers; and encamping his Army in the Plain of Amedan, he so provoked the hot Spirits of the Persians, that they resolve to assault him on that side of his Camp, which they judged to be the most weakly defended: of which having some advertisement, he secretly laid an Ambuscado in the way; which so happily succeeded, that he killed eight thousand Persians on the place:A Victory gained by the Turks over the Persians but howsoever the Victory cost so dear, and was so bloody, by the loss of the stoutest Janisaries, and the bravest of the Souldiery, that the News thereof made little noise or rejoycing at Con­stantinople.

With this Intelligence the Vizier demanded new Recruits; for that besides the abatement of his Numbers by the last Engagement, the Mul­titudes of the Enemy increased, and his own Souldiers fled from their Colours; of which ma­ny being observed to enter Constantinople, not­withstanding the severe Decrees of Martial Law published against them, put the Grand Signior into a high Cholor and Indignation.The difficul­ty of sending Men into Persia. And be­ing desirous to reinforce the Vizier's Army with all the Recruits that he was able, Proclamations were made, that all the Militia at Constantinople should immediately pass over unto Scutari under their respective Commanders; and that whoso­ver received one Asper of Pay from the Grand Signior in quality of a Souldier, should imme­diately pass the Chanel into Asia, and follow their Leaders to the War. But so great was the abhorrency which the Souldiers had to this March into Persia, calling it the Sepulchre and Cemetery of the Turks, that few or none would obey, every one flying, hiding, and shifting for himself as well as he could: During which Fears and Troubles, the Ways from Persia were so ob­structed by the Curdes, that in the space of three or four Months, no News arrived at Constantino­ple from the Army; which caused as great appre­hensions and affrightments there, as if the Em­pire had been reduced to the utmost extremity. Nor did the Sultan want Jealousses and Fears of receiving Affronts from the Emperor, and King of Poland; the first of which had a fair oppor­tunity presented of regaining all Transylvania, especially at a time when that Country was di­vided by two several Factions: but more pres­sing and troublesom were the Cossacks,The Cossacks trouble the Turks. who dai­ly infested the Black sea; and to the great re­proach of the Imperial City, perpetually di­sturbed it with Alarms, passing up almost in sight of constantinople. Of which Complaints being made to the Polonian Ambassador, he an­swered with some indignation, That the Cos­sacks had reason for what they acted; for that since the Tartars had, by Orders from the Grand Signior, made their late irruption into that Country, as they could well prove from the Commission taken amongst the Baggage of the Prince of Tartary in the last Defeat, the Cossacks might with all justice assume to themselves a me­thod of Revenge.

But the Grand Signior not being able to sup­port this Affront, or to see himself braved on the very Banks of his Imperial Seat, and his [Page 15]Villages and Towns round about burnt and pil­laged by a crew of Free-booters and Pirats, cast all the blame on the Chimacham; to whom, in his rage, he gave such a blow with his Fist on the Face, that Blood issued from his Nose; and had not the Queen-Mother interceded for him, he had been delivered into the Hand of the Executio­ner to take away his Life. Nor was the Cap­tain-Pasha in less danger at his return; because, that upon his assurance, that the Cossaks would not for that Year make any attempt in the Chanel of Constantinople, the Grand Signior had assented, that the Fleet of Gallies should that Summer make a Voyage into the Archipelago: Which Mistake having been the cause of all this Affront, the Captain-Pasha was to share in the blame, and had likewise in the punishment, had not good Friends interposed between him and Danger.

Nor were the Cossacks satisfied with their late Plunder, but speedily made another return with two hundred Boats; and though the whole Fleet of Gallies were then in Port, yet they had the boldness to proceed as far as Pompey's Pillar, and thereby to hinder all Provisions from passing to Constantinople by way of the Black-Sea. And what gave greater fear than all this, was the News which came at the same time, that the Poles were on the Frontiers with thirty thousand Horse; to whom immediatly a Chaous, or Envoy was dis­patched with Propositions very advantagious to the Crown of Poland, conditionally, that the con­tinual Irruptions made by the Cossacks should be stopped, and they restrained within the due Terms of Peace and Moderation.

The Chaous found a civil Reception from the Poles, and promises of Compliance, in regard that the King had some Intentions of making War upon the Muscovite.

But whilst these things were in agitation, and that the Chaous was ready to return, behold, on a sudden News came, that ten thousand Tar­tars were broken into Podolia; which put all things back again, and so changed the stile of Affairs, that instead of Articles of Peace, the Chaous was again returned with the Menaces of War, and with Reproaches for the last perfidi­ous Action.

Notwithstanding all these Troubles abroad, the puissance of the Ottoman Empire might have been able to have struggled with greater Difficul­ties, had not its own Intestine Distractions ren­dred all things dangerous, and of a malevolent Aspect.

The Government was at that time chiefly in the hands of the four Brothers-in-Law,The Disor­ders in the Ottoman State. who had married four Sisters of the Grand Signior's; and for that reason were powerful, and employ­ed in the principal Offices of State, and com­monly drew contrary to the Opinions of the Mufti and Chimacham; which two last were not well accorded between themselves, for that the latter encroached on the Office of the Mufti, to the great scandal and discontent of all the Reli­gious and Literate Men in the whole City; how­soever they both joined in consultation by what means they might best secure themselves and the Government from the Lusts and evil Designs of this quadruple Fraternity; but their Wisdom and Interests were too weak to contrive Reme­dies against such high Oppressions; for besides the Violences daily practised by the Brothers, the extravagant Humors in the Sultan himself, ad­ded to the Disorders of State, and increased the Discontent and Dissatisfactions of the People: For though Morat was naturally endowed with a good Wit and Parts, was stout, and of a good Courage: yet as his perpetual Debauchery in Wine rendred him in appearance but of a weak Understanding, mixed with much Levity, so it caused his Accessions of the Falling-sickness (to which he was subject) to return often, whereby the strength of his Brain was daily [...]akened and impaired. He was negligent also in the performance of those Ceremonies which his An­cestors were accustomed to observe; nor did he live with that gravity and regular Course which is agreeable to the Grandeur of so great a Prince: for sometimes he would go out of his Seraglio with no other Attendance than of three or four Men, which were for the most part Buf­foons, players upon the Gittern, and Eunuchs; and with no better an Equipage would he some­times be seen on Horse-back, or in his Boat rowed on the Bosphorus with six Oars only: by which Actions, and other sallies of Youth, he created such a contempt towards his Person, that evil Men grew factious and weary, and en­tred into Conspiracies against his Life, whilst the good Men feared and presaged the ruin and downfal of the Empire: for neither Justice, nor Order, nor Obedience, prevailed; no Of­fices were conferred for Merit, but by Mony, or some other unlawful Means; there remained no Counsellors of true Faith and Integrity, nor Souldiers almost, either of experience for Sea or Land-adventures. The People, being bur­dened by double Taxes and Imposts, were muti­nous, and ready to take the least Fire of Rebel­lion; the Souldiery were disorderly for want of Discipline and their constant Pay: the Pasha's of remote Provinces grew insolent, taking upon themselves rather an absolute than a depending Soveraignty.

In short, all things looked with that black ap­pearance, that nothing seemed to keep the Frame of Empire together, but only the expectation of good Success to the Army in Persia; the which, as it depended on uncertain Events, so the Ot­toman Monarchy was then shaking, and stood tottering on its deepest Foundation.

Wherefore all People being intent to hear of good News from Persia, were much pleased to understand, that the Vizier having, by advan­tage in the last Engagement, laden his Army with Plunder and Spoils,The Vizier prepares to besiege Bag­dat. was now preparing to besiege Bagdat; for whose good Success, Pray­ers were daily made in the Moschs; and the Schoolmasters surrounded the Streets with their young Scholars, singing out Prayers with the Amen at every Period, according to the Custom of that Country.

The Vizier marched towards Bagdat, and be­gan to besiege it about the 10th of September: In order whereunto, he amassed great abundance of all sorts of Provisions, and made his Maga­zine of them at Mosul, two thousand Camels, each laden with two Sacks of Cotton, every Sack being of about ten foot long, were carried to the Siege, for shelter of the Souldiery, and to fill the Ditches.

The Vizier having passed part of his Army over the River Tigris, the rest with the Cannon remaining on the hither side, he dispatched Na­suf Pasha of Aleppo, with six thousand Spahees, to take a view of the Place, and to discover the Avenues unto it. In his way thither, he met with eight thousand Persian Horse sent to rein­force the Garison, which he valiantly engaged; but being dangerously wounded, was forced to retreat, with the loss of almost half of his Men, part killed, and part taken: those which [Page 16]were carried Prisoners to Bagdat, were treated with all civility by the Governor, who gave them a view of the Garison, which consisted of twenty thousand effective Men; shewed them their Stores and Provisions, and that there was scarce an unuseful Mouth in all the City to de­vour them.

Notwithstanding this Disaster at the begin­ning,The Siege the Vizier nothing dismayed, proceeded on his Design, spending the whole Month of September in making his Approaches. In the Mouth of October, he mounted eighteen Pieces of great Cannon, which for the space of twenty five days bettered continually the Curtain be­tween the two Bastions, on which were four Pieces of Cannon not perceived by the Turks; there was also a deep and large Ditch not disco­vered by them, for that it was planked over with Boards, and covered with a green Turf, so that it appeared like plain and firm Ground: the Breach being made, and seemingly undefended, the Turks resolved to make an Assault; where­fore the Vizier, on the 20th of November, com­manded, the Spahees, under the Conduct of the Beglerbei of Anatolia, accompanied with Pa­sha's, Sangiacks, and other Persons of Note; as also with Janisaries, to the number of thirty thousand, to enter the Breach: which being performed, and great numbers crowding on the Turf, the weight of them pressed down the Planks; and therewith the whole Engine giving way, five or six thousand were in a moment ta­ken, as it were, in a Pit-fall, and swallowed up without any possibility of Succour to be yielded from their Companions. After which on an in­stant there appeared fifteen thousand Men on the Breach and on the Bastions; which with their Cannon, and continual Vollies of Musket shot, so galled the Spahees, that they broke their main Body, and killed the Beglerbei of Anatolia, with other Peasons of Note and Quality, and made the whole Army to retreat.

Two days after this Disgrace,The Siege raised. the Vizier rai­sed the Siege, and marched towards Mosul; and the Persians encouraged with this Success, pursued the Turks with eight thousand Horse, assailed the Rear-guard of the Enemy; and though the Conduct and Care thereof was com­mitted to the charge of the Pasha's of Aleppo and Damascus, yet the Persians killed three thousand Turks, and had defeated the whole Rear of the Army, had not the Spahees turned their Horses, and withstood the shock with great Valour.

Notwithstanding this dishonourable Retreat, the Vizier lost not his Courage, or hopes of taking the Town; in order unto which, he ap­pointed all things necessary to renew the Siege again in the Months of September and October following, for that the foregoing Months are either too rainy, or too hot in those Countries, to undertake a Design or Enterprize of that Na­ture: He fortified all the small Places in those parts round, and quartered his Souldiers in them; so that having all conveniencies of living, they might be induced to continue, and not abandon their Colours: especially he took care to fortify Illay, a place of about two days journey from Bagdat, reinforcing the Garison with six thou­sand Men, under the command of three Begler­begs, in regard that it was a very considerable Pass, and the principal Magazine and Granary of Corn and other Provision.

At the same time he sent Letters to Constanti­nople, representing the state of his Affairs to be in a hopeful condition; and desiring Recruits both of Men and Mony, gave great assurances of conquering the City at the next Attempt.The Poles and Turks make Peace

In this perrilous Condition of the Ottoman State, one would have imagined that Christian Princes would have seen their own Interest, and made use of their advantage; but God not having as yet fixed a Period to the Bounds of this Empire, was pleased, by his secret Providence, to divert both the Emperor and King of Poland from making War with the Turk, inclining them to employ their Arms on their Christian Neigh­bours. For though the Chaous (as we have said before) was returned from Poland with disdain, and an angry Message, yet the Chimacam, when he made Moses Vayvod of Moldavia, encharged him to perform all Offices of Mediation between the Grand Signior and the Poles, perswading them to restrain the Incursions of the Cossacks, and to send an Ambassador to the Port. In which affair Moses so well performed his Nego­tiation, that applying Lenitives to the Anger of the Poles, he reduced them to Articles of Peace, and to promises of restraining the Cossacks, on condition, that the Turks reciprocally forbid and withhold the Tartars from joining or af­fording assistance to his Enemies the Musco­vites.

These Conditions being agreed, the Ambas­sador was sent from Poland to Constantinople, where he was received with as much Joy, as he was expected with Impatience.The Cossacks and Tartars compared. The Cossacks and Tartars were two sorts of people which lived equally on Spoils and Booty; the first as offenfive to the Turk, as the latter to the Pole; and therefore as it was an equal Benefit, so it was an Agreement of even Terms, to counter­change the Caution given reciprocally for one and the other.

But the Engagement for such wild People, was more easily given than performed; which because it was a Point agreeable to both Par­ties, it was expressed with the most clear Words and strict Terms possible.

The Poles were weary and grieved to see their Provinces depopulated by the Tartars, who yearly carried away some thousands of Souls. The Turks on the other side were not less infe­sted with the Cossacks, who captivated their People, burnt their Towns and Villages, and kept them in continual Alarms.

But because these People are hardly restrained from their Robberies and Pillaging, the Poles, as a Remedy, resolved to carry the Cossacks to the War against the Muscovite; and better to secure the Tartar, the Polish Ambassador was obli­ged to pay them twenty thousand Florins yearly, and six thousand pair of Boots, according to the ancient Articles of Peace. On which Conside­rations the Tartars were engaged never to en­ter Poland in a hostile manner, but to serve that King in his Wars against all Nations whatsoever, the Turks only excepted.

In this manner were the Turks this Year freed from all apprehensions of Alarm from the Cos­sacks, and of War with Poland. And the Em­peror was so busied concerning the surprize of Mantoua, and engaged in the Quarrel about that Dutchy, and with some ambitious thoughts relating to Italy, Troubles in Hungary. that the Turks hoped to have prosecuted their Wars in Persia without fear of Diversion from the Western Parts. But yet the Affairs towards the parts of Germany were not so well secured, but that the turbulent Spirit of Ragotski administred subject for Dissention; for being lately seated (as we have said) in his Principality, he was doubtful whether it were [Page 17]most for his Interest to incline unto the Empe­ror, or to the Turk; and whist both Parties courted his Friendship, and cheapned his ac­knowledgments, (for of necessity he must be a Vassal to one or the other) the Heyducks who were Tenants to the Lands of Gabor, refused to return to the Obedience of the Emperor, de­manding protection from the Grand Signior. The jealousy of those ill Consequences which this Commotion might produce, alarmed all the Country: and the Emperor and Ragotski being hereby raised to a mutual Defiance, advanced their Troops one against the other upon the Frontiers: But all Hungary trembling with fear of those Calamities which ensue from War, se­veral of those concerned, interposed so far to­wards an Accommodation, that Deputies were ap­pointed to meet at Cassovia to treat of Peace. But in the mean time the Palatine of Hungary passing eight thousand Men over the River Tibis­cus, to make seisure of a certain Fort built by George Basta, so alarmed and awakened Ragotski, that he dispatched a Gentleman to him to de­mand the Cause of this Motion; and not re­ceiving an answer agreeable to his expectation, he advanced upon him with an Army of ten thousand Men, and engaging him with great re­solution, killed four thousand on the place, and so caused him to retire: from these beginnings all the mischiefs of a bloody War had certainly ensu­ed, had not Ragotski refused to receive Succours from the Turk; but he depending on his own strength (having fifteen thousand Men in Arms for defence of his Hereditary Lands in Hungary con­temned all external Assistances, as savouring too much of vassalage and dependance: howsoever the Pasha's of the Frontiers assembled their Forces, and yet acted with such caution, as not to proceed to an open Rupture; for the Wars in Persia be­ing unsuccessful and pressing, required moderati­on and Lenitives on this side, that so the differen­ces now on the Frontiers might be transferred to an opportunity more seasonable for dispute.

In the month of September Sultan Morat being at his small Seraglio called Daout Pasha, and sleep­ing there one night in his Bed,The G. Sig­nior afrigh­ted with Lightning. he was on a sud­den awakned by a terrible Lightning; which en­tring his Chamber, surrounded his Bed, leaving se­veral Marks on his Sheets and Quilts; and whilst he sought some place to hide himself in, it pas­sed under his Arm, and burnt part of his Shirt; the afrightment of which so astonished him, that he remained for some time in a swound, which for ever after did much impair the strength of his Brain: He now began to be sensible that there were other Thunder-bolts than those that proceeded from his own Throne; and, like Tiberius, learned to tremble at the Voice of God, whilst he heard him speak in the Clouds: Nec Deum unquam nisi iratum pertinuit, & turba­tiori Coelo fulminantem. And so affected was the Sultan with this Accident, that afterwards he dismissed divers of his Buffoons from the Court; and particularly a Mute, whose ridiculous Ge­stures were his common Divertisement, and for some time caused him to abstain from Wine; and as a farther token of his Conversion and Thankfulness to god for this eseape, he ordered five thousand Dollars to be given in Alms to the Poor, and Korban to be made of three hundred Sheep; and the Friday following, he solemnly went to the Mosch, to render Thanks unto God for having so prodigiously preserved him from the Executioner of his Vengeance.

During all this time the Great Vizier wanting Succours and Supplies of Men and Mony, had great difficulty to contain his People in their due Obedience, or within the Bounds of their Quar­ters; for they were apt to leave their Colours, and would really have disbanded, had not their Spirits been daily held up with the hopes and a­musements of Pay and Recruits.

The four Brethren-in-Law, which greatly ap­prehended lest their Power and Authority should be abated by the return of the Vizier, exercised all the diligence they were able to make new Levie [...], the reinforcement of which might instil new Courage into the Souldiery, and be a means to continue the Vizier in those parts; but the Mufti obstructed all Levies on the side of Greece, and the Frontiers of Christendom, alledging, That the best Souldiers being sent from those parts, would hazard the Empire, by exposing and laying it open to the Incursions of the Chri­stians: by which contrary Opinions and Delays, the Vizier wanting the Assistance expected, the Persians recovered all the little Fortresses which they had lost the Year before, with the conside­rable place of Illay; Illay reta­ken from the Turks. which being taken by As­sault, and by an absolute force of Sword and Arms, the greatest part of the Garrision consist­ing of eight thousand Men, commanded by the three Pasha's before-mentioned, where cut off; which was an important loss to the Turks; not only for the slaughter of so many brave Soul­diers, but also for the quantities of Provisions, being the Granary and Magazine for the whole Army. Therein were likewise taken forty Field-pieces carrying eight pounds Bullet; with a great Chain of Iron, which usually encompasses the Treasury which is carried into the Field. With this ill success the Vizier retreated from Mosul as far as Mirdin, from whence he re­doubled his Instances for Supplies for Men and Mony.

At length it was agreed, that an Army of thirty thousand Tartars should be sent thither; but Ragotskie advising, that he was upon the point of breaking with the Emperor, it was or­dered, that their number should be reduced to ten thousand: the which taking their Journey into Persia, by the way of Circassia, were there encountred by Han Gherey, the Prince of Tarta­ry, (whom we formerly mentioned to have been deposed by that People) and by him ob­structed in their passage, the Van-guard of their Army being cut off by him; so that they were forced again to retreat and to embark their Men and Horse at Caffa, to be transported by Sea to Trapezond; which as it was a matter of great trouble, so it was a course unpractised by the Tartars. The Grand Signior being unable to render a more considerable Succour than this un­to his Army, which was now reduced to the weak number of two thousand Janisaries, and three thousand Spahees, he resolved to conde­scend to Terms and Articles, as the only means to save his Honour, and the remainder of his Forces.

In order unto which, he released a Persian Lord from his Imprisonment in the Seven Towers, and qualified him with the Title of Ambassador, bestowing upon him an Equipage of Men and Horse agreeable to his Character, with four thosand Dollars to defray his Expence. And that the King of Persia might be assured of the Sultan's real Intentions and desires of Peace, he recalled his Army in the Spring, whereby all Acts of Hostility ceased: And thus the Vizier being returned to Constantinople, that Pride and Rigour which he exercised towards all in the time of his prosperity, laid him low by Misfor­tunes [Page 18]tunes in the esteem of his Enemies; who gladly embracing the opportunity to disgrace him, with all the terms of Obloquy and Detraction,The Vizier deprived of his Office. deprived him at length of his Office. One of the four Brothers-in-law married to one of the Grand Signior's Sisters, and Prime of the Cabal, being constituted Vizier in his stead. Nor did the late Vizier easily escape with his Life, until he had repreived it with an Atonement of an hundred thousand Zechius of Gold, and some choice Horse, which he presented to the Sultan; the like Example other Pasha's his Compainions followed in proportion to their Estates and Em­ployments; by which Presents the empty Trea­sury was in a manner recruited, and the present Necessities of the Sultan relieved.

But this new Vizier enjoyed not long either his Honours, or his Life; for the first Act he per­formed, was to mitigate the Valedé Sultana, or Queen-Mother, to obtain a Hattesheriff, or Writing, under the Grand Signior's Hand for cutting off the Head of Casref Pasha, the Spa­heeler Agasi; or General of the Spahees, which being executed by Mortesa the Commander in Chief in Persia, his Head was brought and thrown at the Gates of the Divan.

The Spahees astonished at this Spectacle, and enraged to see that Head on the Ground which they so much esteemed and loved, forgot all the Terms of Duty and Obedience to their Superiors; and without regard to the Place wherein they were, even within the Walls of the Grand Sig­nior's Court,Mutiny of the Spahees joined with the Janisa­ries. they threw Stones at the Vizier, and beat him from his Horse; which though the Grand Signior, and all the Viziers highly resen­ted, as the most scandalous Indignity that could be offered to the Majesty of a Supreme Ruler, and to all Government, yet their Counsels ra­ther sought Remedies to suppress the Mutiny, than to make Proposals of executing Justice on the Offenders; for the Spahees seconded by the Janisaries, (who were glad of any cause to make a Commotion) assembled in the Hippodromo, from whence they sent an Arz to the Sultan, requiring the Heads of the Great Vizer, and of divers others, as well within as without the Seraglio. The Grand Signior denying positively to assent hereunto, the Souldiery as plainly threatned to depose him, and place his Brother in the Throne; at which barbarous Resolution the Grand Signior being affrighted, his youthful constancy was so shaken, that he wrote to his Mother to desire her excuse, in case he assented to the death of her Son-in-law the Great Vizier; for that the Storm of the Military Fury was so great, that he could not endeavour to protect him without the loss of his Life and Crown: wherefore the Vizier being turned out of the Gates of the Seraglio, he was immediately butchered in the presence of the Sultan.

Nor did the impetuous Rage of the Souldiery end here, but they proceeded farther to demand the Head of the Janisar-Aga, or General of the Janisaries, who was reputed the chief Instrument of the Death of Casref, because he was a prin­cipal Favourite to the Grand Signior; but he wisely taking divers off with Mony and Presents, sowed division between the Janisaries and Spa­hees; so that some Difficulty arising hereupon, the determination of his Death was deferred for a while; howsoever they proceeded to demand, that the Mufti should be discharged of his Office, and that the Tefterd [...], or Treasurer, should be delivered into their hands.

To the first the Grand Signior assented; but being willing to save the other, he pretended, that he was escaped and fled; but when he was found, he should run the same Fate with the Vi­zier. But the military Sedition not being ap­peased with this Answer, they roved through the whole City, and Galata, and other parts of the Suburbs: the Spahees persisting to require the Head of the Janisar-Age, and not finding him in his House, they plundered it, and depar­ted; and meeting with a Youth, a Favourite of the Grand Signior's, they killed him; and so re­turning with the like Fury to the Seraglio, they required admission to the New Vizier and Mufti. Regep Pasha, another of the Brothers-in-law, was then made Vizier, who with the new Mufit trembling at these Tumults, were careful to treat the Souldiery with all lenity and condescen­sion imaginable, desiring them to declare their Grievances, and whatsoever might give them Satisfaction should be granted. The seditious Souldiers replied, That they were resolved to see the Grand Signior's Brother, for that when the present Sultan did not govern well, they might know from whence to produce another of better Abilities, and more agreeable to the De­signs of the Empire.

That necessity which caused the late easiness of condescension to former demands, made way also for compliance with this; so that the young Prince being brought forth, they obliged the Sul­tan not to attempt any thing against his Life, and caused the Vizier and Mufti to become Cauti­on and Security for it.

Nor did these Concessions contribute towards a Pacification; but rather their Insolence increa­sed thereby, renewing their Exclamations at the Gates of the Seraglio for the Heads of the Jani­sar-Aga and the Testerdar; not would they be satisfied with answer, that these Men were not found in the Seraglio, but still persisted in their rude Out-cryes and Menaces, losing all respect and reverence to the Sultan and the Superiors; so that the Grand Signior resolved once to sally out upon them with his own Guard; but trying their Temper and Resolution, he discovered most of them to be poisoned with the like Spirit of Sedition, and combining with the others as As­sociates in the Treason.

The Viziers, and other principal Officers, perceiving the Mutiny to increase daily, and not knowing to what degree it might arise, made it their business to search out for those proscribed by the Souldiery: at length the Aga was happily discovered by a certain Person, to whom a Re­ward was given of a thousand Zechins, with the Office of Zorbasi or Captain; and the Aga con­fessing that he had counselled the Death of Cas­ref, he was immediately strangled, and his Body hanged upon a Tree to publick view. The like Fate befel the Teftardar, who being also taken, was killed and hanged up together with the Body of the Aga.

All which Persons thus inhumanely murdered by the Souldiery, were the Enemies of the pre­sent Great Vizier Regep; for which cause the Grand Signior suspecting that he secretly contri­ved and nourished these Rebellions, never after looked on him with a gracious eye. Of which the Vizier being sensible, combined with the Souldiery; and judging it almost impossible to set himself right in the Affection of his Master, he courted the Favour of the Militia, as the on­ly means to protect his Life, and maintain his Power. But as the revenge of Princes is not like a Thunder-bolt, which wounds on a sudden, but rather like a Mine which requires time to form, and is then sprang, when it may do the [Page 19]best execution: so in the same manner, the Grand Signior dissembled his hate towards the Vizier,The Vizier srangled by Order of the Grand Sig­nier. until one Night being present with him in the Seraglio to see certain Fire-works, he called him aside, and whispered to him, that he should go into his private Lodgings; where being entred, the Door was shut upon him, and he strangled by certain Eunuchs, who were appoin­ted to attend him for that purpose. But little benefit or riches did the Grand Signior. reap by his death; for the Vizier having for some time expected this Blow, had concealed his Treasure, and conveyed it away for the use of his Poste­rity.

The like hatred did the Sultan conceive against the Souldiery, resolving in his mind to execute his Revenge, especially on the Janisaries, as the most turbulent Fomenters of Rebellion and Trea­son, and to vent his Anger, either by the Cord or Sword, or some other more expedite way, as opportunity presented: and to prevent or op­pose the like Seditions for the future, he fortified the Seraglio, and brought Arms in thither by night, chusing into his Guard select Men of Cou­rage and Faithfulness: and being sensible, that the being of his Brother attempered his Sove­raignty, and drew away the Hearts and Eyes of his Souldiers and People from fixing entirely on his own Person; he therefore intended to cut him off; but the Caution and Security given by him­self, and chief Ministers, to preserve his Life, diverted him from this Resolution.

In place of the deceased Vizier, Mehmet late Pasha of Cairo was constituted, and the Seal consigned to him; with whom the Grand Signi­or consulting to him; which whom the Grand Signi­or consulting of the present Emergency of Af­fairs, often uttered his displeasure against the late Seditions, and signified his Intention to re­dress them for the future; in order unto which, he caused the Heads of the most mutinous Spa­hees to be cut off, and on various Pretences sepa­rated the Souldiery each from other into divers Parts; some numbers of Janisaries he com­manded to march to the Confines of Persia, and caused many others of them to be killed by Night; and by various other Means greatly weakned the Chambers, both by diminishing the Numbers, and taking off such who were the Men of best Courage and Conduct: many Bodies were found swimming in the Bosphorus, and known to be Spahees; great part of the Lands the Pay of the Spahees was abated; and divers Offices of Profit and Honour were taken from the Militia, that so Men might be made sensible of the Indignation of their Prince, and that there is no Sport or Jesting with the Anger of a pro­voked King, who knows no other mean of his Passion, than the total evaporation of his Choler and Vengeance.

To maintain and make good these several Acts of Just Punishment, young Morat growing in Courage with his Years, mounted on Horse-back, well Armed, and like a Souldier, attended with a select Party of Cavalry, passed through the most publick Streets of the City in a huffing man­ner, and casting a stern Eye upon the Souldiery and People as he went, and making a hundred Passes through the midst of them, struck them with an awe of his Majesty, and admiration of his Warlike and Martial appearance; with which Severity and Gallantry the Souldiery being af­frighted, began to consider, that they were not longer to be governed by a Woman, or a Child, but by the most brave Prince that ever swayed the Ottoman Scepter; and thereupon for the fu­ture resolved upon an impartial Submission and Obedience unto him. To encourage them in which, and to reconcile their Spirits and Affecti­ons to him, Morat oftentimes assembled his Soul­diery at Ackmeidan, where he exercised with them, shooting with the Bow at Marks and at Rovers, rewarding those who shot best, with ad­ding an Asper a day to their Pay; besides which, he distributed six thousand Hungars amongst them, to demonstrate that wise Princes are used to mix Lenitives with their Rigour.

These Mutinies and Seditions in the Captial City, encouraged Rebellious Spirits in divers o­ther places: so that a certain Bold and Audacious Fellow, drawing a number of Miscreants after him, possessed himself of the City of Prusa: a­nother of the same Temper, called Elia Pasha, made himself Master of Magnesia, Rebellion in Anatolla. where he committed all the Outrages which Enemies inflict on a Conquered People; and being about twenty four miles distant from Smyrna, so afrighted the People of that Place, who were Merchants, and such as lived by Trade, that they fled with their Wealth, and such Things as were portable, lest they should be exposed to the Robbery and Spoil of Thieves and Rebels. But the Beglerbey of Anatolia suffered not Elia to reign long in his lust, but giving him Battel in those Plains, whol­ly defeated him, and sent twenty of the Heads of the chief Commanders to the Sultan for a Present; and pursuing Elia and the rest of his Army to Magnesia, besieged him in that City. The Grand Signior being advised hereof, and fearing lest the Siege should take up too much time, and move other ill Humors in that Coun­try, dispatched Orders to offer Terms and Con­ditions of Accommodation with Elia, which were secretly treated, and great Promises made him of Favour and Rewards from the Grand Signior. The easie Fool accepted the Conditions, and embraced the Promises; and leaving his City of Magnesia, proceeded confidently to Con­stantinople to receive the gracious Rewards of the Sultan for his past Services. At his Entry into the Seraglio in place of the Kapislar-Kahyasee, or Master of the Ceremonies, he was received by Officers with a Cord in their Hands, who be­stowed on him the gracious Reward of his Ma­sters ultimate Favour.

These Rebellions were no sooner suppressed in Asia, but that other Mutinies of the Janisaries,Mutinies at Buda. for want of Pay, began at Buda in Hungary, where they threw Stones at their Age, and pur­sued him to the very Palace of the Pasha, elect­ing another into his place. They also cut in pieces the Governour of Pest, and bestowed his Office upon his Lieutenant.

To remedy these Disorders, and extinguish the Mutiny, the Grand Signior sent Commissio­ners to examine the Matter, and to render him an account of the Grieveances and Demands of the Souldiers: but they fearing to be surprised with some severe Acts of Justice, prevented or forestalled the Inquiries of the Commissioners, by acknowledging their Fault, and demanding Par­don, with surrender of four of the Ring-leaders to Punishment; declaring, That by their se­ducement and evil perswasions, they were de­bauched into that disorderly course of Proceed­ings: the Sultan accepted the Sumission, and all things were quieted in Hungary.

Howsoever new Troubles arose in Moldavia: Troubles in Moldavia. for that People being oppressed over-much by their Prince Alexander, made an Insurrection a­gainst him, and drove him out of the Country, who for refuge fled to Constantinople. And the [Page 20]People desirous that one Bernoschi, a Polonian by Nation, might be put into his Place: To obtain his Confirmation, he came to the Port, and of­fered himself before the Grand Signior; but Morat suspecting, that to obtain the Principality for himself, he had secretly instigated and nou­rished the late popular Commotions, caused his Head to be cut off in the Publick Divan.

Amurat had now born to him a seventh Daugh­ter, by his Slave called the Shining Star; and though he was much troubled that she had not brought him forth a Son and Heir, yet so much was she beloved by him, that he resolved to cre­ate her Queen, had not his Mother declared a­gainst it, as a thing not usual for any Woman to be honoured with that Title before she had sup­plied the Inheritance by the Birth of a Male Child.

And that he might now totally extinguish the Fire of Sedition amongst the Souldiery, he cau­sed Ferdum Efendi and Saluc Age, two prime Chiefs of the Spahees, with eight principal Jani­saries, to be put to Death; after which severity, fearing another Insurrection, he passed the Wa­ter, and retired to his Seraglio at Scutari, where he fortified himself.

It happened about that time, that a Turkish Wo­man, a Slave, was found aboard a French Ship, ready to sail from Constantinople; which the Turks highly resented, and aggravated the Crime so much against the French Ambassadour, that they imprisoned his Son then embarqued, and would have confiscated the Vessel and her Lading. In those days the Christian Ambassadors resident at that Court, kept better Union and Correspon­dence among themselves than they do at present; so that all of them, as concerned, joined toge­ther to represent before the chief Ministers, that such a Fault merited not so grand a Forfei­ture, for that it was most probable to have been committed without the privacy either of the Ambassador, or Commander of the Ship. The Am­bassadors then resident were Sir Peter Wych for England, the Sieur Marcheville for France, and Pietro Foscarini for Venice; at whose warm and urgent Instances the Turks condescended to re­lease the Vessel, and the Goods laden upon her, with free liberty to depart. Howsoever it be­ing represented to the Grand Signior by the Cap­tain-Pasha (who is Admiral of the Seas) that one Baldasar, an Armenian by Nation, but Dra­goman or Interpreter to the French Ambassa­dor, was a principal Instrument to move the Ambassadors to unite in this Pretence; and be­ing observed to manage the Interest of his Ma­ster with warm and earnest Sollicitations, the surly Sultan grew so angry, that one of his own Slaves should presume to manage a Dispute with him,The French Interpreter impaled. in Fury and Rage, commanded that he should be immediately empaled; and that he might be assured that his Sentence took effect, he would see him with his own Eyes on the Stake before he would pass the Water to his Seraglio at Scutari. The resolution was so sudden, and the Execution so speedy, that there was neither Ear lent to hear, nor Time given to mediate in his behalf; and the Act being performed, com­plaints would not serve to redress a tyrannous Action now past Remedy, and not to be recalled: Wherefore as the Ambassadors were forced to acquiesce, and patiently endure the Affront; so if they would have resented it, they could scarce have found one amongst their Interpreters of so bold a Spirit, who durst have opened his Mouth after so terrifying an Example. The truth is, the Dragomen, or Interpreters to Ambassadors at Constantinople, are required to be Men of Learning, Courage, and Courtship; their studies ought to endue them perfectly with the Turkish, Greek, and Arabick Languages, with some know­ledg also of the Persian, and with good Elocu­tion, and readiness of Tongue: their constancy and presence of Mind is always necessary at their appearance before those Grandees or Great Men, who are ever proud, haughty, and arrogant in all their Expressions and ways of Treaty, the which they commonly manage towards Christian Ministers with the same respect which we use to­wards our Servants, or our Slaves. And there­fore by reason of this and other Presidents of like nature, Dragomen have been always timo­rous in representing the true sence of the Ambas­sadors and Consuls; at least have so minced and tempered their words, that they have lost much of that Vigour and Accent which is necessary to inculcate perfectly a Business into the Understan­ding of a Turk, especially if you intend to in­cline him to Reason and Justice. Wherefore it would be an excellent Qualification for an Am­bassadour himself to understand and speak the Turkish Language, or at least to have a young Man by his side of the English Nation, educated in the Turkish Court, who should be ready to ex­plicate those Matters which are too thorny and prickly for Subjects of that Country to han­dle.

Had all the foregoing Troubles, Mutinies, and Misfortunes encountred the Spirit of an easie and a gentle Sultan, certainly the Fate of this Amu­rat had been the same with that of Osman, who retiring within his Seraglio, could never have appeased the Seditious Humor with all the Con­cessions he could give an unreasonable multitude: but being a resolved and busling Prince, he at first gave some few steps backwards, as if he would yield somewhat to the impetuosity of that Torrent which he could not resist; yet it was only like a Ram, who retires, that he may butt with the greater force. Howsoever the Politici­ans and sober Men attributed the true cause of all these Commotions in the Souldiery, to have no other Foundation than the ill success and miseries which attended the War in Persia; for the way being long, and the Countries hot, barren, and for the most part void of all comfort, the Soul­diers abhorred the Fatigues and March thither; and hated to consider, that they should be made a Sacrifice to the lust of voluptuous Ministers, who, to gain Estates and Riches out of those Monies which were designed to carry on the War, did not care, whilst they lived at Ease and in Delights, what Labours, Wants, and Dangers attended the Militia.

These Considerations made likewise some im­pression in the Sultan, who therefore inclined to hearken unto those Propositions of Peace which were brought him by an Ambassador from Persia; and being accompanied with very great Presents,The Peace made with Persia, and speedily broken. the Peace was clapt up and concluded on a sud­den. But as Things quick in their Birth and Production, are not long-liv'd, nor long durable; so this Peace was broken the same Year with an inconstancy equal to that inconsideration with which it was agreed and signed. For no sooner was the News hereof flown into the Eastern World, than the Great Mogol dispatched his Ambassador with Letters to the Grand Signior, perswading him to make War again with the Persian, promising to assist him therein, by stop­ping up the Passage of Nachivan, which is a City in the Lesser Armenia, built upon the Ri­ver Aranes, and is the common Road into the [Page 21] Indies. The which Motion, as it was pleasing to Morat, so being accompanied with Indian Curi­osities and Presents of an inestimable Value, the Ambassador was graciously received, and treated with such Feasts and Entertainments as are not usually known amongst the Turks; and returned again with Letters, giving hopes, that he would speedily take an occasion to break with the Per­sian. But those who had experienced the Dif­ficulties of a War with Persia, and observed, that in the present Conjuncture of Affairs it might be more easily and with advantage waged on the side of Hungary, Perswasi­ons for a War against the Empe­ror. endeavoured, with ma­ny pregnant Arguments, to perswade the Grand Signior thereunto, giving him to understand, that Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden, being victorious over the Emperor in Germany, had taken many Towns and Cities of great strength; and having overthrown him in divers Battels; had slain or taken his best Captains and most Martial Men of Valour; and that other Chri­stians, who were desirous to abate the pride of the Austrian Family, were ready to embrace the same Conjuncture, whereby they might entirely shake off the Yoke and Servitude to the Imperial Tyranny.

These Advantages being well represented, took place easily in the mind of Morat, so that he dispatched express Orders to the Pasha of Buda to assemble his Forces, and put all things in a readiness on the Frontiers: in compliance with which, though the Pasha set forth his Tents, and made great appearance of a March, yet some se­cret Designs caused him to move slowly, and to affect a Peace rather than a War; so that receiv­ing an Ambassador from the Emperor at Pest, he readily Admitted him, and gave him safe Conduct and Convoy unto Constantinople: at which time Advices coming, that the Great Gustavus Adol­phus was slain, and that the Affairs of the Swedes went backwards and unsuccesfully in Germany, altered all the Measures of the Ottoman Coun­sels; and though Ragotski endeavoured all he was able to foment the Differences, and encou­rage the Turks to a War, having besides other specious Pretences, an Army of thirty thousand Men in a readiness to joyn with the Turks a­gainst the Emperor; howsoever the Turks look­ing on the Condition of the Swedes as desperate, and the Proffers of Ragotski to be uncertain, and of no true Foundation,A Peace made be­tween the Emperor and Grand Signior. and the State of Affairs amongst themselves to be turbulent and unset­led, gave a kind Reception to the Emperor's Ambassador, and signed the Agreement for con­tinuance of the Truce.

By this, and other Actions of like Nature, Ra­gotski lost much of his Esteem with the Emperor and the Grand Signior; the first always looked on him as an Ambitious Prince, exciting the Turk against him, and ready on the least Occa­sion to enter his Country with Fire and Sword: The other looked on him as a False Friends, who never made Proffers, but those which squared with his own Designs and Interest; and parti­cularly he had disgusted the Port, by presuming to instate one Matthias in the Principality of Walachia, and to eject another constituted there by Authority of the Grand Signior, called Stri­dia Bei, or Lord Oysters, because his Father was a Fisher-man, and gained a good Estate by the Trade of Oysters; howsoever it being the Grand Signior'd Pleasure to ordain such a Person to that Office, it was a Presumption, and a bold Piece of Usurpation in Ragotski, to dispose of that Government, by virtue of his own single Power: Howsoever the Grand Signior, to avoid Contention with the resolved Spirit of Ragotski, confirmed Matthias upon Condition of a double Tribute paid for the Investment to the Principa­lity.

But besides these Reasons for a Peace with the Emperor, the Designs the Grand Signior enter­tained of making War upon Poland, with the Assistance of the Musco [...] and Tartars, and of dispossessing Emir Facardin [...] his Government, were strong Inducements [...] [...]ake fair Weather on all other sides of the N [...], abouring Princes. The Envy which the Riches and Greatness of Emir Facardian (who was a Prince inhabiting in the Parts of Arabia, to whom a large Tract of Land, with several Fortresses did belong) had contracted to him from the Pasha's of Damascus, Tripoli, and Gaza, caused them to accuse him before the Grand Signior of Rebellion, and other enormous Crimes: The Plea against him was managed especially by the Pasha of Tripoli, who alledged, That he was an Enemy to the Maho­metan Law, destroyed the Moschs, kept corre­spondence with the Malteses and the Corsairs of Ligorn, permitting them freely to take Water in his Country; that he openly favoured the Chri­stians, suffering them freely to build Churches in his Country. That he continually fortified his Castles, and encroached on the Lands and Ter­ritories of the Emirs his Neighbours. In short, his Riches were so great, that every one feared and envied him, and therefore represented his Case in that Manner,Preparati­ons of War made a­gainst Emir Facardin. that the Grand Signior re­solving to destroy him, sent great Forces into those Countries, under the Command of the Pa­sha of Tripoli, to whom he commanded the Pa­sha's of Damascus, Gaza, Aleppo, and Cairo to join their Forces: and for better expedition, the Captain-Pasha was appointed to equip his Fleet, to transport Men and Ammunition into those parts.

The Captain-Pasha in his Passage by Sea,A Fight of the whole Turkish Fleet a­gainst two English Ships. en­countred two English Ships lading Corn in the Gulph of Vola, called the William and Ralph, and Hector: this being a prohibited Commodity, not to be transported under penalty of forfeiting Ships, Goods, and Liberty of the Men, moved the Pasha, with the sight of such a Booty, to command his Gallies to seize the Vessels; which being only two, it was imagined that they would immediately yield and surrender without contest. But these bold Brittons knowing the Consequen­ces of such a Surrender, resolved not tamely to yield themselves, at least to sell their Liberties, Lives, Ships and Goods to the Turks at the dearest Rate they were able: wherefore cutting their Cables, put themselves under Sail, and got into the main Sea, fighting with the whole Fleet above three hours; sometimes they were boarded by one Gally, sometimes by two at once; but plying their Quarter-deck Guns with small Shot, and defending themselves manfully with their half-Pikes, they often cleared their Decks, and put off the Enemy with great slaughter: the Captain-Pasha being ashamed to see such Resistance made by two such Vessels a­gainst his whole Force, resolved to enter his Men at the Gun-room Port of one of the Ships, and running the Prow of the Gally into the Stern-port, the valiant Crew of the Gun-room clapt an Iron Spike into the Trunnel-hole of the Prow, whereby the Gally being wedged fast to the Timbers of the Ship, they brought their Stern-chase laden with cross Bars, pieces of Iron, and Parteridge-shot to bear upon them; which raking them fore and aft,The Capt. Pasha slain. killed the Captain-Pasha himself, with near three hundred out of [Page 22]the Bastard Gally. At length having spent all their shot, they charged their Guns with pieces of Eight, and being over-powered by numbers of their Enemies, and not able farther to resist, they set fire to their Ships, which blowing up, de­stroyed two or three of the Gallies which laid by their sides, together with those Men which were then fighting aboard at handy-blows on the Deck with the Defendants; so that none of the English were taken, unless three or four fished out of the Water.

An end being in this manner put to the Fight, the Turks gained the Victory, with the loss of twelve hundred Slaves killed and wounded, be­sides Turks, and were forced into Port, where they remained a full Month to repair their Gal­lies; the which Fight affected all Turks with an astonishment of the English Bravery, or Obsti­nacy, (as they call it) and is a Matter remem­bred and talked of to this Day, especially by the Son of the Captain-Pasha who was slain, called Omem, Pasha Ogli, who is Pasha of Rhodes at present, (as I remember) and commands three or four Gallies; for which reason he is so inve­terate Enemy to the English, that to satisfie his Revenge, he buys what English Slaves he can get into his Gallies, and sells none out under a dou­ble Price or Ransom.

The News of this Fight coming to Constanti­nople, provoked the Grand Signior to the height of Indignation; howsoever the Officers either being ashamed of their Loss, or entertaining some secret admiration of the English Bravery, suffered the Matter to be compounded for the Sum of forty thousand Dollars, of which the English paid only their share with the French and Venetians, whom (for I know not what Rea­son) the Turks equally concerned in the Occa­sion.

Whilst the Turks were appointing a new Cap­tain-Pasha, and again refitting their Fleet, the Pasha of Damascus dispatched a Summons to Fa­cardin to surrender Seida up to him, with other Castles and Places of Strength. The Old Man resided then a Barut, where pretending to be retired from all Business, answered, that he had resigned the whole Government into the Hands of his Son Ali, as he had already testified by Publick Acts: that he was but a Subject, and a Souldier under his Son, and therefore to him they ought to make their Applications. Facar­din had at that time an Army of twenty five thousand Men, the which he divided into two Bodies, commanded by his two Sons. Ali his eldest he ordered with twelve thousand Men (a thousand of which were Maronites, and two thousand Druzes) to march to Saphet for hinde­ring the conjunction of the Emirs of Feruc and Therabith, and the Pasha's of Gaza and Damas­cus, whose Forces being joined together, did not compose a greater Number than that of Facar­din.

Ali entercountring with them, and being a brisk and hot-metled Prince, engaged and charg­ed them so whom, that he defeated them, and killed eight thousand of their Men; but such a Victory as this not costing him less than seven thousand of his Men, was in effect his own Overthrow; for being the next day charged a­gain by the Enemy, both sides fought with that obstinacy,The Son of Facardin overthrown that (as is reproted) there remained not above an hundred forty six of all the Soul­diers which followed Ali; and he himself ha­ving his Horse mortally wounded under him, and being out of Breath, Weary, and Faint, yield­ed himself to a common Souldier, who promised him Quarter; but afterwards having him in his power, he strangled him with his Match, and cut off his Head and his little Finger on which he wore his Seal-Ring,And is strangled. and so presented both to the Pasha. But this proud Conquerour refused to accept this Present without Ceremony, until first the head had been perfumed with Sweet Waters, the Beard combed out, and covered with a rich Turbant, and having kept this Tro­phy for some days by him, he sent it afterwards to Constantinople.

But before the News of this Defeat reached the Ears of old Facardin, the Captain-Pasha with his Fleet of Gallies arrived at the Port of Tripoli; to whom Facardin being desirous to shew all Friendship, and profess Loyalty to the Grand Signior, he caused his Army to retire into the Parts of Mount Libanus, whilst he himself, with about three thousand Men, between Domestick Servants and his Guards, went to Seida, from whence he sent twoA sort of Vessel or Ship so cal­led by the Turks. Caramosauis laden with Provisions and Refreshment to the Captain-Pasha for a Present, assuring him, that he was an hum­ble Vassal to the Grand Signior, and was ready to obey all his Commands; and because the Sultan may probably have received sinister Reports rela­ting to the Arms he had taken up, he assured him, that they were no otherwise designed, than to suppress the Robberies of the Arabs, and the Incursions of their Kings; and that he was rea­dy to conduct his Army to any Place, where his Master the Grand Signior should think fit to em­ploy them. But these fair words could not di­vert the Captain-Pasha from his Resolution to enter the Port of Seida, nor from his Instructions of demanding, and upon refusal of forcing pos­session of the Castle; which as it was the most considerable Fortress, and the most pleasant Seat of all his Dominions, so he could not, without much regret and sorrow, hearken to such a Pro­position: wherefore that the Pasha might not persist in this Demand, he secretly proffered him an hundred thousand Zechins as a Bribe to him­self, and his Son Mansour to be carried for a Ho­stage and Earnest of his Faithfulness to the Grand Signior. The Captain-Pasha liked well the hun­dred thousand Zechins and the Hostages, but still required the Surrender of the Castle with them; on which whilst Facardin deliberated, News came of the Death of his Son Ali, and the De­struction of his Army, with which, losing all Cou­rage, he yielded his Castle of Seida to the Cap­tain-Pasha, retiring himself to his City of Ba­rut: nor could he rest quietly at that Place; for being pursued, he was forced to quit it, and re­tire with his Maronites and Druzes into the Mountains, lest being inclosed within the Walls of a City, he should fall alive into the Hands of his Enemies.

And now all good Fortune forsaking unhappy Facardin, the Maronites and Druzes his Subjects revolt to the Pasha of Damascus, his Palaces of Gardens of Pleasure were all ruined, his Friends forsook him, his two remaining Sons were lost, one carried to Constantinople for a Hostage, and the other slain in Fight; his Towns of Gazir, Saphet, St. John d' Acria, and others were sur­rendred to the Pasha of Damascus: only some few strong Places in the Mountains remained to him, where living in League with Reba a King of the Arabs, he committed all the Spoils he was able on the Lands belonging to the Pasha of Da­mascus. But being hunted from one Mountain to another, and from one Cave to another, he was at length forced to surrender upon Conditi­ons, that he should have liberty to proceed unto [Page 23]the Grand Signior with his own Equipage of three hundred Men, and Trumpets sounding, and that he might carry with him all his Trea­sure consisting of a Million of Zechins all in Gold, together with other Riches, which were carried by fourteen Camels; and that he should not be conducted as a Prisoner in Triumph, but that he should with freedom approach the Pre­sence of the Sultan, like other Pasha's, who are in Grace and Favour.

These Proposals being granted, Facardin with his two young Sons began his Journey to Con­stantinople, and being about two days journey from thence, he dispatched eight Chests of Gold before him, to prepare and make his way to the Grand Signior; who being pleased with the Gold, and greatly rejoyced to receive the Submission and Homage of one who had so long stood out in Rebellion, he went out in a Disguise and Habit of a Pasha to see and discourse with that Person, of whom there had been so general a Rumor: and having accordingly encountred with the E­mir, he sate down in his Tent with him, de­siring him to relate the Story of his Life, with the several Particulars of his late Misfortunes. Emir Facardin well knew the Person of the Grand Signior; but feigning as if he was unac­quainted with whom he discoursed, and that he took him for some Pasha, began to recount the Course of his Life, the Reasons why his Ene­mies falsely suggested evil Reports of him to the Grand Signior; how he was forced, for defence of his Life, to take up Arms, and what ill Suc­cess accompanied his Affairs; all which he repre­sented with such Quickness and Eloquence, that the Grand Signior pitying his Misfortunes, pro­mised to be his Advocate, and mediate with the Grand Signior in his behalf.

The day following Facardin made his Entry in a Triumphant manner, and received a most favourable Audience from the Grand Signior; and all the Pasha's and great Men in conformity to their Master, and in hopes of sharing some part of his Gold, shewed him a like kind favou­rable Countenance and Aspect.

But finding afterwards that Facardin increased daily in the esteem of the Grand Signior, and that the old Rebel was become a new Favourite, and that he was likely to over-top and out them, they generally conspired together, taking the Mufti on their side, to accuse him of many Crimes, and more particularly that he was a Christian, and an Apostate from the Mahome­tan Faith. This Point of Religion so sensibly touched the Grand Signior, that he resolved to condemn him in a manner Solemn and Extraor­dinary; for mounting one Day on his Throne, he commanded Facardin to be brought in, and placed on a low Chair; where ordering his Crimes whereof he was accused to be recited, he passed a formal Sentence of Death upon him: but Facardin arising to justifie himself, was not permitted to speak, only he obtained a quarter of an hours reprieve to make his Prayers, and af­terwards was strangled by the hands of two Mutes.

Morat growing now into Years, took into his own Hands the Reins of Government, re­solving to rule Singly and Absolutely, and to make himself rather Feared than Beloved: He degraded four Viziers at once, and banished them into Cyprus, confiscating their Estates, for no other Reason, than because they had denied him the use of their Mules and Camels on occa­sion of his Service.

He became extremely severe against the Soul­diery, crushing them with all imaginable Ri­gour on the least appearance of Reluctancy to his Commands; declaring,Morat ex­ercises seve­ral Acts of Tyranny. That he expected Blind and Silent Obedience from all, but especi­ally from his Souldiery.

He imposed a great Tax upon Copper; and because he had several Warthouses filled with that Mettal, which had for many Years lain by, he forced the People to buy it at his own Rates. At which Aggrievance the Commonalty grow­ing desperate, began to Mutiny and Rebel; but Morat put a speedy stop thereunto, by cutting off the Heads of fifty of the most Seditious, and so passed to Prusa, with the Attendance of six Gallies.

He caused a Kadi to be hanged, to the great Displeasure and universal Resentment of the Ulemah, who are Students in the Law; who to make known their Aggrievance, and Consult a a Remedy, assembled in great Numbers at the House of the Mufti.

The Queen-Mother being acquainted with this Meeting, and fearing the ill Consequences thereof, gave immediate Advice to the Sultan; who with like Expedition dispatched a Boat to bring over the Mufti and his Son to Prusa; who were no sooner arrived, than they were strang­led, not being permitted to speak for them­selves, or to alledge any Plea or Excuse for their Lives. This Act of Cruelty, beyond the Example of former Ages, and never practised by the most tyrannical of his Predecessors, struck a Terror on the whole Empire; for Men ob­serving the unjust Rigour which was executed on the Head and Chief of their Law, the Ora­cle and Mo [...]th which resolved their difficult Problems, and whom the World so reverenced and honoured, that few Examples have been of Capital Punishment executed on his reverend Head, feared, that Innocence was not sufficient to secure their own less considerable Estates from his Fury and Violence.

There is a particular Death allotted for Muf­ties which is, by braying them in a Mortar, which is kept in the seven Towers at Constantinople, and there shewed to Strangers; which Instrument hath been seldom made use of.

Morat being greatly addicted to Wine,Morat de­stroys the Taverns. was sensible of the ill Effects of it in himself, and that the heat of debauchery inclined him to Vio­lence and Cruelty, and from hence collecting how dangerous this Humour of Drunkenness was in his People, especially in his Souldiery, for that much of the late Seditions might be attribu­ted thereunto, he published a most severe Edict against Wine, commanding all Taverns to be demolished, the Butts to be broken, and the Wine spilt. It was the common Custom of the Grand Signior to walk the Streets in disguise; when meeting with any drunken Person, he would imprison him, and almost drub him to Death. It was his fortune to meet a Deaf Man one day in the Streets; who not hearing the Noise of the People, nor the Rumor of his Ap­proach, did not so readily shift out of the way, as was consistent with the fear and dread of so aw­ful an Emperor, for which default he was strang­led immediately, and his Body thrown into the Streets.

All People feared and trembled at these Pra­ctices, and were as careful to look out abroad for the Grand Signior, lest they should be surprised with the bluster of his presence, as Mariners are of being taken unprovided by some sudden Gust or Hurricane; for there was scarce a Day, that one Innocent or other was not sacrificed to his Fury and tyrannical Fancy.

One Thomas Zanetti, a Venetian Merchant, who had built a lofty Jardac, or a high Room of Prospective on the top of his House, was accused to the Grand Signior to have designed that Place for no other end, than that he might with a long Glass oversee the Chambers of the Ladies, and the Gardens,Hangs a Venetian Merchant. and Walks of the Seraglio: For which Reason, without farther inquiry, he was hanged in his Shirt on the top of his Jar­dac, with a red Streamer in his Hand, that so the Grand Signior might be sure that the Sen­tence was executed. The Estate of Zanetti, whe­ther belonging to himself or Principals, was con­fiscated; but in regard the Goods, for security, were privately conveyed to the Ware-houses of several Frank Merchants, strict search was made for them; but in regard the Marks and Num­bers were altered, they could not be distinguish­ed: wherefore the Graud Signior concluding, that all the Frank Merchants had combined to­gether to deceive him, he Imprisoned every Man of them; nor would he release them, until they had paid forty thousand Dollars for their Ran­som and Liberty.

After which, upon pretence of a Plot, or A­greement of the Franks to defend themselves from the leviation of this Tax, the Turks searched their Houses for Arms; in taking of which they were so rigorous, that they spared not so much as a Birding-piece; nor yet the Sword of Sir Peter Wych, then Ambassador for England, though he alledged, that it was the ve­ry Sword with which his Majesty and conferred the Honour of Knighthood upon him.

But from these Transactions at Home, let us pass to the Wars in Poland and Persia. That In­vincible Princes, Ʋladislaus King of Poland, had gained such good Success against the Czar of Muscovy, that the Czar was forced to demand Assistance from the Turks. The Grand Signior, though he had lately made a Peace with Poland, and sworn to maintain the Articles of Chocin, concluded by his Predecessor Sultan Osman; yet the continual Depredations which the Cossacks made, did always administer reasonable Preten­ces for a War: To which Abassa, one of his chief Counsellors, a valiant and presumptuous Captain, did much incite him; for promising to himself the Conduct of that Army designed a­gainst Poland, did much flatter the Sultan and himself with the Fancy of mighty Success.

The War being thus resolved upon,The Turks make War on the Poles. the Turk, who commonly strikes before he Quarrels, gave Orders to Abassa to make Levies of Men in Mol­davia and Valachia; and to put the Tartars in Arms, and the Militia of Buda, and of the Parts along the Danube into a warlike Posture, and with all Expedition to enter Poland.

Abassa who had with wonderful diligence put his Troops in readiness, ordered the Tartars, with a Body of fifteen thousand Men to enter Po­land; which they performed with such celerity, that passing the River of Tyre above Chocin and Rinczug, they in a few hours laid waste for the space of ten Leagues round Kemenitz, and so retired with their Booty into Moldavia: how­soever their haste was not attended with such good speed, but that they were overtaken on the 4th of July by Stanislaus Konispolzki, General of the Polish Army, with no greater Force than two thousand five hundred Horse; howsoever surprising them whilst they were feeding their Horses, he put them into such Confusion and Disorder, that he easily recovered all their Boo­ty, and took five of their chief Men Prisoners; of which the Son-in-Law of the Cantemir was one. But this was a faint Refreshment in respect to that terrible Storm of sixty thousand Men, composed of Turks, Tartars, Moldavians and Valachians; which under the Command of A­bassa had already passed the Danube.

Konispolzki the Polish General, having not suf­ficient Force to oppose them in open Field, nor time to assemble a greater Army, gathered what Supplies he could from the Cossacks and Lords of that Country, and therewith encamped him­self upon a Hill between the River Tyr and the Town of Chocin, that he might be the better able to succour Kemenitz, which the Enemy de­signed to assault.

Abassa who contemned this weak Force of the Poles, resolved, without farther consideration,A Fight between the Turks and the Poles. to attack them in their own Camp, and force them to fight; of which the Poles being well advised, placed several Pieces of Artillery, and lined all the Hedges and Ditches with Musque­tiers, where the Turks were necessarily to pass, drawing out their whole Army into Batalia; the Turks who hastened the nearest way to charge the Enemy, fell into the Ambush, where having lost about five hundred Men, they began to make a stand, and to consider of some more advantageous way to their Design. Wherefore Abassa taking another Course, which he judged to be free from all concealed Dangers, ordered the Tartars to charge the Right Wing, and the Moldavians and Valachians the left of the Ene­my, and he with his Turks would fight the main Body. The Tartars with great Resolution per­formed their part, and had wholly defeated that Wing, had not Wisnovitzki, with some Troops and a Train of small Artillery, come in seasonably to their Succour: The Moldavians and Valachians fought to faintly against the Enemy, whom they considered to be Christians, Brothers, and Neighbours, that they soon turned their Backs and fled, but were not far pursued by the Poles.

Abassa receiving this Repulse, sounded a Re­treat, and immediately repassed the River Tyr, and marched with all the haste he was able, stop­ping no where, until he arrived at Rinzur, about thirty English miles from the place of the Fight; and arriving at length on the Banks of the Da­nube, he gave License to his Souldiers to disperse into their Winter-Quarters; in the mean time Abassa dispatched Advice to the Grand Signior of the Particulars of the Fight, and of his great Victory, by an entire defeat of the Polish Army. The Grand Signior believed the Report, which none durst to contradict, and which was con­firmed by the Rumour of an Ambassador com­ing from Poland. An Ambas­sador sent to the G. Signior srom Po­land. For the Poles being at that time engaged in a War with Muscovy, and ap­prehensive of another with Sweden, judged it not seasonable to provoke the Turk, but rather, by way of Accommodation, dispatched an Ambas­sador with a Train of three hundred Men, to make Complaints against the late Acts of Ho­stility committed by Abassa, as if he had moved his Arms without the Orders or Knowledg of the Sultan.

About that time that the Ambassador ap­proached near to Constantinople, the Grand Sig­nior had another Son born, but of a weakly and sickly Temperament, howsoever great Joy was expressed, and all the City was enlightned with Torches, Bonefires, and Fire-works; and that the Grand-Signior might evidence his Greatness and Magnificence to the Ambassador, he took this Occasion of the Birth of a Son, to make a solemn Entrance into the City, and to make [Page 25]the greater Show, he armed all the Citizens and Inhabitans.

Before the Grand Signior would grant Au­dience to the Ambassador, he ordered that Abassa should treat with him, and understand his Busi­ness and Desires. Abassa carried himself high in the Negotiation, he pretended the Damages and Charges of the War, the Demolishment of certain Palancas, which were the Places of Re­fuge for the Cossacks; and the Tribute of ten Years past, with Security of paiment for the Time to come. The Ambassador positively re­fused to hearken unto any Terms about Tribute; and that for other Matters, the Presents which he had brought to the Grand Signior, would reasonably answer.

His Presents were,

  • A Coach lined with Velvet, with six very fine Horses.
  • A Bason, and Candlesticks of Silver richly gilt.
  • Four Clocks, ten Vests of Sables, six Qui­vers of Arrows, with some Hunting-Dogs.

Being at length admitted to Audience, and thereunto conducted by the Aga of the Spahees, and the Chaous Bashee: The Grand Signior asked the Ambassador, which was not usual, For what Reason he was come thither?

To which he answered; That he was come to bring his Majesty Advice of the Coronation of his King; and to establish a Peace, is his Majesty should judg fit to accept thereof.

To which the Sultan replied; That all Chri­stian Kings ought either to receive the Ottoman Laws, or pay him Tribute, or try the sharpness of his Sword. And taking a Cemiter in his hand which hung by him, he drew it half out, and said; With this I will subdue my Enemies; and though take another in Poland.

To which the Ambassador returning a modest Answer, was dismissed of the Royal Presence.

And now the Grand Signior, to put a good face on the Business, and to make the World be­lieve, that he designed what he spake, he pro­claimed a War with Poland, and ordered his Tents to be carried abroad, supposing hereby to draw the Poles to his own Terms of Agreement. And in pursuance hereof he mounted on Horse­back, and rode in state through the City, his upper Vest was made after the Hungarian Fashi­on lined with Sables; in his right hand he car­ried a Quiver of Arrows, in his left two drawn Swords, on his Turbant he wore a large Plume of Feathers, encompassed with a Circle of Dia­monds; and in this manner entring his Tents, he proceeded to Adrianople. But before his de­parture, the Count Puchen, Ambassador from the Emperor, arrived with other sumptuous Pre­sents, offering Incense and Gifts of Peace at the Throne of this Greatness.

But before we relate the Transactions at Adrianople, and the Success of Affairs at that Place, let us recount several dismal Accidents at Constantinople.

The Grand Signior returning by Sea from a place called Stravosta in the Bay of Ismit, an­ciently the Bay of Nicomedia, where he had for some time held his Court and great Divan, he was followed by several Vessels appointed to transport the People;The several Mischiefs by Water and Fire. in one whereof were nine­ty five Persons embarked, all of them Pasha's, Aga's, and chief Officers of the Court; the Vessel was over-set by a sudden gust of Wind, and all the People drowned excepting three Sea-men which saved themselves by swimming. More considerable were the Mischiefs by Fire; For on occasion of some Fire-works made in one of the Grand Siguior's Chiosks, or Houses of Pleasure, the Fire took so fiercely on the Tavan,A terrible Fire at Constan­tinople. or wooden Works of the Sieling, that it endan­gered the whole Palace, and had consumed all, but that many Hands and active Men gave a stop to the farther Progress.

This Fire was but a fore-ruuner of a greater, which began the 16th of September in that part of the City of Constantinople, which is called Aia­cab, being between the Wall and the Port, where live Taverners, Butchers, Fishmongers, and others who sell Provisions. The Fire took first in one of those Houses which had been a Ta­vern, and are Buildings only made of Deal­boards and Timber; which combustible Matter the Houses round, and was so quick in its Mo­tion, as if it had taken by a Train, or that some wicked People with Fire-balls had em­ployed themselves in the Mischief; the Fire took its Course against the Wind, burning on one side and the other to the Historical Pillar, and to the Moschs of Sultan Mahomet, and Sultan Selim; so that in a short time one third of the City was reduced to Ashes.

It is difficult to express the lamentable De­struction was made hereby, what Riches, what Palaces, and Moveables were consumed in it, there being twenty thousand Houses reported to be burnt; which Misery is best represented by the remembrance of our calamitous Incendiation at London; the greatest difference between one and the other was, that that at Constantinople was more quick in its Motion; for it burnt a larger compass of Ground in one third of the Time, than ours did at London; for that City for the most part consisting of slight Buildings of Wood, met not the resistance which ours some­times did against the Walls of Brick and Stones.

The Fire being extinguished, and Men having time to lament and think, bagan to impute the Cause and Fault to those whom they most su­spected; sometimes they accused the Persians for having fired the City, for which Crime one of them the next Year suffered Death. Some at­tributed the Cause of all to the Janisaries; and that they, out of hatred to the Inhabitants, or for the sake of Plunder, if they did not begin, yet at least increased the Fire; which they the more suspected, because the Janisaries refused not only to work themselves, alledging, that they expected Orders from their Aga, but like­wise hindered and discouraged others. Howso­ever the Grand Signior not wanting on his own part to contribute all Assistance possible, sent four thousand Men out of his Seraglio to work about the Fire, not excusing the very Officers of his Royal Chamber from contributing their Authori­ty and personal Aid; some of which ventured far into the Fire, to demonstrate their Courage, Activeness, and Obedience to the Commands of their Emperor: but all this was too little against an obstinate and an invincible Enemy, for the Fire flamed, and proceeded, until it wanted Nourishment and Food to consume.

In fine, twenty thousand Houses were burnt, two hundred Moschs, and the Library of the Mufti, which for the Number of the Arabick and Persian Books, was curious, and of high esteem. The Albengs, or Habitation of the [Page 26]Janisaries containing three hundred Chambers, of which each Chamber was capable to receive four hundred Men, were all burnt and reduced to Ashes.

The which fatal and miserable Spectacle, did a little touch the Heart of Sultan Morat; so that he gave out considerable Sums to comfort the Distressed, who had most suffered by this Cala­mity, and to raise from its Ashes his consumed and languishing Constantinople; which being re­vived and flourishing, was again miserably con­sumed by Flames, in the Month of April 1660. But such is the beneficial and commodious situa­tion of that Place, and the Riches thereof by Trade, and the Presence of the Ottoman Court, that the Inhabitants again rebuilt it in fewer Years than could be imagined.

But now to return to the Grand Signior at Adrianople, we find him resolutely designed to make a War upon Poland, to whcih he was in­duced by the Perswasions of Abassa, Reasons for a War with Poland. and the present conjuncture of Advantage to join with the Moscovite, it seeming great Policy not to suffer the Countries of Moscovy to be over-run; or the Poles, who is a warlike and dangerous Nation, to grow Puissant and Powerful by his Success and Conquest over his Neighbours: Wherefore Preparations were made on all sides for the War; great Quantities of Provisions and Ammunition were sent into Moldavia by way of the Black Sea and the Danube.

The Tartar Han sent word that all his Forces were in readiness, and expected nothing but their Orders to march. The Beglerbey of Greece made his Rendezvous at Philippolis with an Army of thirty thousand Men, where he attend­ed to join with the Forces of Bosna, Silistria, and other parts of Europe. Moldavia and Walachia made an appearance of Levying Men, and join­ing with the Turk; but thier Hearts were to­wards the Poles, with whom they kept a sceret correspondence, and would be ready to adhere on the least on the least Opportunity.

In short, the Army of the Turks was so great, and all his Affairs in that readiness, that he scorned to incline an Ear to Propositions of Peace; in which Opinion Abassa humoured and perswaded him, that the Poles were so fearful of his Forces, that they had already yielded to Terms of compounding for a yearly Tribute. All which proved false; for in the mean time Ʋladislaus King of Poland, remitting nothing of the Heat and Vigour of his War against the Moscovites, he was so succesful therein, that he foced an Army of eighty thousand Men, which he had besieged in their Camp,The Victory which the Poles ob­tained over the Mosco­vites. to lay down their Arms, and surrender themselves; which was an Action scarce to be credited, at least to be parallel'd in any History; and with this Con­quest he might have proceeded to the Capital City of Mosco, and concluded the War and that Empire: But God's Provdence, which governs all things, altered this Counsel, and diverted those victorious Arms to the Siege of Bial; which Town being well fortified and garisoned, with­stood many Assaults of the Enemy, and blunted the Spirits and Swords of the Conqueror; for losing much time in this Siege, other Towns made use of the Opportunity to provide and fortify themselves; whilst the Poles growing weary, and wanting Pay, raised divers Mutinies and Seditions in the Camp. These Difficulties and Inconveniences inclined the King Ʋladislaus to bend a favourable Ear to the many Supplications and Instances which the Moscovites made for Peace: So that the Plenipotentiaries being as­sembled, it was agreed, that the Dutchy of Smolesco and Czernieschou, which two hundred Years past had been taken from Poland and Litua­nia, They make a Peace. with many other Towns and Countries, to the extent of two hundred Leagues, should be restored to the Kingdom of Poland.

The News of this sudden Peace coming unex­pectedly to Sultan Morat, caused his Bravadoes against Poland to cease, and to turn the stile of his Fury and Indignation against the Moscovites, whom he vilified with all imaginable Terms of Persidiousness and Cowardise, and abused and imprisoned their Ambassadors. He considered that he had provoked an Enemy who was Victo­rious, Valiant, and Powerful, and one who at any time was able to contend with his united Force, much more whilst it was separated and disjoined by his War in Persia: wherefore in all haste he dispatched an Ambassador into Poland, The Turk sends an Ambassador into Poland to desire a Peace. called Shahin Aga, desiring to renew the ancient League and Articles of Peace. This Ambassa­dor found the King at the Diet in Wasaw, where he publickly endeavoured to excuse his Master for the late Acts of Hostility; assuring them, that they were not performed according to his Master's Desires, and Original Intentions, but as they were moved and guided by the evil Sug­gestions and Artifices of Abassa, who being sole­ly culpable of this Fault, by giving ill Counsels to his Master, he assured them, in the Name of the Sultan, that he should receive such Punish­ment as they should think fit to inflict upon him. Hereupon the King Ʋladislaus gave this Answer, That since the Grand Signior could so easily in­fringe the Articles of that Peace which had been solemnly and sacredly established, it was now his Part, and the Wisdom of that grave Assem­bly, to contrive such Conditions and Bonds wherewith to oblige his Master, as could not ea­sily and at his Pleasure be broken or avoided. And at the same time the Polish Ambassador be­ing returned from Constantinople, and discoursing in the Diet of the Pride and Perfidiousness of the Turks, and the Scorn wherewith they recei­ved Christian Ambassadors, so incensed the Spi­rit of the whole Assembly, that with a genersl Consent they approved the words of the King, adding, That they would, no longer be subject to the Insults and Falsities of that Tyrant, whom they would make to know, that they wore as well Offensive as Defensive Arms; and were not of that abject Spirit, or mean Condition, to permit the Sultan to violate the most Sacred Articles of Peace, and then at his pleasure to salve them with a fawning Acknowledgment, or a flattering Speech. In this manner the Turkish Ambassador was returned, whilst the King Ʋla­dislaus went into Podolia to take a view of his Armies; which he found to consist of eighty thousand fighting Men, all well accoutred, of good Courage, and ready to follow their King to the Walls of Constaninople.

The fear of the Motion of this great Army, in a Conjuncture when the Wars broken out a­gain in Persia were not prosperous, affected the Mind of Morat which much terror; so that he became very sollicitous to find out, and make some substantial Proposition in order to an Ac­commodation. One of the Viziers called Mor­teza, was very active in this Business, plying con­tinually the General Konispolzki with Letters, Offers, and Expedients for a Peace: To facili­tate which, and shew that the Grand Signior did heartily relent,Abassa strangled. Abassa was strangled by two Kapugees, and given for a Sacrifice to appease the Anger of his Enemies; a Person who was a [Page 27]stout Souldier, and one who had performed great and signal Services in the War of Persia.

But the Poles not being pacified with this single Act of Penitence, but thirsting farther after the Blood of the Turks, desired to Spoil and Pil­lage their Richer Provinces. Howsoever at length the Council of Poland entring into more serious Debates, considered, that the Troops lately come from Muscovy, were but in a bad condition; that the part of their Army, which consisted of Voluntiers, would not endure a long and tediuos War; and that the Expence and Charge of this great Army was immense and almost insupportable: for which Reasons it was resolved, that a Peace should be made, which was soon afterwards concluded, and agreed on these following Articles.

That the Vaywods of Moldavia and Walachia, Articles of Peace a­greed be­tween the Poles and the Turks. should be confirmed by the Grand Signior, with the Consent and Recommendation of the King of Poland.

That Cantemir and his Tartars should aban­don the Country of Buckzac; and in case of re­fusal, that then the Turk and Tartar Cham should join their Forces to expel them from thence.

That the Poles shall suppress all Acts of Ho­stility of the Cossacks in the Black Sea.

That the Turks renounce for ever all Demands, or future pretence of Tribute from Poland: and that they shall build no new Forts on the Fron­tiers.

That the Navigation on the River Nieper shall remain free and undisturbed to the Poles. That all other Articles shall remain as formerly in their ture Force and Virtue.

In this Year happened out great Differences between the French Ambassador and the Turkish Officers.A Diffe­rence be­tween the French Am­bassador & the Captain Pasha. The first Disgust had its Original from the Year 1631, when the Marquess of Marcheville going Ambassador to Constantinople, was in his Voyage met off of Scio by the Cap­tain-Pasha and his Fleet of Gallies, who imme­diately sent off a Boat to advise him, that he should strike his Flag, and make ready the Pre­sents which were due to the Grand Signior's Admiral. Marcheville duly considering, that this Submission would blemish the Honour of his Master, and the Dignity of his Character, re­fused Compliance either in one or the other; howsoever that he might testify the Friendship and good Correspondence which he came to confirm between the two Kings, he stood off at some distance, and fired five Guns to salute the Grand Signior's Standard: But the Captain-Pasha not contenting himself herewith, required the Ambassador to come aboard and speak with him; which after divers Messages from one Ves­sel to another, the Ambassador was counselled to perform, not knowing how far otherwise he might engage the Honour of his Master. Mar­cheville being arrived at Constantinople, did great­ly complain of the Affront and Violence he re­ceived from the Captain-Pasha; which though the Grand Signior and other Ministers seemed not to approve, yet the Ambassadour received little other satisfaction than fair Words and pro­mises, that his Honour should be again repai­red.

At the Arrival of the Sieur Marcheville, the Count Cesi, who was the former Ambassador, was to return into France; but the Debts which he had contracted by a certain way of living, were so great, that the Creditors would not suffer him to depart without paiment; for De­fault of which, he endured many Affronts of­fered to his own Person, and was detained at Constantinople until this Year 1634; during which time the Marques, Marcheville managed all the Affairs of the Embassy; who keeping still in mind the Affront offered him before Scio, watched all Opportunities to disparage the Actions and Person of the Captain-Pasha; who at length re­turning from the Black Sea, where he had some Success against the Cossacks, was graciously re­ceived by the Grand Signior; and being adver­tised, how, during his absence, the French Am­bassador had endeavoured to blast his Reputati­on by many Instances of Diminution, which he often inculcated by his Druggerman, took Ad­vantage of the Grand Signior's good Humor, to vent before him the resentment which he con­ceived thereof: The Grand Signior, to gratify the Pasha, promised to hang the Druggerman; which the Pasha acknowledged as a singular Fa­vour, and returned from the Presence of the Sultan full of Joy and Contentment. But better to cover his Malice, and to ensnare the Poor Wretch, he sent a Messenger to the Ambassador, assuring him that he desired his Friendship; and that there might be a right understanding be­tween them, he perswaded him to send his Druggerman to him, that by his Mouth he might signify the esteem he had for the Ambassador, from whose Spirits he was willing to take off all Jealousies and Umbrages of Discontent.

The Ambassador not suspecting the perfidi­ousness of the Pasha,The French Drugger­man hanged sent his Druggerman to him; hwo being come within his Power, was im­mediately hanged by the Grand Signior's express Command, and ordered that he should remain on the Gallows with his Velvet Cap on his Head, which in this Sultan's Reign all Druggermen wore to distinguish them from others.

The Ambassador complained greatly of this Affront, nad Violation of Articles, to the Chi­macam and other Officers, but could receive no other Answer or Satisfaction, than that the Grand Signior might execute Justice as he plea­sed on his Subjects, without asking leave, or concerning the King of France or his Ambassador in the Matter.

But Marcheville not resting satisfied with this Reply, still prosecuted his Pique and Animosity to such a height, that the Captain-Pasha farther incensed thereat, obtained Authority form the Grand Signior to dispatch him away: so that sending one day for Marcheville, and first re­proaching his Contrivances and Designs against him, told him plainly, that it was the Grand Signior's Pleasure that he should depart at that instant; to which he constrained the Ambassador so precipitately, that he would not give him time to advertise his Servants,The Sieur Marche­ville forci­bly sent a­way. or make up his Baggage, but forced him aboard a French Ship then in Port, which he immediatly compelled to sail; and the Wind being contrary, caused the Vessel to be toaed abroad by two Gallies into the open Sea of the Propontis.

After the injurious departure of this Ambas­sador, the Count Cesi, who had been detained at Constantinople, for the Reasons before denoted, took again upon him the Function of Ambassador. To execute which, in better advantage of Trade and Commerce, he was advised to a compliance with the Captain-Pasha, and to use such Means as might mitigate that Acrimony of Spirit which this Pasha nourished against the French Nation.

These Disputes between the French and the Turkish Officers, revived certain Disgusts and Aversion against all the Frank Nations, which favoured the Latine Rites; so that in despight [Page 28]to them, the Grand Signior restored again Cy­rillus the Patriarch to the Patriarchal Jurisdicti­on, who had long been persecuted by the Jesu­its, and by their Means been deposed, promi­sing that for the future he should continue undi­sturbed, in opposition to all those of the Roman Religion.

The Peace (as we have said) being conclu­ded with Poland, the Grand Signior was more at Ieisure to attend the Wars in Persia; with the Labours and Toils of which the Janisaries being wearied, began new Troubles and Seditions in the Camp; the which Disorder Morat attribu­ting to the negligence or cowardise of the Offi­cers, as wanting Courage to suppress them, sum­moned the Janisar-Aga to appear before him,Acts of Cruelty. and without long Process or Excuse cut off his Head, and confiscated his Estate to the Exche­quer, which amounted to a Million and seventy thousand Dollars: another Janisary also, more rich than seditious, was in like manner sacri­ficed, and an hundred and sixty thousand Dollars of his Estate added to the Treasury of the Sul­tan. The Pasha also of Damascus, with several other Officers of the Army enriched with Spoils of the People, fell a Sacrifice to Morat's Avarice and Cruelty; to whom Riches and Blood were so pleasing, that none acquired a higher degree of Grace in his Favour, than those who could give him notice of opulent Men, who having found Riches, he undertook to find them Guilty, and to prove their Wealth so corrupted by ex­tortion and violence, that nothing could hallow or purifie it but his Coffers.

The next News from Persia brought advice, that that King at the Head of a powerful Army was encamped in the Country about Van, with which the Turks not having sufficient Force to fight, the Vizier wrote to the Grand Signior, that his Presence was necessary to increase the Army, and encourage the Souldiery; whereupon he resolved to leave Adrianople, and transfer his Court to his Seraglio at Scutari, The G. Sig­nior returns to Scutari. that so remain­ing on the Banks of Asia, he might be nearer to his Business, both to receive Intelligence, and ad­minister Supplies; and because Seditions and Discontents in the People do always obstruct the Motion of Publick-Affairs, he not only ruined the Taverns and Tabacco-shops, but forbid Coffee­houses, and other idle Places of Concourse; nay to Barbers Shops no more than one was suf­fered to enter at a time; for those being places of resort, Treason was frequently vented there, Men of that Profession being notorious through the World for their Talk and Intemperance of Language: And farther, to restrain Meetings and secret Conventions, strict Orders were gi­ven, that after an hour and half in the Night, all Fires and Candles in the City should be ex­tinguished, which was the general Discontent of all People.

But what shewed much of the fierce Spirit of the Sultan, was a certain Fury which he concei­ved on this occasion. On a certain day, riding on his Horse, thirty Indian Pilgrims met him in the way to demand his Charity, and being in a dif­ferent habit to what the Turks wear, and not accustomary in that Country, the Grand Signi­or's Horse started at the sight of them; and be­ing spurred for bogling in that manner, the Horse capred and reared an end, so that he threw his Rider; at which the Grand Signior being high­ly enraged, drew out his Cemiter, and with his own hand killed his Horse, and instead of Alms, prepared a place of Entertainment in the Gallies for those unhappy Indians.

