And especially of
  • The nature of the Cove­nant of Works,
  • The Soveraignty of GOD,
  • The extent of the death of CHRIST,
  • The nature & properties of the Covenant of Grace:
  • The Covenant of Surety­ship or Redemption be­tween the LORD and the Son JESUS CHRIST,
  • Infants right to JESUS CHRIST, and the Seal of Baptisme:

With some Practicall Questions and Observations.

By SAMUEL RUTHERFURD, Professor of Divinitie in the University of S. Andrews.

ZECH. 6.12.

And speak unto him, saying▪ Thus speaketh the LORD of Hosts, saying, Behold the Man whose Name is the BRANCH, and he shall grow out of his place, and He shall build the Temple of the LORD.


Even He shall build the Temple of the LORD, and He shall bear the glory, and shall sit and rule upon His Throne, &c.

EDINBVRGH, Printed by Andro Anderson, for Robert Broun, and are to be sold at his Shop, at the Sign of the Sun, ANNO 1655.


MAny have written, to the edify­ing of the Godly, of this excel­lent Subject: Its not much I can do in this, but have added some thoughts to what is said, intending a more Practicall way of the last Points▪ in another Treatise, to wit, of the appli­cation of Covenant-Promises, and of the influences of the Spi­rit under the Covenant of Grace▪ of which, especially of the latter of these two, few have practically written: And it is of much concernment, to make ou [...] the Union of our Duty and the breathings of the LORD, and what can be done under deadnesse, to either fetch the wind, or to be put in a spirituall condition, that the soul [...]ay ly fair for the re­ceiving of the influences of GOD. I desire in this to speak for Truth, not either for or against persons of whom I am silent, concealing the names of any Contradicent, judging Truth so much the more desirable, when it may pos­sibly be had with peace, and as little blowing or stirring of the fire of contradiction as can be. What is here said in a way of Disputing, the Moderate Reader, who is not taken with that way, may passe by and read what is practicall. The Author hath been (lest Truth should suffer by him) a little [Page] darkned, as report bears, with the name, I know not what, of a Protester, as one who hath deserted the Government and Discipline of the Church of GOD in SCOTLAND; But my humble thoughts are the same they were before: though I can adde nothing to the Truth. I look on these men the world so names Protesters, Schismaticks, Sepa­ratists, as sinfull men who stand in need of a Saviour, and as such as desire to fear GOD and love His Name, and would gladly have our practise and walk come a little more near to the Rule of the Gospel, and that our Land might mourn for all the abominations committed therein, which I desire to be spoken without any reflection upon any of the Godly in the Land, who, in that point, are of another Judgement. It is my desire to the LORD, that he would let us hear experienced by the reality of that: Thus saith the LORD, Isa. 65.8. As the new wine is found in the cluster, and one saith, Destroy it not, for a blessing is in it: so will I do for my servants sake, that I may not destroy them all. The LORD JESUS be with your Spirit.

Yours in the Lord Jesus S. R.

Contents of the I. PART.

CHAP. I. and II.
  • THe four particulars of the Treatise. pag. 1.
  • Propositions touching ADAMS state. p. 1, 2.
  • ADAM was predestinate to life eternall in Christ, and how. pag. 2.
  • What is the intent and sense of the threatning, Gen. 2.17. and Gen. 3.20. Dust thou art, &c. p. 3, 4, 5.
  • Threatnings of the Law reveal what the Law-giver may jure inflict, by justice and Law deserving, not what shall come to passe. p. 4.
  • Except it be both a threatning and a Prophesie. p. 5.
  • What is carnall security. ibid.
  • What Adam was to believe in that threatning. p. 5, 6.
  • How the promises and the threatnings differ in this. p. 7.
  • How Law threatnings to the Elect are Evangelick. p. 8.
  • The Elect before Conversion bear no part of the Law-curse, nor is the Law-curse devided between them and Christ. p. 10.11.
  • Faith is too near to be made a cause of satisfaction for sin by all who hold that Christ gave a satisfactory ransome for all and every one of mankind. p. 11.
  • Accepting or not accepting satisfaction is▪ before faith, and so believing or not believing can be no ground of the sufficiencie of the price payed for the Re­probate, or of the laying of the sins of all upon Christ. p. 11, 12, 13▪
  • God may accept the satisfaction of Christ without any condition required on our part. p. 13.
  • God intended a Law-dispensation, but for a time. 2. Adam how he was ordained for a Law life. 3. How pre­destinate to Glory, how not. 4. That the heathens have no more universall grace then Divels. 5. No ground for such grace. p. 13, 14, 15.
  • It was condiscension in the Lord to enter in Covenant with man. 2. Tempt [...]tions in fearing we are not chosen, dis­covered. 3. Beings and not-beings are debtors to God. 4. Self denyall required in sinlesse nature, as in sinfull. 5. Man considered three wayes.
  • How faith layes hold upon conditionall promises, and temptations of unbe­lief thereabout. p 16, 17.
  • O [...] the Covenant of nature. p. 18, 19, 20.
  • Its not written in the heart of man by nature, that God should promise life Eternall to man, upon condition of obe­dience. 2. The debt of justice cannot ty God. 3. God pu­nisheth not sin, by necessitie of nature. 4. Nor defends he his own declarative Glory by necessitie of nature. 5. No­thing can be given to God All sufficient. 6. No meriting of the creature. 7. We are to have humble thoughts of free-Grace. 8. Low thoughts of our selves. 9. Promises make no strict justice between the Lord and us. p. 20▪ 21.
  • God falls in no sort from his naturall dominion, though he impose not penal Laws upon the reasonable creature. p. 25, 26.
  • God loves his essentiall Glory by necessity of nature, but not his declarative Glory, by any such necessity p. 28, 29▪ 30.
  • In every Covenant there is some out goings of Grace. p. 35.
  • [Page]The passage 1 Chron. 29.11, 12. cleared, and why none can give to God▪ p. 37, 38.
  • Our vain boasting of self, my, and such proud pronoumes. p. 39, 40.
  • How excellent to obey. p. 45.
  • Sanctified reason is not soft. p. 45, 46.
  • How near are wee to justification by Works, and to be sick of love for proud (I.) p. 46, 47.
  • What place death hath in the Covenant. 2. What Re­probates and the damned are to do. p. 47, 48.
  • What Adam was to do in the intervall between the fall and the publishing of the Gospel. p. 48.
  • How the Lord is Adams God. p. 49.
  • What life is promised in the Covenant of Works. p. 47, 48.
  • Wilfulnesse of unbelief, Some doubts are to be left to GOD only to solve. p 48, 49.
  • How the Lord is the God of Adam. p. 49.
  • No promise of influences is made to Adam. p. 49.
  • What life is promised in the Covenant of Works. p. 49, 50
  • Whether or no did Adam and all the Reprobates in him lose all right to the creatures. p. 50, 51.
  • A threefold right. 1. Naturall. 2. Providentiall. 3. Spirituall. What right Reprobates and unbelievers have to the living, [...]a [...]ing▪ &c. p. 53, 54.
  • What way God is ours. p. 55, 56.
  • A furniture of Grace, and a want of Christ. p 56.
  • The Arminians ground that God was in a maner compelled to appoint the New Covenant. p. 56, 57.
  • The naturall antecedent love of God a dream. p 57.
  • The threefold Covenant of some considered. p. 57, 58.
  • And of the Arminians, p. 64▪ considered, and rejected. The Law as propoun­ded to Israel was the very Covenant of Grace, p. 60, 61, 62. and the Cove­nant [Page] in the Old one with that of the New Covenant, but differenced [...]n some accidents. p. 63▪ 64.
  • Self-searching to know under what Covenant We are, a spirituall condition, and why? p 65, 6 [...].
  • The threatnings under the New Testament more spirituall. p 67, 68.
  • What it is to be under the Law. ibid.
  • The combate between the flesh and the Spirit, and the combate in naturall men differenced. p 68.
  • Compelled convictions argue a Law Spirit. ibid.
  • Its easier to be sound in the faith, then to be Godly. p. 69.
  • Of the legall terrors. ibid.
  • Of literall and legall convictions and these of the Gospel. p. 70.
  • Marks of such as are under the Law. p. 70, 71.
  • A sweetnesse in the hardest command, because holy. ib.
  • An heaven in duties. p. 71.
  • A new nature stands for a command. ibid.
  • Covenanting externall, visible, professed, conditionall, and Covenanting internall, invisible, reall, absolute, and how they differ. p. 72, 73, 74.
  • Infants are within the Covenant. p. 73, 74 75, 76.
  • And to be baptized, and invested with Covenant priviledges. p. 76▪ 77, 78, 79.
  • Its false that none are in Covenant under the New Testament but converts. ib.
  • The Covenant made with Abraham and us, the same. p. 80▪ 81.
  • Nor is that Covenant a civill Covenant. p. 81, 82.
  • The New Testament Kingdome is spirituall, though there be seals in it and ex­ternall worship. p. 82, 83.
  • Of federall holinesse. ibid.
  • Externall Church priviledges of the Covenant are given to Nations and so­cieties. p. 83, 84.
  • Its not the Physicall but the Morall root that is the first subject of the Covenant conditionall, and externall. p 84, 85.
  • The formall ground of right to Baptisme. p. 85, 86.
  • The places Acts 8.37. Mark 16.16. opened, and are nothing for, but much against Anabaptists. p. 85, 86.
  • The text, Acts 2.39. opened, is strong for Infant baptisme. p. 86, 87.
  • A conditionall Covenant is properly a Covenant, though it be not ever a ful­filled Covenant. p 90▪ 91.
  • No means are proved, by Law, or Gospel, to save infants by the opposers of in­fant Baptisme. p 91, 92.
  • Two diverse considerations of the Covenant, one in abstracto as a simple way [Page] of saving sinners, and so all in the Visible Church are in the Covenant; another in concreto, as it contains the Lords will of pleasure, and as it is acted upon the heart, and so the Elect are only in Covenant. p 94.
  • The new heart is only commanded to some, and to others it is both commanded and promised. p 95.
  • The place Gen. 17. opened. p. 95.
  • Circumcision and Baptisme compared. p 95 96 97.
  • What blessings and priviledges must infants want, if they be without the Co­venant. p 98, 99 100.
  • The place Mark 10.15, 16. Luke 18. Math. 19. Of such is the Kingdome of heaven, opened. p. 100.101.102.
  • What blessing Christ bestowed upon the infants, whom hee took in his armes. p. 102, 103, 104.
  • A Covenanted seed is promised to be added to the Church of the Jews. 104.105
  • Considerable differences between external and internal Covenanting. 107.108
  • The place Rom. 11.6. If the root be holy, so are the branches. 110.111.
  • By the holy Root cannot be meant the predestinate to Glory only. 113, 114.
  • But visible Professors, fathers and children. p. 115, 116.
  • The children are in Covenant not by birth, but by such a birth. p. 116, 117.
  • Covenant holinesse is not the compleat and adequat cause of reall ingrafting in Christ. p. 116, 117, 118
  • Other considerable differences between externall and inter­nall Covenanting. p. 118, 119.
  • There is no universall Grace subjective or objective given to all, Rom. 10.18. Psal. 19.3. p. 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124.
  • Nor power of believing given to all. p. 124, 125, 126.
  • The judgement of men esteeming such visible Covenanters to be reall converts before they can be admitted, makes all Egypt, Assyria, the Kingdomes of the world, all Judea Baptized, to be reall converts in the judgement of Iohn Baptist, Paul and the Apostles. p. 129, 130
  • The invisible Church is the first subj [...]ct of the promises of speciall note, &c. p. 131, 132
  • Hypocrites have no warrand to challenge the seals from any command of God, as M. Thom. Hooker sayeth. p. 132
  • Who are Hypocrites. p. 133, 134
  • [Page]What Hypocrisie is. p. 135
  • Parties in the Covenant of Grace as acted upon in heart. p. 137
  • The Word and the Spirit. p. 138
  • Of God speaking himself. ib.
  • Prophesies that now are differ from Scripture Prophesies, and how. p. 139
  • Revelations made to the Godly, when they are in much nearnesse to GOD p. 140, 141
  • Marks of a spirituall disposition. p. 142, 143, 144, 145.
  • To do a duty as a duty, and not as delightfull is a spirituall disposition. p. 144
  • Not as successefull, but as a duty. p. 145
  • The nature, characters, properties of the new heart and the new spirit of Covenanters. p. 145, 146.
  • The heart, the man. p 146
  • The good heart. ib.
  • How rare a peece the heart is. p. 147
  • Of the raigning evils of the heart. ib.
  • Why we are more shamed of lying then of pride. p. 149
  • The concurrence of the Word to the act of infusion of a new heart a myste­rie. p. 149, 150
  • The Atheisme and impossible lies of the heart. p. 150, 151
  • The signes of the new heart. p. 151, 152
  • The place of Evangelick Works in the Covenant. 2. Pos­session of glory and right to glory different. 3. A twofold right to glory. 4. We are not justified by Works. 5. The place of declarative justification by Works, Jam. 2. discus­sed. 6. Faith and Works different. 7. Possession of life and right to life cleared. 8. Faith and finall beleeving both commanded in the Law. Finall unbeleef not the sin for­bidden in the Gospel only. 9. How life is promised to our Works Evangelick, p. 153, 154, 155, 156, 157, & seq.
  • Our mistakes of God, p 15 [...], 152
  • The faith that James speaks of is not true faith, p [...]60
  • The acts of saving faith, p. 16 [...] 162
  • James must speak of two sorts of faiths, p. 162, 163
  • The Arminian Argument to prove that James speaks of declared justification, answered, p. 165, 166
  • [Page]How faith [...] only justifies, 170, 171
  • The Socinian and Arminian faith, and Papists formed faith includes new obe­dience and repentance, p 172, 173
  • Contrar [...] to the Scripture which differenceth between faith and new obedi­ence, p. 174, 175, 176
  • Right to life eternall and possession of life eternal differ in their nature and causes, p. 176, 177
  • The nec [...]ssity of Works, p. 177, 178
  • Poss [...]ssion of life and right to life differ, p 178, 179, 180
  • And contrare obj [...]ctions removed, ib.
  • Whether or not suffered Christ for any sin against the Go­spel only, su [...]h as finall unbeleef, which is conceived to be the only sin against the Gospel. That Christ died not for all without exception. The unwarrantablenesse of that Doctrine, how the Law commands justifying faith and repentance, how not, p. 181, 182, &c.
  • Sins against the Gospel are also sins against the Law, p. 188▪ 189
  • Whether the Lord Mediator as Mediator command the same good Works in the Covenant of Grace which are commanded in the Covenāt of Works, p. 192, 193
  • Christ layes one way Evangelick commands upon the Elect, and another way upon the Reprobate, p. 198
  • How the Reprobate are still under the Covenant of Works, how not, p. 192
  • No promise of perseverance to Adam, p. 194.195
  • Nor any promise to him of influences of Grace, p. 195, 196
  • 4. Classes of obediences considerably compared among themselves▪ p. 196.197, 198
  • Christs obedience most perfect, most of his own. p. 196
  • Most undue or least of debt coming from God man, & so most meritorious p. 197
  • Angels obedience. 2. Of their own, but not so as Christs of his own, and so lesse meritorious, p. 198
  • 3. The obedience of Adam more of his own, then that of Angels, yet lesse obe­dience, ibid.
  • 4. Gospel-obedience hath least of the nature of obedience, p. 198, 199
  • The Law of Works r [...]quired not simplie doing, but doing to the end, p. [...]00.208
  • Whether faith as true, or faith as continuing to the end, be the condition of the Covenant of Grace, p. 201, 202.
  • Faith which endures to the end, but not quatenus as it indures to the end is the condition of the Covenant of Grace, p. 201, 202
  • Faith in the first lively acts saves and justifies, p. 202, 203
  • Whether is Christs righteousnesse imputed and made ours, because we believe and apprehend it ours, or do we believe, because it is ours, because we be­lieve, p. 206, 207
  • Faith presupposeth three unions. 1. Naturall. 2. Legall. 3. Federal, and maketh a fourth, p. 208, 209
  • There be four or five sundry Adversaries against whom the holy Ghost in Scrip­ture contends in the point of justification, p. 210, 211
  • The dominion of the Law, p. 211.212
  • What is meant by the oldnesse of the letter, p. 213
  • How we are freed therefrom, ib.
  • A threefold bondage of the Law, ib.
  • Of the dignitie of the Gospel above the La [...] p. 213, 214
  • Of the perpetuity of the Covenant of Grace, and the con­siderable differences between it and the Covenant of Works, p. 214, 215, 216, 217.
  • How it continues with these that are asleep in the Lord, Mat. 22. Exod. 3.6. p. 216
  • Of the graciousnesse thereof, p. 216, 217
  • Of Law-fear and Gospel-fear, p. 217, 218.
  • Of the Law-fear of falling away, and the Gospel faith of persevering, p. 218, 219
  • Why feelings of sin seldome wants unbelief, and should have the faith of a pay­ed ransome, p. 221, 222
  • Christ died not to blot out all sense of sin, but rather to quicken a godly sense thereof, p. 221, 222, 223

Contents of the II. Part.

  • Christs roome in both Covenants, p. 225
  • [Page]Of Christs active and passive obedience, how they concur as one satisfacti­on, p. 229, 230
  • WHerein stands our right to Christ, and the satisfa­ction made for us by Christ? 2. Faith is not the cause of our right. 3. Christs incarnation and dying are not favours me [...]ited by Christ. 4. How Adams sinne and Christs righteousnesse are ours, p. 230, 238.
  • How Christ suffered for us in our room and place. 2. He died not for all and every one. 4. How many wayes Christ may be said to die in our stead. 4. The Lords so dying for all makes not all saveable in Christ, nor the Gospel preach­able to all Nations. 5. Christ died in the stead of the elect, p. 236, 237, 238, 239.
  • Though we did not substitute him in our place, p. 249 250
  • The differences between Chr [...]sts dying and the punishment due to the Elect, p. 250, 251, 252
  • The legall oneness between Christ and us, p. 251
  • To die [...] & [...] for us, is to die in our stead, in all eminent languages, p. 253
  • Christ died not for sins and in the stead of sins, as he died for sinners, p. 256
  • How we are in Christ dying, and crucified in him. 2. A twofold crucifying of us with Christ. 3. A discourse of mortification. 4. The actings of the mortified. 5. That we are to be mortified in our affections, p. 257, 258, 259.
  • Though we die personally yet we died in Christ legally, p. 259
  • We are not to desire a Law-wakening, p. 259, [...]60
  • What mortification is, p. 261
  • The influence of Christs death on mortification, p. 262
  • Four sorts of actings in mortification, p. 265, 266
  • We must be mortified to all sort of created things, p. 268, 269 270.271
  • Forbidden desires. p 270.271
  • The Covenant of Suretyship or of Redemption between [Page] God and the Mediator Christ. 2. Christ is not a meer wit­nesse, but the Author of the Covenant. 3. The Socinian way of W [...]rks cannot quiet the conscience. 4. Christ is up­on both sides of the Covenant. 5. Justice mediates not. 6. Reasons of the entrance of sin.
  • That there is a Covenant of Suretyship between JEHOVAH and the Son, is proven by 11. Arguments, p. 290, 291, 292.
  • Christ calling to the Lord his God proves this. 291.292
  • (2) Christ is a Servant, Messenger, Shepherd, not by nature, but free compact and agreement. p. 292
  • (3. Ar.) Christ offered his service freely. p. 293
  • (4. Arg.) There is giving and taking between God and Christ. p. 293.294
  • (5. Arg.) Christ received the seals whither he needed seals, or not. p. 29 [...].296
  • (6) Christ with the Father dispensed with the Law. p. 296
  • (7. Ar.) Rich promises that speak a Covenant made to Christ. p. [...]96
  • 8. Ar. The Prophesies of Christ, and the promises of, and to him. p. 298
  • 9. Ar. Ask of me▪ Ps. 2. 10. Arg. The work and wages of Christ prove it. p. 299
  • And, O how low a wager, and how high a designe. p. 300
  • 11. Arg. Christ is admitted by an oath and the use of it against Apostacie of Be­lievers. p. 300.301.302
  • The Covenant of Redemption is explained in three eternal acts. 1. Designation of one. 2. Decree and destination. 3. Delectation in the work. p. 302, 303.
  • The attributes of God declared herein. p. 304.305
  • The Fathers eternall delighting in the Son, 309 307
  • The strength of Gods love to man. p. 306.307.308
  • The differences between the Covenant of Suretyship made with Christ, and the Covenant of Reconciliation made with sinners. 2. The conjunction of the Covenants. 3. How the promises are made to the Seed. The place, Gal. 3.16. opened. 4. Christ suffered and acted ever as a publike head, p. 308, 309, 310.
  • The 13. Argument from the necessity of Gods call. 2. Of Typicall sprinkling of the blood of the Covenant, and of the Testament. The place, Heb. 13.20. opened. Of the place, Heb. 7.22. the act of Suretyship, the assurance of our state, p. 316, 317, 318.
  • How the promises are made to Christ, p. 317
  • The peculiar nature of Christs Testament as such a Testament, p 318, 319
  • Of the Suretyship of Christ. p. 323, 324
  • Punishment suffered by the Surety can remove punishment from the guilty man but cannot remove formally the inheren [...] guilt, and how this was done by Christ. p. 323, 324
  • Christs undertaking for all. p. 326.327
  • Of the place, Prov 8.22, 23, 24, &c. p. 306, 307, 308, 327
  • Arminius yeelds a Covenant between the Father and the Son, p. 327, 328
  • And how, for Jehovah cannot promise a seed to Christ as a reward of his work by their way, having no Soveraigne power over the will, p. 328, 329, 330
  • Of such as are his seed. O [...] the Covenant of the Lord with David, p. 836, 837
  • Ps. 89. opened, ibid. p. 338 339. Mic. 5.2. p 339
  • Christ procures the Gospel to be Preached to Reprobates, but undertakes not for them. A necessary distinction of the Covenant as Preached according to the approving will of God, and as acted upon the heart according to the decree of God. The place, Jer. 31, Heb. 8. This is my Covenant, opened, p. 339, 340, 341, 342.
  • The distinction of the approving wil of God & of his wil of pleasure, p. 342.343
  • Antinonians confound the efficient cause of the obedience and the objective cause or the rule of the Word, p. 345, 346
  • The purpose and scope of the Holy Ghost is not, Heb. 8. and Jer. 31. to speak or treat of the Covenant of Grace as Preache [...] in the [...] but as acted upon the heart, that so Christ may be advance [...] as a more spirituall and effectuall teach­er and Priest, then Moses, Aaron, &c. p. 346, 347, 348
  • Which two are confounded by Antinom [...]ans.
  • Of the promises made to Christ in the Covenant of Medi­ation, p. 349, 350.
  • [Page]A twofold justification of Christ, p. 349
  • Christ had a promise of influences, Adam had none at all, p. 350, 351
  • Our mistake touching comforts and duties, p. 351
  • Christs satisfaction, p. 351, 352
  • We may flee to the Covenant, becau [...]e of Christ, p. 352, 353
  • Rods are booked in the Covenant o [...] Works, Deut. 28. and in the Covenant of Grace to both the Covenanters, Psal. 89.30; 31, &c. p. 353
  • The condition and properties of the Covenant of Redem­ption. p. 355, 356.
  • No such condition is required of Christ, as of Adam, p. 356
  • The paying of the price of blood and dying is the formall condition of the Co­venant of Redemption upon the part of Christ, p. 356, 357
  • The holy qualifications of Christ in the Covenant of Suretyship, p. 357, 358
  • These qualifications how to be followed by us, p. 354
  • Christs Grace of headship what force it may have upon us, p. 360▪ 361
  • The properties of the Covenant of Suretyship. 1. Freedom. 2. Gracious­nesse. 3. Eternitie, p. 361, 362, 363
  • The exposition of that place, 1 Cor. 15.28. p. 3 [...]3, 364
  • Christ even after the universall judgement, a mediatorie Head, King and Lord, p. 366, 367, 368


Pag. 2. lin. [...]9. read Immortality. p. 15. l. 19. r. no-beings. p. 17. l. 29. r. no-beings. p. 2 r. l. 1, 2. r. God therefore. p. 22. l. 31. r. God it. p. 28. l. 26. r. Isa. 42. p. 39. l. 10. r. abiding. Life ▪ p. 43. l. 24. r. [...]. p. 51. l. 27. r. is in the substance. p. 53. l. 2. r. no grinding of. p. 55. l. 16. r. floor. p. 70. l. [...]. r. literally. p. 92. l. 10, 11. r. decreed. p. 96. l. 5. r. ground. p. 103. l. 13. r. as symbolick. p. 104. l. 36. r. that the. p. 134. l. 14. r. but cannot. p. 136. l. 21. r. here. p. 140. l. 13. r. seated no discursive. p. 141. l. 33. r. gnawing. p. 160. l. 26. r Menochius. p. 166. l. 26. in ma [...]. r. spectasset. p. 168 l. 17. r. it is not only. p. 169. l. 29. r. head. p. 186. l. 33. r. Gal. 14. p. 195. l. 1. r. thereof. p. 201. l. 20. r. par­taker. p. 206. l. 11. r. have it so. p. 218. l. 29. r steep, for sharp. p. 221. l. 11. r. not only not quarrell. p. 239 l. 15. r. depends not upon. p. 249 l. 1. r. Arminius. p. 251. l. 29. r. acceptation. p. 269. l. 26. r. arts. p. [...]. l. 3. r. who are not dead to opinions. p. 282. l. 14. gave thee. p. 299. l. 29. r. in his hand. p. 309. l. 36. dele Joh. 8. p. 314. l. 24. r. are. p. 316. l. 10. r. he that said. p. 333. l▪ 18. r. agrees to be. p. 344. l. 15▪ r. and will have.


CHAP. I. What is to be spoken of the COVENANT of LIFE, shall be reduced to these Heads.

  • 1. The nature and differences of the Covenant of Works, and that of Grace.
  • 2. The Mediator of the Covenant of Life.
  • 3. The application of Covenant-Promises.
  • 4. Of Covenant-Influences of Grace under the Gospel.

Of the latter, especially of the last, not much hath been spoken by any in a practicall way.

CHAP. II. Propositions touching ADAMS Covenant-state.

THe Apostle, 1 Cor. 15.47. The first man is of the earth, earthie, the second man is the Lord from Heaven, speaking of the two eminently publick persons▪ the noble heads of great Families; makes the condition of the first Adam to be animal and earthly,The first and second Adam. & that of the second Adam to be spi­ritual and Heavenly. And without doubt, to be born of the house and seed of the second Adam, John 1.12, 13. must darken the [Page 2] glory of the first birth, so as there is no great ground to boast of the skin and empty lustre of Nobility and good blood;Nobility & self em­pty things. Although when the creature called (I) and (self) do creep in to lodge in a poor feeble piece of clay, that clay so lustred must be some God.

The flower and choisest of Adam his Paradise-state, is an earth­ly 2 condition, as is evidenced by his eating, Gen. 2.9, 16. sleeping, 21, his being placed in a Garden, to dresse it, 8, 16, 17, his marriage, 23,The first Adam earthly, we have more in the second. 24. his Lordship over birds, beasts, fishes, Gen. 1.28. But in the second Adam, besides all these, we are gifted with a life of more worth then many acres of Vineyards. They declare therefore that there is much of the first Adam in them, little of the second; Who would conquesse again the many lands, that our first father Adam sold, and joyn house to house, and lay field to field, till there be no place, and disinherit all others, as if they were bastard heirs, and themselves the only righteous heirs of Adam, that they may be placed alone in the midst of the earth, Isa. 5.8. And the more spiritual any be, the more are they above the nothing world.

3 Mortality may be called supernaturall to the earthie part of A­dam, Mortality & immor­tality how due to A­dam. since it is not naturally due to a body of earth, to claim life for ever. Though immortality be due to whole Adam consisting of soul and body and endued with the image of God. For the soul cannot die.

4 But if we speak of such a life, to wit, of a heavenly communion with God,How life was due to Adam. as Adam was a comprehensor or one who is supposed now to have runne well, and won the Gold, and the Crown, such a life was due to Adam, not by nature, but by promise.

5 Adam in his first state was not predestinate to a law glory, and to influences of God to carry him on to persevere: Nor could he blesse God, that he was chosen before the foundation of the world to be Law-holy, Adam was predestina­ted to life, and how. as Eph. 1.3. What? Was not then Adam prede­stinated to life eternall, through Jesus Christ? He was: But not as a publick person representing all his sons, but as another single person, as Abraham, or Jacob: for Gospel predestination is not of the nature, but of this or that person: Therefore were we not predestinat to life eternall in him, but in Christ, Rom. 8.29, 30.

6 Therefore Adam fell from the state of Law-life both totally and [Page 3] finally, but not from the state of Gospel election to glory. For the Lord [...]ad in the Law-dispensation a love designe, to set up a Theatre and stage of free grace;The Law a transient Court for a time. And that the way of works should be a time-dispensation, like a summer-house to be demolished a­gain: As if the Lord had an aime that works and nature should be a transient, but no standing Court for righteousnesse: Hence it is now the reliques of an old standing Court, and the Law, is a day of assyse, for condemning of malefactors, who will acknowledge no Tribunall of grace, but only of works: And it is a just Court to terrifie robbers, to awe borderers and loose men, but to beleevers it is now a Court for a far other end.

CHAP. III. What is the intent and sense of the threatning, Gen. 2.17. In the day thou eats, thou shalt die. And Gen. 3.20. Dust thou art, &c.

WE must distinguish between the intent of the threatner, and the intent and sense of the threatning.

Law-threatnings may be well exponed, by the execution of them, upon persons, against whom they are denounced: As, 1 King. 11.30. compared with 1 King. 12.15, 16. Ten Tribes are taken from Davids house according to the Word of the Lord. Be­cause therefore the threatning of death was executed upon Christ, 1 Pet. 3.18. Gal. 3.10, 11, 12, 13, 14. then must the threatning, Gen. 2.17. Deut. 27.26. have been intended against the Man Christ, and because beleevers die, as all do, Heb. 9.27. the threatning must have been intended against them also,The death threatned, Genes. 2.17. was accor­ding to the intent of the Threat­ner, partly legall, part­ly Evange­lick. for that they sinned in Adam, and because it is out of question that the repro­bate die the first and second death, the threatning must also have been intended against them. And therefore, in the intent of the threatner, the threatning was mixed, partly Legall, partly Evan­gelick; According to the respective persons, that the Lord had in his eye: He had therefore in his heart both Law and Gospel. It is therefore to no purpose to aske what kind of death, and whether purely legall, which the Lord threatned to Adam: For the Que­stion [Page 4] supposeth that the Covenant of Works was to stand, and that the Lord was to deny a Saviour to fallen man. But we may say what death the Lord actually inflicts, that death he intended to in­flict, nor did the Lord decree to inflict a meerly legall death per­sonall first and second, upon Adam and all his race.

Obj. Adam was to believe he should certainly die; For so was the threatning, Gen. 2.17. if he should sin, or then we must say, that Adam was to beleeve he should not actually die, the latter cannot be said, for then he was to believe the contradicent of the Lords true threatning; which was the lie of the Serpent, Gen. 3. Ans. What threatnings are, and what sorts there be of them. He was to beleeve neither of the twain according to the e­vent, for there are two sort of threatnings, some pure and only threatnings, which reveal to us, what God may, in Law, do, but not what he hath decreed and intended, actu secundo & quoad eventum, to do, and bring to passe; These threatnings contain some condition, either expressed in other Scripture, or then re­served in the mind of the Lord. 1. Because the Lord so threatned Adam, as he remained free and absolute either to inflict the punish­ment, or to provide an Evangelick remedy, even as Solomon, 1 King. 2.37. saith to Shimei (in the day thou passest over the brook Ki­dron, thou shalt surely die) that is, thou shalt be guilty of death, reus mortis: Threat­nings that are pure threatnings in law show what the Law-giver may jure inflict, but not what he shal ac­tually doe, and what shall come to passe. Yet it cannot be denyed, but Solomon reserved his own Kingly power, either to pardon Shimei, or to soften, or change the sentence. 2. The words of the Law do reveal, what the Magistrate may do, jure, and what the guilty deserves by the Law, but do not [...]eveal the intention and absolute decree of the Law-giver, and what punishment actually, & quoad even­tum shall be inflicted upon the guilty, and what shall come to pass as a thing decreed of the Lord: So, Gen. 9.6. the Murtherer shall die by the Sword of the Magistrate, and Exod. 22.18, 19, 20. the Witch, the man that lyes with a beast, he that sacrifices to a strange god, shall die the death jure, merito, and by Law-deser­ving, but it followeth not, but such as commit these abominations, do live, as is clear in the Kings of Assyria, Chaldaea, and many of Israel, who were not put to death, but lived quoad eventum, though contrary to the Word of God. 3. The expresse Precepts of the Decalogue, Thou shalt have no other gods before me, &c. Thou [Page 5] shalt not kill, Thou shalt not steal, &c. do shew what in Law we ought not to do, but not what actually shall come to passe: For there be not a few who do actually, & quoad eventum, worship strange gods, kill, and steal.Threat­nings that are both threatnings and also Prophesies, reveal both the deser­ving of the transgres­sor, and the event. But there are other threatnings which are both threatnings, and also Prophesies, and these reveal both the Law and the fact, and what the Law-giver may, jure, and, in Law, inflict, and what shall actually come to passe upon the transgressours, if they continue in impenitency, Rom. 2.1.2, 3, Rom. 1.18. 1 Cor. 6.9, 10.

Obj. Then in all threatnings and promises we are not to be­lieve, that though we sin, we shall actually & quoad eventum die, and though we obey and beleeve, wee are not to beleeve that GOD shall fulfill his promise, and that our salvation shall come to passe, only we are to believe jure, that we deserve to die, and that we shall have eternall life, jure promissio­nis, but not actually and according to the event. Answ. Something is to be said of the threatnings, then of the pro­mises: As▪ touching the sense, we are to beleeve. In the threat­nings conditionall as (yet fourty days and Nineveh shall be de­stroyed) and (in that day thou eats thou shalt surely die, in thy person and all thine the first and second death) we are not to believe the event, nor is it carnall security, not to beleeve such an event,What is carnall se­curity in beleeving legal threa­tenings what not. we are only to have a godly fear and to tremble, at the dreadfu [...]l deserving of such threatnings legall, as alway are to be exponed and beleeved by all within the Visible Church, with an Evangelick exception of repentance. If therefore Adam did beleeve that he and all his should in their own persons actually suffer the first and second death, and that irrecoverably, he had no warrand, for any such belief, and the like may be said of Nineveh. For when the Lord said, in the day that thou eats thou shalt die, the first and second death, thou and all thy children personally; His meaning was, ex­cept I provide an Evangelick remedy and a Saviour. Godly fear trembles more at the darkning of the glory of the Lord in a broken Law, then at the event of inflicted wrath, were it even Hells fire.

Obj. Adam was to beleeve no such exception. Answ. True. Because it was not revealed, nor was he to beleeve the contrary that he should irrecoverably and eternally perish, because that [Page 6] was not revealed: But the threatning of the Law doth not deny the Evangelick remedy, as it neither doth affirme it.

What A­dam was to beleeve in the threat­ning, what the lying Serpent would have him to be­leeve.Obj. Then was Adam to believe, it was true which the Serpent said, ye shall not surely die, & quoad eventum, but ye shall be as Gods living and knowing good and evill.

Ans. Neither doth that follow, for in the meaning of the liar, it was not true, that they should not die, either by deserving (for Satan brangles the equity and righteousness of the Law and threat­ning) or actually and in the event, for both were false and neither revealed, and faith is not to go beyond what is revealed of God. And Sathan disputed against both the equity of the threatning, as if it had been unjust, in Law, and against the event, as a fiction and a thing that should not come to passe in the event, which in­deed did not come to passe: but not according to the Serpents ly­ing and false principles.

Obj. Was then Adam to despair and to beleeve nothing of a Saviour. Ans. He was not obliged to despaire, but to rely, by vertue of the first Commandement of the Decalogue, upon God infinitly powerfull, mercifull, gracious, and wise to save, for that was revealed and written in his heart, and that is far from despai­ring: But in the intervall between the fall and the Lords publishing the blessed Gospel, and news of the seed to come, he was so to trust in God for possible deliverance in generall (as the Law of Nature requireth) but he was to beleeve nothing of unrevealed particulars, far lesse of the mystery of the Gospel, which was kept secret, since the world began, Rom. 16.25.

Obj. Then may also the damned in Hell, who are not loosed from their obligation to the Law of Nature, The dam­ned in hell not loosed from the first Com­mand are not obliged to despair, and yet are not to be­lieve actu­all delive­rance. and the first Command, be obliged to rely on an infinite and Almighty God, for their delive­rance, for they are not obliged to despair, nor is there an obligation to any sin.

Ans. There is not the like reason, for though the damned be not loosed from the Law of Nature, but are to rely upon God in his whole al-sufficiency, yet with exception of his revealed Justice and Truth: Now he hes expresly revealed, that their worm never dieth, and their fire never goeth out. And to believe that, is not to despaire. Obj. What are then such Heathens to beleeve as [Page 7] touching that threatning, who never heard of the Gospel? What hea­thens are to believe. The Co­venant of Works is not con­trair to the Gospel. How the Gospel may be deduced from the Law, if an act of the free-will, grace and infinit wis­dome of GOD be added to make good the assum­ption. How the promises are to be beleeved, and how in them, we are to be­leeve both the equity and event of the pro­mises, if the condition be perfor­med, and how the difference must be made be­tween them and the threatnings Ans. They are under the Law of Nature, and to beleeve that sin deserves wrath, according to the infinitnesse of the Majesty, against whom it is committed, and to obey the Law of Nature, and read the Book of the Creation carefully: But and if the news and rumor of a Saviour come to their ears, their sin cannot but be Evangelick, in not pursuing the reality and truth of such a soveraign remedy. Yet it is not to be thought, that though the Gospel be come to all Nations, Rom. 16.26. that that is to be meant. 1. Of every Generation of all Nations. Or, 2. of the individuall persons, either young, or come to age, of every Nation under Heaven, expe­rience and Scripture speaketh against both.

Obj. But is not the Covenant of Grace contrary to the Law and Covenant of Works? Answ. A diversity there is, but contra­ry wills in the holy Lord cannot be asserted. Yea the Gospel may be proven out of the Law, and from the first Commandement of the Decalogue, if any act of the Lords free will and infinite wise­dome shall be added to prove the Assumption. So,

If the first Command teach that God is infinitely wise, merci­full, gracious, just, and able to save, then, if so it please him, he shall save;

But the first Command teacheth the former: And the Gospel revealing the unsearchable riches of Christ, Eph. 3.8. expresly saith so much. Ergo.

As to the promises, they contain not only the jus, equity and goodnesse of the thing promised, but also that the Lord shall a­ctually perform, yea and intends to perform, what he hath promi­sed upon condition that we perform the required condition. And in this the promises differ not a little from these threatnings, that are only threatnings, of what God may do in Law, but not from these threatnings which are both threatnings and also Propheticall predictions of what shall come to passe, therefore must we here difference betwixt threatnings, and such and such threatnings.

The promises are considered as they are Preached and anuncia­ted to all within the Visible Church, and as they are made in the intention of God with the Elect and Sons of the promise: The same way the threatnings admit of a two-fold consideration. The [Page 8] promises to the Elect as intended of God,The pro­mises as annuncia­ted, and as made. The Go­spel promi­ses to the Reprobate are legal, & how. reveal that both the Lord minds to give the blessing promised, and the condition that is grace to perform the condition, and so they are promises Evangelick both in the matter, and in the intention of the Lord: But as pro­poned to the reprobate, who are alwayes from their birth to their death under a Covenant of Works, really as touching the LORDS holy Decree, they are materially Evangelick promises, but formal­ly and in the Lords intention legall, as every dispensation to them is legall, forasmuch as the Lord hath decreed to deny the grace, by which they may or can fulfill the condition of the promise, which is proper to the Law, as it is peculiar to the Gospel, that the Lord both gives the mercy promised and also the grace to fulfill the con­dition of the promise.

The threatnings to beleevers, especially such as are legall (if you beleevers fall away, The Law-threatnings to the E­lect are E­vangelick, and how. ye shall eternally perish) are to belee­vers, though materially legall, peremptorie, and admit no excep­tion, yet they are formally and in the Lords intention directed to them upon an Evangelick intention, nor do they say that the Lord intends and decrees that they shall eternally perish, for he hath predestinate them to the contrary, to wit, to grace and glory, Ephes. 1.4. Nor that he wills that they should beleeve either their eternall damnation, or their finall and totall falling away, which inevitably leads thereunto. For they, knowing that they are in Christ, 2 Cor. 13.5. Rom. 8.16, 17. and freed from condem­nation, Rom. 8.1. are to beleeve the contraire of the former, to wit, life eternall, John 4.24. 1 Thes. 5.9. John 3.16. and the contraire of the latter, to wit, the promise of perseverance made to them, Jer. 32.39, 40. Isa. 59.21. John 10.27, 28. John 17.20, 21. 1 Pet. 1.3, 4, 5. Mat. 16.16, 17, 19. Therefore these threatnings are not to be beleeved by the regenerate, as certainly to come to passe in their persons, but only as Law-motives to presse them to work out their salvation in fear and trembling, and to cleave so much the closser to Christ, as the condition of such as are under the Law is apprehended to be dreadfull. But reprobats and unbelee­vers are not to beleeve that God decrees and intends to them the thing promised, and grace to perform the condition, but only to beleeve their obligation to fiduciall relying upon, and Gospel-faith [Page 9] in God, revealed in the Mediator; and that if they continue in a way of opposing Christ, they not only deserve by Law (which Law-deserving also beleevers are to apprehend) to be broken, but actually and quoad eventum shall eternally perish. Believers are to believe the Decree of God to save them, though they hear the threatnings, for its revealed. But the Reprobate are to beleeve only the sense and Law-deserving and event of the threatning, if they repent not, but are to beleeve no decree to save them.

CHAP. IV. The Elect non-converted are not under Law-wrath. 2. Faith is no cause of satisfaction. 3. Christ can not have satisfied for the sins of the Reprobate.

WHether the Elect unconverted be under wrath is a doubt to many. It is true, they are servants of sin, Rom. 6.17. Blind, and under the power of Satan as Reprobats are, Acts 26.18. By nature children of wrath, even as others, Eph. 2.3. Ans. Their sins committed before their Conversion,The elect non-converted how they are not un­der Law-wrath. are according to the Covenant of Works, such as deserve everlasting condemna­tion, and they are jure and in relation to that Covenant, heirs of wrath, as well as others. 2. But we must distinguish between a state of election and everlasting, though unseen love, that they are under, as touching their persons: and a state of a sinfull way that they are born in, and walk in as others do, untill they be converted. As to the former state, it is true which is said, Ier. 31.3. I have loved thee with an everlasting love. See also, Rom. 9.12, 13. Eph. 1.4. so that God never hates their persons. 3. The punish­ment of their sins and the wrath they are under is two wayes con­sidered. 1. Materially in the bulke, and so they are under Law-stroaks and Law-wrath, that is Law-punishment, as others are, Eph. 2.3. and so the other places are to be taken. 2. The wrath is to be considered formally, and so it is denyed that the punishment of the non-converted elect, because of their sinfull way is any part of the Law-vengeance or curse which Christ did bear for their other sins committed by them after conversion. 1. Because when Christ [Page 10] saith, Iohn 5.4. The beleever hath passed from death, as it is a curse, and shall never come to judgement and condemnation, he cannot mean that they have half passed from the curse, and half not. 2. Beleevers are delivered, in Christ, from the victory, sting, power of sin, curse of the Law, and every curse, that is in affliction, and from condemnation not in part only, but in whole: Else their triumph were but in part, contrair to, 1 Cor. 15.54, 55, 56.The Elect non-con­verted bear no part of the Law-curse, but CHRIST bare all. Hos. 13.14. Isa. 25.8. Nor should they be washen from all their sins and the spots thereof in his blood, if they might wash themselves from any spot, by bearing a part of the Law-curse in themselves, contrair to Can. 4.7. Jer. 50.20. Joh. 1.28. 1 Joh. 1.8. Rom. 8.1. 3. What ever Christ was made for the redeemed ones, that he was made fully for them, in part, and in whole, for he is their perfect Saviour. But Gal. 3.13. He is made a curse for us, and able to save to the outmost all that come to him. Heb. 7.25. Therefore the half or a part of satisfactory vengeance, cannot be upon us, and the other half on Christ, for this is to make men and Martyrs joint satisfiers of justice with Christ, by their own blood and sufferings, to prevent the scaddings of purgatory; For though we teach against Antinomians, that the Godly are pu­nished for sins according to Justice, yet that is Evangelick, not law-justice, for they bear not one dram weight of satisfactory wrath and curse jointly with Christ, Antinomians say that sin, root and branch is taken away in Justification, so that there is no sin nor pu­nishment for sin in the justified man. 4. The beleevers are bles­sed through Jesus Christ, Gal, 3.10, 13. Psal. 32.1, 2. Rom. 4.6: Psal. 2.12. Psal. 119.1. Their afflictions and death blessed, pre­cious in the eyes of the Lord, not qualified with any Law-curse, Job 5.17. Psal. 94.12. Mat. 5.6. Luk. 6.22. 1 Pet. 1.6. 1 Pet. 4.13. Psal. 21.3, 4, 5, 6. Psal. 34.17, 18, 19. Rev. 14.13. Psal. 116.15. Psal. 72.14. Psal. 37.37. and they are asleep in Christ, die in the Lord, 1 Thes. 4.14, 16. Nor can Antinomians and So­cinians say this is under the New-Testament,Remission of sins and life eternal under the Old Te­stament. for dying Jacob saith▪ Gen. 49.18. Lord I have waited for thy salvation, Isa. 57.1, 2. When the righteous man is taken away, he shall enter into peace, the Lord is the God of Abraham, Isaak▪ and Jacob, when their bodies are rotten. Exod. 3.6. Mat. 22.32. (5.) This comes too [Page 11] near the opinion of these, who make faith a cause of satisfaction for sin, as they must teach who hold that Christ payed a ransome, on the crosse, for the sins of all and every one. For that which added,Faith is made a cause of sa­tisfaction for sin by all who hold that CHRIST gave a sa­tisfactorie ransome for all and every one, Elect and Reprobate maketh satisfaction to be counted and formally reckoned as satisfaction, in order to the expiation of the mans sins, so that by no justice he can suffer for them, and which being removed▪ maketh the payed satisfaction and ransome, though never taken back again by the payer, no more a satisfaction for that man, nor for Devils: Is too near to the nature and to being a part of the satisfaction. If one pay a summe that fully exhausts the debt of such a broken man, upon condition the broken man say Amen to the paying thereof, otherwise it shall be as not payed, he must take up the summe a­gain, if the broken man refuse to say Amen to it, for if he take it not up again, but it be payed and fully satisfie for, and exhaust the debt, the mans debt is payed, and the Creditor in justice cannot exact one farthing from the broken man. Now nothing given to the Justice of God by way of satisfaction for the sins of unbelee­vers, was ever repeated or taken back again by Christ. Nay but, say they, the ransome was not payed at all for Judas, but only, upon condition that he beleeve: but he never beleeved, and there­fore it was never payed for Judas. Answ. This is that we say,Conditio­nall pay­ment made for the sins of Judas, is no pay­ment at all that Christ gave no reall ransome at all, for the sins of Judas by way of satisfaction. But they say that there is as well a ransome payed for all the sins of Iudas (finall unbeleef excepted) to free him, in justice from eternall stroaks, as for all the sins of Peter to free him, only it is not accepted of by the Creditor, because Ju­das, by faith, assented not unto the bargain: But assenting or not assenting, accepting, or not accepting,Accepting or not ac­cepting, as­senting or not assent­ing to the payment, are not causes of the suffici­ency of the payment made to justice. that are posterior to the payment, are nothing up or down to the compleatnesse and perfection of the satisfaction made for the exhausting of Justice, for Justice receives not two satisfactions or ransomes for Judas, one upon the Crosse from Christ, another in Hell, from Iudas, yea and it must follow, that reall payment was made to Justice for all the sins of Iudas, upon the Crosse, and that he suffers for none of them, in Hell, but for only finall unbeleef, which is no sin against the Covenant of Works and the Justice thereof, but only and for­mally against the Covenant of Grace, so that as yet satisfying of [Page 12] Divine Justice for sins, must be halfed and parted between Christ, and Iudas, which the Scripture teaches not. Also the Father ei­ther accepts the ransome of Christ, because it is intrinsecally, and of it self sufficiently satisfactory: or because Iudas does beleeve it is so; The latter cannot be said, for beleeving adds nothing to the intrinsecall sufficiency of the satisfaction, as not believing dimi­nishes nothing from the sufficiency thereof; Yea and so the Fa­thers formall reason of accepting of the satisfaction of Christ▪ must be terminated upon our poor act of believing, whereas the formal ground of the acceptation thereof is the intrinsecall excellency and worth of the Sacrifice, being an offering of a sweet smelling sa­vour to God, The formal reason why God ac­cepts of CHRISTS satisfacti­on is the intrinsecal sufficiency of it, and why he ac­cepts it for Peter, not for another is the free election of grace. How the satisfacti­on of Christ is refuse­able, how not. Faith a condition of applying the satisfa­ction only Eph. 5.2. And because he offered the ransome of the blood of God-man, of the Prince of life, Act. 20.28. 1 Cor. 2.8. and offered himself to God, Eph. 5.25, 26. Heb. 9.14. Mat. 20.28. 1 Tim. 2.6. Rev. 1.5. nor is there any sufficiency in his death from the worth of beleeving. And the reason why he accepts it for Peter, not for another, is the election of grace.

It is true the blood is a price refuseable, but it is this way re­fuseable, because the Lord might have followed a Law-way with Adam, and all his sons, and have denyed to give his Son a Ran­some for us, but it is not refuseable, because of any insufficiency in the Ransome. Now faith is to satisfaction as the approximation of, and the laying on of dry fewell to the fire, which is only a con­dition of burning, but the fire is the formall cause of burning. Yea if we speak properly faith is not so much as a condition without the which offended Justice is not satisfied, nor is it a condition, by any Scripture of the world, without the which God laid not our ini­quities on Christ, for whether we beleeve or not, God laid our iniquities upon him, and made him sin for us, Isa. 53.6. 2 Cor. 5.21. Therefore, by necessity of Justice, he must accept that Ransome intrinsecally so sufficient, which did restore more glory to God, then the sins of all, for whom Christ died, took from him. Nor is it imaginable to say that any act of obedience or be­leeving, can perfect the satisfaction of Christ, and make it suffici­ent, yea, or causatively make it ours. For God, by no necessity of Justice, but of his own free pleasure, requireth faith as a condi­tion of our actuall reconciliation; for beside, that he might have [Page 13] required any other act of obedience, as love, he might have acce­pted the Ransome without inquiring any act of obedience, on our part, as the Lord bestowed a calme Sea and deliverance from ship­wrack, upon the Idolatrous Sea-men, upon the very act of casting Ionah in the Sea, without the intervention of any saving faith on their part;God may accept the satisfacti­on of Christ without a­ny condi­tion requi­red on our part. As a gracious Prince may send a pardon to free a con­demned Malefactor from death, and may command that it be va­lid in Law for him, without the mans knowledge, and far more without his acceptance thereof, upon his knees, especially since by a speciall paction between the Father and the Son, he restored a­bundantly more Glory to God by suffering for all, for whom he died, then they took from God by their sins, and that restitution was made to Justice without the interveening of any act of the creatures obedience. But the truth is, it is much to be doubted whether they, who hold such a satisfaction to be given of God, for the sins of all, Elect and Reprobate, but so as it shall not be valid in Law, nor effectuall to quiet Justice, but they must all suffer eter­nall vengeance, and perform personall satisfaction, in Hell, to Ju­stice, except there interveen an act of obedience of the creature, to make it effectuall, do really and sincerely acknowledge, against Socinians, a reall satisfaction and compensation made to offended Justice by Christ: For how is it reall, and not rather scenicall and formall, which may and should be null and in vain, if the creature make it not reall, by beleeving. And especially, if God out of his grace which is absolutely free, work in us the condition of be­leeving. Can God give his Son as a Ransome for us, upon condi­tion that we beleeve, if he himself absolutely work the condition in us? They will not admit this.

CHAP. V. God intended a Law-dispensation but for a time. 2. A­dam, how he was ordained for a Law-life. 3. How predestinated to Glory in Christ, how not. 4. That the Heathens have no more Universall Grace then Devils. 5. No ground for such grace.

IT is apparent that God intended not a Law-dispensation in Para­dise to stand for ever. For 1. nothing is spoken of Adam, [Page 14] after the fall, but of his procreating of children, of the Patriarchs, of Adams dying and of his actings before the fall, the place of Paradice being scarce well known, which sayes the Lord had a far­ther design to lay aside the transient Law-dispensation and to set up Christ. 2. The Lord, of purpose, gave a positive Law, forbidding eating of such a Tree, added a threatning thereunto particular­ly, suffered the Serpent to tempt, and forsaw what frail nature would do, that he might deal with man, in a dispensation of free grace.

Obj. Did not God ordain that Adam should have life and righ­teousnesse, The con­ditionall decree of Adams li­ving, if he should doe the Law, was not predestina­tion to e­ternall glo­rie. How Adam was chosen to glory in Christ, how not. if he should continue in obedience. Ans. That was a decree conditionall of things, (the man that does these things shall live) and showes the equitie and holinesse of the Law, but it was not a decree of persons, by which God predestinated Adam to a Law-glory, as the end, and to Law-obedience as the effectuall means leading to that end.

Q. Was not Adam chosen? Ans. Adam, according to the Lords designe, finaliter & objectivè was created in the state of pre­destination to glory, and grace in Christ as touching his person, but according to his inherent condition, he was created in a legall dis­pensation, which was a gracious inlet to Christ; And according to his Law-state as he represented all mankinde, he was Created as a lubrick and frail Coppie of weak nature.

Many who are such as are not chosen are Created and live under a Covenant of Works, having onely some concomitant favours of the Gospel, as the Preaching thereof. 2. Common grace, inward warnings. 3. Protections of providence and forbearance, in re­gard they are mixed with the Elect.The hea­then have not uni­versall Grace. The heathen cannot be said to have any inward calling to Grace and Glory, because there be some remanents of the Image of God left in them, which no more can be called universall Grace, then the same sparkles that are left in Devils can be called Gospel Grace, for they believe, There is one God and confesse the Son of God, Jam. 2.19. Luk. 4.34. Mark 1.24. Only if this be called Grace, that the nature of man is so ca­pable of Gospel mercy, and the nature of the fallen Angels moral­lie not so. 2. The offer is made to them of Christ, not so to De­vils, we shall not contend. Reason may seeme to say that all [Page 15] should have a share of Gospel-Grace, but it may be replyed to rea­son, why should it seeme to be a part of the goodnesse and bounty of God to will and desire all and every one to be saved, and not to institute such a dispensation, as all and every one should actuallie be saved? 2. How should that stand, (he hath mercy on whom he will) if free-will of the creature absolutely dispose of Salvation and damnation? 3. How is it that the Calling, Adoption,The high and deep Soveraign­ty of God is against universall Grace. and the offer of mercy is restricted to few, and was confined to the Jews on­ly of old? But we are more ready to call the Lord to a reckoning, for his dispensation of Grace to others, then to use our own, as be­comes us. 2. We cannot judge aright of God and of his goodnes, except he be God our very way. 3. It is a matter of no small dif­ficultie to make right use of the Lords freedome of Grace, and for clay humblie to adore Soveraigntie, and not to stumble at the highnesse of his wayes, who, in these points, hath wayes and thoughts above ours, as the heavens are above the earth, Isa. 55.

CHAP. VI. It was condescension in the Lord to enter in Covenant with man. 2. Temptations in fearing we are not chosen, dis­covered. 3. Beings and not beings are debtors to God. 4. Self denyall required in sinlesse nature, as in sinfull. 5. Man considered three wayes.

WHither was God under an obligation, to make a Covenant with man?

Hardly can any maintain the dominion and Soveraigntie of God, and also assert an obligation, on the Lords part, of working upon the creature: The Lord is debtor to neither person nor things.Gods Co­venanting with us, is a gracious condiscen­sion. He as Lord commands, but it is condescension that he commands Co­venant-wayes, with promise of a reward to the obeyer. The Le­viathan in strength is far above Job, he cannot command him. Job 14.4. Will he make Berith a Covenant with thee, wilt thou take him for a servant for ever? That is, the Leviathan will not engadge as a servant to obey Iob as his master. A Covenant speaks [Page 16] something of giving, and taking, work, and reward, and mutuall engagements, betwixt parties, though there be something in the Covenant between God and man, that is, not in the Covenants of men. The rationall creatures owe suitable, that is, rationall obedi­ence to the Creator, but God is under no obligation to give life, especially so excellent a life as a communion with God, in glory, yet he does it. What a God must he be, who will come downe and put himself in a lovely and gaining capacitie to be a Covenan­ting debtour to our feeble obedience, whereas he ows nothing, and to make heaven and glory so sure to us, that the heavens should sooner break and melt, like snow before the Sun, then his promise can fail.

Obj. True, but faith is fixed upon the new Covenant-promise, if I believe. Ans. Yea, but faith here is to believe, that the con­dition it self is promised, as well as the reward.

Obj. The condition of a new heart and of faith is promised, but not to all, not to me, but to some few chosen only. Ans. There be here a number of errors.The errors in tem­ptations which wee create from surmises that we are not chosen to life eter­nall. 1. Unbelief foments proud merite, that we are to believe as much of God promised, as there is con­ceived, to be worth in self, and in me to fulfill the condition; But true faith, contrare to self-unworthinesse, relyes upon the Truth of God, the excellencie of Christ, and the absolutenesse of the pro­mise. 2. Sathan like a Sophist drawes the dispute to the weakest conclusion from the strongest, to wit, from the promise of God, that is surer then heaven to the state, against which there is a grea­ter number of Topick Arguments, then there can be against the promise of God. As 1. What am I? 2. Am I chosen or not? So Sathan to Christ, if thou be the Son of God, command these stones to be made bread, in point of beleeving its better that faith expatiate in viewing God, Christ, the Ransome of the blood of God-Man, the depth of free grace,Better faith view God & Christ, as self. Unbelief quarrels at God, and but pre­tends self sinfulnesse. then upon self, and the state: in point of repenting and humble down-casting, we would read self, and our own estate. 3. Its Satan and the unbeleeving heart that would have our faiths greatnesse rising from selfs holinesse, and goodnesse. Whereas the greatest faith that Christ finds, Mat. 8.10. looks away from self, v. 8. I am not worthy — and dwells much upon the Omnipotency of Christ in commanding dis­eases, [Page 17] as a Centurian his Souldiers. 4. When unbelief quarrels the Lord as untrue and weak, who faints and wearies, and one that is not the Creator of the ends of the earth, it alledges only and pretends self-guiltinesse to justifie unbelief: Yet Isa▪ 40.28. though God be reproached as weak, we seem to resolve all in this; our own unworthinesse, but we cannot get our faith stately enough; and the truth is here, we quarrell with God and his decrees, un­der pretence of this, what if he have not chosen me? and I have no right to Covenant-mercies, except I take a Law-way to earne them, by fulfilling the condition. 5. When we beleeve a condi­tionall promise (if I beleeve, How to be­leeve con­ditionall promises. I am saved) faith relyes not fidu­cially upon the (if I beleeve) or upon the condition, Its a weak pillar to a sinner to stay his unquiet heart upon, to wit, his own beleeving, but faith rests upon the connexion (if thou beleeve thou shalt be saved) and it stayes upon the connexion, as made sure by the Lord, who of grace gives the condition of beleeving, and of grace the reward conditioned, so that faith binds all the weight upon God only, even in conditionall Gospel-promises. 1. Man is to be considered as a creature. 2. As such a creature, to wit, en­dued with reason and the Image of God, in either considerations, especially in the former all that are created, are obliged to do and suffer the will of God▪ though they never sinned. Its not enough to say, that Sun, Moon, Trees, Herbs, Vines, Earth, Beasts, Birds, and Fishes, cannot suffer the ill of punishment, which is relative to the break of a Law, for the whole Creation is subject to vanity for our sins, Rom. 8.20, 21. The Servant is smitten and sickened, for the Masters sake, and God may take from them what he gave them, their lives without sense of pain and dollour, for all beings, yea defects and privations are debters to the glory declarative of God, Prov. 16.4. Rom. 11.36. yea and no be­ings are under this debt. God can serve himself of nothing, yea, that there are not created, Locusts, Caterpillars, more numerous, then that all the fruits of the earth can be food to them,Beings and not beings are debtors to the glo­ry of God. Preach the Glory of the Lords goodnesse to man, and what are never to be, no lesse then all things, that have futurition, or shall come to passe either absolutely or conditionally, are under the positive de­cree of God, else we should not owe thanks to the Lord for many [Page 18] evils that never fall out, that the Lord turns away violent death, violence of men, and wilde beasts, and many possible mischiefs, contrair to Deut. 28.11, 12. Lev. 26.6. Psal. 34.20, Psal. 91.5, 6, 7, 8.All not be­ings are un­der the positive de­cree of God And all these beings or no beings owe themselves to God to hold forth the glory of goodnesse, wisedome, mercy, justice, &c. suppone there had never been sin: Far more now, who wants matter of meditation, or can write a book of all the pains, a [...]kings, convulsions, pests, diseases that the Lord decreed to hold off? so that every bone, joynt, lith, hair, member, should write a Psalm Book of praises, Psal. 35.10. All my bones shall say, Lord, Who is like unto thee? Nor can any man write his debts of this kind. But we are little affected with the negatives of mercies, ex­cept we read them upon others, and little then also; Self-pain Preacheth little to us, far more▪ the borrowed experience of fal­len Angels, of Sodom, of the old world, &c. leaves small impres­sion upon stony spirits. 2. Complain not, that you have not that share of grace, another hath, if ye (you think) had it, you would be as usefull to glorifie God, as they, but ye know not your self; swell not against him, that thou hast no grace, O vessell of wrath, thou owes that bit clay, and all thy wants to glorifie his Justice. 3. My sicknesse, my pain, my bands owe themselves to God, and are debtors to his glory, I, and every one of men should say, O that my pain might praise him, and my hell, and flamings of everlasting fire,Our pains and suffe­rings are debters to the glory of God. might be an everlasting Psalm of the Glory of his Justice; That my sorrow could sing the Glory of so High a Lord; But we love rather that he wanted his praise, so we want­ed our pain. 3. God hath made a sort of naturall Covenant with night and day, Jer. 31.35. For all are his servants, Psal. 119.91. that they should be faithfull to their own naturall ends to act for him,There is more self-denyall in the lifeless and unrea­sonable creatures in their Co­venant of nature, thē in man. Ier. 5.22. Ier. 31.37. Psal. 104.1, 2, 3.4. and they are more faithfull to their ends then men. Isa. 1.3. Ier. 8.7. The oxe and the asse being more knowing to their owner, and the swallow and the cran being more discerning of their times, then men are. 2. They so keep their line, that there is more self-deniall in their a­ctings, then in mans way: as if fire were not fire, and nature in it denied, the fire devours not the three Children, Dan. 3.27, 28 The Sun stands still, the Moon moves not, Iosh. 10.12, 13. The hungry [Page 19] Lions eat not Daniel, ch. 6.22. When the Lord gives a counter-command to them, and that is a clause in the Covenant, that the Lord entered with them, that they act or no act, as he shall be pleased to speak to them, John 2.10. Isa. 50.2. Mat. 8.16. It is a most humbling Theame, that an asse is more in denying nature, and the cran and the fire, then man, yea then a renued man in some cases. 4. But if man be considered, as such a man, endued with the Image of God, and withall the Covenant be considered as such a Covenant, as is expressed in the Ten-Commandements, in which one of seven is a Sabbath to the Lord, it will be found that many positives Morall are in the Covenant of Works, that are not in naturall Covenants.

5. So man must come under a three-fold consideration.

  • 1. As a creature.
  • 2. As a reasonable creature.
  • 3. As such a creature reasonable, endued with the image of God.

In the first consideration,A threefold considera­tion of man in reference to a Cove­nant. man comes under the Covenant natu­rall, common to all creatures; So is Peters body carried above in the water as iron swims.

2. As a reasonable creature, he owes himself to God, to obey so far as the Law written in the heart carries him, to love God, trust in him, fear him. But this can hardly bear the name of a Covenant, except it be so called, in a large sense, nor is there any promise of life, as a reward of the work of obedience here.

3. But man being considered as indued with the Image of God, so the Holy God made with him a Covenant of life,The Cove­nant natu­rall, & the Covenant in its posi­tives of di­verse consi­derations. with Com­mandements, though positive and Morall, yet not deduced from the Law of Nature, in the strictest sense, as to observe such a Sab­bath, the seventh from the Creation, the not eating of the for­bidden tree, and with a promise of such a life. And therefore though Divines, as our solid and eminent Rollock, call it a Cove­nant naturall, as it is contradistinguished from the supernaturall Covenant of Grace, and there is good reason so to call it; Yet when it is considered in the positives thereof, it is from the free [Page 20] will of God, and though it be connaturall to man, created accor­ding to the Image of God, yet the Covenant came so from the Lords wisedom and free-will, as he might have casten it in a new and far other frame: And it cannot be denyed, though it be most suitable to mans intire nature to love God, yet to love him so and so, by obeying the command of not eating the fruit of the Tree of Knowledge, and some other Commands, is not so connaturall, but God might have commanded the contrair, without any thing done contrair to mans nature. Yet from this it followes, no more that these are two Covenants, then that there be two Covenants of Grace, Because faith in God, and the Morall Law in an Evangelick way are therein commanded, and also some duties touching the seals by a positive Law are therein contained.

CHAP. VII. Its not written in the heart of man by nature, that GOD should promise life eternall to man, upon condition of obedience. 2. And that the debt of Justice can not tye GOD. 3. GOD punisheth not sin, by necessity of na­ture. 4. Nor defends he his own declarative Glory by that necessity. 5. Nothing can be given to GOD Al-sufficient. 6. No meriting of the creature. 7. We should have humble thoughts of free-Grace. 8. How low thoughts of our selves. 9. Promises make no strict justice between GOD and us.

SUre, it is not repugnant to the yet innocent and intire nature of man,God nei­ther by ne­cessity of nature, ei­ther rewar­deth obe­dience, or punisheth [...]. to know, that God may reward all such as seek and serve him, but that he must reward obedience either in the gene­rall, or so and so, is neither written in mans heart, nor hath it any truth: For it were nothing against justice, or bounty, or any at­tribute of God, not to reward his creature, which is obliged to serve him, and though there be a sort of quietnesse of conscience, which is the naturall result of obedience in Adam, and of all men, yet it cannot inferre, that there is an intrinsecall connexion, ex na­turâ [Page 21] rei, between our obedience and a reward to be given of God. Therefore, nor will it be a good inference, because there is dis­quietnesse in the conscience, after sin, and that it is naturall to a sinner to apprehend a revenging power pursuing sin committed, that therefore it is naturall an [...] essentiall to the Lord, to pursue sin with punishment in generall. For a naturall conscience may, and does know, that God doth freely create the world, and that he might not have created it, that he doth good freely to his creatures, and that he is not a debtor to his creatures; Will it follow by any Lo­gick, that God creates the world by any naturall obligation?A naturall conscience may and doth know that GOD doth good freely to his crea­ture, but it followeth not that God doth good to his creature for that by ne­cessity of nature. And because by force of a naturall conscience, all know that God is good and bount [...]full to his creatures, in giving▪ and doing good to them, we cannot therefore infer that actuall beneficence is so essentiall to the infinite Majesty, as he should not be God, if he did not extend that goodnesse to them. Common sense will say no more follow­eth, but goodnesse and bounty intrinsecall are essentiall to God, and these attributes are essentiall to him, and were from eternity in him, and are his good and bountifull nature; Though not either man, Angel, or any thing else had been created, to which he doth actually extend his goodnesse. Ergo, this actuall extension of good­nesse is not essentiall to God, so neither is the actuall punishing of sin essentiall to God, but free, though Adam apprehended God would punish his eating of the forbidden tree; Yet if he ap­prehended that he should not be God, if he did not punish it, his apprehension was erroneous. And this only followes that there is an intrinsecall and internall Justice in God, naturall and essentiall in God, but so that the out-goings of his Justice, the egressions are most free, and that is said by some without all reason, because the apprehensions we have naturally of God that he punisheth sin, Vniversales apprehensiones, nequaquam sunt eorum quae Deo vel adesse vel abesse possunt pro liberrimâ voluntate. Universall ap­prehensions, therefore they are not apprehensions of such things as may be, or not be in God, according to his free pleasure, if the apprehensions of Gods doing good to Angels, to men, to all his creatures freely, be in all by nature, and cannot be rooted out, and be universall, then these apprehensions cannot be of such things as are in God, according to his most free will, and may be in the Al­mighty or not be in him.

[Page 22]But the conclusion hath neither reason nor sense; for there are universall apprehensions in all men, and they canot be rooted out, that God does good to Angels, men, and creatures freely: Er­go; by this Logick the doing of good freely to Angels, men, and creatures is not a thing that is in God according to his free-will, and may be in the Almighty or not in him. Then the so doing must be in God essentially. 2. Then must God not be God, if he do not good freely to them. 3. Then must God not be God, except he create men, Angels, and creatures. 4. But since he is God e­verlasting, he must from everlasting have created men, Angels, and the creatures, and from everlasting he must punish sin; Life may be considered. 1. As life. 2. As such an excellent life, to wit, a communion with God.

In the former consideration, life is either considered as the end, or secondly as a free reward.Commu­nion with GOD in Glory, is a reward not due by na­ture, but by the free gift of GOD, to the most perfect law-obedience. In the former respect. To live an intellectuall life in obeying God, was to Adam so created a con­naturall end, as to burn, is to fire, and to give light, to the Sunne. And God may put the respect of a reward upon any obedientiall end. But that Adam should have such an eminent life, for the reward of his obedience as a communion with God, which is farre above his obedience, is the free donation of God: nor is there any necessary connexion between Adams perfect obedience, and so high and eminent a life, nor can this Covenant, as touching such a promise, be written in his heart. God then never loved to make any Covenant, yea even that of Works, without some acts and out-goings of grace, and the hyre was grace, how is he not to be served, who loves to hyre and allure us to be happy?

Arminius saith, the reward of keeping the Covenant of Works, cannot be spirituall,Arminius in Colla. cum Francis Ju­nio, ad pro­pos. [...]2. pag. 547. nor can the punishment be spirituall, because you teach (saith he) that the obedience is naturall. Ans. It followeth not, for the reward is spirituall, yea and supernaturall from the free promise of God: It was, that God should recom­pence our naturall obedience, coming from connaturall principles, with so eminent a Crowne as communion with God Creator, in a life of glory. And this came from no innate proportion between a naturall work and supernaturall reward; Otherwise we must say, first that there is such an intrinsecall connexion ex naturâ rei be­tween [Page 23] Adams work and so high wages, as that glorious communi­on was, as the Lord could not but in justice, so have rewarded his obedience, except he would be unjust, but there is nothing in the creature, that can conclude, limite, or determine, his will [...] wisdome, who is infinite. 2. It had been nothing against justice, if the Lord had followed Adams obedience, with no reward at all; For man as a creature, owes himself to God, Anselmus de redemp­tione certe Domine, quia me fe­cisti debeo amori tuo meipsum to­tum, imo tantum de­beo amori tuo plus quam me ipsum. Quantum tu es major me, pro quo dedisti teipsum & cui pro­mittis teipsum. Anselm. Monolog. 40. quid enim summa bonitas retribuet ama [...]ti & desideranti se nisi seipsum. and as sweetly and pithily Anselme saith, as a redeemed one I owe my self and more then my self to thee, because thou gave thy self who art so farre more then my self, for me, and thou promises thy self to me. Now God, who is more and greater then Adam, promised himself, to be enjoyed by Adam, if he should continue in obedience. For what can the highest goodnesse (sayeth he) give to one that loves it, but it self?

3. If God, of justice, give Adam life, Adam might compell God to pay, what he oweth him, else he should be unjust: But the creature can lay no necessitie on the Creator, either to work without himself, nor can he cause him to will.No merit can wone God, for he is greater nor our work. Bradward. de causa Dei lib. 1. c. 39. p. 343 lit. E. 4. The proper work of merite (saith great Bradwardine) and of him that works must go before the wages, in time, or in order of nature. And if the worker receive its operation, and working for wadge from God first, and by his vertue and help continue in operation and working, he cannot condignely merit at the hand of God, but is rather more in Gods debt, after his working, then before his working, because he bountifullie receives more good from God, then before, especially, because he gives nothing proper of his own to God, but gives to God his own good; But no man first acts for God, for God is the first actor and mover in every action,It is not just, that God shuld reward A­dams obe­diēce, with life, before God made it just. and motion. As that saith, Who gave first to the Lord, and it shall be recompensed him?

5. If this was yesterday just, that life eternall is due to Adam for his work before God made it just and due, then from Eternitie and before any decree of God it was just and due; Certainlie, God, [Page 24] upon the same reason, was debtour, to make such a Covenant, that was just, before he made it just. And this is no Covenant of God, for God, not making the justice of the Covenant, and the ju [...]t connexion between work and wadge, he cannot be the Author of the Covenant: But neither is Adam the Author of the justice, nor of the just Covenant: Upon the same ground, it was then an everlasting justice without and before God from Eternitie. Non da­tur justum prius primo justo.

6. If God did more for Adam, then he can recompence God for it,Man can never come from un­der an ob­ligation to his Creator and Re­deemer. as the Father hath done to the Son, then he could not merit at the hand of God: But God did more to Adam in giving to him being, faculties, mind, will, affections, power, habites, his bles­sed Image, then Adam can never be in a condition, in which he can recompence God, or give him more annuall and usurie, in his acting of obedience, then the stock was he received in proportion. As the Son can never give the Father, in recompence, so much or the captive ransomed from death, can never give to his ransome payer, who bought him so much, as the one and the other shall no more be under an obligation, and debt of love and service to father and ransomer▪ then to a stranger that they never knew: Nor could Adam thus be freed of God, so as he should be owing nothing to him. If any say, God may freely forgive all this obli­gation and debt: To which Bradwardine Answers well: 1. The forgiving of the debt, when the debtor hath nothing to pay is a greater debt taken on. 2. God (saith he) may forgive so in re­gard of actuall obligation, that he is not oblidged ad aliquid faci­endum sub poena peccati, to do any thing under the pain or punish­ment of sin, as the hireling is obleiged to work, when he hath made a Covenant to work, and so we are not oblidged to do, as much as we can for God. But in regard of habituall obligation, God can­not forgive the debt, that the reasonable creature owes to God, for so he might dispence with this, that the reasonable creature owe no obedience to God, suppose he should command it, which is impossible.

They seeme therefore, with eyes of flesh, to look upon God, who say that God by necessitie of justice must punish sin, yea that the most High cannot be God, except he punish sin, and that he should [Page 25] not be God, if all his Lawes imposed upon men, were only promis­sorie and void of all threatnings.

What? could not God have said,God falls in no sort from his natural do­minion, though he punish not sin by ne­cessity of nature. eat not of the tree of know­ledge, for if ye eat not, your obedience shall be rewarded with life eternall, and no more? might he not have laid aside all threat­ning? What Scripture or reason teacheth to say, that God, if he create a reasonable creature, and under a morall dependencie, which it hath and must have of God, then must God, by necessitie of na­ture, punish the sinner, yea so as, if he punish not, he should not be God, nor just, but must fall from his naturall dominion, except he make penall laws, and so he should not be God, except he say to Adam (if thou eat thou shalt die) or (shalt be punished for eating) but this is not proven by one word, except this, the reasonable creature is not, nor cannot be subject to God Creator, except God punish the sinner; But that is denyed: Adam should have had a Morall dependance upon God, and God should have been God, and essentially just, if sin had never come into the World, and if God had kept Adam under a Morall Law, as he did the Elect Angels, who never felt or knew the fruit of a Morall Law broken and transgressed. And God, if he imposed any penall Law upon the Elect Angels as penall (which shall be an hard work to prove) yet had a naturall dominion over the Elect Angels, God should have a per­fect domi­nion over mā, though he had im­posed no penall, but only re­warding or remunera­tive lawes, upon him. and suppose no Law, but only a rewarding and remunerative Law, had been over their heads, should God be no God, in that case? and if any de­ny, that God hath a perfect dominion over the Elect Angels, he is not worthy to be refuted. 2. Shew me, in all the Old or New Testament, any penall Law of active obedienc [...] as penall, imposed upon the man Christ, or where is it written, If the Man Christ sin, he shall eternally die? I tremble at such expressions: Is the Lord therefore not the Lord, and hath the Lord fallen from his naturall dominion over his Son, the Man Christ? Or (3) will any man deny, but the Lord might justly have laid upon all men and upon the Elect Angels a Law only remunerative, not penall at all, a Law only with the promise of a reward, and void of all threat­ning of death, first or second, or any other punishment, and yet he should have been the Lord, and had a naturall dominion over Angels, the Man Christ, and all mankind?

[Page 26](3) Suppose the Lord had never imposed the Law penall for­bidding the sin against the Holy Ghost, upon the Elect beleevers, nor any other penall Law,The Lords dominion over man, is without Scripture or reason, restricted to penal Laws. but by vertue of the most sufficient ran­some of the Blood of God payed for man, he had made them now after the fall▪ as the confirmed Angels, and holy as the Man Christ, and brought them so to glory, should he not have been God in that case, and should he have lost his naturall dominion over men in that case? 4. The dominion of God over men is not only in one particular, of penall Laws, it is in remunerative Laws also, in gi­ving predeterminating influences to obey and persevere in obedi­ence,Si enim lex talis non se­ratur neces­sariò, possibi­le esset ut vel Deus jure suo naturali & Dominio in creaturas caderet, & sic non esset DEVS, vel stabilito isto jure, creatu­ram ci non esse subdi­tam. Quod implicat con­tradictionem — nam intercisâ o­bedientiâ (quod fieri potuit & fa­ctum est) dependentia (moralis creaturae ra­tionalis à Deo) illa nullo modo continuari potest, nisi per poenam [...]. in not leading into temptation, in hyring and alluring us to serve God, in terrifying men with examples of the Lords Judge­ments on others, he spared not the Angels, &c. 2 Pet. 2.4. Jud. 6. and therefore, to say, that God falls from his naturall dominion over man, and leaves off to be God, except he impose penall Laws upon men, is first an errour in Logick, à negatione speciei ad ne­gationem generis, nulla est consequentia: If God have not a do­minion over man, in one particular of penall Laws, he falls from his whole dominion naturall, in other things: It is an undue in­ference. 2. It cannot be but too darring to tye the blessed God-head, and his essentiall dominion over man, to only making of pe­nall Laws: it smells of Scripturelesse boldnesse with the most High, and limits the Holy One, that he cannot be God, except he be God in our way: And saith, he hath no way to preserve his glo­ry, but by creating a Hell: And therefore let that stand as an un­proven position, since it hath no probation; The reason that is given is as weak as the weak conclusion; Though water may bear up water, yet it cannot support the earth. For 1. it saith, if man be created a reasonable creature under a Law, he may sin, inter­cidi potuit obedientiâ, and he may be created under a Law, with perfect morall dependence upon God Creator, as the Elect Angels and the Man Christ, and yet never sin, and yet God falls not from his dominion, and leaves not off to be God. (2.) This lookes somewhat the Arminian way, that man cannot be under the subjection of, properly so called, Morall obedience, except his will be indifferent as Adams was, to stand or fall, to run to Heaven or Hell, which indeed saith, that the most perfect obedience of Christ, [Page 27] who was obedient to the death, Phil. 2.8. and delighted to do the will of God, Psal. 40.8. John 4.34. is no proper obedience, that is, perfect obedience is not proper obedience. And that obedi­ence of Elect Angels the samplar of our obedience, Mat. 6.10. Isa. 6.2, 3. Psal. 103.20. is not proper obedience. 3. Whereas it is said, if man sin, his morall dependency cannot stand, except God punish him, but so not only God shall not be God, nor have dominion over man, except he impose a penall Law upon man, but he shall not be God except he actually punish man, or his sure­ty Christ.Jam ver [...] egressus ne­cessarios con­stituentes, non negamus Deum ta­men eam li­bere exerce­re. But the same pen saith that the out-goings of justice are free, that is to say, it is free to God to punish sin; and yet he falls from his naturall dominion over man, and leaves off to be God, if he punish not sin. But we do deny that God falls from his na­turall dominion over man, though he never impose a penall Law upon him, and never punish, and desire that this may be proven, nor is it imaginable, how God by necessity of nature, must punish sin; And yet, in the way, measure, and degree of punishment, and in the time when, he can use moderation. Its not fea­zable, with­out a con­tradiction, to say God punisheth sin, by ne­cessity of nature, and yet in the way, mea­sure, and time of pu­nishing, he is free. Which is as good as to say, the fire must, by necessity of nature, burn, the Sun cast light; But the fire hath free will to burn when it pleaseth, and at this time, and not at this time; and the Sun must shine, by necessity of nature, but it is free to shine at ten hours of the day, and not at twelve, and it may shine as bright as the Sun, or as dimme as the Moon. Or God the Father loves himself, but it is free to him to love himself to day, not to morrow, and to love himself so much, not so much. And so he may say, God is so mercifull and just to day, as he may be no merciful, no just, to morrow; and God is infinitly mercifull and just, and yet he is lesse mercifull and more mercifull essentially according to his good pleasure, which are speaking contradictions. Yea this is that which misjudging Sua­rez saith, that the creature may do a reall injurie to God, Suarez in opusc. de ju­stit. Dei, Sect. 2. [...]. 9. fig. 352. and take away from God jus Dei ad gloriam, his right to glory, but the truth is, the creature by sin darkeneth or overcloudeth his decla­rative glory, but can take away no essentiall glory, nor any reall right or reall good from God, so Elihu, Job 39.6. If thou sinnest, what dost thou against him? If thy transgressions be multiplied, what dost thou to him? To take his declarative glory from God, [Page 28] is no lose to him, no more then it is lose to the Sun, that ye hin­der it to shine upon the wall, when yet ye take no light from the Sun, for it shines upon an interposed body. Job 35.8. Thy wickednesse may hurt a man as thou art, and thy righteous­nesse may profite the Son of man. It is needfull (say some) that God preserve his own glory safe, but if sin be without infliction of punishment, it is impossible that he can defend his ow [...] glory. Er­go, of necessity he must punish sin. The proposition is out of con­troversie, for all confesse that God must preserve his own glory, [...] by necessity of nature he must do so; quoniam seipsum non potest non amare. Because he cannot but love himself, and he hath said, my glory will I not give to another.

