NEW OBSERVATIONS ON THE Natural History OF THIS World of MATTER, AND THIS World of LIFE: In Two Parts. Being a Philosophical Discourse, ground­ed upon the Mosaick System of the Creation, and the Flood. To which are added Some Thoughts concerning Paradise, the Conflagration of the World, and a Treatise of Meteorology: With occasional Remarks upon some late Theories, Conferences, and Essays. By THO. ROBINSON Rector of OUSBY in CUMBERLAND.

LONDON: Printed, for Iohn Newton at the Three Pigeons over against the Inner-Temple-Gate in Fleet-street, 1696.

To the Reverend Mr. William Nicholson Arch-Deacon of CARLISLE.


I Have read over the Books you were pleased to lend me, (viz.) Dr. Burnet's Theory of the Earth, and Dr. Wood­ward's Essay toward a Natural Hi­story of it: Both which entertain'd me with a great many new and ve­ry notable Hypotheses, managed with a great deal of Art, Ingenui­ty and Learning; but in my Opi­nion very ill grounded; many of their Notions being inconsistent with common Sense and Experi­ence, with Scripture and Reason; [Page] especially the Mosaick Account of the Creation, Paradise, and the Universal Deluge; and in some Particulars, Dr. Woodward seems inconsistent with himself.

These following Chapters, (which I make bold to present to your Hand, and to give you the Trouble of perusing) will shew you wherein I cannot concur with these great Virtuoso's, and why I endeavour to establish a quite dif­ferent Notion of things; and do ground it upon such Philosophical Theses, as Moses, that great Philo­sopher, has laid down as so many Postulata in his short, but most comprehensive System of the Cre­ation; the whole being a short and compendious Description of this World of Matter, and this World of Life wherein we live.

[Page]SIR; I am so far from being big with a fond Concei [...] of any of these Notions, that I dare not trust them in any Hands but yours; for I am unwilling that these Pa­pers (without your Approbation and Encouragement,) should go further abroad than your Study, lest some ill-natur'd and peevish Critick should take occasion to ex­pose the Ignorance and Disingenui­ty of their Author.

I know (Sir) that the Experi­ence you have lately gain'd by searching into those occult Regi­ons of Matter, being now added to your former Speculations about it; has made you the most capa­ble of determining all Differences, and solving the most difficult Phae­nomena of this Kind. If you will be pleas'd therefore to correct with your Pen the Mistakes you meet [Page] with in any of these Notions, and let me have your honest and im­partial Opinion of them, you will further oblige,

Your most affectionate and humble Servant, THO. ROBINSON.

TO THE Gentlemen Miners.


IF his Observation be true, That no Man can lose by the World; but what he loseth in Purse, he gains in Experience: You will have no Reason to complain, if sometimes your subterranean Projects miscarry upon your Hand: Since that Loss may easi­ly be Repaired by your experimental Knowledge, of those occult Regi­ons of Matter; concerning which, the most profound Philosopher can give no Account, but by way of Hypothesis and Conjecture.

Solomon, that great Master of ex­perimental Knowledge, tells us that [Page] Wisdom is better than Rubies; and all the things that may be desired are not to be compared to it. And tho' that by Wisdom he may mean that Divine Philosophy which the New Testa­ment calls Religion; yet certainly there is nothing contributes more towards making one morally or phy­sically wise, than Experience, as he intimates in the following Verse, where he brings in Wisdom thus speaking: Prov. 8.11. I Wisdom dwell with Prudence, and find out the Knowledge of witty Inventions. I confess that the Theorick Part of Philosophy (be­ing the first-born,) is more noble; and therefore deservedly sits Regent in the superior Faculties of the Soul: Attended with sublime Notions and Specula­tions; and sometimes Figments and Chimaera's are also her Maids of Honour.

And altho' the practick or experi­mental [Page] Part, sits below in humble Garb, attended only with mechanick Arti­ficers, and manual Operators: Yet she oftentimes Entertains the World with more of Certainty, and Demonstra­tion than the former.

Gentlemen, I shall not complement you into a good Opinion of these No [...]i­ons which I am willing should abide the Test of an impartial Iudgment; only I think it may be convenient to let you know that they are the product of 20 Years Experience and Observation; for so long I have been concerned in the Inspection of under-ground Works of several Kinds.

Besides the Place of my Habitation being under Crosfell, (one of the highest Mountains in England) whose lofty Top gives a large Prospect both of the East and West Seas; I have from thence observed, not only the different Classes of Matter, the Eruption of [Page] Rapid Springs; but also the Rising and Falling as well as the Rarefaction and Condensation of Vapours.

Gentlemen, If the Publication of this short Treatise (which I pre­sume to present to your Hand, as the most proper Patrons of subterranean Philosophy) put you to the Charge of an easie purchase, you will certain­ly have it much cheaper than the Au­thor, who shall always remain,

Your most humble Servant and Well-Wisher, THO. ROBINSON.


IF the learned Authors of the new Theories and Essays had but ta­ken the Pains to have consider'd better of those great Advantages of Learning and Education which Moses (the greatest Philosopher that ever was in the World, and the first Describer of its Creation) had beyond any of those learned Philo­sophers of later date, who have writ upon the same Subject; they would have entertain'd a greater Venerati­on and Esteem for his short, but most comprehensive System; than for the larger Volumes of those common Philosophers and Histori­ans [Page] whose Writings are only the Product of their own natural Rea­son; though set off with the great­est Artifice of Words, and Advan­tages of human Learning.

The first Progress which this great Philosopher made in human Learning and Wisdom was in Pha­roah's Court, where he had his Edu­cation, under the Tuition of his own Daughter, who having no Child of her own, design'd to adopt him her Son, and make him Heir apparent to that Crown: To which End he was by her Care instructed in all the Learning, Wisdom, and Philosophy of the Egyptians: And no doubt but some of the most learned amongst the Hierophanthae, who were the most skilled in the Knowledge of mystical as well as natural Philoso­phy, were his Tutors.

[Page]He being thus qualified with the best Learning Egypt could then afford, the second Improve­ment he made was in the Family of his Kinsman Iethro, who be­ing as well a Priest as Prince of Midian, did not only discipline him in all the Rules of Policy, Con­duct, and Government; by which he was fitted and prepar'd for being Captain General of that mighty Host of the Hebrews, which God design'd to deliver from the Egyptian Yoak, and un­der his Conduct to settle in Cana­an; but also he was instructed by him in the Religion of his Ance­stors, the Patriarchal Traditions concerning the Creation of the World, the Beginnings of things, and the Genealogies of Men▪ which being best known to Adam, who coming immediately out of [Page] God's Hand, did undoubtedly de­liver it to his Son Seth, Seth to Enos, and so from Father to Son, to Abraham, from whom Iethro descended by a second Mar­riage.

During his Time of Residence in Midian, which was forty Years, and most of that Time being spent in Contemplation: Its gene­rally believed he wrote this System of the Creation, with the rest of his Book called Genesis, by the As­sistance and Direction of his Fa­ther-in-Law, who could not be ig­norant of the Patriarchal Traditi­ons; himself being descended from a Patriarch of special Note.

After these Gradations and Im­provements in all Kinds of hu­mane Learning, Wisdom and Phi­losophy, God took him into his own Service, and was pleased by [Page] a sort of Per [...]onal Communication to impart to him as well the manner how all things began to exist, as how the Manners of Mankind were to be exer­cised; so that he may be reasona­bly supposed to found the Authori­ty of his Writings, as well as of his Government over God's People, upon Divine Revelation.

In this most excellen [...] System, Philosophy, Divinity and Mystery seem to be so closely interwoven that it wou'd be a Matter of great Difficulty (if not Impossibility) for any, unless such as are well skill'd in the Cabalistical Traditi­ons and Mythology, to unravel the Contexture and distinguish its parts. And some of the most learned Rabbies are of opinion that God directed Moses, and the rest of the holy Pen-Men, frequently to make [Page] use of Metaphors, Allegories, and other Sche matical Forms, which must needs be attended with some Darkness and Obscurity (these be­ing as it were a Veil drawn over the Face of Divine Truth) and this might occasion Solomon to joyn the Words of the Wise, and their dark Sayings together.

And this was not only the Practice of the sacred Writers; but of the learned Heathens, espe­cially their Priests and Philoso­phers; who undoubtedly did imi­tate Moses herein: but for different Ends and Purposes; for it did highly concern the Pagan Priests to hide and conceal their Myste­ries from the Light; which like bastard Eagles would not endure the Tryal of it.

But the holy Spirit might di­rect the holy Pen-men to observe [Page] their Style for Reasons of greater and more weighty Moment.

For the Divine Wisdom might see it fit in the Infancy of the World, to discover his Will and Mind in some things very suitable to the Capacities of the Men of that Age: And to reserve other things of great moment veil'd under Alle­gories, and mystical Expressions until the Minds of Men were more opened and enlarged; for disco­vering of those brighter Beams of Divine Truth.

Yet that the Glories that were after to appear might not be wholly clouded; he order'd it so, that such a thin Veil shou'd be drawn over the Matter, as shou'd not more set off the Beauty, than stir Men up to a diligent Search after those Divine Truths.

[Page]If then a modest Attempt be made to ground a Philosophical Discourse upon some of these veil­ed Mysteries, with Submission to Men of greater Learning, and better skill'd in mystical Philoso­phy: I presume that it will not be judg'd an Effect either of Pride or Vain-glory.

Preliminary Postulata.

I Know that it's much out of Fashi­on to beg Principles in this Philoso­phizing Age; yet considering that this Schematical Account which Moses has given of the Creation is as well Philosophical and Mystical, as Histo­rical and ad hominem, I presume that these following Postulata, being grounded upon such reason, as cannot be denyed, will easily be granted me; as first—

That this Natural World was cre­ated 1 in a Natural Way, by the Agen­cy of second Causes; God Almighty concurring with them by his Direction and Approbation in these Words (He saw that it was good.)

[Page] 2 That the work of the Creation cou'd not, in a natural way, be compleated in so short a time as six days; for as it can­not be easily imagined that all the Solid Strata and Beds of Iron cou'd be digest­ed into such good order, as we find them in; and receive their several Degrees of Consolidation in that time: Neither can it be Suppos'd that all these diffe­rent natures in the Vegetative and Ani­mal Sphere of life shou'd grow up to such a degree of Perfection, that Adam cou'd eat Ripe fruit in Paradise of six days Production: And that all the Beasts of later birth cou'd in that time get Strength to appear before him.

3 It may then be taken for a granted Principle, that by the six days work is meant the six distinct Productions; and by the Evening, and the Morning, is meant the Principles of Activity and Passivity, which were the Instrumental Causes of these Productions.

[Page]That Paradise in a literal sense may sig­nify 4 a local place or Garden of Pleasure, in a Philosophical sense all those Rational and Sensual Pleasures our Natures are capable of in this Material World: In a Mystical sense it signifies Heaven, or those Intellectual Pleasures our Natures shall be capable of when they are Spi­ritualiz'd and Exalted.

That Adam and Eve in a literal 5 sense signify the first Individual Per­sons that were of that Species. In a Phi­losophical Sense, they signify a Genera­tion of Men, and W [...]men; in a Mysti­cal sense, they signify Reason and Sense, or the Superior, and Inferior Faculties of the Soul.

That by the Serpent in a literal 6 Sense is signified a subtile insinuating Brute, whose speckled Skin (being beautified with all the Variety of Na­tural Paint) made it a fit Object to work upon the visive F [...]culty; in a [Page] Philosophical Sense, it may signifie na­tural Concupiscence: And, in a mysti­cal Sense, it may signifie the Devil.

7 By the Tree of Life, in a literal Sense, may be signified an individual Tree producing Fruit, and preserving Life. By the Tree of Knowledg in a literal Sense, may be understood a Tree bearing Fruit of a poisonous Qua­lity, and destructive of Life; in a Phi­losophical Sense they may signifie the whole Species of Vegetables, both of a wholesome and poisonous Nature; in a mystical Sense they may denote eternal Life and eternal Death.

8 Adam's giving of Names to the Beasts signifies the Exercise of his natural Rea­son, by distinguishing of their Natures.

9 Lastly, by Eve's eating of the for­bidden Fruit, may be understood the Desire of natural Concupiscence; to gra­tifie her Senses with their beloved Ob­jects.

ADVERTISEMENT WITH Additional Remarks.

SInce the writing of the following Discourse, a new Theory of the Earth hath been publish'd by a thoughtful young Divine, who agrees in some No­tions with me; this therefore is to assure the Reader, that my Manuscript laid all the last Winter in London, and was printed off before I had a Sight of the aforesaid Book, which several of my Friends can testifie (if there should be occasion) thro' whose Hands these Pa­pers have passed.

Another thing ought to be taken no­tice of, and that is my referring several Hypotheses and Observations to a late Writer (a Fault which Mr. Whiston hath committed up and down his Book) who it seems hath taken them from others; which I accidentally discover'd by falling upon the Monthly Miscellany Letters, Vol. 1. Numb. 22. Pag. 561, 566. Vol. 2. Numb. 2. Pag. 49. to 57. As also the Philosophi­cal Transactions of the Royal Society. Numb. [Page] 219. from p. 181. to 201. of which 'tis but just to give some Instances; for a tender regard ought to be had for the O [...]iginal Inventors of things, who ought not to be robb'd of the Fruits of their Labours and Studies by Pyratical Ro­vers, who set up for stupendous and mira­culous Discoverers. Turn to this Essay, Pag. 33. The Origine of Mountains from the Disruptions and Changes of the Stra­ta of the Earth was Steno's Opinion. See his Prodrom to a Dissertation concern­ing the Changes of the Earth.

Pag. 40.75, 76, 77. The same Steno, in his Prod. places about the central Fire of the Earth, a huge Sphere or Abyss of Waters; which, according to him, supplies the Earth with Springs, the Air with Vapo [...]rs, and was sufficient for the general Deluge, when by the Force of the subterraneous Fires, it was thrust and forc [...]d up, whereby the Globe was broken to pieces, and dissolv'd in the vast [...]luid.

Pag. 61.62. The perpendicular and horizontal Fissures of the Earth, di­viding the Strata or Beds of Sediments, are with great Care and Accuracy deli­neated and described by Dr. Steno in his [Page] Prodrom, and many other Phenomen [...] relating to the History of the Earth, are explain'd at the End of his Anatom. ca­nis carchar. in his specim. myolog.

Pag, 76, 86, 88. The resetling or sub­siding of Bodies, as well terrestrial as marine (dissolv'd or mix'd with the Wa­ters of the Deluge) according to the Laws of specifick Gravity in their seve­ral Strata or Beds of Stone, Sand, Clay, Ma [...]le, Slate, Lime, Chalk, &c. was publish'd above 26 Years ago, by Ni­cholas Steno, and Agostino Scilla; if the [...]oremention'd Accounts in the monthly Miscellan. Letters, and the Philosophical Tra [...]ons ar [...] to be rely'd upon; the Books thems [...]lves being not to be come at in a remote Province. This Stenoni [...]n Hypothesis of the Formation of the Note, that Steno proves the Earth to have been twice fluid, twice plain and dry, twice scabrous and craggy; the first was at the original Chaos, the second at the Flood; This (says he) is manifest from some Beds of the higher Hills, containing no Heterogeneous Bodies, because form'd before there w [...]re any Animals or Plants, or other mix'd Solids; and so pres [...]rv'd in their simple antediluvian St [...]e by the Heighth of their Si [...]uation, which might secure them against the Load of many adventitious or factitious B [...]ds, falling for the most part on the Vallies and low Places, where they make up all the compound Strata, which in [...]rust t [...] pres [...]nt Earth, and separate it from the primitive o [...]e, whose Beds are more simple, not stuffed up with such di [...]ent Bodies as make up the postdiluvian Strata, or Sediments. This agrees with what Mr. Whiston delivers in m [...]ny Places of his New Theory. To which we may add that the simple antediluvian Beds on the high Mountains, destitute of Hete­rogeneous Solids, may be l [...]id open by the washings away of the in­cumbent Diluvian Sediments or compound Beds, by the Torrents of Rains, which carry down those C [...]usts and Bodies along with them. pre­sent [Page] [...] [Page] [...] [Page] Earth out of the several Beds or Se­diments of Matter mix'd with, and sink­ing down from the Waters of the gene­ral Flood according to the Affinity and Weight of Parts is much oppos'd by a late Author of two Essays from Oxford, who cannot believe the Deluge to have been universal, nor the whole Earth planted with Animals from Noah's Ark, whose Arguments I do not approve of, being inconsistent with true Philosophy, and Divinity: Neither is Dr. Nichol's se­cond Creation of Animals after the Flood to be allow'd of, being contrary to the Design of Noah's Ark, and to the whole Mosaick Narration.

As to my Opinion concerning the Origine of fossil Shell [...], of form'd Stones, and subterraneous Plants; Scilla him­self, tho he with S [...]eno has taken great Pains to prove them to be the Exuviae or Spoils of Animals and Vegetables (from the Similitudes of their Parts in every particular) and to be the Remains of the Deluge subsided and lodg'd in several Beds, Layers, or Sediments; yet I find by Dr. Lister, that Scilla own'd some sorts of them to be of another Original, and the learned Dr. [Page] himself proves beyond all contradicti­on, that real perfect Shells are [...]requent­ly found in the Bladder, Kidneys, Im­posthumes, and other Cells of Animal Bodies; and if so, why need we force them into the midst of Quarries and Rocks by dissolving the whole Frame of Nature for their Sakes?

If true Shells can be form'd within Stones of the Bladder, and in many other Parts of the Bodies of Creatures; then by the same Argument a Million may be form'd in the Bowels of the greater World, every ways resembling those of the Sea, in Striae, Lamellae, Fas­ciae, Tendons, Threds, &c. so that they might perswade Steno, Dr. Hook, Boc­cone, Scilla, Columna, and Mr. Ray, that they were really the very same, owing their Original to the Flood, or Chaos, or Earthquakes.

My Hypothesis concerning the Gene­rations of several Animals is much con­firm'd by the learned and experienced Father Buonani in his late Observations circa viventia in non viventibus rep [...]rta; who maintains equivocal Generation from many clear and undoubted Proofs.

[Page]For, Pag. 151. to Pag. 166. compare Huetius and Bochart de Paradiso.

Pag. 189, 191. Some great Natural Philosophers will have the Ignes Fatui to be flying Gloworms, or some other shining Insects.

Pag. 205. See more of the Figures and Phenomena of Snow and Hail in Barthol. de Nive, Hook's Micrography, Boyle of Cold, Marten's Greenland Voyage, Lewenho [...]ck's Letters.

As for Mr. Whiston's New Theory, I am afraid it will be found altogether inconsistént with the Mosaick History, being adapted only to the formation of our little Globe, without taking in the Heavens (which Moses is particular in) and depending too much upon mechanical & necessary Laws (as several other late Theorys and Hypo­theses do) whereby the Flood and Con­flagration might be brought to pass without any Relation to the Fall of Man or Sin. For Comets and Eruptions of boyling Abysses may frequently destroy our Globe, by such Chains of Natural Causes; Comets by the Laws of Trajecti­on may dash and drown us with their Tails, and the central Fire may drive up the vast Abyss upon us, whether we [Page] sin or no; these Phenomena may befall the Moon and all the Planets, without any respect to Inhabitants, and may hap­pen frequently by such Concourses and Links of Mechanism, and by the ordi­nary Laws of Motion. Therefore we ought to be cautious of making such Grand Revolutions to rowl upon Ma­chines, as well as on the other hand of coining new Miracles and second Crea­tions without any Warrant from Scrip­ture; of the first I am afraid the ingeni­ous Mr. Whiston is too guilty; and of the latter the learned Dr. Nichols. But considering we are in a Country of Li­berty, and in an Age of Thought and Observation, I can easily pardon the Freedom they are pleas'd to take in their Studies and Enquiries.

Having lately met with an accurate Discourse of Bernardini Ramazzini, printed 4 Years ago in Quarto, concern­ing the subterraneous Waters, the several Layers or Beds of Earth upon deep dig­gings, the fossil Shells, Bones, Vegeta­bles, Pavements, &c. as also upon In­undations, and Deluges, with their Ef­fects, I thought fit here to acknowledg the many Obligations we owe to that [Page] inquisitive Physician for his various Ob­servations on the Changes of the Earth about the Territory of Modena, which are equally commendable with those of Columna upon Apulia; Dr. Hooke, Mr. Ray, Dr. Plot, and Dr. Lister upon Eng­land▪ Steno upon Tuscany; Scilla and Boccone upon Sicily and Malta; to whose Discoveries little hath been ad­ded as yet, notwithstanding the high and mighty Pretences of a late Author; who, in an Essay toward a Natural Histo­ry of the Earth, Pag. 37. throws Dirt up­on those very Gentlemen, from whose Writings he hath made bold to borrow the best Part of the Observations in his Work: 'Tis also remarkable, how, Pag. 249, 252, 255, 256, 257, 259. he falls foul upon a very famous and reverend Divine for taking the same Philosophick Liberty, which he himself assumes in many Places of his Essay. As for his darling Notion (though none of his own) of Specifick Gravity, 'tis notoriously false in Fact and Nature, for the Strata, Layers, or Bed [...] of Sediments (out of which Steno, Scill [...], Grandius, Ramazzini, and others, will have the Earth made up) do not lie ac­cording to their different Weights, or [Page] according to the Statick Laws of descent of Solids in Fluids; for the Strata of Mar­ble, and other Stone, of Lead, and o­ther Metals, lye often near the top or Superficies, having many lighter Strata under them; and if all the Strata thro the whole Globe could possibly be view­ed and examined, I am confident the re­spective Order of specifick Gravity would not hold in any two together; and who can fancy, that the Parts of Ferns, Mosses, and other Plants, of Shells, Teeth, and other Bones, should equiponderate with those of Metallick Fossils; nay, oftentimes subside below them; and whoever views the Di­mensions, Weight, Figure, and Place of those vast Natural Columns, call'd the Devil's Causy in Ireland, will be soon convinced of the Weakness of this Hy­pothesis. Their Origine therefore must be accounted for some other way than what Colu [...]na, Steno, Scilla, Boccone, Grandius, and others copying after them, have deliver'd concerning the Deluge and Inundations, Strata, Crusts or Sediments according to the Laws of Specifick Gravity; neither are the ma­ny Phenomena relating to their Situation, [Page] explicable by any Theories of the Earth as yet publish'd; I know not what Dr. Hooke may do when he comes to print his Lectures upon this Subject, which the Virtuosi expect, and very earnestly crave of him: Much also may be per­form'd by the Learned Mr. Edward Lhwyd, Keeper of the Oxford Museum, who hath been very diligent and accu­rate in his Observations on these Bodies, and whose Candor and Modesty, joyn­ed with his exquisite Judgment, ren­der him capable of such an Undertak­ing.

As to the Origine of subterraneous Plants, either digg'd out of Earthen Beds, or lodged within Stony Substan­ces, or else impress'd upon them, which Steno in his Prodroms (translated by Mr. Oldenburgh) Pag. 93, 94, 95. will needs derive the same way with those of Shells, Teeth, Bones, and other Parts of Ani­mals, buried in the like Strata or Sedi­ments of the Deluge; Mr. Lhwy'd of Ox­ford has rais'd many invincible Objections against this Stenonian Hypothesis in the last Edition of Camden's Britannia, P [...]g. 692, 693. and Mr. Ray in his second Preface to the Synopsis of British Plants[Page] argues very Philosophically against this Opinion, reviv'd of late with great As­surance, and in a positive manner; but Mr. Whiston hath done very wisely in taking no notice of the many insupera­ble Difficulties which have been u [...]g'd against the bringing in of these Bodi [...]s, and the forming our present Crusts and Layers of Earth, out of a ge­neral Deluge. He hath saved himself much Swea [...] and Pains in having Re­course only to two or three late Books, and in consulting Copies instead of Origi­nals, which would have given more Strength and Beauty to his Work, and would have look't more masterly; how­ever the Gentleman hath perform [...]d very well in the main, and hath shewn a pro­found and clear Knowledge in Physical Science, though not in the History of Learning, nor in that of Nature. Hi [...] Conjectures are admirable, but his Quo­tations and References are not co [...] ­mendable, being injurious to those emi­nent Philosophers who were the first I [...] ­ventors, and yet passed over in Silence, as though there had been no such Wri­ters; many of their Observations being attributed by the Author of the New The­ory [Page] to one of his own Acquaintance, who may do as much for him another time; but I would not willingly accuse Mr. Whiston of any ungenerous dealing, ha­ving discover'd a noble Genius in the Formation of his System; and therefore I conclude with respect to him, and with Charity to all Mankind.