The Grand Signior being returned to his Pa­lace at Scutari, which is seated on the Asian side opposite to Constantinople, The G. Sig­nior resolves to go to Persia in Person. applied his whole Mind entirely to the Affairs in Persia; and being resol­ved to march thither in Person, he put abroad the Horse-tail, which is a signal of departure, he visited the Sepulchres of his Ancestors, made his Corban, which is a distribution of Flesh to the Poor, for a Blessing on his Enterprise. The Officers of the Army contended to out-vy each the other in their Presents to the Grand Signior, some furnished him with Royal Tents, others with curious and light Arms; and others with Horses and Furnitures of value. Great Sums of Mony were extracted out of the Exchequer for Military Preparations and Paiments of the Soul­diery. The Charge of Affairs, in absence of the Grand Signior, was committed to the Bo­stangi-bashee, who was made Chimacam of Con­stantinople; and so with a fierce Spirit, and aspect full of Indignation and Anger, he mounted his Horse at the Head of an Army of an hundred thousand; he departed from Constantinople about the end of April.

But before we recount the particulars of what succeeded in Persia, it is requisite to cast our Thoughts back to the Troubles of Transylvania, occasioned by the competition of Stephen Bethlem and George Ragotski, for that Principality.

Bethlem (as we have said before) being grie­ved and discontented at his hard Fortune in being put by the Government,Bethlem renews his Complaints to the Grand Signior. and resenting the Pu­nishment which Ragotski inflicted on his Son for the Crime of Manslaughter, he went to Buda, and there renewing his old Complaints to the Pasha, he was, with Recommendations from him, accompanied to the Port; where being introdu­ced to the Presence of the chief Ministers, he at large declared the Merits and good Services of his Family towards the Sultan:His Reasons to be re-in­stated. ‘That for this Reason only, in dishonour and despight to the Ottoman Empire, he was excluded from the Government, and therefore challenged its Assi­stance to re-establish him therein; in considera­tion of which, he promised the same Faithful­ness and Devotion to the Sultan, which was professed and maintained by his Ancestors, and was natural to the Family of Gabor. That as to Ragotski it was apparent, that he entertained different Principles; that he was a Person of elated Thoughts, and a Turbulent Spirit, and was ever united in Combination with the Em­peror, Germans, and other Enemies to the Ot­toman State.’

The Turks moved with these Reasons, resol­ved to favour Stephen, and to discountenance Ra­gotski; and though the Conjuncture of Affairs was such, as that any other Engagement in War, besides that of Persia, did not square with the present Designs; yet at all times it was judged convenient to sow the Tares of Discord, and promote Differences amongst Christians, which have ever produced Advantages to the Mahome­tan Cause. And likewise the Pasha of Buda was commanded to enter Transylvania with a Force sufficient to contend with Ragotski; and lest the Emperor should be allarm'd with this Commoti­on, a Chiaus was dispatched to give him a per­fect understanding of the Reasons, why an Army marched into Transylvania; The Turks send an Ar­my into Transyl­vania. the Design of which was not intended in the least manner to impeach the Articles of Peace between him and the Grand Signior, but only to displace a Man of a furious and turbulent Spirit, and to ordain another in his stead of a more lober and quiet Temper, by whose Moderation and Prudence, the Peace be­tween [Page 29]the two Empires may be improved and continued.

Ragotski startled at this Design intended against him,Ragotski implores Aid from the Empe­ror. assembled the States of his Country, to de­termine and consult concerning a Remedy, and immediately dispatched a Messenger to the Em­peror, to desire and implore his Imperial Suc­cour and Protection: and though Ragotski was sensible of the disparity of his Strength, in com­parison of that of the Turks; yet neither did his Counsels nor Behaviour betray Fear or want of Constancy.

The Hungarians seconded those Instances which Ragotski had made at the Imperial Court, and the Party which he had made at Vienna brought the matter to a debate in Council, which was argued on both sides with solid and convin­cing Reasons. Those who spake in disfavour of Ragotski, alledged, That all Assistance contribu­ted to him would be a just Cause and Pretence to the Grand Signior to make War with the Em­peror. That Ragotski himself was of an unquiet Temper,It is deba­ted in Council. not unlike to Gabor his Predecessor, who had often bid Defiance to the Emperor, and over-running all Hungary and Austria, had often erected his Standard in the sight of Vienna. To protect and cherish a Person of this Disposition, was no other than to nourish a Serpent or Viper in their Bosom; who being elevated at the ex­pence of the Empire in successes against the Turk, would convert that Power which he had gained to the damage of the House of Austria, combi­ning with the Faction of other Princes to procure its destruction. Let us therefore, said they, stand at a gaze, and as Men on the Shore, or in a good Port, behold the agitation of Ships in the Ocean; perhaps the change of a Prince in Tran­sylvania may turn to our Benefit, and one may succeed into the place, of such a mild Temper and serene Disposition, as may better agree with the Maxims of this Court, and may cultivate that Peace which can only render these Countries hap­py.

Howsoever there were other Opinions to the contrary, amongst which it is said, that D. An­nibal Gonzaga, a Person acquainted with the State of Transylvania, and of the Turks, and Director of the Imperial Army, delivered himself in this manner.

May it please Your Sacred Imperial Majesty.

IF Ragotski had been the Lawful Son and Hereditary Successor of Gabor, who was an Enemy to your Majesty, we might then appre­hend the evil Consequences of a Son, that tra­ces the same Path and Footsteps of his Father. But here is another Person, another Prince, in Emulation different, and by Enmity hating the House of Gabor; wherefore I cannot imagine how this Prince can possibly entertain Maxims of like Nature with the other. For my part I believe, that it behoves your Majesty to main­tain a good Correspondence with the Princes of Transylvania, by a close Ʋnion against the Turk; your adjoining Countries being like con­tiguous Buildings, which are strengthned by a mutual Support: Let us therefore support it; for if it depends not on us, it will be over­run, and remain oppressed without us. To ag­gravate the Faults of Gabor to the disparage­ment of Ragotski, is no Logical Consequence, unless you will argue, That the Faults of the Guilty are to be punished on the Innocent. Let us therefore consider, which agrees best with the Security of the Empire; that Tran­sylvania should remain in the Hands of Ra­gotski, or of the Turk; or that we had bet­ter strike against the Rock of Jealousie, which we conceive against this Transylvanian, or on that ruinous Rock of the Turkish Power. The Ottoman Councils commonly look asquint, they cast their Eye on the Prince, when their sight aims at the Principality; and threaten the Per­son, when they design to vent their Fury to the subjection of his Country. The true Intent of the Turk is to reduce Transylvania to the same Condition with Moldavia and Walachia, and to incorporate this, with infinite other Provin­ces, into the gross Body of his Empire. It is notorious to all the World, that the Empe­rors, your Predecessors, have lost a large Tract of Land by the Turks; and your Losses will every day be greater, as their Conquests in­crease: And when their Dominions in Europe are so enlarged, that they are able to quarter their Asiatick Cavalry in these Countries, your Dangers must necessarily be inevitable and full of Terror. For I compute, that when the Turk designs to make War upon us, he mar­ches with an hundred thousand Men, and per­haps ten thousand Camels, besides other Beasts of Burden: so numerous a Body as this can­not be maintained until the Grass be fully grown, which is not until the middle or end of June; and from that time they have more than a month or six weeks March before they arrive upon our Confines; the which consump­tion of Time, prolongs their Enterprises, and protracts the time of our Damages. But if once they become Masters of Transylvania, and that that Country be laid to Moldavia, Walachia, and other parts of Hungary, they may then commodiously winter amongst us, and begin their Wars and Attempts upon us early in the Year, and pursue them until the last season of the Autumn: and in this man­ner, whilst we are debating and taking our Measures in our Diet, they will fatten them­selves, and satiate their Appetites with our Spoils. It is good therefore for us to defend Austria in Transylvania, keeping the Fever as far from the Heart as we are able. Let us suppose, that Ragotski is the most ungrateful Man in the World; and that after we have supported and succoured him, that he will re­verse his Arms upon us: Howsoever he is not so strong and considerable as to do us much hurt, and therefore it were better to have him our Neighbour and our Enemy, than the Turk, though our Friend; the first can only admini­ster some little cause of Jealousie, but the other may destroy and supplant us; the first is but like a putrid Fever, which is cured with every small Evacuation; but the latter is a Pesti­lence, which dilates and diffuses it self, and is deadly and irrecoverable. Let not the Scruple neither of breaking with the Turk trouble us; [Page 30]for we may administer Assistance under-hand, and without noise effect our Business, without arriving at the extremity of a Rupture. It is folly and weakness in us to be charmed by the Flatteries of the Turks, and the fair words of this Chaous; or to imagine, that when they have over-run all Transylvania, they will stop in the midst of their Career, before they ar­rive at the Gates of Vienna; no, their In­tentions are to lull us asleep, and to destroy our Neighbour first, and then us; they cannot devour us both at once, but husband their Diet, and reserve us for another Meal. The Turk is like a Serpent, who lies quiet and coiled up all the Winter; not because he wants either a Sting or Poison, but being benummed with cold, wants warmth and heat to give it Motion and Operation. This is my Sense and Opinion, which I most humbly tender before the greater Wisdom of Your Sacred Majesty.

Notwithstanding these convining Arguments,The Empe­ror refuses Succour to Ragotski. the Result of the Council determined otherwise, and Ragotski was left to shift for himself, and to stand upon his own Legs; which was a perni­cious Resolution, and that which was afterwards the cause of the subjection of Transylvania to the Turk, and the Original of many Mischiefs to the Empire; but thus was the Fortune of the Turks, more favourable to them than [...]o the Christian State.

Ragotski being thus abandoned by the Impe­rialists, and exposed to the Mercy of an insatia­ble Enemy, though his Courage was good and resolute, yet he began to despond of his Force, unable to deal with such an unequal Match as that of the Turks; And his Subjects being fear­ful of the Event, perswaded him to give way, and resign his Rule to the hands of Gabor his Competitor; Ragotski, that he might not seem to neglect the Counsel of his Subjects and Friends, and to gain Time, pretended to hear­ken to their Advice;Ragotski obtains Suc­cours under­hand. and accordingly entred in­to a Treaty with Gabor. During which Debate he secretly obtained some Forces from Poland, by connivance of that Government: and the Hungarians being his Friends, privately favoured him, knowing that the Conquest of Transylvania would be a step to their Destruction; and being at length well fortified and recruited, he began to declare openly, that he found no security to himself in this Surrender, for that a Place was denied him, wherein he put his chief hopes of Defence; and therefore that he was resolved to support and maintain his State and Cause in the best manner that he was able.The Turks enter Tran­sylvania.

Hereupon the Turks entred Transylvania with an Army of twenty five thousand Men under the Command of the Pasha of Buda: Ragotski, to obstruct their March, dispatched his General Cornis with seven thousand Men, to prepossess an advantageous Ground, with Order to entertain, but not fight the Enemy, until he could come up to him with the gross of his Army.

The Turks perceiving their advantage in num­ber, resolved to engage the Enemy before they were reinforced with new Succours; to perform which they made a Detachment of twelve thou­sand Horse, and two thousand Janisaries, and some Field Pieces, commanded by the Pasha him­self and Stephen Gabor. Cornis not being able to disingage himself, or avoid fighting, made a Vertue of Necessity, and put his Forces into form of Battel; and exhorting his Men to fol­low his Example, assured them, that Victory was sooner acquired by Valour than Numbers, and that Fortune was always more favourable to the Valiant and Brave, than to the Cowardly and pusillanimous.

Cornis unsheathing his Sword,They sight with Cor­nis. sought in the Head of his Men, and led them through the thickest of his Enemies, the first rank of which not being able to sustain the furious Charge of the Christians, gave way; and being disorder­ed, the first Squadrons ran foul of the secood, and at length all of them betook themselves to a shameful flight.Are over­thrown. The Transylvanians took all their Canon and Baggage, with ten Ensigns, and killed three thousand Turks. The Pasha of Agria was wounded, and Olac Bei of Temiswar was taken Prisoner; and the whole Army had that day been defeated, had not the Janisaries, who fortified themselves in a thick Wood, given a stop to a farther pursuit. Ragotski likewise in divers succeeding Skirmishes overthrew the Turks, killing many Pasha's and Souldiers of Quality, and at length remained sole Master of the Field.

The Turks retired to Lippa, and Stephen to Temiswar, whilst Ragotski made his Incursions in­to the Country of the Turks, burning and spoil­ing two thousand Villages;Peace is made. with which being terrified and beaten into terms of Reason, they agreed to suffer Ragotski to injoy his Govern­ment, conditionally, that the Goods and Estate of Gabor in Transylvania should be restored un­to him: and thus Ragotski established himself in the Government, and obtained a Confirmation thereof from Constantinople to his Son, accompa­nied with Presents and Ornaments of a Prince. And this Example shews us in what manner we are to deal with Turks; Resolution and Rigour are better Arms against them than Complements; and with an Enemy it is more advantageous to make Peace with Weapons in our Hands, than to condescend to the hard Terms which a Ty­rant pleases to impose on an easie and unpro­vided People.

So soon as this News arrived the Ears of the proud Sultan, he was so incensed, that in a fury he would have desisted from his present War in Persia, to vent his Revenge upon Transylvania; but the cooler and more moderate Counsels of wiser Friends, advised him to defer the execu­tion of his Anger, until he could discharge it more to the purpose, and in a Conjuncture when it would fall more easy on himself, and more heavy on his Enemy: Howsoever in the mean time Ragotski made such use of this remote Di­version of the Ottoman Arms, by advantaging himself of an Alliance with the Cossacks, and by the ill Correspondence and Diffidence which at that time intervened between the Tartars and the Port, that he not only avoided the Revenge threatned by Morat, but obtained an establish­ment of the Inheritance to his Son.

By this time Sultan Morat was arrived at Erzrum, Morat at Erzrum. which is a City belonging to the Turks on the Confines of Persia; where the first Act which he performed of Justice, was to cut off the Head of the Pasha for his Oppression and Extortions inflicted on his People.

Entring into Armenia, he was grieved to see the upper and lower Provinces so miserably de­stroyed and wasted by the War; to recover which, he commanded the People, under pain of Death, to return again to their Ancient Ha­bitations within the space of twenty days; but [Page 31]they being setled in other Cities, where perhaps they had purchased Houses and Lands, could not possibly comply with the Severity of this De­cree; and therefore were constrained to buy a Dispensation and release from the Penalty for a Sum of Mony.

About the beginning of July, in the parts of Erzrum, Morat made a general Review and Mu­ster of his whole Army; with which those he brought from Constantinople joined to Recruits by the way, and those Forces which had wa­ged War in Persia, amounted to near the num­ber of three hundred thousand fighting Men, but such as were admirably well disciplined, not only by the Severity of their Soveraign, but by the example he shewed them of Frugality and Patience: for he often marched afoot in the midst of the Heats;The Grand Signior's Patience & Labours. he was very temperate in his Diet, though he was naturally of a glutto­nous and luxurious Palate: for several Months he made use of no other Pillow for his Head than his Saddle, no other Blanket or Quilt than the Covering or Foot-cloth of his Horse.

Being arrived near to the City of Revan, he bestowed that Largess on the Souldiery of a Dollar a Man, which is accustomary to be given at all times, when the Grand Signior marches in Person, and then made known to them his Intentions of besieging that Place; and in case he took it not in the space of ten days, that then he would leave it begirt with forty thou­sand Men; and dividing his Army into three Bodies, he would enter the Bowels of Persia by divers ways. The Tents of the Grand Sig­nior, and of all the Camp, were pitched, Bat­teries raised, the Trenches opened, and all Matters laid in the formal manner of a Siege. The Garison within,Revan be­trayed and surrendred by Emir Gumir. commanded by Emir Gu­mir, consisted of fifteen thousand Men, fitted and provided with all sorts of Ammunition, and wanted neither Courage nor Provisions; how­soever at the end of nine days, the City was fur­rendred to the Sultan, upon Terms of Quarter to the whole Garison, both for Life and Free­dom of Estate: And because this Governour Emir Gumir, a principal Noble-man of Persia, had by corruption thus voluntarily delivered up the City, he acquired a place of high Grace and esteem in the Favour of the Grand Signior; to which his courtly manner of indulging his Humour, and complying with him in his Wine and Feasts, (to which the joy of this present Success priviledged him to return) gave him daily a new Title to receive extraordinary Ho­nours from him.

The News of this prosperous Success was posted to Constantinople, as the first Essay of the good Effects of the Sultan's Presence, and was there celebrated with Feasts,Rejoycing and a Fe­stival kept for it at Constanti­nople. Joy, and Lights, according to the Turkish Fashion, called Da­nalma; to perform which, the Turks obliged likewise the Christian Ambassadors, saying, That if they were Friends, they ought to evidence their Satisfaction, by demonstrations of Joy in the prosperity of their Ally.

The Festival was kept for the space of four days; during which two Brothers of the Sul­tan, viz. Bajazet and Orchan were strangled; the latter of which, as is said, was so brave, and of that Courage, that he killed four of his Executioners before he submitted his Neck to the fatal Cord.

The Turks entring farther into Persia, incon­siderately fell into an Ambush, where twelve thousand of their Men were defeated; howso­ever the remainder of the Army not being dis­couraged with this Encounter, proceeded on their March, making most miserable Havock and Destruction of all before them,The Turks enter far­ther into Persia. carrying that Dread and Terrour to the Countries round, that all People fled, leaving their Houses and Things not portable, to the possession of the Enemy. Howsoever the Turks found greater Difficulties than they expected; for meeting frequently Par­ties of the Persian Cavalry, which were practi­sed to manage their Horse and Sword, were often defeated, at least endured and sustained the shock of Bloody Skirmishes; and then the Persians re­tiring into the Mountains known to them, but unknown to the Turks, which served them bet­ter than fortified Places, returned again when any Advantage or Booty appeared, which perpe­tually vexed and wearied the Enemy; and burn­ing all Things which might afford them relief, rendred that fruitful Country more Desolate and barren than the Desarts of Lybia, or the Sands of Arabia.

In this manner the Turkish Army being desti­tute of all sorts of Provisions and Refreshments, were forced to retire to the Country of Tauris; which being harassed and impoverished like o­ther Provinces, caused a miserable Famine in the Camp, whereby Multitudes of Horses and Ca­mels perished for want of Nutriment; at which the Grand Signior being highly incensed against the Inhabitants of Tauris, Tauris de­stroyed. committed their City to the Will and Mercy of the Souldiery, who having pillaged and sacked it, lest it a miserable spectacle of Fire and Sword.

The King of Persia seeing in what manner the Troops of his Enemy were wearied and consu­med, took hold of this Opportunity as seasonable to propose certain Articles of Peace by an Am­bassador, to which Morat seemed to incline a flexible Ear; but lodging his Souldiers in their Winter-quarters in the parts of Damascus and Aleppo, he took his way towards Constantinople, with intention to ease the Hardships and Labours of the Summers War, by a voluptuous Ease and Winters pastime in the delights and softness of the Seraglio.

The 16th day of December he arrived at Con­stantinople, having passed from Ismit through the Gulph of Nicomedia with the attendance of four­teen Gallies: he made his Entry by the Jews Gate, and not by that of Adrianople, as was ac­customary; he was mounted on one of the best of his Horses, and cloathed with a Coat of Mail, a Casket on his Head, with three Feathers ador­ned with Pearls and precious Stones; his Sword was girt to his side with his Bow and Quiver, his Beard was in a rough and neglected manner, which made him appear more Fierce and Marti­al; the Chimacam came after him, accompanied with the Traitor who surrendred Revan. Festival for return of the G. Signior. This Festival for his return was celebrated for the space of a whole week, during which time the Shops were shut, the Doors and Outsides ador­ned with green Boughs and Paintings, and by Night the Streets with Torches were made as clear as the day: howsoever the People secretly murmured, that the War was not prosecuted, and the Advantages taken, when Fortune began to smile and favour their Enterprises; and that now desisting in the middle way, the Work was again to be begun, and all the foregoing Blood and Treasure was spent and consumed to no pur­pose. These Murmurings of the People were not without some Ground and Cause; for after the departure of the Grand Signior, the Persians put themselves again into the Field, and recovered the Country which they had lost; and having [Page 32]offered a Sum of Mony to Mortesa Pasha to sur­render Revan; which he refusing to accept on Principles of Fidelity and Honour, they prepa­red to lay close Siege to the Place: the Janisaries were also displeased to see themselves neglected, and cast out of the Guard, and their Places sup­plied by the Bostangees; nor less disgusted were the Lawyers to see several of their Judges and Kadies handged, and their Heads cut off, upon pretence of Sedition and Faction. His ill Hu­mor more inceased to the height of Tyranny, by reason of certain twinges which he suffered of the Gout, which is not usual in Persons of his Age, not surpassing twenty six years; and because his Physician, a Jew, forbid him wholly to drink Wine, as poison to his Disease and Com­plexion, he was so enraged, that he drove him from his Presence with Indignation; and im­mediately conceived such Anger and Prejudice a­gainst the whole Nation, that he caused their Houses to be searched, and their Jewels taken from them. But what was most strange, was his horrid aversion to Tobacco,His aversi­on to To­bacco. the taking of which, by any Person whatsoever, he forbid upon pain of Death; which Sentence he so ri­gorously executed, that he caused the Legs and Arms of two Men, one that sold Tobacco, and the other that took it, to be sawed off, and in that manner exposed to the view of the People: he also caused two others, a Man and a Woman, to be impaled alive, for the same Offence, with a Roll of Tabaco about their Necks.

As the Gout caused him to be froward and ill-natur'd, so more especially when ill news came from Persia, he was observed to be more raving and tyrannical than ever. His Army in Persia wanting Provisions, disbanded; Mortesa Pasha Godvernour of Revan being killed, the Souldiers rebel,Revan re­gained by the Persian. open the Gates, and yeild themselves to the persian, for which Offence the Janisaries fearing the Justice of their Master the Grand Signior, two thousand of them took up Arms in Service of the Enemy: the sense hereof vexing Morat to the Soul, he caused the Register of the Janisaries to be hanged, and another of their principal Officers to be beheaded,The Grand Signior's Severity & Cruelty. and strowed the Streets of Constantinople with dead Bodies, some for one cause, and some for another, which struch the whole City with a general Dread and Consternation.

He often walked in the night, punishing Quar­rels and Disorders of the Streets, and meeting two Women wandring in the dark, he caused them to be cut in pieces.

He put hi Cook to Death for not dressing his Meat well, or not seasoning his Sauces according to his Palate.

In his Seraglio sporting with his Arms, he wounded himself with a Dart in the thigh; and by accident wounded the Son of Mehmet the late Vizier with a Carbine-shot, of which in a short time after he died.

The Persians having taken Revan (as we have said) instituted Chambers of Janisaries in that place after the Turkish fashion, paying them in the same form as at Constantinople; and to allure the Spahees to enter into his Service, he offered to all that came in twelve Aspers a day of con­stant Pay; and declared, That their Faith and Law had no difference from the Mahometan.

The Grand Signior receiving these Advices with extreme indignation, proclaimed his Inten­tions to return again into Persia; and though the Design pleased not the Militia, who wre weary of the War, yet his Power was too great to be resisted, and his Humors too violent to be diverted by sober Counsels; for having subjected and absolutely subdued the Insolence of the Soul­diers, and suppressed the Arrogance of the Law­yers and Church-men, he ordered every thing according to his Arbitrary and Uncontroulable Pleasure; which being rendred Extravagant and Unsupportable, by reason that in his Cups, and at the time of his Debauchery, he would often take his Counsels and determine his Reso­lutions, were notwithstanding with more patience endured, upon hopes that they would not be lasting, and that Excesses would accelerate his Death, and the end of their Oppressions.

The Pasha's of greatest Note and Riches he put to Death, and confiscated their Estates to his Exchequer; and whereas Avarice and Cru­elty were equally predominant in his Nature, there was scarce a day wherein he made not some demonstration of those Dispositions.

The English Ambassador making some instan­ces for the releasement of English Slaves from Captivity, was forced to purchase their Liberty by giving two Russians, or other Slaves in the place of one English-man.

He took a singular delight to sit in a Chiosk by the Sea-side, and from thence to shoot at the People with his Bow and Arrows, as they row­ed near the Banks of the Seraglio; which cau­sed the Boat-men afterwards to keep themselves at a distance from the Walls of the Seraglio. And as he likewise took pleasure to go from one Garden to another on the Bosphorus, so if he ob­served any so bold, as to put forth his Head to see him pass, he commonly made him pay the price of his Curiosity by a shot from his Car­bine.

In all his Gardens and places of Pleasure, his chief Recreation was Drinking, in which his prin­cipal or almost sole Companions were Emir Gu­mir the Persian who betrayed Revan, and a Ve­netian of the Family of Bianchi, who having been taken by the Turks, when he was young, was placed in the Seraglio, and educated in all the Learning and Customs of it, and becoming as well a Proficient in Drinking, as in other Vi­ces, he was made a Favourite and Companion to Morat. And thus did they follow this trade of Drunkenness so constantly, that the Health of the Grand Signior began to impair; and at length he became so sensible of his Extravagan­cies, that he incharged the Chimacam not to obey him after Dinner: and when in the heat of his Wine he took a humor to ride through the Streets, the Janisaires and Officers would sometimes run before to advise the People to withdraw, and sometimes drive them away with Stones, that so they might escape the hazard of this capricious Tyrant.

As it cannot be expressed in what Dread and Fear the People stood of him, so neither in what Veneration he was with his Servants, who obser­ved the looks and every cast of his Eyes; had learned his Nods, and the meaning of every Motion and Gesture of his Body. It happened once, that a Paper falling casually from his Hand out of a Window, the Pages ran in all haste down the Stairs, striving who should be the first to take it up; but one more desirous than the others to evidence the Zeal of his Ser­vice, took the nearest way and leaped out of the Window; and though with the fall he broke the Bone of his Thigh, yet being the first that took up the Paper, he came halting to present it with his own Hand: this bold readiness in his Service so pleased the Grand Signior, that being cured, he was afterwards preferred to one of [Page 33]the most considerable Offices of the Empire. Thus was Morat revered in his Seraglio, as he was feared aboard, his Servants having the same awe of him, as Bagotes the Eunuch had of Alex­ander the Great, who holding the Pot of Incense and Perfumes whilst his Master slept, suffered his Hands to burn to the Bone, rather than to awaken him by moving out of his place. Q. Cur­tius.

But it is time now to leave off farther Dis­course of the Extravagancies of Morat, and to return to the Wars in Persia; howsoever before the departure of the Grand Signior, it will be requisite to recount somewhat of the State of Affairs in Europe.

On the Frontiers of Hungary and Poland, Disturban­ces in Po­land and Hungary. there wanted not Exercises and Skirmishes to employ and practise the Souldiery, and keep them in Breath.

The Poles heightned with their good Successes, would not longer endure the Incursions of the Tartars, complaining against the Turk, that he had given Orders, and secretly abetted them in their Robberies and Invasions, against the Arti­cles of the last Peace; and therefore to avenge themselves, the Poles appeared on the Fron­tiers with forty or fifty thousand Horse: but the Grand Signior not willing in this Conjuncture to break with the Poles, absolutely disowned a­ny such Order or Permission given to the Tar­tars; and being willing to continue the League, that he might oblige the King of Poland, gave liberty to all the People of that Nation,The Turks confirm the Peace with Poland. and to the Russians, who had been taken since the Last Treaty, positively prohibiting all People from buying, or keeping any of the Subjects of that Country for Slaves, during the continuance of this Peace.

In Hungary, though the Ambassador had but lately brought a Confirmation of the Peace from Constantinople; yet the Turks pretending that the Articles were not complied with, continued to trouble and disturb those Frontiers; for four thousand of them being gotten into a Body, burnt certain Villages, made divers Slaves, and battered the Castle of Raab; but being repulsed by that Garison, and by that of Komorra, they again made Head, and encamped within three Leagues of Presbourg: The which gave great trouble to the Emperor, both because he had lately declared a War against France, and be­cause he apprehended, that those Commotions of the Turks were designed to no other end,Send For­ces against Ragotski. than to engage him to renounce all assistance and succour to be given unto Ragotski.

We have already recounted in what manner the Turks had espoused the Quarrel of Stephen Gabor, and resolved to establish him in the Prin­cipality of Transylvania, with the Ruin of Ra­gotski; which now being designed to be done by open Force, several Troops were sent to the Frontiers of Transylvania; which so alarmed the Hungarians, that they put themselves on their Guard, and obliged the Estates of Austria and Hungary to contribute toward the Succour of the Transylvanian Prince.

The Emperor remained long in suspense what course to steer, until at length the Perswasions of the Confederate Princes, the shame of aban­doning a Friend and an Ally for a Prey to the Turks, and the fear of displeasing his Heredita­ry Dominions in Hungary, who considered Tran­sylvania as the Bulwark of their Country, indu­ced him to promise secretly, and underhand, As­sistance to Ragotski.

As to the Turks themselves, the Effects did not correspond with their Menaces: for though they had gathered an Army of twenty thousand Men at Buda, they not only were disappointed of their Design upon Newhausel, but were open­ly repulsed, and shamefully expelled the Fron­tiers by the palatine of Hungary: And Ragotski being recruited by Succours from the Emperor, and by an Alliance with Poland, defied the For­ces of the Turk, and contemned the Reports of sixty thousand Men preparing to march a­gainst him.

For indeed the Grand Signior had too great an Incumbrance on his Shoulders by the War in Persia, to attend unto a perfect and studied Re­venge against Ragotski; for Revan being reco­vered by the Persian, (as we have already de­clared) was a Matter of high Moment; and what distracted all his Counsels, and weakened his Hopes.

When News came first of the Siege of Revan, Orders were given to the Vizier to Besiege Bag­dat, as a means to cause a diversion of Arms;Mutiny in the Turkish Army. but the Souldiery entertaining an aversion to this Enterprise, unanimously refused to March, or to proceed farther than Erzrum. Jambolat Ogli, who commanded the Army before the the Arrival of the Vizier, had strangled a Pasha, and taken his Estate to supply the Wants of the Army; and had likewise put to Death several Spahees and Janisaries for Mutiny, and because they had de­clared an unwillingness to this War. The Soul­diery prepared to address themselves to the Vi­zier for Justice against these violent Proceed­ings: but he not willing to hear them, endea­voured to divert their Complaints, which caused a greater Commotion and Storm than before. And though Jambolat pleaded hid Orders and positive Commission from the Grand Signior for what he had acted; yet that Allegation not being accepted by the Multitude as a justifiable Plea, the Vizier was forced to con­descend to their Desire, and strangle Jambo­lat, as he had done the others, being the only Means to quiet and compose this Trouble of his Army.

But as after some great Storm, there is al­ways remaining for a while a swelling and fluctua­tion in the Waters, so there still remained on the Spirits of the Souldiery, Discontents and unquietness of Mind: Wherefore the Vizier fearing lest the Enemy taking advantage of the present Seditions, should charge them at a time of Disorder, he retired at a distance from them into the Plains of Erzrum: But he was not a­ble to continue long in those Parts for want of Fuel, and of Wood and Planks to secure them against the Rains and Snow; for it being Win­ter, which is rigorous and cold in that Country, their Tents were not sufficient proof to defend them against the Extremity of the Weather.

Whilst the Turkish Army remained at this Place, advice came,Van besie­ged by the Persians. that the Persians had Be­sieged Van, which is a strong Fortress situate on an inaccessible Rock, on the Frontiers of the Province of Diarbequir. And though the Persi­ans were not able to take this Place, neither by Storm nor Famine, yet during this Siege, they made use of their time to ruin all the Country of Diarbequir, which they left so desolate, that the Turkish Army could not quarter there, nor ex­tract the least Provision or Subsistence from thence.

To all these Misfortunes a greater was added by the Treachery of a certain Curd, one who pretending to be ill-satisfied with the Persian Par­ty, voluntarily offered himself to the Service of [Page 34]the Turks; and having done them some little Services, by being their Guide through certain difficult Passages, he gained a confidence so far with them, as that designing to surprise a quar­ter of the Enemy, they committed themselves to his Guidance and Conduct; who having brought them into a narrow Passage,Fifteen thousand Turks kil­led in an Ambush. where an Ambush of the Enemy lay, he then turned his Coat, and fought against the Turks, of whom 15000 were killed and taken in this Snare.

In short, all Matters of this War proceeded cross and unfortunate for the Turks; for be­sides their unlucky Fights with the Enemy, their own Seditions in the Camp were greater Mis­chiefs;Mutiny of the Soul­diers. for now enduring no longer these pun­gent Miseries, under the pretence of wanting Pay, they cut in pieces the Treasurer of the Ar­my, two Aga's of the Spahees, and the Chaous­bashee of the Janisaries.

This News arriving at Constantinople, when Morat was afflicted with a grievous accession of the Gout, served to redouble his Pains; in which raving against the Conduct of his Officers, he immediately deprived the Vizier of his Charge, and ordained Biram Pasha, late Chimacam, to succeed him in his Employment.

The new Vizier immediately set forth the Horses Tail,A new Vi­zier sent to the Army. which is a signal of departure, with sound of Drums and Trumpets, making Corban, which is a distribution of Mutton to the Poor, in divers Places: His Retinue was spee­dily equipped with such sumptuous Magnificence, that it looked rather like the Train of an Am­bassador, which intended to make Peace, than to the Troops of a General, whose Business was nothing but Blood and Destruction. And indeed Matters seemed to be inclining that way, the Per­sians having far advanced in this Negotiation; for they wisely pondering the immense Force of the Ottoman Empire, with which they were now contending, judged it the most politick course to make Peace, under the auspicious Planet of their good Fortune; for not knowing how long that might remain constant, they might, so soon as the Wheel turns on the other side, be forced to accept Terms of less Advantage than at pre­sent they might promise to themselves under their happy Stars.

Wherefore a Proposition being made of send­ing an Ambassador to the Grand Signior,A Persian Ambassador sent to the G. Signior. he ac­cepted of it; and accordingly arrived at Con­stantinople in the Month of August, when the Vi­zier was scarce in the middle of his Journey. The Grand Signior entertaining some real Incli­nations to Peace, laid aside something of his u­sual Grandeur and State, giving the Ambassador Audience in a few days after his arrival; and as nothing mollisies the hard Mettle of a Turk's Spirit, like a gentle Shower of Gold, and the emulgent softness of Rich Presents; so Morat understanding of Gifts with which he came ac­companied, afforded to the Ambassador an easy Ear and a pleasing Countenance.

The Presents for the Grand Signior, besides those for the Court, were [...]ese that follow.

  • Eight Indian Horses of great Price.
  • Forty Dromedaries.
  • An hundred and fifty Meticals of Musk. As much Ambergriese made up in several Bags; all sealed up with the King's own Seal.
  • Thirty bundles of the best black Sables.
  • Eight large Carpets mixed with Gold and Silver; with divers others of Silk, very rare and precious.
  • Many Pieces of the finest Linnen to make Turbants.
  • A great number of the rarest Girdles. Por­celine to a great value.
  • Divers Pieces of Satin and Velvet, with Golden Flowers.
  • Fifty Pieces of Silken Stuffs.
  • Eight Bows of excellent Work.

These Presents so well disposed and prepared the Mind of the Grand Signior towards an Ac­commodation, that he bestowed a kind Aspect and gentle Words on the Ambassador, so that all the World expected that a Peace would have ensued.

And indeed one might well have believed his Reality in this Intention, since the ardent Passion he had to be revenged of Ragotski, availed more with him than all other Considerations in the World. His Honour also called him to give a stop to the Progress of the Moscovites, who had taken Asac; and the Tartars and Cossacks gave some ground of Jealousy, that before long they designed some Action on the Turkish Territo­ries: the Reasons whereof we shall discourse in this following Year.

We have already related, some Years past, on what Terms the Tartars stood with the Turk, how they refused to accept that King which the Port recommended to them, though the el­dest and first of the true Line: how they fought and overthrew the Forces which the Grand Sig­nior sent to compel them to the Election he de­sired; and this last Year, upon pretence of a War with Cantemir, Troubles in the lesser Tartary. they refused to send their Army against the Persian, as had always been ac­customary to do against the Enemies of the Sultan, whensoever required.

The Pasha, Muftee, and Kadi of Caffa (which is the Grand Signior's Town in Tartary) urged the Tartar Han to prepare and forward his For­ces, according to the Duty and Obligation which was incumbent on him; and enlivening their Arguments with Reproaches of Cowardise and Ingratitude; so far provoked the Han, that he caused them all three to be strangled.

Notwithstanding this high Provocation, the Grand Signior dissembled the Injury, lest a due Resentment should raise them into an open Re­bellion: and dissembling an approbation of the Fact, as done with Reason and Justice, sent to the Tartar Han a Sword and a Vest, as Signals of his Favour: And farther suspecting, lest in prosecution of so sensible a Blow, the Tartar joining in League with the Cossacks and Mosco­vites, should make himself Master of Caffa, he prudently touched the Wound with a gentle Hand, offering to ordain such a Pasha, as should be warranted with his Assent and Approbati­on.

The Tartar being overcome by such Lenitives as these, protested that he never entertained other Thoughts, than to maintain his Faith and Alle­giance inviolable towards the Grand Signior; and that the Alliance he had made with the No­gay Tartars, and the Forces now raised, were maintained with no other Design, than to sup­press the Rebellion and Insolence of Cantemir.

This Cantemir being a Person of a bold Spirit, and daring in all his Actions, did oftentimes, by virtue of his own Authority, lead a strong Par­ty to the Field, being followed by the bravest and stoutest Souldiers of Tartary; for which Reason being hated by the Tartar Han, Cantemir makes a new Colony. and his Life often attempted, and his own Spirit not supporting a Subjection to any other, he passed [Page 35]the Niester, and retired with his own Troops, and such others as would follow him, into the Country of Budziak, near to Beliegrod and Ki­lia, confining on the Frontiers of Moldavia; where he intended to plant and form a new Co­lony and Government.

In a short time, divers chief Captains being desirous to follow the Ensigns of so famous a Ge­neral, came in to him; and multitudes of Peo­ple forsaking the Sands and barren Rocks of Tartary, came crowding into this Country; that the Plains of Budziak not being capable to con­tain them, they passed into Moldavia; where in­croaching on the Lands of the proper Inhabi­tants, gave a Jealousie as if they intended to take possession of the whole Province.

The Poles being jealous of these ill Neigh­bours, which lay at the Gate of their Country, ready to enter on all occasions, had made Provi­sion in their last Articles of Peace with the Grand Signior, that he should force them to return, and urged that point by the Ambassador with all earnestness.

The Tartar Han also finding his Countries depopulated and weakened by so large an Eva­cuation, made also his Complaints and Addresses to the Port. But the Grand Signior looking on this Colony, as an increase of his Dominions, and to be composed of such People whom Ne­cessity must render obedient; and that they could easily, at his Command, make Irruptions into Poland, Hungary, and Transylvania, seemed deaf to all Applications in this Business; and as if they were a People in whom he had no part, shewed no concernment for them, though secret­ly he promised them his Protection.

Hereupon Ʋladislaus King of Poland, being wearied with Delays, resolved by force of Arms, to drive out this detestible Neighbour­hood: But the Tartar Han, whom this Business more nearly concerned, being more speedy in execution than the Poles, having raised an Army of thirty thousand Men, encountred Cantemir with twenty thousand,He is over­thrown by the Tartar Han. and charged him so fu­riously, that he killed seven thousand of them on the Place, and put the rest to flight, pursuing them through the Plains of Dobruc on the other side of the Danube.

The Grand Signior, who had all this Time re­mained a Spectator of this Success, began now to take the part of Cantemir, and severely to reprove the Proceedings of the Tartar Han, for having disturbed Cantemir, whilst he was pre­paring to serve him in the Wars of Persia. But the Tartar, having shaken off much of his Re­spect and Reverence towards the Grand Signior, despised the Menaces which he vented against him, and proceeded in his own Business, com­pelling his People to return again to their Coun­try, and to their Ancient Habitations. Morat being forced to suffer what he could not remedy, summoned Cantemir, with all diligence, to ren­der himself at Constantinople; where being arri­ved, he was at first regarded with a favourable Eye; but his Son soon after having in a private Quarrel killed a Tartar near the Walls of the Seraglio, was for that Fact justly strangled by Order of the Grand Signior; the day fol­lowing, Cantemir was also imprisoned,Cantemir put to death. and in a short time underwent the like Fate with that of his Son.

During these Troubles, a Nephew of Can­temir feigning himself to be disgusted with his Uncle, revolted to the Party of the Tartar Han, with no other than a treacherous Design to take away the Lives of the two Brothers; the which he compassed at a time of their hunting, when being far remote from their Attendance, following their Game in untroden Paths, he set upon them with an hundred Villains,The King of Tartary killed. and perfi­dioufly took away their Lives. The News here­of was highly applauded at Constantinople, and the Traitor extolled as a Person of mighty Cou­rage and wonderful Ingenuity; so that now dif­ferent Counsels, and new Measures, were taken concerning the Affairs in Tartary.

Bechir Gherry, Bechir Gherey or­dained K. of Tartary. Brother to those Princes of Tartary which were killed, was then at Jamboli, a City in Thrace, retired thither under the Pro­tection of the Grand Signior, for fear and jea­lousie of Treachery from his elder. Brother. Mo­rat caused him to be brought to Constantinople, where he was sumptuously received, and con­ducted to Audience by the Chimacam, who gave him the upper-hand, which is the Left amongst Men of the Sword, as the Right is a­mongst Men of Learning or of the Pen; for as the right Hand governs the latter, so the first is appendent to the left Side.

The Bodies of the two dead Brothers were brought to Constantinople, where fetulent or stink­ing, they were exposed to the sight of Morat; who to gratify his own Humour of Revenge, caused them to be thrown into the Sea.

This good News from Tartary, Asac be­sieged. was attem­pered with a worse from Asac, which the Mos­covites and Cossacks had besieged. This Town is situated at the Mouth of the River Tanais, up­on the declining of a Hill; it is in form four­square, and may be about twelve hundred Paces in Compass. Before it fell into the Hands of the Turks, it was a famous Scale for all sorts of Merchandise, especially for Butter, Cheese, salt Fish, Leather, Slaves, and other Commodities brought hither by Turks, Tartars, and Mosco­vites. The Venetians when they addicted them­selves more to Traffick and Commerce than they do at present, took this Scale for their Way into Persia. The Town was fortified with ancient Walls, flanked with capacious Towers, and with a Castle which being in the middle, and on the side of the Water, divides the Town, as it were, into two equal parts. The Garison con­sisted not of above three or four hundred Men; for being a place remote from powerful Enemies, it fell not under any great jealousie, now was it deemed worthy of the Charge of numerous De­fendats.

The City being in this weak Condition, the Cossacks soon made themselves Masters of it;Is taken by the Cossaks. which after they had sacked and pillaged to the utmost, they considered it as a place worthy of better Fortifications; and therefore applying themselves to raise new Works, and repair the Old, they soon made it a Fortress of Strength and Consideration. This happening at a time when the Turks were diverted by the Persian War, the Cossacks injoyed this new Conquest for the space of four Years without molestation, until that in the Year 1641, it was recovered with much Blood and Slaughter by the Arms of Sultan Ibrahim, as we shall hereafter recount in the sequel of this History.

And now because the taking of this Place was the Original from whence the Divisions and Civil Wars between the Poles and Cossacks de­rived their beginning, and was the Occasion that the Cossacks revolted from their just Obe­dience, to the Protection of the Turks; the Relation will not only be curious, but a di­gression necessary to the clearer Light of the present History.

Ʋladislaus the Fourth King of Poland being wearied with constant Complaints of the Rob­beries and Incursions made by the Cossacks upon the Turks,The Cause of the Ci­vil War be­tween the Poles and Cossacks. contrary to Articles and Treaties of Peace, was at length perswaded by his Ba­rons and Counsellors, that the only Means to suppress the Violence of this unruly People, was to disarm them; and taking away their Wea­pons of War, to supply them, in lieu thereof, with the Shovel and Mattock, with Ploughts and Pruning-Hooks: by which industrious Diver­version, from a wicked Life of Blood and Rob­bery, to honest Husbandry and lawful Arts of living, they might with time be rendred useful to their own Prince, and capable of Faith and just Communication with their Neghbours. It is not one Age past since these people were cal­led Cossacks,The Cossaks Country de­scribed. derived, as is supposed, from Co­sai, a word in their Language which signifies a Goat, perhaps because of their Agility of Bo­dy, or because their Garments are chiefly made of Goats Skins.

Pellibus & laxis arcent mala frigora bracchis,
Orá (que) sunt longis horrida tecta comis.

The Country inhabited by them, was at first on the Banks of the River Boristhenes, about fif­teen Leagues in length to the entrance into the Euxine Sea, where it is reported, that Ovid was banished; and some say, that from him a Vil­lage thereabouts called Ovidoua derives its deno­mination; and hereunto we may afford the grea­ter belief from one of his Elegies, in his Book De Tristibus, which seems to describe this Coun­try, and the fierceness of the Inhabitants. Eleg. 8: lib. 5.

Quam legis à Scythicâ tibi venit Epistola terrâ,
Latus ubi aequoreis jungitur Ister aquis.
Mista sit hac quamvìs inter Graecós (que) Getás (que)
A malè placatis plus trahit ora Getis;
Sarmaticae major Geticae (que) frequentia gentis,
Per medias in aquis ít (que) reít (que) vias.
In quibus est nemo, qui non Coryton, & arcum,
Telá (que) vipereo lurida felle gerat.
Vox fera, trux vultus, verissima mortis imago,
Non coma, non ullâ barba resecta manu.

At present the name of Cossacks, and their Coun­try also, is of a far greater extent than it was formerly; for they call now all such in Poland Cossacks, that are light Horse armed with Bow and Arrow and Fire-arms: and their Country since the late Commotions is measured from the farthest parts of the Palatinate of Chiovia, for the space of and hundred and twenty Leagues on one side, and the other of the Boristhenes, which comprehends likewise all the Country of Ʋkra­nia. This Country was always inhabited by the most Warlike People of Russia; for that being subject to the frequent Incursions of the Tartars, necessary Defence, and constant practice in Arms, endued them with a Bold and Martial Spirit.

Ʋkrania is a Country so fertile, that it may compare with the most fruitful Soil in the World, producing such quantities of Corn, with little labour, that the Husband-men being made neg­ligent by their abundance, produced with little Toil, have leisure to apply themselves to Vio­lence and Rapine. They have no Wine, but use themselves much to Strong-waters. Their Houses are not built of Wood or Stone, but of Osiers, interwoven and daubed over with Earth and Lime; so that they use no Nails or Iron: they have no Merchants unless in Kiow; nor do they serve themselves of Physicians or Apotheca­ries. Their learned Language, or the Tongue wherein they write, is the Sclavonian, anciently called the Illyrian: so that in all things this Peo­ple is rude and barbarous; and though their manner of Government and Policy is not refined or methodically disposed, yet nevertheless it is solid and of deep Foundation, appropriated to the nature and disposition of that People.

This honest Design of King Ʋladislaus, to re­duce this People to a just and an industrious course of living, not agreeing with their Temper and Customs, they rather resolved to leave their Country, and betake themselves to various For­tunes; some of them passed into Moscovia to plant a Colony in those uninhabited Parts: a Bo­dy of them, to the number of six thousand, join­ing together, resolved to pass into Persia to offer their service unto that King; and being on their Journey, as far as the Tanais, they encountred with a Party of Moscovite Cossacks, who inha­bited certain Islands of that River; with whom entertaining Discourse, they understood that Asac might easily be surprised by them, if they could agree to unite Forces, which together might compose a Body of ten thousand Men: The Importance of the Place being well conside­red, it was resolved, that the March into Persia should be shortned, and this City be ordained for the ultimate End of their Travels and Place of Repose. According to this counsel Asac be­ing assaulted and taken, (as we have already in­timated) the Cossacks fortified it in the best manner that they were able, making an Ar­senal for their Boats and Saicks, whereby af­terwards they did much more infest the Turks than before.

The other Cossacks who continued in their Country, being much persecuted by the Polish Nobility, chose Kilminieschi for their General, (the Son of a Noble Family in Lituania, but ba­nished and degraded of his Honour for his Cri­minal Offences) and rebelled against the Go­vernment. At first not being able to resist the Force of Poland, they retired within the Woods; but joining afterwards with other Cossacks, they issued forth at the beginning of the Spring, beat the Poles, and carried away a considerable Boo­ty. Afterwards joining with the Tartars, they made their Incursions as far as Zamosca, within twenty Leagues of Warsaw; and so Matters con­tinued with various Successes not appertaining to this History. Only thus far it is pertinent to the Matter discussed for us to have shewn, That the Counsels of Poland were in a great Error, when they resolved to change the Life, and alter the Humour of this Warlike People, which being protected in their Priviledges, and encouraged in their Wars, would at all Times, as occasion served, have been ready to have ejected great numbers of good Souldiers into the Ottoman Territories, and might still have been conser­ved to ballance the Power of the Tartars, which now daily infest and ruin the Borders of Po­land.

These People were like Ill Humors, which being vomited out into the Dominions of the Turk, eased and made healthy the Body Politick of Poland; but being conserved within the Sto­mach, caused Syncopes, Convulsions, and such Commotions, as have of late Years shaken the whole Body of the Polish Kingdom: and at length withdrawing themselves entirely from all Obedience, together with that large Pro­vince of Ʋkrania, as they have weakned that [Page 37]Government; so now of late years seeking pro­tection from the Turk, have added to his King­dom, and enfeebled that of Poland.

When the News arrived first at Constantinople that Asac was besieged, the Captain-Pasha going then to instate Bechir into his Kingdom of Tar­tary, received Orders to relieve Asac, and if possible, to raise the Siege; but the Succours coming too late, and the Town being taken, the loss thereof was not esteemed important enough to divert either Thoughts or Forces from the Per­sian War.

For now Morat resolving to presecute the War in Persia, Preparati­ons for the War in Persia. which could not be successful without the united Power of his whole Empire, con­ducted by his own Person, he resolved to make a second Journey into those Parts, and with his own Hand to knock at the Gates of Babylon. To prepare and dispose all matters in order here­unto, he in the first place countermanded his De­cree, which prohibited a farther increase of the number of Janisaries; for now being desirous to augment his Army beyond the account of an­cient Registers, he opened the Janisaries Door, (as they call it) and enrolled six thousand more into that Order.

To conserve still the Order of this Militia, he appointed Officers strictly and severely to take the Decimation of the Christian Children in Europe, and lest (as was usual) they should be corrupted by the Parents, who often give Pre­sents, whereby to blind the Eyes of the Mini­sters, that so they may oversee their Children, or in lieu of the comliest and most fit for Service, accept of the Sickly and Impotent, or such as are unworthy of the Bread and Education given them by the Sultan, he most severely injoined this Service, and under a thousand Menaces en­charged the care hereof to be executed without Favour or Partiality to any. He carefully re­viewed the Books of the Timjar-Spahees, count­ting the number exactly that every Country yields, and comparing them with those mustered in the Field, he confiscated the Lands of those that wanted, being forfeited for non-appear­ance: he would admit of no Excuse or Delay to the Matter in hand. The Superintendant of the Ordnance but making a Scruple about the Proportion of some Guns, as too weighty and unwieldy for so long a March, lost his Life, for doubting or making a difficulty in what the Grand Signior proposed or designed.

And that no Commotions at home might di­vert or call him back before his Business was per­fected, he encharged his Pasha's of the Fronti­ers to live quietly with their Neighbours, and to be sure to give no occasions of Complaint, or Cause for War during his absence; recommend­ing to the prudence of the Pasha of Silistria the care of composing certain Differences between the Princes of Moldavia and Walachia.

Having secured Matters as well as he could at home, he ordered the Horse-tail to be set forth at the gate of the Divan, and all Pasha's and Officers of the Army did the like at their own Doors. His Troops began now to grow nume­rous; the Spahees and Timariots appointed for the Guard of the Grand Signior's Tents, toge­ther with other Cavalry, which hold their Lands under Service, amounted unto two hundred thousand. From the hundred seventy two Chambers of Janisaries he drew forth thirty thousand. From the Topgees or Gunners, whereof there are no more than twelve hundred in their Chambers at Constantinople, yet make up twelve thousand in other parts, he drew out three thousand for the present Service. The Shepherds and Plough-men of Bulgaria made up twenty thousand; which with Water-bearers, Smiths, Bakers, Butchers, and all other Trades­men which followed the Camp, were in vast Numbers: so that the whole Army, with the At­tendants belonging thereunto, were at a mode­rate calculation computed to amount unto near five hundred thousand Men; whereof three hundred thousand were fighting Men.

The Pestilence, which is the Epidemical Dis­ease of Turkie, and which abates the Numbers and Pride of that People, raged this Year great­ly in Constantinople, and in the parts of Romag­nia; it entred into the Seraglio, and amongst others, took away the only Son of the Grand Signior of two or three Years old. This caused Morat to pass most part of the Summer at a Pa­lace on the Bosphorus, where he recreated him­self with his drunken Companion the Persian Traitor; and hereby he contradicted the Pro­verb, That Princes love the Treason, but not the Traitor; for Morat it seems loved them both, entertaining this Fellow in his Bosom: His Cloaths, his Garb, his Horses, and Equipage, might rival with that of the Sultan's; He took place of the Chimacam in all Publick Appear­ances; and what was most strange, he preceded the Mufti; which was a new Form never before practised, and would have afforded matter of Wonder and Discourse, but that the World considered this Novelty, as a Method agreeable to the extravagant Humor of the Sultan.

Amongst his Pastimes, nothing was more plea­sing than some Divertisement acted with Blood; he shot the Son of a Pasha with his Gun, for daring to approach near the Walls of his Serag­lio, supposing that he came with curiosity to discover his Pleasures,The extra­vagant Pleasures and Cruel­ties of Mo­rat. and manner of voluptu­ous Recreations: For the same Reason he would have sunk a Boat laden with Women, as it glided slowly by the Banks of the Garden. He would himself behold two Thieves impailed, which were condemned to die for robbing some­thing out of his Seraglio. He commanded the Head of the Treasurer of Cyprus to be cut off in his presence; as also the Master of his Musick, for daring to sing a certain Air which seemed Persian, and to praise the Valour of that Na­tion. The Pasha of Temiswar he put to Death at a full Divan, for fighting unfortunately against Ragotski.

To these severe Acts of Cruelty, which he called Justice, he added one not unpleasant; A certain Greek called Stridia Bei, or Lord Oy­sters, who had been Prince of Walachia, and one whom we have before mentioned, having, by his oppression and harassing that People, amassed a considerable Sum of Mony, essayed a second time, by force thereof, to obtain the Principa­lity; and making his Offer and Request before the Grand Signior, he was heard with some railery: At length the Grand Signior told him, That he was too proud and aspiring, and there­fore ordered the tips of his Nose and Ears to be cut off, telling him, that that was to clip the Wings of his Ambition.

But that before his departure for Persia, he might consummate his Acts of Tyranny, he pra­ctised one upon his Brother, a Youth of Twenty two Years of Age, of great Hopes, and good Endowments. He was conducted to the pre­sence of his Brother, at the Biram, to pay his Respects, as is usual at that Festival; and having performed the Ceremony, he enlarged himself in high Praises and Admiration of the Grand [Page 38]Signior's Generosity and Bravery; who for re­covery of Bagdat, was contented to expose his Person to the Inconveniences of a long Journey, and the Dangers of a hazardous War, and that therein he equalled, if not surpassed, the Glory of his Ancestors: Which courtly and rational manner of Discourse did not please Morat, but rather administred Subject of Jealousy, fearing that he knew too much; and that as he could Speak well, so he might Act accordingly; wherefore the same Day he caused him to be strangled, to the great Sorrow of the People, and detestation of his Abominable Tyranny: But to amuse the Minds of the Multitude, and cease their Murmurings, he caused it to be di­vulged abroad; that fourteen of his Women in the Seraglio were with Child: which was all false, there remaining none of the Ottoman Race besides his Brother Sultan Ibrahim, who was Weak, as well in Body as Understanding, and whose Imperfections secured and compound­ed for his Life: And to suppress the Discourse about his Brother's Murder, he changed it into a talk about his Preparations for War, and his departure for Persia. Wherefore the Fore­runners and Harbingers of the Army being sent away with Labourers to repair Bridges, and to level the Ways for the more easie passage of the Cannon. Morat passed over to his Tents at Scutari, cloathed in a Coat of Mail, and with a Head-piece set with Precious Stones, and his Sar­gouch or Feathers clasped to it with Buckles of Diamonds.

As he landed at Scutari, he was received by three Squadrons of Souldiers, each Squadron consisting of four thousand Men well Armed, and richly Attired; the Garments of one Squa­dron of which were provided at the Expence of the Grand Signior, and of the other two at the Charge of his Favourite, and of the Captain-Pasha: the latter of which presented to the Grand Signior thirty Purses of Mony, for be­stowing on him the Honour to command that Gally which transported him to the Asian Coast. The Ambassador sent from Persia was detained at Constantinople until this time, and after the Turkish Fashion not permitted to depart at his own liberty; but being now ordered to follow the Camp, his Port and Quarters were assigned, that so he might be a Spectator of that Tragedy which was now to be acted. All things were now disposed in good Posture, with much So­lemnity, in order to a March; the Conacks, or days Journies, with their Places of Quarters, were laid out in an hundred and twenty days of March from Scutary to Babylon, and seventy days of Otorack or Repose. The Journies with the gross Body of such an Army could not be long; and the joyning with other Forces in the way, required leisure and time.

In short, the Horse, after the Turkish man­ner, having eaten their Grass and been soiled, this powerful Army decamped from Scutari a­bout the end of May. The March of the Tur­kish Army. The first day of Oto­rack or Repose was appointed at Ismit, where the Grand Signior made a review of his Army; such as were Aged, and unable to endure the Fatigues of a long March, he dismissed, giving them half Pay for their Lives, with the Name of Otoracks, which is the same with Milites E­meriti among the Romans: with exact Order therefore and severe Discipline, to which their fierce Monarch had reduced them, marched this numerous Army; no Villages were abused, nor Country-people plundred, and all things were purchased with ready Mony: And the Grand Signior himself being rendred more gentle and tractable in the Field than in his Seraglio, heard all Complaints, and distributed Justice with an equal and impartial Hand.

In the mean time, at Coustantinople, due care was taken to keep things Quiet and in Order; the Bostangibashee, like Lord High Chamberlain, had the Charge committed to him of the Seraglio, and the Moveables of it; he frequently made his Rounds both by Sea and Land, punished those whom he found in Taverns; nor would he suf­fer any Candles to be lighted after two hours in the Night. The Chimacam, and the Captain-Pasha, likewise executed their Offices with all care and severity in their respective Stations.

At this time, to the great dissatisfaction of the Greek Nation, Cyril the Patriarch,Cyrillus the Patriarch strangled. who had been in England, and greatly affected with the Discipline of our Church, was deposed, impri­soned in the Seven Towers, and strangled: in his place one Carfila was ordained Patriarch, and his Commission or Baratz obtained from the Grand Signior at the expence of fifty thousand Crowns, one Moity whereof was paid from Rome, the whole Design against Cyrillus being managed by the Jesuits and other Religious living at Galata, who accused him before the Turks, of keeping a secret Correspondence with the Moscovites and Cossacks; for which losing his Life Carfila, a pretended Friend to the Roman Faction, was instituted Patriarch.

The Grand Signior marching with his potent and numerous Army, all the World remained at a gaze what the Issue should be of this mighty Enterprise; yet most were of Opinion, that the Honour and Riches of the Ottoman Empire be­ing now at Stake, the War could not otherwise conclude than with the Conquest of Babylon. All that could be feared, was some diversion by the Christian Princes; who taking hold of the pre­sent Conjuncture, should enter the Frontiers with a powerful Army, and thereby force the Sultan to return. But as to Poland, the Jea­lousy soon vanished. When the News came of a Civil War between the Poles and the Cossacks, and that ten thousand of the latter were slain in a Battel, this Intelligence came most seasonable and grateful to the Port, expecting now a Mes­sage from the Cossacks, desiring Succour in their Extremity; for such Accidente as these have nou­rished the Turkish Interest, which hath grown out of the Civil Discords of Christian Prin­ces.

By this means, as the Apprehensions of War by Land ceased, so there appeared some Clouds of Storm at Sea; which doubtless might have produced a War with Venice, and the Turks been at leisure to attend it; for sixteen Gallies belonging to Algier, Tunis, and Biserta, The Pirats of Algier and Tunis infest the Gulf of Venice. well armed with Slaves and Souldiers, and provided sufficiently with Cannon, Powder, and Bullet, Commanded by Ali Picenin, united together and formed a small Fleet, with design to rove over the Adriatick Sea, and infest the Coast of Italy. Their Intentions were to plunder the Riches of Loretto; but being hindred by contrary Winds, from entring so high into the Gulf, they made a descent in Puglia, and sacked all the Country of Nicotra, carrying away a great Booty, with Slaves, and amongst them several Nuns which they prostituted to their Lust; thence they pas­sed over to the side of Dalmatia, and in sight of Cataro took a Vessel, and made Prize of all Ships which they met in those Seas; the Rumor of which made great noise over all Italy, the People exclaiming against their Princes for suf­fering [Page 39]their Lives and Estates to remain subject to the petty Force of a few Pirats. For the Ves­sels of Malta and Florence were disjoined, and roving after purchase in the Archipelago, took little notice of what was acted in the Gulf. The Spaniards, after their fashion, were slow in Arming, and spent the Summer in Preparations, till the Pirats, laden with Booty, were depar­ted towards the Winter; so that none remain­ed to take care of Italy, and the Venetian Gulf, but Venice only, to whom the Dominion of those Seas are rightly appropriated.

To suppress therefore the Insolence of these Pirats, the Republick set forth a Fleet consisting of twenty eight Gallies and two Galleasses, un­der the Command of Marin Capello, with In­structions to sink, burn, and destroy those Pi­rats, either in the open Seas, or in Harbour of the Turks; for that by the Articles of Peace, between the Grand Signior and the Venetians, it was agreed, That no Port or Harbour of his should be priviledged to afford entertainment or protection to any Free-booter or Pirat of that nature.

It happened about that time, that the Malteses and Florentines crusing in the Archipelago, had done great Mischief to the Turks in those Seas; to revenge which, and to prevent farther da­mage, the Captain-Pasha sent Orders to these Vessels of Barbary immediately to come to his Assistance; to which they were now more ea­sily perswaded; for being already laden with Booty and Spoils, they contented themselves with a change of their Station. But to give a fare­wel to those Parts, they first resolved to spoil, and plunder Lissa, aliàs Lesina, an Island belong­ing to the Republick; but being overtaken by the Venetian Fleet in their Voyage thither, near to Valona, a Port and Harbour belonging to the Turks, they put themselves under the Defence of the Town and Castle, which received them willingly to their Protection, notwithstanding all Articles and Agreements to the contrary. The Venetian Fleet saluted the Castle without a Shot,Capello blocks up the Pirats in Valona. desiring, that according to the Capitula­tions of Peace, the Pirats might be rejected, and commanded to abandon their Port: in answer hereunto the Turks replied with a Shot, making known their Intentions to defend their Friends: wherefore the Venetians retiring at some di­stance came to an Anchor, designing to block up the Port. Many days had not passed before the Pirats endeavoured, by help of their Oars, and a gentle Gale, to make their escape; and being, with the gray of the Morning, advanced with­out the Port, they were espyed by the watch­ful Venetians, who dividing their Fleet into two Squadrons, charged them with high Courage; the Fight continued for the space of two hours, during all which time the Castle of Valona fired at the Venetians, and shot down a Mast of one of the Galleases, a Splinter of which wounded Lorenzo Marcello the Commander; at length five of the Gallies of the Pirats being disabled, any many of their People killed, they began to fly, and retire again under the Protection of the Town; as also did the Venetians to their Place of Anchorage.

A distinct Advice of all Particulars being dis­patched to Venice, the Senate wrote to Capello, That since the respect which the Republick owes to the Ottoman Court was not unknown to him, he should by no means make any attempt against those Pirats upon the Land, but meeting them fairly at Sea, he ought then to make use of all the valour and force he was able.

In the mean time the Duke of Medina las Tor­res, Vice-King of Naples, dispatched an Ex­press to Capello, with Letters applauding the ge­nerosity of the Design, wherein he was now en­gaged for the Glory of his Republick, and the Common Good of all Christendom, proffering to supply him with Refreshments and Ammunition, and what else might supply his Occasions; ex­pecting, that by such Encouragement as this, he might be induced to Assault the Enemies in Valona, without respect to the Grand Signior, or any Inconveniences which might arise thereby. On the contrary the Governour of the Castle, and Kadi of the Town wrote a Letter to Ca­pello, putting him in mind, that he was within the Grand Signior's Dominions, and that he should be careful how he offered any Violence to those Places, which would certainly prove a Violation of the Peace, and be the Original of an inevitable War.

Capello had now lain a whole Month before the Port, having all the time injoied fair Weather, and a smooth Sea, against the hope and desire of the Turks, who expected that by means of some Storm, the Enemy would be forced to re­move their Quarters to some secure Harbour, and thereby afford them an opportunity to escape.He assaults them in the Port. But Capello growing weary of such te­dious Attendance, resolved to expect no longer, nor yet to lose the present Advantage of ren­dring himself Master of the Vessels of the Ene­my: wherefore dividing his Fleet into several Squadrons, he advanced near the Port, firing se­veral Shot at the Tents of the Pirats, of which one from a Galeass struck a Mosch; and arming with store of Men the Galeots and Bri­gantines, they entred the Port, and to the asto­nishment and vexation of the Turks, possessed all the sixteen Vessels, and brought them to their Admiral: which though they had disfurnished of all their chief Booty, yet their Cannon and Arms remained, of which there were twelve Pieces of great Brass Guns, besides others of Iron, with divers Falcons and lesser Arms.

The Intelligence hereof being carried to Ve­nice, Orders were given, that all the Vessels should be sunk in the Port of Corfu, excepting only the Admiral of Algier, which was to be brought to the Arsenal of Venice, there to remain as a Trophy of Victory, and for a perpetual Memory of this Glorious Atchievement. How­soever this Exploit was variously interpreted at Venice, and approved, or disproved, according to the diversity of Humors. The younger Men applauded it as an Action of great Gallantry, excusing his Transgression of the Senats Orders by a transport of Passion and Zeal towards his Country, and desire of Glory. But the Sena­tors, and Men of mature Judgments, highly re­sented this Breach of their Orders, which as they are strictly Enjoined, so they expected that they should be punctually Obeyed. That this action was a sufficient and Just Cause alone to kindle a War, and that it was a matter intolera­ble, that a single Citizen should of his own Head and Humor, presume to act such things, as must necessarily involve the Publick in a War, contrary to their Pleasure, and in opposition to their express Commands. For which Crime and other subsequent Defaults, Capello was after­wards forced to justify himself, as will be signi­fied in the sequel of this History.

The Particulars of this Advice, were by an express Messenger dispatched to Luigi Contari­ni the Bailo or Ambassador for the Venetians at Constantinople, a Person of great Reputation and [Page 40]Esteem, having been conversant in the principal Courts of Christendom, and employed for the space of seven years at Munster, where he was Assistant with the Nuntio Chigi, afterwards Alexander the 7th, in the general Peace of Eu­rope.

The Turks also receiving this News aggrava­ted to them with all the foul Circumstances ima­ginable, the Chimacam immediately summoned the Bailo to Audience, and with an Angry Countenance began to exclaim: ‘That taking advantage of the Grand Signior's absence in remote Parts, the Venetians had, in a perfidi­dious and hostile manner, assaulted and de­stroyed the Fleet of Barbary, which were his Subjects, and such as he had called to his assi­stance against the Corsares of Malta and Li­gorn. That being accidentally compelled by storm to enter into the Port of Valonia, they were forcibly taken thence, and violence offer­ed to the Grand Signior's Port and Castle, by way of a manifest and open Breach. If this presumption were grounded on the long di­stance of the Grand Signior from these parts, the Venetians would do well to consider, how that they provoke an angry Prince, and one who esteems neither Expence, Hazards, nor Labours to compleat his Revenge. If this were a design to divert the Grand Signior's Arms from Persia, they would do well to con­sider, that the Sultan was not so far advanced, but that he could turn a Current, if he plea­sed, sufficient to drown, and in an instant to overwhelm the Dominions of Venice; or could at least collect Forces from nearer parts able to revenge his Quarrel, and vindicate his Ho­nour from the Disdain and Scorn of such pet­ty Neighbours.’

Hereunto the Bailo or Ambassador made this Reply: ‘That this Piratical People was the same which the Year before had landed in Can­dia, and made spoil of the Estates of the In­habitants, and carried many of them into sla­very; and not contented with this Booty, they entred the Gulph, and penetrated into the ve­ry Bowels of Italy, with design to Sack and Plunder the Island of Lissa, which was under the Dominion of the Republick. That the Ve­netian General friendly saluted the Castle of Valona, which was returned with several Shots from thence; that had it been his intention to have attempted the Port in the beginning, he would not have lain thirty seven days in ex­pectation of the forth-coming of those Pirats, it being only respect to the Grand Signior, which obliged him to that attendance. At length being wearied, and provoked by the insolenee of that People, he forcibly entred the Port, knowing, that by Capitulations with the Grand Signior, it was agreed, That all Ports should be forbidden, and that to these Pirats, unless they first gave Security and Cau­tion not to injure and make Prize of the Sub­jects of the Republick.’

The Chimacam replied hereunto, ‘That there were ten thousand Souldiers and Slaves belonging to those Gallies, which had taken their Refuge in Valona; and therefore he re­quired the Venetians to permit them free pas­sage into their own Country, and to restore their Gallies, unless they intended to come to an open Rupture with the Grand Signior.’

The Chimacam also pressed more urgently for restitution of the Gallies, in regard, that having advised the Grand Signior of this Disaster, he had at the same time given him hopes, and al­most assurance to believe, that by his Negotia­tions he should recover them out of their Hands: But the Senate was of a different Opinion; and therefore gave express Orders to their Officers of the Marine Affairs, immediatly to sink all those Vessels; that so the expectation of the Turks being disappointed by an impossibility of recovery, might not, by the rude Instances and Threats of Morat, oblige them to a dishonoura­ble and an undecent Restitution.

The News of this Misfortune made greater noise and disturbance in the Divan of Algier than at Constantinople, The Alge­rines angry at this News. that rude Rabble raved, and railed, and threatned, laying the blame sometimes on one, then on another, being ready to come to blows amongst themselves; but that being obliged, by order of their Divan, to keep their Thumbs within their Girdles, they durst only express their Anger by Punches and Thrusts of their Elbows. At length coming to cooler Terms, they charged all the Fault on their Ad­miral Ali, and resolved to make Applications to the Grand Signior for Redress, and Repara­tions on the Estates af the Venetians in his Do­minions.

The News also hereof overtaking Morat in his March into Persia, The G. Sig­nior's Anger against the Ventians. angred him to the Heart, and transported him to that heat of Indignation, that he immediately ordered, that the Venetian Bailo, with all his Nation in the Ottoman Do­minions, should without exception, be cut to pieces; but the Great Vizier, and his Favourite, suffering him for some time to vent the impetuo­sity of his Fume and Rage without contradicti­on, gave a stop for thirteen days to the dispatch of these fatal Orders; until taking him in a more gentle mood, they perswaded him to change this Sentence of Death, to the imprison­ment only of the Bailo; and such care was ta­ken, lest the News of a War with Venice should fly into Persia, and thereby prejudice the Terms of Peace, that this Accident was kept as a Se­cret, and communicated to none, but such as were nearly concerned in the Government.

The Command for the Bailo's Imprisonment being arrived at Constantinople, he was summon­ed to Audience by the Chimacam; and though at that time he was exceedingly afflicted with the Gout, yet the Turkish Obedience to Impe­rial Commands admitting of no Excuse, he was forced to an attendance; and being brought in his Sedan, he was carried to the Chamber of Audience, where he expected some time until the Chimacam came to him: in the interim being entertained by some Aga's, whom the Chimacam had employed to sound him touching the resti­tution of the Vessels; who finding by his Dis­course that they were sunk, without possibility of recovery, and that there could be no com­pensation made for them, they returned with this Answer to the Chimacam: of which being now informed, he came in, and having no far­ther to expostulate on this Matter, produced the Grand Signior's Command for his Imprisonment, and kissing it first, caused it to be road. The Bailo replied, That he was ready to submit,The Vene­tians Bailo imprisonec. being not only willing to suffer Imprisonment, but also Martyrdom, accompanied with the se­verest Pains, for the sake of his Prince and his Country.

To soften and mitigate Matters, the other Christian Ambassadors then resident at the Port, had made Arz to the Grand Signior, wherein, with all reverence and respect, they offered themselves for Mediators in this Difference, en­gaging themselves, but not the Parole of their [Page 41]Princes, for the Person of the Bailo, that he should not fly from the Port, nor yet refuse any reasonable Terms by way of Accommodation. This Mediation of the Ambassadors, seconded with some Presents from the Bailo to the Turkish Ministers, so facilitated Matters, that the Bailo at first was conducted to theThe Chi­micam's Steward. Kahya's Chamber, and afterwards was confined to his own House in Galata, guarded by four Chiaouses, with free Liberty to all Visitants whatsoever.

There was now no other Rumour or Discourse in Constantinople, but of a War with Venice, so soon as that with Persia was concluded: And in the mean time the Grand Signior gave Orders, that ten Gallies should be built in his own Arse­nal at his Charge, and presented to the Barba­rouses, with condition that they should stay un­til the Spring, and accompany his Fleet to Sea. But Ali Picenin the Admiral suspecting that this was only a Snare to engage him and his Men for ever in the Grand Signior's Service, refused the Obligation, and set two Gallies on the Stocks for his own Account.

Advice of the Bailo's Confinement being come to Venice, with a Report of the Passion and Rage of the Sultan, they expected nothing more than a War with the Turk, which they communica­ted to all Christian Princes, requesting their Succours and Assistance against the common Ene­my. These Addresses produced rather Compas­sion of their Case, than substantial Contributi­ons: Pope Ʋrban himself giving them great Assu­rances of some help from the Ecclesiastical Reve­nues, besides Processions, Masses, and Benedicti­ons for their good Success, in as great a Number as they could desire: Notwithstanding which due Care wast taken to make ready and provide against all Encounters. Letters were wrote to the Captain-General in the Levant, to make due Preparations against the Enemy: Sixteen Gallies were armed out of Candia, to which were joyn­ed other Galleasses under the Command of Anto­nio Pisani and Sebastiano Veniero: Souldiers were levied in every Place, and all Garrisons provided with Ammunition and Victuals, and reinforced with Numbers of an Auxiliary Militia. Howso­ever it was not the Business nor Advantage of the Venetians, to make a War with the Turks, but rather, whilst they feared the worst, and made Provisions against the utmost Extremities, they endeavoured to enter into Treaties of Peace, and to qualifie the hot Spirit of the Grand Signior with the gentle Lenitives of fair Words, and proffers of making Atonement with the Sacrifice of Gold and other Presents: In order unto which they wrote a Letter to the Grand Signior to this Effect.

‘That being provoked by the Insolence and frequent Robberies of the Pirates of Barbary, who did not esteem Faith or Obedience to his Majesty, nor the Commands which he had of­ten fent to restrain them, they were induced, out of natural Defence of themselves, to cha­stise and correct them; but as this was acted without intention to disoblige his Majesty, so they were ready to maintain and cultivate that ancient Friendship and Correspondence which was ingrafted on the firm Root of his Glorious Progenitors.’

Morat, though he received this Letter in an huff, and gave an Answer to it with Disdain, which breathed nothing but Threats of Revenge, and total Destruction; yet he sent it by an Ex­press of his own to Venice, couching something within the Terrour of his Words, as if there was place left for an Accommodation, if the Venetians knew what Salve was to be applied to obduct the Skin of this bleeding Wound. The Venetians quickly apprehended, that Gold was the only Remedy, of which they were ready to contribute freely; since they could make no better a Pur­chase with their Money than Peace, not could make a better Bargain than with such a Sum as would serve only to make the first Preparations of War, to evade all Hazards, Troubles, and Ca­lamities by a happy and safe Conclusion of Peace. The which notwithstanding took no Effect, until the Return of Morat from Persia; and therefore we shall defer Discourse thereof to its proper place.

Amurat marched now at the Head of a formida­ble Army,Morat marches to Persia. cloathed in the Habit of a Janisary, to render himself acceptable to the Militia, whom having subdued by Rigour and severe Discipline, he would now oblige by Courtesie and fairer Treatment: With Courage and great Patience he marched through sandy Desarts and unfre­quented Places; and being the first who offered to expose himself to Dangers and Sufferings, the Souldiery followed willingly his Example, estee­ming no Attempts either hazardous or tedious, in which they saw themselves preceded by their Valiant General. In this March he was overta­ken by one who rode hard to demand Mostaluck, which is the Reward of good News for the Birth of a Son, of which one of his Sultana's was deli­vered at Ismit: the Messenger was secured until the News was confirmed; which being after­wards turned to the Birth of a Daughter, the poor Man suffered Death, being cruelly impaled for his unadvised haste and excess of officious Re­spect towards his Ptince.

The Great Vizier met his Master at Iconium with a moderate Equipage, to give more Room for the Quarters of the Army, and rendring him­self more gracious in his Eyes by a Present of fif­ty thousand Dollars, he was again remunerated with a Cemiter and a Vest of Sables, which are the usual Signals of the Sultan's Favour.

All Asia was now in Arms, and the Princes and great Men came in to perform their Duty, ac­companied with their Forces and Attendance: Only Complaints were made of a certain Shegh,A Shegh rebels. Santone or Preacher belonging to the Mountains of Anatolia, who had refused to do Homage; or serve in the War: He was one, who by a feig­ned Sanctity had acquired a great Reputation a­mongst his People; and having declared himself to be the Mehedy, or the Mediator, which, accor­ding to the Mahometan Doctrine, is to fore-run Antichrist, for reducing all the World to one Unity of Faith: He had perswaded his People, that he, and they under him, were by Priviledge of his Office, exempted from all Taxes, Contri­butions, or Impositions by any Secular Power whatsoever. The Grand Signior who could not understand or believe this Doctrine, presently detached a strong Body with some Cannon under Command of the Captain-Pasha (who, as we have said, was to accompany the Grand Signior in the War) to confute the Principies of this Rebel, and to reduce him to Obedience. These Forces being entred on his Dominions, Procla­mation was made to the People, that they should deliver up their Impostor into the hands of Ju­stice; which if they refused to do, then Fire and Sword was to be their Portion,He is over­come and punished. and Destruction to extend even unto their Children of seven years of Age. This terrible Denunciation of the Sultan's Sentence struck all the People with cold Fear and Amazement; howsoever the Shegh a­vailing himself on certain Prophecies, which he [Page 42]interpreted in his own Favour, adventured to stand a shock with the Grand Signior's Forces; but being overcome by them the Shegh was ta­ken alive and carried to the Grand signior; who having given a stop to his March at Iconium, un­til the end of this Business, he condemned him to be flead alive; and in this Guise being a horrid Spectacle to all Beholders, he was carried upon an Ass to the Wheel, on which he seemed to en­dure the Remainder of his Punishment without any sensible Touches or Pangs in the Torments.

This Success being attained, Morat proceeded in his March, and passing through Alexandretta or Scanderone, he was there saluted by the Guns of all the English and Dutch Ships then in Port, and presented by the Merchants and Consuls, es­pecially by the Venetian called Marco Foscolo, whose Presents were computed to amount unto the Value of ten thousand Dollars. Thence he proceeded to Antioch, where he refreshed his Ar­my for a few days, observing the Antiquities of that Place. At Aleppo he was met by the Pasha of Grand Cairo, who brought with him a rich Tri­bute, accompanied with an Army of twenty four thousand Souldiers, all choice Men well armed and well cloathed; at the same Place also the For­ces of Palestine joyned with him, so that his Ar­my was now increased to a vast Number. Pro­ceeding forward new Sangiacks came in daily belonging to the Countries through which they marched, and a strong Party of Tartars despai­ring of being able to act any considerable Matter against Asac, offered themselves to the Service of the Grand Signior.

The King of Persia entred the Field at the Head of an hundred and twenty thousand Horse;The Persian Army dares not give Battel to the Turk. but being inferiour in Force, made only use of them to reinforce his Garrison of Bagdat with an Addition of thirty thousand Men; which now being well provided, he judged that the Force within, and the Strength of the Place would be able to endure a long Siege, and with time wea­ken, if not destroy the vast numbers of the Turks, of which there were former Examples: With the rest of his Forces he returned to encounter the Great Mogul, who (as we have said) promised Morat to assist him in this War, and attack the Persian on the other side of his Dominions, which served for an advantageous Diversion to the Turk. This was the Reason that no memorable Battels succeeded in the Field, there being none of greater Note than a Fight which Quinan Pasha had with two thousand Persians belonging to Re­van, with whom accidentally encountring, he killed fifteen hundred of them on the Place, and took the rest Prisoners, which being five hundred in number were brought before Morat, and all barbarously put to death by him.

During the time of this March, Morat often exercised himself in Feats of Arms, to shew his strength of Body and dexterity of Hand; a­mongst other things wonderful to the Souldiers, he pierced a Suit of Arms of Musket-Proof, with a Dart, called by them a Gerit, thrown from his Hand; for evidence of which, the Armour is placed on one of the Gates of Aleppo, with an Inscription under it.