God loves & defends by necessi­ty of nature his essenti­all, but not his declara­tive glory.To this is answered, the glory internall, eternall, and essentiall to God, the Lord must defend and love as he loves himself, by ne­c [...]ssity of nature; and if any say that the egressions and out-goings of God to defend and love his own essentiall Glory, and his own holy Nature, so as he may use moderation in the degrees and time of these, and he may love himself and his own essentiall glory, more or lesse, and touching the time, he may delay to love himself, and he may love himself and his own essentiall glory to morrow, not to day, As the Author sayes, the out-goings of revenging justice are moderated in punishing; he speaks wonders and things unworthy of God. The place, Isa. 42. speaks not of this glory, for no idol, no creature,God loves & defends the glory of his pardo­ning mer­cy, no less then the glory of his reveng­ing justice, and if he love the one, by ne­cessity of nature, he must also love the o­ther. can more take away from the Almighty this essentiall glory of God, nor his blessed Nature can cease to be, but there is a glory declarative of pardoning mercie, as well, as of revenging justice; It must be a carnall conception and a new dream, that God by necessity of nature, loves himself as cloathed with revenging justice, or as just, and his own glory of revenging justice, but that God loves himself as mercifull and ready to forgive, or his own glory of pardoning mercie freely, and by no necessity of nature: Which the Author must say, for the place, Isa. 45. should other­wise bear this sense, my glory of revenging justice only, I will not give to Idol gods and creatures. But the place of Isa. ch. 42.8. should not conclude, but they might ascribe the glory of salvati­on and mercifull deliverances and victories over Judah, the Temple, the Sanctuary to their idol gods, the contrair whereof is intended [Page 29] by the Prophet; But if the Lord, by necessity of nature,The place, Isa. 42.18. I will not give my glo­ry to ano­ther, vindi­cated. love his declarative glory, as he loves himself, then he must love glory of one attribute, as well as of another, and so as his Nature, not free­dome or soveraignty puts him to it, to defend the glory of justice, when man sins; Yea so as he cannot be God and essentially just, ex­cept he vindicat his glory of justice; Yea so he must love the glo­ry of saving and pardoning mercy, as himself, for the one glory is no lesse essentiall to God (if it be essentiall at all) then the o­ther. And by this means, God, by necessity of nature, to pre­serve safe the glory of saving mercie, must send his Son, and by the like necessity, by which he loves himself, he must redeem man; Now the Lord does not love himself, of free grace, for he every way, for the infinite excellency of his Nature is love-worthy, and there is no interveening of freedome, or free grace, or soveraign­ty in the Lords loving of himself and his own essentiall glory. There is a declarative glory, which is not essentiall to God, of which the Scripture, Prov. 16.4. The Lord made all things for himself, The Scrip­ture speaks for the most part, of the Lords declarative glory. that is, for his glory, to be declared. Eph. 1.6. He hath chosen us to the praise of the glory of his grace, v. 11. In Christ we have obtai­ned an inheritance. 1 [...]. That we should be to the praise of his glo­ry. Rom. 11.36. All things are to him, to his glory. Isa. 43.21. This people have I formed for my self, they shall shew forth my praise. All these are to be understood not of the essentiall glory of God, but of the declarative glory of God, that shines ad extra. God by necessitie of nature, should pro­cure his de­clarative glory, and so by that necessitie, create the world, re­deem man, if by that necessitie, he should love and defend his declarative Glory. And this glory is not essentiall to God as so declared, for he was in­finitly glorious from eternity, and should eternally be essentially glorious, though neither world, nor man, nor Angel, had been created. And the meaning of that, Isai. 42.8. is mistaken, the length of the Heaven, toto Coelo. It is not this, as I love my self, so by necessity of nature I will, and desire that my glory due to me, as God, be not given to idol gods, and creatures. 1. What by necessitie of nature God wills, that certainly, and by ne­cessitie of nature is and existeth, as he loveth himself, and his Son by necessitie of nature, and begets his Son by necessitie of nature, so also by necessitie of nature God is loved, and the Son of God is loved, and the Son is by necessitie of nature, begotten of the Fa­ther. But it is most untrue, that by necessitie of nature, the Glory [Page 30] of God is not transferred to Idol gods and creatures; The Scrip­tures cry the contrare. When ever Idolatrie is committed, Isa. 40. and 41. Isa. 46. Rom. 1. Acts 17. his Glory declarative is gi­ven, most sinfully to another against his approving will. 2. What ever sin God forbids, he forbids the existence of it, by his appro­ving will, not by necessitie of nature, for if God essentially and by nature willed that sin and Idolatrie should never be, he would ef­ficaciouslie hinder it; But what God wills by his commanding will, we see he does not efficaciouslie hinder the existence thereof: For then sin and Idolatrie should not be at all, nor have any existence, which is contrare to Scripture and experience; And surely, if God love his declarative Glory essentially as himself, he must essentially no lesse love to keep this glory, when Angels and men do obey him, and to hinder the taking away of this Glory by sin, then to revenge the taking away of this glory by punishment, for every sin against a positive Law, to eat of the tree of knowledge, or for the Jews to eat swines flesh, before Christ abolished such Lawes, as well as sins against the Law of nature, are contrare to the Glo­ry of God, God must by necessi­tie of na­ture hinder the existēce of sin, and by the same necessitie seek his le­gislative Glory, if he love it, as he loves himself by necessitie of nature. and so contrare to that essentiall love that God hath to his Glory, and to the Glory of the Lord, the Law-giver himself, Ergo, by necessitie of nature, because he cannot but love himself. he should preserve his legislative Glory, (it is as properly and es­sentiallie the Glory of God, which he requires of us, in doing his will, as the Glory of suffering punishment for sin committed, is his Glory) therefore, by necessitie of nature, because God can­not but love himself, he should essentially hinder sin: And if God absolve the guiltie, where is the Glory of his justice? True, it should be lost, so when God suffers the Angels to fall, and Adam to sin, where is the Glory of his legislative Majesty? it is lost so far. God is oblidged to defend the Glory of his Justice: say and prove that he is oblidged by necessitie of nature to defend the Glo­ry of his Justice, more then by the same necessitie he must defend his legislative Glory. 3. God must defend all his Glory with the same necessitie, except the Scripture make some exception of some Glory which he must preserve, as dearer to him then some other Glory, which is unwarrantable to say, and if God must, by neces­sitie of nature, and as God, because naturally he loves himself and [Page 31] his own Glory, defend his own Glory, then, by necessitie of na­ture he must defend the Glory of all his Attributes, of Holinesse, Graciousnesse, Greatn [...]sse, Omnipotencie, Eternitie, Infinite knowledge, &c. that the Glory of not one of these be taken from him by sin: And because the Lord maketh, and worketh all, that he doth without himself, in the creature, for his own Glory. Prov. 16.4. Rev. 4.11. Rom. 11.36. in all that he doth, he must by necessitie of nature love his own Glory, quoniam seipsum non potest non amare, because he loves himself. Ergo, by this ground the Lord doth nothing freely without himself, and so the Lord makes not the rain to fall, the tree to bud, the sea to ebbe, the wind to blow, the fowls to flee, the fishes to swim, for the de­claration of the Glory of his goodnesse, or his power, or his mercy, his holinesse, with any freedome, but all these he must do for Glo­ry to himself by necessitie of nature, which Glory he loves as him­self, for his Glory in all he doth without, he loveth by necessitie of nature, as he loves himself saith the Author. And therefore as he cannot preserve the Glory of his Justice, but by punishing sin, and that by necessitie of nature, so he cannot preserve the Glory of the rest of all his Attributes (which Glory also he loves as himself) but by doing all without himself in like maner by necessitie of na­ture, which utterly destroyes the libertie and freedome of God in all his works of Providence and Creation, and so God shall be a na­turall agent in all his works without himself,God might never have intended his glory declarative because if so it had pleased him, he might ne­ver have made the world. not a free agent in Creating and Redeeming. 4. The Scripture sayes, he works all things according to the counsell of his will, for his Glory, and there­fore he intends not his own declarative Glory as he loves himself: For by necessitie of nature he loves himself, and cannot but love himself. But he might, if so it had pleased him, never have in­tended to shew forth his own Glory, and does not show it forth by necessitie of nature as he loves himself. Yea he might never have created the world, never have acted without himself: For he was sufficient within himself and stood in need of no declarative Glory: Gen. 17.1. Acts 17.25. 5. Yea if by necessitie of Justice, God cannot but punish sin, especially this justice shall cary him to follow the Law of Works without any Gospel moderation, which is that the same person that sins, and the same soul, Ezek. 18. and [Page 32] no other,If God punish sin, by necessi­ty of ju­stice, hee must pu­nish Adam and all his sons in their persons, & by necessi­ty of ju­stice, deny them a Sa­viour. should die for sin: for all these. Thou shalt destroy all the workers of iniquitie. Thou art of purer eyes then that thou can behold iniquitie, and the like, are expressions of a pure legall proceeding in the Lord, against such as are out of Christ, under the Law, not under the Gospel, to wit, the workers of iniquity whom the Lord in justice shall punish in their person, not in their surety. And if there be such a connexion objective ex naturâ rei, between sin and punishment, it must be between punishment and the very person and none other, but the same that sinned: For among men this is justice. Noxa sequitur caput, so that by ne­cessitie of nature, God shall not be God, nor essentially just, if he punish not eternally Adam and all mankinde in their own persons, and so by necessitie of justice, he cannot punish Christ; And it cannot be denyed but there is a dispensation of free Grace, and that it is no act of Justice but of Grace, that God make Christ sin, i. e. a sacrifice for sin for us, 2 Cor. 5.21. And that the Lord laid upon him the iniquities of us all, Isa. 53.6. and made him our surety. Nor let any man object, how could God make Christ a propitiation for sin to declare his righteousnesse? Or how could such justice, by that action be debarred? since justice did not exact such an action: If without violation of justice it might have been omitted, if God should have been infinitely just from Eternitie, if he had done no such thing? Shall a Prince get himself glory in the name of ju­stice, by doing that which, by his absolute Soveraignety, he may leave undone without hurt of justice. The ne­cessitie of declaring the righte­ousnesse of God in ei­ther puni­shing the sinner A­dam, or the surety Christ, makes not God to punish, by necessity of nature. It is Answered, this is to measure God by mortall men: Shall an earthly father freely for no reall good to himself beget hundreds of children, when he needs not, and yet he foresees the largest number of them shall perish eternally, and the eldest must die and be made a curse, to save the rest. The Lord punished Christ for us to declare the glory of his Justice in punishing sin in his own Son, who was the sinner by imputation, for out of the depth of infinite wisedome, the Lord freely imposes a law upon his creatures: He might have imposed no such law under such a punishment. By no necessity of nature did the Lord threaten death, for the eating the fruit of that tree, prove, that God should not have been God, except he had threat­ned death for the eating of that fruit, and except he had punished [Page 33] that eating with death, either to be inflicted upon the eater or his surety. Quid haeres? Prove that by the Word of God, it is sin to eat, when God forbids; but the Lords soul hates sin. True, but does the Lords soul hate sin naturally, as he loves himself and by necessity of his essentiall justice as contradistinguished from his immutabilitie, and his truth and faithfulnesse, according to which attributes, he decreed and said, that the soul that sins shall die, and (he that eats shall die) and he cannot change, nor alter, what he hath decreed, and cannot but be true in his threatnings. But the Question is, whether (laying aside the respect of Gods unchange­ablenesse and truth) there be such a connexion internall, between eating and dying, or between eating forbidden of God, and pu­nishment, as God cannot be equally and essentially just, nor can he be God, except he punish forbidden eating; for sure eating of that fruit, is not of its nature, sin, but it is sin, from the only for­bidding will of God, for the Lord had been no lesse essentially just, had he commanded Adam to eat of the Tree of Knowledge. Ergo, it is punished from the forbidding will of God, for say that to be punishable or to be punished be essentiall to sin, if eating of such fruit be sin from the forbidding will of God, the essence thereof must be from the same forbidding will, then must it follow that God hates not all sin, by necessity of nature; And that he hates such eating only conditionally, if he forbid it; but [...] from his meer free will, did forbid it. So the Question shall not be, whether God in justice, punished Christ, and made him a propitiation to declare his justice, but what the relative justice ad extra is, by which God punisheth sin, and whether God should leave off to be God (hallowed be his high Name) if he should not make first penall Laws to threaten all sin with punishment. 2. Whether he should not be God, if he should not punish all sin, even the eating of the forbidden tree.The glory of God, & the manife­station of his glory to Angels and Men, are much dif­ferent. 3. What can be said that is more weak and wa­trie, to enervat the glory of free Grace, then to confound the Glory of Gods Justice in giving Christ to die for sinners, and this glory as manifested and declared: For sure the manifestation of that glory is a work of free Grace, and most free, if God do any thing freely, he must freely, and by no necessity of Justice, Mercy, Omnipotency, Patience, Grace, &c. manifest the glory of all [Page 34] these to men and Angels,Declared glory and fundamen­tal glory are different. and these attributes and the internall splendor, beauty, or (to speak so) the fundamentall glory of all the attributes of God is essentiall to God, and his very Nature. And they deny the Lord, who teach that any attributes or such glory are in God freely or contingently (if I durst so speak) for then might we say, these may go and come, ebbe and flow in the Lord, and he should be God, though Mercy, Omnipotency, Glo­riousnesse, Graciousnesse, were now and then wanting in him, as he punishes not alway [...], and yet he is eternally just, he saves not alwayes, and yet he is eternally mighty to save, and abundant in compassions. but as to the manifestation of Power, Mercy, Justice, that is freely in God: He sent his Son, and gave his Son to death for us, out of love, Iohn 3.16. But it is against common sense, to infer, Ergo, God sent his Son, by necessity of love, and mercy, and free Grace. So that he should not have been infinitly loving, mercifull, gracious, if he had never sent him. And it is as poor Logick to say, because of grace and free-love he sent his Son, and so might not have sent him, as to say he loved where there was no need,Qualis enim amor iste esse potest, quem in ea re, qua nihil opus fu­it, DEVS ostendit? & it is in vain to shew the glory of Justice (saith the Author) when God can take away sin, out of free-pleasure, and why should he expose his Son to shame, death, and a curse, whereas he might have taken away sin freely, because it is his pleasure? This is the very thing that Socinians say, there is no need of blood, and sa­tisfaction by blood, if God out of his absolute Soveraignty can take sin away without blood, and so there was no need of reall satisfaction;The free­dom of pu­nishing sin is objected by Socinus, as contrair to the ne­cessitie of reall satis­faction. This is against the Holy Ghost, and we may hear it. All the Scriptures cryes that out of free grace the Lord sent his Son, and delivered him to death; By the grace of God He tasted death for every man, Heb. 2.9. Shall we infer there was then no necessity that he should die? It is safest to say the only wise God decreed that sin should be. 2. That the glory of his Justice should appear in taking away sin, not in our way, but in the way of God, to wit, in a way of justice, of mercy, of free grace, in incompa­rable love, of mighty power; and in all these so acts the Lord as he should not leave off to be the Lord, but acts most freely, though he had not taken that course. But far be it from the godly not to adore him in this, as the admirable way beyond the thoughts of men and Angels.

[Page 35]It were safest to draw holy practises by way of use from this.Grace and the mea­sure of it is to be hum­bly looked on.

In all pactions between the Lord and man, even in a Law-Co­nant there is some out-breakings of Grace. Its true, there was no Gospel-Grace, that is a fruit of Christs merite in this Covenant. But yet if grace be taken for undeserved goodnesse: There are these respects of grace. 1. That God might have given to Adam something inferiour to the glorious Image of God, that consists in true righteousnesse, knowledge of God, and holinesse, Gen 1.26. Eph. 4.24. Col. 3.10. It was a rich enough stock, this holy Image to be so badly guided. And who looks spiritually to their receipts? Its either too much of grace and holinesse that another hath, and too little that I have, so arises virtuall sighing and grudging at the dispensation. Or 2. a swelling that it is so much, as if it were not receiving. I am holier then thou, Isa. 65.5. a miskenning of him that makes me to differ, 1 Cor. 4.7. A blecking of others, Luk. 18.11. A secret quarrelling at God as too strick and hard in his rec­koning, Mat. 25.24. And what pride is this, because I am a meer patient under gifted holinesse, to usurpe it as mine own? As if a horse should kick and fling, because he wears a borrowed sadle of silk for a day.

2. Being and dominion over the creatures is of undeserved good­nesse. Who looks to a borrowed body and a borrowed soul,Being, life, and self▪ are undeserved favours. yea and to self, and to that which is called I, as to a thing that is free­ly gifted? So that though thou be in an high opinion of self, self is self, and what it is, from God. And when thou rides, whence is it that I am the rider, and the wearied horse the carrier, but from God? 3. The Covenant of Works it self, that God out of Sove­raignty does not command, is undeserved condescending; that God bargains for hire, do this and live, whereas he may bide a Sove­raign Law-giver and charge and command us, is overcoming good­nesse. Law is honeyed with love, and hire; it is mercy that for our penny of obedience,It is mercy that GOD rewards our obedi­ence. so rich a wadge as communion with God is given. 4. The influences to acts of obedience, come under a twofold consideration. 1. As congruous and suitable concurrences of God to Adams acts of obedience: And so they were free gifts to Adam not promised, as we shall hear in the New Covenant. 2. As such influences by which the standing Elect Angels (who [Page 36] were under this Covenant as well as Adam) were differenced from the Angels that fell,An admi­rable sove­raignty in the stand­ing of An­gels and in the fall of man. and were confirmed that they should not fall, in this latter respect. Absolute Soveraignty shines in Adams fall, so if a Sparrow cannot stir its wing without God, Mat. 10.29. nor a hair fall from our head, ver. 30. far lesse could Adam fall, and all his, without a singular providence; And farre lesse could Adam go on and act without influences from God. And if strong Adam and upright, created in holinesse, could not then stand his alone; Shall our clay legs now under the fall bear us up? What Godly trembling is required in us?Gifts and habits of saving grace can­not keep creatures on foot. 5. The gift of Prophesie, Gen. 2.23. seems to be freely given, besides the Image of God, and Adams knowledge, Gen. 2.19. of every living creature, according to their nature may be proven, but it appears to be naturall, and he is a lamentable example to us of abusing the Image of God, and good gifts; But no habite without the continued actings of God can keep us in a course of obedience: There is no ground to make habits of grace our confidence. 3. There can be no giving and taking between the creature and the Creator. Elihu pleads well for him, Job 35.7. If thou be righteous what gives thou to him? Or what receiveth he of thy hand, v. 1. Thy wickednesse may hurt a man, as thou art, and thy righteousnesse may profite the Son of man. The hum­bling thoughts that God needs not men, nor their ser­vice, nor any crea­ture, shuld take us up. Job 22.2. Can a man be profitable unto God, as he that is wise may be profitable to himself? Is it pleasure to the Almigh­ty that thou art righteous? Or is it a gain to him that thou makest thy wayes perfect? So Eliphaz. And David, Psal. 16.2. My goodnesse extendeth not to thee. Acts 17.25. Neither is the Lord worshipped with mens hands, nor with their spirits: as if he nee­ded any thing, seeing he giveth to all life & breath and all things. What then is the glory of the creatures obedience to him? It is some shining of the excellency of God upon men and Angels, from the works of God, and our obedience to him. But suppose there were no creature to pay the rent of this glory to him, is the Lord a loser therefore? Hath he need of our songs of glory? Or that creatures should be Heraulds of his praise? Or needs he the work­manship or structure of Heaven, Sun and Moon to be a Printed Book to spell and sound his glory? If he need not the Book (as he needeth nothing created. [...] Who sayeth I am the Lord Al-suf­ficient) [Page 37] he needs not one letter, nor any sense of the Contents of the Chapters of that Book. There is a secret carnall notion of God in us, when we act and suffer for God, that brings a false peace,Secret in us after act­ings of Grace. and some calmes of mind, we have pleased him once, and beside that peace, a scumme and a froath smoakes up unsensible in the heart, we are profitable to God, it would be the worse with him, if he wanted our prayers and service: but had the Lord any missing of Heaven and of Angels and Men, in these infinite and innume­rable ages of duration, that went before any created being? When he was upon these infinite and self-delighting thoughts, solacing himself in that infinite substantial fairenesse and love his Son Christ, Prov. 8.89.30.No crea­ture can give to God (2.) You can give nothing to God Creator of all, but it must be either an uncreated God-head, but he who perfectly possesseth himself, will not thank you for that, or your gift most be a created thing: But how wide is his universall domi­nion? can you give to one that, of which he was absolute Lord before? all the Roses are his, all the Vineyards, all the Moun­tains, he is the owner of the South and the North, of the East and the West, and infinite millions of possible Worlds, beyond what Angels and all Angels can number, for eternitie of ages, are in the bosome of his vaste Omnipotencie; He can create them if hee will.

And what ye give to another, it was out of his dominion, but all things are in his dominion, for who spoiled him of what he had? David blessed the Lord, when the people gave for the Temple, excusing himself and the people, that they took on them to give to the great Lord-giver: 1 Chro. 29.11. Thine, O Lord, Reasons why none can give to GOD from that excellent passage of David, 1 Chro. 29.1 [...] 12. is the greatnesse, and the power and the glorie, and the victorie, and the majestie, for all that is in the heaven and in the earth is thine, thine is the Kingdome, O Lord, and thou art exalted as head a­bove all. vers. 12. Both riches and honour come of thee, and thou reignest, and in thy hand it is to make great, and to give strength unto all. 14. But who am I, and what is my people, that we should be able, so willingly, to offer after this sort? for all things come of thee, and of thine own have we given thee. Hence, none can give to Gd. 1. Because he is JEHOVAH the Eternall God, then he gives all and nothing can be given to him. 2. Because of the great­nesse [Page 38] and infinitenesse of God. Giving is an adding to him, to whom we give. But nothing can be added to him, for thine is the great­nesse, the power, and the majestie. 3. Nothing can be given to him who is universall and full Lord and Possessour of heaven and earth, and all things therein, for all that is in the heaven &c▪ are thine. 4. Nothing can be given to him, who is so Lord, that he is exalted as Head, Prince and King, above all created Kings, and their dominions over their own. 5. But all the goods of the Subjects are the Princes, or the Commonwealths. The Jurists distinguish as the Schoolman Theod. Smising, Tom. 1. de Deo, tra­ctat. 3. disp. 4. q. 5. fig. 65. a two-fold jus, What do­minion the state or communi­tie hath o­ver private men. jus altum & jus bassum: The Prince and Commonwealth, have a sort of eminent right to the goods of the Subjects, to dispose of them for the pub­lick good, as they may demolish a castle belonging to a private man in the frontiers of the enemies land, because it hurts the country, and may be better made use of by enemies against them for the countrey; And they may compell him to sell it, but this hinders not, but every Subject hath a dominion and right to his own goods, to use them at his pleasure, which the Prince cannot do. Ahab the King hath no right nor dominion over the vineyard of Naboth to compell him to sell it or give it against his will to his Prince; For the earthly Prince, nay the man himself, the just Proprietor be­fore men cannot bear that, so as it may be said of God, vers. 12▪ both riches and honour come of thee, and thou reignest over all: For God created the being of gold and of every thing, that we can give to God, which no earthly Prince can do.

6. Nothing can be given to him, in whose hand is power and might, and to make great and to give strength: For 1. Riches and things we give are of him. 2. Power, might and strength to give, either Physicall, to bear a burden to his house: Or, 2 Morall, a willing mind and heart to give is in his hand: Or, 3. A mixt power, the being of the act of giving is his. v. 7. Of thine own we give thee. Can we give to any that which is his own alrea­dy? Can ye give to a Crowned King over such a Kingdome his own Crown? Can ye give to the righteous owner of his own lands, his own Garden, and his own vineyard, in gift? but every being created is the Lords.

[Page 39]8. Saith David, v. 15. We are strangers before thee, and sojour­ners as all our fathers were: And that saith, the Lord is the only Heritor, and we but Tennents at will, and strangers both fathers and sons, though for five hundreth or a thousand years fathers and sons have lineally and in heritage before men possessed such lands: yet before thee (saith he) we and our fathers have but Tennent-right, and are strangers from thee. And what can a meer stranger to life and being give to the just Heritor and Lord of life and being?

9. And our dayes (saith David) on the earth are as a shadow, and there is none abiding life, and being is a shadow of being, and God is the only first excellent being: and suppose we should give life and being to and for him, it is but a borrowed shadow that we give him; And we are not lords of our own being, we have not absolute right over our selves to give our selves to him. If Do [...]g will not give himself to God, and act for God, Psal. 51.2.Such as re­fuse to give self for God, shall be plucked out of their place. God shall take thee away and pluck thee out of thy dwelling place, and root thee out of the land of the living. Job 27.21. the east wind of God carrieth him away, and as a storm hurleth him out of his place. Ye shall bestow life and being worse then upon God. God shall make morter of thee, O fool! who makes a god of borrowed I, great I and poor Nothing-self: Nay if there be a Pronoun in thee O let it be this: Oh if my separation from Christ and the blotting [...]f my name out of the Book of Life, and my heaven might be a foot­ [...]tool to heighten the glory, the high glory of the Lord in the salva­ [...]ion of many. The unity of such as boast of the proud pro­nouns, my, and self. 2. This Pronoun self and mine is a proud usurper a­gainst God. Was he not an Atheist or a churle, and his name folly, who said, 1 Sam. 25.11. and breathed out so many my's? Shall I take my bread and my waters, and my flesh which I killed for my hearers, and give it to men whom I know not whence they be? And he was as madde a fool who thus speaks, Isa. 10.13. By the strength of my hand have I done it, and by my wisdom, for I am [...]rudent: & I removed the bounds of the people—14. And my hand hath found as a nest the riches of the people, and as one gathereth [...]ggs that are left, so have I gathered all the earth, and there was [...]one that moved the wing, or opened the mouth, or peeped. This [...] the fool-axe boasting against him that heweth with it. And ano­ [...]her fool said: Make an agreement with me by a present, and [Page 40] come out to me, Isa. 36.16. And this mad-nothing is above God, chap. 37.10. Let not thy God in whom thou trustest deceive thee. The Tyrant of Egypt, the great Dragon that lyeth in the midst of the river said, My river is mine own, and I have made it for my self, Ezek. 29.3. God made the Sea and all the Rivers. There be three Pronouns in the mouth of another proud Monarch, Dan. 4.30. And the King spake and said, Is not this great Babylon that I have built for the house of the Kingdom, by the might of my power and the honour of my Majesty? So soon as there falls from the great Lord of being a chip or shadow of created being, especi­ally where being is rationall and under a Law, there follows and results (the Lord withdrawing) a proud supposed I and a vain conceit of self, Created sinlesse self, is to be de­nyed. and a dream of God-head comes in with borrowed being; And therefore created sinlesse self is to be denyed. Adam denyed not himself and thought in his sick imagination he should be like God knowing good and evill, Gen. 3. Christ the more ex­cellent Adam pleased not that noble self, Rom. 15.3. [...]. He denyed himself as man, as a gracious meer man, to be God or more then a man. And this self-deniall is in e­lect Angels, who blush and are sinlesly ash [...]med of self, and cover their faces with wings before shining Infinitnesse of Glory, and pro­claim him thrice Holy, holy, holy, Isa. 6.2, 3. And who knowes not we owne grace as our own? my prayers, my faith, my holiness, my tears, as if grace had a relish from self, not from God: but Paul, 1 Cor. 15.10. Not I, but the grace of God (not my grace in me) that was with me, [...].

4. But is there no paction between GOD and the creature? Surely we must say that the covenant between GOD and Adam is of another nature, yea and promises also, then these that are be­tween man and man;The Cove­nant be­tween God and man is of a far o­ther na­ture, then the Cove­nant be­tween man and man. for there is proper giving and taking betwixt the creature. 2. The proper covenants between man and man re­quire that both parties be free and independent one of another, there may interveen a jus, a right and a debt upon the promissor to him to whom the promise is made. Omne promissum ex ore fi­deli cadit in debitum. Jurists say there is no proper binding Cove­nants between the father and the son, the lord and the servant; for the son and the servant are not lords of themselves nor sui juris. [Page 41] The father by no paction can remove the foundation of the debt of nature that the son oweth to the father: for impossible it is, but if such a man be son to such a man, but he owe to his father as to an instrument, quod sit & vivat, being and living, and the son can not satisfie by paying the father for that summe, and the father can not cancell the band nor give him an acquittance. Far lesse can any recompence the Lord for life and being. The fallen Angels and damned in hell and all wicked men are in the Lords Compt-book everlasting debters to him for being. But God who is more then a Father (to whom men are but painted fathers) may thus farre loose the bond, as he may command the son to sacrifice the father, as well as once he commanded the father Abraham to offer up his son to God. But God cannot resigne his right that he hath over the creature to a creature, because he cannot leave off to be Creator, and so cannot lay aside or make over Creator-right, jus Creatoris, to any.God can­not quite or part with Crea­tor-right & universall dominion over all things that may be gi­ven, and therefore nothing can be given to him. 2. Say that a creature had a jus or right over the Creator, it is either an uncreated right or a created right, so to pursue God by Law, as to cause him do him justice; it cannot be an uncreated right; for that were near to blasphemie: For no created head can bear the royall Crown of the King of Ages. If it be a created right, this created right must be under the dominion of him who is universall Lord of all: then may the Lord make use of it at his pleasure; then may not the man make use of it at his pleasure: for an absolute dominion of one and the same thing cannot be in the hands of two absolute Lords, who may have contradictory desires concerning the same thing: such as the holy Lord and sinfull men often are. Let us correct the bold pleadings and the daring char­ges that our vain hearts put upon the Lord: Why dost thou strive against him (saith Elihu, Job 33.13.) for he gives not account of any of his matters? Men dare say, when they are under the ven­geance of ordinary sufferings, The wayes of the Lord are not equal, Ezek. 33.10. If our transgressions and our sins be upon us, and we pine away in them, how shall we then live? But upon whom should sins and transgressions and the punishment thereof be,We are not to strive with the gracious Lord. if not upon the carcases of the Authors? Will ye raise letters to sum­mond him? Where is the judge? Where is the Tribunall? But he promised so and so; But this is not the Question of strict justice: [Page 42] that saith something against the veracity and faithfulnesse of God, but nothing against the justice. But neither doth a promise as a promise raise a plea of unjustice against the holy and glorious Lord, suppose he should not fulfill his promise. For 1. A paction by pro­mise creats no equality of justice between thing and thing, between wage and work: otherwise he that is called to the Vineyard, and labours from the third hour, hath a just plea: for he should have more wages then a penny, which he gets who labours but one hour.The Co­venant, but not the proportion betwixt works and wage is the Lords rule in re­warding our labour, nor should we be gai­ners, if the Lord shuld so deal with us. But the Lord makes not the equality or proportion between much labouring for many hours, and the quantity and degree of the wage his r [...]le. But the Lord pleads the free Covenant for his standing rule. Mat. 20.13. Friend, I do thee no worng: didst thou not agree with me for a penny? And vers. 15. Is it not law­full for me to do what I will with mine own? Hence read our sickly queroulus nature. 1. Naturally we argue from much working, and would conclude God, much running, long swea [...]ing, and pains in keeping the Covenant of Works should binde God, except he be unjust, to give me as many ounces and pound weights of Glory everlasting, as I have fasted moments, and told over prayers upon beads, and uttered sighs: Wherefore have we fasted and thou sees [...] not? We work and keep the Covenant of Works, but God payes us not our wage. Though it be a doubt to me, if the Covenant of Works had stooden, and Adam and all his had fulfilled it per­fectly; if the Lord should weigh in an even ballance, by ounce weights, our poor labour, and great reward of Glory, for had he entered such a market, the losse had been ours; we could not have obtained life eternall that way, for our stock of time-working should have dryed up.There is a commuta­tive and a distribu­tive justice, between God & us, the former hath no place in the abso­lute Lord. The vertue of justice stands in the equa­lity of that which is given and received. Now there is a two-fold equality, one rei ad rem between thing and thing, ane Arith­metick justice, so many ounces of naturall actings, and the same number of ounces of grace and glory: This commutative justice is not in God, as the soundest and learned'st School men teach. There is another justice of proportion duarum rerum ad duas ali­as res, of two things proportionally answering to two things, di­stributive justice is this, and it keeps a Geometricall proporti­on, Augustine with Scripture saith, God is become our debter [Page 43] not by receiving any thing from us, August. serm. 16. de verb. Apo­stol▪ debitor nobis factus est Deus, non aliquid accipiendo, sed quod e [...] placuit pro­mittendo. but by promising what he pleaseth.

2. It followes from the Parable, that Gods bargaining with us depends not upon the equality between thing and thing, the work and the wage; But upon his own free pleasure of disposing of his own: And it is the froathinesse of our nature to judge the penny of Glory, that we get by labouring to be our own, whereas after the promise, and after we have fulfilled the condition, it is not ours, but Gods, and he calls it his own, and it is to be disposed on by the Lords free-grace. Friend, may not I do with mine own, what I please? Mat. 20.15.Glory is not our own after we have wrought for it. 2. No promise as a promise can give us a proper right, by way of strict justice, to plead with God. 1. A promise of grace is a free promise, and no man can say, because God promises the new heart to most undeserving men, that are of a stony heart, and doe profane his holy name, amongst the Gentiles, that therefore it is just by condignitie of the thing,A promise as a pro­mise can give us no right of strict ju­stice to any reward. that a new heart should be given to them, that are foolish, disobedient, and serving diverse lusts. The farrest that hard faced Jesuits go in this, is to tell us of the poor penny of the merit of congruity, for the right weight of the summe and thousands of saving grace which Papists have refused as ashamed thereof.

3. If a promise as a promise should make an equalitie between one thing and another, and so lay a band of strict commutative ju­stice upon God, then should every promise do the like, quod con­venit [...] convenit [...], but that cannot be said: For then if God should promise glory of ten thousand millions of degrees a­bove the glory that Angels and men now injoy, for speaking one good word, that should be a free promise, but that promise should not make an equality between so hudge and rich a reward of glory, and so hungry and poor a work as the speaking of a good word, so as God should fail of justice, if he should deny a reward so great, for so small a work: For the denying thereof should be against the veracitie and faithfulnesse of God, if he should not ful­fill his promise, but he should not fail against strict justice either in not rewarding the work with a condigne reward, or in not giving to the man that spake the good word his own. For there is no just equality between work and wage here. Nor can ever so feckless [Page 44] a work, or all the works of men and Angels, make the glory of life everlasting our own. For glory remains ever the proper gift of God, and under his dominion.

4. A promise is, by order of time or nature, latter and poste­rior to the good thing promised, as words of truth are latter to things, and things have the same valor and worth, before and af­ter the promise,A promise being po­sterior to things pro­mised, can­not alter the worth or value of things. yea if one promise to give for a plot of ground, a summe of money of value, five hundred times above the worth of that plot of ground, that promise can not make the unequall and unjust price to be a just and equall price. Even so the promise of God to give eternall life to the obedience of Adam can make no equality of strict justice between the reward and the wage; For the reward promised for the wages is equall and just before the promise, and ex naturâ rei; and so must lay bands on the Lord, so as he cannot do contrair unto it, which is against all reason.

And who gave first to the Lord, and it shall be recompensed to him, None gave first to the Lord, men or Angels. and he that gave first to him, man or Angel, must give his own (or then it is no giving) which he received not from God, either created being, or gift, or work (for any uncreated gift none can give to him) as is said. 2. What is given is amongst the all things that are of him, as the efficient, and to him, as the last end, and through him, as the conserver of all, and so can be no gift to him, Rom 11.36.

And what God of free goodnesse, decrees to do, that he may decree not to do; and things falling under his decree, are not ne­cessary, he cannot decree that man should be a reasonable creature▪ for it involves a contradiction to be a man, and not to be a reaso­nable creature. But no shadow of contradiction there is for the Lord to forbid to eat; and to forbid to eat under a punishment: And the not created world (it being from eternity nothing and a non ens) could not have any jus or right to plead that God would stand to what he decreed,God was no debtor [...]o Justice to give be­ing to the world. and give being and create a world, for if the Lord should not give being to it, and create what he had de­creed from eternity to create, he should fail against his own un­changeable Nature, but should do no unjustice to an uncreated world, except we say God should be unjust, if he had not created the world▪ For being of justice is due to the world, and God re­fuses [Page 45] to pay the debt of being to the uncreated world,Non entis nulla sunt accidentia. which is non-sense. And upon the same ground, if he should annihilat the world or take away life from living things, he should be unjust; It is safer therefore to say that God oweth the creature nothing, but we are his debtors, for service and praises, while we have any being.

4. Use. If God, of his free will, so placed Adam to reward his o­bedience: We think hard to serve God for wages,We should not take ill to obey & serve God, who hath so noble servants. and to be pla­ced in a condition of obedience. Evah, and we with her, suc­king the same milk, thirst after such lawlesse Independency to be from (Gen. 3.5, 6.) under God; Whereas Adam and Angel-courtiers that have wings to obey, and the Noble and High Heir who learned obedience through the things he suffered were in this condi­tion, and Christ a King in the shape of a Servant was obedient to death, to the death of the Crosse, Phil. 2. Hence, to weary of sub­mitting to God, speaks much unnaturall pride, yea will not be under God. 2. There is little of Christ in such, for it was life to Christ and meat and drink, Psal. 40.8. Heb. 10.8. John 4.34. Act. 10.38. to obey, and it is the Angels life, Jsa. 6.2, 3. Psal. 103.20. Rev. 4.8. and they are neer him, who both at once serve and Raigne, Rev, 22.3, 5. much delight to obey, speak much of God in the heart. Tyre not of your Master; examine more,The beasts and lifeless creatures shal depon in judge­ment a­gainst us who break Covenant with God▪ untoward­nesse to pray, to confer, to give, &c. if it be not a cause of deadness and be not a way of backsliding.

5. Use. If creatures keep their Covenant-naturall with God, shal not the oxe, the cran, Isa. 1.3. Jer. 8.7. the asse, 2 Pet. 2.16. who never had a design of rebellion, depon against us in Judge­ment? Ah! what an unnaturall policie, the first evill wit of him that sinned from the beginning, John 8.44. and whom we follow at the heels, it is to please our own wit, in Covenant breaking. Such as are sick of love for their own wylie time-serving custome;Our soft nature is too soone brokē with poor re­wards, and too little moved with great things. If all naturall men in their death bed damne not this folly, aske them and they shall speak.

6. Use. If God Covenant with us for hyre, when his absolute­nesse may bear him to command, how sinfully soft are our spirits, and weak is reason, that is broken with a straw, when an apple conquers Evahs eye and heart? Talents of Silver, and a wedge of [Page 46] Gold Achan, and Gehazi; A drink of water, if not at hand, in time of thirst, make the people murmure against God; the more sanctified, defecat and spirituall reason be, the farther it is above that which crusheth Balaam and Judas; The first heavens moti­on, the primum mobile, which draws all the rest, must be the most excellent, and the moving power must be most spirituall; its nei­ther heavinesse which is in stones or clay, nor lightnesse in the aire and fire, but a more heavenly force, which throwes about that bo­dy, so the motions of sanctified reason which is sweyed and driven by no Argument, but from eternity, communion with God, a King­dom above time, must be most spirituall. The dogge is moved with a bone, the oxe with hay.

7. If no law and poor obedience of ours can buy a communion with God, let us examine the peace that flowes from obedience; Its purer and more solid peace,Justifica­tion by works is our own element, Christ and his righte­ousnesse strangers to us. that flowes from Justification, and more immediatly removes the warre between God and us, Rom. 5. 1. and comes by a purer and nearer emanation from God and from the ransome of Redemption that is in Christ, then that which flowes from created acts of inherent holinesse. (2.) Our first Adams Element is Justification by works, in which we love to live and die. The Law is an home-born Idol in us: Our apprehensions of our own actings are lively and vigorous, the 3000. Acts 2.37. Saul, Acts 9.6. and the Jayler, Acts 16.30. aske what we shall doe? [...]. But it is not the law word of working, Rom. 4.2, 4, 5, 6. Rom. 3.20▪ 28. Its much to be dead to the Law, and to Law-righteous­nesse: Gal. 2.19, 20. I live not, but Christ lives in me. Christ (2.) is a stranger to us, and comes from without, gifted righte­ousnesse comes from heaven. Grace only makes us willing debters to grace. The pride of self, will neither begge nor borrow from, nor be debter to a Crucified Saviour, when it despiseth him untill the roof of the house fall. 3. Seldome do these two concurre, deadnesse to works of grace,Seldome deadnesse to works, and lively activity in works is one. and lively activity in the doing of them. Paul attained to both (but every man is not Paul) 1 Cor. 15.9, 10. I laboured more abundantly then they all. But fearing and trem­bling at at that (I) [...], he strikes sail to Christ, yet not I, but the grace of God in me. This pride Paul notes in the Jewes, they stouped not, nor bowed (as inferiours to their Master, King, or [Page 47] Lord, or Father and Husband,Rom. 10.3. [...]. so the word) to the righteousness of God. When (I) (self) or nature meets with working, yea with grace often, there followes some loftinesse, except it be humbled and mortified (I) which can weep and say. Lord what am I?

CHAP. VIII. What place death hath in the Covenant. 2. What such as Cain and Judas are to do in their desperate state. 3. And why the LORD is no where called the GOD of Adam.

Q. WHat room hath death in the Covenant?

A. Death hath room in the broken Covenant of Works, as the Pursevant and Sergeant of revenging justice. Hence deaths reign, [I must die whether I will or not] Unwillingnesse to die and bondage through fear of death is the Law-sting in death, from which Christ hath delivered us, Heb. 2.15.The room of death in the two Covenants. The change that Christ hath made in death. Original sin and death came and entred the world by the Covenant of Works. The Co­venant of Grace made not death, but found it in the world, Christ made of an old enemy death a new servant: its now the Kings fer­ry-boat to carry the children over the water. Its a sutable condi­tion to a spirituall state to die being sent for, not legally summon'd, and to die, because I desire to be dissolved, Ph. 1.23. not because I must. And better it is to summon our selves then to be summo­ned. Though we love heaven too much as a place of pleasure, ra­ther then a place of holinesse, yet most men would wish a better causey to it then to sleep through th [...] cold grave or a dark hole in the earth.

Q. What room hath life in the Covenant? Ans. The Admi­nistration of the Law-Covenant is first habituall holinesse of works, and then a crown. The Administration of grace is first faith and a title to Christ our life and hope of glory, and then habituall holi­nesse, begun here and perfected hereafter. The Gospel-life is both a reward and a duty of praising and loving eternally in place of all the ten Commands, yea of Law and Gospel. The Law-life [Page 48] (for ought that is revealed) is a reward to be purchased by our le­gall obedience.

Q. If Adam in the intervall betwixt his fall and the publi­shing of the blessed Seed, was not to despaire, but to rely upon God as mighty to save; What should such as Judas or Cain do?

A. The conscience of Cain and of despairers, being no authen­tick Bible nor Judge,What Ju­das & Ca­in in their despairing mood, are to do. which can carry the controversie between them and God, so long as they are in the way, or are viators, the Gospel treaty betwixt them and Christ yet standing and not broken off upon the part of Christ, they are to cherrish and hold up the Treaty, and (as it were) to force speech out of Christ, and to pursue the news of an offered salvation. 2. There is no Spirit of God that suggests to them despaire, and bids them write them­selves in the black roll of Reprobates, for though they beleeve hell, as the Devils haply beleeve there is a God, yet they blow the coals of that hellish furnace, and kindle a fire before night. 3. They being under the Law of Nature, are to rely on infinite mercy able to save. Their witty darknesse of unbeleef saith they beleeve, but they hate mercy in the generall toward others, as to themselves. 2. For a doubting child of God, because the light of evidence (which to them, in that case is dimme) comes nearer to the natu­rall light of reason,What weak doubters are to do. then to spirituall light, therefore faith must be set on work to act as faith, and faith acts most strongly when reason is weakest. Naturall causes work more strongly under opposition, the fire burns most vehemently in winter frost,When faith acts most strongly. and the internall heat of the body is most mighty for concoction, when the coldness of the air is most piercing without, faith sees God most piercingly at midnight in Job, when rottennesse and deadness speaks the con­trair, Job 19. I know surely (so the word, Exod. 8.1. Psal. 31.8. that my Redeemer lives. Isa. 50.10. He that walks in darknesse, and hath no light (of evidence) let him trust on the Name of the Lord, and let him stay himself upon his God, Rom. 4.19, 20. (2.) There is a peece of unseen wilfulnesse in unbeleef,VVilful­ness in un­beleef. and two refu­salls in it, as we see in Thomas, Joh. 20.25. as there is a masse of sanctified will required in sincere faith, Rom. 10.9, 10. Mark. 9.24. and so resistance must be made to that blind impulsion of will in un­beleef, [...]. by which we please our selves in doubling our doubting. [Page 49] (3.) Should the commanding of killing the Son, Gen. 22.2. seem to contradict the whole Gospel of the promised Seed, Gen. 15.4. yet knowing both to come from God,VVe are to obey, and leave sup­posed con­tradictions to God in time of darknesse. Abraham did well to leave the supposed contradiction to be solved by God, and beleeve both as we are to beleeve food, in no food, and in famine.

Q. Where was there a word that God was Adams God? Ans. Not directly. For 1. that Covenant was like Letters of the King raised to such a day, and the date being expired, the Letters cease to be in force. 2. Adam was to winne and purchase (as it were) God to be his God, by consumate obedience. God never said that he would be Adams God by giving him influences to obey,VVhy it is not said, that God was the God of A­dam. and to obey to the end, all influences granted to Adam, to will and to do, were granted to him. 1. By God Creator, not by the grace of a Redeemer, as in the Covenant of Grace, to walk, Ezek. 36.27. to love, Deut. 30.6. to persevere, Jer. 32.39, 40. 2. These influ­ences were free gifts, but not promised. 3. They seem to be ordi­nis naturalis, naturall, though they did bow and previously in­clince the will, but not so in the New Testament, for the whole Covenant is called by the promise of the giving of a new heart, Heb. 8.10. Isa. 54.9.13. Jer. 31.31, 32, 33. Ezek. 11.19, 20. Hos. 2.18, 19. And therefore better it is that God be Lord of my heart, and it be his, then that I be lord of it,Better our hearts be the Lords then our own. and my heart be mine own heart, the lesse of our heart be upon our heart, the more upon God, the better. Ah! we cannot skill to guide a heart. 3. The threatning of death to Adam, if he should sin, Gen. 2.17. may infer a Covenant of life, and that God should be Adams God, if he should obey.

CHAP. IX. What life is promised in the Covenant of Works. 2. Whe­ther all we, especially the Reprobate, by the fall, lost all right to the creatures. 3. How the Lord is our God.

Q. WHat is meaned by life promised in the Covenant of Works!VVhat a life was promised to Adam. A. 1. Not a life in Christ and the fruit of the merit of blood, as our life is in the New Covenant, Joh. 10.11. [Page 50] Joh. 3.16. For Adam was not Mediator of reconciliation here, he was a sort of publick Law-head in whom he was to stand or fall, if any please to call him so a Mediator [...] but it is a Law-life happily a communion in glory. 2. But the life he lived, and the creatures for his service seems not to belong to this life, for the creatures were given to Adam, he not working for them. Yet I should not oppose, if any say that earthly blessings were given to Adam, as a reward of an actuall obedience, as they are given to such as keep the Law, Deut. 28. But sure our gain in Christ of such a life, bought by so noble a Ransome as the Blood of God-man, is not little. Its rawnesse and greennesse of wit, to value it so low as we do. Children see not what a hireing and taking apple Hea­ven is.

Q. Whether or no did Adam and all the Reprobats in his loyns, by sin, Of our [...]ight to the creatures. losse right to the creatures?

A. There is a three-fold right.

  • 1. Naturall.
  • 2. Providentiall.
  • 3. Spirituall.

A naturall right may be conceived two wayes. 1. Absolute­ly, A three-fold right, naturall, providen­tiall, spiri­tuall. so creature, and man not created, can have no jus or claime to being or life, the Creators free gift is our best Charter to life and being. 2. This right may be conceived, conditionally, as if God create the Sun, a power to give light is congruous, and debita na­turae Solis suteable to the nature of the Sun, nor can the creature plead for this, as debt: but if the Lord give being, to injoy this being can not be sin,There is no law to have being and living, and so no sin in ha­ving it. because there is no law and command to no­thing to receive or not to receive being and life from the Creator: And where there is no Law, there is no transgression. And there­fore to have being and life cannot be in it self a sin.

2. Providentiall right is but a continuating of life and being, un­till the same power that gave it, shall remove it, by way of punish­ment;VVhat a providen­tiall right [...]. For God as Creator, of his Soveraignty, gives being and life, and the comfortable use of the creatures; but as a Judge or­dinarily for sin he removes it, though he, I deny not, out of his Soveraignty, may, and possibly doth, annihilate the meat that the [Page 51] Angels in assumed bodies, and which the Man Christ, after the Re­surrection, did eat.

3. The spirituall right is that new supernaturall Title, which the Elect beleevers have, in order to a supernaturall end, and all these being made theirs, to promove their salvation, 1 Cor. 3.21. All things are yours. Rev. 21.7.VVhat a spirituall right is, & how ex­cellent. He that overcometh shall inherit all things, by Covenant-right, so: he adds, And I will be his God, and he shall be my Son, Psal. 37 10. A drink of cold water, by this Charter, is better then a Kings Crown, and hath refreshed some more then all the choise wine the earth yeelds. The love of the Giver is better then wine, Cant. 1.2. and here the Charter is, by many thousands, more precious then the Land. For nature com­mon to all is over-gilded with free-Grace. And the naturall life and being, and the materiall heavens we shall injoy, are blessed in another manner to the glorified, then these they now injoy, 1 Cor. 15.40, 41, 42, 43, &c. 2 Pet. 3.13. Rev. 21.1. Isa. 65.17. and they shall be above the heavens that are, when the mysticall body shall be perfected, yea, and the dust into which the bodies of the Saints are resolved, keeps a spirituall Covenant relation to God in Christ: As Exod. 3.6. Mat. 22.32. Joh. 6.39. Rom. 8.21, 22, 23. for no joint or part of the body, but it must share of Covenant glo­ry. We look little to any thing but to have and injoy the dead lump and body of Gold, dead lands without Christ. See Hos. 2.18.22. Ezek. 34.25.27. Ezek. 36.29. Lev. 26.6. Psal. 37.9, 11, 29. 1 Tim. 4.8. Heb. 13.5, 6. Math. 6.25, 26. Psal. 34.10. O fair inheritance. 4. As to the second (which is the main contro­versie) to injoy life and being, is the substance of the act, no sin. Men contraveen a Law to be so and so born, to wit, in sin, for its forbidden by a Law: But to be born and live, is no sin,To live & to injoy the crea­tures is not in it self sin. but by order of nature, before Originall sin. Nor is it forbidden more to man to be born and live, then its forbidden to beasts, nor to eat, sleep, wake, then to them: So neither is it commanded by a Law to die, but it is commanded and commended to die well, to fall asleep in Christ, 1 Thes. 4.14.16. to be faithfull to the death, Acts 7.60. Rev. 2.10. Rev. 14.13. (2.) The Elect who are born heirs of wrath, as others, Eph. 2.3. And all the Reprobate should kill themselves, or be killed, from the birth, if to live and eat were sin, [Page 52] in it self. But only the Lord of life and death, and his Minister, the Magistrate hath power to take away life and being, no man can be his own burrio. But if it were sin in it self to live, they ought to expire and restore an usurped life, which they possesse, malâ fide, to the owner the Lord, as a theef is oblidged to restore stollen goods (3.) The dominion of Reprobats over the creatures, is a part of the good Image of God, Gen. 1.26, 27. and they breath, live, ride, sail, and are no more then the Elect to lay these aside, then they are to lay aside the naturall knowledge of God, by which they are to glorifie God as God, Rom. 1.19, 20, 21. Rom. 2.14, 15. Act. 14.16, 17. Now the Reprobates have not utterly lost the Image of God, as to know there is a God, to honour their parents, to hurt no man.

4. This opinion looks the rather like a fancie, that it is a tempta­tion in weak ones, under a sad desertion, Sathan riding upon their Melancholie (a complexion not sanctified, usefull to Sathan, and if sanctified,Their tem­ptation, who think they should not eat, nor pray. a seat of mortification and humble walking) for they judge it sin to eat, and drink, and sleep, they having no right there­unto, but so they have no right to live, and are oblidged to kill themselves, and upon the same ground, it was sin to Adam to speak, to answer God, to breath, to hear the news of the blessed seed, which all are acts of life, and so acts of sin, and upon the same ground, that they cannot perform these without sin, they should not pray, for in praying, they cannot but take the Name of God in vain. For we are not to abstaine from a duty, because of the sinfulnesse, which adheres to the duty, by reason of our corruption, for in Christ the sinfulnesse is pardoned, and the duty accepted.

5. It necessarily must follow, if it be sin to eat, because the non-converted have no right spirituall in Christ, to bread, the conver­ted may spoil by their grounds,If the non-converted, have no right to a­ny thing, then we may spoil & deprive them of life and all they have. all the non-converted, of their goods, houses, gold, gardens, vineyards, lands, and upon the same ground, for the crime of non-regeneration, they must also deprive them of their lives, and kill them; For they have alike right, that is, no right (these men being Judges) to either life or goods. And so, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thy self, must be meant of the converted neighbour: but with fire and sword all other neighbours may be killed and spoiled, and so there should [Page 53] be no stealing, no oppressing, no crushing of the widow, the stranger, the fatherlesse, the weaker; not grind the faces of the poor, though their Redeemer be strong, contrair to the Scripture, Prov. 23.11. Jer. 50.33, 34. Psal. 94.5, 6, 7, 8. Psal. 14.4. Exo. 22.26, 27. Isa. 3.12, 13, 14, 15. Mic. 2.3. and so it were lawfull to take Crowns, Kingdomes, inheritances, lands, dignitie, and honour, from all the unregenerate Princes, powers, and rulers on earth, to cut off with the sword all the heathen Nations who as yet know not Christ, and it were lawfull for the regenerate sons and brethren to kill and spoil Father, Mother, Brethren, Sisters, Kings, Potentates, Countrey-men▪ strangers, Orphans, exiled, captives, prisoners, sick, weak, imprisoned, all infants that are by nature the heirs of wrath, upon this ground, the converted ones judge all non-converts to be void of all due right to life▪ or goods, and so in these men, the societies, Churches of Christ must cease.

Obj. These who injoy that of which they deserve to be depri­ved, have no due right to that of which they deserve to be depri­ved; but are usurpers, and so sin. But all the non-regenerated are such, or, they who use that to which they have no right, do sin in the act of using it.

Ans. 1. They who injoy that of which they deserve to be depri­ved, they sin, and have no due right to use it; Is not universally true. They who injoy that which they may and ought by their own private power, restore, such as ill conquished goods.How true it is, that these who in­joy that, of which they deserve to be deprived, they have no right to that and sin in u­sing i [...]. They sin in using that, true, Prov. 3.27. Exod. 22.26, 27. Luke 19.8. Its a sin to withhold the rayment though laid in pawnd, which should cover the poor mans skin in the night, and they have no right to injoy that.

But they who injoy that, what ever it be, of which by sin, they deserve to be deprived, they have no due right to that, it is deny­ed: For if it be life, being, eating, sleeping, and such things, as only can be taken away, by a judiciall power, and by God the Lord of life and death, and cannot be taken away by themselves, (for it is lawfull for no man to punish himself and take away his own life) nor by any other, except for capitall crimes, they have due providentiall right to keep and injoy all such things untill the same power that gave them remove them, nor do they sin in using [Page 54] them.Living in the devils and dam­ned and Reprobate is no usur­ping of life. And it is most dangerous to say, that Devils and the dam­ned in Hell who dishonour the Majesty of God by their living and being, and so by sin, deserve to be annihilated and deprived of their being, do sin, in that they live and are not annihilated, and that all the Elect before their conversion, sin in that they injo [...] being and life. A judge sentenceth a man to die for killing his father within 24. houres, but by invincible providence he is rescued out of the hand of the Magistrate,Simile. and lives diverse years after, the sen­tenced man sins not before God nor against the law of the land, in that he lives, nor can he be called an usurper and unjust, malae fidei, possessour of his life: For the sentence was not that he should take away his life with his own hand, but that it should be taken away by the judiciall hand and executioner of the Magistrate. Nor is this Providentiall right, a right of meer permission but of posi­tive donation and free-gift, for then we might by the same reason, say that Reprobate men have a right of meer permission to keep and injoy the knowledge of these, that God is: Superiours, Parents are to be honoured: the whole is more then the part;The Re­probate & non-con­verted, in the Visible Church, want all spirituall right by faith in Christ to life and the creatures, and they sin in the maner of living, eat­ing, &c. Yea they have the same naturall and providentiall right by nature that other sin­ners have to the one as to the other. 2. These who injoy that, of which they deserve to be deprived, they sin in the act of using, as touching the substance of the act of living, being, eating, drink­ing: That is most false. These who injoy that, of which they de­serve to be deprived, they, in modo, in the way, maner, and end of living, eating, &c. do sin: It is true: and such have not spi­rituall and supernaturall right in Christ (which they ought to have, if they be in the Visible Church and hearers of the Gospel) to life, being and the creatures, and they sin in not believing, Rom. 14. not eating for the Glory of God, 1 Cor. 10.31. Naturall men care not if they have and injoy things so they have them: They have being, so have earth, stones, &c. they live, so doe trees and hearbs, they have health, so have beasts and birds, they swallow up many years, so do Ravens, and Harts and other beasts, a long lump,How woful to have a lump of life & time & no right to life. many thousand yairds and miles of life are sought, diu sunt, non diu vivunt. But who lives for God, who sleeps, who wakes, who eats for God and his Glory? and they who make themselves their last end, Idolatrously put self in the roome of God, who only [Page 55] is the last end of all, Rom. 11.36. Rev. 4.11. Prov. 16.4. and as good make self the first Author of Heaven and Earth and Creator as the last end. Ye who eat and drink, who pays your recko­ning? Christ? Or are you usurpers? Have you any Charter? Or do ye robbe the Lord?

Q. What way is God ours?

A. By Covenant, Ezek. 34.24. Genes. 17.7. Jere. 32.38. Zech. 13.9. But he is not ours as if we had some gifted right and do­minion over him, as we have over the creatures. 2. Nor is he ours as we are his, the clay hath no soveraignty over the Potter. Nor 3. is God simply as God ours, but God as it were coming down in Christ to us Covenant-wayes as God incarnate,How God is our [...] to make out his goodnesse, grace, mercy to and for us. 4. Its true God incar­nate, Christ, is principally Gods, 1 Cor. 3.21. not ours. He is all for God, he is Immanuel, our Immanuel in order to save us, and so is more ours then the God of Angels.

2. God is the fluier of the Saints desire, more to them then all heaven in the length and breadth thereof,God to the Saints and to the Man CHRIST a heaven. and all the inhabitants thereof, Psal. 73.25. Isa. 63.16. more then all the Angels and Saints, 1 Thes. 4.16. (2.) There is no hell to Christ but afar off God, Psal. 22.1. Math. 27.45. no heaven but the glory he had with the father, John 17.5. (3.) There is nothing more like a spiritual disposition then when the Spouse, Cant. 3. hath soul-love to Christ: I sought him whom my soul loved. (2.) She hath an ardent desire after him, I sought him but I found him not. 3. There could not be such diligent search after she found him, if there had not been strong faith.There may be a train of graces, & yet un­quietnesse for the want of Christ. 4. And her conference with the watch­men, Saw ye him whom my soul loveth? saith, She enjoyed Ordi­nances and means, yet there may be (which is to be observed) a furniture of grace and a want of Christ, I went a little further, I found him whom my soul loveth, Cant. 5. There is 1. a waking heart. 2. A discerning of the Beloved, and a telling over again of his words, Open to me, my sister, &c. 3. A stirring of Christs hand upon the key-hole of the heart. 4. A moving of the bowels for him. 5. A seeking of him and a praying, but no finding nor an­swer. 6. A love-sicknesse for him, and yet a missing of himself, I sought him but I found him not. So compare Cant. 1.1, 4. with [Page 56] Cant. 2, 3, 4. with v. 6, 8. and other places, it will be clear a God-head can only quiet the spirit, and that its a question whether we know the field where the Pearle is, and the Rubies, Saphirs, pre­cious stones that are hid here, which do in worth exceed the capa­pacity of Angels and Saints.

Therefore should his glory be the last end and stirrer of us in all our actings,A spiritual soul acts in God, and grace the only efficient in all, and so much of God (if he be ours by Covenant) as our wayes, intentions may smell of him. But there is much of the creature, of self, of gain, of empty glory, in our spirituall actings. God weighs not down the creature nor heaven and union with Christ: as Exod. 32.32. Rom. 9.3. (2.) Its a spirituall soul that misseth God, rather then the train of all the graces of faith,And misses God rather then any created sa­ving grace. love, hope, d [...]si [...]e of and joying in him. And know he is away though heaven were in the heart, and can discern when the Ordinances are empty. 3. It engages all we are, hands, knees, body, Exo. 20.5. Psal. 44.20. 1 Cor. 6.19. self to be for God, and to live wholly in him, not in our selves. 4. We are not to believe in believing, nor to be sick of love with the love of Christ, nor to make a god of faith or love. Its a spirituall con­dition to have grace and to misse Christ.


Cotvin. cont. Molin. c. 8. §. 7. Primo foede­re per ino­bedientiam primi homi­nis rupto, cessabat eti­am obligatio ad eam obe­dientiam le­ge praescrip­tam. Ibid. c. 9. §. 5. Re­monstr. in Scrip Synod. Dored. 4. [...]a. 145. Q. WHat are the false grounds of the Lords making the Co­venant of Grace?

A. There are two bastard grounds devised by Arminians. 1. Because the Covenant of Works cannot oblidge both to active and passive obedience, but to one of them only (say they) and the Covenant of Works was so rigid, that God could not follow it out, and cast infants in hell for a sin which is theirs, only by imputation, and was pardoned to the first man that committed it. Therefore he was necessitated to make a Covenant of Grace with all mankind, none excepted. But the Covenant of Works is broken, and can now be a way of Justification and salvation to none, but yet it oblidges all. And sin cannot make us lawlesse, for the spirituall Law is of an eternall obligation. 2. They that never heard of Christ, perish by the Law, and not by the Covenant of Grace of [Page 57] which they never heard,The Law & the [...]rst Covenant is holy, and oblidgeth all to acti [...] obedience alwayes. and the Gospel is written in the heart of none. 3. The first Covenant was holy and spirituall, and God should unjustly threaten death upon infants, if they be not guilty of eternall condemnation, as Arminius, disp. pub. 7. th. 16.3. and the Scripture saith, infants are guilty of this sin, Eph. 2.3. Rom. 5. Psal. 51.5. Job 14.4. As also Christ must not have died for the sins of Infants, if there be no sin in them, they need not the ransome of Christs Blood. The other bastard ground is,There is sin in In­fants. the naturall antecedent desire and love of God to have all saved, moved him (say they) to make this Covenant of Grace with all. But this makes away free-grace, and changes God as the blind Talmud, The natu­rall antece­dent love of GOD, which is fancied to be the ground of the Cove­nant of Grace, is as what the Jews in t [...]e Talmud, & the Alca­ron say of God. Doctrin. fi­dei Judai [...]. [...]. 5. trac. 8. ib ord. 1. disp. 7. Alcar. c. 43. which saith God hath a secret place in which he afflicts himself, be­cause he burnt the Temple, and delivered the Jews to captivitie. As also, the Lord remembring the captivity of the Jews, and their desolation, he powres out two tears every day in the Sea or Ocean, and for grief, smites his breasts with both his hands. And the Alcoran saith, that God and the Angels wish well to Mahomet, but cannot free him from death. So made the Heathen their Ju­piter to deplore the destinies which he could not amend. And what is this, but to say, God hath passionate desires to have all, Elect, and Reprobat, Men, and Angels, to obey and be eternally saved, but he cannot help the matter; and therefore must upon the same account, be sorrowfull and mourn that he cannot get all saved, which destroyes the power of grace and restrains the out­goings of free-love.

CHAP. XI. The three-fold Covenant considered. 2. The Law pressed upon Israel was not a Covenant of Works, but a darker di­spensation of Grace. 3. The three-fold Covenant of Armi­nians refuted. 4. Diverse considerations of the Law and the Gospel.

THere be who hold that there be three Covenants.1. The Co­venant of nature. 1. A Covenant of Nature, whereby God as Creator required [Page 58] perfect obedience from Adam in Paradice, with promise of life, and threatning of death.

2. Of Grace.2. The Covenant of Grace, whereby he promises life and forgive­nesse in Christs Blood to believers.

3. The sub­servient Covenant & the dif­ferences between it and the Covenant of nature, which hold not.3. A subservient Covenant, made 1. With Israel, not wit [...] Adam, and all mankinde. 2. For a time with Israel, not for ever, as the naturall Covenant. 3. In Mount Sinai, not in Paradice. 4. To terrifie and keep in bondage (the other from an inward principle required, obedience.) 5. To restrain Israel from outward sins, to prove the people, that the fear of God might be before their eyes, that they should not sin. So they expound Exo. 20.20. the other Covenant was to restrain from all sin. Yea and so was that on Mount Sinai, to do all that are written in the Book of the Law, Deut. 27.26. Deut. 28.1, 2, 3, 4. &c. to that same end, to love God with all the heart, and with all the soul, Deut. 10.12. Deut. 5.1, 2, 3. Deut. 6.1, 2, 3. Deut. 5.29. Deut. 6.5. With all the heart, with all the soul, with all the might, which is expounded by Christ, Mat. 22.37. Luke 10.27. in as full a hight of perfection as ever was required of Adam. 6. It was written to Israel in Tables of stone: The naturall Covenant was written in the heart; so was there a circumcised heart promised to Israel, Deut. 30.6. though sparingly. 7. It was (say they) given by the Mediator Moses, as that of nature was without a Mediator. Yea, Moses was the Typical Mediator of the young Covenant of Grace.

The differences between the subservient Covenant, and that of Grace.

The diffe­rences be­tween the Covenant subservi­ent (as they call it) and that of grace are [...]ull.1. In the subservient, God only approves righteousnesse and con­demnes sin; in that of Grace he pardons and renues. Ans. Acts 15.11. We beleeve through the Grace of the Lord Jesus, we shall be saved even as they under that Covenant. Acts 10.43. To him gave all the Prophets witnesse, that through his Name, whosoe­ver beleeveth in him, shall receive remission of sins. Abraham and David were justified, in that sin was not imputed to them, not by works, Rom. 4.1, 2, 3,—6, 7, 8, 9, &c. Gen. 15.6. Psal. I said I will confesse my transgression, and thou forgavest the iniquity of my sin. Isa. 4325. I, euen I am he that blots out [Page 59] thy transgressions for my own sake, Righteous­nesse and forgiveness under that subservient Covenant. and I will not remember thy sins. So David was a man according to the heart of God, So Asa, Josiah, Jehoshaphat, Samuel, Baruch, Gedeon, Daniel, the Prophets, under that subservient Covenant (except they be under a fourth Covenant) were renued, justified, saved by faith, Heb. 11. as under a Covenant of Grace.

2. The former was, do and live, this was, believe and live. Ans. Doing and living was but a shuting them up under the Law, that they might flee to Christ in whom they beleeved; else the fa­thers must be saved and justified by works contrair to Rom. 2. Rom. 4. Heb. 11.

3. In antiquity, the former came in as added 430. years after the promise of grace, Gal. 3.17.

Ans. True, but he speaks of the Covenant in Sinai, according to the strict Law part, which could not save, and so its different. But that proves not two Covenants.

4. In the former is compulsion and the Spirit of bondage, in this heart inclining freedom and the Spirit of Adoption. Ans. Yet the differences are accidentall, there was a legall awing of the hearts, as if they had been Servants, yet Heirs and Sons they were, Gal. 4.1, 2. The whole Book of the Proverbs spake to the Godly as to Adopted Sons. They were beleevers, Heb. 11. Rom. 4. Acts 10.43. and so Sons as touching a spirituall state, John 1.11, 12. In regard of Oeconomie, it was somewhat more rigid and legall, they were restrained as servants; Yet it was the Covenant of Grace, by which beleeving Jews were justified and saved, Acts 15. v. 11. Acts 10.43.

5. In the former man is dead, in this man is humbled for sinne? Answ. Legally dead, except they would flee to Christ, and legal­ly condemned, but there was true humiliation for sins under that Covenant: As David, Josiah, Hezekiah, and all beleevers then, as now, were pardoned and justified.

6. In the former there are commands, not strength, but here there be promises and grace given? Ans. The full abundance of grace and of a new heart, was reserved untill now. And the Law could not make perfect nor give pardon, in the blood of beasts; as touching that legall dispensation: But both grace, the Spirit, [Page 60] pardon, righteousnesse and life were received and beleeved; by looking on Christ to come.

7. In the former, Canaan was promised, in this, Heaven. Ans. Canaan is promised only but sacramentally, and that was a poeda­gogicall promise for the infancie of that Church, but a type which was then in that Covenant, and is not now, make not two Co­venants, one then, and another now? Except ye say, there was then a Lamb in the Passeover, which was a Type of Christ to come, and there is now no such Type, because the body is come, and Christ the true High Priest offered himself. Therefore there are two Christs, one then to come, another now who hath come al­ready. The Lords dispensation with Israel is often called a Cove­nant, now it must either be a Covenant of Works, or of Grace, or a third Covenant.

But the truth is, the Law as pressed upon Israel was not a Co­venant of Works.

1. The Law as the Law or as a Covenant of Works is made with perfect men who need no mercy; But this Covenant is made with sinners, with an expresse preface of mercy: I am the Lord thy God that brought thee out of the land of Egypt, &c. It is made with stiff-necked Israel, The Law as propo­ned to Is­rael was the very Covenant of Grace. Deut. 29. Deut. 30. c. 31. c. 32. and that is called a Covenant from the end and object, as motions are denomi­nate from their end: for the end of the Lords pressing the Law upon them was to bring them under a blessed necessity to seek sal­vation in their true City of Refuge Christ Jesus, who redeemed them out of the spirituall bondage of sin. 2. It was the Covenant made with Abraham, which was a Covenant of Grace: and though it be called,The Co­venant made at Horeb, was the same which God made with Abraham. Deut. 29.1▪ a Covenant beside that which was made in Horeb: Because 1. Renued again after their breach. 2. Re­peated a litle before the death of Moses, Deut. (3.) Because there were some additions of speciall blessings, cur­sings, Ceremoniall Commands, that were not in the formerly pro­posed Covenant, Exod. 20. yet the same it was in substance, to love the Lord with all the heart, Deut. 2.10, 12, 13, 14. The same with that of Abraham, Deut. 8.18. That he may establish his Covenant, which he sware unto thy fathers, as it is this day, When he is to deliver them out of Egypt, Exod. 2.24. And God [Page 61] heard their groaning, and remembred his Covenant with Abra­ham and Isaak and Jacob. So the Lord expones it in his appearing to Moses, Exod. 3.6. Jer. 31.32. Not according to the Cove­nant which I made with their fathers, in the day that I took them by the hand, to bring them out of the Land of Aegypt. Now that was the Covenant which God made with Abraham, of which Cir­cumcision was a seal, Gen. 17. not of a temporary Canaan only, but of heart Circumcision, Col. 2.11. For the Lord expres [...]y tells th [...], when he took them by the hand as his married people, to bring them out of the Land of Aegypt, and out of the house of bondage, Exod. 20. He meant no other Covenant then he made with Abra­ham, of believing, Gen. 15. and of walking before him and being perfect, Gen. 17.1, 2. which is somewhat more legall, as Moses ▪ and the Lord himself expones it, Exod. 2.24. Exod. 3.6. Exod. 20.1, 2. And he showes them, Lev. 26. if in their enemies land they repent and shall come out and meet the rod, and their uncircumcised hearts shall willingly accept of the punishment of their iniquity: 42. Then (saith the Lord) I will remember my Covenant with Jacob, and also my Covenant with Isaac, and al­so my Covenant with Abraham will I remember, Beside there are not here three Covenants, but one, there is no word of the subservient Covenant with Israel in Sinai. Except that when he mentions the one, he excludes not the other. For to walk before the Lord required in Abrahams Covenant Gen. 17.1. is to walk in all the ways of the Lord, to fear and love him, Deut. 10.12, 13. and Samuel, 1 Sam. 12.22. Joshua, Josh. 24.22, 23, 24, 25. And Ma­ry, Luke 1.55. And Zacharie, ver. 70, 72, 73. refer to the Co­venant made with Abraham, and Deut. 6. the Covenant at Ho­reb, the Lord made with Abraham to give Canaan to his seed, ver. 10. Deut. 7.12. If thou hearken to these judgements to do them, it shall come to passe that the Lord thy God will keep unto thee the Covenant of mercy that he sware unto thy fathers, &c.

3. This Covenant hath the promise of a circumcised heart, Deut. 30.6. and of the word of faith that is near in the mouth, and of the righteousnesse of faith clearly differenced from the righteousnesse of the Law by doing. For so Paul, Rom. 10.5, 6, 7, &c. expones, Moses, Deut. 30.11, 12, 13, 14.

[Page 62]4. The Covenant of Works taught nothing of the way of expia­tion of sin by blood typifying the Ransome of blood that Christ was to pay for our sins, as this Covenant, all along had sacrifices and blood to confirm it. Exod. 24.8. And Moses took the blood and sprinkled it on the people, and said, behold this is the Blood of the Covenant which the Lord hath made with you, concerning all these words. Now the words were the ten Commandements. See Heb. 9. v. 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24. (5.) This Covenant is made with Israel only, Exod. 20. Deut. 5. c. 6. Deut. 6.5, 6, 7.12. The Covenant of Works is made with all mankind. (6.) No people under the Law can be justified and saved thereby, nor have their sins pardoned, Rom. 3.9, 10, 11. — 19, 20. Rom. 4.1, 2, 3, 4. Rom. 9. Rom. 10. Psal. 130 3. Psal. 143.2. Gal. 3.1, 2, 3. —10, 11, 12, 13. But in this Covenant, Abraham, David, Gen. 15. Psal. 32. Rom. 4.1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9. And the Jewes by faith, have remission of sins and salvation, as also the Gentiles have, Acts 10.43. Acts 15.11. (7.) The Lord minds to lay aside the Law as inconsistent with the Covenant of Grace, Gal. 3.18. If the inheritance be by the Law, then it is not by promise, but God gave it to Abraham by promise: For to live by this Covenant, is a life of promises, all being here promised,The new Covenant a life of promises: both faith the condition, and perseverance therein, and a new heart, righteousnesse, pardon, and life. A man that hath his estate in papers and in good words that are transient things, may seem a poor man, but to live by promises here is the rich life of the heirs of hope, this is strong consolation under deadness, absence, faith working under-ground in the dark, Gal. 3.21. If there had been a Law which could have given life, verily righteousnesse should have been by the Law.

How God commands what.Though he commanded them to do the Law, it was not that they should live thereby, and though he commanded us the same, it is another command, as it were, it is not so much now that we obey from the Authority of God Law-giver under pain of damna­tion (though that be not laid aside, but urged in a Gospel inten­tion upon heirs) as from the love of God, Grace-giver; as also there is an intrinsecall amaenitie in Christ drawing, and obedience now becomes connaturall, free, delightfull. Let these consi­der, to whom the yoak of obedience is a torment and a man-mill.

[Page 63]8. The Passeover and Circumcision, Gen. 17.7. all along were seals of the Covenant, as Baptism one with Circumcision in sub­stance, Col. 2.11. is the seal of the same Covenant,The Law as the Law required no Circū ­cision, no sacrifice nor any Type re­presenting Christ. Acts 2.39, 40, 41. Now the Law required no Circumcision, no shedding of blood, no Repentance, no new heart, but eternall condemnation followed the least breach thereof. Paul saith indeed, Gal. 5.3. If ye be Circumcised (as the false Apostles would have, that thereby you may be justified & saved) you are debters to keep the whole Law per­fectly, as the only way to life, and by no other Covenant can you be justified and saved, now Abraham was not circumcised that way, circumcision did bind Abraham to keep the Law, as a Ceremonie and Seal of the Covenant of Grace commanded of God. But the Law as a Covenant of Works doth command no Ceremonie, no Sa­crifice, no Type of Christ Mediator at all.

Its true that first Covenant had Moses for its mediator, but as he was a Type of Christ,The first Covenant had the Mediator Christ as this hath, but vailed in the one, revealed in the other. How the first Cove­nant is faultie. so Christ yesterday and the day was the reall Mediator, but vailed. The New Covenant hath better pro­mises, Heb. 8.6. Heb. 7.22. its a better Covenant, Heb. 7.22. hath a better reall, not a Typicall suretie, a better Priest who of­fered himself through the eternall Spirit, Heb. 9.14. a better Sa­crifice, because of the plainenesse, Iohn 16.29. 2 Cor. 3.18. be­cause the reall promises are made out to us, because of a larger mea­sure of Grace, 2 Cor. 3.1, 2, 3, 4. And the first Covenant is faul­tie, Heb. 8.7. not because there was no Salvation by it, the con­trare is Heb. 11. but that is comparatively spoken: because the blood of beasts therein could not take away sins, Heb. 10.1, 2, 3, 4. because forgivenesse of sins is promised darkly in the first Covenant, but plainly in the other, because Grace is promised sparingly in the former, but here abundantly, the Law being written in the heart, John 7.39. Esa. 54.13.

And it is true, Gal. 4.22, 23, 24, &c. they seeme to be made contrare Covenants: But Paul speaks, Gal. 3. of the Law as rela­tive to that people, and so it pressed them to Christ, and keeps them as young Heires under nonage.How Paul speaks of the Cove­nant, Gal, 3. and how Gal. 4. 2. He speaks of the Law ab­solutely, as contradistinguished from the Gospel, Gal. 4.21. so it is a Covenant of Works begetting children to bondage: 2. Who come short of righteousnesse and the inheritance, and shall not be [Page 64] saved. 3. Who are casten out of the Kingdome of Grace. 4. Who persecute the Godly the Sons of promise, so is the Law as it was in Adams dayes, and is now to all the Reprobate; so the Godly are not under the Law and the Covenant of Works. The Cove­nant urged upon Believers is to prove them, when they stand afar off and tremble, Exod. 20.20. Fear not (saith Moses) God is come to prove you (not to damne you) and therefore Calvine solidely observeth that Paul, Calvin. In­stit. l. 11. [...]. XI. Sect. 7, 8. 2 Cor. 3. speaks with lesse respect of the Law then the Prophets do, for their cause, who out of a vain affectation of the Law-Ceremonies, gave too much to the Law and darkned the Gospel, and sayeth the one was 1. Literall. 2. Writ­ten in stone. 3. A Sermon of death and wrath. 4. To be done away and lesse glorious, whereas the Gospel is Spirituall. 2. Writ­ten on the heart. 3. The Ministrie of life. 4. And glorious: and praises put upon the Law, agree not to it of its own nature, but as it was used by the Lord to prove them, Exod. 29.20. and chase them to Christ.

The Arminians also (especially Episopius) make three Cove­nants.Epist. par. 3. disp. 12. 1. One with Abraham, in which he requires sincere wor­ship and putting away strange gods: Beside 2. Faith and Univer­sall obedience, and promised Canaan to his seed and Spirituall bles­sings darkly. 2. One in Mount Sinai in these three Laws Morall, Ceremoniall and Judiciall,The Ar­minians three Cove­nants, dis. 14. with a promise of Temporall good things, but to no sinners promise of life Eternall. 3. A Covenant of Grace, with a promise of pardon and life to all that believe and re­pent, to all mankind, but he denyes 1. All infused habits, contrare to Isa. 44.1, 2, 3. Isa. 59.20, 21. Zach 12.10. Joh. 4.14. Joh. 7.37. John 16.7, 8. 1 John 3.9. he sayeth that 2. all commands are easie by Grace. 3. That the promise of earthly things in their abundance is abolished, in that we are called to patient suffering. 4. That there is no threatning in this Covenant, but that of Hell fire. But the Covenant made with Abraham is that of Grace made with all the Seed, Deut. 30.6. Deut. 7.5, 6, 7, 12. Lev. 26.40, 41. and made with all Believers, who are Abrahams children, Gal. 3.13, 14, 18, 19. Rom. 4.1, 2, 3, 4. Luke 19.9. yea with the whole race of man without exception. (2.) The second Cove­nant which promiseth only blessings is made rather with beasts, that [Page 65] well fed, then with men, contrare to Psal. 73.25. Isa. 57.1.2, 3. Psal. 37.37. and it must build some Chalmer in hell, where the fathers were before Christ, a dreame unknown to Scripture. The third Covenant makes the Covenant of Grace a Covenant of Works, and holds out life and pardon, upon condition that free­will repent and believe and stand on its own feet, for there is nei­ther faith, nor a new heart nor repentance promised contrare to Deut. 30.6. Ezek. 11.19, 20. Ezek. 36.26, 27. Isa. 59.19▪ 20, 21. Isa. 44.1, 2, 3, 4, 5. Zech. 12.10.