The Contents of the first Part.
  • CHap. 1. The Philosophical meaning of these Words (In the beginning God created the Heavens and the Earth,) and what may be concluded from them.
  • Chap. 2. Of God the supream and effici [...]nt Cause; and why Moses proves not the Be­ing of a God expresly by way o [...] Argument; [...]ut implicitly by describing of the several Degrees of Perfection, and the Subordi­nations of Life.
  • Chap. 3. Of the Creation of second Causes, and the manner of their Production, and ways of working.
  • Chap. 4. Of Light and Darkness, the com­mon Principles of mix'd Bodies, what they were in Mass; and how their Divi­sion made the first Production.
  • Chap. 5. Of Light the formal Cause of all mix'd Productions; what it was whilst in Mass.
  • Chap. 6. Of Darkness, the material Cause of all mix'd Productions; what it was in Mass, how it was redu [...]'d into Form: [Page] Of the Power of Matter and Motion: Of Sympathy and Antipathy.
  • Chap. 7. Of the Spirit of God moving up­on the Face of the Waters, what is philo­sophically meant by it: Of the [...]irst divi­sion of the Waters, and the clearing of the sublunary Firmament.
  • Chap. 8. The Division of the lower Wa­ters into subterranean, superterr [...]nean, and nubiferous, and by what Grada­tions the dry Land appear'd.
  • Chap. 9. Of the Primeval or Antedilu­vian Figure o [...] the Earth.
  • Chap. 10. Of the constituent P [...]rts o [...] the Earth; and [...]irst of the volatile Part of it, or the central Fire, its natural Vses.
  • Chap. 11. Of the sixt Part of the Earth: and first of the Inequality of its Surface; their Natural Causes and Vses.
  • Chap. 12. Of Mountains, their original Cause, consistences, and natural Vses; being the first dry Land that appear'd.
  • Chap. 13. Of Mountain Heaths, &c.
  • Chap. 14. O [...] the Plains and Valleys, &c.
  • Chap. 15. Of the Channel of the Sea, &c.
  • Chap. 16. Of the [...]luid Part of this terra­queous Globe; and [...]irst of the Sea, &c.
  • Chap. 17. Of those preternatural Acci­dent [...] that disturb and interrupt the Course [Page] of Nature in this Material World, &c.
  • Chap. 18. Of the central Damps: Their Causes, Natures, and dreadful Effects upon this Globe.
  • C [...]ap. 19. Of terrene Damps, and their dreadful Effects upon this Globe, &c.
  • Chap. 20. Of Noah's Flood, its Causes, the Season of the Year when it happen'd, the Effects and Alterations it made upon the Earth.
  • Chap. 21. Of the season of the Year when the Deluge happen'd.
  • Chap. 22. Of the Alterations which Noah's Flood made in, and upon the Earth.
The Contents of the second Part.
  • CHap. 1. Of the Plastick Spirit in Matter, and its natural Products.
  • Chap. 2. Of the grand Cover of the Earth, the sympathetical Vnion of the plastick and vivisick Spirit; and the Production of Vegetables, the first and lowest Degree of Life.
  • Chap. 3. Of reducing the confus'd Mass of Light or the etherial Flame into a Bo­dy, [Page] which made the Sun; of reducing those lighter Fogs and wa [...]erish Mists in­to a Body, which made the Moon; how by clearing of the superlunary Firmament, or the Planetary Spheres, the Stars ap­pear'd, and what the Sun, Moon, and Stars contribute towards the Production of sensitive or locomotive Animals, and why the Creation of these second Causes made the fourth Production.
  • Chap. 4. Of the Production of the second Degree of Life, and first of oviparous Animals, as Fish and waterish Insects.
  • Chap. 5. Of the second Genus o [...] oviparous Animals, viz. the Aerial: And first of Fly-Insects, secondly of Serpents, thirdly of Birds, and why Moses makes the wa­terish and aerial Animals congenial.
  • Chap. 6. Of the terrene, or viviparous Animals.
  • Chap. 7. Of the Creation of Man, the sixth Production.
  • The Conclusion: Wherein is shewn the mean­ing and signisicancy of these Words. And God saw every thing that he had made, and behold it was very good.
  • [Page]A Discourse concerning the Terrestrial Paradise, shewing how Adam was in­troduced into it: The Time he continued in it, and how he and Eve employed that Time.
  • A Discourse concerning the Conflagration of this material World; the Local Hell; its outmost Boundaries, or Abraham's Gulph.
  • A short Treatise of Meteorology, with some Observations concerning the Changes and Alterations of the Weather.
    • Chap. 1. Of Vapour [...] [...]nd Exhalations, &c.
    • Chap. 2. Of the efficient Causes o [...] all Me­teors, and first of Heat.
    • Chap. 3. Of Cold, the other efficient Cause of Meteors.
    • Chap. 4. Of the Air, or Medium wherein all Meteors are generated.
    • Chap. 5. Of fiery Meteors, &c.
    • Chap. 6. Of Comets, &c.
    • Chap. 7. Of Thunder, its Causes and Effects.
    • Chap. 8. Of vaporous Meteors, and first of Dews and Hoar Frosts.
    • Chap. 9. Of Rain, Hail, and Snow.
    • Chap. 10. O [...] Hail and Snow, with Ob­servations.
    • Chap. 11. Of Frost and Thaw.
    • [Page] Chap. 12. O [...] the Sphere of Rarefaction.
    • Chap. 13. Of Wind, Helms, and Arches.
    • Chap. 14. Prognostications of the Change and Alteration of Weather, from the setting and rising of the Sun.

The Author living at a great Distance from the Press, desires the Reader [...]o p [...]don those fol­lowing Mistake [...].

PAge 5. line 13. read further, p. 25. l. 6. r. Philosophi­cally, p. 27. l. 9. r. Anteperistatical, p. 30. l. 10. r. Nutritius, p. 44. l. 25. r. Fluidity, p. 67 l. 1. r. Nature, p. 91. l. 4. r. Sublunary, p. 121. l. 24. r. Litoral [...]s, p. 13 [...]. l. 25. r. Assimilation, p. 139. l. 10. r. learned, p. 155. l. 28. r. Zodiack

A Scheme wherein the Several Phaenomena of this Terraqueous Globe are Explained.


The Central Fire disseminating a Vital heat, through the whole Cortex or Shel of the Globe.


The Mountains [...]rom the Centre to the Surface.






The Channel of the Sea.

The flatt Strata or Beds of Matter, with their Accli­vities to the [...]ountains and Declivities to the Seas together with their Elevations and Depressions: thus described


The winding and turnings of the greater Veins, Divi­ding the several Classes of Matter described thus


through which the whole Mass of s [...] terranean Water Circulates.

Their Lesser Fibres, or Rami Factions▪ filling all the flat Strata with feeders of Water, which break­ing out upon the Surface of the Earth cause Spring &c. described thus▪


The Seas with the Rivers flowing into them from the Tops of the Mountains swelling them into a Ci [...] ­bosity; and causing in them a Continual Fermentation.


Vapors Arising from the Seas, which being At­tracted by the Coldness of the Mountains, fixeth there: Forming an Atmosphere round the whole Globe.


CHAP. I. [...]he Philosophical meaning of these Words [In the beginning God created the Heavens and the Earth,] and what may be conclu­ded from them.

MOSES in his Philosophical Description of the Creation, lays it down as a granted Principle or a grand Thesis, [...]at the Heavens and the Earth, with [...] their Parts, Furniture and variety [...] Natures contained in them, were [...]eated [de novo] and that God the [...]pream Being Un-created, and Inde­ [...]endent, Almighty in Power, and In­ [...]nite in Wisdom and all Perfections, [...]as the efficient cause: That the time [Page 2] when the World was Created, was in the beginning of Time; or when Time first began to have a Being; for before the World was Created there was du­ration, or Stabilis Aeternitas [as the Schoolmen express it] but Time being an equal mensuration of Motion, it and Motion began together.

From this grand Thesis we may con­clude, First against Aristotle, who endea­vour'd by many Arguments to prove that the World, as it now stands in Matter and Form, was Eternal; which Hypothesis advanceth the World into an equality with God; makes it its own efficient Cause, Uncreated and Independent.

In the Second place this Mosaick The­sis concludes against Plato and his Fol­lowers; who, tho' he did positively as­sert, that God made the World; yet he did conceive that the Matter on which it did consist was Eternal and Pre-ex­istent: By which Hypothesis he con­cludes God to be an impotent cause, not able to create the World without Matter and Stuff to work upon.

These mistaken Principles in Philoso­sophy were occasion'd from the Ob­servation of the regular course of Na­ture; not considering that there might [Page 3] be other causes which might produce effects in an other way than cou'd ever come within the compass of their nar­row observation; for how Spiritual Causes produce their effects, its impos­sible for us whilst we continu [...] in this dark state of Matter; wherein we have but a very short and narrow prospect to understand.

In the Third place it concludes a­gainst 3 Democritus and his Followers, who did not only conceit that Matter was Eternal and Pre-existent; but that the World had no efficient cause, but what was from Chance, or the casual motion of Matter; which consisting of infinite numbers of Atoms or little Corpuscles of different Figures, Natures and Qua­lities, which rainged about in a vast and infinite space; until at the last by Divisions, Separations and Mixtures occasioned by their contrary and mixt Qualities, and the innate Power of Sympathy and Antipathy, they at last setled into the Form and Figure of this World, which it can no more alter or vary from, than the active Fire be taught to change its Nature, and descend and Gravation to ascend and fly up­ward.

[Page 4]No doubt but this Hypothesis wa [...] grounded upon an experimental Obser­vation of the several Kinds of Matter of different Natures, which being mixt together in a Glass, or any transparent Vessel, will separate and divide them­selves proprio m [...]tu; tho never so jum­bled and mix'd together.

I shall not in this place sh [...]w you the absurdity of this Hypoth [...]sis; but ra­ther chuse in the following Chapters to give some account what Feats, Matter and Motion will produce by vertue of their contrary Qualities, and the pow­er of Sympathy and Antipathy; and how far God Almighty might make u [...]e of th [...]se towards the forming the mater­rial part of this World.

We may hence farther conclude, that 4 although neither the World as it stands, nor the Matter on which it consists did pre-exis [...]; yet it was an immediate con­sequent of Eternity, and the natural product of the Divine Essence, and At­tributes (viz.) Power, Wisdom, and Goodness, according to that Model and Idea pre-conceiv'd in the Divine Understanding:

For it cannot be imagin'd that th [...] Divine Essence wou'd for some time sit [Page 5] still, and wrap up it's self in sloth and idleness; but did always display its self in a vigorous activity.

Besides the natural tendency of In­finite Power, is Action; of Infinite Wis­dom is Counsel; of Infinite Goodness is Beneficence: We cannot therefore but conclude from these Natural Arguments, that God would from all Eternity fol­low the inclinations of his own Divine Perfections.

From this grand Thesis we may yet 5 futher conclude, that this Universal Fa­brick of the World was not created at one stroke, by an imperious F [...]at; for tho this might have been consistent with Infinite Power; yet it would not have been agreeable with Infinite Wisdom, which consists in Deliberation, Counsel and Contrivance.

Moses therefore tells us that God first created the Heavens, and then the Earth: Like as some mighty Monarch designing to build a spacious and most glorious Palace, first forms the Model of it in his mind; and having prepar'd his Materials, sets on work his Under-agents, who first of all lay the Founda­tions, and compleat his own Royal Apartments, then the Apartments of [Page 6] his chief Ministers of State, after that Chambers for his Domesticks, and last of all Lodgings for his out Servants; and the Work being finish'd, accord­ing to the Model which he gave his Architects to work by, he gives it his Approbation. In like manner, the Great and Almighty Monarch of the Universe may be supposed, first to have laid the Foundations of those Super-Coelestial Regions of unaccessable Light, the Royal Chambers of his own most Glorious Presence; where he sits in great Majesty attended with an innumerable retinue of the most Noble Angels his Courtiers: After these he creates the highest of the Coelestial Spheres, in which he placed Thousands of Royal Mansions, where the Arch-Angels and Brighter Cherubins, the chief Ministers of State in that Coelestial Kingdom keep their residence: And these are the Morning Stars which Iob tells us [by way of Synecdoche] that met together, and the Sons of God that did shout for joy. After these God created the inner or lower Spheres, in which he placed innumerable numbers of bright, lucid and Aetherial Globes; wherein the inferior Angels and Do­mestick [Page 7] Officers do inhabit, and these the Scripture stiles Ministring Spirits.

And these differ in Office, Power and Light, as they are placed in Spheres nearer, or at a distance from the Re­gions of Light: For as one Star differ­eth from another Star in Glory, Light, Purity and Magnitude; So do their Heavenly Inhabitants: And so shall it be in the Resurrection from the Dead; for as Men improve here in Vertue, Goodness and the Divine Life and Light, so shall they be placed nearer, or at a distance from God, the Foun­tain of Life and Light.

After the finishing of these Inner Courts of this Royal Palace, last of all God created this Material Globe or Outer Court; and made it the Center of the Universe: And it's built of the Rubbidge, Dross and Sediment of the whole Creation, and inhabited with the meanest of Creatures, and lowest degree of Life and Perfection, which may most properly be called God's out Servants; over which he has pla­ced Man Deputy Lord Governour.

This Material Globe, tho it appears in its own dimensions to be o [...] great Magnitude to us (who bear not so [Page 8] much proportion to it, as a Mole-hill does to the greatest Mountain) yet being compared to the whole Universe [if the computation of the best Philoso­phers be true] it will scarce bear pro­portion to the Ninety six thousand part of it.

It cannot therefore be imagined that the Wise Creator [who never made a­ny thing in vain, but to the best end [...] and wisest Purposes [...]] should be so fond of a piece of dull stupid Matter, as to create all those innumerable numbers of Bright, Lucid, Aetherial Globe [...] (the least of which exceeding this Mole-hill in Magnitude by several Diameters) for no other end or purpose than di­stinguishing of Days, Months, Seasons and Years; and for casting a dark glimmering light to us poor Mortals.

As God Almighty finished any part of the Creation, he gave it a motion, and this motion it performs naturally and insensibly, without labour or difficulty; as our Blood circulates through our Veins and our Vital Spirits glide in the Nerves through the whole Body.

The Almighty having now finished the Creation which made up but one Royal Palace, containing in it innu­merable [Page 9] Mansions, fit for the Subjects of so great a Monarch to live in: He sits at the Helm of this Floating Uni­verse, and Steers all its motion [...] with a steddy and unerring hand.

And it can be no more labour to God to govern and actuate this World; who as an Universal Soul is diffu [...]'d in it, and is vitally present in every part of it, than for a Man's rational Soul by Will and Cogitation, to move a Finger or a Toe, or any other part of his Bo­dy; tho at the greatest distance from its Seat.

CHAP. II. Of God the Supream and Efficient Cause; and why Moses proves not the being of a God expresly by way of Argument; but implicitly by describing of the several degrees of Perfection, and the Subordina­tion [...] of Life.

WHen Moses writ this excellent System of the Creation, Poli­theism and Idolatry had prevailed over the generality of Mankind, and Abra­ham's Posterity were become Worship­pers of Egyptian Gods, as appears by their making of a Molten Calf at Horeb.

Yet notwithstanding this multitude of Inferior Deities which the World had set up for Divine Worship; the generality of Mankind did universally believe, that there was one Supreme God, who was the efficient Cause and Almighty Creator of this World, con­sisting of the Heavens and the Earth: and that this God was the Father and Governour of all the rest.

[Page 11]The Philosopher might therefore justly conclude it superfluous to prove by strength of Argument a Tenet, or rather an Article of Faith; to which the common Suffrage of Mankind did so universally consent and agree: And if it be suppos'd that Moses writ this System of the Creation, with the rest of his Book, which gives an account of the Patriarchal Genealogies, on purpose for the benefit and instruction of the Israelites; who in all probability could not but be ignorant of the Traditions and Religion of their Ancestors: [the [...]pse dixit] of so great a Philosopher; a Man so eminent for these mighty and unparallel'd Miracles and Wonders, which th' Almighty wrought by his Hand upon Egypt before their eyes; were sufficient to convince them, not only of a bare credibility; but of the Truth and Certainty of this Divine Thesus, that there was a God, and that he created the Heavens and the Earth.

But as God did not limit and con­sine his Favours wholly to Abraham's Posterity; but extends them to the Universal Body of Mankind: So not­withstanding that Moses wri [...] these Books for the instruction of that People [Page 12] in the first place, he undoubtedly de­ [...]gn'd them for the information of o­thers living in a State of Ignorance:

And therefore although he does no [...] expresly by way of Argument prove the Being of a God, and that he wa [...] the Supreme Cause of the World's Cre­ation [Atheism being not then heard of in the World] yet he does it impli­citly by describing of those several De­grees and Subordinations of Life in the World; and by shewing how eve [...]y inferior Rank of Creatures is subservient to its Superior; and how every inferi­or Species is concatenated and link'd to its Superior by intermediates, all which is so visible and obvious in the Frame of the World, that an easie Phi­losopher without any great difficulty, or hard Study may ascend Gradatim, first from those common Minerals of Salt, Sulphur and Mercury, to the se­veral degrees and kinds of Oars and Metals; from these to the fertile Soil: from it to the several degrees of Life and Perfection in Vegetables, as Grass, Herbs, Plants, Shrubs, Trees, &c. and from these to the Zoophyta or Plant-Animals, which concatenates the high­est degree of Vegetation to the lowest [Page 13] degree of Sensation; from the several degrees of Sensation in Brutal Animals, to Man which is an intermediate Ani­mal, that links and couples Heaven and Eearth together; from Man to t [...]e se­veral degrees of Light, Life and Per­fection in the Angelick Nature; and from the Intellectual Nature, to God the Fountain of Light, Life and Per­fection; who, as an Universal Soul, actuates the whole World, by giving of the several degrees of Life and Perfecti­on to all the Creatures in the Animal World, as they are plac'd in Orbs or Spheres nearer or at a greater distanc [...] from his Divine Essen [...]e.

Thus in God all Creatures Live, Move, and have their Beings, and by these gradations we may either ascend up to Heaven, where God Almighty resides in Infinite Glory and Perfectio [...], or from thence descend to the hidden and dark Regions of Matter.

CHAP. III. Of the Creation of Second Causes, and the manner of their Product­on; and ways of Working.

THE grand reason why Plato and Aristotle, and [...]he rest of the Na­tural Philosophers did assume it as a granted Principle, that Nothing wa [...] made out of Nothing; and that every thing produced, had necessarily some pre-existent Matter out of which it was so formed; was [as I have alrea­dy hinted] because they cou'd not ob­serve in the ordinary course of Nature any thing produced de novo; therefore [...]hey concluded it impossible that any such Production cou'd ever be, or [...]appen in Nature:

But from particular Experiments or Observations to establish a general Con­clusion; especially concerning the impos­sibility of any thing's Existence, is no re­gular and warrantable way of argumen­tation; for there may be Agents of an­other Sort, and Powers which can pro­duce Effects in another way, than cou'd [Page 15] ever come within the compass of our ob­servation; for we see, and cannot but make it an observation, that one sensi­tive Animal by the power of Sensation can do more, and produce greater ef­fects, than all the Vegetables can pro­duce by the power and strength of Ve­getation. And one Man by the Power of his Natural Reason can produce more noble Effects, than all the Brute Animals by the Strength of Sensation; so one An­gel by the Power and Vigour of his Spi­ritual and Intellectual Natures, can pro­duce effects more great and wonderful, than all the Men in the World can by the power of Reason, tho' never so exalted and sublimated; for we read in 2 Kings 19. Chap. and 15. Verse that an An­gel in one night went out and smote in the Camp of th' Assyrians one Hundred and fourscore and five thous [...]nd; but how or by what means this Angelick, power was exercised it is not within the compass of shallow Reason to conceive: Yet we may reasonably conclude from it, that if an Angel, by the Power of his Intellectual Nature, can do more than a [...]l the Men in the World; so God Almighty by his Divine Essence can produce greater and far more won­derful [Page 16] effects than the whole Angelick Nature; even such as is impossible ei­ther for us, or them to understand.

But Moses having, to hi [...] great im­provements in Natural Philosophy, the Advan [...]ages of the Patriarchal Tra­dition [...], and a Divine Revelation; and being best acquainted with God Al­mighty's Power in producing Effects; doth not only positively asser [...], that God was the Maker and Builder o [...] this World; but that he Created i [...] and the Matter on which it doth consist, out o [...] Nothing, and that by uttering of tha [...] Almighty Word [s [...]at] not audibly, for then there was no sensible Auditor in Being; but mentally, that is, by an Act of Volition; sic volo sic [...]ubeo being o [...]ly a Prerogative of Al­migh [...]y Power.

The Second Causes which this Al­migh [...]y Power Created out of Nothing, and which he made use of as instrumen­tal i [...] all Productions of a mixt Consti­tution, may be considered either as they are Essential or Accidental.

The Essential Causes were Light and Darkness; the External and Accidental Causes were Motion, Time, and Place; without which all Natural Productions are Physically impossible.

[Page 17]God having created these Second Causes by another Imperious VVord, set them on working; and he gave them also a Rule or Model to work by, which is most commonly called the Course of Nature; and when these new Agents had produced any effect, he view'd it, and gave it his Divine ap­probation, in these Words; God saw that it was good (i.e.) that it was a­greeable with that Rule and Model he had given them to work by; which words, tho' they be spoken ad Homi­nem, yet undoubtedly Moses intended by them to instruct and inform Man­kind, that the World was not made by Chance, or the casual Motion of blind Atoms, as some since have Athe­istically asserted; but by Wisdom, Councel and Deliberation.

And this establish'd Course of Na­ture, or these Laws and Rules which the Divine Wisdom gave to the Second Causes to work by, he never interrupts or varies from; but upon great and extraordinary occasions, when he is pleas'd to give some Demonstrations, of his Almighty Power and Universal Providence by which he governs the World at his Will and Pleasure; then [Page 18] he can either divert the Natural Cau­ses from their usual course, or by them produce Supernatural Effects; as the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah by extraordinary Thunder and Lightning▪ the Destruction of all living Creatures upon the face of the Earth by an Uni­versal Deluge; or he can stop them in their Natural Course, as when he caus'd the Sea to divide and stand still, and the Sun to move backwards.

CHAP. IV. Of Light and Darkness, the common Principles of mix'd Bodies, what they were in Mass; and how thei [...] division made the first production.

ALL the Natural Philosophers want­ing the assistance of a Divine Re­velation, did agree in this; that there cou'd be no Production of a mixt Con­stitution, without a Sympathetical Uni­on of an active and passive Principle; but what these Principles of Activity and Passivity were, they could not easily de­termine.

[Page 19]These our great Philosopher ex­presseth by the Names of Light and Darkness; which when they came im­mediately out of Gods hand, were bound up and hamper'd in one confus'd Mass; which might fitly be compar'd to a dark and palpable Mist, like the Aegyptian Darkness which was to be felt, in which vast Fog or Mist were bound [...]p, and smother'd those bright, lucid and active Particles of pure and Vola­tile Aether, as we see Light inclos'd within the walls of a dark Lan [...]horn; or the active Particles of Fire when smother'd in Ashes, or imprison'd with­in the dark body of Matter.

Thus Darkness was upon the face of this thick Mist or Fog of Matter, until God by another Almighty Fiat created Motion; which being infus'd into the stagnating Mist of Matter, the whole Mass of it was put into a fer­mentation and motion; and whilst the contrary Q [...]alities were acting their Antipathies one upon another, these nimble and active Particles of lu­cid Aether [being the most Volatile] broke through this dark Mass of Mat­ter, and uniting themselves, caus'd a bright shining Light, which Moses calls [Page 20] Day: and this division of Light from Darkness, occasion'd by the putting of the whole Mass of Matter into a Fer­mentation and Motion, made the first Production.

CHAP. V. Of Light, the formal Cause of all mixt Productions, what it was whilst in Mass.

BY Light is to be understood that vast Aetherial flame, which whilst [...]t was in Mass diffus'd its bright shining Rays, not only through the Material Regions, but the Planetary and Coe­lestial Spheres: This Aetherial flame was the Anima Mundi, the Vehicle of Life, wherein was contain'd the Semi­nal and Specifick Forms of all subluna­ry Creatures, [Man o [...]ly [...]xcepted] and then da [...]c'd about the Passive Matter, like A [...]oms in the Morning Sun Beams; until its Prolifick Slime, by vertue of its Plastick Power was modifi'd and pr [...]par'd for receiving of Life.

[Page 21]And this seems to be the sense and Philosophical meaning of Moses in the Second Chapter of Genesis, Verse the Fifth; God made every Plant of the Field before it was in the Earth, and every Herb of the Field before it grew; meaning only their Seminal and Specifick Forms which were contain'd in a Vehicle of Light, before they were united to their Material Vehi­cles.

Thus Light according to the Mo­saick Principles of Natural Philoso­phy, became the Formal Cause or the Male Parent of all mixt Producti­ons.

CHAP. VI. Of Darkness, the material cause of all mixt Productions; what it was in Mass, how it was reduc'd in­to Form: Of the Power of Matter and Motion: Of Sympathy and Antiphathy.

BY Darkness, the other Principle, or Material cause of generation, is not meant a bare p [...]ivation of Light; but that vast Mist, or Dark Fog of Matter consisting of infinite Num­bers of Particles or little Corpuscles of different Figures, and contrary Quali­ties, which by reason of a Principle of motion infus'd into it, run a Reel in a dark confusion until these contrary Q [...]alities of Heat and Cold, Siccity and Humidity, Gravitation and Levity, falling out among 'em selves begun to act their Antipa [...]hies upon one another; which causing them to separate and di­vide, those of the same kindred and affini [...]y, by the Power of a S [...]cret and Innate Sympathy drew together and united.

[Page 23]And first of all, these Particle [...] of Matter, which were of a hot and vola­tile Nature, being most active and vi­gorous, plac'd themselves in the Centre or Middle, as we observe 'em always to do in S [...]acks of Hay, Corn or other composi [...]ions of mixt Matters, wherein there is a strife or contest between those contrary Qualities of Heat and Cold, Siccity and Humidity.

And these hot and siery Pa [...]ticles having by their natural tendency ta­ken possession of the Centre, began im­mediately to [...]ct their Antipathy upon those Particles of Matter that were of a cold and waterish substance; forcing them to fly to the Circumfe [...]nce, and to range about in thick Fogs and wa­terish Mists; filling up not only that vast Expansion between the superficies of the Ea [...]th and the Moons Vortex; but all [...]he Planetary Spheres.

During which contest between Heat and Cold, Fi [...]e and Water, the inter­mediate Matter of a mixt Nature, nei­ther [...]imply hot nor cold; but partici­pa [...]ing of both Natures (viz.) such as were of an Unctious, Pinguid, Bitumi­nous and Terrene Quality, se [...]led them­selves in a midle Sphere.

[Page 24]And every Class of Matter of the same Kind and Species, the better to secure it [...]elf from intermixing with the Matter of a different Nature, did in­close it self with great Dykes or Par­titions, consisting of Excrementitious, confu [...]'d and undigested Matter; and the natural Position of these being Rake-wise from the surface towards the Centre, they most properly may be esteem'd the greater joynts of the Earth.

And as these divide the several Kinds of Matter, so they preserve the several Feeders and Mineral Waters from inter­mixing, as will be more largely shewn; when we shall have occasion to Dis­course of Dykes, Rakes, Veins, Strings, Riders, &c.

The confus'd M [...]ss of mixt Matter being thus red [...]c'd to several Classes and a regular [...]orm; every Class lead­ing to some proper Mine or Mineral, which is the siner and better digested part of that Class; as Coal, Rudle, Iron and the several Kinds of Ore; and these all lay in lax and [...]luid Strat [...] or Beds, like the loose Leaves in an un­pres [...]'d Volume or Book, or like the weak joynts in a newly conceiv'd [Page 25] Embrio, enclos'd in a Bag of Water in the Womb of its pregnant Mo­ther.

CHAP. VII. Of the Spirit of God moving upon the face of the Waters, what is Pholosophically meant by it: Of the first division of the Waters, and the clearing of the sublunary Firmament.