About the Beginning of the Month of August the Turkish Army passed the River Euphrates, The Turks pass the Ri­ver Eu­phrates. by means of a Bridge, which was not so well built, but that it sunk under the weight of Horses, Ca­mels, and Baggage, by which Disaster many pe­rished in the Water, which great Rains had swel­led above the Bounds of its Banks. As this nu­merous Army proceeded, so all Petty Princes ap­plied themselves to perform their Homage; a­mongst which one Tarpos a King of the Arabs came with his Wife, Mother, and Son to prostrate himself before the Sultan: He was entertained in the Tent of the Favourite, who being always in company with [...]at was never suffered to se­parate from him, and his Tent, more for Ostenta­tion, than to serve his occasion. Tarpos being ad­mitted to Audience, was received with Respect and a favourable Countenance, and presented with a Vest of Cloth of Gold lined with Sables, and a small Purse of Gold: In recompence where­of the Arab Prince returned certain choice Horses and two Leopards. In like manner the Georgi­ans and Mengrelians, who are Tributaries to Turk and Persian, and commonly incline to the strongest side, whose Nations we have described in the present State of the Ottoman Empire, would not be wanting at this time to bring their Tri­bute of eighty thousand yards of Linen-cloth, which they pay every three year, with some Chil­dren of both Sexes chosen out of the comeliest and most healthful amongst them.

At Mosul the Army lay encamped for some time,The Turkish Army at Mosul. where was a general Rendezvous and Con­fluence of People from all Parts, and every thing ordered and modelized for a War. Severe Dis­cipline was kept amongst all, Offenders were Impaled, Flead alive, their Bowels ript out, and thrown into the publick Ways: Nor did Takers of Tobacco escape with less Punishment than the rest. In the mean time Wine was for­bid to his whole Camp, unless to himself and his Favourite, being a Royal drink; and when the chief Physician commended the admirable vertue of Opium, advising Morat to use it in the place of Wine, he enjoyned him to make his Words good by his own Example, and thereby for­ced him to take so much, that he was over­come, and died by swallowing too great a quantity.

From Mosul the Army marched in due order to Babylon, where the Great Vizier arrived with thirty thousand Men about the 19th of October: But by reason of the great weight of Artillery, and the many Impediments which at­tend such vast numbers, the Grand Signior came not thither till the 5th of November, and on the 9th the whole Turkish Army presented it self be­fore the Walls of Babylon.

Babylon the ancientest City of the World,The De­scription of Babylon, or Bagdat. reported to be built by Nimrod on the Banks of the River Euphrates, and afterwards beautified and enlarged by Semiramis the Wife of Ninus, is recorded in History for the vastness thereof to be one of the seven Miracles of the World. Afterwards the furious Inundations of the Ri­ver, and the Iron Teeth of devouring Time, and the subjection thereof to the Macedonian Empire, did much eclipse the Glory of that City, and caused Seleucus Nicanor, one of Alex­ander's Captains, to build a new one where the Tigris and Euphrates meet, forty Miles more Northwards than the old Babylon, which he there­fore called Seleucia after his own Name. In the Year of our Lord 753, Abugiafer Almansor, an Arab King, enlarged this City to the Eastern side of the Tigris, as being less subject to the In­undations of the River, giving it the Name of Badgat, or the place of Gardens; but his Son Almolied being more pleased with the Western side, encouraged People to build the stateliest Palaces and best Fabricks near the place where he delighted to keep his Court, so that the River Ti­gris divided the City. The which with the Coun­try thereabouts was subdued by Solyman the Mag­nificent; and afterwards in the Year 1625; it was [Page 43]recovered by Abas King of Persia, until at length in this of 1638. it was vanquished by the mighty Force and Prowess of this Magnanimous Sultan, as we shall now understand.

The numerous Troops of the Ottoman Army covering all the Plains,Bagdat be­sieged. a General Council of War was called of the Chief Commanders of the Jani­saries and Spahees, especially of such who had been practised in the Sieges of the strong Fortres­ses in Hungary. After some Debate and long Consideration, it was agreed, That the City should be battered in three Places. One Battery of twelve Pieces of Cannon commanded by the Great Vizier was to be erected against the Bright Gate; the second against the Dark Gate of ten Pieces of Cannon, under the Command of the Captain-Pasha: and a third of eight Pieces direct­ed against the Gate of Persia, under the Govern­ment of Chusaein Pasha Beglerbei of Anatolia. The Grand Signior in the mean time habited like an ordinary Souldier, that he might be the less exposed to Danger, visited all Posts and Places, encouraging them with his Words and Presence, protesting that he would not change his Cloaths for ever in any place but within the Walls of Bag­dat. In the space of three days the Trenches were opened, the Batteries raised, and the Cannon planted; and Morat having made Korban, gave fire to the first Cannot with his own Hand, as he had brought the first Basket of Earth to raise the Works. The Defendants within consisted of eighty thousand fighting Men, with which they made frequent Sallies of four and five thousand Men at a time, who being retired, were again se­conded by another of the like Number, which put the Turkish Camp into much Confusion, and into danger of having their Trenches levelled, and their Cannon spiked; but the Turks valiantly fighting, the Slaughter proved bloody on both sides; and being guided rather by the Bravery of their Courage, than by Art or Experience in in War, they carried their Works forward to the very Brink of the Ditch, having an Italian and a Candiot for their chief Engineers; who though they were not Persons of that Ability, as our modern Times have produced, yet they were such, as for want of better, served the present occasions, where force and Numbers, with small Additions of Art, were the most available. For in this Siege the Sword was more exercised than the Spade or Mattock, and there was more need of Arms than Works; for the constant Sallies kept the Turks always watchful and imployed, and perpetually disturbed them, until at length they were forced with great Labour to raise a high Circumvallation, with a very deep Ditch, defended by several Redoubts; whereby the Besieged be­ing kept in, thier Numbers decreased by former Sallies, and their Courages abated by despair of Relief, they began to grow cold in the Acts of Bravery, and to reserve their Men for the ulti­mate and last Efforts of Defence. In the mean time the Turks plied their Batteries so hotly, that in a few days the Walls were laid open almost fif­ty paces wide. In this Condition the Defendants having no other Refuge than some small Re­trenchments, which they had made during the Siege, were exposed to the open Force of the E­nemy. For now the Turks having filled up the first and second Ditches with Sacks of Wool, Fag­gots, and other Rubbish, crowded in vast Num­bers to enter the Breach, which the Persians de­fended as stoutly with Stones, Bullets, Artificial Fires, and all Instruments of Death, which fell like Showers of Hail on the Heads of the Ene­my. The Great Vizier signalizing himself above all by his undaunted Courage, commanding with his Hand and Voice, was unhappily shot by a Musket-bullet, and fell on the heaps of the dead, amongst whom there is no distinction between the common Souldier and the bravest Captain. This Fight within the Breach continued for five days, where both sides fighting like Men in de­spair, the dead Bodies lay in heaps, and Blood was stagnated like a Pool to wade thorough. At length the Numbers of the Turks prevailing, commanded now by Mustapha the Captain-Pasha, entred the Town by force of Arms on the twenty second of December about the time of Sun-set, when the Royal Standard of the Turks was plan­ted in this City. Howsoever twenty four thou­sand of the Persians remaining still alive, and u­nited in a Body, capitulated for Quarter, other­wise threatning not to die unrevenged: Pardon, and Quarter for their Lives was readily granted, on Confidence of which the Persians threw down their Arms, and submitted to the Publick Faith, or the Sultan's Clemency.Bagdat taken. But the Grand Signior afterwards considering, that the granting Quar­ter at Revan had been the cause of the Loss of the City, he repented him of his Promise, and gave Order to the Janisaries most inhumanely to open a Torrent a Blood, and make a barbarous Massa­cre of those who had newly thrown down their Arms at his Feet, not sparing either Woman or Child, either Sex or Age; the which Slaughter, like a Work of Darkness, was acted in the Night by the light of Torches and Lanthorns, and ap­peared a horrid Spectacle to all, especially to the Persian Ambassadour, who being conducted like a Prisoner in the Camp, was a sad Spectator of his Countries Destruction on the horrid Theatre of its Capital City.

So soon as Bagdat was taken, Morat dispatch­ed away Posts immediately with the News in­to all Parts, and wrote a Letter with his own Hand to the Chimacam, ordering a Dunalma or Feast of Thanksgiving, and rejoicing for the space of twenty Days; during which time no Business was to be acted, the Houses were to be adorned both without and within with the best Furniture, and every House was to set forth Lights, Torches, and Fire-works agreeable to the Condition and Ability of the Person. The People exclaimed hereat as too great an Expence, and the Vacation from Business seemed too long for those who lived by their daily Labour. The chief Ministers and Grandees evidenced external actions of Joy, but inwardly feared and tremb­led, suspecting that the fierce and cruel Humour of their Sultan would be elated, and rendred more tyrannical and untractable by Success and a favourable Fortune. The Christian Princes re­ceived this Intelligence like bad News, and as an Alarm to awaken then from the easiness of Peace, to expectations of War: For War with Persia was like an Ulcer in the Bowels of the Turkish Empire, which gangreen'd and consu­med the Strength and Marrow of their Power; which now being cured, and the Body Poli­tick rendred healthy by such a seasonable Success, would convert it self to Enterprises pernicious and dangerous to the neighbouring States.

After the Conquest of this City, Morat gave out, That he resolved to procced with his Army into Persia, and to enter the Walls of Spahan; but having some indispositions of Health upon him, and recalled by the charming Letters of a Favourite Mistress, whom he had left at Diarbechir, he inclined to return again to Con­stantinople. Wherefore mustering first his Army, [Page 44]he found that it was abated near an hundred thousand Men, two thirds whereof being killed in the War, the rest perished by the Pestilence, and other Diseases and Maladies incident to Camps; a great part of the Slaughter fell on the most veterane Souldiers of the Janisaries and Spahees, of which many of the Chief being slain, their Lands and Revenues returned to the Grand Signior, and gave him both Opportunity and Ability to reward many with such Offices and Gifts as came by the Death and Fall of other Commanders. Thus the Captain-Pasha, whose Valour had rendred him Famous, was made Great Vizier in the place of him that was slain, and the Persian Favourite was constituted Cap­tain-Pasha; and though many repined at this Advancement, as conferred on a Stranger, and a Person without Merit, yet the Grand Sig­nior considered him as one whose Experience in that Country, and the Information he had given him of the Scituation and Strength of Babylon, had made abundant Compensation for the Favour and Honour he had bestowed upon him.

The Grand Signior having left a Garison of thirty thousand Men in Bagdat, dispatched the Great Vizier with a considerable Army to penetrate far into the Country of Persia. And having now released the Persian Ambassadour, giving him liberty to return to his Master, wrote by him this braving Letter.

I That am Lord of Lords, and Conquerour in the parts of Arabia, Persia, and Greece: King that Commands with eminent Rule in the World, exalted by Divine Assi­stance to the Empire of the Ʋniverse; the most Invincible Possessor of the White and Black Seas, and of all the Cities and For­tresses which encompass them. Lord of the Divine and Prophetick Temple, that is, of Mecha and Medina, as also of Jerusalem, Aleppo, Damascus, and of all those Holy and Venerable Countries, of Grand Cairo, Salutiferous Babylon, and of Van, of Ethi­opia, Balsora, and the Lesser Asia; of all the Countries of the Curds, Georgians, and Tartars; of Moldavia, Walachia, and uni­versally of all the Provinces and Regions of Greece and Anatolia. And in summ, Su­preme Lord of the Seven Climates, the Victo­rious and Triumphant King in the Service of God Sultan Amurat Han, to the Valiant Sof [...], to whom may God give Peace, if he deserve it. This Imperial Letter worthy of Obedi­ence being come to thee, Be it known unto thee, That the Ambassador which Thou didst send to my happy Port with desires of Peace, I have detained until this time in which I have sub­dued Bagdat, by means of the keen Edge of my Invincible Semiter. If Thou desirest Peace, surrender those Provinces which belong to the Dominions of my Victorious Predecessors, into the Hands of my Beglerbeys, who are now Marching at the Head of my Victorious and Inexpugnable Army: Otherwise expect me next Spring with my Troops more numerous than the Sands of the Sea, within the Bowels of thy Dominions; where I will appear on Horse-back to unkennel Thee from the Ca­verns wherein thou now lurkest, not daring to manage those Arms, which are unworthily girt to thy Side. That afterwards shall succeed, which was determined from all Eternity. Peace be to him who directs his ways a­right.

This Letter being dispatched, the Grand Sig­nior recalled the forty thousand Men which he had lent, from the Service of the Great Mogul, which he quartered about Bagdat to hinder the Attempts of the Persians, in case they should de­sign to pursue him in the Rear, and disturb his return into Europe. By reason of the Rigour and Extremity of the Winter, and a certain Defluxion which falling on his Nerves, made him something Paralytical,The Grand Signior re­turns to Constanti­nople. the Grand Signior depar­ted not from Bagdat until the 15th of April, and then for recovery of his Health, and to soil the Horses by the way with convenience of Grass, short Days Journeys were appointed.

The Grand Signior's Indisposition encreasing, with some cold and shivering Fits, gave the first Symptoms of a Feaver; but afterwards it plainly appearing to be a paralytical Distemper, suspe­cted by the Physicians to end in an Apoplexy, it was rumoured abroad, that Morat was dead; but it was whispered with such Caution, as if they had feared lest the Grand Signior would have over-heard them, and risen from his Grave to punish their secret and inward Joy. Being some­what recovered from the last Accession of his Palsie, the Humour fell into his Legs, and swelled so much, that he could scarce sit upon his Horse; howsoever he hastened as fast as he could to Con­stantinople to disprove and confute the falsity of that Report concerning his Death.

In the mean time it is not to be expressed with what Fear and Terrour the Chimacam and other great Ministers of State expected the return of their formidable Prince, not knowing where the Thunderbolt of his cruel Disposition would strike, until at length it fell on the Head of the poor Sultan Mustapha, whose weakness, as it ren­dred him unable for Government and Command, so it made him stupid and insensible of Death.

At length on the 10th of June the Grand Sig­nior arrived at Constantinople: The Grand Signior's Entry into Constanti­nople. The Favourite Soltana, which had accompanied him to the War, passed by Water from Ismit attended with six Gallies, and took her Lodging the first Night of her arrival at a small Chiosk or House of Pleasure under the Wall, so as to make a magni­ficent Entry the Day following. Her Coach was covered with Cloth of Gold, and the Spokes of the Wheels were gilded, and the Wheels shod with Silver; she was followed by twelve Coaches, and the Mufti, Pasha's, Kadees, and other Offi­cers went before to conduct her to the Seraglio. The Grand Signior, who arrived the same Day, attended with fifty six Gallies, made not his so­lemn Entry until two Days after, being perform­ed with all the Ceremony, State, and Magnifi­cence which could be contrived. The Grand Signior in his own Person appeared in the Persian Habit, with a Leopard's Skin thrown over his Shoulders, after the manner of a Kausee (as they call them) or a brave huffing Champion, having his Stirrup attended with twenty two of the chie­fest Nobles, whom he had reserved at Bagdat, purposely to lead in Triumph when he made this Entry. The Treasure brought to Constantinople, was landed at the Seraglio out of ten Gallies, and calculated to amount to a greater Sum than that which was carried from thence; for besides the [Page 45]Riches taken in the Plunder of Babylon, seisure was mad in divers places of the Estates of Pasha's and other Great Men, which by Death, or for Crimes, escheated to the Grand Signior.

After the Grand Signior's Departure out of Persia, little of Action succeeded, as if by mutu­al Agreement, a Truce or Cessation of Arms had been contrived. The Persians desired a Peace, because they were enfeebled and tired with the War: The Turks had regained their Honour by the Conquest of Badgat; and being unwilling to lose it by change of unconstant Fortune, and lon­ger consume their Riches and Men in a tedious and remote March, were attending to receive Propositions of Peace first offered by the Persi­an. To effect which the Great Vizier, who was left at Badgat to command the Army, intimated to the Governours of the Frontiers, that a prof­fer of Peace should be accepted;An Ambas­sador sent from Persia to the Grand Signior. which being made known to the King of Persia, he immediate­ly dispatched an Ambassadour to the Grand Sig­nior to propose Terms of Accommodation. The Ambassadour being arrived at Constantinople, was grateful and acceptable to all, and his Day of Au­dience appointed after the usual manner on the Pay-day of the Janisaries, when the Floor of the Divan is covered with Sacks of Mony; before the Door of the Chamber of Audience stood the Persian Captives all cloathed in rich Vests. The Ambassadour being conducted to the Royal Pre­sence with the usual Ceremonies (of which we have given an Account in another place) was re­ceived by the Sultan sitting upon a Saffaw cove­red with Crimson Velvet, embroidered with Pearl; his Turbant was encompassed with a Chain of Diamonds, cloathed with a rich Vest lined with Sables; he cast no Pleasantness of As­pect on the Ambassadour, but beholding him with a fierce and scornful Look, received the Letter in a kind of careless Disdain, behaving himself in every Motion, as if he neither esteemed the King, nor his Ambassadour; or as if the Persian had been wholly conquered by him, had sent to beg Peace, and Pardon for his Life: The Ambassa­dour was soon dismissed from his Presence; and matters being referred to the Negotiation of the Chimacam, no other difficulty arose besides the Dispute concerning Revan, A Peace concluded. which at length was agreed by another Ambassadour sent to the Vizi­er on the Frontiers to remain unto the Persian, as Bagdat was confirmed to the Turk: And so Peace was without long Debate clapt up; the Grand Signior, by reason of his Indisposition which in­creased upon him, being not inclinable to trou­ble his Head with the Burden of Business.

Peace being thus concluded with Persia, there appeared a perfect Sun-shine and fair Weather in the Ottoman Court, neither Dissensions at home, nor Wars abroad troubling the Quiet and Repose of the Sultan: Until some Differences happe­ning between the Princes of Moldavia and Wala­chia exhaled the first Cloud of Disturbance. At that time Lupulo was Prince of Moldavia, a Per­son of evil Principles, covetous, and unjust. Mat­thew was Prince of Walachia, a good Man, zea­lous for the Christian Religion, and one who ad­ministred equal Justice to his People. Lupulo not, contenting himself with his own, but desirous al­so of his Neighbours Possession,Troubles in Moldavia and Wala­chia. made instances to the Port to have the Principality of Moldavia con­ferred upon his Son, alledging that thereby he should be better enabled to balance the Power of Ragotski in Transylvania, and on all occasions be rendred more serviceable to the Grand Signior's Designs and Interest: And seconding this Propo­sition with a Present of fifty thousand Dollars to the Chimacam, and promise to increase the annual Tribute, he obtained the Chimacam's Friendship, at whose Instance the Grand Sig­nior was perswaded to write unto Matthew to surrender up his Province into the hands of the Son of Lupulo; declaring, That it having been accustomary to change the Princes of those Countries every three years, he ought after an Injoyment of above seven years to content himself with a quiet and voluntary Re­signation, unless he would desire to draw up­on himself a Ruin by the Anger and Displea­sure of the Sultan. Matthew having no Po­sterity, resolved not to surrender his Govern­ment but with his Life; and having a parti­cular Animosity against Lupulo, could by no means incline his Mind to make his Enemy happy with the Spoils of his Estate. Where­fore having obtained Assistance from Ragotski, he resolved to withstand the Forces of young Lupulo, and engage with him: And being rea­dy to mount on Horse-back, and begin the Battel, he first dispatched an humble Message to the Grand Signior, acquainting him, ‘That he was ready at his Command to resign his Principality into the Hands of the meanest Greek his Majesty would appoint; who be­ing the Source of all Equity and Justice, he hoped that he would not oblige him to such Terms as would raise his Mortal Ene­my upon his Ruin; a Man so intent to his own Interests, and so unconscionable to compass them, that all late Revolutions, Wars, and Commotions have been raised either by him, or by his Instruments.’

This Letter being received and read by the Grand Signior, was seconded in a few hours after, with News of the total Defeat of young Lupulo; which put the Grand Signior so much into choler, that he immediately committed the Chimacam to the seven Towers, for being the Projector and Author of this Counsel. It was supposed however, that Morat's Anger would not proceed to that degree, as to extend to his Life; but being informed, that he was rich, and that he was possessed of two Milli­ons of Dollars, which lay by him in ready Mony, it was concluded, that so vast a Wealth could not in a short time be honestly gained; which appearing as an undeniable Evidence and Testimony of his Violence and Oppression, the Grand Signior made no Difficulty to pass the Sentence of Death against him,The Chima­cam put to Death. nor to con­demn the Mony to his own Exchequer: His Office was given to Sinan Pasha, and the Prin­cipality confirmed unto Matthew.

During all this Time, the Quarrel which the Turks conceived against the Venetians, for vio­lating their Port of Valona, was not yet com­posed; but now having time to peruse and con­sider old Accounts, the Venetian Bailo was called by the Chimacam to Audience, and to a Con­ference with him concerning this Matter. In the first place therefore the Bailo alledged, ‘That the Pirates of Barbary had for the space of twenty Years roved in the Venetian Gulf, and made Prize in that time of so many Ships and Goods belonging to Merchants, that the Republick had been prejudiced by them in several Millions; which also did in some manner prejudice the Customs of the Grand Signior, to whom the Venetian Mer­chants pay for the most part yearly the Sum of an hundred thousand Dollars in Custom for their Goods, besides the benefit which the Ottoman Dominions receive by so profitable a Commerce.’

Hereunto the Chimacam replied: ‘That the damages which the Turks received by the Corsairs or Free-booters at Sea under the Colours of Malta, Leghorn, Majorca, and other places, were greater and more disho­nourable to the Majesty of the Ottoman Grandeur, than the depredations of the other side were to Venice: And therefore it would be necessary for the good of the World, that such Violences were prevented in all places: and that Men of such wicked Profession should be esteemed for universal Enemies, and to have no other Quarter, nor Articles grant­ed them, than what we give to wild and hurtful Beasts, whom we destroy by Snares and Gins, and all Advantages. The which also was never denied to the Venetians, whilst they encountred and took them in the open Seas; but to enter into priviledged Places, and violate a Sanctuary of the Grand Signi­or's, without respect to the mighty Power of so dreadful a Monarch, was an act so inso­lent, as could never obtain Pardon without due Compensation for the Offence; which could not be done, but either by a Restitu­tion of the Vessels, or else of a like Num­ber in the places of them.’

Hereunto the Bailo replied: ‘That if an Accommodation could not be made on other Terms, nor Peace maintained, but by a sub­mission to Pyrats, and supportation of all their Injuries and Robberies, a War must inevitably ensue; for the good success of which they depended on the Blessing of God Almighty, and the general Assistance of all Christendom, which will esteem it self uni­versally concerned in this Cause, and obli­ged as well to make good this Quarrel a­gainst Pirates, as to preserve Venice for their main Bulwark and Defence against the Otto­man Force.’

‘You make me Smile (answered the Chi­macam) when you tell me of the Power of Christendom, which contains nothing more of Terrour than the Name. Do not I know, who have been Pasha of Buda, that the Em­perour hath no Mony; and that when the Sweeds, a small and inconsiderable People, have made War upon him, they have almost over-run his Country? As for France, if they understand their own Politicks, they will scarce be perswaded to lend assistance to the Empire, when we make War against it. The Spaniards have so much to do at Home, and to conserve themselves from the Incroachments of their powerful Neighbour the French, that they are wholly unable to lend Forces to wage a War at such a di­stance from their Dominions. Wherefore considering the Advantage we have upon you, which we well know and understand; you must either have War on these hazard­ous Terms, or else purchase your Peace with a considerable Sum of Mony. In ma­king of which Bargain you must consider, that you have to deal with a mighty Prince, and not with a Merchant; and therefore your Offer ought to be large at first, so as it may gain Credit, and be received with a favourable Ear; for a small Sum to him is like a little Morsel given to an hungry Sto­mach, which serves only to increase the Ap­petite. And you know, that we our selves are often forced to sacrifice to the Avarice of our Prince, by effusions of vast Sums of Money, which are always best compounded for, when they are done readily, and at first, before we give our Master time to consult with his Pillow, and to make up our Accounts according to the Calculation of his own Reckoning. Let me therefore exhort you to follow the like Example, and imme­diately make an Offer of three hundred thou­sand Zechins of Gold, which if you will do, and employ my Interest to make this Com­position for you, I hope, though with some difficulty, to gain its acceptance. To talk and reason of Things past is but to beat the Air, because the time is vanished and gone; but you may consider of the present, that you may secure the future. We sell you Peace at this Price; if it be worth your Mony, take it; if not, refuse it, as you judge the Purchase most agreeable to your Interest.’

At this time Christendom was embroiled in its usual Combustions, so that Assistance from other Princes was not only uncertain, but without all Foundation; so that the Venetians could have no sure Trust to any other than their own Force. In regard that many were desirous at that time to see the Venetians en­gaged with the Turk, that so they might not be able to concern themselves in the War of Italy, which then grew hot by rhe Wars of Savoy, Modena, and Matoua, favoured by the Protection of the Spaniards, by whose means all the Differences arose about the Valtoline. Considering which, the wise Senate being wil­ling to purchase so great a Blessing to their Country by a moderate Price, gave Liberty to their Bailo to compound for it at what rate and terms he was able; which by the Bailo's Dexterity in the Management, was con­cluded for the Sum of two hundred and fif­ty thousand Zechins, which was esteemed for a great Service, and redounded much to the Reputation of the Bailo: after which Conclu­sion, the former Articles were ratified, and these which follow added thereunto.

‘That the Ambassadour or Bailo should be set at Liberty, and permitted to return to his own Habitation: That Commerce be renewed as formerly between the Subjects of both Countries: That all Controversie about the Maters happened at Valona, for ever be silenced and forgotten. When at any time the Pirats of Barbary shall hap­pen to enter within the Ports of the Grand Signior, they shall give Security, that they will commit no Damage or Spoil on the Subjects of Venice. And in case they shall have taken any Prizes belonging to the a­foresaid State, they shall not be admitted nor protected in the Ports belonging to the Grand Signior. Wherefore in virtue hereof all Aga's, Captains of Castles, and other Ministers who shall not obey and ob­serve this Capitulation, shall be deprived of their Office; and if the Venetians shall then enter violently into the Port, where such Enemies have taken Refuge, it shall not be imputed to them for a Crime, or esteemed a Breach of the Capitulations. And farther, if the Venetians shall at any time encounter the aforesaid People of Barbary in the open Sea, it shall be lawful for them to assault, take, and destroy them without notice, or exceptions of the Ottoman Port. And lastly, the new Bailo lately elected, shall pay unto the Grand Signior five hundred thousand Pieces of Eight, which make two [Page 47]hundred and fifty thousand Zechins of Gold. This Writing was firmed and ratified about the middle of the Moon Rebiul in the Hegeira or Year of Mahomet 1049.’ September 1639. Hereof Authen­tick Copies were immediately dispatched to the Beglerbeys, Sangiacks, and Kadi's on the Coasts of the Mediterranean Sea, and to the Pasha of Bosna, for better Publication of the Peace, and free Traffick and Commerce between the Subjects of both People.

The Baron Chinski arrived at that time from the Emperour in Quality of Envoy Ex­traordinary,An Envoy sent from the Emperor to the Grand Signior. to congratulate the Grand Signi­or's Success in taking Bagdat, and making a Peace with Persia; but not bringing with him Pre­sents to that value, which on this occasion were expected, he was not looked on, not con­sidered with that Favour and Respect, as was agreeable to his Character and Quality. And there happening a Dispute between this Envoy and the English Ambassadour concerning Pre­cedency of place; the Turks yielded it to the English, being made to understand the Diffe­rence which Christian Princes make between the Title of an Ambassadour and that of an Envoy, though the Turks use but that one word of Elchi to express both. And though the Baron Chinski laboured to diminish the Dignity of an English Ambassadour at Constan­tinople, by alledging, that he was elected by the Company of Merchants for Conservation of their Trade only, and afterwards confirmed and honoured by the King: yet this Argu­ment was in no wise prevalent with the Turks, who esteeming the Commission of the Prince, and the Charge of an Office the only Qualifi­cation to ennoble a Person, made no Diffi­culty to determine the Point in behalf of the English. And though some Italian Writers say, that the English Ambassadour gave fifteen Pur­ses of Mony, or seven thousand five hundred Dollars to the Chimacam for this Favour; yet those who understand how unwillingly the Turky-Merchants part with their Mony on defence of such Punctillio's and Niceties, especially where the Ambassadour might have avoided the bringing them into Dispute, will more readily believe, that the Turks from free motives of their own Justice and Reason judged this Honour due to the Ambassador, than that he should purchase this indisputable Point by the disgraceful means of Mony.

All matters being now determined between the Turks and Persia, and the black Clouds blown over from the Venetians,The Turkish Counsels un­certain a­bout a War. the Grand Signior studied how and where he might turn his Arms with most Advantage: he had con­ceived an irreconcileable pique against Ragotski and Matthew for the Causes before related; but having an intention to make use of their Force against Poland or Germany, or against them both together, he dissembled the Passion he conceived against them, and rather defer­red his Revenge, than pardoned the Liberty which they had exercised without his Licence or Assent. Sometimes he resolved to recover Asac out of the hands of the Cossacks; some­times he thought of making War upon Po­land, judging himself much affronted by that King, for not sending an Ambassadour to con­gratulate his late Successes: Then he suppo­sed, that a War in Germany would be more easie, and the Conquest more profitable by rea­son of the Riches of the People, and the Fer­tility of the Soil, to which pretences could never be wanting on the score of those Dif­ferences which always arise amongst the Peo­ple of the Frontiers. During these Debates and Counsels, Preparations were made for War both by Sea and Land, as yet uncertain where they should be imployed:The Vizier returns from Persia. To command them the Great Vizier was ordered to hasten his Journey from Persia, whose Arrival was celebrated at Constantinople with a solemn En­try; and for a particular and distinguishing Honour, the Grand Signior sent him a Vest from his own Back to wear on the day of his Triumph. This Vizier was a Person very au­stere in his Behaviour, bold and valiant, as he evidenced by his Actions in taking Bag­dat, zealous for his Master's Interest; and, what is rare in a Turk, not much addicted to his own: He had acquired a great share in the Esteem of his Master, and his Authori­ty increased, as the daily Decay of the Grand Signior's Health rendred him less able for Go­vernment. For now the strong Complexion of Morat began to grow feeble by excesses of fre­quent Debauchery, his Stomach was become cold and weak, not able to digest the lightest Meats, his hand shook, and a paralytical Di­stemper seized him in every part; so that his Mother and the Physicians perswaded him to forsake the use of Wine, as Poyson and De­struction to his Health; and he, whilst he was sensible of his languishing Condition, like a true Penitent, made many Protestations and Vows against it, forbidding the accursed Poy­son to be received within the Walls of the Seraglio: Howsoever his kind Heart could not possibly withstand the Temptation of a Ban­quet, to which his Pot-companions did some­times invite him; amongst which the Great Vizier would not be wanting also to please and cajole the Humour of his Master with the Liquor that he loved. But his chief and con­stant Camerades in drinking were his Persian Favourite, and Mustapha Pasha of Bosna, one educated in the Seraglio, promoted to the place of Selictar Aga, to whom he gave the stately Palace of Ibrahim Pasha on the Hippo­drome, together with his eldest Daughter in Marriage. These two stout Sons of Bacchus perswaded the Grand Signior to appoint one solemn Drinking-day in time of the Biram, which is the great Festival of the Year, and introduced by their Prophet in imitation of our Easter. Morat being at this time posses­sed with the Spirit of Debauchery, accepted the Motion, and invited the two Drunkards to dinner with him. The Persian provoked his Pleasure of drinking by salt Meats, and by peppered and spiced Dishes; the sort of Wine they most used, was a sweet Malvoisia, sometimes twisted, and encouraged with the strong Waters, called Rosa Solis, of which they sucked so long, and with such Excess, that falling under the force of it, they were insensibly carried away to their several Beds. This dissolute Repast became fatal to the Grand Signior; for a Fire being kindled in his Veins and Bowels, he fell into a violent and continued Feaver. The Physicians being called, were fearful to administer Remedies, lest proving unsuccessful, their Lives should pay for the ineffectual Operation: At length they agreed to let him blood,The death of Sultan Morat. but this haste­ned his Death. For he died the fourth Day of his Feaver, being the 8th of February, in the seventeenth Year of his Reign, and the one and thirtieth of his Age, having ruled in the height of all Disorders and irregular Ex­cesses, [Page 48]which his youthful Years enabled him to support. With his Death all his thoughts and Designs of making a War against Chri­stendom perished, having sworn after his Re­turn from Persia to reduce all his neighbour­ing Countries to the Mahometan Law.His Cha­racter. He was of a most cruel and implacable Dispositi­on, having amongst his other Acts of Tyran­ny imbrued his Hands in the Blood of his two Brothers, Orchan and Bajazet; as also strangled his Uncle Mustapha, whose innocent Weakness had been sufficient to secure his Life against any, but the most horrid Monster of human Tyranny. He left no Son; for though he had divers, they died in their In­fancy, notwithstanding which his Kingred were so detested by him, that he envied the Descendence of Monarchy on his Brother I­brahim, who was preserved by a strange Pro­vidence from his Fury: Often saying, that he wished that he might be the last of the Ottoman Line, that the Empire of that Family might end with him, and devolve unto the Tartar. He was certainly the most absolute Prince that ever swayed the Ottoman Em­pire; but of no Religion, seldom fasting in the Month of Ramasan, contemning and laugh­ing at the Santones, and others of their Re­ligious Orders. He was very inquisitive into all Actions of the City, for which he maintained his Spies, and oftentimes took his Rules and Measures from Discourses of People concerning his Government. He was a great Dissembler, ready, active, and revengeful, covetous to Ex­tremity, having left fiteen Millions of Gold in his Treasury, which was empty when he en­tred upon the Soveraignty. In short, he was so bad, that he had scarce any Allay of Ver­tue; being so great a Tyrant, that at length he became his own Assassinate, and fell unla­mented by all but the two Companions of his bestial Excess.

The End of Sultan Morat's Life.

THE REIGN OF Sultan IBRAHIM, TWELFTH EMPEROR OF THE TURKS.

SƲltan Amurath, or Morat, after a Fever of eight Days continuance, caused by an excess of Debauchery in Wine, having on the eighth of February, 1640, ac­cording to the New-Stile, expired his last Breath.Vid. the Ott. State. His Mother, called Kiosem, comforted her self with the thoughts thather Son Sultan Ibrahim still lived, and was the sole Surviver, and undoubted Heir of the Ottoman Family. To whose Succession, that she might make the more facile and undisturbed Entrance, she con­sulted with all the Viziers, requesting their Consent and Assistance, in the lawful promotion of her remaining Son to the Throne of his An­cestors: For she had understood, that Morat, who always abhorred the ill-shap'd Body, and weaker Mind of his Brother, envied him the Dignity of the Ottoman Scepter, and there­fore had bequeathed the Succession to the Tartar, having, in the Heat of a Debauch, and Fumes of Wine, compelled his Pasha's to swear to the performance of his Testament.

Wherefore the Queen, assembling them toge­ther, with gentle Words, desired them to re­member, That Ibrahim was the Lawful Heir, and their true Emperor; that the Tartar Han was a Stranger, odious to the Souldiery, and not beloved by the People: that an Alteration of this Nature could never be contrived and exe­cuted, without danger to the Actors; and that they, to whom she assured the continuance of the same Honours and Offices, in Reward of their con­stant Allegiance, would be in hazard of losing all, by the coming of a Foreign Prince, who having Confidents of his own to prefer, and grand Necessities to satisfy, would make bold even with Estates and Provinces to prefer his Fa­vorites, his Kindred, and Country-Men, and establish the firmness of his Government on their Ruin. Yet, setting aside those Considerations, touching their own Safety and Interest, she pro­mised, That if they would reach out their Hands unto her Son, for to lift him unto the Throne, he should acknowledg his Empire from them, and accordingly love, tender, and esteem such faithful Subjects.

The Viziers, after some Reflections on the Tye and Obligation which Sultan Morat had caused them to make to him, declared, and pub­lished it to be unlawful, and void; protesting, That they were resolved to maintain inviolable the Allegiance they owed unto Sultan Ibrahim, descended from the Ottoman Blood, which they reverenced and adored, with an Awe equal to the Religious Esteem which their Fore-fathers had of it; and therefore, with one Voice they cried out, Let Sultan Ibrahim live.

Herewith the Council breaking up, the Vi­ziers, accompanied with all the Officers and At­tendants of the Seraglio, went with Shouts and loud Acclamations, to the Prison of Ibrahim, to salute him Emperor; for he, poor Prince, had now for four Years remained a sad Recluse in a dark Room, where he had received neither Light nor Air, but what came from a little Window, which sometimes in favour was opened to him from Above; and what was worse, the conti­nual expectations, and fear of Death, without Friends, Conversation, or Hope, rendred those Apprehensions worse than Death it self; which daily were represented to him in that Solemnity, as might terrify a Mind more constant and firm than his.

So soon as he heard the Shouts and Voices of a Multitude near his Door, he immediately con­ceived, that the Fate was now come which he had so long expected, and therefore he barred his Door, and denied to give Entrance: And when the Viziers proclaimed him Emperor, (fearing it might be some Artifice of his Brother, [Page 50]to see with what Joy he would entertain the News) he answered, That he did not so much as think of the Empire, nor desire it, but only prayed that Sultan Morat might live, to whom he pretended not to be a Brother, but a Slave: And when he perceived that they began to force the Door, though with terms of Respect and Observance, he still endeavoured to keep it close; for Nature had taught him to conserve a Life, for Nature had taught him to conserve a Life, howsoever Miserable, and void of Conso­lation.

He continuing thus resolute not to open, Re­verence to his Person commanded them to for­bear any ruder Violence; until the Queen-Mother over-hearing all this Stir, descended her self in Person; and first causing the dead Corps of Sul­tan Morat to be extended before his Door, with gentle Compellations, and confident Assurances, averred the Death of his Brother. The Voice of his Mother began to dissipate the Fears, and being in part already convinced by his Ears, he adventured to peep at the Door, and giving then entire Credence to his Eyes, his Heart and Spirits consented to revive; and s retiring back into his Chamber, he willingly received the Congratulations of the Ministers and Souldiers; which being past, he readily applied his Shoul­ders to the Coffin of his dead Brother; and having bore his share of that dear Burden to the Gate of the Seraglio, he there resigned it to his Domestick Officers, who buried him in the Sepulchre of Sultan Achmet.

From thence he took Boat, and passed to the Mosch of Jub's Seraglio, where in the space of eight days, he compleated all the Ceremonies of his Coronation; and afterwards, according to the Custom of his Ancestors, he rode through the City to his great Palace; but whether it were for want of practice, or by reason of a Posture natural unto Fools, he fat so ridiculously on his Saddle, as moved rather the Laughter than the Acclamation of the People.

In fine, being entred the Seraglio, he began to breath, and enjoy the Air of Liberty, with so much contentment and satisfaction, that he un­willingly would empair the least Particle of his late acquired Freedom, by thinking, or attend­ing to Business, and as if he enjoyed sufficient, committed all to the management of his Mother; howsoever, being desirous to handle something of the Government, he did it with so little Grace and Dexterity, that it plainly appeared, that that Soul animated a Body not fit to sway or wield a Scepter.

The Queen-Mother, to maintain the Word she had given to the Viziers, continued them all in their respective Offices; so that, though there was great disproportion in the Mind of the two Princes, yet the Ministers being the same, there seemed to be little or no Alteration in the Government.

The Great Vizier remembring well the thoughts of War which Sultan Morat meditated against the Cossacks, and being desirous of Glo­ry, and continuance of his Power, resolved to prosecute the same Design, hoping to meet a Spirit in Ibrahim equal to the Generosity of his Brother.Reasons for a War with the Cossaks. To this War many and various were the Motives; as first, A natural desire of Revenge on the Cossacks, for having infested the Black Seas, that they might thereby provoke Poland to a War, which when they had reduced to some Extremity, the Emperor would consequent­ly fall in to their Assistance, and thereby create Quarrels, which must necessarily open a large Field of Troubles; which being sown with the Seed of Discord, could not fail to produce Cau­ses and Pretentions for a War.

It being thus resolved, to which the Vizier nei­ther wanted Eloquence nor Reasons to perswade, great Preparations were made for a War, which was intended to be maintained for many Years: During which time, God, who disposes all Things at his Pleasure, permitted a false Report to fly, that the Persians were providing a great Army to besiege Bagdat; to which the Turks giving entire Credence, it was resolved in the Divan, that those Preparations against Christen­dom, should be diverted towards the Parts of the Eastern Countries. By this vain Rumour only were all these Grand Designs disappointed, and all farther Thoughts vanished for the pre­sent of molesting the Christians. From whence it is observable, how necessary are the Foreign Residences of Ministers, and how absurdly the Turks err; who, by reason of their Pride, vouchsafe not to entertain Ambassadors in the Courts of Strangers, being beholden to the Jews, or Armenian-Merchants for all their Intel­ligence they receive touching the Affairs of Neighbouring Kingdoms.

The Wars being thus suspended, the Great Vizier had time to cast his Eyes about him, and contrive the Ruin of such whom he suspected most dangerous to his Condition. Amongst the rest, none appeared more formidable than Mu­stapha Pasha, Captain-Pasha, a young brisk Per­son, and Favourite of the Queen-Mother, whom to remove was difficult and dangerous, being a Vizier as well as he, and in one of the most emi­nent Degrees of Dignity in the whole Empire: And therefore that he might touch him with smooth and gentle Terms, he practised upon him the ordinary Decoy of Preferment, prof­fering him the Government of Buda; which whilst the one seemed out of modesty to refuse, the other with the greater force of Complement, and obliging expressions of Friendship, pressed him to accept. At length, overcome with im­portunity and kindness, Mustapha received the Proffer; whereby being divested of the Queen's Protection, he was soon after overtaken in his Journey towards his Principality, and by ano­ther Mandate required to take his way to the Province of Silistria, the smallest, and most in­considerable of the Empire: in which he was no sooner invested, than a second Edict took off his Head.

But another Mustapha, more fortunate, was sent Pasha to Grand Cairo in Aegypt; he was a mortal Enemy to the Crim Tartar, of whom he shewed his hatred at Rhodes, by putting his Son to Death, for having said, That Sultan Morat, and Sultan Ibrahim dying without Issue, the Em­pire was to descend to his Family. This Son of Tartar was then at Rhodes, it being a Custom al­ways to have one of them as a Hostage for the Father's obedient Comportment towards the Turks, their place of Residence being either at Rhodes, or some Town on the Black Sea, as we have elsewhere declared.

The Sultan in this Interim had little regard un­to the Government, both for want of Capacity, and by reason of his luxurious and wanton Ap­petite, the which he indulged in the highest ex­cess of Sensuality; for having been accustomed to a Prison, and Restraint, he knew not how to enjoy that freedom he had recovered, but by subjecting it to the imperious servitude of his Lusts. This Humor the Vizier and great Mi­nisters cherished in him, by continual Banquets, Feass, and Entertainments, in which he always [Page 51]took high contentment and satisfaction. His other Recreations were, Horse-races, and Shoot­ing with the Bow, rewarding the most dexte­rous Archers. Business was a Stranger to him, he knew not what it meant, nor thought there was other Employment for the Emperor than to study those Pastimes, which most corresponded with his Youth and Nature: only the Vizier would sometimes, in Matters of high Impor­tance, demand his Assent, which was either out of formality, or else to secure himself with the Name and Authority of his Master.

The News of Sultan Ibrahim's promotion to the Throne being arrived at Venice, the most serene Republick dispatched Pietro Foscarini as their Ambassador Extraordinary to complement the Sultan.Ambassa­dors sent to complement Sultan Ib­rahim The Prince of Transylvania in like manner sent his Tribute, which was some Hawks, and twelve Vessels of Gilded Plate, as feudatary Acknowledgments for the Lands held, and for his Confirmation in the Principality.

The Ministers of other Princes having passed the like Addresses, which were customary, the Ambassadors of Poland made Complaints of the Tartars, whose Incursions against them, the Turks, by Conditions of Peace, were obliged to restrain; but in this, as in other Occasions since that time, the Poles could obtain no Re­dress from the Turks, who willing to have the Christians oppressed or ruined, either seem­ed not to give Credit to the Subject of Com­plaints, or else to find out Excuses to acquit the Tartar; which being so known and common a Practice with the Turk, it is to be wondred why the Poles have sent so many late Messages of this Nature, which in former, as well as in this present Age, have proved fruitless; a pregnant Example of which we shall find in the Reign of Sultan Mahomet, Son of this Ibrahim.

Amongst other Corruptions these Times, Aspers were so cut and clipt, that the Dollar rose from eighty to an hundred and twenty A­spers; which Irregularity being complained of in the Divan, all Monies were reduced to their intrinsick Value; and the Aspers called in to be coined in the Mint, to the great Damage of the People.

But this Matter will not appear strange, if it be compared to the Vellion of Spain, and to the Permission in Turkey, of the base Alloy of Te­mins, by which never any Nation before was ever so cheated and abused.

And now the Storms of War, which threat­ned from Persia, being blown over, it was judged seasonable to reassume the thoughts of War so long meditated against the Cossacks: In order unto which, Gallies were commanded to be built, which should draw little Water, and purposely made to pass the Shoals on the Black Sea near Asac, for the recovery of that Place out of the Hands of the Enemy. Another Squa­dron also of Gallies was designed for the Archi­pelago, to oppose the Gallies of Malta and Na­ples, which much infested those Seas.

To the first Enterprise, the Tartar much ex­cited the Turk, by reason that Asac did not on­ly hinder his Incursions by Land, but rendred his Navigation in the Black Seas very unsecure. To the second, The Gallies of Malta much pro­voked them, under the Command of Frederick the Landgrave of Hesse; who by the Perswa­sions of the Cardinals of Savoy, and Barberini, from a Protestant was become a Roman Catho­lick, and had obtained the great Cross of Malta; and with several Gallies and Ships, performed some Exploits at Biserta, and at the Golletta near Tunis.

The Year 1641 being now entered, the Sul­tan passed a most Luxurious Life in his Seraglio, consuming an immense Treasure on his Women; and whilst whese two Fleets were preparing to proceed on their respective Expedition, that in­tended for Asac had almost been diverted by the Rumors and Disturbances on the Frontiers of Hungary; but they were soon afterwards ap­peased, by an appearance of an Envoy from the Emperor, and return of a Chiaus to Vienna, with Ratification of all the former Articles and Conditions of Peace. Howsoever the German Internuncio was braved at the Port, for not ap­pearing sooner with his Presents and Comple­ments of Congratulation, for the happy En­trance of Sultan Ibrahim to the Ottoman Throne; so apt are the Turks to believe Acts of Civility, or Ceremony, to be Parts of Obedi­ence and Submission; and what Christians have once given them voluntarily, is afterwards ex­acted as a Matter of Debt or Duty.

And being thus freed from a Suspicion of Troubles in Hungary, and exempted from the Fears of waging two Wars at once, (which the Turks always studiously avoid) they dispatched a Letter into Poland, to demand passage for their Army, through that Country, to the Siege of Asac; but that not being consented unto; the Turks prepared to open their way by Force, and the Poles to defend the Passage. In which interim, many Disasters concurred, sufficient to discourage the Turks in their Design; who are a People, that superstitiously calculate the Suc­cess of their Enterprises, by the difficulty or smooth success of their first beginnings: For when the Vizier was ready to depart, a dreadful Fire happened in Constantinople, to the quench­ing of which, applying not only his Orders, but his own Person; he adventured so far, that he burned both his Hands, and singed his Beard in that manner, that he was forced to take his Bed for several Days, where he was honoured with a Visit of the Sultan.

News also came at the same time, that Tauris, or Ecbatan, on the Borders of Persia, was mi­serably ruin'd by an Earthquake; and what was worse, the Sultan himself was seized with an Apoplexy, which turned to a Paralytical Distem­per, the Cause whereof was attributed to his excessive use of Women; to whom he was so immoderately addicted, that he consumed his Days and Nights in their Apartments. This Disease, which is rarely or never cured, being joined to a Report given out by his Ladies, that notwithstanding his Venereal Heat, he was yet Impotent as to Women; created a Belief, or at least a strong probability, that he might die without Issue, which caused high Confusion in the Counsels of the Grandees, that no Design could make any chearful Progress, until Provi­sion was first made for Supply of the Ottoman House; for the Succession of the Tartar was in no manner convenient or secure; but rather that the Throne should be furnished with the Son of a Sister, or of a Niece, than to subject them­selves to the Rule and Passions of a Foreign Prince. And though the Sultan did afterwards recover his Health, yet all suspected and feared, that by the immoderate Heat of his Veneri I In­clination, he would die without Children; eve­ry one discoursing, as moved by his Passion, or his Interest.

About this time arrived an Ambassador at Constantinople from the Softá of Persia, bringing a Ratisication of the Peace; who was so much the more welcome, by how much more the present [Page 52]Conjuncture rendred it advantagious; and being ushered in with exceeding rich Presents, ravished the Hearts of the Turks, whose good Nature melts and dissolves with the sight or hopes of Gifts.

In Dalmatia, near the Consines of Zara, the Turks made Incursions on the Venetian Terri­tories, and caused some Disturbances: but being chastised by an Ambush laid for them, whereby about two hundred of them perished; all Mat­ters were again reconciled, and the Peace re­newed.

And now one would imagine, that the De­sign against Asac, by such diversity of Obstructi­ons, were absolutely laid aside; which though they were of that Importance, and especially the fear of Ibrahim's Death, to detain the Vi­zier at Home; yet he thought fit to prosecute the Design under the command of the Pasha of Silistria, to whom he had committed the Con­duct of this War.

The Pasha proud of his Charge,The Siege of Asac. rejoiced to be imployed in a War, wherein he apprehended so little difficulty, and prognosticated to himself nothing but Glory and Victory; esteemed the Defendants for no other than Fishermen, and better experienccd to sail their Boats, and go­vern their Saiks in the Black Seas, than to draw up an Army in the Field, or defend their Walls. This Confidence was farther increased, by an Embassy at the same time from the Moscovite, who not only renounced all Assistance or Con­cernment for that Town, but renewed with them his Friendship, and Articles of ancient Agree­ment.

The Ottoman Army, besides Janisaries, and other Turks, consisted of Moldavians, and Wa­lachians, and a great number of Tartars, which at first entred into their Trenches, and besieged the Town; but here they rested not securely, by reason of the frequent Sallies the Besieged made upon them; and more especially by the Mines which they sprang, to the terror and damage of their Enemies. The Turks moved hereat, made furious Assaults, but were as valiantly repulsed by the Defendants, who threw scalding Water, and Pitch, and burning Sulphur upon the Assai­lants; so that not being able to take the Town by Force, they retired to their Trenches, and deliberated in what manner, by fair Promises, and Mony; they might invite them to Surren­der. Hereupon the Captain-Pasha, the Tartar Han, and others, tried the Efficacy of large Proffers of Priviledges to the Town, their Country, and Inhabitants; with a Gratuity of twelve thousand Hungers of Gold: But these Promises could make no more entrance into their Hearts, than the Turks could do into their Walls, which they seemed resolute to defend, wanting neither Provision, nor Ammunition, nor courage for the War: but on the contrary side, all these were wanting in the Turkish Camp; so that fifteen days passed without any Action, until they were supplied by the arrival of cer­tain Brigantines, and light Vessels, dispatched with all expedition with the necessaries of War: At the coming of which, the Turkds prepared for another Assault, which they continued un­cessantly for the space of seven days, but were received with that vigour by the Besieged, that they could not gain one palm or inch of ground; So that at length with disgrace, and discourage­ment, they were forced to give over their At­tempt, despairing to gain the Town in the time, and with the Force which was allotted for this Enterprize.

With this ill Success, Extremity and Famine pinched the Turks in their Trenches so much, that an Ox was sold for fifteen Zechins, a Lamb for three, and a Measure of Barley, which fer­ved a Horse for one time, for a Dollar; so that at length they were forced to raise the Siege; and the Captain Pasha, by tempestuous Weather, was constrained to shelter his Fleet in the Port of Caffa. In their return Home, the General was fearful of having forfeited his Head; the Commanders were silent, and ashamed of their Success, and the Souldlers discouraged, famished, and poor; for they had lost three thousand Spa­hees, seven thousand Janisaries, and eight hun­dred other Souldiers, besides Moldavians, Wa­lachians, and Tartars; those that survived of the Foot were naked, and many sick; the Spa­hees were without Horses, with which they were supplied by the Tartars; and in fine, so unsuc­cessful were all Matters, that the Veteran Soul­diery avouched, that they never endured a more cruel, nor a more miserable War.

And now we shall end this Year 1641,The just pu­nishment of a Persian Traytor. with the ruin of Emir Guimir, a Persian by Birth, a Favourite, and yet Traitor to his Natural Prince. This Emir, in the last Wars which Sul­tay Morat waged against Persia, was entrusted with an Embassy, and with Couduct of part of his Army, but he betrayed both to the Turk, under whose Protection he took Sanctuary, and obtained great Gifts and Preferments, for a Re­ward and Price of his Treachery. Sultan Morat afterwards bestowed a magnificent Seraglio upon him, situated on the Bosphorus, enriched him with a vast Treasury, and what is more, with his Favour, making him his Companion in his Pastimes, and his Confident in his serious Coun­sels: It was he that first perswaded the Sultan to drink Wine, in which both of them were beast­ly intemperate, and mighty and valiant to bear, until the heat thereof having extinguished the natural heat of their Stomachs, it became too cold and crude, unless corrected, or fortified with Rach, or distilled Spirits. The Fumes of such strong Drinks, were the cause of the ex­travagant Actions which Morat practised in his Life, and afterwards became the means to hasten his Death; whose days being ended, it was time also for prosperous Wickedness to expire, and to meet a Punishment equal to its Demerits, Where­fore one day, (having desired License of the Vi­zier to return to his own Country, where it is be­lieved he had by Mony purchased his Pardon) he was called to the Vizier's Presence, and there, without any Impeachment, Process, or Accusa­tion, had the String applied to his Throat, and strangled on the place; the reason hereof some give, to be the immense Riches which Sultan Mo­rat had bestowed upon him, though there wan­ted not many Causes to render him suspected, and obnoxious to the present Government; first, because he was too well acquainted with the Se­crets of the Seraglio, and of that State, to live in any other country than the Turkish Domi­nions; then it was feared that the Persian Am­bassador might make use of this Person to act what Treason he pleased on the remainder of the Ottoman Family, on promise that such an Attempt should expiate his former Villany, and regain the favour of his natural Prince. But such signal Actions as these, are commonly wrote in such large Characters of Divine Justice, which never lest treason unpunished, either in this life or the other; that we need not search or enquire for a further Cause or Occasion of this Punish­ment.

The Year 1642 being now entred, and the Turks desirous to repair their last Years Dis­grace, resolved again, with better Preparation and Conduct, to attempt Asac; but before they would engage, according to their usual Custom, they determined to conclude all Um­brages, and Matters of Dispute arisen on the Consines of Hungary. To which end, the Em­peror deputed the Baron of Qnestemberg, with other Barons; and the Turks on their side com­missionated the Pashaws of the Confines, with In­structions not to insist too strictly on the Con­ditions, lost it should retard the Peace, and ob­struct the other Design of War: Wherefore the Turks condescenging to Matters reasonable; and yielding up part of their Usurpation, a Peace was concluded for twenty Years, much to the Advantage and Favour of the Christians.

And now,The Birth of Sultan Mahomet. to give farther Courage to the Pro­secution of higher Attempts, the whole Tur­kish Empire was replenished with Joy, for the Birth of a young Prince Sultan Mahomet, that now reigns; so that the supposed Impotency of the Father (whereby the Ottoman Family might have been extinguished) was proved otherwise by plain Effect; and the fear of those that ru­led the Empite vaishing by the Rising of this new Star, all places were filled with Joy and Triumphs; only the Tartar Han finding himself thus disappointed, was supposed not willing to concur heartily in this common Joy. In this manner vaished the appearance of Civil Dis­sention in that Family, which now flourishes and encreases every day, and insensibly creeps for­ward to the Design (which they hope) of an Universal Monarchy. Pardon me, O Christian Kings, if I say insensibly, for methinks you are sensible of the least touch you receive from one another, but feel not the gripes and pinches of your Common Enemy, who like a Hectick Feaver hath mingled with your Blood, and sto­len into the Marrow of your Strength, where he will lurk until he hath dissolved the Fabrick of your Christian World, unless expelled by Con­cord amongst your selves, and the Divine Assi­Stance favouring your united Forces.

But now to return again to the famous Siege of Asac; The War renewed a­gainst A­sac. It being the custome to cast all Miscar­riages in War on the General, the Visier dis­placed the Captain-Pasha, taking upon himself that Office and Title, of which there was never any former Example. In the Place likewise of the Pasha of Silistria, was constituted Mustapha Pasha of Aegypt; which Government, though much inferiour to his former, yet was received without fence of Disgrace, it not being the Rich­es or Power of any office that confers Honour, but the Favour and good Will of the Sulan. Nor did only the Miscarriage of the late War tend to the disrepute of the former Pasha of Silistria, but the Report of his having poisoned the Tar­tar Han encreased the difficulty of reconcilement with his Superiors, which being a Matter rather suspected than proved, excused him from far­ther punishment than only a deprivation of his Office.

The new Pasha of Silistria thus taking upon himself the Command of the Army, and Con­duct of this War, assembled a Force of Turks, Tartars, Moldavians, and Walachians, far exceed­ing the number of the last Year. At the News of which, and of the Fleet of Gallies designed to besiege them by Sea, they apprehended their Danger so great, that without the Assistance of the Moscovite, they concluded it impossible to defend their City; to him therefore they made Applications for Succour, representing unto him the extremity their Affairs were in, by reason of that powerful Enemy which threatned them; and that having always acknowledged him for their Protector, there was no Refuge left them but under the defence of his Arms. But hereun­to the Moscovite gave a brief reply, That he had lately concluded Peace with the Turk; since which, having received from him no occasion of breach, he could not with any Justice engage so soon against him in a War.

The Cossacks being thus disappointed of their principal Hopes,The Inhabi­tants aban­don Asac. resolved to abandon their Ci­ty; but to make the best advantage of their flight, they carried with them all their Move­ables; and demolished their salls, and ruined their Houses, leaving the Place a notorious Spe­ctacle of Despair and Ruin; and no other Pos­session to their Enemies, than the compass of so much ground pestered with Rubbish, and rude heaps of Stones. The Pasha howsoever abun­dantly contented, that his very Name was suffi­cient to affright his Enemies, entred the City with Triumph, where he began to repair the Walls, and invite the Inhabitants to return, with all assurance of Security, and Protection. This gentle Treatment recalled many back to their Homes, so hardly are Men weaned from their Native Country; and in a short time the City beginning to fill, all Matters seemed to re­turn to their pristine State and Condition.

About this time the Persian,The Persian renews his League. by his Ambassa­dor, renewed his League with the Turk, and confirmed it in the Name of the new king; which was performed on condition that the Soft should demolish the Fortress of Fortrina, which he had, contrary to Articles, built on the Fron­tiers, not far from the Caspian Sea; which that it might assuredly be performed, a Capugibathee was dispatched to see it effected.

And in this manner, Asac being subdued, and a Peace secured with the Persian; The Turks, who can neither live in quiet with their Neigh­bours, nor observe Capitulations longer than they turn to their advantage, contrived to take Giavarine, aliàs Rab, a strong Fortress on the Confines of Hungary, by a Stratagem which they designed in this manner: Certain souldiers ha­bited like Peasants,The Turks seek to take Rah by Stratagem. were crouded into several Carts, covered with Hay, which being entered within the Walls, were immediatly to leap forth, and surprise the Centinels and Guards at the Gates (which might easily be executed on Men, whom twenty Years before of Peace had made secure) these were to be seconded by four thou­sand Souldiers, which lay ready in a Neighbou­ring Vally; but it happened, That an Officer of the Garrison returning from Hunting, had by chance discovered this strong Party of Turks, which caused him to quicken his pace towards the Town, and overtaking in his way certain Carts of Straw, which appearing to be laden in a form different to what was usual, increased in him a farther suspicion of Treachery; how so­ever, he proceeded forward with the more haste, yet without any appearance of Jealousy: until being entred into the Town, he declared what he had seen, at which the Garison was immedi­ately in Arms; and having permitted the Carts to enter, the Bridg was drawn up, and the Carts be­ing searched, the shole Fraud and Treachery was discovered; and having made the Turks Pri­soners, and armed the Walls with Souldiers, the whole Design was disappointed; so that those who lay in Ambush returned to their own Cities, The Emperor hereupon resolved to send [Page 54]an Ambassador to Constantinople, complain of this Treachery; whereof the Turks being a­shamed, and the more because it did not succeed; resufed to admit the Ambassador, unless the Em­peror would first agree to pay a yearly Charge of an hundred thousand Ris-Dollars to the Port; not by way of Tribute, but of present; in which unreasonable Demand, they took more confidence, in regard they perceived that the Em­peror was engaged in a War against the Swede. Upon this dishonourable Demand, the Emperor deferr'd the Embassy intended, supposing it less perilous to adventure a War in Hungary, than dishonourable to condescend unto a Proposition so derogatory to the Majesty of his Cesarean Greatness.

This Year 1643 being entered, the Prince of Transylvania conveyed his Annual Tribute, be­ing ten thousand Zechins, to the Port; which when the Agents of that Prince presented before the Vizier, he seemingly refused it; pretending that the compleat Tribute was to be fifteen thousand, according to Agreement: but the A­gents replied, that five thousand had been re­mitted unto Bethlem Gabor, not by way of Gra­tuity or Recompence for his Service, but in Ex­change, or as the price of two Cities, which the Prince had yielded to the Sultan, out of his own proper Estate in Hungary: With which Answer the Vizier remained satisfied, being jealous of the Turbulent and active Spirit of that Prince.

During all these Wars and Revolutions in Kingdoms and States, Sultan Ibrahim contained and contented himself within the Precincts of his Seraglio; where becoming a faithful and va­liant Soldier of Venus, he consumed more Trea­sure in that War, than his Brother Morat did in Foreign Conquests; and being, as it were, en­tered into the Mahometan Paradise, where the Company of fair Women is the chiefest Felicity promised, he laboured to increase the Ottoman Family, and to acquit his People of the appre­hension they had of wanting an Heir to succeed in the Throne; so that on the 15th of February he had a second Son born, and a third on the 12th of March following; which absolutely took away the Reproach of his Frigidity or Impo­tence, proving afterwards the most lascivious and devout Sultan that ever aspired to the Ma­hometan Heaven.

This Year the Turks armed out twenty Gal­lies more than usual, besides thirty Sail of Ships, and Gally-Grosses; in the beginning of June, riding at the Seraglio Point (where the Com­manders in Chief came to take their leave of Sultan Ibrahim) they divided into two Squa­drons; one of which consisting of twenty Gal­lies, under the Command of Beker Pasha, took their Voyage into the Black Sea; the remainder under the Captain Pasha, sailed for Cyprus, with intention to do Justice on the Pasha of that Island, whose Riches gained by Oppression, had de­bauched him from due Obedience towards his Prince; and being arrived there, without Rumor or Noise, giving signs of good Will and Re­spects towards the Pasha, one day he sent to in­vite him Aboard to banquet with him; where the Pasha foolishly coming, and having well eaten and drank with him, his Entertainment had not time time to digest, before he breathed his Last; for being on his departure, the Slaves assaulted him, and strangled him by Order of the Captain­Pasha.

No other Matters remarkable did the Turkish Fleet perform this Year at Sea, before they re­turned again to their Winter-Quarters. Howso­ever this Year proved savourable to many poor Christians in Slavery; for there happening a most miserable Plague in Alexandria, which re­laxed the Spirits of Men, and rendered every one so negligent in his Office, that about four­thousand Slaves taking advantage of such Remis­ness in their Guardians, seized a Ship in Port, and crouding themselves therein, set Sail, and landed some of their People at Candia, others at Malta, the rest at Marseillia, by which means they happily regained their Liberty: on which incouragement eight hundred more adventuring to perform the like, and fighting in a Body at the Gate of Alexandria, three hundred of them were flain, the rest leaped into a Gally, which though without Oars, had yet her Sails to the Yard, and having the fortune of a favourable Wind, arrived safe at Candia; in like manner they became free, taking convenient passage from thence to divers parts of Christendom: These Slaves were all redemanded by the Grand Signior from the Venetians; in which no Satisfaction be­ing given, was one Cause and Original of that War which afterwards ensued.

And now the Year 1644 being begun, Ra­gotski, who was never contented but in Combu­stions, and never at. ease but when he was proving new Projects, made Demands of certain Places on the Confines of Moravia, scituated within the Mountains, which he challenged as the Inheritance of his Son; besides other Pre­tences which he made in right of Bethlem Gabor. To forward which Designs, moved with an in­veterate Enmity to the Austrian Family, he en­deavoured to win the Hearts of the Commonal­ty with a plausible Declaration for Liberty, and to throw off the Yoke which had so long gauled the Neck of Hungary; whereby having raised an Army of twenty thousand Horse, and thirty thousand Foot, he entred, and spoiled the Coun­try of his old Enemy and Neighbour the Count of Humanay an Hungarian, took Solnock by force, and besieged Fileck, and Cassovia: For suppression of which Insurrection and Rebelli­on of Ragotski, the Emperor was forced to a War; and having Rendezvoused his Army at Presbourg, the Conduct thereof was committed to the Charge of Cout Puceain.

The Turks having intelligence of these Pre­parations for War, commanded twenty thou­sand Men to march into those Parts to oppose these Combustions on the Frontiers; with six­thousand of which the Count Puecaim encoun­tering furiously, assaulted and routed them. And in the mean time Ragotski laying aside all care for the War in Hungary, applied himself to relieve Olimz in Moravia; but in his March thither he was recalled by the Inhabitants of Sendar, which is a Castle erected on a Hill near Cassovia, offer­ing to surrender unto him; but the Governor Forgatz, of the People, a Civil War began a­mongst themselves, but at length the advantage falling unto Ragotski, the Gates were opened un­to the Transylvanians; with which Success their Spirits being raised to higher Matters, they pro­ceeded forward, until General Getz with a strong Body, gave a stop unto their Progress. And thus was the Fire of sar rekindled again in Hungary, by means of Ragotski; to whom notwithstanding the Turks would never adhere, being well acquainted with his turbulent and unsteady Humour. In the mean time the Empe­ror dispatched his Ambassador with rich Presents to the Sultan, desiring him to forbear giving far­ther Assistance unto Ragotski; but what between [Page 55]Skirmishes, Propositions, and Treaties, Matters were not complsed until the 14th of August 1645, at which time all Articles were concluded and signed between the Emperor and Ragotski.

But to return now to the Affairs of Constanti­nople; Sultan Ibrahim having the Fortune of Active and Prudent Ministers, attended en­tirely to his Pastimes and Pleasures, without Prejudice to his Interest, and the State of his Empire; for the first Vizier being Faithful and Vigilant, immediately cut off those Members with the Sword, which he suspected in the least manner inclinable to Sedition; amongst which were the Pashaws of Aleppo and Caffa. For by this kind of seasonable and speedy Remedies, the Plethory of the Ottoman Empire is common­ly evacuated, and the Body Politick thereof restored to its pristine state of Health and Safety.

In like manner the Valede Sultana, being a Woman of great Courage and Abilities, attend­ed carefully to the Welfare of her Son, whom she sometimes decked up, and set forth as a Property of Majestick Gravity to the People, whilst she her self assumed the Authority, and carried allthings with a high and imperious Spi­rit; and being ambitious to be feared as well as honoured, she laid Viloent Hands on the first Vi­zier, called Mustapha, and strangled him; for though he was an Active and Faithful Minister, yet because he passed something on her which she imagined did favour of neglect, and because she ap­prehended his Power, which was greatly confirmed by the Interest and Favour he had with the Janisa­ries, and their Favourers, she resolved to make him an Example, as well of her Revenge, as her Power; after whose Death the Charge of first Vizier was conferred on Mahomet the Pasha of Damascus.

The fame Fate befel the Captain-Pasha, who was likewise strangled for having over-boldly, or peremptorily, made answer to some Imper­tinencies of the Grand Signior; and his Office was afterwards conferred on Beker Pasha of Rhodes. With such Rigour as this do the Sul­tans govern, who resolve to be obeyed, and to have their Commands executed without delay or contradiction.

Whilst these Matters were in agitation,The Tar­tars make Incursions into Po­land, not­withstand­ing the Peace. the Tartars forgetful of their Peace, made another Incursion with thirty thousand Men into Russia, against whom Konispolski having made Head with twenty thousand Men only, overthrew them, and killed twelve thousand, and took three thousand Prisoners, pursuing the rest to the Borders of Walachia. In like manner Wisno­wick, a noble Polander, happily encountred ano­ther Party of Tartars, as they were on their re­turn from spoiling the Countries of Moscovia; of whom having killed 10000 Men, he recovered their Booty, and sent the rest Home naked and empty. This was the true and most effectual Means for the Polanders to avenge and right their Injuries, and more prevalent then Ambassies and Messages of Complaint unto the Port; which we have experienced since, and in the present Reign of the Son of Ibrahim, to have been so far from producing Matter worthy so much as the Charge of the Ambassador, that they have been retorted with lgnominy and affronts.

But here Ibrahim perceiving how the Poles had avenged themselves with their own Sword, would seem to approve of the Action, which he could not hinder; and to appear a sincere Observer of the Peace, he deposed the Tartar Han for his unlawful Incursions; which was such a satisfacti­on to the Crown of Poland, as they never could obtain by force of Justice, Complaints, and Vertue of passive Valour, until their active Fortitude cook their Cause in Hand, and pleaded for them.

On the 19th of March of this Year, a fourth Son was born to Sultan Ibrahim; and on the 19th of February following, being in the Year 1645, notwithstanding all the Reports of his Impotency, was born a fifth Son, named So­lyman, to the great contentment of his Peo­ple.

The Turks Gallies this Year, under the Com­mand of Beker their new Captain-Pasha, made an Attempt on the Coast of Calabria, bringing from thence two hundred Slaves; and attempting the like near Corton, paid for their former Booty, with the loss of five hundred Men.

How soever, the Gallies of Malta, being six in number, had better Success as to themselves, though the Consequences thereof proved fatal to the Venetians, having given the first occasion of that long War, which afterwards ensued be­tween the Turk and them.

The truth of which Story is this,The Story of Kuzlir Aga, his Slave and Son taken by the Mal­teses. free of all Romance or Fable, which the Knights of St. John or Malta would mix therewith: It happened that the Kuzlir Aga, or chief Eunuch, which governs the Women in the Signior's Seraglio, having cast his Eye on a fair Slave, then set to sale by a Persian Merchant, became so enamoured of her, that he purchased her for himself, under the No­tion of a virgin, at the price of four hundred and fifty Dollars: But the Eunuch had not long entertained this Lady in his Service, before she proved with Child; not by him (you may con­ceive) if you understand how the Eunuchs of this Country are disarm'd of their Virility: At which he was so greatly offended, that he ba­nished her from his Society, and confined her to the House of his Steward. The time being come for her to be delivered of her great Belly, it proved a Son; and some Months after, the Aga being desirous to see the Babe, was so pleased with the aspect of it, that he resolved to adopt it for his own, ordering it Cloaths, and other Necessaries agreeable to its Condition. It hap­pened that about that time Sultan Mahomet (which now reigns) was then born; and there wanting a Nurse for the Child, this beautiful Slave was preferred to the Honour; so that she was entertained near two Years in the Seraglio: During which time Sultan Ibrahim took such an affection to the Nurse's Boy, that he loved him better than his own eldest Son, who was of a bad Complexion, and of no better Air in his Face than his Father, and took great delight to play and sport with him; at which the Mother of Sultan Mahomet was so displeased, that she could not longer endure either Nurse or her Boy; and for her sake, took so much displeasure against the Kuzlir Aga, who preferred her, that neither his presence nor Service were acceptable; and so violent she was in her Passion, that one day, when Sultan Ibrahim was playing with his Wo­men and Children in the Garden, according to his usual Custom, throwing them one on the other into the Water, the Queen grew so furi­ous, that she could not contain longer from venting her Anger in unhansome Terms, and jealousy against the Nurse and her Son. At which the Sultan being much displeased, and be­ing ill-natured, (if we may speak boldly of an Emperor) took her Son (which is now Sultan Mahomet) out of her Arms, and with some few Curses swung him into a Cistern; where he had been certainly drowned, had not every one in that instance applied themselves to save him; at [Page 56]which time he received the Mark or Scar he wears at this day in his Forehead.

All these Matters served for farther Fuel to nourish the implacable Spirit of the Queen; which the Kuzlir Aga well observing, judged it prudence to give way to her Fury, and so beg­ged his Dismission from the Court, together with his Slave and Son; and that having wisited Mecha, according to his Law, he might enjoy a Retirement in Egypt, which is the Portion of ba­nished Eunuchs.

The Queen easily consented hereunto; nor was it difficult to procure the Licence of the Sul­tan, who was as easily perswaded to any by those who were about him; wherefore the Eunuch ha­ving provided, to be gone, shipped himself with his great Treasure, on the Fleet which was now designed, and ready to depart for Alexandria, which consisted of three Ships; one a great Gallion, and two others of lesser Burthen, and seven Saiks; these having at the beginning of their Voyage found contrary Winds,The En­gagement of the Tur­kish with the Malta Gallies. put into Rhodes; from whence loosing with more favou­rable Weather, they unfortunately met with six Malta Gallies, excellently well manned, and provided. The Admiral Gally immediately Boarded one of the Saiks, and took her, man­ned only by Greeks; by whom they were in­formed of the Condition, Quality, and Cargo of the greater Ship, which gave Heat and Re­solution to the Souldiery. In like manner, with little Oppsition, the Gallies called the St. John, and Joseph, possessed themselves of one of the lesser Ships, which being laden only with Tim­ber, brought from the Black Sea, to build Ships at Alexandria, was of little value, having forty Turks aboard, eight Women, and a Child which sucked at the Mother's Breast. In the mean time, the three other Gallies, called the St. Mary, St. Lorenzo, and Victory, attacked the great Gallion, and having cast their Iron Graples into the Ship, with the Motion of the Ship, the Irons gave way and broke, only that of the St. Lorenzo held fast, so that the whole force of the Ship, both of small and great Shot, was poured in upon the Gally, to their damage and loss of Men. In the mean time the Admiral Gally came in to their Assistance, and Assaulting the Ship on the other Quarter, made a Diversion of their Men; and having thrown in their Graples, they scaled the sides of the Gallion, as if it had been a Fortress; where being entred, they remained for some time at handy-blows with the Turks; but at length, all the Gallies coming to their help, having made an end of subduing the other Ships, the Turks were forced to retire under Covert of their Decks, which they defended still with singular Valour, wounding the Christi­ans with their half Pikes through the Gra­tings.

But, in fine, the Captains of the Gallies, per­ceiving that this was not the way to compel them to a speedy Surrender, ordered several Musque­tiers out of every Gally, to sire in at the Win­dows and loop-holes of the Ship; by which ha­ving killed their Commander in Chief, their Va­lour and Constancy began to fail, and desirous to save their lives with loss of Liberty and E­states, they cast down their Arms, and begged Mercy.

In this Engagement were killed the Captain of the St. Mary, and seven Cavaliers, of which five were French, one Italian, and one German; the Admiral himself, and the Captain of his Gally were both wounded; seventy nine Soul­diers and Mariners killed, and an hundred thirty two wounded: Of the Turks it is not certain how many fell, in regard as they were killed, according to Custom, they cast them over-board; the Eunuch himself, though always educated in the softness of the Seraglio, and in the Conver­sation of the Female Court, yet in the end con­cluded his days like one of the Masculine Sex, fighting valiantly with his Sword, until over­whelmed by his Enemies: by which it is obser­vable, that those Persons lose not their Courage with their virile Parts; for it hath been known in former days, how that Eunuchs have been Generals in the Turkish and other Armies, and conducted their Affairs with admirable Courage and Success.

The Prize which the Christians had gained in this manner, was very considerable; for besides the Gold, Silver, and Jawels, which were the Treasure this Eunuch had amassed in the Reign of three several Sultans, they gained three hun­dred and fifty Slaves, besides thirty Women, some of which were young and Virgins; so that there was not a Souldier or Seaman who had not a considerable share of benefit proportioned un­to him. With this Fortune, towing their Pri­zes, they in a short time came to an Anchor in the Port of Calismene, in the Island of Candia, called anciently Phenice, on the South-side of the Island, remote from all Venetian Garisons; and where (as it is reported) they were supplied with no Provisions, excepting a small quantity of Bisket, which was furnished by a Coutry Fellow, who for that very Cause was shot to Death. From hence the Gallies departing, ar­rived in Malta with their Prizes, where they were received in great Triumph. The young Son of the Eunuch (for so we call him) was reported to be a Son of the Grand Signior, fent into Egypt to be Educated, and was accordingly saluted, treated, and reverenced by the Grand Master; the same Opinion was dispersed and confirmed in all parts of Europe, and the Er­rour for many Years maintained at the Ex­pence of theOf the Knights of Malta. Religion, until the Boy grow­ing up to a good Age, and not judged worthy of a Ransom, or enquiry after by the Turks, it was thought convenient for him to put off his State, and Greatness, and become a Fryer, and I think a Dominican, and this is he who now goes under the name of the Padre Ottomano.

The News hereof arriving at the Ottoman Court, Sultan Ibrahim was transported with An­ger, threatning Destruction and Ruin unto Mal­ta; besides he shewed a most inveterate Passion against the Venetians, for not guarding the Seas from his Enemies, and for relieving them in their Ports. In which Rage and Fury, he put his own Captain Pasha to death, and Summoned the Christian Ambassadors, braving them all for the little respect was shown to his proper Ship­ing; and in short, was angry with all, but re­served the Effect of his Wrath to be poured on the Venetians, to which this Accident admini­stred the first Original, and will afford us am­ple matter of Discourse in this ensuing Histo­ry.

For the Grand Signior first made his Com­plaints against Venice, to their Minister, or Bai­lo, then resident at Constantinople, called Soranço; alledging, that contrary to the Articles of Peace, they had afforded Prvisions and Entertainment to his Enemies in Candia, and at a time when having made Prize of his own Ship, and Dome­stiques of his Seraglio, they seemed, with more extraordinary demonstrations of Hospitality than usual, to receive them into their Harbours. [Page 57]To which the Bailo made Answer, That his Maje­sty was ill informed of the true state of those Mat­ters; for that the Port to which the Malteses came, had neither Castle nor Fortress belonging to it, but was an open, wide, and unfortified place; for if the Grand Signior is not able to defend those Ships from careening, as they have often done before Rhodes it self, how was it possible for the Venetians to drive them from the Seas, and deny them the use of that Salt Water, which hath neither Fort nor Castle to reach and command them? With which Answer Ibrahim seemed to remain satisfied; and Matters ap­peared so appeased on the side of the Veneti­ans, that Soranço, though a Person of a most acute and penetrating Judgment, imagined no­thing less than a War: and though he was as­sured otherwise, by something that the English Ambassador had discovered in that Matter; yet because it came not first from the Report of one of his own Interpreters, he would not seem to believe or give credit thereunto, notwith­standing the strong Probabilities that might per­swade it.

Indeed, Christian Ministers must necessarily, with much Difficulties, and less Inspection, go­vern and penetrate Affairs in the Turkish Court than in any other; because access to the great Ministers is seldom privately or familiarly ad­mitted, from whence wise Men most commonly take their Measures and Observations; but on the contrary, are forced to act all by the Nego­tiation, of their Druggermen or Interpreters; and as they hear with their Ears, so are they often-times beholden to their Reflections; which how subject they may be to Error, is best known to those Ministers who have practised much and long in that Court.

And in this manner Ibrahim covered his De­sign against Candia, by pretence of making War upon Malta, to which he had lately recei­ved so just a provocation.

To this Enterprize, none instigated him more than a certain Hagia, or Tutor, which had ac­companied him in the time of his Solitude, and had instructed him in the first Principles of the Mahometan Doctrine; he was a subtil and un­derstanding Man, and one who kept a secret Cor­respondence in the Christian Courts; for being Master of what Gold he pleased, he paid for his Intelligence with Liberality and Secresy; and though he was no Prophet, yet he pretended to be a Magician, or Conjurer, or one that had a Command or Soveraignty over Familiar Spirits; an Excellency greatly admired and reverenced by the Turks. This Man had for a long Season at­tended an opportunity to promote a War a­gainst Venice; esteeming their Territories very convenient to be laid to the Turkish Dominions, and their Force an under-Match for the Puis­sance of the Ottoman Empire. And now this Accident provoking the Desire of the Turks to this War, and the Opportunity appearing com­modious to cover the Design, under pretence of Assailing Malta, it was secretly resolved to at­tempt the Island of Candia; for as its Strength and Situation made it the Key to all the other Isles of the Archipelago, so it would be the Bull­wark of the Maritime Countries, from whence the Passage would be short and easy into Africa; from whence the Gallies might advantagiously relieve Cyprus, and guard the Fleet from Egypt, and from thence might be opened a Door to in­vade Sicily, and the other parts of Italy. On these Considerations, War being resolved against Candia, Reports divulged the Design only against Malta, and for that end, Orders were issued for building and fitting an hundred Gallies, and as many Ships of War; and Commands sent into Barbary for assistance of all their Naval Force, and the Day appointed for Rendezvous and De­parture; all which time the Enterprize was kept secret, and by no more Symptoms suspected, un­less by the unusual Caresses the Turks at that time over-acted in their officious kindness to­wards the Venetian Bailo.

The Report of these great Preparations fly­ing over all Parts of Europe, was entertained at Malta, with some Apprehensions, as being the Place on which all the Storm was to refund its Fury.

Whereupon the Cavaliers or Knights of that Place, summoning a Council, resolved to cite all the Fraternity to repair to the Defence of their Capital Seat, and of their Order and Pa­trimony. Likewise Letters were directed to the several Officers, to prepare and send Pow­der, Match, and Lead, Iron Buckets, and Tim­ber to make Carriages for Cannon, and for other Uses; as also Corn, Bisket, Salt, Flesh and Fish, Vinegar, Wine, and all other sorts of Ammunition. They likewise instituted some Officers over the Waters, to see that the Foun­tains and Conduits should be made clear which were to serve the City; and that those with­out, that were to remain in the possession of the Enemy, should be carefully and artificially poi­soned; all the Mills remaining in the Fields were transported into the Town; the Doors and Windows of Wood belonging to the Pea­sants Houses, were taken down and carried into the City, with all their Utensils, and what else was portable, so that nothing remained but the wide Fields, and an open Air to breath in.