CHAP. XII. 1. All are to try under what Covenant they are. 2. Threat­nings under the New Testament are more spirituall 3. Desertions under both are compared. 4. Considerable dif­ferences of such as are under the Covenant of Works, and such as are under the Covenant of Grace. 5. Of legall terrors. 6. Of convictions compelled, free, legall, &c.

Quest. 1. WHether should not all try under what Covenant they are.

Answ. Self-searching is a reflect act upon the state (and such acts are more spirituall, then direct acts) and therefore it should be the work of all, to try, under what reign they are, whether of the first or second Adam. And where [...]s Angels cover their faces and their feet with wings,Self sear­ching ne­cessary. Isa. 6. before God and are full of eyes, as without, so also within R [...]v. 4.8. We may hence learn, such come nearest to the nature of these pure and heavenly Spirits, who have eyes within to see what they are, and their blacknesse of face and feet, when they compare themselves either with the Holy God, or his Holy Law. 2. The Carnall man is a beast, Psal 49.20. and beasts have no reflect acts upon their own beast­ly state.Reflect [...]cts are more spiri­tuall then direct acts. 3. The more of a spirituall life is in any the more stirring in communing with their own heart, the Law makes, the more of life that is in the worme when tramped on, the more stirring it makes: deadnesse and stupiditie in not being versed and well read and skilled in our selves and our own heart, argues little of the [Page 66] Spirit, and estrangement to a spirituall Covenant, nor can any lay hold on the Covenant of Grace in a night dream.

Quest. Whether are there rarer threatnings of Temporall evils under the New Covenant, then under the Old?

Answ. It cannot be denyed, except the threatnings of the Sword, Famine Pestilence on Jerusalem, and the desolation upon the Jews, Math. 23. Math. 24. but in place of all the di­seases of Egypt,Threat­nings un­der the New Tes­tament more spiri­tuall, then under the Old. Levit. 26. and the long Roll of dreadfull judge­ments and curses temporall, Deut. 28. denounced against the transgressours of the former Covenant, Christ and the Apostles are more sparing in denouncing temporall plagues in the New Testa­ment. Christ sayeth the worme never dieth, the fire never goeth out, the Hypocrite is to be bound hand and foot and cansten into utter darknesse, Math. 22.12. and the Holy Ghost such shall not inherite the Kingdome of Heaven, 1 Cor. 6 9. Eph. 5.5. the Apostate is near a curse, his end burning, Heb. 8.6. he is to look for judgement and firie indignation, Heb. 10.27. to some is reser­ved the blacknesse of darknesse for ever, Jude 7. the lake that burneth with fire and brimstone, which is the second death, Rev. 21.8. Because 1. Temporall blessings and curses are more legall, and more easily believed, when the light was dimmer then now, when light is larger, convictions stronger, and men are more ap [...] to believe Everlasting wrath.Desertions under the Old and New Tes­tament compared. 2. Its a more Gospel way to bear in the threatning of Everlasting wrath then of Temporall rods. 3. Desertions and tryalls under the Law were more legall and sharp and sad upon David, Ezekiah, Job, Jeremiah, Heman. Psal. 6. Psal. 38. Psal. 77. Psal. 102. Psal. 88. Isa. 38. Jer. 20. But it is to be thought, that in regard the day now hath dawne, the Gospel desertions coeteris paribus for the aboundance of light, are more sharp nearer to dispaire, see 2 Cor. 1.8. We were pressed out of measure above strength, in so much that we despaired even of life, having received the sentence of death. Its a doubt if Paul should be so pressed by a sentence of temporarie death. Though there be a larger measure of faith, to bear up the soul under the New Testament: but it would appear there is more of hell now then under that dispensation, and that the Gospel despair of Judas and of these that cry for mountains and hills, to cover them, Luke [Page 67] 23.29, 30. is more intollerable under the Gospel.The Saint are strong­er to suffer under the New Tes­tament then under the Old. (4.) There is a more numerous company of these who have not loved their lives to the death, and the Martyres that suffered more exquisite tor­ments for Christ, under the persecuting Emperours and reigne of Antichrist, then ever before; the constraining love of Christ, which is stronger then death or hell hath so swallowed up all tem­porarie sufferings, the Spirit hath such influence on the flesh. (5.) When the world seeks wisdome, 1 Cor. 1. and Rabbies of the Jews and learning and artes abound all the world over,A larger number of Godly, of the rude & unlearned, th [...]n of the wise and learned ac­cording to the flesh. as the profound Philosophers of the Gentiles, the wonders of nature prove, yet not many wise are called, 1 Cor. 3.21, 26, 27. and unlettered and ignorant, are, in number, for Godly spirituall knowledge, farre beyond the Godly learned; and make that true, Esa. 11.9. The earth shall be filled with the knowledge of the Lord, as the waters cover the Sea, and Isa. 30.26. And the light of the Moon shall be as the light of the Sun, and the light of the Sun shall be as the light of seven dayes, so hath the Lord darkned carnall learning, though of it self the good gift of God, with the shining of spiri­tuall wi [...]edome in the fools of the world, for so are they judged, 1 Cor. 1.27.

Q. 3. What are the speciall differences of one under the Co­venant of Works, and of one under the Covenant of Grace? Its a Law-state to be under the dominion of sin, the nature of this domi­nion. Answ 1. The dominion and kingly power of sin, to condemn and judge to eternall wrath, and also to command against all shaddow of reason, such crying sins, 1 Cor. 6.9, 10. Rom. 1.29, 30. Gal. 5.20, 21. Eph. 4.17, 18, 19. Col 3.5. 1 Tim. 1.9. Rev. 21.8. Rev. 22.15, 16. without exception makes an universall slave; for as far as the lusts of sin go, as far goes the dominion of sin, and this is to be under the Law, Rom. 6.14. (2.) There is subjection to the Law when men are agents in resigning and giving themselves over, or offer themselves as sacrifices at the altar, or servants that tender their service to their masters, Rom. 6.16. to sin, which hath strength from the Law to condemne, 1 Cor. 15.56. and to be a captive is not intended, but comes on by occasionall force, Rom. 7. such are patients as it were. But 3. Then they are sinnes servants, when there is a Law of sin and a Covenant, as there is between a master and a servant, And 2. full consent, and men give them­selves, [Page 68] and willingly commit and deliver themselves (the word spoken of Christs willingnesse to offer himself for us, Eph. 5.25. and to God the Judge, 1. Pet. 2.23.) to commit filthinesse [...] in aboundance, The diffe­rence be­tween the wrestling and prote­sting of a naturall conscience against the flesh, and betweene the flesh & the Spirit. with greedinesse, Esa. 9.19. when the re­nued part enters not a spirituall protestation on the contrare, see Rom. 7.19. the carnall protestation entered by naturall reason is not the protestation of the renued will and affections against the will and affections, but will against will makes a division of the practi­call act, and division weakens, the half is lesse then the whole, especially when half and half are contrare, half fire and half water makes the burning lesse, half light, half darknesse makes twylight, its not perfect day light, yea and it not only lesseneth, but weak­neth, yea and alters the kind of the morall act, no reason can ad­mit that when a merchand casts his goods in the sea for fear of ship­wrake, that he does an act of prodigalitie or wastrie: It wants delight and full consent. Herods killing of John Baptist, though he did it with sorrow, yet was no compelled nor devided action between renued affection and unrenued affection. And so it was no protestation in favour of the Law of God, for he was not grieved, because murthering of the man of God was against the honour of God, but because not murthering of him was against his supposed credit, he should appear before men perjured, and to kill was a torment of conscience, it was then a protestation in favour of his own credite and conscience naturall. Hence the formall objects of action and action, show the clear difference between the combate between sense and reason, or between a naturall conscience and the flesh, (for a naturall conscience cannot plead for, and pro­test in favour of the spirituall Law of God) and the combate be­tween the flesh and the Sprit. 2. The second speciall difference is in the Law convictions and the Gospel convictions,Compelled convicti­ons argue a Law-Spi­rit, convictions under the Gospel, are stronger and more solide, for they have more of sanctified reason: 2. Will. 3. Inclination of heart and affection: A believer accuseth himself and joines actively with the Spirit to convince himself, and hightens his own guiltinesse, Psal. 51.1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. Dan. 9.5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 20. but a Law conviction comes upon Divels and they tremble, John 2.19. and upon such as are under the Law, and are unsent for, by resultance from a [Page 69] naturall conscience, as heat from fire, light from the Sun: Com­pelled convictions speak a Law-state.

2. It is easier to be found and Orthodox, then to be Godly,It is easier to be found then to be Godly. Sa­than in a manner foundly believes there is one God, Jam. 2.19. and that Christ is the Son of God, Luke 4.34. and so doeth the carnall Jew teach that it is not lawfull to steal, to commit adulte­ry, Rom. 2.21, 22. But in the Old and New Testament, Devils never accuse themselves of sin, but tempt to it, and challenge the Law and God. Gen. 3.4, 5. of unjustice, never themselves; Di­vels are most properly under the Covenant of Works, and by no command is the Gospel Preached to them, and next to them are such as are found in the letter of the Gospel, but never convinced of sin: Such are most under the Law, as have least Law-work and Law-condemnation upon their Spirits, these that are under the Law most, as touching their state, are most under the letter, least under the Spirit, as touching any penall awaking.Legall ter­rours con­vert none. To be under Law-bondage is, a more punishment to Divels and men under a Law state, for legall terrors are upon Divels, Math. 8.29. Jam. 2.19. and Cain Gen. 4.14. punishment as such neither maketh, nor denominateth any gracious, it is but accidentall to prepare any for Christ,Legall ter­rours may be mista­ken and conceived to be the child birth of Rege­neration many tormented with the Law have believed such a case to be the pain of the second birth, when it was but a meer Law-feaver, and have returned to their vomit and become more loose and profane. 1. Because the Law as the Law can convert none. 2. Wrestling with Law-bondage without any Gospel-Grace is but a contradicting of God, and his justice; and God recompenceth opposing and blaspheming of him in hell, with more sinfull loose­nesse. 3. Law-light under legall terrors shines more clearly, and the guiltinesse in not making use of rods of that nature is so much the more grievous. Ye that have been scadded and burnt in this furnace, and are come back from hell, are taught by sense to be­lieve there is a hell, and though hell torment can convert no man, yet it renders men more unexcusable: Humbling, wakning, and sanctifying Law-bondage is more then a work of the Law when it brings forth confessing, praying, believing, humble submitting to God, in Job, David, H [...]zekiah, Heman, and what a Physician is Christ who can heal us with burning and coals of hell.

[Page 70] Literall and legall conviction on the mind, and Gospel conviction on the affe­ction.3. A man under a Law-work may give a legall and dead assent, to both the truth and goodnesse of the promises liberally conceiv­ed, as temporaries doe, and Simon Magus wonders, but Saul, Acts 9. the Jaylor trembles, Acts 16. but that is in regard of the conviction not of the mind only, but of the conviction of affecti­on and the yeelding to what shall I do? But Foelix trimbleth, but only in regard of literall conviction on the mind, but neither he nor Magus comes to what shall I doe? they differ as the bur­ning light of a fire, which both casts light and with it shi [...]ing heat also, and the light that precious stones cast in the night, which is both little and hath no heat. Fyrie and piercing convictions are good, there is a dead conviction of the letter that doth not profite.

Naturall and super­naturall convicti­ons, the danger of the latter, if they be fi­ry, and not tempered with grace.4. There is a strong Law-conviction that vengeance followeth the scaddings of Sodomie, and the killing of parents, because na­turall instinct kindles and fires the soul with Law-apprehensions, when the minde hath engraven sharpnesse to discerne undenyable principles, but the conscience is more dull in apprehending that spirituall vengeance followeth such spirituall sins as unbelief, because untill there be some supernaturall revelation, we are dead to the Gospel truths, and Gospel sins, but when a common Grace high­tens the soul to a supernaturall assent, that Christ is a Teacher sent of God, Joh. 7.28. Joh. 3.2. the conviction is more strong: But because it is more supernaturall, and in stead of kindly affection of love which it wants, it is mixed with hatred and anger and so de­geners into fierie indignation against the Holy Ghost, as Joh. 15.24. compared with Math. 12.15, 26.31. cleareth. 5. Conviction which is no more but conviction, [...]are conviction is no Godly principle. is no godly principle, nor makes any heart change, yea it goes dangerously on to wonder and despise, except it send down coals of fire to the affections. 6. He who is under the Covenant of Grace findes a threefold sweetnesse in obe­dience.A sweet­nes in the hardest cō ­mand, be­cause it is the holy wil of God, in a child un­der grace. 1. An inbred sweetnesse in the command. 2. In the strength by which he acts. 3. An inbred sweetnesse in a commu­nion with God. No man is any other way under the Law, then under a yoak, what is only written seems the oldnesse of the let­ter, Rom. 7. and is dead of it self, and layes on a burden, but gives no back to bear. He that is under Grace findes sweetnesse of de­light in a positive Law though the thing commanded be as hard to [Page 71] flesh and blood as to be crucified, Joh. 10.18. yet it obtains a sweetnesse of holinesse from Gods will, Psal. 40.8. I delight to do thy will, O God, (even to be made a curse and crucified) Thy Law is within my heart, and he would but fulfill all righteousnesse, even that which seems to be the outside of the Gospel, to be sprink­led with water, Math. 3.15. and this Christ would doe as under the Covenant of Grace.

2. The stirrings and breathings of the Spirit makes the work sweet, hearing brings burning of heart, Luke 24.32. willing gladnesse,A sweetnes of commu­nion with God an a­boundant hire for a duty to a child under Grace. Acts 2.41. and some sweetnesse of stirred bowells comes from the Lords putting in his hand through the Key-hole of the door of the heart, Cant. 5.4. where as to an naturall man under the Law, to lift up a Prayer is to carie a milstone on his back, eve­ry syllabe of a word is a stone weight which he cannot bear. 3. Were there no more in praying, but a communion with God, how sweet is it? when Christ prayeth, the fashion of his countenance is changed, Luke 9.29. There is a heaven in the bosome of Prayer, though there were never a granting of the sute, sure there is a sin in making heaven a hire, and in making duty a relative thing, a horse for a journey, a ship for a voyage to fetch home gold, where as there is heaven in praising God before the Throne, such as is both work and wages, and so in spirituall duties here.

7. Suppose there were no letter of a command, because there is suteablenesse between the Law ingraven in the heart, and the spirituall matter commanded, a childe of Grace under Grace sets about duties,How an inward principle of a new nature stands (as it were) for a commād, and yet the Word and Spirit must not be se­p [...]r [...]ted. so that (in a maner) there is no need to say to Da­vid, Get thee to Jerusalem and to the house of God, for he sayeth, Psal. 122.1. I was glad when they said, let us go to the house of the Lord. As there needs no command that the Father love the child, nor is there need to exhort the Sea to ebbe and flow, or the Sun to shine: nor are many arguments usefull to presse the mother to give suck to the child, nature stands for a Law here, the strength of the ingraven Law in the heart, overpowreth the letter. So the new nature, the indwelling anointing, as a new instinct putteth the child of Grace to act. But here we are to bewar, that we sepa­rate not the Word and the Spirit, the Father of Spirits loves to work with his own tools, and sow with his own seed the Word of [Page 72] God, these three agree in one 1. The Spirit acting. 2. The habite of Grace acted upon by the Spirit, who blows away the ashes, and 3. The word of exhortation: nor doe we extoll dead letters and livelesse formes, as Libertines say, for we take in with the letter the quickning sense and convincing meaning of the Word, and its considerable that the Spirit drawes sweetly after him, the nature, faculties of will, minde and affections, and they need no other al­lurement but the Word, the Spirit, and the new nature: But when they barbarouslie slew their children and made them passe through the fire, they must put out of their ears and hearts the crying and howling of the murthered Babies, with the noise of the beatting of drums; nature serves the Divell often weeping, and Sathan deadenes nature, Grace so mortifies as the consent of dele­gation goes alone, Psal. 1.2. Psal. 119.72.97.

CHAP. XIII. There are two sorts of Covenanting, on externall, professed, visible, conditionall, another internall, reall, absolute and the differences betwixt them. 2. Infants external­ly in Covenant under the New Testament 3. Some Questi­ons touching infants.

PErsons are two wayes in Covenant with God, externally by Visible profession, and conditionally, not in reference to the Covenant, but to the thing promised in Covenant, which none obtains, but such as fulfill the condition of the Covenant: For consent of parties, promise and restipulation whether expresse, by word of mouth, Deut. 5.27. We will hear and do, Josh. 24.24. And the people said unto Joshua, the Lord our God will we serve and his voice will we obey. Or yet tacit and implicit by profession. I will be thy God, and the God of thy seed, makes parties in Cove­nant. The keeping or breaking of the Covenant, must then be extrinsecall to ones being confederate with God. And 2. Infants born of Covenanted Parents are in Covenant with God, because they are born of such Parents, as are in Covenant with God, Gen. 17.7. I will be a God to thy seed after thee.

[Page 73](2.) The Covenant choise on Gods part is extended to the seed,The s [...]ed & Infants of Cove­nanting pa­rents are in Covenant with God under both Old and New Te­stament. Deut. 4.37. And because he loved thy Fathers, therefore he choise their seed after them. Deut. 10.15. Only the Lord had a delight in thy Fathers, to love them, (and) he choise their seed after them, (even you (Fathers and Children) above all people, (as it is) this day. And the Covenant choise of seed is extended to the seed in the New Testament. Act. 2.39. For to you, and to your children is the promise made. He speaks in the very tearms and words of the Covenant, Gen. 17.7. [...], every one of you be baptized, he saith not every one of you, old and young, Parents and Children, repent. For that command of Repentance is given only personally to them who moved the Que­stion, What shall we do, Men and Brethren? 37. For we are under great wrath, and crucified the Lord of Glory. The An­swer is, you aged, Repent. 39. True. But ah, we prayed, his blood be upon us and our Children. He Answers to that, every one of you be baptized. Why,The pro­mise of the Covenant must be made to in­fants▪ Acts 2.39. else the sense of the words cannot stand. that must be every one of you who are cōmanded to repent? No. It must be every one of you to whom the promise is made, but the promise is made [...]. Observe the very two Pronouns that are, Gen. 17.7. Deu. 4.37. Deut. 10.15. to thee and thy seed. To you and your seed, and children. Now the Answer had been most impertinent, if he had mentioned their children, except in order to their Baptism, and their being in Covenant. For 1. their Children crucified not the Lord Jesus; Nay by Anabaptists grounds, their Children not being visibly in Covenant with their Parents, and not capable of actuall hearing the Word, of actuall mourning for, and repenting of their sins, as Zech. 12.10. Mat. 3.8, 9, 10. they were not con­cerned either in the evill of their Parents, who crucified the Lord of Glory, nor in the good of their Repentance more then stones. So that (every one of you be baptized, Infants in Covenant under the New Te­stament. for the promise is to you and to your Children) should be impertinent, and also false; for Co­venant promises are no more made to Children, then to stones, say the opposites of Infant Baptism. Yea also, as the Lord in the Old Testament, calls Israel his people. My people old and young. Saul shall be Captain of my people. David shall feed my people, old and young, and shall punish with the sword the murthering of Infants. 2. Because he choise (with a Covenant choise) the [Page 74] Jews and their seed, Deut. 4.37. Deut. 10.15. Gen. 17.7. then he must be the God of their seed. But he choiseth with a Covenant choise, and calling all the Nations, Isa. 2.2, 3. All the kindreds of the earth under the New Testament, Psal. 22.27. All Egypt and Assyria under the New Testament. Blessed be Egypt my people, and Assyria the work of my hand, Isa. 19.29. All the Kingdomes of the world are the Lords, and his Sons, and he reigns in them, by his Word and Gospel, as the seventh Angel soundeth, Revel. 11.15.Old and young of Nations under the New Test. are in Co­venant ex­ternally, as Israel was. All the Gentiles are his, Isa. 60.1, 2, 3, 4. Mal. 1.11. All the ends of the earth, and the heathen, Psal. 2.8, 9. Psal. 72.7, 8, 9, 10. Now if they be not his by visible and externally professed Covenant, they must be the Lords Kingdoms only, because some in these Kingdomes. 1. Are come to age. 2. Professe the truth. 3. Give a signification that they are converted and chosen, and so baptized. But so infants and all the rest of these Kingdomes who fixedly, in a Church, hear the Word, professe they are followers, and by so doing are witnesses against themselves that they have chosen the Lord to be their God, and have consented to the Cove­nant, as Joshua saith, Josh, 24.22. must be under the New Testa­ment cut off from the Covevant, and a place must be shown where God hath now under the New Testament, broken the staves of beauty and bands, and hath laid this curse upon all the Infants of Egypt, Assyria, of all the Kingdomes of the earth, that the Lord is now no God to them, and feeds them no more, and therefore that which dies, let it die, and that which is cut off, let it be cut off, as it is, Zech. 11.9. And the like must be said of all that are come to age, and not baptized, or as good as not baptized. And Covenant promises are not to the Children of Beleevers, contrair to Acts 2.39. nor to the aged, untill they be converted visibly and Baptized; This then hath never yet been fulfilled, that the Gen­tiles and Heathen are become the Lords people. Sure, it is (2.) and was a mercy for the seed to be in Covenant, Exod. 20.6. I am the Lord shewing mercies unto thousands of them that love me, and keep my Commandements. Psal. 89.28. My mercy will I keep with David and his seed. What mercy? My Covenant shall stand fast with him. Hence they are called the sure mercies of David. Isa. 55. The Lord following the seed of the Godly [Page 75] with real mercies (so that it cannot be called the favour of a cere­mony and instituted or positive priviledge belonging only to the Jews) as that his seed is blessed, Psal. 37.26. Psal. 112.2. This mercy must be taken away either in mercie or in wrath: but that a real mercy of a blessing should be taken away in mercy, except a spirituall mercy of saving grace in Christ were given in place there­of, cannot be said, far lesse hath it any truth that a real mercy can be removed in wrath from Infants in Jesus Christ, in whom the Nations are blessed. And we see, Deut. 28. the blessing of an observed Covenant, and the curses of a broken Covenant are exten­ded to the fruit of the body to the sons and the daughters, v. 418.32. Job 21.19. Job 29.14. Job 18.15, 16, 17. And that this is not a New Testament dispensation, who can say? And that outward positive favours are bestowed on Infants, is clear. (1.) That Christ laid his hands on them and blessed them, making them a fix­ed copy of the indwellers of his Kingdom. (2) The promises of the Covenant are made to them, Act. 2.39. (3.) They are clean and holy by Covenant holinesse, 1 Cor. 7.14. which cannot be meant of being born of the marriage-bed. For Paul, Rom. 11.16. saith the same of the Jews, root and branches, Fathers and Children: And no man dreamed that Paul, Rom. 11. intends to prove that the Jews shall be insert in again, because they are free of bastardie Father and sons. Now Infants understand no more any of rhese to be blessed by the laying on of the hands of Christ, and to be such as have title to the promises, Acts 2.39. and to be Cove­nant-wise holy, 1 Cor. 7. then they understand Baptism. (4.) The same Covenant made with Abraham is made with the Corin­thians, 2 Cor. 6.16. I will be their God, and they shall be my peo­ple. Which is Prophesied of the Gentiles under the New Testa­ment, Ezek 11.17, 18, 19, 20. Ezek 34.23, 24, 25. Jer. 31, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36. Jer. 32.36, 37, 38, 39, 40. Zech. 13.9. Hos. 1.10, 11. 1 Pet. 2.9, 10. And it is made to the Gentiles with an eke of a new heart, and a larger extent of the Covenant under the New Test. for which cause it is called a better Covenant, hath better promises, Heb. 7.22. Heb. 8.6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12. Now that were a strange eke and excellency of the New Testament Covenant above the Old, to forfeit, without farther processe, all Infants under the New Te­stament [Page 76] of all Covenant-right, which was due to them of old un­der the Covenant which the Lord calls faultie: Egypt shall be my people, except their 1. Infants. 2. And except their aged, and their non-Saints. (5.) Infants in the former Covenant had right by birth to the means of salvation, to be taught and Catechised in the Law of the Lord, because born of Covenanting Parents within the Visible Church, and so had title to Covenant-calling, and GODS Covenant-choising, Mat. 22.4. as is clear, Gen. 18.19. I know Abraham will command his Children and his houshold after him, and they shall keep the way of the Lord, Exod. 20.10. Deut. 6, 6, 7. And thou shall teach them diligently unto thy Children, Exod. 12▪ 26, 27. Ps. 78.4, 5, 6. Now if Infants be without the Covenant as the Infants of Pagans, then they have no more Covenant-right to the hearing of the Gospel, and a treatie with Christ, and Cove­nant, then Pagans have. Its not enough to say their Fathers owe that much naturall compassion to their souls, as to teach them, it being a Parents duty; Yea, but what warrand hath a Father as a Father to make offer of a Covenant of Grace in the Name of GOD to one Pagan more then to another, since all are equally without the Covenant, if there be a Covenant-call warranted to them, where is the Fathers command to propone and ingadge the Covenanters consent, if the Children be Pagans? but as they have a right by birth to the call, they being born where the call soundeth, they must have some visible right to the Covenant it self, more then o­ther Pagans. Its but of small weight to say that, Rom. 9. Paul expoundeth that in the New Testament, I will be thy God, and the God of thy seed, only of the spirituall seed, such as Jacob, who was predestinated to Glory, not of those that are carnally descen­ded of Abraham, otherwise it should follow, that these that are in the Covenant, might believe that they should be saved, though void of Faith and Repentance.The place, Rom. 9.6. vindicated from the unsound gloss of op­posers of Infant Ba­ptism. Answ. The purpose of the Apo­stle, Rom. 9. is to Answer a sad Objection: if the Jews be cast off, and rejected of God, as Paul, by his extreame desire to have them saved, insinuates, then the Word of God takes no effect, and his cal­ling and choising of them for his people, takes no effect, v. 6. He Answers, it is not failed, though the body of Israel be rejected. For there are two kinds of Israelits, some only carnall and born [Page 77] according to the flesh: Others sons of promise, and chosen of God. Now the word of promise takes effect in the latter sort, to wit, in the chosen, and in the sons of promise, for they are not cast off of God, and so the Word of God takes effect, v. 6. (2.) But the truth is, if there be none Covenanted with God, but the chosen under the New Testament, then there is no such thing as an externall and visible Covenanting with God, under the New Testament, then must all the Nations, Isa. 2.1, 2. Kingdomes of the World, Rev. 11.15. all Egypt, Assyria, Isa. 19.25. all the Gentiles, Isa. 60. be internally Covenanted and sons of promise, and predestinated to life? And that, 2 Cor. 6.16. I will be your God, and ye shall be my people, under the New Testament, must infer, that all in Covenant under Christ must be spiritually in Co­venant, and the Visible Church of Corinth, and of all the King­domes of the world, Rev. 11.15. must be the invisible and chosen Church, and as many as are called, must be chosen, contrair to Mat. 22.14. Hence.Children must have from their being born of belee­ving Pa­rents, un­der the N. Test. some Covenant priviledges Q. 1. Have Infants now under Christ no privi­ledge nor Covenant Grace externall by their birth and discent from beleeving Parents? Ans. Sure they have. For Acts 2.39. the promise is to you and to your children. Either to all chil­dren or to some, the Text makes no exception. If it be said to all conditionally, if they beleeve, not absolutely? Ans. That must be an internall covenanting proper to the elect, and the promise is not made to the aged but conditionally, so they beleeve. And yet the promise shall be made to Infants and Children, but not while they come to age. 2. To be cut off and casten out of Covenant is a dreadfull Judgement, Zecha. 11.9. Hos. 2.3, 4, 5. Rom. 11.20. well, because of unbeleef they are broken off. Then because the Jewes beleeve in Christ already comed, all their children, for no fault, but for the beleef of their Parents, must be cut off ▪ (3.) Whereas Paul makes it a misery that the Ephesians, 2.12. were strangers from the Covenants of promise, [...]aving no hope and with­out God, without Christ. And Peter, that the Gentiles were no people, 1 Pet. 2. then that misery lyes upon the Infants of Christi­ans and all within the Visible Church, untill they be converted and baptized, and the Gospel is no favour to them, that they are with­in the net, and in the office house of Grace the Visible Church, [Page 78] where the word is Preached to children, who are to be taught, Gen. 18.19. Deut. 6.7. Exod. 12.26, 27. Psal. 78.1, 2, 3▪ 4.5, 6, 7. 2 Tim. 3.15. and the Lord reckons it among the fa­vours, that hee bestowes not on every Nation, but onely on his owne Covenanted Israel, that the Word of the Gospel to gather them and their Children, Math. 23.37. 2 Tim. 3.15. Psal. 78.1, 2, 3, 4, 5. and his Statutes and his Judgments are de­clared and Preached to them, Psal. 147.19, 20. Deut. 5.1, 2, 3, 4. c. 6.1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7. Psal. 81.4. and that the Oracles of God, and the promises are committed to them, Rom. 3.1, 2. Rom. 9.4. the promises and the giving of the Law, and the Covenants and the ser­vice of God. And that this is a special blessing in the New Testament to old and young is clear from Acts 13. when Paul turnes from the blaspheming Jewes to the Gentiles.It is a Co­venant mercy to fathers and children that the Word of the Cove­nant is preached to them. 47. I have set thee to be a light to the Gentiles, that thou shouldest be for salvation to the end of the earth. Now this Covenant salvation is, Isa. 49.6. I wil give thee to restore the preserved of Israel. — 8. I will give thee for a Covenant to the people to establish the earth. — 9. That thou mayest say to the prisoners go forth, &c. Now if it be said, it was indeed a singular priviledge to the Jews, but what places of the New Testament make it a Covenant priviledge to the Gentiles and their seed, if the Word of the Covenant Preached to the aged under the New Testament, can the same wayes, by accident, be Preached and promises come to the ears of the unbaptised Children, now growing to be capable of hearing the Gospel, Acts 2.39. 2 Tim. 3.15. as to Pagans, and such as are no lesse stranges to the Covenant, and void of all right by the Covenant made with their Parents, then Indians and their children who worship Satan? Paul not without a command Preacheth the Word of the Covenant to the discerning Gentiles, Acts 13.47. from Isa. 49.6, 9, 10. must not the fathers have command to speak the Gospel to their chil­dren? Or doth not the warrand that Parents and Pastors have to take within the Covenant the fathers, warrand them to preach the same Covenant to the children? where as, otherwise the Apostles should have said, we have no warrand to offer the Covenant to any or to Preach Christ a given Covenant to any: But 1. To such as are come to age. 2. Such as are Converts. 3. To such as can [Page 79] give signification by confession, that they are not onely visible but also invisible and chosen confederates, and they should have said all children are now by Christ excluded as prophane Gentiles and heathen from the Covenant of Grace, because there can be none (say Anabaptists) but reall Believers under the New Testament in Covenant with God.

Yea but the New Testament offers Christ a Covenant, in the preached promises, alike to fathers and sons. Math. 4.16. The people (fathers and sons) that sate in darknesse saw great light, &c. Math. 19.43. Therefore I say unto you, the Kingdome of God shall be taken from you and given to a nation bringing forth the froots thereof. And is it not a punishment to be deprived of the Kingdome? If the Kingdome of God come where the Preached Covenant is, Math. 3.2. Math. 12.28. and the Bridegroome among them, and so cause of joy, Math. 9.15. and the Golden Candlesticks be there and the Son of God walking in the midst of the Golden Candlesticks, Rev. 1.20. c. 2.1. sure this is much to children. If it be said, it is very nothing, for children understand nothing of this. What then is meant by the Prophecie of the in­coming of the Gentiles, Psal. 87.3. Glorious things are spoken of thee, O city of God. It is a mercy to be born in Zion. 4. I will make mention of Rahab and Ba­bylon to them that know me; behold Phylistia and Tyre, with Ae­thiopia, that man was born there. 5. And of Zion i [...] shall bee said, this and that man was born in her. 6. The Lord shal count, when he writeth up the people, that this man was born there. And Christ Prophecying of the desolation extends the judgement of a despised Covenant to the children and the house, Math. 23.37.38. Luke 19.44. Luke 22.24. how should there be under the New Testament Covenant wrath, for the fathers Covenant breaking de­rived to the children, if in their fathers the sucking children brake not the Covenant, then they have been in Covenant with their pa­rents, especially since a Visible Covenanting, by borrowed allusi­ons to altars, speaking the language of Canaan, offering incense, swearing by the Lord, is spoken of Egypt and of five, that is, of many cities of Egypt, and of all the Gentiles, Esa. 19.18, 19, 20. 21. Mal. 1.18. and Covenant blessings shall be derived from fa­thers to children. The Lord shall say, 25. Blessed be Egypt my [Page 80] people, and Assyria the work of my hands, and Israel mine inhe­ritance. It must be a narrow blessing of Covenanted Egypt, As­syria, Israel, if it be a blessing of these come to age. 2. Profes­sing the faith. 3. And baptised. How can the Lord say, blessed be Egypt, and though the whole seed be visibly in Covenant, old and young, yet it followeth not that therefore every promise that is absolute, that is, that of a new heart is made to all and every one within the Visible Covenant: for it is promised, Deut. 30.6. to the Jews, and was given to them and undenyably the visible body of the Jews and their seed were the chosen and externally Adopted and Covenanted people of God, Deut. 29.10, 11, 12, 13. Deut. 7.6. Deut. 10.19. and the Lord calls them those whom he delivered out of Egypt, his people, Exod. 3.7. I have seen the affliction of my people▪ Ezek. 37.12. O my people, I will open your graves, as ma­ny as Saul and David did feed, whether they have a new heart or not, the Lord calls them his people, 1 Sam. 9.16.2. 2 Sam. 7.8. See Psal. 50.7. Hear O my people, Psal. 81.13. Jer. 9.26. and so the Church of Corinth, 2 Cor. 16. is called his people, and the Kingdomes of the world the Lords Kingdomes in Covenant, Rev. 11.15. and there were many of them uncircumcised in heart, Jer. 9.26. Isa. 1.10. Amos 9.7. and with many of them▪ God was not well pleased, 1 Cor. 10.5. and so it is most false that none are in Covenant under the New Testament, but only Believers; For Judas, Demas, Simon Magus, and all the externally called (for they cannot be baptized but as in Covenant with God) Math. 22.10. are by their profession in Covenant externally, as the Jews pro­fession sayeth they accepted of, and consented unto the Covenant of Grace, for 1 Cor. 10.7. Be not ye Idolaters, as some of them, commit not fornication, tempt not Christ, murmur not, as some of them, v. 8.9. th [...]se and the like say we are the same way in Covenant as they were and our Visible Church, now, and the Vi­sible Church then are of the same constitution.

Q. And may we not say, that the same Covenant of Grace, we are under, is the same in nature and substance with that Covenant made with Abraham? Ans. The same Christ was their Mediator, as ours, Heb. 13.8. their Rock and our Rock, Christ. 1 Cor. 10.1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. Ioh. 8.56.

[Page 81](2.) We are justified as Abraham, and David. Rom, 4.1, 2, 3, 4, 5. Gen. 15.6. Ps. 32.1, 2.

3. They were saved by Grace, the Gentiles as well as they, Acts 15.11. by faith, Acts 10.43. Heb. 11.1, 2, 3, 4.13. &c.

4. There is no more reason to say, it was a civill Covenant made with Abraham, There is no ground to say that the Cove­nant made with Abra­ham, and with u [...] un­der the N. Test. are different Covenants because it distinguished Abrahams seed from other Nations, and an earthly Covenant, because Canaan was promi­sed to them, not to us, then to say there be two Covenants of Works, one made to Adam, with a promise of an earthly Para­dice, and another Covenant of Works to the Jews, with an earth­ly Canaan; And a third to these who in the Gospel time are under a Covenant of Works. Yea upon the same account, the Covenant of Grace made, Psal. 89. 2 Sam. 7. with David, having a Throne promised to him, should be yet another Covenant different from the other two; And since a Covenant here is a way of obtaining salvation upon condition of obedience, John Baptist should be un­der another Covenant of Grace▪ then the Apostles: For to their faith is promised the working of miracles, Mark 16.16, 17, 18. But John wrought no miracles, and many thousands of beleevers work no miracles, and they must be under a third Covenant: For though Canaan was promised to Abrahams seed, there is no reason to call it an earthly Covenant, or another different covenant, for to all beleevers the blessings of their land are promised, Ezek▪ 36.25, 26, 30, 31. Jer. 31.31. compared with 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43. Mat. 6.33. Luke 12.31. 1 Tim. 4.8. Heb. 13.5, 6. 5. What if we say the Covenant made with Abraham, Exod. 3. proves by our Saviours reasoning, Ma [...]. 22.31, 32, 33. that Infants shall not rise again and be in Angel-state and saved,To children no Cove­nant-resur­rection nor any Cove­nant-sal­vation can be given or promised, if they be not in Co­venant. otherwise if Infants and all beleevers in the Saduces time be not under the same Cove­nant with Abraham, no Infants shall have a Covenant-Resurrecti­on, nor a Covenant-Salvation; Or then there is some other salva­tion for Infants that are saved, to wit, some Pagan heaven without the Covenant, and without Christ, and if Infants be Pagans with­out the Covenant, either none of them are saved and chosen to life. Contrair to Christ, Mat. 18.2, 3, 4. Mark 10.13, 14, 15, 16. and the Anabaptists grant. Or there is a salvation 1 without a Cove­nant, and so without the New and Old Testament. 2. Without [Page 82] the Name of Jesus and the Blood of the Covenant: Contrair to Acts 4.12. 1 Joh. 1.8. Rev. 1.5. (3.) they shall be saved without the Visible Church, the way that Pagans are saved.

Q 3. Are they not saved all of them? Is not this enough? But because the Kingdom of Christ is spirituall, the Element of water can do them no good, except they beleeve?

Ans. If his Kingdom be not spirituall, because his wisedom hath appointed externall signes, then no promise (which is but good words) shall be made to Children, contrair to Acts 2.39. for they can do them no good untill they beleeve.The New Test. King­dome of CHRIST is spiritu­all, though there be in it external signes and seals. 2. Then should there be no Preaching of the Gospel to all Nations, as Mat. 28.20. for impossible it is that all Nations can be profited by the Go­spel. 3. The doubt suppones that it is legall servilitie and Jewish to be under the Gospel Preached and the dispensation of signes and seals, even to the aged, such as are Baptism, the Supper, rebukes, censures. 4. To be a visible member, and visibly in Covenant, and to be baptized, except all be sound beleevers, must be Jewish Now certain, it is a new Testament Ordinance that Ministers Preach and baptize all nations, though the greatest part beleeve not.

Q. 4. If faith sanctifie as faith, then an unbeleeving whore might be sanctified by a beleeving fornicator: How faith does sancti­fie the un­believing wife to the beleeving husband. For faith will do its formall work in every subject?

Answ. Paul never meant that faith doth sanctifie in every sub­ject, but in subjecto capaci. Faith sanctifieth not incest and sin, they are not capable to be separated to a holy use: If fire as fire burn, then might all the water in the Ocean be dryed up with the least sparkle of fire. If prayer as prayer obtain all things, shall it obtain that the sacrificing of your son to God, shall be accepted of him as holy and lawfull worship? Mr. Baxter saith excellently upon this subject. A thing must be first lawfull, before it be sanctified; Mr. Rich. Baxter, plain Scri­pture proof for Infant Baptism. 4 Arg. on [...] Cor. 7. p. [...]8, 99. God sanctifieth not sin in, or to any. See the Argument 1 Cor. 7. learnedly and solidely vindicated by him, so as the dispute is at an end now.

Q. 5. What holiness is it that is called federal, or Covenant holiness which is in Infants?

Ans. It is not so much personall holinesse (though it may so [Page 83] be called, because the person is a Church member,Of federall holinesse. separated from the world to God) as holinesse of the seed, Society, Family, or Nation, which is derived from father to son, as if the father be a free man of such a City, that priviledge is so personall, as it is by the Law hereditarie freedome derived from father to son, if the father have jus ad media salutis right to the means of salvation, so hath the son. Hence this was first domestical, God made the Covenāt with Abraham and his family: I will be thy God, and the God of thy seed, Gen. 17. it was extended to him, not as a father only, but as to the head of the family; the children of Servants born in Abrahams family were to be circumcised and to be instructed as having right to the means of salvation. Gen. 17.12. He that is eight dayes old shall be circumcised among you, every man-child in your Generations (so it is Generation-holinesse) he that is born in the house, or bought with money of any stranger, that is not of thy seed. So God showes clearly that in Abraham he cho­sed the Nation and the house, Gen. 18.19. I know Abraham, that he will command his children (that is too narrow a Church Visible) and his houshold after him, that they shall keep the way of the Lord. 2. Afterward he choosed the Nation to be a peculiar peo­ple holy to himself, The Covenant external is made with a so­ciety or vi­sible Church that out of them God may gather heirs of glory. Deut. 7.6, 7. but not with another new distinct Covenant, but in the same Covenant. 8. But because the Lord loved you, and would keep the oath that he had sworn to your fa­thers, to wit, to Abraham. Deut. 10.15. He chose their seed after them, even you, above all people, not above all houses. Amos 3.2. You only have I known of all the families of the earth. So the externall Church Covenant and Church right to the means of grace is given to a society and made with Nations under the New Testament, Isa. 2.1, 2, 3. Psal. 2.8, 9. Psal. 22.27. Psal. 87.2, 3, 4. Rev. 11.15. Matth. 28.19, 20. And not any are baptized in the New Testament, (except the Eunuch, and Saul, Acts 8.39.) who were baptized firstly, but they were baptized as publick men representing a seed; also, societies are baptized. All Judea, Mat. 3.3. All the land of Judea, Mark 1.5. All the multitude, all the people, Luke 4.7.21. Sure the fathers were so Christianed and Baptized as their children had right to the same seal. So Joh. 3.22, 23, 26. Cornelius his house and all with him were baptized, [Page 84] Acts 10.33▪ 47. Three thousand at once, Acts 2.39, 40, 41. The Jayler and his house, Acts 16.33. servants and friends. The houshold of Stephanas, 1 Cor. 1.16. was Baptized. And this 3. is holden forth as the Church,What fede­ral holines is. as the houshold of Narcissus which are in the Lord, Rom. 16.11. Aquila and Priscilla, and all the Church at their house. v. 5. The Church at the house of Philemon, Phil. v. 2. which teacheth that the Covenant holinesse is of societies and houses under the New Testament as in Abrahams house, and as Abrahams house was Circumcised, so are whole houses under the New Testament Baptized. 4. Paul aptly calls it the holinesse of the lump, or Nation, and the first fruits, root-holinesse, the ho­linesse of the root and the branches. Of the Olive Tree and the branches, Rom. 11.16, 17. (5.) The speciall intent of God in sen­ding the word of the Covenant must evidence this; he sends not the Gospel unto, and for the cause of one man, to bring him in, but to gather a Church and his elect ones, by a visibly and audibly Preached Covenant to a society, to a City; to Samaria. Acts 8. To the Gentiles, Acts 13. To all Nations, Mat. 28.19, 20. that they and their children may have right to salvation and to the means thereof, and to the Covenant, and therefore we are not curiously to inquire whether the faith of the father be real or not, if the Gospel be come to the Nation, to the House, to the Socie­ty. The Lord in one Abraham, in one Cornelius, in one Jayler, (whom he effectually converts as far as we can gather from the Scriptures) choises the race, house, society, nation, and gives them a Covenant-holinesse, the mans being born where the call of God is, does the turn, as much as the faith of the Parent. For by the root is not necessarily meant the Physicall root the father. For Abraham was not the Physicall root and father,The being born where the Gospel sounds, of that nation & race, is the ground of Cove­nant-holi­nes as well as the faith of the nea­rest parents nor Cornelius of all the servants and friends in the house. But if a friend be in the house, or society, and professe the Gospel, he and his obtain right to Baptism and the means of salvation. But as touching real holinesse, it is not derived from a beleeving father, to make the son a beleever, Scripture and experience say the contrair. Nor 2. is internall and effectuall confederacie with God, that, by which one is a son of promise, Rom. 9. and predestinate to life, a nationall fa­vour. For 1. no man is chosen to life in his father, because the father is [Page 85] chosen: A chosen father may have a reprobate son. 2. Electi­on to life is not of nations or houses or societies, but of single per­sons. It is not said, before the nation had done good or evill, I chosed this nation all and whole, not this, but I loved this man, not this man.

Q. What is the formall reason and ground that any hath right to Baptism?

Ans. If we speak of a passive right, if the Eunuch beleeve, Act. 8. and if such have received the Spirit, Acts 10. they may re­ceive baptism, The Eunuch moves not the Question whether Philip should sin in baptizing him or not. The Eunuch was trou­bled to make sure his own, not Philips Conversion.The faith required of these to be baptized, Act. 8.37. Mar. 16.16 is real sa­ving faith, not visible only. They who bring that Argument, [...] Acts 8. and that, Mark 16. to prove that only such should be baptized, who beleeve actually and are come to age: They prove that the Church sinneth, if they ba­ptize any, but such as are predestinated to life and really beleeve. For the faith that Philip asked for, was reall, with all the heart, not as the faith of Simon Magus ▪ And the faith, Mark 16.15. is real saving faith, that brings salvation; he that beleeves is saved. 2. It can not be visible faith only, for that is in Simon Magus, he doth visibly so beleeve and is baptized. Yet upon that faith he was not saved, being in the gall of bitternesse (3.) He that be­leeves not, is damned. The meaning must be, he that beleeves not savingly is damned: Or then he that beleeves not visibly, as Magus, and Judas, is damned, but this is most false, for Peter beleeves not as Judas, and yet he is not damned: Or then the meaning must be, he that beleeveth both really, savingly, and also professedly and visibly, is saved. And that is true, but it con­cludes that none are to be baptized, but both real and visible belie­vers. 4. If it be true that none are to be baptized but Cove­nanted ones, as Acts 2.39. And if none be Covenanted ones under the New Testament, but real beleevers and such as are predestina­ted to life, as our Anabaptists teach from Rom. 9. then must the Church without warrant of the Word baptize Magus, Demas, Judas. (5.) Then must also all Judea, all the Generations of vipers baptized have been both real and visible beleevers, for they were all baptized, Mat. 3.3, 4. Mark 1.5. Luke 1.7.21. Let Independents consider this, and what D. Fuilk, and Mr. Cart­wright, [Page 86] Paraeus, Calvin, Beza; and our Divines speak on these places against the auricular confession of all the huge multitude. (6.) It is a wonder that any man should dream that the Eunuch made a case of conscience, Acts 8. whether it was lawfull to Phi­lip to baptize, and not whether he himself did beleeve and could worthily receive the seal, Act. 8.36. here is water (saith he) [...]. (7.) So none can warrantably baptize any but persons dying in faith, and its not certain these have the faith that is, Acts 8.37. Mar. 16.16. But for the formall warrand of such as baptize:The for­mal groūd of bapti­zing. neither are the aged as the aged, nor Infants as Infants to be baptized; for so all the aged and all Infants even of Pagans are to be baptized. Nor 2. are all in Covenant, to be ba­ptized: For such as are only really and invisibly in Covenant, and do make no profession of Christ at all, are not warrantably by the Church to be baptized. Only these whether old or young that are, tali modo visibili federati, such as professedly and visibly in Covenant, and called, Acts 2.39. are warrantably baptized. Hence they must be so in Covenant, as they be called by the word of the Covenant, for they cannot be baptized against their will, Luke 7.29.30.

Q. What warrand is there, Act. 2.39. for Infant Baptisme?

Ans. I shall not contend for the actuall baptizing of them at that instant. But every one of you be baptized [...] father and sons. Why? the promise is to you and to your children, break the Text into an hundred pieces, and blood it as men please, the Genuine Thesis which cannot be neglected, is, These to whom the promise of the Covenant does belong, these should be baptized, [...] But the promise of the Covenant is to you and to your children. Ergo, you and your children should be baptized. The assumption is the expresse words of Peter and the Proposition is Peters. These to whom the promise is made should be baptized. But the promise is made to children, Act. 2. Every one of you be baptized, [...] for to you is the promise of the Covenant. Calvin, Bullinger, Brentius, Gualther clear it. 2. Who they are, who are in the nearest capacity to be baptized, he explaines, when he showeth, that the Covenant promise is made to these who are far off, to the Gentiles, whom the Lord shall call, then all that are under the call and offer of Christ in the Preached Gospel, as Prov. 9.1, 2, 3, 4. Math. 22 [Page 87] bid them come to the wedding, Luke 14.16, 17, 18. &c. are exter­nally in Covenant, and such to whom the Covenant is made, and should be baptized, its presumed they give some professed consent to the call and do not right down deny to come, else they should be baptized against their will. 3. Calvine showes Acts 2.39. that the Anabaptists in his time, said, the promise was made to Belie­vers only, but the Text saith, it is made to you and to your chil­dren, to infants, to the children of the Prophets and of the Cove­nant made with the fathers, Acts 3.25. Now what ground doe Anabaptists give that all infants believe, or that some believe, since to them, their children were as Pagans without Christ, without the Covenant? if to the children when they come to age and shall believe? but what need to adde, and to your believing Children? for these are not children but men of age, their fathers and they both being believers. Now Peter sets down two ranks, the aged who heard the word with gladnesse, and were pricked in heart, v. 37.41. and the children, and to both the promise is made, and what ground is their to exclude sucking children? for the word, Acts 2.39. is Math. 2.18. 1 Cor. 7.14. where sure the word is taken for sucking children of whose actuall faith the Scripture speaks not. 2. The promise is to you and to your children, can have no other sense then,The sense of the words, the promise is to you and to your chil­dren. the promise and word of the Covenant is preached to you and to your children in you▪ and this is to be externally in Cove­nant, both under the Old and New Testament. If it have another sense it must be this, the Lord hath internally Covenanted with you the 3000. who have heard the word and with your children, and you are the spirituall seed, and sons of promise, predestinate to life eternall: as Rom. 9. they expone the seed in Covenant: But 1. Were all the 3000. Ananias and Saphi [...]a and their children the spirituall and chosen seed? for he commands all, whom he exhorts to repent, to be baptized: And 2. Now to Simon Magus and Demas, and numbers of such, Peter could not have said, the pro­mise is made to you and to your children; if it be only made to re­all and actuall believers, as they say, Peter therefore must owne them all whom he exhorts to repent, as the chosen seed. But if the former sense be intended (as how can it be denyed?) to wit, the word of the Covenant is preached to you, an offer of Christ [Page 88] is made in the preached Gospel to you. Then it cannot be denyed, but the promise is to all the Reprobate in the Visible Church whe­ther they believe or not, for Christ is preached and promises of the Covenant are preached to Simon Magus, to Judas and all the Hypocrites who stumble at the Word, to all the Pharisees, as is clear,If all be really be­lievers that are in Co­venant with God, under the New Te­stament▪ al the King­domes of the world, which are the Lords and Christs, Rev. 11.15. must be believers & internally in Cove­nant with God. Math. 13.20, 21, 22, 23. Acts 13.44, 45. Acts 18.5, 6. Math. 21.43. 1 Pet. 2.7, 8. (3.) The promise, I will be your God, and ye shall be my people, must be one way expounded in the Old Te­stament, to wit, you are externally only in Covenant with God. But in the New Testament, it must have this meaning, I wil be your God, 2 Cor. 6.16. that is, you are all predestinate to life, and the sons, by promise, and the spirituall seed, to whom I say, I will be your God: But so it may well be said, there were no internall Co­venanters in the Old Testament, and there be none but only inter­nall Covenanters in the New Testament, so that when the Lord sayeth, Rev. 11.15. The Kingdomes of the earth are mine, and my sons. He must say, the Kingdomes, Egypt, Assyria, Tyrus, Ethiopia, &c. are chosen and the spirituall seed, and these Cove­nanted Nations and the Kingdomes of the Gentiles are all in­ternally and effectually called, and there are no Visible Churches in the New Test. but only all invisible and saved. 4. If these words, The promise is to you, and to your children, be limited, to as many as the Lord shall effectually call, either fathers or children. But Mr. Stev. Marshel judiciouslie observes;How these words, and to your chil [...]dren are not limited. there is no more a Covenant-favour holden forth to their children, then to the chil­dren of Pagans; for the children of Pagans, if God effectually call them, have the promises made to them. 5. Its clear that exter­nall Covenant-holinesse, is to these men ceremoniall holiness now out of date; and then externall calling the only means of internall and effectuall calling, Math. 22.14. 1 Cor. 1.18.23, 24. Luke 15.1, 2. and the fixed Church-hearing of the Preached Gospel is a ceremony. 2. That God should be the God of Infants of the seed of the Jews,Externall Covenan­ting & the blessing of the Gospel Preached to the Nation, is but a Ceremony to the opposers of Infant baptism, contrair to all ancient Prophesies, Isa. c. 2. c 19 Jer. 23. Isa 11▪ &c. a mercie to fathers and sons coming from free love, Deut. 10.15. Gen. 17.7. Deut. and Prophesied as a mer­cy [Page 89] to the Gentiles by all the Prophets was a ceremony removed now in Christ. Yea 3. externall Covenanting, and adopting, and choising of Israel is no mercy, except that a Pedagogie of the Law is a mercy for a time. 4. The promise is to you and to your children, must be in a contradictorie way expounded, to wit, the promise is no more made to your children so long as they are In­fants, then to Devils. Yea fathers and children not beleeving, though chosen to life, are excommunicated from Visible adoption, calling, hearing the Gospel promises, for there is no Covenanting now under the New Testament, but only internall Covenanting of the elect. 5. Young Timothy and children of beleeving Parents, and all the aged within the Visible Church,If there be no Cove­nanting under the N. T. but that of real beleevers, there can be no Co­venant obligation upon the non-con­verted to hear, to be­leeve the Gospel, to receive the seals. have no right to hear the Preached Gospel, before they beleeve and be the holy seed, more then Pagans. Yea 6. they can have no command of God, to hear the Gospel, nor any Covenant or Gospel warrand, untill they be believers, for if there were no promise made to hearing and considering the word, if they shall beleeve, while as yet they be­leeve not, and untill they be effectually called, there can be no command, and no Law, to hear the Gospel and the Covenant-of­fer made in Christ. It shall then be no more sin for unconverted persons to turn away their ears from the Law, and not to hear the Gospel. 7. It were non-sense to say to men under the externally proposed Covenant, repent, hear the Gospel, use the means, re­ceive the seals, and yet you have no right to hear, nor have we any warrand to baptize you, untill ye beleeve; for there is no pro­mise made to you, nor to your seed and children, untill first you beleeve. And it must say there was no threatning to Adam, Gen. 2.17. before he sinned, and no promise to Adam nor to any now, do this and live, untill Adam first sinned, and first obeyed the Co­venant; and so, if John Covenant to labour in Peters Vineyard, and Peter promise to him four pence, so he work twelve hours, otherwise he shall not pay him four pence, though John accept of the Covenant, and work but one hour, whereas his Covenant is to work for twelve hours, then no man can say to John (work, for there is a promise made of four pence to you) the other might deny; no such promise was made to me, except I work twelve hours. It were, sure, unfaithfull dealing to John to say [Page 90] so. For the four pence ought not, by this Covenant, to be given to him, except he work twelve hours: but he cannot, without palpable falshood, say, I have broken no Covenant, in not wor­king twelve hours: For though I consented to the Covenant, and began to work an hour, yet the promise was not to me simply, but to me as working twelve hours;A condi­tional Co­venant hath the compleat essence & nature of a Covenant, and they are truly in Covenant that are un­der it. but there is neither face nor faith in this Answer: For the fulfilling of the Covenant is only to give four pence to John, if he work twelve hours; But the promise and Covenant was made to him, and he hath foully broken. Yea a conditionall Covenant agreed unto and accepted, is a Covenant, if we shall (as in reason we ought) distinguish between a Cove­nant, in its essence and nature, and a Covenant broken or fulfilled, a Covenant or threatning, is a Covenant and threatning oblidging Adam, if it shall be agreed unto, by silence, as Adam accepted the threatning, Gen. 2.17. by silence, and Professours within the Visible Church, by their professing of the Doctrine of the Gospel or Covenant of Grace, their receiving of the seals and pro­fessed hearing of the Word, are under the Covenant of Grace, and engadge themselves to obey commands, promises, threatnings, and therefore promises are as properly made to them, Acts 2.39. as commands, and threatnings, exhortations, invitations, and Go­spel requests are made to them. But tho the Anabaptists igno­rantly confound the promise, and the thing promised; the Cove­nant, and benefits Covenanted. The promise is to you, and so are the commands, & threatnings, whether ye beleeve or not, the com­mand is to you, and layes an obligation on you, whether ye obey or obey not, and the threatnings are to you, whether ye transgress, or transgresse not. It is true, indeed, the promise, that is, the blessing promised, righteousnesse and eternall life is not given to you, untill ye first beleeve. Object. Is not the promise made the same way to the aged as to the children, and the same thing requi­red of both: The promise is to you and to your children. But the promise is made to the aged only, if they actually beleeve. Er­go, the promise is made to the children only, if they actually be­leeve, and so not to Infants. Answ. Neither proposition nor assumption can bear weight. For the proposition, when God saith, I will be thy God O Abraham, and the God of thy seed. Is it need­full [Page 91] that God require the same conditions, that is actuall beleeving, that he may save Father Abraham, and also actuall beleeving from hearing the word of the Covenant Preached from all Infants born of Abraham and dying in Infancy, or then all these Infants so dying must be eternally damned? Nay. We beleeve many Infants (we reserve to the Holy and Glorious Lord his liberty of election and reprobation, Rom. 9.11, 12.) among the Jews were saved by the Covenant of Grace, though they died Infants. And this we condemn in Anabaptists, that they show no revealed way of God of saving Infants of beleeving Parents dying in Infancy, more then of saving Pagans and their Infants,Anabaptists provide no s [...]lvation by Law or Gospel, or by JESUS CHRIST, for the sa­ving of In­fants born of beleev­ing parents, more then for saving of Pagans and their Infants. for to them both are alike with­out the Covenant of Grace and without Christ; and therefore be­leeving Parents have no word of faith or of the Gospel to pray for the salvation of their Children dying in Infancie, for such prayers have neither warrant in the Covenant of Works, nor in the Cove­nant of Grace, by their way. And yet that we are to pray, is to be gathered from Gen. 19. [...]8. 2 Sam, 12.16. Job 1.5. Mark 10.16. Psal. 28.9. and if we pray for their salvation, they must be saved by either Law or Gospel. Its not enough, to say that we may pray for savages that never heard of the Gospel, nor of the Covenant of Grace, that they may be saved. For seeing there is no name under Heaven by which men may be saved, but by the Name of Jesus, Acts 4.12. Joh. 14.6. There is no other war­rand of praying for such, then that God would send them the Go­spel; and since Christ prayed for Infants and blessed them, which is a praying for them, Gen. 48.15, 16. Deut. 33.1.6, 7, 8. &c. Eph. 1.2. Gal. 1.3. 1 Cor. 1.3. 1 Tim. 1.2. 2 Tim. 1.3. See Mar. 10.16▪ he must own them as blessed in Christ in whom all the Nations of the earth are blessed▪ and so Covenanted with God in Christ.

2. It is false that the promise is made only to the aged, upon condition of actuall beleeving.Its false that the promise is made to infants & to the aged only upon condition of belie­ving. 1. It is made to their children ex­presly in the Text, and for the way of their beleeving, we leave it to the Lord. Nor is it true, that the promise is made to the aged, upon condition of beleeving. The promise is made to them abso­lutely, whether they beleeve or not. But the blessing of the pro­mise and Covenant of Grace is given and bestowed only conditio­nally, [Page 92] if they beleeve. The promise is absolutely made: its called conditionall from the thing conditionally given.

Obj. But is not this an approven distinction, that persons are within the Covenant, either externally, professedly, visibly, or internally, really, or according to the intention of God? Ergo, such as are externally within the Covenant, are not really & indeed within the Covenant of Grace.

Ans. The Adverbe (really) relates to the reall fruit of the fulfilled Covenant, and so such as are only externally within the Covenant,How vi­sible pro­fessors are really with­in the Co­venant, & not really within it. are not really within the Covenant, for God never di­rected, nor intended to bestow the blessing Covenanted, nor grace to perform the condition of the Covenant upon them? But they are really Covenanted and engadged by their consented profession to fulfill the Covenant. And as the commands and threatnings of the Covenant of Grace lay on a reall obligation, upon such as are only externally in Covenant, either to obey or suffer, so the pro­mise of the Covenant imposes an ingagement and obligation upon such to beleeve the promise, but some times, we say the promises of the Covenant of Grace are not really made to the Reprobate within the Visible Church, because God intends and decrees to, and for them, neither the blessing promised, nor the saving grace to fulfill the condition or to beleeve. And therefore these words are figurative, Heb. 8.10. This is the Covenant that I will make with the house of Israel, I will write my Law in their minds, &c. that is, this is the speciall and principall Covenanted blessing, I will give them a new heart: which must not be called a simple pre­diction, though a prediction it is, but it is also a real promise made absolutely to the elect, which the Lord fulfills in them: And this is called the Covenant. Because 1. they are no better then non-Covenanters upon whom the Lord bestowes not this part and blessing of the Covenant. 2. The truth is, the promise of a new heart is not made to the Visible Church, which is only Visible: but to the Elect and Invisible Church. And if Anabaptists shall expone these words, Acts 2.39. The promise of a new heart is made to you and to your children, upon condition that you and your children beleeve, which they cannot do untill first they have a new heart, its as good as Peter had said, God promiseth to you [Page 93] and to your children grace to beleeve, and a new heart to obey him, upon condition that you first beleeve. And that is,The new heart is not promised to all, who ought to repent and to be bap­tized. Gods promise to you to beleeve upon condition that ye beleeve, which is ridiculous, and therefore we cannot say that this promise of a new heart is made to all that are commanded to beleeve and repent and be ba­ptized. For Elect and Reprobate and all are under these com­mands, if they be members of the Visible Church: But the pro­mise of a new heart is not made to all within the Visible Church.

Quest. How then? Must the promise of a new heart be here excluded? And shall nothing be meant in the Word, What is promised, Act. 2.39. whether a new heart be therein promised, or exclu­ded. but a promise of forgivenesse and life is made to you and your Chil­dren.

Ans. I should judge it hard, to say, that were the only promise here made, the promise of a new heart is made to you all, there­fore repent and be baptized. The Antecedent is not true. 2. Therefore because Peter speaks unto, and of a mixed multitude, Fathers, Children, Elect and Reprobate, who must first understand, the promise of life and forgivenesse is made to you. Ergo, all come to age, repent and be baptized. And because the promise is made to your children, therefore let them be baptized. And 3. the promise of new heart is not to be excluded, because there were in the company to whom, and of whom the Apostle Peter speaks, many Elect, in whom the old Prophesie, Jer. 31. Ezek. 11. was to be fulfilled; For he saith, The promise is made to as many as the Lord shall call; to the Gentiles, it were a sense too narrow, to exclude that promise, and therefore, as the great promise, I will be thy God, and the God of thy seed (which chiefly is meant, Acts 2.39.) requires not the same condition in fathers and infants, nor the same condition in fathers, wives, hewers of wood, Officers and Commanders, litle ones, and such as were not born, Deu. 29. with whom the Covenant is made. For the same faith in fath is and in infants, and faith working in the same duties cannot be re­quired of husbands, wives, Magistrates, and hewers of wood) so neither is the promise made the same way to fathers, children, Jews near hand, and Gentiles farre off, to Elect and Repro­bate.

Q. How can the promise of the Covenant, to write the Law in [Page 94] the heart, be made absolutely, and not to the Reprobate, but to the Elect only? For the Elect are only these to whom that promise is made, and yet the Reprobate are really in the Covenant of Grace, and the promise is made to them, as hath been said.

Answ. It is no inconvenient that the Reprobate in the Visible Church,Mercies of the Cove­nant, are not alike and the same way promised to the Pa­rents in co­venant, to wit. Elect and Repro­bate. be so under the Covenant of Grace, as some promises are made to them, and some mercies promised to them conditionally, and some reserved speciall promises of a new heart, and of perse­verance belong not to them. For all the promises belong not the same way, to the parties visibly and externally, and to the parties internally and personally in Covenant with God. So the Lord pro­miseth life and forgivenesse shall be given to these who are exter­nally in the Covenant, providing they beleeve, but the Lord pro­miseth not a new heart and grace to beleeve, to these that are on­ly externally in Covenant. And yet he promiseth both to the Elect.

Hence the Covenant must be considered two ways, in abstracto and formally,The Co­venant of Grace is considered two ways, in abstracto, & in con­c [...]to. in the letter as a simple way of saving sinners, so they believe, so all within the Visible Church are in the Covenant of Grace, and so it contains only the will of precept. 2. In the con­cret, as the Lord caries on the Covenant in such and such a way, commensurably with the decrees of Election and Reprobation; As the Lord not only promises, but acts and ingraves the Law in the heart, commensurably with his decree of Election, so the Elect only are under the Covenant of Grace. The word tells of no con­dition or work,The new heart is promised to such spe­cial Cove­nanters, not to Co­venanters in general, and as Co­venanters. or act to be performed by any, which if he do he shall have a new heart: and therefore the promise of the ingraven Law in the heart, is not a simple promise made to the Covenanters as Covenanters, for so it should be a promise to all visible Cove­nanters (for visible Covenanters are essentially Covenanters) but it is both a promise and a prediction, yea a reall execution or an efficacious way of fulfilling the decree of Election to such and such chosen, and specially loved of God Covenanters.

2. A new heart hath a twofold consideration, one as a duety commanded. 2. As a blessing promised, as to the former, Ezech. 18.31. make you a new heart and a new spirit, Jer. 4.4. Cir­cumcise your heart to the Lord, take away the foreskin of your [Page 95] heart, ye men of Judah, The new heart is considered as a duty comman­ded. And 2. as a bles­sing freely promised. Eph. 4.23. be renued in the Spirit of your minde, Eph. 4.14. Awake thou that sleeps and rise from the dead, these are either bare commands, without any Gospel strength given to obey, and so they are legall commands in the letter ob­oblidging all visible Covenanters to obedience, and so, all Letter all Law, no Gospel strength to performe speaks poor unmixed Law. In this case, God repeats and craves back again from broken men a sound heart, which they sinfully lost in Adam, and may justly seek heart conformitie to his holy Law from all men. Or then these commands are backed with Gospel strength to obey, and so they are both commands and blessings promised, as Jer. 31.33. This my Covenant (a Covenant and something more) shall bee — I will put my Law in their inward parts, The Re­probate are not in the Covenant of Grace as touching some spe­ciall pro­mise. and write it in their hearts — 34. Ezech. 11.19. Ezech. 36.26. Heb. 8.6, 10, 11.12. so the more strength promised the more Gospel. Neither is there any inconvenience, to say that the Reprobate visible Cove­nanters are not thus, as touching the speciall promises of a new heart and perseverance of the Saints, really in the Covenant of Grace.

Q. Who are they, who are to believe God shall give them a new heart Ans. No man is positively to believe it while God work it in him, for no man is to believe that he is predestinated to Glorie, while he first have the effects thereof in him, the hid Manna, the white Stone, the new Name. But no man is to despare or to cre­ate fatall inferences that he is Reprobate, since God begins kindly with him with a Gospel call.

CHAP. XIIII. Considerations of the Arguments from Gen. 17. Mark 10.15, 16. Luke 18. Math. 19. Rom. 11. for Infant Baptisme.

IF God be the God of Abraham and of his seed, Gen. 17. there­fore every male child shall be entered in the Covenant, by the [Page 96] initiall seal of Circumcision, and so women also who eat the Passe­over, which the uncircumcised might not do: and Peter was sent to the Circumcision, that is, to all the Jews men and women, and so the women is some way in the men, and they might be circum­cised in them upon the same gound, because the same promise is made to fathers and to children,How the Lords Ar­gument for Circumci­sion fits us for Bap­tisme. must infants be baptized, Acts 2.39. 1. This is the Lords own Argument, Gen. 17.7. there were multitudes of differences between Circumcision and Baptisme as we grant, but in the substance nature and Theologicall essence, and in the formall effects they are the same. We grant that Christ re­vealed in Types, Sacrifices, to come, darkly offered may differ from Christ as clearly offered Preached without these already abo­lished shaddows and who is now come. Yet he is the same Saviour to them who believed in him then and now, Act. 10.43. Act. 15.11. And we 2. argue not simply from the letter of the Covenant. I am your God. Ergo, be baptized, for one might reply. I am your God. Ergo, offer such beasts to me, it shall not follow, But I am your God, and the God of your seed offering to you the same Christ and righteousnesse that was offered to Abraham in the same Covenant: Ergo, all of you be baptized who are under the same Covenant. For,

1. Circumcision of the flesh was a seal of the Circumcision of the heart promised in the Covenant of Grace, Deut. 30.6. and of the cutting of the foreskin thereof, Jer. 4.4. Jer. 9.26. Ezech. 36.26, 27. and baptisme is the same, Col. 2.11, 12. Tit. 3.5.

2. Circumcision is a seal of the righteousnesse of faith, Rom. 4.11. so is baptisme, as 1 Pet. 3.21. Rom. 4.24.

3. Circumcision is a seal of the Covenant, and by a metonymie called the Covenant of God in the flesh, Gen. 17.7, 13. so is bap­tisme a solemn installing of all Samaria, Acts 8. in the Christian Covenant, and so Acts 2.39.

4. Circumcision is a solemne way of instituting any in the Church of Israel, so we are by one Spirit baptized into one body, 1 Cor. 12.12, 13.

1. The command of Circumcising is as large as Covenanting, but that is with Abrabam the father, and his seed, Acts 2.39. make the command of being Baptized, [...] every one of you be Bapti­zed, [Page 97] as large as the promise of the Christian Covenant, and call: For the promise is to you and to your children, and to as many as the Lord shall call.

2. The command supposes that all the Circumcised, the males of eight dayes old understand not the promise of the Covenant, the nature, use, signification, and end of the seal,A compa­ring of the command of Circum­cision, and of the command of baptism in three. and the command to be baptized, supposeth that the children to whom the Covenant promise is made do not understand the same as touching baptisme and the Covenant promise, Acts 2.39.

3. If the positive command be generall that all these in Covenant should be marked with the initiatorie seal of the Covenant: As Gen. 17.7, 8. I am thy God, and the God of thy seed: Therefore old and young be Circumcised, then there was no other command in particular, to baptize old or young, but the institution of Ba­ptism in place of Circumcision needfull. As touching the applica­tion of it to persons, old or young, except the ground of externall Covenanting stand as warranting to administrate the seal to all, so Covenanted; Yea, and if there be a positive command and war­rand in the New Testament to tender the Seal of Baptism to none but to the aged, that can give an account of their faith, and do actually beleeve; then should there be an expresse command in the New Testament concerning Baptism as concerning the Lords Sup­per▪ that every one before they be Baptized,If actuall faith be re­quired in all to be baptized, there shuld be a com­mand of self-exami­ning in the N. T. of all before they be ba­ptized. try and examine them­selves whether they savingly beleeve or not, before they be Ba­ptized, otherwise they receive their own damnation, as in the Lords Supper, for self judging and self examination, if actuall beleeving and being internally in Covenant, as these in whose heart and in­ward part the Law of Grace must be ingraven, be the necessary condition required in all these to whom the Church can warranta­bly tender Baptism as the seal of the Covenant: And we require a positive command in the New Testament, see that ye Baptize none though they professe they be in Covenant, except such as can try and examine whether they savingly beleeve or not: and here A­nabaptists must flee to the consequences of the Word and reasons drawn from the Covenant of Grace, as well as we, and an express command they cannot flee unto, nor is it in Old or New Testament: It should not move us, that Infants understand neither command [Page 98] nor seal, nor Covenant, for the Argument is against the Holy Ghost, and they are oblidged to answer it; for Infants are as ig­norant of the promises the speciall mysteries of the Gospel, as of Precepts of the Gospel. And yet the promises of the Covenant of Grace are expresly to Infants of the New Testaments Acts 2.39. promise, [...], The Gospel promise made to Abraham, Gal. 3.16. The Gospel and promise of righteousnesse of the Spirit of Life, Gal. 3.17, 18, 22, 29.23.28. Gal. 6.2. Rom. Rom. 9.8. 1 Tim. 4.8. Heb. 4.1. Heb. 6.12.15. Heb. 8.6. Heb. 9.14. 1 John 5.1. is made [...] to your children of the New Testament, to your Infants, if they beleeve (say they) 1. Can Infants actually beleeve? 2. Is not the promise so made to Turks, if they beleeve?

But it were an easier way to Anabaptists to say, infants under the New Testament are externally in Covenant, where as Parents beleeve, and members of the Church are followed with Covenant mercy, only because they understand not, and the administration is more spirituall under the New Testament, and faith more urged, God requires not the dipping of Infants in Rivers (a ceremony more onerous,How ma­ny wicked absurdities must fol­low the ex­cluding of Infants from the Covenant of Grace. more, truely, in women with child, virgins, diseased per­sons, in winter, in cold countreys, against the word, the second Com­mand, the third, the fourth, the sixth, the seventh, then that it needs to be refuted) it being only a ceremony which they may well want. But now Infants of beleevers are casten out, for no fault, of the Covenant of Grace.

(2.) From Covenant mercy to the thousand Generation. Con­trair to Gen. 17.7. Exod. 20.5.

(3.) From Covenant-prayers and Church-prayers: Contrair to 1 Sam. 12. Ps. 28.9. Ps. 67.1, 2. Ps. 103 4, 5.

(4.) From the blessing of the Lords Covenant-presence, who dwels in the Nation, in the Kingdom, Ps. 135.21. Ps. 132.13, 14. Rev. 11.15. Isa. 19.25. Isa. 2.1, 2, 3. 2 Cor. 6.16. I will dwell in them, and walk in them, and be their God, and they shall be my people. 18. And I will be a father to you, and ye shall be my sons and daughters, saith the Lord God Almighty. Though this be spoken to▪ all the Covenanted people of God, yet are In­fants casten out of the bosome of a Covenant Father and God?

[Page 99](5.) Infants are debarred from Covenant-calling and gathering in under the wings of Christ: Contrair to Matth. 28.19, 20. Matth. 23.37. Psal. 147.19, 20. and excluded from Gods Cove­nant-choise: Contrair to Deut. 7.6, 7, 8, 9, 13, 14. Deut. 10.15. and left being heirs of wrath, a prey to Satan.

(6.) They are Excommunicated from Covenant-blessings earth­ly, and the Tabernacle-protection promised in the Old and New Testament: Contrair to Deut. 28.4. Lev. 26.6, 7, 8, 9. Psal., 26. Psal. 92.10. Psal. 112.1, 2, 3. Ezech. 34.24, 25, 26. Ezech. 36.29.35, 36, 37. Ezech. 8.7, 8. And in the New Testament, Matth. 6.27, 28.33. 1 Tim. 4.8. Heb. 13.5, 6. which were no­thing if our Heavenly Father provide bread, protection, safety, dwelling in the land, and our houses, to the fathers, but the chil­dren had no charter but to beggery, to the sword, to be devoured by wilde beasts and the diseases of Egypt: And the Infants have nothing from the Covenant but what Infants of Amaleck, and Ba­bylon, 1 Sam. 15.1, 2. Ps. 137.5. and of Sodom have, Gen. 19.

(7.) They are members of Satan, of the Kingdom of the Prince of darknesse, not members of Christs Body, since there be but two Kings, two Gods, Satan, 2 Cor. 4.4. Eph. 2▪ 1, 2. Eph. 6.12. Matth. 12.29. and Christ the King and Head of his body. And it is known that Infants within the Visible Church, suffer incursions of Devils, dreadfull diseases, death; and being without the Cove­nant, as Pagans; these evils must either be acts of revenging justice, and preparatorie to the judgement of eternall fire, or blessed in Christ: But if the former, they are damned, if the latter, what blessing is there without Christ?

(8.) Being without the Covenant.Remon­strant Scrip. Synod ar. 1. p. 2. Thes. 9, 10. 1. Infants cannot be chosen and predestinate in Christ to salvation, as Eph. 1.4. Rom. 9.11. nor given to Christ to be saved Covenant-wayes, as John 17.2. John 6.39. nor loved from eternity, nor in time, as Arminians teach, and so must be carried in Christ to Heaven or Hell, or rather to a mid place, without God or providence, or decrees,Infants not prede­stinate to life in CHRIST, not redee­med in CHRIST or fore-know­ledge, or counsel of God. 2. They being without the Gospel-Covenant, cannot be redeemed by Jesus Christ his Blood, but some other way: Contrair to Acts 4.12. 3. If Infants be born with­out sin, as Anabaptists teach, they die, and go either to Heaven, [Page 100] and so Christ took not on him their nature,Infants neither ca­pable of heaven or hell by this way. and is not their Savi­our: or they go to everlasting torment, and yet never sinned, which is repugnant to Divine Justice: Or to some third place of which the Scripture speaks not. And yet the word saith, Rev. 20.12. that the dead small and great shall stand before God, and shall be judged. And the Scripture saith Infants are capable of punishment, and of being cut off, and the Parents punished in them, and they bear Covenant-wrath in their Parents: As is clear in the seed of Jeroboam, Infants sa­ved with­out Christ, not capable of Grace, of remissi­on, justifi­cation of Achab, of others, Ezod. 20.5. Gen. 17.14. 4. Neither remission of sins, Justification, nor life eternall, nor Son­ship, nor Adoption in Christs suffering death, and in the Blood of the everlasting Covenant, can belong to Infants if they be without the Covenant.

9. Nor can children be capable of being blessed of Christ, or of his laying on of hands. As Mark 10. if they be not under the N. Test. capable of Covenant-grace: And it is to be minded, that Covenanting Parents, Luke 18.

1. Such as came to him to be cured of their diseases, and belee­ved him to be the Messiah, the Son of David, as the blind call him, Mat. 20. and the woman of Canaan, Mat. 15. Luk 18.15. [...] brought to him little Children, as Mat. 8.16. Mat. 9.2. Luk. 4.40. they brought the sick.

2. The children were not diseased, nor possessed: And the Pa­rents being desirous they might be blessed, as the event proved, it is clear they were not children of heathen, but members of the Visible Church.

Of the children brought to Christ.3. [...] Of such is the Kingdom of God, Luk. 18.16. we can­not think that his meaning is of such as such, is the Kingdome of God, as if all Infants of Jew and Heathen, belonged as subjects to the Visible Church, for then the Infants of all Heathen should be Covenanted members of the Visible Church, and yet their Parents are without the Visible Church, and when they grow to age, they should without any scandall be Excommunicate, which were mon­struous, nor can the Invisible Kingdom of God be of such, as if all Infants,Of infants as infants, the King­dome of God is not. because Infants were saved. Nor,

4. Can the taking of them be a meer Embleme that such were blessed, for so, beside that Doves and Lambs, for meeknesse are [Page 101] capable of being taken in the armes of Christ and blessed, Christ bids them, in all times coming, be suffered to come, and not for­bidden. v. 16. which saith he desired the whole spece of Infants of the Visible Church to be brought to him. Nor doth Christ make acts of Emblems ordinary, but he will have children at all time to come to him: forbid them not; He once cursed the fig tree, that was an Embleme: and did but once wash his Disciples feet, and that was an Embleme. And,

5. He could not mean, that only Infants predestinate to glory, should be suffered to come: For he saith indifferently [...] suffer little children to come: Now he should then have given marks to discern predestinate children and suffer them. (2.) And receive them only as Disciples, in my Name, Mar. 6.36, 37. (3.) He should have laid his hands upon some Infants, as prede­stinate to glory, and forbidden others to come. And the Parents should have known what children are predestinate to life, and should come, and what not.

6. The Text evidences that the Disciples had a prejudice and a carnall one, at infants, thinking, they understood nothing of Christ and of the Kingdom of Grace. The Disciples [...] rebuked these that brought them: as Anabaptists do. And Christ rebukes them and instates infants of beleeving Parents as members of the Visible Church.

7. Nor was it extraordinary, when Christ said suffer little Children to come, but he would have the spece instated members of such a Kingdom. Ergo, some of the kind must be saved and ex­amples must be verified (saith Mr. Cobbet judiciously) in some par­ticulars.

8. Of such is the Kingdome of God, of such in Covenant rela­tion is the Kingdome of God, of such subjects. For if Christs rea­son be, of such for humilitie, meeknesse, want of malice, and in­vy, as 1 Pet. 2.1, 2, 3. Math. 18. Psal. 131.1, 2▪ is the King­dome of God: he must mean by the Kingdome of God, the King­dome of Glory and the triumphing Church, this sense is refused by Anabaptists. 2. The Infants of Pagans and of all men, by nature, within and without the Church are as well marked resemblances of converts, as they. And we must say that Christ would have ta­ken [Page 100] [...] [Page 101] [...] [Page 102] in his arms, and blessed all the Pagan Infants, and when they grow to age they should be for no fault, but for age only, Excom­municate from the blessing, for Pagan Infants as well resemble hu­mility and harmlessenesse (if only the personall qualifications of converts, and heart-converts, not the Covenant and Church-ho­linesse of visible Professours,Hyeronymus increpant▪ non quia nollent iis salvatoris & manu & vo­ce benedici: sed quod non dum haben­tes plenissi­mam fidem putarent e­um in simi­litudinem a­liorum homi­num impor­tunitate las­sari. be here meant) as Infants within the Visible Church.