THE whole Mass of Terren [...] Matter being thus far reduc'd into Form and Order; [not according to the Laws of Gravity, the heaviest subsiding first in order and falling low­est, as Dr. Woodward conceives, which mistake in Observation will be made apparent in its proper place] [but by motion of consent, suitability of Na­tures, and an agreeable juxta-position of Parts.]

The Spirit of God moved upon the face of the Waters, which Words, if we con­sider [Page 26] 'em under a philoso [...]ical Notion, may be understood o [...] the Aetherial Flame, which moving upon those wa­terish Fogs and Mists, rarifi'd the more subtile and t [...]nuious Parts or Fumes of it into a brisk gale of cold condensing Wind; which did not only clear up the Sublunary Firmament by dividing of those Fogs into Sublunary and Su­perlunary Waters; but by condensing the Sublunary Fogs and Mists into a vast body of Water, it cover'd and surrounded the whole body of Terrene Matter; and as the Waters sank down towards the Centre, they press'd toge­ther the several Strata or Layers of Stones, Mines, Minerals and other Subterrene Earths, as we press together the leaves of a large Volume; and in our sinking and digging into the Body of the Earth, we find them lying upon Fla [...]s with a Dibb and Rise, the Rise towards the tops of Mountains, and the Dibb towards the main Ocean; as the Waters left them and forc'd them up, when they drew down into their proper Channel.

The whole Mass of Terrene Matter being thus Compact and Cemented to­gether by the pressures of the circum­ambient [Page 27] ambient Waters, as we press Brick and Tyle in their several Moulds; the Cen­tral [...]ire did by its heat bake and con­solidate those Stones, Metals, Mines and Minerals that were of a fiery na­ture, as well as those of an unctuous and pinguid quality, into their several de­grees of Consolidation and Induration; whilst the Anteperistical Cold, together with those petrifying juices of Salt and Nitre which then did abound in all the lax and undigested Strata, did petrify those Strata of a Terrene Nature into their several degr [...]es of Induration and Lapidifaction.

By these Natural Gradations the Earth became fixt upon its Center, and [...]he Waters a fluid body moving and cir­culating about it; and they both made one Terraqueous Globe of a Spherical and Mathematical Rotundity; all the Lines from the Superficies to the Centre being of an equal length.

Thus the space between the surface of the Waters and the Moon's Vortex was clear'd of all those Fogs and Mists which ranged about in it: And being fill'd with their Air, Moses calls it the Firmament of Heaven, which made the second Production (viz.) of [Page 28] space, wherein the Under-agents or se­cond Causes had room to work, and produce effects of a higher and more noble Nature and Quality.

CHAP. VIII. The division of the lower Waters in­to Subterranean, Superterranean, and Nubiferous; and by what Gradations the dry Land appeared.

THO' this great Embrio was rea­dy for birth and to breath in fresh Air; yet it could not be deliver'd from this great Bag of Water, where­in it was enclos'd, by any innate Power it had in it self, without a Supernatural assistance: The Almighty was pleas'd therefore to play the Midwife, and to deliver it by breaking of this great body of Water; and by dividing of the sweet from those of a Saline and Brak­ish Nature.

For as soon as the intermediate Mat­ter which made the Shell of the Earth, was redn [...]'d into Form and Order; and [Page 29] the several Strata or Layers of Stones, Metals, Minerals, and Subterrene Earths with their cross-cutting and dividing Dykes, Rakes, Ryders, Veins and Strings or Side-branches had receiv'd from the heat of the Central fire and the petre­fying Juices of Salt and Nitre, their se­veral degrees of Incrustation, Indurati­on and Lapidifaction; the thirsty Mat­ter gradually suckt in the thin sweet Water, until all its Veins, Dykes, Cavi­ties and Pores were fill'd and saturated with it.

The Salt Water being the Sedement of the whole Mass, and likewise being too thick to penetrate and pass through the stra [...]t Pores and Strainers of the so­lid and condensed Matter, did gradu­ally draw down to its Channel: And all the Veins and Pores of the Earth be­ing now Saturated with sweet Water; the Subterranean Lympheducts, or un­derground Water-works began first to bubble up and play from the tops of the highest Mountains; from whence th [...] Rivers took their first rise, and began to form their courses to the Sea; and by their rapidity and weight continu­ally pressing in upon her from all sides, swell'd her up into a Gibbosity, and [Page 28] [...] [Page 29] [...] [Page 30] for [...]'d her into a constant flux and re­flux, which reciprocation of Motion causing in her a boyling Fermentation, the sweet Water does disentangle it self from the Salt; and being lighter, riseth up in Fumes and Vapours, which fly abroad until they be condens'd into Clouds, which falling down in showers of sweet Water upon the Earth become [...] the Succus Nutritivus of the fleshy pa [...]t of it; giving not only a vital nourish­ment to the several Kinds of Animals living on the outer Coat or Skin of it; but repairing the Subterranean Waters by preserving them from wasting.

The Waters being now divided in­to Superterranean, Subterranean and Nubiferous, the dry Land appear'd, and was gradually prepar'd for being an habitable World.

CHAP. IX. Of the Primeval or Antidiluvian Figure of the Earth.

DR. Burnet, Dr. [...]ur­net [...] incon­sistences. in his Theory of the Earth, conceits and endeavours to perswade the World, that the Pri­meval Earth was Spherically or Mathe­matically round, without Seas, Moun­tains or any inequalities upon its Sur­face.

Which Hypothesis (or rather ingeni­ous Conceit) seems in the first place to be inconsistent with the Original State of this Materi [...]l Globe; which being design'd for a plac [...] of Habition for several Kinds of Animals of [...] mixt and compounded Constitution, whose vi­tal [...]lame is nourish'd and maintain'd by a continual respiration of a soft and vaporous Air; which must not only be frequently fann'd with the brisk gales and blasts of a cleansing Wind, but al­so moistned and sweetned with showers frequently falling through it: All which have their Original cause from the constant flux and reflux of the Sea,The Cause of this Globes At­mosphere. [Page 32] and those inequalities upon the surface of the Earth: Without which there would neither have been an Atmo­sphere, Wind, Rain, or Air; but the Superficies of the Earth would have been [by the Sun's Beams continu­ally beating upon it] Baked and In­crusted into the hardness of Brick and Tyle.

This Hypothesis seems also inconsistent with the different Natures of those Ani­mals with which the Almighty Creator has been pleas'd to stock it; some of which being only produc'd in a Warm and Fertile Soil, others only in a Cold and Sterile: So some Animals delight only to breath a warm and soft Air, others a more bleak and piercing: Thus Strawberries and Gilliflowers will not thrive upon the tops of cold and barren Mountains; nor Mountain Vegetables in the most fertile Soil, or best prepar'd warm Beds. This will be made more clear and evident when we shall give account of the natural uses of the Flux and Reflux of the Sea, and those ine­qualities and irregularities of the Earth's Surface.

Once more to suppose the Earth to have been of an even and Spherical Su­persicies [Page 33] seems inconsistent with the dif­ferent Kinds and Natures of that Mat­ter of which it consists; some of which being hard, others soft, some fix'd o­thers [...]luid, it cann't be imagin'd that all this variety of Matter would settle in a Figure Spherically and Mathemati­cally round.

From these Arguments we may with­out being guilty of any great presump­tion, conclude against Dr. Burnet's Hy­pothesis, that as the Antediluvian Earth consisted of the same Matter with this present Earth, and produc'd the same Species of Animals, of the same natures and qualities, it was of the same Figure that now we find it in, a Terraqueous Globe of a Physical Rotundity, with Seas, Mountains, &c.

And th [...]t these irregularities and Inequalities of this Terrestrial Globe did not Date their Original from that Disruption which was occasion'd by the Deluge as Dr. Woodward positive­ly asserts,Dr. Wood­ard's con­tradiction of himself. Part 2d page 80. is evi­d [...]nt from part 6. Page 246. where he undertakes to prove that the Face of the Earth before the Deluge was not smooth, even and uniform; but unequal, and distinguish'd with Moun­tains, [Page 34] Valleys; as also with Seas, Lakes and Rivers.

CHAP. X. Of the constituent parts of the Earth: And first of the Volatile part of it, or the Central Fire; its natural Uses.

THE Constituent parts of this Ter­raqueous Globe are reducible to three different Classes of Matter, (viz.) Volatile, Fix'd and Fluid; and these bear equal proportion one to an­other, and in the Structure of the Earth do occupy the same proportion of place.

The Volatile Matter, consisting of sublimated Sulphur, Nitre and Bitu­men keeps possession of the Central part; and as all Matter of the same kind and affinity, which having an appetite to Union, naturally affects a round and globular Figure, so the Central Fire may be suppos'd to be of the same Form.

[Page 35]That Figure wherein the Excentral Fire appears, is only accidental, occa­sion'd by the compressures of the cir­cumambient Air.

That vast subterranean Vault where­in this volatile Globe of Central Fire is contain'd [which the Miners call th [...] Belly of the Earth] may be suppos'd to be either of a round or circular; or of an aequilateral, multangular Figure; occasion'd by the solid Strata of Stones spreading and vaulting themselves a­bout it.

The natural Uses of this Central Fire seem to be Analogous to that vital Flame which is seated in the He [...]rt or Center of all Animals; [...]. Vse. for as that by its Vital heat [...]nlivens the whole Body; so this Central [...]ire by that Vital warmth it disseminates through the whole mass of Matter, enlivens it▪ and gives as well to the several Strata of Stones, Metals, Minerals and other subterranean Earths, their degrees of Consolidation; as to the several kinds of Ores, their different degrees of Pu­rity and Perfection.

As the Vital Flame does not only cause the Ebullition and Pulsisick Facul­ty in the Exterior pa [...]ts of the Body;2. Vse. but [Page 36] also the Circulation of the whole Mass of Blood through all the greater and lesser Veins of it; so the Central Fire is as well the cause of the Ebullition of Springs, Thermae and Mineral Feeders which break out upon the tops of Mountains and the exterior parts of the Earth; as of the constant Circula­tion of the whole Mass of Subterranean Water through those Dykes, Rakes and Fissures, which from the Mountains do divide and spread themselves through the whole Body of the Earth, and are the greater and lesser Veins of it.

3. Vse.Again, as the Vital Flame gives the tincture and colour to the Blood, Flesh and all the Heterogeneous parts of the Body; so the Central Fire, by the diffe­rent degrees of concoction and boyling up of Matter, gave to the several kinds of it their different Tinctures and Co­lours; this might be illustrated by se­veral Analogous Experiments and Ob­servations, as in the boiling of Quinc [...]s and other Fruits; so likewise in B [...]king of Bread▪ &c.

4. Vse.The Central Fire, by running a perpetual Round within the Boun­daries of its own Infernal Vault, car­ries the Shell of the Earth about with [Page 37] it, and is the cause of its Diurnal Mo­tion.

Lastly, It is the Earth's Aequilibrium that keeps it fix'd upon its Center.5. Vse.

CHAP. XI. Of the fixt part of the Earth: And first of the Inequalities of its Sur­face; their Natural Causes and Uses.

THE fixt part of this Terraqueous Globe which we call the Earth, may be describ'd either as to its Exte­rior parts, or Interior consistences of it.

The Exterior parts consist of Moun­tains, Heaths, Dales, Plains, Valleys, with the Channel of the Sea.

The Interior consistences of it are the Strata or Beds of Stones, Metals, Mines, Minerals and Subterranean Earths, all lying upon Flats with a Dibb and Rise.

Or they are Dikes, Rakes, Riders, Veins and Strings either cross-cutting [Page 38] and dividing the several kinds of Stones, Metals, Mines, Minerals, &c. of a different kind; or cross-cutting and dividing those of the same Species▪ as all Metallick Rakes, &c.

Of the Inequalities of the Earths Surface.

1. Vse.THese Irregularities and Inequali­ties upon the Superficies of the Earth, are occasion'd by the Elevati­ons and Depressions of the solid Stra­ta; and these are cau'd either by the greater Dikes, which divide one Spe­cies of Stones, &c. from those of a different kind; and these greater Dikes make Channels and Water-courses for the greater Rivers, which following their windings and turnings till they empty themselves into the Sea, cause all those pleasant Dales, which at last, when the Mountains wear out, dilate themselves into spacious Plains and Valleys,

2. Vse.The lesser Dikes and Joynts which divide the Stones, &c. of the same kind, by throwing them up and down, [Page 39] cause all those lesser Hills,The cause of Hills. which as well delight the Eye with a grateful variety of Objects, as refrigerate and cherish the whole Body with a more cool, clear and wholsome Air.

There is not any thing in this Natu­ral World, that contributes more to­wards the making of it Habitable, then these inaequalities upon its Surface.

For,1. The Cause of different Soils and Natures of Vegetables. First they occasion all these different Kinds and Natures of Soil, which produce the several Species of Vegetables suitable to the several Na­tures of those Animals that feed upon them: The Earth's Surface being God's Storehouse, wherein is provided Food and Nourishment agreeable to the Na­ture of every Animal, and every living Creature by a Natural Instinct knows its proper Food and Nourishment, and when and where to find it.

They occasion all those different qualities of the Air, as Warm, Cold,2. The diffe­rent Quali­ties of the Air. Thick, Thin, Moist and Dry; for as God has provided Food suitable to the several Natures to feed on, so He has provided Air suitable to their Natures to Breath in.

[Page 40] 3. The occa­sion of Spring [...], &c.Those Inequalities upon the Earth occasion all those Springs, Mineral Feeders and Medicinal Waters, which break out in Rapid Streams from the Tops of Mountains, and the Skirts of lesser Hills; so that as God has pro­vided convenient Food for every Animal to feed upon, and agreeable Air to breath in; He has likewise [by cau­sing of Springs to break forth and bub­ble up at the Foot almost of every Hill] provided convenient Water for every Animal to quench its Thirst with.

Whereas if the Earth had been of an Even and Spherical Supersicies, cover'd with one solid Strata, or incrusted Co­ver of Earth; I doubt we should have been forc'd to have Digg'd as deep as Dr. Burnet and Dr. Woodward's Abyss, before we sho [...]'d have met with Water sufficient to have quench'd our Thirst; and its also doubtful that when we had found it, it wou'd not have been Sweet and Wholsome.

4. Of the breaking out of M [...]nes, &c.These Inequalities also cause the s [...]veral Strata of Stones, Mines and O [...]es, &c. [having a Natural Rise] to br [...]ak [...]o [...]th at Day, so that the Inge­ [...]ou [...] [...]d Industrious Miner may meet [Page 41] with, not only Stone for Building of Houses, Coals for his Fires; but the se­veral Kinds of Ore to enrich his Cof­fers with.

These Inequalities also produce all those Pleasant and most Profitable Copises and Thickets of all Kinds of Trees,5. Of the pro­duct [...]on of Trees, &c. which delight most to grow where the solid Beds of Stone are weak and broken and lye near day, and where they may easily thrust their Roots into their broken Joints and suck in the Mineral Spirits, &c.

CHAP. XII. Of Mountains, their Original Cause, Consistences and Natural Uses; being the first Dry Land that ap­pear'd.

THE Mountains are the Ebulliti­on o [...] Matter,The Cause of Moun­tain [...]. occasion'd by the Central Fire when it was in its [...]ull Strength and Vigour.


[Page 42] 1. Vse. Their Con­sistences.They consist of such Strata of Stones, Metals, Raggs, Chivers, Cills, &c. as are of a Hot quality; and these are like so many Hot-beds wherein the several kinds of Ore receiv'd their Con­ceptions, as well as their different de­grees of Concoction and Perfection; as hereafter will be more fully shewn.

2. Vse. Their Na­tural Uses.The Mountains consisting of such Matter as is of a Hot quality, and be­ing bound with strong Cills, which ha­ving a quicker Rise than those upon the Plains, do lift up their Heads above the rest of the Earth; and became not only the great Pillars and Supporters of the whole Fabrick; but the first Sea­Banks that broke the Circulation of the Waters, and were the first dry Land that appear'd.

3. Vse.The Tops of the Mountains reaching a [...] high as the cold Regions of the Air; and having but the advantage of a single R [...]flection of the Sun's Globuli, have always a Cold and Condensing Air upon them, and striking a Level with the Gibbosity of the Sea, do by the Sympathy between Cold and Cold at­tr [...]ct the Vapours to them, which either fall down in Showers of Rain, being Condens'd by the rising of the Ground [Page 43] Cold; or are rarifi'd into Wind by the falling of the Sphere of Rarefacti­on, which term will be hereafter ex­plain'd when we describe the Nature of Winds.

All the greatest Dikes and Divis [...]ons of the Earth [as I have already ob­serv'd] do contract themselves and meet in the Mountains,4. Vse. as the Veins do in the Necks of Animals; and these being the greater Veins of the Earth, by dividing into lesser Veins and Branches, maintain and preserve a constan [...] Communication or Circulation of Wa­ter through the whole Body.

And this is the only Reason why the Heads of all the greatest Rivers in the World have their Rise from the Tops or Sides of the highest Mountains; which by following of the Windings and Turnings of these greater Dikes or Veins, and by receiving into them the lesser Dike-Feeders, are increas'd from small Rivulets into large and Navigable Rivers, which at the last empty them­selves into the Main Ocean.

The Declivity of the Mountains gives Rapidity of Motion to the Rivers,5. Vse. which does not only preserve their Sweetness for the benefit of Men and Beasts; but [Page 44] also by pressing upon the Sea from all sides, swells her up into a Gibbosity, and is the only cause of her Flux and Reflux, which the following Chapters will give account of.

6. Vse.As the Declivity of the Mountains gives Rapidity of Motion to the Rivers; so it gives Motion to the Winds and Air: For as the Condensation of Va­pours causeth an Inundation in the Wa­ters; so the Rarefaction of the Va­pours and Exhalations causeth an Inun­dation and Overflowing in the Air: And those Lateral blasts of Wind that come so strong upon us, are only Waves of the Air; and the roaring Noise we oftentimes hear upon the Mountains, is only the breaking forth of the Winds upon the still Body of the Air, and there putting of it into a rapid Motion, which is increas'd by the Descent of the Mountains; for Air and Water are the same in Specie, differing only in degrees of Thinness and Fludity,

7. Vse.As the Mountains are the great Pil­lars and Supporters of the Earth, their Foundations all meeting in the Center, and Forming that Vast Subterranean Vault, which keeps the Central Fire from breaking forth; so they are the great­est [Page 45] Ornament of its Superficies; giving not only a most pleasant Prospect over the Plains and Valleys, but terminating the Visive Faculty with a grateful vari­ety of Objects.

The Mountains have their Natural Position either in Ridges or Clusters;The positi­on of Mountains. those we see in Clusters intermixt with great Dales, Gills and Valleys, were [at the first settling of Matter] all of an even Superficies; but their Joynts and divisions consisting of Raff, Ragg, Chiver and such confus'd Matter, with­out strong Cills or Strata of Stones to bind them together, were by great Storms and Tempests of Rain, &c. but especially by Noah's Flood, broken and driven down into the Valleys; and from thence into the next adjacent Sea.

And this is the Reason why some Mountains have a Perpendicular Rise,The Cause of Gills, Dales and Vallie [...]. why their Ribs and Sides lye Naked and Frightful, threatning to fall upon us; and these great Dikes and Joynts are either fill'd with Ponds of Water, which afford great plenty of Fish; or they are become pleasant Valleys Gills and Dales; having a F [...]uitful Soil and the warmest Sun, by reason [Page 46] of its Beams being Reflected from all sides of the Mountains.

CHAP. XIII. Of Mountain Heaths, &c.

THE Mountain Heaths lye upon the Skirts of Mountains towards the Sea, their Consistences and several Strata are rather of a Pinguid, Bitumi­ous and Nitrous, than of a Hot and Sulphureous Quality; and they general­ly lead to Mines of Coals,The Ingre­d [...]ents of Coal. which are the Pneumatick parts of such Strata of Stones and Metals as are their upperCo­vers; the principal and more Pneuma­tical Ingredients whereof are Bitumen, Sulphur and Nitre; Bitumen gives the Flame▪ Nitre blows it up, and Sulphur gives the Heat.

Th [...]ir cros [...]-cutting and dividing Dike [...] consist of tough Clay and a mix­ture of confus'd Matters▪ Lesser Mountains. These Mount­ain Heaths were the second dry Land that appear'd; for as the Sea did gra­dually draw down into its Channel; its unruly Waves drove up these lesser [Page 47] Hills we see upon the Skirts of the Mountains, and forc'd their Strata of Stones, Metals,The Cause of the Cha­nel of the Sea. &c. to have a Rise towards them, thereby making a Chan­nel so Spacious as might contain so Vast a Body of Water, and keep its Proud Waves within their proper Limits.

Their Stones, Metals, &c. had their degrees of Incrustation and Lapidi­faction from the Central Fire.

CHAP. XIV. Of the Plains and Valley, &c.

THE last dry Land that appear'd, was the Plains and Valleys, which by the Depression of their Strata sank down into the Channel of the Sea; the Consistences of these are ra­ther of a Terrene and Nitrous, than [...] Pinguid Quality.

They afford us the best Free-stone as White, Grey, Red and Yellow▪ these Tinctures and Colours they re­ceiv'd from those different degrees of Concoction they had from the Cen­tral Fire; and the degrees of Lapidi­faction [Page 48] and Induration they receiv'd from the Anteperistical Cold, and Pe­trefying Juices: Their Strata have an easie Dibb towards the Sea, sometimes not a Yard at fifty; for as the Waters divided, their Strength abated, and the Flat Strata laid more level.

CHAP. XV. Of the Channel of the Sea, &c.

AS the Valleys sink down gradual­ly into the Channel of the Sea; so the Channel is only a spacious Valley as far depress'd before the Surface of the Earth, as the Mountains and moun­tainous Heaths are advanc'd above it.

Its Consistences are of a Terrene, Nitrous, Mercurial and Saline Quality, which is the reason the Sea-sand will by a violent Heat run into a Glassy Sub­stance. And why the most precious Pearls are found in that part.

CHAP. XVI. Of the fluid Part of this Terraque­ous Globe; and First of the Sea, &c.

THE Sea is that Vast Body of Salt Wa [...]er contain'd in its proper Channel:The Na­ture and Quality o [...] the Sea. Its the Sediment of the whole Mass of Water, and therefore is Thick­er and Heavier than either the Subter­ranean or Aerial Waters; which is the reason why it can neither penetrate the straight Pores of Solid Matter, and so intermix with its sweet Feeders; nor be elevated in Vapours by the Sun's In [...]lu­ence and fall down in Brackish Showers, [...] which would be destructive as well of Plants and Herbs as Men and Beasts.

The Seas are in a continual Flux and Reflux: The cause of which is the Rapidity and Weight of the Rivers con­tinually pressing in upon it from all sides; and the Sea-waters being not only Thicker, [...] but of a different Na­ture from the Thin and Sweet River-water, and having a Natural Appetite to Union, will not easily suffer the [Page 50] Rivers to Incorporate with them,The Cause of the Seas Gibbosity. which is the true reason why the Rivers swells her up on both sides of the Shoar, unt [...]l the weight of the Salt-water over-balancing the weight of the Sweet-waters causeth the Sea to break in the middle, and by the greater weight and strength of her Wa [...]es forceth the Invaders to retreat and [...]all back until the Salt-water has lost its weight and Strength;The Cause of the Flux. and this is the cause of its Flux.

The Salt-water having thus lost i [...]s weight and strength, the Rivers re­double their Force, and by the Rapi­dity of their Motion and weight of their Waves forceth the Salt-waters to a gradual and orderly Retreat▪ and to swell up into such a height of Gibbosity that its weight again over-balanceth the weight and strength of the Rivers;The Cause of its Re­flux. and this is the cause of its Reflux.

Thus the Flux and Reflux of the Sea is occasion'd by the continual strife be­tween the Fresh-water and the Salt▪ and the Spring-Tides and Dead-Tides are oc­casion'd by the gradual Increase and Decrease of the Reciprocation of their Motion;The Cause of Spring-tides and Dead-tides. as we observ'd in the Spring or Balance of a Clock in giving her back Stroaks at every Tenth.

[Page 51]This continual Strife between the Fresh-water and the Salt causeth a con­constant Heat and Fermentation in the Sea;The Cause of the Seas Fermen­ [...]ation. The effect [...] and Uses of the Seas Fermenta­tion. and this Boiling Fermentation causeth the Sweet River-water to fly up in Mists and Vapours, which causeth an Atmosphere to be round the whole Terraqueous Globe; and when these Mists and Vapours are condensed into Clouds they fall down in Showers of sweet Rain upon the Surface of the Earth.

Thus tho' the Sea affords no Sweet-water, yet it is the only Medium which preserves and maintains a constant com­munication and circulation between the Subterranean and Aerial Waters.

The Saline Quality of the Sea is oc­casion'd by her being boiled up into a Sediment by the Central Fire;The Cause of the Salt­ness of the Sea. as well as those Rocks of Mineral Salt that a­bound in her Channel.

This Saltish Quality of the Sea does not only preserve that vast Body of Wa­ter from Corrupting;It [...] Uses. but by causing her Water to be thicker and heavier than those in the Fresh Rivers, it makes them more able to bear Burthens of much greater weight, and fitter to maintain a Correspondence and Com­munication [Page 52] of Trade between Land and Land, tho' at the greatest distance.

The pro­portion which the Subterra­nean Wa­ter bears to the Sea.Tho' the Sea and Main Ocean seems to contain a vast quantity of Water; yet it being compar'd to the Subterra­nean Waters which circulate through the Veins of that great Body, and are contain'd in the Strata and Pores of dens'd Matter; it will scarce bear the same proportion to them that One does to Seventy-two; for if the Computation of those Learned Men be true who give Account that the Sea and Main Ocean cover but one half of the Globe, and that the Channel of the Sea is but one German Mile Deep [the Shallows being compar'd to the Deeps] then it would necessarily follow that if the Earth were Mathematically Round, it would cover the whole Globe only half a German Mile, which bears but Proportion to the Circumference of the Earth, as Half a Mile does to Twenty one thousand six hundred Miles. Again, the Diameter of Twenty-one thousand six hundred Miles being Seven thousand two hun­dred, of which if we allow a Semidia­meter to the Center or Belly of the Earth there will remain Three thou­sand six hundred Miles for the Shell or [Page 53] Body of it, to which Three thousand six hundred the Fluid part or Superter­ranean Water can bear no less Propor­tion than One to an Hundred; which Computations being granted (and in­deed they cannot [...]easonably be de­ny'd) in the whole Body of the Earth, there will be found Thirty-six German Miles of Fluid Matter, which bears proportion to the Seventy-two Super­terranean Seas or Oceans.