In the mean time, the Venetians being a wise and jealous State, suspected the werst of all E­vents, and feared what their Minister at Con­stantinople could not discover; which caused them to make some Preparations, but yet with that dexterity and secresy, as not to render them diffident of the Turks Proceedings. For to be jealous of a Friend, is sometimes to make him an Enemy; and Distrust always argues Disaf­fection, which Prudence teaches to conceal from those who are more powerful than our selves. Some were notwithstanding of Opinion, that the Complaints of Ibrahim were only Artifices to extract the Blood of Gold, which they judged fit to administer, if it were possible to, satisfy the Appetite of those Leeches. Others were of a contrary sense, and would by no means admit it for good Cousel, or Policy, to buy their Peace of the Turk; for, besides that it was disagreeable to the Grandeur of Venice, it was but a Shadow that they purchased, since their Enemies could on every slight Occasion reassume what they had sold, and make the Menaces of War, and the Sale of Peace, serve them for a perpetual Fountain, an Mine of Gold and Treasure; and that since it was necessary, at one time or other, to cast off this Yoke of Tyran­ny; the sooner it was done, the Advantage would be the greater, and the Honour more ap­parent to the World, seeming to make War ra­ther their Choice, than their last Remedy. How­soever Orders were given to the Bailo, with all Prudence and Art, to touch gently the Pulse of the Turks, to discover if Mony would redeem the present Quiet of their State.

But the Resentment that the Turks had con­ceived, was grown apparent in the comportment towards the Bailo; for having one day demanded [Page 58]Audience, he attended several hours without ad­mission; yet when the Ambassador of Ragotski come to the Vizier, he no sooner entred the House than he was received: and at the same time it was told the Bailo, that he might retire, for that there was no Place nor Season at present to afford him Audience. In the mean time Ibra­him himself walked often to the Arsenal, to for­ward and hasten his Preparations, laying an Em­bargo on all Strangers Vessels in all Ports of the Ottoman Dominions. Orders were likewise dispatched to Thebes, Negropont, and other Parts of Greece, for making Bisket; and to the Morea for cutting and squaring of Timbers, and sacking Wools to fill up Trenches; in all which Rumor and Stir, there are was no other discourse but of Malta, and of throwing that Island into the Sea with the Shovel and Mattock, and rendring it the most dreadful Example in the World of the Ottoman Rage and Greatness.

With such Preludes as these, began a War of long continuance, maintained with various Suc­cesses for divers Years; the fatal Issue whereof, we our selves have seen and heard. But it is strange to consider, that an Exploit so Martial as this, should commence in the Reign of a Sul­tan wholly given up to his Pleasures, and so swallowed in Sensuality, that all those luxu­rious and wanton Actions which are recounted of Sardanapalus and Heliogabalus, are flat and faint Similitudes of that prodigious Effeminacy, in which this Sultan outdid all other Examples of former Ages.

Amber was the common Perfumes which bur­ned perpetually in the Womens Apartments, and the common Sauce to most of his Viands; not perhaps because it so much pleased his Pa­late, as that it was a provocative, and incite­ment to his Lusts.

And this puts me in mind of a Story I have heard of an English Merchant, living then at Galata, who was Master of a rare piece of Am­bergriese, which was in form like a Pyramid; the News whereof was told to the Grand Signior late at Night, when the Smoke of the Persumes began to abate: Which so soon as he heard, though it was near Midnight, he dispatched a Messenger to call the Merchant with his Amber­griese; who being knocked out of his Bed in haste, by the importunity of the Officer, came to the Seraglio Gate two hours before Day; where he attended until it was broad Light, and then, without more words, found a Market for his Amber, and before his departure received 13 thousand Dollars. The Female Court was then extreamly rich and splendid, all Italy was scarce able to supply it with Silks, and Cloth of Gold; so that the Trade was in those days flourishing above other Times, and gave great employment to English Shipping: and so impatient were the Women for their Gay Cloaths, that so soon as the News of a Ship from Italy came, and that she was arrived within the Castles of the Helle­spont, but there detained by contrary Winds, Gallies were immediately dispatched to bring up their Silks, which they oftentimes forced away without any Account or Price made with the Merchant; of which that worthy Gentleman, Sir Thomas Bendysh then Ambassador, complain­ing to the Vizier, and finding no other Relief than good Words, resolved on an Expedient of making known his Cause to the Grand Signior, which was this.

In Turkie they have a Custom, that when any one receives a notable Injury, or Injustice, from the Chief and Great Ministers of State, they put Fire on their Heads, and running to the Grand Signior, no Man can hinder or deny them access to his presence. In like manner the Eng­lish Ambassador not being able to obtain Satis­faction from the Vizier, in return to his many Complaints, drew out all the English Ships in Ga­lata, which were then thirteen in number, and drawing in their Guns, and shutting the Ports, put fire on every Yard-Arm of their Ships, and came to an Anchor just before the Seraglio. The Customer being the first that espyed this unusual sight, immediately apprehended the Reason, and sent to acquaint the Vizier thereof in all haste; the Vizier likewise fearful lest the Complaints should by this means come to the Grand Signior's Ear, sent the Customer aboard with a considerable part of the Mony, and de­sired that the Fires might be extinguished, pro­mising faithfully to comply in paiment of the rest; hereupon Consultation being had between the Ambassador and the Merchants, the Ships returned to their Stations, not seeming to have been taken notice of by those in the Seraglio.

And notwithstanding the great number of Women within the Seraglio, all which were at the Devotion of the Sultan; yet Ibrahim not be­ing contented herewith, passing one day to Scu­tari, had by chance cast his eye on an object which much pleased him: what it was, becomes not the modesty of my Pen to relate; but being re­turned to his Seraglio, he sent Orders to the Vi­zier, to seek out for him the biggest, and best proportioned Woman which was to be found in all Constantinople, and the parts thereabouts. Hereupon Emissaries were dispatched into all Quarters of the City; at length they happily procured a huge tall Armenian Woman, well proportioned according to her height, and a Giantess for her Stature; which being found, she was presently washed and perfumed in the Bath, and as richly Cloathed and Adorned as the shortness of time would permit: There was no great difficulty to perswade her to become Turk, having so high preferment in her pro­spect. So that being introduced to the Grand Signior's presence, he became immediately Ena­moured, and was so pleased with her Society, that he preferred her before all the Women of his Court; an Evidence whereof he gave, in that he could not deny her in any request she could make, and particularly about that time the Pashaluck of Damascus being void, this Wo­man begged it for her self, substituting another in the Office, who was accountable to her for all the Profits and Emoluments thereof: By these particulars of favour the Queen-Mother becom­ing jealous, one day inviting her to Dinner, caused her to be strangled, and perswaded Ibra­him that she died suddenly of a violent Sickness, at which he poor Man was greatly afflicted.

But not to insist long on these luxurious Pas­times, we shall return again to Matters of high­er Concernment: Ibrahim had now understood, that the Venetians growing jealous of his Pre­parations, began likewise to Arm, and provide for the worst; which being in no wise pleasing to the Turks, who were apprehensive that their Marine Forces consisted most in surprize, caused Ibrahim to complain of the Defensive Posture in which they Arrayed themselves, alledging, that Suspicions of this Nature argued no hearty Disposition towards their Friends; nor was any thing more contrary to a good Correspondence, or more disobliging than such like Jealousies, which oft-times beget that Enmity which was never designed; and farther it was judged neces­sary, [Page 59]if possible, to disswade the Bailo from a belief of any Hostility designed against his Re­publick; to inculcate which, none was esteemed so proper an Instrument as the old cheating Ho­gia, who was the first Motive to the War; a Preacher who imagined that the excellency of his Religion afforded him a priviledg to falsify, lye, and commit any Act for advantage thereof, though never so contrary to Truth and Morality. This Santone, with the Testimony of one or two more grand Professors, with many Asseve­rations and Vows, endeavoured to perswade the Bailo, of the Grand Signior's good Intentions towards Venice, and his fixed Resolutions to de­stroy Malta. And though the Concernment which those godly Elders shewed, and the ear­nestness they used, whereby to inculcate a Cre­dence to what they affirmed, were enough to discover their contrary Intentions; and though it is said, that the Venetians could not heartily believe what they so strongly suspected; yet hereby, and by the common vogue of the Peo­ple, they abated much of their Caution and Heat, which they otherwise had used in due Pre­parations and Provisions against an Evil so fatal and destructive in the sequel.

The first Act of Hostility was committed by Giacomo da Riva, The begin­ning of the War. who being sent for Sopravedi­tor to Tino, was in his way to touch at Candia, there to deliver Ammunition and Provisions for War; but being encountered by some barbarous Vessels, who assailed him for a Merchants Ship of small Force, were received so warmly that he sunk one of them, with which the rest left him and fled, relating at Constantinople, that they had been ill treated by the Venetians, and that they gave the first Assault upon them, because they were called to the Assistance and Service of the Grand Signior.

The Fleet and Land Forces being already put to Sea, the Report and Opinion still continued, that the War was designed against Mal­ta; wherefore such as apprehended the Hazard, and were acquainted with the Difficulty of such an Enterprize, began to inform the Grand Sig­nior how impossible it was that this Action should be accompanied with good success. To which Arguments he made no other reply, than by a seeing obstinacy, resolved with the Ot­toman Sword, to cut all those Knots and Dif­ficulties which opposed him in the Work. At length one Salee Efendi, a Preacher, who had obtained some more than ordinary Esteem with the Grand Signior, advised him, That before he commenced a Work of that importance, he should inform himself of the true state of that Place, from a certain Aga, who was lately re­turned from Malta. The Grand Signior being very willing to hear any thing of this nature, called the Aga, who related to him how im­pregnable both the City and Castle were; how the Knights were provided against all Assaults; that the Island it self is only a Rock, not con­taining Earth enough for an Army to intrench; that the Approaches must be made by the Pick-Axe and Mattock, it being all Stone. In short, it was not a place to be taken in one Summer, and the Winter coming on, it affording no shel­ter, nor provisions of it self, was not capable of relief in Seas so stormy, and from Countries so remote, without hazards, losses, and frequent Shipwracks. Ibrahim, who had designed all along to make War upon Candia, seemed little concerned or moved at this Discourse. The Gallies and Ships which were now all in a rea­diness, being come forth to the Seraglio point, the Grand Signior entered his Grand Ciosk, situated on the Bank of the Sea; where the Se­lictar Aga, General, and all the Chief Com­manders, came to perform the usual Ceremonies of Obedience and Duty before their Departure. At this solemn Assembly the Grand Signior de­clared, That his Intentions were to make War upon the Infidels, according as every one should understand by his respective Commissions, which should now be delivered unto them: That he expected the highest Demonstrations of Courage in them imaginable, and what was agreeable to the Conductors of the Ottoman Armies: That Reward and Punishment were in his Hands, and that he resolved to dispense them according to their Merits: That they should not doubt of all due Assistance and Succours; for he had so well contrived, and so justly fitted all his Measures, that he was already provided of Men, Timber, Ammunition, and Mony sufficient to maintain and carry on this War for seven Years. At which they all gave a shout, and declared, that they were ready to spend their Blood and Lives in Execution of his Commands. Whereupon every one received a rich Coftan, or Vest, and the General a Scimitar set with Diamonds; who being a young Man of about 26, or 27 Years of Age, had a Council of six graver Pasha's al­lowed him; and then the Commission for the War was brought forth sealed, with Orders not to open it, until they were past the Dardanelli. Hereat the noise of great and small Shot from the Gallies and Ships, resounded through all Con­stantinople, and the Commanders repairing to their Vessels, the Assembly broke up, and every thing was put in a posture to make Sail.

It was now the last day of April, 1645, old Style, when the Fleet first broke ground, which consisted of 73 Gallies, besides the 8 Gallies of Barbary; 2 Mahons, or Galleasses, one great Gallion called the Sultana, 10 Ships of Alexan­dria, 2 of Tunis, and 10 of English and Dutch Ships, which coming to Constantinople for Trade, were there pressed into the Service, with about 300 Saiks and Caramussals, which carried Soul­diers, Provisions, Ammunition, and Utensils for War. Their Militia consisted of 7000 Ja­nisaries, 14000 Spahees, and about 50000 Ti­mariots, and other Souldiers, with about 3000 Pioniers; these all were to Rendezvous at Scio; where they arrived the 7th of May. But before their departure from Constantinople, the Bailo Soranço, or the Venetian Ambassador, thought fit, in Complement, and for discovery, to make a visit to the Captain-Pasha, by whom he was received with frank Courtesy, and assurance of Friendship; so that though he suspected the worst, yet could he collect no certain assurances of Peace, or War; however he advised Signior Cornaro, then Governour of Candia, that though he could not certainly penerate into the bottom of the Turks Design, yet he apprehen­ded that the Storm might fall on that Kindom, understanding that the Captain-Pasha was not well inclined towards the most Serene Repub­lick: wherefore, he ought to be watchful and circumspect, yet with as little demonstration of jealousy as was possible, so that if the Turks should there arrive, he should afford them all conveniencies of Watering, Provisions, and other Refreshments.

The Fleet being departed from Scio, for Na­poli di Romagnia, the Northern Wind so freshned, and blew so hard, that the Gallies were separa­ted, and forced to put into divers Ports, and the Saiks and Caramussals to Anchor at Micono [Page 60]and Tino. At the latter of which, belonging to the Venetians, they had licence to Water, and and were refreshed with such provisions as the Island afforded; and now after this flurry of Wind, the Fleet being again united, they were seen off at Sea from Cerigo, an Island of the Ve­netians at the Mouth of the Archipelago, and failing towards the Channel of Braccio de Maina; and the next day 9 Gallies, a Gallion, and a Brigantine, made towards the Isle of Cerigo, and sent a Letter a shore by a Boat to the Pro­veditor, from the Pasha of Rhodes, demanding their usual present of Coffee and Sugar, which was given them, they assuring all Friendship, and real good Intentions towards the People, and Dominions of Venice.

But in the mean time a Satia laden with Arms and Ammunition from Venice, bound for Retimo, unhappily falling into the Turkish Fleet, was intercepted by them, and taken, which un­masked all the Design, and made the Turks ap­pear in their true Colours, notwithstanding all their religious Protestations, and outwardly fair Comportment, the usual disguise of the Maho­metan Sincerity.

Towards the end of May the Turkish Fleet was discovered from Carabuso, a small Fortress of the Venetians, some distance off at Sea, standing to the Westward, which gave some jealousie to them at Candia; and being compa­red with some precedent Acts, as that of sound­ing the depth of Water about St. Theodoro with a Brigantine, (which is a small Rock lying off of Canea) which pretended to come from Sancta Maura with Turky Merchants, afforded unde­niable grounds of assurance to those in Candia, that the War was designed against them; how­soever, the Ottoman Fleet rendezvousing again at Navarino, a place far distant from Candia, altered their Apprehensions at Venice, and else­where of this War, deeming it now certain, that this Design had no other aim or mark but that of Malta.

But this opinion was no sooner entertain'd, than it was confuted by open Acts of hostility; for the Captain-Pasha being arrived at Cape Co­lonna, by some called Sunio, immediately dis­patched a Brigantine to Constantinople, with ad­vice of his Proceedings and Intentions to pass directly for Candia; whereupon it was thought seasonable to publish the War against Venice, which was performed with committing the Am­bassador Soranço to Prision, and giving Orders through all the Archipelago to destroy or enslave all the Subjects of that Republick. And here the Turk practised his usual beginnings of War with more than ordinary Caution; for though with other Princes, whose Territories border on him by Land, he usually endeavours to strike at the same time when he gives the Salutations of Peace; Yet here being to contend at Sea, where he is conscious his Forces are inferiour to those of Venice, he practised all those feigned Artifices, confirmed with as many holy Vows and Pro­testations, as their Religion hallows, and makes lawful, when they can bring advantage and en­crease to the Mahometan Faith.

But though the Venetian Republick was so politick as outwardly to demonstrate a Religious Confidence of their potent Neighbour, whom they were conscious not to have provoked by any breach of Capitulations; yet were not so secure of his Faith, and so easie to believe his fair Dissimulations, as not prudently to provide against the utmost Effects of his Power and Treachery. Wherefore, whilst the Turk pre­pared, they armed likewise secretly, made con­siderable Levies without noise, commisionated thirty extraordinary Commanders of Gallies, took up seventeen English and Dutch ships into their Service, armed out two Galliasses extra­ordinary; and when the Turk had unmasked his Design, they then imparted their Condition to all the Christian Princes, craving their Suc­cour and Assistance to maintain the Common Bulwark of Christendom againtst the comme Ene­my. The Galleasses were commanded by Giro­lamo Morosini; the Gallies, of which fifteen were made ready, and afterwards put to Sea, all commanded by Noblemen, were under the Con­duct of Antonio Capello. Francesco Molino was made Proveditor General, a Person of untainted Justice and Honour, and extraordinary zealous and vigilant in the Publick Interest, whose in­defatigable Labours and Care of his Country, promoted him afterwards to be Doge of Ve­nice. By his Order and Counsel, extraordinary Proveditors were sent to Candia, Cerigo, and Tino, as Places most feared, and in danger; and Orders were dispatched to Andrea Cornaro, then General and Inquisitor in Candia, to arm out twenty Gallies from the Arsenal of Canea; and to promote this Design the better, he hired two English, and one Dutch Ship, then in Port of Malomocco, to carry unto Candia Timbers fitted, and already squared at Venice, for building Gal­lies; besides which he sent Cannon, Corn, and all Ammunition of War, with fifty thousand Zechins in Gold for encouragement of the Mi­litia, with a recruit of two and twenty Compa­nies of Foot, formed and collected out of di­vers Nations.

Intelligence being come of the imprisonment of the Bailo at Constantinople, the Senate by a common and unanimous Suffrage elected Fran­cesco Erizzo, then Doge, General of the Sea; judging, that their Arms would prosper under his Command, which had formerly been success­ful under the auspicious Conduct of his Ance­stors; and he, though a Person of seventy four Years, worn out with Age and Cares of the Publick, did yet chearfully consecrate the re­mainder of his days to the Service of his Coun­try. But whilst he prepared to crown the end of his Life with the Glory of this important and generous Enterprize, Death terminated all his In­tentions, leaving him with the honourable me­mory of his past Actions, and with a Lawrel hanging over his Head, which had his Life con­tinued, had been planted on his Brows. But that this Accident might not give interruption to the weighty Affairs now in had, Molino took his place, and proceeded in his Voyage and De­signs, and arrived with the Venetian Fleet at the Island of Corfu. In the mean time the Tur­kish Fleet careened and fitted themselves at Na­varine with all Necessaries to assault Candia; in which interim advice came to Canea, that the the Bailo was imprisoned at Constantinople, by a Letter from Soranço himself; which he had dropped from the Window of his close restraint, and dispatched by one of his Confidents with a Vessel express; which was not sooner arrived, than it was that Night confirmed by all the Bea­cons or Watch-Towers of the Country; who having discoverd the Turkish Fleet far distant as Sea, gave a general Alarm by the Fires they made.

The next Morning being the 23/13 of June, they discovered the whole Fleet, near Cape Spada, which being drawn up in the form of an half Moon, took up a vast tract of [Page 61]Sea; and sailing slowly with fair Weather, and a smooth Sea, displayed themselves with the greatest terrour imaginable to the Islanders. At length the lighter Vessels began to edge in with the Bank of Gogna, (which is a place distant about eighteen miles from Canea) and were fol­lowed by the grosser and heavier part of the Ar­mata.

And now, before I proceed farther, I should make a pause, and describe the Antiquity, the Geography, and the present State of this famous and renowned Island, but that is already perfor­med so distinctly and elegantly by other Pens, that it shall be sufficient for me to declare here in brief terms, how this Kingdom became the Patrimony or Possession of Venice. In the Year 1204, a Sale thereof was made to this Repub­lick, by the Marquess Bonifaccio of Montferratto, by an Instrument sealed the 12th of August at Adrianople, and signed, and delivered, in the presence of Marco Sanudo, and Ravano du Vero­na, Ambassadours in the time of Enrigo Dandola Doge; but the People of this Island not consent­ing unto the sale, opposed themselves against it, until the Venetians by force of Arms procured their Obedience, and confirmed their purchase by a double Title. Hereupon such noble Citi­zens as adventured their Lives in his acquisition, obtained the Estates of the Rebellious Greeks, being obliged in proportion to the Lands they held, to maintain Men and Horse at their own Charge, and are therefore called the Feudatary Cavalry. So that the whole Country is divided into three parts; viz. the noble Venetians or Ca­valry; secondly, the noble Candiots, or Colo­ny, which were Infantry that came to inhabit from Venice; and thirdly, the Greeks or Na­tives of the Country which never rebelled, but took part with the Venetian State: the first two speak Italian, and are of the Roman Church; the others speak Greek, and conserve the Right of that Religion.

The Ottoman Fleet now touching the Shoar at Gogna, took Livery and Seizin quietly of that flourishing Isle of Candia, where they Encamped a while to refresh their Forces, and prepare all things in order to their Conquest. In the mean time, the news hereof alarmed all Venice, and not only hastened them in the expedition of their Fleet, but warmed their applications to all Christian Princes, from whom they craved help in the general defence of Christendom: which some at first imagined would have been granted, as it was once in the time of the Holy War; or that those whom the Declaration of a com­mon Crusada, or Devotion, or sense of Religion could not move, yet at least the consideration of their Countries Defence, or the maintenance of a Bulwark of Christendom, might perswade to wage Arms against the Turk, as a Common Enemy: but what cold Apprehensions the Christian Princes entertained hereof, both the faint Supplies and Assistances they administred, and their bloody and vigorous Wars one against another, have abundantly testified, to the fatal loss and ruin of that Country. And though in the beginning there were better hopes, by means of the Pope's earnest intercession with all the Prin­ces of Italy, to whom he shewed a fair Example, by uniting his own Gallies with the Venetian Fleet, and amongst the rest prevailed also with the Republick of Genoua, to employ their Gallies in this Noble Enterprize, which tended to the Glory of God, and the common Safety and Preservation of Italy: yet that Leaven of vain Punctilio's, which hath so often betrayed the Christian Cause to the advantage of the Turk, gave a stop for some time to these Proceedings. For before they would enter into Arms, they desired the Genoeses, that the right of bearing the Flag should first be determined in favour of their Admiral, before that of Toscany, or Mal­ta: And though the Pope, to take away this occasion of dispute, proposed to have no other Flag worn besides his own, under which all Ita­lian Princes, without impeachment of their Honour, as Auxiliaries, and Military Adven­turers might promiscuously wage War; yet this could not appear satisfactory to the Genoeses, who not only took this occasion to demand the precedency before Toscany and Malta; to which the G. Duke (who was not inferiour in State, and superiour in Title) and the Malteses (who time out of mind, and by Decree of Charles the Fifth, claimed Precedency on the Seas before them) would never assent; but also thought fit to avail themselves in this Conjuncture, to obtain from the Pope the Grant of a Royal Court, and that Treatment which is given to Kings, or Crowned Heads. But because these Demands seemed to contain those Difficulties in them, which could not be granted without the manifest displeasure of other Princes, the Pope resolved to afford what assistance he could from himself, and therefore granted a Levy of a thousand Foot out of his own Dominions, with free liberty to buy what Ammunition and Pro­visions were to be found in the Ecclesiastical State, with imposition of a double Tithe or Tenth on the Goods and Dominions of the Cler­gy; so that these Succours of the Pope, and the Auxiliary Forces of Naples, Toscany, and Malta, under the Command of Prince Ludovisio, General of the Church, being united to the Ve­netian Fleet, did speedily compose a most puis­sant and formidable Force; however, by rea­son of Dissentions amongst the Commanders, and other Misfortunes derived from thence, to the Christian Arms, nothing succeeded fortu­nately this Year. For the Turks having gained their landing at first without opposition, over­threw the Christians in several small Skirmishes, and afterwards forced Canea, the second City of that Island, which they took with much blood and slaughter of the Christians.

The Turks having made so successful a pro­gress this first Year, as to possess themselves of one of the most considerable Cities, took Cou­rage to proceed in their Conquests; in which they had the fortune to make themselves Masters in the next place of Retimo; in defence of which, the General Andrea Cornaro, lost his Life by a Musket shot. Nor more successful were the Venetians this Year at Sea; for what with Quarrels among the Commanders, and with their coldness and negligence in their Business, they suffered the Turkish Vessels to pass freely, with­out giving them that interruption which was very facil to Men resolute and concerned: Nor was the opportunity which presented to ruine the Turkish Fleet made use of, then lying half disarmed, and ill provided, at the Isle of St. Theodoro, (which is a Rock opposite to Canea) where at that time, it is believed, they might all have been burned, had the occasion been im­proved, agreeable to that Advantage which then offered: so that towards the latter end of the Year, the General Molino returning Home, either by reason of some distemper, or by re­vocation from the Senate, which seemed to be ill satisfied with his ill Fortune, or his ill Manage­ment of the Publick Affairs; he was dismissed [Page 62]from his high Charge. And Gio. Capello, Pro­curator of St. Mark, was constituted in his place.

This Year was remarkable for the ruinous Dif­ferences between Sir Sackvile Crow Baronet, our King's Ambassador then residing at Constantinople, and the Turky Company. The Original of which seemed to arise from the Civil Dissentions at Home; for so unhappy were those Times, and so ill affected were English Minds with Rancour and Malice against each other, that this Leaven of Discord could not be confined within the Banks of Great Britain and Ireland, but seemed to diffuse it self over the Seas, and as a Conta­gion, infected the Minds, Goods, and Interests of the English, to what Quarter or Climate soever they were transported.

In the Year 1638, Sir Sackvile Crow was, with the Consent and Approbation of the Turky Company, dignified by his Majesty with the Ti­tle and Authority of his Ambassador to the Grand Signior. For Maintenance and Support of which, the said Company were to pay him the yearly Sum of five thousand Zechins, in four e­qual Proportions, which is above the value of two thousand Pounds Sterling. And farther, be­fore his departure from England, paid him six hundred Pounds Sterling towards the Furniture of his House, Plate, and other Necessaries; de­fraying all the Charges expended for Transpor­tation of his Lady, Followers, and Provisions to Constantinople.

Sir Sackvile Crow, from the time of his arrival at the Ottoman Court, until the end of the Year 1645, managed the Affairs of the Com­pany to their general Satisfaction, and with the Esteem and Honour of the Turkish Ministers, who considered him as a Person of Courage and Resolution, and in every way qualified for that Employment.

At length Differences arose between this Am­bassador and the Company, touching the Right and Title to that Benefit which is calledStrangers Consulage is 2 in the hundred, in the value of all the goods belonging to Stranger-Merchants, laden on English Ships, and all other Ships which not being in amity with the G. Sig­nior, set up the English Colours, & come under the English Protection, as is law­ful by our Capitula­tions. Stran­gers Consulage; the first pretending to the same on a Grant made to him thereof by his Majesty, and the Custom of Sir Peter Wych, and other preceding Ambassadors. The others challenging the same, as the chief and principal Means they had to ease the vast Expences they were at, for maintenance of their Trade and Government; for which they had always contended and strug­led with the Power of preceding Ambassadors, and which Sir Sackvile Crow himself seems, by an Article which he had made with the Company to have relinquished to them in these words.

That during the time of his Employment as Ambassador, he would content himself with such Allowance from the said Company for his Pains and Care to be taken in their Business, as is spe­cified in the said Articles, being 5000 Zechins per Annum.

This Right of Strangers Consulage, is now con­firmed to the Turky Company, by virtue of their Charter which his Majesty was pleased, in the Year of his Happy Restauration, graciously to Re­new, Confirm, and Amplify to them; the which was more easily granted, by the concurrent Assi­stance of the Right Honourable the Earl of Win­chelsea, then designed for Ambassador to Constan­tinople, who on some Considerations offered from the said Company, assented thereunto.

But Matters of a higher Nature than this, in­flamed the Accounts and Differences between the Ambassador and Company. For first, one John Wolfe, at that time Treasurer at Constantinople, becoming Insolvent for great Sums of Mony, Sir Sackvile Crow alledged, that those Debts were National, arising from the late Changes of State Officers, their extravagant Exactions, and Ava­nious Practices: and therefore to extinguish this Publick Debt, he made a Leviation of one hun­dred and ten thousand, nine hundred and fifty Dollars on the English Estates at Constantinople and Smyrna, detaining the Companies Ships in those Ports, until the aforesaid Debt was satis­fied and cleared. The Ground and Cause of which, will more plainly appear by this follow­ing Warrant.

Sir Sackvile Crow his Order, dated in Pera of Constantinople the 26th of January 1645. Directed to all Cap­tains, Commanders of Ships, &c. Prohibiting the lading of any Goods or Estate on their Ships.

WHereas by the unhappy failings of some of our Nations here, and at Smyrna, and through the many late Changes of this State's Officers, and their extravagant Ex­actions on us in those Difficulties; and by sundry other avanious ways, our Nation is brought into a great Debt: For which We, or those, and that Estate which shall remain on the Place, who, and whatever, in case of Exigent, and force of Paiment, when-ever that shall happen, must (if not otherwise pro­vided for) in all probability, and according to the rude Customs of this State in like case, look to be made liable unto. There being at present a full and competent Estate of the Levant Companies arrived here, and at Smyrna, which as well by the Obligations of their Charter, as by the Laws of England, the said Companies own Institutions and Cu­stoms in cases of like Nature, ought as well to bear the said extraordinary as ordinary Charges, and so pay those Debts, which ei­ther are, or shall be adjudged and declared to belong unto them. We having taken pains in drawing the said Accompts to a Head, and for discovery of the Truth thereof; and (af­ter a Certificate being directed thereon) for the more formal Satisfaction only of the said Company, being advertised that some of those who with us have had the view, and been pre­sent at the Examination of the said Ac­compts, whom it concerns on the Companies behalf to make such Certificate, on our Or­der; for some private Respects, make scru­ple to certify the said Debts, as they appeared before us and them: And hearing also that the General Ships here in Port, and that at Smyrna, prepare, and make haste to be gone: In Providence, as well for own safety in the Premisses, as for that due regard we owe to his Majesty's Honour, and the Publick Inte­rest for the future, We find it requisite, and hereby order and require, that until the said Debts shall be fully declared, and their pai­ment setled by Leviation, and the same paid [Page 63]or undertaken, in, and by some such fitting and secure way, or ways, as in such case is requisite, and by us shall be determined and so declared: That none of the Factors of this Scale, or that of Smyrna, by themselves, or others whoever, after publication hereof, here and there respectively, lade on Board either of the General Ships, or other Ships whatever, any Goods, Faculty, or Estate whatever, for themselves or other whoever. And that the Captains and Commanders of the said Ships, in the mean time, and until Our farther Or­der in this behalf, not only forbear to take in, and lade aboard either of their Ships any such Goods or Faculties for any of his Majesty's Subjects, or other Strangers whoever; but al­so that they abide and depart not, either this Port, or that of Smyrna Respectively, un­til our farther Order and Licence in that be­half: Whereof not only the Merchants, Factors, Masters, and Commanders afore­mentioned; but ourInter­preters. Druggermen, and other Ʋnder-Ministers here or there, are to take notice, and observe accordingly; as they, and every of them concerned herein, will answer the contrary at his or their Peril. Dated in Pera of Constantinople this 26th of Janua­ry, 1645.

To all Captains, Commanders of Ships, Merchants, Factors, Drug­germen, and all other his Majesty's Subjects and Ministers whoever, in the Ports of Constantinople and Smyrna.
SACKVILE CROW.

The Turkie Company was altogether unfatis­fied with this Leviation, alledging that a great part of this Debt arose from Monies lent by Sir Sackvile Crow himself to Wolfe, at a high In­terest; for securing of which, and of his Prin­cipal, he had in this manner taxed and charged their Estates. But Troubles and Differences ended not with this Paiment; for still the Con­troversy about Strangers Consulage was de­pending, which with other Matters, caused great Heats and Animosities on both sides: So that some of the Turkie Company, Men of the better Principles, thought it most advisable to Petition his Majesty to constitute another Ambassador, with Letters of Revocation, to recal this; but others, who were the zealous Men of those Times, who had tasted the sweetness of Seque­strations, and proved it to be the Grand Catho­licon of all Remedies, perswaded that his Estate should be Sequestred. This, I say, may per­haps have been the attempt of some few; though the generality of the Company have so far disa­vowed the Seizure of his Lands and Estate in Eng­land, that they declared themselves ignorant of any Estate he had there. Howsoever this Appre­hension being fixed in the Mind of Sir Sackvile Crow, he proceeded to strange Extremities against the Company: For he not only caused all the Goods and Monies belonging to them, within the Grand Signior's Dominions, to be sequestred and seized by his Agents, but also imprisoned the Persons of all the English Merchants and Fa­ctors which were considerable, either at Constan­tinople or Smyrna. The Particulars of all which will appear with more clearness by this follow­ing Warrant.

Sir Sackvile Crow his Second Warrant, dated in Pera of Constantinople the 30th of April 1646, directed to John Hetherington, Lorenzo Zuma; Enordering (upon false Pretences) the Sequestration of the Merchants Estates at Smyrna, according to a Schedule.

WHereas the Levant Company, some­time before our coming to this Place, by a Court of their Assistants, thereunto espe­cially authorized, treated with Ʋs touching a yearly Allowance for our Care and Pains during our residence here as his Majesty's Am­bassador; to be had and taken in such Parti­culars as might have relation to their Trade and Occasions: And for a conclusion of such Treaty as aforesaid, did offer unto us the election of any one of their Agreements, for­merly made with any of our Predecessors in like occasion. And for a further manifesta­tion of their sincerity in their said Offer, upon our accord thereunto, did, at the Court afore­said, in publick give into our Hands and Possession the Copies of five of their Agree­ments, made with our said Predecessors, with Power to chuse which of them we should best like of, to be a Rule and Pattern for an absolute Conclusion and Condition to be drawn up between us and them; thereon also pro­mising that they would make, grant, and con­firm the like unto us. And whereas we there­on, and to the Purposes and Ends aforemen­tioned, chose and fixed upon that Agreement, which the said Company had made with Sir Thomas Glover, formerly Ambassador, Resi­dent for the Crown of England, with this State: And his Majesty by his Favour, did assure the same unto us, graciously promising to make his Employment of us here, as good and beneficial in all the Allowances and Per­quisites thereof, as it had been to any of our Predecessors whoever, and we expected no less. The said Company finding themselves mis­taken in their Offer, (as they pretended) first retired from the same, denying their said Agreement, (though sufficiently proved be­fore his Majesty); and then by force of Pre­sents and Mony given under-hand to the Officers of that Time, so prevailed against us, that we could not only not obtain that Right, which since hath appeared unto us, and (as well by their own Agreement, as by his Majesty's Judgment then, Custom, and their former Contracts) was due unto us; but were forced after to other Agreements with the said Company, by which (over and above all such Rights, Priviledges, and Per­quisites, as then were and should be granted [Page 64]unto us by his Majesty's Capitulations; and besides all other Gratifications and Allowances accustomed to be given to his Majesty's Am­bassador, (which in Houshold Provisions only the said Company assured us, were to the va­lue of 800 l. per Annum Sterling, at least) and over and above such Plate and Houshold-Stuff as they assured us, we should find of theirs here, and hold to our use during our Residence, (of which we found not the value of an Asper) the said Company did cove­nant with us, (for and in respect of our Pains and Care only therein agreed to be taken by us, in their Affairs and Occasions as afore­said, for and during all our time as his Maje­sty's Ambassador with this State) they would pay, or cause to be paid unto us, the Sum of 5000 VIII ster­ling. Chickeens per An. to be paid by e­qual Proportions quarterly before-hand; by their failing wherein (besides our other Engage­ments for them to a very good Value) twenty and five thousand Dollars or thereabouts, rests at this day due and unpaid unto us: And whereas also after the Agreements aforesaid, upon several Arguments held before his Ma­jesty, concerning the Rights of that Consu­lage, which amongst other things is granted by the Grand Signior, and payable by his Ca­pitulations to his Majesty's Ambassador Resi­dent at this Imperial Port from Strangers, (to which the said Company could shew no likely or probable Title) the said Company were adjudged to relinquish their Pretences to the said Consulage; and a Grant thereof under his Majesty's Royal Hand and Signet, was thereon made and given to us, for our better support during the time of our Residence here. The said Company (upon Conditions between them and us agreed) did also promise to give us Content therefore; with intent nevertheless thereby to get advantage of our credulity and absence, and to draw us out of suspect of their evil Intentions towards us, which hath since (as well by their several inter­ruptions and hinderances here in the Collecti­on thereof, as their practices, and endeavours at Council Table before his Majesty, and by their other Appeals to the Courts of Parlia­ment, where in these Times of Distractions, they presumed of some better advantage) hath appeared unto us: Whereby, and by suggest­ing several Ʋntruths against us, and by o­ther false ways they have endeavoured not on­ly to deprive us of the Strangers Consulage, and benefit thereof; but under that colour al­so, and these their Pretences, to keep them­selves from paying, as us from taking such other Consulage, as was, and is as much our right and due unto us from themselves, by the said Capitulations, and the Grand Sig­nior's Grant thereon, for all their own Goods traded in: And now of late, but suspecting our just Intentions of making a claim there­to, (for until this present day we never made any demand thereof, or publick pretence there­in) to prevent what they suppose we might justly do in our own Right, (for we take God to Witness we knew no other cause): under like unjust and scandalous Pretences, we are certi­tified, that they not only go about to get us removed from our Employment here, but up­on false Suggestions, loose and bare Suspicions only, have gotten Order for the seizure of all our Lands and other Estates in England into their power; as some of their own Ser­vants and Factors here have the confidence to report and affirm: and as we are assured from thence, without hearing of us; nay, so much as intimation to us of the Grounds thereof, or such Matters and Things as they pretend at least to have against us, whereby we might answer for our selves; and so, whilst we are labouring (as for these many Years we have done, with all fidelity) for them and their publick Interest (whereof, as we have proof sufficient in our Actions, so we have him that is Judg of the World for Wit­ness to our Conscience) they are contriving the ruin of us and our Posterity. Which manner of proceeding, so unjust, horrid, and odious before God and Man (as in all reason we ought) taking to heart, and our se­rious consideration, and as well that Violence which is offered to the Laws, and his Majesty's Honour and Interest therein, as our Self and our Family; not pretending to extend that Authority which his Majesty hath put into our Hands to unlawful Ends, but only to make a just use of it for the right and lawful de­fence of our selves and it, in the several Oc­casions aforementioned; finding by Accompt under the Hands of the Treasurer of the said Company here, that for such Goods as they have brought in and carried out from the Port of Constantinople, there is due unto us according to the Capitulations, and the Grand Signior's Grants therein, to the va­lue of Dollars Ryals of 8/8, seventy four thou­sand: and that for the like in Smyrna there is due Dollars Ryals of 8/8, one hundred thousand in circa; and rating that Estate in Land which they have gotten into their power as aforesaid, but at the value we were offered for it, viz. at ninety seven thousand and five hundred Dollars; in all, two hundred seven­ty one thousand and five hundred Dollars. Besides, (for ought we know to the contrary) they may else have prevailed themselves upon of ours, and as due to us by Privy Seal to the value of one hundred thousand Dollars; and Leases under the Great Seal to near as great a value more. We hereby enorder Se­questration of all Monies, Merchandizes, and other Goods and Faculties whatever, within the Dominions of the Grand Signior where­ever, belonging to the Parties and Members of the said Company, in the Schedule here­unto annexed, the chief Fomentors, Contri­vers, and Abettors of these unjust and hor­rid Proceedings; requiring you, John He­therington, and you Lorenzo Zuma, or one, or both, or either of you, by the help [Page 65]and means of that Officer sent by the Vizier, and those Commands in your Hands, (being now at Smyrna on other like Occasions) ac­cording to your Instructions herewith sent, to board and enter all Ships and Vessels, and to break open, and enter into all and every of the Houses, Ware-houses, Counting-houses, of all and every of the Parties in the Sche­dule hereunto annexed and aforementioned; and there to Attach, Arrest, and take into your custody and possession; and as arrested and sequestred, to take, carry away, and put into safe custody, all such Monies, Merchan­dizes, other Goods and Faculties of what Na­ture soever that you shall discover, find out, and get into your power, belonging to any of the Parties, or under the Marks of the Sche­dule hereunto annexed; and the same to keep, so arrested and sequestred, for our better In­demnity, Satisfaction, and Defence, against all Pretences of the Levant Company before­mentioned whatever, until we may be heard therein by due course of Law, and till farther Order from us in that behalf; for which this is to be your Warrant. Dated in Pera of Constantinople, this 30th of April, An­no. 1646.

To our loving Friends and Ser­vants, John Hetherington, and Lorenzo Zuma. Sackvile Crow.

To perform and put in execution the fore­going Warrant, it was necessary to make use of the Turkish Officers Power, and Authority: Wherefore Sir Sackvile Crow demanding Audi­ence of the Grand Vizier, and representing Mat­ters unto him in that manner, as he judged most agreeable to his Cause, was heard by him with a gentle and gracious Ear; and assurances made to him of all Respect, Favour, and Assistance imaginable. For the Turks had now smelt out a Cause in Transaction, which with good im­provement might be worth them many Purses of Mony; and was of such a Nature, as that their Religion, and Doctrine, obliged them to nou­rish, having the prospect of gaining Mony, and enflaming Christian Discord. On these Grounds Sir Sackvile Crow easily obtained Commands from the Vizier, directed to the Kadi of Smyrna, to act all things according to direction of him the Ambassador; and to enforce Matters with better execution, a Chaous, or Pursuivant, accompa­nied with John Hetherington, and Lorenzo Zuma Interpreter, was dispatched to Smyrna, with Commands to carry up the Consul and Factors to Constantinople, and to break open the Ware­houses, and make seizure on such Estates belong­ing to the Turkie Company, as would answer the Demands and Pretentions of the Ambassa­dor. Accordingly the Consul and Factory were carried up, and with that other of Galata, im­prisoned in the Ambassador's House.

In the mean time the Agents at Smyrna, with assistance of the Kadi, sealed up all the Merchants Ware-houses; but when it came to execution and Seizure, more Difficulties arose; for the Turks, Armenians, and Jew-Merchants, made high Clamours to the Justice, that many of the Goods belonged unto them, some were not yet paid for, others were only Pawns in the English Hands; and all the Town being desirous to fa­vour the Cause of the Merchants, a great Up­roar and Hubbub arose amongst the People: The Kadi affrighted hereat, grew more slack and faint in his Proceedings; but the Cordial of 1500 Dollars, and Gratuities to his Servants, overcame the Difficulties, and gave him new Re­solution; so that at length, being attended with the Principal Officers of the Town, he began first with the Consul's House, making Seisure, and delivering out of the Ware-houses all the Goods found there; with some Caution howsoever, and respect to those Pretensions which Stranger-Merchants made thereunto; as appears by the following Letters.

Joh. Hetherington and Lorenzo Zuma, their Letters to Sir Sackvile Crow, advising further of their Proceedings, dated in Smyrna, June 16. 1646.

Right Honourable,

YEsterday we received your Lordships of the 4th present, being the Copy of the 3d: And to day we received your Lordships's of the 8th, and rejoice to hear your Lordship is in such a readiness for your just Demands, and wish your Lord­ship less Trouble, and better Success than we this day have had, and we doubt for many days shall incounter here. This morning the Cadie's Son, with his Neipe and principal Officers came; and we be­gan first with the Consul's House. But be­fore we began, 'twas spoken in the Kad­die's own House, and all over the Town, our Design to seize what we could find; about seven a Clock his Son came and en­tred the Consul's House, and opened all the Warehouses, and took from thence, with Elford's and Keeble's, some four hun­dred Clothes, and nine Bales Mohairs; we left behind us 38 Bales of Silk, 13 Bales his Servant pretended were sold by his Ma­ster to Mr. Brent, to be paid by Bill of Ex­change at Constantinople, and when advice came the Bills were paid, the Goods should be delivered; in the mean time they lie in Mr. Lancelot's Warehouse, with some 40 Clothes, 60 Barrels of Tin, which Tin be­longs to Mr. Sainthill, and sealed up by the Neipe and us. Before we had ended at this House, the whole Town was in an Uprore, being fomented by Jews, and some of the young Fry left behind, and pro­claimed in the Streets, that the Town would be undone, the Trade lost and go to wrack, if this was suffered; so that be­fore the Consul's Door were so many of the scum of the Town, the Streets were packed thick of them. On the other side, a more unruly Enemy threatned worse things, the Master of the Golden Lion, who had before given Barnardiston 9000 [Page 66]Dollars at Cambio, and had no Goods in his Possession, hearing how it would fare with them, Lands forty Men at Barnardistons's House, and vowed he would have his Mo­ny or Goods, or swore he would beat down the Town; so likewise the Jonas got her Sails to Yards, that the Kaddie's Son and the Chiouz, desired to let it alone until a­nother day, for fear of worse Events: So when they had made an end at Lancelot's House, would stay no longer, but pro­mised to come another day.. The Estate before mentioned we carried away in spight of Envy, and have put it up in a safe Cane. As soon as this was done, because the Captain would not come ashore, I got Jordan to go aboard the Golden Lion, and know the Master his Intent, and to ac­quaint him with the Danger might ensue thereon; all we could urge was nothing, except he had satisfaction for his 9000 Dol­lars; at last told him, if we knew where his Estate lay, we would endeavour to help him to it; so he found it out, and we delivered it to him, and the Man was ve­ry well satisfied. And now we hope to find little Impediment, and to morrow Morning the Caddie's Son promiseth to come again, and we doubt not the same day but to make an end. If your Lordship saw the little regard these People bear to the Grand Signior's Commands, the Caddie, or ought else but their private Ends, your Lordship would (as we hope your Lord­ship will) not blame us if we procured but the half of what your Lordship's Letter mentions. To morrow (if God bless us) we shall send your Lorship more punctual Advice, and for the present crave leave to subscribe our selves,

Your Honours Most faithful, most obliged, and most humble Servants, John Hetherington. Lorenzo Suma.

John Hetherington, and Lorenza Zu­ma's Letter to Sir Sackvile Crow; dated in Smyrna, June 19. 1646.

Right Honourable,

OUrs of the 16th advised your Lord­ship, how with the Caddie's Son, his Niepe, and Chia, we had entred the House of Mr. Lancelott, and taken into our possession the Goods we found therein, not pretended unto by Strangers; and how by the insolency of Nicholas Terrick, Ma­ster of the Hopewell, (formerly the Golden Lion) we were interrupted that day from proceeding any farther; and how by the means of Captain Jordan, we had pacified that young, rash, and undiscreet Man; and that we hoped the next Morning to proceed without interruption, but it fell not our so: for the next Morning we went to Barnardiston's House, thinking to make all sure there; and when we had begun, in comes the Master with a Crew of his own, and said, those Goods he had recieved were not sufficient to give him satisfaction, and demanded of us the rest. We answered, We could not give him these Goods we had sealed up before he came into Port, for wat he demanded; but assured him if he knew of any thing standing out, we would endeavour, the best we could, for his Sa­tisfaction: Upon this, as we understood since, a young Man of the House whis­pered the Master in his Ear, and told him, if he were not satisfied before the Goods went out of the House, all was lost, he would never have a Penny of it: Upon this, away goes the Master aboard, with this young Man in his company, and loo­sed his Sails, but threatned nothing. Upon this come in the Jews, and told the Niepe and the Chia, that the Master would shoot down the Town; but for all our perswa­sions that he durst not, away runs the Niepe & his Company, and leaves us there alone: so we resolved to have done it our selves; but the Merchants had so worked with the Hamalls, that there was not one to be seen; so being alone, and seeing his Boat coming ashore, well mann'd, and fear­ing a surprize, we presently repaired to the Chiouzes, and desired him to go with us to the Caddies, to see if we could have any better assistance from him. By this time the Town was in a great Uproar, and the People something too insolent; the Caddie, to prevent the worst, present­ly caused the Shops to be shut up, and im­mediately sent for all the chief Men of the Town, (who by Presents before we had made our Friends) and there before them all, and a great company of the Townsmen, cause the Commands to be read, and told them how much they were bound to see the Grand Signior's Commands put in execution, and what dishonour it would be for one Ship to command the Town.. So after they had disputed the Bu­siness, the Caddie sends an Officer aboard (accompanied with the Druggermen to the Nation) to know whether he would hinder the prosecution of the Grand Sig­nior's Command, or no, and to know his Answer? He presently denied he ever in­tended to shoot at the Town, only desired his own: So presently after the People were a little appeased, we went to work a­gain, and so this day have finished all: it being done in such confusion, we cannot give your Lordship that exact Accompt [Page 67]you may expect within a day or two; for then we will send your Lordship the Par­ticulars, with the Values; in mean time we stand upon our Guard, having some 20 or 30 of the Souldiers of the Castle to keep watch every night; for (my Lord!) here is no small Hobbub in the Town, and threatning both of us and the Estate, but we will secure both as well as we can. We have sent your Lordship a rough Draught of what we have, and what we have left sealed up, and find it fall short far of what your Lordship expected: the sooner your Lordship disposes of it, the better; for assure your self, there is daily some Design or other hatching: We should be very sorry, after all this, to have it miscarry, therefore pray (my Lord!) dispose of it (to prevent the worst) as soon as you may. Your Lordship was pleased to inorder us to change our Lodg­ing, being too near the Water-side, and in a Merchant's House; which, as soon as we can get a secure House, we will; but the farther from the Water-side, the more dangerous, if the People of the Country should intend us any ill.

The French, and many others, pretend Debts of many of those People that are gone up, and would know who shall pay them, and pretend to be paid out of their Estates; but we have put them off, telling them, we believe your Lordship will hard­ly let your Estate go to pay their Debts; nevertheless, shall advise your Lordship of it: so have secured none, only to one Hu­zoone Amet Aga, one of the chief Men in the Town here, Mr. Lancelott having gi­ven him a Bill of Exchange for 475 Dol­lars, and the Bill returned unpaid, we were forced to deliver into the Hangee's Hands, for his Security, 10 Cloathes.

We have given the Ships liberty to lade, by reason of their continual grumbling, but fear our Design on the Jonas will not take; for the Caddie seeing the stubborn­ness of Terrick, will not assist us as he pro­mised. We have not ought to inlarge at present, but to subscribe our selves,

Your Honours, John Hetherington, Lorenzo Zuma.

Matters running thus high, and the Breach made so wide, there remained little hopes of an Accommodation: For now the Merchants at Galata, having obtained their Liberty from the Ambassador's House, by the Vizier's Com­mand, entred into a Consultation in what man­ner to govern their Affairs, electing some parti­cular Men to that Employment, which they cal­led by the Name of the Sealed Knot, which much provoked the Anger of Sir Sackvile Crow, and more, because that deserting his Protection, they made Applications to the Heer Coppes, A­gent for the States of Holland; who readily em­braced the defence of their Cause, and willingly represented to the Grand Vizier the Aggrievan­ces, and ill Treatment of which they complain­ed. The French Ambassador, on the other side, being a great Favourer of Sir Sackvile Crow and his Proceedings, assisted him both at Smyrna and Constantinople. All which will more particularly appear by the following Letters.

The Factors General Letter to the Levant Company, dated the 28th of June, 1646, in Constantinople.

Right Worshipful,

SIrs, at present we have our Heads and Hands full, and all little enough to pre­serve your Estates from devouring, and out selves from that Evil Consequence might ensue upon such unheard-of Proceedings and Intentions, as have been long in pri­vate agitation; but when the Monster came to the Birth, there wanted strength to bring forth; so, in a good hour we may say, the Snare is broken, and doubt not the Devices of the Crafty is frustrate by him, whose Almightiness shews it self most, when we Mortals are least capable to help our selves. We shall, according to our Obligation, give your Worships some account of the last Progressions of his Lorship Sir Sackvile Crow, whom his Ma­jesty sent hither Ambassador, and to be a Protector of your Estates, and our Per­sons; how he hath performed this Charge and Duty formerly, your Lorships have in part heard; what hath happened of late, we shall now chiefly insist upon.

After his Lordship had caused the stay of the Ships in this Port, and at Smyrna, under pretence of this State's requiring it, in respect of their Wars with the Vene­tians, the Sampson and Smyrna Merchant, having been here almost seven Months, to the great loss and damage of Ships and Goods; he picks a quarrel with the Facto­ry of Smyrna, for not complying accord­ing to his Order, in the paiment of their Parts of the last Leviation-Mony; and hereupon sends down John Hetherington one of his Servants, a most lewd, debaucht, prophane, riotous Fellow, (yet his Lord­ship's Kinsman) accompanied with two Chiouzes, two Druggermen, a Janizary, and other Servants, to proceed with those who should refuse to pay their Leviation according to the Instructions he had given the said Hetherington, and Lorenzo Zuma, Druggerman: But before the arrival of these Agents, the Nation there had un­dertaken the paiment by an Obligatory Letter to his Lordship; this would not satisfy, nor deposition of Goods for Secu­rity, until Answer should come from hence of the paiment of their Bills of [Page 68]Exchange, which was tendred; but the second day after their arrival, Hetherington and his Retinue goes to the Caddie's, and thither causes the Consul and all the Nati­on to come; where it was pretended they had laden the William and Thomas with Corn, and sent her away; and therefore, by virtue of an Imperial Command, (ve­ry privately here procured) the Consul, and six more of the Nation, were deli­vered into the Hands of the Chiouz, and so brought up hither, not being suffered to return to their own Houses, but put a day and a night into an offensive dark place, the Doors and Windows not only shut, but nailed upon them, not suffering either their Friends or Servants to come at them, or a Window open till the evening, for which also they paid Dollars 100. In this disgraceful manner they were brought hither, where they have been since the 22d of the last Month, Prisoners in his Lordship's House to the 21st present, not­withstanding they had complied in paying the Leviation Monies in less than a Week after their arrivals; and by fair Promises, put off from day to day, for their dispatch to their Business at Smyrna, which could not but much suffer by their absence: Their magazines and Counting-houses continued sealed from the time of their Attachments; the Spips not permitted to lade, or depart, though empty; and no Debts due to them would be paid in this their Absence and time of Distraction.

The Leviation Monies being satisfied, (of which Dollars 31000, his Lordship forced into Cancellaria); and we of Smyr­na expecting no more rubs in the way, his Lordship, the 16th Instant, calls a Court, and there declared, That of what Monies had been collected, there would not remain much on the old Accompt; therefore pro­vision must be made for the future growing Charge, for so much as upon this pretended Imbargo, no Ships would come in haste, and he and his must be maintained, which he would provied for: Hereupon, when we could not do otherwise, Dollars 25000 was promised, half by this Factory, for which his Lordship caused us to enter into Bond, as he did those of Smyrna for the other half; this being effected, which we should not neither altogether have been so ready to have complied in, but thereby to put a period to all other Demands, and en­able our selves to proceed in our Business for your Worships better Service.

The 18th present his Lordship calls a­nother Court; and after arguing of some General Matters, with a seeming sadness, tells us how that he had been wronged by false Information from hence and Smyrna, (but he was so far from proving it, as that he would not discover so much as whom he suspected) and thereupon the Levant Company at Home had, by means of the Parliament, procured Sequestration of his Estate and Lands in England, and endea­voured to surprize his Person; and there­fore, according to Religion, Reason, and common Policy, he ought to secure him­self and his Hostages; and thereupon he departed from us, requiring the Nation speedily to resolve of some present Satis­faction that might secure his Estate at Home, and person here, otherwise he vowed to God, he would suddenly do it himself, with no little disadvantage to our selves and Principals. These strange, unreasonable, and unexpected Demands, filled us with amazement, not knowing what Answer to give to such a groundless demand; we desired the Secretary Signior Dominico to know his Lordships more par­ticular Desires therein, that so we might better understand him, and to put his De­mands into such a moderate way, as he might receive some Satisfaction. He re­turned us Answer, that we must resolve to satisfy his aforesaid Demands before we went thence: Whereupon the Gates were shut, and also Guards set upon us, that we should not converse with any, or convey so much as a Paper out of Doors. Thus we are all surprized, made close Priso­ners, and our Counting-house, Ware-house, and Chambers sealed up, to make sure of our Goods and Estates there also. Conti­nuing in this sad Condition all Night, and finding no Motion to proceed from his Lordship to declare himself farther, four or five of us was appointed by the genera­lity, personally to crave his Lordship's particular Desires and Demands of us: Whose Answer was, That the lowest va­lue he could put upon his Lands the Com­pany had sequestred, was 25000 pounds Sterling; and for the loss he should su­stain by being put out of the Ambassador­ship, which he saith his Majesty hath granted him for his Life; therefore the Strangers Consulage he rates at Dollars 5000 per Annum; which for the clear Gain of seven Years to come, is Dollars 35000; for which he declared that he would not accept of any Personal Security or Obligation whatsoever, but a present disposition of Dollars 160000 in Mony or Goods, into his own hands must be made. And if to this we would not condescend, he told us, That he at the last Sacra­ment had vowed to God (as he doth now) to sacrifice his Estate, Himself, Wise and Children, for the execution of this his absolute Intent; and till then, neither our Persons, Estates, Ships here, or at Smyrna, should be free. We told his Lordship, that finding not any of us had heard of any such Things was (or intended to be) done against him by the Company, it would give us great Satisfaction, to shew [Page 69]us those Advices he grounded this Pretence upon. To this no Answer was then gi­ven by himself, but dismissed us, leaving it to our last and speedy Resolution, be­cause he was resolved to strike home. Im­mediately after he sent us word by a se­cond, That he could not let his Honour descend so low, as to shew his Advices to any. This empty Reply, gave us too much reason, not only to conclude this to be a feigned Pretence, but made us sufpect his Intention and Aim was at all the Na­tion's Estate in the Country; and there­fore we returned him this reasonable and defensive Answer, as your Worships will particularly perceive by the inclosed Pa­per: whereunto is adjoined his Reply to that our Answer, as he pretended; tho it appears it was intended before, it being dated a day before our Answer. Whilst thus we continued, it happened that those four of us were fortunately absent from Court that day, who hearing of our Con­ditions, wherefore, and why we were thus detained, and what an ill Period these Proceedings tended unto, if not timely and prudently prevented; they used their best endeavours to free us and your Livelihoods from the Claws of Ty­ranny and Covetousness; they applied themselves to Signor Illustrissimo Coppes, the States of Hollands Agent: who as he was ever a Friend and Favourer of the Nation, so now he gave us good and great testimo­ny thereof in this our greatest Need and Extremity: and chiefly by his means with a Sum of Mony; together with the Cla­mors of the Jews, and many other of the Grand Signior's Subjects against this our present Abuse, and destruction of future Trade: The Vizier (whom they had well and sully possessed with the Truth of all Things) after three days Imprison­ment, sent a Chiouz for us to his Lord­ship's House, from whence we were car­ried before the Vizier, who much up­braided his Lordship, saying, He never gave him Commands for such Proceedings, notwithstanding his Lordship's avaneous Allegations against his own Nation, by saying, an English Ship at Smyrna was la­den with Powder, Ammunition, &c. and there resided for assistance of the Turks Enemies; and other the like Abuses, and destructive Courses against those here; tending not only to the confiscation of Ships and Estates, but the risgo of en­slaving our Bodies, if not the loss of all or some of our Lives, had his Hellish Plots taken effect. The next day after our ge­neral Commitment, arrives five more of our fellow Factors from Smyrna, there seized upon and made Prisoners; and so by his Lordship's Command, in that nature brought to his House, and put amongst us, notwithstanding the advice from, their Correspondents hence was at Smyrna, (be­fore their departure thence) that their part of Leviation Mony was all paid in here; yet their Leviation, with one third more in Monies and Goods, was takne a­gain from them by his impudently impi­ous Ministers there, and all the rest of their Goods continued sealed up: So the Intent (as your Worships may plainly perceive) was no other than first to get the Monies here paid, then to seize upon their Per­sons, and next to take away and secure their Estates; thereby to prevent a just, reasonable, and natural Defence; and now it too plainly appears, (because his Lord­ship's Imployers had taken course no Mes­sengers should come unto us); Horsemen are daily dispatched unto us by our Friends at Smyrna, advising us to the 20th Instant, of the unnatural and devouring Progres­sions they had there made; which was done by the assistance of the Caddie, whom they had well bribed, beginning to act there at the same time as we were here all imprisoned; so there was no intent of staying for our Answer to his extravagant Demands. They first fell upon Mr. Lan­celot's House, thence proceed all through­out the Nation; so that they have not on­ly taken away all the Goods, Monies, and Effects whatsoever they could find in their Houses, at Home or Abroad, but broke open and ransack'd all our Chambers, Trunks, and Counting-houses, which mounteth to a far greater value than his demands of Dollars 160000; and by large Promises to Informers, endeavour to dis­cover and take what is owing them abroad by People of the Country; and have so threatned our Friends and Servants to de­liver our Books, and declare where's more of our Estates, that they are constrained to leave our naked Houses to the open World, and betake themselves to the Ships in Port for Refuge. All this it seems contents them not, but are contriving Provisions, by policy and force of some Rogues of the Country, to unlade what Goods the Na­tion had put on board the Jonas. For all which, we have not only the advice of our distressed Friends there, but such in­fallible Information, as your Worships may perceive by the inclosed authentick Co­pies of Letters from his Instruments at Smyrna to his Lordship here; by which you will too plainly perceive his Lordship did, and still doth aim at all the Estate the Nation had in the Country; and for that cause he was so much enraged for the de­parture of the Hercules, and William and Thomas, whose Goods he esteemed as so much loss to him.

We have been now seven days out of his Lordship's hands, and are endea­vouring to free that Estate they have al­ready taken at Smyrna, as also to defend [Page 70]our Selves and your Estates in future from him, and free the Ships out of Port, (which no question at last will be proved have been detained by his Lordship to this ill pur­pose) and if possible, to procure the re­turn of Dollars, 20 in 30000, his Lord­ship hath unavoidably forced from us in the Leviation Accompt, upon strange Preten­ces. All which (by the assistance of our obliged and worthy Friend Signior Illustris­simo Coppes; together with the expence of Dollars 30 in 40000, to the Vizier and o­ther Turkish Ministers) we doubt not but speedily to effect; for without this ho­nest defensive Remedy, we can expect no­thing but ruin to all your Estate in the Country, which still he threatneth, and endeavours by all his devilish Policy and Means to effect: But the Vizier, and the two Caddeleskiers, who are our Judges, are so possest with the Truth and Reason of our Cause, as well by the People of the Country, as our Selves, that they have given us full assurance, by Promises, Pro­testations, and sound Probabilities, that our just Demands shall be accomplished; for which we all faithfully and earnestly endeavour Night and Day, and so do hourly expect a good determination of it: and till there be an Issue or Settlement given to this our confused Condition, (which we hope will not continue for many days) no particular Principal must expect Advice from any Factor here, because no private Man can fitly advise any thing, till the ge­neral Business be better ordered: And as we proceed therein, we shall by all Ways and Conveyances give your Worships a true and exact Account. We do humbly beseech your Worships to acknowledg the good Offices of the State's Agent to their Ambassador with you, and so fully certify him, that Illustr. Sign. Coppes appeared no ways against his Lordship as Ambassador, or trenching on the King's Honour, but respectfully and modestly for the safety of your Estates.

To particularize all Passages and Cir­cumstances in this Business, would prove more troublesom than needful to your Worships, so please to accept of this Re­lation; for this is the present stat [...] of yours and our Condition; which though not so well as we could wish, yet better than we could imagine; for the Hand was up, the Match lighted, and a little more time would have blown up all, We need not put your Worships in mind speedily to send us another Protector, seeing the Ne­cessity of your Occasions craves it too plain­ly; and in confidence of your speedy Re­solution thereof, we shall continue, hoping our Desires will be satisfied, and the Estates in better security, by his speedy arrival here, which God in Mercy grant.

His Lordship's Cause is so bad, that Signor Dominico your Secretary, Signior George, and all other Druggermen, have not only declined his Lordship, but apply themselves to us, (and especially the for­mer). In fine, we conceive his Lordship finds his former bad Proceedings have made him uncapable to return into Eng­land, and also uncertain of his Residence here; which, together with the improvi­dent use he hath made of his Golden Time, that he intended to seize upon all He and his unworthy Instruments could catch hold of; for to this purpose he diverted the Gol­den Fleece's advantagious Design for Venice; which at first was approved and caused by his own consent; and occasioned her Fa­ctor here, to whom she was consigned, to let her him to fraight, that so Himself, Fa­mily, and undue gotten Estate, may be conveyed (as in supposed) into France, with whose Ambassador, there hath been often a more than ordinary correspondency of late.

Before the sealing up of our Letter, we have procured an Imperial Command for the recovering of the Estate into our Hands, taken away at Smyrna; as also for the attaching the Persons, and bringing those good Agents of his Lordships hither, to answer their Proceedings and Behavi­our: the obtaining of which Command, we are not a little glad of, being our Obli­gatory Testimony of the Vizier's being our Friend, and ties him thereby to conti­nue so, which we hope effectually to find, two days hence, when his Lordship is to appear with us before him; but in case he refuseth (as already he hath done) the Vizier will give Sentence against him.

Your Worships may be pleased to take notice, that his Lordship's chief Counsel­lor, in these his undue Proceedings, is Mr. Henry Hyde, of whose good Service in your former Occasions at the Morea, we need not to give testimony; but can assure your Worships, that since his coming hi­ther, he hath occasioned great Disturbance among the Nation; and now at last (had the Design before mentioned taken effect) mingt have raised his decayed Fortunes, by the ruin of Yours and our Estates; but, thanks be to God, the Counsel of Achitophel is truned into Folly. And for your late Treasurer John Woolf, the satisfying of whose Debts hath so mounted the last Le­viation, he is so far from acknowledging the Courtesies done in acquitting him from his Creditors, that he is become Assistant (though a weak one) to his Lordship in the Proceeding aforementioned: And ha­ving deserted Galata, with Mr. Henry [Page 71]Hyde, resides at his Lorship's, laying their Heads together in contriving Mischief a­gainst those from whom they have had their Maintenance.

In case your Worships should not be in a posture to procure an Ambassador so soon as you may desire, that you would please in the interim, and as soon as may be, to obtain a Letter from his Majesty to the Grand Signior, or Vizier, in appro­bation and acknowledgment of what is done; and that his Lordship be not nim­bler than your Worships in getting the like against us, which doubtless he will en­deavour. We shall not farther inlarge at present, but intend shortly, when all things shall be fully and absolutely setled, to write to your Worships again. So we rest.

At Instant a Copy of his Lordship's Letter, with others directed to him, be­ing come to hand, we send them herewith; and from Smyrna are advised that the Per­sons of Hetherington and the Druggerman are detained aboard our Ships there; and by this time the Command is with them, which will warrant the bringing them up with their Papers, that are also aboard; by which the Plot will more plainly ap­pear. To morrow we expect his Lord­ship's appearance before the Vizier, when we have hopes to reward the Trouble he intended others, &c.

Your Worships most obliged and humble Servants,
  • John Wyld,
  • John Lancelot,
  • Nicholas Read,
  • William Ashley,
  • Thomas Berkley,
  • Dixwell Brent,
  • Nath. Barnardiston,
  • James Moyer,
  • James Modyford,
  • Daniel Edwards,
  • William Chappel,
  • Roger Fouke,
  • Gyles Ball,
  • John Tye,
  • John Ball,
  • William Pearl,
  • John Pixley,
  • George Hanger,
  • Samuel Barnardiston,
  • John Swift,
  • William Gough,
  • Thomas Pigot,
  • John Abney,
  • Francis Ashwell,
  • Robert Frampton,
  • Gyles Davis,
  • John Plomer,
  • James Davison,
  • William Osburn,
  • Henry Davy,
  • Richard Strode,
  • Philip Farewell,
  • John Erisey,
  • Jonathan Dawes,
  • Ralph Gosnold.
Your Worships most obliged, most humble, and faithful Servant, Domenico Timone, Secretary.

The Factors General Letter from Smyr­na, dated the 4th of July, 1646, to the Levant Company.

Right Worshipful Sirs,

IT may please you, our last from hence was by the Ship William and Thomas, advising his Lordships Proceedings for ano­ther Leviation, for discharging your Debts at Constantinople, being then informed that the whole amounted unto Dollars 118109; and how we were resolved to withstand it, until your Worships further Pleasure should be signified unto us concerning the same, for such Reasons as we then presumed to lay open unto you; and that in the mean time we had presented our Grievances to his Lordship's gracious perusal, the Copy whereof went annexed to our said Letter, to both which you may please to have refe­rence.

The 24th of March following, our Con­sul called a Court, and declared his Lord­ship's Answer to our said Letter, disliking our Proceedings; and by a new Order pro­hibited the lading of Goods, and receiving them on Board, and the departure of Ships, until the said Leviation were paid, accord­ing to his former Order, and Schedule now set down, shewing each Man his propor­tionable part for his Factory of Smyrna, amounting in all to Dollars 54950, and for the Factory at Constantinople, to Dollars 56000, is together Dollars 110950. Where­upon, we generally desired that his Lord­ship would be pleased to suspend the exe­cution of the said Order of Leviation, un­til such time we should receive your Wor­ships farther Order about it, without which we our selves were like to pay it out of our own Purses, as in the last Leviation; receiving since particular Orders from some of our Principals, not to pay any Levia­tions, otherwise it should be for our own Accompts, and not theirs.

The 24th of April, the Consul called another Court, signifying unto us, that his Lorship did require an account for the departure of the Ship William and Thomas, and Success, contrary to his Lordship's Commands, there being an Officer of the Vizier's come down to apprehend Captain Tho. Porter, and to carry him up to Con­stantinople, (which Ships departed at their own pleasures, being not in our powers to stay them.) And that concerning the Le­viation it was inevitable, and his Lordship was resolved upon it, and therefore would force us unto it, and expect repair of Ho­nour from the Delinquents. Whereupon fear­ing his Lordship's farther displeasure, which might beget some greater Inconveniences amongst us, we presumed to yield unto his [Page 72]Lordship's Commands, by way of a sub­missive orderly complyance, and conform our selves unto the paiment of our parts of the said Leviation, in proportion to the Estates were received on the last general Ships, Hercules, Sampson, and Smyrna-Merchant, according to our particular As­sessments; as appeareth by our general Letter presented to his Lordship, and entred in Cancellaria, grounded upon the re­sult of this days Court; desiring his Lord­ship would be pleased to allow us four Months time for paiment, for such Rea­sons as we have alledged in the same.

The 6th of May, the Consul told us he had received other Letters from his Lord­ship, prohibiting not only the Lading of Goods, and the Departure of any Ships, until the Leviation be setled; but also therein more fully signifies and declares, That until the Grand Signior's Fleet be gone forth, he cannot permit any Ship, either at Constantinople, or here, to lade or be dispatched; and that accordingly his Lordship is so required of this State. And in like manner hath ordered and com­manded those whom it concerns, both a­bove, and in this Port, to observe the same. And moreover farther witnessing, which accordingly (as he said) he was bound to acquaint us, how that the Em­bargo at Constantinople, and here, was se­conded; and his Lordship, to avoid far­ther Dangers and Inconveniences to the Publick, could not refuse his Consent there­unto.

The 10th of May arrived here Mr. John Hetherington, a Servant to his Lorship, and Signow Lorenzo Zuma a Greek, one of his Lordship's Druggermen, from Constan­tinople; who the next Morning moved our Consul to call a Court for the Nation; where being assembled, the Consul told the said Hetherington and Lorenzo, That their Desires were performed, and there­fore required them to deliver what they had in Commission from his Lordship: who produced an Order of the 27th of April, directed to the Consul and Us, for paiment of the said Leviation forthwith, or else to proceed according to his farther Order, Warrant, and Instructions in such behalf; and we to be answerable to such Loss, Damage, and Inconveniencies as may ensue thereby. To which we answered, That the Leviation was subscribed unto, and therefore desired the said Hehterington and Lorenzo to stay four or five days, until his Lordshio should return Answer to our Letter of the 24th of April. The said Lorenzo told us, He would retire and per­use hsi Lordship's Commission, and in two hours return, to have a more full and satisfactory Answer from us: which being expired, he declared, That his Lordship's Commission required forthwith ready Mony or Goods, (being hsi Instruction, from which he could not vary). Where­upon Mr. John Lancelot first answered, (as he was a Merchant) He could not depo­sit his Cloth, for his Credit's sake, but would give his Bills for his and Mr. Dix­well Breat's proportionable part of the Le­viation, payable at Constantinople per Mr. Thomas Pigot, at five days sight, into his Lordship's Cancellaria; which was refused, unless they would deposit the value in Cloth, and one third part more towards Charges, in the possession of him the said Lorenzo; which they said again, for their Credits sake (as they were Merchants) could not consent unto; so referred them­selves unto the said Lorenzo's farther pro­ceedings, if these Proffers would not be accepted of, being not possible for them at present to procure Monies at Interest, or otherwise.

The like Conditions we all in general proffered for our proportionable parts, but were refused by the said Hetherington and Lorenzo. Whereupon the Consul told them, they had all our Assents for pai­ment of the Leviation; and if that, with such Reasons and Proffers as propound­ed, might not be satisfactory, the Consus, and we in general, referred our selves to the said Lorenzo's farther Proceedings.

After this, the said Hetherington and Lorenzo presently repaired to the Cad­dies, accompanied with a prime Chiouz of the Vizier's, and declared their farther Commissions: After publication whereof, the Caddie sent for the Consul, and all our Nation, where the Capitulations were first taken away by Warrant, and the Con­sul in a most barbarous manner was laid hold on, with Dixwell Breat, Daniel Ed­wards, John Pixley, Samuel Barnardistion, George Hanger, and James Moyer, and com­mitted Prisoners into Custody of the said Chiouz and Officers, and transported to a House (taken by them on purpose) where they were violently, and in a for­midable manner, thrust into a dark Cham­ber, and at length were forced to present Dollars 300, to have a Window set open to give them Light and Air; the Consul telling the said Hetherington and Lorenzo, before he was surprised, in the presence of the Caddies, That neither he, or the Na­tion, had any ways transgressed the Grand Signior's, or his Lordship's Commands, and that he did not fear what they could do unto him, no not so much as to die, in performance of his Faith and Trust to the Levant Company, whom he had truly served; as likewise for his Love and Affe­ction he bore to the Nation here under his Charge, whom he would never betray, hoping shortly to see his own Country a­gain, And in two hours after, the said Hetherington, Lorenzo, and Chiouz, Caddie, [Page 73]and Neipe, sealed up all the Counting­houses, Magazines, and some Chambers; and in two days after, transported the Pri­soners over-land up to Constantinople, where they were delivered to his Lord­ship's Power and safe Custody; we in the mean time being left like so many Sheep without a Shepherd, and ignorant where to seek protection.

The next day after departure of these Prisoners, the said Hetherington and Lo­renzo sealed up our Cloth in our own Warehouses, for what concerned our pro­portionable part of the Leviation, at the rate of Dollars 45 per Cloth, and one third part more towards Charges.

The 18th day of May, at the instance of the said Hetherington and Lorenzo, the remainder of us left here behind met to­gether, where the said Hetherington told us we had not brought in our Bills of Ex­change for Constantinople, for the parts of our Leviation, and one third part more; unto which we answered, We had com­plyed with his Lordship's Commands, in all willing and obedient manner, accord­ing to our present Possibilities, until we should be able to satisfy the same with our ready Monies here, or by our Bills payable in Constantinople, at five days sight, where­in we promised to use our utmost Endea­vours, hoping to redeem our Cloth again, which we had deposited, and they sealed up for our proportionable Parts of the Leviation.

In few days after arrived here one of the principallest Chiouzes of the Grand Signior, with new Commands sent down by his Lordship; by virtue whereof the said Hetherington and Lorenzo seized upon the Persons of John Ball, Henry Davey, Phillip Farwell, Nathaniel Barnardiston, and John Ingoldsby, who were committed Prisoners to the said Chiouz, who used them with some humanity, and sent up the next day to Constantinople, to be deli­vered unto his Lordship's Power; after whose departure (all Law being set aside) the said Hetherington and Lorenzo by this Command came down, opened all our Warehouses, and by Violence carried all our Goods away into several Canes of the Truks; as well what they had sealed up, for the Leviation, as all other Goods of what nature soever they could find, unless it were such as was sealed up, and be­longed to Turks, and other of the Grand Signior's Subjects; and left many of us so bare, that we had not wherewithal to af­ford us a piece of Bread to keep Life and Soul together, only bare Promises. The said Chiouz remaining behind, put us daily into great Fears that we should all be sent up, or clapt up here in Prison, which caused many of us to repair on board the Ship for Succour, here being in Harbour the Ships Rainbow, Jonas, Hope­well, and Triangle.

In all which time of this Distraction and Sufferings, our Miseries have been much condoled by the chief Turks and Inhabitants of this Place, who seem to sympathize with us in our sad Conditions; and had not the Commands been so powerful, the whole Town would have risen up in our Defence and Protection, who have privately advised of these A­buses; which as they themselves confess, are like to ruin, not only this Scale, but that of Aleppo and Constantinople also, to the Dishonour of the Grand Signior, and ruin of many of his Subjects; and of a profitable and acceptable Friend (our Na­tion) to become a potent Enemy against them.

The 28th of June came Letters from Constantinople, advising the Vizier's Or­der for rescuing both Factories from his Lordship's Imprisonment, and particular Advice to some of us here left, for appre­heading the Persons of the said Hehtering­ton and Lorenzo, and to keep them in safe Custodies on board our Ships, fearing (we having no Order as yet to receive our E­states out of their Possessions) they might convey our said Estates away, or sell them for half their Worth, and so make their private escapes out of Town, ex­pecting daily a Chiouz to carry up their Persons to Constantinople, and to free our Goods, hoping all will go well again for us. Hereupon the very same day, the said Hetherington and Lorenzo, (without any noise or rumour) were by the Mari­ners conveyed on board several Ships from the said Hetherington's Lodging, viz. He­therington on board the Triangle, William Hodges Commander; and Lorenzo on board the Hopewell, Nicholas Terrick Com­mander; where now they remain, to the contentment of the Inhabitants here, who daily expect their sending up to the Port, there to answer to such Crimes and Inso­lencies as shall be objected and proved a­gainst them.

Thus we have presumed plainly and distinctly (accordingly as we conceive it becomes us) though briefly, to present un­to your Worships perusal, the whole Pro­cess of his Lordship's Proceedings against us here in Smyrna, (since our last) ac­cording to our experience of the Passa­ges; by which your Worships may easily conjecture his Lordship's farther Inten­tions. And for what hath occurred at Constantinople, your Worships will receive by this Conveyance, advise to both which we pray you to be referred; which being taken into your deliberate Considerations, may afford such future Means of Prote­ction, and incouragement to enter into a way of setling this Turky Trade in such a [Page 74]posture, that we hope these Losses may be repaired with advantage.

And so we humbly take our leaves, having given your Worships testimony of our Concordance, in the discharge of our Obligations and Duties; and in conformi­ [...]y we subscribe, evermore resting,

Your Worships humble and obliged Servants,
  • Robert Keble,
  • Thomas Lancelot,
  • John Wild junior,
  • Lawrence Chambers,
  • Will. Oxwieck,
  • Arnold White,
  • Daniel Bassano,
  • William Whetcombe,
  • Robert Dawes,
  • Samuel Browning.

But not to insist long on a Subject so ungrate­ful, as the Difference was between the Ambassa­dor and his Merchants; the Conclusion, and Is­sue of all was this. After Sir Sackvile Crow had spent at the least seventy thousand pieces of Eight of good ready Mony, and the Turky Company two hundred thousand; the Turks finding the Ambassador's Exchequer to be almost exhausted, for that Presents and Purses of Mony came not in so plentifully as at first; and on the contrary, feeling the Spring of the Levant Com­panies Treasury still to run fresh and quick, their Inclinations towards the Ambassador grew more cold and faint, his Agents were not admit­ted so readily to Audience as formerly, nor his Petitions and Addresses received with that can­dor, as when Mony and Interest made their en­trance easy; in the mean time, the Merchants were heard with great patience, their Cause and Complaints esteemed reasonable; and in short, Sir Sackvile Crow was dismissed from Constantino­ple, in a manner not usual for Ambassadors, nor agreeable to that Quality and Character: and was succeeded by Sir Thomas Bendysh, who was Authorized and constituted in that Embassy, by Commission from his Majesty King Charles the First of ever blessed and glorious Memory.

Gio Capello being constituted General in the place of Molino, as we mentioned at end of the preceding Year, departed from Venice ear­ly in the Spring, having under his Command fifty Gallies, six Galleasses, and forty Ships of War, and four Fire-ships, besides other Ves­sels, which are necessary Attendants on so great an Armata; which grand Preparations raised the Minds of the Christian World to ex­pect the abatement of the Ottoman Pride, and other Effects equal to the magnificent Ostenta­tion, and triumphing Glory of this mighty Power: But God, who gives not always Success to the Powerful, nor the Battel to the Strong, was not, it seems, so well satisfied for the Sins of Christendom, as to judge it worthy to be delivered from the Scourages of its Grand Op­pressor.

Whilst Capello remained with the best part of the Fleet at Candia, Tomaso Morosini, Admiral of the Ships, shewed himself in a Bravado with twenty two Sail before the Castles of the Helle­spont, called the Dardanelli, defying the whole Turkish Power, with Colours flying, and Drums beating: nor did they dare to answer the bold Challenge, until in a dead Calm, some few light Gallies presented themselves in a seeming Bat­tel, with whom, for want of Wind, the Ships were on the disadvantage, and rather received Prejudice than gave it; so that both sides were contented with the Action.

Morosini withdrew from that Station, and re­turned to his General at Candia; to whom having joined his Forces, he earnestly perswad [...]d him, together with the Proveditor Grimani, to engage the Turkish Fleet, which they assured him was much inferior to them, both in num­ber of Vessels, and in Skill and Courage of the Combatants; and that the Success of this Year consisted in the cutting off the Enemies Suc­cours, which was their sole Relife and Depen­dance, without which they could not longer maintain the Ground they possessed, but must deliver up that and themselves to their pleasure. But the cautious General would not assent to this Resolution, judging it over-rash and preci­pitate; for that the Fortune of Candia, and o­ther Isles of the Archipelago, was not to be ha­zarded on the Success of one Battel.