9. There was no other designe and purpose in Christ, in that emphatick expression, forbid them not to come [...] Math. 19.14. [...] Luke 18.16. to me their Saviour, as well as the Savi­our of the aged, but to hold forth the common interest of the whole spece of infants ( [...]) within the Visible Church, their Covenant interest in Christ, for there is no imaginable reason, but the conceit of want of understanding (the prejudice of Anabap­tists only) why the Disciples should have aimed to debar them or any poor sinners from accesse to the Saviour of sinners.

10 Christ took them in his armes, layed his hands on them, blessed them. Now this was a personall reall favour bestowed upon infants, had infants been meer symbolick and doctrinall resemblances of the humilitie of reall converts, and the young ones as much without the Covenant as Pagans,Chryso. Hom. disci­puli expelle­bant pueros causa digni­tatis Christi. and as uncapable of Covenant grace and Covenant seals, because void of actuall faith now under the new Gospel administration, as horses or beasts, let the oppo­sites of their Baptisme show what sort of blessing it was, that Christ bestowed upon them, if it be not: 1. Of more value then Jacobs blessing of Ephraim and Manasseh, Christs ta­king in his armes the children & blessing them, did not act mere re­semblances and Em­blems. The effica­cy of Christs blessing the chil­dren. or at least as reall, and certain, Christ the Lord from heaven must as Soveraigne, who had power to curse the fig tree and it withered, by his Soveraigne power have blessed, in them, the whole race of infants in the Visible Church, and declared them Covenanted Church members under the New Testament in this eminent act of blessing the children and in com­manding that all such might have free accesse to him as King, since the young ones were Subjects of the Kingdome of God, as well as the aged, and expressely forbids, that in time to come, they be hindered to come to him, Mark 10.14. Luk. 18.16. Math. 19.14. and three Evangelists are three sufficient witnesses. (2.) Christ the Lord is the Supreme and Soveraigne Lord of blessing and cur­sing: [Page 103] for in him all the Nations of the earth, and with them, young ones a considerable part of the Covenanted Nations, must be blessed. (3.) If Isaac blessed Jacob, and he must be blessed, Gen. [...]7.29.33. and Jacob blessed the twelve Tribes, Gen. 49.28. and Moses the man of God blessed Israel, before his death, Deut. 33.1, 2. &c. with Covenant blessings, and they were really bles­sed, Christ must as really with Covenant blessings, have, in this, blessed the whole race of infants of Covenanting parents, except Anabaptists say that it was some complementall salutation, for the fashion that Christ bestowed upon infants, when the Evangelists say, he blessed them, They came that hee should pray for them. Math. 19.13. [...] Mark 10.16. [...] 4. by the glosse of the Adversaries. Christ blessed them symbolick and doctrinall resemblances of the humilitie and docility of reall converts, and they were blessed as meer signes, as the Ele­ments in the Sacraments are blessed, or as new made crucifixes are blessed and dedicated to divine worship,Christs blessing of the chil­dren not as when the elements are conse­crate. as resemblances of Christ crucified; and as Popish Images are symbolicallie blessed, a strange devise are rather a strong delusion. 4. If Christ prayed for infants as Matthew sayeth the mothers or parents sought that of him, Math. 19 13. his prayers must be grounded upon the word of the Covenant, and what could he seek for infants peace in these, but Covenant mercies and salvation: for Christ was not to work a mi­racle upon them, and he satisfied the desires of these, who brought them on their armes, and therefore could not go on their feet nor give a confession of their faith, they were born as the man sick of the palsie, Math. 9.2. (5.) Now as Christ is always hard in his prayes,His bles­sing either a Law bles­sing, or a blessing of the Cove­nant of Grace. Joh. 11.42. so his blessing he bestowed upon them (though Anabaptists will have them without Christ and the Co­venant and under the curse of God) must either be a blessing of the Covenant of Grace, or of the Covenant of Works, for a third sort of blessing the Scripture knows not: Moses takes all blessings up in these two. Deut. 27.12, 15, 16. Deut. 28.2, 3, 15, 16. Deut 30.19. I set before you life and death, blessing and cursing, and so doeth Paul, Gal. 3.10, 13, 14. Heb. 6.7, 8, 14, 15. But Christ could not bestow the Law blessing of Works upon these infants, for they had not fulfilled the Law in their persons, nor can infants or any flesh be justified by the Law, Rom. 3.20. therefore must Christ [Page 104] have bestowed upon them the blessing of the Covenant of Grace, Gal. 3.14. Heb. 6.14. let it be the blessing of remission and life, or reall right to the Kingdome of God, it is a blessing of the Cove­nant. 6. The faith of the parents that brought them is holden forth, Math. 19.13. Then were little children brought unto him, that he might lay his hands on them and pray: then had they faith in Christ, that his praying and blessing should be availeable to in­fants, its a conjecture that they came with a may be, or as Mr. Cobbet well sayeth, a faith grounded upon a possibilitie of Electi­on separated from the Covenant, that is secret, and the Covenant revealed, and so this, not election abstracted from that, can be the ground of faith, Deut. 29.29. and when Christ saith, Math. 18.4, 10. that little ones Angels behold the face of his Father, and the Holy Ghost saith, Heb. 1.13. that Angels are Minstring Spi­rits, [...]. For these that shall by he­ritage or lot injoy salvation. Its clear infants have their share of salvation, and by Covenant it must be. As also the blessed seed is promised to Adam before he have a child, and to his seed: To Seth, Japhet, Isaac, Jacob, Abraham, when Cainan, Cham, Ishmael, Esau, Abrahams Idolatrous house, to David, when his brethren are refused, and to these as heads of Generations, when contrare Generations, and the houses of Cainan, Cham, Ishmael, are rejected: Hence the house of Israel, the seed of Israel, the seed of Jacob, and there shall be added to the Gentiles, Isa. 49. who shall bring in to the Church their sons and their daughters upon their shoulders, A Cove­nanted seed is prophe­cied to be added to the Iews under the New Tes­tament. 22. Isa. 54.1. Sing O barren — for moe are the children of the desolate then of the maried wife saith the Lord, Isa. 60.4. Lift up thine eyes round about, and see, all they gather themselves about, they shall come to thee: thy sons shall come from far, and thy sons shall be nourished at thy side. Israel marying and Israel according to the flesh is the holy seed, Neh. 7.61. Neh. 9.2. the holy seed have mingled with the heathen. 1 Chron. 16.13. O ye seed of Israel his servants, ye children of Jacob whom he hath chosen, be mindfull of his Covenant. And this holinesse by exter­nall Covenanting is extended to the Gentiles, 1 Cor. 7.14. But now are your children holy; and its holinesse the Jews to be called in, Rom. 11.16. If the first fruit be holy, the lump is also holy: [Page 105] and if the root be holy [...] also the branches. So it is propheci­ed, Isa. 61.9. Their seed shall be known among the Gentiles, and their off-spring among the people: All that see them shall acknow­ledge them, that they are the seed that the Lord hath blessed. 6. But ye shall be named the Priests of the Lord, (holy by Covenant as was Aarons house, because in Covenant visibly with God) men shall call you the Ministers of our God: Ye shall eat the riches of the Gentiles; and in their glory shall ye boast your selves, Isa. 62.2. Thou shalt be called by a new name, which the mouth of the Lord hath named. v. 12. And they shall call them the holy people, the Redeemed of the Lord: And thou shalt be called, Sought out, A City not forsaken. Isa. 65.22. As the dayes of a tree, are the dayes of my people: and mine Elect (by calling) shall long injoy the work of their hands. Sure he Prophesies of a visibly Covenanted people under the New Testament: For he adds, v. 23. They shall not labour in vain, nor bring forth in trouble: for they are the seed of the blessed of the Lord, and their off-spring with them. Now to any Godly Reader, there is here. 1. [...] Prophe­sie to be fulfilled of the Gentiles brought in, as is clear, Isai. 6 [...].1, 2▪ 3, 4. Christ, Luke 4. applyes that Text to himself. And 9. Their seed shall be known among the Gentiles. Isa. 62.2.There is Covenan­ted visible seed pro­phesied to be under the N. T. The Gentiles shall see thy Righteousnesse. And for Chapter 65.1, 2, 3, 4. Paul expounds it of the in-coming of the Gentiles, Rom. 9.24.26. Rom. 10.20. Eph. 2.12.13. Rom. 15.20. (2.) He speaks of a Visible Church and of their seed, known among the Gentiles, all that see them shall acknowledge them, that they are the seed which the Lord hath blessed, Isa. 5 [...].9. But they did not see the white Stone (the seal of their election) and a new Name which none can read but he that receives it, Rev. [...].1 [...]. And they see them a seed and off-spring of the Covenanted people of God. Isa. 62.12. They shall call them the holy people: then they must judge them a Visible Church. But a Church of such as are predestinate to glo­ry, they cannot see them to be. (3.) Isai. 55. They are a Vi­sible Church. 21. They shall build houses and inhabite them — 22. They shall not build and another inhabite, They shall not plant and another eat. And the reason is, 23 —] Because they are (they shall be, its a Prophesie under the New Testament) the [Page 106] seed of the blessed of the Lord, and their off-spring with them. Jer. 23.22. As the Host of Heaven cannot be numbred, neither the sand of the sea measured, so will I multiply the seed of David. What seed? The visible seed: And the Levits that Minister unto me, will I multiply: He alludes to the promise made to Abraham, Calv. in loc. Haec promis­sio Abrahae data ad to­tum populi corpus spe­ctabat. of multiplying his seed, Gen. 13.15. Gen. 15.5. Gen. 2.17. And this promise made to Abraham (saith Calvin) be­longs to them all, and he would have them not to doubt of the re­stitution of the people to their own Land. Now the people and Levits, and house of David were never so multiplied in the Jews, after the deliverance from Babylon, and therefore must be exten­ded to the New Testament. And if God establish Davids seed for ever, Psal. 89.4. And the seed of his people shall possesse the gates of their enemies, Gen. 24.60. And if he powre his Spirit upon the seed of Jacob, Isai. 44.3. and Circumcise the heart of the seed of his people, Deut. 30.6. and put his words in the mouth of the seed of his people, and their seeds seed for ever, Isai. 59.21. And the seed of the righteous be blessed on earth, Psal. 37.26. not simply be­cause they are a seed (for the whole seed of man should be bles­sed,The Cove­nant pro­mise is prophesied to belong to such a certain seed if so) but because they are the seed of his servants, Psal. 69.36. of the Jews, Esther 6.13. the Children of his Servants, Psal. 102.28. See Jer. 31.35, 35, 37. Isa. 6.13. because the seed of A­braham, and in the Covenant made with Abraham, Exod. 2.24. 2 Kings 13.23. Psal. 105.8, 9. Psal. 111.5, 9. Gen. 17.2, 7, 9. Lev. 26.42, 45. Ezek. 16.60. Luke 1.72. Exod. 6.4. Deut. 8.18, &c. Then must the Covenant be established under the New Testament with the Visible seed; and if there were an abridging and contra­cting of this favour to the Elect only, it would have been shewed, and the Charter of reservation and exception must have been pen­ned in the Old or New Testament.If there be not a Co­venanted seed under the New Test. the children of beleevers under the New Test. must be a cursed seed 2. Otherwise the seed of all Gentiles called in to Christ by the Preached Gospel, must be visi­bly cursed of God, cut off from the people of God, separated from the Lord, from the Congregation of his people, not to the tenth Generation only as the Ammonite, the Moabite, the Bastard, Deut. 23.1, 2, 3. and Excommunicated out of the Camp as unclean, nor should Christians marry or Covenant with them: As Deut. 23.14. Lev. 13.43, 44, 45, 46. Deut. 7.1, 2, 3. Exod. 34.15, 16. [Page 107] 1 King. 11.2. Ezra 9.2, 12. Nehem. 13.23. Judg. 3.6, 7. Judg. 4.2. 3. Except there be some middle between a cursed and a bles­sed seed, a seed in the Church, and in Covenant, and the seed of the Serpent, of Heathen, without the Covenant. 2. A middle between the Kingdom of darknesse, of Satan, and the Kingdom of God of his dear Son: Contrair to Eph. 2.2, 3, 4. Acts 26.18. Col. 1.13, 14. 1 Pet. 2.9, 10. Eph. 5.8. which is unknown to Scripture. Yea the Covenant is made to Christ and his seed, Gal. 3.16. and the same blessings of Abraham, comes on us Gentiles, Gal. 3.13, 14. But he and all his seed were blessed and in grace by the externall call of the Covenant. Ezek. 16.1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8. Deut. 7, 7, 8. Rom. 10.25.Its a state of cōmon grace to be within the Visible Church. I will call them my people that were not my people, and her beloved which was not beloved. And this exter­nall calling is of Grace and so Grace, no merit, as well as predesti­nation to life is grace, or for grace. For whosoever are called, not because Elect, but because freely loved of such a God and without merit called, Father and Son, they are in a state of grace [...] But so are all within the Visible Church. If any object, by Christs com­ming all the Nations old and young are not become the Nations of the Lord and of his Christ, but only true Believers, even by our Doctrine.

Answ. They are become the Kingdoms of the Lord, not only because they are truely converted, but because they are the chosen of God in the Office-house of Christ, and Christ reigns over them by the Scepter of his Word whom he is to convert. And external Covenanting with God is of it self free Grace and a singular favour bestowed of God, Psal. 147.19, 20. Deut. 5.1, 2. Mat. 21.42, 43. Luke 14.16.21.

2. It is free Grace that God will have hypocrites and real infi­dels to beget children to him that are internally in Covenant with him;Its grace that Re­probats are instrumen­tall to the in-coming to the world and to the Vi­sible Church of the heirs of glory. and fills up the number of the Elect by Reprobate Parents who are instrumentall to the in-coming in the world, and into the Visible Church, of many Heirs of Glory: and in so doing there is a Church right communicated from Reprobate Parents to their Chil­dren, that are Heirs of Glory.

3. Externall Covenanting goes before internall Covenanting, as the means before the end, and the cause before the effect: For [Page 108] faith comes by hearing of a sent Preacher, Rom. 10.14. and the Preaching of the Gospel is a saving means of begeting a new heart and of a new spirit: Hence 1. All must be first externally in Co­venant, before they can be internally and really in Covenant. 2. God is a God simply to some, and no more but a God to them in re­gard of outward Church priviledges, as the Word, Seals, Prote­ction, Peace, Hedge of Discipline, his planting and watering by a Ministry. But he is, to speak so, more then a God to others, Hos. 2.19. I will betroth thee unto me for ever, yea I will betroth thee unto me in righteousnesse, God is a God in truth to some, and how to o­thers. in judgement, and in loving kind­nesse, and in mercy. Now the Lord is joyned to back-sliding Is­rael, in an externall marriage Covenant: But Jer. 3.14. not in righteousnesse, in loving kindnesse and mercy, in reference to the rotten party. In regard of which he saith, v. 2. Plead with your mother, plead: for she is not my wife, neither am I her husband. Zech. 8.7. Thus saith the Lord, I will save my people from the East Countrey, and from the West Countrey. 8. And I will bring them, and they shall dwell in the midst of Jerusalem, and they shall be my people, and I will be their God, in truth and in righteousnesse. Then he is not to all a God in truth and righte­ousnesse, fulfilling the first and substantiall promise of ingraving the Law in the heart, not that he keeps not Covenant even to external confederat [...], to wit, the conditionall Covenant, for if they should beleeve they should be saved; but he promised not a new heart, and faith to them. 3. Because he is a God externall to the Elect, and that of free Grace, therefore he is a God in truth and righte­ousnesse, to ingrave his Law in their heart. But externall confe­deration is not the adequate cause, for then he should give a new heart to all, with whom he externally Covenants, but the ade­quate cause is confederation external tali modo, out of his discri­minating love and free grace he is a God to some.The cause why we be­lieve, is be­cause God is thus and thus, in Covenant with us. 4. He is a God to his Elect that he may ingrave his Law in their heart and inward parts; so that the promising to be a God tali modo, is the cause, and the ingraving of a new heart is the effect. Jer. 31.33. Jer. 32.38. And they shall be my people, and I will be their God. That is the cause. 39. I will give them one heart, and one way, that they may fear me for ever; for the good of them and of their chil­dren [Page 109] after them. See the same order, Ezech. 11.19, 20. though the words ly not in that order there and here. And Heb. 8.10.5. God is not then a God to any, because they have a clean heart, and the Law ingraven therein, for then they should be in Covenant, before they be in Covenant; And so this is true (because he is our God in truth and righteousnesse, therefore we beleeve) but this is not true (because we beleeve, therefore he is our God) ex­cept we argue from the effect to the cause.

But to return: Calvine on Matth▪ 19.14. We hence gather that the grace of Christ is extended to Infant age, Calvin. unde Colli­gimus ad hanc quoque aetatem ex­tendi ejus gratiam. Quid vero il [...]is precatus est nisi ut re­ciperentur inter Dei filios? for whole man­kind had perished. Beza, Infants are also comprehended in the free Covenant. Pareus, its unlawfull to [...]barre these from ba­ptism and the Church, whom Christ [...]ds come to him, &c. Obj. But Christ commands not they be baptized. Answ. Nor doth Christ in this place command the Parents to bring them up in the nurture and admonition of the Lord: Nor speak the Evangelists of any Parentall duty; shall we from that conclude, it was not Christs mind that the Parents take care of the fourth & fifth Com­mand? Pareus saith, it was neither time nor place. Mat. 28.19. he bids baptize all. 3. He who prayed for them, blessed them, laid his hands upon them, invited them to bring Infants to him (of all which Infants were as uncapable,Beza, Ipsi quoque In­fantes in gratuito Dei foedere com­prehendun­tur. as of the use and ends of Ba­ptism and of actuall confession of sin and of beleeving) judged they ought be Baptized. 4. Its never to be found where any are Ba­ptized, but the Head of the Family is Baptized: And when we read that houses were Baptized, 1 Cor. 1.16. Acts 16.33. There is no more ground to say Infants are not Baptized, then to say when the Lord saith to Abraham, Gen. 12.2. I will blesse thee, The Cove­nant bles­sing of the house, is the Covenant blessing of the seed. and make thy name great. And 22.17. in blessing I will blesse thee. And when the Lord saith, Isai. 19.25. blessed be Aegypt my people; he should mean, he would blesse Abraham, not his seed, and that he minds to blesse the aged of Aegypt, and of As­syria, but not their seed and infants, because they understand no [...] what a blessing of God means; and yet the fruit of the womb and the seed are said to be blessed, Psal. 37.26. Deut. 7.13. and God so intreated to blesse Israel, and to blesse Davids house, Psal. 28.9. Psal. 67.1▪ Deut. 26.16. 2 Sam. 7.29. the meaning should [Page 110] not be that God would blesse the young Infants and Children in Israel and in Davids house: And when Jacob is said to provide for his own house, Gen. 30.30. And the beleever to provide for his Family, 1 Tim. 5.8. the meaning should be that they should provide for the aged of the house, who understood what provision is, but should not provide for the young ones, who can not know what it is to be hungry to morrow. To say young ones are not capable of Baptism, is to begge the Question. For (1.) all Israel were Baptized in the Sea and in the Cloud, old and young, 1 Cor. 10.1, 2. (2.) All Israel old and young are capable of the blessing Covenanted, Psal. 28.9. Psal. 67.1, [...]. and so of the seal: Ana­baptists grant (as they must) if Infants be in Covenant, they ought to receive the Seal of the Covenant. Lastly, how is it that by baptized houses, must be meant only these come to age who can actually beleeve?

The Jews, Rom. 11.16. are holy root and branch, first fruit and lump, fathers and children, and the Jews shall be brought in a­gain. Why? The Generation to come in is holy, for the Cove­nant made with their fathers. Well say Anabaptists, but not­withstanding of the federall holinesse you talk of, The place, Rom. 11.16. if the root be holy, so is the branches, opened. Rom. 11.16. that gives not right to the casten off to be Baptized, and admitted to Church priviledges; for the casten off are no Church, and have no Church priviledge, your federall holinesse then must be a dream?

Ans. But these to come in, and to be re-ingrafted are holy, intentionally, The Jews to be born are intentionally holy in the root and when they are born, they shall be a­ctually ho­ly. in the decree of God, because of their beloved fa­thers, and when God shall call them, the same Covenant made with Abraham gives them right; and these branches not in being, and the unborn Generation are only intentionally holy by this fe­derall holinesse, and they shall be actually holy, when they shall be born, but it followeth not, but the present Generation not broken off through unbeleef, as Paul and others called by the name of election, Rom. 11.7. have right, because of their fathers. For God hath not cast off his people, whom he hath fore-known For I am an Israelite (saith Paul, v. 1, 2.) of the seed of Abraham, and there are thousands of Jews now hid▪ as in Elias his time, who bowed not their knee to Baal; but the body of them, the great bulk is fallen away and cut off. Hence the Jews are holy federally▪ [Page 111] and not holy, beloved of the fathers federally, and not beloved federally, holy and keep Church right to Baptism, and Ordinan­ces, in regard of the founder and invisible part: And not holy fe­derally nor having any Church right to Baptism, in regard of the wilfully broken off body, that crucified Christ and stand to their fathers bloody deed, these have no more Church-part nor portion to Ordinances, then Simon Magus, Acts 8. notwithstanding of their carnall discent from Abraham.

And when God made the Covenant with Abraham, Gen. 17. and renewed the same, Deut. 29. he made it with these who were not there standing, v. 14, 15. not with you only, &c, but virtual­ly, radically with us Gentiles, who were not then born, as touch­ing the substantialls, for Priest-hood, Law-service, Types, Sacrifices,The same Covenant in the sub­stantialls, is in the Old and New Test. Circumcision, yea Baptism, the Lords Supper, Pastors, Teachers, Elders to rule, Deacons, were all accidents, to the substance of the Co­venant, to wit, to beleeve in Christ and to obtain righteousnesse and life by Christ: As the same way to the same City hath other hedges, way-marks, bridges, this year which it had not 500. years agoe. And look as a father that knowes he shall beget so many hundreth sons who shall all be Kings, and have the same royall inheritance, wri­teth a Charter intituling them all, before they be born, to the same inheritance: They have all virtuall and radicall right, ere they be born, with the first heir; And when they are born, he makes not another Covenant with them. So Deut. 29.14, 15. he sayeth not, He shall make another Covenant with these when they shall be born: but I make a Covenant with you, and with these that are not here, not born. Hence by way of excellency he calleth it the Covenant, the Covenant of the Lord, Jer. 2 [...].9. Deut. 4.23. Josh 23.11. My Covenant, saith the Lord, Gen. 17.7, 9, 10. Exod. 19.5. Psal. 50.16. His Covenant, Psal. 105.8. He remem­bred his Covenant for ever, Psal. 111.5. He will remember his Covenant for ever, 5.9. His Covenant with Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, 2 King. 13.23. When Hazael King of Syria oppres­sed Israel, in their saddest afflictions, Levit. 26.42, 43. The Scri­pture is called the Book of the Covenant, Exod. 24.7. 2 King. 23.4. 2 Chron. 34.30, 21. The Question is easily determined, it can be the Book of no Covenant, but of that made with Abraham, the [Page 112] oath unto Jacob, The one Covenant of Grace is called the Covenant of the Lord, by way of excellency in the Old and New Test. 1 Chron. 16.16, 17. Psal. 105.9. Jer. 11.5. Dan. 9.11. Luke 1.73. Heb. 6.15, 17. and to the fathers, the everla­sting Covenant, Gen. 9.16. Gen. 17.9, 13. which relates to A­dam also, Levit. 24.8. 2 Sam. 23.5. made unto David, 1 Chro. 16.17. Psal. 105.10. Isa. 61.8. Heb. 13.20. which cannot be, if there be so many Covenants, as some speak of: the new Cove­nant, and the better Covenant, Heb. 8.8, 13. Heb 12.20▪ Jer. 3.81. Heb. 7.21. which newnesse and excellency is all expounded of the Mediator now God, the Word made Flesh, Heb. 7. c. 8. c. 9.

And we would remember that Rom. 11. Paul proves 1. God hath not casten off the Jewes wholly.A short o­pening of Ro. 11. to v. 17 1. Arg. Because I Paul am a Jew, and he hath not casten me off: Ergo in one the Covenant may stand. 2. From his unchangeablenesse, God hath foreknown them. 3. From the example of the Church in the dayes of Elias. By way of p [...]occupation, it is true many are fallen off: but as then seven thousand were in Israel who bowed not their knee to Baal, so now; Because the election of grace doth not fall now, or then. Then saith he, not of works. He reconceals that he saith with what before, by a preoccupation: And have all the Jewes fallen short of righteousnesse? and he answers, All are not fallen short. The election, that is, the elected have obtained righteous­nesse, the rest not. 2. To make way to exhort the Gentiles to walk worthy of the place and room of the Jews▪ He speaks some more of the doctrine of Reprobation, as he spake, Ch. 9. of eter­nall predestination, and of 2. The casting out of the Jews, and of their blinding and hardning. They have fallen in Gods decree, not that they may utterly fall. 2. That the Gentiles may be pro­vocked by their fall.

Hence by diverse Arguments he proves that the Jewes shall be brought in again to Christ 1. From four ends of the Jews fall, v. 11. (2.) To provoke them to come in, v. 11. (3.) That some may be saved. 4. For the riches of the worlds salvation. Whence the magnifying of Pauls Ministry, v. 13, 14. 2. Arg. From the great fruit; If their fall be the riches of the world, their incoming again must be the resurrection from the grave of the buried unbeleeving world, v. 15.

3. Arg. They must be brought in. These who are holy separa­ted [Page 113] from the world, for the Covenant-call of God, must be brought in again: But so is Israel. The Assumption he proves by p [...]rts. 1. The masse and root of Israel is holy, the Fathers were the Cove­nanted visible stock, line, root, as all the Old Testament sayeth: then the posterity, the first fruits, the branches partly born, part­ly to be born, must be holy Covenant-wayes: The tree, root and branches are holy and of the same nature; Therefore the branches have right to Christ, to the Covenant, to Baptisme and the seals. Hence Anabaptists, without all reason, say that he speaks not of federall and externall holinesse, but of reall, internall and true ho­linesse, only of the invisible body predestin [...]ted to life: for though invisible holinesse cannot be excluded, except we exclude the ho­linesse of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, who were without doubt a part of the root: yet he must be taken to speak of that holinesse of the Covenant and Church, as made visible and of the visible col­lective body of the Jews, not of only reall and invisible holinesse. 1. Because this was true in the dayes of Elias, By the holy root cannot be meant the prede­stinate to glory only. If the root be holy the branches are holy; And it is a New Testament-Truth of perpe­all verity, If the Fathers be holy so must the Sons. The Fathers have Church-right to Circumcision, to Baptism, to the Passeover, and to the Lords Supper, so have the Children: but it is most false of the invisible mysticall body and root only, and of reall and in­ternall holinesse; For neither in Old or New Testament is it true, If the Fathers be predestinated to life, justified and sanctified and sa­ved, so must the Children be. Ishmael, Esau, Absalom, and all the world of Hypocrit [...] called from their prophanenesse So­dom and Gomorah, Isai. 1.10. uncircumcised in heart, as Egypt, Moab and Ammon, Jerem. 9.26. as the Philistines, Amos 9.7. Then should that (2.) Distinction of Jewes in the heart, and inward, and of Jews in the flesh, Rom. 2.28. and of the chil­dren of the flesh, that are not of the spirituall seed, and of the chil­dren of the promise, Rom. 9.7, 8. and of the persecuting chil­dren of the bond woman not justified by faith, and of the children of the promise, Gal. 4.23, 24, &c. fall to the ground. Yea 3. If by the root and the lump be understood only Believers and cho­sen to life, the whole Israel, which is as the sand of the sea, should be saved, whereas the Word of God saith, a remnant only shall be [Page 114] saved, [...] LXX. Te [...]la. A part taken out shal be saved, Rom. 9.27. Isai. 10.22, 23. Hos. 1.10. 4. By the branches must be meant all the visible body of the Jews, old and young. Now if Anabaptists give us a Visible Church of the Jewes of all reall be­lievers, even the branches and Infants, (which shall hardly be proven by the Scripture) these infants at least being visible Belie­vers may lawfully be baptized, being both internally and visible, and externally in Covenant. For this Scripture is expresly expoun­ded by them of reall and inherent holinesse, and so Infants must be reall Believers and in Covenant. Ergo they must be baptized: What can be replied is not imaginable: but they have not actuall faith, and possibly that is not known to the Church. But this Scri­pture saith that the branches and root both are holy. 2. It shall be new Divinity, that none are to be baptized but such as are under the actuall [...]rcise of their faith, a thing that cannot be discerned by the Church, in these that are come to age. 5. Here shall also be this new Divinity, that predestination to life and glory must be propagated and derived from the lump to the first fruits, from the root and parents to the branches and children.

5. Its against the whole current of the Text, that Paul spake abstractly of the only invisible body really sanctified, and not of the visible body. For 1. The body invisible is an elect seed that can­not fall away; But the body that here he speaks of are such, of which a part are hardned and blinded,Paul, Rom. 11. speaks of a visible, not an in­visible bo­dy. and under the spirit of slum­ber, and a part elect and chosen. 7. The election have obtained, the rest are hardned, and of such a body, compared with the body in the time of Elias, of which multitudes fell away, slew the Pro­phets, digged down the Altars, and a good number were belee­vers, that bowed not their knee to Baal, and so is the body now, saith Paul, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. [...], which is a mixt body. 3. He speaks of the body that is fallen and stumbled, v. 11. and these whom he preaches unto, to provoke them to a holy emu­lation, to come in to Christ, by the incoming of the Gentiles, v. 13, 14. which is sure a visible body, and which shall be ingraffed in again, v. 23. which includes a visible body of diverse generations. 4. Yea he must speak of a Nationall election and externall calling, as Deut. 7.7, 8, 9. Deut. 10.15. Psal. 132.13. Isai. 41.2. Not [Page 115] of a personall election of some certain persons who fell, were blin­ded, rejected fully and totally in their persons, and received in and ingraffed as sound believers again▪ for the Scripture speaks of no such boating in and out, but of a huge numerous body of which some fell, some stand and includes diverse generations. 5. The collective visible body of Jews and Gentiles are such as Paul prea­cheth unto, v. 13, 14. such as are ingraffed in in the room of the Jews, and ingraffed into the Olive of the visible Body, and par­take of the fatnesse of Ordinances, Baptism▪ Co [...]enant-comforts, promises.Infants of the Jewes are cut off with the root, and shal be re­ingraffed with the root. Now if any say that this proves not that Infants are in­graffed, then must they say that Infants of the Jews before Christ partaked of no fatnesse of the Covenant, Circumcision, Blessings, Presence, Protection. 2. That they were not broken off with their fathers, and so that they now stand. 3. That the Infants of the Jews are not holy branches, as the root is holy, as [...] ▪ and that none but the fathers shall be ingraffed in, and only 4. The aged and the baptized actuall believers of the Gentiles are the ingraffed ones, not their Infants, they are all Heathen and Pagans, as well as the casten off Jewes. 5. That the Jewes ingraffing in again shall be to their great hurt, so as God was long agoe their God, but shall no more in time coming be their God, then of the Pagans and the lately cut off fathers: Nor can the Adversaries say that Jewish Infants were broken off through unbelief ▪ because they are capable neither of belief nor of unbelief to them. Then they remain in the Olive tree, members of the Church as before, and God must be still their God, when the fathers are cut off, vers. 17. And again, when the fathers shall be reingraffed and they made Christians, the Infants shall be out of Christ, and have no more Covenant-right or Church-right to Baptisme, then the Infants of Egyptians and Phi­listines had to Circumcision.

Obj. Shall not, by this means, all the Infants of all the Gentiles be ingrafted in, and baptized?

Answ. The Text warrants us to say it only of the Children of the ingrafted and called Gentiles, that they have right to baptism.

Obj. This Text is spoken of these that have hereditary Cove­nant-right, from their naturall Father Abraham. We Gentiles [Page 116] have not that naturall relation to Abraham,The seed are in Co­venant, not by birth as birth, but by such a birth, so & so graci­ously pri­viledged. nor are we his naturall sons, nor branches?

Answ. Its false, that the Jews by birth as birth, had heredi­tary right to Church-priviledges, they had right by such a birth from Abraham taken in out of free-love to Covenant fellowship with God, and his children are naturall, that is, kindlie. 2. First branches and sprigs, before us Gentiles, to beleeving Abraham, but we beleeving are made Abrahams by proportion, and are se­condary and so wild branches. 2. Abraham is not the Physicall, but a Morall root. For the Covenant was made with Abraham, not as a beleeving Father, but as a beleeving Head of Children, of Servants, and strangers under him, as the Covenant is laid as an Heavenly depositum, upon Zacheus, in relation not to his children only, but to his house, Luke 19. For when he is made a sonne of Abraham, salvation, that is, the Covenant of Life comes to him and to his house: and so to Cornelius, Acts 10. and to the Jayler, Acts 16. and to their houses, and the same way I distinguish seeds.

Q. How can the Jews that are come in, be federaly holy for their fathers? Since now it is about fifteen hundreth years since their father [...] were broken off from Church and Covenant: May not all the world Jews and Gentiles be federally holy branches, by the same reason, because the Covenant was made with, and Preached unto Adam a beleeving root and father in Paradice? So it would appear once in the Covenant of Grace; and all the seed to the co­ming of CHRIST, are federally holy, as well as they. Answ. This is as great a difficultie to the Adversaries (and insuperable) as to us, for the Jews unborn by their way, are no more holy in their branches and off-spring then Turks and Indians, and their children, untill they grow to age and actually beleeve, and so are the Infants of Americans, and such as worship the Sun, or Satan, that way holy. And so the branches of the Jews have no holiness from the root, nor are they beloved for the fathers, as vers. 28.2. All the Jews leave not off to be members of the Invisible Church; For Paul saith Rom. 11.25. blindnesse in part is happened to Isra­el [...] to a part of Israel: For howbeit the visible masse and body of the Jews rejected Christ and wrath [...]e come upon them [Page 117] to the outmost, 1 Thes. 2.16. yet that is not said universally of all the Jews, 14. [...]. Yea Paul wrote to the Jews the Epistle to the Hebrews. James to the twelve Tribes scat­tered abroad, Jam. 1.1. and Peter, 1 Pet. 1.1. and John to the Jews: I judge, not in a visible body, and these are not broken off the Olive, and do, though not in a Visible Church way, derive Covenant right to the branches that shall be ingrafted in. But ma­ny Nations descended of Adam have universally rejected Christ, and know not the Name of Christ the blessed seed.

Q. May we not say that the root is Christ as mysticall Head, from whom we partake of the s [...]ppe of grace and life and fatnesse.

Answ. The intent of Paul is to prove that the Jews cut off, because of their unbeleef, shall be ingrafted in again, in the Lords own time, because of the holinesse of the Covenant, that was in the root and in the first fruits Abraham, Covenant-holinesse externall is not the ade­quat and compleat cause of in­graffing re­ally in Christ. Isaac and Ja­cob. It is true, their Covenant-holiness is not the adequat cause, why they shall be ingrafted in really into Christ, for so all the carnall children, who had this relative holinesse must be really ingrafted in Christ, but it is with the Lords free love, both the cause of their personall, and of their Church ingrafting, and the continued de­riving of that relative holinesse being a continued free favour in its kind, is the Lords love in the same kind to root and branches, o­therwise it should not bear truth, which, is said v. 28. which ex­pores this, ver. 28. that they are beloved for the fathers, not as if they were predestinate to life, because Abraham was so chosen, but because of the Fathers Covenant-holinesse, which was holinesse from Christ not as root and head, through influence of saving grace, but as a politick head which yet is, what we say. For because Christ is holy as root, head and Redeemer, the Jews once his Church Visible and to be so again, the branches are not really holy by faith, because all of them were not in Christ: But if all Jews and Gentiles, and also Infants who are Jews and Gentiles and parts of the body be baptized into the visible body, so are Infants. See more of this in Mr. Cotton, Mr. Black, Mr. Cobbet, Mr. Rich. Baxter, who have closed the dispute learnedly.

CHAP. XV. The differences of externall and internall Covenanting. 2. No Universall Grace, Rom. 10.18. Psal. 19.3. nor in Scripture. 3. Nor power of beleeving to all given by Christ.

HEnce, the clear differences betwixt the externall visible and Nationall Covenanting of the people of old,Conside­rable diffe­rences be­tween ex­ternall and internall Covenan­ters. when they were brought out of the Land of Aegypt; And the internall and personall (though it may be visible also) Covenanting with God.

1. This under the New Testament is a new Covenant, and all the old shadows are abolished▪ The former is the old.

2. This is with the house of Israel and Judah chosen persons, and so personall with single men. You shall not give a Nation, Kingdom, or Land, with which the Covenant internally is so made, as if all and every one, without exceptions, must know the Lord savingly (what may be the converted Jews case, whether the whole body of them, all and every one shall be visible, real, and personall Covenanters, as the place, Rom. 11.26. seems to say, I cannot determine) and all and every one be saved; for then must all the visible house of Israel be saved, and not the chosen only.

3. The visible externall Covenant was broken, Jer. 31.32. The o­ther personall and internall is never broken.

4. The promise of a new heart is really fulfilled, in all the per­sons and single branches of the house of Judah, so that all and eve­ry one are taught of God, none excepted, Jer. 31.33, 34. Isa. 54.13. Joh. 6.45. not so in the visible externall Covenant, if it be but ex­ternall: not any is taught of God, but all are taught of men.

5. The reall personall Covenant is everlasting, like that Cove­nant with the Moon and Stars; 2. The night and the day; 3. Of the motion of the Sea, Jer. 31.35, 36, 37. There is perseverance absolutely promised, Jer. 32.40. I will make an everlasting Co­venant with them, that I will not turn away from them, to do them good. Its sure in Gods part, for he changeth not. Nay, but we change and turn away from God, he obviats that: I will put my [Page 119] fear in their hearts, that they shall not depart from me. Personal Covenan­ters cannot fall away: but Natio­nall, condi­tionall, and visible Co­venanters may. So Isai. 54.10. Isa. 59.21. but all such as Nationally, visibly only, and in profession only, are in Covenant, may fall away.

6. Jer. 31. [...]. Behold [...] day [...] come saith the Lord, that the City shall be built to the [...], &c. There is a promise of spiritu­all right in Christ made to the blessings of this life, to these that are personall Covenanters; As Jer. 32.4 [...]. Ezek. 11.17, 18, 19. Ezek. 36.26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 33. Ezek. 37.24, 25, 26. Ezek. 34.23, 24, 25, 26, 27. which promise, though not rep [...]ted in the New Testament, when the Prophesies of [...] cited, Heb. 8.8. Heb. 10.16, 17. but of purpose [...], because the promise of temporal blessings, is not so expresse [...] ▪ Yet▪ in other places of the New Testamant, it is clear that we have bread by Covenant-promise, Matth. 19▪ 20. 1 Tim. [...].8. Heb. 13. [...] ▪ 6. 1 Pet. 3.10, 11, 12. which [...] only [...] Covenant externally, &c. These six differences are clear, Jer. 31.33, &c. so that it is evident that all and every one of the Visible Church are not really and personally confederates, so that though the Lord say to both: I will be their God, and they shall be my people, yet not one and the same way.

Hence there is no ground at all, nor truth in what Arminians say,The Co­venant of grace is not made with all and e­very one of mankinde. that the Cov [...]ant of Grace is made with all and every one of mankind, as was the Covenant of Works. For this must be true, that in Paradice, the Covenant of Grace was made with Adam, and all his seed: But a Covenant so universall ought to be proclai­med to all the [...], but thus was not: For the Lord published and made it to Abraham and his seed, and the Lord choised Israel above all the people on earth,Psal. 147.19▪ 20. Deut. 5.1, 2, 3. Deut. 7.6. Deut. 10.15. and shewed his judgements and statutes to them & not to other Nations: And therefore there can be no subje­jective revealing of Christ, by universall grace, given to Heathen and all others, and by an objective revealing of Christ in the works of Creation, the heaven and earth, night and day, as some teach, citing the Ps. 29.1, 2.

For so 1. God choised Americans, Indians, and all the wild Savages to be his people, as well as he choised the Jews: and if the sound of the Gospel went out to the ends of the earth, that is, to [Page 120] all and every one,There is no univer­sall revea­ling of CHRIST to Ameri­cans and to all man­kind; which is either subjective, by a power or univer­sall grace given to all, or which is objective, by the light of nature, in the works of Creatiō pointing out Christ as the place Psal. 19 4. mistaken is cited. as they expound, Psal. 19.3, 4. Rom. 10.18. then it must be the purpose of David and Paul, that the Doctrine of the Covenant of Grace, and of Christ crucified, by whose alone name men are saved, and by whom only [...] come to the Father, Acts 4.1 [...]. John 14.6. is written in the Firmament, which must declare the glory of God manifested in the flesh, day unto day, and must preach Christ crucified to all Nations, who see the Sun rise and go down; [...]or sure that sound, Psal. 19.4. goeth through all the earth. Sure Paul must give a dark interpretation, Rom. 10. of that Psalm, [...]. 2. If the hearing, Rom. 10.18. (but I say have they not heard?) be the hearing of God Cre­ator, his sounding [...] in the Firmament, Night, Day and Sun, as it is Psal. [...] ▪ by all that see the Sunne, and also the hearing of the joyfull sound of Christ Preached in the Gospel, written and objectively [...] in Sun and Moon, Night and Day, as Amyrald and his do expound it; Then may all that see the Sun call upon the name of the Lord revealed in Christ, and believe in Christ (for of their beleef Moses speaks, Deut. 30.14. and Paul, Rom. 10.9, [...] ▪) and all have the benefite of the Preached Gospel, and sent Prophets▪ whose feet are beautifull upon the mountains, publi­shing [...] of peace, vers. 15. as Nah. 1.15. Isai. 52.7. and [...]ll that see the Sunne are the same way saved by Jesus Christ, that Jewes and Gentiles are, who hear the Gospel. But Paul strangely crosseth this, How shall they call upon him (as God re­veal [...] i [...] Christ) in whom they believe not? [...] How shal they [...] him of whom they have not heard? And how shall they hear without a Preacher? And how shall they preach except they be [...]? Now if the sound of the Preached Gospel be to be heard in the Firmament, Sun rising and going down (as Amyrald and some Libertines do say, whom I heard Preach the same thing at London) Paul might receive an easie and a short answer: The Gospel of Christ crucified written on the Firmament Sun and night and day,The place, Psal 1 [...].4. vindicated is as lawfull an Ordinance, and a book upon which A­mericans, and all that see the same, may read the glad tydings of salvation, and so may call upon, and beleeve in God, and winne and earn, by [...] industrie, and hearing of the Gospel by sent Preachers, as the Preached Word of God, and therefore Paul [Page 121] cannot deny but faith comes by hearing of some other Preacher then a Gospel-Preacher or one that is sent; for Paul, Rom. 1.16, 17, 18, 19. and David, Psal. 19.1, 2, 3. — v. 7, 8, 9. distin­guish the two Books.

There is not such an Objection dreamed as Amyrald imagines of Rom. 10.18. If God will have mercy on the Gentiles, how is it that they have not heard the Gospel? For the Lord hath not de­clared his minde to them. He answers: God did not so keep up his good will to the Gentiles in former times, but by the Ministery of the Heavens, ac veluti voce providentiae, and as it were by the prea­ching of the Word of Providence he spake to them: which things should be spoken to no purpose by Paul, if they be understood of a re­velation of God as Creator only, and not as Redeemer: for what hath that revelation to do with the Gospel? Therefore Calvine (saith he) speaketh of the revelation by the creatures preparatory to the Gospel. It is true there is an Objection in these words, v. 18. But I say have they not heard? A learned Countrey-man, Charles Fermin: Carol. Fer­maeus in A­nalys ad Ro­manos, c. 10. p. 205. But the Israelites (saith he) have not heard the Gospel? Then if faith be from hearing, and saving calling upon God be from faith, then believing Israelites shall be of the number of them that call upon the name of the Lord, and shall be saved. He not only yeelds that the Israelites have heard, but he confirms it from Psal. 19. Yea their sound, &c. It is an argument à minore, The true Exposition of the place Psal. 19 4. by our In­terpreters. from the lesse to the more, The whole world hath heard of God, either by the preaching of the creatures from the beginning, or by the Apostles in the revealed Gospel, far more then the Jewes to whom the Oracles of God were committed, and to whom first the Gospel must be preached, have heard: And therefore not all that hear do believe (though faith come by hearing) nor do all call upon God and are saved. So Pet. Martyr: so Calvin, P. Martyr. in loc. Deus, ut inquit Psalm [...]s, voluit noti­tiam suam naturalem per creaturas coelestes publicari in universum orbem: Ergo & Euangelium curavit identidem evul­gari. Quomodo igitur potestis dicere, vos Judaei, non audivisse? — Ra [...]io à pari, vel à mi­nores Si haec minus digne, an altera longe salubrior & utilior non publicatur? Hyperi­us, Faius. It's not strange that the Gospel is preached to the Gen­tiles: for God spake to them by the knowledge of the creature. Pareus observes that Paul cites not the place, Psal. 19. and saith not, As it is written, but alludes to it only.

[Page 122] Spanhemius. If it be well said that the sound of the heavens is gone to the end of the world,Spanhemius in Sectio. 35 that may be said truly of the Prea­ching of the Gospel. Junius to that sense. But 1. the place saith not that God called with a will,Amyrald p. 1426, 1427. to save the Gentiles: The Scri­pture saith, he winked at them, and called them not, Acts 14.16. But now God commandeth all men every where to repent, Acts 17.30. and he revealed not his Testimonies to them.Junius, par. 18. Now was not the same Gospel-book in the Pages of the works of Creation, as legible to the Gentiles before, as after the coming of Christ in the flesh? Nor can the Gospel which never came to the ears of many Indians and millions of people, it being to them a non ens, and an un-heard of Doctrine, explain the book of Creation; as the thing that shadows out Christ, as the New Testament clears the Types of the Old: Nor doth the Scripture any where tell us, what work of Creation or Providence, expresseth Christs dying for our sins, rising for our righteousnesse: Nor doth the Scripture tell us of an Embleme, in nature, of God Incarnate, of the Man Christ in glo­ry pleading at the right hand of God for us;I have mer­cy on whom I will, Is a Gospel-truth in the Old and New Test. of perpetu­all verity. And no doubt, the Lords naturall desires of saving all, calling and inviting all to Repen­tance▪ of Christs dying for all, his naturall willingnesse that all and every one should obey, do not ebbe and waxe and decrease, as the Sea and Moon do, and therefore his taking such a course with all the Gentiles, that no word of the Covenant comes to their ears, so that then at that time, they were without Christ, being aliens from the Common-wealth of Israel, and strangers from the Cove­nant of promise, [...]. Exo. 33.19. having no hope, and without God in the world, Eph. 2.12. And in time past were no people (in Covenant) and had not obtained mercy, 1 Pet. 2.9, 10. and were far off, Acts 2.39. must evince, that the sense of the Gospel was not written in Sunne and Moon; and the book of Creation is not the Gospel; and there­fore he hath been shewing that the Gentiles were not in Covenant before the Incarnation, [...] and since no word of the Gospel comes to millions now, they are yet not in Covenant. And this is a Gospel-truth now, that stands after the Incarnation, as before, Rom. 9.18. He hath therefore mercy upon whom he will, and hardens whom he will. And he said it in the Old Testament, Exod. 33.19. and [Page 123] repeateth it to us, Rom. 9.15. I will have mercy upon whom I will have mercy, and I will have compassion upon whom I will have compassion. And if any man say that he hath the like antecedent naturall good-will, to save eternally all these whom he calleth and moveth finally to obey, and the greatest part of mankind whom he so moveth and calleth as he knoweth they shall never obey, where­as he can move all finally to obey, without straining their naturall liberty: He speaks things that cannot consist with both the wise­dom and liberty of God.

And if amongst these to whom the word of the Covenant comes,If the Co­venant be made with Heathens, they must be the cho­sen people of God as well as Is­rael. some are externally only, and never saved, Matth. 22.14. Rom. 9.6, 7. Others internally personally and really in Covenant and sa­ved; why but some may be neither wayes in Covenant, if they never heard the word of the Covenant, and if the Heathen and Americans were under the Covenant of Grace Preached to them in that sound, that goes to the end of the world. Why, but Moab, Ammon, and Assyrians, Philistines, Chaldeans, Persi­ans, are the Israel of God, his chosen people, his Sion, and must not the principall promise of the Covenant be made to them? and are we not to beleeve that God will write his Law in the hearts of Cain, Pharaoh, Saul, Doeg, Ahab, Judas, Magus, and of Moabites, Ammonites, Aegyptians, and of all and every one of mankinde, if they be in Covenant with him? Contrair to Psa. 147.19, 20. Hos. 8.12. Exo. 20.1.

Neither can it be said, that all mankind have received a subjective power to beleeve and receive Christ holden forth in the Gospel to us, Printed to be read and heard in the book of Creation, cal­led the objective Gospel, If such a power of beleeving be given to all. 1. All must be re­newed by grace. as Adam had power to fulfill the first Co­venant, for Adam had the Image of God concreated in his soul by which he was able to fulfill the Law, then must they give us a Scri­pture to prove that all Adams sons are converted, and restored to the Image of God, born over again, for by no other power but by a new heart, and the actings of God, can men beleeve the Gospel objective, or come to Christ, and do good works Evangelicall by which they are justified, and if it be a remote power that may grow,Job. 6.44, 45. it is not the like power which Adam had to keep the Law.2 CHRIST died in vain 2. This [Page 124] power is either naturall, or supernaturall: Naturall it cannot be, for then flesh and blood might beleeve, and the wisedom of the flesh might be subject to the Law of God, which the Scripture de­nies, Mat. 16.16, 17. Rom. 8.7. 2. There should be no need that Christ die, except only to satisfie for our breach of the Law, not to purchase new grace to us by his merits, and such a power should be no grace of Christ. If it be a supernaturall grace merited by Christ, then have Pagans, and all the Heathen that supernaturall inherent grace to beleeve in the Son of God, and yet the object thereof, the Gospel is not revealed to them, which is an incon­gruous dispensation not warranted by the Scripture, that the Lord should give a supernaturall power, to beleeve they know not what. 2. A supernaturall power to beleeve is saving grace, and a power to love Christ, and can saving grace be in Pagans or in any, and they know not of it? 3. Yea sins of Pagans, for which they are con­demned, must be the Gospel-sins, for they cannot be Law-sins, for if all mankind be under the Covenant of grace, there can none at all be under the Law: For there can be none under the Covenant of Works, and also under the Covenant of Grace, for they are con­trair dispensations, and contrair wayes of salvation. He who is under the Law is not under Grace, and he who is under Grace, is married to Christ, as to another Husband, Rom. 7.4. and not un­der the Law.

3. Grace sa­ving must be ineffec­tuall & in vain.3. Saving grace is not in vain, but effectuall, 1 Corinth. 15.10. 1 Tim. 1.14. And wee are saved by the Grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, Acts 15.11. and no greater mercy can be wished to any, then the grace of our Lord Jesus, Rom. 16.20. 2 Cor. 13.14. Rev. 22.21. by which we are called, justified and glorified. If it be said that this grace is not that effectuall saving grace, bestowed up­on the Elect, but a generall remote gracious power, by which we may acquire the saving grace proper to the Elect. But so 1. that grace saving proper to the Elect by this means is in the power of all Pagans, and all must be gifted with a power to purchase that grace proper to the Elect: That must be strange conquishing, we must all be made our own efficacious Redeemers, and Christ is a Saviour by merit, not by efficacy; For if this saving grace be infused, it is [Page 125] either infused, we doing nothing to which they cannot stand:4 The na­ture of sa­ving grace, the ends & uses of the dying of CHRIST, must be de­stroyed. Or then it is acquired, and so we make the generall grace saving and proper to the Elect, which everteth the nature of saving grace, and makes it the purchase of works. And they must say that Christ hath merited a generall ineffectuall power to some, and that he dy­ed to merit a speciall saving grace to others. Let us have a warrant for this, that Christ both died equally to save all, and yet with two contrary intentions, to purchase a power of believing which should be effectuall to some to save them, and ineffectuall to others. If it be said that Christ dyed to merite the same generall power to all, but some make it ineffectuall, some not; This saith thus. 1. That Christs death might have it's fruit and effect, though all perish. 2. That Christ dyed to merite a far off, lubrick and possible venture of heaven, such as was the case of the first Adam. 3. Christ dyed not to purchase a new heart more to one then to another, whereas 1 Pet. 1.18, 19. the blood the Lord shed is to Redeem us from our vain conversation, Christs blood was shed, to buy us frō our vain con­versation, as well as frō wrath, and this sutes not with Pa­gans state. in a naturall state aswell as to save us from the wrath to come; Then must Christ have died to buy Pagans from Paganism and Idolatry: and that either absolutely, and then why should multitudes so die in their sins? If conditionally, what can be the condition going before conversion, to wit, that we should be delivered from our vain conversation, so we be willing, before our conversion, to be delivered from our vain conversation. And shall not the Question recur concerning that condition? In a word they will have Christs death to buy Heaven, but not to buy faith, without which Heaven is impossible. Yea he no more bought to men a grace sweetly and strongly inclining the will to believe, then he bought such a grace to the damned devils.Remonstr. in Decla. c. 17. thes. 1. Deus statu­it hujusmodi potentiam conferre ho­mi [...]i pecca­tori perquam idoneus & aptus redderetur ad id [...]ne praestandum quod ab [...]o in Euangelio postulatur. Remonstr. in Synod. Dordrac. Art. 2. p. 327. Mediate vel immedia [...]e DEVM omnes vocare. He purposed to give to all Pagans a power by which they should be made fit to perform all that the Gospel requires, and be fit to be made partakers of the inheritance of the Saints, Col. 1. And yet Paul gives thanks to God for that bestowed on the Colossians, and God must by this call all men to Christ, either mediately or immediately. And say that God is prepared ever to give more and more as we use the for­mer [Page 126] well,Corvinus contra Mo­lin. cap. 31. sect. 15. Deum sem­persecundum se para [...]um esse ad ean­dem uberio­rem gratiam promoven­dam in iis qui parciore recte utun­tur. and that all by sufficient grace (saith Corvinus) are disposed to conversion, but that sufficiency is not habituall grace, but actuall assistance conveying the Preached Word, which is to bring all to free-wills power, rejecting all infused power, and to make an influence of grace, which is in the power of free will to use or not to use, and to stand in two. 1. In a measure of heaven­ly Doctrine. 2. In the stirring upon the heart; Whence 1. Grace habituall so is denyed; then the will needeth no healing. 2. Grace universall is limited to the Word Preached, then it is not universall; For Pagans hear not the Word Preached. 3. There is no other help given to free-will in every act, but 1. Informati­on by the Word, that was the grace of Pelagius. 2. Some influ­ence of God in every act: But that addes not new strength to the will.Free-will doth all. Shortly they say, Any man may know, understand and be­lieve the Gospel, if the object be sufficiently proposed and revealed. And so the naturall man can no more know and receive the things of the Gospel,Corv. cont. Moli. cap. 3 [...]. sect. [...]. Quicquid de sufficientia (gratiae) di­cimus, mone­mus assisten­tiae spiritus nobis tribui: minime vero habitualem gratiam quae omnibus communis sit à nobis statui. Sect. 29. Non est potentia infusa. Cap. 32. Secundum Concilia & Patres intelligimus tale gratiae adjutorium, quod ad singulos actus detur, cujus auxilio nititur, & ad singula adjuvetur liberum arbitrium. then he can understand the Metaphysicks, the A­cromaticks of Aristotle: for these he cannot receive, but judgeth them folly; And so we are the same way blind, dead, stony-hear­ted to believe the Gospel, as we are to know and believe the my­steries of Aristotles Philosophy.

Lastly, this power of believing and coming to Christ cannot be in all men, since the Scripture saith of all men (even these within the Visible Church not excepted) that untill the light of the Go­spel savingly enlighten them, they sit in darknesse and in the sha­dow of death, Isa. 9.1. Math. 4.15, 16. And [...] No man can come to Christ without the Fathers drawing, and God teaching the heart, Joh. 6.44, 45. The naturall man, [...], cannot understand the things of God, but judges them foo­lishnesse. 1 Cor. 2.14. His wisedome cannot be subject to the Law of God. Rom. 8.7. He cannot ( [...]) call the Lord, Jesus, except by the Spirit of Jesus, 1 Cor. 12.3. He is a withered branch [Page 127] being out of Christ, and can do nothing, Joh. 15.3.4. It shall be clear to any, that the Holy Ghost denyeth any such power, as they af­firm. It reckons not much to tell that Jesuites,Martmez. de Ripul. de Ente super­nat. Lib. 1. Dis. 20. N. 57. Suarez, lib. 1. de necessi. gratiae c. 4. per totum. Curiel in 12 q 109. Art. 2. N. 1. Duvallius, Tract. de ne­cess. gratiae, Q 1. Art. 2 Molina de Concor. Q. 14▪ Art. 13. Disp. 9. per totum. Did. Ruiz. Tom. de volinider. Tom. de Praed [...]fini. Vasquez 12. Disp. 138. Bellar. De grat. & libe. arbit. Lib. 6. c. 13. & per totum. Gamachaeus in 12 Q. 85. Cap. 1. & seq. Estius Lib. 2. Dist. 41. Sect. 1. Sect. 2. & seq. Tolet. Com. [...]n Ioan. 6. in Rom. 14. Pirer. in Rom. 8. & Rom. 14. Remonst. in Scriptis Synod. Art. 4. p. 158, 159. as Martmez de Ripul. Swarez, Alphonsus Curiel, Duvallius, Lod. Molma, Did. Ruiz, Vasquez, Bellarmine, Phili. Samachaeus, Sorbonicus, Gulie. E­stius, Dominica, Toletus Cardinalis, Pirerius, Salmeron, teach that, without saving grace, men may, and can first know morall truths, shining vertues, as heathens, be free of sin, as touching these vertues in their due circumstances. 2. Keep the Comman­dements and Law of Nature. 3. Dispose themselves for, and ob­tain the grace of Conversion by their own industrie. 4. Be victo [...]rious over this or that weighty temptation singly taken. 5. That there is no intrinsecall hurt of free-will, that it is wounded a little, because of the darknesse of the mind, and langour of nature, but not dead to actions supernaturall. 6. That we may love God as the Author of nature, and Creator sincerelie; And Arminians teach that we may without the Spirit of God know all truth, quan­tum sufficit ad salutem, sufficiently to salvation, and so may will, love, and beleeve without the infused supernaturall habit or grace, so their Apologie.

And the Socinian Catechism, c. 6. pag. 212. and Socinus him­self, Praelect. Theol. Cap. 4. Fol. 15, 16. Et de officio hominis Christi: Cap. 5. Smalcius on Joh. 1. Hom. 3. Give to us man­whole, sound, sinlesse, as he came from the first Adam. 2. That man can do all that Cod commands him with little help of God. 3. Its an errour (saith Smalcius) that a man hath no strength in spirituall things,Smalcius con Fran [...]z. Disp. 8. Graviter halucinatur Fran [...]zius, dum ait, Hominem non renatum nihil posse in spiritualibus, nempe in sensu interno, in verbum divi­num, in conversione ad Deum, in fide in illum. Catech. Raccov. c. 6. Nonne a [...] credendum Euangelio Sp. Sancti interiore dono opus est? Nullo modo: Neque in Scripturis legimus cuiquam id donum conferri nisi credenti. there is no need of the inward gift of the Spirit of God to beleeve (saith the Raccovian Catechism) for we read not that such a gift in Scripture is bestowed upon any but upon be­leevers: [Page 128] such as are born of Adam (saith Socinus) are all born in the same condition,S [...]ci. Prael.0 Theol. c. 4 fol. 14. Qui ex A­damo nas­cuntur [...]a­dem conditi one omnes nascuntur, nihilque ei ademptum, quod natura­liter haberet vel habitu­rus esset. and nothing is taken from such a man, which he naturally hath or was to have. Ostorodius Justi. Relig. Christ. cap. 21. Praedicatio sola Euangelij potest hominem abs (que) interná Spiritus illuminatione, & operatione à peccatis convertere. The only Preaching of the Gospel without the inward illumination by the Holy Spirit, and his working is able to convert a man from sin. All which is Printed and taught, and many other abominable errours to us.

To this Objection against universall grace (as I judge unanswe­rable) Corvinus Answers, that all the places of Scripture brought to prove mans inability to beleeve in Christ, and to worship him, conclude well that a man hath not strength of himself without Christ and his grace;Corvinus contra Mo­lin. cap. 34. Sect. 3. pag. 619. but this is but to cloud the truth, and to mock the reader, for if all and every man (even the Infants of Pagans) be in Covenant through Christ, and be made able by a gifted grace common to all, within, and without the Church, by which they are able by degrees to do all that the Gospel requires, what avails it to discourage them, and to tell, they are not masters of a good thought, without grace; for they are no lesse masters of good thoughts and good words, and of good actions then Adam was; for they are not hearers of the Gospel by nature, but as gifted with universall grace, they are hearers, and before their conversion, and before they receive the Spirit of Regeneration, can please God, and prepare themselves for Regeneration: Yea there is no animal and naturall Pagan de facto existing in the world (by their way) who cannot receive the things of God, and cannot come to Christ, except he be drawn, for all Pagans and others are drawn, and by this it might have been said, Adam as wanting supernaturall grace, and as a naturall man (for the Image of God was supernaturall grace to Adam, as Arminius and Corvinus teach) so, was not able to think a good thought, as 2 Cor. 3.5. nor able to receive the things of God, as the naturall man, 1 Cor. 2.14. and Adam so was also dead in trespasses and sins, and must come to Christ the same way, to wit, drawn by the grace super-added to nature, as we fallen sinners do.

CHAP. XVI. Cases from the former Doctrine. 1. The differences betwixt such as are externally, visibly, and conditionally, and such as are internally and perso­nally in Covenant with God. 2. Gods esteem, not mens, make Nations Visible Churches. 3 The first and prime subject of speciall Church-priviledge. 4. Gods command to receive seals,Mr. Hooker Survey, of Discipline, Part. 1. Cap. 3. Pag. 36, 37, 38. no warrand to all members to challenge them.

Q. 1. IF multitudes and people externally Covenanted with God, though not internally, whom the Lord calls his people and chosen by him,There is no place of Scripture or warrand in the word that Nati­ons and so­cieties shal not be the Covenan­ted people of God & Visible Churches, since God so esteem­eth them in multi­tudes of places of holy Scri­pture, ex­cept men judge them first invi­sible and real saints or converts Deut. 7.6. Deut. 10.15. be the rightly constitute and Visible Church, as Mr. Thomas Hooker granteth, then Kingdoms must be his Visible Church. Answ. No doubt, Egypt, Assyria, all Nations, all the ends of the world, all the Kingdoms of this world, are Prophesied to be the Kingdomes and Covenanted people of God, and the Lord challengeth them as his▪ (Isa. 19.25. blessed be Egypt my people) Isa. 2.1, 2, 3. Psal. 22.27. Rev. 11.15. Psal. 96. Psal 97. Psal. 98. Isal. 42.10. Isai. 49.7, 8.20, 21. Cant. 8.8. — Act. 13.46, 47. Rom 15.8, 9, 10, 11, 12. must be the visible Covenanted Churches of God, to whom the seals of the Covenant are due; But that none in Aegypt, As­syria, of all the called Gentiles, though visibly and professedly in Covenant, and affirmed by the mouth of the Lord to be his peo­ple, the Sister of the Jewish Church, and his Kingdoms, are members of the Visible Church, or hath right to membership and seals, except men judge them to be reall converts, sound belee­vers, and so internally called and chosen, is to preferre the judge­ment of men, to the Word of God. And since he saith that King­domes, fathers, children, are his in Covenant, and chosen to be his people, in regard the Lord calleth them by his Word, as he did Israel, Deut. 7.6. Deut. 10.15. Psal, 147.19, 20. they must be all Visible Churches in Gods esteem; except he say they are not [Page 130] Visible Churches, except men also esteem and judge them not only externally, but really and internally justified and effectually called. 2. These we are to judge in Covenant visibly, whom the Lord so calls, and to these the seals do belong Ecclesiastically, though we see not signes of their inward conversion; Except we say that our judgement is surer then the Lords; But the Lord calls Nations, the Gentiles so, and so must Paul and Church-members judge all the Kingdomes, and all the Gentiles reall converts; Else the seals are not due to them. 3. If we must judge them all really redee­med and sanctified,Surv. Part. 1. Cap. 3. p. 39▪ 40. who are fed by Pastors, as Mr. Hooker tea­cheth from Acts 20.28. feed the flock, then are we to esteem all the fathers who were baptized unto Moses in the Cloud, and in the Sea, and did eat the same spirituall meat, and did all drink of the same spirituall Rock Christ, 1 Cor. 10.1, 2, 3, 4. to be really redeemed, reall beleevers, and the whole world to be really re­deemed, and yet the world is not the Church, yet they were I­dolaters, murmurers, visibly known to be such; And John Baptist was oblidged to esteem the multitudes, all Judea who were ba­ptized of him, Mark 1.5. Luk. 3.7. Matth. 3.2, 3, 4. really san­ctified and redeemed, yea and since there be Prophesies under the Messias, that all the Kingdomes of the world, Rev. 1 [...].15. Ae­gypt, Assyria, Isa. 19.25. all Nations, Isa. 2.2. all the Gentiles, Isa. 60. shall be the confederate people of God,Tho. Hook. argueth from con­federacie with God to prove that we are to judge all visible pro­fessours to be justified internally called, and they are no Church-members except they be so in our esteem. we must believe that all these Kingdomes are visible Saints, chosen to life as the Corinthians and Ephesians were, 1 Cor. 1.1. Eph. 1.4. So ar­gues M [...]. Thomas Hooker from confederacie. 4. Let one word in Old or New Testament be given of a Judicature giving judicially sentence on earth of a number that professedly are hearers, that so many are to be admitted as due members of the Church, because conceived of men to be regenerated, and so many rejected, because conceived to be non-converts; or what word of Christ there is that doth regulate the judiciall sentence, as touching the time how long the Church-member hath been so. 2. What motives or induce­ments led Simon Magus, and the generation of vipers, the mul­titude and all the people baptized, Luke 3.7. compared with Luk ▪ 3.2 Matth. 3.5, 6. Mark 1.5. (for as many as went out to be ba­ptized were baptized, but all Jerusalem, and all Judea went out, [Page 131] Mat. 3.5, 6. and were baptized, saith Mark 1.5.) what motives I say, led and induced them to join? For they joined but for a season, Joh. 5.35. Matth. 21.32. and what rule of the word there is to regulate us in judging of these motives? 3. What outward marks the word gives of outward regeneration, and consequently of predestination to glory, Justification, Effectuall Calling, made visible, which we must see in others, before Pastours can feed them as Pastours, for the word is in all the like a perfect rule.

Quest. 2. What is the first principall and only proper subject of the promises of speciall note, in the Mediator, The Invi­sible and mysticall body of Christ [...]nd Church, is the only first prin­cipall and proper sub­ject of the promises, and privi­ledges of special note given in the Mediator Christ. of the promise of a new heart, of the styles, properties and priviledges of speciall note; That is, to be called the body of CHRIST, the Anointed ones, and such as shall never fall away, Jer. 32.39, 40. Jer. 31.35, 36. Answ. Only the Invisible and Mysticall body of Christ, for a promise of a new heart, of the Law ingraven in the inward parts, of the anointing, Jer. 31.33. Isa. 54.13. Heb. 8.10. of per­severance, Jer. 31.35, 36. Isa. 54.10. Isa. 59.20.21. Jer. 32.39, 40. Joh. 10.27, 28, 29. are promises of speciall note in the Media­tor; And if any say that the Visible Church as such, as visible, whereof Simon Magus is a member, is the first principall subject of these promises or of priviledges of speciall note in the Mediator, they must join (it may be mistakenly) with Arminians. Mr. Thomas Hooker did not so ingenuously as need were, refute this Thesis of mine, as he ought to have done,Mr. Hooker, Sur [...] of the summe of Church Discipline, Part. 1 C. 3. p. 35, 36, 37. but framed an other of his own, and refuted it, to wit, which is not owned by me. The Invisible Church is not the prime and only subject of the seals, that is, of the externall seals. I grant all the externall seals is not a pri­viledge of speciall note in the Mediator, for it is a priviledge of Ishmael, Magus, and of all prophane Hypocrites. And it is not to be said that Hypocrites and gracelesse men, Ishmael, and Esau, have a command of God to receive the seals, Mr. Ruther fur [...]. Due right of Presbyteries P. 1▪ C. 9. Sect. 9. pag. 35, 36 37 The command of God is not the b [...]st, nor any warrand at all, as grave Mr. Hooker saith, why gracelesse men should challenge the seals. and a warrand from his Word to require them, as that pious and grave man Mr. Thom. Hooker saith in his Survey, Part. 1. Cap. 3. pag. 41, 42. For (saith he) there can be no better right then Gods command to injoin, and his Word to warrand us to challenge any priviledge. The command [Page 132] of God is a good warrand to the Church and Ministers to conferre the seals to Ishmael, Simon Magus, Judas, though no Word of God warrand us judicially to sentence them to be regenerate, be­fore the Ministers can confer the seals, as Mr. Hooker and his teach▪ but that the command of God is a good right and warrand to E­sau, and Simon Magus, to require and to challenge the seals is not written in the Scripture, with the good leave of that pious man, no more nor usurpers have warrand to challenge that to which they have no right, or a robber hath warrand to require the purse of an innocent traveller. Can the sorcerer Magus say, there can be no better right then I have to challenge Baptism and the Lords Sup­per? Why? I have the command of God. Nay but an answer is soon returned to the witch: The Church of Samaria hath Gods warrand to confer the seals, so long as the witches skill fails him not to act fairly the part of the painted professour, but the condi­tionall command of an externally Preached Covenant, is not the best right, nay, no right at all for him to challenge the seals, ex­cept he come beleeving and discerning the Lords Body, and mour­ning for sin, and fulfill the condition: Indeed if the Lord had com­manded Magus and all the visible members, with an absolute com­mand, Come and receive the seals whether ye professe, know Christ, or beleeve and repent, or not; that command should warrand all to challenge, but I trust Mr. Hooker will not stand to such a com­mand.There is an active right in the Church to confer the seals, when there is no passive right in many vi­sible mem­bers either to receive or to chal­lenge the seals. And therefore distinguish betwixt jus activum, ane active right in the Church to confer the seals, and jus passivum, a passive right in Magus to challenge: The latter requires that Magus have right as a beleever, and in foro Dei, both to the seal and in­terest in Christ, by the grant of Adversaries; Else he hath no right, no command of God to challenge the seals. And therefore we must distinguish betwixt the Covenant of Grace, qua factum & ini­tum, & qua annunciatum, the Covenant, I say, as made with some, and yet Preached to all. And whereas Mr. Hooker saith, 38, 39. pag. that he cannot see how the will of purpose, and the will of revealed command, do not contain apparent contradictions. This Godly man hated Arminians, when he saw them in day­light. I cannot now insist to answer him and Papists and Armini­ans who object the very same thing. It is clear they differ much, [Page 133] but they are not contradicent, more then the decree of God, and the morall obligation of men are contrair. Hypocrites and such, are only visible members and no more, and have no true and inter­nall right and interest in the seals according to the inward grace si­gnified or the promises of a new heart, which are absolute and made to the Elect and beleevers, who are the only principall prime and proper subject of such promises of speciall note in the Mediator.

Quest. 3. What be these principall reall Covenanters to whom onely, the new heart is absolutely promised, and how are they known.

CHAP. XVI. 1. Of the hypocrisie, of formall Covenanters. 2. Self-deceit. 3. The new Spirit. 4. Revelations and Pro­phecies. 5. Markes of a Spirituall disposition.

Answ. THis toucheth the differences of the old and stony heart in such as are externally only in Covenant with God, and are Hypocrites: And the new and soft heart of such as are in­ternall, reall, and absolute Covenanters: Hence these proposi­tions.

1. An Hypocrite is he who in the stage represents a King,What an Hypocrite is. when he is none, a begger, an old man, a husband, when he is really no such thing, Luke 20.20. They sent out spies, faining them­selves to be just men: To the Hebrews they are [...] faciales, facemen, men of the face and vizard and [...] colorati, dyed men, rid men, dipped, baptized, from the root [...] to dye, dip, wash, baptize, Jer. 12.9. mine heritage is to me as an speckled bird, or a pyed bird, and hath casten off my simple liverie, and so is a bird of many sundrie colours: The Hypocrite is dyed and watered with a hew and colour of godlinesse. Coneph noteth hypo­crisie, Isa. 32.6. from [...] simulavit, fraudulenter egit. The noune [...] Chald. [...] a dissembler, an Hypocrite, who is some­times just, sometimes wicked, the root by a Metaphore is to pol­lute, [Page 134] and defile, Psal. 106. the land was defiled with bloods: Hence the Hypocrite is all things, and all men, and nothing, and no man but himself.

Hypocrisie is considered in it self, and so it is opposed to sinceri­ty. Or in relation to these graces and duties which it fenzies, and so it is opposed to all the true vertues which it lyingly and feinzedly represents, as painting is opposed to realitie in nature, being a counterfeiting of nature, and it is opposed to things that are pain­ted, so a living man, and a growing rose, things obvious to the eyes of sense are most easily painted as colours lineaments, as a mans body, but things that fall under the understanding only, as the soul, and under the sense of smelling and touching, are hardly pi­ctured. Ye may paint the man, the roses, the colour, figure, and the fires red flaming, but he cannot paint the soul, the smell of the rose,Its hard to counterfite graces and things not obvious to the sense of seeing. or the heat of the fire: It is hard to counterfite spirituall graces, as love of Christ, sincere believing intending of the Glory of God, Its hard to get a coat, or put painture on spirituall graces, and the more ye counterfite the Spirit, the more Divell-like is the forgerie, for he changeth himself into an Angel of light. There is some use for painted men, for they serve for ornament, but there is no use for faith but resting upon Christ, nor for love, but to cleave to God, and please him and our neighbour: In all duties we counterfite but the outward bulk of graces and actions, and would seeme to do what we do not: If the colour of graces and godlinesse be desireable, it self is more desireable, but to imitate only the externalls of the Covenant of Grace to keep a roome in the Church, is to put a lie and mock upon the Lord, and to re­proach him with dimnesse of sight: And such as hate Christ and the Godly in their heart,Many hate hypocri [...]es, and so do­ing are hy­pocrites themselves and first cloath them with the coat of hypocrites, lyers, Samaritanes, seditious men, they much more hate Godlinesse, he that would have the picture of the man stob­bed or hanged, would much more have the living man in person stobbed or hanged.

Hypocrisie is a resembling of a morall good for vaine glory: Its not hypocrisie to suppresse tears in Prayer,What is not hypocrisie. least the man seeme to seek himself, nor for a father to seeme to be angry at his childe or servant when he is not angry, nor to put on deafnesse at reproaches, [Page 135] Psal. 38.12. They speak mischievous things, 13. But I as a deaf man heard not: It was prudencie, not hypocrisie in Saul to hold his peace and misken when the sons of Beliall despised him, it being the beginning of his reigne, 1 Sam. 10.27. Nor is it hypo­crisie in a Magistrate or Joseph to put on an other person to his bre­thren, though if the ground be unbelief, it is not lawfull for Da­vid to feinzie himself mad: Nor for Ammon to counterfite sick­nesse, or to put a lie upon providence: And yet it is not hypocri­sie for Solomon to seeme to divide in two the living childe with a sword, or for the men of Israel to flie before the men of Ai. A lawfull end and a right end and motive, contributes goodnesse to actions that are not intrinsecally evill.

There is a naturall hypocrisie in all, every man in both sides of the Sun is a lyar, he that said he would wish that he might dwell in the land beyond the dawning of the morning, where they are all sincere, wished to dwell where there are no men; for where­ever men are, there are hypocrites and hypocrisie. There is an acquired hypocrisie in all, lesse or more, and an habit thereof in not a few.

According to mens wayes so are men white and painted Hypo­crites; Herod professeth to worship Christ and mindes to kill him, Math. 2. And Absolom covers treason and rebellion against his father and prince, with the whitenesse of a vow at Hebron, what better is the whoore and what more devoute to say, Prov. 7.14. I have peace offerings with me, to day have I payed my vowes? under the vail of zeal (they think it) service to God to kill the Apostles, Joh. 16.

But the worst of Hypocrites is he who makes himself a Hypo­crite, not before God onely, and before men, but whitens and paints himself before himself, and deceives himself, 1 Joh. 1.8. It is strange a man hath such a power over himself, as to perswade himself that he hath no sin, not only in point of faith, as such as deny any originall sinne in themselves or others; as many seducers now do, Socinians, Arminians, diverse Anabaptists ▪ and such as say, the Law may be fulfilled by Grace, we are justified by Works: It is possible to be free of sin in this life and to be perfite,What is the power of self-deceit. so as they cannot sin: But also practically a mans heart may deceive [Page 136] his heart, and may perswade himself that he is Godly and Religi­ous, Jam. 1.26. and that his wayes are right, Prov. 14.12. and may say within his heart, and so think not only, I am holier then thou, and yet not be so much as ceremonially holy, but remaine in the graves and eat swines flesh, Isa. 65.45. but I say I am rich (and which is above admiration) I have need of nothing, Rev. 3.17. that I have no need of forgivenesse, of saving Grace, of the Redeemer Christ, of Salvation. And this is so much the more dangerous, that the prejudice and blindnesse of self-love, doth more strongly perswade self-godlinesse then any godlinesse of the world, and begets a more strongly radicated and fixed habite of be­lieving self-godlinesse, then Ministers the godliest of them, and Professors, and Angels, and the Lord immediatly speaking (so long as the revelation is literall) Numb. 22.12, 24, 28. and Christ Preaching in his Person, Math. 8.9, 14. Math. 21.43, 44, 45. Luke 16.13, 14. Ioh. 10.24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31. and the Apostles, Acts 24.25, 26. Acts 26.2, 3, 4, 5, 6, &c. 24. can be able to root out, for they can fence and ward off, and can let out blowes at all that ye can say, and cary this habite of a false opinion of self-holi­nesse to Eternitie with them, and stand to what conceited lamps they hear on earth, did glister withall; and plead against the Lord in his face, that the sentence of condemnation is unjust, Matth. 25.44. and that they deserve for their profession to be admitted in to the Bride-groomes chamber, Math. 7.22. Matth. 25.11. Luke 13.25. and all such fairded Professors, are externally only in Covenant with God. And therefore these are sad marks, when first ye hid your lusts and nourish them, and feed upon the East wind of some created last end, and have not God for your last end, Luke 12.19. Psal. 49.11. Psal. 4.6. Ier. 22.17. 2. When ye know not that ye are poor, miserable, blind, naked, Rev. 3.17. Math. 9.11, 12▪ 13. Luke 15.2. Luke 19.7. and ye were never in Christs hospitall, and are whole and need no Physick. 3. Ye loath Christ but knows it not, Luke 7.44.45. ye love Christ as a sup­posed Prophet, and loath him as a Redeemer. One may deadly hate Christ, and not know it. 4. Ye cannot compare the two states together, the state of nature and the state of Grace, as 1 Tim. 1.13. ye idolize your own choise, to bear down Achabs Idolatrie, [Page 137] but choose not the will of God to oppose Ieroboams Idolatrie. 5. Ye want Christ, and ye were not born with Christ in the heart. 2. Yea ye are eternally lost without him, and know neither the one nor the other.

Quest. 4. Whether or not are beleevers the parties of the Co­venant of Grace. Ans. These are parties to whom the Covenant-promise is made, not these who already have the benefit promised in the Covenant, but beleevers must have a new heart, and conse­quently faith already, therefore they cannot be parties with whom the Covenant is made.Beleevers are proper­ly parties of the new Covenant, but not as beleevers, as chosen of God to life. As because the Image of God is not pro­mised to Adam in the Covenant of Works, but presupposed to be in him by order of nature, before God make with him the Cove­nant of Works, else he could not be able to keep that Covenant, which we cannot say, for God created him right and holy, Gen. 1.26, 27. Eccles. 7.29. Eph. 4.24. Col. 3.10. Therefore Adam in his pure naturalls, as not yet indued with the Image of God, cannot be the partie with whom the Covenant of Works is made, for then the Image of God▪ must either be a reward, which Adam by his pure naturalls and strength thereof must purchase by wor­king, which the Scripture and nature of the Covenant cannot ad­mit, or then the Image of God must be promised to Adam in the Covenant of Works, which is no lesse absurd. And if faith be promi­sed in the Gospel, the Covenant of Grace must be made with some Israel and Judah as predestinated to life eternall and yet wanting a new heart: For God cannot Covenant [...]ways promise a new heart to such as have it, but to such̄ as have a stony heart and beleeve not, Ezek. 36.26. Deut. 30.6. Ezek▪ 11.19. nor can he promise faith to such as have faith this way.

Quest. 5. Who are these that have the new heart, and so are personally and really within the Covenant of grace. Ans. Because the new spirit is given, when the new heart is given, Ezek. 36.27. Ezek. 18.31. Make you a new heart and a new spirit, and many in our times boast of the spirit, it shall be fit to speak of the new spi­rit, and who are spirituall.

Hence these Questions of the new spirit.

Quest. 1. What is the seed of the new spirit?