To strengthen this Hypothesis we may further add that in sinking of Pits, the deeper we sink, we raise the more Water; and that Stone or Mine of Coal which at Three Fathom Deep runs six Tubs of Water in one Hour, containing Thirty Gallons a-piece, at Six Fathom it will double the Number; and so on till the Water be Invincible; as in Hogsheads full of Water the high­est Tap runs slowly, because there is little weight of Water upon it; but the middle or lowest Tap will run double and treble the Quantity in the same time, there being double and treble the weight of Water upon it.

Again, If we do further add that be­sides the Water that circulates in the Veins of the Earth, there is so much [Page 54] of Water Intermix'd and Incorporated with the Fixt and Solid Matter, that if Stone, Metal, or Coal [when its Digg'd out of its Living Strata or Beds] be immediately expos'd to the Sun or Fire, it will in a short time want of Weight above an Hundredth part, the Fluid part being Exhal'd.

Of the greater Veins of the Earth, &c.The greater Dikes or Veins in the Earth, are Principally Four: The First divides and changes the Mountain-Strata from the Mountain-Heaths: The Second divides those several Strata of Stone, &c. of which the Mountain-Heaths Consist, from those of the Plains and Valleys: The Third divides those Beds and Layers of Matter on which the Plains and Valleys consist, from the Channel of the Sea: The Fourth Runs under the Channel of the Sea, whose Side-Branches causeth all those Submarine Quick-Sands which are the warm Beds wherein the Sea-fish scatter their Eggs for the Propagation of their several Kinds: As this, so all the rest of the greater Dikes and Veins have their Side-Branches filling all the Strata of Stones, Metals, Minerals and Sub­terranean Earths with Water; so that where-ever we sink into the Body of [Page 55] the Earth, as soon as we prick [with our Digging Instruments those Kells of Clay &c. which divide the several Strata] we presently raise their Feed­ers.

And if any [who being prompt'd either to gratifie his Natural Curiosity, or gain some considerable Advantage to himself] would raise a new River up­on dry Ground,To raise new River [...] upon dry Ground. let him go to the Foot of some Hill or Rising Ground and be­gin a Level-Drift, which by cross-cut­ting of the several Strata of that Rising Earth, he will Tap and fet at Liberty all the Feeders; and if he drive on till he shall cross-cut with the Drift one Branch of those greater Dikes, he will Raise a considerable River, which may turn to his great Advantage.

CHAP. XVII. Of those Preternatural. Accidents that Disturb and Interrupt the Course of Nature in this Material World &c.

HAving in the former Chapters given an Account of the Origi­nals, Causes, Consistences and Natural Uses of the several Parts of this Natural Globe, as well Fix'd as Fluid: It will not be improper to subjoin an Account of such Preternatural Accidents as some­times have disturb'd, and may for the future interrupt the regular Course of Nature; and at the last so far destroy the Frame and Fabrick of this Material Part of it, as to render it uncapable of being an Habitable World.

And these are Earthquakes, Hurri­canes, Volcano's, violent Eruptions of the Subterranean Waters, as at Noah's Flood; Stagnations of the Sub­terranean Air, causing the Springs and Mineral Feeders to sink down into the Interior [...]arts of the Earth; Interrup­tion [Page 57] of the Circulation of Vapours, and Rains upon the Earth (as in the days of Elisha the Prophet); violent and Preternatural Thunders, such as destroy'd Sodom and Gomorrah. These and the like, are the Accidental Di­stempers that have happen'd in the Bo­dy of the Earth, and they seem Ana­lagous to those Fevers, Agues, Con­vulsions, &c. which interrupt the Healthful Constitutions of our own Bo­dies, and are sometimes destructive of 'em: And as all the Diseases and Di­stempers our Bodies are subject to, have their Original from Accidental Heats or Colds, which either Sublimates and Exalts our Animal Spirits into a Fe­verish degree of Volatility; or by Cold and Aguish Damps depresseth them into a degree of Stagnation.

So all those Accidental and Preter­natural Disturbances that happen in the Course of Nature, have their ori­ginal Cause, from the several Kinds and Natures of Damps, which are, Either Central, Subterrene, or Aerial;[Page 58]And are of Quality Either Hot, Cold, Sweet, or Foul.

CHAP. XVIII. Of the Central Damps: Their Cau­ses, Natures, and Dreadful Ef­fects upon this Globe.

THE Subterranean Vault being filled with a confus'd Mass of undigested Matter, Consisting of Sub­limat'd Sulphur, Bitumen and Nitre, whenever it happens that there ariseth a War between these angry Volatiles, and their Fluid Neighbours (viz.) the Subterranean Water and Air,A Subter­ranean contest be­tween Fire and Water. which Circulates through those greater Veins that environ this large Vault; and do not only Feed and Nourish that Infer­nal Smother, but keep and confine it within its own Boundaries, that it [Page 59] break not forth in violent Eruptions upon the fixt Body of the Earth,

As soon as this Intestine War com­menceth, these Active Volatiles of Sub­limated Sulphur, Bitumen and Nitre, collect and aggregate into great Bo­dies.

And when these discharge in the 1 Central part of the Vault, the Nitre which is the principal Cause of the grand Effort or Flatus, A Concus­sion of the whole Globe. dilates and ex­pands its self on all sides, upwards and downwards Indifferently: And this violent Effort or Flatus causeth an uni­versal Concussion of the whole Globe.

When the Damp gathers towards the 2 Circumference of the Vault, and there dischargeth it self, the grand Flatus hath its Tendency upwards▪ A Concus­sion of half the Globe. and some­times causeth a Concussion of one half of the Globe, without any Eruption of Fire.

When the Damp Fires upon some 3 Class of the Superincumbent Strata, it either splits them, making Cracks and Chasms in the Exterior parts of the Earth for some Miles in length,A Local Earth­quake. which at the instant of the Shock openeth, and in the Interval between the Shocks closeth again: [Of this Kind was that [Page 60] [...]rack or Chasm which open'd and [...]allow'd up the Tents of Korah, Dathan and Abiram; and no doubt, but the Shock struck a Terror into the whole Camp]

Or if the grand Flatus be very Strong and Vehement, it either ele­vates the whole Class above the Super­ficies of the Earth,New Mountains and Pond [...]. forming a new Mountain; or else it sinks down into the Vault, and the vacant place is im­mediately fill'd with Water [not from Dr. Woodward's Abyss] but from the Veins of the Earth which break into it.

4 When the Damp fires near or upon some of the great Joints or Clifts of the Earth, the Flatus pursues all the Wind­ings and Turnings of these Joints and Clifts until it break forth in Dreadful Hurricanes; either under the Sea, oc­casioning most Horrible Disorders and Perturbations,Of Hurri­cains and their Ef­fects. raising its Surface into Prodigious Waves, Tossing and Rowl­ing them about in most strange Whirl­pools, Overturning and Swallowing up Ships in an instant: And upon the dry Land Overturning Cities, Towns, Blowing up Mountains, &c.

[Page 61]Tho' these Effects of the Subterra­nean Nitre when Rarified and Dilated by the Central Flame be very Dread­ful; yet if these Fissures and Spiracles through which they get a Vent and break out upon the Earth had been Perpendicular [as Dr. Woodward Con­ceits] they wou'd have Destroy'd the whole Surface of it.

For then every one of these lesser 1 Damps or Squibs which daily take Fire in the Subterranean Vault, wou'd have broken out upon us.

And the greater Damps being Fired 2 wou'd have Blown up not only the In­habitants of the Earth; but their Hou­ses with its Superficies into the Air; for the deeper the Fissure or Spiracle is, if it be Perpendicular in a streight Line, the more Strength and Impetuosity it gives to the Flatus, as we observe in Guns and Fuzees.

Again, The very Sulphurous Exha­lations which wou'd have ascended through these Perpendicular Fissures without interruption, wou'd [with their Noisome Smell] have Suf [...]ocated and Stifled those Animals that Live by Respiration, and wou'd have afforded Matter for continual Thunder in the Air.

[Page 62]It was then most agreeable with the State of this Habitable Globe that these Fissures or Joints of the Earth shou'd have their Position from the Surface to the C [...]nter in crooked Lines with va­rious windings and turnings,Dr. Wood­wards no­tion of per­pendicular Fissures is a mistake in observa­tion. openings and closings; not only for securing us from those dangerous Effects of the Central and Terrene Damps; but also for the better and more commodious Communication of the Subterranean Waters through the Flat Strata of Matter.

And Lastly, That the Subterranean Waters by following of the windings and [...]urnings of these greater Fissures might have a longer Journey to the Sea, and thereby supply the Inhabitants of the Earth with sweet Waters at a more Commodious and Convenient Di­stance.

These Phenomena of Central Damps, and that they are the only cause of all those Universal Earth-quakes that have happen'd in this Natural World, being wholly new, and the World not yet accquainted with them, may at first sight seem only the Products of Fancy, or meer Conjecture; yet if Seriously and Impartially enquir'd into, will be [Page 63] fou [...]d Grounded upon such Reason, as cannot without a prejudic'd Opinion be easily deny'd.

For it cannot be imagin'd by any who have made it their business to un­derstand the Structure of the Earth▪ those [...]everal Classes of Solid and Dense Matter on which it consists, the wind­ings and turnings of those Dikes and Partitions which divide them and are the Subterranean Water Courses, that there shou'd be Magazines of Subter­ranean Gunpowder lodg'd in Infer­nal Cavities round the whole Globe, and that there shou'd be Trains laid from one Collection to another, and that all these Trains shou'd take Fire through all the Subterranean Rivers in one instant of Time. Neither can it rea­sonably be suppos'd that there shou'd be a Concussion of the whole or half, or any considerable part of the Globe, by one Subterranean Flatus; but what is from the Central Vault.

Again, The Consistences of the greatest part of the Earth being rather of a Gold, Terrene and Mercurial, than of a Bituminous Nitrous and Sulphure­ous Quality, it cannot be suppos'd that those parts of the Earth which afford [Page 64] no quantities of this Natural Gunpow­der shou'd suffer a Concussion or Earth­quake, but from these Central Damps.

Besides those Miners who have sunk deepest into these Occult Regions, do from their own Experience assure us, that there are no Grotto's or Cavities above an Hundred Fathoms deep, un­less in those Mountainous Countries where the Consistences are of a Sul­phurous and Nitrous Quality, afford­ing plenty of Natural Gun-powder, which being Fir'd cause all those Vul­cano's we Read of in History.

CHAP. XIX. Of Terrene Damps, and their Dread­ful Effects upon this Globe &c.

TErrene Damps have their Original either from Heat or Cold, and are either Fiery or Waterish: Those which have their Original from Fire, are of the same Nature with those Cen­tral Damps we have given Account of.

As all Local Earth-quakes do more frequently happen in the Mountainous Countries, than in the Plains and Val­leys; because all the greater Dikes, Joints and Veins of the Earth contract and meet there: And the Flatus which is the occasion of the Shock makes its way by what passage soever it can get Vent.

But these Mountainous Cou [...]tries especially, which yield great store of Sulphur, Bitumen, and chiefly Nitre [these Minerals affording the greatest plenty of Natural Gun-powder] are most injur'd by those dreadful Shocks, because those Mountains whose Natu­ral [Page 66] Consistences are of so Hot and Fie­ry a Quality are commonly very Ca­vernous; and their greater Joints and Fissures,Of Burn­ing Moun­tains. as well as strong Strata having by frequent Concussions and Earth­quakes lost their Natural Feeders, are become the most proper Receptacles for those Fiery Stores to be lodg'd in until either the Central Fire, or their own Natural Heat being contracted into a Point, Discharge first the lowest Damp, and the rest by Trains like so many Subalterns discharge in Course, and sometimes for several Months together, till the Subterranean Gun-powder be all spent.

And these Burning Mountains such as Aetna, Vesuvius, Hecla, and others, are only so many Spiracles or Vulcano's serving for the discharge of these Sub­terranean Damps,Vulcano's. which disgorgeth Flames of Fire, and Stones of great Weight and Substance, Showers of Sand and Rivers of melted Minerals; and yet these Mountains by those Vul­cano's lose nothing of their Height or Mag [...]itude, all these Eruptions being Recruited out of the great Magazine of Natural Gun-powder contain'd in the Infernal Vault.

[Page 67]Besides these Damps of a Fiery Na­tore contain'd in the Interior parts of the Earth, there are others which some­times happens in the Exterior parts of it; such as those Fiery Damps in Col­leries are only the Perspirations of Sul­phur and Nitre out of the Cole,Her damps in Colle­ries. Wall or Mine, Collected into a Body; and these either take Fire at a Candle, or like so many dry Exhalations receiv'd into the Body of a Cloud,Their Ef­fects. and dis­charge like Thunder shakes the Earth about the Collery, kills the Miners, and have other Dreadful [...]ffects.

To these we may add those Preter-natural Ebullitions and Eruptions of Subterranean Waters, which Moses calls the Breaking up of the Fountains of the great Deep: Violent Eruptions of Water. And these whenever they happen upon the Earth [as at No­ah's Flood] are occasion'd by an Uni­versal Fermentation and Dilation of the Central Fire, which gaining ground upon their Fluid Neighbours, force them into a most Rapid Motion through all the Subterranean Veins, and consequently causeth those v [...]olent Eruptions of Water in all the Springs, Rivers, Joints and Fissures of the Earth.

[Page 68]Sometimes the Circulation of the Subterranean Waters stagnates and sinks down into the Interior parts of the Earth;Of water Damps. the Springs and Rivers dry up, as in the days of Elisha: and this is occasion'd by the stifling and damp­ing of the Central Heat, the Circum­ambient Waters prevailing upon it.

Sometimes the Circumbient Air which Circulates in the Exterior parts of the Earth, especially the Caverns, Joints and Concavities of Rocky Stones and other Metals [and is the only cause of the Eruption and Motion of Springs, Rivers, &c.] Damps and Stagnates, which forceth the Springs and Eruptions of Waters to stand back, and fill those Caverns and Joints, from whence they flow until the weight of the Waters break the Damp, or ra­ther Damm of Stagnated Air; and then follows Eruptions and Overflow­ings of Springs, Rivers, &c.

This kind of Damps I have met with sometimes in Colleries,An Air Damp. where the Wa­ter made way for it self in such Joints and open Closers, as it met with in the under Cills; especially Lime-stone, which is of all Stone the most Jointy and Open.

[Page 69]And when the Air in these open Joints and Cavities was dampt, the Waters stood back in the Working, and forc'd the Mines out of the Pit, until the weight broke the Damp, and then the Waters Drain'd

This Damp most frequently happens in the Summer Months,A sweet Da [...]. when the Ambi­ent Air is Thick with Hot and Piery Ex­halations, and the Effluvia of sweet Blos­soms, especially of Peas and Beans. And this the Miners call the sweet Damp.

This Stagnation and Damping of the Subterranean Air is [in all probability] the cause of the Annual Over-flowing of the River Nilus, the Horary Over­flowing of the Spring at Gigleswick in York-shire, the Drumming in the Well at Bautry, &c.

And these being by Men of Learn­ing reckon'd among the Magnalia Na­turae , we shall enquire more particular­ly into the Causes of them: And first of the Over-flowing of Nilus.

Nilus is one of the Noblest Rivers in the World,The over-flowing of Nilus. and is famous not only for the long Course it takes through Ethiopia and Egypt, which is suppos'd to be Three thousand Miles before it empty's it self into the Miditerranean [Page 70] Sea; but also for its Over [...]lowing and Fertilizing that Low and Level Coun­try, supplying in it the want of Rain.

'Tis believ'd by Men of great Learn­ing that this Yearly Over-flowing of that Country is oc [...]s [...]on'd by the great quantities of Snow dissolv'd upon the Mountains, from whence it takes its Rise; and these [as Geographers give Account] are that vast Ridge of Mountains, which for their Height bear the Name of Montes Lunae, as i [...] their lofty Tops wash'd their Head [...] in the Moon's Waterish Vortex.

Others are of Opinion that the Year­ly Over-flowing of that River is caus'd by those great Rains which fall every Spring in the higher Ethiopia: But if either the Dissolution of Snow, or In­undations caus'd by the falling of those Spring-Rains, were the true Rea­son, &c. they wou'd also cause the o­the [...] Rivers in those Countries to Over­flow their Banks at the same time; which is so far from being Observable, that when Nilus Over-flows, the othe [...] Rivers are at a very low Ebb.

The Cause then of this Yearly Over­flowing of Nilus, which begins about the 17th of Iune and continues until [Page 71] the 6th of October, seems to be a Sub­terranean Damp, which Yearly Stag­nates the Circulation of Air in these vast Rocks and open Strata, from whence those Rapid Springs and Feed­ers slow, which are the Heads of that Famous River.

The Subterranean Air being Dampt, the Springs and Mineral Fe [...]ders are forc'd to stand back and fill all those vast Concavities and Hollows for seve­ral Miles upon [...]he Side-rise, and some Miles upon the Top-rise of those Rocks and Metals; until the weight of so vast a quantity of Water [which may be compar'd to a l [...]sser Sea] breaks the Damp or Damm of Stagnated Air, and then the River begins to Over-flow, an [...] continues until the Waters be spent, and the Damp gathers again.

Its observ'd that when the River Ni­lus begins to Over-Flow its Banks, that great Plagues break out in Cairo, which seems to be occasion'd by those gross Vapours and Mineral Exhalati­ons that arise from so vast a quantity of Stagnated Water, which [whilst by its Motion, its Purging of it self and reco­vering of its Sweetness] fly about, cor­rupt the Air, and cause Infections.

[Page 72] The over-flowing of the Gigles­wick Spring.This Subterranean Damp is likewise the cause of the Horary Over- [...]lowing of the Spring at Gigleswick in Yorkshire; for this Spring b [...]ing the feeder of a Lime­stone Rock near Thirty Yards Perpen­dicular in Height, which breaks out at the Foot of it; so oft [...]n as the Circula­tion of the Air in the Rock is dampt, the Spring runs very slowly, and when the weight of the Water has broken the Damp, it Over-flows, and this Flux and Reflux is once in every Hour.

I observ'd my self, that before the Waters began to Flow there was a knocking in the Rock, and this was caused by the pressing of the Water upon the Damp before it broke.

The same is the cause of that Drum­ming in the Well at Bautry, The drum­ming W [...]ll a [...] Baut [...]y which the Inhabitants of the Town told me ne­ver happ [...]n'd but against the change of Government: This Well is observ'd to be [...]or the most part Dry, which is oc­casion'd by the feeders standing back; the drumming noise is occasion'd by the Waters pressing upon the Damp, and the Hollows of the Well; for as soon as the Damp is broken, the Well fills wi [...]h Water and the Drumming is over.

[Page 73]This occasions the Report of Under­ground Spirits, which Miners call Mine­ral Spirits; and they observe that these Spirits give notice by Knocking or Groaning before the Mineral Vein be discover'd:Mineral Spirits. I have observ'd my self that in a new Collerie, when the Work­men were near the Coal (and only the Kell which kept the feeder of it unbro­k [...]n] there wou'd have been a sort of Knocking, Sighing or Groaning, heard in the Vein, which was only occasion'd by the weight of the Water lying in the Coal, and pressing forward for more room and liberty; for as soon as the Coal was prick'd, the Water rose in the Pit, the Knocking was over and the Mineral Spirit Conjur'd.

Of this kind also is that Damp which the Miners sometimes meet with in their sinking of deep Pits and new Works;Foul. Air. where a Cloud of Breath or Sweat per­spiring from the Bodies of the Work­men, will sti [...]le the Circulation of the Air, and not suffer the Candles to Burn. This Damp will steal [...] Breath insensibly from the Workm [...] and sti [...]le 'em.

There is yet another kind of Damp the Miners complain of, which they call the [Page 74] foul or stinking Damp; and this is cau­sed by the breaking out of corrupted Air from old crusted Works. This, if not prevented, will Kill and Stifle the Workmen.

The Aerial Damps will be treated upon in Meteorologie.

Having given an Account of the Causes, Natures and Effects of Damps, and such Preter-natural Accidents as have and may disturb and interrupt the regular Course of Nature; we cannot but make an Enquiry into the Causes of Noah's Flood, the Season of the Year when it happen'd, and the Alterations and Devastations it made upon the Earth,

CHAP. XX. Of Noah's Flood, its Causes, the Season of the Year when it hap­pen'd, the Effects and Alterations it made upon the Earth.

If these two Learn'd Men (viz. Dr. Burnet and Dr. Woodward had understood better the Structure of the Terraqueous Globe, the Natural Con­sistences of it, the Causes, Natures and Effects of Damps, and that those Sub­terranean Waters which Circulate through the Veins of the Earth bears proportion to Seventy two Oceans, they wo [...]'d have discover'd such a quan­tity of Water as wou'd have caus'd an Universal Deluge without the Conceit of a Central or Subterranean Abyss.

Which Hypothesis [tho' manag'd with the greatest Artisice of Invention and Oratory] when seriously enquir'd into, will be found to have very little of Truth in the bottom of it; for it seems not only inconsistent with the Original Settlement of Matter, as we [Page 76] have observ'd already; but also with Dr. Woodward's Hypothesis concerning the re-settling of the fluid Matter dis­solv'd by the Deluge which he positive­ly asserts to have been according to the Rules of Specifick Gravity; the heavi­est subsiding the lowest.

1 This Hypothesis if taken for granted, we must necess [...]rily conclude from it, that all those kinds of ponderous Ore, and heaviest Rocks of Iron, Stone, Marble, &c. would have sunk down into the Central Vault and fill'd it up.

2 That the rest of the Fix'd Matter be­ing by some degree lighter would have spread their Solid Strata uppermost: 3 And that the Fluid Waters being by several degrees lighter than the Fix'd Matter, would have cover'd the whole Terre [...]e Globe, and consequently wou'd have caus'd an Universal and perpetual Deluge upon the Earth.

But suppose it possible to improve the strength of Imagination to such a height, as to fancy that there was O­riginally, and is still, a vast Abyss of Hot Water contain'd in the Center of the Earth; it cannot be so easily ap­prehended by what Power or Means this vast substance of Water shou'd be [Page 77] put into so high a degree of Fert [...]entati­on and Commotion, as to cause an Universal Disruption and Dissolution of the Earth, as Dr. Woodward conceits; for although that Fire placed under a Pot sill'd with Water, will by emitting of its fiery Globuli, and mingling them with the Water, cause so violent an Ebullition and Commotion in it, as to raise the Cover and overturn it; yet it cannot be suppos'd that either that uni­form and constant Fire or Heat, disse­minated through the Body of the Earth; or the external Heat of the Sun's warm Influence can produce any such Effects; because Fire and Nitre do Naturally exert their power upwards and side­way, but never downward, but when it is so pent up that it can get no other Vent: And when even Gun-powder is forc'd to make its Effort upon the Waters, the strength of its Flatus does little Execution, being presently sti [...]l'd. We shall therefore suspend further En­quiry about this matter, until Dr. Wood­ward's larger Volume be made pub­lick, and endeavour to find out some other Causes by which that Universal Deluge which happen'd in Noah's time might be effected in an other way, and [Page 78] grounded upon fair probabilities of Reason and Certainty.

1 First then, no doubt but God Almigh­ty was the Principal Cause, the Sins of Mankind the provoking Cause, and the Subterranean Superterranean and Nu­biferous Waters were the immediate Instruments of it.

But how all these divided Waters shou'd be re-united and gather'd into such a Body as was sufficient to cover all the Tops of the Mountains Fifteen Cubits high, as Moses gives Account, is the only matter of difficulty to be [...]ncounter'd.

In Order to which, I shall not Enter­tain you with a long Story of the Opi­nions of Learn'd Men about it, not undertake to shew you upon what im­probable Grounds and inconsistences the Theorist and Dr. Woodward have establish'd their Hypothesis of it; but having discover'd a Vast and Por [...]en­tous Body of Water Circulating in the Veins of the Earth, bearing Proporti­on [as I have observ'd] to Seventy-two Oceans, and several Oceans of Water more floating in the Clouds and rarisied into thin Air [tha [...] it might be a sit Me­dium for Respiration, &c.] my Adven­ture, [Page 79] shall be [...]irst to shew how, and 1 by what Cause, the Subterranean VVa­ter was rais'd above Ground, and the thin Air was condens'd into VVater; how both join'd with the Sea, and caus'd the Deluge.

And then Secondly, I shall give Ac­count how the Waters again divided; how all things return'd to their Na­tural Course; and by what Gradati­ons the dry Land appear'd: And more than this is not necessary to make and establish a clear Hypothesis of the Uni­versal Deluge.

First then, we may conclude, from 1 Arguments of the greatest probability imaginable, that the collection and re­uniting of such a quantity of Water as was sufficient to Drown the World, was caus'd by an Universal Damp that happen'd at that time in the whole Course of Nature.

For, First, all the Central Fire by a Preternatural Fermentation and Dilati­on of those angry Volatiles on which it consists, gain'd ground upon its Fluid Neighbours, those Subterranean Waters which circulate in the Body of the Earth, and forcing them into a most rapid Ebullition and Commotion, caus'd most [Page 80] violent Eruptions in all the Veins, Joints, Fissures and Hyatus's as well under the Channel of the Sea, as in all the parts of the Earth's Surface.

The mean­ing of these words, the Fountains of the great Deep were bro­ken up.These violent Eruptions of the Sub­marine and Subterranean Waters, which Moses calls the breaking up of the Fountains of the great Deep, swell'd up the Sea into such a height of Gibbosity that it forc'd the Rivers to stand back, and rise as high as their Fountain Heads, which covering all the dry Land, ex­cepting the Tops of the highest Moun­tains; the Aerial Damp caus'd by the Moon's waterish Vertex pressing down the Vortex or Atmosphere of this Ter­raqueous Globe,The Cause of the Ae­rial Damp and its Ef­fects. did not only inter­rupt the Communication of the Subter­ranean and Aerial Waters, by causing the raising and circulation of Vapours to cease; but also by condensing the moist Air into waterish Clouds, which falling down in continual Spouts for Forty Days and Nights together [the Air being without Motion,What is meant by the open­ing of the Windows of Heaven. consequent­ly neither able to break nor support them] the Tops of the highest Moun­tains were cover'd Fifteen Cubits, as Moses gives Account, Gen. 7.15. and these portentous Rains which fell in [Page 81] Spouts, Moses expresseth by the opening of the Windows of Heaven, Gen. 7.11.