During which Dispute, and irresolution of Affairs, the Turkesh Fleet, consisting of three hundred Sail, arrived at Canea, where they landed forty thousand fighting Men, which tur­ned the Scale of the War, and rendred the Turks so powerful, as not ever more to be ex­pelled, or their Off-spring extirpated from the Confines of that Island. By this time the Pope's and Malta Gallies were come to their Assistance, and united with the Venetians; so that Capello setting sail from the Port of Suda, resolved to en­gage the Enemy at St. Theodoro; which was ef­fected accordingly, though with little Success, for the Turks had fortified themselves, and se­cured their Gallies with that advantage, that they could not be assaulted without great hazard of the Christians; and when they endeavoured to burn them, their four Fire-ships took fire too soon, and proved of more fear and astonishment to the Truks (to whom this Invention was as yet unknown) than of real dammage. After this the Venetians returned again to Suda, where having intelligence that thirty Turkish Gallies, with Men and Provision (which they had col­lected in several parts of the Archipelago) were on their Voyage to Canea, Capello preparing to intercept them with a Force of Galleasses and Gallies, and leaving Grimani and Morosini to com­mand the main Body of the Fleet, he in person bent his Course towards Cerigo.

In the mean time Mustapha Pasha departed from Canea, in order to his return to Constanti­nople, with fifty seven light Gallies, two Ships, two Galleasses, and many Saiks; but meeting in his Passage with a hard storm of Northerly Winds, he lost seven of his Gallies, and several other Vessels, so that he resolved to divide his Fleet, and send part of them to Scio, and him­self with the other part to make for Negropont. This Fleet was followed by some other Vessels under the Command of Mahomet Celebee, Bro­ther of the Pasha of Algier, who being as far in his way as the narrow Streights of Andra, he was there stopped by the Fury of the Northern Winds, (which are the Master-Winds of those Seas) and by the impetuous rage thereof, was carried to the Island of Zia; where having gi­ven Licence to the greatest part of his Souldiery to Land, they carelesly strayed abroad, and without suspicion of Surprize, merrily passed their time in eating and drinking. In the inte­rim, advice hereof being carried to Tomaso Moro­sini, [Page 75]then with some Ships in the Port of Mi­lo, he immediately, without loss of time, ap­plied himself to assault the Turks; and being followed by the Proveditor Grimani, he took two of their Ships, whilst Mehmet Celebee, with about two hundred of his Men, betook them­selves to the weak shelter of an old demolished Fort, and afterwards surrendred themselves to the discretion of the Conqueror.

Morosini and Grimani, encouraged with this Success, resolved to pursue the Enemies Fleet; in order unto which, Morosini first putting out to Sea, was instantly carried away by a fierce gale of Wind towards Ambro, and separated from the rest of his Fleet, and thence again was tossed by the impetuosity of the Storms unto Rafti; of which Mustapha Pasha having Intelli­gence, made haste to attack this single Vessel, with forty Gallies; giving order to the Bey of Rhodes, to lay him aboard with fifteen Gallies, the strongest and best armed of all their Squadron: Morosini nothing dismayed, bearing the same constancy of Mind in the midst of his Enemies, as at a distance, boldly shewed himself on the Quarter Deck, encouraging his Men with his words, and by his Example, to Actions wor­thy their Religion, Faith, and Country for which they contended. The Turks continued for some time to batter the Ship at a distance with their Cannon, but with little dammage to the Chri­stians; who returned their Shot to better ad­vantage. Hereby the Turks perceiving that Blows given so far off did little Execution, re­solved to Board the Vessel, and subdue Her by force of Arms, and being come to the side of the Ship, the Souldiers were fearful to enter, suspecting some trains of Powder to blow them up, until Emurat, one of the Captains, struck off the Head of one or two of his own Men, whom he perceived backward in the Assault, which affrighted the rest into the greater danger, and forced them to enter the Ship, who were soon followed by the Gallies of the Bey of Rhodes, of Milo, of Mehmet Bey, and others; so that now two hundred of the Enemy were Com­bating with Swords and Half Pikes upon the Deck;Morosini flair. in which storm, Morosini fighting amongst the thickest, was shot through the Head with a Musket Bullet, and so gloriously finished his Days in the Service and Defence of his Coun­try; gaining to himself a Laurel, and an Im­mortal Name of Glory and Renown.

The Christian Souldiers little regarding all this time the fall of their General, stoutly maintained their Fight, in which they received encouragement from the prospect they had of two Galleasses making haste to their Succour; at whose nearer approach, the Turks desisted from their farther Attempt; being unwilling to purchase a Victory at the dear rate it would cost them.

The Body of Morosini was transported to Venice, and his Obsepuies Celebrated in a man­ner more Triumphant than Funebrous; the Pro­veditor Grimani was likewise declared Captain General in the place of Capello; who having, as it were, Besieged the Castles at the Mouth of the Dardanelli, taken several places in the Ar­chipelago, and put the Enemies Fleet often unto flight, he thereby, and by other Acts of Va­lour, rendred him justly renowned through all Chrstendom.

These were the chief and most memorable actions by Sea, performed this Year; Those by Land were acted chiefly in Dalmatia, where the Turks poured in their Forces on the Venetian Dominions, but were bravely repulsed by Leo­nardo Foscolo, who took Ali Bey Prisoner, the Commander in Chief of the Sangiac of Licca, and slew his Son; besides which, he took Sac­covar, Polissano, Islan, and other Fortresses and Castles, full of Arms and Ammunition, which were the Magazines of the Country; he also recovered Novegrade out of the hands of the Turks, which was afterwards demolished by Order from the Senate; which Victories were followed with other Successes; nothing being able to oppose the Valiant and Prosperous Arms of Foscolo; for besides the taking and sacking of several other Forts and Castles in Dalmatia, Obraozzo, Carino, Ottissian, Velino, Nadino, Ʋ ­rana, Tino, and Salona, in the Confines of Croa­tia, and Bosna, became a Prey to the Venetian Arms.

But to this successful Progress of the War, a stop was given for some time by the sickness of Foscolo; in which interim, the new Pasha of Bosna, called Mahomet Techli, a Circassian born, a Person both Generous and Valiant, with an Army of forty thousand Men, besieged the strong Fortress of Sebenico; Sebenico besieged. but was bravely repulsed by the Valour of the Inhabitants, the very Women exceeding the imbecillity of their Sex; and Children and old Men, with the weak­ness of their Age, strengthened themselves with Resolution against their Enemies, and so valiantly behaved themselves in defence of their City, that the Turk was forced to raise his Siege, having gained nothing but the loss and slaughter of many of his People, and the best of his Souldiery; whereby he gained an assu­rance of the Invincible Strength of that place, and the Valour of the Inhabitants.

Foscolo in like manner recovering his Health, continued the un-interrupted course of his Victo­ries, and thereunto added the taking of Scar­dona; so that in Dalmatia the Venetian Affairs ran so prosperously, that nothing could be de­sired to render them more happy and glorious. For the Turks not only were expelled from the Confines of Dalmatia, but likewise that Pro­vince became more quiet and secure than ever it had been in the Times of Peace.

But the joy of these Successes was very much allayed by the unhappy Fate of a great part of the Venetian Fleet, at the Island of Psara; which being lanched from Candia with inten­tion to assault the Turks within the Dardanelli, The ruin of the Venetian Armata at Psara. unfortunately were driven by contrary Winds to that unsecure shore; where contending with a most furious Storm, a great part of the Fleet was cast away, and the General Grimani him­self drowned. About which time, the Turks, for the greater Terror of the Christians, laid close Siege to the City of Candia, and made many and various Attempts thereupon, carry­ing on their Assaults with the height of bra­very and Resolution, the Particulars of which require a distinct History; but by the invincible Fortitude and Courage of the Christians, they were repulsed with that slaughter, and with the loss of so many Men, by Sallies and other Stra­tagems of War, that the Turks were at length constrained to raise their Siege with dishonour and confusion; during which time many of the Nobility and Persons of Quality lost their Lives; amongst which, the principal were, Vicenzo della Marra, Governour General of the Arms of Candia, and Count Remorantino, natural Son of the Duke of Loraine, Comman­der in Chief of the Forces that came from be­yond the Alpes.

General Foscolo encouraged by the many glo­rioes Enterprises that he had obtained, resol­ved to consummate all by taking the strong and famous Fortress of Clissa, Clissa ta­ken. scituate in the Con­sines of Dalmatia, and Borders of Bosna, on the top of a sharp and craggy Mountain, invironed with Rocks and unaccessible Passages; the diffi­culty of the attempt rather inflamed than abated the Courage of Foscolo, so that he Valiantly Be­sieged and Assaulted that Place; during which time, the Priest D. Stephano Sorich. Captain of the Morlachs, intercepted the Succours which were sent thither, and Georgio the Proveditor, overthrew Teccbeli Pasha in a Field Battel; so that the Inhabitants desparing of Relief, surren­dered up themselves to the mercy of the Ve­netians; and thus Clissa being taken, the Se­nate Commanded that it should be more regular­ly Fortified.

And here the Christian Arms met some inter­ruption. For the Morlachs desirous to cast off the Turkish Yoke, and return to the protection of the Venetians, designed to surprize Scutari; and at the same time the Arch-bishop of Duraz­zo, with seven thousand Albanians, was to seize upon Croia, and Alessio; but the Design being discovered by the traiterous practices of some false Brethren, before Matters were ma­turely grown, or the time of Execution, it had certainly cost the Life of all the Morlachs, and seven hundred Venetian Souldiers joined with them, had not the increase of the Waters hin­dered the speedy March of the Turks, who re­solved to cut them all off without mercy, who re­gard to any; so that having time to disperse themselves, and take refuge in the Mountains, the most of them preserved their Lives from the Cruelty of their Enemies; only some certain Ecclesiastical Persons falling into their Hands, they imputed unto them the cause of the Rebel­lion, and in a barbarous manner impaled them on Stakes.

The Turks enraged for the loss of Clissa, dispatched Dervis Pasha into the parts of Bosna, with a potent Army, threatning to Assault Spa­latro; whom to divert, Foscolo, together with Priest Sorich, Captain of the Morlachs, entered into the Enemies Country; spoiling, burning, and destroying wheresoever they came. The Morlachs more greedy of Prey than ambitious of Glory, divided themselves into small Parties to rob and pillage; in which interim they were assaulted by the Turks, but being scattered, were so far from making a stout resistance, that they committed themselves to a shameful flight, in which great numbers of them were miserably Butchered; nor could the valour of Sorich, nor of the Governour Possidaria, reduce them by their Examples into any Order: whilst to­gether with some few valiant Dalmatians, and Morlach Captains, they endured the shock of all the Enemies Fury; in which Skirmish the Turks lost seven Agas, and about seventy Soul­diers: On the Christians side were killed four hundred, some few Slaves, and about seventy Ensigns taken; amongst the rest the good Priest Sorich scorning to turn his back, had the mis­fortune to fall into the Enemies hands, whom they flead alive, and afterwards impaled; and though they subdued his Body, yet he was still master of his mind; bearing the same constan­cy in his Torments, as he had shewed Magnani­mity and Courage in the Face of his Enemy.

Whilst these Martial Affairs were transacting, with the Blood and Life of many thousands on both sides, Sultan Ibrahim, like a stout Souldier of Venus, waged another War in the Elysiums of Cupid; and casting aside all thoughts of Candia, remitted the sole care and management thereof to the Vizier and Pashas of the Divan; following a Life so lascivious and sensual, as can neither be imagined with a chast Fancy, or described by a modest Pen.

A principal Instrument of his Delights, and Engine to compass his Amorous Designs, was a certain cast Wench of his, which he named She­chir Para, which signifies a little piece of Sugar; for it seems she was so complaisant and dulcid in her Humour and discourse, as merited that apt Name to express the sweetness of her Con­versation; this Woman having the conve­nience to visit all the Baths in Town, took notice of every Woman which she saw of more than ordinary Features and Proportion, and having enquired her Condition and Dwelling, presently reported the same with all advantage to her Sul­tan, who having heard the Beauty described, be came passionately Enamoured, and could find no repose in his Fancy, until his Instruments, either by fair words or violence, had seduced her, or forced her to his Bed. But growing now ex­travagant and over-wanton in his Amours, he fell in love with the Sultana, or Widow of his Brother Sultan Morat: To win her Affections he had recourse to his Dear Shechir Para; who used all her Arts in this Service: but her pretty wheedling Terms could prevail nothing on this Lady, who answered her in short, That at the Death of her Lord Sultan Morat, she had resol­ved upon a perpetual Widowhood, for that the memory of him was still so lively in her, that she could not entertain the thoughts of admit­ting any new Embraces. This repugnancy and opposition inflamed the heat of Ibrahim like a Feaver, so that he resolved to assault her himself one day by force, and took his time just as she came out of the Bath; but she being a bold Wo­man, and disdaining the wandring loves of Ib­rahim, laid her hand upon her Dagger, (which Sultana's and great Ladies usually wear) threat­ning to wound him in her own defence; the noise and brawling hereof being over-heard by the Queen-Mother, called her from her Retire­ments, and concerned her in the Quarrel; who whilst she reproved her Son, for the rape he in­tended on his Brother's Wife, gave opportunity to the Sultana to escape; and so delivered her out of the hands of this Satyr. But Ibrahim mad with love, and fuming with disdain to be checked and opposed by his Mother, Command­ed her immediately to the old Seraglio, where he confined her to several days Imprisonment, during which time he understood in what man­ner she had treated his large-siz'd Armenian, of whom we have already spoken; whereof the Queen-Mother being conscious, submitted her self with all humility to her Son, begging his Favour and Pardon; and so well acted her part by those who carried her Addresses, that she over came quickly his easy Nature, and was again restored to his Grace, and her Lodgings in the new Seraglio.

In the mean time Shecher Para travelling over all the Baths in Town, to discover new delights for her Master, at length had the fortune to cast her Eyes on a Daughter of the Mufti, a Maid of Incomparable Beauty and Features of Counte­nance, and proportion of Body, which she re­ported to Ibrahim so sensibly, as if she her self had been in love; and after she had praised every Part and Member of her, she concluded in sum, that she was the most Excellent and admirable [Page 77]Piece that ever Nature framed. The Sultan had no sooner heard the Story, but according to his usual Custom, fell most desperatly in love, and had immediately, without farther consideration or counsel, dispatched his Emissaries; or with­out other Preamble, Ceremony, or Courtship, to have fetched her to him; had not the sense of the late Rebuff he had received from his Bro­ther's Wise, made some inpression of fear in him; and the apprehension he had of the Power of the Mufti, created in him a certain Caution and Respect in the treatment of his Daughter: wherefore he rather resolved to send for the Mufti, with whom he treated of honourable Terms concerning Marriage; promising to take her into his Bosom, and prefer her in Honour equal to any other of his Sultana's.

The old Man who was tender of, and doated on his Daughter, knowing well the wandring humour of the Sultan in his Amours, intended rather to marry her to some great Personage, with whom she might be more happy, than in being a Soltana: for he considered, that Ibra­him having already other Sons, her Issue would either be Sacrificed for security of their Bro­thers, or else spend their days in a Prison, and become Grey-headed, whilst they breath in a medium between Life and Death, and are sad Recluses in the Grave of their unhappiness. These considerations were well imprinted in the mind of the Mufti: but because he durst not deny his proposal, he dealt with him as Inferi­ours usually do with their Lords and Superious; that is, he returned him thanks, expressing infi­nite Obligations, that he would vouchsafe to cast his Princely Eyes on the unworthiness of his Family: however he advised him, that accor­ding to the Canons of their Law, of which he was the Expositor, and obliged to be a severe and precise Observer; it was great Impiety in a Father to impose on the Affections of his Child; so that though he could heartily wish that his Daughter would embrace this Honour, to which he would exhort her with all the ear­nest Perswasions of a Father; yet if she proved refractory thereunto, it would not be becoming his Power to force her; and therefore hoped his Majesty would believe, that in proceeding thus far, he had performed that Duty which be­came him, both as a Father, and a Loyal Sub­ject.

Ibahim supposing that by this Concession he had gained his Design, thanked and imbraced the old Man, whom dismissing with plenary satis­faction, he remained now with an impatient ex­pectation, and hopes of enjoyment. Next Morn­ing the Mufti returned early to the Grand Sig­nior, and having first sufficiently instructed his Daughter to refuse the Sultan's Proffers, told him plainly, that he had used all his paternal Au­thority and interest with his Daughter, that he might induce her to accept this mighty Fortune, which cast it self upon her; but that it found not that ready acceptance with her as he expect­ed; what could be the reason he knew not how to conjecture, since Women are commonly ir­regular, and unreasonble in their Affections.

Ibrahim being in this manner disappointed, and more angry to encounter any boundary or re­straint to the imperious violence of his Lusts, than opposition against the puissance of his Arms; dismist the Mufti with some neglect and disdain, whom he resolved to treat with Rigour, and his Daughter with Courtship. In order to the first, he banished him the Count, and forbad him his presence in any other place; grew sullen and unsatisfied at all his administra­tions of Justice, intending thereby to induce him to a resignation of his Office, there being nothing more irksome to an ingenuous Spirit, than to serve and not to please. On the other side he dealt with the young Lady in a different manner, by the crafty and flattering insinuations of his trusty Shechir Para, who so forcibly man­naged her Tongue full of curious Words, mix­ed with Threats, representing the Storms and Fury of the Sultan's Rage; and again, the Glo­ry, Splendour, and Happiness of the Seraglio; where she should Reign as Empress and Sove­raign of the World: all which she expressed with that passion, and lascivious enticement, as would have shaken a firmer Constancy, than the Vertue of a Turkish Maid: but she being well admonished by her Father, remained obstinate in her Denial: but to quiet the importunity of this Seducer, she begged her not to sollicite her Father in this Request, but rather that she would intercede in her behalf with the Sultan spplica­ting him with all humility to pardon her Childish refusal, and to leave her unto her unto her own Liberty and Choice, and a single Life: to ob­tain which favour from her, she produced a Dia­mond of considerable value, desiring her to ac­cept of that from her, and to become her Friend, her Assistant, and Protectress. Shechir Para be­ing overcome by her Maiden Modesty, could no longer resist such forcible Entreaties; and having her Eyes obscured with the lustre of the Jewel, promised to change her Note, and ex­cuse her refual with the advantagious and compassionate Terms possible; and so taking her leave with a courteous farewel, repaired to the Sultan, to give an account of her Negotia­tions.

Ibrahim, having with more doubtful Fear at­tended the Issue of this last Conference, than he did the Success of his War with Venice; re­ceived his Shecher Para with exceeding joy, who being come in, began to recount all the Particu­lars that had passed: but the sum of all was, that this silly Maid was sufficiently sensible of the honour of being a Soltana, of being Cour­ted by his Majesty, of the Joys, Delights, and Glory of the Seraglio; but that when she re­flected, how that she was to bring forth Chil­dren to die by untimely Deaths, and to end their Days by Poison, or the Bow-string, or at least to live miserable Lives separated from Man­kind, and immured within Walls, and Intombed whilst they breathed; she could not but trem­ble with some horrour, and judg, that all the blandishments of Worldly Fortune were but a transient Paradise; which could not possi­bly recompence, or out-weigh the sense and tenderness she conceived for the misery of her unfortunate Off-spring. Howsoever she so cou­ched her Discourse, that she gave Ibrahim some hopes to overcome at length; by which she ap­peased a little his Fury and Despair, and ex­tracted some Jewels and Gifts in reward of her past Labour, and encouragement for her future Service. In this manner Ibrahim had patience a­while, expecting something farther from the in­dustry of Shecher Para; but finding no effect of all his expectations and gentleness, at length re­solved to break through all Considerations of Respect, either to the Father as the Mouth and Oracle of the Law, or to the simple and foolish innocence of the Maid; and therefore ordered the Great Vizier to cause a Watch to be set on the Girl, either going in, or coming out of the Bath, and without farther Ceremony to bring [Page 78]her unto him. This Order being executed ac­cordingly, and the Maid hurried to the Serag­lio; Ibrahim possessed and enjoyed her for some days, but with those Tears, Reluctancy, and Sullenness, as tood off from the edg and appe­tite of Enjoyment; so that he returned her back again with scorn and contempt unto her Father; who at first dissembled the injury with the same Countenance as he did before, when he was interdicted the Sultan's Presence; sup­pressing his revenge like a concealed Fire, which bursts out afterwards with more violent Flames. But though the sense of Obedience and Duty to­wards his Prince allayed much of the choler he conceived against him for the Rape of his Daugh­ter, yet he knew not how to pardon the Great Vi­zier, whom he termed no other than a Ruffian or Pandor; the Minister of his Master's Lusts, and not of his Laws, and of Justice.

Thus full of indignation he applyed himself, and made his complaint unto one Mahomet Pasha, a principal Member of the Divan; one of great Wisdom and Practice in the Conduct of Affairs, and one with whom he had a particular Friend­ship and Intimacy. Nor less interest had he with Janisar-Aga, or General of the Janizaries; to both whom, with tears in his Eyes, and with such words as the sense of his injuries suggested, he railed at the Vizier, and aggravated the Ra­vishment of his Daughter with all the circum­stances of Villany and Violence.

These two Friends heard the Story with a sensible remorse, and immediately concluded, That for the Honour and Security of the Em­pire, it was necessary to depose Sultan Ibrahim, and for the same Reason to cut off the first Vi­zier; agreeing amongst themselves that Maho­met Pasha should receive the Seal and the Office. To effect which, they deemed it necessary to draw the Qneen-Mother into the Conspiracy, being a Woman of great Authority, and having, as it were, the Reins of Government in her Hands, by reason of the weak Judgment of her Son. But because it was difficult to perswade the tenderness of a Mother to the ruin of her Son, the wise Mufti resolved first to sound her Inclinations and disposition towards this Design: and being well informed of her fierce Circassian Nature, and the Jealousy and Anger she con­ceived against Shechir Para, obtained Licence to be heard by her, as if he would beg her Inter­cession with her Son in his behalf; and being admitted to discourse with her, he thereby plain­ly discovered her most inveterate hatred and displeasure against her Son; not only for this, but for many other Actions of like nature.

This discovery which the Queen had made, gave him the boldnesd to propose the confine­ment again of Ibrahim to his old Prison; not that he should be absolutely laid aside and depo­sed, but only corrected awhile, and being put in remembrance of his past Condition, might be tanght Wisdom, and instructed for the future, what moderation and justice Sultans are obliged to exercise in the Administration of Govern­ment; and so subtilly did he insinuate his Dis­course, that the Queen-Mother assented to the Proposal, and that the Seal should beconferred on Mahomet Pasha; for she had conceived an irreconcileable hatred against Achmet the Grand Vizier, by whose Counsel she was sent to the old Seraglio, and was united in Confederacy with the detested Shechir Para.

The Mufti greatly satisfied to have gained so considerable a Conspirator to the Party, com­municated the whole Business, with the Pro­gress of it, to the two Kadileschers, or Lord Chief Justices of Romelia and Anatolia; who ap­proving thereof, and promising their utmost assi­stance, the 7th. of Angust was the Day appointed for the Insurrection of the Janizaries, who being all in a readiness on that day, went in a tumul­tuary way to call the Mufti, the Kadileschers, and other Officers and Ministers of the Law, whom they seemingly forced to accompany them to the presence of the Grand Signior, of whom they demanded, that the present Vizier Achmet should be deprived of his Office, and that Ma­homet Pasha should be constituted in his place. The Grand Signior at first refused their De­mand, but being perswaded by his Mother that it was necessary to content the Militia in that tumult; he consented thereunto, and having called Achment, he took from him the Seal, and conferred it on Mahomet Pasha, and therewith the Office of Grand Vizier. Achmet trembling at the consequences hereof, resolved to commit himself to the Mercy of the Mufti, and there­fore hastned to his House to attend his return, hoping to find him his Protector, under whose Shadow and Roof he fled for Sanctuary.

The Souldiery having thus obtained the first-fruits of their Insurrection, accompanied the Mufti unto his Home, where finding the depo­sed Vizier Achmet, the Janisar-Aga immediately Commanded him out of Doors, from whence he had no sooner drawn his Foot, than that he was seized upon and strangled, and his Body thrown before the Gate of the new Mosch.

The next day being the 8th of August, 1648, the Janizaries again arising in the like Tumult as before, came to demand of the Mufti, Whe­ther that according to their Law, Sultan ibrahim as a fool, and a Tyrant, and unfit for Govern­ment, ought not to be deposed? To which the Mufti giving Answer in the Affirmative, sent to cite Sultan Ibrahim the day following to appear in the Divan, to administer Justice to his Soul­diers and Subjects, who expected it from him. But Ibrahim supposing that he had sufficiently satisfied the Souldiery, by putting the Vizer out of Office, laughed at the Summons which the Mufti made him; which being seconded by a Fetfa, which is a point of Law resolved by the Mufti, who is the Mouth or Oracle thereof, viz. That the Grand Signior being called to ac­count, is obliged to appear before the Justice; the Sultan in high disdain tore the Paper, threat­ning the Head of the Mufti: but it was now too late he having already sufficiently fortified himself with the Power and Strength of his Rebellious Companions. This Fetfa was immediately se­conded by another of a higher nature, which declared, That whosoever obeyed not the Law of God, was not a true Mussulman or Believer; and though that Person were the Emperor him­self, yet being become by his fithy Actions a Kafir or Infidel, was ipso facto, fallen from his Throne, and no farther capable of Authority and Government. This Fetfa being seen by Ibrahim, he tore it in pieces, commanding the Grand Vizier instantly to put the Mufti to Death, as guilty of Treason against his Prince: but having now lost his Authority, his Commands were not longer regarded, nor any reverence had of his person: For the Janizaries being again assembled about five a Clock in the Afternoon, came with their usual tumult to the Gates of the Seraglio.

And now Sultan Ibrahim losing all Courage at this third attempt, fled into the Arms of his Mother, begging her Assistance and Protection. [Page 79]She being a bold and subtle Woman, employed all her Rhetorick and Eloquence to perswade the Souldlery not to offer Violence to the Person of their Lord and Master; promising that he should relinquish the Government, and retire himself with a Guard into his old Lodgings. Ibrahim comforted a little, that he should save his Life, shrunk himself willingly into his old Shell, wherein he had so long conserved his Life.

In the mean time the Conspirators taking forth his eldest Son Sultan Mahomet, set him on the Throne of his Father, and planting the Sar­gouch, or Imperial Feathers on his Head, salu­ted him for Emperor with loud Acclamations. Ibrahim continued his Imprisonment for some days with great patience, but at length growing desperate and furious, often beat his Head a­gainst the Wall, until at length, he was on the 17th strangled by four Mutes.

In this manner Sultan Ibrahim ended his Days, which puts me in mind of the saying of a wiser and a better King than he, That there is little di­stance between the Prisons and the Graves of Prin­ces. And this Example made a great Officer understand how King Charles the Glorious Mar­tyr was put to Death. For he, I think it was the Great Vizier, falling into Discourse with the Chief English Interpreter at Constantinople, not then calling to mind the Fate of Sultan Ibrahim, demanded, How, and when King Charles was put to Death? Sure, said he, Your King must have no Power, or your People must be more Rebel­lious and Mutinous than other Nations of the World, who durst commit an Act so horrid and vile as this. See, said he, How our Emperor is revered and observed; and how submissive and obedient half the World is to the Nod of our Great Monarch. To which the Interpreter re­plyed, that to recount unto him the History and Occasion of this prodigious fact, would be too long and tedious for him to hear: but that the time it happened, was some Months after the Death or Murder of Sultan Ibrahim; which was an Item sufficient to give him a perfect under­standing of what he required.

Sultan Ibrahim having in this manner ended his Days, the Government was committed into the hands of the Grand Vizier, and the old Queen-Mother (which is she whom we call Kio­sem in the Ottoman State) and of twelve Pa­shaws; who were to manage all Affairs with su­pream Power, during the Minority of Sultan Mahomet, who now Reigns.

Ibrahim was the fifth Son of Sultan Achmet, born of the same Mother with Sultan Morat, Educated like the other younger Sons of the Otto­man Family; within the Walls of an obscure and unhappy Prison; so that 'tis no wonder, if wanting the advantages of seeing and practi­sing in the World, he should neither have stu­died Men, nor been experienced in the Art of Government. Nor less strange is it, being na­tural to humane Infirmity; for Men who have lived under Restraint, Affliction, and fear of Death, to become licentious and immoderate in all kind of Pleasures, whensoever they pass on a sudden from the depth of Misery to some transcendent degree of Happiness and Prosperi­ty; which as, I say, all Men are naturally sub­ject unto, so more especially those whose Religion indulges them all kind of sensual Carnality in this Life.

Ibrahim was in his own Nature of a gentle and easy Temper, of a large Forehead, of a quick and lively Eye and ruddy Complexion, and of a good Proportion in the Features of his Face, but yet had something in the Air of his Coun­tenance, that promised no great Abilities of Mind. And giving himself up to all kind of Effeminacy and Softness, attended not unto the Government of his Affairs; and therefore it was his greatest misfortune to be served by wicked and faithless Officers to whom he trusted, and to whom he gave Credence, wanting in him­self the Talents of Wisdom and Discretion to discern their Malice.

The continual apprehensions that he enter­tained of Death during his Imprisonment, had so frozen his Constitution with a strange frigi­dity towards Women, that all the dalliance and warm Embraces of the most inflaming Ladies in the Seraglio, could not in a whole Years time thaw his Coldness; which was the occa­sion at first of that Report, which spoke him to be impotent towards Women: during which time he attended to his Ministers of Justice, and to a management of the Affairs of his Empire, which in the beginning of his Reign gained him a Credit and Reputation, and raised a great ex­pectation of his goodness and Care of his Sub­jects Welfare; and evidence of which, he gave in his Charge to the Great Vizier, that he should put no Man to Death unless for Capital and Enormous Crimes. But at length losing him­self in Lusts and Sensualities, he forsook the Helm of his Regency, committing the guidance of his Empire to other Hands: and as he was ignorant of War, so he foolishly sported in the Calms of peace; and suffering himself to be guided only by Fortune, felt the Stroke thereof in his last Unhappy Fate.

THE REIGN OF Sultan MEHMET, OR MAHOMET IV. THIRTEENTH EMPEROR OF THE TURKS.

ANNO 1649.

SUltan Ibrahim perishing in this manner, by the mutinous Violence of the Soul­diery, his Son Mehmet, or Mahomet, be­ing a Child of seven Years of Age, suc­ceeded in the Throne: During whose Minori­ty, (which was to continue for the space of ten Years longer) his Mother, who was the first Sultana, assisted with the Counsel of twelve Pashaws, took upon her self the Regency, and in the first place resolved to continue the War against the Venetians, which Ibrahim intended to conclude, having engaged himself far in a Treaty of Peace with the Bailo or Ambassador, which resided at the Port for that Republick.

Whilst these Matters were transacting, and Preparations making to prosecute the War; the Malignant Humours of the Empire began to fer­ment unto that degree, as affected the Body Politick at first with unnatural Heats, which soon afterwards proceeded to a Feaver, and then to a dangerous Convulsion. The ill-af­fected Part was the Militia, which is the Heart and Principal of the Life of that Government. For the Spahees and the Janisaries, being the Horse and Foot, entred into a desperater Con­troversie.

The first judged it their Duty to revenge the Death of their Soveraign, Sultan Ibrahim; and in order thereunto demanded the Head of the Great Vizier, as the Chief Author and Con­triver of the Death of his Lord and Master. The others being conscious to themselves of ha­ving, by their Arms, carried on the Conspira­cy, not only declared their Resolutions to de­fend the Vizier, but owned that what he had acted was by their Order, and at their Request and Instigation.

The Spahees being highly provoked with this Declaration, swelled with Anger and Malice against the Janisaries; and both sides being equally proud and rich, could not bear each others Reproaches. The Spahees being Men of Estates in Land, looked on themselves as the Gentry, and to have the greatest Share in the concernment of the Empire. The Janisaries living regularly in their Chambers, or Martial Colledges, looked on themselves as the better Souldiers, and the more formidable Party; and the truth is, both of them were proceeded to that height of Command and Authority in Go­vernment, that had they not been suppressed by the cruel Hand, and bloody Disposition of Ku­perlee, as shall be more largely related hereafter, this Empire was then in danger of falling into as many Divisions, as there were at that time Pashaws, or great Captains. The cause here­of [Page 82]proceeded from the warlike disposition of Sultan Morat, who being the most Martial Man of his Age, preferred none but Men of great Courage, and such as had signalized their Va­lour by undoubted proofs; And such Men as these he loaded with Honour, and raised them to the highest and most [...]minent Charges in the Government.

But Morat dying soon afterwards, these Great Men had time to enrich themselves during the gentle and easie Reign of Sultan Ibrahim; which being seconded by the Minority of this Young Sultan, their Pride knew no bounds, either of Modesty towards their Commanders, or Reve­rence towards their Sultan. Hence it was that the Souldiery dividing, so great a Sedition arose amongst them, that at last they came to Blows, resolving to decide the Controversy by the Sword. But the Quarrels of Turks amongst themselves not being Commonly of long du­rance, the Care and Vigilance of the Magistrates prevented all open defiance in the Field; but yet could not so pacisie their Animosities, but that several Skirmishes, or Rencounters, passed be­tween them in the Streets, wherein the Spa­hees were always worsted, and at length were forced to abandon the City, scarce daring for some time to own the Name of Spahee within the Walls of Constantinople.

These Disturbances gave the Venetians some hopes to accommodate their Peace with better Advantage; but the Reply to this Proposition was more fierce and positive than ever, and so ill resented that the Bailo going from his Au­dience, was on the 27th of April seized on, and with all his Retinue. clapped into Prison and Chains; being sent to those Castles which are s [...]ituate on the Bosphorus, in the middle way between Constantinople and the Black Sea. But this furious severity, by the intercession of other Christian Ministers, continued not long, before the Bailo received more gentle Treat­ment, by the Sacrifice which the Turks made unto themselves of Grillo, his Interpeter, who being called down from the presence of the Bailo, was immediately, by two Officers, strangled, and his Body thrown out at the Window of the Castle; the which act, though it may seem unjust and barbarous to us, hath yet been frequently practised amongst the Turks, being to this day their common use to threaten the Druggermen, or Interpreters; which is the cause that they often mince, or wholly alter the sense or meaning of their Masters, on those Occasions, when words are spoken by them un­grateful to the Turks.

The Turks bearing this Disdain to the Ve­netians, laboured to re-enforce their Armies in Candia, and supply them with Ammunition and Provisions; and thought the Venetians lay be­fore the Mouth of the Dardanelles to intercept all Succours which might be carried thither; yet the Turks, notwithstanding their Divisions, having recruited their Fleet with forty Gallies, and ten Great Ship, broke through the Vene­tians, and in despight of them, convoyed five Gallies laden with Souldiers and Ammunition, and landed them safe at Canea; and about the same time six Gallies, and ten Ships of Barbary, entered into the Port of Suda.

The General which commanded in Chief was named Chusaein Pasha, a Person of great Cou­rage and Experience; he had for some time besieged the City of Candia, but for want of Men and Ammunition was forced to rise from that Place, and retire to Canea and Retimo, whilst in the mean time the Candiots received re­cruits of Men, and supply of Provisions, impro­ving their leisure-time to fortifie their Town with such Works as rendred it almost impregna­ble, and made it become the Wonder and Dis­course of the World after some Years succeed­ing.

Nor was the War only carried on in Candia, but also in Dalmatia, Morea, Bosna, and Al­bania. For Foscolo, the General of Venice, de­signing to force some Corn from the Parts of Castel-nuovo, he landed some Men there, but was so ill received by the Turks, that he was forced to retreat unto his Vessels with great disorder, and no less dishonour. But he had better fortune in the Parts of Bosna, where he repulsed the Enemy to the very Gates of Sarsay, the Capital City of that Province, and took upon composition the Fortress of Risano, which is scituate between Cataro and Castel-nuovo; but at length the Turks receiving an additional Aid of sifteen or sixteen thousand Men, the Veneti­ans were forced to quit their new Conquests, and retire into their own Country.

During the time that these Affairs were in agi­tation, the young Emperor was proclaimed, and his Inauguration celebrated with the usual Ceremonies, but with Rejoicings, and hopes ex­traordinary; who being yet scarcely arrived to eight years of Age, many Mutinies and Trou­bles arose in divers Parts of the Empire, as in Damascus, Syria, Anatolia, and other Countries, where the Pashaws refused to pay in the custo­mary Taxes and Tribute, declaring, That they would keep the Mony in their Hands during the Minority of the Grand Signior; and that when he came to Age of Government, they would be accountable to him both for the Prin­cipal and for the Improvement.

The Turks in Hungary making incursions in­to the Territories of the Emperor, were over­thrown by the Count Forgatz, near Buda, where the Pasha was taken Prisoner, and his Son slain.

Nor better fortune had they in the Assault they made on the Fortress of Clissa, where ha­ving lost five thousand Men, they were forced to retire with great dishonour.

The Cossacks also in this Conjuncture grew more bold, so that they covered the Black Sea with their Boats, doing great damage to the Saicks, and other Vessels, which traded in that Sea; and at length came up the Bosphorus above Therapea, giving a great Alarm, with much Fear and Confusion to all Constantinople.

Amidst these Misfortunes, and intestine Trou­bles, new Disorders, arose in the Ottoman-Empire; For, as commonly, all the blame of miscarriages and ill successes in Turkie are cast upon the Head of the Commander in chief; so the Enemies of the Great Vizier took the ad­vantage in this conjuncture to reproach his ill Government, and carried the accusation so far, as to depose him from his Charge and Office; in whose place the Aga, or General of the Ja­nisaries, succeeded.

The Spahees in Asia, being displeased with this Election, assembled in a Body of seven or eight thousand, and marched towards Con­stantinople, pretending to revenge the Death of Sultan Ibrahim; their Numbers daily encrea­sing, the Divan very much feared lest the Party which favoured the Spahees in Constantinople, should join themselves to the Asian Mutineers; to prevent which it was judged good Reason and Policy, to anticipate the Justice they de­manded, [Page 83]by taking away the Life of the depo­sed Vizier; which being easily assented unto, and without much hesitation performed, gave some little stop to the Fury and Heats of the Spahees.

Notwithstanding all which, as the Divisions which the Turks entertain amongst themselves, were never so great as to afford the Christians any Advantage thereby, so the Venetians did not reap any Benefit from these Quarrels; but on the contrary, the Turks studiously attended to their Affairs in Candia, passing thither with sixty Gallies, thirty great Ships, and twenty five other smaller Vessels, laden with Men, and all sorts of Provisions and Ammunition for War; so that in this Year 1649, the Affairs of the Turks remained in that Island in this happy and hopeful posture. Amongst these Ships were thirteen English, which the Turks took up at Smyrna, and forced into their Service. For though the Ambassador, Sir Thomds Bendysh, then Resident at Constantinople, opposed the En­gagement of these Ships what was possible, and also the Commanders and Seamen were very un­willing and dissatisfied to undertake the Design, yet the Turks with Menaces, and Promises of Reward, forced them to carry Men and Ammu­nition to Candia; so that, making a Virtue of Necessity, they complied with that which they could not resist.

ANNO 1650.

CHusaein Pasha, Governour of the Island of Candia, having received these Succours and Recruits, resolved to besiege the Chief City of Candia; to which intent, drawing out from the Ships, and Garisons of Retimo and Canea, what Men he was able, he formed an Ar­my of thirty thousand Men, with which he marched, and pitched before the Town. He was provided also with twelve Pieces of Cannon, four thousand Sacks of Wooll, three thousand Ladders, and with a good quantity of Grana­does; with this Force he attaqued the City in two places, viz. on the Forts of Martinengo, and Mocenigo; and pressed so hard on the latter, that notwithstanding the generous re­sistance of the Defendants, he won the Fort, and there planted the Ottoman Colours; for­tifying it with more Cannon, and a good num­ber of Men.

Count Coloredo, Governour of that Place, was then sick, the Garison very weak, and things reduced to the last terms of extremity; when General Balbiani, Admiral of Malta, ar­rived with six Gallies, and there landed six hun­dred Men, and sixty Kingts; which with great Courage mounted the Guard of the Fort Mar­tinengo, which was the place of most Danger and Honour. The Turks excited with a desire to welcome the new Guests, made three despe­rate and furious Assaults on this Fort, but were with equal Valour repulsed by the Defendants; at which Disgrace and Foil being highly enra­ged, they resolved on a fourth Attempt, which they pursued with that Courage and Success, that the Venetians were forced to give way to their Violence, with the slaughter almost of all those which defended this Fort; until the Ca­valiers of Malta, who having no greater Glory, nor readier Will, that to spill their Blood for the Christian Cause, rallied all the Force they were able, and made so prosperous an At­taque upon the Fort, that they recovered it a­gain, with the Blood and Destruction of all those who defended it; but they enjoyed it not long, before the Turks regained it with the like success and slaughter: which variety of Fortune the Venetians being sensible of, and that they could not bear such costly Interchanges with the Turks, had recourse to their ultimate Remedy of Mines, which succeeded so happily, that the whole Fort was carried into the Air, and therewith two thousand good Souldiers of the Turks; with which Destruction, and other Repulses in divers places, they were so weak­ned and discouraged, that they raised the Siege on the fifth of October new Stile.

In this Interim, the Tartar Han, called the Krim, demanded the Guardianship of the young Sultan, as of right belonging unto him; but the Council answered hereunto, That their Master was already in better Hands than those into which they desired to transfer him; and that his Grandmother, and the Divan, wanted nei­ther Wisdom nor Fidelity to direct his Affairs: with which answer the Tartar being forced to remain satisfied, was able to revenge himself no farther, than by exciting the Cossacks to in­fest the Seas; which gave some diversion to those Arms, which otherwise had all been em­ployed against the Venetians.

But these Designs from Tartary did little trou­ble the Council, in comparison of that Spirit of Discord which was arisen between the Spahees and the Janisaries; for both Parties being emu­lous of each others Greatness, endeavured on all Occasions to elevate their Chief Comman­ders to the highest and most profitable Places of the Epire: which Dissention touching the principal Ministers of State, who were all en­gaged on the one side or the other, administred great Troubles, and retarded the execution and success of all the grand Designs of the Empire. Nor was it of less importance and dishonour to the Divan, that their Fleet was hindred passage by the Venetians, who blocked up the Mouth of the Dardanelles; whereby all intercourse with Candia was interrupted: but being resolved to remove this Obstacle, they commanded the Cap­tain-Pasha to force his Passage; which he accord­ingly performing, was so warmly received, that he quickly lost two Gallies, and after much Blood, and loss on both sides, was forced at length to retire again within the Streights. But what was of worse consequence to the Turks, was the inveterate Discord between the Spahees, and Janisaries; who having been unadvisedly embarked promiscuously together, came often­times to Words, and then to Blows; which ended not without the Bolld and Death of di­vers of each party. These mischiefs increased the rage which the Turks at Constantinople con­ceived against the Venetians; who were all thereupon (not excepting the Bailo Soranzo, nor his Secretary Ballarino) interdicted the Territories of the Grand Signior; and sent back into their own Country.

The Captain-Pasha, that he might be in a capacity to make a second Attempt to force his passage, sent to Constantinople for new Recruits: when News came that the Siege of Candia was raised, and that the Turks had lost the Fort of St. Theodoro; which so angred the Spi­rit of the Queen-mother against the Vizier, that she immediately deposed him from his Charge, and therewith had taken away his Life, had not hte Faction of the Janisaries protected him in this Extremity.

The Pasha of Buda was introduced into his place, a Person of a turbulent and ambitious [Page 84]Spirit, who to increase his Favour with his Mis­tress the Sultana, evidenced his Heat and Zeal against the Venetians, and to that end sent im­mediately express Orders to the Pasha of Bosna, to invest Clissa with all the Power he was able; and therewith he presented him with a Cimeter, and a Halter; the former to be his Reward in case of good Success, and the latter to be his Punishment in case of Misfortune. But this furious Vizier continued not so long, as to ex­perience the Issue of this Command; for he was in a few days laid aside, and Chusaein Pasha, the General of Candia, was placed in his stead; howsoever his Orders were to remain with the Army, by which means, much Emulation and Contest was prevented, which might otherwise have happened between the Spahees, and Jani­saries, at the Election of a new Vizier; and thereby all excuses taken from the Souldiery of absence from the War, who could now pretend nothing of Reason to withdraw themselves, on score of attendance on the Vizier's Person; and to supply his Authority at the Regal Court, a Chimacam was substituted to administer Justice in place of the Vizier, which is usual on such Occasions.

Notwithstanding all which, Affairs succeeded not extraordinary well for the Turks in Candia; for being straitned for Provisions in Canea, by the near approach of the Christians, the Turks were forced to make a Diversion, by appear­ing in great Troops before Candia; which they were enabled to do, by the Supplies they had lately received, with the arrival of their Fleet of Gallies; for the Winter Season approach­ing, the Venetians were constrained to abandon their station before the Dardanelles, and to leave the Passage open for the Enemy. And so this Year ended, rather with Advantage than Dis­grace to the Christians.

ANNO 1651.

WIth these great Succours and Supplies sent to Candia by the Turks, Affairs must necessarily have succeeded prosperously to their Designs, had not intestine Discords at Home interrupted their proceedings; which arose from a Jealousy and Emulation between the Grand­mother and Mother of the young Sultan. For each of them pretending to the tuition or guar­dianship of the Emperor, during his Minority, divers Parties and Factions formed at Constanti­nople, from whence all that Trouble and Com­bustion arose, which we have at large related in the third Chapter of the Present State of the Ottoman Empire.

So that now it was no time to talk to the Souldiers or People of a War in Candia; For the first thought themselves engaged to contrive a Settlement and Determination of Disputes at Home: and the latter being irritated with a new Tax laid on them, for want of Mony in the Treasury, exclaimed, and talked loud, and at length, instead of paying, broke out into open Rebellion; which by assistance of the Soul­diery, was appeased, under no less Terms than the Death of several principal Ministers of State.

During these Divisions, the Venetians had time to arm out a very considerable Fleet for defence of Candia; Foscolo, who had been Ge­neral in Dalmatia, being sent thither with title of Generalissimo in the place of Mocenigo: But these Dissentions amongst the Turks, according to their usual Custom, lasting not long before they came to a Conclusion, by the entire de­struction of one of the Parties; the Chief Mi­nisters began to reassume again the thoughts of prosecuting the War in Candia, and to send Recruits to reinforce the Army under the Com­mand of Chusaein Pasha, who was returned with new Forces and Courage to assault the City of Candia.

At this time a certain Greek, pretending to be a Person of Quality, and discontented with the Turks, fled from them to the Christians, where being received with all kind and obliging entertainment, he had thereby liberty of seeing and visiting all the Fortifications of the Place. After he had observed and discovered as much as he desired, this traiterous Fugitive fled again to the Turkish Camp, where he revealed what places were most strong or best fortified, and where the Town was weakest, and most easily to be assaulted. The Venetian General being awakened at this Discovery, and considering the numbers of his People to be few, in respect of the Enemy, and that the Outworks could not be maintained without a more numerous Gari­son, he resolved to destroy some of those Forts; and accordingly blew up with Mines four Basti­ons, which being at a distance could not be re­lieved without much danger. The Turks here­by making conjectures of the weakness of the besieged, cheerfully assaulted the Fort of St. De­metrio, thinking to carry it without much trou­ble; but contrary to their expectation, they en­countred so bold a resistance, that they lost three thousand Men on the Place.

At Constantinople they were still so intent to carry on this War, that having prepared, and laden on the Fleet great quantities of Grana­does, Bomboes, and Mortar-pieces, with other Fire-works, the Captain-Pasha, with hopes a­greeable to his Force, set forth to Sea, with eleven hundred Sail, consisting of Gallies, Ships, Galleasses, Saiques, Brigantines, and smaller Vessels, with resolution to engage the Venetian Fleet, whose Commanders also were equally de­sirous and ready to consent with them to a Bat­tel.

On the 7th of July, the Venetians being at an Anchor in the Port of St. Ermina, discovered the Turkish Fleet, to which, as they were much inferiour in number, so they were superiour to them in the agreement and experience of their Commanders. The Turks having passed for­ward on their way, the Venetians pursued them, and the better to draw them to a Battel, Moce­nigo ordered two Ships, commanded by Barbaro and Dolphino to cross the Turks at the point of the Island; and his Vice-Admiral, Bataggio, with four Ships to engage the main Body of the the Turkish Fleet; to whose assistance many other Vessels coming in, he so rudely treated several Gallies, that they were forced to seek harbour in the Port of Chios, now Scio, with the loss of Mahomet, Pasha of Anatolia, who was sent to succeed in the Office of Chusaein Pasha, the General of Candia; but Night coming on, the rest of the Fleet retreated to the Isles of Naxia and Paros.

On the tenth day the Turks having watered their Fleet, gave a signal of defiance to the Ve­netians, by discharge of two pieces of Cannon; and the Venetians accepting the Challenge, both Fleets gave a furious charge one to the other; but the Turks were not able to withstand the Courage and Skilfulness of the Venetians; for the Captain-Pasha having lost many of his Men, and the Poop of his Gally being carried [Page 85]away with a Cannon-shot, the whole Fleet was put into Disorder, and then unto flight, so that the Gallies began to employ themselves in toaing the Ships. But one of their Mahones being se­parated from the rest, was assaulted by two Gal­leasses, and some Ships, and finding none to come in for Succour, the Captain was killed, with four hundred Souldiers, and two hundred were taken Prisoners.

In the mean time Mocenigo, the General, gave chase to the Gallies, which two to a Ship were toaing the heavier Vessels as fast as they could; but being hardly pursued, were forced to cast off the Hauser, and shift for themselves as well as they were able.A great Vi­ctory ob­tained by the Veneti­ans over the Turks. The Turkish Ships seeing themselves thus abandoned, fired whole Broad­sides upon the Enemy; but the Venetian Gallies leaving their own Ships astern, that they might pursue their advantage, Querini boarded a Great Galleass, called the Soltana, upon which were three hundred Souldiers, who offered to surren­der upon promise of Quarter for their Lives. But the Christian Souldiers heated with fight, and not then understanding any thing of Con­ditions, desperately boarded the Vessel, where­by the Turks being reduced to an extremity of despair, gave fire to the Powder, and therewith carried, as well the Vanquishers, as the Van­quished, into the other World.

According to this example four other Vessels burnt themselves, one of 60 brass Guns, and three others of 40 to 44. Fifteen Vessels of the Starboard Wing saved themselves by good sail­ing. Of the Larboard Wing, Captain Nicolo, a Renegado, with his Ship, was taken by the Admiral of the Galleasses, likewise another Great Vessel by Lazaro Mocenigo, and another by Proveditor Melino. In short, there was not one Vessel which remained in sight of the Vene­tians, which was not either taken, sunk, or burnt. Notwithstanding all which, considering the Vessels which were escaped, and the 3 thou­sand Men which the Turks had landed at Naxia, in order to their being transported unto Candia, the Victory seemed to be very imperfect; wherefore the Venetians attending another en­counter with the Turkish Fleet, did happily meet them in a few days after; and being en­couraged with the late Success, as the Enemy was low in their Spirits and Resolution, they bravely attaqued the Turks, and took 39 Gal­lies, 23 Ships, three Galleasses, together with the three thousand Souldiers which were then embarked from Naxia: Those which escaped took Refuge in the Port of Rhodes.

After this great loss, the Turks entertained no great Designs of the Conquest of Candia; but only to conserve Canea, and the footing that they had won in that Island: nor did ever the Turks after this, dare to stand a formal Battel with the Venetians at Sea, but rather contriving to escape than to fight, did ever af­ter build light Gallies, for transporting of Men and Ammunition, with intention to wage their War only at Land, and not at Sea; it being a saying ever after common in their Mouths; That God had given the Sea to Christians, and the Earth to the Turks.

To these ill Successes abroad, were added great Dissentions at Home; for the mutinous Spahees in Asia, having united into a strong Body, marched towards Constantinople, to join with their other Brethren in those Parts. The Janisaries on the other side, not less diligent to oppose their Enemy, to revenge the Outrages committed on their Brethren, whom the Spa­hees had ill-treated, having cut off the Noses and Ears of several of them; besides all which, they proceeded to that height of Insolence, as to demand the Heads of the Great Vizier, and of the Aga of the Janisaries; and being now by their numbers rendered formidable to the Court, it was judged agreeable to the present Con­juncture, to satisfy in some measure these Muti­niers, by discharging these two Officers of their employment, which did in some degree for the present quallfy and appease these Tumults.

ANNO 1652.

THE Seditions at Constantinople were scarce quieted, before advice came of a Rebel­lion of the People of Grand Cairo and Damas­ous, who both at the same time conspired, as if they intended to cast off Subjection to the Ot­toman Family; the which Mutiny and Distur­bance arose to that Head, as gave great cause of fear to the Divan; and employed all their Counsels and Contrivances for this whole Year, in what manner they might reduce this People to their Duty and Obedience. During which time, the Christians in Candia had time to breath, and opportunity to provide themselves with all Ammunition and Provisions; and to repair their old, and add new Fortifications to their Town.

ANNO 1653.

BUT these Troubles being with time com­posed, the Grand Vizier desired greatly the Conquest of Candia, which being by experience proved to be with difficulty guined by the Sword, he endeavoured to win it by fairer Terms; and to that end wrote a Letter to the Republick of Venice, in Letters of Gold; wherein he decla­red, that it seemed strange to him, that the Se­nate had not dispatched their Ambassador to him with the surrender of Candia, in regard that thereby they might assure themselves to purchase a certain Peace, which they vainly re­tarded by such delays. Howsoever in these Let­ters no mention was made of the Causes, or Reasons, why Signior Capello, who was an emi­nent Person, being Procurator of St. Mark, and sent thither for Bailo, was so ill treated with Im­prisonment at his Arrival, notwithstanding the permission and encouragement which was given for his kind reception, obtained at the instance of the French Ambassador; but this Restraint continued not long upon him, before he was released with a daily Allowance (which con­tinued for some time) of 1200 Aspers a Day; and afterwards the Court returning from Adria­nople to Constantinople, he was permitted to lodg in the Palace which belongs to the Bailo's of Venice.

The Venetian Fleet being Victorious at Sea, made it their work to keep the Mouth of the Dardanelles always blocked up, whereby they hindered all Succours from Candia: notwith­standing which diligence, the Venetians being sometimes forced, for the sake of Water and Provision, to abandon that Station; the Turks took hold of the opportunity to escape forth; but being eagerly pursued by the Venetians, they were forced to take Sanctuary in Rhodes, where being again blocked up, the affairs in Candia suffered much, and the Complaints from thence were loud at the Court. So that Orders were sent, and often repeated unto the Captain-Pasha, that he should spend no longer time in [Page 86] Rhodes, but that in despight of all Difficulties, he should immediately proceed to Candia, and fight through the Venetians in case they remain­ed in the way to interrupt his passage; but the Captain-Pasha notwithstanding these Orders, and Menaces which accompanied them, could not perswade himself to the Hazard of a Bat­tel; till at length, the season of the Year spend­ing, and being wearied in the Port of Rhodes, he resolved to adventure abroad; but instead of going to Candia, he plundered the Islands as he passed, and returned to Constantinople, with 40 Gallies, where he hoped with the Booty he had plundered to appease the anger of the Di­van against him: but this Sacrifice did not much avail, for he was not sooner arrived, than his Person was seized, and Goods sealed up for the use of the Grand Signior; the which Seal his Sons broke open, and taking with them the richest and most considerable part of their Fa­ther's Estate, laded it on one of the Gallies, and fled therewith into Foreign Parts, little re­garding that danger in which they had left their Father to perish. During which time the Ve­netions still maintained their Guards on the Coasts of Candia, not suffering any Recruits of Men, or Provisions for War, to be transported thither; so that if the Turks designed to pro­secute this War, it must be by new Forces, and such as were able to encounter the Marine Power of the Enemy; the which being resolved upon by the Council, a heavy Tax was laid on the people to carry on the Design, which they not willingly supporting, made a publick Insur­rection in the City; and at the same time also the ancient Quarrel between the Spahees and Jani­saries, began again to ferment; which Trou­bles being added to a Rebellion raised by the Pasha of Aleppo, who increasing in strength and number, came marching towards Constantinople, put that great City into a horrible Fear and Confusion.

ANNO 1654.

THE Venetians judged that these Troubles would naturally produce some Advantage to them, and much facilitate the Peace which they had long desired: but as Seditions amongst the Turks are always too violent to continue; so these Discontents evaporated in a short time, and new Resolutions were taken to prosecute the War in Candia; for notwithstanding that Mon­sieur de Ventelay, Son to the French Ambassador, mediated with agreeable prudence to compose Matters in order to a Peace, yet his Endea­vours were all insignificant; for neither had Sig­nior Capello Audience granted him, nor that li­berty which was promised before his Arrival; the Turks still insisting on the Surrender of Candia, would not understand any Terms which did not entirely invest them in that Conquest.

To effect which by Force, which could not be performed by Composition; the Pasha of Buda was Elected for Captain-Pasha, or Commander in Chief of the Seas; and Orders given to equippe a new Fleet of Ships, and Gallies, for transporting the Succours of Men and Provi­sions to Candia: where Chusaein Pasha the Ge­neral, being wearied with his long Siege of the Town, withdrew his Men at some farther di­stance for their better refreshment; for they wanting all Conveniencies in their Trenches, began to Mutiny, and to refuse the perfor­mance of their Duty, until the General satisfy­ing their Pay, and dispensing liberally Larges­ses to the Officers, gave them new Encourage­ment and Satisfaction; with which, being a little enlivened, Chusaein sent a Herald, with a defiance to those in the City, challenging them to fight a pitcht Battel with him: but the Chri­stians refused the Offer, thinking it more pru­dence not to accept, than loss of Honour to de­ny an Answer to the Challenge. Then the Turks sought some means to effect their Design by Treachery; to which end, they treated with a certain Captain for delivery of one of the Gates of the City; which he promised to do unto the Turks, but gave Advertisement unto the Governour. The Pasha the night following advanced with some Troops, hoping to find one of the Gates opened to him; but instead there­of, the Defendants having prepared a Mine to receive them, sprang the same so opportunely, that it carried away the most of those who were engaged in the Design, and therewith their hopes of becoming Masters speedily of that im­pregnable Fortress. Wherefore they resolved for a while to repose, and attend those Suc­cours which were now preparing at Constanti­nople.

The Fleet being put into a readiness, the Souldiery departed with their usual hopes of Success; but meeting with their Enemy again at the Mouth of the Dardanelli, the Fight was fu­rious and hot for a long time between them, but concluded to the disadvantage of the Turks, who there lost 6000 Men, two Gallies, three Ships, and a Mahone: howsoever they broke through the Venetians, and landed 12000 Men in the Isle of Candia. The News of this defeat, and the Confirmation thereof, by the wounded Men which were landed at Constantinople, made a great noise amongst the people. Howsoever the Turks persisting constant to their Intentions of prosecuting the War, sent Orders to the Captain-Pasha again to fight the Venetians so soon as the Fleet was refitted, and restored to a condition to engage in another Battel; but the Venetians scarce gave them the leisure to repair, before they attacked them again, whereby they put them to such disorder, that they were forced to take refuge in the first convenient Port; where having attended a favourable Wind, they hastned to Constantinople; and from thence were dispatched into the Black Sea against the Cos­sacks, who very much infested those parts.

The Captain-Pasha being arrived, extolled his own great Services and Adventures, and on the contrary vilified the Great Vizier, dispara­ging all his Actions, as mixed with weak Coun­sels, and prosecuted with Cowardise, or want of true Resolution: the which took such deep impression in his absence, having none to an­swer for him; that all being given for granted which was alledged against him, Orders were dispatched to Candia by an Officer to take off his Head, in whose place this Captain-Pasha suc­ceeded.

Amidst of all these Combustions of War, the mediation of Peace was carried on by the French Ambassador: For though Signior Capello was actually Resident on the Place, qualified with the Character of Bailo for the Republick of Venice; yet the Turks would scarce vouch­safe to Treat personally with him; and indeed his sufferings by Imprisonment, and other bar­barous Usages, had affected him with such a me­lancholy, as rendred him uncapable for some time of administring publick Affairs; for ha­ving lost his Reason, by giving way to sad and black Thoughts, he laid violent Hands on [Page 87]himself, by wounding himself in two or three places of his Belly; but the Wounds proving not Mortal, he was in a short time restored again to a sound Estate both in Mind and Body; as I shall some few years after have occasion to re­late from the words of his own Mouth, which he was pleased to utter to me on his Death-bed, the day before he departed this Life.

ANNO 1655.

THE Great Vizier after all his evil Insinuati­ons against Chusaein Pasha, fell very sick and infirm; so that the Court considering him as a Person uncapable of farther Service, cast their eyes on the Pasha of Aleppo, who being a daring Martial Man, was esteemed to be the better Chief in such a hazardous War, which for be­ing on the Sea, was unusual and displeasing to the Turks. Against him nothing could be objected besides his Rebellions and Contrariety to the Government; but hereunto it was pre­sently answered, that the extravagance of his humour proceeded only from his Ambition of being Great Vizier; which when he had attain­ed, that thirsty desire of Glory, which he exer­cis'd for acquiring this Office, would be busied in thoughts to advance and improve his Honour in Actions beyond his Predecessors.

Letters being arrived at this Pasha's hands, which called him to Court to accept this Charge, did secretly please the humour of his haughty Spirit; howsoever, he remained for a while in some suspence and irresolution, not being assured whether some Deceit might not be concealed under this specious appearance of Preferment: But considering, that the way unto Gains and Advantage was by daring Adventures, he reso­lutely accepted the Proffer, and put himself in his March towards Constantinople, with a glori­ous Equipage of forty thousand Men, thinking therewith to make good his Retreat, and secure his Person in case that Deceit were discovered which he rationally suspected. Being arrived near unto Constantinople, he received from the Great Signior several Messages of Kindness, and a good welcome; and was accordingly received into the City, and invested in the Office, with all the Circumstances of Favour and Honour imaginable.

Having thus taken possession of his Charge, he promised the Grand Signior that he would employ all his Endeavours to restore the decayed Estate of Affairs, and reform the Government. And as an earnest thereof, he began to remove such Ministers from the Court which were sus­pected by him; and to render himself the more Absolute, he cut off several others, whom he imagined might in any wise disturb or controul him in the management of his Affairs.

After which he dispatched his Orders to all Maritime Towns of the Empire, to fit and make ready what Gallies and Ships were possible to be provided, intending thereby to set out the greatest Fleet that ever was seen in the Levant: but to compleat this Work, two great Diffi­culties arose; The first was, to find a wise and well experienced Commander: and the next, was in what manner to perswade the Spahees and Ja­nisaries to embark; for they having heard and seen in what manner their Companions had pe­rished in this miserable War, absolutely refused to go; and though the Animosities of these two orders of Souldiers were irreconcileable one to the other, yet in this common Cause being uni­ted, they raised so horrible a Sedition, that they assaulted the Mufti in his very House, and pur­sued him within the Gates of the Seraglio with a thousand reproaches and injuries, as an Au­thor of evil Counsels, and a Disturber of the common Peace and Quiet of the Empire. Nor was it possible to appease this Tumult, but by anticipating to them four months Pay; with which their Minds being made more pliable, they gently yielded to Obedience, and suffered them­selves to be embarked for Candia.

Zarnozau Mustapha was made Captain-Pasha; or General of the Fleet, which was very nu­merous, and well equipped, consisting of sixty Gallies, eight Mahones, thirty great Ship of War, and sixty one Gallies belonging to the Beys. After having remained three days at the mouth of the Dardanelles near the Castles, they went out in this Order; The Bey's Gallies were the first, then followed the Ships, next the Ma­hones, and the Rear consisted wholly of the Grand Signior's Gallies. The Van of the Fleet being the Bey's Gallies, which are always the best manned, and provided, were ordered to attack the main Body of the Christian Fleet, for that, being seconded with the Ships, they would be able to sustain the Shock until the Ma­hones could come up, which were directed against the Starboard Wing of the Enemy, com­posed of Galleasses. The Venetians, though much inferior in Number, yet as great in Cou­rage, gave evident Signs of their desire to fight, with hopes, by God's Blessing, to obtain a Victo­ry. The Venetians whilst the Turks passed, remained still with their Anchors apique, which the Turks interpreting as a token of their Cou­rage and Boldness, were so daunted, that they began to ply toward the Coast of Greece; but being forced to pass [...] the Guns of the Ve­netian Admiral, they [...] so ill treated by his Broadsides, that they were discouraged from making a second Charge. The Ships, and o­ther Vessels fared little better being forced to pass under the Guns of the Enemies Fleet. The Captain-Pasha attempted to pas [...] [...] Coast of Anatolia, with his lighter Gallies, but being hindred by a strong party of the Enemy, he was forced to follow the rest of the Fleet, taking his Course with them by the Coast of Greece. In this Charge one of the Turks Mahones was sunk, and two disabled: But the greatest Fight happened between a Squadron of the Turks Ships, and four of the Venetians, which had been hard put to it, had not the Captain Moce­nigo come in to their Assistance; howsoever, the Venetian Captain of the Ship, called the Crown, was slain by a Musket shot.

In short, the Christians boarded the Turks with so much Vigour and Resolution, that they took several of their Ships, and mixing with the thickest of their other Vessels, they put ma­ny Ashore, and others escaping in their Boats, left their Slaves and Gallies to the disposal of the Enemy; so that the Venetians obtained that day a hundred brass Guns, with a signal Victory, having had no other important Loss, unless the Ship called the David and Goliah, which being overpowered, was burnt by the Turks.

The People of the Turks, who were in daily expectation to receive intelligence of a Success, agreeable to so great Preparations, were much troubled to hear the News of the Defeat gi­ven to their Naval Forces; of which Miscar­riage, the World dividing it self into different Conjectures, the most part, especially those of Constantinople, attributed the Misfortune of all [Page 88]to the ill Government, and want of Experience in the General. Wherefore to appease the Peo­ple, especially the Merchants, who were weary of this Marine War; from whence they reap­ed nothing but Losses of their Ships and Goods; It was thought fit to enter into a Treaty with Signior Capello, the Venetian Bailo, concerning a Peace; but he having his Commission taken from him, for the Reason before related, his Secretary Ballarino supplyed his Office; and in Order to an Accommodation, had two Audi­ences with the Great Vizier, to whom, and to others of the Divan, he made Presents of rich Pieces of Cloth of Gold, in the Name of the Republick. Howsoever the Turks thinking it dishonourable to accord unto other Terms, than the intire Resignation of Candia, proceeded in their Preparations as formerly; at which the Merchants and Tradesmen at Constantinople re­ceived such matter of Discontentment, that in Tumults they cryed out for Peace at the Gates of the very. Seraglio; and behaved themselves with that Insolence, that the Janisaries were called to drive them from thence by force of Arms; howsoever this Tumult and Riot of the People ended not without the Life of the Great Vizier, to whose fury he was made a Sacrifice. And though his Son appeared at the Gates of the City with forty thousand Men, to demand Justice on the Murderers of his Father, yet the People were so far from being dismayed thereat, that their Fury and Rage encreased to a great­er height, and required the Authority of the Divan to keep things from running into the In­conveniences of a Civil War.

ANNO 1656.

THese Disorders induced the chief Ministers to enter into another Treaty with Ballari­no, proposing to withdraw their Forces from Candia, and make a Peace, upon the paiment of ten Millions for the Charge of the War: And to incline the Venetians hereunto, the Turks gave severe Orders to their People living about Corfou, to molest the Inhabitants of that Island with all Acts of Hostility imaginable: and far­ther published, That their Intentions were to set out a more numerous and stronger Fleet, than any which from the beginning of this War had sailed on the Seas; and in order therein­to, great Numbers of Slaves, consisting of Cossacks and Moscovites, were bought of the Tartars, and transported to Constantinople.

The Venetians were not in the least affrigh­ted at these Boastings of the Turk, but on the contrary, knowing that their Affairs in Candia were well secured and provided, gave Orders to Ballarino to desist from farther Treaties, and to procure his Licence to depart. And the Turks, to evidence their intentions to prosecute the War, entered into Canea with twenty eight Sail, laden with Arms and Provisions, on which also were fifteen hundred Men. By this convey­ance was sent a Janisar-Aga with Orders from the Grand Signior, to constitute Chusaein Pasha in the place of Captain-Pasha, or Admiral of the Seas; but he judging this to be a Design, or Lure, to draw him from his Post, or Office, where­in he was more strong and secure, acknowledged the Honour of the Employment, but framed Excuses to continue his Seat and Place of Resi­dence, which the Chief Ministers were forced to accept; it being a Conjuncture more seasona­ble to dissemble, than to resent his refusal.

Whilst new Preparations were making against Candia, so horrible a storm of Mutiny and Se­dition arose at Constantinople, as constrained the Grandees of the Council to quit for the pre­sent all thoughts of providing for the War against the Enemy, that they might defend and save themselves from the Fury of their own People; For the Spahees and Janisaries join­ing together, pretended to reform the Abuses of the State; to perform which, in a furious Tumult, putting themselves in Arms, they ran to the Divan, where they deposed the Great Vizier,A Rebellion at Con­stantino­ple. and discharged divers other Officers of their Employment; The Mufti was constrain­ed to fly to Jerusalem, and the Queen-Mother scarce remained secure in her old Seraglio. And to so great a height their Rebellion proceeded, that they proposed even to dethrone the Grand Signior himself. And having thus cast off all Respect and Duty to their Prince, they entred the Imperial Palace, and forcing the Guards, broke up the Treasury, and carried two millions from thence.

Amidst of this horrid and affrighting Confu­sion, Merchants and well-meaning Citizens re­mained in the most astonishing apprehensions imaginable; for all Laws being broken, and Justice unregarded; the whole City laid open to be pillaged and sacked by the licentiousnefs of an unbridled Souldiery. For several days the Offi­ces both of the Mufti, and Great Vizier re­mained vacant, by reason that the two Facti­ons of Janisaries and Spahees could not agree upon the Election. At length the most seditious amongst them wearying out the others with Quarrels and Contests, advanced a Fellow of no Understanding or Reputation to the eminent degree of Great Vizier; in which condition he remained not long. For the Fire of the mul­titude being with time quenched, and the po­pular Heat abated, this new Vizier was displa­ced, all things returning to their usual Channel, and Authority to its Fountain.

And that Matters might more easily be re­stored to their ancient order, the Grand Signior called for the Pasha of Damascus to receive the Dignity of Great Vizier; for he being a Per­son of eighty Years of Age, and of long Ex­perience in Affairs, having managed the most weighty Charges of the Empire, was looked on by all as the most proper Person to com­pose and heal these great Distempers in the State; and this was that famous Kuperlee, who was Father to him who succeeded him in this Office. The Pasha of Silistria was also consti­tuted Captain Pasha, and Chusaein was confir­med in his Government of Candia.

And now the bright Beams of Justice and Government having dissipated the Storms and Fury of popular Sollevations; the Grand Sig­nior in Person mounting his Horse, accompa­nied with his principal Ministers of State, vi­sited all the Parts of Constantinople, where ma­king Inquisition for the principal Leaders and Fo­menters of this Rebellion, he seized on some, and without further process, boldly executed them in the Face of the People.

But before things were reduced to this con­dition, four Months were spent in this horrid Confusion; and what is most strange, this Great Empire for so long time remained without a Pilot, tossed on the Waves of popular Commo­tions; all which served to give ease and respite to the Venetians in their War, but not to ope­rate towards a Peace; so resolute were the Turks in their Design of making an entire Con­quest of Candia.

Far having again Equipped a most formida­ble Fleet, consisting of sixty light Gallies, twen­ty eight Ships, and nine Galleasses; they attemp­ted to make their way for Candia, and there­with to fight the Venetians in case they should oppose them in their Voyage, to which they were the more encouraged upon sight of the Venetians, who appeared at the Streights of the Dardanelli, with no more than twenty nine Gallies, and some Boat, or Brigantines; how­soever the Turks were not so confident in their numbers, but that they judged it requisite to fortify themselves with two Batteries; one on the Coast of Anatolia, and the other on the European shore; whereby they imagined, that they might cause the Venetians to give way, and open a Passage to their Fleet.

But notwithstanding the continual shot which the Turks made upon them,Engage­ment be­tween the Turks and Venetians. they still kept their Station from the 23d to the 26th of June; when the Wind coming about to the North, which was favourable for the Turks to Sail out, and to bring them nearer to their Enemies, they began gently to approach; and the like the Chri­stians endeavoured, being desirous to join Bat­tel; at which firmness of Resolution, the Turks being a little startled, became willing to avoid the Fight, and to creep under the shelter of the point of Babiers, which locks in one of the Bayes between the Castles and the Mouth of the Dardanelli. But the Wind on a sudden turn­ing favourable for the Venetians, the Prior of Rochelle with his Squadron, and Mocenigo with three Ships under his Command, made up to­wards the Castles, with design to cut the Turks off from their Retreat; the others valiantly assailed the Turks, who defending themselves like those, whose chief security consists in their Arms, there ensued a most miserable slanghter on one side,The Veneti­ans obtain the Victory. and the other; at length the Suc­cess of Victory happened to the Venetians, who were animated by the couragious Example of their General Marcello, though he having Boarded, and become Master of a great Ship called a Soltana, with the Gally which attended her, was shot in the thigh with a Cannon Bul­let, and thereby gained the glory to die Con­quering, and Triumphant.

After whose Death, the Proveditor taking upon him the Command of the Fleet, prose­cuted the Victory so close, that excepting four­teen Gallies which escaped with the Captain-Pasha, and four Gallies of the Bey's; all the whole Flect was either taken, sunk, or burnt. The Venetians not being able to man all the Vessels that they had taken, set many of them on fire in the Night, excepting only twelve Gal­lies, four Ships, and two Galleasses, which they reserved for a Demonstration or Evidence of their Victory. With this glorious success five thousand poor Christians obtained their Free­dom, and had their Chains and Shackles knock­ed off. What number the Turks might have lost is uncertain; but as to the Venetians, it is re­ported, that besides their General, there were not above three hundred Men in all killed and wounded.

The Venetians being encouraged by this Suc­cess, attacked the Island of Tenedos, and in the space of four days became Masters of it; as also in a short time afterwards of Stalimene, an­tiently called Lemnos; the which shameful Los­ses and Overthrow, so irritated the Mind of the Grand Signior, that he gave Orders to car­ry the War into Dalmatia, intending the next Summer to go thither in Person; and in the mean time Commanded by the Pasha of Bosna, that the City of Ragusa should be put into a readiness to receive his Troops, being judged a convenient Place for the Seat and Magazine of Arms for those Countries.

But the poor Republick greatly apprehend­ing this Misfortune, than which there could be no greater Mischief, nor Ruin to their Country; dispatched certain Deputies with their yearly Tribute to the Port, with Instructions, that in the way thither, they should supplicate the Pa­sha to intercede with the Grand Signior in their behalf, representing to his Majesty, that they paying their annual Tribute for Protection, ought not in justice to be exposed to the licen­tiousness of an Army, which their little Ter­ritories were not capable to receive, nor pro­vide with convenient Quarters: at which Mes­sage the Pasha being highly incensed, answered rudely, and imprisoned them; threatning to strangle them, in case their Government did not obey the Commands of the Sultan.

ANNO 1657.

BUT the chief Ministers at the Port, taking into their consideration the present State of Affairs; that the City of Constantinople was full of Discontents; the Persian on one side, and the Moscovite on the other, ready to invade di­vers parts of the Empire; that there were De­signs to depose the Grand Signior, and set one of his Brothers on the Throne; besides a mul­titude of other Dangers; the resolution of the Court's removal, and of the Grand Signior's March into Dalmatia, was suspended; his Pre­sence and Authority being esteemed most requi­site in such a conjuncture of Troubles at the Heart and Center of his Empire. After which, the appearance of the Grand Signior in Publick was less frequent; for that he might hasten the departure of the Spahees and Janisaries for Can­dia, he deferred his Journey to Adrianople for some time; but they being averse to this War, refused to march, until first they had received all Arrears which were due to them; the which audacious Proposal so incensed the Grand Sig­nior, that he caused the Heads of two of the most forward Mutineers to be cut off in his presence.

This unseasonable rigour rather provoked the Spirits of discontented Men, than abated them; and the continual Prizes which the Venetians made on the Turks, and stoppage of Provisions, which did usually supply Constantinople from the Archipelago, raised the price of Bread, and of all Victuals in that populous City; so that the People murmured and exclaimed, as if they had been reduced to their last Extremity.

The Grand Vizier considering that the loss of Tenedos was the cause of all these Inconviences; promised the Inhabitants of Constantinople, that he would regain it in a short time; in order to which, he set forth a very numerous Fleet to be­siege that Fortress; but contrary Winds, and bad Weather, forced them into a Neighbouring Port, where they attended the conjunction of the Bey's Gallies with them.

The General of the Venetians having received advice herof, put to Sea, that he might hinder these two Fleets from joining; and was no sooner in the Channel of Scio, than that he met with ten Sail of Barbery Men of War, convoy­ing a great number of Saiques, and other Ves­sels, of which fourteen were laden with Provi­sions, carrying also with them two hundred [Page 90]thousand Crowns, which was the Tribute of Rhodes: These the Venetians assailed with such Courage and Success, that they burnt the ten Ships, and many of the Saiques; killed a thou­sand Turks, took four hundred Prisoners, deli­vered three hundred Christians; with the loss only of an hundred killed, and three hundred wounded.

This and other Losses augmented the Discon­tents at Constantinople so that the Grand Vizier, to hold up the Spirit of the People, resolved to go in Person to Tenedos; and accordingly equipped a Fleet of eighteen Ships, thirty Gal­lies, ten Galleasses, with an innumerable Com­pany of Saiques, and other Vessels, whereon he embarked twenty thousand Horse, and eighty thousand Foot; with which Army the Vizier sai­led out of the Dardanelli, on the 17th of July, having first received Intelligence, that Mocenigo was not returned from the Morea, where he had been for some time in chase of certain Ships. Howsoever the Turks found not the Passage so clear, but that they encountred with a Squa­dron of eighteen Sail of Men of War, under the Command of Signior Bembo; the which seem­ing an inconsiderable number to the Turks, they assailed them with undoubted hopes of Victory. The Admiral and Vice-Admiral of the Turks, with five other great Ships, charged the Vene­tian Admiral, who defended himself so bravely, that for three hours they lay Board and Board; the rest of the Turkish Fleet assailed the other part of their Enemies Fleet so close, that the Fight became terrible and bloody, both for one and the other, until at length the Turks being worsted, were put to flight, and in the pursuit, a great Turkish Sultana was put ashore near Troy; one of their Galleasses was disabled, two of their Ships sunk, and the rest were chased as far as Metylene, being put by the Island of Tenedos.

In this Interim, the General Mocenigo was on his Voyage towards the Dardanelli; and being come within the noise of the Cannon, he ha­stened with more diligence; and arrived so sea­sonably to the assistance of Bembo, that at his appearance most of the Turkish Gallies began to turn their Sterns, and make towards the Shore of Anatolia, with such disorder, that of twenty eight Gallies, and two Galleasses, there were but five only which kept company with the Bastard Gally of the Captain-Pasha, and en­tred with him under the defence of the Castles. The rest of the Fleet was chased by Mocenigo; but the Turks being to windward, the Christi­ans were not able that day to come up with there. The next day the Wind being more fa­vourable, a Council of War was held aboard the Venetian General; during which Consulta­tion, they espied five Gallies making towards the Point Baba, there to secure themselves under the Shore: and thereupon resolved, that whilst the Captain General, with a Squadron of Mal­ta, attempted those five Gallies, and others which had taken the same place of Refuge, the rest of the Fleet should keep firing at those without.

Accordingly the Captain-General made to­wards the Point Baba, where passing within Musket-shot, and under the reach of five Batte­ries, an unfortunate Shot in the Powder-room blew up the Ship, and therewith ended the Days of this valiant Mocenigo, who died full of Ho­nour and Glory; his brave Actions continuing his Memory in all the Histories of Venice. The Proyeditor succeeding in his Command, prose­cuted the same Design; and as if he would imi­tate the ancient Funeral Piles, he celebrated the Obsequies of his General, by burning the Ad­miral Gally of the Turks, and thence retired towards Tenedos.

After the Turks had refitted their Vessels, and put their Fleet in a reasonable posture, they de­parted from Metylene the 28th of July at Night, and on the 30th were on the Coast of Tenedos; Tenedos taken by the Turks. where immediatly landing five thousand Men, and great numbers approaching ready to set their foot on Shore, the Defendants of the For­tress summoned a Council of War; at which all agreeing that the Island was not tenable against so great a Force, embarked their Men, Ammu­nition, and Artillery, and resigned their place to the disposal and command of the Enemy. After which Success the Turks in like manner landed ten thousand Men on the Island of Lem­nos; where, having laid a formal Siege to the Castle, they made a general Assault, but were repulsed with the loss of five hundred Men, leaving their Scaling-Ladders to the Besieged. They made afterwards divers Attempts, but in all were beaten off with considerable loss; so that they had abandoned the Enterprize, had not the greater fear and apprehension of the Divan at Home, confirmed their Courage a­gainst the Enemy; until at length the Christians being wearied with two Months Siege,Lemons retaken. without hopes of Relief, were forced to a Surrender; which was performed on Articles, That they should depart with Arms, Baggage, and have free liberty to embark themselves for Candia.

These two important Places being regained by the Turks, were the Subject of great Joy to the Court, and of Courage and Satisfaction to the Inhabitants of Constantinople: So that the Grand Signior apprehending that by these Suc­cesses, the Seditions and Mutinies of the City were appeased, he took his Journey to Adriano­ple; where to evidence his Grandeur to the Bai­lo Capello, and the Secretary Ballarino, he made his entry with an Army of twenty thousand Men, besides the ordinary Attendance of the Court, and usual Concomitants of the Ottoman Train.

After which Ostentation, the Grand Signior encharged Ballarino to write to the Senate, That though he was able to over-run all their Country, and take from them their Capital City, yet such was his Clemency, that he was contented to grant them Peace, on Conditions that they sur­rendred to him all the Island of Candia, with the Fortress of Clissia in Dalmatia, and paiment of three Millions of Gold for the Dammages of the War.

But these seemed to the Senate to be such un­reasonable Propositions, and so prejudicial to their Honour, that they resolved to maintain the War, and to defend themselves more vigo­rously than ever.