Ans. The word of the Gospel, therefore before Adam could [Page 138] have the Gospel-spirit, the Lord must reveal the Doctrine of the Gospel,The Word and the Spirit. the seed of the woman must tread down the head of the ser­pent, Gen. 3. So the word and the spirit are promised together, Isa. 59.21. Isa. 30.21. Thy teachers shall not be removed, and thine ears shall hear (this is the inward teaching) a voice behind thee, saying, this is the way, walk ye in it. Isa. 51.16, 17. Mat. 28.20. Go teach, that is the word: Loe I am with you to the end of the world, that is the Spirit to make it effectuall, by my Spirit, Joh. 14.16, 17.

The first revelation of the Go­spel and the first principles, cannot be tryed by any former Doctrine or rule.Object. But Adam when he heard first the Doctrine of the bles­sed seed, could not try the Doctrine or speaker, by any new Do­ctrine.

Ans. The first Doctrine can be tryed by no other rule, because it was the first rule it self, nor can these principalls written in the heart naturally (That God is) (God is just, holy) &c. be try­ed by any other truths, because they are first truths; As the sense of seeing cannot try whether the Sun be the Sun by the light of some other Sun, that is before this Sun, which is more lightsome. For there is not another Sun before this, the Gospel it self hath God shining in it, to these who are enlightened, as Adam was, a Rubbie doth speak that is a Rubbie.

Obj. How then should Adam know what God spake to him and n [...]t to another, are we not to try all spirits that speak?

The im­mediate word, and the most immediate fountain-word, and the trying of both. Ans. There is a word immediatly spoken by the Prophets, and Apostles, that is to be tryed, partly by the first Preaching the Lord made in Paradise, partly by the effects, that it converteth the soul, Psal. 19.7. and smells of that same Majesty, and the divine power of another life, which is in the first Sermon, Gen. 3.15▪ this is Verbum Dei immediatum. But when God himself speaks in his own person to Adam, to Abraham, Gen. 22. to Moses▪ Isaiah, the Apostles, that is Verbum Dei immediatissimum, the fountain-word; neither word nor speaker is to be tryed. The Patriarchs and Prophets are never bidden try the visions of God, for when God speaks them himself, he makes it evident that it is he▪ and only he who speaks, and we read not of any in this deceived, An­gels or men cannot counterfeit God.

Obj. There have, after the Canon of the Scripture is closed, [Page 139] been some men, who have Prophesied facts to come, that fell out as they foretold, just as Isaiah, Elias, and other Prophets, then something is to be beleeved, that is not written, and such may have the Spirit, and yet no word of Scripture goes along with it.

Ans. 1. Such men may have (I confesse) a Propheticall spi­rit, but first, they were eminently holy and sound in the faith,The diffe­rences be­twixt the Prophesies that now are, and Scripturall Prophesies and taught that the Catholick Church should beleeve nothing, nor practise nothing, but what is warranted by the Word. Such as boast of Spirit or Prophesie, and reject the word, are therefore not to be beleeved.

2. What these men of God foretold, is a particular fact concer­ning a man, what death he should die, or a Nation, or a particu­lar, such a man shall be eternally saved, but no dogma fidei, nor any truth that lays bands on the Catholick Church to believe that to the end of the world, as all Scripturall truths do, and a doubt it is, if we are to beleeve these, in the individuall circumstances of fact, sub periculo peccati, upon hazard of sinning against God, we may, I judge, without sin suspend belief, and yeeld charity to the speaker.

3. If any object, the Prophets did foretell particular facts con­cerning the death of Ahab, the birth of Josiah, which concerned particular persons: I, but they so were the maters of fact (as the crucifying of Christ was a mater of fact) as also they did by the intent of the Holy Ghost contain Historicall, Morall and dogmati­cally divine Instructions, so that the whole Catholick Church must believe them, with certainty of divine faith,The diffe­rence be­tween reve­lations, of what is truth, and what is law­full or not lawful, and revelations of facts, what shall come to passe, and what not. they being written and spoken for our Instruction, and they sin who believe not.

Quest. 2. What are we to judge of these truths revealed to Pro­fessors, when they are in much nearnesse to God, and the Lord is pleased to shine upon them in some fulness of manifestation of him­self to their souls, especially in particular facts? Answ. There is a wide difference betwixt revelations, which speak what is lawfull or unlawfull, agreeable unto or repugnant to the Word; And what is good in jure, and what in facto, shall come to passe or not come to passe, what ever is given to revelations of the former sort, is taken from the Scripture, whose peculiar perfection it is to show [Page 140] what is good and just, what not; Therefore to say that revelati­ons now do guide us in disobeying higher Powers or killing men, &c. is a wronging of the Word, especially of the first, second and sixth Commands. As to the other, God may and doth lead his owne, especially when they are near glory, under fewest prejudices tou­ching time and eternity, to speak what shall be, but it is not our rule. It's an Argument of nought, Such a thing was mightily born in upon my spirit as lawfull and as certainly to come to passe, when I was most near to GOD in a full manifestation of himself: therefore such a way is right, Nearnesse to God in fulnesse of manifesta­tiō of him­self, is no surely con­cludent rule that such a thing is truth or lawfull. or such a way shall come to passe; For not to say 1. that this is a wronging of the perfection of Scripture, and 2. That there is a bastard Logick in the affections where God and nature hath seated discursive power; And we of­ten prophesie, because we love, not because we see the visions of God. 3. Peter might, the same way, reason, I saw the glory of heaven at the transfiguration, and the Peers of the higher house, Moses and Elias, and this was then mightily born in upon my spi­rit, It is good for us to be here, let us build three Tabernacles: therefore this is true, It is good for us to be here: But the Con­clusion is a dream; who should preach the Gospel as witnesses and suffer for it,Peter, at the transfigu­ration, and John, Reve. 19. cap. 22. when they were most neer to God did reel and stumble & erre. and write Canonick Scripture, if these Disciples should be for ever there? And if they should be separated from the whole glorified body, and make up a Church eternally glorified in that Mount, of only six persons: And the word saith, Peter being drunk with glory, Mark 9.6. [...] knew not what he said, and the Disciples were sleeping, not prophecying, Luke 9.32. which saith they were in heaven, but cloathed with bodies of sin, and not led by Scripture-light (as that good Prophecie of Peter was contrair to the Gospel of suffering and dying, that Christ pro­phesied was abiding himself, and all his, Math. 16.21, 22.) we should reel and sin: for there may be no connexion between the present nearnesse to God and the thing suggested in the spirit; and they cohere by accident. So one in prayer is near God in respect of sweetnesse of accesse, and yet the individuall favour which ye pray for conditionally,The deceit in liberty of praying. never granted; Ye may be saved, and God more glorified in the sufficiency of his grace, without granting it to you, as is clear 2 Cor. 12.9. Sorrow and desire can suggest such an [Page 141] answer to the fasting of Israel, as they may say and think, they shall be victorious now over the children of Benjamin, and yet they are deceived.Its good to keep the eye single, for rotten­ness in the mind pu­trifies the soul. The heart would be silent and let God speak here. The sight may be dazled in nearnesse to God, and we take our marks by the Moon; And the liberty of praying is terminated upon the fiduciall acts, and we think it is fastened upon the particu­lar thing we seek: And here the Antecedent is true, as heaven, and the Consequence folly and darknesse. So John, Rev. 19. and cap. 22. seeth Heaven opened, and behold a white horse and him who sate on him, and he heard the voice of many, saying, Hale­lujah, and saw the pure river of water of life, the tree of life, the Throne, and Him that sate thereupon, &c. But he did not rightly infer that he might therefore fall down and worship a created An­gel. All which saith they vainly boast of the Spirit who reject the light of Scripture, which is a surer day-star then the light of glory, for our direction. The light of glory is for our perfection of hap­pinesse, in seeing and enjoying the last end, but not for our instru­ction in leading to the end, and the means. The Candle-light, and Sun-light in the City comes not without the City to direct us in the way, the lights and torches in Jerusalem and the new City serve not to guide the way to these Cities.

2. The spirituall man judgeth all things, but by the word. In one particular, Samuel, in another, Tertullian, dottes upon Montanus, some of the prime fathers, otherwise Godly, are blac­ked with Platoes purgatory, and some of them with invocation of Saints, yet speaking to them doubtingly [...], say; [...]. the spirit may be, where some particular errours are, but if the judge­ment be rotten and unsound in the matters of God, rottennesse in the one side of the Apple creeps through the whole, and so doth corruption from the minde sink down to the heart. A godly here­tick I cannot know.Pain, grief, & aikings in spiritual motions speaketh that the Spirit is there where such are.

3. Any bone or hurt member in walking, actually pains and bree­deth aiking, if there be a piercing and a graving conviction, in a Christian motion, that untowardnesse and opposition from the flesh, pains the spirit and new man, and hinders the stirrings of the Spirit, it saith the Spirit is there, as water cast upon fire speaketh there is fire, Rom. 7.15, 16, 23, 24. It were good to try the unto­wardnesse [Page 142] to spirituall duties, and severall kinds of delight, whether it be borrowed delight from the literall facilitie of the gift, from gaine and glory, adhereing to the office and calling, or from the inbred sweetnesse in honouring God, crooking and pain in walking is a token of life-walking.

4. Its a spirituall disposition in the Church, Cant. 2. in a par­ticular soul,To observe so the ways of God in the soul, as ye may be able to give a particu­lar account of al Christs motions, his going, his coming, and the a­ctings of his Spirit: speak a most spiri­tuall dispo­sition. to know and be able to give an exact account of all the motions, goings and comings of Christ, where he lyeth as a bundle of myrrhe all the night, even betwixt the breasts, Cant. 1.13. when the King brings you into his house of new wine, Cant. 1.4. Cant. 2.4. when he speaks, Cant. 2.8, 10. — My beloved spake and said to me, arise, my love, my fair one, and come away, when he knocks, know ye his knock, to tell over again his words, open to me my sister, &c. where he is. Cant. 2.8. Behold he cometh leaping upon the mountains, skipping upon the hills, where he is in his dispensation to his Ancient Church? Cant. 2.9. Behold he standeth behind our wall, he looketh forth at the windows. 16. He feedeth among the Lillies: when, and how he imbraceth, Cant. 2.6. His left hand is under my head, his right hand doth imbrace me: when he withdrawes, Cant. 5.6. and is not to be found, I sought him, but I found him not, I called him, but he answered me not. Cant. 5.6. Cant. 3.1, 2. how hard he is to be found, and how easie he is to be found, Cant. 3.1, 2.3, 4. what spirituall stir­rings he makes in the heart, Cant. 5▪ 4. My beloved put in his hand by the key-hole. For (1.) this speaks much soul-love to be where he is. Cant. 1.7. (2.) To be able to write a spirituall Chronicle and History of all Christs stirrings towards your soul, saith ye have letters daily, and good intelligence of the affairs of the Spirit, and of the Kings Court, and that he writes to you, as Cant. 5.1. I am come into my garden, my sister, my spouse; I have ga­thered my myrrhe with my spice, I have eaten my honey-comb with my honey, I have drunk my wine with my milk: Then will Christ write a letter to spirituall ones, and (as it were, with reverence to his Holinesse) give a sort of account where he is, what he does, what thoughts he hath to us: O! how few know this?

5. Godly missing of Christ must be a gracious disposition, Cant. 5.6. I opened to my beloved, but my beloved had withdrawn him­self, [Page 143] Cant. 3.1. I sought him but I found him not, vers. 2. I sought him but I found him not. Such as are pleased with a bare literall missing and are not also in a holy manner anxious and are not

6. Restlesse in rising and going through the City, in the streets and the broad wayes, seeking and asking, saw ye him whom my soul loveth? Cant. 3.1, 2, 3. are not so spirituall, as is required. Cant. 5.6. My beloved had withdrawn himself, and was gone, my soul failed when he spake, remembring his speeches, when he knocked. v. 2. There may be some too longsome securitie un­der sad falls, when he is not soon missed, 2 Sam. 11.1, 2, 3. Psal. 26.15. Yea a spirituall soul having regard to all the Commande­ments misseth the spirits acting in all the wayes in eating, Pro. 3.6. Act. 27.35. 1 Cor. 10.31. Job 1.5.

7. Frequent convictions (which are the connaturall actings of the Spirit) Joh. 16.9. and of the most spirituall sins,Convicti­ons for most spiri­tuall sins speak much spiritualnes as of unbe­leef, and Gospel-ignorance, Joh. 16.9. prove a spirituall state: as flaming prove fire to be fire. Unbeleef is more contrair to the Spirit, then carnall sins, being most contrary to the flower and bloo­mings of the Spirit in his sweetest operations, and most against the Mediator-love of Christ. For as by the fall, Christ hath a new Office to redeem us,As Christ-Man hath a new office to redeem, so hath the spirit a new office to comfort, neither of which should have been usefull, if man had not sinned. Matth. 1.21. 1 Tim. 1.15. Luke 19.10. Isa. 61.1, 2. Isa. 44.6, 9. So the Spirit hath a new Office, which he should not have had, if man had not sinned, to apply the blood of sprinkling as a sort of Mediatory intercession, to dippe us in the fountain of his blood. John 16.14. He shall receive of mine, and shew it unto you. Joh. 14.16. to be the Comforter, Joh. 14.16. the Leader, Joh. 16.13. the Witnesse, Joh. 15.26. Rom. 8.15, 16. The Spirit in his Office cannot step one foot with the unbeleever. Hence much tendernesse and smiting of heart where the Spirit, 1 Sam. 24.5. is. Yea conscience to weep as one over his mothers grave, for his enemies, Ps. 35.13, 14. and strict doubling of faith in greatest deeps: In which Christ proves himself to be more then a be­lieving man, Mat. 26.39. Luk. 22.42, 44. for no man that is only man can both drink hell & believe heaven at once. 8. In duties there be these. 1. The end. 2. The delight in them. 3. The successe. As to the first, the lesse of the creature and self, and the more of God in the end, so much the more denyed and spirituall is the doer, when pure­ly [Page 144] for God [...] we do,The Spirit as the Spi­rit acts us to doe all for God, as God. 1 Cor. 10.13. Col. 3.23. we are sick for God, and in health for God, and wake to him, Psal. 119.62, 147, 148. and sleep to him, Psal. 16.7. Psal. 139.18. live to him, 1 Pet. 2.23. live and die to him and to Christ, Rom. 14.7.8. and pray to him, even when we speak to God, Eccles. 5.1, 2. and preach to prepare a Bride to him, 2 Cor. 1.14. 2 Cor. 4.25. we may be not speaking to God, or for God and his honour, 1 Cor. 11.2. 1 Thess. 2.19, 20. How miserable and carnall to doe all for the creature, the flesh, Rom. 13.14. Jer. 22.15. Isa. 5.8. for self, Dan. 4.30. Heb. 2.5, 6. and this speaks much of the Spirit when the man is sick and hungry, for the exalting of God, and the will is so capaciously wide in this, that he would his eternall glory were a foot-stool for the highting of his glory, Exod. 32.31. Rom. 9.3. the will is a most spirituall and capacious facultie, and O! what acceptable service when the mans will looks right toward an infinite Majestie, as thirsting for and panting after this: O! if all beings, millions of Worlds, Angels and men, and all created beings, Heaven, Earth, Sun, Moone, Stars, Clouds, Air, Seas, Floods, Beasts, Birds, Fishes, and all the drops of Raine and Hail, Snow, Dew, so many Worlds of Angels would sing his praises? What wonder then, he accept the will for the deed? And what is to be thought of the will averse from God, and which hates him, and wishes that God were not? How contrair to a Spirituall disposi­tion is this?

2. For delight, it is a spirituall disposition, to go about the du­ty as duty, ut bonum honestum, and not upon this formall account, because it delighteth us; Except the delight be in the Law of the Lord, night and day, as it glorifieth him. 2. It's spiritualnesse, when abstractedly from private consolation we go about the duty for God,Its spiritu­alnesse of disposition to doe our duty for the dutey, not for the pleasantnes of the duty. and can rest upon suffering and burning quick as it is du­ty, though the sufferer should be deserted all the while; We of­ten feed our selves with the bonum secundum, the pleasantnesse in the duty, which is our sin, except the sweetnesse of the holinesse of the duty be our delight, and the beauty of pleasing God allure us, but feeling being away, we find how hard it is, to delight our selves in the Lord. 3. We do duties too often, for the successe, not for the duty: We pray, the Lord hears not, we wearie: [Page 145] we rebuke men, they care not, and we wearie▪ Sucesse and not duty, self-delight and not the honouring of God,Its spiritu­alnes to do duty for the duty, not for the suc­cesse of the duty which should be all our delight, take us up. I pray and weep for my enemies (Ah! if it could be done) saith David, they are worse, Psal. 35.13▪ but my prayer returned to my bosome, that is, the sweet▪ peace of God, which is the fruit of the duty of praying came to my soul, and cheered me. We consider not that the promise of peace, and consolation is made to the duty it self, Psal. 119.165. Psal. 19.11. Prov. 3.21, 22, 23, 24, 25. not to successe of the duty, and wee consider not that we are to be quieted in the duty, and to be armed with patience, against the temptation of the duty. Often it in­rages Pharisees against CHRIST and the Apostles, yet the Spirit bids them Preach. Therefore whether successe in praying, and the suggar of delight in duties hire us, or not; We are to know that though Abrahams offering of Isaac to God had neither in it the one nor the other, nor our Saviours offering himself to God, for the sinnes of the world; If reason weigh the one and the o­ther, yet because both were performed upon the motive of the love of God commanding, both was most spirituall obedience,Gospel-love inclo­sed in the letter of the command, renders the obedience spirituall. e­specially, because the duty is both work and wage, and the more of the Word of God is in the obedience; I mean not the letter only, but the word including the love. 2. The authority of the Commander. 3. The beauty apprehended to be, and▪ the peace in obedience; the more spirituall is the obedience: The let­ter only may show you duty, your obligation, and the penaltie of disobeying, and all these three in a literall way, and yet upon that account, the obedience is not spirituall, but Gospel-love added to the Laws-letter makes spirituall obedience.

CHAP. XVIII. The new heart of Covenanters, the Nature, Characters, Properties thereof, hitherto of the new Spirit.

Quest. 6. WHen are we to judge, that we have a new heart? And when do we know that it is not the old heart?

[Page 146] Ans. 1 Propos. As Physically, so also Morally, the heart is the man,The heart is the man. the good heart, the good man, the evill heart, the evill man, and God weights men by the weight, not of the tongue, of the hands▪ of the outward man, but by the weight of the heart: Asa his heart was perfect, 2 Chron. 15.17. the heart of Jeho­shaphat, 2 Chron. 17.3. was perefect. And Psal. 78.37. their heart was not right: the froward heart is the froward man, Pro. 3.32.There is a heart with in a heart, and a man within a man speak­ing and a­cting. For there is a man speaking within a man, and a heart with­in a heart acting, as if it were a man made up of soul and body. Thou hast said in thy heart, I will ascend up to Heaven, so the King of Babylon, Isa. 14.13. So the heart acts Heaven or Hell wi­thin the man, Psal. 14.1. Luk. 12.19. they have a heart [...] busied in the Colledge, studying and reading covetousnesse, 2 Pet. 2.14.

2. Propos. When the Lord tryes the man, he tryes the heart and the reins, Prov. 15.11. Hell and the heart both are naked be­fore him. God only tryeth the heart▪ Aug. Confess 10. cap. 27. in­tus tu [...]r [...]s, & ego foras Prov. 17.3. Theodoret. God acteth the noon-day-Sun meridionaliter in every heart: The man himself is without, and God within, Jer. 17.9▪ Man searcheth not his own heart and reins, for there be plottings and inclinations to evill in the heart, which the heart knows not, 2 King. 8.12, 13. Peter hath a better heart then all men in the books of his own heart, Matth. 26.33. but its not so indeed.

3. Propos. The washen heart that lodges not vain thoughts, Jer. 4.14. purged from dead works, by the blood of Christ (above all the blood of bullocks and goats) Heb. 9.14. purified by faith, Act. 15.14. is the good heart.What the good heart is, and how it is made good. It is a better heart according to the heart of God, 1 King. 15.5. that turneth not aside, 1 Sam. 13.14. of Gods seeking out and finding, then the first heart crea­ted of God, Eph. 4.24. Col. 3.10. And ah! we seek a good Ru­ler, a good Physician, when we are sick, a good house to dwell in,1. Creatiō of a better heart then the first, is a peece of the rarest of the Lords works. and (which is strange) a good horse, but not to have a good heart.

4. Propos. The excellent acts of God, in a manner (with glory to his Highnesse) to mind his first work, to create a better heart then the first which he created, saith, that there is great need of a good heart, Psal. 51.10. of a new heart, Ezek. 36.26. Its beyond [Page 147] all admiration, to create so ra [...]e a peece as the Sun out of no thing, and a beautifull Lillie out of mire and dirt, out of common clay to bring forth Saphirs, Carbuncles, and in liew of a stony heart (for grace is not educed out of the potencie of any created thing) to create a new heart, which God loveth to dwell in, rather then in heaven, the high and holy place, Isai. 57.15. which so ravisheth the heart of Christ, Cant. 4.7, 9. and is of more price with God, then gold, or any corruptible thing, even a meek and quiet spi­rit, 1 Ptt. 3.3, 4. is the rarest peece of the works of God.

Its an excellent act of God to keep the vessell in a spirituall season, as David prayes, 1 Chron. 29.18. To make roome for Christ dwel­ling by faith, and for love to comprehend love, Eph. 3.17, 18. and who puts such a thing in the heart, Ezra 7.27. when a sparkle of fire from flint falls on water or green timber, there is no fireing from thence. But when actuall influences fall upon an heavenly habit, as the Lord can cast in a coal, or a lump and flood of love, Cant. 2.5, 6. Luk. 24.32. Cant. 6.12. there are most heavenly a­ctings of the soul.

3. He bows and inclines the heart to the Lords testimonies, and to cleave to him without declining, Jer. 32.39, 40. Ps. 119.39. Cant. 1.4. Ps. 141.4.

4. We are to beware of 1. the reigning evils of the heart, of a rotten and unsound heart, 1 Tim. 6.5. Psal. 119.82. 2. Of an unsavoury stinking heart, that smells of hell and the second death,The divers sorts of evil hearts, wee are to be­ware of. of all sort of unrighteousnesse and malice, like a green opened grave, Psal. 5.9. 3. Of an uncured heart, that never came through the hands of the Physician (Prov. 14.13. A sound heart is the life of the flesh.) Of an unsound, unsavoury and a rotten heart, Eph. 4.29. compared with vers. 23. from whence issue rotten words, [...] borrowed from rotten and worm-eaten trees which speak an uncu­red heart.Mederi, cu­rare mitiga­re dolorem. Hos. 11.5. I'le heal him.

5. We are to look to deadnesse of heart in all the branches of it. As (1.) sullennesse and dumpish sadnesse, in refusing comforts, and being full of unbeleeving heavinesse, in David, Psal. 69.20. Psal. 42.11. whereas we are alwayes to rejoice, Psal. 119.52. Phil. 4.4. (2.) Fainting at the greatnesse of the affliction, Isa. 20.3. Joh. 14.1. whence comes withering of heart, Psal. 102.4. Psal. [Page 148] 27.13. (3.) An overwhelmed and unbeleeving sowning heart, Psal. 61.2. Psal. 142.3. Psal. 143.3, 4. (4.) Deadnesse in going about the service of God, Psal. 119.37. Quicken me in thy way, of this else where. (5.) Narrownesse to take in God, opposed to an inlarged and wide heart, Psal. 119.32. Psal. 81.10. and strai­tening of heart, when the soul is so hampered, that he cannot speak, Psal. 77.4. unbeleef clipps the wings of the Spirit, and layes on fetters, which may come from the wicked company, and may be laid on by our selves, Psal. 39.1, 2. (6.) There is an A­theist heart to hate the existence of God, of Christ, of a Gospel, Jam. 2.19. Matth. 8.29. Compared with Psal. 14.1. Eph. 2.12. Some beleevers are near to say, I take my leave of Christ, I'le pray no more, for it is in vain. Jer. 20.9. Ps. 73.13, 14. but it is not a fixed resolution: of this else where.

7. There is an evill heart of unbeleef to depart from the Living God, Heb. 3.12.

Prov. 6.18. [...] to delve, to plow inde, [...] he that work­eth either on iron of timber.8. A heart that deviseth, ploweth, or delveth wicked imagi­nations, Prov. 6.18. As Prov. 3.29. Plow not evill against thy neighbour. Hos. 10.13. You have plowed iniquity, such plots are forged against the people of God, Matth. 27.1. Nah. 1.11.

9. A proud heart (1.) resisted of God. (2.) Farrest from the lowly and meek heart of Christ, Matth. 11.29. Phil. 2.5, 6, 7, (3.) Most near to Satans heart, 1 Tim. 3.6.

Q. Why are we more ashamed of an unclean lustfull heart, then of a proud heart? Ans. A proud heart is deeper guiltinesse, and nearer to Satans nature;Why we are more ashamed of uncleannes and fal­shood, thē of pride. And pride and unbeleef are sins more re­proachfull to God, and incroach more upon his Throne, but there is more flesh in us then Spirit, and we think that there is more of a beast in uncleannesse.

Quest. But we are more ashamed of lying, falshood, and stea­ling, then of pride? Ans. There's more of being ashamed be­fore men, it being a carnall sort of passion, then of being ashamed before God, and falshood and lying to men are fleshly evils against common honesty, but pride is a more Angel-sin, or a more God-like sin, a spirituall sin, and pride is a sort of heart-heresie, by which we judge but blindly, we have reason to ascend and climb aloft to [Page 149] Gods roome, Gen. 3.5, 6. Isai. 14.13. because of knowledge, parts, power.

10. There is deceitfulnesse and self-deceiving in the heart, Isa. 44.20. the Idolater feeds on ashes, a deceived heart hath turned him aside, that he cannot deliver his soul, nor say, is there not a lie in my right hand, Obadiah 3. The heart is the greatest liar on earth, to say and gain-say.

11. There is a wicked fearfulnesse in the heart to do evill, Jude 12. feeding themselves without fear, 3 Sam. 1.14. was thou not affraid (saith David to the Amalekite) to put out thine hand to destroy the Lords Anointed? Its a godly fear to tremble alwayes, at feasting, speaking, hearing, sleeping, company, Prov. 28.14. 1 Pet. 1.17. Phil. 2.13. Job 1.5. And in all there ly snares within, and without the house.

12. There is a wicked flintinesse of heart, we shall have peace, Characters of sinfull stonines [...]e of heart a­gainst God though we both hear cursing and walk loosly, Deut. 29.19. we are fallen, but Ephraims stout heart (2.) will rise whether God will, or not, Isa. 9.9. And (3.) the King of Assyria's stout heart will be as strong as God, Isa. 10.12, 13. And (4.) its wicked stout­nesse to say godly mourning before the Lord is in vain, Mal. 3.13, 14. (5.) Its wicked stoutnesse to rest upon your own righteous­nesse and refuse to treat with God, Isa. 46.12, 13. (6.) And vain stoutnesse to darre God in his own quarters and fight him, Exod. 14.8.23. Exod. 23.8▪ 13. Isai. 36.10, 11, 36, 37. if it were in his own seas as Pharaoh and the Aegyptians would do.

13. There is a wicked hardening of the heart, when men make the Lord his word and mighty works the contrair party, Exod. 5.1, 2, 3. Exod. 7.10, 13, 16, 20, 23. Exod· 8.5, 6, 7, 15, 17, 18, 19. Isai. 6.9, 10. Zech. 7.8, 9, 11, 12. Ezek. 2.3, 4. Ezek. 3.7, 8. Mat. 13.13, 14, 15. Act. 13.44, 45, 46. and oppose God in his word and works.

14. There is a sinfull dulnesse upon the heart, by which men are as weaned childen, line upon line, line upon line, Of the mo­rall con­currence [...]f the word to the act of infusion of a new heart can do them no good, Isai. 29.9, 10, 11. Here it is to be observed that we can­not Preach Omnipotency, nor perswade a world to be created, nor a new heart to be infused, nor can we Preach to a Wolf to become a meek Lamb, nor threaten the Sun to rise at midnight, we but [Page 150] speak words about the new birth, the husband-man but breaks the earth with his plough, but God makes the corn to grow, and he only,Job 9.20. not that the word is not the instrument of conversion of souls, Rom. 1.16. Rom. 10.14. but how to the act of infusion of a new heart the word concurres as a morall and suasory instrument,Pro 28.18 is a­bove my capacity. [...]

To be made nar­row, to be pressed in body or minde, to afflict, to vex, Gen. 32.7. strai­tening was on Iacob by a Metale­psis it is to frame by pressing or keeping straight as Potters frame a ves­sel. Hence [...] jots [...]r a potter, Eze. 11.13.15. There is a froward heart, Pro. 17.20. that perverteth and is crafty [...] to pervert.

16. A wicked heart, Pro. 26.23. set on evil, Eccl. 8.11.17. foolish­nesse is bound to the heart, Pro. 22.15. a dissembling heart, when se­ven abominations are in it, Pro. 26▪ 25. (1.) We take no [...] heed to the imaginations, and are not grieved for the constitution of the heart, for actuall sins make originall sin to swell, as two floods run­ning into one maketh a hudge River. (2.) We take not heed to the young births of the heart, with the concurrence of the mind, fancie and imagination, there are multitudes of forgeries, clay-pots, and imaginations framed, as a potter deviseth vessels of earth of many quantities, figures, shapes, great, small, narrow, wide, round, cornered, for the word is a potters word, Gen. 6.5. 1 Chr. 28.9. with all keeping keep thy heart, Prov. 4.23. the word is to keep as the keepers of the walls, Cant. 3.5. as sheepheards, for its in danger to be stollen away, Hos. 4.11. 2 Sam. 17.6. Hos. 7.11. Ephraim is like a silly dove without heart, but we take no heed to the entry, to see what goes in, what comes out. (1.) What if there be no God? Psal. 14.1. (2.) What if God see not? Ezek. 9.9. (3.) What if man perish as the beasts? Eccl. 3.19. It may be there is no heaven,The [...] and unrea­sonable imaginati­ons of the heart and the atheism thereof. nor hell. (4.) What if there be no Christ, nor Gospel, but only questions of words? Such clay-pots were framed by Gallio, and Festus, Act. 18.14, 15. Act. 25.11, 19. Hence come imaginations of things impossible, Isa. 14.13. I'le ascend to heaven, saith Babylon, I will set my nest among the stars. Oba. 4. Tyrus saith, I am god, I sit in the seat of God. And new-wild-fire flights which are indeed old heresies, are of this kind;A heart delighted with God is the work-house of CHRIST. such are dreamers, who see seven lean kine eat seven fat kine, in re, its a lie. (5.) A new heart is the Office-house of Christ, and a heart delighting in Gods wayes is a new heart, where the Law is imprinted and ingraven in the heart, Isa. 51.7. Hearken [Page 151] ye people in whose heart is my Law. Psal. 40.8. I delight to do thy will, O God, thy Law is within my heart. Its true there is a new delight in the heart, but not a delight of the new heart, Isa. 58.2. Joh. 5.35. for a delight in the Gospel as a good thing, not as a good Gospel, a delighting in Christ as a Prophet that feeds them, not in Christ as a Redeemer, Joh. 6.26. that saves them, is not a new heart.

2. The new heart is a heart universall, wholly for God as God, there is an inteernesse in it,A whole and enteer heart. Half a sin­cere faith is no faith. when the whole spirit and soul and body is kept blamelesse, 1 Thess. 5.23. 1 Pet. 1.18. [...] in holy conversations and godlinesses, 2 Pet. 3.11. Half a globe, though exquisitely plained, or half a cart wheell, is not a globe nor a cart wheell. Externall things may be devided, one may be an hearing Professor, and a drunken Professor, and a praising, a singing Professor in publick, and not a praying nor a believing Pro­fessor in private, spirituall duties, cannot be devided: half a faith, half a love, is no faith, no love, saving grace is an essence that con­sists in indivisibili, and cannot be parted.

3. A new heart is a fixed and established heart by Grace, it's a new state, not a new transient flash, a new heart, Deut. 5.27.A fixed heart. All that the Lord our God will speak unto thee, we will hear, but the Lord saith, verse 19.D. Pr [...]on O! that there were such a heart in them, but it is not in them.

4. 1 Sam. 10.9. God gave Saul an other heart, Some new heart or new spirit is an old heart. then a chan­ged heart is not a new heart, a new spirit or a new gift in Jehu is not a new heart; It's not newnesse that makes the heart new, but Gods new ingraving, Jer. 31.33.

5. A heart keeped with all keeping is a new heart, Prov. 4.23. both the words note exact diligence in keeping as watchmen and sheepherds with all keeping, at all times,Cant. 3 3. Cant. 5.7. A wel kee­ped heart is a new heart Psal. 119.119. some pull their hearts to pray and hear, but not while the sabbath, or under a storme of conscience: and the heart is a word in some com­pany, not at other times and in other company▪

6. The heart is new, where the affections are all faith (as it were) and all sanctified, reason and zeal is a lump of angry rea­son, and fear a masse of shining reverence; and love only soul sick­nesse and pure adherence to God, New affe­ctions what they are. the instinct of faith wholly on God, as the last and only end. (2.) The heart is new when the [Page 152] affections are equivocally, or at least, at the second hand set upon the creature, but as nothing can be seen, but what either is▪ co­lour, or affected with colour, so nothing is fixedly sought after, but God, he onely feared and served, Mat. 4.10. Deut. 10.20. only desired, Psal. 73.25. only loved, Deut. 10.12. Cant. 3.2, 3. the soul sick of love for only only Christ, Cant. 2.5. Cant. 5.8. he only trusted in, Jer. 17.5, 7. Psal. 62.5. (1.) No­thing is all good and all desirable but God, and God in Christ, Mat. 19.17. Cant. 5.16. the shadow of the Sun in the fountain is not the reall Sun: the stirrings of the pulse of the affections to­wards the shadowed good of the creature, should be lent, and like the beating of the pulse of a dying man, with a godly contradicti­on, loving and not loving, joying and not joying, 1 Cor. 7.29, 30. mourning and not mourning.

CHAP. XIX. 1. The place of Evangelick works in the New Covenant. 2. Possession of glory and right to glory considerably different. 3. A twofold right to life. 4. We are not ju­stified by Works. 5. The place of declarative justificati­on by Works, Jam. 2. discussed. 6. Faith and Works different. 7. Possession of life and right to life cleared. 8. Faith and finall believing both commanded in the Law, finall unbelief not the sin forbidden in the Gospel onely. 9. How life is promised to works Evangelick.

IT's a grave and weighty Question to rid marches between the two Covenants in their conditions, the one requiring the obe­dience of Works, the other Faith: It's not to be said that for fife­teen hundred years no man did doubt of the necessitie of good Works,The ne­cessitie of Works by the Law of faith, an old questi­on in the Church. Paul propones the objections of the Antinomians, Shall we sin and continue in sin, that Grace may abound? Rom. 6.1. this they spake through the occasion of what he taught, chap. 5. some have said they are hurtfull, because we abuse them, some arbitrarie and indifferent,, because they are not necessary to ju­stification. [Page 153] O!Our mis­takes of Works, of Grace, of VVord, of God, & of the works of God. what pronnesse in us to suck out of the doctrine of free Grace poyson, how kindly to desire there were no Law against treason, because the Prince pardons; All sin is virtually Atheisme, to wish the existence of a Law, and so of a just holy and unchange­able God were not, and we can hardly believe this. And 2. what rising of heart and carnall reason is there against the first acts of pro­vidence, why, and what necessity was there to make a Law to for­bid the eating of an Aple, God foreseeing that thence should come the ruine and endlesse damnation of all. It had been good God had never created such a Tree. 2. That the eating thereof had never been forbidden. 3. That it had never had such a name, as the the tree of knowledge, for it deceived Evah. 4. That God had not given free-will to Adam. 5. That he had given him confir­ming grace in the first moment of Creation. But,

Observe 1. Satan started first the dispute concerning the equity of the Law, and that we are Disciples of and appr [...]ntises to Satan, when we tosse and rackot arguments in our carnall heart-Logick a­gainst the holy Law of God, Gen. 3.2. and make the heart a fer­rie boat to cary messengers and divellish thoughts hither and yon­der, in questioning the goodnesse of the Law, and the acts of pro­vidence, and therefore it is speaking Grace, to close with the sweet­nesse not only of the Law written in the heart,Its grace to close with all sorts of commāds. and these inbred principles of honesty and truth, to hurt none, to obey God, (for Satan raised not the first dispute about these) but with all the judgements and testimonies of God, as David, Psal. 119.127, 128. vers. 86. All thy commandements are faithfull, 1 Sam. 12.7. Stand still that I may reason with you of all the righteous acts of the Lord. Its a mind like Christs that hath an heart prejudice at no one command, by an other, and is sweetly friended with all that God commands, Math. 3.15. It becomes us to fulfill all righte­nesse, and O! how sweet to have no heart quarrell, but a sweet stouping of soul unto, and an adoring of God in all providences, and acts or decrees he hath concluded or done in time or from Eter­nitie. These draw deep in the decree of Reprobation, God had an hatefull designe against me. 2. The Gospel is an untrue and fabulous dispensation. What a spirit is Galaenus who reproacheth Moses because he teacheth not that God works ever and by necessity Galaenus de usupartuum. [Page 154] of nature, Alphonsus decimus rex Castellae. Melius ordi­natiusque singula con­derentur. Pamphlet printed an. 1647. p. 31. what is most good for the creature. And that Prince who said, that if he had been Counsellour to God in the time of the Creation, many things should have been created ordinatius & melius, in a better order and state, then they were. Let the man be remembred who called the Gospel a fable, and the spirits who reproach the Scripture as inkie wisedom. 1. A bare dead forme bare flesh, &c. and weak ones under desertion, who feed upon reports and lying news from Satan, God hated me before time, and car­ries on a design of eternall ruine to me, therefore I have no right to hear, to pray, to eat, to sleep. 2. Yet the necessity of good works is asserted by Luther, the Augustine Confess. and Apol. Arti. 20. docent nostri, Luther, Gal. 5. In libello de votis Mona­sti. Chemn. Loc. Com. de bonis oper. cap. 1. qu 3. pag. 21, 22. Confess. August. & A­pol art. 20. Docent no­stri, quod necesse sit bona opera facere, non ut confida­mus per ea gratiam me­r [...]ri sed pro­pter volun­tatem De [...], lib. 6. Con­cor. p. 666. Some ne­cessarie di­stinctions touching the necessi­ty of Evan­gelick works. &c. Evangelick works are necessarie, not to merite, but by the will and commandement of God: Cal­vin calleth them inferiour causes of the possession of our salvation. The dispute began upon occasion of the book called Interim Anno —M.DLXVIII. and in Colloquie at Altenburge, Melanthone and the Divines of Wittenberge assented to the necessitie of good works, but the followers of Flaccius Illyricus dissented: The Authors of the book of Concord condemne these of Flaccius their way, and deny a necessity of efficiency in works to deserve salvati­on, but yeeld a necessity of their presence, that the work of sal­vation be not hindered.

3. These distinctions are necessary. 1. There is a jus and right to Gospel life eternall. And 2. there is actuall possession of life eternall.

2. There is a twofold jus, One by the purchase of merit, and the payed ransome of blood; There is a right secundary by promise, every promise giveth a right in a manner: but its unproper.

3. There is promise of life formally federall. 2. There is a promis [...] of life consequentèr federall.

4. There is an order of things, one going before the other as the Antecedent and the Consequent, and in order of cause and effect.

5. Law-obedience doth much differ from Gospel-obedience, as Law-commands from Gospel-commands.

6. GOD sent his Sonne to justifie persons, but not to justifie works, not to make inherent obedience perfect or our righteousnesse before God.

[Page 155] Asser. 1. If the new Covenant be considered strictly and formal­ly in its essence,Faith thogh weak justifieth. he that beleeveth whether his faith be weake or strong is justified and saved, Joh, 3.18, 36. Joh. 5.24. Act. 15.9, 10, 11. Rom. 3.16. Rom. 4.1, 2, 3, 4, 5. Rom. 5.1. for faith justifieth as lively faith, and not as great or small: Otherwise none should be justified and saved but the strong beleever, whereas Christ died for the weak in the faith, Rom. 14.

Hence Mr. Sibs excellently.Bruised Reed, pag. 107, 108. Know that in the Covenant of Grace God requires the truth of Grace, not any certain measure, and a spark of fire is aswell fire as the whole element thereof, we must look to Grace in the sparkle aswell as the whole flame, all have not the like strong, yet the like precious faith, whereby they lay hold and put on the perfect righteousnesse of Christ, a weak hand may receive a rich Jewell, a few grapes will shew that the plant is a vine not a thorne: There is a roome in heaven for thee who judges thy self; for the number of lambes, and babes weak in the faith in this Kingdome▪ do far exceed the number of the strong and aged in Christ; for the Scripture names the whole flock, little ones, babes, his sheep, they are not a flock of fathers and strong ones.

Asser. 2. There is a right to life by promise,The right faith gives to life, it ju­stifieth not as Law-obedience. he that beleeves shall be saved. Promissio facit jus, & creat debitum: Godli­nesse hath the promise of this life, and of that which is to come; And because a promise as a promise cannot create an equality be­twixt the work and the wages, as is proven, this is an unproper right, and not proper debt, and takes not away the nature of a free gift: This is no consequence at all,The fulfil­ling of the condition of the Co­venant of grace, can­no [...] justifie, as the ful­filling of the condi­tion of the Covenant of Works shuld have justified. the performing of the condi­tion of the Covenant of Works doth justifie Adam by Law-works, so as he is no sinner, hath fulfilled the Law, hath right to life e­ternall; Ergo, to beleeve to the end, and fulfill to the end, and fulfill the condition of the Covenant of Grace doth justifie the be­leever, by Evangelick works, make him no sinner, but a perfect fulfiller of the Covenant of Grace, and one who hath due right by working to life eternall. Certainly then, 1. doing Evangelick gives us as good right to eternall life, without the price and ran­some of blood, as doing legall gives to the same life. 2. When we sin and fall in atrocious offences, Adulteries, Paricide, Rob­bing, [Page 156] we have as good right to Justification by works, and life eter­nall by Evangelick works, suppose he be a robber all his life, as was the repenting theef, as Adam, suppose he had perfectly fulfilled the Law. Now though believing be the condition of the Covenant of Grace, it is of a farre other nature then perfect doing, to the end, and constant fulfilling of the whole Law, in thought, word, and deed with all the heart, and the soul and mind, and all the strength. For there is no sin here, and so no place for punishing justice, or wrath, none can so believe, but he sins and so deserves everlasting wrath. If it be said, that by the Covenant of Works he doeth deserve it, but not by the Covenant of Grace, for Christ hath merited to him life eternall. Ans. 1. We speak now of the right that a Believer hath by Evangelick works to justification and life, as contradistinguished from the merits of Christ, this opini­on saith that a man is justified by Evangelick doing, because God hath made the like promise, and the like jus and right by promise, to doing Evangelick, that he made to Law-doing, if Christs me­rits be added to qualifie Evangelick works, to adde to them the worth that they have, then Christs merits must give life eternall by way of merit, or a vertue of meriting condignly to our Evange­lick doing, as Papists say, and so Christ hath made us saviours and redeemers of our selves, and this is a right to life ex condigno more then Adams most perfite Law-obedience had. 2. The Covenant of Grace commanding faith, doeth by this opinion command all that the Law of Works doeth, but in an Evangelick way, that they be done sincerely: Ergo, it must forbid all sin which the Law for­bids; But the Law forbids not only unbelief, finall unbelief, but all the works of the flesh: Also Christ must come [...] to louse and dissolve the Law, which he denyes, Math. 5. for if the Cove­nant of Grace condemne nothing but finall unbelief,The right of redemp­ [...]ion is not ours, by Evangelick doing, as the place, Rev. 22.14 mistaken, is exponed by some▪ Christ in this Covenant must dissolve the Law; but Christ sayeth, he that breaks or teacheth men to break these is the least of the Kingdome of God.

But there is an other jus and right to life eternall, by which Christ dying hath satisfied the Law, expiated our sins, restored as much and more glory to God by passive obedience, by his suffe­rings, as we had taken glory from God by our evill doing, and so merited to us life eternall. If any say abusing that place, Rev. 22. [Page 157] 14. that we obtain this [...] and right to the Tree of Life, and to Christ our life and everlasting glory (which is our only right, the only Charter of blood) by keeping the Commandements E­vangelically; he must say that we first may keep the Commande­ments Evangelically before we have right to life, to Christ, and so before we beleeve. 2. That we merit Christs right or merite by doing, and that by Evangelick works, we buy right to Christ and Christs merits, and so Christ hath not merited to us a jus and right and title to life everlasting by dying, and grace and a gracious right to do his Commandements by his death, but that we, by doing his Commandements, do earne and sweat for a right to Heaven, which is to say, that we by doing, merite and deserve the price of Redemption, and that we merite Christ to our selves, by doing,By Christ dying, we obtaine right to life and to Christ, not by works. whereas it is he and he alone, that hath merited to us Grace and Glory, and all title to Heaven. Not to say that a Charter of life from such a noble Superiour as Christ by the purchase of blood, and of such blood, the blood of God, Act. 20.28. is some better then to have eternall liveliehood and free-hold from our duty and lu­brick best works, which are polluted with sin, and by which, though we were Evangelically conscious to our selves of nothing, yet should we not be therefore justified, 1 Cor. 4.4. for the righteousnesse in which is Davids blessednesse before Christ, and Abrahams before the Law, and ours under the Gospel, is in forgiving of iniquity, covering of sin, not imputing of sin, Rom. 4.1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7. But in all the Scripture our sins are never said to be pardoned and not imputed to us, by our own most Evangelick doing, for we are ju­stified freely by his Grace, through the Redemption that is in Christ Jesus, Rom. 3.24. not by the Redemption that is in us, and are washen from our sins in his Blood, Eph. 1.7. Col. 1.14. Mat. 26.28. Rev. 1.5. and sufferings, not by our Evangelick doings, and if such a case could stand, the Martyrs, sure, might well be ju­stified by their own blood, and since no pardoning, wash [...]ng, Law-satisfying vertue, can be in faith, works, or our Evangelick de­servings, they can not justifie us nor keep and occupy the Chair of Christ. And the fault were the lesse,Via ad reg­num, non causa reg­na [...]i. if our works were onely called the way to the kingdom, not the cause of raigning, but they are called perfect, both in their nature, and conforme to the rule, [Page 158] and also in order to the end, to justifie us before God, and to save us. And if so, all in Christ may say, we have no sin, contrary to Scripture, Jam. 3.2. 1 King. 8.46. Eccles. 7.20. Prov. 20.9. Jam. 2.10. Yea though he that is guilty in one offends in all, yet in the sight of God, all flesh shall be justified, this way, Psal. 143.2.There can­not be a perfection in our faith and Evan­gelick works in order to the Gospel, more then to the Law, to justifie us. Nor can it be said that such works are perfectly conform to the Gospel, because the doers beleeving in the lowest degree ful­fills the condition of the Gospel. But where it is said that the Go­spel commands only faith in the lowest degree; Then the Centu­rions faith, the faith of the woman of Canaan, and the greatest faith shall not be required in the Law. For the condition of the Covenant of Grace cannot (say they) be required in the Covenant of Works, and it is not required in the Gospel under the pain of sinning against the Covenant of Grace, and of damnation, for then all who have not faith in the highest degree should be damned, and violate and break the Covenant of Grace, contrary to the whole Gospel, which saith that these who have weak faith are justified and saved, and so the greatest faith shall be will-worship and a work of supererogation. And because this way saith that all and every one of mankind are under the Covenant of Grace, then 1. there shall be none living under the Law. 2. no Law, but only to be­leeve in CHRIST, shall lay an obligation on any, Jews, Christians, under pain of wrath.

And if James be to prove that we are justified by works, and yet mean, that both faith and works concur as causes, though faith more principally, If faith & works con­cur jointly as causes of our justifi­cation, nei­ther can James deny truely that we are ju­stified by faith, nor Paul that we are ju­stified by works. how can Paul deny that we are justified by works, If Peter and John jointly work a miracle and heal the creeple man, suppose the influence of John in the miracle be more, yet it is not to be denyed, that Peter wrought the miracle. Nor doth the Scripture say that we are more principally justified by faith, and lesse principally justified by works, but the places al­ledged for salvation by works (if works have a causative influence) specially Matth. 25. speaks more for the preheminence of works. Nor doth the Scripture insinuate any thing of the first and second Justification, or of growing in Justification, in having our sins not imputed to us to our very day of death; and the Question must be, Rom. 4. whether Abraham was justified by works done before [Page 159] circumcision, or not, Rom. 4. when as faith was not reckoned to Abraham, when he was in uncircumcision, and the blessednesse of righteousnesse by faith cometh both upon circumcision and un­circumcision, vers. 9. and he had faith and righteousnesse and was in Christ and regenerated, when he was justified. Though some taught Justification by the works of the ceremoniall Law, yet Paul Gal. 3.10. states the Question of works agreeable to the Morall Law, that are absolutely perfect, and must be done by Grace. And Paul might justly in the Epistles to the Romans and Galatians have excepted himself, David, Abraham, and all the regene­rate, for they are justified by giving almes to the poor, Mat. 25. as was Rachab, by receiving and lodging the spyes.English Divines Annot. on Jam. 2. The English Divines say, How could the Scripture conclude from Abrahams being justified by works, whence he offered his Son Isaac, unlesse by works here we understand a working faith, the Apostle must mean the same by works, vers. 21. that he meaneth by faith, 23. for he cannot say vers. 23. the Scripture was fulfilled (in Abra­hams being justified in the work of offering his son, v. 21.) which saith, Abraham beleeved God, and it was counted to him for righ­teousnesse: Except it must be meant, that the work of offering his son Isaac was counted to him for righteousnesse. Now the letter of the Text expresly vers. 23. saith that beleeving God was counted to Abraham for righteousnesse, Believing and faith, Jam. c. 2. v. 21, 23. must be believ­ing and working faith. then the work of offering his Son must either be the beleeving declared by offering his son, and faith working by that act of offering, or if they be two sundry things, he must then say this in effect, Abraham was justified by the work of sacrificing, vers. 2 [...]. causatively before God, Ergo, the Scripture is fulfilled, vers. 23. and Abraham is justified by be­leeving causatively before God, vers. 23. which we cannot ascribe to the Apostle, according to their minde who make faith and works the two collaterall and joint causes of Justification before God: as if one would say Peter wrought the miracle. Ergo, the Scripture is fulfilled that Iohn wrought the miracle. So Abraham was ju­stified by works, vers. 21. Ergo, Abraham was justified by faith, 23. 2. The faith which Iames debarres from Justification must be the faith, Iam. 2. by which Paul strongly proves, Rom. 3. c. 4. we are justified without works. If faith and works concurre as [Page 160] collaterall causes in our Justification before God, as the Papists contend; but the faith which James excludes from Justification, is no faith at all. But only (1.) fair words to the hungry and naked,The faith which Jam. excludes from justi­fication is not the faith that Paul speaks of, Rom. 3. Gal. 3. but a bastard faith only. See Cart­wright, see D. Fuilk against the Jesuites of Rhems, Jam. 2. and giving them supply for no necessity either of hunger or nakednesse, and which cannot save, and so is no faith, and so can have no saving influence with works to justifie and save, but such is the faith which James excludes [...] v. 14, v. 15. the faith of Paul, saves, Rom. 4. Rom. 5. purifies the heart, Acts 15.9. (2.) A dead faith is no saving and living faith, no more then a dead corps is a living man, v. 17. (3.) A faith that cannot be shown to others in good works, as this v. 18. is no faith, for it hath no motions of life. (4.) A faith of the same nature, with the faith of the Devils, who beleeve and tremble, v. 19. (5.) A faith which a vain empty professour imagines to be a living faith, when it is dead, without works, as this v. 20. can have no joint influence of life to justifie and save with good works; all which saving influences contrair to this, saving faith hath.

2. It is to be observed that James maketh mention of two sorts of faiths, Stapleton de sola fide justificante, l. 8. c. 9. haec autem fides siue charitate mortua est. ch. 2. which the Adversarie confounds. 1. All alongs, v. 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20. he gives vive characters of a dead painted faith, which is in [...] in the vaine empty boaster, ver. 20. 2. He showes us of a lively faith of Abraham, which wrought with his Works, now it is a lewd error to make Abrahams faith, and the faith of believing Rahab of the same nature with the faith of the vain empty Hypocrite, who's faith is nothing but fair words, and with the faith of Divels. So the Papists, Lorinus, Estius, Jam. 2. seu ficta & hy­pocritica, 1 Tim. 1. quantum ad perfectae justitiae vitam & veritatem, non autem quantum ad s [...]ips [...]m sibique propriam virtutem, &c. Lorin. Commen in Jac. 2.26. (Sicut enim corpus) non fit comparatio cum homine mortuo; [...] cum corpore, nam homo mortuus non potest proprie vocari homo; sed corpus mortuum est propric [...]t [...]pus. Quo etiam pacto fides siue operibus, est vere fides, litet mortua —Nec sa [...]is placet [...] addit (Caj [...]tan in Comment.) fidem sine operibus mortuam, quoniam opera sunt concomitantia [...]. Estius Com▪ non comparat Apostolus fidem mortuam cum homine mortuo, sed [...]um corpore mort [...], sicut ergo corpus mortuum est vere & proprie corpus, ita fides mortua vere & proprie fides est. Stapleton, Mavochius, Bellarmine make it an Hypo­criticall and dead faith, and lively faith as Abrahams was, a vitall receiving of Christ and a believing the Lord, so as believing is coun­ted [Page 161] for righteousnesse, to differ not in nature and essence from the faith of the Devils, whereas in the faith of sound Believers there is a Godly submitting and leading captive of the understanding to the obedience of Christ, because it is the Lord that speaks, and so a receiving of the Word as the Word of God, 2 Cor. 10.5. 1 Thes. 2.13. Math. 22.32. which is not in the faith of Divels. (3.) There is in it a receiving of Christ, Joh. 1.11. a fiduciall resting of the heart upon God in Christ. And the word [...] is to con­fide, to betake himself to a lu [...]king place, where one may be safe from a storme, Psal. 2.12. Psal. 11.1. Psal. 31.2. Deut. 32.37. Psal. 118.9. Judg. 9.15. come and [...] under my shaddow. And this is contradistinguished from the Divels and Hypocrites who cannot seek their lodging nor a hiding place against wrath in the Lord.

2. It is to lean and rest the body,Expressi­ons of a lively faith. 2 Sam. 1.6. Saul leaned up­on his spear, and by a Metaphore it is to cast the burden upon the Lord, Isa. 50.10. Psal. 55.22. hence the word that notes a staffe, [...] Inniti, here­re, recumbere est corporis, 2 King. 5.18. & 7.2. The Lord answered upon whose hand the King lean­ed ▪ Gen. 1 [...].4. leane down under the tree. 2 Chro. 14.11. [...] cryed to the Lord, help us, help us, for we [...] upon thee. [...] aspexit cum delectationes cum [...] est inniti, recumbere. [...] silere tacere, Ezek. 27.17. Ps 131.2. [...] In Kal. [...] est, [...], amore [...] & bitumine [...]njunctis. Shimler in Lexico. 2 Sam. 22.18. Isa. 3. the Lord hath broken the stay and the staffe of bread, Isa. 30.1. and this is to be done often, when there is no present duty to be done, nor any work required of us, but only a fiduciall relying upon the Lord alone, as at the Red Sea Moses and the people were to leane upon JEHOVAH only, not to act, which cannot be said of the faith of Divels and Hypocrites. (3.) It is to look with delight and confidence, Isa. 17.7. as op­pressed servants, Psal. 123▪1, 2. (4.) There is a word that notes to be silent, not to speak, not to move, Josh. 10.12, 1 [...]. the Sun was silent, it moved not: It notes a Godly submission that the soul dar not speak against God, Psal. 37.7. rest in the Lord, file Jehov [...]: LXX. sub ditus esto Domino, Psal. 62.6. whence faith teacheth us to submit and hold our peace and lay the mouth in the dust, as a spirit dantoned of God, Lev. 10.3. Job 1.21. Lam. 3▪ 28. Ezek. 16.6 [...]. which is far from Hypocrites. ( [...].) To be­lieve is to cleave to God, from a root that signifies to adhere as thing [...] glewed together with pick or glew, Psal. 63▪ [...]. Josh. 23.8. [Page 162] Deut. 11.22. so we become one Spirit with the Lord, [...] Firmiter initi unde sumitur pro securum esse, [...]o quod con [...]fidentiam sequatur securitas oppo [...]nitur dubi­tationi. Est inaliquo spes omnes sic re [...]ponere, ut se­cure quies [...]at animus ad­versus omnia pericula & res ardu [...]s suscipere au­deat. 2 Cor. 3. (6.) It is a word of near adherence [...] to lean firmly upon any with hope of securitie, 2 King. 18.5. hast thou leaned upon this reed? Hos. 10.13. Psal. 13.6. Psal. 31.7. Deut. 12.10. Thou shalt dwell safely, confidently, it places the soul under the Rock of Omnipotencie. (7.) It is to roll thy self upon God, and is borrowed from heavy bodies, Josh. 10.18. Roll great stones to the mouth of the cave, Genes. 29.3. Psal. 22.9. he trusted in the Lord, rolling himself on the Lord. Prov. 16.3. commit thy works unto the Lord, and thy thoughts shall be established. Cart­wright sayeth it is a Metaphore from men who, being oppressed with a burden, transfer it off themselves upon one who is migh­tier and stronger: it is excellent when the heart rolles all its cares upon the Lord, and disburdens it self upon him. (8.) There is a word that noteth to leane, to stay or stablish, to strengthen, Isa. 48.2. 2 Chron. 32.8. the people rested themselves upon the word of Ezekiah, Cant. 2.5. stay me with flagons, Psal. 71.6. I have leaned upon thee from the womb, and it notes to draw near, Ezek. 24.2. so it is to strengthen and make strong the heart that is trembling and shaking if it be not stayed upon God. [...] A summo ad imum de­ [...]olvit. And shall all these excellencies of faith, be in the faith of Divels and Hypo­crites? and therefore it is most absurd to make the faith of Abra­ham all one in nature with the faith of Divels and Hypocrites, [...] Innixus con­junctus, vici­nus fuit, con­firmavit, sta­ [...]ilivit. Saving faith not­eth farre o­ther lively acts then can be in the faith of hypocrites. and to make the difference only in having Works, and no Works, as if there were the same heart leaning, soul rolling, and cleaving to the Lord by faith in Abraham, and in Hypocrites and Divels who tremble.

3. That Scripture, Abraham believed and it was counted to him for righteousnesse: Is not Gen. 22. when he did justifie him­self by the work of sacrificing Isaac: But it is Gen. 15.6. when the son of promise Isaac, a type of Christ is promised to him: at which time there was no work at all required of Abraham, but only be­lieving the promise, for what should Abraham act or do to fur­ther the fulfilling of that promise, for he believed that Gospel▪ pro­mise in the mean time, with a faith lively, and having with it as a concomitant a resolution to walk before God and be perfect, [...] then the Text shall say, Gen. 15.6. Abraham resolved to be fruit­full [Page 163] in good works, when he heard the promise, and that resolu­tion of good works was counted to him for righteousnesse which is most violent.

4. Who so are justified causally and in the sight of God by Workes, as James saith, to him workes are counted as the forma [...] cause, for so James from Scripture, ver. 23. Abraham, [...], believed God and it was counted to him for righteo [...]nesse. Which sayeth, by that faith he was declared or by that [...] was ju­stified, which was imputed to him for righteousn [...]e. But his beleeving or his faith living and working like the [...]ody quickened with the Spirit, was counted to him for righte [...]snesse. Now ex­cept it be yeelded that James speaks of two [...]aiths, one dead and empty, ascribed to the hypocrite, ver. [...], 15, 16. another lively and working, ascribed to Abraham▪ [...]er. 23. and except this be denied, that Abraham was [...], ver. 23. not by that same faith; It must follow that A [...]ahams empty beleeving, ver. 23. was that which was count [...] [...]o him for righteousnesse, Gen. 15.6. but James cannot be so [...]derstood, but when he saith, the Scri­pture Gen. 15.6. [...] [...]ulfilled; for his faith in beleeving the pro­mised seed, Ge [...] [...]. he shows that Abraham was justified by faith without [...], as Paul, Rom. 4. and when he saith he was ju­stified [...] [...]orks in offering his son, as Gen. 22. he saith he was [...] [...]lared just, or not justified by the empty and idle faith of [...] hypocrites; but by a faith that did prove it self to be lively. So that James proveth that we are not justified by a dead faith that neither hath, nor can have good works. As his Adversaries said, and Paul proves, Rom. 4. that we are not justified and saved by works, that is by our own inherent perfect righteousnesse, because, Rom. 3. all have sinned, Jew and Gentile. Because Abraham then should boast as a perfect man, free of sin, and he needed no Redee­mer, the Law of works should save him, and so he needed not re­mission of sins, nor the non-imputation of iniquity. But there is a mids between these, and Iames saith that is to be justified by faith, by a metonymie of the effect, by faith made known to be lively, not to the world only, but to their own conscience, for if Iames should mean that we are justified by works properly as counted to us for righteousnesse, he could not say, vers. 21. [Page 164] Abraham was justified by works, when he offered his son, vers. 22. he cannot infer, vers. 2 [...]. thou sees that his faith wrought with his works: What faith? He had spoken of works, vers. 21. not one word of Abrahams [...]aith, yet he saith, because Abraham was ju­stif [...]d, that is declared to be really, before God, to his own con­scienc [...] and others justified, his faith did work in a lively way as re­all in an [...] by his works, and you see that Abrahams faith, Gen. 15.6. was perfect [...] by works, Gen. 22. when he offered his son. Now it was not [...] as touching the nature of it, and the act of ju­stifying, for [...]Rom. 4. cites Gen. 15.6. to prove that Abra­ham was justified by [...] faith in beleeving the promise of the bles­sed seed, some 25. year [...] as others reckon 30. years before he sa­crificed Isaac, Gen. 22. [...] that it must follow that Abraham was not justified by works▪ no [...] his [...] perfect in its lively operations untill he offered his son Isaac: [...]hen the contrair of this, the Scripture tells us, for by faith he [...] his Countrey, C. 12. By faith beleeving the promise he was [...] Rom. 4. many year [...] before: Therefore these words, seest thou [...] faith, must mean that his faith came out to view by his works.

But the [...]e be learned and godly Protestants who [...] that James must speak of [...]ustification reall and before God, and [...] decla­red Justification before men only? Answ. Its true, [...] to name them. But these are subordinate: James speaks not [...] a faith only declared, nor of a justification onely declared to the world: But of a declared Justification that is reall before God. 2. That is declared to the man himself, and to the world. And that James speaks of a Justification before God,James speaks of reall justi­fication be­fore God, but under the notion as declared and mani­fested to men & to the consci­ence of the so justified the Text saith: Because he saith, ver. 14. What can that faith profite? Which is empty, he must mean, what can it profite before God, to save and justifie? As the word, 1 Cor. 13.3. if I have not love [...], it profits me nothing before God. 2. Can that faith (it is not well translated leaving out the particle in the new Tran­slation, can faith save him?) save him? Then he must speak al­so of reall faith, and so reall salvation and so of justification before God. 3. The examples of the Justification of Abraham, of Ra­hab, which were reall, must say something to the same purpose. 2. That he speaks of reall Justification to the mans own conscience as [Page 165] well as to the world if clear in the Text also. For James speaks to the conscience and privitie of the man who saith that he is justified, and hath faith, vers. 18. [...]. 19. [...], thou hast faith, thou beleeves, the Devils also beleeve, he would have the hypocrite to discusse his own conscience, and solidely to know, whether his Faith and Justification be reall or not; And James wakens all visible professours in this Epistle (as Iohn also doth) to try his Religion whether it be true and solide, or vain: by Chap. 1. being a doer of the Word, and not a hearer only, 23▪ 24. by visiting the fatherlesse, vers. 27. by loving and respecting the poor that are Godly, as well as the rich, Ch. 2. by trying his faith whe­ther it be dead or lively, by bridling the tongue, Ch. 3.

And therefore the Arminians and others do but lose their la­bour, who say Iames doeth not speak here of Justification declared to the world,Remonste [...] Apol. c. 10· fol. 13 col. 2. Jacobum de justifica­tionis decla­ratione non loqui docent verb [...] ipsa. Quis enim adeo v [...] cors est qui cum Apostolo contendere voluerit, an homo decla­retur justus ex fide, fides enim quate­nus fiducia est & di­stincta ab operibus pie­tatis, non est nisi in cord [...] hom [...]is. Theologia enim eorum non patitur credere hoc verum esse — nam ne de operibus ipsis constare potest an sint bona opera: non enim possunt esse bona nisi ex fide fi [...]t, ex fide enim fieri non modo non potest alteri declarari, sed ne illi ipsi, id constare potest, qui ea facit. Quia reprobus illa eadem opera praestare potest. because the world cannot judge infallibly whether our works by which we are declared to be justified, are sincere or not. For 1. we say that Iames doth speak of Justification declared to the world, for he speaks of real Justification before God but as declared, not to the world only, but to the conscience also of the doer. 2. Because the world can not infallibly judge of our Justifi­cation and works, therefore they cannot judge at all. Its a loose consequence: For we may declare our selves to our own consci­ence and to others by our good works, that we are before God justified. Otherwise because men connot see our good works, nor the principles from which they proceed, whether from saving faith or not, nor the ends for which they are, whether for the glory of God, or not, men should not glorifie our heavenly Father: Con­trair to Matth. 5.16. nor should the Gentiles glorify God in the day of visitation: As 1 Pet. 2.12. because they cannot infallibly [...] whether they be good works or not and done in faith and for Go [...]: Nor is Abraham declared to be justified because of a secret heart- [...]tention to offer his son to God in the court of men (but in the co [...]t of his own conscience he may) yet his journeying to [Page 166] the place where he was to sacrifice his son, his building an Altar, his laying on wood, his binding his son and stretching out his hand to kill him, may well declare him to be a justified man to the world and to men. Trelcatius, the Professours of Leyden, Calvine, Beza, Paraeus, yea a Papist Cajetan hath said well to this point. Not to adde that Scripture shall never admit,Trelcatius senior de Justifica 1. Class. Arg. 373. Pau­lus, per quod homines cre­dentes justi­ficantur co­ram DEO, docet. J [...]co­bus▪ quo modo justifi­cari cognos­cantur. 2. Paulus, fide verâ solum nos justifica­ris Jacobus, quanam sit vera illa fides, ab effectis, probat. 3. Paulus huic verae fidei tribuit justificationem si­ne operibus ut causis justificationis ▪ J [...]cobus fidei fictae detrahit hanc vim, & contra veram probat ab effectis veris, 4. Paulus negat bona opera praecedere justificandum: Jacobus dicit ea justi­ficatum sequi. 5. Paulus à causis justificationis ad effecta discendit, quibus detrahit coram Deo vim justificandi, ut in solidum id tribuat Dei gratiae & Christi merito. Calvin. Instituti li. 111. c. 17. n. 11. Iucidunt in duplicem Paragolismum: Alterum in justi­ficationis, alterum in fidei vocabulo. — Tu credis (inquit) quod Deus est, sane si nihil en istâ fide continetur, nisi ut credatur Deum esse, jam nihil mirum est si non justificet. — nec vero dum hec adimitur quicquam derogari putamus fidei Christiana. — N. 12. Justificari [...] Paulo dicimur, cum obliterata justitiae nostrae memoria justi reputamur▪ eo si expectasset Jaco­bus praepostere ci [...]asset. Illud ex Mose, Credidit Abraham Deo. — Si absurdum est effe­ctum sua causa prior [...]m esse, aut falso testatur Moses eo loco, imputatum fuisse Abrahae fidem in justitiam, aut ex ea quam in Isaac offerendo praestitit obedientia, justitiam non fuit [...] nondum concepto Ismaele, qui jam adoleverat, antequam nasceretur Isaac, fide sua [...] fuit Abraham. We are not Evangelically justified by Works. Professores Leyden. in Synosi Pur. Theolo. Dis. de Justific. & in Cens [...]a Confessio. Remonstrant. c. 10. pag. 145. Apud Paulum nomen Justificationis sumitur pr [...] ipso justificandi actu, qui solius DEI est tanquam causae efficientis principalis, fidei tanquam causae instrumentalis. Apud Jacobum pro fidei professione fides sumitur. that Abrahams and Rahabs sins were pardoned, their iniquities not imputed, and they delivered from cond [...]mnation, by the works of offering Isaac, re­ceiving the spies, fighting the Lords battels, suffering persecution of Saul. For Iames, if he say any thing for this cause, that good works are the formall cause of our righteousnesse, our merits, and in the very place of the satisfaction of the blood shed by Christ, we shall so be formall causes not of the declaratory act of justifying (for that may be thought to be the Lord our Justifiers act) yet of our own Justification, and so should we fight and run for the Crowne of inherent righteousnesse of works, as well as for the Crown of Life. And what Scripture is there for that? 3. A man shall be as just and sinlesse, as he may say, I have no sin, I am just: And in order to the Covenant of Grace, which forbids no sin (as some [Page 167] for this way do teach) but finall unbeleef, he no more needs for­givenesse of sins and the blood of sprinkling, nor pardoning grace, then the Elect Angels, or Adam in the state of innocency, and to that, Prov. 20.9. as to that, Eccles. 7.20. 1 Ioh. 1. Who can say I have made my heart clean, I am pure from my sin? The man Evangelically justified can say, I have made my heart clean, I am pure from my sinne. 4. No [...] needs such a man pray, forgive me my sins, as I forgive, &c. for he is justified from all Law-sins, who is inherently holy and Evangelically just: And so the Go­spel is a new Law which does not forbid all sins that the Law forbids, and the man is not under sinne, though he sinne against the love of Christ. According to that, if ye love me keep my Commandements, Joh. 14.15. so he once, ere he die, be­leeve. For the Law (say the Authors) forbids not unbeleef, nor any Evangelick unthankfulness against the Law of a ransome-payer, which yet, I judge the Law of Nature and Nations condemnes: The Covenant of Grace forbids no sin, but finall unbeleef, and the beleever can not be guilty of that except he fall away.

5. And it may justly be asked,C [...]jetanus in Jacob. c. 2 v. 23. Adver [...]e, prudens Le­ctor▪ quod Jacobus non sentit fidem absque operi­bus mortuam esse (quoni­am constat nos justifica­ri per fidem absque operi­bus ut pare [...] in infanti­bus ▪ &c.) sed sentit fidem si [...]e operibus hoc est [...]enuentem operari esse mortuam▪ & impleta est (Scriptura) quoad executi­onem maximi operis, ad quod parat [...] erat fides Abrahae, — uterque v [...]rum dicit: Paulus qui­dem quod non factis ceremonialibus aut judicialibus secundum se, sed fidei gratia justificamur. Ja­cobus autem quod non fide sterili, sed fide [...] foecunda operibus justificamur. What a faith James, Chap. 2. speaks of. whether the beleever Evangeli­cally justified, who needs no grace of pardon of Redemption from sin in order to the Covenant of Grace, needs the grace of renova­tion to keep him to beleeve, for he needs no pardon for the weak­nesse of his finall beleeving, for the smallest weak faith is a fulfilling of the Covenant of Grace. To these adde, if James mean by [...], faith alone, v. 24. by which he sayes we are not justified, [...], no other then the dead faith, ver. 20. and the faith which cannot save, the faith of fair words to the hungry and naked, when the vain man gives him nothing necessary for his bo­dy, 16. the faith without works, 17. the faith that cannot be shown to men, 18. such a faith as devils, 19. and vain hypocrites boast of, 20. then sure the conclusion is for us, and agreeable to the scope of Iames, v. 24. [...], ye see then a man is justi­fied before men and to himself, and so really declared before God, [Page 168] justified and saved by works as the fruits of saving faith, [...], and not by faith only which is dead and without works. For 1. he cannot exclude saving and lively faith:David Pa­reus, Com in Jacobum c. 2. Absur­de enim diceret fidem, v. 21 coope­ratam fuisse operibus (ni­si opera se­nechdochice su [...]cret, per metonymam effecti pro ip­sa fide operi­bus conspi­cua) 1. Ju­beret videre, quod non e­rat & quod non dixerat: Quia fidei nullam men­tionem fece­rat: potius diceret, vi­des opera fuisse coo­perata &c. 2. Absurde etiam diceret, ver. 22. Credidit Abraham Deo Scripturam opere impletionis filii impl [...]m fuisse Scriptura enim de fide & Justificatione Abrahami impleri non poterat, nisi per fidem justifica [...]tem, cujus in historia oblationis nulla habetur mentio▪ imo sibi contradic [...]ret, ver. 20. [...]x operibus, & ver. 22. ex fide Abrahamum justificatum asserens. 3. Absurde etiam ex Scriptura Credi [...] ▪ Abraham Deo inferret, ver. 24. videtis ex operibus justificari hominem▪ Potius [...] contrarium inferendum erat. Videtis ex fide justificari hominem, [...]on ex fide, &c▪ [...] Jaco. Arminius disput. priva. 8. [...]h. 7. Justificatio apud Jacobum pro [...] & declara­tione Justificationis, quae fide fii & operibus, sed alia ratione quam [...]a qua fides▪ [...] ▪ & justitiam à DEO propositam apprehendit quae cêrte fide & operibus non apprehenditur, sed appre­hensa declaratur — fides non accipitur eo modo quo apud. Paulum, pro assensu nempe fi­duciali, sed pro fidei confessione & professione quomodo fides sumpta se habet ut oper [...] nempe ut [...] bonis operibus jun [...]a declaret & manifeste [...] hominem justificatum, & sic justificat, &c. Catech. Ruccov. c 9. de Prophe [...] munere, l. C. pag. 193. For that belee­ving God is counted to Abraham for righteousnesse, saith Iames ▪ ver. 23. for then the conclusion should contradict the premisses, and he should say, Abraham was justified by sound and lively beleeving. Ergo, we are not justified by only sound and lively be­leeving. 2. The Adversaries, Socinians, and Arminians, who by this Text, say we are justified by works, know no Gospel-faith, by which we are justified, but faith including essentially new obe­dience, the crucifying of the old man, the walking in the Spirit, and repentance; as else where I cite. Therefore when Iames saith we are not justified by faith only, he must mean a naked dead as­sent: as in the former verses; We are not justified; and that is it which we say: Iames denies not but sayes that Abraham belee­ved, Gen. 15.

6. (It is only beleeving but lively and not dead, not a naked assent, which was counted to him for righteousnesse) and Gen. 15. Rom. 4. he was thereby justified; and therefore Paul and Iames are well reconciled. And the faith here excluded must be a dead faith, not a lively faith and a true faith, as the body without the soul is a true body and hath the nature of a true body, though it be no living body. So (say they) the faith that Iames excludes is a true faith, when as it is evident, it is no more true faith then the faith of Devils and Hypocrites. 3. It is false by the Papists [Page 169] way and Arminians also, that we are not justified by faith only, which is a true and generall assent to the Word of God,James can hardly be under­stood to speak of the Popish second Ju­stification by works. for they teach that in the first Justification, we are justified by faith only without works, as Paul proves, but in the second Justification when a man of just is made more just (say they) he is justified by works; as saith Iames, c. 2. Now by this they are forced to say, Iames speaks not of the first Justification, but of the second, but beside that the Scripture knows not two Justifications, Iames must deny that the unconverted hypocrites, and Rahab the harlot were justified by only faith, as Paul saith, and it were most incongru­ous to teach unconverted ones who never knew the first Justificati­on, how they were not justified in the second Justification. And if James be speaking of the nature and causes of the same Justifica­tion before God only, with Paul and not of the effects thereof, it were false that James saith (with reverence to the holy Lord) that we are not justified by faith [...] without works, for Paul sayes it, and proves it strongly from the Scripture, and ne­ver insinuates that we are justified in a second Justification by works. And sure he should not have denyed all the Jews, all the Gentiles, all the world, Rom. 3 9, 19, 29, 30. David a man according to Gods heart, and much in communion with God, when he penned the 32. Psalm, and Abraham a beleever and effectually called, Gen. 12. and justified, when he, Gen. 15.6. beleeved the promise of the seed, Rom. 4. to be justified by works in their second, or their Evangelick Justification.

Yea when James saith we are not justified [...] only, he must mean fidem solitariam, a faith solitary which hath no works con­veying it, as man sees not with eyes that are solitary and plucked out of the heart, and separated from hearing, smelling, and the senses, though faith, if true and properly so called (as they say this is) must justifie as the eye sees only [...], and the e [...]re onely, not the eye, hears, now this faith hath a causative influence in Justification as well as works (if it be proper and true faith, as they say it is, as the body without the spirit hath the nature of a body) and so James had no more ground for him to say, ye see then that we are not justified by faith only, then to say, ye see then that we are not justified by works only. For works separated from faith [Page 170] are no lesse dead works & cannot justifie, 1 Cor. 13.1, 2, 3, 4, 5. Then faith separated from works, & really pulled from them, as in an hy­pocrite, is a true faith. Obj. When James saith that a man is justified by works, not by faith only, he maketh faith and works concomitant in that procurement of Justification, and in that kind of causality, for he saith not, as he is commonly interpreted (not by faith which is alone) but by faith only [...]. Ans. He is not more commonly, nor soundly and truely interpreted, he is not ju­stified by faith which is alone, fide solitariâ, by dead faith. For solâ fide justificamur. Faith hath the only vertue of justifying as an instrument, and so is the Adverbe [...] Solùm taken, Matth. 5.47. If ye salute your brethren [...] only, what do ye more then Publicans? Where [...] notes duties only naturall excluding these which only converts in a spirituall way can do, Matth. 8▪8. Only say the word, What [...] only Jam. 2. no­teth. [...] it clearly saith that a mandat of Omnipo­tency only in CHRIST could heal the sick servant; but yet that Omnipotency is not really separated from justice, wisedom, mer­cy, Matth. 9.21. [...] If I only touch him, I shall be whole. But the act of touching was conjoined with the act of hearing: Who hath touched me? Yet the act of hearing had no causative influence in the drawing vertue out of Christ, but only the act of touching did extract the vertue, as Christ saith, Luk. 8.50. Mar. 5.36. Fear not, [...], only beleeve, saith Christ to the Ruler; can it be said, but this excludes works as touching the apprehending of the power and mercy of Christ in raising the dead Damosel. And yet that beleeving was not solitary, but con­joined with love, reverence, submission, 35. So Luk. 8.50. Mat. 21.19. And Act. 3.16. The faith that is by Christ hath given this creeple perfect soundnesse. Heb. 11.30. By faith the walls of Jericho fell. It were strange to say (by Peter's and John's good works and holinesse, the creeple man was made whole) and (by good works the walls of Jericho fell) and yet there were good works, love, mercifulnesse, courage in the Priests who compassed the walls of Iericho, and in Peter and Iohn. Adde to these that by good works we must more and more justifie and pardon our own sins, and must more and more buy a right to the Tree of Life, [Page 171] as they teach, citing Rev. 22.14. and more merit, ex pacto Euan­gelico, life eternall: and so our works and merites must be joint causes with the blood of Christ, and the Martyrs blood and Christs blood must have paralel and collateral influence with Christs blood to buy right to the Tree of Life; Yea and Paul already justified, even in the progresse of that which is called his Evangelick Justifi­cation, Phil. 3. would be in another condition, 9. That I may be found in him not having mine own righteousnesse which is of the Law, but that which is through the faith of Christ, the righteous­nesse which is of God by faith. And why should Arminians and Socinians deny it to be Pauls own. For 1. it is inherent righte­ousnesse. 2. It is not infused as Papists say, but acquired as they teach.Cateche. Raccov. c. 9. pag. 194. 3. It came (say they) from Pauls own free-will indifferent to will or nill.

But how is the Scripture fulfilled in Abrahams beleeving, Iam. 2.23.