Thus the divided Waters being re­uni [...]d as they were in the Creation, and the circulation of Vapours broken by the stagnation and damping of the Aerial Regions, the whole Surface of the Earth was cover'd, until God caus'd a Wind to pass over the Earth,The mean­ing of the Wind which God caused to pass over the Earth, and its ef­fects. which breaking the Aerial Damp, the Rain ceased▪ the Subterranean Waters sunk down into their Veins▪ recover'd the Ground which the Central Fire had gain'd from them: The Rivers forc'd the Sea to retreat back to her own Channel, and returning to her regular Flux and Reflux, the Vapours arose and repair'd the Air again wi [...]h Clouds and Moisture, and all things return'd to their Natural Course. I [...] cannot be imagin'd how the Heart of Noah and his Family was reviv'd when the Sun began to shew its Face again, and the Rain-Bow appear'd in a broken Cloud.

For Noah being undoubtedly as well a Natural Philosopher as a Priest in his Family,What the Rain-bows appearing in the Clouds did signifie. the appearance of a Rain-Bow [which after a long Storm is an infalli­ble sign of Fair-weather] cou'd not [Page 82] but encourage him with hopes that the Damp was broken and the Storm o­ver.

God therefore made a Covenant with Noah and his Posterity that there shou'd never be an Universal Deluge upon the Earth, Gen. 9.23. and to establish this Covenant with [...]him, he made the Rain-Bow [being a Waterish Meteor, and after a Storm a sign of Fair-weather] a most proper and significant Sign and Seal of that Cove­nant [viz.] a Sign commemorative of the past Deluge, and a Seal confirma­tive that there shou'd never be any more Flood to destroy the Earth. And no more than this seems to be meant by the appearance of the Rain-Bow in the Cloud▪

CHAP. XXI. Of the Season of the Year when the Deluge happen'd.

DR. Woodward declares his Opinion,A Refuta­tion of Dr. Woodward's Hypothe­sis, &c. that the Deluge com [...]enc'd in the Spring Season in the Month we call May; but upon what Reason he grounds this Conceit I cannot easily appre­hend.

For the Fruits of the Earth being then but Growing; and the former Au­tu [...]n Seeds being destroy'd by the by past Winter, Nature wou'd have been forc'd to a Spontaneous Production of the several kinds of Vegetables as had lost their Seeds. And whe [...] the seve­ral Species of Animals which were pre­serv'd from the Flood, had liberty to go abroad and seek Food, they wou'd not easily have found it in November and December, which Months accord­ing to his Hypothesis were the Season when the Waters ab [...]ted, and the Beasts orde [...]'d to leave the Ark, and seek their own Food where [...]hey cou'd find it.

[Page 84] The time when the Deluge commen­ced.It seems then most probable that the Universal Deluge commenc'd in that Month we call August, when the Seeds of all Vegetables were full Ripe, and ready to Sow themselves in the Fertile Soil, that when the Deluge was over, and the dry Land had for some time appear'd, and had receiv'd Heat and In­crustation from the warm Influence of an approaching Sun: These Seeds be­ing mingl'd with a warm and waterish Soil, might be ready to Spring up and supply the Animals with pleasant Food.

We likewise observe that when the Dove was sent forth out of the Ark the Second time, she brought with her a Leaf pluck'd from an Olive-Tree: When she was sent forth a Third time, she return'd no more, having found Food upon the Earth, which cou'd be no other than Corn floating upon the Surface of the waterish Earth.

Again, Moses gives us an Account that in the First Month, which proba­bly answers our Ianuary, the Waters were dry'd up from the Face of the Earth; and upon the 27th Day of the Second Month, which seems to be our February or March, God order'd all [Page 85] the Beasts in the Ark, to be tur [...]'d out to Grass, and shift for themselves.

Again, we find daily not only great Trees of several Kinds [as Oak, Birch, &c.] rooted up by the Roots, and lying upon Heaps Bury'd and En­tomb'd in great Mosses wher [...] they ne­ver had grown; but had been brought thi [...]her by that general D [...]vastation made by the Deluge: But Hazel-Nuts▪ whose Kernels are as fresh [...]s if they had now been growing upon the Trees. These Nuts having been scatter'd there by the Deluge, and having layn there bury'd and [...]mbalm'd in those Bitu­minous Mosses to this Day; and in all probability might have been continu'd as long as the Earth. From these Ob­servations, we may reasonably infer, that the Flood commenc'd when the Seeds of all Vegetables were Ripe for the propagation of their Kinds.

We may yet farther add, that all Damps as well Subterranean as Aerial▪ most frequently happen in the Autumn Season.

CHAP. XXII. Of the Alterations which Noah's Flood made in, and upon the Earth.

I cannot agree with Dr. Woodward's Hypothesis, wherein he asserts that during the time of the Deluge, whilst the Water was out upon, and cover'd the Terrestrial Globe, all the Stone and Marble with the Metals and Mi­neral Concretions, &c. of the Antedi­luvian Earth, were totally Dissolv'd; and their constituent Corpuscles all disjoin'd, their cohaesion perfectly ceasing, &c.

Dr. Wood­wa [...]d' [...] Hy­pothesi [...] concern­ing the ef­fects of the D [...]l [...]ge Refuted. This Hypothesis seem inconsistent with Sense and Experience, as well as Na [...]ural Reason and Scripture [especi­ally the Mosaick Account of the De­luge.] For First,

1 Experience tells us, that there is no such Dissolving power or quality ei­ [...]her in the Subterranean or Aerial Waters as to effect such a Dissolution as he describes, and these were the [Page 87] immediate Instruments of the De­luge.

It cannot reasonably be suppos'd 2 [without a Miracle] that all the Solid consistences of the Earth shou'd be dis­solv'd into a Fluid substance; and a­gain resettle and receive their seve­ral degrees of consolida [...]ion in so short a time as the Flood continued upon the Earth.

If the Earth suffer'd by the Deluge 3 a Total and Universal Dissolution, then all those form'd Stones and Shells which the Dr. conceives to be Marine Bodies born forth of the Sea, by the Universal Deluge, and left behind at Land when the Waters return'd, wou'd have lost their Forms and Shapes, these being not only found upon the Surface of the Earth; but in the Interior parts of it, incorporated with several solid Strata of Stone, as well upon the Mountains as Plains.

If not only the solid Fossils; but 4 also Sand, Earth, Animate Bodies, parts of Animals, Bones and Teeth, Shells, Vegetables and parts of Vegetables, [Page 88] made one common and confus'd Mass, dissolv'd into a Fluid substance: Then the whole Species of Vegetables, Root and Branch, Stock and Seed, wou'd have been lost, and Nature forc'd to a S [...]ontaneous Production, as at the Creation.

5 The Re-settling of the confus'd fluid Ma [...]s ac [...]ording to the R [...]l [...]s of Spe [...]i­fick Gravity, the [...]e [...]viest subsiding lowest, is a grand mistake in Observati­on▪ and by the same Rule, the Earth wou'd have been cov [...]r'd with a Per­pe [...]ual as well as Universal Deluge, as w [...] have already obs [...]rv'd.

6 As this Hypothesis is inconsistent with Sense, Reason and Experience, so is it with the Account Moses gives of the Universal Deluge; for he tells us that there were Mountains during the prevalency of the Waters, and that the Flood cover'd the Tops of them Fifteen Cubi [...]s. He tells us likewise, that the first dry Land that appear'd, was the Tops of the Mountains, and that the Ark rested upon the Moun­tains of Ararat. If this Account be t [...]ue, as undoubtedly it is, the alterati­ons [Page 89] which the Deluge made were only in the Surface and Exterior parts of the Ear [...]h: And those places of Scripture which speak of destroying the Earth, are to be understood, only the out­ward Coat or Superficies, and no [...] the Mineral part of it. And neither was the Surface of the Earth altogethe [...] destroy'd, as appears by the Dove's b [...]inging of an Olive Leaf in her Mouth pluck'd off; and by all Living Crea­tures in the Ark, being turn'd to Grass and to shi [...]t for themselves in the Se­venth Month after the Deluge com­menc'd, which might be in the begin­ni [...] of our March.

The Alterations, which the Deluge made upon the Earth, being only in the Exterior part of it, I shall take no­tice of such as are most Remarkable and Obvious. As First,

The uppermost Strata upon the Tops 1 of Mountains▪ were broken up and tumbl'd down to the Skirts of them, and these we [...]ind lying upon their In­land sides in great confusion,The Al­terations which th [...] Deluge made upon the Ea [...]h. with false and counter Dibs and Rises, like those Flags and Boards of Ice, thrown out of the Water upon the breach of a Storm.

[Page 90] 2 The Joints of the Mountains consi­sting of Rag Raff and Chiver, and not being bound together with strong Cills of Stone, were broken, as we have observ'd already.

3 The Courses and Channels of Rivers were enlarg'd, which caus'd all these pleasant Gills and Dales with their Ra­pid River running through the midst of them.

4 The whirling about of the Water, caus'd all those Hills or lesser Moun­tains, whose consistences are only Sand, Gravel, or broken Strata of Stone &c.

5 The Deluge rooted up all the greater Trees, some of which we find bury'd and emb [...]lm'd in great Mosses, as well upon the Mountains as in the Valleys.

6 The Surface of the Plains and Val­leys was fertiliz'd by the Deluge, by it [...] leaving a prolifick Slime and faeculent Mud upon it.

7 These Alterations were not caus'd by the rising, but the decreasing Wa­ters; [Page 91] for whilst the Waters were a­rising,The time when these alterations were made. the Aerial as well as the Subter­ranean Damp continu'd, and the Sub­luniary Course of Nature was Stagna­ted; but as soon as God caus'd a Wind to pass over the Earth, the Damp broke, and the Waters were put into a Most violent Perturbation and Com­motion; which was the only cause of all those Alterations and Devastati­ons.

The End of the First part.

A Scheme wherein the several degrees & Concatenations of Life are explained

Animalia Intermedia
  • Zoo­phi [...]a
  • Insects
  • Apes
  • Idiots
  • Heroes
  • Genii boni
  • A Angels
  • God
  • The Centre of the World.
  • The Mineral Sphere
  • The Vegetative Sphere of Life
  • The Sensitive Sphere of Life
  • The Rational Sphere of Life
  • The Intellectual Sphere of Life
  • The Divine Essence or Fountain of Life

As the highest degree of Vegetation in the Zoo­ph [...]a makes a near Ap­proach to the lowest degree o [...] S [...]nsation in the Insects. So The highest degree of Sensation in Apes &c. makes a near Approach to the lowest degree of Ra­tionalit [...] in Idiots &c.

As the Highest degree of Rationality in the Heros▪ and Speritualizd Rationals makes a near Approach to the Boni Genii or low­est order of Angels: So the highest degree of In­tellectuallity in the Angelick Nature makes a near Approach to the Divine Essence.



CHAP. I. Of the Plastick Spirit in Matter, and its natural Products.

THE Plastick and Vivifick. Powers being the first Prin­ciples of Life in this Natural World, which forms the first Lines, and kindles the first Sparks of the vital Flame:

It will be necessary in order to our present Design, [which is to give a short Account of the Originals, De­grees and Propagations of Life in this Natural World] to describe the Natu­ral Operations and Products of these two first Principles, and to shew how they act Severally, as well as in Con­sort.

[Page 96]The Plastick Spirit in this World of Matter, is a Subtle Saline Volatile, which [whilst Matter was in a Fluid Substance] diffus'd it self through all the Lax Strata and consistences of it.

And [...]s that Acid a [...] S [...]line Humour in the Stomachs of Animals, together with the Vital Flame, by several de­grees of Concoction and Depuration, separates the more Pure and Spirituous parts of the Nourishment from the Cras­ [...]er and more Excrementitious parts of it, or as that Acid and Saline Rennet separates and coagulates the more Pure, Spirituous and Oyly parts of the Milk from the Waterish and more Terre [...]e; so this subtle and Acid Volatile, together with that Subterranean Flame [which desseminates its warm and enlive [...]ing Influence, not only through all the great­er Veins Branches and Ramifactions of the Earth, but also pervades the smallest Pores of the Densest Matter] did sepa­ra [...]e, collect and coagulate the more Simple, Pure and Homogeneous parts of Ma [...]er, from the Crasser parts of it.

And as the Mass of Fluid and water­ish Matter, receiv'd its degrees of Con­solidation, these purer and Pneumati­cal Coagulations were concreted in [Page 97] those Solid as well as Laxer Strata where­in we find them,

And the Magnitude and Figure of these concreted Coagulations, corr [...] ­sponds with those Moulds of Crasser Matter from whence they were Extra­cted, and wherein they are enclos'd and compress'd. These we find lodg'd either in the Exterior or Interior Parts of the Earth,

Those concreted Coagulations which we meet with in the Outer Coat, or grand Cover of the Earth, are of an irregular Figure; and they are lodg'd in that part in disorder and confusi­on.

And these are either the common Pe­bles, which are of a Terrene Saline or Pinguid Quality:


They are common Flints, Pyritae and [Page 98] Marchasites of a Pneumatical and Fie­ry Quality:


They are Agates, Onyxes, Jaspers, Cornelians, &c. Of a Mercurial and Waterish Quality, which are more or less Transparent.

This outer Coat or Surface of the Earth consisting of Sand, Gravel, Clay, Bituminous Peat-Earth, and other kinds of Matter of an Heterogeneous Nature, affords the greatest variety of these Homogeneous Concretions.

And these are all of the same Na­ture and Quality with that Courser and Crasser Matter from which they were Extracted and Coagulated.

Those more Simple and Homogene­ous Concretions which we meet with lodged in the Interior Strata of Solid Matter, which are of an Irregular Fi­gure, are Either of a Liquifiable or Calcinable Quality.

Those that are not of a Liquifiable Nature, are those which the Miners call the Kernels of Stones.

[Page 99]For as the Spirit of Nature [at the first setling of Matter] reduc'd all the Constituent parts of the Earth to seve­ral Classes; and every Class of Matter leading to some Mine or Mineral; so every Bed or Layer of Stone or Metal has its proper Kernels, by which the Ingenious Miner may be directed what Mine or Mineral [...]ey lead to; whether to Coal, Rudle, Iron. Stone, Lead or other Metallick Ores; and these coagulated Concretions, are commonly lodg'd in the midle of such solid Strata

Those Homogeneous and more Pneu­matical Concretions of an irregular Figure, which are of a Liquifiable Qua­lity, are the several Kinds of Metallick Ores, and these are lodg'd in those Rakes, Veins, Riders, and Strings which cross-cut and divide those Solid Strata of a Hot Quality, and the highest de­gree of Concoction.

The Male Parent of all these is Sul­phur, which being either White or Yellow gives the Tincture or Colour, to all Metals.

The Female Parent is Quick-silver, which is the cause of their Liquifaction, Flexibility, and Ductility.

[Page 100]All Solid Bodies consist of two several Natures, Tangible and Pneumati­cal; the Pneumatical Substance, is the Native Spirit of the Body, which di­stinguisheth the several Kinds of them: I define therefore all Metallick Ores to be the more Simple Homogeneous Cor­puscles of such Stones and Cills as are of a Hot Quality, and the highest degree of Concoction, coagulated and concreted in those Rakes, Veins, &c. which cross­cut and divide those Cills.

The more Homogeneous that Me­tals are, the less of Dross they have in them: The more of this Native Spirit they have in the Tangible parts, they are the more Liquifiable, Flexible and Ductile; for the cause of Liquifaction is the Detention of the Spirits which play within the Body and open it; so that the greater plenty of Spirits any Tangible Matter has in it, it's the more Flexible, and therefore when the Tan­gible parts are Jejune of Spirits, or easily Emit them, they are Fragile, and will not easily Liqui [...]ie.

When the Tangible parts of Matter are Ductile or Tensile, it's occasion'd by the Appetite which the Native Spi­rits have to Union, and Aversness to Discontinue.

[Page 101] Secondly, That the Metallick Ores are the Homogeneous and Pneumatical Corpuscles of Stones and Cills of a Hot Q [...]ality, and the like, coagulated and concreted by the Plastick Spirit of M [...]tter, is evident from the Experience of Mineralists, who find the greatest plenty of Ore, in the Veins of such Cills as are of the highest degree of In­duration and Concoction; for where the Cills are weak and soft, and have not receiv'd a right degree of Heat and Temper, their Veins are only fill'd with Sparr, Soyl, Clay or Vein-stone, like unripe Nuts whos [...] soft and weak Shells are only fill'd with a Milky Pa­bulum, having little of Kernel in them.

Again, in the Third place, that Ores are the Pneumatical Corpuscles of Sul­phur and Quick [...] silver coagulated and concreted into Clods and Nodes, and lodg'd in the Veins, will be apparent to those who will take the pains to ob­serve, th [...]t the more Rich any V [...]in is of Ore, the less Spangled with Sulphur, and Quick-silver are those Cills and M [...] ­tals they cross-cut and divide; and so on the contrary, the more spangl'd the Stones are, the less Ore in the Vein.

[Page 102]And the Reason why those Metallick Spangles are collected, coagulated and concreted in those Rakes and Veins, is because they lay most open and ready to receive them; and this is the reason too, why we meet with float Ore ly­ing in flat Beds in those upper Cills which lye open:

These being Ebullitions or Overflow­ings of Vein Ore.

As that Hypothesis of the Theorist wherein he conceits▪ that there was no Metallick Ores or Minerals in the Antediluian Earth, contradicts the Ac­count which Moses gives of Tubal-Cain, who was,Gen. 4. Verse 22. as he tells us, an Instructer of every Artificer in Brass and Iron: This Tubal-Cain living before the De­luge. So Dr. Woodward's Hypothesis, that the Metallick and Mineral Matter,Part the 4th. Page 188. which is now found in the Perpendicu­lar Intervals of the Strata, was all of it Originally, and at the time of the De­luge lodg'd in the Bodies of the Strata, being interspers'd or scatter'd in single Corpuscles in the Sand or other Matter, whereof the Strata mainly consisted; seems inconsistent with Reason and his own Notions of Specifick Gravity. For,

[Page 103]First, It cannot be easily imagin'd by what Art or Chymistry the Metal­lick or Mineral Matter, which inter­spers'd and scatter'd in single Corpuscles in the Strata of Solid Stone, [especially the Corpuscles being smaller than those of the smallest Sand] cou'd be separa­ted and made fit for use.

Again, if the Mass of Fluid Matter,2 after the Deluge was over, did resettle according to the Rules of Specifick Gravity, the heaviest subsiding the lowest [as the Dr. asserts] why did not these small Grains of ponderous Ore subside the lowest, being heavi­er than the Corpuscles of those Strata wherein they were lodg'd?

And to assert that they were born 3 up by the Waters of the Abyss rising up towards the Surface [as the Dr. sup­poseth] is as inconsistent with Gravita­tion and Levity, as for Feathers t [...] sink and Lead to swim.

These Hypotheses being inconsistent both with Scripture and Reason; we shall take it for granted, that all these coagulated Concretions of Metallick Ores, were by the Plastick Spirit in Matter lodg'd in the Veins of the seve­ral Strata, lying most open, and being [Page 104] most ready to receive them: And that the State of the Antediluvian Earth did not differ as to its Constituent parts from this Postdiluvian Earth.

Having given an Account of the O­riginals, Natures, and Causes of such concreted Coagulations, as are of an Irregular Figure; I proceed to Describe the Natures and Causes of those of a more Regular Form.

And these are the Kernels or Cat­heads which we meet with in Coal Metals or Stone Metals, which being either of a Saline or Pinguid Quality, and consisting of the smallest Grit, gave way to the Plastick Spirit to Form them into more Regular Shapes and Fi­gures; and these are either Globular, Oval, Triangular, Quadrangular, &c. as the Matter coagulated had a Natural Tendency to such a Form or Figure; and they lie in these Beds of Metals, either in Layers, or in disorder and con­fusion

Besides these Irregular and Regular Concretions; there are others of a more Uniform Shape and Figure; and these may most properly bear the name of Form'd Ston [...]s.

[Page 105]They are found lodg'd either in Beds of Pinguid and Luxuriant Soil, or in such B [...]ds of Stone, Chalk, Sand, Gravel and E [...]rths as are of a S [...]line Quali­ty.

Those we meet with lodg'd in Beds of Pinguid and Luxuriant Soil, have the forms and shapes of Worms, Serpents, Snails and other T [...]rrene Ins [...]cts, which perhaps cou'd never come within the compass of our Observation.

Those we meet with in the Solid Strata of Stones, Chalk, Sand, Gravel and Earth of a Saline Quality, have the Forms of Cockels, Muss [...]ls, Oyst [...]rs, and other Marine Insects, which pro­bably Mankind h [...]s never yet been ac­quainted with; and not withs [...]anding that these Shells have the Fo [...]ms of those Marine Insects they repres [...]nt, yet th [...]y never were the spoil [...] of Marine B [...]dies; But form'd in those Stones and E [...]rths,Fabius Co­lumna, Dr. Hook, Ste­no, Scylla, Bocc [...]e, Ra [...], and many o­thers. where we find them lodg'd: And it seems most probable that they receiv'd these Forms and Shapes at the Creati­on of this Material Globe, wh [...]n M [...]t­ter was in a Fluid and Wate [...]ish Mass; and wh [...]n there was a commixture of Light and Darkness, of the Plastick and Vivisick Powers; for then the Vivi­fick [Page 106] Spirit of Nature disseminated the Specifick Forms of those Animals of the lowest degree of Life in those waterish Funds and Promptuaries of Matter in which they were Form'd, and increas'd into that Shape and Figure we now find them in.

And if God Almighty had not [by dividing the Light from Darkness, the Vivisick from the Plastick Power, and by Consolidating the Exterior Strata of Matter] Cursed the Earth, these Ter­rene and Marine Insects which we find petrefi'd and entomb'd in Marble, Limestone and Chalk, or bury'd in Beds of Sand, Gravel or Earth, might have increas'd to higher degres of Perfecti­on, as well as those Subterranean Toads, Frogs, Asks and Clocks, which we meet with in the Cavities and joints of such Stones as have lost their Natu­ral Feeders.

But of these the following Chapters will give a more full Account.

CHAP. II. Of the Grand Cover of the Earth; the Sympathetical Union of the Plastick and Vivifick Spirit; and the Production of Vegetables, the first and lowest Degree of Life.

THE Outer Cover of the more So­lid parts of the Earth, which we call the Surface and Fertile Soil, being [as we have observ'd] the Universal Fund or Promptuary, or the Common Matrix, wherein was desseminated the Specifick Forms of the lowest Degree of Life and Vegetation, whilst others of a higher Degree Danc'd about it, like Atoms in a Morning Sun's Beam.

It will be necessary in the first place to give a fuller Description of the Na­tures and Qualities of it, and to shew by what Degrees of Heat and Vital Incubations it was Modified and pre­par'd to answer that Imperious Word▪ Let the Earth bring forth.

When the Waters were divided and 1 the Sea drawn down to its proper [Page 108] Channel, they left behind them a Fe­culent Mud and Sedement, which be­ing like to a universal Q [...]ag, of a Lax and Waterish Substance, consisting of the several Kinds of Matter of an He­terogeneous Nature, and saturated with great plenty of Mineral Spirits of all Qualities:

These Mineral Spirits, by a Natural Motion and Tendency rising up to the Surface, as we observe Cream riseth up to the top of Milk, or as Oyl sloat­eth above Water; the warm Influ­ence of the Aetherial Flame moving up­on it, Thickn [...]d these Mineral Spirits into a Liquid Gelly, or a Pinguid and Unctious Slime.

And this we call the naked Skin of the Earth or Fertile Soil.

This Skin or Fertile Soil, before it got any Coat or Cover upon it, was not only Tinctur'd and Colour'd with all those wate [...]ish Colours of Green, Red, Yellow, &c. but also was spot­ted and speckl'd with great variety of other Colours, occasion'd by a com­mixture of these Mineral Spirits.

And these gave not only the Tin­ctures and Colours to the common and waterish Herbs, as Grass, Plants and [Page 109] Flowers, but gave also the different Complexions to Birds, Beasts and Men.

And as the several Colours and Com­plexions were occasion'd by the mix­ture and temperament of the Mineral Spirits, so were their different Natures and qualities; for a cunning Chymist will Extract out of Herbs and Plants the several Kinds of Mineral Spirits, as well as out of the Mineral it self.

The Virgin Matter being thus Mo­difi'd and prepar'd by the warm In­fluence and Enlivening Vegetations of the Aetherial Flame, and its na­ked Skin Adorn'd and Beautifi'd with her great variety of Natural Paints: Those Seminal Forms or Plastick▪ Souls which were disseminated in her warm and moist Womb, and Sympa­thetically united to their belov'd Mat­ter, began to exert their Plastick Pow­ers, and put forth spungy Strings and Roots; not only to fasten them to the Earth, but to suck in such Juices as were most proper for their Food and Nou­rishment, which by their Seminal Ver­tues being digested into the Substance of a Plant, Herb or Tree, of such an Order, Figure and Temperament, it be­came [Page 110] an Individual of that numerous Species of Vegetables; which began first to peep out of the Earth, as Corn out of the Furrows; and afterwards gradually increas'd to the highest De­gree of Perfection and Maturity its Na­ture was capable of.

Thus the naked Skin of the Earth was cover'd with a Coat or Green Li­very, Beautifi'd and Adorn'd with Flowers of several kinds of Colours; and as the Passive Matter increas'd in De­grees of Heat and Modification, it pro­duc'd Vegetables of higher Degrees of Life and Perfection, as all kinds of Trees, from the lowest Shrub to the tallest Cedar or most robust Oak.

That these Productions were not brought forth all at once; but gradu­ally as the Passive Matter receiv'd high­er Degrees of Heat and Modification, is apparent from our observing of those Annual Productions which every Season bringeth forth.