ANNO 1658.

NOtwithstanding the Designs of the Turks against Dalmatia, they were not less intent to their Affairs in Candia, designing to try their Fortune once again in the Siege of the principal City of that Name, for that falling into their Hands, the whole Island would quickly be re­duced, and with that Conquest an end would be put unto the War.

The Venetians, on the other side, attended to their Business with all diligence, not neglecting any Provisions which might secure their Interest [Page 91]in that Country; and that they might regain what they had lost, they held Intelligence with some Persons in Canea, hoping by their means to surprise the Town; but the Turkish Gover­nour, being very vigilant, reinforced his Gari­son with five hundred Men: and Chusaein Pasha coming to his Assistance with thirty Gallies, dis­appointed the Venetians of landing at that place.

The Rendezvous of the Army which was to march into Dalmatia, was ordered to be at A­drianople, where the Brother-in-Law of the Pa­sha of Aleppo, who was Commander of the Forces of that Place, arriving later than the day prefixed, was for that reason put to death by the Great Vizier.

This Severity so enraged the Pasha, that im­mediately he raised an Army of forty thousand Men, and marched towards Scutari, threatning Constantinople it self, unless the Head of the Great Vizier were given him by way of repri­zal for that of his Brothers. The Divan being startled hereat, returned him a gentle Message, neither denying nor granting his Demand, as if they intended to amuse him with Hopes: But he interpreting this Delay for a Refusal, did not only perfist in requiring the Head of the Vizier, but of four other principal Counsellors, whom he judged to have concurred in the Sentence for his Brother's Death; and in farther prosecu­tion hereof, he burnt and spoiled all the Coun­try about Constantinople; and the Plague raging at the same time in the City, affected the Inhabi­tants with such Sadness and Discontent, that the chief Ministers apprehended more Evil from thence, than from the Enemy without.

The Army of the Pasha daily increasing, and being grown from forty to sixty thousand Men, caused the Vizier to abandon all other Thoughts and Designs but those which tended to the de­struction of the Pasha, and his Complices; so that there necessarily followed a Revulsion of the Forces from Dalmatia; the Vizier himself diverting them from thence and Transylvania, marched with the whole Army towards Constan­tinople.

Yet before the Great Vizier departed from Adrianople, he perswaded the Grand Signior to set the Bailo Capello, and the Secretary Ballarino at Liberty, that thereby he might give some jea­lousy to the Rebels, as if he designed to make a Peace with Venice, to have more Power, and better leizure to make his War against them. This Counsel, though prudently given, had yet little Influence on the Humor of the Pasha, who continued his March, fortifying himself in the most advantageous Passes of the Country: But what was most bold of all his Actions, and rendred his Pardon beyond the Clemency of his Soveraign, was the proclaiming a Youth of twenty Years of Age, then with him in his Ar­my, to be the Son of Sultan Morat, and conse­quently the lawful Heir of the Crown; and that in right of him, he had taken possession of a great part of Asia, and was marching towards Constantinople, with resolution to dispossess Sul­tan Mehmet, and exalt this lawful and undoubted Heir on the Throne of his Ancestors.

This and other Rumors from Persia, that that King taking the advantage of these Disorders, was making Preparations to regain Bagdat, or Babylon, and revenge himself of all those Cruelties which the Turks had inflicted on his Subjects and Country, increased the Fears and Cares of the chief Ministers of State.

Notwithstanding which, Chusaein Pasha pro­secuted his Business no less in Candia than for­merly, in hopes to put an end to the War there before the end of the Summer; and in order thereunto, he received a Recruit of five and twenty thousand Men from the Morea. But the daily increase of the Pasha's Forces, and his ap­proach towards Constantinople, as it was a Mat­ter of the highest Consequence, so it required the most prudence and caution in the manage­ment.

In the first place therefore by Fetfa, or Re­solve from the Mufti, the Pasha was declared a Rebel, and guilty of High Treason against the Sultan; notwithstanding which, a Chaous was dispatched with Letters of Pardon, if now re­penting of his Fault, he would disband his Ar­my, and return to his former Obedience, he should be received into Grace and Favour. The Pasha received the Chaous with the same Cere­mony and Honour, as if he had been an Ambas­sador, being willing to consider him under that Character, rather than under the Notion of a Pursuivant, or Officer sent to affright him into his Duty; and in Answer to the Message, re­plied, That it was not in his power to condes­cend to any Conditions, for that since he had assumed the Cause of this Youth, who was the Son of Sultan Morat, concealed to that Age by his Mother, for fear of the Power of his Uncle, he could not assent to any Terms or Conditions less than the Exaltation of him to the Ottoman Throne. And so carrying this Young Man with him, as a Property, whereby to cover his Rebel­lion with the Guise of Justice and Duty, he maintained a Court for him after the Ottoman Fashion; and causing the Tagho, or Standards, to be carried before him, he permitted him to give Audiences, send Dispatches, and to take on him all the Royal Marks of Empire.

The Army of the Pasha was by this time en­creased to seventy thousand Men, one part of which he sent towards Scutari, and another to­wards Smyrna, which alarm'd all the Countries round about, and gave the Grand Signior such cause of Apprehension, that he tried divers Means, and made many Propositions of Ho­nours and Benefits to the Pasha, whereby to al­lure him to Obedience: One while he offered to him the Government of Grand Cairo: but that being rejected, he endeavoured to raise Men in Asia to oppose the progress of his Arms; of which some numbers being got into a Body, and perceiving the formidable Force of the Pa­sha, revolted, and joined themselves to his Party.

This Extremity of Affairs, caused the Grand Signior not only again to proclaim the Pasha a Rebel, but to give liberty to his People to de­stroy him and his Souldiers in any parts where they should encounter them. In pursuance of which License, a Village in Asia having killed twenty five or thirty of the Pasha's Men, which came thither to refresh themselves; the Pasha was so enraged thereat, that he caused his Souldiers to put Man, Woman, and Child to the Sword throughout the Village. And in this manner the Affairs of the Turks remained in the greatest Confusion imaginable through the whole course of this Year 1658.

ANNO 1659.

NOR did this Year begin with better Omens of Success, for to the other Dangers, was added a Report, that the Persian had taken the Field with two hundred thousand Men, for re­covery [Page 92]of Bagdat, or Babylon, which was the ancient Patrimony of his Forefathers; so that the Grand Signior being rendred thereby more willing to agree and accommodate Affairs with the Pasha, proffered to him the Government of the Province of Soria for ever, paying only a yearly Homage of an hundred thousand Sulta­nees, in lieu of three hundred thousand, which that Country always yielded. But the Pride of the Pasha scorned a Proffer of so mean a Consi­deration, having nothing less in his Thoughts than the entire enjoyment of the Empire, or at least to partake an equal share thereof with the Sultan.

For the Hopes of the Pasha encreasing with his Army, which was now grown to eighty thou­sand Men, he took up for some days his Head­quarters near the Fortress of Tocacaia, within the days march of Smyrna; and thence ap­proaching towards Constantinople, the chief Mi­nisters concluded, that there was no other Safety but in their Arms; and that the Pasha was not to be reduced to any terms of Gentleness or Moderation. Accordingly the Great Vizier pas­sed into Asia with a numerous Army, and spee­dily joined Battel with the Pasha, which conti­nued for some Hours with great slaughter on one side and the other; but at length the fortune of the Day turned in favour of the Pasha; and the Vizier's Army being routed, he lost all his Can­non and Baggage, and he himself was forced to save himself in the Neighbouring Countries; where not being pursued by the Pasha, he had time again to collect his torn and scattered Troops. The News hereof multiplied the Dis­orders and Confusions at Constantinople, to which being added the Motion of the Persians, and that they were to join with the Pasha; as also some Troubles in Transylvania, caused by the unquiet Spirit of Ragotski, together with the ill Humour of the Male-contents in the City, made all things appear with equal or greater Danger at Home than Abroad.

Wherefore, as the ultimate Remedy of these imminent Dangers it was resolved, that the Grand Signior should go in Person to the War, on supposition that Reverence to his Royal Per­son would produce that awe on the Spirits of his Subjects, which was not to be effected by Violence, or force of Arms. According to this Resolution the Grand Signior passed into Asia, and joining his Forces with those of the Vizi­er, composed an Army of seventy thousand Foot, and thirty thousand Horse; with which marching boldly towards the Enemy, the Heart of the Pasha began to fail him; so that calling a Council of his Officers, he proposed his In­clinations towards Terms of Agreement, rather than to hazard all on the Uncertainties of a Battel; the Spirits of the Souldiery being now become tractable by the appearance of so great a Force, assented to the Proposition; and there­upon Articles being speedily drawn up, were sent to the Grand Signior for his Approbation; who, though he would not seem to refuse any thing therein contained, yet declined a perso­nal Treaty, as being a Matter too mean for his Imperial Person to capitulate with his Vassals; and therefore ordered, that Mortaza Pasha should Treat in his behalf, promising to confirm whatsoever Act Mortaza Pasha should conclude in this Matter.

Mortaza being thus made Plenipotentiary, re­fused to treat with the Pasha, until such time as he had retreated with his Army at a distance of some days March from the Grand Signior's Camp; which being performed near a Town called Alexandria, he foolishly suffered himself to be separated in a private Place from his Ar­my, on pretence that Peace was more aptly concluded in a free Retirement, than under the constraint and force of the Souldiery. Here Mortaza meeting the Pasha, forcibly strangled him, with seventeen of his Complices, whom he had brought with him for Witnesses to his Capitulations with the Grand Signior. With the news hereof the Army of the Pasha soon disbanded, every one with shame and silence shifting for himself, retired to his own Coun­try and Home. And herewith easily ended this Civil War almost in a moment, which but now threatned the Extirpation of the Ottoman Race.

The cruel Vizier retained his thoughts of Re­venge, which we shall shortly hear in what manner he vented on the great Spahees and rich Men in Asia, who had joined themselves with the Pasha in this Rebellion. This good Service promoted Mortaza, and rendred him more con­siderable to the Grand Signior; so that he was employed in the Assistance of the Tartars, against Ragotski in Transylvania, and afterwards preferred to the important Charge of Bagdat, or Babylon, of whose Success, and Fate, we we shall hear in the Sequal of a few Years.

But as yet the Commotions of Asia were not so wholly extinguished, but that the Nephew of the Pasha of Aleppo, in revenge of the trea­cherous Death of his Uncle, took up Arms, and was followed by the People of the Territories depending on Aleppo. To his Assistance came in also the Son of Chusaein Pasha, late General in Candia, whom the cruel Vizier had put to death, notwithstanding the merit of his late Services, which might seem to atone for his former Misfortunes, and make satisfaction for non-compliance with Instructions; but this Vi­zier, who never pardoned any Person, would not begin with an Act of Clemency towards one who was none of his Creatures or Confi­dents depending on him.

To these joined the Bey of Torgue, who cast­ing off his Obedience to the Pasha of Cairo, entred into the Cabal with ten thousand Horse; so that a formidable Army being composed by this Union, gave a new subject of Fear and Ap­prehension at Constantinople. But the Great Vi­zier so dextrously managed his Affair, by sow­ing Dissention between the Chiefs, and bestow­ing Largesses on the Souldiery, that the Army unsensibly mouldred away, leaving their Gene­rals, and Commanders to shift for themselves, and exposing them to the Justice of a Vizier, who was unacquainted with Mercy, and never pardoned any who was either guilty of a Fault, or supected for it.

Towards the end of this Year, the Vizier built the lower Forts, which are scituated at the entrance into the Dardanelles, commonly called by the name of the Queen-Mother's Castles. And dispatched a Chaous to the Pasha of Ca­nea, to put all things in a Readiness for the Siege of Candia; Orders were also given to the Pashaws of the Inland Countries to prepare them­selves for the Wars against Dalmatia, and Tran­silvania.

ANNO 1660.

THE Rendezvous of the Army being ap­pointed at Belgrade, the Vizier hastened thither in Person to quicken the Preparations, [Page 93]and March of the Souldiers, which were flock­ing thither from all parts. This Vizier Kuper­lee, though aged, was yet very active and vigo­rous, by which he created so much confidence of himself in his Master, that he acted nothing in all the Government but by his Counsel and Direction: which being always jealous and bloo­dy towards those who had any Power in the Empire, he for that Reason cut off the Casir of Damascus, who though he was a good Go­vernour, and a faithful Servant, yet because he was a Favourite of the Queen-Mother, and con­served the State of his Affairs in a laudable po­sture, he grew jealous of his Power, and there­fore sacrificed his Blood to his own Security and Bloody Disposition.

The which act of unjust Cruelty so enraged the Queen-Mother, that she for ever after bore a mortal hatred to this Vizier, and continued the same to his Son, which was the famous Kuperlee; but his Moderation and Discretion was so well tempered with respect towards her, that She at length not only pardoned the Sin of his Father in him, but became his Friend, and relished the Services which he performed for his Master.

The Venetians having about this time received considerable Succours, namely four thousand French Foot, which his most Christian Majesty, after the Conclusion of Peace at the Pyrenean Treaty, had most generously Spared to that Re­publick, were enabled to attempt some notable Enterpaize; and thereby so hardly pressed the Pasha of Canea, that he earnestly wrote to the Grand Signior for Succours; assuring him, that without present Relief, he should be forced to surrender his Town to the Mercy of the Ene­my. The Grand Signior promised him speedy Relief, and for his better encouragement sent him the Present of a Sword and a Vest of Sa­bles; in the mean time the Venetians took three Forts, viz. Calamo, Calegro, and Epicarno, and proceeded to lay Siege to Canea; but the Ene­my having received a Supply of three thousand Men into the Town, the Christians quitted this enterprize in hopes of beating the Turks out of new Candia; which was lately built near to the old Candia, with design to keep that Town straitned by perpetual Alarms, and by the vi­cinity of so bad a Neighbourhood.

The Grand Vizer being very Aged, was subject to many Infirmities, and falling sick at Belgrade, he was advised by the Physicians to change the Air, as the best Remedy for his Disease; and indeed they were all careful to give him the best and safest Counsels, for that he often threatned them, if he died of that Sickness, he would send them all to the next World before him. The Vizier following the Advice of his Physicians, returned to Adrianople, where ha­ving in a good measure recovered his Health, he sent Orders to Hali Pasha, then General of the Forces in Hungary, to hasten the Siege of Wara­din, being esteemed by the Turks an advantagious Fortress for carrying on their Conquests in that Country; of the taking of which Town, and of all the Trouble in Transylvania, caused by the ambitious humour of Ragotzki, we shall treat at large in the following History. For being come to that time, in which Providence allotted me a charge at Constantinople; I was thereby somewhat elevated on a rising Ground, whereby I could with my own Eyes survey the Transactions of that great Empire; and for that Reason I call them my Memoirs; which for being Matters transacted in my own Time, I have thought fit to introduce them with a short Advertisement to the Reader.

THE MEMOIRS OF Sir P …

THE MEMOIRS OF Sir Paul Rycaut, Containing the HISTORY OF THE TURKS, FROM THE YEAR 1660, to the YEAR 1678. With the most Remarkable Passages Relating to the ENGLISH TRADE In the space of Eighteen Years.

TO THE READER.

Courteous Reader,

THIS following History is some part of those fruits arising from my vacant hours of eighteen Years residence in Turky, seven whereof I compleated at Constantinople, in quality of Secretary to the Lord Ambassador; and for eleven Years I exercised the Office of Consul at Smyrna. In the first times of which, I had great advantages to observe, and make my Annotations; having for the most part been acquainted with the persons as well as with the affairs of those concern­ing whom I write; and indeed the incumbence which was then upon me, obliged me to a know­ledg both of persons and business. My latter time, which was that of being Consul, con­strained me to an attendance on matters relating to the government of our Trade; and there­fore it is not to be expected, that at that distance from the Court, I should lay down Transacti­ons so positive, and particular, as in the preceding Years; yet the acquaintance, and corre­spondence I afterwards continued at Court, and the care I took to inform my self of what oc­curred, qualified me in some measure for an Historian; at least put me into a condition to make a Breviate, or Collection of certain Observations occurring in the Turkish Court.

When I first entred on this work, I was carried with a certain emulation of French and Italian Writers, of whose Ministers few there were employed in the parts of Turky, but who carried with them from thence, Memoirs, Giornals, or Historical Observations of their times. In which our Nation hath been so defective, that besides some scattered and abrupt Papers, without coherence, or method, adjoined to the end of Knoll's History of the Turks (which is an excellent collection from divers Authors.) one shall scarce find five sheets of Pa­per wrote by our Countrymen in way of History. At which omission having often wondred, I resolved from my first entrance in those Countries, to note down in a blank Book what occurred in that Empire, either as to Civil, or Military affairs; with what Casualties and Changes befel our Trade, that so both one and the other might serve for Examples and Precedents to future Ages; the which after some years afforded me materials to compose and frame this following Discourse. In which, having by Gods assistance thus far proceeded; As it may be an Example to my Successors, to spin and draw out the thread of this History through Ages to come; so it will be a good part, and office, of those who reside there at present, by a more diligent enquiry to correct, and amend what I have mistaken, or misunderstood.

For next to the immediate attendance to the Charge and Trust imposed upon me, I judged it a chief duty towards my Country, to denote and Record certain Transactions relating to Trade, which is the grand Interest that hath engaged England to a Communication and Cor­respondence with these remote Parts: nor doth the World perhaps expect much less from me, than that I should add something to the History of the Turks in our time; which howsoever imperfectly I may perform it, yet the Offices which I have exercised, and the impartiality with which it is wrote, may gain it some credit and reputation in the World. For in the wri­ting hereof, I cannot be taxed with animosity to any person; nor am I to be esteemed as posses­sed with affection, or partiality to any side; which is a point of sobriety, and good temper, necessary for all Historians: For we who lived in those parts, were little concerned for the House of Kuperlee, or for the Favourites of the Court; nor was it of any moment to us, whether the Faction of the Spahees, or Janizaries prevailed; or whether the Courtiers, or the Soldiers, ruled the Empire: only we esteemed it our duty, to speak best of that Govern­ment under which our Trade thrived most. And tho the times of Sultan Ibrahim were the golden days for Merchants, which employed our Navigation beyond the memory of any times, either before, or since; and consumed of our Manufactories (tho not in greater quantities yet) perhaps with better advantage and profit to our Nation: Yet I ought not to be so injuri­ous, or ungrateful to Sultan Mahomet the Fourth, as to accuse his Government of Oppression, or Violence towards us, or of any breach of Articles, and Priviledges, which he had granted to his Majesties Subjects; but shall rather applaud, and be ready to own that Justice which our Complaints have found, and met at the Ottoman Court, under the protection of those worthy Ambassadors sent by his Majesty to stand Centinel on the Guard of their Country.

For whereas in the time of Sultan Morat, when the Military men bore the sway; Injustice and Violence, which mingled in all the actions of Rule, had an influence also on the English [Page]affairs: And when in the time of Sultan Ibrahim, that the Female Court had gained the predominancy, and that vast Treasures were expended in Riot and Luxury; the prodigality of great persons made it necessary to be rapacious and unjust: But in these more moderate times of this present Sultan, when neither excessive Wars abroad, nor Luxury nor immode­rate expence at home, exhausted the Coffers; We may easily imagine, that the disorders of State did not drive the Rulers to a necessity of exercising unjust Arts, which are always most certain Symptoms, either of a bad Government, or a vicious incliuation in the Prince.

The English Trade, according to the Chronicles of Sir Richard Baker, was first introduced into the Country of the Turks, in the Year 1579. but Sagredo an Italian Writer, accounts only from the Year 1583. perhaps before that time Overtures were only made for a Trade, which might be so inconsiderable, as that until then it was not esteemed worthy to be adorned with an Ambassador, or to be opposed by the Ministers of Foreign Princes. For so soon as an Ambassador from England appeared at the Ottoman Court, with Credential Letters from Queen Elizabeth, the French and Venetian Ministers took the Alarm, and opposed his re­ception, especially the French, who (as Sagredo reports in his History of the Turks) re­presented unto the G. Vizier, how much this new Friendship with the English would obstruct that ancient Alliance which was made with his King, and would impeach and lessen the Pri­viledges and Trade which they enjoyed in those parts: To which the Vizier answered, ac­cording to their usual phrase and stile; That the happy Imperial Seat where his Master re­sided, was called the Port, because it was free and open to all such who desired to take re­fuge and sanctuary therein, and therefore the English without just reason ought not to be ex­cluded. That the Sultan ought not to be denied that freedom of love and hatred, which was common to all Mankind; and that he was as well resolved to chuse and cherish his Friends, as to prosecute and destroy his Enemies. Whereunto the French Ambassador urged, That since it was the pleasure of the Grand Signior to admit the English; that at least they should be obliged to enter Constantinople under the French Colours. But the English Ambassador replied, that his Mistress who was so potent, scorned all Dependencies on other Nations, and would rather abandon the Friendship of the Sultan, than admit the least diminution of her own honour: And embellishing his Discourses (as Sagredo proceeds) with the representa­tion of that advantage and profit, which the English Trade would bring to the Ottoman Em­pire; he so ensnared the hearts of the Turks, that they preferred the admittance of new Guests, before the Alliance of ancient Friends. Since which time our Commerce and Trade with the Turk hath been in its increase, and being governed by a Wise and Grave Company of Experienced Merchants, hath by Gods blessing brought an inestimable Treasure and advan­tage to the English Nation, which that it may still continue, increase, and flourish in all Ages and times to come, is the hearty desire, and Prayer of him, who is a true, and faithful Ser­vant to that worthy Society, and a sincere Wellwisher to his Country.

Farewel.

THE HISTORY OF Sultan Mahomet IV. THE XIII. EMPEROUR OF THE TURKS, Beginning in the NINTH YEAR OF HIS REIGN.

The First BOOK.
Anno Christi, 1661. Hegeira, 1072.

IT was now the beginning of this Year, when the Earl of Winchelsea arrived at Constantinople, the first Embassadour sent abroad from His Majesty of Great Britain, Charles the Second, after his happy Re­turn to the Glorious throne of his Ance­stors, to Sultan Mahomet, the Thirteenth Em­perour of the Turks; it being judged fit, that amongst other Alliances which were to be con­tracted with Foreign Princes, and States, this of Turkey should not be omitted, but rather in the first place considered: In regard, that as the flourishing Estate and Prosperity of England's richess depends absolutely on her Foreign Trade, so on none more particularly than on that of Turkey, which consumes great quantities of her most staple and substantial Manufactures, and makes returns in whatsoever Employs, and gives Bread to the poor and industrious of the Nation.

But before we come to treat of the Successes of this Ambassador, and the various Transactions in the Turkish Affairs; we shall relate some ac­cidents which befel us in our Voyage by Sea to Constantinople. The Earl of Winchelsea and his Lady, with a numerous Retinue being embark­ed on the Plymouth Frigat, commanded by Sir Thomas Allen, and accompanied with a Catch and two Merchants Ships, the Prosperous and Smyrna Factor for Turkey, set sail from the Downs on the Twentieth of Octob. 1660. And proceeding with a favourable Gale, and fair Weather, until we were come to the heighth of the Norward Cape, or Cape Finisterre; we then contended with so severe a storm, that we were forced to bring our Ship under a main course, to fasten our Helm, and lye, and drive. In the Twenty nineth about Five in the Morning, our main Tack flew, which shook and strained our Mass so violently, that it was shivered in two places between Decks: The danger hereof might have proved of ill consequence, had the Mast gone by the Board; for in all probability it would have carried up our Decks, unfixed both our Pumps, and laid us open to the Sea; but the Providence of God, and the diligence of our [Page 98]Seamen was such, that we soon struck our Top Mast, boared our main Yard, and so fished the Mast it self where it was defective, that with the help of our sore-Sail, and the benefit of bet­ter Weather we safely arrived on the Thirty first in the Port of Lisbon. Lisbon. The Match being then in Treaty between Charles the Second our Dread Soveraign, and Catherine the Infanta of Portugal, now our gracious Queen; all the concernments of England were extreamly acceptable to the Court of Portugal; and particularly the Person of the Earl of Winchelsea, a Peer of England, qualified with the Character of Ambassadour Extraordi­nary to the Ottomon Port. For at our first arri­val there, I being then Secretary to the said Earl, was employed to carry a Letter to the King, which was received by the Councel of State then sitting: After the Letter had been read and con­sidered, I was called in, and an answer given me by the Marquis de Nissa, and D. Gasper Faria de Sevarin then Secretary of State, to this purpose. That they were glad, so grateful an opportu­nity presented, whereby they might Demon­strate their warm and real affections towards the King of England, by serving his Ambassadour in so necessary a piece of Service as that which was required: That Orders were given to fur­nish the Ship with a Mast, and what she wanted, out of the Kings Stores; and that both his Ex­cellency and Lady, with all their Retinue should be welcomed a shore, with due regard to their Quality and Condition. The Day following his Excellency was complemented from the King, by a Maestro de Campo sent to him on Ship­board; and being come ashoar, and lodged at the House of Mr. Maynard the English Consul, he was visited by D. Francisco de Melo, (who had besore, and was afterwards employed Ambassa­dour into England) and by D. Antonio de Saousa and others. After Eight days his Excellency had Audience of the King, and the Queen Mo­ther, and was received by both, with many de­monstrations of a hearty desire to contract a firm Alliance with England. He was after­wards invited by the Conde de Odemira Governour of the young King, and Chief Minister of Portu­gal, to a Quinta, or Garden-house at Bellain: where were present the Duke of Calaval, the Visconde de Castel Blanco, and D. Francisco de Me­lo; the entertainment was very splendid, with variety of Dishes, and Wine, corresponding ra­ther with the inordinate Tables of English, than with the frugality, and temperate Diet of Spa­niards. Our Ship being in this interim refitted, we returned aboard on the Twelsth of Novem­ber; the Earl of Winchelsea being presented by the King, with several Hampers of sweet-Meats, Vessels of Wine, and other Provisions for his Voyage; and his lady by the Queen Mother, with a Jewel of considerable value, and with diverse boxes filled with Purses of persumed Leather, and Amber Comfits.

On the Thirteenth we set Sail, being design'd by Order of his Majesty for Algier, Algier. to settle a Peace with that unsetled People; where arriving on the Tewenty second day about Three a Clock in the Afternoon, we came to an Anchor about Two Miles distant from the Town, which we saluted with Twenty one Guns, but re­ceived none again in answer thereunto; it being the custome of that People, not to acknowledge Civilities, but to repay injuries, and not requite benefits. We found that they had already be­gun to break the Peace: Having brought in thi­ther an English Ship, which lay between hope and fear of freedom, or seizure: So soon as we had dropt our Anchors, a Boat came from that Ship, acquainting us of the State of Algter, and how near Matters were to a Rupture with them; by this Boat my Lord Ambassadour sent a Letter to the Consul, appointing him to come aboard; who the next Day, being the Twenty third, ap­peared accordingly; to whom his Excellency imparted the Instructions and Orders from his Majesty to renew the Peace on the former Ar­ticles; and particularly to insert a Caution, That the Algerines should on no terms search our Ships, but that the Passengers, and goods there­on, whether of English or Strangers, should be free and exempted from all seizure, and Pyracy whatsoever. I being appointed to assist the Con­sul in this Treaty, accompanied him ashoar, and in the first place we applyed our selves to Rama­dam Bullock-bashee, then the Chief of their Di­van, and Head of their Government; whom we acquainted, that on the Ship in the road, was an Earl of England, sent Ambassadour by his Ma­jesty our King to the Grand Signor; and in his way thither was appointed to touch at Algier, and to inform the Government of that place of the happy Restoration of his Majesty to the Throne of his Father, and to confirm the same Peace which was before concluded with usurped Powers, and so delivered him the Letters from his Majesty, which were superscribed in this manner:

To their Excellencies the Aga, Jiabashees, and rest of the Honourable Council of State and War, in the City and Kingdom of Algier.

Ramadam answered us, that he was well satis­fied with the Proposal; that there was a Peace already with the English, and that they were Brothers; that the next Day was appointed for a general Divan of great and small, at which we might freely open our breasts, and declare whatsoever was committed to us by our King and his Ambassadour.

But for the better understanding of the State of Algier, at this time, we must observe, that for many years before, this government was com­posed of a Divan, the Chief and Head whereof was a Pasha sent every Three years to preside there, and had so continued, until that some few Months before this time one Halil a poor Fellow, who had no better Estate than the Sixteenth part of a Vessel, but bold and desperate, complained one Day in open Divan against the Pasha, ac­cusing him of many miscarriages, with which he so affected the Divan; that he rudely threw him from his Seat, drubbed him, trampled on him, and plucked the Hairs out of his Beard, which is the greatest mark of ignominy and contempt that any Person can offer to another; and ha­ving committed him to Prison and Chains, he with the Divan took upon himself the unlimited Power of an Arbitrary Government: And thus for the space of Six or Eight Months this Mis­creant tyrannized, and ruled without controul: Until an obscure and contemptible Moor, an ordinary Jerbin or Countryman, instigated (as was supposed) by the Aga, or General of the Souldiery, approaching near him in the Streets, under pretence of kissing his Vest,Halil killed by a Moor. struck him with a long Knife between the Ribs; which bold­ness of the Moor so astonished the Attendants which were about him, that none had power to lay hands on the Murderer, but suffered him to depart, and fly unpursued: Of this wound Halil dyed in Two days, in which time be no­minated Ramadam his Kinsman to be the most Proper, and fit Person to succed him in the Go­vernment; [Page 99]and this recommendation so prevailed on the Divan, that he was elected for their Chief: A Person of a most sordid, and Mercenary Soul, immersed in Covetousness, and Gluttony, guided by his Lust and Interest, unless some times restrained by the Authority of the Divan, and the fear of popular Insurrection.

This Ramadam according to his Promise be­fore recited, summon'd us the day following, being the Twenty-fourth to the Divan;The Al­gier Divan. which consists in all of Twenty-four Bulluck-bashees, who are Offi­cers of the Souldiery, each commanding Twenty-four Souldiers under him,Jiaba­shees are of another degree; it may be in good Turkish O­dabashees, or Cap­tains of the Cham­bers of Ja­nisaries. Twenty-four Jia­bashees, and Eighteen Ancients or grave Seniors: Though for that present, there appeared no more than Forty-five, the others being at Sea, or abroad; Ramadam was placed in the Chair, or in a Seat at the upper end, and the Aga sate by him, the others stood on their feet, and put themselves into Two Files, or Ranks; and then Ramadam began with a loud Voice to cry, The English are come to treat a Peace with you, and have brought Letters from their King, and from their Ambassadour now aboard going for Con­stantinople; which very words every one distinct­ly pronounced, and repeated them, carrying the Voice from the lower to the upper end; I fan­cied, that it was after the manner of our repeat­ing Syllogisms in disputations, that so no mi­stake might be, and that the Respondent might have time to consider and weigh the argument. Then Ramadam demanded, whether they were pleased to enter into Treaty with the English; which words being repeated as before, and an­swered in the Affirmative, the Letters were read in the Turkish Translation; with the Ar­ticles of Peace proposed, which were as follow­eth:

  • I. THat the English shall be obliged to protect all Passengers belonging to Algier, aboard their Ships, to the utmost of their power, against any of their Enemies. And in like manner all forreign Passengers, Merchants and others, their goods, and Estates embarked, and laden on English Ships, shall pass free, and be protected from the Ships of Algier, and be suffered to pass with­out molestation.
  • II. No Shipwrack of English on the coast of Algier, shall become prize, nor their goods forfeited, nor their men made Slaves, but the People of Algier shall do their best endeavour to save both them and their goods.
  • III. That neither the Consul, nor other Englishman, shall be obliged to satisfie the Debts of another Englishman, unless he hath been bound, or become Security for him.
  • IV. That no Englishman in matter of difference shall be subject to any Judgment, but that of the Divan.
  • V. That the English in differences amongst themselves shall be subject to no determination, but to that of the English Consul.
  • VI. That either side are to furnish men of War with all necessiries their Ports afford, at the Market rates, without paying custom.
  • VII. If any grievance happen, neither par­ty shall break the Peace until satisfaction be denied.

These Articles being read, were all approved except the first; for they declared, that they would have a Liberty to search our Ships, and take out the Goods and Persons of Strangers; for that otherwise, we having this priviledge, might carry away the Trade of the whole World in our Shipping; and that French, Spaniards, Italians, Dutch, and all other Nations, had no need of other protection and safeguard for their Persons and Goods, than to put them under the English colours: And that then their men of War might rove the Seas to no purpose, their City become poor, and their Souldiers starve, when they re­turned home. We on the other side, being sen­sible how prejudicial and dishonourable such an Article as this would be, and how ruinous to our Navigation, and having his Majesties Command to the contrary, absolutely refused to assent, or agree thereunto. Whilst we were thus arguing, a great fat Turk appeared with two young men his Slaves, one a Frenchman, and the other a Dutch­man, requesting Ramadam to recommend him to us for passage to Smyrna; and having performed his request to him by kissing his Hand, Ramadan made it his request to us in behalf of that his Kinsman, recommending him to our care and protection, and conjuring us thereunto, by that Sacred league of Peace that was between us: We readily as­sented thereunto, and at the same time took hold of the Example to represent the reasonableness of that Article on which we insisted. For shall we (said we) protect your People, and will you re­quire, and impose it upon us as a matter Just and Sacred? And shall not the greatness of our King have a Liberty to dispence the like Pri­viledge to other Nations, his Neighbours, and Allies, governed by Kings and Princes, who are Christian, and of his Kindred, and near Relations? But neither this, nor any other argument was Reason, or Sence to them; nor did they care to answer it by other arguments, than that of their own disadvantage thereby; and that if they as­sented thereunto, their Ships might better rot in the Mould, than to venture them out at Sea with expectation of booty. They told us also stories of English Ships which had delivered some Algerines to their Enemies; and one particularly, who had sold a Hundred Turks to the Venetians. In answer hereunto, we assured them, that upon complaints and proofs made hereof to our King; his Justice was such, as that he would not suffer a piece of such Treachery to escape unpunished. And as to that argument, which they urg'd, that in this Case none would be employed be­sides English ships; we largely represented the ne­cessity of employing French, and Dutch, and the Ships of other Nations. But these People being Deaf and Blind to any Reason, but that which agrees with their interest, we concluded nothing; for after a long and loud discourse, and repeti­tion of the same things over and over again, we at length told them, that it was not in our Commissi­on to conclude on these terms; but that we should inform the Lord Ambassadour of their desires, and resolution, and that we would return the next Day with his peremptory Answer; not but we knew, that the Instructions from his Majesty extended not so far; but that we might have oc­casion to leave matters, as it were in suspense, and part fairly from them, at the present. For [Page 100]as to my own particular, I did not like to re­main with such Company, not knowing how far the perfidiousness of that People might transport them to a Barbarity against the Laws of Reason and Nations.

The wind blew all this day so hard at West, that our Ship drove, and a great Sea went; so that there was some difficulty for me to get aboard; howso­ever in regard it was necessary to render his Ex­cellency an account of the proceedings of that Day, I eased the Pinnace of all Provisions, and unnecessary Company, and so by God's Provi­dence got safe, though wet, aboard that Evening. I did not fail immediately to render an account most exactly, how every thing passed, to the Lord Ambassadour, letting him know, what fruit was to be expected by a farther Treaty with this People. Wherefore it was thought fit rather to keep the business in suspence, than to come to an open rupture with them; and rather than to use long discourse to them, or perswasi­ons to little purpose, to write them this short Letter, the superscription of which was to Ramadam their Governour in Chief, and to the rest of the Divan.

WE are sorry that there should be still one diffe­rence in our Treaty,The last Letter to the Divan. relating to the search of Ships, and delivering up Merchants Forreigners, and Strangers goods. This is an Article which the King my Master did not think you would have insisted Usurpers, and his Subjects, and therefore did not impower me to conclude with you in it. Howsoever, I shall acquaint the King my Master of your earnest Desires, and Resolves in this Business, and doubt not, but what is Just and Reasonable, will be assented unto. Wherefore in the mean time we must desire you, whilst his Royal assent is expecting to your pro­posals, that the Peace may continue on the same Terms that it now stands. Let your Friend and Kinsman come aboard, (as is desired) and he shall be welcome, and we shall protect him to the utter­most of our power. And on this Promise and word of ours, you may rely on, as of a Christian, and a true Englishman. Our desire also farther is, that the Lord Obryan may remain in the Consuls House until such time as his Ransom comes. And so we wish, that a hearty and long Peace may be continued between the two Nations. Given aboard the Ply­mouth Frigat, November 25. 1660.

Winchelsea.

Upon delivery of this Letter, it was conclu­ded, that the former Articles should stand in force; only that difference about searching our Ships should remain in suspence, and be specified, as not fully agreed on: Howsoever they would search our Ships, and it should not be accounted a breach of our Capitulations, until the King should intimate his dislike thereof. And that when Notice should come from his Majesty to Algier, that he approved not thereof, then it should be lawful for both sides to break into Acts of Hostility. This moderate course we thought to be less prejudicial to us for the present, than an open, and sudden War: For by this means we gained the releasement of two small English Ships which their Men carried in thither, and had time to give notice to our Merchants in all Ports and places, of the true state of our busi­ness with Algier.

On the Twenty-seventh of November, we de­parted from the bay of Algier with a prosperous, and steddy Gale, steering N.E. and N.N.E. for Messina, from whence we intended to dispatch Let­ters unto all places, rendring advices to his Ma­jesty, and the Merchants, of the State and Condi­tion of our Affairs, and Negotiation at Algier: And whilst we pleasantly sail'd with a prosperous wind, on a sudden a cry was made of Fire, in the Ship, which astonished us all with a great amazement. For the Cooper it seems, going into the Steward's Room to stave a Cask which formerly had some Brandy in it, by chance a Snuff of the Candle fell in at the bung, which put the whole Vessel into a Flame: But the same Man immedi­ately stopping the Bung, soon smothered the Fire, and therewith extinguish'd thatand our fears. As to other Matters,Messina our Voyage to Messina was speedy and happy, for we arrived there on the Second of December.

Some Days passed before we could get pra­tick; for having touched at Algier, a place al­ways suspected for the Plague, great scruple was made of admitting us to free converse in the Town: Until the Lord Ambassadour gave un­der his Hand and Seal an assurance of the Health of our Ship; on confidence of which we received Pratick, and the Palace called Paradise, where commonly the Vice-Kings are lodged, was ap­pointed to receive his Excellency and his Reti­nue, and the Furniture thereof ordered by D. Francisco de la Villa Padierna, a Spaniard, who was Stratago, which is as much Commander in chief of all the Castles and Forts in and about Messina. So soon as his Excellency landed, this Stratago made him a Visit, and at his departure left his Guard with him in a Complement, but in the mean time the Jurati, who were six in num­ber, chose (as I think) every year, or every third year by the Citizens for Government of the City, were wanting in the like civility towards our Am­bassador; four of which are chosen out of the Burgers, and two out of the Gentry, for they took no notice of him, nor sent him any message until the hour that he was about to depart, when his Excellency refused to receive their visits, ex­cusing his neglect of attendance to matters of Ceremony, at a time when business urged his departure: whence this omission on the Jurats side proceeded, may in probability be deriv'd from the antipathy they have to the Spaniards and their Government, always running contrary to that, un­to which they find the Spanish Ministers most in­clined. During our abode at this place his Excel­lency having returned his Visit to the Stratago, accompanied with D. Joseppe de Luna a Cavalier of Maltha, and having wrote a Letter to the Conde de Ayala then Vice-King of Sicily, residing at Palermo, he gave advices unto all places of the doubtful state of our affairs with Algiers, that so Ships might be cautious of that people, and how they adventured themselves abroad without Con­voy; and having compleated these Dispatches, we again returned aboard on the ninth of this Month; when the Stratago, abounding in all points of civility, sent an honourable present of all sorts of fresh provisions aboard Ship, and soon after came himself in person to bid Farewel to his Excellency. At his coming aboard we gave him nine Guns, and at his going off fifteen, and so soon as our Anchors were away, and our Fore­top-Sail filled, we bid adieu to the Town with twenty one Guns more, which they returned by firing all the Guns of the five Castles, under command of that Stratago, which is an honour they seldom pay to any other, than the Genera­lissimo of Spain, the Vice-King, and the Popes Admiral.

We had so fair a Wind, and so prosperous a passage, that we arrived at Smyrna on the 14th of [Page 101] December, where we found the Prosperous and Smyrna Factor, the Merchants Ships which we had lost in the Storm,Smyrna. happily arrived. Here we remained for some days to order and settle seve­ral affairs according to Instructions given by the Turky Company. And on the sixth of January, being Sunday and Twelfth-day, we returned a­board to prosecute this Ultimate stage of our Voyage to Constantinople; our Frigat the Plymouth Anchored near the Town within the very Port of Smyrna, from whence sailing with a fresh Easterly Wind from the shore, we were carried without the Port, and out of command of the Castle; where the wind failing, and being whol­ly calm, we Anchored until the next morning, when with a gentle gale at South-East we proceed­ded forward, and being as high as Cape Caraborno, towards night the Wind came about to the N.E. with so strong a Gale, that with some difficulty we weathered the Cape, and making over for the Island of Mytilene, and bringing our Ship under a main course, we intended to pass the night under the shel [...]er of that Isle: All this night the wind so increased one hour more than an­other, that in the morning it was grown to a perfect storm, and the Sea into a breach; the sky was so black, and thick, and the Sun so red, and louring, as signified the continuance of it; and the spray of the Sea was so forcibly carried by the wind over the Ship, that Masts, Yards, and Decks were querned with a white Salt. This extremity of weather made us think of some Port, or Harbour, wherein to secure our Ship. The Island of Ipsera lying S. B. W. about eight Leagues from Mytilene, was judged by our Ma­ster to be the most convenient and safe place, wherein we might spend the fury of this storm; wherefore putting before it with our Foresail, and our Mainsail in the Brailes,A miracu­lous es­cape from shipwrack the wind was so forcible, that it carried away our Foresail like Paper from the Yard; and bringing another in the place thereof, it had the misfortune to be soul of the slook of our Anchor, and so became as unserviceable as the former: being thus de­prived of the benefit of our commanding Sails, we set our Spritsail, and Main-course, and so steered in between the two Isles of Ipsera the greater; and the less. Being shot with­in, and keeping as near aluff as we could to the shore, we on a sudden struck upon a Rock, which astonished us all with a strange amaze­ment; the Ship fetched five Sallies, or Seeles upon it with such violence, that we expected to sink immediately into the deep; and indeed if we consider the forcibleness of the wind, the tur­gency of the Sea, and the weight of our burden, having four hundred persons aboard, and sixty Guns mounted, it will appear little less than a Miracle, that the Ship brake not into more pie­ces than our numbers were aboard. I stood then by the Mate, when he fathomed our depth of water by the Lead and Li [...]; and we had then seventeen foot and a half by the side, but the Ship drawing eighteen foot, we began to fear a total ruin, and shipwrack, and with cast-up eyes, and stretched out arms, thought now of no other than of our last and ultimate Port. But in the midst of this horrid consternation and distress, it pleased God, who was our best Pilot, and gui­ded us to the edg of the Rock, to bring us clear of it; when we soon espied some of our sheathing to swim upon the Sea; and running down to the Well of our Pumps, we perceived a great in­crease of water, but not so much but that Pum­ping once every half hour, we kept our Ship in a condition of safety. Being thus by Gods Provi­dence come to a convenient place of Anchorage, being well furnished with ground-Tackle we rode for two days in a stress of wind, with two Anchors a head, of which our sheet-Anchor was one, and with our Top-masts and Yards struck. Afterwards the wind abating something of its late fierceness, though continuing in the same quarter, we had opportunities to go ashore and to make some Provisions of Wine, of which that Island yields an admirable sort, and as rich as any in the Archipelago, though the people are as poor, or rather more miserable than their Neighbours. In three or four days, by the [...]ullage and weeds which the Leak had sucked in, the wa­ter began to stop, and our Ship became so per­fectly tight, that our Captain judged it not ne­cessary to enquire, when we arrived at Constanti­nople, into the damage which we had received from the Rock; and the Ship afterwards by Gods Providence arriving safe in the River of Thames, was brought into the Dock at Woolidg, where upon search was discovered a great piece of the Rock, as big as a mans head, struck into the bilge of the Ship, and so firmly fixed, as if it had been riveted within; which seemed so strange a thing, that hte Shipwrights before they would take it from thence, first thought fit to acquaint the King thereof; who was pleased in person to go and see it; which appearing a strange, and almost a miraculous accident, His Majesty com­manded it to be taken out, and (as I am infor­med) it is kept in his Closet. And now for the better description of this Rock, and for the a­voiding of it, Seamen may observe, and take no­tice of it in this manner.

The shallow water,Rocks a­bout Ipse­ra. or the Rock whereon we struck, bore N. N. W. ½ N. from the place where we anchored on the North of Great Ipsera, and lyes about half a mile from the shore. The mark is, the falling away of the South end of the first gray-cliff which a gall upon the foot of the high hill, on which is a house, there is also a white sand by the gray cliff; the longest way of the Rock is N. W. and S. E. and the length not longer than the Ship; the water in the shallowest part thereof is about thirteen or fourteen foot, with a Northerly wind; and seventeen foot or more in the deepest which is the place where we struck; yet as the people of the Island report, it hath six foot more with a Southerly wind; so that it is not strange, that our Master, though he had fre­quented this place with the Venetian Fleet, should not have knowledg of it, for such a depth of water is seldom noted in Waggoners for a place of danger.

There is also another Rock near the Town a­bout half a mile distant from the shore, bearing N. B. E. of the Point, the neat fluff point E. N. E. the Northermost point of little Ipsera N. W. B. N. the Southermost point of little Ipsera S. W. ½ W. the Southernly point of Great Ipsera S. E. 1 S. upon it, there is not above four foot water.

We rode here until the 14th day when be­tween one and two in the morning, the wind sprang out of the W.S.W. with an easie gale, with which we weighed our Anchors, and put to Sea; the next morning early being the 15th day, we were up with the Island of Tenedos, and towards Noon we entered the Hellespont with a fresh gale, which was necessary to stem the strength of the current; and about three a Clock we passed the Castles of Sestos and Abydos; from whence came off a boat with a Druggerman, and Janizaries, bringing Letters from Sir Thomas Bendish, then Ambassador at Constantinople, congratulating the Arrival of his Excellency, and soon returned [Page 102]again ashoar to carry the news of our entrance within the Castles.

On the Seventeenth Day about Noon, being just Three months since the Lord Ambassador with his Family embarked, we came to an An­chor near the Seven Towers, from whence we gave notice to St. Thomas Bendysh of our near ap­proach; and having given Two hours space for to carry the intelligence, we weighed our An­chors, and stood in for the Port of Constantinople: At this time, a Bostangee, one belonging to the Grand Signior's Garden, came aboard, sent by the Bo­stangee-bashee or Head of the Gardeners, to dis­cover, and know what Ship it was of such Equi­page, and greatness; advising us also, that the Grand Signior was seated in a Chiosk or Summer­house on the corner Wall of the Seraglio. Having thus our Anchor aboard with a fresh and favou­rablegale, our Flags and Ensigns displayed, and a Streamer at every Yard-arm, our Guns and Wast-clothes out; and being near the Wall of the Seraglio, the same Bostangee came again aboard, acquainting us, that it was the Grand Signior's pleasure, that we should rejoyce with Guns, (which was his expression;) the Ship having her Sails swelled out with a gentle Gale, and the swiftness of her motion retarded by the current, gave the Turks an opportunity to take a full prospect of her, the decks being full of men; we fired Sixty one Guns, as we passed,Salutation of the Se­raglio. and with that order, that the Vessel could never appear with better advantage, had she been described by the Hand of the most skilful Painter: And thus we came to an Anchor on Toppennau side, where Sir Thomas Bendysh came immediately aboard to congratulate the safe arrival of this new Ambas­sador: And now here it may be enquired, whe­ther the Seraglio returned any answer to this sa­lute by those Guns which lye under the Garden­wall, of which most, or all are dismounted: I answer, not; for this having been the first Man of War, or first Royal ship, that ever carried up an English Ambassador to Constantinople; it having been the custom formerly to have them tran­sported thither on some goodly Merchant-ship laden with the rich Commodities of our Coun­try, a return of Guns was never demanded, or expected; and perhaps it was a matter not then thought of; which if it had, and been required, it is probable, in that conjuncture (if ever) it would have been granted; both because old Ku­perlee the Father, then governed, who was a great friend to the English, and Enemy to the French, whose Ambassador was then under restraint, would have in meer opposition and hatred to them, bestowed those honours on our Nation, which at another time could not have been ex­torted for a great Sum of Money; and so much I collect from the very words of Kuperlee, who af­ter our Lord Ambassador had made his En­trance in a more splendid manner than usual, as we shall understand by the sequel, he demanded of our Chief Druggerman, how the French resent­ed this treatment? He answered, not well, but with an envious Eye, as he supposed; let them burst with malice, replied the Vizier. Of late years since the glory and greatness of France, their Ambassadors have been always transported up to Constantinople in the Kings Ships. Monsieur la Haye the younger came on Man of War of the Kings, and a Fireship; Monseur de Nointel, with Two men of War and a Fireship; and now lately Monsieur de Guilleragues with no less an Equipage than the former. All which before they entered Constantinople, made a stop about the Seven Towers, capitulating first to have a re-salute from the Seraglio, before they would pass their Complement to that place; which being de­nied, as a thing never practised; the French Men of War have of late passed with silence, without giving, or receiving a salute: Howsoever, as things stand now, I should scarce advise, that English Men of War should insist upon the like, for we having once done it, a custom may be pre­tended; and that may give a beginning to such a dispute which a new Ambassador ought stu­diously to avoid, the present circumstances of France not suiting exactly with the sole Interest of Trade which is exercised by England.

Against the next Day, being the Eighteenth,The Lord Ambassa­dor land­ing at Con­stantino­ple. things were provided for the entrance of his Ex­cellency; and indeed with that state and hand­some Equipage, that neither any Embassador from England, nor yet from the Emperor, pas­sed with greater Splendor and Honour than this: For when his Excellency first descended from the Ship into his Boat, the Ship fired Fifty one Guns, so leisurely, that they so continued, until he set his Foot on the shoar; where mount­ing on Horse-back covered with a rich Velvet Foot-cloth, the whole Equipage marched in this Order, on Horse-back also;

  • First, The Vayvod of Galata, and his Men.
  • 2. The Captain of the Janisaries with his Ja­nisaries.
  • 3. The Chaous-bashee with his Chaouses.
  • 4. The English Trumpeters.
  • 5. The English Horsemen, Merchants of Con­stantinople, and those of Smyrna, which came to attend his Excellency by order of the Factory, being in number Six, with their Servants.
  • 6. The Embassadors, Druggermen and Ja­nisaries.
  • 7. His Excellency with St. Thomas Bendysh, at­tended with their Pages and Footmen.
  • 8. The Secretary and Gentlemen.
  • 9. The Countess of Winchelsea in her Coach, and Three other Coaches following with her Women, covered with Red-cloth, made after the fashion of Waggons, lying on the carriages un­hung.
  • 10. Which were followed by some Officers, and Reformadoes of the Ship. Such an appear­ance as this being Extraordinary, the Streets were crouded with People, and all Windows filled with Spectators; and that which made the passage more uneasy, was the Rabble scrambling for Five Sol-pieces, of which sort of Money, 500 were by Order of the Lord Ambassador scattered amongst the People, who regarded not the dan­ger of being trampled under foot, whilst they had the Silver in their Eye.

His Excellency being thus lodged at his House at Pera, he was immediately saluted from the Em­perors Resident by his Secretary; and soon after by Signor Padavino Secretary to their Excellen­cies Balarino and Capello, of whom we shall here­after have occasion to name, being those who negotiated the Affairs of the Venetian Republick. And the next Day following, the like Comple­ment was passed from the French Ambassador, and the Dutch Agent.

Three days after, the Grand Signior sent a Pre­sent to his Excellency of Ten Sheep, Fifty Hens,The Grand Signiors present to the Ambassa­dor. a Hundred Loaves of Bread, Twenty Sugar­loaves, Twenty Wax-candles, Ten whereof were white, and Ten yellow. This we mention particularly, because it was a Gift anciently be­stowed in the times of the first Ambassadors; and though it had not been of late years pra­ctised, yet being found in the Old Registers, the custom was again revived, because the Turks [Page 103]were in an humour to gratifie, and shew all the Honour they could to the English Ambassa­dor.

On the Twenty eighth of this Month of Janu­ary, his Excellency had his first Audience of the Great Vizier;His first Audience with the Vizier. and being attended thither, ad met by the Turkish Officers on Constantinople side, (in the same manner, as when he first landed) he was conducted to the Viziers Palace; and be­ing held up under the Arm by Two of his Gen­tlemen (that being the fashion of great men amongst the Turks) he was introduced to the Presence of the Vizier; who being aged and de­crepit, was sitting on Cushions in a little Room with a Fire, and his Feet covered, several Pa­shaws, Pages, and other Officers standing by him. His Excellency and Sir Thomas Bendysh were seated on Two Velvet stools; where first the Earl of Winchelsea having presented the King's Letters to the Vizier wrote in Parchment, and put into a Bag of Cloth of Gold; Sir Thomas Bendysh began to inform the Vizier, that this was that honourable Person, of whom he had for­merly acquainted him, was coming to reside for Ambassador in his place: That he was of that Nobility, and relation to our King, that had not his Majesty intended highly, and in an extraor­dinary manner to Honour, and oblige the Grand Signior, he would not have exposed his Kinsman, and a Person extraordinary, to the hazard of a Voyage so long and dangerous as this. Then the Earl of Winchelsea-began to speak, and relate the happy restauration of the King his Master to the Throne of his Ancestors; extolling his Power, Greatness and Clemency in pardoning all, but such, who were engaged in the Blood of his Father. That in his passage to Constanti­nople, he had by Command of the King touched at Algier, endeavouring to renew the former Articles of Peace, and release an English Lord (meaning the Lord Obryan) taken Captive by them contrary to the Articles of Peace, but without success, not being able to reduce them to any Terms of Reason, or Justice: And enlarging in his Complements with assurances of the friend­ship which the King his Master desired to con­serve, and maintain with the Grand Signior, as a token thereof, he acquainted him, that he was the first Ambassador sent abroad by his Master, since his happy return, before he had designed, or appointed any to Christian Princes. The Vizier readily answered: That it was but Reason it should be so; since the Grand Signior was an Emperor, and they but Kings; and he the greatest, and most Sove­raign Potentate of the World: And that as to the Business of Algier, he would take care of it, and do him Justice. This having passed, Two China dishes with Sherbet were brought forth, and given to the Two Ambassadors, and Two larger bowles of the same to their Attendants: Then the Pre­sent was brought forth, and laid before the Vizier, consisting of Twenty Vests; Four of them were of fine English Cloth of several colours; Four of several coloured Velvets; Fourof several flowred Stuffs with Gold and Silver; Four of watred Tabbies, and Four of Sattins: In recompence hereof both the Ambassadors were vested, with Six others, which Vests are of no great matter of use, or value, more than that they are evidences and badges of the Vizier's favour. After this his Excellency with Sir Thomas Bendysh arose, and de­parted, wearing these Vests, until they were passed without the Gates of the Viziers Palace, and then they delivered them to be carried by their Servants, as the others did; and so his Ex­cellency returned to his House at Pera, with an appearance of a fair Correspondency, and with assurances that the Capitulations and friend­ship should be maintained, and conserved with a strict and inviolate Faith.

The day of giving pay to the Janisaries draw­ing near, the Ambassador's Audience with the Grand Signior was deferred until that time, for with that occasion the Court would appear in the most solemn manner, and the attendance of the Soldiery would render all things more great and powerful: In the mean time the Grand Sig­nior often took a view from his Seraglio, of the Plymouth Frigat, and frequently rowed round her in a Boat; and some say, he once came In­cognito aboard to see her; at length he was so pleased with her, that he fancied her to be a very proper Vessel to carry Soldiers and Ammuni­tion for Candia; but proposing his Thoughts and intentions to the Vizier, he was disswaded from the demand, or constraint of the Ship, being ad­monished, that this was a matter unpracticable, and uncivil towards a Prince, who on confidence of Amity and Alliance with him, had adventu­red his Ship within his Port.

The Twenty sixth day of February, Audience with the Grand Signior. being Pay-day of the Janisaries, the Lord Ambassador had Audience of the Grand Signior, which was per­formed in this manner. His Excellency, with Sir Thomas Bendysh, departing from his House, with his retinue on Horse-back, by break of day in the Morning, was met on Constantinople side by the Chaous-Bashee, and his Chaouses, and by them conducted to the Seraglio. We rode through the first Court which was very spacious, and then we alighted from our Horses, and walked through another Court leading to the Divan, or place of Judicature; at the upper end of which the Great Vizier was seated; on his right Hand sate Five Viziers of the Bench, of which the Captain-Pa­sha, or Admiral of the Seas, was one; on the left were the Two Kadileschers or Chief Justices, one of Anatolia, and the other of Romelia, and by them the Tefterdar Pasha or Lord Treasurer, with Three other Pasha's: The floar of the Divan was covered with Carpets, and on them a richer covering of Bags of Money, for payment of the Janisaries. The Two Ambassadors with about Six or Seven of their retinue (amongst which I was one) being admitted in, and placed at the lower end, their Excellencies approached toward the Vizier, and were seated near unto him on Two stools co­vered with Crimson Velvet, and some Discourse and Complement having passed between them, they retired to another part of the Room, that they might give way to Business. In the mean time the payment of the Soldiers went forward, every Churbagee, or Captain, taking from the heaps, the Pay of his Soldiers, and laying the Bags on their Shoulders, made up to the Vi­zier, and having kissed the Hem of his Vest on his Knees, he retired with great Humility and hast from him, passing away with his side towards him, it being very unseemly amongst them to turn their backs to Personages of that Dignity.

The Payment being over, Three small Tables were brought in; the first of which was covered with a silver Voyder, at which the Two Ambas­sadors sate with the chief Ministers; but the Great Vizier by reason of his Age and Weakness retired into another Room. The other Two Tables were covered with a mixed Mettal, which served in the place of a Table-Cloth, at which the others sate: We had no Knives, Forks, nor Plate; but only Wooden Spoons were laid for us, which was sufficient in that manner of eating, for their Meats are most boyled, and conveniently received by the Spoon; or are so well roasted, that they are easily parted with the Fingers. The [Page 104]dishes were served in by one at a time, but so fast, that we had scarce tasted of one, before it was snatched away to make place for another; and I think there might be about Twenty several changes, in this manner; at the end of all, to con­clude our Feast, a great Bowl of Sherbet was brought in, and we drank of it, as large draughts as we pleased. Being risen from the Table, Eighteen Coftans, or Vests, being the usual num­ber given to the English Ambassadour, with one extraordinary in favour to the New Ambassador, were brought forth, and bestowed; and in the mean time, the Present from our King to the Grand Signior, provided at the expence of the Turky Company, consisting of Fifty Vests, viz. Ten of Velvet, Ten of Sattin, Ten of Cloth of Gold, Ten of Tabbies, and Ten of fine English Cloth, were brought forth and displayed in the open Court by Fifty men which carried them, and Four English Mastiffs, which were more ac­ceptable to this Grand Signoir than all the rest. The whole body of Janisaries then payed, con­sisting of about Five thousand, were drawn up in a body, and ranged on one side of the Court­yard; amongst them there was that silence, that the least whisper, noise, or motion was not heard; and as their Janisar Aga, and other Commanders passed, the bowings they made in salute were so regular, and at the same time, as may well testify the exactness of their Discipline, and ad­mirable obedience, which hath in a great measure contributed towards their Conquests and Enlarge­ment of their Empire.

Being thus Vested, and ranked in Order, the Great Vizier entered into the Presence of the Grand Signior; and then Two Capugi-bashes or Chief of the Porters of the Gate, with long Silver Staves, took the New Ambassador under each Arm to conduct him to the Chamber of Au­dience; those permitted to accompany him were Sir Thomas Bendysh, the Earl of Winchelsea's Bro­ther, Sir Thomas Allen Captain of the Plymouth Frigat, the Interpreter, and my self, who then being Secretary, carried the Credential Letters made up in a Purse of Cloth of Gold. We gent­ly knocked at the first Gate, which was imme­diately set wide open to us, in the Porch where­of Forty white Eunuchs attended, clothed in Vests of Sattin, and Cloth of Gold of divers co­lours, and stood with their Hands before them with marvellous silence, and modesty. Coming near to the Presence-door, where the Kapi-Aga or Chief of the white Eunuchs attended, we made a pause in the Porch, and trod very softly, so as not to disturb with the least motion, the greatness of that Majesty; and so profound was the silence, that nothing was heard besides the murmurings of a Fountain adjoining hereunto. Just at the entrance of the Chamber, hung a gilded Ball studded with divers precious Stones, the Floar was covered with Crimson Velvet; em­broidered with Golden-wyre. The Grand Sig­nior himself sate in a Throne raised a small heigth from the ground, supported with Four Pillars plated with Gold; from the top hung several gilded Balls twined with Masses of Pearl; the Cushions he sate upon, and those also that lay by, were richly embroidered, and beset with Jewels, and on his right hand stood the Great Vizier. And having made a considerable stop at the Door, the Two Capugibashees, who held his Excel­lence under each Arm, brought him to the mid­dle of the Room, and laying their Hands upon his Head, made him bow, until he touched the Carpets with his forehead; and then raising him again, they retired backward with him, un­to the farthest part of the Room; and in like man­ner they took all the others singly and in order, placing them behind the Ambassadors. The Creden­tial Letters from our King were then presented, and appointed that they should be delivered to the hands of the Reis-Efendi, or Secretary of State.

Then the Druggerman or Interpreter, by Or­der of the Lord Ambassador, read a Paper in the Turkish Language to this Effect.

First, Declaring how the King of Great Bri­tain our Soveraign Lord and Master, was restored to the Throne of his Ancestors without War, or any Conditions: And the great Clemency of His Majesty in pardoning all, but those who had a hand in the Murder of his Father.

Secondly, Recommending the Merchants and their Interest to the continuance of his usual Fa­vour and Protection.

Thirdly, Begging the freedom of all English Slaves, as a particular Testimony of Favour, and Grace to this New Ambassador.

These Ceremonies being performed, and the Paper read, we immediately departed, passing to our Horses by the same way which we came: And being mounted, we drew up a little out of the passage to see the Soldiers march by us, which indeed appeared to be a very flourishing Militia of young Men, robust, and well clothed; many of them running with Bags of Money on their Shoulders, and all of them chearful, and glad of the charge they carried with them; after them followed their Commanders exceedingly well mounted: And last of all came the Great Vizier attended with many Pashaes, and a goodly Equipage: And then his Excellency, with Sir Tho­mas Bendysh, and attendance, proceeded forwards, and returned to their home. After this Two visits were made: Namely, to the Captain-Pasha or Admiral of the Seas, and the other to the Mustee; at the first, Six Vests were presented; and at the latter, Five; and both were perform­ed, and accepted with such mutual kindness, that never did the Turkish Ministers cast more serene countenances on the Trade and Concernments of England, than on this conjuncture.

And thus the Earl of Winchelsea being very suc­cessfully, and with fignal Demonstrations of Ho­nour, and a good correspondence, seated in the usual residence of Ambassadors, the Grand Signior, as a particular Note and mark of his favour pre­sented him with Three English Slaves, and re­turned a kind and friendly answer to his Maje­sties Letters, by Sir Thomas Bendysh, who embark­ed on the Plimouth Frigat, and departed the Ele­venth of March. And thus having given the Rea­der a Relation of the State of the English concern­ments in Turky: Let us view and consider the Condition of the Turkish Affairs amongst themselves.

At the arrival of this Ambassador, the im­portant affairs of this vast and still growing Em­pire, were governed by the Great Vizier Ku­perlee; a Person decrepit and infirm in body, by reason of his great Age, but of a solid and subtle judgment; by Nature cruel, and by Years fro­ward; which disposition was singularly well fit­ted to do service to his Master, against the im­petuous storms of the Faction of those times, in which the Pashaws, and Chiefs of the Soldiery (as often it happens in Empires, whose Body is grown too vast to be ruled by a weak Head) became rich and powerful, and by the long Va­cations of Peace, insolent and wanton; for as then the Wars with Venice were carried on faintly, only by sending forth an Armata of Gallies in the Spring; and the preparations became rather ac­customary, returning with the Year, and made [Page 105]for exercise of the Arsenal, and amusement of the People, than designed with any probable expe­ctation of success or Victory, proportionable to that Treasure and Trouble which maintained them. So that to encounter so many difficul­ties, and predominancy of Ambition and Avarice, the Prince himself being young, the Fortune of his Empire had more than urgent necessity of such a rough and cruel disposition as was found in Kuperlee; who so seasonably made use of it, to the destruction of all such, who might either endanger his Prince, or himself; that in two or three Years time he became Master of the Lives and Estates of the Grand Mutiniers; confisca­ting their richess and fortunes to the use and se­curity of his Master; having in his time put to Death thirty six thousand persons, whom he proscribed in several Countries, and privately strangled in the City, by vertue of his absolute and uncontroulable Authority, without giving the Offenders liberty of Processes, or Pleas for their Lives, or the solemnity of Scaffolds, or ap­plause of a Funeral Oration at the Gallows, whereby to win the affections and compassions of the vulgar, but went through with his bloody and tragical business, without noise, or rumour, or knowledge almost of the Souldiery, or the people; whilst the great Personages, whose ra­pine and pride had contracted them envy and hatred from their inferiours, stood confused and amased, not having power to rebel, nor San­ctuary to fly unto.

Such is the effect of an absolute, and arbitrary power, which is Master of times and affairs, and rather fits and squares Enterprizes to Counsels, than Counsels to Enterprizes. Reges Hercule non liberi solum impedimentis omnibus, sed Domini re­rum, temporun (que) trahunt Consiliis cuncta, non se­quuntur. Liv. lib. 9. The Grand Signior in the mean time applauded the diligence and circum­spection of his Minister; and though yet trem­bling with the memory of late sollevations a­mongst the Janizaries; yet being young, and active, addicted himself wholly to the delight of Hunting, and to follow the Chace of fearful, and flying Beasts; whilst his Vizier so closely fol­low'd his game of Bloud, that he left no Person con­siderable in the Empire, who was not a Creature made by, or depending on him; unless the Ka­hyabei, or Lieutenant General of the Janizaries; Mortaza Pasha of Babylon, now called by the Turks Bagdat, and the Pasha of Magnasia; Men, whose bravery, and generous Justice, or else their Guards, or Fortune, had only seated beyond the reach and Sword of this Tyrant. This was then the State of the Turkish Affairs amongst them­selves; As to Foreign, and Christian Princes; the Emperor, the King of England, the French King, and the States of Holland, had their Em­bassadors and Residents at the Ottoman Court, with whom as yet passed a fair and amicable cor­respondence, excepting with the French; whose Embassadour had then lately obtained his release from Imprisonment, to which he was confined contrary to the Law of Nations, and the Custom of the wisest, and most generous People of for­mer Ages; and compelled to return into France; an Agent being there setled by the Merchants, to Negotiate their Affairs; the occasions and grounds whereof we have at large signified in another place: which unlawful treatment of a Person Sa­cred, none will much admire, who considers the humour of supream Ministers that judge them­selves under no restraint or limits of Law, either Civil, or National.

This Embassador from France was call'd Mon­sieur le Haye, the Father, a Person excellently well qualifi'd, having with success pass'd in that ca­pacity for the space of 25 years until some misun­derstandings passing between him, and this Tyran­nical Vizier, he suffered many indignities from him, which being added to the extream torment of the Stone, under which he laboured, made him wil­ling on any terms to return to his own Countrey.

The Venetians notwithstanding the War, had two Ministers there resident; the Eccellentissimo Capello, Procurator of St. Mark, a right worthy and noble Person; and Signior Ballarino, a Person vigilant, and subtle, who omitted no opportuni­ties to advance his own Fortunes, and with that the benefit of his Republick. The Emperors Re­sident, called Simon Renninghen, a Person sincere, free, and open hearted, agreeable to the Nature of the Germans; had for some Years, tho with some difficulty, continued the Peace, or rather matters from breaking out into an open War; the Incursions on the Frontiers, and other accidents, always administring occasions of discontent, and complaints to both parties.

But that the Series of this History may be con­tinud with an even Thread,The histo­ry of Prince Ro­gotzki. and clear light to the Reader, we must cast back our Eyes to the Year 1657. when the Ambition of George Ragotzki, Prince of Transilvania, began New troubles in his own Principality, and laid the Foundation of a future War between the Emperor and the Turks. For now Poland was so wearied with the incessant Wars of Muscovy (the inveterate Enemy of the that Crown) with the frequent Rebellions of the Cos­sacks, and the invasion of the Swedes, whom the traiterous Vice-Chancellour, and his Adherents, had invited to the spoils of their own Countrey; that King Casimirus was reduced to the ultimate extremity of his Affairs; the publick Exchequer, and private Treasuries were exhausted, the Vil­lages dispeopled, the Fields uncultivated, Traf­fick and Commerce ceased; nothing but Wars, Robberies, and Confusion filled the Diurnals with News, and the hearts of the Inhabitants with Sor­row and Calamities: Wherefore Casimer King of Poland, vexed on all sides, and not knowing where or how to apply a remedy, dispatched his Great Chancellor Albertus Pravesmoski, in Qua­lity of Embassador, to demand assistance from Ra­gotzki, promising in recompence thereof, to adopt his Son to succeed him in that Kingdom. No Message could arrive more grateful to ambi­tious Ragotzki, who by so desired a proffer, seem­ed to arrive to the Zenith of his Proseperity; which like the Land of Promise, being only shewed to his Father in a long Prospective, seemed now as it were, by Inheritance, to devolve upon his Son; in order unto which, many days of Treaty and Conferences were held between Ragotzki, and the Polish Ministers;Ragotzki joins with the Swedes against Poland. but Ragotzki insisting on certain particulars, which were not in the Power of the King or his Commissioners to grant without the approbation of a Diet, the Treaty was dissolved, and Ragotzki remained displeased, and angry; pretending himself to have been deluded and slighted, resolved to avenge the Affront, and by his Arms gain to himself the Crown of that King­dom; so that raising a strong Army, and join­ing himself in a Confederate League with Sweden, he invaded Poland, wasting all the Frontiers with Fire and Sword. The Ottoman Port growing jealous of the successes of these Affairs, and not so much of the Advance of Ragotzki, as of the grow­ing greatness of the Swedes, with whom unwilling­ly they would be Borderers, issued an express Command. That without contradiction or delay, he should immediately give stop to his March, and return with his Army into Transilvania. And though the Emperor of Germany, and the Krim [Page 106]Tartar declared their dislike of his proceedings, threatning to invade his Principality at home, un­less he retracted himself, and desisted from this enterprize; yet Ragotski having his understand­ing blinded with Ambition, and the lust of Rule and Government, stopped his ears to the menaces of his Enemies, and the counsel of his Friends. This Ragotski enjoyed a State most happy, large, fertile, and populous, in Power inferior to few, superior to many; so that he might have passed peaceably and honourably with all, could his great spirit have bowed to, and complied with his Potent Neighbours.The diffi­culty of Ragotski's Affairs. For on the one side the Puis­sant power of the Turk threatned him, to whom the least Ombrages of displeasure administer oc­casion of War; On the side of Hungary the Em­perour over-awed him: On the side of Valachia, and Moldavia he lay open to the incursion of the Tartars. So that a man might rationally expect, That this Prince should have esteemed it honour enough to have conserved his own without ren­dring himself obnoxious to the jealousie and su­spicion of his Neighbours. But his great spirit was so enamoured of a Crown, and so bewitched with the hopes of obtaining it, that nothing seem­ed difficult or improbable to the acquisition of his longing desires, which were the occasion of all those calamities and miseries in Hungary, which afterwards ensued.

In contemplation of all which foreseen evils, his Caesarean Majesty sent a Message to the Otto­man Port, declaring against the temerity and audaciousness of Ragotski; who in the mean time subdued the Fort of Bristia, invaded with Fire and Sword the Province of Russia, plundered Po­dolia, and advanced as far as Camonitz, a For­tress strong by Art and Nature; and joining af­terwards with the Swedes, assisted them in the subjection of Cracovia. About this time the Empe­rour Ferdinand the third began to send succours into Poland, and to protest against the proceed­ings of Ragotski, but being surprized by sickness, soon after passed to a better life; which for some time, giving a stop to the assistance of Poland, was interpreted by Ragotski, as a happy Omen of his good Fortune.

But how vain and deceitful are humane hopes, whose foundations are Ambition and Violence! For Leopold succeeding in the place of his Father to Hungary, and the Empire, immediately pro­secuted the design in favour of Poland, and in the first place besieging Turone, one of the chief Cities of Prussia, taken by the Swedes, forced it to a Surrender. The King of Denmark also growing jealous of the encreasing greatness of the Swedes, nourished by ancient grudges, and National Emulations, took up Arms in defence of Poland, and being at first, flush of Money, gave constant pay and large donatives to merce­nary Soldiers, which encreased his Army, draw­ing great numbers from the Swedish Colours; so that being stoutly recruited, he entered into the Enemies Countries, possessed himself of the im­portant Fort of Olme in Norway; overthrew the Swedish Army at Vorgast, and obtained a victory over their Fleet in the Baltick Sea. The Poles also themselves, who at first revolted from their Prince, and favoured the Swedish proceedings, perceiv­ing the Wind change, and become contrary to that Party, began to abandon the interest they professed, and by degrees to return to the due o­bedience of their King. Zerneski also the Gene­ral, and Lubomiski the Great Chancellour of Poland met the Swedish Forces near Cracovia, where giving them Battel, discomfited the whole Army, killed fourteen thousand upon the place, took all the Cannon and Baggage, and won that day a most signal Victory.

Ragotski perceiving the face of things thus changed, and being by Command of the Otto­man Port abandoned by his Moldavian and Wala­chian Forces, began to turn his face towards Tran­silvania, where now he wished himself and Army lodged in safety. But being overtaken by Gene­ral Zerneski near the Mountains of Transilvania, he was, tho unwillingly, engaged to sight, and was with that fury assaulted by the Polish Horse, that tho according to his usual Bravery, he charg­ed in Person at the head of his Troops, yet he was not able to withstand a violence so disadvan­tageous in number, but that his men being [...] put into disorder, then to a Retreat, and then to open flight, his whole Army was deseated, many of them perished by the Sword, others flying through the Woods and Mountains, died with sa­mine;Ragotski over­thrown by the Poles. and he himself obliged to buy a shameful Peace, engaging by Word and Oath to the pay­ment of a great summ of Money, was permitted with a mean Retinue to return into his own Coun­try. Nor did these misfortunes end here; but the Tartars commanded by the Turks, in revenge and chastisement of Ragotski's Enterprize with­out their consent, entered into his Principality with considerable Bodies of Horse, against whose sudden Invasion, an Army under the Conduct of his General Kemenius could not be so soon colle­cted and disciplined, as to be able to resist that fury of Tartars, who at their pleasure burned the Towns and Villages, and carried away mul­titudes of people of both Sexes, and all Ages for Captives into their own Country, amongst which some were of Quality and Condition. Amidst which troubles came Letters from the Ottoman Port, directed to the Nobles of Transilvania, The Turks threaten Ragotski. de­claring Ragotski a Rebel, and commanding that according to the Laws and Priviledges of that Principality, they should proceed to the Election of a new Prince, and in case of refusal, all the ruins and calamities were threatned, which they might justly expect in punishment of their disobe­dience from a severe and angry Emperor.

Ragotski being well informed what was design­ing against him at the Ottoman Port; and know­ing that his power was not able to oppose so much puissance, resolved to give way to neces­sity,He depo­ses him­self. and voluntarily depose himself, before he should be engaged thereunto by the Imperial Decree; so that he calmly receded from his Prin­cipality, hoping that his humility and submissi­on might procure his pardon at the Court. The Nobility of Transilvania being as well desirous to evidence their affection to their old Prince, as their obedience to the Grand Signior, did imme­diately appoint a day for Election, but with Pro­viso, that a general Petition should be made in behalf of Ragotski, that he might be again resto­red unto ancient Grace and Favour with the Port, who in the mean time swore to live peaceably in a quiet and private condition, without making di­sturbance, or innovation in the Government, and that when this Grace should accordingly be ob­tained, then that the new Prince should recede, and suffer things to return to their former and pristine Estate. For which purpose there was choice made of one Francis Redeius, Redeius made Prince of Transilva­nia. a Person of a peace­able and gentle temper, who would easily conde­scend to the terms agreed, and as willingly re­sign up his Government again, as he unwillingly received it. But though Ragotski had renounced, promised, swore, and in appearance seemed to re­cede from his Government, and surrender all at the irresistible Decree of a superior power; yet [Page 107]his high Spirit, and working Brain could not dis­lodg that Ambition of his Heart, which at first privately countermined and enervated the Power of the new elected Prince; but afterwards his towering Thoughts swelled too big to be suppres­sed under the cover of Dissimulation, yielded just Reason to the Ottoman Port to suspect his designs; who not being ignorant of what was past, dis­patched Orders to the Pasha of Buda to de­mand the strong Fort of Jancua for Caution and Security of the good Behaviour of the Transilva­nians.

Ragotzki seeing himself thus discovered,Ragotzki again de­clares himself Prince. un­masked himself openly, and threw away his Vi­zard, and with a vigorous Force and Courage reassumed the Rights and Standard of his Princi­pality, forcing Redeius not only to relinquish his Power, but to swear never again to usurp it, tho enforced upon him by the Authority of the Turks.

These Extravagancies so exasperated the minds of the Turks, that whereas before they began to entertain tender thoughts towards Transilvania, they now meditated its entire Ruin and Con­quest; and so laying aside Arguments and Trea­ties, they made Levies of Horse and Foot both in Europe and Asia. Ragotzki foreseeing how unable he was to resist a Force so unequal as the puissance of the Ottoman Empire, without the succor of Foreign Force, resolved, like the Prodigal Son, to throw himself into the compas­sionate Arms of the Emperor, as his Father, earnestly supplicating, That whereas before, his disorderly and disobedient Life had rather meri­ted Punishment than Favour; yet in this Cause, wherein the Interest of Christendom was concern­ed, he would compassionate the common Good of the Christian Church, rather than chastise his particular Misdemeanours. With this mes­sage Michel Mesces, his Chancellor, being dis­patched, was graciously received by the Emperor, and readily assured of powerful Aid and Prote­ction.

Ragotzki elevated with this courteous Treat­ment and Promises, had his whole mind enflamed with hopes and desire of Revenge; so that as­sembling such Forces as he could, he entered boldly into the Field against the Pasha of Buda, who with a considerable Army, was ordered to March before, and enter the Confines of Transil­vania, and there unite with the Pasha of Temis­war.

In the Transaction of all these Passages, July was well entered, when both Armies met in open Field; and tho the Forces of the Transilvanians were much inferior to those of the Turk, yet Ra­gotzki full of his wonted Courage and Heat, so vigorously assailed the Enemy, that he quickly broke and disordered their Ranks, put them to flight, and killed three thousand upon the place. But little did this advantage benefit poor Transil­vania, for the Great Vizier soon after following with the gross of his Army, consisting of little less than an 100. thousand Men, provided accor­dingly with Artillery, and all other Military Ammunition; seconded by the Tartars, and assi­sted by the Moldavians and Valachians, and a Rout of other barbarous Nations; laid Seige to the strong Fortress of Janoua; The Vizi­er besieges Janoua. of which and of several others, in a short time he rendered himself Ma­ster, laying waste and desolate all the Countries round with Fire and Sword. The Nobles of Transilvania sensible of these imminent and ap­proaching Mischiefs, dispeeded three Persons of considerable Quality amongst them, in an Embas­sy to the Vizier; viz. Francis Daniel, John Lues, and Acatius Berclay, who greatly laboured by their Oratory to perswade the Vizier, that they were in no wise consenting to the disobedience of their Prince, but did always readily submit to the Ottoman Servitude; imploring his Clemency and Commiseration of their distressed and ruined State. The Vizier inclining his Ear to their Peti­tion, stopped the Progress of his Arms, but in­creased their Tribute to such an excessive rate, that the burden of it became insupportable, and appointed Berclay, one of the Embassadors,Berclay made Prince of Transilva­nia. to be Prince; taking thereby from the People, the free Priviledg of Election; Commanding them to accept him without farther Dispute or Repugnan­cy. It is uncertain whether Berclay designed the Principality to himself by any instance he made to the Turks, or whether his Election proceeded meerly from the Vizier himself; yet this is cer­tain, that returning home, Berclay applied him­self to establish his own Dominion, and to dis­appoint the designs of his Predecessor, and his party.

The Turks being satisfied with this Submission, with the Subjection of several places of Impor­tance, with deposing of Ragotzki, and establish­ment of a new Prince, began to disband a great part of their Forces; and the Great Vizier, with the remainder, returned towards Constantinople; supposing the Fire of this War to be totally extin­guished.