Ans. The Apostle spake often of faith [...] and beleeving, v. 14. twice, v. 17. once, v. 18. thrice, v. 19. twice, v. 20. once, v. 22. twise, that is nine times, thereof Emphatically, v. 23. by way of excellency the Scripture was then fulfilled ▪ Abraham [...], beleeved, and it was counted to him for righteous­nesse, as its written, Gen. [...]5.6. before God and man and to his own conscience, when he offered his son Isaac upon the altar. That was reall, visible and conspicuous believing and righteousnesse, to deny himself so far for God: For James is much for Religion made known to a mans self, and to men, and hath far other Adversaries in the other extremity then Paul had, even the old Gnosticks, who, in opposition to the Jews and Pharisees, laid aside the Law, doing of the Law, Jam. 1.22, 23. all works, c. 2.14. all consci­ence of bridling the tongue, c. 13.1, 2. of peaceable and mortified living, c. 4. c. 5. and thought it godlinesse to hear the word in the Assemblies, ch. 2.1, 2, 3. without love to the Brethren, and to keep in their head a room, empty faith, and professed fair, and gave good words, but no garments to the naked, v. 14, 15. And James had good cause to treat of a visible and declared faith, but yet not meerly declared, but which was reall and can save, 14. and of justification such, as that of Abraham and Rachab, as was sen [...]sible [Page 172] and reall and not in a bare profession: For Iames speaks of a profiting and saving faith, Iam. 2.14. What doth it profite, &c. Can faith save him? Another devise is here alledged, of a for­med faith animated with charity and that justifies (say Papists) and an unformed faith void of charity, and that, say they, doth not justifie:Socinus, tract. de justific. p. 58. Me­minisse de­bemus fidem hanc qua sci­licet justifi­camur, esse obedientiā. Socin. de Chris. Ser­vat, p. 3. c. 2. In Christum [...]redere ni­hil aliud est quam ad ipsius Christi normam & praescriptum obedientem, praebere. Cateche. Raccovien. de prophe­tico, I. C. munere, c. 9. pag. 193 Ergo tu o­bedientiam sub fide comprehendis? Sic est Jac. 2. ut fidem Abrahae ex operibus consumma [...]am ▪ p. 194. they expone that. Vt penitentiam agamus; non secundum carnem ambulemus, — null [...] peccati habitum contrahamus, omnium vero virtutum Christianarum habitus comparemus. Remonstr. Armini. Confess. c. 10. th. 2. Vtique necesse est fidei praescriptum non alio modo hic (quatenus ju­stificat) consideretur, quam qu [...]tenus proprietate sua naturali obedientiam fidei includit: Hac ratio­ne considerata fides totam hominis conversionem Euangelio praescriptam suo ambitu continet, Remon. Apologia fol. 113, 114. Edward Poppius. August. Porta. fol. 28. And the same way, but in other expressions, Armi­nians and Socinians teach, that to believe and do good works, and to repent and walk in all the Commandements of Iesus Christ, is to believe, or compleat formed and Evangelick faith. But we di­stinguish them as the Scripture. Its true, Rom. 4.9. faith is said to be imputed to Abraham for righteousnesse, and so v. 3. v. 5. but it is not meant of the act or work of believing, that was coun­ted for Abrahams formall righteousnesse, there should so no room be left to the satisfaction of Christ, reckoned to be ours: if all the righteousnesse of God, Rom. 10.3. 1 Corin. 5.21. Phili. 3.9. should be turned over in an act of believing, mixt with much doubting and in our sinfull obedience; And the Socinians have more reason for them to say, there is no necessity of any reall satis­faction of blood payed for us, then the Arminians and Papists: For if our righteousnesse and inherent obedience may be of grace esteemed formall righteousnesse before God, by a free Evangelick paction and an act of Gods free-will: the Lord might have estee­med the eating of an aple, or any act of obedience, our formall righteousnesse, and so Christ dyed in vain, to become our righte­ousnesse, where an act of a sinfull man, or a deed of the Law, even the Law of faith is sufficient. What needs the shedding of the blood of God? Frustrà fit per plura, quod aequè benè potest fieri per pauciora. There's no need of reall satisfaction.

2. Faith imputed doth well bear the sense of the object that faith layes hold on, as our righteousnesse, Rom. 3.21. Now the [Page 173] righteousnsse of God without the Law is manifested. What righ­teousnesse of God? ver. 22. Even the righteousness of God through faith of Jesus Christ unto all. Now if the righteousnesse of God is manifested without one Law, to wit, of works, why not without another Law, of faith and of inherent Gospel-righteousnesse? And what need that Christ should die, if the act of beleeving should be that precious righteousnesse of God, and that according to the Law of faith? This by the way. As hope is put for the object hoped for? As Rom. 8.24. Hope that is seen is not hope, that is, the thing possessed, the salvation which we have in present posses­sion, is not hoped for. Col. 1.5. For the hops sake laid up in heaven, that is, the thing hoped for. For the grace of hope is not laid up in heaven. ver. 27. Christ in you the hope of glory. So faith here put for the thing beleeved; so saith the Martyr, my love is crucified, that is, Christ my loved or beleeved one is cruci­fied: So by faith in his name is this man made whole. It were strange to say, by faith, and repentance, and mortification is this man made whole. And it must be said, if so be that faith includes repentance. Now Peter denies, Acts 3.12. this, why mar­vail ye, as if we by our power and holinesse had made this man to walk? Its not our holinesse, but Jesus Christ hath done it, even God, the God of Abraham, &c. ver. 13. hath done it: And yet, ver. 16. faith in his Name hath made him strong: That is, faith or beleeving in his Name, that is, in his Power, Authority, God-head, hath made him strong. Ergo, faith is put for the thing or righteousnesse beleeved: So Heb. 11. By faith the walls of Jeri­cho fell, that is, by love the soul and form of faith, say Papists, and by repentance and new obedience, which is all one with faith, say Socinians, the walls of Jericho fell. So by faith they subdued Kingdomes, stopped the mouths of Lions. What influence reall or physicall had faith in slaying men,Fai [...]h is pu [...] for the obj [...]ct of faith. in refraining the hungry Li­ons to eat Daniel? None at all: But thus the mighty God be­leeved in by these men, subdued Kingdomes, stopped the mouths of Lions; if it be replyed there is not alike reason of justifying faith, which is dead as touching the influence and causality to justifie, as there is of the faith of miracles in these points; it is replyed, there is every way the same reason: For as Abrahams dead faith, if it [Page 174] had been dead could no more have justified and saved him, then the hypocrites dead faith can save and justifie him, as James saith, 2.14, 15, 16, &c. So could not these worthies recorded, Heb. 11. have casten down the walls of Jericho, subdued Kingdomes, stopped the mouths of Lions by faith, if that faith had been as dead in its nature, as the faith of the vain Gnostick and Hypocrite, who saith to the brother o [...] sister naked, depart in peace, be thou warmed and filled, and yet gives him not these things that are needfull to the body, Jam. 2.15, 16. And this we must say, except we admit that the fancied faith of the Hypocrite can remove mountains, nor is it place to dispute whether Reprobates as Judas have saving faith in working miracles, it is sure their faith of miracles cannot be a Hy­pocriticall faith such as is, Iames 2.14, 15, 16. (3.) The Scri­pture differenceth between faith and love, and faith and repentance. As 1. we are not once said to be justified by faith, but are never said to be justified by love, repentance, almes deeds. Its easie with an active ingine to labour to prove how faith includes love: And so doth hope and love include many other works and gifts of the Spirit,The Scri­p [...]ure and sound rea­son distin­guish be­tween faith and new obedience. but the Holy Ghost distinguisheth them. As (2.) by faith as from a saving principle, Abraham sojourned in the Land, by faith Noah builded an Ark, Iacob blessed the sons of Ioseph, Moses would not be called the Son of Pharaohs daughter, yet to build an Ark is not to beleeve in God; we pray in faith, hear in faith, yet these are not the same.

(3.) Mar. 1.15. Repent and beleeve, Act. 20.21. Testifying repentance toward God, and faith toward our Lord Iesus, Heb. 6.1. Not laying the foundation of repentance from dead works, and faith toward God, 1 Tim. 1.5. Love and a good conscience and faith unfained, Phil. 5. Love and faith, 1 Thes. 1.3. We thank God, remembring your work of faith, and labour of love, Heb. 6.10. Labour of love. 11. The full assurance of hope. 12. Faith and patience. We beleeve in Christ: but do we repent in Christ? 4. Faith is a leaning on God, Isa. 10.20. Isa. 26.3. Isa. 50.10. love is not so. Faith is a coming to God by way of affiance, Ioh. 5.40. Matth. 11.28. Ioh. 6.37. a receiving of Christ, Ioh. 1.11. an eating of his flesh, and drinking of his blood, Ioh. 6.54, 55, 56. [Page 175] not any of these can be said of love, of repentance, of new obe­dience.

(4.) If to beleeve in Christ as Lord and Law-giver be formally (for effectively and practically we may with that Learned and Pi­ous D. Prestoun say it is) a consenting to Christs Dominion and Government over us to obey him (though to consent at the Corro­nation and to swear an oath of loyaltie to a King be widely different from obeying his Laws) as unbeleef is a rebellion against his Government, Luk. 19.17. then well may Adam, in the Cove­nant of Works, be said to be justified and saved by faith;To give our selves to J [...]sus C [...]rist to be ruled & comman­ded by him as Lord and King, is not for­mally to beleeve in him. for if to beleeve in God Redeemer, be to give our selves to obey him as Lord Redeemer, and if this surrendering be the obedience of works by which we are justified and saved and perfectly righteous before God, upon the same reason to beleeve in God Law-giver and Crea­tor in the Covenant of Works, and for Adam to surrender himself Covenant wayes, by a legall faith shall be the Law obedience of works by which Adam is justified and saved, and so he is saved by Law-faith, as we are by Gospel-faith.

And this is to be remembred, that for one to give himself to Christ as his Lord to be governed and commanded, and to be wil­ling to obey him is neither formally faith (though it may be con­joined with beleeving) nor obedience, but an intention or purpose to obey. And 1. shall we then be justified by works, that is, by a purpose and intention to work? 2. There are in us May reso­lutions and purposes like May blossomes, that wither before Har­vest, as some are willing but not obedient, Isa. 1.19. One saith he will go work in his fathers Vineyard, it may be he purposes to work, but yet he works not, Mat. 21.30. nor is a practic [...]ll purpose of heart to obey either obedience or faith formally.

5. If to be justified by faith in Christ as not only Jesus who saves, but as Lord who commands, then we are justified by love, for we are to love him not as Jesus only, but also as Lord, 1 Cor. 16.22. Eph. 6.24. especially since all the works of the Law come under the command of love, Matth. 22.3.7. Luk. 7.27. Deu. 6.5. Rom. 13.8.

(6.) All these, thy faith hath saved thee, Matth. 9. Luk. 7. only beleeve, must be of this truth, thy good works hath saved thee: [Page 176] only do good works. And it is strange that Paul saith, Eph. 2.8. By grace ye are saved through faith, and that not of your selves, it is the gift of God. 9. Not of works, lest any man should boast. Nor could Paul make an opposition between grace and works (as in Rom. 11.6.) if the grace of beleeving and good works were one in the New Testament, for so we should be saved by works, and not by works. And Paul by an [...], takes that away. Yea but we are saved, that is, justified and delivered from obligation to wrath by the works of free-grace. He answers, nay, but nei­ther are we saved or justified by these works of grace as by means or causes.See the Learned Commenter, D. Trochrigge, on Eph. [...].8, 9. For we are first saved and justified before we can do good works, for good works are the fruits of free-grace, since v. 10. we are his workmanship created in Christ Iesus (and so justi­fied and saved in Christ Jesus) to good works, that we should walk in them. Yea and Paul undenyably removeth this doubt, 1 Cor. 4.4. I know nothing by my self (that is, by his grace I am free of such sinnes as bring condemnation, and so he must abound in works of grace) [...], yet thereby (and notwithstan­ding of all my inherent holinesse by works of grace) I am not justified. (7.) There should be no ground of gloriation and boasting more then this, by the Socinian and Arminian way, if we should be justified by works which come from free-will not de­termined by any grace either habituall or actuall which is merited by the death of Christ, but do proceed from pure free-will which separateth the beleever from the non-beleever: Then might we glory and boast that we are not in the debt of Christ or of his grace for that which is our formall righteousnesse before GOD, and so no flesh can say they are justified by grace, but that we are justified by nature the same way that Adam should have been justified without being beholden to CHRIST or to his death.Right or jus to life eternall, & possession of, or the way to life eternal, are much dif­ferent.

Asser. 3. There are not properly the same causes of the pos­session of Life Eternall, and of the righteousnesse of Life Eter­nall: The ransome of Christs blood is only the cause of the right. For jus or right to Life Eternall is a legall and a morall thing, e [...]s morale, and hath a morall cause, as a man hath right to such a City being the Lord and owner thereof by birth, or money▪ or [Page 177] conquesse, or by gift or grant of a Prince or of the Citizens them­selves, but possession and injoying the houses and rents of the Ci­ty is a Physicall thing, ens Physicum, and hath a Physicall cause, as eating, drinking, lodging, sleeping, wearing of cloaths to de­fend the body from the cold. So the legall right a man hath to the bread and lodging he hath in an Innes, but the Physicall causes, are hunger, appetite, bodily necessities so require and his pleasure to make use of such necessities. Hence the eating, drinking,Christs blood is the right of merite to life eter­nall, good works the way and meanes by which we come to the posses­sion there­of. Calvinus Instr. l. 3. c. 15. n. 21. Respo. ad 1. Arg. Istis nihil obstat quo minus opera Dominus tanquam causas inferiores amplectatur. Sed unde id? Nempe quos su [...] misericordia aeternae vitae hae­reditati destinavit, eos ordinaria sua dispensatione per bona opera inducit in ejus possessionem. Quod in ordine dispensationis praecedit, posterioris causam nominat. may be Physically good, and the right, jus legale, very bad, he may have no right to the bread, when he comes to it only by spoil and rapine. So the legall right, jus legale to life eternall is the ran­some of blood that Christ payed, our Goel, our friend and kinsman, to make the inheritance ours; but that great (I may say) almost Apostolick light, Mr. John Calvin saith good works, are, as it were, the inferiour causes of the possession of life. So simple pos­session is one thing, and qu [...] jure aut titulo, but by what Law-right he possesseth, is another thing.

But 1. Good works are necessary, necessitate praecepti, by the command of God and promise, 1 Thes. 4.4. 1 Cor. 6.20. Eph. 2.10. Matth. 28.20. and where it is said, 1 Tim. 4.8. Godlinesse is profitable to all things, having the promise of the life that now is, and of that which is to come. [...] the promise is opposed to the Law. And that is a strong Argument, Gal. 3.18. [...] If the inheritance be of the Law, it is no more of promise, but God gave it to Abraham by promise, Covenant-promise: What is that to the Galatians and to us Gen­tiles? M [...]ch every way. For three notable points are therein. 1. The heavenly inheritance promised to the seed, to Christ and his, ver. 16. not a p [...]or earthly Canaan, as Socini [...]ns and Papists say, were promised to Abraham and his seed, except they say that an earthly Canaan was promised to Christ. 2. That Cove­nant-promise of an heavenly inheritance made to Abraham, the [Page 178] same is made to the believing Galatians, the Gentiles and their seed, else Paul saith nothing for the Doctrine of Justification by faith to the Gentiles, contrair to the purpose of the Apostle. 3. There is an inheritance by Covenant-promise a promise of eternall life made not to works as the price that buyes the right: for, sure, then Christ must have dyed in vain. 3. Works are not necessary simply,The neces­sity of good works. necessitate medii: for then we must exclude all Infants; But the necessity of a Precept inferreth a necessity of means ordi­nary to all capable of a Command, that they do good, and sow to the Spirit, that they may reap of the Spirit life everlasting, Gal. 6.8. (3.) They are necessary for the glory of God, Math. 5.16. 1 Pet. 3.1, 2. 1 Pet. 2.12. (4.) They are necessary by the law of gratitude, which is common both to the Covenant of Works and of Grace, as we are debters to God for being, so to God-incar­nate as ransoned ones for everlasting life▪ 1 Cor. 6.20. Luke 1.75. 1 Pet. 1.18. and eternall well-being.

But such as will have our works the formall cause of our justifica­tion, they put them in the chair of Christs merite, and they must be meritorious as Adams legall obedience should have been: yea, but not, but by and of gracious estimation, God so esteeming them, say they. True: but, as is proven, neither was Adams obedience meritorious, but by Gods estimation: Yea and Calvine gives a power of meriting ex pacto to our works. But our works of grace are dyed and washen in Christs blood, and justified that they may justifie us.The Scrip­ [...]ure speaks of justify­ing of per­sons, not of works. But the Scripture speaks nothing of justifying of works, or not imputing sin to our works. Antinomians dream of a freeing of both the person and works of a justified man from Law-obligati­on, and that is a way indeed to justifie works of murther and adul­tery in David or any justified man from being sins against the Law of God: But because our works of grace have an intrins [...]call power of meriting and justifying communicated to them by the merits of Christ, they must be far more our formall righteousnesse before God, then Adams righteousnesse was his justification and life be­fore God. And if our works of grace have no power of merite or worth communicated to them from Christs death, then must it follow, though Christ had never dyed, our works may have the same gracious esteem of God, the same power of meriting, of ju­stifying [Page 179] and saving they now have. Yea, and since Christ hath re­deemed us from our vain conversation, 1 Pet. 1.18. by his blood: Why but, as he hath redeemed us from hell,How wee are redee­med from our vaine conversati­on. and purchased salvati­on to us, by giving us grace by our own good works after conver­sion to redeem and justifie and save our selves, so he hath redeemed us from our vain conversation, 1 Pet. 1.18. by giving us grace to do such works, before we be redeemed from our vain conversation, and before we be converted, as we may merite our conversion and Redemption from our vain conversation? If it be said, he abso­lutely and without any condition that is required, on our part, by his blood redeems all, whom he hath given his Son Christ to die for, from their vain conversation. 1. All mankinde without exception (for by their way he hath died for them all) must be redeemed from their vain conversation and converted: Nothing can be more false. 2. The Gospel to no purpose, and the Gospel-Commands shall in vain crave obedience, or so much as the duty of hearing the Gospel, from such as are not yet redeemed from their vain conver­sation, or not yet converted: For that Redemption is promised to them [...]bsolutely, without any condition required of them, saith this way.

Obj. If works have a causative influence on the possession of glory, as working on wages, and fighting on victory, Objections against the distinction of right to life, & pos­session of life, remo­ved. then must they have influence on just possession also: For possession, except it be just, is no possession, but usurpation.

Answ. Possession is essentially the enjoying of any thing plea­sant, gainfull, yea or honest, whether the title be just or unjust. The Title is accidentall to the Possession.

Obj. 2. He that possesseth the Crown, The title or right is ac­cidental to the nature of possessiō possesseth the Diamonds and pretious stones and the worth of the Crown; Therefore he that possesseth life, possesseth the right and title to it.

Answ. True: but hence it followeth not but possession and right to what we possesse do differ in their nature. Nor do we pro­perly possess the right of possession: for the right or title is modus rei, non res, the maner of and the due or the undue way of the possession thereof.

Obj. 3. Possessiō of life, and due right to life, ar both from Christ but diverse wayes. Is not possession of eternall life from Christ, as well as the title or right to the Crown from Him?

[Page 180] Ans. True, both are from Christ, but not the same way. Pos­session of the Crowne is the enjoying thereof, and is from free grace, and we, as willing and sanctified agents, make use thereof: But Christ alone bought with his blood the title and right to it. And when he gave his life for the rightfull and due possession of glory to us, we did contribute nothing either request or help to procure the title, and the grace to enter in to the possession by faith is the fruits also of free grace. Nor can it be denyed but our good works, by which we enter into possession of the Crown, are also the fruit of Christs death: but yet not so as there is any meri­torious or federall power of deserving the possession communicate to our works; Only they are made by Christs death the oblidged way to the possession of life.

Obj. 4. How then is there a promise of the life to come made to Godlinesse, 1 Tim. 4.8?

Answ. That promise is neither a promise of the Covenant of Works, for by the deeds of the Law no flesh can be saved: Nor is it a federall promise of the Covenant of Grace, strictly so called, except any would say that it is called a promise especially for faith, which is speciall Godlinesse,How the promise is made to godlinesse. and the acknowledging of the truth, which is according to godlinesse, Tit. 1.1. and so a promise made to the Godly in so far as he is in Christ by faith, and in Christ is the promise of life, 2 Tim. 1.1. Nor 3. is the promise of a title and right, which is made to Christ our Ransone payer, made to our Godlinesse, as if it did buy our right to life eternall, or were the price thereof. 4. Life is promised to Believers who work, not because they work: And 5. the Lord in these only showeth the order of bringing men to glory, not the causes of the right and title to glory, except we say the mowing of the first quarter of the Meadow is the cause of the mowing of the second, because it makes way to the mowing of the second, and the mowing of the second quarter is a cause of the mowing of the third, and so forth, untill all be mown. As, because God gives grace to work, to run, to use means, therefore he giveth, of free grace, the crown of life in the possession thereof.

Obj. Adams Law-obedience should only have so, and by this way been the cause or way to the possession?

[Page 181] Ans. Not so, if Adam had perfected his obedience, he should have claimed life by right of sinlesse, federall merit, ex pacto, with­out suiting of it by any title of grace merited by CHRIST, not so we. Its true beleevers are called [...], worthy, Rev. 3. but that is legally in Christ the Head, not that the meritorious worth of Christ goeth out of himself and renders our works intrinsecally meritorious.

CHAP. XX. Whether or not suffered Christ for any sin against the Gospel only, such as unbeleef finall, which is conceived to be the only sin against the Gospel. That Christ died not for all without exception. The unwarrantablenesse of that Doctrine, how the Law commands justifying faith and repentance, how not.

IT may appear that Christ suffered not for any sin which is onely against the Gospel, such as finall unbeleef: If any sins be con­sidered in any other respect as against the Gospel only, then Christ was not to suffer for any such sin so considered, for where no death is threatened, none is explicitely due, and where it is not so due to the sinner, nor should have been execute upon him, there it could not have been due to Christ nor executed upon him, For the Gospel threateneth not death to any sin, but finall unbeleef and rebellion (and for that Christ never died) therefore Christ died not for any sin as against the Gospel, nor suffered that which is no where threa­tened. But this is most doubtsome and cannot well stand. Its true that Christ suffered not for finall unbeleef, it being the proper sin of some reprobates, to wit, of such as hear the Gospel, Joh. 8.21, 24. 2 Thes. 1.7, 8. But it seems against all Scripture that Christ should die for these, for whose sins he dies not: And so that 1. Christ should half and part the sins of the Reprobate, and the Scri­pture, I judge shall not admit that Christ bare in his own body, on the tree, some sins of the Reprobate, to wit, all their sins against the Law, absolutely, or conditionally, and he that bears not ei­ther absolutely, or conditionally their other sins against the Gospel, [Page 182] to wit,Christ suf­fers not for some sins of reprobates, and not for others. their finall unbeleef and rebellion, for Christ was wounded and bruised for the transgressions and iniquities of these for whom he died; He must then have been wounded for some of their trans­gressions, and not wounded for other of their transgressions. And so the sins of the Reprobates, are divided between Christs satisfa­ction upon the Crosse, and their own satisfaction in Hell: But he suffered (one may say) conditionally only for the Reprobates sins against the Law upon the Crosse, if they beleeve, not otherwise? Ans. The same reall satisfaction conditionally that he performed on the Crosse, for the Elect, the same (say the Authors) he performed for the Reprobate, conditionally, if either beleeve, but because the one beleeves, it is accepted for payment for them, and the other beleeves not, it is not accepted for them.

2. As there is a satisfaction performed for some sins, not for all, not for finall unbeleef, that sin then must be in the same case with the sin of the fallen Angels, there is no sacrifice for it, nor is Christs death applicable by divine ordination to purge men from finall un­beleef more then to purge Devils from any sins they commit. 3. The same incorruptible price of the blood of the Lamb that is given to ransome all from wrath, Matth. 20.28. 1 Tim. 2.6. conditio­nally, is given to buy all, for whom Christ died, from their vain conversation, CHRIST cannot buy all from their vaine conversation conditi­onally, for the condi­tion cānot be shown in Scriptur also, 1 Pet. 1.18. that is to merite faith to them conditionally. Shew us the condition of the one more then the other. If a condition cannot be shown, Christ must have payed the price of blood upon the Crosse, for some upon intention, for others upon another unlike intention. 4. If Christ died for all, not because they did will and beleeve, but that they might will and be­leeve; and if Jesus suffered without the Camp, that he might san­ctifie the people by his own blood, Heb. 13.12. Heb. 10.10. That he might wash them from their sins, and make them Kings and Priests to God, Rev. 1.5, 6. That they might offer up themselves holy living sacrifices to him, Rom 12.1. upon a great designe of love, to cleanse them with the washing of water by the Word, and present them a glorious Church without spot or wrinkle, Eph. 5.26, 27. If he gave himself for them, that they should live to righteous­nesse, being dead to sins, 1 Pet. 2.24. That they might be delive­red from the present evill world, Gal. 1.4. If Christ gave him­self [Page 183] for these, for whom he dyed,For whom Christ died, for their unbelief & finall vain conversati­on he died also. that he might redeem them from all iniquity, and might purifie them to himself a peculiar people, zealous of good works, Tit. 2.14. Then did he die to redeem all men from iniquity, even from finall unbelief the great iniquitie, and from the vain conversation of finall unbelief, and that they might be dead to sins, especially the sin of finall unbelief: Except it be said that Christ gave a price to buy faith to all Reprobate and E­lect, and to redeem them from finall unbelief, if all would be wil­ling. But to commit to their free-will the efficacie of Redempti­on, which Prosper saith,Pr [...]sper Carmi. de ingrat. c. 13. Ergo homi­nis valida arbitrio di­vina volun­tas. aut eti­am invalida est, &c. maketh the will of God valide and effec­tuall, and unvalide and weak, according as the will of man: which Davenantius, Bishop of Salisburie (if that opus posthu­mum have been written by him in his riper years, and revised by himself) justly censures as the boyl of Pelagian Doctrine, which Faustus Rhegiensis did covertly teach: The Lord (saith he) re­deems such as are willing, being a rewarder of their good or evill wils. Now hardly can these eschew this Pelagianisme who teach, that the death of Christ is an universall salve applicable,Ioan. Dave­nantius ▪ E­pisc. Salis­burien. Dis [...]sert. de morte Chri­sti. Impres. 1650. c. 1. pa. 6. Hoc enim est il­lud uleus do­ctrine Pela­gianae, quo [...] Faustus Rhegiensis hisce verbo­rum integ [...] ­mentis cona­tur oc [...]ultare volentes De [...]us red [...]i [...], [...] Christs death is not a remedie applicable by the Gospel-Covenant, to all and every one of mankinde, so they actually beleeve. by the de­cree of God, to save all and every one of mankinde, Christian and Pagan, so they actually believe: For it cannot be said, that Christ hath died to make all mankinde saveable, upon condition of actuall faith to receive Christ preached: for so Infants, to whom Christ preached is in no tollerable sense applicable, that way, by any ordina­tion of God, if they actually believe, shal be no parts of the world, & they must be excluded from Baptism. And it cannot be said that this argument shal militate against us: for we do not defend such a condi­tionall applicabilitie of Christ upon condition of faith actual in prea­ched Christ even to infants in the Visible Church, yet we teach they are in Covenant with God, and so God hath his decree of e­lection to Glory and Redemption in Christ, among infants as among aged professours. 2. There is a providentiall, and to many thou­sands of Pagans, who never heard, nor could hear of Christ, an in­vincible impediment, and so Christ is not applicable by Gods de­cree to them, upon condition of actuall beleeving, Rom. 10.14. How shall they beleeve in him of whom they have not heard? It [Page 184] seems to me physically impossible, that there is such a thing as the Indians worship Satan under such a name and in such rites, if I never heard of the Indians, or of their God, or their worship: So neither can they worship Christ in a Gospel-way, who never heard of him. Its impossible to beleeve a non ens, Christ offered in the Gospel is very nothing and so not applicable to thousands by any decree of God. 3. This is not written in Scripture. God hath decreed that Christ be Preached and life be offered actu­ally to all and every one of all and every Nation under Hea­ven, and this opinion saith that Christ died and satisfied of­fended Justice for the sins of all and every one of all and every Na­tion under heaven, except for finall unb [...]leef. The Antecedent is clear by Scripture and experience. God fulfills his decrees irresi­stibly: But he never sent the Preached Gospel to as many as these Authors say he died for.This is false, that God hath decreed that Christ in the preached Go­spel, and sal­vation may be offered to all and eve­ry one, old & young, of all and every nation in all generations, upon condi­tion of actuall beleeving Nor can they themselves teach any such thing: Nor is this true, God hath decreed that Christ in the Preached Gospel and salvation may be offered to all and every one, old and young, of all and every Nation, in all Generations, upon condition of actuall beleeving. And yet for all these, without exception, Christ died, say they. For not to say, God never de­creed that such may be offered to infants of Pagans, for whom they say Christ died. To make a thing that physically is possible, the object of a decree of God, we must say that God hath decreed to give the gift of tongues to all Professours and Pastours to speak to all and every Nation in their own Language, and to make an offer of Christ: For there be ma [...]y Nations, who never heard of Christ, and understand not writing or any of the commonest Latine and Greek, and there is not any such decree revealed in the word, and we can not but know such gifts of Tongues are not bestowed on men, and without this it is physically impossible to communicate the Gospel. It shall not help to say that Christians should travell to all Countreys and learn their Tongues, that so they may commu­nicate the Gospel; and it is their sin they do not so. And there­fore God hath decreed that the Gospel may be offered and Christ applicable. Ans. 1. What shall become of the aged, and of multitudes, for whom Christ died, who must die in Paganism, be­fore Christians can be so mixed and learn the Tongues of all Nations [Page 185] under Heaven? 2. Did ever the Apostles to whom the Lord gave the gift of the tongues, go to this Nation and not to this, but by the call of the Spirit, to Macedonia, not to Bythinia, Act. 16? Is there no call of God now required for spreading of the Gospel? Some Nations would kill them, some would persecute Christians to death and not receive them: in the mean time, many for whom Christ died, perish. 3. Show from Scripture that it is the duty of Christians to mix themselves with all Nations, and to learn their Language, and that they sin in not doing so. Nor let it be said, into what N [...]tion soever I come, I may say, if thou beleeve in Christ thou shalt be saved. Ans. 1. You can not say that, except you P [...]each the Gospel to them. For they are not oblidged to believe upon one sentence, and if you Preach the Gospel to the Nation, God [...]th some chosen ones there, and it is no more a Pagan Na­tion. [...] Yo [...] are to say to any one by your way (thou art oblidged [...]o beleeve that Christ satisfied for all thy sins, and for the sins of the whole world) but that is a lie which you teach Pa­gans as a principle of the Gospel. 3. Its false that I may say and Preach truely such a thing to every Nation, and all in it. 4. Nor is it physically possible that Christians can so speak to all and every old and young. Also all is indeed referred to the free-will▪ except the Authors say that God doth insuperably determine the will of the Elect to beleeve, and the places speak of th [...] [...]fficacious redem­ption of the Elect only:That there be two in­tentions in God in dy­ing for all without ex­ceptiō, hath no warrand in scripture But so God had two intentions in Christs dying, one generall to render all mankind saveable; another spe­ciall, actually to save the Elect. But 1. who can beleeve mul­tiplied intentions in God of half redemption from wrath, and of whole redemption from both vain conversation and [...]ath upon their bare word, when the Scripture saith Christ in suffe [...]ing with­out the Camp▪ suffered for the world of Jew and Gentiles, that he might sanctifie them he died for? 2. What warrand to separate these two conjoined by God, to wit, that CHRIST should bear on the Crosse the sins of reprobate, and not intend that they should die to sin, and be redeemed, but not from all iniquity: be loved and washen, and not made Kings and Priests to God? That Christ should be wounded for the transgressions of many, and yet the cha­stisement of his peace not be upon them? 3. The dying for all and [Page 186] every one cannot be conditionall, in so far as the condition is refer­red to dying, to wit, if they believe; for so believing must go be­fore dying, either really, which is manifestly false: for multitudes for whom Christ dyed had neith [...]r being nor believing, when he dyed for them;The dying for all and every one cannot be cōditional. Or in the prescience of God, and that destroyes their principles: for so Christ cannot have died for all and every one, foreseeing that all and every one would believe: for he ne­ver foresaw that the Reprobate should believe. Then must the condition of dying or Redeeming, or of paying the ransone of His blood (these being all one) be referred to Gods accepting of Christs death for so many or for all, if they should believe. And the same way the Argument is as formerly: For God accepteth the payed ransome for all and every one, if they all really believe, or if they all and every one be foreseen of God ▪ to believe bef [...]re the Lords accepting of them. Both are false, as is evid [...]t, [...] they say in the issue what we say, and contradict themselves, to wit, that believers, and only believers, are these for whom Christ died. We before said, the promises are conditionally to all within the Vi­sible Church, but so as the condition relates only to the benefite promised,The pro­mises are so made to all within the Visible Church as all are in Covenant conditio­nall. we shall have remission and life, if we believe, but not otherwise: But now the Covenant-promise, which is accepted of, and assented unto by Professors, in their very profession in them­selves or their p [...]nts, is absolutely made to all within the Visible Church, and they are Covenant-wayes ingadged and say, and pro­fesse they are the Lords people, and they take him, and no other, for th [...]r God, whether they obey and believe, or no: for a peo­ple, not right in heart, may bind themselves in Covenant with God, De [...]. 29.10, 11, 12, 13, 14. compared with 21, 22, 23. Deut. 31.27. J [...]sh. 24.22. compared with Judg. 2.12, 13. So God ab­solutely intends to save all for whom Christ dies, and by his death intends to give a price to redeem them from hell and from unbelief, or their vain conversation, 1 Pet. 1.18. from all iniquitie, Tit. 2.14. from this present evill world, Gal. 1.14. Ergo, from fi­nall unbeleef the greatest iniquity of a present evill world. But here the case widely varies, upon no condition, that we can read in holy Scripture, gave Christ a price, a ransome of blood to re­deem men from unbeleef and from all iniquitie, this price must be [Page 187] absolutely given, and grace purchased to all whose sins Christ did [...]ear in the Crosse that they may bele [...]ve, that they may be sancti­fied, Heb. 13.12. 1 Pet. 2.24. 2. Sinnes of Thomas, refusing to beleeve the resurrection of Christ,The unbe­leef of ju­stified per­sons is a­gainst the Covenant of Grace, and diverse other sins beside fi­nall unbe­lief, are the causes of condemna­tion. and of Peter denying the Lord before men, and the Gospel-sinnes of beleevers, after they are ju­stified, and are inlightened, must be sins against the Covenant of Grace, as well as against the Law. And the denying of Christ be­fore men hath a sad threatning of everlasting death, Matth. 10.32. Mar. 8.38. annexed to it, if they repent not. And shall these within the Visible Church, who receive not Christ, be in a harder condition then Sodom and Gomorrah, Matth. 10.14, 15. if no sins against the Gospel be punished with eternall death but only unbe­lief? Yea the Scripture saith such as live in the Visible Church and are in Covenant with God, not only for finall unbelief are con­demned, but because they are unrighteous, fornicators, idolaters, adulterers, 1 Cor. 6.9. whoremongers, unclean, covetous persons, Eph. 5.5, 6. murtherers, sorcerers, dogs, liers, Rev. 21.8. Rev. 22.15. for all their ungodly deeds and hard sp [...]eches, Jude v. 15. 2 Pet. 2.17. for all disobedience, 1 Cor. 4.5. Matth. 12.36, 37. they are everlastingly punished. And if Christ have suffered on the Crosse for all the sinnes of the Reprobate, how are they judged and condemned for these sins, as the Scripture saith? And what Scripture saith they are condemned for the guilt of only un­belief: or that Pagans are condemned for Gospel-unbelief, where as Sodom, Gomorrah, Mat. 10.15. the men of Niniveh, Mat. 12.41. Tyrus and Sidon, Mat. 11.21. and such as have sinned with­out the Law, Rom. 2.12, 13, 14 15. are freed of Gospel-guiltinesse, and condemned for sinnes against the Law, and yet this same way saith that there is a Gospel-Covenant made with all, even thousands of Pagans who never heard of a Gospel, never ingadged themselves by any profession to take the Lord for their God in Christ, yet Christ bare their sins on the Tree, and made his blood applicable to them by a Gospel-Covenant, if they shall beleeve. Whence they must all break the Covenant of Grace, of which many of them ne­ver heard, and be condemned for no sins but the last act of Sodo­my, gluttony, parricide, for the Gospel threatteneth not death to any sin but to finall unbelief, say they. There are not any sinnes [Page 188] committed against the Gospel,All sins against the Gospell, even finall unbeleefe, are also a­gainst the Law and a­gainst God Redeemer, Immanuel. but they are also sinnes against the Law: because God incarnate and Immanuel is God, and leaves not off to be God consubstantiall with the Father, because he assumes the nature of man. Then as the first Command oblidgeth Abra­ham to sacrifice his son Isaac, when God shall reveal that Com­mand, and Moses and the people are by that first Command to be­lieve their deliverance out of Egypt, and so if the fir [...] Command oblidge us to believe and obey all Commands and Promises and Threatnings of God, revealed and to be revealed, because the Lord is God, then must Christ God Redeemer and Immanuel be belee­ved by this Command, and so finall unbelief and finall despising of Christ God Redeemer is as directly against the first Command (and so not a sin only threatned and forbidden in the Gospel) as simple unbelief and simple despising of Christ God Redeemer; For the believing & final believing, and unbelief and unbelief, continuing to the end, differ in the accident of duration, not in nature and essence, As a Rose that grows for a moneth only, and a Rose of the same nature that groweth and flourisheth for three moneths. Otherwise Christ could not have pronounced Peter blessed, [...] Mat. 16.17. in the present,Dicique be­atus ante o­bitum nemo supremaque funera de­bet. for believing in the present: for he should not have been blessed to the end: as Solon said of his blessed man, And this cannot but subvert our faith, crush the peace, hope, con­solation of weak Believers, to whom undoubtedly the promise of perseverance i [...] [...]bsolutely made, Jer. 31.31, 35. Jer. 32.39, 40. Isai. 54.10. Isai. 59.20, 21. Joh. 4.14. Joh. 10.27, 28.

2. If there be as formall a transgression of the fi [...]st Command in finall unbelief, as in unbelief simply considered, and in the other sins of Judas and other Apostates. Why but as Christ bare in his body the sins of unbelief and satisfied for them, he must so also bear the sins of finall rebellion and unbelief? And shall we believe that Christ payed a satisfactory ransone of blood upon the crosse for the yesterdayes unbelief of Judas, and not for the dayes unbelief?

If it be said, No man can break the Gospel-Covenant, for it is an everlasting Covenant. Ans. Its an everlasting Covenant, but yet all who sin against the commanding love and authority of our Immanuel, especially they so professing to be his, do truly break the Covenant: but they so break it, as it leaves not off to be the [Page 189] Covenant of life both to the breakers, if they repent and beleeve, and to others: for so is the nature of this Covenant,How the Covenant of Grace is everlasting & yet bro­kē by men. and so it is everlasting, but the Covenant of Works if once broken, ceases to be a Covenant of life for ever, because the nature of it is, to admit of no repentance at all. Obj. Does not the Law command the sinner offending God to mourn and be humbled, and confesse? Ans. It doth. But it injoines not repentance as a way of life, with a promise of life to the repenter, as the Law or as a Covenant of Works commands to its native and proper Covenanters obedience and every single act of obedience as a way to obtain the reward of a Law-life,The Law commands repentance but not with a pro­mise of life, or as a way to life. nor does the Law as a Covenant of Works command justifying faith and reliance upon God Redeemer, or Immanuel: but rather as the Law of Nature, or as the Law of thankfulnesse to a Ransoning and Redeeming God, the Law does this. Though in a speciall Covenant way the Gospel command faith in Christ.

Obj. But finall unbeleef as against God Redeemer and so conside­red is the only breach of the Covenant of Grace: He that beleeves not is condemned, as the man that rejects the only remedie of sin.

Ans. The only breach of the Covenant of Grace, is too nar­row to be the adequat cause of damnation, for many Pagans who never heard of Christ and are under no Covenant,How finall unbeleef is the onelie cause of cō ­demnation and to whom, and how not. but that of Works, are condemned not for not beleeving in him of whom they never heard, Rom. 10.14. nor for breach of the Covenant of Grace, but for breach of the Covenant of Works. 2. Unbelief may be called the nearest cause of damnation to such as [...] within the Visible Church, as the wilfull refusing of medicine which only and infallibly would heal the sick man of such a disease, is the cause of his death, but is the Morall cause. For the disease it self is the Physicall cause, or the materiall cause of the mans death. And without doubt, uncleannesse, covetousnesse, sorcerie, lying, i­dolatrie, &c. and many the like sinnes, beside unbeleef, are, 1 Cor. 6.9. Eph. 5.5, 6. Rev. 21.8. Rev. 22.15. Jud. 6.7, 8. 2 Pet. 2.17.10, 11, 12, 13, 2 Thes. 2.9, 10. 1 Pet. 4.3, 4. 2 Pet. 2.2, 3, 4, 5. the causes of the damnation of many visible professours, where as this way saith Christ did satisfie upon the Crosse for all th [...]se sins, and the damned of visible professours suffer in hell only for finall unbeleef. And it seems unjust that both Christ and they should [Page 190] suffer satisfactory punishment for these same sins done against the Law: And as strange that Ch [...]st should die for any, and not die for their sinnes, since the Scripture useth the word of dying for sinnes, Rom. 4.25 delivered from our sinnes, Christ is a p [...]opitia­tion for our sinnes, and (the same way) not for ours only, but for the sinnes of the whole world;For whom Christ died, he died for their sins, and for all their sins. he died for sinners, Heb. 2.17. that he might make reconciliation for the sinnes of the people: that is, for the sinfull people, or sinners, Heb. 9.28. so Christ was once offered to bear the sinnes of many: That is to bear the sins of the sinfull many that he died for, Heb. 10.12. But this man after he had offered one sacrifice for sin, sat down on the right hand of God: that is, after he had offered a sacrifice for sinners. 1 Pet. 3.18. Christ once suffered for sin, that is, for sinners, 1 Cor. 15.3. I delivered unto you how Christ died for our sinnes, that is, for the persons of us sinners. 1 Joh. 3.5. He was manifested to take away our sinnes. 1 Joh. 4.10. Herein is love — that he sent his Son to be a propitiation for our sinnes. Rev. 1.5. To him that loved us, and washed us from our sinnes — be glory. Gal. 1.4. He gave himself for our sinnes. Now it must not be asserted, but proven that in all these places where he is said to be a propitiation for the sins of the world; and hath taken away our sinnes▪ speaking (as these Authors say) of the whole Visible Church, and not of the elect onlie that Christ hath died and by his death hath taken a­way some sinnes, and hath suffered for some sinnes, and not for all sinnes, not for the finall unbeleef of sinners, if it be said, that we cannot teach that Christ suffered for finall unbeleef, we grant it: But then we say that Christ suffered not for finall unbeleevers and for the other sins of finall unbeleevers, since suffering for sins and for persons that are sinners, to bring them to God, 1 Pet. 3.18. are conjoined. And God was in Christ reconciling the world to himself, not imputing their trespasses unto them, 2 Cor. 5.19. Therefore there must be a pardoned and a justified world, and so a truely blessed world, as Paul and David teach, Psal. 3 [...].1, 2. Rom. 4. and so a loved, John. 3.16. and chosen world followed with the separating love of God to man which saves some foolish ones and serving diverse lusts, and saves not others; and so there must be a love and mercy of predestination, amor [...], not com­mon [Page 191] to all the world; as is clear, Tit. 3.3, 4, 5. Eph. 2.1, 2, 3,There is a world re­conciled to whom God imputes no sinne, and therefor all the world of Pagans & Infidels cann [...]t be such as Christ di­ed for, and whose final unbelief he sati [...]fied for. 4, 5. We seek a warrand of Gods not imputing to this loved world their trespasses against the Law, and of his imputing to the same world the trespasses of rebellion and finall unbelief: And how Christs blood, shed for persons, both reconciles them to God, and leaves them in wrath, imputes not their trespasses to them, and makes them blessed, as David sayes, Ps. 32.1. and imputes their finall unbelief to them, and leaves them under a curse: Nor shall it help the mater to say that finall unbelief may be considered as both against the Law, and as only forbidden in the Gospel. And in the former respect Christ hath suffered for it, not in the latter. For if the [...], the contrariety between finall unbelief and the first Command, as it is a rebellion against God manifested in the flesh, be satisfied for by Christ on the crosse; How can it condemn the person, as sure it doth? Joh. 3.18, 36. Joh. 8.21, 24. It can­not be said that Christ died for finall unbeleef, so we beleeve.

2. What speciall [...] and repugnancie to the Law of God is there in finall unbelief, that is not a repugnancie to the Covenant of Works and Grace both? And what repugnancie to the Cove­nant of Grace which is not also contrair to the Law? This I grant (which I desire the Reader carefully to observe) the Law and the Covenant of Grace do not one and the same way command faith,The Law & the Co­venant of Gr [...]ce doe not, one & the same way com­mand faith and forbid unbeleef. and forbid unbelief. I speak now of the Covenant of Works and of the Covenant of Grace as they are two Covenants specifically and formally different.

For 1. the Law as the Law commands 1. Faith in the superla­tive degree, as it doth all acts of obedience, and so doth it Gospel repentance. Because the Law commands all obedience most exact and perfect, and condemnes faith in the positive degree, though sincere and lively, as sinfully deficient. The Gospel doth only re­quire sincere faith, and condemneth not for the want of the de­grees of faith most perfect, though the Law of thankfulnesse to the Ransone-payer (which Law is common to both Covenants) re­quire that we believe in the highest degree, because Christ hath ex­pressed to us the greatest love, Joh. 3.16, Joh. 15.13.

2. The Law as the Law requires faith not finall only, but faith in Immanuel for ever, and that we be born with the Image of God [Page 192] that we beleeve at all times, under the pain of damnation. But, the Covenant of Grace, because it admits of repentance, and holds forth the meeknesse, forb [...]arance, and longa [...]i [...]itie of Christ, is satisfied with faith at any time, or what hour of the day they shall be brought in.

3. The Law requires faith, with the promise of Law-life: The Covenant of Grace requires faith, promises grace to beleeve, with promise of a Gospel-life.

4. The Law requires not faith in Christ with sinners Covenant-ways as a work to be legally rewarded, for it finding all sinners, and all by nature, Covenant-breakers, cannot indent with th [...]m that have broken the Covenant, to promise life to them by tennor of the Covenant, which now ceaseth to be a Covenant of life, and cannot but condemn, and is now rendered impossible to j [...]stifie and save,How the reprobate are under the Cove­nant of Works. by reason of the weaknesse of the fl [...]sh, Rom. 8.3. All the re­probate then are this way under the Covenant of Works, that they are (as it were) possible Covenanters lyable to suffer the ven­geance of a broken Covenant, but not formally active Covenanters as Adam was. But if Christ suffer for finall unbeleef, as it is a­gainst the Law as the Law, how is it charged upon reprobates as a sin against the Gospel only? Since no wrong done to God Red [...]e­mer can be any thing but a sin against God, and a [...]reach of the first Command. I deny not but finall unbeleef hath an aggravation that it is the nearest barre and iron gate between the sinner and the only Saviour of sinners, but yet the putting of such a barre is a sin against the Law. Neither can it be said that only finall unbeleef is the only meritorious cause of damnation to such as hear the Gospel. For beside final unbelief there is also a contrariety betwixt the mur­thers, Sodomies, &c. of professours and the Law for which they suffer in hell eternally, Rev. 21.8. c. 18.7.

Quest. Whether doth the Lord Mediator as Mediator, command the same good works in the Covenant of Grace which are comman­ded in the Covenant of Works?


Ans. ACcording to the matter of the thing commanded, qu [...]ad rem mandatam, he commands the same, and charges [Page 193] upon all and every one the morall duty even as Mediator, for he cannot loose the least of these Commandements, but simply they are not the same, quoad modum mandandi. It shall not be need­full to dispute whether they be commands differing in nature: For not only doth the Mediator cōmand obedience upon his interposed Authority as Law-giver and Creator, but also as Lord Redeemer upon the motive of Gospel-constraining love. In which notion he calls love the keeping of his Commandements (if they love him, Joh. 14.) the new Commandement of love.

Q. 2. Doth the Lord Mediator, in the Covenant of Grace, command the same good works to all, th [...] same way?

Ans. Rom. 3.19. The Lord, in the Law, must speak one way to these that are under the Law, that is, under the jurisdiction and condemning power of the Law: and a far other way to these that are not under the Law.

CHRIST speaks to reprobats in the Visible Church, even when the matter of the command is Evangelick,Christ one way layes Evāgelick commands upon the Elect, & a­nother way on the Re­probate. as to non-confederates of grace in a Law way, and in a Law intention. For he cannot bid them obey upon any other ground then legislative authority, not upon the ground of Redemption-love bestowed on them, or that he died out of love to save all and every one: For we disclaim that ground; or because he died out of a speciall design to save them as his chosen ones. For there is no ground for that untill we beleeve▪ But they are to obey upon the ground of Redemption-love, so they first beleeve and fiducially rely upon Christ the Saviour of all. But he commands Law-obedience to his chosen even as Mediator. (1.) Upon a Gospel intention to chase them to Christ, Gal. 3.23. (2.) When they are come to b [...]dge them in, with Law-threatning to adhere, in a Godly fear, more closely to Christ. But the Lord commands no beleever to believe hell in the event to be their re­ward, but to beleeve perseverance and life, but hell in the deser­ving. Hence that, 1 Tim. 1.9. The Law [...], is not made for the righteous (to condemn them: as if God thereby opened up to them their doom) but for the lawlesse, &c. to let them be damned and see their damnation.

CHAP. XXII. The differences in the promise of the Covenants.

Quest. WHat is the speciall difference of the promise of the two Covenants?

Ans. It is known that only life eternall is promised in the Law, if a right to the things of this life was promised to Adam, it is like he behoved to compleat his course of obedience, and merit a right legall to the herbs and fruit of the earth, beside the right he had by gift of Creation, ex dono Creatoris, non jure operum.

But 2. There was no promise made to Adam of perseverance, and so no promise made to him of influences to work in Adam to will and to do; so the influences by which he obeyed was, purum donum Creatoris, a meer gift of the Creator, not a gift of either the grace of Christ, or a promised grace, though in a large sense, it may be called a grace, or donum gratis datum: For God gave that influence upon no obligation. Now that it was not a grace promised is evident by Adams fall: for God, who is true, fulfills his promises. 2. Augustine and our Divines teach, Dedit Deus posse ut vellet, non velle ut posset, a power to stand, but not the gift of actuall perseverance. If any say that the Lord promised to Adam perseverance conditionally (which in one sense is true, in another false) if he pleased, in that he gave to him all necessaries required for actuall standing. Ans. 1. This is to teach that perse­verance was promised the same way, in the Covenant of Works, that Arminius saith it is promised in the Covenant of Grace, and that the free-will was absolute lord of standing and falling, and to deny God to be the nearest cause of our standing and persevering in either, the one or the other, and to bid us first and last sacrifice to our own free-will. 2. Willing perseverance actuall cannot be pro­mised conditionally:Conditio­nall perse­verance was not promised to Adam. for the question should be, Upon what con­dition doth the Lord promise to work in Adam actual perseverance, if he should be willing to persevere? But the question shall remain, whether that willingnesse to persevere, since it is the greatest part, if not whole perseverance, be promised or not; If it be not pro­mised, [Page 195] the contrair whereof they hold, if it be promised conditio­nally, the question shall recur, what shall be the condition, and another condition then the willingnesse of the will to persevere cannot be given, and so the argument shall rise against it self, and the issue must be, God gave to Adam actuall perseverance, if he should be willing to persevere, that is, he gives to Adam perseve­rance, if he give him perseverance; for willingnesse to persevere is perseverance, or a very large part thereof.

3. But persevering grace and so influence of grace to persevere is promised in the Covenant of Grace, Jer. 31.35. that they shall continue in Covenant, more sure then the night and the day. Jer. 32.40. I will put my fear in their hearts, The consi­derable dif­ferences be­twixt the influences of God gi­ven to A­dam for his standing in obedience, and these influences given to us in the se­cond Adam that they shall not de­part from me. The meaning cannot be, I will give them a power never to depart from me, if they will: For so nothing is more pro­mised in Christ to the second Adams heirs, then to Adam and the Angels that fell, for the like, say they, was promised to them. And 2. If notwithstanding of that fear both promised and put in the heart, and in the will, yet lubrick free-will may stand or fall and remain indifferent to either, then the sense shall be thus, I will make an everlasting Covenant, I will put my fear in their heart, by which they may either depart from me, and turn apostates, or not depart from me, but persevere: But so the Covenant, made with Adam and the fallen Angels, should be an everlasting Cove­nant, and yet it was broken. For the Image of God of it self incli­ned Adam and the fallen Angels never to depart from God: For sure, Adams fear, being a part of that Image, which sanctified his affections, inclined him (but not undeclinably and immutably) not to depart from God, and not to hearken to the lying Serpents suggestions. But it is not that new Covenant-fear promised and given in the second ADAM, Ier. 32.39, 40.

4. That these influences were purchased by Christs death is clear, because they are the nearest causes of our actuall believing and coming to Christ, of faith and perseverance that are given freely, and repentance and faith are given of Christ, Acts. 5.31. Zech. 12.10. 2 Tim. 2.25. Phil. 1.29. Ephes. 2.1, 2, 3. Ezek. 36.26, 27. Eph. 1.17, 18, 19, 20. John 6.44, 45.

5. So obedience to the Covenant of Works was Adams own. [Page 196] (2.) And came from his concreated self (the Image of God that was his own) by a common influence, and neither was the Image of God, nor the influences of God acts of free grace, or the pur­chase of grace properly so called.

(2.) Adam had a Law-claim to the Crown without sin, if he had continued in obedience,The obe­dience of Adam only a duty, not a promised benefite, our new o­bedience is both a du­ty▪ and a promised benefite. and did merite ex pacto life eter­nall, our new Covenant obedience in habituall and actuall per­formance is so a duty, that it is also promised and a benefite meri­ted to us by the death of Christ, whereas Adams obedience was purum officium, non officium promissum, as our Gospel-obedi­ence is.

6. Hence in obedience distinguish two. 1. The nature of obe­ence. 2. The worth and excellencie of obedience. The more the obedience be from our selves, the more it partakes of the nature of obedience. Hence four kinds of obedience are to be considered. 1. Christs obedience was the most legall obedience, and also the most perfect,Four kinds of obedi­ences. for he obeyed most of his own, of any, from his own will purely, Ioh. 10.18. Mat. 26. [...]9, 42, 44. His own blood, Hebr. 9.14. Rev. 1.5. My blood, saith he, Matth. 26.28. He gave his life a ransome, Matth. 20.28. He gave himself a ran­some, 1 Tim. 2.6. By himself he purged our sins, Heb. 1.3. Gave himself for his Church, Eph. 5.25. Offered himself, Heb. 9.14. And therefore the satisfaction that he made was properly his own. Its true the life, flesh and blood which he offered to God, as com­mon to the three Persons, was equally the life, flesh, blood of God by way of Creation and efficiency: For God as God created His Man-hood, and gave him a body, but that Man-hood, in abstra­cto, was not the offering, but all these, in concreto, and the self, including the value and the dignitie, was not the Fat [...]ers, not the Spirits, but most properly his own, and the Sons only by way of personall termination and subsistence. The excel­lency of the obedience of Jesus Christ how it was his own, pro­perly me­ritorious. 1. There are contradictory tearms affirmed of this holy self the Son, and of the Spirit and the Father. The Son was God incarnate. 2. The son offered himself, his own life, his own blood to God for our sins. Neither the Fa­ther nor the Spirit at all is God incarnate, neither Father nor Spi­rit offered his own life, his own blood to God; Neither the Father nor the Spirit hath (to speak so) a personall or terminative domi­nion [Page 197] over the flesh and blood of Christ. 2. Christ was in no sort oblidged to empty himself, and cannot be under a jus or obligation to the Creator or the creature. Of free love and his own will he became Medi [...] God Man, and being crea [...]ed man, and having said (here am I to do thy will) having stric [...]en hands with God as Surety of the Covenant, none more oblidged, being holy and true;The obe­dience of CHRIST debtfull & not d [...]btful in diverse respects. And therefore though Christ-Man was most strictly tyed to give the Father obedience, yet he was not oblidged to give him such and such obedience, so noble, so excellent, from a personall Uni­on: for Christ God cannot properly come under any obligation. Hence the obedience of Christ is most meritorious, because maxi­mè indebita, in regard of the God-head most undebtfull, and yet obedience most debtfull in regard of the Man Christ. 3. Most from his own will personally considered, the affection, love, the bended will, highest delight to obey, lay personally near to the heart and holy will of Christ God: With desire have I desired to eat this Passeover. He went foremost in the journey to Ierusalem, when he was to suffer. Much of the internall propension of the will makes much and (as it were) heightens and intends the na­ture of obedience, so that Christs and our obedience have scarce an univocall definition. 4. He gave and restored more glory to of­fended justice, by such a noble, incomparably excellent death, then Adam and all his Sons took of glory from God:Properlie so cal'd sa­tisfact [...]ō is performed by Christ. therefore against impure Socinus it is a most reall satisfaction and compensati­on, where glory by obeying and suffering is restored in liew of the glory taken away. All that Socinians say, that God cannot be a loser, and needs not glory, and nothing can be taken from him, and nothing can be given to him, proves nothing but that it is not such a satisfaction as one creature performs to another, nor is it a satisfaction that brings profite to God: For can a man be profitable to the Almightie? Nor such a satisfaction as eases a disquieted minde; Which proves not Christ to be a Saviour painted in a meer coppy to us, and only a godly Martyr who saveth onely by preaching and witnessing, and not by a most reall and eminently clear satisfaction.

2. The Elect Angels next to Christ gave obedience in their Law course, but not so properly of their own as Christ, for some [Page 196] [...] [Page 197] [...] [Page 198] discriminating and strengthning grace they had from Christ Me­diator their head,Angels o­bedience properly o­bedience that [...]s of grace and not their own. Col. 2.10. that they should not fall, and some­thing from the Election of Grace, which do not necessarily agree to the Covenant of Works, which they performed without sin, and the more extrinsecall help from grace, the lesse merit, so farre is grace from being, as Jesuites say, the essentiall requisite of merit, that the work is lesse ours, and so the lesse meritorious, that it hath grace. Let not any say then Christs obedience that came from the fulnesse of the Spirit without measure [...], must so be lesse meritorious,Grace di­minisheth of the na­ture of me­rite [...] from the obedi­ence. which is absurd, for the reason why grace in Angels, and men who are meer creatures diminishes the nature of merit, is, because grace is not their own, nor their proper due, but supernaturall or preternaturall, and so hurts the nature of the merit, but to the meriting person Christ-God-Man nothing is su­pernaturall, nothing extrinsecall, nothing not his own: Grace is his own as it were by a sort of personall dominion, not to say that the Man Christ as man did not merit, yet as man he was born sinless and with the full Image of God.

3. Adam gave more faintly obedience, more indeed of his own, but it was lesse obedience,Of Adams obedience how proper it was. and lesse will in it, then the obedience of Angels, and had he continued, his obedience had been proper obedience; but this is to be observed, none did ever, actu secun­do, and by the only help of simple nature attain Justification and Salvation by the simple Covenant of Works, but men and evill An­gels fell under both, though that was a possible Covenant and ho­ly and spirituall, yet God set it up to be an inlet to pure Justice in the reprobate Angels, and so to free grace in elect men.

Gospel-obedience hath less of the nature of obedi­ence, then Adams obe­dience.4. The obedience of faith, or Gospel-obedience, in the fourth place, hath lesse of the nature of obedience, then that of Adam, or of the Elect Angels, or that of Christs. Its true we are called o­bedient Children, and they are called the Commandements of Christ, and Christ hath taken the Morall Law and made use of it in an Evangelick way, yet we are more (as it were) patients, in o­beying Gospel-Commands, not that we are meer patients, as Li­bertines teach▪ for grace makes us willing, but we have both su­pernaturall habits and influences of grace furnished to us from the Grace of Christ, who hath merited both to us, and so in Gospel-obedience [Page 199] we offer more of the Lords own, and lesse of our own, because he both commands, and gives us grace to obey.The Law is made (as it were) Gospel to elect be­leevers & the Gospel Law to re­probates. And so to the elect beleever the Law is turned in Gospel, he by his Grace fulfilling (as it were) the righteousnesse of the Law in us by be­gun new obedience, Rom. 8.4. and to the reprobate the Law re­mains the Law, and the Gospel is turned in the Law, for all condi­tionall promises to the Reprobate, though in tea [...]ms Evangelick, yet are Law to them (if Cain do well he shall be saved) (if Judas beleeve he shall be saved) because God by Grace fulfills not the promise in them. Obj. 1. Then shall Gospel-obedience be of lesse worth then Law-obedience, which floweth not from Grace, which Christ hath merited by his death? Ans. Its not denyed, but it is obedience, so the Scripture, Heb. 5.9. Rom. 1.5. Rom. 6.17. Rom. 16.19. 2 Cor. 10.5. 1 Pet. 1 5. Act. 6.9. Act. 5.32, 37. But (2.) It hath lesse of the nature of obedience, but more excellen­cy. Who would say Peter labouring in the Vineyard of John for wages, does properly obey, if we suppon that Peter hath from John, not only soul, will, body, arms, and legs, but the inward infused principle of willingnesse, the habite and art of dressing Vines, the nearest propension and determination of will to work, so have we in the Gospel, but in the Law, though the Lord who gives being, does also give his Image to Adam, and his influence to o­bey, yet the Image of God is concreated, and Adams own, grace especially merited by Christ is supervenient and a meer stranger to us, and the influence, though it did predetermine Adams will, yet it is connaturall as it were, naturae debita, not merited by Christs death, and so we give more of our own, when we give the fruit of Creation which God hath bestowed on the Pismire and the Worm, then when we give the obedience of Grace. 2. The obedience of Adam though rationall and perswasive, there being a lamp of light in the mind, yet came from the feared authority of the Law-giver under the pain of damnation, the Gospel-obedience is by the word, Act. 2.37. is by way of perswasion:Obedience from Law and from love how differenced Christ saith not, Peter, thou art afraid of hell, feed my Lambs, but, Peter, loves thou me, feed my Lambs: For a Law-obeyer is not to be­leeve life eternall but in so far as he shall keep the Law perfectly, the Gospel obeyer so obeyes as he beleeves deliverance from wrath [Page 200] and life eternall, but his beleeving is not reckoned to him, [...], of Law-debt, but of love and Grace-debt: See Rom. 4.4. Matth. 6.12. these promises, 1 Tim. 4.8. Luk. 12.31. Matth. 19.29. are exponed by the promises made to the overco­mer, Rev. 2. Rev. 3. which is by faith, 1 Joh. 5.4, 5. 3. But it is most true, Gospel-obedience hath these excellencies. 1. It is a plant of a more noble Vine coming from the merit of blood, yet is not our obedience comparable to Christs; for a work of Law or Gospel Grace hath a necessary reference to no wages of its own nature, but only by the interveening of the free pleasure of God. But Christs obedience intrinsecally from the excellent dignity of the person hath a meriting vertue. 2. It works more eminently then nature:Gospel o­bedience from grace how excel­lent and how far a­bove civili [...]ty in its fairest lustre. It is a pillar to support sowning nature, and acts in more excellent subjects, in CHRIST, in the Elect Angels, in the Redeemed ones and makes them stones of another nature, and this is the handie-work of CHRIST, Isai. 54.11. I will lay thy stones with fair colours, and lay thy foundations with Saphires. v. 12. I will make thy windows of Agats, and thy gates of Carbuncles, and all thy borders of pleasant stones: What do morall men that work on clay and make clay pots all their life and know nothing of the actings of saving Grace. Fairest civility is but roustie iron the basest of Mettals: and they sweat and hammer upon Law-works being strangers to Christ, and his gold. O! what a difference between praying and hearing out of discretion, and by necessity of the office, and praying in the Holy Ghost, and hearing in faith.


Q. VVHat sort of doing the Law requireth?

The Scripture is clear, that consumate, and con­tinued in doing to the end is required by the Law.Tremellius & Trostius in Syria. Ver. Gal. 3. Qui non fe­cerit omnia. [...] Paul inter­preting Moses, Deut. 26.27. Gal. 3.10. Cursed be every one, [...] ▪ who continueth not in all that are written in the Law to do them. Deut. 26.27. Cursed is he who shall not con­firm. It is a word they use in inacting of Laws, when we say, Be it statuted and ordained: the word in Piel is three times in the Book of Esther, to ordain by a Law: Which clearly saith that [Page 201] the Covenant of Works was a work of justice and such a time God set to Adam, so as to the end he was to run it out,Hyeron [...]Maledictus qui non per­manet. LXX. [...]. Chald. Para. Qui non permanserit. Syria. Versio. Maledictus qui non per [...]iceri [...]. Arab. Versio. Qui non confirmabit. B [...]za, Gal. 3.10. Qui non firmarit▪ Magna vis Verbi Jakim. Pagn [...]. & Ari. Montanus, Qui non statuerit. but how long he was a viator or traveller in his course of obedience no man knows

CHAP. XXIII. Whether faith as lively and true, or faith as continuing to the end, be the condition of the Covenant of Grace?

THese, who in all points▪ as in this, make this new Covenant a Covenant of Works, contend that faith as enduring to the end, must be the condition of the new Covenant. 1. Because the promise of the reward. 2. The reward is given to him that en­dures to the end. And this faith (say they) is the adequat and compleat-condition of the Covenant of Grace as full and consumate obedience to the end in degrees and parts.

2. But faith as lively and sincere is the condition of the Cove­nant, the nature and essence of this faith is to continue to the end, but continuance to the end is an accident all condition of this onely essentiall condition of the Covenant, faith quae, which endures to the end, but not quâ aut quatenus, as it endures to the end is that which saves us and justifies us as the condition of the Cove­nant. 1. Faith as lively units us to Christ and justifies whether it be come to the full perfection or not. Otherwise 1. no man should be ingrafted in Christ as br [...]nches in the Vine Tree, no man parta­kers of the Divine nature, no man quickened, but he that dies in finall beleeving: Where [...]s, Joh. 5.24. he that beleeveth before his finall continu [...]nce to the end, [...],Faith as lively, not as induring to the end the condi­tion of the new Cove­nant. hath passed from death to life and shall never come to condemnation. And in this is the difference of the condition of the Covenant of Works, that Adam had no right to life by one or two the most sincere acts and highest in measure, except he continue, [...] (as the Law saith, Deut. 26.27. Gal. 3.10.) to the end, otherwise at the first act of [Page 202] obedience perfect in degrees and parts, God behoved by Covenant (except the Lord should break the first Covenant himself, before man sin, which is blasphemous) to have given him confirming grace and the reward of life; but the condition of the Covenant of Grace is that, He that beleeves, Joh. 3.36. [...], is not con­demned, yea is freed from all condemnation, Rom. 8.1. and [...] hath life being really un [...]ted as the member to the head, as the branch to the tree, mystically, as the wife to the husband, le­gally, as the debter and the surety becomes one person in Law, the summe one and not two. 1 Joh. 5.11. And this is the witnesse that [...] he hath given us life eternall, and this is in the Son▪ 12. He that hath the Son hath life: He that beleeveth hath the Son dwelling in his heart by faith, Eph. 3.17.

2. Faith, before it come to seed and full harvest brings solid peace and comfort and saveth:Faith in the first lively act saves & justifies. So Christ to the blind man, Luke 18.42. thy faith [...], hath saved thee, not a bare miraculous faith, but that which apprehends remission of sinnes, as he speaks to the woman who did wash his feet with tears, Luke 7.50. and to the paralytick man, Mat. 9.2. seeing their faith, be of good cheer, go in peace, thy sins are forgiven. If they be but forgiven conditionally, so they beleeve to the end, whereas they may fall away. 1. What comfort and good cheer? 2. What peace be­ing justified by faith, Rom. 5.1? 3. What glory in tribulation, Rom. 5. have they more then Judas the son of perdition? What Covenant of life and of peace are we in? What difference between our Religion and the Religion of Cicero, Seneca, and of all Pa­gans, if Christ furnish not to us solid unshaken help and consolati­on? And what a trembling hope have they that they be, and are to fear they shall be in the condition of Apostate Angels to morrw? What saith then Christ, Mat. 9.22. Mark 5.34. Mark 10.52. Luk. 8.58. Luk. 5.20, 24. Mark 5.34. Mark 9.24. yea and much more saith the Holy Ghost of our case, even of everlasting consolation, 2 Thessal. 2.16. strong consolation, Hebr. 6.18. all comfort, 2 Cor. 1.4. lively hope, 1 Pet. 1.4. Heb. 6.18, 19. then Heathens can say, Nay otherwise not so much, for they promise not so much. 3. Our lively faith is to believe our perseverance in lively faith as promised to us, Jer. 32.39, 40. Isai. 54.10. Isai. [Page 203] 59.20, 21. Joh. 10.27, 28. Joh. 4.14. 1 Pet. 1.3, 4, 5. Joh. 11.26, 27. As we believe life eternall, and that purchased by the merite of Christs death, the one as well as the other, then faith as finall cannot be the condition; And who can think that God commands faith in God Immanuel in the Covenant of Works? But faith in God Immanuel to the end is not commanded in the Covenant of Works, but only in the Covenant of Grace. 4. Faith justifies and saves as sincere, be it great or small: but if it justifie not and save not, but as it endures to the end, then no man is compleatly ju­stified and saved and united to Christ, untill he die.

Since faith (as all other graces in a child of God) is imperfect and still growing, 2 Pet. 3.18. and we are to pray, Lord increase our faith, none shall be justified and saved, but he that hath the greatest faith, if faith only, which endures to the end, be the con­dition of the Covenant, and such a faith as groweth and indures to the end: For take one who for twenty years believeth, the first two years he being united to Christ, hath right to Christ, Joh. 15.1, 2, 3, 4, 5. Joh. 17.21, 22. Joh. 14.16. Joh. 16.7, 8, 13. Joh. 4.14. Joh. 7.37, 38, 39. he shall not be judged, not condemned, hath passed from death to life, shall never die, Joh. 3.36. 1 Joh. 5.11, 12. Joh. 4.24. Joh. 11.25, 26. then should he die the end of the first year of his believing, by the Scripture, he must be sa­ved, else he must be damned, who yet died in true faith and yet never fell away, which were strange: But by this opinion either the remnant sound believing should be no condition of justification and salvation, because the man is justified and saved without it, and the faith of one or two years gave him right to Christ and saved him? Ergo the remnant faith is not a condition of the Covenant, but a persevering by grace promised and a persevering in that faith, as also by their way who make persevering faith the only condition of the Covenant of Grace 1. Faith and works are confounded: whereas to be saved by faith is to be saved before, and to be justifi­ed before we can do good works, and the jus or title to righteous­nesse and salvation, coming only from the price and Redemption that is in Jesus Christ, is not more or lesse, and growes not more then the worth of the ransone of the blood called the blood of God, Acts 20.28. does grow, and it is to be justified by grace and by [Page 204] faith, and then works come in as the fruit of our justification and salvation,How boa­sting is ex­cluded by grace. Eph. 2. Ye are not saved by works, lest any man should boast, in a righteousnesse of his own, coming from no merite of Christ, which buyeth determinating grace, and indeclinably leads and bows the will; Otherwise we may boast, that is, glory in the Lord, who worketh all-our works for us, Psal. 34.2. Isa. 41.16. Isa. 26.12. The salvation and righteousnesse is the gift of God. What then shall be the room of works? He answers, No room at all as causes of justification and salvation, by an excellent antanacla­sis,Boidius Comment. Eph. 2. as learned Trochrig: for he answers, We are his workman­ship created in Christ Jesus to good works, which God hath before ordained that we should walk in them. Then by grace we have the full right to righteousnesse and salvation by the ransome of blood, which is Christs. Papists and Arminians dare not bring in Evan­gelick works or faith as an Evangelick work here, though they be too hold. 2. Being once made the creation of God in Christ, and having obtained right by the blood of Christ to salvation, we walk by his grace in good works as leading us to the possession of the purchased inheritance. 3. The Authors of this stand for the Apo­stasie of the Saints, and they cannot eschew it who make this finall faith▪ that takes in in its essence good works as the soul of it or cha­rity (as Papists say) as the form of it, the only condition of the Covenant.

Quest. But is not life eternall given and promised only to faith which continues to the end? Ans. Faith is considered two wayes. In its nature. 2. In its duration and▪ existence. As to the former, saving faith is of that nature that it is apt to endure, it hath a sort of immortality, so the promise in titulo & jure, is made to that faith only which is of that nature that it must endure to the end, and the promise of life and remission is not made to a saving faith under the accident of enduring to the end, or for the years, suppon thirty or fourty years, or eight hundred years, or above, that Adam or the Patriarchs lived in the state of beleeving, for a faith of some hours only shall save the repenting thief as well as a faith of many years. And 2. life eternall in the possession is pro­mised and given only to the faith that continues to the end, not be­cause of the duration because a longer enduring faith hath merit, [Page 205] but that is by accident, in regard of the right to life and because God hath commanded persevering in faith, life is given only in pos­session to such a faith as endures, but we cannot say that the acci­dentall endurance and existence of faith for so many years doth save and justifie, as the living so many years makes a Child an heir to a great estate, for his being born the eldest son, makes him his fathers heir.

CHAP. XXIV. What faith is required in the Gospel.

THere is a legall faith, a duty commanded, the object of which is twofold. 1. Truths relating to the mind revealed and to be revealed. So Adam had a habit or habituall power to beleeve the Law and the Gospel upon supposition, it should be revealed. As a whole man beleeves skill in his Physitian to prevent diseases ere they come, and to remove them, when come. Its folly to say Adam stood in need, before he fell, of a supernaturall power to beleeve Evangelick truths, if he beleeved God to be true, he had such a power as to beleeve all was true, that God should reveal. 2. Adam had a faith of dependencie, to rely upon God in all possible evils feared.

2. The promise of life is not made to Law-faith more then to Law-love, or Law-fear, or Law-desire, more then to any other,How faith saves not according to the dig­nitie of its act. but the promise is made to Evangelick-faith that layes hold on CHRIST as our righteousnesse. But for obeying the Commands Adam was to live, Gal. 3.13. [...] in them, by doing them, Ezek. 20.11. As Lavater, [...] Shindle­rus notat in, cum, propter. Calv. com. Ezek. 20.11. Nulla igitur est in eo absurdit [...]s si homines vi [...]ant hoc est merean­tur ex pacto vitam [...]ternam: Sed [...]i quis [...]legem servat sequetur eum non opus habere Christi gratia. there is no absurditie if it be said men shall live, that is merit by free paction, life eternall: but then (saith Calvine) if a man keep the Law, he needs not the Grace of Christ. Obj. If faith be imputed, as it layes hold on Christs Righteousnesse, it must be the meritorious cause of Justifi­cation and by its inherent dignitie, for there is nothing more essen­tiall to faith, then to lay hold on Christs Righteousnesse. Ans. If faith were imputed as righteousnesse according to the act of lay­ing [Page 206] hold on Christ, it were true, but the act of faith is not impu­ted, but that which faith layes hold on, it being an instrument to wit, the Righteousnesse of Christ, it is not an act of beleeving saith a Jesuit. And though they say the works Evangelick are from the habit of grace, so was Adam a patient, when God concreated his Image, and habituall righteousnesse in him. But Arminians and Jesuits do not say, nor darre not, that predeterminating Grace is from Christs merites,Toletus, Rom. 3. Adverte fi­dem non habere ex se officaciam ullam ut a­ctus quidam, noster est, remitten di & reconciliandi▪ sed virtutem totam procedere ex objecto ipso, nempe, Christo cujus virtutem & meritum disposuit Deus per fidem in ipsum applicare peccatori ad justificandum. The Adversaries exclude not Law-boasting. therefore yet the sinner may more boast then Adam, and say I have justified my self by the acts of free-will which is indifferent and from under all the bowing and determining or swaying of the Grace of Christ, for the free-will should have so whether Christ had died or not died.


Q. WHether is Christs Righteousnesse imputed and made ours, because we believe and apprehend it ours; or do we believe, because it is ours first before we believe?

A twofold imputatiō of Christ, one legall, another E­vangelick. Ans. There is a twofold imputation, one legall, another which for Doctrines cause we call application or reall (though the legall imputation be also reall; but not to us as the former) the Lords act of laying the iniquity of us all upon Christ, Isa. 53.6. and the Lords making him sin for us, that is a sacrifice for sin, 2 Cor. 5.21. evinces necessarily the truth of this, the former imputation. For 2 Cor. 5.21. God was in Christ reconciling the world to himself, not imputing their trespasses unto them. If it be expounded of a­ctuall reconciliation of persons, it may say something, for the other imputation, but the other imputation is clear, Rom. 4.3. Abraham beleeved God, and it was counted to him for righteousnesse, v. 7. Blessed is the man whose iniquities are forgiven and whose sins are covered, v. 8. Blessed is the man to whom the Lord imputeth not sin, v. 9. Faith (that is, that which faith beleeved, as hope is put for the thing hoped for, Col. 1.5. Rom. 8.24. was imputed to Abraham for righteousnesse, though Gomarus give another exposi­tion, to wit, that by faith or the act of beleeving we obtain this to [Page 207] be reputed righteous, and it suits better with the Text. And as to the former imputation, God could not in justice wound Christ for our transgressions, nor bruise him for our iniquities, nor could the Lord break him, nor deliver him to the death for us all, except God had both made him the sinner, that is, imputed and reckoned him the sinner in Law (for intrinsecally and inherently he was not the sinner but holy, harmlesse, &c.) and laid our debts upon him, Isa. 53.6. and except he had been willing to have been coun­ted the sinner, and had said (thou hast given me a body, here am I, to do thy will, Psal. 40.7. Heb. 10.6, 7.) this reckoning of Christ to be the sinner is not only in the eternall decree, but also a laying of our iniquities upon him in time, Isa. 53.6. or a dealing with him in Law in punishing him as the sinner. And 2. by using the humane nature as an instrument of our Redemption on the Crosse. Antinomians take this imputing of our sins to Christ,The mis­take of An­tinomians and recko­ning Christ to be the sinner, to be the justifying of the sinner, which is a grosse mistake; for so without beleeving all that Christ died for should be justified upon the Crosse. But the Scripture is so far from ascribing Justification to any but to a beleever, that it saith Abrahams faith was imputed to him for righteousnesse. Now the faith of multitudes for whom Christ died when he suffered on the Crosse, is a very nothing: Many are not born, and a nothing or a non ens cannot be counted for righteousnesse.

It is to be observed that payment made by the surety absolveth the debter, so as the Law, except it be the generall Law of grati­tude, requireth no act of love, of faith, of service from the debter, nor doth the Law of suretyship in its essence and nature require that the Creditor, & sub eo titulo should pay the homage of faith,Obedience to the sure­ty. Christ is by a speciall Law. indeed when the Creditor is both the Creditor and the offended Party, and also the supream Law-giver GOD, he may require of the captives the obedience of faith. So would justice, which saith, we should hurt none, give to every man his own, presse, that the debter repay to the surety, so far as he is able to make up his losses, but to pay the obedience of faith as a part of the ransome due to offended Justice, is no Gospel-Law, nor any part thereof, nor can it bea [...] truth, except we deny the reall satisfaction made by Christ, which both Papists do weaken when they mix the merit of faith therewith, and Socinians deny.

[Page 208]4. The satisfaction performed upon the Crosse for sinners, though it be for a certain particular number, determined of God, & quoad numerum numerantem, & quoad numerum numeratum, both as touching the number, so many, not all and every one, and such per­sons, by head, name, birth, &c. Yet it is not the justifying of me, or John, or Paul, for I, nor no man can know that Christs satis­faction stands for you or me, by name and person, while first I or you beleeve, because it is the hid Decree of God. 3. Nor is this legall imputation beleevable, nor is it revealed, as [...]t is termina­ted to single persons, to me or to you, untill by faith we appre­hend it.

5· But the imputation of application is that in which our justifica­tion standeth.

And the faith by which as by an instrument we are justified, pre­supposeth three unions,Faith pre­supposeth three uni­ons, & ma­keth the fourth. and maketh a fourth union. It presupposeth an union,

  • 1. Naturall.
  • 2. Legall.
  • 3. Federall.

1. Naturall, that Christ and we are not only both mankind, for CHRIST and Pharaoh, Judas the traitour and all the sons of per­dition are one, specie & naturâ, true men, but one in brother­hood. He assuming the nature of man with a speciall eye to A­braham, Heb. 2.16. that is, to the elect and beleevers, for with them he is bone of their bone, and is not ashamed to call them bre­thren, Heb. 2.11, 12. Ps. 22.22.

2. It presuppones a Legall union between Christ and them, that God made the debter and the Surety one in Law, and the summe one in so far as he laid our debts on Christ, Isa. 53.6. [...] Cor. 5.21.

3. It presuppones an union Federall, God making Christ our Surety, and he was willing to be our Surery, and to assume not only our nature in a personall union, but also our state, condition, and made our cause his cause, our sins his sins, not to defend them, nor to say Amen to them, as if we might commit them again, but to suffer the punishment due to them. And our faith makes a fourth union betwixt Christ and us, whether naturall, as between head and members, the branches and the Vine Tree, or mysticall, as that of the spouse and beloved wife, or artificiall, or mixed be­tween [Page 209] the impe and the tree. Or 4. Legall, between the Surety and the Debter, the Advocate and the Client, or rather an union above all, is hard to determine, for these are but all comparisons, and this Christ prayes for, Joh. 17.23. I in them, and thou in me, that they may be made perfect in one.

6. Now to the Question, as the Law condemns not a man, but him who is first a sinner, and an heir of wrath by nature in the first Adam, for the Law is essentially just: So God justifies not a man, but the man who, by order of nature, is first by faith in CHRIST, Rom. 5.18. Therefore [...] by the offence of one (judgement) came upon all men unto condemna [...]n, even so by the righteousnesse of one the free gift came upon a [...]l men (in Christ, as the other were in the first Adam) unto the justification of life: and so we must say, that all, ere they be justified, and before God impute faith to them, that is, Christs believed righteousnesse to be theirs, must have faith and so believe, and so be one with Christ. And this im­puted righteousnesse is ours, because we believe, and not untill we first believe, and the other imputation goes before faith: So the faith of Gods speciall mercy is two wayes so called. 1. As it leaneth upon and apprehendeth God in Christ, for the obtaining of mercy and remission of sins, and imputed righteousnesse: So faith goes before justification, and we believe that our sins may be pardoned, and that our sins may not be imputed, and that we may be justified and freed from condemnation: so by the act of be­lieving, righteousnesse is imputed to us. And thus justification and remission, i. e. relaxing of our persons from a state of eternall con­demnation, as is meant, Rom. 8.1. are not the object of faith, but the effect and fruit of faith. 2. The faith of speciall mercy to me is considered as it apprehendeth and believeth,We believe that Christs righteous­nes may be made ours, & because it is ours, we believe it to be ours also. or rather feelingly knoweth speciall mercy, imputation of Christs righteousnesse now given to me, and as Christ hath payed a ransome for me, and satis­fied justice for me, and so imputed righteousnesse and justification are the object of faith; Or rather the object of the sense of faith, which is most carefully to be observed. To answer Bellarmines un­solide Argument, we either believe remission of sins past, or to come, &c. But remission is liberation from punishment eternall or temporall, but justificat [...]on is freedome from the fundamentall [Page 210] guilt-deserving punishment, and remission is a consequent thereof.