For there are some Vegetables of a Cold and Waterish Quality, whose Na­tural Spirits are more Fine, Light and Active, which require only a smaller Degree of Heat to raise them, and these are the Productions of those Early [Page 111] Months, Ianuary, February and March: And these come to their Perfection and Maturity before April and May, which present us with an other Crop and order of Vegetables: and for this same reason, Iune, Iuly and August go further, and presents us still with different shows of Plants, Herbs and Flowers: And thus as the Sun increaseth in Heat, and the pas­sive Matter in degrees of Modification, we are presented with higher and more noble Productions.

The Seminal Forms of Vegetables, being now united to their material Ve­hicles, and being grown up to their several Degrees of Perfection and Ma­turity, they retain'd Seed in them­selves, and did Propagate their seve­ral Kinds by scattering of their ripe Seed upon the Fertile Soil, which like the warm and moist Womb of a fruit­ful Mother, dissolves them first into a Liquid Jelly, and then divides their parts into their several uses.

That the Seminal Forms of Vegeta­bles were Originally disseminated in the Earth as in an Universal Fund or Promptuary, will be yet further evident by those Ocular Observations which [Page 112] has been frequently made of Producti­ons without Seed; for take some quan­tity of Earth digg'd several Fathoms under Ground, and expose it to the Sun and Rain, and it will Spontane­ously without any Seed bring forth common Grass and several Herbs and Plants

Again, we observe that particular Soils will produce, without Propaga­tion by Seed, Herbs and Plants pecu­liar to that kind of Soil and Earth, as Pavements do Naturally produce Knot-Grass,&c.

If it be object'd, that the smaller Seeds are disseminated over all by the Winds, and the greater Seeds scatter'd by Birds that feed upon them.

I answer that its commonly observ'd, when Earth is brought out of the In­dies or other Remote Countries for Ballast to Ships, and cast forth upon some Ground in Italy or other Coun­tries at a great distance, it will put forth Foreign Herbs to us unknown: And it cannot be imagin'd that the Winds shou'd blow the Seeds of these Plants from the Indies, or that the Birds shou'd cross the Seas and scatter them at so great a distance.

[Page 113]To these I might farther add those try'd Experiments of Transmutation▪ Transmigration, and Degeneration of Herbs and Plants.

Having describ'd the Original of Vegetables the first and lowest Degree of Life, and shewn that tho' the man­ne [...] of their Propagation be now by Seed; yet when Seed is wanting, the Fertile Soil will bring forth common Grass and other Plants in the Natural way by a Spontaneou [...] Generation: Thus the Evening and the Morning, or the Sympathetical union of the A­ctive Form and Passive Matter pro­duc'd the first and lowest Degree of Life, which made the Third Pro­duction.

CHAP. III. Of reducing the Confus'd Mass or Light of the Aetherial Flame into a Body, which made the Sun; of reducing those higher Fogs and wa­terish Mists into a Body, which made the Moon; how by clearing of the Superlunary Firmament or the Planetary Spheres, the Stars appear'd: And what the Sun, Moon and Stars contribute towards the Production of Sensitive or Lo­comotive Animals, and why the Creation of these Second Causes made the Fourth Production.

Tho' the Earth was now Gay and Trim with a new Green Live­ry of Grass, Adorn'd with Painted Flowers, and pleasant Copices or Thickets of Young Trees; the Pas­sive Matter was yet too Cold and Wa­terish to draw down out of the Se­cond Degree of Life any of the Sensi­tive [Page 115] Forms to Actuate and Inform it. The Almighty Power did there­fore contract this dilated Aetherial Flame of Light into a Body, which Moses calls the Sun, that those Enliven­ing Heats and Vital Incubations which flow from it, might be more Strong and Vigorous, and Penetrate deeper into the Cold Matter.

And God plac'd this Coelestial Fire at such a convenient distance from the Earth, that it might neither be too much scorch'd by being too near it; nor frozen, by being at too great a di­stance from it; but that it might re­ceive such a temperate Heat from it, as to excite its Seminal Vertues, and draw up its Juices into them, and thereby Ripen its Natural Fruits.

God gave to the Earth also a Diur­nal Motion, that by a just and regular turning about upon its own Cen [...]re, it might have the benefit of Day and Night every Four and twenty Hours, so that no part of the Earth might be too much heated by theSun's presence upon it, or too long benighted by his absence from it; because as one side is Warm'd and Cherish'd by its Rays, it withdraws and turns to it its other side; and so [Page 116] by this just and regular turning about of the Earth, and an equal distribution of Day and Night, the active Animals get leave to rest, the over-heated Air to cool, and the gasping Earth to re­cover its fainting Vertues, which a continu'd Day wou'd soon Exhaust and Extinguish.

God gave also the Sun an Annual Motion, and has directed it into such a commodious Course, that it sheds forth its Enlivening Light, Heat and Influence over all the parts of the Earth, and by turns, gives all Coun­tries their Yearly Seasons.

And this gradual Increase and De­crease of Heat, answers all the Ends of Nature, both in the Vegetive and Ani­mal World much better than the con­stant Temperature and Equality of Heat, which the Theorist supposeth to have been in the An [...]ediluvian Earth.

After the Creation of the Sun, God reduc'd all those vast Fogs and water­ish Mists that rang'd about in the Pla­netary Spheres into a Body, which Moses calls the Moon, and he design'd it [as a Reverend and Learn'd Divine of our own has observ'd] to be for a Vicarious Light to the Sun, to supply [Page 117] his absence, and perform his Office in the lower World.

He plac'd the Moon in the lowest of the Coelestial Spheres, at such a conv [...]ni­ent distance from the Earth, that the warm Influence of the Sun being re­flected from it, might carry down with it some of its Coelestial Moisture. He gave also to the Moon so commodious a Motion, which it performs in every 28 or 29 Days, that when the Sun is Southward it moves Northward, and when the Sun moves Northward it's Motion is Southward, by which Motion the Cold and Darkness of the long Winter Nights are moderated, and these remote Regions under the Poles comforted with the Sun's Influence at Second-hand, when they want it at the First.

Thus by reducing of those waterish Fogs into the Body of the Moon, the upper Firmament or the Planetary Spheres were clear'd, and the Plan [...]ts, with the rest of the Stars Created in the Morning of the World, began to ap­pear; and to send down their Aetheri­al and Invisible Influences upon this Globe, which were obstructed and in­terrupted by the Interposition of these waterish Mists.

[Page 118]And the Creation of the Sun and Moon and the Clearing of the Plane­t [...]ry Spheres God made use of as [...], or necessary Second Causes tow [...]rd [...]he Production of the Second D [...]ree of Life, and therefore these made the Fourth Production.

CHAP. IV. Of the Production of the Second De­gree of Life, and first of Ovipar­ous Animals, as Fish and wa­terish Insects.

HAving already observ'd, that whilst the Earth was a Fluid and Waterish Mass, and there was a com­mix [...]ure of Light and Darkness, the Plastick and Vivifick Spirits; the Specifick Forms of Vegetation, and the lowest Forms of Animals were dis­seminate [...] in the Exterior Strata of this waterish Mass; and if God had not Curs'd the Earth, by dividing Light from Darkness, the Material and For­mal Principles of Life, the Luxuriant [Page 119] Matter wou'd have teem'd fo [...]th such numbers of Animal Productions, that the Surface of the Earth and Waters wou'd not have maintain'd them.

This Hypothesis is grounded not on­ly upon the form'd Stones we meet with lodg'd in the Interior Strata of the Earth [which having the shapes and representations of Terrene and Marine Insects] cou'd proceed from no other Original than a Plastick Spirit; but al­so upon those Subterranean Animals, as Toads, Frogs, Asks and Clocks, which we sometimes meet with inclos'd in the Cavities and Hollows of Stone, as well as in their dry Joints. I have found a large Toad six Yards under Ground, in­clos'd in the very middle of a hard Stone, where the Joint that led to it was so straight, that it wou'd not receive the thinnest Knife; so likewise great num­bers of Asks, Clocks and Beetles in the dry Joints of Stones, which cou'd have no other generation, but what was from a Plastick Spirit modifying a Subterra­nean Vapour collected into that Cavity or dry Joint, the Vivifick Flame kin­dl'd a Spark of Life in them, which [by sucking in such Subterranean Vapours, as abounded in the Joints of these dry [Page 120] Stones, which had lost their Natural Feeders] were increa [...]'d to that bulk we found them in; no doubt but the Stamina Vitae of these Subterrene Ani­mals are preserv'd by continual Sleep­ing, and the Air they breath is purely Subterranean, like Embrios in the Womb, which live by the Respiration of their Mothers: And it may seem very probable that these under-ground Ani­mals have liv'd in these Joints and Ca­vities ever since the Deluge, and per­haps long before; for as nothing pre­serves the Vital Flame more than Sleep; so nothing wastes and spends it more than Action.

To these I might add the Production of Eels, Worms, Marine and Waterish Insects, as the Vrtica Marina, &c. which being Zoophyta or Plant Ani­mals, and not Locomotive, cou'd have no other Production, than what was meerly Aequivocal or Spontaneous, and from Matter modifi'd and prepar'd for rec [...]iving of the Vital Spark.

Besides these Invisible Productions, I shall add one more, visible and ap­parent.

Take a strong Horse-hair, and put it into the Water warm'd by the Influence [Page 121] of the Sun [especially in May o [...] Iune] and within some few Hours it will take Life, move at both Ends, and in a short time, its probable that it might be­come one of those several kinds of Eels we meet with in the Waters.

Notwithstanding that all these Pro­ductions had their first Original from such Matter as was most proper and capable to be modisied by the Plastick Spirit of Nature; yet being produc'd, they sometimes propagate their several Kinds by univocal Generation, these Marine Insects which are not Locomo­tive, being only excepted.

From these Praeliminary Instances, and a great many more Ocular Obser­vations which might easily be produc'd, I conclude, that as the several Forms of Vegetables, were disseminated in the upper Covers of the Earth; so were the Specifick Forms of several kinds of Fish [as well those which the Natu [...]alists call Pelagiae, as those they call L [...]turales] desseminated in the Wa [...]r [...], or Subma­rine and fresh-water Quicksands; and as the Water receiv'd higher D [...]grees of Modific [...]tion, they produc'd Fish of a higher Degree of Life, in obedience to that Command laid upon them, Let the Waters bring forth abundantly.

[Page 122]The Second Causes which concurr'd in the Production of these Waterish Animals, were,

  • First, the Coelestial Influences.
  • Secondly, The Water which being Modified by the Plastick Spirit and the Coelestial Influences, became waterish Vehicles, or Bodies for their Specifick Forms to act in.
  • Thirdly, The Submarine and Wa­terish Quick-sands in which their Eggs were Generated.
  • Fourthly, The Subterranean Heat, which abounding most in these Subma­rine Quick-sands or waterish Nests, did Hatch these Eggs into Life.
  • Fifthly, An Innate Power in the Pla­stick Form, which discriminated their Kinds.

The Original Production of all kinds of Fish, being from their Invisibe and Vital Forms disseminated in Waterish Quick-sands, as soon as they came to Perfection and Maturity, they retain'd Seed in themselves, by which they Pro­pagated their own Kinds. The time of their Propagation is with us about September; for then being grown strong and lusty with their Summers Feeding, and the Influence of the Moon and the [Page 123] rest of the Aetherial Bodies, being then more strong and powerful upon the Waters. Again, about that time the Subterranean Heat rises towards the Surface of the Earth, and breaks out in Springs and Quick sands, which is the reason, why about that time the Fresh­water Fish draw up to the Spring-heads, and the Sea Fish to the Submarine Q [...]ick-sands, wherein they scatter their Eggs.

The manner how they Propagate, is, first by Digging up the Sand where they intend to make their Nests, and then [not by Copulation or Penetrati­on of parts, but playing Cheek for Chole, and by Sympathetical Touches] the Fe­male whones her Eggs, and the Male his Spawn, which mixing together falls down into these prepar'd Nests which they cover up with Sand, thereby se­curing it from the Winter Floods.

After this they return to their Win­ter Holds, leaving their Eggs to be Hatch'd by the Subterranean Heat, which continues in the Springs and Quick-sands until the April following; and then the Young Frie, being Hatch'd creep out of their warm Nests and Swim down the Waters in numerous Swarms or Shoals.

[Page 124]After the Production of all the Sub­ordinate Kinds of Fish, God last of all Created great Whales, by which words Moses intimates to us, that all the rest of the waterish Animals were produc'd by the ordinary Concurrence of Second Causes; but God to shew his Great Power in the Deep Waters as well as upon the Dry Land, did seem to give a Preter-natural Assistance to the Production of an Animal of so great a Body; which in the Atlantick Ocean, when they ap­pear to Mariners upon the Waters, ap­pear like little Islands or Mountains; and these are the Leviathans that God made to take their Pastime in the Deep: He made them Lords also over all the Fish, which He gave to them for Meat.

For as every Superior Rank or Spe­cies of Terrene Animals Feed upon their Inferior, and Man upon all; so every Superior Species of Fish live up­on their Inferior, and so the Whale, being Lord over all the rest, lives up­on its Underlings.

CHAP. V. Of the Second Genus of Oviparous Animals, (viz) the Aerial: And First, of Fly Insects, Secondly, of Serpents, Thirdly, of Birds, and why Moses makes the Water­ish and Aerial Animals Conge­nial.

AS it seems preposterous to Create any Species of Animals, before Meat suitable to their Natures to Live upon was provided for them; so it seems most probable and agreeable with the Ends of Nature, that Grass, Plants, Herbs, and the whole Set of Vegeta­bles shou'd be the first Spring and Sum­mers Product. That the Replenishing of the Waters with all Kinds of Fish, the Production of the following Win­ter; and that the next Spring shou'd begin with the Production of Aerial Animals; these [...]iving and Feeding upon the first Products of the Earth and Waters.

[Page 126]Again, since the several Degrees of Modification of Matter, and the Ani­mal Life increaseth, as the Enlivening Influence of the Sun grows Hotter and more Powerful; it necessarily follows, that the several Kinds of Flying Insects, [being the lowest Degree of Life under this Genus] shou'd be the first Product; for as soon as the Fertile Soil had re­ceiv'd a degree of Heat from the ap­proaching Sun, the Earth began to re­vive, the Young Plants began to peep out of their Winter Beds, and the ten­der Leaves of Trees began to break their Autumn Buds.

The East Wind blowing then Dry, by it's soft and easie Blasts did Con­dense the Morning and Evening Dews into viscous and clammy Strings, which like Cobwebs hang upon every Thorn and spread themselves upon the Young Grass, till the Sun advancing towards the Meridian, sent down a warm Re­flection upon the Earth, and caus'd all these fine and tender Threads to draw together, and fashion themselves into little Nests, in which by a higher De­gree of Heat were form'd little Eggs; which by another Degree of Heat took Life, and did Fly about in the open [Page 127] Air, some Feeding upon Dews, others upon Leaves; others upon Corrupti­on in the Air; others were Blood-suck­ers.

Besides these Generated of Dews, there are Infinite numbers of other Kinds of Insects which are Generated of Slime and Corruption; and these are either Daily or Weekly Productions, some of which Transmute from one Species to another, as those Insects which we call Caterpillars the first Summer, the next Summer will become Butterflies: So Cod-bates in April and Iune will Transmute into those kind of Flies we call Clegs, which are Blood-suckers.

To shew particularly the Kinds, Na­tures and Numbers of all these Trans­mutable Insects, wou'd be a Task In­vincible. Thus were the several Kinds of Flying Insects produc'd, having their Colours, Natures and Qualities from Flowers, Plants, Herbs, Trees, or corrupted Water and Slime, and their Shapes and Figures from their Plastick Forms, these being the low­est Degree of Life, a small Degree of Heat produc'd 'em.

Of the Production of Serpents.

AFter the Production of these Fly­ing Insects, the East Wind still blowing Warm and Dry, those stand­ing Puddles of Stagnated and Corrup­ted Water being drain'd, and leaving behind a Poisonous Slime, on which by the Sun's Influence were form'd poi­sonous Eggs; which by higher Degrees of Heat were Hatch'd into Life, and by sucking in and feeding upon such Poisonous Matter as they cou'd meet with [...]uitable to their Natures, they got strength, Feet and Wings, and be­came Serpents of several Kinds, some Creepers, as Adders and Snakes, some with Feet, as the Asp and Viper, some with Horns, as the Cerafles; some with Wings, as the Basilisk and Dragon, and the like.

Altho that these have all of them Head, Heart, Blood, Nerves, Senses and other parts agreeable with the most perfect Animals; and tho' that some of them be the most Subtile amongst the Irrationals; yet by reason of their dis­parity with Quadrupedes, they are ac­counted [Page 129] amongst the imperfect Animals and of a lower Degree of Life.

Of the several Kinds of Birds.

AFter this the Cold and Waterish Earth, being drain'd and warm'd by the increasing Influence of the Sun, the Mountains, Heaths, Dales, Valleys, Water-sands and the Sea-shore, were Cover'd with a Luxuriant, Plastick and Prolifick Slime, which drew down [by way of Sympathy] out of the warm Regions of the Air, the Speci­fick Forms of Birds or Aerial Animals, which being united to this Luxuriant and Plastick Slime, there were Form'd innumerable numbers of Eggs upon the Mountains, Heaths, Valleys, and all parts of the Earths Surface; and no sooner were these Eggs Form'd, but the warm Influence of the Sun, sat on Brood upon them until they were Hatch'd into little Chickens.

Those Hatch'd upon the Sea-shore became Sea-Birds, those by the sides of Rivers, feeding upon Fresh-water Fish, and those Hatch'd hy the sides of Lakes and Ponds, became Amphibious Birds, [Page 130] feeding both upon Fish and Herbs, as Geese, Swans, Ducks, &c. Those Hatch'd upon Mountains and Heaths feeding upon Mountain Vegetables, Heath Birds; those upon the Plains and Valleys became Domesticks, feeding both upon Grass and Corn; and those in the Woods, Singing Birds and Birds of Prey, as the Eagle, and the rest of those Tyrants of the Air.

After this manner were the Aerial Animals produc'd, and the reason why Moses makes the Aerial and Waterish Animals Congenial, is,

First, The parity of their Producti­on, being both from Eggs.

Secondly, The Affinity of that Matter on which they were produc'd, the Air and Water being Transmutable Ele­ments.

Thirdly, From the likeness of their Actions and Qualities, the one Kind having Fins by which they Swim in the Water, the other having Wings by which they Fly or Swim in the Air.

As these were the Productions of the first Spring Months (viz.) Ianuary, Fe­bruary and March; so in these Months they do always Propagate their Kinds by laying of Eggs, every Species ac­cording [Page 131] to its Kind; some on Moun­tains, others in Valleys; some by Wa­ter-sides, others in the Woods, &c. the warm Wing of the Dam, now sup­plying the Want of a warm Sun-beam.

For as the Wing Hatcheth them out of their Shells, so it strengthens and nourishes them by Vital Incubations, till their Pinions be able to bear them up to seek their own Food: Thus the Wing is both the Midwife that brings them out, and the Nurse that brings them up.

CHAP. VI. Of the Terrene, or Viviparous Animals.

AFter the Production of these Ani­mals of a lower Degree of Life, and Perfection, and the Sun was ad­vanc'd higher in his Annual Motion, which Darting down his warm Beams upon the Earth in a more direct Line, they did penetrate deeper into the Cold Matter; and by drawing forth its Fer­tile Spirits towards the Skin or Surface [Page 132] of it, they set the Plastick power on working, and modifying the Passive Matter into more noble Forms; which by their Sympathetical Charms drew down the Specifick Forms of the most perfect Animals within the Second Sphere of Life.

For in every little Pit or Hollow of the Earth, which being fill'd with Luxuriant and Prolifick Slime was kindl'd by the Vivifick Vertue of the Seminal Form, a little bubble of Life, which the Plastick power began to shape into the Form or Figure of an Animal.

And thus was the numerous Brood of Quadrupedes, [being Animals of the most perfect Kind] first Conceiv'd in the warm and moist womb of Modi­fied Matter, nourish'd by sucking in the Luxuriant and Prolifick Slime; which by their Vital Heat they digested and distributed into the several Parts and Members of their Bodies increasing of them by an equal assimulation of Parts; and as soon as these young Em­brio's had got strength, they Crawl'd out of their warm Nests of Matter, and began to suck in those Honey Dews, and lick up that sweet Manna which [Page 133] laid upon the Grass and Herbs, and this supply'd to them the want of Ma­ternal Milk and Nourishment.

For during the time of these Produ­ctions, God neither suffer'd it to Rain upon the Earth, nor the Winds to blow, lest this Infant Brood of Young Animals shou'd have been destroy'd, before the Birds got Wing, or [...]he Beasts Foot and strength to defend themselves against a Storm; but there went up only a Mist from the Earth, which wa­ter'd the whole Face of the Ground.Gen. 2.6 And this Mist was only a warm and moist Smother, which arose from the Earth, as we observe it to rise from the Furrows in the Spring, Months occa­sion'd by the Morning Sun-Beams, and these Clouds which did Swim in the Air, only serv'd for Umbrello's and Pa­rasoli to screen those Infant Animals from being scorch'd by the Heat of the Sun, and from drying up their Food and Nourishment.

The Earth being now Stock'd with the several Kinds of Animals, contain'd under the Sensitive Genus, they did Propagate their Kinds by Univocal Generation. For which end Nature and Providence hath form'd several [Page 134] Vessels of Slime-Pits in every Female, for preserving something Analogous to that Original Slime, which was then the Passive Principle of Generation, and likewise in every Male such Vessels as are most fit and commodious for pre­serving a Beam or Spark of the Aethe­rial Flame [which being the material Vehicle, wherein the Specifick Form is preserv'd] kindles the first buble of Life in the Passive Matter.

And we observe that as soon as Age and Maturity hath fill'd these Seminal Vessels with this Prolifick Slime, and digest'd it into a right Degree of Heat and Temperature, the Females of eve­ry Kind or Species of Animals, begin to Prune, Dress and Trim themselves, by which modest way of Courtship, the Male is drawn and Charm'd to within their Sympathetical Spheres: Thus the Evening and the Morning, or the Sym­pathetical Union of the Active Form and Passive Matter, made the Fifth Production.

CHAP. VII. Of the Creation of Man, the Sixth Production.

THE Earth being now cover'd with the great variety of Spe­cies, contain'd under the Genus of Ve­getation, the Waters replenish'd with all Kinds of Fish, the Mountains, Plains and Valleys Stock'd with Herds and Flocks of all Kinds of Cattle: God did once more Modifie the Passive Matter into a more noble and excellent Form, not only capacitated to receiv [...] the lower Degrees of the Animal Life: but also fitted with Organs to entertain an Intellectual Soul, which Moses [...]ells us God Breath'd into it: It being impossi­ble for Matter, tho' never so curiously Modifi'd by the Plastick Spirit of Na­ture and the joint Concurrence of the Coelestial Influences to draw down by the power of any Material Sympathy a Soul out of the Immaterial and Intelle­ctual Spheres of Life to Animate and Enform it.

[Page 136]And this Noble Creature God call'd Man, being made not only after his own Image, Spiritual and Immortal; but also after his Similitude (viz) En­dow'd with all the Affections and Com­municable Attributes of the Divine Nature, by which he became capable not only of disclosing the Secret Myste­ries of Nature, and of diving into its Deep Philosophy; but also of Know­ing and Adoring his Creator; by which Perogatives of his Birth, and Noble Ex­traction, he became Qualifi'd for be­ing his Creator's Vicegerent upon Earth.

The Conclusion. Wherein is shewn the meaning and significancy of these Words. And God saw every thing that he had made, and behold it was very good.

THat God, who is Infinite in Good­ness and all Perfections, cannot be the Author or Producer of any thing, but what is Good and Perfect in its Kind, hath been always assum'd as a granted Principle, not only by the best of Divines, but even the genera­lity of Pagan Philosophers: Yet Moses, notwithstanding this, foreseeing that this excellent Frame of the World, which was design'd on purpose to bring all reasonable Creatures to the Knowledge and Veneration of their Creator, wou'd be perverted to con­trary Ends and Effects; and that the Production of all the Creatures might be ascrib'd wholly to Second Causes, or to no Cause at all; but to [Page 138] Chance and to the casual Motion of Matt [...]r, for the prevention of which, he here brings in the Almighty more Humano taking an exact View and Sur­vey of the whole Creation, both as to its Structure and Furniture, and giving it his Divine Approbation in these words, and he saw every thing that he had made, and behold it was very good.

The Goodness of the Creatures do Principally consist in these Four Parti­culars.

1 In their Correspondency and Agree­ment with those Patterns and Ideas preconceiv'd in the Divine Under­standing.

2 In their Fitness and Suitableness for those misplaid Ends and Purposes for which they were Created.

3 In their being Good and Perfect in their several Kinds.

4 In the Regular keeping and obser­ving those Rules given them at their Creation.

First.Th [...]t this Infinite variety of Orders, Shapes and Figures, by which the seve­ral Species of Creatures are Chara­ct [...]riz'd and Distinguish'd, are not the Effects of blind Chance or Casual Mo­tion, but t [...]e Products of Infinite Pow­er, [Page 139] Wisdom and Counsel, will be clear and evident, if we carefully observe, that not only their Numbers, Shapes and Figures; but also their whole Con­textures and Contemperation of parts, with their Natures and Qualities, have all of them a manifest relation to those several Uses and Operations they per­form; and this is so fairly Illustrated and Prov'd by the Ing [...]nious and Lean­ed Mr. Ray, in his Treatise concern­ing the Wisdom and Providence of G [...]d in the Creation of the World; that a [...]urther enlargement upon this Argu­ment, wou'd be wholly superfluous.

That all Creatures are Good and Perfect in their Kind, will appear,Secondly if we consider that it was most agreeable with the Divine Wisdom, that the whole Scheme and System of Nature, shou'd consist in different Degrees of Perfecti­on and Subordination of Life: And that every Inferior Spe [...]ies shou'd be Concatenated to its Superior by Ani­mals of an Intermediate Nature,

And yet notwithstanding this diffe­rence amongst the Creatures in Degrees of Life and Perfection, we cannot but observe, that every Creature even of the lowest Degree of Life is Good and [Page 140] Perfect in its Kind (viz) without any blemish, defect or flaw; for the mean­est Insect, is as perfect an Animal, as the Elephant and Whale, and God's Wisdom and Power is as well to be Admir'd in the Paint upon the Butter­flie's Wing, as in the Glorious Body of the Sun.