In this condition of Repose, matters continued for about the space of two Years, when Ragotz­ki impatient of his losses, and of the exchange of his publick State to a private Condition, invete­rate in his hate towards his Rival and Competi­tor, resolved to tempt Fortune once more, and make his ultimate Assay, either to establish him­self in his Principality, or at least to render him­self equal with other mortal Princes in the Grave; and so relying with much Confidence on the zea­lous Affection of his Subjects, and the promise of powerful Adherents,Ragotki makes new Troubles. he once again justled him­self into the Government, by the Expulsion of his Rival; whom he could not behold with other than with an emulous and unpleasing Eye. Berclay perceiving himself thus ensnared, neglected, and persecuted by all Parties, represented these Inno­vations to the Ottoman Port, with the most ag­gravating Circumstances imaginable; beseeching them to afford him aid, and vindicate their own Honour in maintenance of him, whom they had constituted a Prince, and was a Creature formed by their own favour. The Turks immediately touched with the Sense hereof, Issued out Orders to Ciddi Ahmet, the new Pasha of Buda; Com­manded him without delay, to gather what Forces he could to interrupt the designs of Tran­silvania; and to put matters unto a stand, until a greater Army could second him, under the Com­mand of Ali Pasha, appointed General for this Expedition. The Pasha of Buda readily obeyed, and assembling what Forces he could in Hungary, and joining with the Pasha of Temiswar, passed the Danube, and with a very considerable Army entered Transivania. Ragotzki undaunted at the near approach of his Enemy, boldly entered the Field with his Forces, and joined Battel with them in the Month of May, 1660. between the Cities of Clausenburg, and Giulia Alba. At first the Christians endeavoured to have intercepted the Enemies passage, by some Ambuscado or Strata­gem of War; but the Turks still advancing, were at length met by the Van-guard of the Chri­stians; to assistance of which several Bodies fol­lowing one after the other, it became a general Engagement of both Armies; in which Battel, [Page 108] Ragotzki gave his usual proofs of Valour; de­claring by his Actions, that he was resolved to dye, or to Triumph. But being at length wound­ed in four parts of his Body, and his Army over­powered with Numbers, he was forced to yield the Fortune of the Day to the Turks; leaving 8. pieces of Cannon, and his Standard in their hands; and the greatest part of his Army being either killed or taken, he himself with a few of his Attendants, recovered Varadin; where after 18.The death of Ragotz­ki. Days distemper of his Wounds, he expired his unquiet and troubled Soul. This was the end of that vain Icarus, who attempted to fly with feigned Wings and borrowed Feathers; this is the fate of ambitious Spirits, whom Pride elevates and exhales like a Vapour, unto that height, until it dissolves them into Showers, or precipitates them into the abyss of all Confusion.His Cha­racter. This George Ragotz­ki was of a tall and well proportioned Stature, black Hair, and a frisled Beard: his Eyes quick and lively, of an active Body, and healthy Constitution: his Spirit was high and great, which betrayed him to Extravagancies: his Comport­ment was generous and courteous towards all, which rendered him exceedingly beloved and esteemed by his Nobility: he was free in his Speech, and eloquent in his Expressions, prudent in his Counsels and Enterprizes: had not the quick­ness and vivacity of his Soul made him something rash and violent in his Attempts: he was of the Protestant Religion, leaving behind him a Widow, and a Son of hopeful and happy endowments.

After the Death of Ragotzki, it might well be expected that these Storms of War should be di­spersed, and that Transilvania should at length enjoy the Sun-shine, and calmer Weather of Peace and Repose. But Ali Pasha, General of the Tur­kish Camp, being by this time arrived the Con­fines with his powerful Army, resolved not to re­turn empty or in vain, without advantaging the Ottoman Interest, and making some Satisfaction towards the Expence and Trouble of so great an Army. Wherefore taking pretence against Va­radin, for receiving Ragotzki after his Defeat, abetting his party, and following his Interest, de­signed to summon that important Fortress to sur­render, which is fituated at the foot of those Mountains which open a Passage into Transilvania.

The Inhabitants of Varadin terrified at the ap­proach of this formidable Enemy,The Peo­ple of Va­radin crave aid of the Emperor. dispatched a Messenger to the Emperor, imploring with most effectual Arguments his Sacred Protection and powerful Assistance against the common Ene­my to Christendom, representing to his Cesare­an Majesty, how that the Turks in their Capitu­lations with him, had agreed to Build or Erect no new Fort on those Frontiers: and whereas it was the same thing to force and usurp a Fortress already made, as to form a new one; the taking of Varadin was to be esteemed a real Violation of the Articles of Peace. That his Majesty would be pleased to reflect on the fatal Consequences which the loses of Varadin might prove to Hunga­ry as well as Transilvania; being that Gate, which obstructed, cuts off all Intercourse between them and Germany. These Considerations with seve­ral others, were exceeding prevalent in the Impe­rial Council; so that it was resolved, that Gene­ral Souches should prepare his Army, and put all things in readiness to afford the Assistance which was desired; supposing that with the German Regiments, and Hungarian Forces, might be formed an Army of about 25. thousand fighting men. But in regard in those Instructions given to Souches, there was a Clause, that he should be care­ful not to engage his Forces in any attempt, where the event might be doubtful, he assembled the principal Persons of that Country, and the Militia, to consult whether succor and relief might be given to Varadin, without hazarding the Army in a doubtful and a dangerous Adventure: in consideration of which point, a true Compu­tation being made of all the Imperial Forces, they were found much inferior to that calculate which was made of them at Vienna; For that since Tockai, Zatmar, Kalo, and other places be­longing to the State of Ragotzki, had been Gari­soned by German Soldiers, there remained not of them above 4000. effective Men; the Hungarian Forces which were supposed to have consisted of 2000. Men, could not form 600.; the Haiducks which were computed to be 6000. Men, did not appear in the Person of one; being all dispersed and retired to their own homes.The diffi­culty of making War with the Turks. The additional Forces from the Princes of the Empire were as un­certain, as the Expectation of them long and te­dious; for tho the Imperial Forces united are of puissance sufficient to bid Battel, and Defiance to the numerous Troops of the Ottoman Power; yet in regard the Union of that Body depends on the Assembly of Diets, Treaties, and long De­bates, which are subject to time and delays, caused by different Factions, (which are impossible to be avoided amongst different States) whose Disuni­ons, Competitions, Emulations and Pretences, always in such meetings abound, and prejudice the common cause and benefit of the Empire; the raising of such a formidable Army, becomes a matter always of time and difficulty. Howsoe­ver the Emperor, whose Hereditary and Elective Possessions bordering on the Confines of the Enemy, is necessarily engaged to be the standing Bulwark of the rest, and a Bank against the In­undation of barbarous Nations; whilst other Princes whose Dominions are more Remote and Secure, apprehend not the Premures and Storms that the Emperor sustains, and is enforced to ex­pel with the loss and diminution of his own People, and impoverishment of his peculiar Treasure: To these Considerations, which rendered these pious Intentions towards Varadin almost im­possible, there wanted Money, which is the Si­news of War, and the Soul of all Enterprizes: And that which farther retarded those Succors and Prosecution of the design in hand, was the depar­ture o His Cesarean Majesty from his Court at Vienna, on occasion of a Progress as far as Trieste, to take Homage of his Provinces of Stiria, Carin­thia and Cragno; which was an Action much against the Counsel and Advice of the Arch-Duke Leopold his Uncle; who foresaw how great disor­ders would ensue by the Emperors absence, in this Conjuncture, from his Imperial Court. Upon which Considerations, Count Souches sent a true List of all his Forces, with an account of the strength of his Enemy; remonstrating that it was impossible to convey Forces into Varadin, without hazarding a Battel with Ali Pasha, which would prove an absolute Breach of the Peace; which in this Conjuncture, and want of Preparation, was neither honourable, nor safe for the Empire.

In the mean time Ali Pasha proceeded and encamped with his Army before Varadin, Varadin besieged. break­ing first Ground the 4th of July, 1660. and be­ginning a formal Siege, he soon begirt the Town, and continually labouring in making Trenches, Batteries and Approaches, they arri­ved in a few days to the Counterscrap of the Wall. But the better to describe the Siege and Assaults on this famous City, it will be necessary first to explain the Condition and Scituation of the place.

Varadin therefore is seated in a Plain, on the Banks of the River Chryse; to the East it is envi­roned with such craggy and rough Mountains, as render it almost on that side unaccessible; to the South the Town extended it self most; to the North it is washed with the River, over which some small, yet fruitful, Hills raise themselves; it is encompassed with a Wall filled with Earth, after the fashion of Modern Fortifications, and strengthened with five main Bulwarks, and a very deep Ditch filled with the River Water: It was well provided both of Victuals and Ammunition, and armed with Ordnance both great and small, as was sufficient to have repulsed a puissant Enemy, & have sustain'd a long & strait Siege. But the Gari­son within consisted only of 850 Soldiers, an inconsi­derable number, both in respect of the Circuit of the Fortress, & of that gross Army which encompass'd it.

The Enemy being now, as it is said before, un­der the Counterscarp of the Wall, they perceived that the Ditch was so deep, and filled with Wa­ter, that though their great Guns had made open Breaches in the Walls, yet there was no possibi­lity to storm them, or bring the Soldiery to scaling Ladders, or handy blows. The besieged also made such continued Sallies, with success and slaughter of the Enemy, that after Three and Twenty days of vain labour to few the Ditch, Ali Pasha was at length almost resolved to have raised his Siege, and given over the Enterprize; upon which whilst he considered and ruminated (as ill Fortune would have it) a certain Maid, which formerly had been a servant to the Governour of the Garison, then a Captive in the Turkish Camp, having observed how on occasion the Citizens used to empty and drain the Ditch, revealed the secret to the Turks, hoping thereby not only to purchase her Liberty,Two ill accidents to the Garison. but with that also a Sum of Money for price of her Treachery; so that dis­covering where another Ditch was to be opened, the course of the Water was soon diverted, and the Walls of the Town laid dry and open to the Assailants. As this happened without, so another accident within, equally dangerous, befel the Be­sieged; for one day an Officer of the Ammunition going into the Stores with a lighted Candle, by chance dropped a spark of fire from his Lanthorn into the Powder, which taking fire, blew up the Powder, Granadoes, Fire-works, and all other military Stores, with the neighbouring houses, and above a hundred men; which loss alone was sufficient to have dejected the minds of frail men; yet they so valiantly bore up their courages, that they seemed not in the least abated, but rather animated with the height of anger and despair. The Turks having now free access to the Walls, undermined some small Forts, which they blew up, and thereby made so great a Breach, that with facility hoping to gain the Town, if they made use of the occasion, they poured in such multi­tudes of People as the Besieged were scarce able to withstand; and the Turkish Soldiery being al­so weary of their sufferings, and irksomness of their tedious leagure, resolved now or never to put an end to their labours; so that advancing with their open Breasts to the top of the Battle­ments, without fear either of Cannon, or Musket­shot, they entered within the Walls, and planted the Turkish Banners on the Works; but being af­terwards received by a resolute Company of the Defendants, they were again thrown from the Walls, and tumbled back into the Ditch with an incredible Slaughter. It is impossible here to de­scribe the anger, the courage, the despair which was apparent in the faces of the Besieged, enfla­med by the love of their own country, and ha­tred of the Turks; so that three or four sustained sometimes the Assault of a Troop; and a small number united, opposed a whole Sangiack of the Enemy. The Women also forgetting the imbe­cillity of their Sex, renewing in themselves the Courage and Vigour of the Ancient Amazons, exposed themselves without fear upon the Walls, throwing scalding Water, Stones, burning Pitch, and whatsoever came next to hand, upon the Assai­lants; whom they so valiantly repulsed from the rising of the Sun till twelve at Noon, that after much slaughter on both sides, the Turks growing faint, retreated, and took breath a while within their Trenches. And now the Soldiery consi­dering the Obstinacy of the Christians, began to mutiny, and resolving not to cast away their lives in vain, motioned to raise the Siege, and be gone; which when the General opposed, they threat­ned to sacrifice his Life to the Ghosts of their de­parted Brethren. But see, how many times the Devil ruines the fortune of the Christians! for whilst they were in this deliberation to depart, behold, a certain, Thracian one of the Garison Soldiers, advis'd the Turks that there were not above Three hundred found Men remaining in the whole Garison,A Thra­cian be­trays the weakness of the Town. that they were now reduced to their ulti­mate Crisis; so that if they appear'd only before them, and would but terrifie them with another assault, the Town was their own, without the least doubt of Surrender. This advice retarded the hasty depar­ture of the Camp; instead of which they again mu­ster'd themselves before the Walls, and prepar'd to assault the Breach, resolving to put all to a se­cond extremity. The Christians within percei­ving the resolution of their Enemy, and being sen­sible how much they were infeebled by the last Convulsion, and loss of blood, and as yet sore of their wounds, immediately spread a white Flag of Treaty, which was as readily accepted by the Turks, and all Articles agreed on the 17th. Varadin surren­dred. of August, and on the 20th. the Garison marched freely out with Colours flying, and Drums beat­ing, with liberty to go wheresoever they pleased, without hurt or injury; which Conditions were fully and faithfully performed and maintained.

Varadin being thus yielded,Vienna troubled for the loss of Va­radin. afforded matter of discourse, of discontent, of fear, and apprehen­sions at Vienna; some argued, That it was but common and natural Reason, when our Neigh­bours house is on fire, to look to our own; others blamed the flow and phlegmatick proceedings of the German Ministers, who in such urgent emer­gencies as these, could fit as unconcerned, as Spectators at a Theatre, who regard nothing, which way the prize is carried; and in short, the whole Christian World stood Admirers of this sot­tishness, esteeming either those Borderers asto­nished and struck into a stupid timidity, or moved by principles of Policy, which none be­sides themselves either understood, or penetrated. Only Count Nicholas Serini, a Prince who had a fair and Soveraign Inheritance in those parts,Count Se­rini de­signs a­gainst the Turks. Commander of Croatia, and the Confines under his Cesarean Majesty, a most mortal and in­veterate Enemy of the Turks, could not endure their insults, bravadoes and daily encroachments, but watching his occasion of advantage, when Canisia was almost destroyed by a dreadful fire, and thereby their Ammunition, and Provision for the most part consumed, he gathered what Forces he could possible, and made use of the op­portunity to lay Siege unto it, not doubting but in that Conjuncture, and miserable Calamity of all things, to promote the Interest of his Master, and the common cause of Christendom; which as soon as he had done, he wrote a Letter to the Em­peror, [Page 110]acquainting him that God had opened him a Gate and Path to his Interest, and to a just re­venge of the Ottoman perfidiousness: Who having violated their Faith, and the mutual Peace in ta­king Varadin, would be justly and gloriously re­compensed by the loss of Canisia; which being now, as it were by miracle, put into his hands, it were a neglect of the Divine Providence not to improve with advantage an opportunity so cheer­ful and so promising: to which, besides other ar­guments, he added, That if his Cesarean Maje­sty should not think fit to concur herein with as­sistance of his Imperial States, yet at least he would be pleased not to interdict him from the Glory of that design, in which he questioned not but to succeed, and in a short time to render not only to his Majesty, but also to the whole Chri­stian World, proofs of his Valour, and a good account of his Enterprize. Howsoever, the Empe­ror's Council seriously considering that Serini's State could not be engaged with the Turk with­out involving his Interest;—is for­bidden by the Em­peror. and that the Princes of the Empire, though when assaulted, would willingly contribute their Forces in the defensive part, yet would be backward to be the Aggres­sors, and engage their States in an offensive and provoking War, did therefore not only deny to second, or abet his designs with Military suc­cours, but positively commanded him to retire, and desist from his resolution against Canisia; with which Answer, the Zeal and Spirit of Serini was so inflamed, that throwing in passion his Cemiter on the Ground, he raised his well-formed Seige, and retired to his proper Residence at Chiacaturno.

The loss also of Varadin moved the Transilva­nians to consult their safety in this extremity of their Affairs,The Tran­silvanians consult their safe­ty. which now amidst these dangers and storms which threatned them, appeared in a de­sperate and languishing Condition, unless reme­died by a desperate Cure, and the resolves of some wise and valiant Counsel. Wherefore in the first place, they concluded to depose Acatius Barclay, the Favourite of the Turks; and in his stead they constituted John Chiminianus, or Ke­menius, the late General of Ragotski's Army.They beg assistance of the Emperor. In the next place, they made their Addresses and Ap­plications to the Emperor for assistance, suppli­cating, as Ragotski, and those of Varadin had done before, the powerful protection, and sacred Patronage of the Imperial Eagles, alledging those Arguments of common safety, and mutual inte­rest, which apparent reason suggested, and which were the present Subject and Theme of all the Courts in Christendom. To this Demand the Emperor assented, promising readily his assistance, but with Proviso, that for his security, the Cities of Zechelhid, Chowar, Julia, and other places, should receive Garisons of German Soldiers. The Transilvanians willingly accepted the Propositions, so that soon after those places were supplied with German Garisons. But as yet no effectual Forces came from the Emperor, nay rather the German Councils seemed willing to perswade the Turks, that there was no design, but to maintain the an­cient, friendly and amicable Correspondence; to which end it is said confidently, that the Prince Gonzaga, Prince Gonzaga's Letter to the Pasha of Buda. wrote to the Pasha of Buda, That those Garisons sent to possess certain places of Transilvania, were only in appearance, and not to create Dissentions between the Austrian Court, and the Ottoman Prince; which Letters Ali Pasha sent to the Transilvanians, with design, that dis­covering unto them an evident reason to distrust the Emperor, they should wholly resign them­selves to the good will and disposition of the Port. But notwithstanding, these verbal assurances pre­vailed not so much with the Turks on one side, as the German Garisons administred jealousie on the other: So that the Vizier raged furiously against the Emperor, for encouraging Kemenius, who had treacherously murdered his two innocent Brothers in his Rebellion against Barclay, the only true and lawful Possessor. Nor did the Turks only vent their anger and disdain in words, but also by the sad and calamitous effects of War; passing without farther parly into the Emperors Dominions in Hungary, Count Se­rini builds a Fortress on the Turks Do­minions. 1661. where they put all to fire and sword. Count Serini perceiving evident­ly hereby that the War was broken forth, and that it was not longer time to stand at a gaze, and not make necessary Provisions for defence; about the beginning of June, he laid the foundations of a Fortress on the Banks of the River Muer, within the Dominions of the Turks, about a League distant from Canisia, and in memory of his Fami­ly and Name called it Serinswar, a place conve­nient to assault, and offend the Enemy, and to fix the Bulwark, or Redoubt, of the Province of Sti­ria, which work was laid with that secresie, and executed with such expedition, that it was almost finished before it was known, or notice taken thereof by the Turks; but so soon as it was disco­vered, and the News arrived at Constantinople, the old-Vizier Kuperlee stormed with rage, and in his height of passion, signed a Command for strangling the Pasha of Canisia, for not timely preventing the Erection of that Fort in its begin­ning. In like manner this work was an occasion of disgust at Vienna; for though the Turks were the first who had broken the Peace, and given just cause to the Christians to provide all cautions imaginable for their safety; Yet I know not why, nor wherefore, there wanted not certain persons in the Court either emulous of Serini's Glory, or zealous of the Emperors Interest, who interpreted the activeness, and forward heat of this Count to be like fire to enflame the Fuel of Controversie between the two Empires;The just commen­dation of Count Se­rini. yet certainly we can­not but meritoriously applaud the Heroick Spirit of this Prince, who was provident of his Countries safety, watchful of the Enemies Motion, soon touched with the sense of the Mahometan infide­lity, and in fine, a zealous Champion of the Christian Cause. But now, with what Salve or Balsome soever the Italian, or Spanish Chirurgi­ons of Politick Government, imagined to obduct a callous over the smarts or wounds of these dif­fering States; the Breaches grew every day too wide to be drawn up, or cemented by artificial compliances, or verbal lenitives;The Em­peror sends For­ces to Transil­vania. for now the succours promised by the Emperor were arrived in Transilvania, under the Command of Count Montecuculi, and joining with the Forces of Keme­nius, formed such a numerous, and well compo­sed Army, as was judged not only sufficient to contend for the interest of the Christian Cause, but also for the entire decision of the Worlds Do­minion: So that both Generals with an unani­mous consent, confident of Victory, agreed, not to expect the approach of Ali Pasha, but boldly to meet and provoke him to Battel.

Ali the Turkish General perceiving the strength and resolution of the Christians, thought it pru­dence for a while to detract from Engagement, and temper the usual mettle of the Ottoman fury with cooler Counsels of advantage, which delays and opportunities of time would administer: for observing that the Transilvanians were divided into Factions, he humoured the dissenting party,The Turks Po­licy. by constituting Michael Apafi their Prince; a person in the flower and strength of his Age, of great parts and abilities; and one who violently [Page 111]affected the Principality, having but lately pur­chased his freedom from slavery. In this manner Apafi passing from his Prison and Chains, to the glory and trouble of a Throne, poor Transilvania remained divided, and taking Arms against her self, went daily working and contriving her own ruine. This hath always been the Master-piece of the Turkish Policy, and this disunion amongst Christians hath availed the Ottoman Interest more than their Swords, and confirmed their obstinacy in Religion with a Miracle, as if the division of Christian Princes (which in late Ages have frustra­ted the holy designs against this common Enemy) had been an effect of their Prayers, and a Conces­sion of Divine Providence to their daily Petitions. So now the Transilvanians being divided, great numbers of them revolted from Kemenius to Apafi, Kemenius routed. which not only weakned, but discouraged the Christian Army with fear and confusion; amidst of which, Ali Pasha took his time to assault them, not far from Cladiopolis; and being assisted by the advantagious conjuncture of the present opportu­nity, so wholly discomfited them, that he killed and took 50000 persons, which was the Issue of the present union, and the exclusion of Kemenius, who was now forced to abandon Transilvania, and seek his refuge in Hungary.

Howsoever Kemenius could not here rest satisfi­ed, but revolving in his mind certain ways to re­cover his Principality, obtained from Montecu­culi some German Troops; with which, and with his own scattered Forces, which at length he had collected into a Body, he resolved to try his For­tune once more with the Turks; and joining Bat­tel with them, not far from Presburg, he fought with a resolution becoming the desperateness of his design; either that day to Die, or to Triumph. The Fortune of that days conflict remained a long time doubtful; so equal they seemed on both sides to be in their Courage, in their Force, and in their Conduct, until at length the advan­tage of the Turks number prevailing, Kemenius was forced to a disorderly retreat,Kemenius a second put time to flight and afterwards to a confused flight; in which, being by one of his own Soldiers knocked from his Horse was trampled un­der foot, & the greatest part of his People remain'd a Sacrifice to the enraged Weapons of the Turks.

Apafi's party being greatly encouraged with this success, joining with a body of the Turks, laid Siege to Claudiopolis, Claudiopo­lis besieg­ed. the Court of the Tran­silvanian Princes, now Garisoned by German Sol­diers, and Governed by David Retani, a right valiant and trusty Soldier, who omitting nothing which might conduce to the defence and mainte­nance of the Town, either by his care or valour, made many successful Sallies upon the Enemy, and tired and wearied them out in their Siege; until at length General Schenidau then in Hungary, gathering what force he could, which were not above 6000 Men, marched with all haste possible to the relief of Claudiopolis; the report of whose approach arriving the Turkish Camp before his Person, or Army, and the common rumour and fear augmenting much their number; the Turks were so terrifyed hereat, that in haste and disorder they forsook their Siege after three Months continu­ance; leaving great quantities of Victuals behind for want of Carriages, and Beasts of burden. Sche­nidau having gained this success and honour with so much facility, he reinforced the Garison, and returned with Triumph home;The Siege raised. carrying with him great Booties of Cattle and other spoils of the Enemy. The defence of this place was account­ed almost miraculous; for besides that the For­tifications were after the Ancient Model, it was unprovided of Cannon and other warlike Ammu­nition; and therefore we are not to pass by the Governour Retani without due Commendations; whose valiant and generous spirit, with courage equal to his diligence, knew how to fortify and to defend his Walls; For out of the Town Bells he founded his Artillery; he daily wearied the Enemy with Sallies, surprised one of their Batteries, which most annoyed the City; composed the Muti­nies of the Citizens within; and in short, against the Opinion of all, he defended and maintained it in the possession and right of the Emperor.

Claudiopolis being thus relieved, the Turks sto­mached inwardly the disgrace, and yet thought it prudence for the present to dissemble; and therefore upon some addresses made for Peace from Transilvania, and certain Propositions tender­ed by the German Resident; the Vizier coumer­feited his inclinations thereunto so far, that he prohibited all farther Acts of Hostility upon the Frontiers.

Notwithstanding which, the rumour at this time running, of a Combination of all Christen­dom against the Turk, with Men or Money,The Turks jealousy. for­warded by the endeavours of the Pope, and the contrivances of Venice, encreased the former jea­lousy, and caused the Skirmishes on the Fron­tiers to be more hot and frequent: And the Vi­zier being froward and cholerick, and by nature jealous; matters had immediately proceeded to an open rupture, had not the German Pesident, by his Moderation and Prudence, represented af­fairs in the smoothest guise of Peace, and de­layed the War rather than composed it; so that this whole Summer was spent in disputes, mes­sages, and debates on both sides.

The Vizier designing this War in his Eye, and desirous to comply with the vagrant humour of his Master,The Tur­kish Court removes to Adria­nople. who was weary of his Seraglio at Con­stantinople, resolved to transfer the Turkish Court to Adrianople, so that toward the end of June they entered their Tents without the City. But before they could dispose their affairs for to de­part, the Plague, which is the Epidemical Disease of this Country, and the common distemper of the Summer Season, began to break forth and dif­fuse it self through all parts of the City; that in a short time the Keys of many Houses were brought to the Grand Signior for want of Pretenders and Heirs surviving to possess them: In greater Houses of Pasha's and others, where have been a Hun­dred and fifty persons, scarce five have remained alive for burial of the others; what the fury of that Mortality might be, was best conjectured by the daily account was kept of the Corps carried out of the City, by the Gate only of Adrianople, A great Plague at Constanti­nople. which for some Weeks amounted (I speak mo­derately) to Twelve or thirteen hundred a Day; it being observed amongst the Turks, when above a Thousand in a Day are carried forth Dead by that Gate, that then Prayers are to be made to Almighty God to withdraw that heavy judgment. At which time the Greek and Armenian Patriarchs are likewise desired to offer up their Devotions, and intercede with God for mitigation of the Pesti­lence; and the same Day in a Field called Ok­maidan, do all assemble, though divided apart, to pray against the common Calamity, it not seeming vain to them, that every one should call upon his God. Nor did the Plague rage only in the City, but the Ships and Turks Saykes were in­fected in parts remote on the Black Sea, and the Propontis, so that above a Hundred Sail were re­ported to be lodged at several Ports for want of Seamen to navigate them home. The Camp also where the Grand Signior, and Vizier remain­ed, was not exempted from this common [Page 112]Contagion, for the necessary intercourse between that and the City communicated the evil equal unto both, strowing the ways with dead Bodies, in that manner as represented a passage conduct­ing to a Coemetery, or Charnel-house, rather than to a Martial Camp or Court of a Great Em­peror. This mortality hastned the Grand Signior with his Army and Attendances into a better Air, the Vizier was to follow a few days after, but be­fore his departure he setled and constituted his Son Chimacam, or Governour of Constantinople. Things in this confusion and haste not being well provided for, the Grand Signiors reception at A­drianople caused him to prolong his Journey by taking a compass round by the Castles at the mouth of the Hellespont, and from thence went to Dimotochum, where having lingered out eight or ten days more, he made a solemn entrance into Adrianople, which will for some years fol­lowing be discoursed in this History as the Seat of the Ottoman Empire.

The time of this great Mortality was no sea­son for us to move in business or action, we and all other Christians avoiding common conversati­on, every one consulting his particular safety. Howsoever two businesses brought our Lord Am­bassador to Town from his Country Retirement. One was to obtain justice from the Vizier, on two miscreant Turks who had committed a Robbery on his Page and Steward, as they were drinking at a Fountain near a place called Bauchasarai, a Village inhabited by Greeks; the Steward by the swiftness of his Horse escaped, but the Page being sickly and weak fell into their hands, and was grievously wounded by them.The G. Viziers ju­stice to­wards our Ambassa­dor. Complaints hereof being made to the Grand Vizier, he seemed much concerned at the evil treatment of the Ambassa­dors servants; and therefore sent the Nayp of the Kadi of Galata to take notice, and write down the Wounds which the Page had received; and at the same time dispatched Officers into all parts adjacent, to take the Thieves, and to examine, and torment the people in places where it might be suspected only that they were harboured, and that nothing should be neglected in order to this discovery. It is incredible with what diligence, se­verity, and violence this command was executed, the people in the Villages where they had lodged or been, or but passed through, were all seized; and the men examined under the Cudgel, with Drubs on their feet; the men, women, and chil­dren of Baucha-sarai were carried, and some of them in Chains, to our Ambassadors House at Pera; and all the Countries round were so ill treated, that their common safety was concerned in the taking of these Thieves, and the allarum was by this time so far spread, that it was more pressing and urgent than our Hue-and-Cry; in short, one of the Thieves was taken, and he discovered the abode of his Companion, and both were brought to our Ambassadors House, and there put into the Stocks, laden with Chains, and guarded by the Turkish Officers. The next day they were carried before the Stambol-Efendi, or Recorder of Constantinople, they confessed the fact, and Hoget or Sentence passed upon them, which by Law could reach no farther than to the Gallies; but being brought before the Vizier, he had a mind to stretch the Law, and their necks to a farther ex­tent, and so without other demur calling the Hang man, ordered him to put Ropes about their necks, and to carry them to the Lord Ambassador, following his directions for their execution; and so accordingly one was hanged by the Fountain, and the other on a Tree at the entrance into the Vil­lage of Bauche-sarai. This Exemplary justice raised the reverence, and fear of the Country­people towards our Ambassador unto that degree, that during the time of the Earl of Winchilsea, no­thing of this nature ever passed again, but on the contrary, the Paisants, and the people in the Countries round, honoured and feared him like one of their Pasha's, or great men.

The other business was of a different nature re­lating to the Emin, or Customer of Aleppo, who being dismissed of his Employment was now come to Constantinople; before his departure from Aleppo, he had demanded of our Merchants there 16000 Dollars for Arrears of Custom due to him, on Silk and other Goods; his pretence was false and unjust, howsoever it being usual for Turks upon every demand to gain an advantage, the matter was compounded with the Sum of 2500 Dol­lars, and so the Customer departed with an ap­pearance of perfect satisfactation; notwithstand­ing which coming to Constantinople he renewed his pretensions again, and by the favour of the Reis-Efendi or Secretary of State, so proceeded in his business, that the Lord Ambassador was for­ced to make a second composition with 2000 Dollars.

The Grand Signior and Vizier, as we said be­fore, being now at Adrianople, the Viziers Deputy, called by the name of the Caimacam, governed Constantinople, to whom our Ambassador, accor­ding to custom made a visit, presenting him with eight Vests.

Likewise in absence of the Vizier, it being usual for the Ambassador to make a Visit to the Bostan­gee-Bashee, or Head of the Gardiners; his Excel­lency passed that Complement on him, and pre­sented him with four Vests. This person though entitled Head-Gardiner, is yet of great power, making a considerable figure at Court; for he not only commands all the Gardiners belonging to the many Seraglio's of the Grand Signior, which are very considerable in number, but his Jurisdi­ction reaches all along the Bosphorus, and com­mands the Villages, Woods and Countries at a far distance, so that he may in English be com­par'd to the chief Ranger.

It was now towards the Winter,Kuperlee sends for his Son. when this Vi­zier Kuperlee, finding himself mature with Age, and ready to fall like Autumn Fruit, sent for his Son from Constantinople to bear a share with him in the Burden of the Empire. This he did with the consent of the Grand Signior, for he alledged, that being now feeble and decayed, he could not make his personal Addresses as formerly, nor at­tend at the Court to render his Majesty an ac­count of his Affairs; and therefore had need of so trusty a Messenger as his Son, to carry his ad­vices and directions, and faithfully to communi­cate what he should encharge to his Relation; all others being on some consideration or other suspected, and at least Enemies to him, or to the Grand Signior. the Sultan accepting the pro­position and the Person, had often occasions of discourse and familiarity with the Son, called Ahmet, who deported himself with that faith and prudence in the management of all his Affairs, that the old Vizier had no great difficulty to pro­cure a Grant of succession for him in that Office: For though there were many obstacles therein, as the abhorrency of the Turkish Policy from all he­reditary succession in places of trust; and the Youth of his Person, not exceeding thirty two years of Age, and some emulous, powerful, and ancient Competitors, who hated the Father;Procures Successi­on for his Son. Yet the old Fox had so ingratiated himself with his Master, for (to speak truly) he had been the only instrument that had preserved him and his [Page 113]Empire from falling into as many Divisions as there are Pashalicks, or Governments, that the Grand Signior gave credit to him as to an infallible Oracle,Procures the Suc­cession for his Son. assuring him that before any other, who might either pretend Merit, Age, or Precedency, his Son should be preferred to the Succession. The old Man acknowledged the favour with all humi­lity and thankfulness, declaring, that he had now served his Majesty faithfully for the space of five years, a longer proportion than commonly Vi­ziers had managed that Office, in such tem­pestuous and distracted times, who either for their own offences, or want of Providence, or good Conduct, have made shipwrack of their own lives, and the Charge they pi­loted: But he had lived in the worst of times, when the spirits of men with discontent were en­flamed round about him, and threatned the ruine of their Prince and Empire; and yet had reduced things to composure, and to the obedience of the Ottoman Yoke, that now he that was the Sultan might incline his Head to rest with security, and enjoy his pastimes and pleasures, without being interrupted by those Conspiracies, which destroy­ed his Father, and endangered him in his years of Infancy. And because the continuance of his Se­curity and Glory depended on the execution of certain Maximes, which he had framed to himself, he was chalking out to his Son such undoubted Rules and Doctrines of Government, as would certainly tend to the glory and prosperity of the Empire, being abundantly satisfied that his Son was faithful, prudent, and active. But three things he particularly recommended to his Ma­jesty.

  • 1. Never to give Ear to the Counsels and Ad­vices of Women.
    Rules gi­ven to the Grand Signior.
  • 2. To amass what Treasure he could possi­ble into his Coffers, though with Oppres­sion, and impoverishment of his Peo­ple.
  • 3. To be continually on Horse-back, and keep his Armies in constant Action.

On the 19th of October, Kuperlee dies. Kuperlee having ended his days, whose Disease was Old Age, and a Gan­grene in his Legs, his Son by Hattesheriff, or the Grand Signior's Patent under his hand, taking the Seal, was constituted Vizier in the place of his Fa­ther, to the admiration and disappointment of the graver Seniors, who were discontented, not only to perceive themselves neglected, but that person also to supplant them, who was judged uncapa­ble of the Office, according to the Canon, and ancient Precedents of this Government.

The Body of Kuperlee was transported to Con­stantinople, where in his life time he had erected a very stately and magnificent Structure, and his Monument over the Grave, or Vault, where he designed to be interred. In his life time he had filled it with Corn, which daily was distributed to the poor, and being emptied after his death, re­ceived his Corps, over which a small Mosch was endowed with Oyl for Lamps, and maintenance of certain Talismans and Softaes, to make Prayers and Offerings for his Soul.

The Father being thus interred,Pasha of Magnasia cut off. Ahmet his Son began to contrive his own establishment, and to settle his Greatness on the foundation of his Fa­thers Rules of Policy, from whom not to degene­rate in cruelty of Nature, or leave his Legacies unpaid to those he had proscribed, he in the first place sacrificed the Blood of the Pasha of Mag­nasia to his Fathers Ghost, with some other petty attendences; so that the World perceived that they had changed the Vizier, but not his tyranny, or at least the same spirit of the Father seemed to be renewed, transmitted again into the Person of the Son. But more difficult it was to obtain the like success against Mortaza, the Pasha of Babylon, and the Kayab-begh, or Lieutenant General of the Janisaries, who were long before (as we have said) marked out for destruction by his Father. For the first was the most powerful Pasha of all Asia, vigilant, and active, and had done and merited great rewards from his Master, and par­ticularly in decoying, and cutting off the Head of the Grand Rebel Asan Pasha, who dared the Sul­tan at the Gates of his Seraglio; but understand­ing the ill will of the House of Kuperlee against him, stood always on his Guard, lodging with­out the Wall of the City, and under the prote­ction of his Arms and Souldiers, who were great­ly affected to the generosity of his Person; so that, though many attempts were made upon him, and that Officers, or Executioners came from the Court, openly tendring from the Sultan the Present of a Sword, and Vest of Sables, the usual Signals of the Ottomon Grace, but privately bringing a Bowstring, or a Halter; yet they were all entertained at a distance, and returned again with the same dissimulation they had used in their feigned Addresses. In like manner the Kayah­begh, an ancient, prudent, and experienced Com­mander, beloved by the Soldiery, and secured by the Priviledge of his Office, (for a Kayah-begh cannot be cut off during his Command, without infringement of the honour and order of the Ja­nisaries) preserved still his Station, and Com­mand in despight of the Viziers hate and endea­vours. But what could not be done by meer vir­tue of the absolute Power, was effected under the appearance of honour and favour of the Sul­tan, who by his Royal Commission, having made him Pasha of Damascus, he was at the same instant deprived of his Military Power and Priviledge, and lay now naked and exposed to the Arbitrary Pleasure and will of [...]s Adversary. Nor could his prayers or tears incline the Grand Signiors mind to reverse his Order, who, together with the Vizier, rather inforced it with the specious pretext of Favour and Grace for his former me­rits, and with commendation of his Abilitles agree­able to the importance of so considerable a Go­vernment, encreased the just suspicion of Solyman, Solyman Pasha in disgrace. (for so the Kayah-begh was called.) not being ig­norant of the Turkish Proverb, A Kayah-begh is like a Fish in the Water, which out of its Element immediately dies. Howsoever,Tac. Lib. 14. Ann. ut finis omnium cum dominante, grates agit, he acknowledges the fa­vour of his Master, and gave thanks for it, ac­cording to the Duty of a good Subject, who ought to acquiesce in the sentence of his Prince, which, though never so full of severity, ought to be be­lieved, and called Clemency. The Vizier now hasted Solyman Pasha to depart with all expedi­tion, not allowing him above Four or Five days time to make preparation for so long a Journey, which otherwise he would have prolonged, as one, like the rest of Mankind, desirous to protract the thread of Life, imagining that in his journey, at some distance, where his Death might be most obscure, and least noted, the Edict of the Grand Signior might overtake him, and find a Grave for him in some solitary Desert, or unfre­quented Mountain. Wherefore he made one Day an Address to the Vizier, under pretence of taking his last farewel, and freely ac­quainted him with his apprehension and his [Page 114]fears, desiring that he would deal as frankly with him, in letting him know the utmost of his Fate, for that now he was in his hand, and was so good a Proficient in the Mahometan Religion, as to op­pose nothing which was his Destiny, or inconsi­stent with the Decree of the Sultan. The Vizier reverencing the Years, and pitying the Conditi­on of so worthy a Commander, abased solely by his Power, bid him be of good cheer, assuring him of his Life, so long as he acted nothing con­trary unto his, which he confirmed by Vows, and all imaginable Protestations, encouraging him to proceed forward to his Government with those cheerful Words and Assurances, that Soly­man Pasha taking his farewel with more ease of mind, and confidence of Life, departed Adria­nople in three days after his designment to the new Office:He is sent away. But not many days Journey had he advanced into Asia, before the Grand Signiors and Viziers Commands overtook him, altering his design for Damascus, and instead thereof or­dered him a Pilgrimage unto Mecha, and exile into the remote and desert parts of Arabia, until he should be thought worthy to be recalled by that power which banished him. In like manner some few days after, the Mufti being on a Fri­day seated in his place, in the Mosch of Sultan Se­lim (a very noble and famous Fabrick) and atten­ding there the Grand Signiors entrance, that he might begin his Prayers, was unexpectedly whis­pered in the Ear, that he should retire and give place to another Mufti; which immediately he obeyed, and in four hours departed Adriano­ple, being banished to Gallipoli, for his Friendship (as was supposed) to Solyman Pasha, and for not passing the Fetfa for his Death, according to the will and desire of the Grand Signior.

During the Transaction of these affairs in divers parts, the Wars against the Venetians were carri­ed on faintly; the Gallies had no other design, or employment, than to transport recruits of Men and Ammunition to Canea, that so the Turks might rather keep the ground that they had gained in that Island, than add thereunto by new Conquests, until such time as that being freed from other Wars, they might have leisure and opportunity to attend unto that alone. Accor­dingly the Captain Pasha set forth at the usual Season from Constantinople; and arrived at Scio with twenty three Gallies, besides his own called the Bastard-Gally, or Admiral; the advice of which, coming to the Captain-General of the Ve­netians, he hastned thither with all his Fleet to be­siege him in the Port: but this seeming after some days a tedious work, and what might lose too much time; he resolved to depart from thence, and so leaving a sufficient Guard before the Port, he set Sail with two Galleasses, thirteen light Gal­lies, and seven Auxiliaries for the Coast of Rhodes; where his Brigantines advised, that the remainder of the Turkish Fleet were Anchored, and were taking aboard two thousand Soldiers for reinforcing Canea; but before the Venetians could arrive, intelligence was given them by the way, that the Turks were loosed from Rhodes, and were Anchored under the Island of Patmos; wherefore altering their course, they steered for Nio, and there watering their Vessels, sailed near to Nixia, where the Van-guard discovered five and thirty Gallies of the Enemy, which had made prize of a Tartana laden with Provisions design­ed for the Venetian Fleet, and having taken out her lading, had set her on fire. The Venetians ha­ving their Enemy in their Eye, gave them chase until the Evening, when the Night coming on, put an end to the pursuit: but keeping their course towards Candia, they had sight again of them the next Morning, and coming nearer, the Turkish Admiral put forth his Flag of Defiance, as if he intended to come to a Battel; but the Wind blowing hard, and the Sea increasing, both Fleets were separated until the Morning; when the Venetians discovered certain of the Enemies Gallies to Leeward of Milo, where bearing down before the Wind upon them, five of them ran a­shore; one was sunk, and four were taken by the Venetian and Maltese Gallies, three of which fighting with great Courage and Valour, killed divers brave Cavaliers of one and the other Coun­try. The men which ran the Gallies ashore at Milo, did it with design to secure themselves in that small Fort which the Turks possessed in that Island; but they were not able to withstand the valour of the Venetians, who having first recover­ed the Cannon of the Gallies which were ran a­shore, with their rigging, and what else was use­ful, they set the Hulls on Fire; and immediate­ly entering the Port, the Captain-General land­ed two hundred select men, and veterane Soldi­ers to besiege the Fortress, giving Orders to one Manolacchi Macchiotti, who was well acquainted with the Turkish Language, to summon them to a Treaty, the which they readily accepted, and were received to quarter at discretion of the Ge­neral; the next Morning they were brought down to the Sea-Coast to the number of about nine hundred, amongst which there was a Jani­zar-Aga, a Bey of Rhodes, and three of Constan­tinople, besides Captains, and other persons of condition and quality. These Prisoners being divided into several Gallies and Ships, the Ve­netians departed, and cruising about the Coast of Candia, to hinder the importation of all succours, they encountered with Antonio Priuli, with a good Squadron of Vessels under his Command.

THE HISTORY OF Sultan Mahomet IV. THE XIII. EMPEROUR OF THE TURKS.
The Second BOOK.
Anno Christi, 1662. Hegeira, 1073.

AT the beginning of this Year the People of Algier sent Messengers and Presents to the Grand signiors Court, then at Adrianople, com­plaining against the Actions His Majesties Fleet, under the Com­mand of the Earl of Sandwich, had done against their Town and Castles, pretending those Forts to be the Grand Signiors, and the Affront offered to him, as willing to interest him in thier Quarrels and Piracies. And that thier Addresses might be more graciously received, they brought with them certain Presents, which tho in former time swere Yearly, were now only as their Affairs required, and on this occasion were doubled: for besides their Presents to the Ministers and Officers of State; they brought to the Grand Signior a Ship made in Silver, beset with Emrods, Rubies, and other Stones; fourteen young and hansom Boys, and a neger Eunuch for the Seraglio. But the Earl of Winchelsea, His Majesties Embassador there Resident, being then at Court, had so well prepossessed the Vizier with the Ground and Rea­sons for the War, that the complaints of Algier were judged in no wise touching the Ottoman In­terest, or the breach of Peace, any Impeach­ment of the good Correspondence and Friend­ship which then intervened between the King of England and the Grand Signior. But their Pre­sumption to search English Ships, and take out Strangers Goods, was objected as an Argument of their Disobedience and Rebellion, contrary to the Grand Signiors Capitulations, which also was aggravated by their ill Treatment of the Grand Signiors Pasha, whom they had beaten, imprisoned, and cast out of all Power and Authority; which severe Reprehensions so terrified and discouraged them, that they not only desisted from their Pre­tensions against the English, but began to fear, lest the Power and Interest of the Ambassador at Court, should contrive some mischief to their own Persons.

Soon after this the Vizier esteeming it necessary towards his better establishment to gratifie the City of Constantinople, The Gr. Signior perswad­ed to re­turn to Constanti­nople. and the Grandees of the Empire, by the Grand Signiors return to his Im­perial Seat, prevailed with him, (as a matter wholly necessary) to adorn and comfort that place by his Presence; for now he began to de­clare a kind of abhorrency to it, in regard the memory of those Rebellions which were nourish­ed in that place, to the Destruction of his Father, and to the great hazard and narrow escape afterwards of himself, had taken that Impression on his Fancy, that the Chamber of the Seraglio ap­peared melancholly and dismal, and the Walks of his Garden solitary, and the noise of the Rooks and Daws amongst his Trees, were like the croak­ings of Ravens or unlucky Birds. Howsoever the Vizier had so far entered into his Affection and Esteem, that his Perswasions were stronger than his own absolute Dominion; and prevailed so with him against the force of his own Fancy, that about the Equinoctial he began his Journey [Page 116]towards Constantinople, to the great Joy and Sa­tisfaction of his People: But by the way lingring out his time in Hunting and other Pastimes of the Woods and Fields; it was the 30th of March be­fore he made his Entry, for never was Prince so great a Nimrod, so unwearied a Huntsman as this; never was he at quiet, but continually in the Fields on Horseback, rising sometimes at Mid­night, to ride up the Mountains, that he might more early discover the Sun in the Morning; by which extravagant course of Life, he wearied out his Court and Attendants, who began to be­lieve the amorous humour of the Father more supportable, than the wandring Vagaries, and restless Spirit of the Son.The Gr. Signiors extrava­gant Hunt­ing. But not only were his Huntings tedious to his Court, but troublesome and expensive to the whole Country, which were all summoned in wheresoever he came, and some­times thirty or forty thousand men appointed to beat the Woods for three or four days, carrying before them the compass of a days Journey about, inclosing all the Game and wild Beasts within that Circuit, which on the day of the Hunt, the Grand Signior kills and destroys with Dogs, Guns, or any other way, with abundance of noise and confusion; which Pastime, tho lawful in it self, and commendable enough in so great a Prince, yet the frequent use of it, was a burden and an oppression to his People, whilst in the Winter they passed many cold Nights in the Woods, and being unused to that hardship, many of them paid for their Emperors Pastime with their own lives.

The Grand Signior being now at Constantinople, The Vizier endea­vours to establish himself. the Vizier judged not himself so well fixed in his Government, but that through the Malice of his powerful Enemies, who were familiar to the Grand Signiors Ear, he was then in danger to be shaken; the principal of which was Kuzlir Aga, or chief Eunuch of the Women of the Seraglio, who by means of the Valede, or Queen Mother, was ill-affected to him, being both inclined to prefer some Favourites of their own, for the Diminuti­tion and Eclipse of the Viziers Power, one where­of was the Tefterdar Pasha, or Lord Treasurer, placed in Office against the Viziers Approbation, which the Vizier understanding, made short Work with him, depriving him of his Office, commanded him in a few hours to quit Constanti­nople.

But the Queen Mother, and Kuzlir Aga resent­ting this Affront to their Favourie, resolved to even scores in a piece of the like Nature: Where­fore they obtained for the Viziers Kahya, or Steward, the Pashalick of Darbiquier, a rich and honourable Government, not for any disaffe­ction or hatred they had unto him, but only to deprive the Vizier of the Counsel and Assistance of so knowing and faithful a Servant; for he was a Person, who by his own Estate and Friends had raised the House of Kuperlee, having in the time of his Poverty and Meanness lent him that Sum of Money, which gave him the first Rise to his Richess and Authority; for Re­compence and Interest of which, old Kuperlee made him his Steward, and shared to him his Honours and Prosperity; in which deporting himself towards all People with the same modesty and evenness of Temper which he used in his for­mer Condition, he procured no Enemies to his own Person, and such as hated the Interest he served, only wishing him disobliged from it, so as to be able to dispense their Malice on the Vi­zier, without concerning him in his Masters ruin. This consideration moved the angry Lady, and the envious Eunuch to vex their Adversary by the removal of his most faithful Creature and Ser­vant.

Mahomet Kahya now Pasha of Darbiquier, after a reasonable and convenient time allowed him for his Preparations, being very rich, set for­ward towards his Government, with a very noble and numerous Retinue, having amongst the rest five hundred Persons young, well mounted, and well armed; which notwithstanding were not so strong, but before they were advanced many days Journey into Asia, A notable Robber [...]. were encoun­tred by a greater force of bold and desperate Robbers, who engaging with him, killed two hundred of his People on the place, rifled his Baggage, and constrained the Pasha himself to fly to the next City. This strange and audacious Robbery produced many Commands and Orders for Seizure and Suppression of Theives in the lesser Asia. And because the custom is, that something must be done in Compliance with the Imperial Commands, many poor innocent Men were taken in the Fields and Mountains, and per­haps without any other Crime against them, than that they were not masters of a thousand Aspers to bribe the Officers, were for want thereof sent as Thieves to the Port, where with­out further Conviction or Tryal they were exe­cuted.

The Vizier being thus weakned by the remo­val of his faithfullest Friend, his Condition was given over as desperate by the generality of the World, and several appearances of Troubles arising from the Eastern and Western parts, gave occasion to the Queen Mother, and her Party, to disparage his Abilities in the esteem of the Sul­tan: Wherefore they exhorted him to imitate the Example of his Renowned Predecessors, who made use of their Viziers only to ease them from the troublesom part of their Government, but did not entirely throw off the Knowledg and Pri­vity of the important Transactions and State Af­fairs in the whole Empire. This Lesson awaken­ed the Grand Signior a little, so that he declined some days his Sports abroad, and Exercise on Horse-back, and instead thereof passed much of his time in a Chiosk, or Garden-house on the Wall of the Seraglio, just opposite to the Viziers Gate, where his chief Business and Concernment was to observe such as went in, or came out; and when at any time he espied those enter, re­markable for their Attendance, or difference of Habit, he would send to know of the Vizier, what occasion drew those People thither, what their Business was, and the like, by which he gave himself that Satisfaction as to believe that he had now found the true way of inspecting his Affairs, and taking care of his Empire.The Queen Mothers Enmity to the Vizier. The Vizier was not insensible from whence this humour of the Gr. Signior proceeded, nor ignorant what ill Consequences such petty matters might produce; wherefore he resolved, if possible, to reconcile the favour and good will of the Valede, or Queen Mother, but all his Addresses (it seems) were returned fruitless; so difficult was it to appease the Malice of a feminine Spirit; and this malice She so ill concealed, that it was often said by Turks of Quality and Judgment, That the Great Viziers Mother, who entertained a Familiarity with Spirits, as they believed, had by their En­chantments procured the Office of Vizier for her Husband and Son successively, and prevailed still to preserve her Son in the favour of his Master, yet could not by force of Magick get Power or Do­minion over the Valede; No Spells, it seems, had virtue enough to qualifie the Spirit of that angry Juno. Some hereupon judged, that the Vizier [Page 117]might have thoughts to make Resignation of his Office, and to content himself with some Pasha­lick of a higher and more eminent Degree; but Apprehensions and Jealousies of their Dangers, and his own natural Ambition, soon stifled those Considerations, resolving to continue his Charge in Opposition to all the Difficulties and Dangers he might encounter. And perhaps he gave him­self the same Counsel which the Vitellian Soldiers did to their General.Tacit. Lib. Hist. 3. Nihil atrocius eventurum, quam in quod sponte ruant, moriendum victis, mo­riendum deditis; id solum referre, no vissimum Spi­ritum, per ludibrium & contumelias effandant, an per Virtutem. Men who must dye, whether they yield or are conquered by force, have the same Fate; all the difference is, that the one dies with Valour and Reputation, the other with Re­proach and Cowardice. But to execute this stout Counsel with Prudence and Wisdom, he con­ceived it necessary, if possible, to reconcile the sincere Friendship of Samozade, the Reis Effendi, or Chief Secretary of State, a Person the best practised of any, in the Affairs and Nogotiations of the Ottoman Empire, and one much in the Esteem and Favour of the Queen Mother, and in order thereunto treats him with more Famili­arity and Condescension than was ordinary, or by many judged agreeable to the Greatness of a Grand Vizier; for always when he came into his Presence, he arose up, calling him secretly Fa­ther, Tutor and Companion, in supporting the Burden of the weighty Government, and such other Compellations, as the Grand Signior vouchsafed only to the Vizier: for tho this Reis Effendi was of the greatest Abilities, and this present Vizier the most youthful and unexperi­enced of later Times, yet it may be accounted one special mark and token of his Prudence, in knowing how to elect so useful a Friend, and of his Policy in procuring his sincere faithful­ness towards him, and making him really his own. To which end he conversed much with him, com­municated all his thoughts, freely demanded his advice, received his private Entertainments, and in fine, was wanting in no points of affable Cour­tesy and Compliance, whereby he might create him his own, contenting for some time himself with the name of Vizier, tho the other as one, who best knew how to manage it, enjoyed the Power.

The Chief Officers of the Seraglio, That is, of the Hazo­da, or Royal Chamber. instigated by the Queen Mother to diminish something the Power of the Vizier, put often the Grand Signior in mind, as a matter agreeable to his Dignity, to have a regard to his Government, which caused him more frequently than his humour served, to betake himself to his Choisk over a­gainst the Viziers Gate, to make his usual Ob­servations; and perceiving some Christians to enter the Court with red Calpacks or Caps, and yellow Shooes (prohibited to Christians by or­ders of inferior Magistrates, but never until now thought worthy the Imperal Observance) imme­diately called for the Subashee or Constable of Constantinople, and from the Window command­ed him with great Fury to enter the Viziers Court, and such Christians as he should find there with yellow Shooes and red Caps he should first beat, and then send uncovered and barefooted home. The Subashee armed with a Power in this matter as high as the Viziers, entered the House without Complement or Licence, and encountring first the Kapikahya's or Agents of Moldavia and Valachia negotiating the Affairs of their Prince and Coun­try, he rudely layed them down, and without Respect to their Persons or Office, beat them on the Feet, tore off their red Stockins and Caps, and sent them home with their Heads and Feet bare, derided by the People,The Gr. Signiors severe Prohibiti­on of yel­low shoes, and red Calpacks to Christi­ans. and lamenting the Affliction of that Tyranny to which they were subjected. This inhumane Treatment of Persons in a manner sacred, was seconded by publick Proclamations, strictly prohibiting all Christians from wearing red Caps, yellow Shooes, scarlet Vests, and the like; and Janizaries from the use of Hanjars or Daggers, and silk Turbants, upon pain of Death; which Order was so strictly en­joyned, that the Corners of every Street were furnished with Officers to observe, and punish such as were found to offend. The Grand Signi­or Rimself judged also the Execution of this Or­der of that importance, as to deserve his own proper Care and Inspection; wherefore walking abroad, as his manner was, in disguise, with his Executione at hand, encountred in the Streets an unfortunate Bridegroom, an Armenian, who that day, on priviledge of his Espousals, had ad­ventured to dress himself with yellow leathern Soks: nothing was, or could have time to be pleaded in his behalf, before the fatal Blow was struck, which sent him to his Grave instead of his Nupital Bed. This fury continued some few days with much rigour, and strict observation, but afterwards growing cold again, all care was neglected, happening herein, as commonly it doth in all things, which have no other foundation than humour and fancy.

But this inspection into petty matters did not so much disturb the thoughts of the Vizier, as did the power and greatness of Mortaza the Pasha of Babylon, by the Turks called Bagdat, a person of an undaunted Courage, and greate Conduct, whom he had hitherto suffered to live, contra­ry to the true knowledge of his interest, and the Rules his Father had left him: wherefore he resolved to renew his design and attempts against his Life, one I remember was in December of the past Year, when in our Journey to Adrianople, we met a Messenger on the way, who amongst other Discourses informed us, that he was then going to Bablyon for confirmation of Mortaza, and as a testimony of the G. Signiors favour and good will towards him, he carried him a Sword, and a Vest of Sables: we immediatly, and that truly, guessed for what Present the Sword was sent; for in some Months after the Chaous-bashee, or chief of the Pursuivants, returned without delivery of his Present.The Vi­zier seeks to cut of Mortaza the Pasha of Baby­lon. For the wise Mortaza was so justly Jealous, that he would not so much as admit him to his Presence, but returned him again with his Sword and Sables for those who were more easy and credulous, and who believe to dye by Com­mand of the Sultan to be Martyrdom, and the only Crown of all their Merits and Deserts: and knowing that he could not long subsist in Oppo­sition to so great an Enemy; he contracted an Al­liance by Marriage with a Daughter of one of the Gordean, or Curdean Princes, and in Dowry had one of the strongest Forts of those Mountains delivered into his hands.

The Vizier finding himself thus foiled in his oc­cult Artifices, began publickly to profess his En­mity; and therefore in the first place perswaded the Grand Signior, that the long continuance of Mortaza in that Government, beyond the usual term, so Opulent and Powerful, and of a Spirit so Ambitions and Rebellious, could not but prove dangerous to himself, and in time give him Con­fidence of Competition for the whole Empire; which hazard to prevent with most prudence and advantage, (there being a present occasion of good Soldiers for relief of Candia) Mortaza and [Page 118]his Complices could not be better bestowed than upon that Employment. The Grand Signior readily consented to his Counsel, being naturally very apprehensive of Danger, and in his place constituted the Aga, or General of the Janizaries, posting him away with all speed-possible to his Government; who did not run so fast in his Journey, but that the advices of the coming of a new Pasha, arrived timely the Ears of Mortaza, who judging it an unequal match to contend with the whole Empire, gave way to his Successor, but withal, kept himself so on his Guard, that his Adversary could not reach his Head, and send it as the first-fruits and Tribute of his new Of­fice. For yielding up his command as in an ho­nourable manner of Retreat, he gave out, that with his Army (reported to consist of Forty thousand Men) he was on his March to Can­dia, but soon after his design was disco­vered to be otherwise; for believing his own Force unable to contend with his Masters, he re­tired with his richess, and some of those most faith­ful to him, unto his Fort on the Mountains, and to the Protection and Country of the King of the Curdi, whose Daughter he had Married, and re­mained in Epectation of time and opportunity, to take his revenge on the Vizier, hoping that with time this storm would blow over, and that the Beams of his Princes Favour would again shine upon him.Curdi. These Curdi are called by some Wri­ters Cordiaei, from whence the Province had the name of Gordiene, bordering on Assyria, the King­dom once of Zabienus, who siding with Lucullus against Tigranes King of Armenia, was by Tigra­nes murdered with his Wife and Children. These People inhabit the Mountain Amanus, dividing Syria from Cilicia, which by reason of the diffi­cult access thereunto, was never yet subjected to the Ottoman Yoke; they are said in former times to have worshipped a black Dog, and dare not speak ill of the Devil, not for love, but fear. But some report, that have lately been amongst them, that they have left off that hellish Supersti­tion, and embrace a certain sort of Religion mix­ed with Christianity and Turcism; but yet without Baptism or Circumcision. In brief, they are a bad sort of gross People at the best, contenting them­selves with little Religion, addicted to Blood and Robberies. These Curdi or Gordeenes, being a peo­ple retired, keep within their Mountains, are shy in their Conversation and Discourse, and afford us little subject, or opportunity of knowing with any Satisfaction, their Religion or Manners; but from such of our Country-men, as have lately entertained Society with them, we have this ac­count. They are seated on those Mountains, as we have said before, which of old are called Cor­diaei or Gordiai, beginning near Aleppo, but run­ning out as far as Persia; they make shew of the Turkish Religion for fear, but have in reality ano­ther of their own, which permits them to eat Swines Flesh, and drink Wine, as the Druses and Kalbeenes; Bacon being esteemed by them a particular Cordial, or Restorative for the Sick. The chief Country and City of those near Aleppo, is called Jeumee, where they have a Convent of twelve Priests with a Superior over them, and ano­ther of the like sort near Mosul or Nineveth. The two Chiefs of these Monasteries meet at fixed times to consult for the good of the Com­mon-weal. Their Devotions are private in a Cave; they tell us of but one Book, which contains both their Law and their Rituals; being asked what they thought of our Saviour, they answer­ed, he was their Breath, and their Soul; at the name of Mahomet they Spit, and with Nicode­mus his Circumspection and Assurance of Secrecy, they declared, themselves and Christians the same, which they would make appear so soon as they were delivered from their fear of Bondage to the Turk. They say that they worship God, and will not curse the Devil, to which no Force or Power can compel them partly, perhaps because they have heard of our Saviours Precept, Bless, and Curse not, but rather, because they hold, that the Devil and his Followers shall one day be resto­red to their former seats of Blessedness and Digni­ty. When their Priests are together, and Wine brought in amongst them, the Superior makes a sign for Silence, and afterwards a short Admoni­tion, that Wine is the Blood of God. I have heard that a Capuchin Fryer was once invited a­mongst them, with Promise to give him a sight of their Book of Rituals, and being come to Jeumee, was detained a day or two in a Cave, on pretence that the other Superior of Mosul was then amongst them, who being a severe Person, if he knew of his being there, would certainly put him to Death, as one who came to alter their Religi­on; upon which Suspicion the Capuchin forgetting his Curiosity, fled for safety, with all speed pos­sible. Their Priests are said to be Grave, wearing black throughout; their Garments plaited or quilted; the Vestures of the Commonalty are a­greeable to Mountainiers, whose Natures are Rough and Boisterous, addicted to Blood and Rob­bery, the common Vice of those People. I have heard, that the Son of a Gourdeene Widow being killed by some of that Country, She assembled her nearest Kindred, and required them to bring her the Windpipe of the Murderer, which when they had done, She together with her Friends, eat in it Revenge. In fine, their Religion may have some small Reliques of Christianity, but mixt with the dregs of other Religions. 'Tis possible they may be of the Manichee Race. Their Opi­nion of the Devils Restoration, was once held in part by Origen: that of Wine (that it is the Blood of God) was the Heathenish conceit of the Egyp­tian Priests. Their whole Nation, if well united, may compose an Army of thirty or forty thousand Men.

But to return to our purpose. The news of the Flight of Mortaza to this Ignoble Prince, troubled the Grand Signior, who still retained some Impressions of kindness to his Person, re­membring his Generosity, Valour, and former Deserts, the memory of which was encreased also by the Friends of Mortaza, who wanted not in the Court to represent them with some Compas­sion, arguing that his flight was not of Contuma­cy or Contempt to his Masters Protection, but an effect of natural Preservation; which worked so far on the Grand Signior, that he immediately sent for the Vizier to enquire of him the State and Condition of Mortaza. The Vizier to defend himself, and make good what before he had counselled his Master, aggravated his Adversa­ry's Crimes, and his Disobedience and Flight to an inconsiderable King; with which, and some other light Excuses and Perswasions, that the re­moval of such a Person was agreeable to the pre­sent State of Affairs, and conducing to his own Se­curity, easily pacified the Mind and Affections of the Grand Signior; but no sooner was he return­ed to his House, but advice was given him, that the Emaum of Mortaza, or his Priest or Chaplain, was then at Constantinople, whom the Vizier im­mediatly sent for, and without any Plea or Indict­ment, struck off his Head, and threw his Body in­to to the Sea, on pretence that he was sent thither, as a Spy for his Master, and to give Intelligence, and a [Page 119]beginning to Rebellion: These were his colours and allegations for his deserved Death; for Go­vernours though never so wicked and so absolute, and that have no need to render any other cause to the World of their actions, than their own will, yet esteem it necessary to act under the specious guise of justice, and in the good opinion of the multitude. The Aga of Babylon encountred the same Fortune; for Mortaza giving place, he thought it fit for himself to do the like; resolving for Constantinople, but being intercepted in his Journey by the new Pasha, his Head was struck off, and his Journey shortned.

But that which again renewed the trouble and fears of the Vizier, was a report that the late Kahya-begh degraded at Adrianople, was secretly returned to the City, and lived concealed, giving such Orders to the Janizaries as tended to Mutiny and Insurrection, and that the pretences and re­ports of his being gone to Damascus, and thence in his holy Pilgrimage to Mecha, were but all false stories to conceal his Residence at Constanti­nople. This set the Vizier all on fire, and made him tremble with the thoughts of it; wherefore search was made for him day and night, but not found; for in reality he as gone on his designed Journey, only it was the misfortune of his Kahya, or Steward, as before it was of Mortaza's Emaum, to fall into the Viziers hands, who being beaten to confess where his Master was, died afterwards of the blows.

But notwithstanding that Mortaza was fled, yet the Vizier laid not aside his fears and thoughts concerning him, not knowing how soon he might be recalled home, and seated in his place; of which various Examples are extant in Turkish History; and therefore he sent orders to Mahomet Pasha, his late Kahya, now Pasha of Darbiquier, as Ge­neral (with the knowledge and consent of the Grand Signior) and to the Pashaws of Aleppo, Erzirum and others near adjacent, to prepare and assemble what Force was necessary to con­strain the King of the Curdi, to surrender Morta­za into their hands: But whilst these matters were in agitation, some unexpected troubles in Georgia diverted their Arms, and held them for some time in suspense, not knowing what the issue might be. The Original and Ground thereof was this:The Pro­vinces of Georgia in distur­bance. After Sultan Solyman had taken Erzirum, it was agreed in the Capitulations between the Turks and Per­sians, that of the seven Provinces of Georgia (an­ciently called Iberia, but now as supposed to have received the Denomination from St. George, the Cappadocian Martyr, there had in great esteem and reverence) three should be tributaries to the Turk, and three to the Persian, all govern'd by Achic-bash as head and supream Prince, to whom the Seventh should also be subjested, without ac­knowledgment to either; in payment of which Tribute, they continued most willingly, lest for default thereof, the importation of Salt, of which their Provinces afford none, should I be hindred either from the Turkish, or Persian Dominion. And now it happened that Achic-bash dying, his Wife married again, who to gratifie her new Lover, was contented to have the eyes of her Son put out, who was the lawful Heir to the Govern­ment. This Fact was so hainously received by the Princes of the three Provinces under the Per­sian, that with common consent, they elected one to succeed Achic-bash, and extorted the power out of the hands of the Amorous Traitor. The Princes of the three Provinces under the Turk alarm'd hereat, made insurrection, resolving rather than any Foreigner, to set up one of the Kindred of Achic-bash, which the Persian Provinces better understanding, approved likewise, and for confirmation, and maintenance of their choice, assembled an Army of Threescore thousand men. The Pashaws tending towards Curdi, were surprized in their March with the news of these disturbances in Georgia, and not rightly apprehending the causes of these sud­den commotions, gave an arrest to the pro­gress of their Arms, inclining towards the parts of Georgia, to be in a readiness to suppress all designs against the Ottoman Dominions, so that the thoughts of War against the Curdi was for some time laid aside. The news of these troubles did also alarm the Port, with which also came a report, That six hundred Tents of the Kuzilba­shees (which are the best sort of Persian Horsemen) were pitched nigh the Confines of the Grand Sig­niors Territories; so that Orders were dispatched to the aforesaid Pashaws to watch the motion and issue of those Affairs, but those storms blowing over by the establishment of Achic-bash, the Turkish Forces proceeded on their first design against Mor­taza, marching to the pass of the Country of the Curdi, which is very steep, asperous and rough. The whole Kingdom being, as it were, one Mountain of dangerous and difficult access, hath hitherto preserved the Inhabitants from the Ottomon Sub­jection. The entrance thereunto being strong by Nature, is also fortified with several Castles, the chief of which, possessed by Mortaza, is called Zizri, and the People there abouts Zezidi. The Turkish Army being arrived at this pass, Mahomet, the Pasha of Darbiquier, appointed General, as we have said before, ordered five hundred of his se­lect men to enter within the pass, which the Curdi perceiving, with little opposition, put to flight, being so commanded by the General; the unad­vised Curdi eagerly pursuing the enemy, left the pass naked, and undefended, supposing their whole victory and success to consist in the Rout of those few: Whereupon the Turkish Army wisely possessed the pass, and got between the Curdi, The Turks Strata­gem a­gainst the Curdi. and their place of Retreat, and laying the Siege to the Castle, required them either to surrender them­selves, or else Mortaza and his Complices into their hands.

The Curdi perceiving themselves thus hardly beset, and in a manner defrauded, their Garison which possessed the pass without the Confines, the Enemy gotten possession of the Gate which open­ed to their Country, their Castles besieged, and in danger to be gained, and an inlet made to an In­undation by their Enemies, caused them to re­quest a three days truce for Consultation, which being granted, they began to consider, whether it were better to hazard the welfare of their Coun­try in a dangerous War, of which the Turks having already compassed the passage, had made half the Conquest; or to surrender up Mortaza to his own King, one in whom they had no part, no interest, nor relation. The latter Counsel was most generally pleasing; wherefore they seized Mortaza, promising at first to conduct him through the Mountains to the Persians; but afterwards be­ing on Horse-back, and about a Mile distant from the Camp, they bound his hands behind him, and with his Steward, the Master of his Horse, and a Page, delivered him into the hands of the Turks, The sur­render of Mortaza into the Turks hands, and his death. who immediately str [...]ck off their heads, and sent them to Constantinople, where for three or four days they lay before the Door of the Divan, with Inscriptions on them whose they were, and afterwards were thrown into the Sea. [Page 120]And thus ended this famous Mortaza, who had in like cases, by order of this Viziers Father, been an active Executioner of other Pashaws, and now included in the same Fate, by means of the Son, being proscribed (as we have said before) by Testament, and the most likely of any Pasha in the Empire to stand in competition for the Office of Vizier.

The Vizier upon this success began to shew a more cheerful Countenance than formerly, suspecting less of danger upon removal of so suspicious an Enemy. And truly it was now hard to say where in the whole Empire was a generous, bold, or ambitious spirit remaining, who had Reputation and Authority enough to attempt a priority, such havock was made by this Viziers Father of all hopeful and daring dispositions, and such an Addition made to the slaughter by this man in present Office, that whether mens spirits were vanquished, and cow­ed with former Examples, or that the Age really afforded not such Heroes, it is hard to say: None now appearing other than obse­quious to this Vizier, and to fear, and court him.

The Vizier having thus successfully contrived his Establishment, and security at home, had time to confirm it by his Wars abroad, well judging that foreign Wars allay Civil Dissenti­ons, and the Prosperity thereof doth both pro­duce reputation and terrour of his Person amongst his Enemies, as well as reconcile affections, and increase Authority amongst his subjects at home. Wherefore he meditated on a War against the Em­peror, and was glad to embrace the occasion from the late Disturbances made in Transilvania by Kemenius, as we have related in the former Year. But yet like a crafty Politician, who looketh one way, and steers another; so the Vizier, that he might the better lull the Germans into a sleep, and apprehensions of se­curity, he dissembled his inclinations to Peace, and to hearken to such propositions as were ten­dered him by the German Resident, namely, that the Fort of Serini should be demolished; being built against the intention, and without the knowledge or consent of his Imperial Master; that the Garisons of Zechelhid, Coloswar, and other places should be removed, with other over­tures, and the fairest Propositions imaginable, which might give the Turks satisfaction, and by some means or other reconcile the differences, if possible.The reso­lution of War un­certain. To which counsel the Emperor was the rather inclinable, in regard that a Treaty at that time was on foot between the French King, and the Duke of Lorain for Alsatia, and that the re­sult might prove prejudicial to the Empire, should he at the same time be engaged in a War against the Turk, whilst as dangerous a friend as the other was an Enemy, crept easily into a suspected Neighbourhood. But the other Christian Princes, especially Rome, and the Allies, engaged in the Venetian Quarrel, perceiving the Emperor to de­tract from his resolutions of War, upon this su­spicion, endeavoured to clear him from all jea­lousie in reference to the French designs, and for better evidence thereof, had their own engage­ments seconded by Protestations from that King, not only not to molest the Empire during this War, but to afford him considerable aid and assi­stance both in Men, and Money. These Nego­tiations and incitements to a War, encouraged the Emperor, and the German Princes in that manner, that whilst the Turks expected the re­turn of the Currier from Vienna, as it were [...] an Oliver Branch of Peace, and Confirma­tion of all Articles, which before were esteemed to be concluded, and agreed; the Scene was wholly changed, and the Letters contained new demands and propositions, and in fine, made all doubtful and unsatisfactory. The Turks penetrating rightly into this Affair, pressed hard to have a speedy Peace, or War; wherefore the Reis Effen­di, or Secretary of State, did at a private Conference with the German Minister in name of the G. Sig­nior, and in few words declare, That three months were allotted to demolish the Fort built by the Count Serini, and for coming of an extraordinary Ambassador to confirm the Articles: Notwith­standing which, the Grand Signior unmindful of the time, and of the Conditions he had given, and prefixed for Peace, ordered the Vizier im­mediately to prepare for the War, declaring that he would in Person accompany him in part of his March, and remove his Court to Adrianople; for this being a Country, champian, and plain, full of Game of all sorts, so drew the heart and de­light of the Grand Signior, that his Seraglio at Constantinople seemed as a Cage, or Prison, in re­spect of those desired Plains of Thrace: His Wo­men were no pastime or recreation to him, in whos Apartments he spent little time: For this excessive humour in Hunting made him daily to press the Vizier to depart for Adrianople, not that he had so real a desire to the War, as he had to his Game; which gave occasion to that ordinary Saying amongst the Turks, That the Grand Sig­nior had left some Hares behind him at Adrianople, and would return to seek them. At length the Vizier not longer able to resist his importunity without his displeasure, summon'd a Council of all the Viziers of the Bench, where also the Janisar Aga was present, to consult concerning the time of their departure, at which they unanimously con­cluded, that for divers Reasons, it was most ne­cessary to defer this expedition until the next Spring. First, Because that three months time were already given to the Emperor for sending his Extraordinary Ambassador. Secondly,The Rea­son why the Turks deferred the War with the German. Be­cause in so short a time, Provisions could not be sent into those Parts for relief of the Camp. Thirdly, Because the Souldiers which were abroad could not have timely notice to repair to their Colours. Fourthly, Be­cause many Souldiers had begun to rebuild their houses destroyed by the late Fires, which by the Spring they might see finished. And lastly, That the Summer being now almost spent, was not so fit for action, as the Spring, which gives new life and blood to men, as well as sap and moisture unto Vegetables. These Reasons being repre­sented with all humility to the Grand Signior, he seemed to rest satisfied, and his heat of vi­siting Adrianople for the present allayed. And in the mean time, that the design against Ger­many might be the more covertly carried, it was given out that the preparations were intended against the Venetian Territories in Dalmatia, (viz.) Zara, Sebenico, and Cataro, and Pro­clamation was made that all Souldiers should prepare themselves for the Wars against the next Spring. In which Interim no accident interve­ning which might bring matters to an accom­modation and better understanding, the daily Skirmishes on the Frontiers made the Contro­versie every day more difficult to be reconciled, and the breach the wider. The Count Se­rini also proceeded in finishing the Fortifica­tion he had lately raised near Canisia; and the other Commanders of the Cesarean Ar­my seeing the great progress of the Turks in Transilvania, secured Claudiopolis, Somoswar, [Page 121]Sechilhid, Clewar, alias Coloswar, and Betlem, with some other Towns and Fortresses. The Turks on the other side,The sad Condition of Transil­vania. under the Command of Ali Pasha, penetrate into the very Center of Transilvania, and conceiving a jealousie of War from the passages before mentioned, lost no time to take their advantages, so that the Pasha of Varadin not contenting himself with that Coun­try, and limits formerly prescribed for mainte­nance of his Fortress, adjoined to his Jurisdicti­on what Villages and Towns he thought fit, the whilst the poor Prince Michael Apafi, though made by the Turks, durst not lift a hand, or interpose the least Obstacle or Impediment to his quiet pro­gress, or peaceable possession, which so harrassed the People of the Country, and wrought that misery and destruction therein, that the Prince, deprived of his power in Government, and disa­bled by oppression to pay his Annual Tribute, had no hopes of redress, but from the assistance of Divine Providence, governing the hearts of Chri­stians and Turks to compassionate the misery of his Country. Wherefore he craved the assistance of the Emperor, and of the King of Poland, ac­quainting other Christian Princes more remote of the sad estate of the Christian Cause; he sent also his Ambassadors to the Port with most submissive Letters to the Vizier, complaining against the Pa­sha of Varadin, and craving his Commands for retirement of his Army, within their due and an­cient bounds. Letters were also directed to the Publick Representatives of Christian Princes re­siding at Constantinople, one of which was direct­ed to the Earl of Winchelsea, his Majesties Ambas­sador, which being that which may conduce to the more full understanding of the present deplo­rable Condition of Transilvania, I thought fit to be here mentioned.

Excellentissime Domine, & Amice observandissime,

AFflictiones Regni Transilvaniae quibus per complures annos justo Dei Judicio casti­gatur,The Prince of Transilva­nia's Let­ter to His Majesties Ambassa­dor. toti Orbi Christiano manifestae sunt, nec possumus non fateri, inter duos Potentissimos Monarchas adeo indies hoc Regnum coangustari, ut nisi extraordinaria Dei clementia aliquod subsequatur levamen, vix, immo ne vix qui­dem, diu duraturum credamus. Sed ut ad rem proximius collimemus. Potentissimus Im­perator per Legatos Regni, & nostros nunc reduces Clementissimum suum patrocinium pol­licetur, interim autem Passa Varadinensis non contentus Villis ac Pagis ad dictam Arcem per­tinentibus, usque ad meditullium plane Tran­silvaniae, metu Mortis, integras ad deditio­nem cogit Regiones, quae nunquam eidem Arci applicatae fuerant, nec possible est Principatum Transilvaniae iis ademptis, ulterius persistere, Tributum (que) annuum persolvere posse. Qua de re tam Potentissimum Imperatorem quam Su­premum Vezirium denuo requirere cogimur, ve­stram quocirca Excellentissimam Dominationem confidenter rogamus, eo quo convenientius pu­taverit modo continuo nostro Oratori opitulari, ea (que) qua pollet Authoritate Causam promovere, ne gravetur rem non saltem Transilvaniae, ve­rum quoque Christianitati perutilem factura, nos (que) ad vincula amicitiae arctissime devinctura, cui felicem vitam precamur, & manemus indu­bitati.

Excellentissimae Dominationis vestrae Amicus Benevolus, Michael Apafi.

In English thus.

Most Excellent Lord, and most worthy Friend,

THe Miseries of Transilvania, with which for many years, by the just Judgment of God, we have been afflicted, are manifest to all the Christian World; nor can we but confess, how between two most Potent Monarchs, our Principality is so daily straitned, that unless through the extraordinary Mercy of God, we obtain some relief, we believe not our selves longer able to subsist. But to come nearer to our Business. The Most Potent Empe­ror, by his own Ambassadors, and ours now lately returned, hath promised us his most Gracious Protection; yet notwithstanding, the Pasha of Varadin not content with the Towns and Villages appropriated unto his Castle, hath entered into the very middle of Transilvania, and hath compelled, for fear of death, those Provinces entirely to yield themselves, which never before were belonging to his Fortresses, which being taken away, it is impossible for the Princi­pality of Transilvania longer to subsist, and pay its annual Tribute; wherefore we are constrained again to beseech the most Potent Emperor, and the Supream Vizier, as also we confidently desire your Excel­lency, in that manner which your Excel­lency judges most convenient, to be assi­stant to our Agent, and with your Au­thority to countenance our Cause, in which your Excelleney will not only per­form a matter beneficial to Transilvania, but to all Christendom, and oblige us for ever with the Bonds of friendship; and praying for all happiness of Life and Pro­sperity to your Excellency, we remain your undoubted Friend.

Your Excellencies Loving Friend, Michael Apafi.

This Letter was received by His Majesties Ambassador with that humanity as was agreeable to his Noble Nature; and with that sense of the Christian Cause as became a Religious Minister of the Faith's Defender, and an Answer returned thereunto full of affectionate Piety and Compas­sion. But it was feared that the time was elap­sed, and the Disease proceeded too far to admit a gentle Cure; for it could not probably be ex­pected, that the Vizier should, upon fair words or perswasions, or by the force of passionate and Rhetorical expressions, be induced to let slip the [Page 122]fair opportunity of an intire and total subjection of Transilvania. And the truth is, herein lay the ground of the great Quarral between these two Emperors; for ever since the Defeat of Chimianus (or as the Transilvanians call him Kemenius) the Turk swallowing in his thoughts the intire subje­ction of that Country, designed to reduce it to the Government of a Pasha, rather than of a Chri­stian Prince, though elected at the Ottomon Port; and in order thereunto, advanced beyond the Li­mits of the ancient bounds, and pitched his Camp in the very Bowels of the Country. These pro­ceedings giving matter of jealousie to all the Cap­tains of the bordering Christians; the Count Serini first hastned the finishing of his fort, as much as was possible; and next, according to his exam­ple, the Imperialists in all parts of the Borders for­tified their Towns and Castles, and reinforced their Garisons; which was answered by the Turks in the like preparations. And thus mutual fears and jealousies effected that ill Correspon­dence, in which the State of Affairs then remain­ed.

And since Transilvania is the present Scene of Action, it will not be much from our purpose to digress a little in declaring the state of that mise­rable Principality, and by what ways and means the Turks encreased their Tribute, and encroach­ed on their Liberties; the which Relation I re­ceived from one of the Transilvanian Agents, to this effect.

In the time of Sultan Solyman, A History of Transil­vanian Misery. Transilvania was governed by her own Laws, and her natural Prince, paying then only Thirty Thousand Dol­lars of yearly Tribute. After which Ali Pasha taking Varadin on the Frontiers, had some part of the Country alloted him for maintenance of his Garison, and at that time solemnly swore, That beyond those Limits allotted to Varadin, the Turks should not farther enter into Transilvania, but that Oath being little regarded, they have since that time possessed themselves of six Provinces, (viz.) Bichar, Doboka, Halnock, Colos, in which is Clau­diopolis, and of the best part of Zarand. Nor were the Turks satisfied herewith, but in the year 1658. the Vizier Kuperlee entered Transilvania, and by force of Arms took the strong Town of Janova, and demanded the Surrender of Lugas and Karansebes into his hands. Nor could the allegations of the Oath of Sultan Solyman, or of Ali Pasha, or any other perswasions or submissi­on induce him to moderate any part of his severe demands, until first having miserably destroyed the whole Country, and satiated himself with blood, he was contented, upon the sad and humble supplication of the ambassador from that Prince, to withdraw his Army out of Transilva­nia, on condition that Fifty thousand Dollars of yearly Tribute should be added to the former Thirty thousand, and that Lugas and Karansebes should be wholly abandoned by the native Inha­bitants, and deliverd into possession of the Turk: And as a mark of his absolute Dominion over that Country, he forced one Achacius Barcley, em­ployed before as Ambassador to him, to take on him the Government, threatning that if he ac­cepted not of the Charge, he would invest a Car­ter in the Principality: Notwithstanding all this Treatment; and though the Transilvanians com­ply'd with all the propositions offered them by the Turk, yet not long after the Tartar Han passed twice through the Country, miserably harrassing, spoiling, and killing, or making Cap­tives all he met, whose departure also from this Country was purchased with a considerable Sum of Money. And this was the state of the misery of Transilvania, when the troubles raised by Ra­gotzki and Kemenius added to the other discon­tents, and administred farther occasion to the en­suing War.