Q. Whether or not, is Justification taken one and the same way in the Old and New Testament?

Ans. The Apostle is clear, Rom. 4. where he proves both Jews and Gentiles are justified as Abraham and David. But 2. Justifi­cation by Grace hath not in iisdem apicibus in the same points, the same adversaries.Four or five sort of adversaries who caused various cō ­siderations of the que­stion of ju­stification in the Old and in the New Test. 1. Moses and the Prophets contend most with Ceremoniall hypocrits, who sought righteousnesse much in Cere­monies, Washings, Sacrifices, New Moons, and also their own inherent godlinesse, Deut. 5. Deut. 7. Deut. 10. Deut. 11. Isai. 1.10, 11, 12, &c. Mic. 6.6, 7, 8. Psal. 50.7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18. Ps. 4.2, 3, 4, 5. 1 Sam. 15.22, 23. Isa. 66.1, 2, 3, 4, 5. Jer. 7.1, 2, 3, — 21, 22, 23.

2. Paul had other Adversaries, Rom. ch. 3. ch. 4. ch. 5. ch. 9. ch. 10. especially Antinomians, who drew the Doctrine of free Justification by Grace to licencious loosnesse, then we may sinne, if so and so, we be justified (said they) then is the Law of none ef­fect, Rom. 6.1. But his chief Adversaries, on the other extream, were men that stood much for Justification by the works of the Morall Law: And Paul, Rom. 3. proves that all, Jews, Gentiles, David, Abraham, could be justified neither by works of Nature nor of Grace, and casts down the Jews righteousnesse by Law-do­ing, Rom. 9. Rom. 10.

3. There were a third Classe of Adversaries to free Justification, Galatians, seduced and false Apostles, who contended for Justificati­cation by Circumcision and the necessity of keeping the Ceremonial Law, if they would be saved, Act. 15.1, 2, 3, 4, &c. Gal. 2. Gal. 3. Gal. 4. Gal. 5. ch. 6. Who mixed the Gospel and Moses his Law, and Paul proves, Gal. 3. that we are not justified by the works of the Morall Law, for that Law, Deut. 26.27. involves all that omit the least duty of the Law, Gal. 3.10, 11, 12, 13. under a curse, and Christ was made a curse for us. And Paul proves in the generall, we are justified by neither the works of the Morall, nor of the Ceremoniall Law.

4. James had to do with another gang of loose livers, the Gno­sticks, who contended for justification by a bare nominall faith without love or good works. And James proves that we are justi­fied [Page 211] before men and to our selves by faith working by love, and not by a dead faith.

5. John contends much for reall and speaking marks of justifica­tion and conversion, against dead Professours void of love to the Brethren.

Q. 3. What is the dominion of the Law over a sinner?

A. It is the legall power to condemn all such as are under the Law, as a Covenant of Works; as marriage is dissolved, if either of the parties be dead: So Rom. 7.4. Ye are dead to the Law through the body of Christ, and it is not every commanding power that Paul, Rom. 7. denies to the Law, but a Lordly dominion, such as Lords of life and death have and exercises,Of the do­minion of the Law. [...], and we are dead to the Law through the body of Christ, which mortification or dying is not understood subjective, as if it were in us, but legally and objectively in Christ, because Christ in his body on the tree did bear our sins, 1 Pet. 2.24. and was made a curse for us, in our place, Gal. 3.13. For Christ (saith Ambrose, Ambro· Mori legi est vivere Deo, quia lex do­minatur pec­catoribus cui ergo dimit­tuntur pec­cata is mori­tur legi, boc est liberatur a Lege per corpus Chri­sti, hoc con­sequimur be­neficium [...] tradens enim corpus suum Servator, mortem vi­cit & pecca­tum damna­vi [...]. clearing the place) giving his body as a Saviour, overcame death and condemned sin: Hence these two words, Rom. 7.4. Wherefore ye also my brethren, are become dead to the Law. Gal. 2.19, For I through the Law am dead to the Law, that I might live unto God; As the death to the Law is legall, I am no more under Law-condemnation then a dead man, so the living to God is a Law living to God on a Law-absolution (as the absolved malefactor cleared of a capitall crime which might have cost him his head, liveth, and so is set free) so there is another most emphatick word which insinuats that Christ is dead to the Law, as Paul was, for after Paul saith, Gal. 2.19. I through the Law am dead to the Law, he adds, v. 20. I am crucified with Christ legally, that is, as Christ was crucified for sin by the sentence of the Law, so I am crucified with him. Rom. 6.8. Now if we be dead with Christ, we beleeve that we shall also live with him, which is not only to be expounded of mortification and inherent newnesse of life, but also of legall dying with Christ: For Christ died no death but legall death, there is no inherent mortification or slaying of a body of sin in him as in us, though from his death there also flow a [...] merited and inherent personall mortifi­cation in us, for it is added, v. 9. knowing that Christ being rai­sed [Page 212] from death dieth no more, death hath no more dominion over him, then Christ, by Law, cannot die twice, so Christ being once cru­cified, the Law and death, which had once dominion over him, hath now no more dominion over him. Then, first, as Christ di­ed a Law-death and was under death, because under the Law, so are we legally in him freed from the Laws dominion, and death following thereupon. 2. As Christ defies the Laws dominion and death,Christ My­stical, Christ & believers are freed from the law-domi­nion. so do we. 3. As Christ cannot twise satisfie the Law by dying (for then the first had not been sufficient) so neither can we ever be under Law-death and Law-condemnation, for we was once in Christ legally condemned and crucified in our Surety and so cannot suffer in our persons legall condemnation and legall death. 4. As Christ is dead to the dominion of the Law and death having once died and come out from under both, so are we dead and come legally out in him, which answereth the severall tentations we can be under in Christ. Obj. But then may we not sin, because wee are freed from the dominion of the Law and death? as Rom. 6. he had said, ye are not under the Law, but under Grace, v. 15. What then? Shall we sin, because we are not under the Law, but under Grace? God forbid, ver. 16, 17. He answers from an absurd, then we that are ransomed by Christ, should not be our ransome-payers servants, but the servants of sin. Now except the meaning had been, we are not under the Law, that is, the Laws dominion and the Laws condemning power, there had been no place for such an Objection, nay, nor any shadow; but the true Objection is, we are not under the Law to be thereby condemned and eternally punished, therefore what is the hazard of sin? We may sinne at will, there is no fear of hell. Paul answers not from that evill of servile fear that followeth sin, but from the woefull ingratitude to our ransome-payer.The Anti­nomian ob­jectiō char­ged upon is answered by him. O then we should not be under Christ and the directing light and rule of our Lord Ransomer, if we sin at will, but still servants and slaves to sin and so not redeemed, by which we gather that there is two things in the Law. 1. The condemning power of it. 2. The directive commanding power: As to the former, Christ by being condemned and suffering a cursed death for us, took that wholly away. We are not then under the Law as condemning, yea neither as saving and justifying, for then should [Page 213] we be married to the Law and under conjugall power as wife and husband living together, which Paul refutes, Rom. 2.1, 2, 3, 8. (2.) There is a directive commanding power that CHRIST taks in hand, and commands us to obey our Lord Ransomer, and we should sin against his love, if we should live loosly, because we are freed from condemnation.There is a twofold dominion of sin. Hence also there is a twofold do­minion of sin, one legal to condemn us eternally, another (as it were) physicall to keep us under the superlative power of lusts, if Christ had not died, we had been under both.

Q. 4. What is meant by the oldnesse of the letter in which we are not to serve? Rom. 7.

A. He means the idle, fruitlesse, and bare knowledge of the Law in externall Discipline, that reigns in an unrenewed man, by which he remaining in nature under the Law, foments an opinion pharisaicall (for he points at the false and literall glosses of the Law given by Pharisees and refuted by Christ,The old­nesse of the letter, and the newnes of the Spi­rit. Mat. 5.) Of me­rit, externall worship, ceremonies without any inward heart-re­novation, to which is opposed the newnesse of the spirit, or true new Evangelick obedience and holinesse wrought by the Spirit.

Object. Is not the letter of the Law a bondage, since we are freed in heaven from the letter and from awing threatening?

Ans. To serve God is liberty, not bondage, Psal. 119.45. Rev. 22.3. compared with ver. 5. serving of God and raigning suit well together. See Luk. 1.74, 75. Joh. 8.34, 35, 36. Rom 6.16, 17. but there is a threefold bondage of the letter. 1. Accidentall, in regard of our corruption, the service is wearisome to unrenued nature: This we are saved from in CHRIST, not fully in this life, but it comes not from the Law which is spirituall. 2. A bondage to the dominion of the condemning Law. 3. There is a bulke of Ordinances, hearing, reading, praying, meditating, repenting, receiving of the seals, we are freed from the one in this, and shal be freed from the other in the life to come.

Q. What is the dignity of the Gospel above the Law?

A. By the hearing of faith, that is, of the Gospel we receive the Spirit, Gal. 3. though the Law in the letter be also spirituall and lively and seek of us the lost Image of GOD by way of com­manding, yet there is no promise of the Spirit, made in the Law [Page 214] neither gifts nor grace, and both are given by the Preaching of the Gospel.

2. No miracles are wrought by the Law to confirm the Doctrine of the Law,No gifts nor grace can be gi­ven by the Law. for it is not new, nor is the gift of miracles given as a reward of Law-obedience, miracles in genere causae finalis, are wrought to avenge Pharaoh and the Aegyptians Law-obedience; but the miracles are wrought by the Name of Jesus, Act. 4. and for the confirming of the Gospel, and for the good of the Church: See Gal. 3.1, 2, 3.

CHAP. XXVI. Of the property of the Covenant of Grace, the perpetuity thereof.

Quest. VVHerein stands the eternity of the Covenant of Grace? And what other properties there be of the Covenant?

How the Covenant of works is eternall. Ans. The Law and Covenant of Works is a rule of everlasting righteousnesse, and so may be called an everlasting righteousnesse containing precepts of the Law of nature intrinsecally good, such as to know love, fear, trust in him as the only true God: and in this sense it is an eternall Covenant.

But 1. it is not eternall in the positives of the second, and fourth, and fifth Commands, the way of worship, the means, as Ceremo­nies, Sabbath, Magistracie, and such like, which are not to con­tinue in the life to come,How the Covenant of works is not eternal and so neither faith nor hope in God through Christ, 1 Cor. 13.13. Rom. 8.24, 25. 2 Cor. 5.7. nor a Temple, nor Ordinances, nor the Kingdom of Christ as now di­spenced, are to be the binding rule for eternity to such as are con­federats of the Covenant of Grace, Rev. 21.22, 23. 1 Cor. 15.24. though more of the smell and remnants of the Covenant of Grace, of the Lamb, of praises to him who was slain, Rev. 5.9, 11, 14. be in the life to come, then of the Law-Covenant, in regrad of our standing in a state of glory for evermore by the Mediator, to keep the nature in an eternall union, for evermore, by the Lord Christ his being cloathed with our nature, glorified for ever, Rev. 3.21. [Page 215] Rev. 5. Rev. 7. Rev. 20. Rev. 21. Ch. 22. And in that we shall be ever with Christ God-Man,There is more of the Covenant of grace in the life to come then of the Co­venant of works. Luk. 23.42. Joh. 17.24. 1 Thess. 5. 2 Cor. 5.8. Phil. 1.23, 17. in an eternall state of glory, though not in regard of an advocation and intercession for fallen sinners. As 1 Joh. 2.1, 2. or of praying that our faith fail not, when winnow­ed, as Luk. 22.31, 32. In a word there is a mediation of the trium­phing reign for the standing of the glorified nature, and a mediati­on for the reconciling of, and interceeding for of sinners. The latter must cease when the Kingdom is given up by the Sonne to the Father, 1 Cor. 15.24. The former is eternall and shall never cease.

2. The Law as a possible and standing way of justifying and sa­ving sinners is not eternall, but is now ceased to all flesh, the Man Christ only excepted,Other dif­ferences be­tween the Covenant of Works, and that of Grace. but the Covenant of Grace stands as the on­ly way under heaven, by which sinners may be saved, and after the Covenant of Grace there is no dispensation, which Libertines and Familists call more spirituall without Ordinances and a way as they speak of all spirit, of pure spirit.

3. The Covenant of Grace is eternall, in regard in it there is promised actuall grace, and continuall influences of grace from the Head Christ, the High Priest, to keep the confederats in obedi­ence and in perseverence to the end. And no such influences either for the habit of grace or for the continuated acts thereof, are pro­mised in the Covenant of Works, in regard Adam a man, and poor men in him do undertake to obey. Whereas Christ-Man binds and undertakes as head Covenanter and Surety for all the un­der confederats, and for sinners in the Covenant of Grace. Which difference is much to be observed, between the Covenant of Works and the Covenant of Grace: And for that cause the Covenant of Works is, 1. more independent, and requires more of mans strength and less grace then the other.

2. It stands more by precepts, lesse by promises, having only one promise of a reward and hyre to the obeyer, and consists all of pre­cepts, the other though it want not precepts, especially, it is his command that we believe in the Son of God, yet stands most by pro­mises, and this Covenant gets the name of a promise or the pro­mise, Acts 2.39. Rom. 8.9. compared with Acts 3.25. Gen. 12.3.

[Page 216]3. The Covenant of Works hath more of hyre, more of man, of nature, of earning and working, and more of mans Covenant, where he binds for himself, and the other partie for himself, with­out the mutuall help of any of the confederate parties.

4. The Covenant of Grace is, thus, also eternall, in that the buried and dead parties Abraham, The perpe­tuitie of the Covenant of Grace in the life to come. Isaac and Jacob are still in the Covenant of Grace, and there remains a Covenant-union between Christ and their rotten flesh sleeping in the dust, which is not an union by faith, or by any actings obedientiall of dead men, as is most evident, if we compare our Saviours words, Matth. 22.32. with the Lord speaking out of the Bush to Moses, Exod. 3.6. and God is not the God of the dead, but of the living, no [...] is the rising of the body promised in the Covenant of Works, nor is there a standing Law-Covenant between the Lord and dead Abraham re­quiring the condition of faith from buried men. Onely there is a warrand to say that the Covenant is everlasting▪ because it goes be­yond time, and stands with the dead in Christ, Matth. 22.32. (2.) Because two great promises of the Covenant, the rising of the body and life everlasting, are fulfilled after time is ended, Joh. 6.38, 39. 1 Thess. 4.14, 16, 17. and adde to this the publick own­ing and confessing of the Saints before the Father and the holy An­gels; which is publick remission and declared justification before the world of Elect Men and Angels, Luke 12.8. Matth. 10.32. (3.) Because after all these, to walk among them as their God and dwell among them, Rev. 7.15, 16, 17. when they are cloa­thed in white Robs, and are before the throne serving him night and day, and that the Lord should be their God, Rev. 21.7. after they have overcome all temptations, is fulfilled eternally in hea­ven. Now for God to walk among a people and be their God is to be a Covenanting God to them, as is evident from 2 Cor. 6.16. Lev. 26.11, 12. Jer. 32.38. Zech. 13.6.

2. The second and principle propertie of the Covenant is the gra­ciousnesse and freedome thereof, therefore is it made with sinners, without hire or price,Every thing in this Cove­nant is free Grace. and every article and lith of it is Grace. 1. The whole Gospel is the word of Grace, Acts 20.32. Col. 1.6. the Bargaine a p [...]ction of Grace, and the new Covenant, Heb. 8.8. for Grace is a new thing, and nature an old thing, the condition [Page 217] of the Covenant, to beleeve is a gift of grace, Phil. 1.29. the mercies bestowed and promised are all of free grace, for we are ju­stified by his grace, Rom. 3.24. freely, and are saved and called with a holy calling, not according to our works, but according to his own purpose and grace, 2 Tim. 1.9. For by grace (saith Paul) are ye saved through faith, and that not of your selves, it is the gift of God, Eph. 2.8. and the new creation is framed in us of grace. But God who is rich in mercy, for his great love wherewith he lo­ved us, even when we were dead in sins, hath quickened us toge­ther with Christ, Eph. 2.4, 5. and the new heart promised, Ezek. 36.26. is given upon this account, v. 32. Not for your sakes do I this, saith the Lord, be it known unto you, be ashamed and con­founded for your own wayes, O house of Israel. We have remis­sion of sins freely of his grace, Eph. 1.7. In whom we have re­demption through his blood, the forgivenesse of sins, according to the riches of his grace, Col. 1.14. Perseverence is promised of free grace, Jer. 31.35. Jer. 32.39, 40. Isa. 54.10. as life eternall is the gift of God through Jesus Christ our Lord, Rom. 6.23. and e­very influence of grace is of free grace, Phil. 1.13. Joh. 15.5. and CHRIST the Surety of the Covenant, of free-grace and love, is given, Joh. 3.16. to taste of death for every man, Heb. 2.9.

CHAP. XXVII. Of cases of Law-fear, and Gospel-faith: How a child of God fears Law-threatnings.

FRom these properties flow diverse cases touching the stability of the Saints, their perseverance, their temptations, their stan­ding in grace.

1. If they cannot fall away, who are thus seated in the Cove­nant, is not free will left to much loosnesse of security? Answ. Not at all: For a principle of Godly fear is fixed in the heart, and so in free will, never to depart from God, Jer. 32.39, 40. And where this Godly aw is, the heart is in a Godly trembling and fear, and darre not be loose, wanton, and secure to fear nothing, but fears [Page 218] alway, Prov. 28.14. and fears and trembles at the Lord and his goodnesse, Hos. 3.5. A Godly heart trembles more for fear of grace and the debt of grace, then of justice and wrath; and fears sin more, as it is against the bands of grace, and against Christ, and Gospel-love who can save, then as it is against Law the Law-giver, and him who eternally destroyes. And so the aw of heaven hath a stronger impression then the terrour and aw of hell.

Quest. 2. How can the fear of falling away, and the faith of perseverance absolutely promised and absolutely given, consist to­gether?

How fear of law-fear acts upon a beleever. Ans. The Law-fear of falling away, and the Gospel faith of persevering are not consistent. The fear legall of the least sinne is a fear of hell and of eternall wrath to be irrecoverably inflicted, but because the person is under grace, the beleever cannot fear this fear, except the Law-fear be letten out against him as a temptation, but it is not his oblidged duty so to fear.

2. The Law-fear upon a beleever is conditionall, and not abso­lute, as he fears hell and falling away, jure, as his deserving, if God should enter in judgement with him, and if he were not in CHRIST: But he is oblidged to a Gospel-faith which layes hold on Christ, righteousnesse, and deliverance from condemnation, and if Christ and interest in him be hid from him, and nothing on but Law-fear, that is a triall, not a duty of Law-fear. So the faith of Jo­seph & Ma­ry, that Christ their Son shal be great shal sit▪ in the Thron. of DAVID his father & shal raign o­ver the house of Jacob for ever, Luk. 1.32, 33. did wel consist with that holy and o­bedientiall fear of flee­ing into E­gypt, for fear that Herod shuld mur­ther that hopefull young King in his cra­dle▪ Math. 2. But there is a Godly▪ Law-fear, or a Gospel-Law-fear, which is a Godly horrour conditionall for that which is never to be inflicted, but yet according to deserving may be inflicted, and this is the terrour of the Lord, which breedeth Gospel perswasion, 2 Cor. 5.11. and so may well stand with Gospel-faith and assurance of deliverance from falling away and of being stablished and confirmed to the end. As a child in the fathers arm threatened to be cast over a sharp Rock in the Sea, may have horrour and fear, and cry out for fear, and yet beleeve so his fathers compassion as he will not throw him in the Sea, because the threatning is ordained not to be exercised, but that the child may so much the more thrust his arms about his fa­thers neck.

Quest. 3. What is the best victory over temptations from such fears?

[Page 219] Ans. As in all temptations, so here,What is to be done under ten­tations. overcoming is attended with precious promises, which are to be read, Rev. c., 27, 28. c. Rev. 21.

For 1. Feavers of the Law that have no kindly cools, and re­lenting by the promises of the Gospel, tend not to the strengthning of the life of God, but only when they leave a standing self loathing, and loving of Christ.

2. It argues the strength of faith, after many, yea six foyles to stand; as the Army that is broken six times, yet rallies and draws up again, is often at the seventh time victorious.

3. Such as stand against a strong and mighty tentation, b [...]ing pressed out of measure, above strength, as Paul was, 2 Cor. 1.8, 9. in so much (saith he) that we despaired even of life. But wee had the sentence of death in our selves, do prevail to the being taught of God, not to trust in our selves, but in God who quic­kens the dead: For here there comes reall strength from fighting: As he who, by strength of nature, lives and convalesceth after a run­ning boatch and strong pestilence, goes through pest-houses and is never infected again. So the worthies by faith who overcame strong temptations, Heb. 11. to the end, keep the fields and prevail till death.

4. Godly fear of self-weaknesse and trembling at sin which may darken the feelings of received mercies and sweet influences addeth strength. Something of that is here, 2 Cor. 12.10. when I am weak, then am I strong.

5. A fixed peace in assurance of deliverance from condemnati­on, and quietnesse in beleeving pardon and righteousnesse in Christ, ought alwayes to be, as touching the state of Justification: for the questioning of this in a beleever, if Antinomians will yeeld to truth, is contrair to faith, and no warrantable assurance. But 2. a fixed peace in David, immediatly after blood-shed and adultery, be­fore beleeving of the remission of these particular sins be,What way a fixed peace is in the children of GOD. in the Lords order, renewed, is security, and not Godly peace. Psal. 32.3. While I keept silence, my bones waxed old, through my roaring all the day. 5. I acknowledged — and thou forga­vest the iniquity of my sin. Psal. 51.1, 2, 3, &c. prove this. But it may be said, doth not this holy feeling of, and trouble for [Page 220] the particular hainous guiltinesse, brangle the fixed peace and the persons faith and confidence that he is in a state of justification? Ans. Not at all:A beleever ought not to cōplain of a state of non justi­ficatiō, but ought to complain of a state of non san­ctification for the outcries of the child of God, Rom. 7.24. under, not a finger, or an arm, or a leg, but a body of sinne: O wretched man, who shall deliver me from the body of this death? are good, and much feeling of pain argues much life. And such as in this regard say, I thank God, I was plagued and pained, but now nothing ails me, I have peace, I am rich, I have need of no­thing, Revel. 3.17. I am all whole, must be in a dangerous case. Indeed the complaining of want of justification and of the righte­ousnesse of God in a believer, and a raising of the foundation, as Psal. 31.22. Jonah 2.4. I am cast out of thy sight: are both false and bastard-feelings, and hastie unbelief: for this is a reflection up­on, and a reproaching of the Office of the Healer of sinners▪ This is contrair to faith, and the former is a complaining of the body of sin that can hardly be sclandered; so a complaining of self, and the feeling of inherent corruption weakens not, but strengthens faith. And complaining thus, and triumphing in a believed▪ justification, do well consort in Paul, Rom. 7.24. O wretched man, &c. v. 25. I thank God through Jesus Christ our Lord: and Rom. 8.1. Then every feeling of sin is not contrair to faith, as Mr. Town and other Antinomians teach, some godly tender feeling foments faith.

Q. 6. How cometh it to passe that seldome feeling of sin wan­teth unbeleef?

Ans. Our looking, in a Legall, not in an Evangelick way, upon sin,Why feel­ing of sin, seldome wants un­beleef. doth occasion unbelief: for looking to the sicknesse of the sinner is but abused, when this use is made of it, that the que­stion which Christ hath aboundantly answered; Ah he hath not, who satisfied and payed my ransome, justified me also by the Re­demption that is in him: but the strong body of sin which leads me captive, Rom. 7.23. doth also lead, rather mislead me to doubt whether the ransome was sufficiently payed, and I sufficiently and freely, by his grace and the Redemption that is in Christ Jesus, justified, as Rom. 3.24. And because the sinner feels the stirring and too vigorous acting of a body of sin, which is his own work, he removes the foundation-stones laid by Christ, and questions the well done work of Christ, and thrusts in his sickle into Christs har­vest: [Page 221] which is upon the mater to say, Ah my sanctification is nought or small: Therefore Christs satisfaction is weak, so the man,Oftē when the believer complains of his own sanctifica­tiō, because of guiltines lately act­ed, he also unbelee­vingly cō ­plaines of Christ his performed satisfactiō, as if it were weak. laying the burden upon the wrong back, will take and pull off the burden that Christ in his own body did bear on the tree, as 1 Pet. 2.24. and wrestle under his own body of sin himself, and he thinks he will do the busines better himself then Christ. This is that which Antinomi­ans imput to us groundlesly, but it is our sinfull weaknesse so to be troubled at the indwelling of a body of sin, as we doubt of and call in question the work of Justification and the satisfaction of Christ. But there is good cause why the sinner quarrel with him­self and complain of a body of sin, and yet not only quarrell with Christ, but exalt Christ, and by faith close with the absolutenesse of his gifted satisfaction and righteousnesse. And this is as easie by the Grace of God, as we see the more that a gracious soul abases himself, as one carnall and sold under sin, Rom. 7.14. as one in whom there dwells no good, as touching the flesh, v. 18. in whom sin dwells, v. 20. as one brought into captivity to the Law of sin, and a wretched man, 24. so much the more doth he exalt Christ the only deliverer, Rom. 7.25. Rom. 8.1, 23, 33, 34, 35. and why should not our blacknesse commend Christs beauty, our deadness exalt his life, our sinfull wretchednesse his glorious office in saving, and our emptinesse and drynesse his fulnesse of the anointing who is all fulnesse?

CHAP. XXVIII. Christ died not to blot out the sense of sin, but rather to quic­ken a Godly sense thereof.

THe more of Christ and his sufferings be apprehended, the more Godly sense of sin, so far is Christs death from bloting out all sense of sin:Christ by his death removes not sense of sin. For if sense of sin be all one with a simple reflecting knowledge, that we once sinned, then the Godly in this life from grace, not from the stirring of the Law, do both know and ac­knowledge what they were. 1 Tim. 1.13. I thank Christ Jesus our Lord, &c. I was before a blasphemer, and a persecuter, and injurious▪ but I obtained mercy. Tit. 3.3. We our selves were [Page 222] also sometimes foolish, disobedient, &c. Yea the glorified cannot before the Throne sing the glory of the Lamb slain and the price of Redemption payed, Rev. 5▪12. to redeem them from sin, but there must be even in glory, this sense of their debt, though with­out heart break or sorrow. Then it cannot be a Doctrine of the Gospel that paying of our debt, and the ransome, doth score out of a gracious memory the counts of a payed debt: The more I know what Christ hath done, the more I should kisse and imbrace the gracious surety, and these kisses of Glory, and that song, wor­thy is the Lamb, &c. say that grace and the faith of the price pay­ed do inlarge rather the holy memory and sense of sin, then obli [...]e­rate it. Hence the translated out of sense of grace, cast back their eye to the pit, the drudgerie of bondage they were once in, Ep [...]. 2.3, 4, 5. Tit. 3.3, 4, 5. 1 Tim. 1.13, 14. with loving and praising the riches of grace. And must it not be good to read old counts, and weep for joy, and cast and dart up praises to him who is at the right hand of the Father, and sorrow for old debts, and love much him who freely pardons?

2. If sense of sin be taken for the unbelieving feeling of, and judging my self cast out of his sight and condemned, whereas yet I am in Christ, and it is God who justifies me, who is he shall condemn, Rom. 8.33, 34. We shall agree with Antinomians, this is indeed the hastie sense of unbeleef, Psal. 31.22. Jo [...]. 2.4. Hence let them be rebuked who say not that Christ in the Gospel, hath taken away this sense of sin. Yea many redeemed of the Lord, are weary and laden, but they render themselves weary▪ and then sinfully complain that Christ will not ease them. In which unconverted ones in the dead-throw are more to be justified then they, the one being under a reall burden, and the spirit of the Law acting upon them, the other act the Law at their own hand, and will receive the spirit of bondage to fear again, whether it be reason or not. He is the less to be pittied, who casts himself with his own hand in prison.

3. There is a Gospel-sense of in-dwelling of sin bringing forth the mourning of the dove, and tears that are so innocent as they wrong not Christ, or his work of redeeming and justifying: Of this, Rom. 7.24. Christ, sure, takes not this away. Beleevers [Page 223] lodge a body of sin in them, as sighing patients and as captives half against their will, at least their renewed will,CHRIST died not to remove Gospel sense or any sense of sin flow­ing from a naturall conscience does contradict this guest, Rom. 7.14, 15, 16, 17, 18, &c. 23, 24. It is sinfull doctrine to say that CHRIST takes away this sense of sin. For 1. this is the very true tendernesse and gracious smitings of heart under any guiltinesse: As 1 Sam. 24.5. 2 Sam. 24.10. Davids heart smote him after he had cut off the lap of Sauls garment, and numbred the people. 1 Joh. 3.20. Job 27.6. And in some it is the naturall conscience accusing and challenging after sin is committed; now CHRIST came not to extirpate conscience, nor the power of feeling and discerning the obligation to wrath, that the conscience apprehendeth after sin is committed, nor the legall evill deserving of sin, nor the contrariety between it and the Law. 2. Christ by his death gives repentance and mourning for sin, Acts 5.31. Eze. 12.10, 11. (3.) Christ commends this, Jer. 31.18. I have surely heard Ephraim bemoaning himself. 2 King. 22.19. Because thine heart was tender — and thou hast weept before me, I have also heard thee, saith the Lord. Luk. 7.44. She hath washed my feet with tears. (4.) If Christ by his death should remove this, hee should bring on, by his death, a heart passed feeling, and burnt with a hot iron, which is condemned, Eph. 4.19. 1 Tim. 4.2. (5.) It speaks a gracelesse rockinesse of heart to sin, and not care for it, Act. 18.17, 18. Pro. 30.20.

Far lesse would the Lord have us to dream that a Christan is anni­hilated and melted into God, where they leave off to know, will, desire, feel, act, or do any thing but God is all and all in this life, and that, to the eye of faith, though not to the eye of reason, all sense of sin is destroyed; this is a destroying and overturning of all, of Law, Gospel, of all humble walking with God, and removes all necessity of fearing, hoping, believing, praying, hearing, and changes us over into blocks.

PART II. Of the Mediatour of the Covenant.


Q. WHat room or place hath Christ the Mediator in the Covenants?

A. The room of Christ in both Cove­nants. He hath place in the Covenant of Works as a satisfier for us. 2. As a doer and an obedient fulfiller thereof in all points. And he is Me­diator and Surety of the Covenant of Grace.

2. The first Adam marres all, the second ADAM who makes all things new, mends all.The first Adam marres all, the second ADAM mends all. The first Adam was a publick sort of stirresman, to whom was committed the standing and falling of all mankind, and in reference to man, the standing of Heaven, Earth, and Creatures in their perfection, and he spoiled all, put all things a-reeling. The second ADAM received in his arms the whole Crea­tion that was a-falling for in him all things [...] stand fast, Col. 1.17. And he bears up all by his mighty word, Heb. 1 3. He satisfied for our sins, and for our breach of the Covenant of Works.

2. He is a full doer and fulfiller of the Covenant of Works most perfectly, by doing. 1 Joh. 3.7. He who does righteousnesse is righteous: As he who suffers for the broken Law, fulfills the Law. Rom. 6.7. He that is dead, [...] is freed, justified from sin, in the obligation of it to punishment. So Paul, vers. 8. If wee be dead with Christ, we beleeve that we shall live with him. This dying is to beleeve that he died for us, at least it excludes not that. And if we keep the Law, we are not oblidged to suffer: for the Law does not oblidge man in absolute sense, both to perfect doing [Page 226] and to perfect suffering copulatively, but to one of them. But if we be (legally) dead with Christ, How the Law doth oblidge to both doing and suffe­ring. (as his death so excellent doth exhaust sins punishment and is a perfect satisfaction therefore) we are freed or justified from sin, not to suffer or satisfie by suffering for it, as Rom. 8.3. For what the Law could not do, so that it was weak (by accident, not of it self) through the flesh, God sending his own Son in the likenesse of sinfull flesh, and for sin condemned sin in the flesh. [...] the righteousnesse of the Law, the passive righteousnesse in suffering for the breach of the Law, might be fulfilled in us, 2 Cor. 5.2. And Isai. 53.5. But he was wounded for our transgressions, &c. — 6. The Lord laid upon him the iniquity of us all. But though some suffer, as the repro­bate do, and suffer in this life the beginning of satisfactory judge­ment, yet are they not loosed from active obedience to the Law as the Law, though they cannot, having once sinned, be under the Law as a Covenant of Justification and life: nor is any flesh under that Covenant now.

Q. What place hath Christs righteousnesse here?

Ans. Pareus with some others distinguish between the Righ­teousnesse of Christs person, which contains his essentiall Righte­ousnesse,The righ­teousnesse of Christs person and of his me­rit. as God, the habituall and actuall conformity of the Man Christ, and the perfect holinesse of the Man Christ. Such a High Priest became us, as is holy, harmlesse, &c. Heb. 7.26. And, The righteousnesse of his merit, in the satisfaction of his suffering, the satisfaction is the formall cause of our Justification which is counted ours: this latter righteousnesse is acquired, the former is essentiall.

Now the active obediēce of Christ falls under a twofold considera­tion. 1. As the Man Christs perfect conformity to the Law of God, so as man he was oblidged to do and suffer all that he did and suffered,Christs ac­tive obedi­ence, how it is meri­torious for us. even to lay down his life for man. But had he been only man his righteousnesse had neither▪ been by condignity meritorious, no [...] yet satisfactory for us. But 2. The whole course of Christs obe­dience from his birth to the grave, by doing and suffering, is to be considered as the doing and suffering of so excellent a person, his being born, his praying, preaching, dying, coming from a Person God-Man. Now the Law required not praying, preaching of [Page 227] God-man, the blood of God, or the dying of him who was God-Man. And so all these being both so excellent, and then so undue, have respect of satisfaction to God. 2. The active obedience of Christ & all that Christ did and suffered were performed by him in his state of humiliation: In which he was poor, [...], 2 Cor. 8.9. for us, so also by the same ground a weeping man, hungry, thirsty, weary for us, made lower then the Angels by the suffering of death, Epist. Da­vid Parel▪ de justi. ch. activa & passiv [...], 186 Heb. 2.9. Humbled by partaking of flesh and blood, because of the children, Heb. 2.14. Emptied himself for us, Ph. 2. This was, as Pareus well saith, perpetua quaedam passio & paena peccatorum nostrorum, fuit tota vita Christi: All these have a respect of pu­nishment and suffering. For since Christ was both a viator and a comprehensor, and such a holy sinlesse person, he ought to have had the actuall possession of the Crown of Glory from the womb, and so should have been free of weeping, hunger, thirst, weari­nesse, groaning, sighing, sadnesse, persecution, reproaches, &c. all which adhered to all his active holinesse, and therefore in that his actions were satisfactory passions. For satisfaction is defined a voluntary restoring of the equivalent, and as good in the place of what is taken away▪ and the good restored must be,Satisfactio est redditi [...] voluntaria equivalen­tis, alioquin indebiti, [...] alii ex pro­priis bonis & non de­bitis. 1. Undue. 2. The proper good of the restorer, which agrees to the active and passive obedience of Christ.

Obj. Then Christs very weeping, and praying, being the wee­ping and praying of God-Man, might have been a perfect satis­faction for our sins; for Christ was God-Man in all his holy acti­ons in the state of humiliation, as in his being crucified, and in his suffering?

Ans. This doth not follow: Because the punishment of the breach of the Law, and not that only, but such a speciall punish­ment, by dying the first and second death, according to the threa­tening of the Law, Gen. 2.17. In the day that thou eatest thou shalt surely die: was required in the Law, and except the threa­tening of the Law be fulfilled, the Law is not fulfilled: And Paul, Gal. 3.13. Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the Law, be­ing made a curse for us: for it is written, cursed be every o [...]e that hangeth on a tree. Now Christs suffering the death of the crosse the cursed death is that which makes him under the Law. [Page 228] Ergo, No satis­faction could be at all ex­cept Christ had died▪ because all the satisfa­ction of a surety might in Law have been refu­sed, and the Lord might have eter­nally puni­shed Adam & all his, in a Law-way in their per­sons, there­fore there was need of a pu­nishment agreed up­on between God and the Media­tor by a special Co­venant, & this punish­ment must be satisfa­ctory to the Law which re­quired death Gen. 2.17. and so must Christ-God-man d [...]e. The Scripture never speaks of Christs dying, but it speaks of this intrinsecall end, that they should die to sin and live to God, for whom Christ died; now this end is not possible in Pagans who never hear, nor can hear the Gospel, therefore Christ died not for Pagans. there is a Law-righteousnesse in suffering death. So Gal. 4.4. God sent forth his Son made of a woman, made under the Law. For what end? 5. To redeem them that were under the Law, that we might receive the Adoption of sons. How are we redeemed from under the Law? By blood, purchasing to us Ju­stification. Rom. 3.24. Being justified freely by his Grace, through the redemption that is in Jesus Christ, whom God hath set forth to be a propitiation through faith in his blood, to declare his righ­teousnesse for the remission of sins past: And redemption from the curse of the Law, and remission is ever ascribed to the blood of Christ dying, Rom. 3.24, 25. Ye are bought with a price, [...] called a ransome of Christs blood, [...], Matth. 20.28. 1 Tim. 2.6. Eph. 1.1.7. In whom we have redemption in his blood, the forgivenesse of sins. Col. 1.14. In whom we have redemption through his blood, even the forgivenesse of sins. Rom. 5.9. Being justified by his blood. 1 Pet. 1.18. Being redeemed by the blood of the Lamb unspotted and undefided. 1 [...]oh. 1.8. The blood of Jesus Christ purgeth us from all sin. Rev. 5.9. And they sang a new song (to wit, the four Beasts and the four and twenty Elders) — for thou wast slain, and hast redeemed us to God by thy blood. 1 Pet. 1.18. By his stripes (which he suffered in his death, Isa. 5.3.) we are healed. Rev. 1.5. To him that hath loved us, and washen us from our sins in his blood. For though all Christs actions of God-man from the worth of the infinite person be meritorious, yet are they refuseable, yea a satisfaction by Covenant, which was the death of God-Man must be also. 2. The word also never speaks of Christs dying for all, but it mentions Justification in his blood, Ro. 3.24, 25. Rom. 5.9. Yea the Scripture adds another end of Christs death, to wit, forgivenesse, Col. 1.14. Eph. 1.7. intercession at the right hand of GOD, 1 Joh. 2.1. that we may receive the A­doption of sons, Gal. 4.5. To make us Kings and Priests to God, Rev. 1.16. dying to sin, living to him, 1 Pet. 2.24. That he [Page 229] might bring us to God, 1 Pet. 3.18. The glorifying of God in our bodies, 1 Cor. 6.19, 20. Redeeming us from our vain conversation, 1 Pet. 1.18. From this present evill world, Gal. 1.4. Sanctify­ing the people, Heb. 13.12. Heb. 10.8, 9, 10. All which the Lord must intend in Christs death to Pagans, old and young, to all and every one of mankind to whom the Gospel could not come. And what authority have men to devise a redemption generall, univer­sall, from hell, and not from sin? 2. For life eternall and not for the giving of the Spirit, and for redemption from a vain con­versation, and for sanctifying of the people also? 3. A redem­ption in Christs blood, but no forgivenesse of sins in his blood, not any non-imputation of sin, nor reconciliation of the world, 2 Cor. 5.15; 18? 4. A dying of the just for the unjust, but not to bring them to God; a redeeming of them, but not a redeeming of them out of every Kindred and Tongue, and People and Nation (for these People, Nations, and Tongues, were redeemed by this way, as well as they) and a washing of them in his blood, but no making of them Kings and Priests to God, a dying for all, but no living to him:These who teach that Christ di­ed for all and every one, and made a Covenant of Grace with all & every one, and sends no more of the Go­spel to al & every one, make the way of sal­vatiō more impossible under the second, thē under the first Adam, contrair to 1 Pet. 1.18. Rev. 5.9. Rev. 1.5.5, 6. 2 Cor. 5.15? 5. Christs blood did something (and it is not any thing) to make all saveable, to pacifie Justice, satisfie the Law, to merite Heaven; but did nothing to soften the heart, mortifie and sancti­fie the will, mind, affections, to remove unbeleef, to renew the mind. But it is sure the Lord had not intended to commit heaven and hell any more to a sanctified will, but mutable and lubrick in Adam, but to commit all to Christ, to a better Covenant, bet­ter promises, to a way of free-grace not of nature: Yet these men commit the salvation and damnation of all and every one, to an un­sanctified, corrupt, rebellious will, Gen. 6.5. Gen. 8.21. 1 Cor. 2.14. Joh. 6.44. Job 14 4. Psal. 51.5. Jer. 17.9, 10, &c. (except they say, Pagans and all mankind are regenerated, sanctified, ju­stified) yea to a worse Covenant then that Covenant of Works, to an universall Covenant of Grace. That 1. never came to their ears. 2. By which they are in a worse condition then Adam was, who had the Image of God in his soul, and a full power to stand, and a clearly revealed Covenant: But all mankind for whom Christ is supposed to die, are born heirs of wrath, but they are [Page 230] born in more miserie in the bondage of sin, of a blind heart, of a corrupt will, their chains heavier, their furnace hoter in hell, helps fewer. And yet the absolutenesse of Soveraignty under the freedom of the Grace of Christ, by this way of Vniversalists, shines no more now, nay not so much now as in Adams state, for more is laid upon free-will, and lesse help to heal the will, then was in the Covenant of Works. And if all die in Adam, and the Second Adam die for all, he must die to loose the works of Satan in all; Now if a weaker course be taken to destroy Sathans kingdom now then in Adams state, and all be laid upon a weaker will, Sathan is stronger now then before: And if Christ do not purchase by his death grace to bow indeclinably the will of all these for whom he dyed, to cause them live to him, die to sin, to make them Kings and Priests to God, &c. but leave their will in a more weak and wicked condition then it was under in the first Covenant, Sathan is in this stronger then the second ADAM. No more of this here.

It is a question, the Threatning standing, Gen. 2.17. how the active righteousnesse of Christ can be a cause meriting to us life, and satisfying the Law, when there is no suffering for the breach of the Law which expresly required death in the sinner: Not to say, that it seems too near to make Christs dying needlesse, if his active holinesse do the businesse; Nay we cannot so teach.

CHAP. II. Wherein stands our right to Christ and the satisfaction made for us by Christ? 2. Faith is not the cause of our right. 3. Christs incarnation and dying are not favours merited by Christ. 4. How Adams sin and Christs righteousnesse are ours.

OUr right to CHRIST must be considered more accurately then ordinarily it is. Whether it floweth from 1. the me­rite of Christ: Or 2. from the grace of predestination: Or 3. faith in Christ.

1. Conclusion. Grace is either objectivè, out of us as the free love of God having mercy on whom he will; Or subjectivè meri­ted by Christ to us and bestowed upon us.

[Page 231]As touching our right to God as incarnate. 2. As dying for us.Christs in­carnation and death cannot be a fruit of the Media­tors death. 3. As his satisfaction is made ours, are of diverse considerations. For if God out of free love sent his Son in the world, Joh. 3.16. and if he, out of free-grace that separateth the race of man from An­gels, took upon him the nature of man, to wit, of Abraham, and not the nature of Angels, Heb. 2.16. Then sure by the merits of Christs death it cannot come that God came in the flesh to save sin­ners. For the effect cannot but come from the cause; but the cause flowes not from the effect, nor is the effect, to wit, Christs Incarnation and his dying, the cause of that love and free-grace of God which moved God to send his Son in the flesh, but posterior un­to, and latter then that love: for because he loved us, he sent his Son in the flesh to die for us.

2. This cannot then be true (Christ by his dying for the Elect, merited and deserved, that God should be made Man for us) for this should be true also (by the blood of Christ, and by the redem­ption that is in Christ, God sent his Son in the flesh, and the Son took on him our nature, by the blood of the Covenant) nor can this be true (Christ merited by his death, that he should die for us) for so it should be true, that Christ by his blood shed his blood for us: Where as because he loved his Church freely, he gave himself for her. Eph. 5.15. Who loved me and gave himself for me, Gal. 2.20. Hence 1. though grace be the cause of grace, as because he of grace ordained us to glory, therefore of grace he calls, and because of free-grace he calls, of free-grace he carries on his work, and gives of grace, perseverance and glory. Yet there is a fountain-grace of election to glory, which hath no cause nor merit, not the merit of Christ for its cause; but is the cause of causes and of Christs merits. As one fire may produce another, but the element of fire was not produced by another element of fire, but by God in creation. And one Vine Tree brings forth another, but the first Vine Tree was created by the Lord only.

2. Conclus. Nor have we (to speak acurately) right to Christs satisfaction nor to his righteousnesse by faith.We have not proper­ly right to Christs sa­tisfaction by faith. 1. Because the Lords free-grace in laying our sins on Christ, Isa. 53.6. and his making him sin for us, 2 Cor. 5.21. does rather give the right to his satis­faction. God would have Christ to stand for so many chosen of [Page 232] God upon the Crosse, and for no other. 1 Cor. 1.30. Ye are of him through Jesus Christ, who is made [...] of God, to us, wisedom, and righteousnesse, and sanctification, and redemption. Nor is there any act of faith interveening by which Christ became our surety and ransone-payer upon the Crosse, and not the surety of others.

2. It is ordinary to our Divines to say, by faith we do apply Christ and his righteousnesse: but if we speak properly, applicati­on is possession and a putting on of Christ and his righteousnesse. Now title or Law-right to an inheritance, and possession of it, are different natures, and have different causes: but faith gives not law-right to Christ and his righteousnesse not so much as instrumen­tally. My receiving with my hand gold, my eating and drinking the flesh and blood of Christ by faith, Joh. 6.53, 54, &c. doth presuppone some right to that gold: but no man can say that re­ceiving of gold, and eating of bread and putting on of garments, gives a man right to gold, bread or garments. He that poss [...]sseth an inheritance hath some right to the inheritance by birth, buying, purchase or gift: the possession in its nature and causes may be un­just, yet it is possession. Nor can it be shown what causative in­fluence, even instrumentall faith, hath in our Law-right to Christs satisfaction and righteousnesse, except it were a meritorious cause of our right by way of instrument, which can hardly be said.

CHRISTS death can­not be ap­plicable to the Repro­bate, by faith, ex­cept faith be merited to them by that death. Davenantius, dissert. de morte Christi, pag. 49. Respectu mortis Christi voluntas Dei aliter est comparata ad omnes & singulos, quam esset absque ea, nam hoc ipso quod Christus passus est in na­tura humana, sine alio ullo medio interveniente, hoc saltem apud Deum effectum, ut velit [...] homini▪ (Caino) credenti & poenitenti reconciliari, peccata remittere, vitam aeternam conferre [...] — tolle respectum hunc mortis Christi — promissionibus quoad non-ele [...]tos nihil se­rii, nihil solidi aut veri subesset — illud certum quemlibet hominem beneficio mortis Christi hoc juris sibi vendicare pos [...]e (Ergo hoc jus est impetratum morte Christi etiam reprobis.)3. We may ask how Christ so died for the Reprobate, as his death is a remedie applicable to them by the ordination of God, so as they shall have life eternall, if they believe. For 1. there is ei­ther a jus and a Law-right to pardon and life eternall merited b [...] Christs death to the Reprobate, or no such thing is merited. If neither be procured by Christs merite, the Patrons of this way shall say there is no serious offer made to them: yea there is a jus, a title to life eternall and remission, which all the reprobate may chal­lenge, [Page 233] even a right to remission and life eternall, so they beleeve. Well then, it is the same right conditional to life and pardon which is purchased to the Elect: yea this must be purchased whether they believe or not. Then there is no more in the kind of the Law-right to Redemption and life eternall and remission of sins purchased to Peter, then to Judas or Cain; And therefore hath Christ be­stowed as much tender love in dying for the Reprobate as in dying for his friends. And Christ saith there is no greater love then this, Joh. 15.13. As for the efficacious intention of applying of Christs death to Peter, when as God had no such intention of applying it to Judas, that is an act of eternall predestination, not a fruit of Christs death, and as for the grace of beleeving, it was purchased to all, Reprobate and Elect, only the Lord applyes not his death, and bestowes not the grace of beleeving upon the Reprobate, but for right to faith, to remission, to perseverance, to life eternall, this right must be purchased, but faith it self is never bestowed upon them. But there is a ransome of blood given for faith, and purchased by CHRISTS merit: But CHRIST is never called the Head of all men, Elect and Reprobate, but the Head of the Body the Church, Eph. 1.22. Col. 1.18. And whereas the Head hath merited faith to the Reprobate, and that absolutely (for a condition is not possible) he should bestow it absolutely, else there is no seriousnesse in the command of beleeving. And since faith is no meritorious cause of right to remission and life eternall, nor a cause in part, or in whole, of our compleat and actuall reconcilia­tion, it may well be said, that they all are compleatly reconciled, pardoned, justified, washen in Christs blood, when nothing is wanting, that compleats the nature of remission and justification, for faith is only a condition applying, not a cause buying, nor sa­tisfying for us, and no cause giving in part, or in whole, any new right.

3. Conclus. Should we, by faith, have right to the promise of a new heart, by beleeving,We have not a new heart by beleeving. we should have a new heart before we have a new heart, for none can beleeve savingly any promise, and so neither can he beleeve that promise that God shall give a new heart, untill the habit of faith, which is a speciall part of the new heart, be infused: For actuall faith must flow from habituall [Page 234] faith. Therefore right to that promise must be absolutely purcha­sed by the death of Christ to the elect before they beleeve.

Quest. How is it that not only, penally, but intrinse­cally and formally we sinned in Adam, and are inherenter sinners in him, but we are righteous in Christ only imputativè, and why should not Christ be named formally the sinner, since he is made by imputation the sinner? As Adams sin is ours by imputation, and we formally and inherently are sinners in Adam?

Ans. How we sinned in Adam is a point of greater difficulty: For this first sin the tottering and reeling of the specifick common nature in Adam is ours,Adams sin is ours, not because A­dam is our father by nature, but because he is our fa­ther both by nature and by law not because he is our father [...] by na­ture (though that be a ground of the imputation also) but be­cause he is such a father by Covenant, and Law, the Law and Covenant of Works being laid in pawnd in his hand. There be three parts of Originall sin: A partaking of the first sin of Adam, we all sinned in him, Rom. 5.12, 14, 15. (2.) The want of the Image of God, called the Glory of God, Rom. 3.23. (3.) Con­cupiscence and a bentnesse of nature to sin, Rom. 7.7, 14, 17, 18, 23, 24. As to the first, Adams sin is ours really and truely, not so much because it is ours,Three parts of original sin. as because it is imputed to be ours by God, who so contrived the Law of Works, as it should be made with Adam, not as a single father, but with Adam as a publick person represen­ting all man, and having our common nature as a father both by na­ture and Law, which came from the meer free-will of God.

1. Who might so have contrived the first Covenant of Works, that sin should only have been Adams own sin, not the sin of his po­sterity.The free-will of God the ground of the Lords imputeing Adams sin to us. For by no necessity of nature, which is antecedent to the free decree of God, are all mankind legally in Adams loins, though naturally they be.

(2.) But children are as naturally in their nearest fathers loines, as we are all in the loines of Adam, and all men are equally of that same specifick nature with their nearest Parents, as with their first Parents: Yet the sins of the nearest Parents, by no necessity, are alwayes charged upon the children, but now all have sinned in A­dam, Rom. 5.12, 18.

(3.) Where a sin is inherently and personally, there is no need of imputation, which is a free Act of God, had Christ been inhe­rently [Page 235] and personally the sinner, God needed not make him, or impute our sins to him: as Isai. 53.6, 2 Cor. 5.21. and if we had been intrinsecally sinners in Adam, his sin had been ours as in­trinsecally as it was Adams; and as Adam was not the first who sin­ned by imputation, but personally and intrinsecally, so neither should Adams sin have been our sin by imputation, but intrinsecal­ly and personally, now the Scripture saith, Rom. 5.19. By one mans disobedience, many were made sinners, [...], then they were not intrinsecally sinners, before they were made, that is, before they were reputed sinners in Adam, or before Adams sin was imputed to them: as we are not intrinsecal­ly righteous in Christ, before we be justified, and made or repu­ted righteous in Christ: When therefore our Divines say, wee are as guilty of eating the forbidden fruit, as if our hands were there and our teeth, and we did eat in him,The diffe­rence be­tween the imputation of Adams sin to us, & of the righ­teousnes of Christ to us the speech cannot be taken physically, personally (for we were not then born) but mo­rally and legally: but our nature was legally there. But when the Elect does sin, Christ is not said to have been in our loines le­gally, but he was made sin, he was punished so as if he had been the sinner; though there was in Christ no formall guiltinesse, no reatus culpae, but reatus paenae.

But we are deprived of the Image of God, and inclined to all sin, not by imputation, as the young Lion and the young Serpent have not the bloody and the stinging nature of the old Lion and the old Serpent by imputation, but by naturall and intrinsecall inherencie▪ Now our holie, harmlesse, and undefiled High Priest hath no sin in him by inherencie.

3. A legall satisfaction and paying of a summe, yea more then the debter was owing,Christs im­puted righ­teousnesse cannot re­move inhe­rent sin, or make us such as ne­ver sinned. can never take away a morally inherent guiltinesse, nor inherently justifie and make innocent the sinner and make him one, who hath never borrowed the money and wa­sted it, or one who hath never sinned in Adam, and who hath never sinned in his own person: Yea the Law of Works standing, as it is most spiritual and holy; It is [...] impossible that he who hath once broken the Law, though he be made inherently most holy, and perfectly sanctified▪ can be made righteous, which requires [Page 236] there shall never be one the least sin committed, and what is done cannot be undone.

2. The suffering of another, as of the Man Christ, may well stand for what we should have suffered, but cannot remove the inherent blot of sin, and remove fundamental guiltinesse. The paying a thousand Crowns for him who borrowed five hundreth Crowns and spent them on harlotry and drunkennesse, may free the debter from being in Law, lyable to pay the five hundreth Crowns, but can never free him from being an unjust borrower, and a profuse waster.

3. The two Covenants of Works and of Grace standing, its im­possible that the active obedience of Christ can make us actively and inherently righteous, or restore to us our lost innocency.

CHAP. III. How Christ suffered for us in our roome and place. 2. He died not for all and every one. 3. How many wayes Christ is said to die in our stead. 4. The Lords so dying for all makes not all saveable, nor the Gospel Preachable to all Nations. 5. Christ died in the stead of the Elect.

THe Lord Jesus hath a roome in each Covenant, of Works, and of Grace:Davenant­us de morte Christi, c. 4. pag. 48. Ex solâ vi horum ver­borum: Christus pro omnibus mortuus est non potest inferri Chri­stum pro o­mnibus ita mortuum esse ut absolute decreverit hac sua morte omnium salutem efficaciter & insallibili­ter operari: quia satis vere & proprie pro aliquo mori is dicatur qui bono alterius procurando mo­ [...]itur, quamvis ille alter suo vitio nihil commodi inde percipiat. Christ cannot be said to die for all, if these all may eternally perish. In the Covenant of Works as a sufferer for the breach of it. Its said by Learned Davenantius, one is said truely and properly to die for another, who dies to procure his good▪ though the other by his own fault, get no good of his dying for him. But there is not such a Question as this, whether one may truely and properly die for another, but whether Christ in the sense of the Holy Ghost died verè & propriè, truely and properly, the just for the unjust, to procure good to the unjust, and yet these unjust may eternally perish and reap no good by Christs dying, through their unbeleef? 2. Will it not follow that Christ 1. died truely [Page 237] and properly for all, and yet, non obstante morte Christi, notwith­standing of the Lords dying, all the world may eternally perish, as say Arminians and Socinians. 3. It shall follow that the imme­diate, yet the compleat effect of Christs death is not actuall, but possible saving of all. And Christ hath verè & propriè, truelie and properly died for them. Nor 4. is it enough to say that Christ had a speciall intention in dying for the Elect to give them faith, but he had no such intention in dying for the Reprobate. But hence it follows that Christ as properly and truely died for the Re­probate as for the Elect, as touching the nature and intention of his dying; and that he offered as sufficient a ransome for the one as for the other, and that is a meer possible ransome, but as con­cerning the intention to apply effectually, or no effectuall intenti­on to apply the death, there's the difference. But 1. we aske for Scripture, where it is said CHRIST dying as dying for the world,No Scri­pture war­ranteth us to say that Christ died for all with one inten­tion to ap­ply his death to the elect, and with ano­ther inten­tion to ap­ply no death at all to the re­probate. had these two contrair intentions. The Scripture saith, Christ di­ed to gather his scattered children, Joh. 11.5. to bring to God, 1 Pet. 3.18. these for whom he died, that they might have life, Joh. 10.11. live to God, 2 Cor. 5.15. die to sin, 1 Pet. 2.24. be redeemed from their vain conversation, 1 Pet. 1.18. be delivered from this present evill world, Gal. 1.4. Here is our effectuall inten­tion; where is there a place for his dying with no effectuall inten­tion to bring any to God? and yet he dyed for all good and evill, to make salvation possible, say they. It is not enough to coyn two intentions in Christ-God-Man dying, and give us Scripture for one of them only, and bid us take the other on trust. 2. Nor is it enough to say all these places speak of Christs effectuall dying for his Elect only. For 1. it is not truely nor properly said that Christ effectually died for the Elect only, for he effectually died for no man by this way, because he died only to make salvation possible to all, so as they might perish for ever, notwithstanding of his dying for them: So the efficacy of dying is in Christs intention, and application. Now efficacy of intention and efficacy of appli­cation are both extrinsecall to his laying down his life. 2. The place, 2 Cor. 5.15. cannot be expounded by them of only the ef­fect: For it speaks (as they expone it) of Christ dying for all that were dead, as v. 14. and these they say are Elect and Repro­bate. [Page 238] 3. Nothing is said,Christ su­stained not two persons upon the crosse. whether Christ on the Crosse did su­stain the person of all for whom he died, Elect and Reprobate, and whether he sustained two persons (for he was cut off, but not for himself, Dan. 9.26.) one for the Reprobate, another for the E­lect. And whether he finished the transgression, and made an end of sins, as Daniel saith, 9.24. that is, of all sins and transgressi­ons,Christ was not cut off to put an end to all their transgressions for whom he died, by their way who teach that he di­ed for all without ex [...]ception. finall unbeleef and all others: For except he did that, hee cannot finish the transgression, make an end of sins, make reconci­liation for iniquity, and bring in everlasting righteousnesse, to these for whom he died; Except either he bring in half a righte­ousnesse, or at least imperfect, and never make an end of some sins and transgressions, because men will not have it so, and set bounds to the infinit sufficiency of Christ: O [...] because he puts an end of sin, and brings in everlasting righteousnesse conditionally, and is gracious and mercifull as men will, and decrees to show mer­cy, not upon discriminating rebellion, or upon unbeleef, which separateth a Reprobate from an Elect, if so it seems good to men, and if man shall have mercy on whom he will, and harden whom he will, or, which is all one, if man shall have mercy upon himself, because he will,There is no­thing pur­chased to the most part for whō Christ dies, but a pelagian power to apply which power all men have, suppone CHRIST had never died, accor­ding to these who teach that CHRIST died for all and every one. or harden himself, because he will harden himself▪ Yet may it be disputable to some, wheth [...]r grace by which one is effectually drawn to Christ, rather then another, be the grace of predestination continuated and so before Christs death, or a fruit of Christs death and so after. But it may well be s [...]id that every created saving grace is a fruit of Christs death, and that we receive the habit of saving grace out of his fulnesse, and the saving habit infused separateth an Elect from a Reprobate: For it is peculiar to Beleevers and the Elect to be gifted with one heart, Ezek. 11.19. and a new heart in the habit, Ezek. 36.26. and with the spirit [...] grace and supplication to beleeve and mourn, Zech. 12.10. and the Spirit and blessing that is powred on the thirsty ground, and the seed, Isai. 44.3. And so must we say, that the same habit as actua­ted by the Lords Spirit, and as it makes one to beleeve, and draws him effectually to the Son, actually and efficaciously, and draws not another, is a fruit of Christs death, but this way must glory be a fruit of the death of Christ, but not habituall saving grace. 2. The death of Christ for all is as common a means of salvation as [Page 239] the Preaching of the Gospel: And both must be made effectuall by efficacious grace, which is not the fruit of the merit of Christ, by this way, and since grace to actually apply the death of Christ, is not given to Pagans and millions for whom Christ died, as these Authors teach, how unsufficient must the death of our Lord be? For it leaves faith as impossible to the reprobates as if he had never died for them, for neither habituall nor actuall faith is purchased to them by this death:How many ways it may be said Christ died in our room & stead. Only the Pelagian application is left to them, which they should have had, suppose Christ had never died for them.

2. It is to be considered, how many wayes CHRIST may be said to give himself [...] a ransome for us, or in our place.

1. Christ hath sufficiently died for all in their room to redeem them. For, pro [...], for men, The suffi­ciency of Christs death de­pends up­on the i [...] ­finitness of his person, not upon the free de­cree of God noteth ever the decree and inten­tion of Christ dying for men; but the sufficiency and worth and intrinsecal dignity of Christs death, depends not upon the decree & intention of God for the worth of the death and the blood of him who is God, Act. 20.28. 1 Cor. 2.8. and the Lord of Glory is in­finite, because of the infinitnesse of the person, before and without the decree of God. 2. Nor is it true that Christs dying for all and every one (which is a dream) makes salvation possible to all, so that the Covenant is Preachable to all upon condition of beleeving, Act. 10.43. To him (Jesus Anointed who went about doing good and so was man, v. 38) to him (who was slain in our nature,Whether all beleeve and be sa­ved▪ or none believe or be saved, its true that whosoever believe shal be saved, but the truth of it dependeth not upon Christs dy­ing for all and for e­very one. not for all and every man, v. 39. to him) whom God raised up the third day, v. 40. To him gave all the Prophets witnesse (as it is, v. 43) that through his Name, who ever beleeves in him shal have remission of sins.

2. And this would be considered (whoso beleeves in Christ are justified and saved) how it is universall? It is most true thus: There is a sure connexion between faith and life eternall, and the connexion is decreed of God; or the concatenation of the end and the means, or of the means and the end, faith and salvation. And it is true: whether all beleeve or none at all beleeve, and whether all or none at all be saved, as is this (whosoever shall keep the Law perfectly, shall be justified and saved by the works of the Law.) But 1. it makes neither faith nor salvation possible to Pagans and [Page 240] Reprobates, nor perfect obedience in doing the Law nor Justifica­tion or salvation by the works of the law possible to any living man, But the Question is, whether the connexion of the former be made true by the decree and revealed will of God promising life to the beleever, by no means, but only by this, because Christ died for all and every one. And so this should have been false (if all Pa­gans and Reprobate and Elect beleeve they shall be saved) if Christ had died only for the Elect. This must be proven either by Scri­pture, or by some solid reason from Scripture; for it saith this, Re­probats can not have life by beleeving in Christ crucified for them: except it be true that Christ was crucified for them, but none can be saved by beleeving that Christ died for them, except they also beleeve that Christ rose from the dead, and ascended and inter [...]eds in Heaven for them. Then one might infer this could not be true, but false (if Reprobats beleeve they shall be saved) except Christ have died, risen again, ascended, and interceeds for all Re­probate and Elect.None are saved by beleeving that Christ died for them, ex­cept th [...]y also believe that Christ rose also, ascended, & intercee [...]ded for thē. For true and saving faith the only condition of salvation, must lay hold on the Resurrection, Ascension, and In­tercession of Christ, as well as on his dying for all. The reason why it cannot be true that Reprobats shall be saved, if they believe, except Christ have died for them, is ( [...]y this way) they cannot beleeve that Christ hath died for their sins, except it be true that he died for their sins: Yea, I answer, they cannot beleeve that Christ rose again for their righteousnesse, except it be true that Christ also rose for the righteousnesse of the Reprobats; this latter they cannot say.

It is said by Christs dying for all, God hath now a condition [...]ll will of saving all and every one, Elect and Reprobate, if they shall beleeve, which conditionall will was not in God, before Christs dying for all. Yea without Christs dying for all, salvation upon condition of beleeving had been impossible. But not to say that it is unworthy of the Holy Lord, that new wills and new decrees should arise in him, upon any thing that falls out in time, such as the crucifying of the Lord Jesus. Such Doctrine we condemn in Vorstius, and in Arminians, as is well observed by D. Twisse, such a decree as this, that God should say (I decree, will, and in­tend remission and life purchased by the death of Christ, to all Pa­gans [Page 241] that never hear the Gospel, to all Reprobats, so they shall be­leeve in Christ: And yet I never decree they shall beleeve nor have grace to beleeve) saith no more then there is a connexion be­tween faith as the condition, and remission and life eternall as the thing promised; as when God had decreed that Jerusalem should be burnt, and deny grace to obey;God hath no intenti­on to save all, though he say all that believe shall be sa­ved, nor comes such an offer frō CHRISTS intention to die for all and e­very one. Yet saith Jeremiah from the Lord, Jer. 38.17. If thou wilt assuredly go forth to the King of Babylons Princes, then thy soul shall live, and this City shal not be burnt with fire, and thou shall live and thine house. And the Lord says to Cain, Gen. 4.7. If thou dost well (and shall saving­ly beleeve as Abel) thou shalt be accepted. Then was that con­nexion decreed of God, it containing a most just condition of life, and a condition to which Zedekiah and Cain were oblidged, but that the death of Christ made the Lord to intend and decree condi­tionally and in any tearms either acceptation to life or remission to Cain, as the end, and well doing as the means, or intended to pur­chase the grace either of the one or the other, is not warranted by Scripture, for both the one and the other, are the fruits of the merits of Christ; Show 1. how God can will and decree such a thing to the Reprobate: for its as if a father would say, I purpose to sell such a plot of ground to my son, so he pay me an hundreth Crowns, When 1. the son, by no possiblity, hath, or can have the hun­dreth Crowns, but only from his father. 2. When the father of his free pleasure hath decreed never to give him the hundreth Crowns or the plot of ground. 2. Show how faith is made possible by Christs death, when it is not purchased to the reprobate by Christs death, it is not surely made physically possible by Christs death, if it be said that it is made possible morally, rationally, and objectively to them, because there cannot be an offer of life made to Reprobates and to all, upon condition of faith, except Christ have died for the Re­probate, that is denyed, and never proven: If one should come (say they) to the Antipods or to such as never heard of Christ and Preach the Gospel, he should not, before he Preach, look for any new establishing of the conditionall Covenant (who ever beleeves in Christ shall be justified and saved) but should take it as granted, it was made with them before; therefore by Christs death the Go­spel of it self is Preachable and may be Preached to all Nations, [Page 242] quovis seculo, in any age, as it was to Job. Ans. If any come to the Antipods and any Nation that never heard of Christ, having the gift of Tongues, and Preach to such, or by his own industrie acquire the gift of such Tongues,One that hath the Tongues, may preach the Gospel to the Na­tion he comes un­to, but that preachabl­nesse of the Gospel comes in in no sort, from the Lords sen­ding his Son to die for all and every one. and by the strong hand of pro­vidence Preach the conditionall Covenant, these providences should be a command, and the setting up of a shining torch there should prove these people (as to the elect among them) in Gods minde were a Covenanted people no lesse then the Church of Samaria. And there were no need to expect a new establishing of the condi­tionall Gospel-Covenant: But how is that proven to be from this, because God sent his Son to die for all and every one of these An­tipods, and made the Gospel-Covenant with all and every one of them before: the Authors shall be ebbe of Scripture here. And if these Antipods should, all and every one, refuse the Gospel and kill the Preacher, and never one either receive the Gospel, or pro­pagate to any that may receive it; Then such an Apostolick mis­sion is not in Scripture, and the lawfulnesse of that mans call to me is to be questioned: and I should judge, his own Spirit, not God sent him. Nor is this true, that the Gospel is and was Preachable, and of it self, may be preached to any age. Job lived before the giving of the Law, and Melchisedeck, and they had the call of God to Preach to them to whom they Preached.The Go­spel is not preachable to all and every Na­tion, at all and every age & dif­ference of time. 2. It shall be denied that Jonah had sinned, if he had not preached to Nineveh, except God had expresly commanded him to preach to Nineveh, otherwise it had been the sin of Godly Prophets who lived with him in the time of Joash King of Judah, 2 King. 14.25. and they had been guilty, as Jonah in not Preaching to Nineveh. Yea all the Ministers and Apostles, and Prophets had sinned in not Prophe­cying to the Phylistins, Syrians, Persians, Bythinia, Sama­ria; whereas the Apostles, Matth. 10.5. Act. 16.6. were for­bidden to Preach the Gospel to the Gentiles, to Asia: and it were strange to say Ezekiel sinned in not preaching to a people of an un­known Language, whereas the Lord expresly says he sent him not unto them, Ezek. 3.5, 6. and that, Rom. 10.15. How shall they Preach, except they be sent? is meant of the Apostles, and of all lawfull Pastors. And there may be running and no sending of God to Nations, Jer. 23.21. and Psal. 147.19, 20. when he denies, he declared his judgements and his statutes to any Nation, by sent [Page 243] Prophets, as he did to Jacob, if the Gospel then was of it self Preachable to all Nations, Prophets unsent might have Preached these same judgements to other Nations, that were Preached to Jacob, though not sent of God. But that place, Psal. 147. and diverse others would say he choised only Israel as his Covenanted people: As Deut. 7.7, 8, 9. Deut. 10.12, 13, 14, 15. Exod. 20.1, 2. Psal. 78.5, 6. Amos 3.1, 2. Deut. 27.1, 2. to them only he revea­led the Covenant of Grace, then was it not a Covenant of its own nature that might at any age, be Preached to all Nations. But what is then revealed in these decrees? (if the Reprobate beleeve, they shall be saved) Ans. Not Gods intention conditionall or ab­solute to save them, or to give them faith or grace merited by Christs death, to beleeve, for then some good-will and love of election, the Lord should bear toward the election of such, and should desire all the Reprobate to be saved, so they would believe, and yet by this way, no more is there grace purchased to them,The con­ditionall promise either of life to all that shall keep the Law, or of salvatiō to all that be­leeve in Christ can inferre no intention or good-will [...]n God to bestow the end & the means upon ei­ther the one or the other, or a­ny good-will toward their per­sons. by Christ, to beleeve, then there is grace purchased to them to per­forme obedience to the Law: Now the Authors will not say that by Christs dying for all, there is a conditionall will in Christ, or in the Father, to give life to all who perfectly keep the Law: for this conditionall will or means and end, was in God before, and suppone Christ had never died for sinners. 2. This would say that the Reprobate were to beleeve that Christ died to save them, ha­ving purchased life to them, and to believe that he died not to save them all for whom he died, because they are not to believe he di­ed to purchase faith by his death, or grace to beleeve, without which salvation is impossible: it cannot be said that God absolutely intended to save them, whether they beleeve or not, even while as there is such a decree in God, because he hath decreed both the end and the means, to wit, having ordained for them salvation, and having ordained for them faith; nor is there any such decree in God, toward any but the Elect only, therefore this conditionall decree (if all and every one beleeve, all and every one shall be sa­ved) can infer no love of God through Christ to the persons of all and every one to have them saved, more then this can infer a love of saving all and every one, to be in God or to have been in the Lord, before the fall of Angels, and men (if all and every one of [Page 244] Angels and men shall perfectly, without sin to the end, keep the Law, then all Angels, all men Elect and Reprobate shall be saved eternally.) Now no man found in judgement, can say this condi­tionall can infer that God had a good will to save some Angels, not to save others: More then this (if all and every man beleeve in Christ they shall be saved) can infer that God hath a good-will to save Reprobate men, and not fallen Angels. In a word, no simple conditionall propositions can infer the desire or good will of God to the persons of men or to have the things done, except God effectually work the condition: As this (if all fulfill the Law perfectly, men and Angels, and all men shall be saved by the Law) cannot infer that God hath a good will to the persons of all Angels and all men to justifie and save them all, without exception, by the works of the Law; the contrair whereof he decreed. For this connex proposition may stand true with the salvation of all Angels, of all men, of no Angels, or no men, according as the Lord shall be pleased of his good pleasure and free grace to work, or not to work the condition of moving the will of Angels and men to keep the Law. And therefore these connexions nihil ponunt absoluti, they place nothing absolutely to persons,Conditio­nall promi­ses place nothing ab­solutely in persons but only the connexion of things, means & [...]nd, work, & reward, but only to things, to wit, 1. that it is the duetie and obligation of all Angels and men to perform absolute obedience to the Law, as they would be justi­fied and saved by the Law, and its the duty of all men in the Visible Church to beleeve in Christ. if they would be justified and saved in Christ. 2. That there is a wise connexion between means and end, obedience legall and life, faith and life, according to the ap­proving will of God, and yet neither means nor end may ever come to passe or fall out, and neither means nor end may ever be decreed of God to fall out: Yea God may decree absolutely that none of the extreams shall exist as God decrees (if Zedekiah shall yeeld to the King of Babylon, Jerusalem shall not be burnt) and yet ac­cording to his decree or will of purpose the Lord hath decreed that the yeelding of Zedekiah, and the safety of the idolatrous Citie should not come to passe, but the contrair. So God decrees, if Judas repent and beleeve, he shall be saved according to the will of precept, and yet according to the Lords will of purpose, neither did the Lord decree or intend the repenting and saving beleeving [Page 245] of Judas nor was grace to beleeve and repent purchased by the death of Christ to Judas (by these Authors) though they boast of the amplitude of Christs death, nor did the Lord by that will of purpose ever decree or intend the salvation of Judas.

Therefore, 3. this, that the death of Christ is of its own nature preachable to all Nations, in every age, is not true: For the phrase is neither in Scipture, in Old or New Testament, nor is the thing it self in Scripture: For the meaning is, either GOD may send Apostles in any age to all the Nations of the world, to Preach: If that be, by his extraordinary power, he may save all the damned,If the Go­spel of it self were Preach [...]ble at all times to all Na­tions, it were the sin of the Prophets not to Preach to all Nati­ons, whe­ther they can speak wi [...]h all Tongues or no. 2. And all Nations should be in a fit c [...] ­pacity at all times to be the Chur­ch [...]s of Christ, and [...]ll Nati [...] ̄s should be Chu [...]ches in Cove­nant with God in Christ. that way. That Preachablenesse is not the object of our faith: Nor is that Preachablenesse a fruit of Christs dying for all. If it be meant that God by his ordinary power may send Apostles in any age to all Nations: How is that to be said? Except we say God hath decreed in his will of purpose to send Preachers to all; That can­not be, except his decree be disappointed. O [...] 3. If it be his com­mand and revealed will that the Gospel be Preached to all Nations, every age, they grievously sin, who Preach not the Gospel to the Brasilians and Antipods, whether they can speak in their Language or not. And if the Doctrine of the Covenant of its own nature may so be Preached to all Nations, without exception, in every difference of time, then must all the Nations of the earth, in all differences of time, be in a capacity to be a Covenanted people of God, the Church of Christ, the Vineyard of the Lord, his inhe­ritance, the Spouse of Christ, his Body, his Called, and Chosen flock. For to have the Doctrine of the Covenant fixedly Preach­ed to a Nation, and Christ offered to them, is to be the planted Vineyard of the Lord, for to Preach to Macedonia, fixedly, they willingly hearing, is indeed the Lords entering in Covenant with Macedonia, and his choising them to be his confederate people, and the Lords planting a Vineyard, and building a Wine-presse in it, and setting up a Ministry therein; and therefore the Lord was not in Covenant with them before. Indeed to Preach the Word simply to scoffers who reject it, and that occasionally in the pas­sing, so as there is no sort of accepting of the Covenant nor any fixed Ministry there, is not a renewing of the Covenant with them, nor does it presuppose a Covenant before made with them. 2. It [Page 246] is against the wisdome of God, that 1. there should be such a band of love the greatest love that ever was, Joh. 15.13. lying upon all mankind, Brasilians, Americans, binding them to thankfull Gospel-obedience that Christ died for them, yet this obligation of the greatest love is neither written in their heart, as the Law of nature, nor is it ever revealed to them that they are under so much love by Covenant. 2. How can the Lord say I choosed you, O Israel, among all the people of the earth, and entred in Covenant with you and your seed only. For 1. there is no need of a new e­stablishing of the conditionall Gospel-Covenant, for it was establi­shed with Israel, and with all the world before he choosed or called them. 2. He cannot be said to enter in Covenant with them on­ly. For all the world ever was thus Covenanted with God. 3. All the world must be an invisible Covenanted Church, and the fit matter to be a Church. For the Evangel may be Preached est de se annunciabile, not to stones and to rocks, but to all Nations, quovis seculo. 4. Since the Preaching of the Gospel to some Na­tions, and not to others, is an act of the Soveraign pleasure, yea and of the free grace of God to such as this Sun-light graciously doth visit, by this way, the sinfull neglect of such as refuse to Preach shall be the cause of the perishing of the elect, a dream.

Its false that Christ so died for us, that is, in our stead, as that in our stead hee fulfilled the Law, and perfor­med all a­ctive obe­dience & passive by doing and dying▪ that God can require of us.2. CHRIST may be said to die for us, as if we had substitu­ted him in our place, in so rigid a sense, as if he had been made our surety to fulfill both the preceptive and active, and also the satisfy­ing and suffering part of the Law in our room. This may please Antinomians, but a doubt it is, if it stand with the truth: For then what ever we, yea all mortall men be (for Christ died for them all, as many teach) most wicked, yet Christs active and surety and cautionary righteousnesse should be ours, and though we should never beleeve, yet Christ who fulfilled the Law and pre­ceptive as well as the threatning part, must have beleeved for all that he died for, and what need we then in our persons either be­leeve or repent? Its true, we need not perform any active obe­dience, as a part of active fulfilling of that Covenant of Works, which either must have all, or no obedience. If it be said that alio titulo, upon another account of thankfulnesse to our ransom-payer we owe active obedience: Yet all that CHRIST died for, [Page 247] both actively and passively must be perfectly righteous and justifi­ed, having payed the most perfect active and passive obedience that the Law required, though we never beleeve, and Christ must have payed the active part of justifying faith for us. And why, but we should be formally justified in him without faith also? As also, God, not we, laid our sins upon Christ, Isai. 53.6. 2 Cor. 5.21. and therefore we did commissionate and substitute Christ to die in our room.How Soci­nians will have Christ to die for us. Socinus, de Servatore ▪ l. 2. c. 8. di­ctio (pro) causam fina­lem notat. Ioan Crel­lius, advers. Grotiam, par. 1. c. 5. Cateche. R [...]ccovie. c. 8. pag. 183, 184. Loco & vi­ce peccato­rum nostro­rum mortu­um esse, ni­hil deluti [...] qui dat & pendit [...] pro ca­ptis in fuga, aut loco fugae id pendit. Jac. Armin. Antiper edit. Bertianae pag. 676. Quod si statuamus talem mediatioris ratio­nem — ut omnium electorum peccata actu ab ipsis abla [...]a & in Christum transl [...]ta sint, qui poe­nam pro illis passus, illos actu ipso [...] poenis liberaverit, tum obedientia ab illis postulata fuerit, qui illam praestitit, & vitam aeternam illa praestatione non sibi, sed illis meruerit, non [...]cus quam si ipsi Mediatorem nostro loco constituissemus & per eum DEO solvissemus debita nostra, jam simul statu­endum est secundum ipsum justitiae DEI & legis rigorem electis deberi & immunitatem [...] pecca [...]is & vitam aeternam, eosque ista bona [...] DEO postulare jure solutionis & emptionis, absque eo ut De­us postulare ullo jure fidem in Christum & conversionem ad Deum possit.

Socinus, Crellius, the Raccovian Catechism, Arminius, contend that Christ died for all finaliter, for to procure good and salvation to all, so they beleeve, and yet through their own fault, they may haply never be saved: not that he satisfied for us, but died for example as a Martyr (say Socinians) as Paul suffered for the Church, so as we, beleeving in Christ as in the only chief Martyr and witnesse, who as the only Author declared the Go­spel, not as a sufferer and ransom-payer who redeemed us from the Law, are saved. And as Arminians, he died for our good, not that he died in our room and stead, so as the sins of the Elect were actually taken off them and translated upon Christ, so as wee are actually freed from the punishment of sin, as if we had substi­tute a Saviour our selves, and payed our debt our selves to God; and so according to the rigour of Justice, we might crave by the Law of buying and selling deliverance from punishment, and life e­ternall from God. But this way they will not have Christ to die in the place and room of any, but only for their good, so as they may die eternally themselves for whom Christ died. Hence 1. It follows that Christ died for them but gave no ransome of blood for them for whom he died. 2. Arminians will not have the sins and punishment satisfactory to justice (for of such punishment we speak) actually upon Christ, and translated off the sinner and laid [Page 248] upon Christ and beleevers actually freed from satisfactory punish­ment: So that both beleevers and Christ must actually bear the satisfactory punishment. Which indeed makes beleevers half re­deemers with Christ: against which we disputed before.