Again, there is nothing more agree­able with the Divine Wisdom, than that there shou'd be in so great a vari­ety of Creatures, Degrees of Subordi­nation and Perfection, will yet further appear if we consider

First.That these Creatures of a lower De­gree of Perfection do by comparison Il­lustrate and commend those of a higher Degree.

That those Regular Subserviencies and Harmonies might make up a Vital Cement whereby the whole Frame and Structure shou'd be United.Secondly

It was nec [...]ssary that there shou'd be variety of Natures,Thirdly. and different De­grees of Life, that the Wisdom of the Creator might be the more Display'd, Acknowledg'd and Celebrated, and that his Infinite and Universal Goodness might be more Visible in the sup­plying and providing for the Wants of [Page 141] so vast a number of Creatures of so dif­ferent Natures.

Lastly, That Man being pla [...]'d at so great a distance from the Beatisick Vi­sion [which whilst he continues in this Compounded State, wou'd either have Dazl'd or Confounded his Sight, or Affright'd and Ravish'd his Soul out of his Body] it pleas'd therefore the Divine Wisdom to Create all this great variety of Creatures that he might be­hold his Creator at Second-hand, when his Bodily Eyes cou'd not bear the sight of Him at the first.

And Secondly, That he might exer­cise and improve his Rational Faculties,Secondly and entertain his Heaven-born Soul with Natural as well as Divine Specu­lations, which in some measure Com­pensates for the want of a clearer sight of the Divine Vision.

Again, altho' it must be granted that in those different Degrees of Perfection all are not alike Amiable, Lovely and Beneficial to Man; yet those that are the less Beautiful and Lovely sets off the Beauty of the rest, as Shadows set off the more lively Colours.

Thirdly, That the goodness of the Creature,Thirdly does consist in its fitness for [Page 142] those Ends and Purposes for which it was Created will appear, if we consi­der that it cannot be easily imagin'd, that God who is Infinite in Wisdom and Goodness, shou'd Create any thing in Vain; but to good Ends, and the best of Purposes.

We therefore in the Nature of Things can discover Infinite agreeable­ness of this to that, and of one thing to another. And though we cannot throughly penetrate and discover the Relation Use and End, of every Thing in Nature, by reason of our Incapacity, occasion'd by the Darkness of that State we live in; yet we have reason from what we can discover, to conclude, That every thing was Created for good Ends and particular Uses:

For, first of all, we do observe that every Inferior Creature was subservient to its Superior: And all the Creatures subservient to Man; altho our Igno­ranc [...] in this Dark and Degenerate State, has made us uncapable of Un­derstanding their Natures and Uses.

Secondly Secondly, We observe that every Ele­ment is fitt'd for its Animal, and eve­ry Animal for its proper Element.

[Page 143]We observe that every Object is fit­ted for its Sense,Thirdly. and every Sense to its proper Object.

We observe that Food and Nourish­ment is provided in Nature's S [...]ore-house for every Animal,Fourthly and every Animal for its proper Food and Nou­rishment.

These being trite and common To­picks, I refer the Reader to those Au­thors who have made it their Business to enlarge upon them: I shall pro­ceed therefore to shew how in the last place, the goodness of the Creatures consist in observing and keeping of those Laws given them at their Creation.

When the Almighty had Created the World,Fourthly and Stock'd it with several Ranks and Degrees o [...] Creatures, He gave them Laws to keep, and Rules to walk by: And these we call the regu­lar Course of Nature, from which they never vary unless at their Creator's Command.

These Laws which all the Creatures are govern'd by, are,

  • 1. A Divine Impression; Or,
  • 2. Natural Instinct,
  • 3. External Senses.
  • 4. The Laws and Rules of Natural Reason.

[Page 144] The Laws of Divine Impressi­on. 1. The Inanimate Creatures, are go­vern'd by a Divine Impression; for if we look up to Heaven, we observe how the Sun, Moon and all the Aethe­rial Globes do perform their Natural Motions, from which they have not vary'd higher or lower, faster or slower, since their first Creation; and how they shed forth their Coelesti­al Influences on all things here be­low.

2. If we look downward, we may observe, how this Terraqueous Globe consisting of dull and stupid Matter, turnes about its own Centre, and Na­turally, Constantly and Regularly per­forms its Diurnal Motion, its cold sides [...]her [...]by receiving th [...] warm Influence of the Co [...]l [...]stial Bodies.

3. We may obse [...]ve, that those [...]eak a [...]d groveling Plants (viz.) the Hop, Vi [...]e and Ivy, are by Nature [...] with [...]endrils or pliant Strings, and how by a Natural kind of Instinct they seek about for Supporters, and having found them, they Clasp about them; for all the Plants of this Kind, as [...] they were sensibe of their being, Ad­jective, are always in busie quest for their Substan [...]ive.

[Page 145] Fourthly, We may observe how the 4 Insects, those Animals of the lowest De­gree of Life, propagate and preserve their Kind by Natural Instinct, which in them supplies the want of higher De­grees of Sense;The Laws of natural Instinct. for with what curiosity do the Bees make their waxen Cells, lay in their Winter Provision, and how obe­dient they are to their Master Bees or Governors? With what wonderful Art does the Spider Spin his Web out of his own Bowels? With what care and industry does the little Ant first make her Store house in some dry Hill, then seeks about for Winter provisions, and that the Corn and Seed she gathers may not grow nor sprout in her Store­house, she Eats off that end where the Seminal Form is lodg'd.

Fifthly, We may observe how all those 5 Winter Sleepers, who when their Sum­mers Provisions are spent, and by their Natural Instinct they foresee the Win­ter's Frost approaching, do withdraw into some warm Winter-quarters, where they Live by Sleeping, till the approach­ing Sun invite them out into the Fields.

Sixthly, we may observe with what 6 wonderful Art and Curiosity the smal­lest Birds build their Nests of several [Page 146] form [...] suitable to their Weakness or Strength▪ how when their Nests are Built, they lay their Eggs, Hatch them with their Wings, and then Feed them till they get strength to Fly abroad, and seek their own Meat; we may further observe, that all those Creatures that are govern'd by the Laws of Natural In­stinct, never varies in their Operati­ons; but walk in the same Roads and pursue the same Methods.

7 Seventhly, We may observe how those Animals that are Govern'd both by Sense and Instinct do Prepagate their Kinds,The Laws of external Sense. and how they are all pro­vided with Natural Armour for self­preservation: We may also observe a­mongst those Animals of a higher De­gree of Sense such instances of Love and Hatred, as are seldom practis'd by the most Passionate Lovers, or the most Malicious Haters.

I have known and heard of Dogs and other [...]re [...]tures, that have pin'd away [...]nd Dy'd for want of their Masters▪ And others also that have born such an impl [...]cable Antipathy against some par­ticular Persons, as was never to be re­concil'd.

[Page 147] Eighthly, and Lastly, I might in­stance 8 in those excell [...]nt Laws of Pru­dence and Reason, as well as those of the Divine Life, which God imprinted upon the Nature of Man, before they were obliterat'd and defac'd by Sense.

Thus all the Creatures, M [...]n only ex­cepted, continue still under the go­vernment of those Laws given them at their first Creation.

This may seem sufficient to Convince the most profess'd Atheist, who is not resolv'd to offer violence to his Natu­ral Sense as well as Reason, That there is a God, and that the World with all its Furniture, was the Product of the Divine Power, Wisdom and Counsel.

The End of the Second Part.

A DISCOURSE Concerning the Terrestrial Paradise, Shewing how ADAM was Introduced in­to it: The time he continu­ed in it; and how He and EVE Employed that Time.

A DISCOURSE Concerning the Terrestrial Paradise, Shewing how ADAM Was Introduced into it.

SEveral Men of great Learning▪ as well Ancient as Modern, have made most Industrious Enquities, after the place and situation of this Terrestrial Paradise; of which Mo­ses has given us so particular a Descrip­tion in his Second [...]hapter of Genesis.

And their Opinions about it, being as different and wide, as East and Wes [...], Heaven and Earth▪ We shall therefore [Page 152] only undertake, to present the Reader with some Conclusions, drawn, as well from the fairest Arguments of probabi­lity, as from the Mosaick Account of the place.

1 And first we Conclude from the Li­teral Sense of the Text, that there was such a place upon Earth, as a Local Pa­radise; and that this place, did as far exceed the rest of the Earth, in Fertili­ty of Soil, and all the Products of Na­ture, as Gardens of the best Cultivati­on, exceed the common Fields.

2 We Collect from the Literal Sense, that this Terrestrial Paradise, in respect of Iudea or Midian [where we suppose Moses Writ this System of the Creati­on] was Eastward.

3 That in respect of the Surface of the Earth, its particular Situation was mis­placed in a Middle between the Tops of the highest Mountains, and the low­er Plains and Valleys.

4 That in respect of the Heavens, its Situation was under the Aequinoctial Line.

These two last Hypothesis's having no authority from the Sacred Scripture, we shall endeavour to ground them; not only upon the bare Account which [Page 153] Tranellus has given of the Fertility of those Aequinoctial Regions, but also upon such Natural Arguments as cannot [without offering violence to Reason if self] be easily deny'd.

For notwithstanding, that several of the Ancient Writers, were of Opinion that those Countries, under the Tor­rid Zone, were Uninhabitable, by rea­son of the Sun's darting down its fiery Globuli upon them in down-right Lines: And because they wanted those plenti­ful and pleasant Showers of Rain, which Fertiliz'd the rest of the Habitable World; yet the Experience of later Tra­vallers hath discover'd to us, first that the want of Rain is repair'd by those 1 great and rich Dews, which the Morn­ing-cold Condenseth, and which lying upon the Ground until Ten a Clock, the Sun's Influence upon it, having then exhal'd the more Nitrons and Airy part of it; the Sphere of Rarefaction [which in those Regions falls low, and is always open] Rarifies it into such cool Gales, and Briezes of Wind [which always Blowing from Ten a Clock in the Morning until Three in the After­noon] so cools and abates the extre­mity [Page 154] of the Heat; that no Inconveni­ence or Distemp [...]eture is found there.

2 Again, the Nights [as Sir Walter Raleigh has Observ'd in his Trav [...]ls] are so Cool, Fresh and Equal, by re [...] ­son of the intire Interposition of the Earth, that there is not to be found i [...] any part of the Habitable World a bet­ter, more wholsome, or equal Temper of Air.

And although there be some Tracts, which lye under the Perpendicular Mountains where the Air Stagnates, the fresh Gales and Briezes of Wind o­ver-blowing them, and some other places Sandy, Barren and less Inhabi­ted, yet the greatest part of those Re­gions [especially the Dales, which ly­ing above the Plains and lower Valleys, have always their Air Brush'd and Swee [...]n'd with these fresh Briezes of Wind; and are plentifully water'd, with Rapid Rivolets arising from the Tops and Sides of their Neighbou [...]ing Mountains.

And these as well as [...]he Plains and Valleys, are Beautify'd with abun­dance of stately Cedars, and other Trees, casting a pleasant Shade, and delightful Fragrancy.

[Page 155]They are enrich'd too with all [...]orts of most delicate Fruit-trees, always Green, and bearing the choi [...]est Fruit in their highest Degree of Perfection. Their Boughs and Branches are never uncloath'd and left naked; for their Sap never creeps under Ground fearing the Winter Frosts.

To these Accounts which we have from Travellers of the greatest Truth [...]nd Fidelity; we further add, That as all the flat Strata or Layers of Stones, Metals, and Sub [...]erranean Earths, have a Natural Rise toward this middle Girdle of the Earth, and a gradual Declivity towards the two Poles (which all Mineralists, who un­derstand the Structure of the Earth, and the position of the solid Strata willingly agree to) we may thence most reasonably Collect, that these Aequi­noctial Regions were the [...]irst dry Land that appear'd after the Waters began to divide and decrease.

We yet further subjoin, that as this 4 middle Girdle upon the Earth, lies pa­rallel to that middle Circle in t [...]e Hea­vens [we call the Sodiack] through which the Sun performs its Annual Course, we Collect that it, with th [...] [Page 156] adjoining Regions, received the first and largest Influence of the Sun's En­livening Vegetation, and consequently were Stored with the first Products of Nature; as well Animals, as Vegeta­bles. So that in all probability, there might be Ripe Fruit in Paradise, before those other Regions towards the Tro­picks and Poles were drain'd from the Waters, or receiv'd the Sun's Vegetation according to their Natural Seasons.

Again, as these Aequinoctial Regions 5 produced all Kinds of Vegetables and Animals in the highest Degree of Per­fection their Natures were Capable of: So they did, and do to this Day af­ford us not only the greatest plenty of the most Precious Stones, but also the most Valuable and Useful Metals, as Gold, Silver, Brass, Iron, &c. and this is not only evident from the Mosa­ick Account of the Rivers of Paradise; but the Experience of those Merchants, who being tempted by their Value, Trade thither.

6 Once more, as it is most probable, that these Aequinoctial Regions were the first dry Land, that they re­ceiv'd the first Enlivening Vegeta­tion of the Sun, and were honour'd [Page 157] with the first products of Nature; so it is most agreeable with Reason, that all the Regions upon Earth are more or less Paradisaical, as their Situations are nearer or at a distance from this middle Zone, and that from Paradise they were first Stock'd with the several Pro­ducts of Nature, and the several Ge­nera of Animals; which began to Propagate their Kinds there, until the Earth was Replenish'd. Altho' its most probable, that they did degene­rate from their Original Perfection as their Propagations were at a distance from Paradise.

As from these Arguments we Collect 7 and Conclude, that the Terrestrial Pa­radise was in respect of the Heavens Situated under the Aequinoctial Line; so in the last place, we Conclude that its particular Situation was in a middle between the Tops of the highest Mountains and the lowest Valleys. And we ground this Hypothesis upon the Account which Moses gives of the Course and Motion of that River which water'd Paradise: for this River un­doubtedly had its Rise from the Top or side of some of the Eastern Mountains, and took its Course first in one Rapid [Page 158] Stream, through the midst of that most pleasant Dale, and then by divi­ding it self into Four lesser Streams, they became the Heads of Four of the greatest and most noble Rivers in the World▪ which sliding down through the lower Dales, Plains and Valleys, of a great part of Asia and Africa; at last empty'd themselves into the Main O­cean at great distances.

1 The hight of its Situation gave it a most wholesome, delightful and che­rishing Air, together with the most ad­vantageous and grateful Prospect over the rest of the Rising and Growing World.

2 This Paradisaical Dale, had all the advantages of a Natural Situation. For first of all, it must be necessarily sup­pos'd, that it had its Situation under the Skirts of the highest Mountain in those Eastern Countries, which de­fended it from the Cold Blasts of the Northern Wind, from whose lofty Top did flow that Rapid Mineral Feeder which took its Course through the midst of it.

It may be supposed also, that it was encompassed with lesser Hills on all sides excepting the South-e [...]st, which [Page 159] let into it the warm Enlivening Beams of the Rising Sun, and which was the on­l [...] passage that gives liberty of Entrance into it.

That these Hills were Beautify'd and 3 Adorn'd with all Kinds of Trees, which might gratifie the Senses with their fresh and beautiful Colours, always Green, and casting a most pleasant Shade and delightsome Fragrancy; in which the Active and Chearful Birds Sung their Morning and Evening An­thems.

That these Hills encompassed a large 4 and spacious Plain, wherein did Spring up and Grow to Perfection all the Species of Herbs. Plants and Flowers that are to be found in the large Volume of Na­tures Inventory.

In the middle of which Nature had Planted a most Curious Grove or Or­chard, wherein did Grow all Kinds of Fruit-Trees bearing the choise [...]t of all Fruit, that might either gratifie the Eye or please the Palate.

The most remarkable Trees in this most pleasant Garden, were the Tree of Life and the Tree of Knowledge, which [being taken in a Literal and Natural Sense] had their Names from [Page 160] the Nature and Quality of the Fruit they Bore.

The former (viz.) the Tree of Life Bore a wholsome Fruit, preserving both the growing Sensitive and Ra­tional Life; and that so long as a Body compounded of Matter, consisting of contrary Qualities could last.

The other (viz.) the Tree of Know­ledge, Bore an unwholesome Fruit of a Poysonous Nature, which destroying the Excellent Frame and Tempera­ment of the Body, made it subject to Diseases and Pains, and last of all to Death and Mortality.

As the former gave us the Experi­ence of Health, Life and Vigour, which Men are seldom sensible of, whilst that happy State continues. So the Fruit of the other gave us the Knowledge and sad Experience of an Unhealthy and Sickly Constitution of Body, and Last­ly of Death and Mortality; hence it had its Name of the Tree of Know­ledge from the dear bought Experience of its Fruit.

This I con [...]ess is but a rude Draught of the Terrestrial Paradise; yet I pre­sume to offer it as a probable Hypothe­ [...]is, and I doubt not, [but with Men of [Page 161] better Judgment] it may pass for such, and serve to Illustrate their Notions of a more elevated and exalted Nature,

Having given a short and Compen­dious Description of the Terrestrial Pa­radise according to the Literal and Natural Notion of it, we shall pro­ceed to give a probable Account how Ad [...]m was introduc'd into it, how long He might continue in it, and how He and his Confort Eve employ'd that time.

Adam the Royal Patriarch of Man­kind, being Form'd as to his Body and Organical part of the same Matter with the rest of the Terrene Animals, and having a Rational and Intellectual Soul Infus'd into him; as soon as his weak Members got Strength to Walk abroad from the place of his Nativity, and to take a View of those large Dominions his Bountiful Creator design'd to put under his Goverment; The first place he had i [...] Prospect was this Terr [...]strial Paradise, toward which his Curiosity led him; but not finding an Entrance into it, God sent an Angel to be his Guide, and to Introduce him in [...]o its Possession, as an earnest of all th [...] Feli­cities of this World▪ and an Emblema­tical [Page 162] Assuranc [...] of the Glories of [...]he [...]oelestial Paradise.

And no sooner had this Royal Patri­arch enter'd this Pleasant and Delight­ful [...]arden, but all the Birds and Bea [...]s in Paradise [being surpriz'd at the sight of a Creature of a Shape and Form quite different from any of them, and of so Divine and Majestick a Coun­tenance,] came towards his Presence to gaze and wonder at him. And a Panick Fear having seiz'd them, they be [...]ame all his Vassals.

[...] will not undertake to determine the time that Adam might spend in Walk­ing round the Woods and Plains of Pa­radise, whilst he took a View of all the Creatures, distinguish'd their Tribes, and gave Names and Offices to them, according to their several Natures and Quali [...]ies I presume that it can hardly be imagin'd that one Day could be suffi­cient for so great [...] [...]ask.

As Adam's Ambition was to exercise and improve his Rational Faculties, by Enquiring into the Natures and Quali­ [...]ies of the Sensitive Animals; no doubt but Eve [being no less desirous to im­prove her Wisdom and Knowledge, than her Master Ad [...]m] did spend that [Page 163] time during his absence, not only in gratifying her External Se [...]ses, with the fragrant Smell of the fair Flowers of Paradise, and Tasting its sweet Fruit; but in making Enquiries into the Natures and Kinds of Fruits and Simples, in distinguishing their several Sorts, and giving Names to them according to their Natures.

And certainly it was not her Ambi­tion to be like God in so Divine a Per­fection as Wisdom and Knowledge, made her Forfeit not only the Fair Fields and pleasant W [...]lks of Paradise, but Life and Immortality; but her ta­king a course and method to that End, contrary to the express Command of her Creator.

And although it be most probable that a Natural Serpent, having a speck­led Skin, Beautify'd and Adorn'd with all the variety of Natural Paint, in the most fresh and lively Colours, was her Officious Favorite, and presented to her Royal Hand this Beautiful and Lovely Fruit;

Yet doubtless it was her own Natu­ral Serpent, or Concupisence, did frame and suggest to her a Discourse to this effect.

[Page 164]Hath not our Bountiful Creator made this World, with all this great variety of Creatures in it, on purpose for the Entertainment of your External Senses with the satisfaction of Enjoying their beloved Objects, as well as the Int [...]rnal Faculties of the Rational Soul with the Entertainments of Wisdom and Philo­sophy? If you Taste not then this Lovely Fruit, you evacuate God's De­sign in Creating of it:

Again, If God did not design that you should Eat of this Fruit, He would not have made it so Beautiful and De­sireable; it's Inconsistent with the Na­tural Goodness of your Creator, to lead you into the Fire and oblige you not to Burn, to Inflame your Affection with a strong Desire, and not to gratifie it.

Further, You cannot but observe that God has made all Poysonous and hurt­ful Creatures of a less comely, if not of a frightful Aspect, and you have a strong Antipathy against them; but this Charming Complexion tempts you to taste of it. To which the Conside­rative or Rational Faculty reply'd,

Our Bountiful Creator has given us liberty to eat of all the Tr [...]es in the Garden, but this is forbidden upon pain of Death.

[Page 165]This is a grand mistake of the Di­vine Intention, saith Concupiscence, which was by your Eating of this Fruit to Improve your Knowledge, and [...]here­fore he gave it the Name of the Tree of Knowledge. For as you have dis­cover'd the Natural differences amongst the Sensi [...]ive Animals, and have given Names to them, your Creator certain­ly expects that you should understand the Natures and differences amongst Fruits and Vegetables; o [...]herwise you will never be compleatly Skill'd in your Natural Philosophy.

This proud thought of being Wife, and a Natural Philosopher, so tickl'd Adam, or Reason, that he condescended that his Bride Eve, or Concupiscence▪ sh [...]u'd take a Taste to Cure her long­ing.

And she finding it a Fruit as w [...]ll grateful to the Taste as pleasant to the Eye, perswades Adam to a further condescention, until a second Conside­ra [...]ion made him feel the miserable E­fects of it, as well in his Conscience as in the Constitution of his Body; which his Reason being asham'd of, he fled [...]rom the Presence of God, who usually, as it's believ'd by some learn'd Authors, [Page 166] came down in the Evening to Discourse with the young Philosopher, who finding himself Naked, or at a loss for Arguments to defend his Guilt and Shame, endeavou [...]'d to cover it with the thin Figg-leaves of Excuses.

A DISCOURSE Concerning the CONFLAGRATION OF THIS Material World; THE Local Hell: ITS OUTMOST BOUNDARIES, OR Abrahams Gulph.

A DISCOURSE Concerning the CONFLAGRATION OF THIS Material World.

HAving in the former part of the History of Matter, giv­e [...] an Account of such Pre­ternatural Accidents as have disturbed, and sometimes in all Ages Interrupted the Regular Course of Na­ture; And having demonstrated that these Preternatural disturbances, were occasion'd by that Natural Strife, that happens between the contrary Quali­ties of Heat and Cold, Fire and Wa­ter:

[Page 170]And having also shewn how Water▪ by uniting her forces in the Time of Noah, chang'd this Terraqueous Globe for some time into a Waterish Planet, by effecting an universal De­luge which covered the Tops of the highest Mountains Fifteen Cubits;

And how the Central Fire has [...]re­quently threatned, not only by Univer­sal Concussions, and Earthquakes, to unhinge its Foundations, but also by Extraordinary and most Violent Erup­tions of Fire and Vulcano's to break the Structure and Temperament of it, and turn it into a Globe of Fire, or Fiery Planet;

Now as a great many Learned Men in all Ages, have been inquisitive into the Natural Causes of this Universal Deluge, and the Difficulty they met with, being to find Water sufficient to effect it, without a Miracle;

So a great many Le [...]rned under­takers, have been no less Industrious to find Fire sufficient to dry up the Seas and Rivers, and then to Effect an Universal Con [...]lagration of this Ma­terial World:

These two Difficulties [in my Opi­nion] might have been [...]asily re­mov'd, [Page 171] if they had understood better the Structure of the Earth, and the Na­ture and Quality of that Matter which makes up the Constituent parts of it.

It will be necessary therefore, in order to our Establishing a Well-grounded Hypothesis concerning the Universal Con [...]lagration in a Natural way, to Resume what we have for­merly Observed concerning Matter in General; which we have divided into Three Classes [viz.] Volatile, Fixt, and Fluid; and to shew that these Three different Class's of Matter, bear equal Proportions one to an other, and in the Structure of the Earth occupie the same proportion of Place.

The Volatile Class [which we call the Central Fire consisting of Aethereal, Nitrous, Sulphurous, and Bituminous Particles] bears proportion to one Third part of the Diameter; And this Class makes the Earths Equilibri­um; and by running a perpetual Round within the Circle of its own Infernal Vault, Carries about with it this Crust or Shell of fixt and fluid Mat­ter whereupon we live, once in every Twent [...] four hours, and this we call the Diur [...]al Motion of the Earth.

[Page 172]The fixt and fluid Matter being intermixt, like the Flesh, Blood, and Bones, or Heterogeneous parts of a Compounded Body, bears propo [...]tion to the other Two parts of the Diameter.

The fixt Class of Matter Consists of Parts, Combustible, Calcinable, Li­quifiable, and Inflammable.

The fluid Class consists of Water; which is either Subterranean, or Su­perterranean.

The Subterranean Water, either cir­culates through the larger Veins of the Earth, or pervades the Strait Pores of the Densest Matter.

That which Circulates through the Larger Veins, does not only [by be­ing Transmuted into Air] feed and nourish the Central Flame, but also hampers it and keeps it within the Li­mits and Boundaries of its own Infer­nal Kingdom.

That which pervades the Strait Pores of Dense Matter, does as well feed and nourish the Pneumatical and Native Spirits of that Matter, as shackles them, by keeping of them within their little Cells, which other­wise would break out, and set on fire the more Combustible part of it.

[Page 173]The Superterraneous Waters do by maintaining a constant Communication between the Subterranean and Air [...]al Waters, and by the falling of Plenti­ful Showers of Rain upon the Earths Surface, preserve it from being either over-crufted, or set on Fire by the Ex­ternal Heat of the Suns Influence upon it.

By these Divisions and Computa­tions it is apparent, that one Third part of this Globe is Volatile, another Third part Combustible and Inflamma­ble, and only a Third part Fluid. Which Third part preserves the Har­mony and Conspiracy of its Parts, which makes the Cement and Tem­perament of the whole Body, and if this should once be broken, and the Vola­tile and Fluid suffered to act their An­tipathies upon each other, the whole Frame and Structure would presently be dissolved, and all things shusled in­to th [...]ir Original Chaos and Confusi­on.