But whilst the thoughts of the Ottoman Court were intent on their preparation for the next years War in Hungary, advice came that the Turkish Fleet, consisting of Seventeen Ships, and Thirty seven Saiques, lately departed from Con­stantinople bound for Alexandria in Aegypt, and convoyed by six Gallies, which met them at Scio, very rich with Money, and other goods, (whose returns are yearly for the most part made in Su­gar, Coffee, Rice, and other Commodities) were encountred near Rhodes by the Venetian Ar­mata, and such ruine and prize made of them,The Alex­andrian Fleet en­countred by the Ve­netians. that of the Threescore Sail, Twenty eight Saiques, & 4 Ships were sunk and taken: (viz.) 18 Saiques taken, & 10 burnt, 3 Ships taken, and one burnt, and thereon Two hundred and seventy Slaves, among which there were of note, Arnout Asan Aga, Eunuch of the Seraglio, Mahomet Aga, Bas­cut Agasey of Grand Cairo, and Emin Reis, Cap­tain of a Ship. When this news arrived, I hap­pened to be at the Viziers Court, and perceived a strange disturbance and alteration in the faces of all then present; but more particularly the Grand Signior seemed to be heated with fury, and pre­sent resolution of revenge; so that he had almost forgotten his designs against the Emperor; and quitting his pastime in Hunting, he began to talk of transporting his Arms into Dalmatia, and there­upon sent Orders to one Beco a Begh of the Mo­rea to cause a survey of the High-ways, Passages, and Bridges towards Dalmatia, as if he had in­tended immediately to march, and either to de­fer his Hungarian War, or wage both at the same time. But his graver, and more sober Council mo­derated his heat with Reason, knowing that the de­signs of Princes, though never so absolute, must be subject to times and seasons, until their Pow­ers can extend to Omnipotency, which never yet could exceed the abilities of a mortal man, though some have affected Divine Honours, and by Flatterers have been ranked after death in the number of the Gods. The Venetians lost Seventy men only, or thereabouts, and amongst them Giacomo Semitecolo, a noble Venetian, with other Braves and Souldiers of Fortune. The Turks hor­ribly touched with this loss and disgrace, espe­cially the Grand Signior, who had an Interest in the Caravana, had a mind to vent some of their fury on Signior Ballarino, the Venetian Minister to the Port, like those (as we say) who can­not beat the Horse, will beat the Saddle; so that they intended to imprison him again in some dark Cell, or obscure retirement, of which, or of some other rigor Signior Ballarino was so sensible, that he wrote this ensuing Letter to the Senator Nico­lo Contarini, which may serve to explain the anguish and sorrowful apprehensions of his Soul.

IF my Mind were capable of Comfort, I could not in the midst of so much anguish enter­tain a more efficacious Motive thereunto, than those obliging Expressions which your Excel­lency uses towards me, who like a Terrestrial Deity is pleased to protect me. But alas, I am too much overwhelmed with Grief to disco­ver any Subject which may cause me to dry my Tears. I find no shelter against that Storm which I foresaw. Nor is it sufficient for me to discover the Tempest before it arrives: It is [Page 123]not sufficient in this darkness to lose my Sleep, disturb my Quiet, tire my Body, debilitate my Health by a slender Diet, whilst tossed in the Bosom of an inexorable Element, I am denied the enjoyment of a ray of Light. I hold the Helm of the Ship as direct as I can, but the adverse Waves of my Fortune drive me into the midst of those Storms where I ap­prehend the greatest Dangers: I am here in the midst of the Sea, which is the Nest of Extravagancies, the grand belief of unthought of Accidents, the spacious Theatre of Trage­dies, a fierce Giant, a horrible Monster, who with gentle Opiates endeavonrs to lull asleep, and lead those to Destruction who have too great a confidence in their own Strength. I reproach my self for not having been able to make it sufficiently understood, how one stroke of adverse Fortune is capable to put all into Danger, who are imbarked in the same Ves­sel; And as little able am I to inculcate into the minds of Men, that whilst the Waves of the vast Sea are smooth and calm, the nearer is the raging of the Waters, and the fury of a Tempest. It was therefore necessary that there should have been some more skilful Pilot than my self to conduct this Vessel. I was long since acquainted with my Imperfections, and therefore called aloud for the assistance of an abler Pilot, to direct me in this tempestu­ous Region; but since I was not heard, I glo­ried at least to be alone in this Gulf, that be­ing swallowed up by a final Ruin, my Martyr­dom may be a means to save the rest. Rains and Lightnings do not affright me, but rather serve to quench that fire of Disdain which I conceive against my self, for not knowing how to perform better, and serve to enlighten me daily to find out that Compass or Cart which may direct me to a course or path of Security. I fear Thunders and Tempests, because the violence of one, and the hardness of the other is able to render a cold Sweat mixed with Blood altogether unprofitable. This miserable School, tho of eleven Tears continuance, con­strains me to study the Disposition of the Stars, the Signs in the Air, the Ebbings and Flowings of the Waters, concealed Rocks, the Dangers of a long Voyage, and the necessity of recover­ing a Port. I have studied indeed, but I fear I have not well learned this profound Discipline; for where there is the greatest ur­gency, there I have gathered the least Fruit; for since the Aspect of the Spheres are become more inauspicious, I am doubtful that I shall see the Ship beaten with swelling Surges, and being full of Water, it will be so far from being eased by those opportune Remedies which I bring, that it will rather be encreased by my Tears. God grant by his miraculous Pro­vidence, the Tranquillity which we desire, and which by humune means will be difficult to ob­tain. I had not the understanding to take Opportunity by the Foretop when She present­ed her self unto me with gentle and benign Appearance, showing me the means to save this floating Vessel, and spare our insidious rewards. For this Reason my dejected, but not conquered mind, makes my very Bowels feel an unusual anguish of an over-troubled Estate. May it please the Divine pity, that these my Afflictions may prove the Off-spring of my own vileness, but not the means of my Ruin. I trust therein, I confess, and yet frail hope, amidst this Gulf of Sin, induces me to expect doubtful Successes; Yet certainly I will endeavour to avoid a shipwrack on those Rocks of Despair; And so imploring the Patronage of your Excellency here on Earth, I confirm my self.

This Letter seems to be wrote in the stile of a despairing Person; yet if it be well considered, the meaning is no other than what the Issue of Affairs some years afterwards did evidence; and his In­tentions were no other than to describe the ill na­ture of the Turkish Ministers, and their obstinacy of continuing a War, until they had wearied out the Venetians into an Humour of surrendring the whole Island of Candia unto them. I had the Honour to be well acquainted with the Person of Signior Ballarino, and I always esteemed him in his external Behaviour accomplished with the Excesses of Italian Civility; he was endued with great fluency of Language, both in Discourse and Writing; he was Jealous, Acute and Wary; and in short, was a proper Minister for that Re­publick, well practiced and versed in the manner of Treaty with the Turkish Court. He at first was sent from Venice to Constantinople in quality of Secretary to the Excellentissimo Capello, Pro­curator of St. Mark, a Person eminent for his Office, and the several great employments which he had exercised in that State; he was sincere, and of a generous Soul; his comely Looks, and grave Habit spoke him to be a Gentleman, and a Senator. In short, he was so well estemeed of at Venice, that he was thought worthy to be imployed in this Embassy to the Grand Signior, which is commonly granted to Persons after they have run through all Services of the Commonwealth, as a Consummation of their Honours and Richess. This Gentleman then had the misfortune to be invested in this Honour in the worst of Times, when the War was broke forth, and being there­by exposed to their cruelty, he was put into Pri­son, where passing for some time a Life of Sor­row and Sadness, he fell into a Melancholly, which represented all things to him in the black­est manner; so that, I know not why his fancy suggested to him, that he was not only miserable in his Imprisonment and Restraint amongst the Turks, but that he was fallen also into disgrace, and displeasure of his Prince at home. I will not say that Signior Ballarino did nourish the Opera­tion of this black humour in him; but I have heard that he did not administer that comfort to him, as might serve to dispel the thickness of that Vapour which obscured the generous temper of his Soul. In short, he gave such way to this melancholly, that he laid violent hands upon himself (as we have said before); but afterwards by the Care of his Friends and Servants, being cured of his wounds, he lived some years after, by his Sorrows and Repentance for it, to give Satis­faction to God and the World. Howsoever, the Senate being informed thereof, and judging this Act to be the effect of a violent Phrensy, appoint­ed [Page 124] Ballarino to take on himself the intire manage­ment of Affairs, reserving only the Title and Ho­nour to Signior Capello. Ballarino now manage­ing all Affairs, Capello looked on himself as neg­lected and laid aside, howsoever comported his Condition with Submission and Gentleness, never openly resenting the Honours of Ballarino, or to see him preferred before himself; Howsoever, se­cretly nourishing an inward Discontent, his ro­bustious Nature, upwards of eighty years of Age, was forced to give way to its final Dissolution; and falling Sick, he sent to the Earl of Winchelsea, then Ambassador for his Majesty at Constantinople, to acquaint him of his Distemper, desiring him to send me, who was then his Secretary, unto him. At these Summons I was easily perswaded to go, having always had his Person in great Reverence; and being come to his Bed-side, he raised himself upon his Pillows, and embracing me in his Arms, I fancied my self to receive the Benediction of one of the Ancient Patriarchs. He began with a weak Voice to say to me, Sir, I am near my end, ex­pecting every Minute to render up my last Breath, and therefore as a dying man, I desire of your Master, the Ambassador, that so soon as I am dead, he would be pleased to deliver this poor Carcass of mine from under the covering of this accursed Roof. For Answer whereunto I did not stand to expostulate the Reasons with him, well knowing the cause of his discontent; but that I would communicate his desires to my Lord Am­bassador, and speedily return with my Answer to him. Accordingly I departed from him, and quickly brought from my Lord a Promise to en­deavour his utmost to comply with his request; at which he seemed to be much satisfied, and commanded his Servants then present, especially one called Sig. Tomaso Gobbato, his great confident, to be Witnesses thereof. The next day he expired his last Breath, and the day following his Body being embalmed, his bowels were buried, and the Funeral Rites performed with such order and decency as was seemly in a Country where he lived rather like a Prisoner than an Ambassador. All things being thus prepared, the Earl of Win­chelsea, according to the Will of the Deceased, sent for his Body, already embalmed, which was immediately without opposition or scruple sent to his house; where it remained for some months, in expectation of a conveyance for Ve­nice. At length a Dutch ship, being bound from Constantinople thither, it was designed that the Body should be thereon imbarked; but I know not for what reason, the Customer refused to suffer it to pass; though it may well and rational­ly be conjectured, That Ballarino, who was sen­sibly touched to have the care of the Body of his Master, his Countryman and Colleague taken from him, did with Presents prevail with the Customer to put difficulties in the way which he supposed might vex those who were thought worthy of this employment. This opposition being made, and not to be overcome without much Money, it was contrived that the Ship departing should attend the Corps at Tenedos, which was without the command of the Castles; and the body being divided from the Legs, was packed up in a But of Cavear, and so sent down by a boat with Licence of the Customer, as a parcel of Goods and Mer­chandice; and so safely arriving aboard, the Corps were separated from their adjuncts; and being laid decently in a Coffin, covered with a Pall of black Velvet, with Scutcheons, and other orna­ments appertaining to the Funerals of such great Personages, it arrived safely at Venice, where it was interred with the usual ceremonies, in the Tomb of the Ancestors of that Ancient Fa­mily.

But the heads and thoughts of these Governours were not so employed in their preparations of War, but that the Vizier could lend an ear to the suggestions of some malicious Pharisees, who, un­der pretence of Religion, informed him, That the Christian Churches, burnt down in Constanti­nople and Galata by those dreadful Fires in the year 1660, were again re-edified against his com­mand, and the Law of the Turks, which allows the reparation of Churches, and continuance of such which were found standing when Mohometanism was introduced; but not to erect new, or re­build what are either by time, fire, or other ac­cidents fallen to ruine. And being farther informed,The Vi­zier de­stroys the Christian Churches rebuilt af­ter the Fire. that though those Churches were restored under the notion of Dwellings, or Ware-houses, yet se­cretly served for Celebration of Divine Service, and thereby his Decrees and Edicts were frustrated and disappointed: Wherefore, furiously transport­ed with a Mahometan Zeal, commanded immediate­ly that the Authors of those Buildings should be imprisoned, the Churches themselves levelled to the Foundation, and the ground whereon they stood confiscated to the Grand Signior. This action, though naturally agreeable to the disposition of the Vizier, who was a perfect Turk, The Zeal of a Turkish Preacher. zealous in execu­tion of all points of the Mahometan Law, being e­ducated after the severest sort of Professors, and one of those whom they called Softaes; yet he was chiefly prompted unto this, and to a greater abhor­rency of Christianity, by one Vanni Effendi, a Shegh, or Preacher, one who was as inveterate and mali­cious to the Christian Religion, as any Enthusiast or Fanatick is to the Rites of our Church and Religi­on. And thus we may see how troublesom Hy­pocrisie and Puritanism are in all places where they gain a Superiority; for this Preacher not con­tented only to ruine the Christian Churches, but perswaded the Vizier that the terrible Fires in Con­stantinople and Galata in the year 1660, and the last years unparallel'd Pestilence, and the incon­siderable advance of the Turks on the Christians for some years, were so many parts of Divine Judgments thrown on the Mussulmen or Believers, in vengeance of their too much Licence given to the Christian Religion, permitting Wine to be sold within the Walls of Constantinople, which polluted the Imperial City, & ensnared the faithful by tem­ptation to what was unlawful: Wherefore a com­mand was issued, That no Wine should be hence­forth sold within the Walls of the City. And it was farther intended, that Greeks & Armenians, & all other Christians, who had Dwellings or Possessions with­in the Walls of the City, should within Forty days sell those habitations, and depart; which other­wise should be confiscated to the Grand Signior; but God who supports the Faithful in Tryals of Persecution, moderated this Decree, and reserved still this Church in the midst of Infidels; not suf­fering this City to lose the Name nor Religion of that holy Emperor, who both erected, and christ­ned it; as also to preserve most of the Churches, which though again uncovered, yet were redeem­ed for Money from the possession of the Turks. Nor was the Mohometan Zeal satisfied in Demolish­ment of the Churches themselves, unless it vented part of its fury against the poor Workmen, which for their hire and days Wages erected them; such as Greek Labourers, Masons, and Carpen­ters, who were all beaten and imprisoned. But it happening at that time that the Queen Mother building a sumptuous Mosch, and having occasion of many Labourers and Artists to forward so vast a Work, sent to the Maimarbashee (who is [Page 125]the Master work-man, or Cape, over all such who are employed in Building) to sup­ply such a number of Carpenters, Masons, and others, as were convenient to carry on that Fabrick with expedition; who readily replyed, That he would provide all that was possible, but could not promise a sufficient number, unless those Greeks were set at liberty, who were im­prisoned by the Grand Vizier for building the Christian Churches; which answer being reported again to the Queen Mother, she interceded with the Vizier in their behalf, who being glad of any occasion to gratifie to great a Lady, immediately released them, without any fine or reward, which he designed to obtain for their li­berty. Howsoever the Vizier not well brook­ing such an indignity (as he supposed) put upon him by so mean a Slave, as the Maimarba­shee, dealt with some of the imprisoned Labou­rers to accuse him, as the Author and Licenser of building the Christian Churches. The Greeks easily enough perswaded to please so great a Per­sonage, accused him accordingly, whose Evi­dence, though nor passable against a Turk by the Mahometan Law, yet served the Viziers revenge for the present, who immediately commanded his head to be struck off,The Vi­ziers re­venge on the Cape of the Builders. and his Estate confis­cated; which was reported to consist of Two thousand Purses of Money, every Purse import­ing Five hundred Dollars, then found actually in his House, which, if true, is a strange Wealth for so ordinary a Person. But by this, and by many other instances, we may perceive that there is no People in the World more covetous and desirous to amass Wealth than the Turks, nor none more uncertain to enjoy it.

About this time the French Merchants in the Le­vant, having advised his most Christian Majesty that the Turks were sensible that the affront to the Person of Monsieur la Haye, his Ambassador, was contrary to the Law of Nations, and such an injury as could not but provoke the Choler of so puis­sant a Prince to a just revenge; and knowing that his Majesty being powerful at Sea, was able to extend his Arms to the utmost Confines of his Empire, whilst the interposition of other Coun­tries limited the Turks march by Land, and their ignorance and inability in Marine Affairs rendred them uncapable to arrive those Banks of France, which the Sea washes: These Considerations the French Merchants having perswaded the King to be the thoughts of the Grand Signior, and that he desired the continuance of the Peace and Traf­fick with France, and as an evidence of his re­morse and displeasure for the injury to Monsieur la Haye, the Father, his Majesty was contented in satisfaction thereof to redress this injurious transgression of the Law of Nations, by some ex­traordinary marks of favour and honour to the Person of Monsieur la Haye the Son; that so ex­ceeding the usual method and rule of Ceremony towards this Ambassador at his arrival, the World might be convinced of the real affection, and hearty desire the Grand Signior had to renew his Peace, and preserve his Commerce with France. This is supposed to be what the Mer­chants of Marseille and Lyons, governed by the Interest of their Trade, suggested to their King, to induce him to send an Ambassador to Constantinople; for at this time Monsieur Roboli, a Merchant,Messen­gers from France to introduce a new Am­bassador. remained only as Consul or Agent for the Affairs of Commerce. Things thus repre­sented at the French Court, the King dispatched away two Gentlemen to Constantinople with Let­ters to the Grand Signior and Vizier, and one to the Sieur Roboli, the Agent, declaring that if the Turk would make amends for the last Affront done to the Ambassador, by some signal notes of Ho­nour in the abused Person of Monsieur la Haye, the Son, he would then condescend to confirm the Ancient League and Amity. The Letters translated out of the French Tongue, were as followeth.

To Our Dear and Well Beloved le Sieur Roboli, Agent for Our Affairs at Constantinople.

By the King.

Dear, and Well Beloved,

THe Inclination We have to continue that Amity with the Emperor of the Turks, which hath remained so long between Ʋs, and Our Empires, and maintain the ancient Alli­ances, hath caused Ʋs to write to Him, and his Great Vizier, to know the Entertainment and Reception that they will give to the Sieur de la Haye, the Son, in satisfaction of the violence exercised before on his own Person, and the Person of the Sieur de la Haye, the Father, our Ambassador, against the Law of Nations. We write to You this Letter, to give you Or­der to conduct and present before the Vizier, the Secretaries du Pressoir, and Fontain, which We have sent to carry him our Di­spatches, and return with the Answers, which you shall solicite without loss of time, the which you shall bring your self, in case they be not agreeable to that resolution we have taken not to receive any satisfaction, but in the Person of the said Sieur de la Haye, the Son, which is due to Ʋs, for that Insolency and Affront which hath been done them. Willing also not­withstanding, that before you depart, you as­semble the French Merchants in Constantino­ple together, that they may chuse amongst them­selves one for their Chief; but if the Answers be such as We have cause to expect, We ap­prove that you remain in the Station where you are, in Quality of Our Agent, until the arrival of the said Monsieur de la Haye, and that you send them by the said Secretaries du Pressoir, and Fontain, of which you shall not fail, for so is Our Pleasure.

Signed, LOUIS. De Lomenie.

The King of France his Letter to the Great Vizier.

To the Most Illustrious and Magni­nificent Lord, the Chief Vizier of the Sublime Port of the Grand Signior.

Most Illustrious and Magnificent Lord;

Although the Indignity offered to the Per­son of the Sieur de le Haye Venteley, Our Ambassador, and to his Son, which We have designed to the same Charge, have touched Ʋs as far as becomes a victorious Prince, who holds the first rank over Christian Kings, and who hath under his Power one of the most warlike Nations of the World; Notwithstand­ing after being informed, that the disgrace which the said Gentlemen have incurred, hath proceeded rather from malice, and the ill Of­fices of some Persons, who have endeavoured to disturb, by this ill Treatment of them, the good Correspondence which hath been between Ʋs, than from any design on the Grand Sig­niors part to offend Ʋs; and that on the con­trary, there continues in His will an intention to maintain the Ancient Friendship which re­mains between Our Estates and People after so many Ages. We being not desirous to estrange Our selves, shall send an Embassador in ordinary to his high Port, and having cast our Eyes up­on the said Sieur de la Haye, the Son, We are much inclined to dispatch him for this employ­ment; but as We desire to be assur'd of the good re­ception that shall be made him, We give You ad­vice of Our intentions by this Letter; that ac­cording to the desire You have testified of the con­tinuance of Our friendship, and Our Ancient Al­liances with His Highness, shall pray God to have You, Most Illustrious and Magnificent Lord, in His holy and worthy Protection.

LOUIS. De Lomenie.

The King of France his Letter to the Grand Signior.

To the most High, most Excellent, most Puissant, most Magnani­mous, and Invincible Prince, the Great Emperor of the Mussul­mans, Sultan Mahomet, in whom all Honour and Virtue abound. Our most dear and perfect Friend.

MOst High, most Excellent, most Puissant, most Magnanimous, and Invincible Prince, the Grand Signior, Emperor of the Mussulmans, Sultan Mahomet, in whom all Honour and Vertue abound. Our most dear and perfect Friend. May God encrease Your Greatness and Majesty with a happy end. We have not known how to impute the ill usage, which hath been offered to the Person of the Sieur de la Haye, our Ambassador, and to his Son, designed by Ʋs to the same employment, to any causes and motions in Your Highness, but rather to the Instigation of some People which would trouble that good Correspondence, which hath been so long established between Ʋs, and our Empires. And as we have cause to be­lieve that Your Highness desires much to con­tinue this friendship and good understanding, upon what hath been wrote Ʋs on Your Part; and to concur with You herein, we desire much likewise to continue to maintain an Ambassa­dor at Your High Port, in place of the said Sieur de la Haye. And since We have none of Our People that is more intelligent than the Sieur de la Haye, the Son, in what concerns the Affairs and Functions of this Embassy; We have elected him for this employment, to which we We shall willingly dispatch him, if We may be assured of the good usage and kind reception which shall be given him. This is that which We expect from Your Highness, reserving a more particular information to be sent by the Sieur de la Haye, the Son, of the good Correspondence which We desire always to have and maintain with You. And hereupon We pray God, That You may be most High, &c. as above, in his Holy and Worthy Protection.

Your true and perfect Friend, LOƲIS. De Lomenie.

The Viziers Answer to the fore­going Letters.

TO the most Glorious amongst the Sublime Christian Princes, chosen amongst the Great and Sublime of the Religion of the Mes­siah, Mediator of the Affairs of all the Na­zarene Nation, Lord of Majesty and Reputa­tion, Master of Greatness and Power, Louis Emperor of France, the end of whose days be happy. The Salutations which respect Friend­ship, and are desired from Love and Affecti­on, being premised. Your Majesty shall know that the Letter which was sent to Your Friend, by the Honourable du Pressoir and Fountain hath been delivered me by the Sieur Roboli, Agent and Attorney of the Embassy, at the High and Imperial Port; the Contents where­of We have apprehended to be as Your Ma­jesty gives to understanstand, touching the in­tire [Page 127]Amity and good Correspondence. Certain­ly Your Majesty knows; that the Augmenta­tion, and daily Encrease of that Amity, pro­ceeds from the protection and honourable Ob­servance of Conditions and Capitulations be­tween both Parties. By the Grace of the Most High GOD, the Sublime and Imperial Port of the most Happy, most Puissant, most Vala­rous, most Magnificent, and most Strong Em­peror, Support of the Mussulmans, My Lord, whose Arms God prosper with double Force, is always open for our Friends, and others, with­out any Obstacle, as all the World knows, and particularly for Your Majesty, Who is our Friend, and hath been long in Amity with the most Serene Ottoman Family, whom God esta­blish until the day of the Ballance. It being a most certain Truth, that there hath happened neither on one side or other any Action contrary to the promised Faith.

And now, since Your Majesty desires for a new Ornament of the Ancient and Good Corre­spondence, and to the end that the Agreement and Conditions thereof be honoured as they ought, that the considerable Person amongst the Nobles of the Court of Your Majesty, the Sieur Denys de la Haye, Son of the late Am­bassador, a Subject of Reputation, Your Gen­tleman of Credit, whose Days may they con­clude in happiness, be sent to reside at this Happy and Imperial Port, for Your Majesty, according to the ancient custom; to the end that the Intention of Your Majesty may be per­formed, We have exposed it at the High Throne of the thrice Happy, most Mysterious, and most Great Emperor, My Lord, Who with an Imperial regard of courteous Demonstration, hath accepted the said Demand with willingness, and therefore in signification of his Pleasure, We write You this Our present and friendly Letter; and if it please God, according to the ancient Custom, when the said Embassador shall arrive at this High Port with the Let­ters of Friendship from four Majesty, he shall be honoured on the Imperial part, and entertain­ed according to the ordinary custom, the Imperial Capitulation shall be renewed, the Ornament of Affection on one side and the other shall be con­firmed; and for an efficacious Confirmation of a good Peace between both Emperors, an Imperi­al Letter shall be sent to Your Majesty, whose health be happy and prosperous.

The Poor Hamet Pasha.

In Answer to the Kings Letters,The Vi­zier stiles himself, The Poor, in respect to the Great­ness of his Master. the Grand Signior made no reply, but only by his Vizier, by reason that in all the Ancient Turkish Registers and Archives, there was no example found, that the Grand Signior ever wrote to any King; who had not an Ambassador actually resident at his Port. But this Negotiation about a French Am­bassador took not effect, until some time after, in which other Letters and Messages intervened, as will appear by the following Sequel of this Hi­story.

It was now towards the beginning of Winter, when the Season of the Year compelled the Turkish Fleet of Gallies to return according to custom,The re­turn of the Turk­ish Arma­ta to win­ter at Con­stanti­nople. to the Port of Constantinople. The whole Sum­mer before, they had for the most part passed in some Harbour or Creek amongst the Greek Islands, having afforded nothing of Convoy or succour to­wards the safe Conduct of the Fleet of Grand Cairo, but suffered them to fall into the hands of the Enemy, as before mentioned, and indeed for several years the Marine Affairs of the Turks have always gone decaying in Fame and Force; and the preparations of the Armata every Spring, have been of Form and Course, rather than with hopes of success correspondent to the expence. In their return home, near Constanti­nople they encountred a fierce storm, so that three Gallies were cast away at Ponte Piccolo, (by the Turks called Cucuccheckmage, about four Leagues distant from Constantinople.) Howsoever the Wea­ther clearing, the remainder of the Fleet got into Port, entring with Joy, with Vollies of great and small Shot, with Streamers flying, Pipes sounding, and all other sorts of their Country Musick, bringing with great Ostenta­tion a small Flyboat, which had been a [...]or­nese Man of War, taken by them as she was cruising singly in the Arches of Pelago; which was brought in with so much Ceremony used in toaing her into Port, decking her with Streamers and Pendants, with such signs of Vi­ctory and Triumph, as if they had led Cap­tive the whole Venetian Armata.The Slaves make an Insur­rection in one of the Beghs Gallies. But I must not omit the relation of what besel one of the Beghs Gallies, designed, with the rest, to ren­dezvous at Constantinople, whilst she loitered amongst small Isles in the Gulf of Nicomedia. It was a Gally, the Commander of which had newly received as the Portion of his Wite, being a Young man lately married. who entertained great thoughts of raising his Fortunes by the spoils and prize he was to make. At these sles several of the Officers, andThe Soldiers at Sea [...]al­led by that name Levents went on shore; where whilst they entertained them­selves with Wine and merriment; the Slaves made an insurrection in the Gally, seized the Captain, cut off his Head, and threw his Body into the Sea; and so becoming Masters of the Vessel, weighed Anchor, and set sail. Those on the shore admiring at the unexpected depar­ture of the Gally, accompanied her with their Eyes and wonder as far as they could perceive her in sight, but observing her to steer a dif­ferent course from the Port, to which they were designed, suspected much of the truth of what had succeeded; wherefore taking their Boat im­mediately, they ha [...]tned to Constantinople to give advice of what had passed, that (if possible) Orders might timely arrive the Castles on the Hellespont, which might obstruct their farther passage. But alas! the poor Slaves were so dis­mayed with their own action, and so tran­sported with a slavish fear and apprehension of what might succed, should their escape not be effected; that they knew not what course to steer: All things seemed to contradict their li­berty, the Wind proved contrary, their Spirits dejected, their understandings void of counsel and contrivance; so that wand [...]ing three or four days in the Propentis, at last ran their Gally ashoar on the Asian side, near Palermo, from whence they were brought back to Constanti­nople, and there, by sentence of the Captain Pa­sha, fourteen of them had their Legs and Arms broken, and so suffered to die in that torture, and afterwards their Bodies were thrown into [Page 128]the Sea, to the terrour of all other Slaves, who prefer a miserable Life at the Oar, before the torments of some hours in dying.

Though the Turks have their Affairs but ill ma­naged at Sea, and their success accordingly for­tunate; yet their preparation for Land services are more expedite, and executed with that se­cresy and speed, that oftentimes Armies are brought into the Field, before it is so much as rumoured by common Mouths that any designs are in agitation: For though it was now Win­ter, yet the design against Germany went for­ward, Forces were daily sent to the Frontiers, Cannot, and Ammunition for War, transported by way of the black Sea, and the Danube. Or­ders issued out to the Princes of Moldavia and Valachia to repair their Wharfs and Keys along the River,The Pre­parations for the German War. for the more convenient landing of Men and Ammunition, and to rebuild their Bridges for the more commodious passage of the Tartars; that Horses should be provided against the next Spring, for drawing all Carriages of Ammunition, and Provisions; their Magazines stored with quantities of Bread, and Rice, their Fields well stocked with Sheep, and other Cat­tel, and that no necessaries be wanting which concern the victualling, or sustenance of a Camp. The Tartars were appointed to have in a readi­ness a Hundred thousand Horsemen, to make In­cursions on the Frontiers; likewise the Pashaws of Darbiquier, Aleppo, Caramania, and Anatolia received their orders; and seven and twenty Let­ters, accompanied with as many Vests, after the Turkish manner, were sent to as many Pashaws of the Empire, to dispose the strength of their Coun­tries in a Warlike posture, so as to march when the Grand Signiors Commands should re­quire them to attend his designs: And that the occasion of the War might appear the more justifiable, it was resolved, That no Acts of Hostility, or other Breaches of Peace should be pretended, than the Fort built by the Count Se­rini, being a matter really against the Articles of the last Peace; the Demolishment whereof, the Ottomon Force intended to make the princi­pal end of their first Enterprize, in which if they encountred any opposition from the Emperor, the Cause of their War would be then the more plausible; for as yet the Emperour had not fully declared his approbation of that Work, raised by Serini, as agreeable to his Assent, or Plea­sure. On the other side with no less caution and labour did the Christians endeavour to se­cure their Frontiers, by raising their Militia, and reinforcing their Garisons, and especially to per­fect the new Fort near Canisia, which, as it was thought so considerable, as to countervail the inconveniencies and miseries of a War, so the Turk thought it neither honourable, nor secure, until he had seen it razed, and levelled with the ground.

All things thus growing black and stormy round about,An Acci­dent di­sposing the Chri­stian Af­fairs to a peace with the Turk. that nothing seemed less probable, and it may be said, less possible, than an accommo­dation; behold, on a sudden, an Accident fell out at Rome, from whence this War with the Turks received its life and heat, which becalmed much of the fury and storm on the Christian Con­fines, and inclined matters in Germany towards propositions of Peace, fearing that Italy, who had begotten this War, was not able (as things stood) to contribute towards its maintenance and support. The occasion was this. It happen­ed that in the streets of Rome the French Ambas­sadours Coach was assaulted by the Corsi Natves of the Islle of Corsica, which are of the Popes Guard, the Page killed at the Boot of the Coach, and the Ambassadors Lady wounded; whether this barbarous act was designed against the Per­son of the Ambassador by any Persons of Emi­nency, or malice of the People, is little to the purpose I have now in hand; only the King took this Affront so heinously, that for the pre­sent no acknowledgments or satisfaction the Pope could make, could allay his just resent­ment, or any thing be imagined possible to ex­piate this indignity, besides a VVar. This News of this Division between the Son, and the spiritu­al Father, filled all the Ministers of Constanti­nople with much Joy, and with subject of Laugh­ter, and expectation of the Event, judging now that their daily Prayers for the Discord of the Christian Princes amongst themselves, were heard and granted, since they had so far a­vailed, as to disunite the very Oeconomy of Christendom. And now they imagined that this difference would have a forcible influence on their Affairs in Hungary, and either incline the Emperor speedily to a Peace, or otherwise to undertake a War on disadvantageous terms. Things had an issue accordingly, for in a few Weeks after, advice came by Post from Ali Pa­sha, then at Temiswar, that is Salam-Chaous, cal­led Chusaein, who had long since been sent to Vienna, with more distinct Demands of what the Turks proposed, and being supposed, through his long stay, to be detained a Prisoner,The Ba­ron of Gowez sent to Ali Pasha. was again returned, and with him had brought the Baron of Goez, as Internuncio, sent to Ali Pasha, to receive a more particular Imformation of the Turks propositions, for that the Emperor pretended, he was not as yet throughly satisfied therein. And thus matters, beyond all expecta­tion, began to incline to an agreement, in re­gard that Rome being now in danger her self, not by the Turks, but by the Christians, held her self uncapable to administer that Fuel to the Fire of War which she had promised; so that the League treated there beginning to fail, the Em­peror grew faint, and the Princes cold, in their Preparations, wishing some Course could be ef­fected, which might bring matters to an accom­modation. Such were the Discourses and imagi­nations of the Turks; in which condition we leave the state of Affairs until the beginning of the next year; and in the mean time it may not be from our purpose, nor tedious to the Reader, to record what befel this year most remarkable to the English Nation, and their Trade in Turky, which also may be beneficial, by instruction of past examples, to such who shall for the future be concerned in the Traffick and Business of the Levant.

What Remarkable accidents befel the ENGLISH Nation, and their Trade this Year in TURKEY.

THE Messengers from Algier, as before related, having promised better Obedience for the future to the Commands of the Grand Signior, obtained a new Pasha for their City, and Country thereunto belonging; who before his departure, was enjoyned by the Grand Signior to dispose Affairs with the Earl of Win­chelsea, his Majesties Ambassador at Constantinople, as might demonstrate his dispositions towards a Peace, and his desire that the Algerines should do the like, and accept of that Clause in the Articles, [Page 129]prohibiting the search of English Ships, either for their own or Strangers Goods. The place ap­pointed for the meeting between the Embassa­dor and the Pasha, was a certain Chiosk, or Garden house, belonging to an Eunuch, the Aga of a Seraglio at Pera; where both parties being met, the Pasha declared that the Grand Signiors desires were, That a Peace should be concluded on the Ancient Capitulations, and that by him these Orders were to be carried unto Algier, from whence he was advised, that the Algerines were ready to accept those Articles, if one of his Ma­jesties Ships singly appeared about the Treaty; so that the World might not esteem their conde­scension to proceed from Force and Compulsion. Hereof Advices being sent into England, a Peace ensued in some Months after; but what faith these Infidels kept will be related in the Sequel of this Story; the Memory of which is engraven with the Point of a Diamond, and the Losses which ensued thereupon to the Exchange at Lon­don, deserve a particular Treatise, which in the mean time many Families retain in a sad remem­brance.

In May, Advice was brought to the Lord Am­bassador, how that the Ann, a Frigat of his Ma­jesties Royal Navy, commanded by Captain Jonas Pool, which had convoyed the general Ships to Symrna, in her passage homewards stopped at the Morea, and came to an Anchor near a place in that Country, called the Black Mountain, com­modious to Wood and Water in; to which end were landed threescore men, armed with Swords and Firelocks; these made havock of the Woods on all sides, loading their Boats away as fast as they could, and not only so, but set great Frees on Fire which in that dry Season of the Year dispersed it self far and wide; which being seen at a distance in the Night, alarmed the People of the Country, so that the Begh; or Governor came down with some Force to discover the matter, supposing that some Malteses, or Vene­tians might be landed. At the approach of this Body of Turks, our Men quitted the Woods, and shifted away as fast as they could to their Boats, of which Thirty eight escaped, the rest falling short were intercepted by the Turks, and Eleven of them were killed, and Eleven taken Captives; and of the Turks, two Aga's, and Two or Three others had the fortune to fall by some Musket­shot from our men, whilst in this confusion they endeavoured to defend themselves. On the news hereof, our Lord Ambassador represented the whole matter to the Vizier, declaring, That it was lawful according to our Capitulations, to take refreshments, and supply our wants in any part of the Grand Signiors Dominions; and that therefore he demanded Justice on the Begh of the Morea, and restitution of the Captives. But the Vizier understanding that some Turks were killed in the skirmish, lent not so ready an ear to these Complaints; howsoever, to be acquitted of the Ambassadors solicitations, referred the business to the Examination and Justice of the Captain Pa­sha: But it falling out that at that time the Consul and Merchants at Smyrna had an un­happy difference with the Captain Pasha, (which shall in the next place be related) was the Cause that all Applications to his Fa­vour and Justice were suspended, and a slow progress made towards obtaining the liberty of those poor unfortunate men. Howsoever, some months after it happened that the Begh of the Morea being removed from that Government, and coming to Constantinople with his whole Estate, brought with him the Eleven Englishmen, which he had taken, and offered them to sale unto the Ambassador, who considering that they were Englishmen, and such as had been enslaved in actual Service of their King, he esteemed him­self obliged both in Charity and Honour to re­deem them. But the Case appeared too foul to demand their Liberty by strength of the Capitu­lations; for besides that, the cutting Wood in places inhabited without permission, is a Rob­bery and a Crime in its self, not to be maintained by the Law of Nations, the killing of a principal Aga, and wounding others, might sufficiently warrant the Turks, without any Breach of Peace, to detain these men as lawful Captives: Where­fore the Lord Ambassador deeming it unseemly, that those who had served in his Majesties Navy should be condemned to the Turkish Gallies, dis­bursed Fourteen hundred Lion Dollars, which was demanded for them, which was afterwards repay'd him by his Majesty; and having cloathed, and provided them with necessaries for their Voyage, conveyed them with the first occasions into England.

The difference between the English Nation, and the Captain Pasha which impeded the Liberty, for some time, of these Captives, had its Origi­nal at Smyrna, where some English Merchants making Collation one Evening in a Garden were assaulted and beaten by certain drunkenSoldiers belonging to the Sea. The Gar­den Ava­nia. Le­vents, belonging to a Gally then in Port, in whose Company was a Portuguez Slave. The News hereof flying to the Frank Street, put all the Neighbourhood into an uproar, so that divers People with such Weapons as came next to hand, in a fury went in pursuit of the Levents, and un­happily meeting one, drew him into the English Consuls house, where they treated him with such blows as abated much of the heat and fumes of his Wine; during which disturbance and confusion, the Portuguez Slave found an op­portunity to make his escape. The Consul knowing it some advantage in Turky to complain first, sent to the Kadi, giving him to understand the ill usage of Four of his Merchants (whose names he gave in writing) by the unruly Levents, whilst they innocently, and without injury to any, divertised themselves in a Garden; to which, for the present, little more was given in answer, than that on a farther examination of the Busi­ness, the Conful should receive Justice In the mean time the Turk, who had been beaten in the Consuls House, resolved not to leave the Gate till he had received satisfaction for his blows; and the others that were his Comrades demand­ed their Slave from the English, which was lost, by whose means and assistance (as they pretend) he had made his Escape. The matter came now to high Demands on both sides, which the Kadi, either not being desirous, or not of sufficient Au­thority to compound, the Gally departed with­out any agreement, and the complaint was car­ried by the Turks to the Captain Pasha, who then being with his Fleet at Mytiline, with little other thoughts or business, was glad of this oc­casion to get Money, and therefore suddenly re­turned the Gally again, with Orders to bring before him the Four Merchants, whose names he particularized, to make answer to their ac­cusation of having beaten his Levents, and con­trived the escape of the slave. The Consul and Merchants being affrighted by this Message, and Command of so great a Personage, endeavoured with Money to accommodate the Business, by force of which it was at length taken up, costing in all the summ of Two thousand seven hundred Dollars, or thereabouts. The which passage [Page 130]may serve for an example to such as live in Turky, that all troubles of this nature are best compound­ed for at first; for at the beginning nothing more was demanded than the price of the Slave, & of the broken pate of the Levent: But being suffered to come under the Cognizance of powerful and co­verous Tyrants; as there is no fahtoming their unsatiable desires, so there is no prospect into what inconvenient dangers such Affairs will involve, and entagle themselves.

As Turky hath been seldom or never without having false Money currant, so the best sort of Silver hath been so clipped by the Jews, Arme­nians, Merchants, and others; that the Dollar was brought at Constantinople to six Drams, and at Smyrna to seven, which made great confusion in the Trade of these Countries. Wherefore the Vizier as he had already given proof and testi­mony to the World of his strict observance, and adherence to the Mahometan Law, so he was de­sirous to appear highly careful and sensible of the Publick Interest: And therefore as the most neces­sary work, he began with the Dollars of six Drams, proclaiming that they should no longer pass in payments,The Vi­zier's Edict, against Dollars of six Drams. and that those in whose hands they were found, delivering them into the Mint, should receive a [...] 80 in return of every such Dol­lar, by which means the Mint would ad­vance a Fourth on every Dollar, esteem­ing every Dram worth Fourteen Aspers, and that for the present no Dollar being currant under seven Drams, it might afterwards be brought to Lyons, and Dollars of nine Drams; which regu­lation, though at first grievous to some particular persons, would afterwards redound to the com­mon advanrage and benefit of Trade. To for­ward which Design the Grand Signior, and Queen Mother sent all their Dollars of six Drams to be new coined into Aspers at the Mint, so likewise did the Vizier, intending to be very strict in pro­hibition of that Money. But a while after it hap­pened that the Treasurer of the Viziers Steward having occasion to pay Monies, either for his own or his Masters account, forced some Bags of Six Drams on those to whom payment was to be made; the Receivers denied to accept them; but he being a powerful man, and very urgent, forced the Mony upon them, with which laden, as they had received them, they went directly to the Vizier, acquainting him that they were desirous to obey his Commands, as to the six Dram Dol­lars, but his Stewards Treasurer had forced on them that sort of Money, which if it was his plea­sure that they should still pass, they were con­tented to receive; if not, they desired him to give Command for their payment in other Mo­ney. The Vizier being highly enraged, that the first Violation of his Commands should begin in his own Family, immediately ordered, without farther proof or process, that the Offenders Head should be struck off, and his body thrown into the Sea; which Sentence was executed in the same hour for example and terror of others, and to expiate the crime, and take away the scandal from the Fountain of Justice, whose streams can never be esteemed to run clear when the source is corrupted. In like manner the Overseer of the Mint was strangled, and Emir Pasha, formerly Pasha of Grand Cairo, was banished to the Isle of Lemnos, for making the Coin of Aspers 5 per Cent. worse than their true value.

The Merchants at Aleppo, being far from the Court,Mer­chants Aleppo. are more subject to troublesom Avanias than others, who are nearer to the Head or Fountain, from whence Justice should pro­seed as may appear by many examples, and particularly by an accident which fell out there this year. For it happened, that a Jani­sary which served the English Nation, riding abroad with some of the Merchants, for want of heed, or the unruliness of his Horse, chanced to hurt a Youth playing in the streets. Whereup­on the Merchants, and the Janisary, not to suf­fer this business to come within the knowledge of the Cities Officers, immediately for some Money quieted the complaints, and stopped the farther demands of the Father; and to make the busi­ness more secure, caused the Father to make Ho­get before the Kadi, that he was well satisfied, and remained without farther pretence, either on the Merchant, or the Janisary, for the hurt which his Child had received. But the Pasha, who had for a long time attentively watched an opportunity to extort Money from the English, was resolved not to let pass this fair occasion; and therefore sent to demand from the Consul those Merchants, which he called Accessories to this mischief, and the Assassinates of a Mussulman. The Consul appearing in Person before the Pasha, denied to deliver up the Merchants, being guilt­less of any crime; and that for hurt to the Child, the Father had received full satisfaction from the Janisary, and given a discharge before the Kadi. Howsoever this reason would not pacifie the Pa­sha, who could acknowledge no other argu­ment available than a Sum of Money; and therefore in prosecution of his design produced Ten false Witnesses, that the Child was dead of its hurt, and that English men had done the mis­chief. The Consul had now no other answer than a flat denial; for the Pasha had forced by threats the Hoget from the Janisary, and persist­ing with constancy in defence of his Merchants, the Pasha confined him for an hours time in a Chamber of his House, and beat, and imprisoned his Druggerman. The Consul afterwards re­turned home; and perceiving a difference be­tween the Pasha and the Mufti, purchased the favour of the Mufti on his side, and procured from him an Hoget of the several proceedings in this business, which was dispatched away with all expedition to Constantinople, that a redress of this injury might be obtained from the Superiour Power. Whilst the Lord Ambassador in due manner resented this breach of Capitulations, and prepared to make his complaints to the Vizier, it happened that certain Christians of Aleppo, from whom the Pasha had forced 18000 Dollars by unjust extortion, were then at Court solliciting the restauration of their right. The Ambassador judging this a convenient and opportune prepa­ration to prepossess the mind of the Vizier with a true apprehension of the injustice of this Pasha, encouraged and pricked forward these abused and oppressed Christians in their complaints; and the next day presented his Memorial to the Vi­zier, containing all the particulars of the late pas­sages at Aleppo; Which with the other Crimes alledged the Day before, so moved the mind of the Vizier, that he promised the Ambassador to send a Kapugibashee of the Grand Signior to en­quire into the Truth of these Allegations; and that he might be satisfied of his real intentions to do him justice, he advised him to send a Mes­senger in company with this Officer, who might witness the reality of his proceedings. The Ka­pugibashee being in this manner dispatched, and arriving at Aleppo, made the Pasha refund the Money he had unjustly taken from the poor op­pressed Christians of that Country; in which good action my Lord Ambasador had been an useful instrument, having encouraged the Agents [Page 131]of those Christians at Constantinople,counselled them what Course to take, and introduced them by his Chief Interpreter to the Presence of the Vizier, for which he received the thanks of the Greek and Armenian Patriarchs, who gratefully acknowledged to the English Consul at Aleppo, how much they were engaged to the charity and favour of the English ambassador: But whilst all mens eyes were in expectation what farther pro­ceedings were designed against the Pasha in fa­vour of the English, the Officer denied to have received any instructions therein, and so return­ed to Constantinople without taking notice of the English Concernment. The Ambassador judging himself herein slighted, sent to the Viziers Kahya to know the mystery of this neglect; for the Vi­zier and himself having pawned his word and promises to do him justice against the Pasha of Aleppo, it seemed strange that his assurances should vanish into nothing; and that he so mean­ly esteemed his Quality and Office, as to dispa­rage it with so much disrepute and contempt as must necessarily befal him, should this Pasha escape without exemplary punishment; for then the World might with reason believe his Appli­cations of no prevalency, and his Merchants fear the insufficiency of his protection. To which the Kahya answered, That it was true, that the Ka­pugibashee was not instructed in the Concern­ments of the English, in regard a more solemn and eminent piece of Justice was designed for the Ambassador, than any that could be performed by the Kapugibashee, and that in twenty or thirty days at farthest, the Pasha should be de­prived of his Office. The next day following the Kahya advised that the Hattesheriff, or Im­perial Command for deposing of the Pasha, was signed, and that old Mahomet Pasha of Darbiquier was constituted in his place; which News was highly pleasing to the Lord Ambassador, in re­gard he had been an ancient Friend to the Eng­lish, under whom he presaged to our Nation at Aleppo all security and contentment.Reflecti­ons on the Premises. By which Story it is observable, That though the Supream Officers amongst the Turks are willing to satisfie Christian Ambassadors resident with them, in the Care they have of their Welfare, and main­tenance of their Capitulations; yet are not desi­rous to publish to their own People the punish­ment of their Grand Officers, at the instigation or for the concernment of a Christian: And that tho the Turks are apprehended amongst us for a People of great Morality, and singleness in their Dealings; yet it is observable in this, as well as in o­ther their actions, that they have double Tongues and Faces, and know how to act with as fine a Thread, and plausible pretences, as are accustoma­ry in the most politick and refined Courts of Italy.

Anno Christi 1663. Hegeira 1074.

THE Baron of Goez, which at the end of the last Year arrived at Buda with several o­vertures of Peace, had so far proceeded in his Treaty with Ali Pasha of Buda, that all Articles seemed almost concluded, and scarce any diffi­culty to remain, unless the Surrender of Zekel­hyd on the Confines of Hungary; which also was afterwards accommodated by Agreement, That the City should be resigned into the hands of the Prince of Transilvania, as the most equal Con­dition between the Emperor and the Turk. So that, matters thus seeming to be composed, all People talked of Peace with Germany, and that the force and miseries of Wars were to be turned upon Dalmatia: And though the Turks had no design less in their thoughts than this, or any in­tentions towards a Peace, as will be proved by the Sequel; howsoever, the German Ministers, as men credulous of what they desire, gave the Peace for certainly concluded, in which conceit the Turks so humoured and indulged their fancy, that they perswaded Prince Portia, the Chief Mi­nister of State to the Emperor, in that manner of the reality of their intentions, that he neg­lected the necessary Provisions and Preparations of War, And though he was often advised by the Resident at the Ottomon Port, that all these Demonstrations of Peace were only Artifices of the Turk, to delude the Emperors Council;The Turks with words de­ceive the German Ministers. yet so tenacious was he of this Opinion, that though it be but common reason, and the vulgar Rule of Policy for a Prince to arm, and suspect his Neigh­bour, who puts himself into a Warklike posture; yet this Great Personage, though in other things profoundly wise, and circumspect, was so de­luded, that he replyed to the Residents Advices to this effect, That it was the Office of a prudent and experienced Minister to discover with dili­gence the resolution of the Cabinet Councils of Princes, and not to give ear or credit to what is the common Voice or vogue of the Vulgar.

The Spring drawing near, the Vizier prepared all things for action, nominating and appointing such, who in his absence were to supply the Of­fices of State: Ishmael Pasha, then Pasha of Bu­da, was designed for Chimacam, or Governour of Constantinople, and Mustapha Pasha, Captain Pasha, Brother in Law to the Grand Vizier by Marriage of his Sister (and now the present Vi­zier) was made Chimacam at Adrianople, near the Person of the Grand Signior. All other pre­parations for War went forwards, Thirty pieces of Cannon from Scutari, and fifty from the Sera­glio, most of a vast bigness and weight, which had served in the taking of Babylon, with great store of Ammunition and Provisions of War, were transported up the Danube to Belgrade, and the Princes of Moldavia, and Valachia, had now Commands sent them to quicken their diligence in making their preparations of War, and in providing Sheep, Beef, Rice, and all sorts of Victuals for supply of the Camp; and general Proclamation was made in all places, That all Soldiers, who received on Asper of pay from the Gr. Signior, were to prepare themselves for the War.

About the middle of February the Horse Tail was set forth at the Viziers Gate; (which is the usual signal of the Camps motion within the space of a Month) so that none may excuse him­self from the War for want of due and timely intimation. And though the time for departure nearly approached, yet the Grand Signior was so impatient, that he would scarce expect until the Equinoctial,The Gr. Signior impatient to leave Constanti­nople. which was the Term formerly appointed and published for this expedition; re­solving sometimes to proceed before, and leave the Vizier to follow him, letting fall words of­ten, That such as loved and honoured him would keep him company. But this hasty resolution, and eager desire of his Journey, the Vizier, Multi, and others of his Counsellours, did mode­rate, perswading him to a little longer patience: to which, though with some difficulty, he assen­ted; yet he could not forbear from his Horses back, and constant exercises abroad, nor could he be induced to take one Nights repose longer in his great Seraglio at Constantinople, but lodged at Daout Pasha, a small Palace about four miles distant from Constantinople. Which ex­travagant manner of living most People at­tributed [Page 132]to his wandring humour, and delights in hunting, riding, and such like exercises, ha­ving his sole pleasure in the Woods and Fields: But others, who judged with better Foundation, did conceive, That the Grand Signiors choice of other places of Residence rather than his Im­perial Seraglio, proceeded not so much from his own unsetled humour, and course of living, as from an apprehension of some Designs, and mu­tinous Treasons of the Janisaries against him: For to speak the truth, since the death of Ku­perlee, the Militia began again to be corrupted; and if we may believe the opinion of the most principal Turks, the Vizier undertook this War to employ the busie spirits of the Soldiery, which began to grow resty and insolent through idleness, and by that means secure his own life, and establish his Condition and Fortune.

The Equinoctial being come, the Grand Sig­nior would not have one days longer patience; for though the Season was wet and rainny, yet the Tents were pitched; and though the Wind was so violent and forcible as overturned almost the whole Camp, yet no difficulties and incon­veniencies of Weather could give one hour of intermission to the Sultans desires: Wherefore on the Ninth of this Month,March. the Grand Signior departed from Constantinople, attended with his Court, his principal Officers of State, and with what part of his Army was then a in readiness to march. The magnificence of the show they made, was according to the usual Solemnity, yet worthy the sight of a Stranger, and perhaps not incurious to the Reader in its Relation.

First,The Ca­valcade which the Gr. Sig­nior made when he departed from Con­stantino­ple. marched with a singular Gravity, the several and distinct Orders of Civil and Military Officers in their proper Habits and Caparisons, the Santones in their wild dress followed by the Emirs, or such as are of the Kindred of their false Prophet; the Great Vizier and Musti rode in rank together, the Vizier on the left hand, the most honourable place amongst the Soldiery, being the side to which the Sword is girt, as the right is of greatest esteem amongst such as are of the Law, being that hand which guides the Pen: The Trappings of the Viziers Horse were plared with Gold, and before him were carried three Horse-tails, called in Turkish (Tugh,) and behind him came about Three hundred and fifty Pages, all Young men well mounted, and armed with Jacks and Coats of Male: Next followed the Mi­nions of the Court, or Seraglio, (viz.) the Paicks with Caps of beaten Gold, and embroidered Coats, the Solacks with Feathers, armed with Bows and Arrows; these two last are of the highest degree of Lacqueys, which more nearly attend the Person of the Grand Signior; these were fol­lowed by Nine led Horses of the Grand Signior, richly adorned with precious Stones, and Buck­lers all covered with Jewels of an unknown value. Immediately before the Person of the Grand Sig­nior was led a Camel carrying the Alcoran in a Chest covered with cloth of gold: The Gr. Signior himself was clothed in a Vest of cloth of gold lined with a Sable incomparably black, held up from the sides of his Horse by four Pages; his Person was followed with great numbers of Eunuchs, and Pages with long red Caps wrought with Gold about the head, carrying Lances and Mails, with two Locks, one on each side of their Head, which are worn by such only as are of the Royal Cham­ber: After these crowded great numbers of Ser­vants, with the chief Comp. of Saphees, com­manded by the Selictor Aga, in number about 1800. And in this manner and order they marched to their Tents.

The Tents were raised on a small Hill, as may be judged about Four Miles distant from Con­stantinople, and about Two Thousand in num­ber ranged at that time without order, only the Grand Signior's seemed to be in the midst, and to over-top all the rest, well worthy observation, costing (as was reported) One hundred and eighty thousand Dollars,The rich­ness of Turkish Tents. richly embroidered in the inside with Gold, and supported by Pillars plated with Gold. Within theIn Turk­ish Per­déh. Walls of this Tent (as I may so call them) were all sorts of Offices belonging to the Seraglio, all Retire­ments and Apartments for the Pages, Chioskes or Summer-houses for pleasure; and though I could not get admittance to view the innermost Rooms and Chambers, yet by the outward and more common places of resort, I could make a guess at the richess and greatness of the rest being sum­ptuous beyond comparison of any in use amongst the Christian Princes. On the right hand hereof was pithced the Grand Viziers Tent, exceedingly rich and lofty; and had I not seen that of the Sultans before it, I should have judged it the best that my eyes had seen. The ostentation and magnificence of this Empire being evidenced in nothing more than in the richess of their Pavilions, sumptuous beyond the fixed Palaces of Princes, erected with Marble and Mortar.

On the Sixteenth of this Month the Aga of the Janisaries first raised his Tents,The Turks begin their March. and began his march; the next day followed the Grand Signior, Vizier, and other Officers, and Spahees. At which time all Asia was full of Soldiers flocking from all parts of the East, as from Aleppo, Da­mascus, Arabia, Erzirum, and Babylon: So that for a long time Boats and Barks were continually imployed to ferry the Souldiery from Scutari in­to Europe: And the High-ways, Villages, and all parts of the Road towards Adrianople were filled with Soldiers, as if all Asia had issued out to devour and inhabit the German Possessions. And for greater expedition in the march of the Army, Proclamation was made of a general Rendezvous at Sophia at theThe Turks Feast. Biram, then within Three weeks time, where they designed to soil their Horse, and refresh themselves before they fell in earnest to their business. But before the Grand Vizier departed from Adrianople to pro­secute a War in Hungary against the Emperor, he called Signior Ballarino to his presence, as if he would treat with him of matters tending to an adjustment with Venice; when at the same time he had 20000 men in a readiness at Scutari to march into Dalmatia, and to joyn with other Forces in Bosna and Croatia; but this dissimula­tion and appearance of Treaty served only to discover on what Terms a Peace might be ob­tained, in case Affairs in Hungary should be so pressing as to require an application solely of Arms to that Country.

Not only had Signior Ballarino Affairs of pub­lick trouble, but likewise something touched him of private concernment in his own Family; where the Turks, I know not upon what infor­mation coming to fearch, found in his House two figures, one of a man, and the other of a woman made of Linen cloth, stuffed with Wool and Cot­ton; the which were interpreted by the Turks to be Images of Sorcery and Inchantment; one re­presenting the Grand Signior, and the other his Mother, were designed in a secret manner, by thrusting Needles and Pins into those parts, where the Heart and Liver is, to cause those whom they represent to dye with macerations and consum­ptions, according to the Inchantment of Me­dea. In jecur urget acus. And this suspicion [Page 133]was augmented by the reports of the Neighbour­hood, who hearing the Priest often recite his Litany, and sing Evening-song, avouched that they constantly over-heard the Charms muttered in such forms as are used by Magicians and Sor­cerers: Wherefore designing to take the Priest, who was the Father Provincial of St. Francis, and punish him for his Witchcraft, the good man fair­ly fled, and kept himself out of harms way, un­til Signior Ballarino could quiet the minds of the Turks by some Art, which he more forcibly pra­ctised upon them by a stronger charm of Money and Presents than that which was the subject of their complaint.

In the mean time all fears and dangers of Can­dia vanished, because the Turks bent their For­ces and chief of their strength against their Ene­mies at Land: To provide against which, the Senate of Venice sent into Dalmatia the Baron Spaar for General, with many other Officers un­der him, namely the Marquess Maculani, Count Ettore Albano, Carlo Martinengo, and Roverelli, Count of Caudes, the Cavallier Grimaldi, Echen­felt, and others. Into Friuli, Francisco Morosini was dispatched in quality of Proveditor General with supream Power and Authority, and in this manner all matters were as well pro­vided and secured by Land, as they were by Sea.

The Biram chanced to happen out this Year towards the end of April, by which time the Vi­zier, and most of his Army, assembled according to Proclamation at Sophia; where having conti­nued some time, and consulted well in what manner to put their designs in execution, they proceeded in their March towards Buda, and the Confines of Hungary; but in the way the Vizier was encountred by a Messenger from the Em­peror, offering all reasonable Propositions of Peace, if possibly a stop might be given to the farther progress of that vast and formidable Ar­my. All matter, were proposed which probably might give satisfaction; the Fort of Count Serini (the grand Eye-sore of the Turks) was proffered to be demolished, with other Conditions which before the March of the Army were never pro­posed or demanded. But the Vizier gave little ear to these fair Overtures, but proceeded for­wards in his Demands, as he did in his March: Requiring now, not the demolishment of the Fort, but the Surrender of it entirely with all the Strength, Artillery, and Ammunition into the hands of the Grand Signior. Had this condition been granted, it is probable the desires and pre­tensions of the Turks would not have stopped here, but have risen, as the spirits of their Ene­mies had condescended, and exceeded all the hopes and advantage which they imagined pro­bable and feasible to be obtained by the War. Wherefore this Message proving fruitless, the Bringer of it was permitted Licence to return in­to Germany: But the Resident was refused dis­mission, being detained in the Turkish Camp, as an Instrument to mediate a Peace, when both sides should grow weary of the War.

About this time the Tartars were greatly in­fested by the Cossacks, who were then very for­midable and strong,The Cos­sacks infest the Tartars. approaching near the City of Osac, the Key and chief Fortress of Tartary, under the Commann of a Fisherman of the Boristhenes, who having had great successes, and collected a considerable sum of Money, became a dangerous Enemy: By Sea also they commanded absolutely, roving uncontrouled, having a Fleet of Saykes and Gallies near an hundred and fifty Sail, against whom the Tartar Han or King of Tartary craved of the Grand Signior forty sail of Gallies that year to oppose them. But this Force of the Cossacks was soon abated; for it pleased God, that passing out of the Palus Moeotis through the narrow pas­sage of Colchos into the Black Sea, the best part of this Fleet suffered shipwrack; with which they were so dismayed, that the twelve sail of Gallies (which was the whole Force the Turks could spare this year for that Sea) gave a check to the remainder, and forced them again to the Banks of the Boristhenes. The rest of the Turkish Fleet, consisting, together with the Beys Gallies, in all but of thirty Sail, departed from Constantinople, with design rather to make some appearance of a Fleet, and a noise amongst their own people, and collect the Contribu­tions of the Isles in the Archipelago, than out of hopes of effecting any thing against the Venetians; and so it succeeded; for this Fleet remained the whole Summer at Mytilene, not daring to appear abroad for fear of the Enemy.

Though the Tartars were so hardly beset by the Cossacks, yet their danger at home was not a suf­ficient excuse to disingage them from their assi­stance in the War of Hungary. For the Vizier marching towards the Frontiers, sent one Mes­senger after the other to hasten the Tartar Han with all speed possible to the Wars. But the Tar­tars seeming not so willing, or so ready as the Turks expected, more positive commands, and se­vere threats, were dispatched than before, that laying aside all excuses or delays, they should with all the Force of their Country attend in this present War against the Emperor,The Tar­tar unwil­ling to go to the War. or otherwise the Tartar Han was to be deprived of his Govern­ment, and his Son constituted in his place. These severe menaces reduced the Tartar to great straits; fearful he was to displease the Sultan, not knowing what ill consequences might proceed from thence; but more apprehen­sive he was of the approaches of the Cos­sacks, and of the displeasure of his own People, who were resolved to see this fire of War extin­guished in their own homes, before they would attend the designs, or satisfie the Lusts of a stranger Prince. In this Dilemma the Tartar Han finding himself, made use of fair words and pro­mises, ingaging his word. That after the harvest was past, no obstacle should prevent his com­pliance with the Sultans expectations; for at pre­sent it was impossible, in regard that should their People at this season be diverted from gathering the harvest, the Corn and Fruit would remain on the ground, and so occasion a Famine and destruction of their Country. And herein the Tartar had some reason; for these People go not to the Wars, as other Nations, who leave a suffi­cient number behind to cultivate their Country, and perform all other Offices and Imployments in a Common-wealth: But these making their chief livelihood and subsistence on the prey and robberies they make on their Neighbours;The course of life a­mongst the Tartars. as many as resolve to eat Bread and live, who are men not old or impotent, able to bear Arms, betake them­selves to their Horse and Bow; so that when their Army is abroad, their Towns and Villages are only inhabited, and defended by their Women. But the Turk whose desires are never satisfied with reasons, or withstood by words, or with any thing besides the execution of his Commands, dispatched another Message more full of threats and resolution than formerly,They are threatned again. carried by the Em­brahor, or Master of the G. Signiors Horse, mena­cing nothing but Fire, and Sword, and Destructi­on to the Han and his Country, if he longer de­layed to perform his Duty. But by this time [Page 134]the Harvest being almost gathered, and their fears against the Cossacks partly extinguish­ed, the Tartar promised with all expedition an Army of Seventy Thousand men,They send an Army into Ha­gary. un­der the Conduct of the Prince his eldest Son, who whilst they were putting themselves in order, and assembling for the War; reports were murmured, as if the Turks were in a Treaty of Peace with the Emperoor, and matters in a fair likelihood of composure: At this news the common Souldiers amongst the Tartars were not a little startled, fearing that they who are free Booters, and have no other pay than their pur­chase, should by such a Treaty be forced to re­turn empty; and therefore before they would proceed, sent to advise the Sultan of these their fears; supplicating him, that if he should think fit to conclude a Peace, and so oblige them to return into their own Country, that he would not take it amiss, if upon their march home, they should make themselves good upon his Subjects of Mol­davia and Valachia, whose persons and Estates they resolved to carry with them, as a just prey and recompence for their loss of time and labour. The Sultan who sets a small value on the Lives and Estates of his Christian Subjects, judged this Proposition but reasonable, so long as upon these terms he might obtain the benefit of the Tartars assistance, who are the best Horse to forage, de­stroy, and make desolate a Country.

The Story of Asan Aga the Mosayp or Favourite, and other instances of the uncertainty of the Turkish Richess, and Glory

THE Great Vizier being by this time ar­rived on the Frontiers with a very consi­derable Army; the G. Signior at Adriano­ple continued his usual pleasures in Hunting, Ri­ding, throwing of the Gerit or Dart, and in other pastimes and sports of this nature; at which time casting his Eves upon one Asan Aga, a sprightly youth of his Seraglio, a Polonian by Nation, to be more forward and active than any of his Court, took an affection to him, so sudden and violent, as might be judged neither well founded, nor long durable; for the Grand Signior having heard, that there were examples amongst the Emperors his Predecessors, not only in the ab­sence, but in the presence also of the Vizier, of maintaining and constituting a Favourite, in Turkish called Mosayp, did own publickly the Election of this person for his Friend and Com­panion; so that this Minion was on a sudden so highly ingratiated in the favour of his Prince, that he always rode equal with him; Cloathed as rich, and mounted as well. as the Sultan himself, as if he had been his Coadjutor, or Companion in the Empire. The Queen Mother, the Kuzlier Aga, and other rich Eunuchs of the Seraglio, the Chi­macams of Adrianople, and Constantinople, with all the Great Officers and principal Ministers, were commanded to make Presenr of Money, Jewels, and other Sacrifices, to this rising Sun; whom now every one so courted and adored, that he became the only talk and admiration of the whole Town; no other discourse there was but of Asan Chelabei, Asan the fine accomplisht Gentleman, Asan the only Creature of Fortune, and Idol of the whole World. This high and sudden promotion of this Youth, greatly displeased the Queen Mother, Kuzlier Aga, who had Creatures of their own to perfer, and by their means became the Envy and Emulation of the whole Court, so that there wanted not such who posted the news to the Vi­zier, as him, on whom the growing greatness of Asan might have the most dangerous reflection: But the Vizier duly considering, that the deep impressions this Youth had made in the affections of his Master, were not to be removed by plain dealing, but by some more occult Artifice and dissimulation, took occasion to write to the Grand Signior, in favour of Asan Aga, extolling the pru­dence of his choice of so compleat and hopeful a Youth for his Favourite; but that it was pity, so pregnant parts as those with which Asan was en­dued, fit to promote his Masters Service and In­terest, should be Encloistred, and Buried in the softness and delights of his Seraglio; and therefore his Counsel was, to have him preferred to some government, and degree of a Pasha, to which his Abilities and Education, in the Nursery and Dis­cipline of the Court, had abundantly accomplish­ed him. Pessimum genus inimicorum, laudantes. Tacitus. Nor were the Queen Mother, and Kuzlier Aga, all this time wanting in their contrivance to un­dermine him, but not with a design spun with so fine a Thread, prosessing themselves openly his Adversaries: For which Courtly Policy, the Vi­zier only received a check, and some few verbal reproofs, for intermedling with what so nearly concerned his Masters Fancy and Affection: But the Kuzlier Aga, was by one word from Asan (whom he had discovered to be his Enemy) deprived of his Office,The Kuz­lier Aga banished to Cairo. and had therewith lost his Life, had not the Queen Mother pow­erfully interceded for him, and gained an ex­change of his punishment from death to ba­nishment in Grand Cairo in Aegypt. The Baltagibashee also (who is the Captain of that part of the Grand Signiors Guard,As also the Baltagiba­shee. who car­ry Hatchers, and are empyloyed in cutting Wood for the use of the Seraglio) being discovered to be a Confederate in the same Plot against the Favourite, was condemned to the same punishment, and immediately both of them dispeeded away to the place, where they were to spend the remainder of their days. Grand Cairo hath always been the place of Banishment for unfortunate Courtiers, or rather of such who have with much greatness, plenty, and contentment sometimes enjoyed the Fruit of their great Richess, gained in the Sun­shine and summer of their Princes favour. To this City also was this Kuzlier Aga exiled, who in the enjoyment of his Office for several years, had amassed a most vast Wealth, incredible to be spoken, and much to be wondred, that a Negro, whose hue and person is contemptible amongst all, whom God hath created of a Colour diffe­rent from those who partake more of Light, and are of nearer similitude with the Sun, and Nature of an Angel; one whose Original was a Slave, and his price never above a Hundred Pieces of Eight, should be loaded with such Goods of Fortune, and enriched with the Treasury of a Prince: His Retinue consisted of about 900 Horse, (besides Ca­mels, and Mules for his Baggage) amongst which a Hundred were led Horses, worth Seven or eight hundred Dollars a Horse, and that he might still seem to live by his Princes Bounty, a thousand Aspers a day was to be his constant pay, to be issued out of the G. Signiors Revenue in Egypt; by which we may in part calculate the greatness of this Empire, when so vast Richess is ac­counted but a reasonable proportion for so vile and [Page 135]mean a Slave: Howsoever the Grand Signiors Treasury suffers little hereby, for this wealth and pomp is but lent him to keep, and look on; he is uncapable to make a Testamen, or constitute an Heir; the Grand Signior himself succeeding to all the Estate he hath given him, and the im­provement of it. This Negro being proceeded as far as to Constantinople, had his Companion the Balragibushee, recalled from him with design to be put to Death, but afterwards by mediation of some powerful Friends, who took advantage of the gentle and benign humour of the Sultan, his pardon was obtained, and he preferred to a smallGovern­ment of a Pasha. Pashalick in the lesser Asia. Howsoever the Eunuch proceeded in his Journey to Grand Cairo, where being arrived, after three Days, was by the Imperial Command stript of all his wealth and greatness, which amounted unto Two Millions of Dollars, to be restored again to their first Master, who uses to lend his Slaves such gaieties and Ornaments, only to afford the World occasion to see and admire the vastness of his Wealth, and contemplate the vanity and unconstancy of Richess and Worldly glory. This poor Negro thus devested of all, returned to his primary condition of a Slave, in which he was born, and for many years had lived, and was now banished, forsaken, and disconsolate in the upper Egypt; whither going scarce with sufficient to preserve him from Famine and Beggery, the Beyes of Egypt, out of compassion, bestowed on him an Alms of twelve Purses, being Eight Thousand four hundred Dollars, according to the Account of Cairo, now the only support and sustenance of his Life.

This Victory gained over these great Perso­nages, and foyl given to the Queen Mother her self, was not carried by this young Favourite with that prudent equality of mind as was de­cent; but being puffed up with pride and glory, adventured to a judgment and censure of the deepest matters of State, which touched not a little the jealousie and scorn of the Great Vizier, who therefore wrote to all those grave Sages, to whose Counsel he conceived the Sultan gave any ear or credit; representing with extraordinary passion and fervency the dangers he apprehended might befal his Master, and his Empire, whilst both were subject to the unexperienced Counsels of Asan, a Youth both in years and knowledge. That it was much to the disparagement of the Supream Office of Vizier whilst was with Thousands of Turks on the Frontiers contending for the Glory and Enlargement of the Ottoman Dominions, subjected to millions of dangers and labours; to be supplanted by a Boy, fit only for an attendants in his Masters Chamber; and to have the privacy of the Emperors State Counsels and policy rifled by a Youth, whose years had not fitted him for the knowledge and continence of an ordinary Secret. These reasonable Com­plaints of the Vizier's were by some of his wise Friends, whose Age and Gravity had produced something of Reverence towards their Persons, not without hazard and fear communicated unto the Sultan, the violence of whose Love being with time moderated and abated, he began to consi­der the reasonableness of this Discourse, and so on a sudden, to the great admiration of all, cast off his Favourite, creating him a Kapugibashee, or chief Porter, with a hundred and fifty Aspers a day Sallary.

The Ruine of Samozade, the Reis Effendi, or Chief Secretary of State to the Great Vizier.

AND since we have related a Story which partly represents the unconstancy and ty­ranny of the Turkish Greatness, it may yet please the Reader, should we add another, tho' a little out of its due order, not less remarkable, and worthy of Record, than the former.

When Newhausel was besieged, called by the Turks and Hungarians, Oyar, and divers attempts made on it in vain; Samozade the Reis Effendi, with less caution and wisdom than he did usually practise in other matters, wrote a Letter to the Chief Eunuch of the Women, then in the Serag­lio at Adrianople, to this effect. That if the Grand Signior desired to have that Fortress taken that was then besieged, he should chuse a more able Captain for his Army than the present Vi­zier, a Person who had only been educated in a Tekeh, or Colledge, and studied in the specu­lations of Law, and not in the Oda's of the Ja­nisaries, or Customes and Exercises of the Camp: And therefore if his Majesty thought fit to chuse another General, he could not cast his eyes on any more able and deserving than Ibrahim Pasha his Son in Law, a Person qualified for the Office of Vizier, being skilful in all points both of War and Peace. This Eunuch being the person that had succeeded to the former lately exiled, ha­ving received this Letter, immediately without farther Art or Prologue, read it to the Grand Signior, at which though at first he was startled, yet not as yet weary of the Vizier, but ftill con­serving a kindness and esteem for him, took the Letter from the Eunuch, and sent it to the Vizier, permitting him to inflict what punishment he judged most agreeable to his own preservation and vindication of honour. The Vizier, having received this Letter, seemed not in the least to be surprized with the perfidiousness of Samozade, but in a cool temper recollecting all the Applica­tions and Addresses (which we have mentioned before) at his first entrance into this Supream Office, and judging from thence, that he was not a Person capable of friendship, or a steadiness to his Interest, sent for him, and for Ibrahim Pa­sha his Son in Law to his presence, and first ha­ving upbraided his Treachery, and want of Inte­grity, in return to all the Caresses and Endea­vours he had used to win his Faith, caused both their heads to be struck off by the Executio­ner.

This Samozade was one of the most wise and best practised Secretaries of State that ever served the Ottoman Empire, and one whom our English much lamented, being perfectly acquainted with the particulars of our Capitulations, and Constituti­on of our Trade; and had not his extraordinary Covetousness blemished his other moral Vertues, he might have been esteemed a man rare, and a Minister not unworthy the greatest Monarch of the World. The Richess he had collected du­ring the time of his State-Negotiations were in­credible and immense, for he spared and lost no opportunity of gains, which rendred him the more liable and obnoxious to the stroke of Justice. His Goods were now seised on for service of the Sultan, his Master, as justly confiscated for Trea­son; his Estate was found to amount unto three Millions of Pieces of Eight in ready Money; he had sixteen hundred Camels, four Hundred [Page 136]Mules, Six hundred Horses of the best sort, be­sides ordinary Horses of service proportionable to those of value. In his Chests and Stores were found Four thousand Girdles, or Sashes, of the best sort of Silver, never worn; Seven and twen­ty pounds weight of Pearl, three hundred Dag­gers (or Turkish Hanjars) most set with Dia­monds and Rubies, besides Ninety Sable Vests, each whereof might be vauled at a Thousand Dollars; his Swords and rich Furniture were without number, or account, with a Cart-Load of the best and finest China; over and above all this, remained to his Son a Revenue of about Ten pounds Sterling a day, who being condemned to the torture to confess the hidden Riches of his Father, at his first examination discovered One hundred and twenty five thousand Zaichins of Venetian Gold.

Of an Avania brought upon the Dutch Nation.

BEfore we proceed on with the Relation of the War in Hungary, where we for a time shall leave the Great Vizier, it will not be from our purpose to digress a little in recounting certain in­termediate Accidents, which had reference to our own and the Dutch Nations Interest at the Ottoman Court. And first I shall begin with the Dutch, to whom a considerable trouble and misfortune be­sel, by means of a Ship of their called the Em­peror Octaviano, which designing to lade Turks Goods at Alexandria for Constantinople, had her Licence and Dispatches obtained by means of the Holland Resident, the Sieur Warnero. This Ship being accordingly laden at Alexandria, whereon also the Grand Signior himself had Thirty thou­sand Dollars Interest, and being ready to depart, was near the Port surprized by the Venetian, and Maltese Corsairs, and so taken. This News was posted over land from Grand Cairo, and the Car­go sent of the Goods, importing Fourscore and four thousand Dollars, which in the Month of June arrived at Constantinople. The persons in­terested in this loss being many, in the nature of a Tumult applied themselves to the Grand Sig­nior, and demanded sentence against the Dutch Resident for reparation, alledging that he had recommended the Ship, and Com­mander, who had combined with the Cor­sairs to surprize him, and that the Resident had engaged for the faithfulness of the Captain, who had betrayed their Goods, not endeavouring to defend himself so much as by the shot of one Musket. The Grand Signior being likewise con­cerned herein himself, was easily perswaded to grant his Order and Sentence, That the loss of all should concern the Dutch Resident, and his Nation, requiring the Chimacam of Constantinople to summon the Resident, and intimate his plea­sure therein, exacting a time limited for the pay­ment. The Resident being called to several Au­diences thereupon, denied to have had any hand in the employment of this Ship on the this Voy­age, and that their Capitulations, to which the Grand Signior had sworn, acquitted him from being responsible for the misdemeanors of any of his Nation, for whose fidelity and good behavi­vour he had never personally engaged, and thereupon positively refused to make him­self liable for payment of this Money, to which he was neither obliged by the Law of Nations, nor his own private Act. Notwith­standing which, the Turks sentenced the Resident to be liable to make satisfaction, in regard that when the Ship was first freighted, he appeared before the Chimacam at Constantinople, and being asked whether the Commander of this Ship was an honest man, and one who might be intrusted with such a concernment of the Turks; his Answer was, That he believed he might, and that he was always esteemed faithful and honest to his Trust: which in the Turkish Law amount­ing to as much as if he had said, he would be­come his security, the Grand Signior confirmed the former sentence against the Resident, and with haste and fury dispatched a Kapugibashee to bring his Person to Adrianople; where being arrived, and continuing as yet constant to his first Answer, was committed to custody of the Chaousbashee, or Chief of the Pursuivants, where they gave him time until after the Feast of the little Biram, to consult his own good and security of his Nation within the Turkish Dominions. The Feast was no sooner ended, but the Grand Sig­nior sent immediately to know his untimate re­solution, declaring, That if he continued still obstinate against his Power, he had commanded that he should be committed to that Dungeon which had some few years before been the Lodging of other Christian Ministers. The Re­sident terrified at the thoughts of such an Impri­sonment, declined from his former constancy, ingaging to pay the Money in an Hundred and five days time, for no longer would be granted; so violent and unreasonable the Turks were in their demands, against the Law of Nations, the particular Capitulations, and the common reason and justice of the World. This Money was for the most part taken up by the Dutch Na­tion in Turky at Interest, and afterwards the debt extinguished by Money lent them by the States, sor payment of which a particular Imposition was granted on all Goods brought from Turky, until the Debt to them was cleared, with an Interest of one per cent. for the year. By which it may be observed, how little are esteemed the Persons of Christian Representatives in the Turkish Court; who having proved with what tameness some Princes have taken the affronts offered to the Per­son of their Ambassador in former times, and now observing with what patience the States of Hol­land have sustained the like insolence and injury in their Resident, they may possibly profess their Function sacred, but yet in matters of their own interest will never be induced to vouchsafe them that respect or just treatment which is due to them.

In what state the Affairs of England, in reference to the Turkish Court, stood about this time with Algier, and other Parts of Barbary.

IN the preceding year we declared how a Peace was concluded between England and Algier: For better confirmation whereof, and se­curity of our Merchants Estates in the Levant, upon occasion of a future breach, it was judged necessary by His Majesties Council, That the re­spective Articles last made and concluded with Algier, Tunis, and Tripoli, should be distinctly [Page 137]described and ratified by the Grand Signior, with this Clause at the Conclusion of each, viz. ‘That in case the foregoing Articles were not kept by these his Subjects respectively, but should con­trary to the meaning thereof through Piracy be broken, that then it should be lawful for the King of England to chastise those People by his own Arms and Force, without Impeachment or Breach of that good Peace and Amity which Intervenes between His Majesty of Great Britain and the Ottoman Emperor:’ And this was sup­posed might always be a Plea in defence of the English Nation in Turky, when at any time His Majesty provoked by the Injuries of those faithless and piratical Nations, should take due Revenge upon them, not only on the Seas, but also on the Land, subverting those very Cities and Fortresses, which are the Nests of Piracies, and the common Chastisement and Gaols of Christendom. When these Articles came to the hands of His Majesties Ambassador the Earl of Winchelsea, with Orders to have them ratified and subscribed in the manner foregoing, the Turkish Court was then at Adrianople, to which place on this occasion the Lord Ambassador made a Journey from his usual Residence at Constan­tinople; and having acquainted the Chimacam with the whole matter, and the Propositions rightly apprehended by him, they were offered, and the next day communicated in behalf of the Ambassador to the Grand Signior, who readily promised compliance with His Majesties desires, ordering the Articles an