3. Arminians denies that we payed our debts to God, in Christ paying them for us. So that the broken man cannot be said to have satisfied the debt in, and through the surety who satisfied for him, which in all Law is unjust. And since Arminians denies that we payed to Justice a ransome for sin, because our Surety Christ payed for us, he must deny that Christ was wounded for our transgressi­ons, and bruised for our iniquities, or that the chastisement of our peace was upon him: Contrair to Isai. 53.5. because we made him not our Mediatour and Surety, but God made him Mediatour, and laid our iniquities upon him, Isai. 53.6. But it is accidentall in Law that the debter substitute the surety,One may in Law, be a real and true satisfying sure­ty for ano­ther, thogh the debter neither re­quest, nor Covenant with him to under­take, yea though he know no, thing of the sureties willingness to under­take, and so Christ is our surety. or request him to take the place of surety upon him. But he is a reall and a most legall sure­ty who not requested, of free grace becomes surety and pays the ve­ry same summe in speciè, in kind, that the debter ought to pay; this reason does prove he is both a surety and a gracious surety. As a Kings son who comes in and layes down his head for a malefa­ctor, truely and really dyeth and layeth down his life in the room and place of that malefactor, though there was no Covenant nor paction between him and the Kings son, though neither the male­factor, nor any friend in his name did request the Prince to become surety and die for him. Reuben offers his two sons to Jacob as pawnds to be slain, if he should not bring home Benjamin safe to the father: And had Jacob accepted of the offer, Reubens two sons who knew not of the bargain, had been sureties for Benjamin, Gen. 42.37. and Judah might have been Law-surety for Benja­min to Jacob, though Benjamin requested him not to take any such place. The Lord the Creditour and Christ the Cautioner did strike hands together: Christ put himself in our room, as an hostage, pledge and surety to die for us, and payed the first and second death, the summe that we was owing, according to a paction between the Lord and Christ, and we requested not Christ to be surety, only by beleeving, we thank him, and subscribe and say Amen to what is done. But in Law we payed, in regard the same [Page 249] nature that suffered was ours, and accepted as ours. But Armi­nians clearly refuse that Christ shall be an hostage and surety for us,Arminius sides with Socinus. because the offended party of his own furnished not one that died for him; and so he strikes at the root of a reall sacrifice that is satisfactory to God, because one and the same cannot be both satisfied, and, de suo, of his own, furnish a satisfying surety. For so as his own, Socinus saith, one cannot be both a satisfier and a per­son satisfied, and this is no satisfaction at all, saith Socinus. (4.) Our beleeving cannot effectuate this, that Christ hath actually born the satisfactory punishment due to us. Arminius saith that Christ hath not, actu ipso, actually born that punishment: he must say he hath born it only potentially▪ potentià. Then its like when we beleeve, he bears that punishment compleatly, but he cannot die nor suffer, but once; only he must mean that Christ did actually bear our sins, but the satisfactory punishment is not accepted as suffered in our name. But our beleeving hindereth not,How wee satisfied ju­stice in CHRISTS dying, so that we cā ­not suffer eternally in hell, if CHRIST suffered for us on the Crosse without wrong to Divine ju­stice. but he hath in genere causae moralis & meritoriae really as a meriting cause deserved that God in justice cannot exact from us that same satisfactory punishment that Christ hath suffered for our sins, & its impossible that our faith can adde any meritorious power to Christs death: & therefore though not in our selves and physically, yet really, morally, legally in Christ, deliverance from satisfactory punishment is due to us, we being in Christ legally, and life eternall is due to us, being in Christ ac­cording to the rigour of justice, and injuria irrogata Christo spon­sori foret, wrong should be done to Christ, and commutative ju­stice, by which, ex condigno, by condignitie, he hath bought freedom from hell, and right to heaven, to these he died for, if we should suffer eternall wrath, in our persons, whether we beleeve or be­leeve not; for beleeving is no part of the meriting cause of the sa­tisfying ransome. Yea Christ by right of buying and selling, and we in Christ our surety may claime freedom from the second death, and right to everlasting life, so as God should fail against commu­tative justice against Christ, and break (with reverence and humble submission to his Glorious Majesty be it spoken) Covenant to Christ, and he should buy with a price more then enough, his seed, and not get his wages, if these he died for, die the second death, and come short of glory eternall, if the Lord say to Christ, I pro­mise [Page 250] to thee a seed, that they shall be delivered from the second death,Christ dies not so in our room and stead, as that we cannot in justice die the second death ex­cept there be a breach of Cove­nant be­tween the Lord and Christ. and have life eternall, providing thou shalt give me a price abundantly sufficient to buy these, to wit, the life and blood of God-Man, and offer thy self a sacrifice upon the Crosse to offen­ded Justice. If CHRIST shall do this and pay the ransome, and Christ get no wages, no saved seed, but they perish through the want of faith only: either must faith be a part of the ransome, which none can say, or then the Lord shall not keep Covenant to Christ. (5.) When Arminius saith that the Lord can, nullo jure, by no Law, nor Justice crave of us faith and conversion to God, if we have payed our debts, by rigour of justice exactly to God in Christ who legally in our stead and place payed for us, he supposes plainly that God requires faith and obedience of us as a part of recompence made to offended Justice. And Armini [...]s saith,God de­mands not of us faith and repen­tance, by necessity of divine ju­stice, for so he should fail against justice (with all glory to him be it spoken) if he should exact these from us. that Christs righteousnesse is ours, not as performed by him, but as imputed to us by faith: So that faith comes in as a collate­rall price payed for us or a part of the price, the very act and work of beleeving being counted ours, and our righteousnesse before God: Yea but God by no necessity of hurt Justice craves faith and repentance from us.

That CHRIST died not for our good only, but in our stead is proven, 1. Because Christ in some other more legall way died for us then for Angels, for he died for their good, that he might [...]e made the Head of Angels, Col. 2.10. Phil. 2.7, 8, 9, 10, 11. Rom. 10.9, 11. and he died for the good of the whole Creation that he might make all things new, and restore the creatures to their perfe­ction, which by the sin of man they had lost, Rom. 8.20, 21, 22, 2 [...]. Acts 3.21. Rev. 21.5. but he died not as suffering punishment due to the Angels, and the work of Creation in their stead, [...]s wounded for their transgressions, as he died for our transgressions, Isa. 53.Christ died not for our good only, but also in our stead. For the transgressions of us all, Elect and Reprobate as, they say, exponing that all, Isa. 53.6. of all and every one of man­kind, were upon him.

2. We deny not, but there be considerable differences between Christs dying, and the punishment of the Elect which they were to suffer. As,

1. Ours should have been eternall, because we could never [Page 251] out satisfie. But the sufferings of Christ, There be conside­rable diffe­rences be­tween Christs pu­nishment and that punishmēt which was due to u [...] eternally▪ because of the dignity of his person God-Man, were perfectly satisfactory in a short time.

2. He could not suffer the same pain in number, that we should have suffered, for one and the same accident cannot be in different subjects, nor is the surety to pay the very same summe numero, that the debter borrowed.

3. The Lord could not but have punished the Elect with hating & aversion of mind, they being intrinsecally and inherently sinners. He punished Christ, who was not inherently, but only by imputation the sinner, with no hatred at all, but with anger and desire of shewing and exercising revenging justice, but still loving him dear­ly, as his only Son. But upon this account, Christ must stand in our room, and because of the five-fold onenesse and Law-identity and samenesse. For,

1. Though physically the surety and the debter be two different men, yet in Law they are one and the same person,A fivefold onenes & law identi­ty & same­nes betweē Christ the surety, and sinners for whom he satisfied. and one and the same legall party, and the same object of justice. Whoso pursues in Law the surety, does also pursue the debter.

2. The debt and summe is one, not two debts, nor two ransoms, nor two punishments, nor two lives to losse, but one.

3. It is one and the same solution and satisfaction, there can not in Law-justice, come another reckoning, dying, and payment ma­king after the surety hath payed.

4. There is one and the same acceptation upon the creditor his part, if he accept of satisfaction in the payment made by the sure­ty, he cannot but legally accept of the debter, and cannot pursue him in Law, but must look upon him as no debter. To justifie him is another thing: It being a forinsecall transient declaration of his righteousnesse who beleeves. I speak here of an acception of sa­tisfaction to hurt justice revenging sin, not of an acceptation of obedience.

5. Its one and the same legall effect, Christ justified in the Spirit, and risen again, 1 Tim 3.16. and we in him as in the mer [...]torious cause are legally justified. Hence he who suffered the same satisfactory punishment, for the same sinnes committed by us, which in Law we ought to have suffered eternally.

[Page 252]2. He suffered and died for us in our stead and place, especially when the Creditor counts these sufferings, as if we had suffered: So Paul, Scripture and argu­ments frō Scripture prove that Christ died in our room and stead▪ 2 Cor. 5.14. If one be dead for all, then were all dead. And the Messiah was cut off and died not for himself, Dan. 9.26. He did no violence, neither was guile found in his mouth, Isa. 53.9. Joh. 8.46. Heb. 7.26. But he was wounded for our transgres­sions, and bruised for our iniquities, the chastisement of our peace was upon him, and with his stripes we are healed, Isa. 53.5. 1 Pet. 2.23, 24, 25. He was delivered for our offences, The Lord laid on him the iniquity of us all. He was cut out of the land of the living, for the transgression of my people was he plagued, Isa. 53.8. He bare on his body our sins on the tree.

3. He who being made under the Law, payed that Law-debt of satisfaction, which the Elect in their persons should have payed, and thereby freed them from the Law-debt of satisfaction: He sustained the person of the Elect in his suffering. But Christ being made under the Law, payed that Law-debt of satisfaction, which the Elect in their persons should have payed. The proposition is out of doubt, none denies the Minor, but that we should have died eternally in our persons, if Christ had not died for us.

4. He who of purpose took on him our nature, the nature and seed of Abraham, and the legall condition of a surety to suffer for us, he stood in our person and room in suffering for us. But Christ took on him our nature, which is common to beleeving Jews, and to such also who are casten off of God, Rom. 9.3, 4. but not as com­mon to them, but as the seed of Abraham, Heb. 2.16.

And 5. Gal. 3.10. For as many as are of the works of the Law, are under the curse, If Christ was made the curse that was due in law to us, that blessing not due to us might cōe upon us then he suffered in our place. for it is written, cursed is every one who con­tinueth not in all things which are written in the book of the Law to do them. 13. Christ hath redeemed us from the Law, being made a curse for us — not to reconcile all and every one to him­self, or to obtain a potentiall and far off power of salvation. But, ver. 14. That the blessing of Abraham might come on the Gentiles through Iesus Christ, that we might receive the promise of the spirit through faith. Not that we might beleeve or not beleeve, if we would, that is not the blessing of Abraham, Act. 11.18. Act. 15.8, 9. Act. 5.31. Ph. 1.29. and for his great love he died for us, the just for the unjust, to bring us to God.

[Page 253]6. And it is thus confirmed, Christ in dying is not looked on as a man; Nor 2. simply as a single man dying; Nor 3. as a publick Mar­tyr or witnesse that all, or none at all, if they so will, may get good of him, but by speciall paction, if he shall lay down his life, and work his work, and suffer for our sins, that which we should have suffered, he shall receive his wages and see his seed.

7. As also none who dies as a surety or pays as a surety, but he bears the person of such as he pays for, who ever gives a ransome for ano­ther by way of payment, and whosoever as a Priest offers a sacrifice for another, he represents the person offended for whom he offers, so does the Advocate act the person of the Client, the intercessour his person for whom he interceeds.

8. The phrase to die for another as a ransoner signifies to die in the stead and person of another. Demosthenes, orat. [...] in liew of Ktesiphon. For Archias, for Marcellus, Oratio pro Ar [...]hia Po­e [...]à Oratio pro Marcello [...]. Demosthe. [...]. Isocrates, [...]. Col. 1.24. [...]. Homer. [...] 5. [...]. Three for one slain. [...]. Rex. [...] ▪ Il. 1. he pleads, it is in Law as if Archias, as if Marcellus, or as if the parties for which Cicero, and Demostenes do plead, were in persons pleading themselves. Its true, Isocrates hath [...], for in bonum, for the favour and good of any: And (for) [...] notes also to do or die for the good and profit of others, Col. 1.24. I re­joice in my sufferings for you, that I may fill up the remnant of the sufferings of Christ for his body. But if it cannot be denied, but for Christ to die for his body is somewhat more then for Paul or any Martyr to die for the body, then sure Christs dying for his Church (as the more doth include the lesse) notes Christs dying for the good of his Church, and somewhat more then for the Churches profit: any may see Stephanus his Thesaurus.

[...] (For) is often the same with [...], Paul, Rom. 9.Rom 9. [...]. [...]. [...] [...]. I would wish to be separated from Christ, for my brethren; that was not that they might be saved or not, it were contrair to his prayer. 2 Cor. 5.15. If Christ died for all, then all were dead. The bread is my flesh which I will give for the life of the world. The good shepheard gives his life for his sheep. I lay down my life for my sheep. Greater love then this hath no man, that a man should give [Page 254] his life for his friends. It is expedient that one die for the people, Joh. 11. Christ hath died for the ungodly, Rom. 5. in their stead. For the just, Joh. 10.11. [...]. ver. 7. [...] for noteth most frequently vice, loco, in the place and stead: As also, [...] 2 Sam. 18.33. would God I had died for thee, Absalom. The LXX. the Syriack version, and the Chalde paraphrase,Joh. 15.13 [...]. in thy stead, I would I had died, and thou remained alive. Gen. 22.13. A sacrifice for Isaac, in stead of Isaac, Gen. 44.33. I shall remain pledge (saith Reuben) for the lad, Joh. 11.50. [...]. [...] in paund for the lad. Num. 3.12. I have ta­ken the Levites for all the first born, in stead of the first born. So LXX. [...].

Rom. 5.6· [...]. v. 7. [...].2. When a ransome is given for another in point of justice, Mar. 10.45. Christ gives his life a ransome for many, Matth. 20.28. He came to give his (dear precious) life a ransome in stead of many, 1 Tim. 2.6. [...], a counter ransome for all. Matth. 5.38. Eye for eye, tooth for tooth. Exod. 21.24.23. Thou shalt give life for life. LXX. [...]. 2 Sam. 18. Syria. versio Quis dabit me mori loco tui? Chaldae. Pa­raph. Vel­lem quod mortuus essem, & tu mansisses [...]odiè fili mi. Ge. 22. Give that peece of money for thee and me, Mat. 17. Isa 43.4. I will give men for thee, and people for thy life.

3. It is used thus, when a man is given in place of another, Pro. 11.8. The righteous is delivered out of trouble, and the wicked co­meth in his stead. Job 34.24. and he makes others to stand in their place, Heb. as before, Psal. 45.16. in stead of fathers shall be sons. Job 16.4. Oh! if your soul were in my souls stead.

4. It is when the son comes in the room and stead of the father, or one kills another, which is a sad exchanging of one person for a­nother, and though the following King does not act in the person, or by the nāe & authority of him who went before, yet there is one person changed, and another raigns in his place and room. 1 Chron. 14.1. Abijah sleept, and Asa his son raigned in his stead. LXX. [...] 1 King. 3.7.LXX. [...]. Gen. 44. LXX. [...]. Mar. 10. [...]. Mat. 20.28. [...]. LXX. [...]. 23. dabis [...] LXX. [...]. Daebis. [...] LXX. [...]. Prov. 11.8. LXX. [...]. Job 34. [...]4 Heb as before. Ps. 45.16 LXX. [...]. Job 16▪4 LXX. [...] Mat 2.22. [...]. Thou hast made thy servant to raign in the room of David my father. LXX. [...]. 2 Kin. 11.43. Rehoboam raigned in his stead, [...], Chal. Paraphra­stes, [Page 255] pro eo. 31. Abijah raigned in his stead, [...]. 2 Kin. 1.17. Joram raigned in his stead, LXX. [...]. 1 Kin. 15.28. Baasha slew him and raigned, [...]. 2 Kin. 8.15. He slew him, and Hazael raigned, [...]. 2 Kin. 15.10. Shallum slew him, and raigned in his stead, [...]. ver. 14. Menahem slew him, and raigned, [...]. ver. 30. Hoshea smote him, and raigned, [...]. So Esth. 2.4. Eccl. 4.15. 2 Sam. 17.25. Gen. 30.2. 1 King. 16.10. Zimri raigned, [...] Ezek. 16.32.

Joseph heard that Archelaus did raign in the room of Herod his father, Mat. 2.22. Tremellius, and Trostius both turn it,Trostius, Syria versio. [...] Loco Herodis pa­tris sui. [...]. Tremel. Trostius, vice piscis. [...]. Ro▪ 12.17. [...]. Syr. [...]. Tremellius Trostius, [...] pro multis, sed Mat. 2.22. vertunt loco. [...] pro, vel vice omnis hominis. [...] loco seu vice vestri. [...] loco [...]ium suarunt. [...] vice populi, 1 Tim. 2.6. [...] loco omnis hominis, 1 Pet. 2.11 [...] pro nobis, vice nostri. loco Herodis, Mat. 5.38. eye for eye: Its the same word [...] Mat. 17.27. give it for me and thee. The same word, Luk. 11.11. If his son aske a fish, for a fish in stead of a fish. Tremellius and Tro­stius, in place of a fish, loco piscis, he will not give him a serpent. Rom. 12.17. neither render evill for evill: So the same in both Languages is, 1 Thes. 5.15. [...], and 1 Pet. 3.19. and 1 Cor. 11.16. Her hair is given her in stead of a covering. The same word in the Syriack is, 1 Pet. 3.18. The Lord Christ died, the just for the unjust: in stead of the unjust, Christ is, Gal. 3.13. made a curse for us, in our stead. Matth. 20.28. Syriack, that he might give his life a redemption for many, [...] vice multorum. And the same is, Mar. 10.45. and Rom. 5.6. in due time Christ died for the wicked, [...]. Syriack, [...] pro, vel vice improborum. 8. While we was sin­ners Christ died for us. [...] in our place, 2 Cor. 5.15. If one died in place of all men, all were dead. Mark 14.24. This is my blood of the New Testament which is shed [...] for many, loco multorum, Luk. 22.20. This cup is the New Testament in my blood, which is shed in place of you. Joh. 10.11. The good shepheard layes down his life for his sheep, in place of his sheep: The same word, Joh. 11.50. Know ye not that it is expedient that one man die in the place of the people, & that the whole people perish not. Then the intrinsecall end of Christs dying consisteth not with the perishing of these for whom he died: for he died that the whole [Page 256] people should not perish. 1 Tim. 2.6. Who gave himself a re­demption for every man. Tit. 2.14. Who gave his soul in stead of us. Heb. 2.9. Who tasted death in the place of every man. 1 Pet. 2.21.(In stead) or ( [...]or) a­nother can­not note alwayes, for the pro­fit and good of another, but it must make non-sense. Christ died in stead of us, 1 Pet. 4.1. Rom. 9.3. I pray that I were separated from Christ in stead of my brethren. The same word so constantly used can hardly signifie, for the good and profit either of things or persons: As Luk. 11.11. will the father give the son a serpent in stead of a fish, for the good and profit of a fish? 1 Thes. 5.15. See that none of you render evill for evill, i. e. evil for the good and profite of evill? a wild sense, and it is wilder in the case of persons, when it is said, the son raigns, [...], so often by the Seventy Translators, in stead of his father, that must be for the good and profit of the dead father. But nothing can be wilder, then to say Jehu killed Ahabs seed, and Zimri slew his Master Elah, Hoshea slew the King, and he raigned in his stead (as the Seventy say not once) that is, he raigned for the good and profit of the King whom he slew, and so slaying of Kings, and rooting out the race and posterity of Kings,Socinus de Servato. l. 2. c. 8. Cateches. Raccoviens. c. 8. pa. 183, 184. The vain reason of Socinians, that Christ died not in the place and room of sinners, because he died not in the place and room of sinnes and trans­gressions; retorted & answered. shall be their good and profit.

Socinus, and the Catechism of Raccovia, saith, if to die for sin­ners be as much as to die in the place and stead of sinners, then to die for sinnes must be to die in the place and stead of sinnes. Ans. These and the like argue much the vanity of Socinus, if this be re­torted, as justly it may. Then as Christs dying for sinners, is for the good, profite, saving, beleeving, and confirming of the faith, establishing the comfort of sinners, then by the like Christs dying for sins, must be to save sins from hell, to bring sins to God, that sins should not live to themselves, and to establish the faith, the consolation of sins; whereas Christ died not for sins as for sinners, that he might save sins, but to dissolve the works of the devill, to take away sin, 1 Joh. 3.9. Joh. 1.29. Christ dies one way for sins, and another way for sinners: The Physitian one way cures the disease that it may be rooted out, and be no more, and another way the diseased person, that he may live and be in health.

CHAP. IV. Now we are i [...] Christ dying, and crucified in him. 2. A twofold crucifying of us with Christ. 3. A discourse of mortification. 4. The actings of the mortified. 5. That we are to be mortified in our affections to every thing that is not God, &c.

IT is objected, that we was not born, nor ha [...] we any being, when Christ died, then we died not in Christ, nor could we rise, as­cend to heaven, nor sit in heavenly places with him? Ans. But 1. in Physicall actions there is required the reall existence of the worker. Not so in legall actions, for as we had no being, who now beleeve, when Christ died, so our sins had no being;We legal­ly died & suffered for sin in Christ, altho many of us for whom he died, were not then born, and neither we nor our sins had a­ny being. How then could our sins, that were not, deserve punishment? Yet I desire to beleeve that Jesus Christ, 1 Pet. 2.24. his own self bare our sins in his own body on the tree. And that he was wounded for our transgressions, and bruised for our iniquities, who now live, Isai. 53.5. and they cannot deny this, who teach that CHRIST died for the sins of the world, none excepted. And the child in the womb, when the father is absolved from treason is really and in Law restored to his fathers inheritance: And the sucking child may be Crowned a King, and take possession of a Kingdom, and take the oath of loyalty of the subjects in the person of another, though physically he neither do, nor know what is done, but sleep in the armes of the nurse. So we legally in CHRIST satisfied, our nature in Christ was crucified, and we, though not born, did satisfie and suffer satisfactory punishment in Christ. Heb. 1.3. Having by himself purged our sins, he sat down on the right hand of the Majesty on high. Heb. 9.28. So Christ was once offered to bear the sins of many. And in him we were (legally) cruci­fied, and dead to the Law: As Gal. 2.19. so as Christ once being dead and crucified, the head and members, whole Mysticall Christ is dead to the Law, and Christ can die no more, for he cannot satisfie and pay the debt twise: And so are we in him dead to hell, to wrath, to Law-vengeance. Sathan raises a discussed plea a­gainst [Page 258] the conscience,CHRIST willeth not that we an­swer plea's that he hath an­swered, and that by un­beleef, wee trouble our selves with debt that he hath payed. thou art a sinner, and under the curse of the Law. There is no answer to that, but by beleeving I was with Christ, crucified, and am dead to the Law and died to death first and second. For Christ suffered mysticall, Christ legally satisfied, and so did I in him▪ (I speak not now of personall suffering with, or for Christ) and therefore that is a plea of Sathans forging, and ta­ken away. And unjust summonds may be answered by non-com­pearance▪ and by the appeal of faith to Christ who having payed the debt sits Judge upon his own debts, which he himself payed, and therefore cannot suffer these for whom he died to suffer for his proper debt, which once he payed. The husband cannot endure the wife to be imprisoned for the debts which he made his own and fully satisfied.

Obj. 2. All men must die and return to dust, and so must sin­ners, as the Law requires, therefore Christ died not for thee?

Ans. Socinus, and Crellius object the same, which Sathan doth.Socinus, de Servato. l. 2. c. 8. Quomodo igitur vice & loco no­stri Christus est mortuus, si nos quo (que) perpetuo [...]i­dem mortis generi expo­siti sumus? Crellius, adversus Grotium, c. 9. par. 9. How wee die, though Christ have died for us. For that death in the hew and collour of Law-wrath is holden before a beleever now and then under doubting as a tempta­tion. For we suffer not death such as Christ suffered, to wit, for sin, watered and affected with the curse of the Law; nor must we measure death from body or bulk of departing, but from the salt, and worst of death, which is the curse, and that being removed, we never die, Joh. 11.26. Joh. 5.24. no more look upon death in the Law, for there it raigns, but in Christ, and in him death is dead and removed; the formall demeriting power is removed, when the Law is satisfied: And a beleever being dead to the Law is dead to the curse and to the worst of death, as Christ is dead▪ to it now.

Obj. 3. But the conscience of the beleever, suppose there were no devill, challenges him of sin, and therefore that he is under a curse?

Ans. The conscience may be the factor and deputie of Sathan in that also,We depose CHRIST (with reverence to his holiness) from his office of Mediator, when we embark, having once beleeved in him, in a new plea with the Law. for it is the deposing of Christ from his Office of Me­diator [Page 259] in satisfying and answering by his death all the demands of the Law, there is none but Christ, when the Law demands blood and the torments of the second death, can plead any thing on the contrair. Rom. 3.19. We know that what things soever the Law speaks, it speaks to these that are under the Law: but the Law speaks not then to a beleever, for he is under grace, and so is not in tearms of treating or parleying with the Law. Christ was cruci­fied and the beleever is legally crucified with Christ, buried and risen again with Christ. 1. Then the Law is not his judge, it spake to Christ and condemned him and put him to death, when he was under the Law, and condemned you in him, now you say, Christ is not condemned and crucified, when ye enter in a new treatie with the Law to receive a new sentence from it, and thus ye undoe what Christ hath perfectly done. 2. To hearken to conscience compo­ning and making another paction with the Law then Christ hath made, is to take the plea that Christ hath embarked in, off his hand; ye are to stand still and be silent, and beleeve that Christs dying, and your dying in him, is a closing of a satisfactory bargain with the Law. Christ condemned sin in the flesh, by taking on his flesh the curse due to us for sin, & for sin, that is, for sins cause, that it might be taken away, he sent his Son to die, Rom. 8.3. and judge and con­demn sin. 3. This is to mistate a question well debated and dis­cussed by Christ; for he being the end and perfection of the Law, hath silenced, and satisfied the Law,We are not to act of new a plea with the Law, being now in another kingdome and freed from the Law. and to what use can it serve to make a new plea and a bastard controversie with a satisfied party, or to hearken to conscience which craves in the name of mistaken Law well payed debts, and this is but Sathan abusing the Law, and feigning Letters of Caption in the name of the Law, to trouble the quieted conscience of a beleever. But its safest to say, I stand to what Christ hath done and suffered to fulfill the Law, and I believe I was crucified in him, judged, and condemned legally in Christ: and what can you seek more of an ill-doer? He is condemned, cru­cified, hanged on a tree, and so is justice quieted. Some raise the devill and a storm in the soul and cannot calm it again: It is not good to provoke, irritate, and waken a sleeping dogge. There is quietnesse and peace of beleeving what Christ hath done as well done, and comfortably to rest on his deed by faith. Hence a case [Page 260] of some, who, because they are under deadnesse and security, de­sire a wakening of conscience,We are not to desire a Law-wa­kening un­der Gospel-deadnesse. and Sathan hath taught some to commit some hainous guiltinesse, that they may fall in the hand of justice, and so be wakened, and Sathan gives them their fill of it. Hence, we had rather take a Law-way which is not Gods way, as ly under deadnesse; there may be a legall looking upon deadnesse, whereas it is a Gospel-sin that we should be humbled for, and in which we should not please our selves; but no man freed from the Law and brought out of prison, should be willing or desirous to re­turn to the dungeon again. We should let God guide us under a feaver, and not be our own Physitians, but be quiet at Christs part, if he be pleased to cure by contrairs, and to quicken me by deadening me, or to make a soul humble by smiting with a spirit of pride: its good, we are to submit.

Obj. How could we be in Christ as in our surety (for saith Ar­minius) we did not give nor appoint Christ to be our Cautioner or Surety?

Ans. Its evill arguing of Arminius or Sathan, who would make the union either naturall or legall betwixt us and Christ, weak,VVe sin­ned in A­dā, though we had nei­ther being nor hand in making Adam ei­ther our naturall or Law-head, so may we be legally crucified with Christ our surety, though we had no hand in appointing Christ to be our surety. far off, generall, and such as is betwixt Christ and Pagans and all the world: But this reason is nought, for we sinners were not born and very nothing, when God made the first Adam our father and head in Law as in nature, nor had we any hand or acti­on in substituting the first Adam in his place, and yet we sinned in Adam, and his sin is ours, by divine imputation. But can any deny but Christ on the Crosse did act the cause of many belee­vers not born? This is peculiar to this dispensation, that the cre­ditor, not the debter, appoint both the Law-head, and the Evan­gelick Surety. The Surety had from us a Cautionary, sponsorie, and deputed nature, but no subscribed commission from us, it was in the heart of the Creditor by grace efficacious to obtain our con­sent, and to make a sort of legall marriage assuming our nature be­fore we either knew our husband, or gave consent to the marriage-Covenant. As the Advocat speaks in the person of the Client ab­sent and sleeping, and when the Client hears and sees how his cause is promoved, he both assents unto, and renders thanks and praises to the Advocat: and so the absent and far off Client not knowing [Page 261] any thing does act in the Advocat. And how many answers doth our Advocat in Heaven make for sinners on earth in his pleadings, of which we know not in particular any thing? Nor doth Christ speak or plead for beleevers as a privat man, nor appear in his Name as it were, but in our person.

Neither is there a faining of a person here, or a borrowed and fained redemption, there be these five here.All the re­quisits to a reall satis­faction are in Christs dying for us. 1. A Redeemer Christ. 2. Persons redeemed, sinners. 3. A Lord from whom we are redeemed, the Lord Jehovah, not simply, as God, he is the partie from whom we are redeemed, but God as the offended Law-giver, who had us lyable to eternall punishment. 4. There was a price, the life and blood of God, which though not profi­table to God (for that is extrinsecall to satisfaction reall) yet an aboundant compensation to justice for declarative glory taken from God which is the nature of reall satisfaction. 5. There is here a God just, true, holy, unchangeable, to whom the price is payed. Nor does Christ sustain the person of the enemy Satan from whom we are redeemed, for he is but the lictor who then had no right to detain us, we are redeemed from evils of sin and punishment: Nor doth Christ in suffering sustain the person of God. Hence, from our being crucified with Christ crucified, something is to be said in a practicall way of our mortification; for mortification flows originally from Christs death, we being crucified in him and with him, Gal. 2.20.

Q. What is mortification?

A. It is a deadning of the whole powers and inclinations of the soul in their bentnesse and operations,What mor­tification is. in order to things forbidden by the Law of God, or in things indifferent and commanded. Hence, not the affections only, but the understanding and mind must be deadned. And therefore this is no mortification untill sin origi­nall be subdued in its damnation by Christs death, and in its domi­nion by the Spirit of Sanctification. A tree is not withered while standing on its root, bulk and branches are green and flourishing: Its much to know the withdrawing of sap and life from the root and the vitall parts of old Adam. The ebbing of a River is not the dry­ing up of it; the new birth only is mortification.

Q. 2. Since mortification comes only from Christs death, what is the influence of Christs death herein?

[Page 262] Mortifica­tion comes frō Christs death as from a real cause and from a real new prin­ciple pro­cured by the death of Christ. Ans. The influence is reall, ad modum causae physicae, the me­rit of blood hath bought us from our vain conversation, 1 Pet. 1.18. Christ dying doth merit by blood the Spirit, and infused grace, which deadens the whole life of sin. Evangelick Arguments from ten heavens, from ten Gospels working morally and in a swasory way, cannot more work mortification then touching can make a reall change on a dead corps; we was legally dead and cruci­fied in Christ, and with Christ, when he died, many not being born then: But in the infusing of the life of God, Christ applyes the reall principle of mortification. Now the redemption from a vain conversation, 1 Pet. 1.18. from the present evil world, Gal. 1.4. is as reall and proper a bargain, except we follow Socinus, as redemption from the wrath to come. 2. Christs death hath an in­fluence morall and swasorie to work mortification: As 1 Pet. 1.16. Be holy. 17. Passe the time of your sojourning in fear. For ye are bought with his blood from your vain conversation. And 1 Pet. 5.1, 2. Christ hath suffered in the flesh, therefore be morti­fied to your lusts, and serve them not, as the Gentiles do: So Col. 3.1.5. But the action morall of the Gospel doth not work upon the naturall man:Gospel ar­guments how and upon whō they work. for like works upon the like; carnall reason upon a carnall spirit; and spirituall Arguments upon a renewed man; as an Argument from a painted feather works upon a child, more then an Argument from an inheritance, which no doubt will work upon a man come to age, and yet neither the one nor the other works upon a renewed mind to remove him off Christ his rock. Hence it is, 3. that Acts of Omnipotency are used as Morall Arguments: also, God works in you to will and to do, therefore work out your salvation. And choosing, redeeming, calling, justifying, quic­kening, converting, are brought in as causes in Scripture, both reall and morall; but they work morally on reason, where there is an impression of faith and principle of life. The Gospel works on an unrenewed man to perswade him almost to be a Christian: Ye may perswade a youth to a course,When rea­sō is green, adherence▪ to a course by perswa­sion is unstable. and get his word, consent, and write; but because reason is green and young, he falls off it again, but a man of judgement shall stand to it: yet if he be not renewed, reason is also green and raw before a spirituall tempta­tion.

[Page 263] Quest. What are the actings of a mortified man?Four sorts of conside­rable act­ings in one mortified.

Ans. No actings. 2. Slow actings and lent. 3. Actings in­different. 4. Closing with contrair providences, reproaches, work not on mortification to fire the man. Psal. 35.12. They speak mis­chievous things. 13. But I as a deaf man, heard not. David feared to be the reproach of the foolish: Such a case, though from God, would raise a cry in a child of this world. Psal. 39.9. I was dumb, I opened not my mouth, because thou did it. A mortified man is dead to the voice of men-singers and women-singers, and musicall instruments of all sorts, Eccles. 2.8. and houses, gardens,1. No a­ctings are in the mor­tified at most mo­ving ob­jects. vineyards, orchards, great possessions, cattell, treasures, gold, silver, are all as musick to a dead man: and repenting Solomon now mortified, looks on them as a wise man upon experienced vanitie and vexation of spirit. Will he sing and dance at a shadow? Ex­cept a mad man, none will do that. 2. If any thing, without a child of God, work upon him, they move him not much: Psal. 131.2. Surely I have behaved and quieted my self, as a child that is weaned of his mother, my soul is even as a weaned child. Acts 20.24. None of these things move me: I make not much rec­koning of bands. Peter, The moti­ons of grace are quiet & slow. 1 Pet. 4.12. will have the saints not to think burning quick, strange, graces motions are quiet, slow, mo­dest, there is not much fire in the spirit of a weaned child: A mor­tified soul is as a sea that hath no winds, nor low ebbings, nor high spring tides. Grace stirres leasurely and lentely toward all things, except to God: were there ten Paradices offered to it, it cryes not, a dying mans pulse beats weakly. Grace shouts at nothing,The act­ings of a mortified man in or­der to all created things, are indifferent, not perem­ptory, not so absolut­ly fixed but he can q [...]i [...]e them [...] Go [...]. wonders at, and admires nothing; weeps slowly, laughs slowly, sings weakly, eats slowly, drinks not wantonly, feasts, and yet trembles and fears, whether it be the outward or the inward man. David sayes it well▪ Ps. 62.2. He only is my Rock — I shall not greatly be moved. The beleevers sings, and yet he is not wanton; and weeps, and yet is not sad; dies, and yet lives; is fervent in the cause of God, and yet stayed and composed in spirit. 3. The actings of mortification are indifferent, not fixedly bent upon any thing but God, no not upon the Ark and spirituall comforts. Wee­ping David, 2 Sam. 16.25. saith to Zadok▪ carry back the Ark of God into the City ▪ (better I want my comfort, then the Ark be [Page 264] taken) if I shall find favour in the eyes of the Lord, he will bring me again and shew me both it and his habitation. 26. But if he say, I have no delight in thee, here am I, let him do to me as see­meth good unto him. O how sweet, when for God, Moses can lay down his personall satisfaction in a share of life eternall. What if he tramp upon my eternall Crown, I should lay it down at his feet; and is not this mortification? Should he hide his face, for eternity, from me, and I never see him in his manifestations, so his glory shine in my everlasting sad desertion; there is required an indifferency to all created things without; no peremptory and abso­lute fixednesse of the affection to any good, God excepted, is good: the contrair of this is an ingadging of the heart more then is right to any thing, give me children, or then I die, there should be a contented living without children, if God so will: love the creature, as if ye loved not, the Lord would have us hungring for the crea­ture, and yet not eagerly desiring, and thirsting, and yet have a lent and well ordered appetite to drink: love the child, but let the heart cleave leasurely to the child. Plowing, and no heart-la­bouring, buying and selling, and no heart-ingadging to the bar­gain is best here. 1 Cor. 7. They that have wives should be as if they had none. 30. And they that weep, as though they wept not; and they that rejoice, as though they rejoiced not; and they that buy, as though they possessed not. In the acting of affections to­ward the things of this life, as father, mother, husband, wife, children, houses, gain, beauty, honour, and new bought farme, there would be a godly distance of the heart from the thing ye do: Loving, and no loving; rejoicing, and no rejoicing; weeping, and no weeping; speaks most mortification. We can­not do here, except sinfully we over-doe, and the out-goings of the heart to the creature must be fierie, which is childish, whereas mortification is a gracious well composed grave temper of the aged in Christ. There is a fire-edge and a fervour or feaver of affe­ctions even to spirituall objects that are created at the first conversi­on,Actings terminated on God may be fiery. for mortification does not so soon begin as the new heart. As for God, love as one that loves, desire and desire, and when he hides himself, weep as if you weeped, so the weeping be termina­ted upon God, not upon his dispensations, to quarrell at, and cen­sure [Page 265] his wayes, but let the out-goings of the heart to God, and to Christ loved and longed for, be with fire, and full strength, Cant. 3.1, 2, 3, 4. Cant. 2.5. Ps. 42.1, 2, 3. Ps. 84.1, 2. Joh. 20.13. Luk. 7.38. Rev. 1.17. 4. Its mortification to have a heart closing with all providences. Phil. 1.21. To me to live is Christ, and to die is gain: To live is good, to die is good,Mortifica­tion sweet­ly closes with all providen­ces. because the Lord so wills, the Lords giving is to Job praising, and the Lords taking a­way is to Job praising. Phil. 4.12. I know both how to be abased, and how to abound: every where, and in all things I am instru­cted, both to be full and to be hungry, both to abound and to suffer need. If I die, it is good; if I live, it is good; if I be full, and rich, it is good; if I be hungry, and poor, it is good; if David be on the Throne, it is good, and he sings Psalms; if he be chased barefooted, and ashes on his head, by the ascent of Mount Oli­vet, it is good; he also praises and sings Psalms, 2 Sam. 15.30. Ps. 3.1, 2, 3. If he be at home in his house, it is good, he praises, Ps. 30. Ps. 101. If he be banished in the wildernesse, and chased from the house of God, its good, he praises, Psal. 42. Psal. 63. Psal. 84. Nothing falls wrong to a mortified soul. The people cry Hosanna, Christ bids them rejoice, their King comes, Zech. 9.9. The wicked spits on his face, and plucks off the hair, that is good, Isa. 50.6. I gave them face and back to be doing their will. Heat to a gracious spirit is good, cold is good, joy is good, sorrow is good, health is good, sicknesse is good: Ezekiah gets a victo­ry, the Assyrians are slain, that is good. Isaiah prophecies that all that are in his house, and his treasures shall be spoiled, and his children carried captive, good is the word of the Lord: Is spoil and captivity and the sword good? Yea Ezekiah closes with it, Isai. 39.8. Grace wonders at nothing, laughs at nothing, weeps at nothing but faintly, rejoices at nothing wantonly; closes with all, sayes Amen to all: for Christ was crucified for me, and I am crucified in, and with him.

Q. 3. What are the speces or sorts of mortifications, that we may know the true mortification?

A. 1. Its hard to give the division of them logically: There is 1. a naturall mortification, there is no fire in the affections of suc­king infants to Crowns, Kingdomes, to treasures of Gold and Sil­ver, [Page 266] that is not mortification,Mortifica­tion or deadnesse meerly na­turall, only because the Tools are broken & the horse wearied, hath no­thing to do with the death of CHRIST but virtually there is as much fire in a flint stone, though formally it be cold, as may burn twenty Cities. Concupiscence driven away from the aged, Eccles. 12. the hearth-stone is cold, and there is in it such a deadnesse to lusts, not because of deadnesse of sin Originall, it lives, as the souls of the old men live, but because the tools are broken, the animal and vitall spirits are weakened, the man loves the journey, but the horse is crooked and laid by: there is nothing of Christs death here.

2. There is a compelled mortification, sicknesse and withered arms and legs, and strong fetters in the prison, poverty and want, care for bread, and the armed man poverty that hath a sharp sword, necessity blunts the affections in their second acts, the man hath no mind of whooring:2. Compelled mortifica­tion is not frō Christs death. And many drink water, who through Christ crucifying, are not mortified to wine and strong drink. 1. There is often in this, an ignorance of CHRIST crucified, and no faith. 2. A reluctance to divine dispensation, and no gracious submission to God, which is in one crucified to the world.

3. There is a Philosophick mortification to the creatures which are seen by the light of nature to be very nothing and most unsatisfa­ctory to the naturall man:3. Philoso­phick and bookish mortifica­tion not from Chrst crucified. but there is no supernaturall deadness in the heart wrought by the death of Christ. Archimedis, and other great spirits, sick of love to know the nature, motion, and influence of the starres, and pained with a speculative disease of books, and to know much, do contemn and despise honour, gain, pleasure, the three idols, of ambitious, of covetous and voluptu­ous men; but there is no deadnesse, no bluntning of the operati­ons of the soul toward the idol world, flowing from the beleeved in crucified Lord of Glory, except you say that Plato, and Aristotle, and such, were crucified with Christ: Learning works not morti­fication.

4. There is a religious or a madly superstitious mortification. The Monks (saith Luther) dreamed that the world was cru­cified unto them, 4. Superstiti­ous and re­ligious mortifica­tion, Luther Com. on Gal. 6▪ 14▪ and they unto the world, when they entered unto their Monasteries, but by this means Christ is crucified, not the world: Yea the world is delivered from crucifying, and is the more quickened by that opinion of trust they had in their own ho­linesse [Page 267] and righteousnesse. Col. 2.23. In will-worship, in humi­lity, and neglecting of the body; not in any honour to the satis­fying of the flesh. There is much vain and counterfeit mortifica­tion; and Papists have as good warrand to sacrifice their lives to God, and to offer a bloodie sacrifice unto God, under the New Te­stament, as to shed their own blood in whipping and scourging, and such bloody worship, hath the ground of mortification that Baals Priests had to launce themselves with knives to the effusion of blood. And the same may be said of pilgrimages, of voluntary poverty, in which (as Luther said) the world and all their lusts are quickened.

5. Not unlike to this is the Pharisees mortification,5. Pharisa [...]cal mortifica­tion. in which they are not crucified with CHRIST, but alive and vigorously strong to self-righteousnesse, to merits, to dead works.

6. There is a civill or morall mortification which hath diverse branches.6. Civil mor­tification. As 1. Senec [...] teacheth that nature is satisfied with wa­ter for drink, and a [...]urse for a house, yet he was a covetous man himself. And shall Horatius Cocles be a mortified man, because he defended the Romans against the three Curiatii alone? Though the bloody Gallant killed his own sister? And was the state morti­fied who pardoned him that bloody fact, for his gallant service? And Decius father and son who suffered so much for their Coun­trey, and loved it more then their own blood? And must Afri­canus Major, and Cato, who suffered for the liberty of the pu­blick, and Diogenes, who lived on herbs, be mortified men to the world? But what avails it to be dead to the bulk of a bit body of clay, and yet be alive to vain glory? 2. There is an occasionall deadnesse rising from the sight of a father, a brother, a friend dead, not from the death of Christ. An unbeleever dies with this word, I would not live for all the world, and, we are like water spilt on the ground. The house is burnt, all spoiled, treasures, and the stock, by land and sea-robbers, are plucked away; and riches have wings. Hence, mortification transient for a time: but lusts fal­len in a sown, are not dead, they rise again and live. 3. There is another transient mortification, as D. Preston observes, when the conscience is affrighted with Judgement,D. Preston Serm. 1. of mortificati­on ▪ p. 8 p. 9. and some fire-flaught of restraining grace is up. 4. A good calm nature naturally either dul and stupid, or some clement and meek disposition, and free of [Page 268] the fire that often follows the complexion, and hampered in with teachers, parents, company, education, learning, seems a morti­fied nature. But that is true mortification, that flowes from faith in a humbled crucified Saviour, and it is not to beleeve that Christ was mortified in our room and place, as Saltmarsh and Antinomi­ans would say. Faith in Christ crucified is our mortification cau­satively, in radice, not formally.

Q. 4. To what things must we be crucified?

Answ. Gal. 6.14. To all things created, to the world; wee condemn and despise and hate the world, and the world does value us nothing.

1. Mortifica­tion to self.1. There is a deadnesse to self which was in Christ our samplar of mortification, Ro. 15.1. Let us not please our selves, but bear the in­firmities of others. 3. For even Christ pleased not himself. Self loved and adored, and mortification do not consist, too much life in apprehension, and admiring self, argues deadnesse of dead­nesse and of mortification. Was not Christ a noble self? Yet for the Lord, and his ransoned ones, Christ got above noble excellent self. It is true, there is a renewed spirituall self, a new I in the Saints, [...], Rom. 7.17. Now it is no more I that do it, but sin that dwels in me. Gal. 2.20. It is not I that lives, but Christ lives in me. Mortification sets us above new [...] renewed self, and regenerated and crucified I; it being a created excellency that we are not to adore.

2. Mortifica­tion to will2. Mortification requires a deadnes to the will, as in Christ, not my will, but thy will be done: Much life in the will to created things, speaks little or no mortification. Christ excelled in this, Joh. 5.30. I seek not mine own will▪ but the will of him that sent me. O what court, and power, and life hath our will? And how soon the will is broken and dead, then is the man broken, dead and crucifi­ed with Christ. Much will, much life of sin: See Joh. 5.40. Ye will not come. Much will, much life, all will is no mortifi­cation. Luk. 19.14. We will not have this man to raign over us. See Mark 6.25. Mat. 1.19. Mark 15.15. Act. 24.27. Act. 25.9. Luk. 10.29. Rev. 22.17. All will, argues no morti­fication.

3. Mortifica­tion to life.3. There is required deadnesse to our life, which was eminent­ly in Christ, Mat. 20.28. 1 Tim. 2.6. Joh. 10.11. So Paul, Act. [Page 269] 20.24. Ye speak of bonds and affliction, But none of thase things move me, neither count I my life dear to my self, so that I may finish my course with joy. To be mortified to life, is to hate the life, Luk. 14.26. for Christ. And Revel. 12. they overcame: mortification was their victory. v. 11. They overcame, for they loved not their lives unto death: Love of life is the life of sin when its not loved in God.

4. We must be dead to wisedome,4. Mortifica­tion to wis­dom: there is a paper sicknes for māy books and to all the gifts of the mind, for the wisedome of the world is foolrie, and God hath be­fooled it, when it comes in competition with the wisedom of the Gospel, 1 Cor. 1.18, 19. except we be dead to it, we cannot glo­ry in the Lord. 27, 28, 29. Compared with v. 31.

2. There must be a deadnesse to learning, to books, and book-vanity, Eccles. 12.12. There is no end of making many books, and much study is a wearinesse of the flesh. Eccles. 1.17.5. Mortifica­tion to learning & books. Ptolemaeus Philadelphi­us King of Egypt ga­thered in the Biblio­theck of Alexandri [...] 40000. books. ad luxuriam non ad uti­litatem, ait Livius, and they were all burnt. Serenus Sammoni [...] left in Te­stament to Gordianus junior three score and two thousand books. Petrarcha, Librorum larga copiae est operosa sed delectabilis sarcina, & animi jucunda distractio — libri quosdam ad scientiam, quosdam ad insaniam deduxere, dum plus hauri [...]nt▪ quam digerunt: Vt sto­machis▪ sic ingentis nausea saepius nocuit, quam fames. And I gave my heart to know wisedome, and to know madnesse and folly: I perceived that this also is a vexation of spirit. 18. For in much wisedom is much grief, and he that increaseth knowledge increas­eth sorrow. Paul spake more with Tongues then they all, 1 Cor. 14.18. but he was dead to that gift, he had rather have brought them nearer to Christ. 1 Cor. 4.10. We are fools, and hardly we can away with that; but we are fools for Christs sake, and for the interest of Christ and the Gospel, let us so be counted. Its near­nesse to Christ that maks us for him to be willing that what is most eminent in us be trampled upon, even shining wisedome, sciences, acts, eloquence, knowledge which puffeth up. Yea there is (3.) required a deadnesse of the knowledge of Gospel-mysteries, 1 Cor. 13.2. Paul was not rude in knowledge, but he was dead to that, and would not glory in that. And (4.) they are not crucified with Christ, not dead to opinions and sides, and to lead factions: I am of Paul, I am of Apollo, was no honour to Paul in his own esteem, 1 Cor. 1. What? was Paul crucified for you? or were ye baptized in the name of Paul? Who excells in learning, who ad­mires [Page 270] not his own, the birth of his own mind? If it were but to hold there be ten new worlds in the Moon, and millions of worlds in the other side of this world? My brethren, be not many masters. Ah! we are not dead to the Chair, the Pulpit, every one loves to be counted and called Rabbi. The blessed Man Christ confes­ses that he knows neither the day nor the hour of the Son of Mans coming; yet there are who darre define the time of his coming, and the day. The mind is a proud and haughty thing, and we are not dead to it; the mind is not mortified to the mind, 1 Cor. 8.1, 2.

5. We are not dead to Mammon: O who is like Christ and refuses to be a rich King,6. Mortifica­tiō to riches Joh. 6? Paul, 2 Cor. 8, 9. For ye kn [...]w the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, that though he was rich, yet for your sake he became poor: He had a greater mind then that he could live to riches. Paul, Acts 20.33. saith not I have sought neither silver nor gold, as the Godly judge, Whose ox have I ta­ken, 1 Sam. 12.3. but I have coveted no mans silver or gold, or ap­parrel: The life of lust to riches is in the trusting in it. Job 31.24. If I have made gold my hope, or have said to the fine gold, thou art my confidence; Or, 25. have rejoiced because my wealth was great. Its true, a beggar and an extream poor man that can­not have bread, is not troubled nor much tempted to seek a Kingdom and the millions and tunnes of gold that many rich ones have; but yet there are speculative desires and rolling waves and floods of wishes in the heart for these: and because hunger and want of bread is his door enemy lying between him and the hope of great riches, the man is neither mortified to the love of bread nor to the millions of gold that the heart is sick after. And as there be diverse kinds and speces of pests, and they are not all of one kind, yet all contrair to the blood and the heat of life: So are there sundry kinds of unmortified lusts about riches according to the sicknesse of the desire.

Obj. But is not the desire of food and raiment naturall, how then is it faulty? The simple desire of riches is not the sin.

Ans. The desire simply is naturall, and the Ants and the Conies do desire. But the desire 1. beyond measure. 2. With a sin­full doubting that they shall not have it, which reproacheth Om­nipotency. 3. A desire wider then that of Ants and Conies, of [Page 271] that which is more nor sufficient, which would destroy and not feed but over-feed, is the faulty desire; as sicknesse desires drink more then sufficient, not for health, but to feed the disease, it is the desire of the disease rather then of the man diseased; and the forbidden desire is the sin.

Obj. 2. May not a child of God desire more then enough, how then is he mortified?

Ans. If the desire of more then enough come from the habit of covetousnesse, the man is not mortified to Mammon: all sin­full habits in the child of God are broken, and lessened,Whether acts of co­vetousnesse may consist with mor­tification, and how. and chased in to inclinations, or to the habit of Originall corruption slackened and by grace subdued; but in every child of God there is sin dwel­ling and the flesh, Heb. 12.1. Rom. 7.17, 18. 1 Joh. 1.8, 10. Jam. 4.5. Gal. 5.17. and the old man, which is put off by degrees, Eph. 4.24. Col. 3.5.10. which is a habit of corruption not in full vigor, but sickening, decaying, and a dying daily, but even a grown child of God from this broken and sick habit may, temptation inva­ding, and the Lord withdrawing his influence of grace, may break out into grosse acts of covetousnesse, adultery, murther, as is clear in David, Lot, Peter, Asa, and that saith that mortification is compleat in none. And there is too oft a sort of sinfull resurrecti­on of the habit of sin and the flesh, so that David seems not to be David, but an adulterer, a murtherer: As we see it is the same River that swells over its banks, that it was before, but the over­flowing is from without, from the clouds and from excessive rain, the river also hath a receptive capacity in it self to exceed its banks and channel: So hath a child of God from strong temptation from without, and broken corruption from within, a more then his own ordinary quantity and swelling over his channel; To teach us that our mortification is a work not of day, but of our whole life. Nei­ther would the wise Agur pray against riches, Prov. 30. if tempta­tions contrair to mortification did not follow them.

6. There is a necessity of deadnesse to honour, and to learn the noble and excellent arte of self-contempt,7. Deadnesse to honour. that the Spirit shall teach us that spirituall lesson to be willingly tramped on, and the face spitted on, and the hair plucked off the cheeks, as our Blessed Lord went out and in the way met with spitting and shame, [Page 272] Isai. 50.6. Mat. 26.67. Mat. 27.26. O great word! Phil. 4.12. [...], I have learned to be abased. 1 Cor. 4.12. Being reviled we blesse, being persecuted we suffer, being defamed we intreat, we are made as the filth of the world, and are as the off-scouring of all things unto this day. [...], the swee­pings of the house: Erasmus, the filth wiped off any thing. Valla, the filth that sticks to the shoes. The Syriack hath a word that noteth the dung of the belly. As the condemned man tumbled into the sea as a sacrifice to Neptune from a steep place was called peripsema. Sis pro nobis peripse­ma. So Budaeus thinks Paul alludes to heathen expiations. And when they reproached me, David, Psal. 38.13. But I was as a deaf man that heareth not, as a dumb man that opened not his mouth. The sense and discerning of heat and cold, of railings, and applauses, would be dead: That is mortification, when the sense of hearing is dead to sounds, to musick, and to pleasant songs, these are not delightfull to a crucified or hanged man, when the life is out: Nor can all the sweet smells, flowers, roses, precious oint­ments, affect the smelling of a crucified man, nor all the fair and magnifick pallaces, meadows, gardens, rivers, mountains, hang­ings, painted pictures, work upon the sight or eyes of a crucified man. When the heart is ravished with honour, as the man who said the glory of Themistocles hindered him to sleep in the night,Plutarchus De profectu virtutum lib. 11.5.237. Themisto­cles somnum sibi Miltia­dis Tropheo adimi, eoque se excitari electo. Plutarch. ib. pag. 239. Quid mihi nunciaturus es, nisi Ho­merum re­vixisse? as litle mortified as Themistocles who said sleep was taken from him, and he was raised out of his bed in the night by reason of the brave trophie and renown of the victory of Miltiades, that re­nowned man of Athens, who, as is known, with a 10000. Greeks, put to flight 60000. Persians. And Alexander the Great, his heart must have been waking at the sound of honour, who, when a messenger came running to him full of joy, said what should thou tell me, but that Homer is living again? for he thirsted for nothing so much as honour: And how soft and very nothing is the spirit that is broken with riches or honour and pleasure? And often men judge themselves mortified, because they are dead, it may be to riches, but alive to ambition and desire of honour. As Nebuchadnezzar spared no charges for his gods, his pleasure, but he was alive to honour, Dan. 4.30. Is not this great Babylon, that I have built for the house of the Kingdom, by the might of my [Page 273] power, and the honour of my majesty? Men may judg them­selves mor­tified to honour, be­cause they are dead­ned to ri­ches, and not be mortified. Sathan doth often change Post-horses, and can seemingly deaden men to riches, when they are not mortified, and yet the heart is strongly vigorous to honour. When it was told Zeno that his ship, which he did trade withall, was broken: Well done, Fortune, (saith he) thou compells us to go within our cloak; he meaned, To live upon the glory of vertue and learning, when riches are spent and gone, was well done. But mortification, in the habite and root, is like the works of nature. The Sun equally enlightens the whole Air from the East to the West: Life comes in equally upon the whole Embryo and birth. Saving mortification goes through the whole soul.Plutarch. de capienda ex hostibus utilitate, l [...] ­bel. n. 3 [...]. pag. 241. Zeno, cum nunciaretur navim ipsius qua negotia­batur, frac­tam: Bene facis, inquit▪ fortuna, quae nos intra pal­liolum com­pellis. Christ merited by his death deadnesse to honour as well as to riches; Though in the actuall subduing of lusts D. Preston does well observe that there is not that labour required in subduing and mortifying all sins. For love of sin being the dominion, life and castle of sin, the more love to the heart-idol and to the right eye, the harder it is to be mortified. Some sins cleave to us as our hair and nails, as a custome of some sinfull words, these are sooner mortified; and yet if mor­tification be not in the heart, these take life again, as hairs and nails cutted and shaven grow again. The trees in Winter are not dead: but there be master-devils and strongly rooted heart-dar­lings, pride, covetousnesse, to which we are mortified, with a huge greater deal of pains and wrestling, for they are to men as the eye and the right hand.

7. We are not soon dead to injuries. Our blessed Coppie in this excels: Father, forgive them, All sins are not morti­fied with the like la­bour. for they know not what they do. And Steven, Act. 7.60. Lord lay not this sin to their charge, Colos. 3.13. Forgiving one another. Yea, but he wronged me, and injuries have a strong impulsion upon our spirits. I cannot for­get it. If any man have a quarrell at any (saith he) let it fall: even as Christ forgave you, so do ye also. 8. Deadnesse to injuries. Shall not Socrates wit­nesse against us, who answered his friends, willing him to accuse before the Judge a vain youth who did smite him with his foot, If an Asse lift his heels against me, shall I lift my heels against the Asse? and the youth was so convinced that he hanged himself. And he said nothing to a multitude of reproaches casten upon him in the Theater, but, I am vexed with words in the Theater as [Page 274] in a great banquet. Plutarch. lib. de li­beris edu­candis, mo­ral. 1. n. 15.20. pag. 17. A [...] si me A­sinus calce feriisset jus­suri eratis, ut contra eum calcem impingerem? Omnibus hoc ei exprobrantibus, & calcitronem (a­dolescentem) appellantibus, suspendio vita se exuit. Nequaquam aegre fero (inquit Socrates) nam in Theatro, veluti in magno convivio, verbis vexor. But naturall reason mortifies men to injuries, as cold water allayes and for a time softens the pain of the childs burnt finger, but the pain is the greater when the water is remo­ved; Or as want of money mortifies a man to drunkennesse, he drinks not excessively, not because the heart will not dare to sin, but because he cannot. The Word backed with influences from the death of Christ strongly mortifies to all sins.

9. Deadnesse to an office or a place of authori­ty.8. And the soul is not easily deadned to an office or place of a Prince, a Ruler, a Master, a Prophet, a Teacher. Abishai, 2 Sam. 16.9. Why should this dead dog curse my lord the King? Let me go over, I pray thee, and take off his head. David standeth not much upon cursing the lord the King. He is so mortified to that stile as he forgets it, and, v. 10. he saith, Let him curse, because the Lord hath said unto him, Curse David. He saith not, the Lord hath bidden him curse the lord King David. Answers thou the high Priest so? Its a great word. Christ was the Messiah, that is a great office of King, Priest and Prophet: but he was wil­ling to forget his office, by way of taking much on him, that he might fulfill his office by way of suffering. As Rulers and such as are in place must so far be dead to their office and place, as they must be willing to bear in their bosome the reproaches of all the mighty people, and to have their footsteps, even as Rulers, re­proached, Psal. 89. v. 50, 51. Places and office too often have an influence and strong enough on our unmortified hearts. But there are some providentiall sufferings that befall Rulers, as Rulers, a­gainst which they should be hardned, knowing that the Lord suf­fers in them.

10. Deadnesse to pleasure.9. It should be our work to be deadned to pleasure. I have married a wife, and therefore, [...], I can not come. This is the most lively lust. There is a mortified eye, Job 31.1. I have made a covenant with mine eye, why then should I look on a maid? Mortified eye-looks call for mortified heart-looks. Its an old sin, Gen. 3.6. And when the woman saw the tree that it was good for food, and that it was pleasant to the eyes, — she did eat▪ [Page 275] Mortified Joseph saw sin ingraven on pleasure, Gen. 39.9. How then can I do this great wickednesse, and sin against God?

10. There must be a deadned heart to all the three, to the world,11. Deadnesse to all the world. 1 Joh. 2.15. Love not the world, nor the things of the world. If any man love the world, the love of the Father is not in him. 16. For all that is in the world, the lust of the flesh, the lust of the eye, and the pride of life, is not of the Father, but is of the world, Jam. 4.4. There is some life between the friends of the world and the world, and James doubteth not to call that enimity with God, and the three great Idols of the world, gain, glory and pleasure, cannot make any happy, which Heathens, Plutarch, Cicero, Se­neca saw: and therefore they pressed a contempt of the world. For strength is the glory of the Elephant or the Bull rather then of man, and plucked away by age and time; And beauty is no lesse uncertain, being made up of quantity and colour, and the Rose and the Lilly hath more of it then man. Riches have wings, and render not the owner happy: Nobility is a borrowed good, and the Parents glory not ours: And honour is the opinion and esteem of men, and we yet cannot be dead to nothings, to shadows, to emptinesse and to vanity: and fair buildings are well ordered dead stones.

11. They are not rightly mortified who are not deadned to cre­ature-comforts, to father and mother, for they forsake,12. Mortifica­tion to cre­ature-com­forts to multitude, friends, hosts, ar­mies, cha­riots, horse, father, son, daughter, husband, to city, to our mother-countrey, &c. and the mother may forget the fruit of her own womb, but the Lord can­not forget his own, Psal. 27.10. Isa. 49.15. My friends, Job 19.19. 2. All my friends, 3. All my inward (and dearest) friends, 4. Abhorre me. Forsaking is hard, but abhorring is most sad. Yea even in the Cause of God Paul is put to this, 2 Tim. 4.16. At my first answer no man stood with me, but all men forsook me. 2. So must the Church be dead to forraign forces, Hos. 14.3. Ashur shall not save us, we will not ride upon horses, and the people must be dead and sit still from help from Egypt, Isai. 30.7. For the E­gyptians shall help in vain, and to no purpose: therefore have I cryed concerning this, Your strength is to sit still. Sitting still is a ceasing from relying upon the Chariots and strength of Egypt, as being dead to them: For thus saith the Lord, the holy One of Is­rael, in returning and rest shall ye be saved, in quietnesse and in [Page 276] confidence shall be your strength: and ye would not. And 4. his people must cease from man whose breath is in his nostrils: for wherein is he to be accounted of? Isai. 2.22. and be dead to multi­tude: for, Psal. 33.16. No King is saved by an host, a mighty man is not delivered by much strength. 17. An horse is a vain thing for safety. The help of the creature substitute in the room of God, having the lustre of blue and purple, or cloathed in scar­let, riding upon horses. Young men of desire, Ezek. 23.23. doe easily dazle our eyes, and when we are not renewed in the spirit of our mind, unsanctified hearts are weak in apprehending, and more weak in discerning of things. 5. So must there be a deadning of the husband to the wife, Job. 19.17. to servants, Job. 15.16. to sons, 2 Sam. 16. v. 11. of the mother to the daughter, of the daughter in law to the mother in law, Mic. 7.6. to blood-friends.

12. All the godly and zealous Prophets said Amen to the word of the Lord, even Christ with sighs and tears, to the extream deso­lation and ruine of Jerusalem, Luk. 19.41. Math. 23.37, 38. and Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Isaiah, Micah, Hosea, &c. to the plow­ing of Zion as a field, to the sword, captivity, to the laying wast of the land without inhabitants, Isa. 5.9. Isa. 6.10, 11, 12. Jer. 9.1, 2, 3, 4. Jer. 16.1, 2, 3. &c. Mic. 3.12. Hos. 4.3. Hos. 5.6, 9, &c. There must be a deadning to our Country and Mother-Church, that the glory of justice may shine; yea to our fathers grave, our own bed, our own fireside.

13. The Lord will have Isaiah and the godly dead to Lawes and Government, to vision and prophecying, when Judge and Prophet shall be taken away, Isa. 3.2. and children shall be their Princes, and babes shall rule over them, v. 4. and the vineyard broken, and the hedge spoiled. And he will have the godly dead to King and Priest and Law, 2 Chron. 15.3. Now for a long season Israel had been without the true GOD, and without a teaching Priest, and without law. Hos. 3.4. Hos. 10.3. And now shall they say, We have no King, because we feared not the Lord: what shall then a King do to us? Hence we must be mortified to every thing created which the Lord may take from us.

14. And upon this account there is required a deadning of our hearts to shipping and trading with diverse mighty Nations, as we [Page 277] see in the case of Tyre, Ezek. 27. of Babylon, Rev. 18.11▪ 12, 13. Jer. 51. so are we to be mortified to fair houses, Isa. 5.8. state­ly cities, Isa. 14. to all the Cedars of Lebanon, that are high and lifted up: to all the Oaks of Bashan, to all the high mountains, to every high tower, to every fenced wall, to all the ships of Tar­shish, to all the fenced cities: for the day of the Lord may be up­on these, Esai. 2. to all fair Rivers, to Oxen, Horses, Chariots, fair acres of land, to Vineyards, to Olive trees, Ezek. 29.4, 5. Isa. 50.2. Exo. 7.19. Deut. 28.31, 40, 41, 51. to seed time and harvest, Deut. 28.38. Hag. 1.6. to corn, wine, oyl, to cattell, increase of kine and flocks of sheep, Deut. 28.51, Amos 4.9. to Wine-trees, to Fig-trees, to seasonable rains, grasse and fruitfull fields, Joel 1.4, 5, 7, 10. Jer. 14.3, 4, 5, 6. to peace, safe down-lying and safe rising, Lev. 26.36. for in all the hand of the Lords anger is stretched out.

15. The Lord would have us dead to valiant and to mighty men, to Captains, Isa. 3.1, 3, 4. Yea he makes true,13. A deadnes to Captains stoutnesse and valour in warre, to birth. Ps. 76.5. The sto [...]t-hearted are spoiled, they have sleept their sleep, and none of the men of might have found their hands. 6. At thy re­buke, O God of Jacob, both the chariot and the horse are cast into a dead sleep: And therefore he will have us dead to courage in warre. Who brings on faintnesse and terrour upon the spirit, when the sound of a shaking leaf shall chase men, Levit. 26.36. And when the Lord sends a trembling of heart, and failing of eyes, and sorrow of mind, Deut. 38.65?

16. We are called to be dead to honourable birth, blood, and noble Families, when Princes are filled with contempt, and these that were cloathed in scarlet, imbrace the dung-hill, Lam. 5.12. Isa. 40.23, 20.

17. And we must be dead to the vigorousnesse of youth, when we read Eccl. 12.1, 2, 3, &c. And Barzillai his complaint,14. A deadnes to youth, pastime, play, laugh­ter, to hun­ger, fulness. 2 Sam. 19.35. Can I taste what I eat? Can I hear any more the voice of singing men and singing women? And why but this should make us dead to sports, pastime, dicing, gaming, dancing, feast­ing, chambering, wantonnesse, to all plenty and fulnesse, when God can remove the appetite, and give bread, or remove bread, and give the appetite. So as the Lord leaves that doom on you, [Page 278] Lev. 26.26. And when I have broken the staffe of bread, ten wo­men shall bake your bread in one oven, and they shall deliver you your bread again by weight, and ye shall eat and not be satisfied. So is Solomon dead to laughter, Eccles. 2.2. I said of laughter it is mad.

15. A deadnes to Ordi­nances.18. There is required a deadnesse to Ordinances, the Tabernacle is not God: David may be banished from it. The Temple is a Type of Christ, yet it is burnt with fire, and the Sanctuary pro­phaned: And the Lord required a sort of lentnesse or leasurlinesse of motion of the heart toward these, and will have his people in their exile resting upon this, Ezek. 11.16. Therefore say, thus saith the Lord God, although I have cast them far off from the heathen, and although I have scattered them among the countreys, yet will I be to them as a little Sanctuary in the countreys where they shall come. And they who remained still at Jerusalem reproached their poor captivated brethren, as hated of God, and gloried in them­selves as Citizens and Inhabitants of Jerusalem, saying, v. 15. to the exiled brethren, Get you far from the Lord, unto us is this Land given in possession. They were not mortified in looking up­on the Holy Land and City, but vainly gloried in it. And there­fore there are two things in Ordinances.There be two [...]things in Ordi­n [...]nces. 1. God that fills the Ordinances. 2. The externall bulke of them. Mortification to God and his presence in Ordinances, is not that we here require, for the affections cannot be vigorous enough in following God. There may be a limiting and binding of God to means, to the Temple, Sanctuary, hearing, Seals, and a fleshly heat and live­linesse to means, and bare and naked Ordinances; and in both these there is so far required a deadnesse, as there would be an ho­ly submission to all these, when the Lord deprives us of Ordi­nances, and a retiring in to the fountain, to the Lord himself, that he may be all in all. So some cannot sleep except the Bible be un­der the head in the night: Some tye their faith and comfort so to one man, if he be not their Pastor nothing is right. But so much of CHRIST, or the substance of Gospel-promises must be negle­cted, as means and instruments. and Ordinances are Idolized: In a word, mortification calls for livelinesse of affection to God in Christ, and a holy deadnesse to all things that are not God.

[Page 279]19. There is necessary here a deadnesse to works, for there be these defects in them. 1. They cannot save, Eph. 2. (2.) They were not crucified for you, let them not have the place and Chair of Christ. 3. They cannot quiet the conscience, because they cannot justifie. Paul Preached from Jerusalem to Illyricum, la­boured more aboundantly then they all, was unrebukeable, was conscious to himself of nothing, yet was he as dead to these as to very nothing, 1 Cor. 4.4. and to losse and dung, Phil. 3.8. Hence must we be dead to the idol of Godlinesse, for its not God.

20. And dead to Godly men, in poynt of confidence, we must not know the Man Christ after the flesh, 2 Cor. 5.16. nor any meer man, to cry man up as God, (every man is a liar) is con­trair to Gospel-mortification.

21. It were good to pray much, and to be dead to prayer: One of the main causes why we cry and pray much and are not heard,16. Deadnesse to prayer. Psal. 22.2. Psal. 69.1, 2, 3, is, because that which is proper to God the hearer of prayer, to wit, confidence and hope, we give to prayer which is not God. We pray to our own prayers and to our own wrestling often, rather then to God: and we beleeve praying does the businesse and works the charm, as if prayer were Omnipotency it self.

22. Nor are we dead to faith and hope, but we beleeve in faith and in beleeving, and we hope in our own hoping in God. 17. To faith and hope we pray to our owne prayers. But was faith crucified for you? How many fetch peace, pardon and righteousnesse, not from Christ, but from their act of beleeving? Hence a case, whether some may not fervently pray and beleeve strongly, and yet be disappointed in the particular they pray for and beleeve they shall have? Certain it may be, especially when we are dead to Omnipotency and alive to praying and beleeving, and lay more weight on faith in God then on God, and on pray­ing to God then on God himself. What Antinomians say unjust­ly we give to works, to wit, our peace with God, they and many unduely give to faith, not to Christ.

23. We fail in being more alive to comforts then to God the comforter: the infant may at once both suck the breasts,18. Deadnesse to cōforts and feeling▪ and also sleep. And is one flower more to be smelled then the whole Gar­den? And shall feelings and raptures, and manifestations of God [Page 280] in his out-goings be courted and over-courted by us beyond the God of all comforts? There is need that the heart be deadened to sense, for feeling and sense is fiery and idolatrous; and were sense more mortified at the out-goings of faith, hope, love, it were good, for our faith should be the more lively and vigorous to lay hold on God.How farre we may be taken with feeling. Q. Is it not lawfull to be taken and feelingly de­lighted with the influences of God? Ans. Sure, feeling of it self is not faulty, the fierinesse and excessive fervour of feeling is faulty, especially when terminated upon created actings of love, faith, joy, desire, hope, and not upon influences as coming from the free Grace of God, otherwise, we are but sick and pained of love of our own gracious actings, because they are our own; and this is the sicknesse of selfishnesse. Ah! a Godhead, a Godhead is not known.

23. Nor must we be, in a too lively way, taken with our own stock,19. Deadnesse to the ha­bit & stock of created grace. nor trust in the habit of grace or the new heart: for grace in us is a created rose that spreads fair and broad and smels well, but it is not God nor Christ, that we may learn not to trust in our selves, [...], 2 Cor. 1.9. But why but we may trust in our renued selves now furnished with a stock and infused habits, the ex­cellent blossoms and blooms of heaven? Nay, not in our selves thus fitted, but in God who raises the dead: for its not possible both to trust in renewed self and in God: And Paul never meant that any that professeth CHRIST, is to lean upon sinfull self or upon lost and condemned self. And sure it is as selfy to be alive to infused habits, as to misken Christ, and think, being once a convert, we can send our selves all the rest of the way to heaven without Christ, we need not Christ for a Guide or a Tutor, its within us may save us. And nothing can be more contrair to a li­ving the noble and sure life of continuall dependencie by faith on the given Leader of the people, Jesus Christ, then to trust on ha­bits of grace, they are not Christ.

25. Ah! who is that mortified as to be dead to the created sweet­nesse of joy,20. Deadnesse to the sweetnes of heaven. and the right hand pleasures of God, and the formall beatitude of glory, and alive to the only pure objective happinesse of glory? And yet that is mortification, to love and be sick and thirsty for heaven, not for the pleasures of the Garden, and the [Page 281] Streets of Gold, and the Tree of Life, and the River of Water of life, but for only only God, the heaven of heavens: And there­fore we cannot be alive to pure and the only abstracted and unmix­ed God head, except we be thus dead to heaven.

26. There is a deadnesse to the letter of the promise: The pro­mise (saith M. Ambrose) is but the Casket, 21. To the promises▪ M. Isaac Ambrose, prima, me­dia, ultima. life of fa [...]th, c. 9. Sect. 2. pa. 2 [...]1. and Christ the Jewell in it▪ the promise is but the field, Christ is the Pearle hid in it. Christ removed, the promise is no promise, or but [...]ap­lesse signes.

27. We must also be dead to the rayes, out-shinings and mani­festations of God to the soul here, and must transchange God in all presence and all love embracements, and no more: but he dead to the house of wine, to the lif [...]ed up banner of love, to love-kisses of Christ, to the love-banquets, and to the felt lying, as the be­loved, all the night between the breasts:22. Deadnesse to the out­shinings of God, to take aright absence & presence. for these nearest commu­nions are not God himself. There is required a godly hardnesse for receiving sparkles of hell and some draughts of sore trying wrath, and the hell of his most wise and righteous frownings, and necessa­ry absence and night of hiding himself.

28. And should not the Church be dead to providences of fair weather, and Court, or the blessing of a godly King David, E­zekiah, and mortified to miraculous deliverances,23. Deadnes to fair provi­dences of court, God­ly Princes, miracles. dividing of the red sea, defeat of enemies, to confirmation of the truth by Mar­tyrdome and sufferings to blood? He who is dead to himself and his body and ease, and hardned against contradictions of sinners, a­gainst torment of body, cold, imprisonment, sicknesse, death, and can in patience submit to all providences, is crucified with Christ, if God give or withdraw, he is dead to both.

28. All who are dead with Christ, are dead to all dead worship,24. To saplesse wil-wor­ship. saplesse ceremonies, and formall worship, Col. 2.20. Gal. 4.9. and are lively in the serving of God, and fervent in spirit, serving the Lord: And rejoice in Christ Jesus, and have no confidence in the flesh, Phil. 3.3. Rom. 12.

CHAP. V. Of the Covenant of Redemption between God and the Me­diator Christ. 2. Christ is not a bare witnesse to confirm the Covenant, but the Author of the Covenant. 3. The Socinian way of works cannot quiet the conscience. 4. Christ is upon both sides of the Covenant. 5. Justice me­diat [...] not. 6. Reasons of the entrance of sin.

ISai. 49.8. I will preserve thee (saith the Lord to Christ) and give thee for a Covenant of the people.

Q. 1. How is CHRIST given as a Covenant of the peo­ple▪ Is 49 6Hence, the 1. Question: How is Christ said to be given as a Covenant of the people?

Ans. As Isai. 49 6. he saith, I have given thee for a light to the Gentiles, that thou mayest be my salvation unto the end of the earth: that is, as Act. 13.46, 47. I have thee, O Christ, to be the Preached Light, and Guide of the Gentiles, and the Preached Saviour, declared and proclaimed by the Preaching of Paul, Bar­nabas, and the Apostles, and Pastors. So I will give thee for the Covenant, that is▪ the Preached surety and Mediator of the Covenant, Heb. 7.22. Heb. 8.6. When the first Covenant was broken▪ he makes with us an everlasting Covenant, even the sure mercies of David, Isai. 55.3. 2. I will give thee as the only one who is the subject of the Gospel and Covenant of Grace: For to Preach Christ and to Preach the Gospel and New Covenant are all one. 3. I have given thee to be the confirmer of the pro­mises, they are all yea, and Amen, in thee, 2 Cor. 1.20. Gal. 3.16. And 4. by thy death thou confirmes the Covenant, and seals it with thy blood, Heb. 9.15, 16, 17, 22, 23, 24. Heb. 13.20.

Q. But Socinus denies that Christ is the purchaser or the obtai­ner by his blood (as it were) of the New Covenant,Socinus de Servato. l. 2. c. 16. for he did not by his death procure or merit pardon to us, he is only the sure­ty or Mediator of the Covenant. And Crellius and he say, the cause why the confirming of the Covenant is ascribed to the death of Christ, is because as by a slain beast and divided into two parts▪ Covenants of old were established, so by the death of Christ the Covenant of Grace was solemnly confirmed and sealed?

[Page 283] Ans. Christ is so the Surety as Mediator, as he is also the Author of this Covenant, as God, Exod. 3.6. It was he who said,Christ is not the cō ­firmer only but the Au­thor of the Covenant of grace. I am the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. 1▪ Cor. 10.9. Let us not tempt Christ, as some of them tempted him, and were destroy­ed of the Serpents. And this is he who led them, and brought them out of Aegypt, Numb. 21.6, 7. whom they tempted in the wilder­nesse, 5, 6, 7. And he ascribes to himself the Covenant, Heb. 8.9. Not according to the Covenant that I made with their fathers, &c. And it is clear, that the pardon of sin promised in the Covenant, Jer. 31. Heb. 8. is never ascribed to the blood of Martyrs, but e­very where to Christs blood, Eph. 1.7. Col. 1.14. Rom. 3.25. Rev. 1.5. 1 Joh. 1.8. Heb. 9.14.14, 15, 22. Heb. 10.16, 17, 18.

2. That he is the Surety also of the Covenant, is expresly said, Heb. 7.22. and the Mediator thereof, Heb. 8. Nor can it be said that the death of the Testator does properly give faith and autho­rity to the Testament,The death of the Te­stator how it confirms the Cove­nant. for the authority and justice of the just or unjust will of the Testator, addeth unto, or diminisheth from the authority of the Testament; for the Testators will is the principal efficient cause of the Testament, the death of the man is only a ne­cessary condition, by which the right of the Testator to these goods is transferred from him (who now being dead, needs them not) in to friends, to whom they are left in Legacie;It is true that the death of the Testator, to wit such a death of one who is more then a Testator or only man, even God man, procu [...]es as a meritori­ous cause, life, remis­sion, &c▪ but this it does not as the death of a Testator and dying friend, but as such a so excellent, so satisfactory a death, which no Martyrs death can do. There is a far other thing in Christs blood then power of sealing and witnessing the truth which is in the Martyrs blood. and so death is but an antecedent condition of the right to the goods. 3. Christs dying to bear witnesse to his own Gospel is only the secondary end of his death, in so far as secondarily remission of sins is made known to us after the principall end of his death, to wit, reconciliation, remission, pardon, redemption, and life is purchased to us by way of merit: And sure the truth of pardon and redemption is hugely more confirmed and sealed by the whole company of the Martyrs, and made known to the sons of men, then by the death of one single man, Maries Son: Nor does the Scripture ever commend Christs love to us in sealing the Gospel with his blood as the only way to life, or making this the most strong Argument to move us [Page 284] to beleeve in God, and obey Christ, because Christ died for sin­ners, and rose again to make the Gospel true like, and worthy to be beleeved, as the Martyres do: but love shined in this, that in dying we have redemption and forgivenesse and life in his blood; And since Godly and sound beleeving Martyrs died for this end, especially to glorifie God, and seal the truth, Joh. 21.19. Rev. 2.13. Mat. 10.32. Luk. 12.8. Mar. 8.38. Luk. 9.26. 2 Tim. 2.12. Rev. 12. [...]1. we must have most properly forgivenesse of sins in the blood of S [...]even, and Antipas, and the rest of the Mar­tyres. And miracles do aboundantly seal the truth of the Gospel; And so doth the holinesse of profession, Joh. 20.32. Mar. 16.20. Joh. 5.35, 36. Matth. 5.16. but never are we redeemed, justified, saved by Christs and the Apostles miracles and holy life, for any thing we read in Scripture; but we have life by Christs blood as by a ransome, a price to buy us.

Q. Hence, 1. case: May not the conscience be quiet by the way of SocinusThe Socinian way quiets not the wa [...]e­ned con­science by mā [...] works, but by the blood of Christ ap­prehended by faith, this is done▪ which lays aside a ransome given to Justice?

Ans. The experience of the Godly man wakened in conscience saith to this, when he is chastened with pain in his bed, and the multitude of his bones with strong pain, and the mans soul drawes [...]ear to the g [...]ave, and his life unto the destroyers, and the man stands on need of an Interpreter, one among a thousand to shew un­to man his righteousnesse, Job 33.19, 20, 21, 22, 23. Then God is gracious to him, and saith, deliver him from going down to the pit, I have found him a ransome: He is not quiet while God say, my