Now as in all Compounded Bodies, which have any degree of Li [...]e or Vital Cement in them, the Vital Flame is fed and nourished by the Radical Moi­sture; which, as it wasts and con­sumes, [Page] the Exterior Parts of the Body become Dry, Withered, and more Combustible; and at the last the whole Body is thrown into a Feverish Burning, which continues until the Vital Flame be Extinguish'd, and the Native Spirits fly out: So in this great Body of the Earth, the Central Fire, which is the Vital Flame of it, by continual feeding upon the Fluid Mat­ter, does gradually wast and consume it.

And this is not only observable in our Sinking of Pits, where we gene­rally meet with the upper Strata or Beds of Stone and Cole drained from their Waterish Feeders, their Native Spirits Exhal'd; but also several An­cient Springs sunk down in their Veins; Large Rivers decre [...]s'd in their Water Courses; and the Seas in s [...]veral Countries to have lost Ground, as in Aegypt and Holland ▪ which un­doubtedly [in former Ages] have been in the possession of the Main Ocean. From these general Desiccations of the Fluid part of the Globe we con­clude that [according to the Natural Course of things in this World] the Volatile Matter, as the Central Fire, [Page 175] will in process of time so far gain ground upon the Fluid part of it, as to bre [...]k out upon the Combustible and Inflammable part, and by set­ting them first on fire, the whole Globe will be turn'd into a fiery Planet; from whose Scorching and fiery At­mosphere, the Fluid Matter shall be forc'd to fly and range about it thick [...]ogs and Waterish Mists, until they fix and settle in a Waterish Vortex, [...]ividing the Coelestial Regions from the Smoaky and Flaming Atmosphere of this Burning Globe; and its most probable that by that vast Gulph which Father Abraham told Dives was placed between Heaven and Hell, is only meant these Fogs and Waterish Mists, which shall divide the outmost Boundaries of them; through which the Damned Souls may probaly see, hear, and have some Interlocution with thos [...] in the Coelestial Regions; tho' all this shall only inflame and aggravate their Torments, wh [...]n they shall see Abra­ham, Isaac and Iacob, in the Kingdom of Heaven, and themselves shut out, by this unpassable Gulph.

Having already m [...]de it apparent, th [...]t when the confus'd Chaos of Mat­ter [Page 176] settled into the Form of this Habita­ble Globe, the Volatile part of it by a Natural tendency of Motion, settled in the Central parts;

And that the Central Vault, wherein this Volatile and Fiery Matter is con­tain'd, bears Proportion to a Third part of the whole, seems to be most proba­ble, as well from Scripture as Natural Reason;

For the Scripture represents Hell as a Lake of Fire, Mat. 9.43 Rev. 20.10, 15. And this Lake of Fire or Lo­cal Hell is commonly called Infernus, which signifies a place Infra nos, i. e. be­low the Cortex or Outer coat of the Fix'd Matter whereon we Live; its al­so call'd Ta [...]tarus, which signifies the Pit of Hell, or that Infernal Dungeon fill [...]d with Fire and Brimstone, that Burns and Scorcheth, but casts no Light;

And that this Infernal Lake of Fire was in the Central part of the Earth, was not only the Opinion of the Roman Church, which had undertaken to give the Dimensions of it; but agrees with the Opinions of most of the Ancient Fathers and Doctors of Christiani­ty;

[Page 177]It is also agreable with the Opinions of our own Doctors, who assert, that at the Day of Judgment, when the Sentence against the Wicked shall be pronounced in these Words, Depart from me ye Cursed into everlasting Fire, the Central Fire shall break out, and cause an Universal Conflagration of this Material World; for then the Central Hell shall be enlarged, and the Aerial Regions which are now the Devils Territories shall be fill'd with Smoak and Fire, and the Damned con­fin'd to that everlasting Smother, where the Worm shall never die, and the Fire shall never be quenched; by which words its more than probable that this Terraqueous Globe shall be changed into a Fiery Planet, that the Aerial Heavens shall become a Flaming Atmosphere, and that this shall be the Eternal State of this World.

He that would desire further Satis­faction in this particular, may consult Dr. Hackwel and Mr. Ray's Discourses concerning the Conflagration of this World; my intention being only to shew, that it is most probable that there is a Central Vault of large Dimen­sions, filled with Volatile Matter, con­sisting [Page 178] of Nitre, Bitumen, and Sulphur; and that it is as probable that this may break out, and set the Earth on Fire, as its possible for a Man to Die of a Burning Fever.

A Short TREATISE OF Meteorology, With some Observations concerning the Changes and Alterations of the Weather.

A Short TREATISE OF Meteorology,

CHAP. I. Of Vapours, and Exhalations, &c.

VApours and Exhalations are the Perspirations of this Ter­raqueous Globe, and are caus'd as well by the Internal Heat and Fermentation of it, as the Exter­nal Influence of the Sun, which by opening of its Pores, sucketh them out, and raiseth them up into the Regions of the Air.

These Vapours and Exhalations are the Material Cause of the several Kinds [Page 182] of Meteors that are generated within the Compass of the Atmosphere; which extends as high as the fiery Globuli of the Sun make their Rebound from the solid Surface of the Earth, and Fluid Superficies of the Waters, and no higher.

The higher the Sun ascends in the Meridian, it strikes down these fiery Globuli with greater force upon the Earth and Waters; and consequently they rise higher, and èlevate the Va­pours with them. So that the Atmo­sphere is higher or lower in several parts of the Earth, as the Sun riseth higher or lower in the Meridian, and its Beams are darted down in a more direct or oblique Line.

And as the lowness of our Northern Atmosphere, causeth the Sterility and Barrenness of the Northern Moun­tains; so the height of the Southern Atmosphere, causeth those Mountains in the Aequinoctial and Southern Re­gions to be more Fertile and Pro­ductive.

CHAP. II. Of the [...]fficient Causes of all Met­ors; and first of Heat.

BY Heat is not to be understood the Element of Fire, which Aristotle and his Followers conceited to be under the Concave of the Moon, [there be­ing no such Element there] but by Heat is meant that Internal Heat and Fermentation which is in the Body of the Earth, and that Natural Fire which is originally and essentially in the Body of the Sun, the Vehicle of External Heat, which Streams out from every part of that Fiery Globe, giving Heat, Light, and enlivening Vegetations to the whole Material World, being within the Compass of its Fiery and Luminous Atmosphere.

These Streams of Heat and Light [which is only the shadow of Heat] be­ing Darted through the Regions of the Air in Strait Lines, and single Rayes, are not perceivably Hot or Cold, no more than the Light of a Candle with­out the Sphere of its Heat; but being [Page 184] doubled by multiplyed Reflections, and Reboundings from the solid Sur­face of the Earth, does increase its Heat, as the Reflections are multiplyed and rebounded; which makes it hot­ter against a Wall, than upon the plane Ground, and in the Vallies, than upon the Mountains.

We must therefore distinguish be­tween those single Rayes of Heat, which dart through the Air in in­stants, which are neither perceivably hot or cold, and the Heat upon the Superficies of the Earth, which being contracted by an Artificial Glass, is R [...]al Fire.

The Essential Qualities of Heat are Calefaction, Elevation, Rarefaction, Liquefaction, and Consolidation, as it meets with Matter Predisposed to re­ceive its Effects.

CHAP. III. Of Cold, the other efficient Cause of Meteors.

BY Cold is not meant a bare priva­tion of Heat, as former Philo­sophers did conceit; but a real Body, of a Subtile Sublimated and Homogenous Nature, and of a cold and frigid Qua­lity. Its proper place of Existence is between this Earths Atmosphere, and the Atmosphere of the Moon, which is our next Neighbouring Globe; and by the rising and falling of this main Body of Cold, are caused the several Changes and Alterations of the Weather with us.

The Cause of its Rising and Falling, is the pressures of these two Atmospheres between which it is plac'd: When the waterish Atmosphere of the Moon presseth it down, it causeth Storms and Tempests here upon this Globe; And when it Rises, it causes the same in the Moon.

The Rising and Falling of this Main Body of Cold, is sometimes also occa­sion'd [Page 186] by its Dilating and Contracting of it self.

Now as the Suns Beams are hotter in their Reflections upon the Earth, than in the Sun it self, so these Cold Rays which are darted from this Main Body of Cold, being increas'd and multiply'd by Reflection from the Mountains and Rivers, are much colder than the Main Body of Cold in its own Sphere. These Reflected Globuli of Cold may be term'd the Lower or Ground-cold; be­cause in Summer it penetrates the Earth, and in Winter it seldom rises higher than the Tops of the highest Moun­tains, unless when it joins with the Main Body, and then it causeth great Storms of Frost and Snow, &c.

This Lower or Ground-cold, is com­monly the Rear-guard and Van-guard of the Sun, always going before and following it; and its most perceivable in the Evening and Morning Twilights; especially, by Birds and Aerial Animals, whose Bodies do so sympathize with the Air, that they can more quickly perceive the Change of Weather (espe­cially the rising of a Storm or Rain or Snow) than any of the Terrene Ani­mals; and this they commonly discover [Page 187] by their Flying high or low, or Flock­ing together; or sometimes by diffe­rent Notes or Voices. This occasion'd the Ancient Augurs to conceit them prophets, &c.

The Essential Qualities and Effects of Cold in general, are Frigefaction, Con­gelation, and sometimes Petre [...]action; and when the lower Cold is Contracted, either by Art, or Proprio motu, it Starves and Freezes, as the Fire Burns and Scorcheth.

This lower Cold contracts and di­lates it self, as it meets with Oppositi­on from the contrary Quality of Heat and Fire.

The Effects of the lower Cold when it enters the Earth.

By Antiperistasis it Fires Damps in Collieries, Mines, burning Moun­tains, and Vulcano's.

When it lyes upon the Earth, it cau­seth Dews and hoar Frosts, it sucks out Damps and corrupted Air out of Un­der-ground Works, &c.

CHAP. IV. Of the Air, or Medium wherein all Meteors are Generated.

THE Air is a Vast Medium or Expansion, fill'd with Rarify'd Vapours and Exhalations; which like Water would Stagnate, unless by a Daily addition of Rarify'd Vapours or Wind, it were put into a Flux and Reflux, as the Sea is the addition of Rivers con­tinually flowing into it from all sides.

When the Air is Calm, then are the Meteors Generated; when by the Wind the Air is put into a violent Flux and Reflux, they are Broken and Dispa­pear.

CHAP. V. Of Fiery Meteors, &c.

THE Lower Cold which follows the Sun in the Evening Twilight, continues its Operation for some Hours after its Beams are out of sight, and no longer; [the middle of the Night being for the most part a Calm as well in Winter as Summer] during which time of its Operation, it causeth all those Fiery Meteors which the former Philo­sophers gave several Names to, as fal­ling Stars, Rods, Beams, Ignes Fatui or Will with Wisp, &c. according as they differ'd in Matter, Magnitude, and manner of Appearance; some Consist­ing of a hot and dry Exhalation, o­thers of an Exhalation mix'd with a Viscous and Unctious Matter, a Third of a simple and unmix'd Exhalation: All these are Generated in the Lower Regi­ons of the Air, the Matter of them being drawn up out of the Earth, Waters, and Bituminous Boggs and Mosses, by the Sun's Influence upon them, especially in the Spring Months. For then the [Page 190] Sub [...]erranean Heat draws out to com­municate with its Main Body; for as at this time all Animals renew their Hair, clear their Blood from gross Hu­mours, so doth this great Animal the Earth purge her self of gross Humours, by Mushrooms, and other Pinguid Eva­porations; for then the Sub [...]erranean Heat drawing out to communicate with the External Heat, brings forth of the Earth these Mineral Spirits and Pin­guid Perspirations, in so plentiful a mea­sure, [which being taken up into the Air are Condens'd into Clouds, and fall down again upon the Earth in such Fer­tilizing Showers] that the Psalmist tells us the Clouds at this Season drop down Fatness. These Hot and Fiery Exhalations which are flying about, scatter'd and dispers'd in the Lower Re [...]ion of the Air, being seiz'd on by the evening Cold, are forc'd in Defence of [...]hemselves to unite their Forces, and being united do Fire upon their Grand Enemy (viz.) Cold.

Some Fire in a Round Figure like a Fireball, which the Meteorologists call a Falling Star; some in a long Train, ei­ther Strait or Crooked, and these they call'd by the name of Rods or Beams; [Page 191] others being simple and unmix'd Ex­halations, flash out in Lightning, like Gun-powder upon a Table; others be­ing mix'd with a Viscous and Unctious kind of Matter Fire near the Earth, are mov'd by the Motion of the Air, or an easie and soft Wind, or are drawn down in pursuit of their Enemy Cold, to Waters, Mosses, Boggs, and Heaths, still Burning like a Candle in a Lan­thorn, till their Unctious Matter be Exhaust'd, and then they leave a Liquid Jelly upon the Earth.

This Meteor they call Will with Wisp, or Ignis Fatuus, or Fool's Fire, because Ignorant People conceiting it to be a Spirit, keep their Eyes upon it, until they lose their way, and then are apt to give a dreadful Account of a Spirit they met with, which misled them.

If any of these Fiery Exhalations es­cape the Evening Cold, the Morning Cold about break of Day, before it be drawn down to the Waters, Fires them, by causing them to pursue the same Me­thod of Self-defence they took in the Evening.

CHAP. VI. Of Comets, &c.

AMongst the Fiery Meteors, all the former Philosophers reckon'd Comets to be the most Remarkable: And they gave such Dismal Accounts of the Dreadful Effects of them, that their very Appearance put the World under a great Consternation. But in my Opi­nion, the World [according to the Old Proverb] was more affraid than hurt by them.

For that Comets are Fiery Mete­ors, and have such dreadful Effects following their Appearance, is a Mi­stake in Meteorology so palpable, that it needs no Confutation:

That which we call a Comet, being no more than a Star of a Fiery and Lu­minous Body, in Conjunction with an other Star of an Opake and Waterish Substance, or a Vast Coelestial Cloud, which by receiving into its Body the Bright Rays of the Luminous Star, be­comes Translucent, and appears to us in the Form and Figure of a Luminous [Page 193] or Fiery Globe; and by emitting Beams or Streams of Light, it appears to be a Fiery and Burning Meteor, which by the Meteorologists is call'd a Comet.

If this Conjunction and Interposition be Centrical, it sends forth its Beams of Light on every Side; and this we call a Bearded Comet.

If the Interposition be not Centrical▪ but the Luminous Star be higher or lower, or on one side, it sends forth a Beam or Stream of Light upward or downward, or to one side; and this Beam or Stream of Light, is call'd the Tail of the Comet.

The Appearance of this Comet con­tinues until their different Motions have separated them.

A demonstration of this you may have several Evenings, when a black waterish Cloud interposeth between us and the Body of the Sun; if the Inter­position be Centrical, the Sun's Beams stream out every way; if the Sun be higher, it sends forth its Beams of Light downward; if lower, upward, or to one side, according to the Interposition of the Cloud.

Against this Hypothesis, it may be Objected, that there is no such thing in [Page 194] Nature as an Opake Waterish Coelesti­al Body.

To which I answer, That th [...] Moon is an Opake Globe of a Waterish Sub­stance; and if its Natural Course and Motion was not within the compass of the Suns Atmosphere, it would be to us invisible: So there may be [for a­ny thing that we know] Thousands of Opake Globes, within the Vast Expan­sion of the Coelestial Spheres, which are never visible to us, but when they fall into Conjunction, or Oppositon, with a Luminous Star: And when these Opake Globes are of a Round and Waterish Substance, they appear to us in the Form of Comets.

Again, it is most probable that all these New Stars, which have appear'd for some time, and then disappear'd, [which Astronomers have given such Remarkable Accounts of,] are only O­pake Globes, made visible for sometime, by their being in Conjunction or Oppo­sition to a Luminous Star, and when their different Motions have separated them the Opake Star hath disappear'd.

CHAP. VII. Of Thunder, its Causes and Effects.

OF all Fiery Meteors, there are none so dreadful as Thunder, which being an Aerial Fire Damp, the Nature and Notion of it will be best illustrated by comparing it to an Aerial Battle between these Two powerful and irre­concilable Enemies, Fire and Water.

The Army of Fire consists of Hot and Fiery Exhalations, raised out of the Earth and Bituminous Bogs by the Influence and Heat of the Sun; especi­ally out of the South-east, full East, and North-east Parts of this Globe: Those vast and spacious Continents affording most of those hot and fiery Soldi­ers.

The General that Commands in Chief, and which leads them forth into the Field, is a Sulphurous and East Wind.

The Army of Water consists of cold and moist Vapours, raised out of the Southern and Western Ocean.

[Page 196]Their General that leads them forth to Batt [...]e, is a cold moist West Wind: For its to be observ'd, that for some time befor [...] the Thunder begins, and whilst it continues, the Blasts of Wind always blow from contrary Points, and the Clouds gather and march up in the full Face of the Wind, which always Blows from an East Quarter.

These Two Armies being Form'd in­to two Wings, and two Main Bodies; First Fire, being the more Active and Volatile, sends forth a Detachment of fiery Chariots, from the South-east Wing; which being met with by an other Detachment of Vaporous Clouds from the South-west Wing, the Battle begins: And those hot and fiery Ex­halations that we see riding in Chariots of Fiery Clouds, like Pillars of Translu­cent Smoke, being inclos'd and sur­rounded with this Vaporous Cloud, are forc'd to unite all their Forces to­gether, that, Vis Vnita being Fortior, they may the better be able to defend themselves, and destroy the Enemy.

No sooner then the Forces on both Sides are united, but the Fiery Exhala­tions discharge upon the Waterish [...] ▪ in Fire and Lightning.

[Page 197]The Thundring Noise we hear is oc­casion'd by the Opposition they met with, and the Breach of the Cloud; which falls down in great and dreadful Show­ers of Rain upon the Earth; the Dr [...]ps of Water being greater or less a [...] the Breach of the Cloud is at a higher or lower distance from the Earth.

After the Thundering Battel is thus begun, the other Wings engage, and we hear the Thundering Sound of the Battel both South-east and North-west. The B [...]ttel by this time growing very hot, the Main Bodies engage; and then nothing is to be heard but a Thun­dering No [...]se, with continual Flashes of Lightning, and dreadful Showers of Rain, falling down from the broken Clouds.

And sometimes random Shots flie a­bout, kill both Men and Beasts, fire and throw down Houses, split great Trees and Rocks, and tear the ve [...]y Earth.

For it is no more impossible for the more Earthy Part of an Exhalation to be on a sudden Petresied into Stone [which we call the Thunder-bol [...]] in the Body of a Cloud; than that Lax [...] Matter should be Petrefied into a Stone [Page 198] in the Body of the Earth; the Antipe­ristatical Cause being the same in both.

[...]ese t [...]o Irreconcil [...]ble Enemies still keep the Field, until one of them be utterly destroy'd.

If the fiery Exhalations keep the Field, the East Wind blows still hot and sulphurous.

If the Vapours get the Victory, the West Wind blows cold and moist, the Sky is clear, the Air is cold, the Bat­tel is over, and the Earth Bu [...]ies the Dead and gets the Spoil. If any should think this Account of Thunder to be ra­ther Figment and Romance, than true Natural Philosophy, I advise him [when ever he sees the Thunder Packs rising White and Translucent in a South-east Point, when he feels the Air hot [...]nd Sulphurous, with some contrary Blasts of Wind coming whistling from the West] that he haste make on to the Top of Crossfelt, or some other high Mountain, that gives a Prospect to both East and West, and he may be inform'd both as to the truth and manner of this Aerial Battle.

CHAP. VIII. Of Vaporous Meteors; and first of Dews, and Hoar Frosts.

DEws are Vapours Condens'd upon the Surface of the Earth, by the Evening and Morning Cold, these be­ing the times of the Dews falling.

I have observ'd that sometimes a­bout Mid afternoon, the under-ground Cold being impatient of a long Sum­mers Days Confinement, has broke out, and condens'd the Vapours into a D [...]w, which by the first Reflection of the Sun was taken up into the Air, and a vis­cous Matter left upon the Grass, like Cobwebs or fine Threds, which we call Tela Beatae Mariae; and these Va­pours being condens'd into a Cloud, will fall down again in a Shower of Rain about Sun-setting.

But the usual time wh [...]n the Even­ing Dews fall, is immediately after the Sun is Set; for then the Lower Cold ly­eth upon the Ground, and as the Sun goes down it riseth.


[Page 200]The Morning Dews begin to fall a­bout break of Day: For about that time the Waters being colder than the Moun­tains, draw down the Lower Cold from the Mountains to them.

And it bringing the Vapours along with it, sits Regent upon the Waters, in thick Foggs and waterish Mists, un­til the Influence of the Sun, by warm­ing of the Waters, either scattereth and disperseth the Vapours, or forceth them to rise up to the Mountains, or the cool Regions of the Air, leaving only Dews upon the Ground behind them.

These Dews, when the Cold is con­tracted and freezing, become Hoar Fro [...]ts; for a dilated Cold causeth Dews, and a contracted Cold Frosts.

In the Spring Months, when the Sub­terranean Heat draws out from its Win­ter Quarters to join with the external Heat of the Atmosphere, it brings out of the Earth with it some of the finer Mineral Spirits; and the Sun-beams be­ing then Powerful and Attractive, do suck up these Mineral Spirits, with the sweet Efluvia and Perspirations of Herbs and Flowers; which the Evening and Morning Cold condenseth into Honey­dews, or Manna. In these Months, [Page 201] the Sun's Beams are so strong and vi­gorous, that they will draw up Frog­spawn; which being receiv'd into the Body of a warm [...]loud, will presently be Form'd into little Frogs, which will fall down upon the Earth in these Fer­tilizing Spring Showers: Sometimes they will suck up Blood, which will fall down in Showers of Rain, especially after Bloody Battels fought at great di­stances: So Corn, &c. will fall down in Rain. But these are Magnalia Naturae.

CHAP. IX. Of Rain, Hail, and Snow.

RAin, Hail, and Snow, are the same as to their Matter. The difference among them is only Accidental; Hail being only Drops of Rain frozen in their falling down from a broken Cloud, by a contract'd Body of the Lower Cold; Snow being Vapours fro­zen before they be Condens'd into a Cloud.

Of Rain.

Rain is either general or particular, higher or lower.

Observations concerning Rain.

1 When the Evening Dew falls be­fore Sun-set, and the Sun draws it up again, the Evening Cold condenseth it into a Cloud, and it falls down in a Shower of Rain in the Evening Twilight.

[Page 203]When the Evening Cold condenseth 2 not the Vapours into Dews, but draws them up to the Tops of the Moun­tains, and thence into the Cold Regi­ons of the Air, they fall down in Rain about break of Day.

When the Morning Cold condenseth .3 not the Dews, but draws up the Va­pours to the Tops of the Mountains, and thence into the Cold Regions of the Air, they fall down in Rain about Ten a Clock or sooner, and so continues a general Rain for some Hours together, the Evening and Morning Vapours being join'd.

When the Air is Calm, and the Wa­ters 4 colder than the Mountains, the Vapours draw down to the Waters, and there they lie in a thick Fogg or Mist, until the Sun by warming of the Waters, causeth them to rise about Nine or Ten a Clock: if the Morning Cold dilate it self, it raiseth the Vapours to the middle of the Mountains, where they continue in a thick Fogg, the Mountain Tops being clear, until the Vapours be all spent in a mizling kind of Rain.

When the Morning Cold divides it 5 self into many little contracted Bodies, [Page 204] these lesser Bodies of contracted Cold condense the Vapours, and they fall down in particular Showers, some not Mountain height; so that one may sometimes go through a Shower of Rain [if he please] which will fall upon the Skirts of the Mountains, when at the same time 'tis clear both above and below the Shower. Thus a Man may be above the Clouds and the Rain.

6 When the Morning Cold draws the Mists and the Foggs [...]rom the Waters, gradatim [or in Sops, as we call it] to the Tops of the Mountains, and they Trall there too and fro, sometimes ris­ing, and then falling again, the Dispute being between the Water-cold and the Mountain cold, whether should get the Prize,

If at the last these Tralling Mists or Vapours be lifted up into the Cold Re­gions of the Air, and be there Con­dens'd by some of those lesser Bodies of Cold which are flying about, they fall down in particular Showers within an Hour or less after they be taken up; so qui [...]k is the return of Vapours into Showers of Rain.

CHAP. X. Of Hail and Snow. OBSERVATIONS.

WHen these lesser Bodies of con­tracted Cold, are so placed one above another, having distances of warm Air betwixt them, [as often­times it happens in very hot Weather, for the greater the Heat is, the more narrowly do these lesser Bodies of Cold contract themselves] if any of the higher Bodies of Cold condense the Vapours into a Cloud, and it break, and fall down in drops of Rain through a Body of more contracted Cold, it freezeth these drops of Rain into Hail-Stones.

I have observ'd a Shower of Rain upon the Mountains, the same a Shower of Hail upon the Skirts of the Moun­tains, the same dissolved again into a Shower of Rain in the Vallies. I have observ'd also a Shower of Hail at one end of the Town, the same a Shower of Rain at the other end; [Page 206] the contracted Body of Cold that caused the Hail, being not a Quarter of a Mile in Circumference.

Of Snow.

When the Lower Cold riseth, and the Upper Cold falleth, and so strait­ens the Sphere of Rarefaction that the Wind blows thin, as out of a contract­ed Mouth, the Vapours are frozen in-Snow before they be condensed into a Cloud, and the shower of Snow on­ly at first covers the Tops of the Mountains; but as soon as the Lower Cold riseth Mountain height, and joyns with the Upper Cold, the Snow falls down into the Vallies and covers the Earth.


1 When the Wind has blown for some time S. E. or full S. or S. W. we must expect a great and general Rain; for these Winds blowing from such Regions where the Atmosphere rises high, bring over with them the greatest Quantity of Vapours; which our Mountanous [Page 207] Country condenseth into Clouds, which fall down in great and gene­ral Rains.

And this is the reason why those Countries where most of the Vapours rise, have the least of Rain; which want is supplied by great Dews, which the Evening and Morning Cold condenseth upon the Ground.

For where the Atmosphere riseth high, the Lower and Higher Cold ne­ver meet, which is the cause of their want of Rain.

When the Wind blows N. or N. E.2 or full E. we have seldom Rain, but great Flights of Snow. For the At­mosphere in those Parts being very low [especially in Winter] and the Mouth of the Sphere of Rarefaction very strait, the Wind that blows from these Quar­ters is so very thin and freezing, that those few Vapours which are brought from those places for the most part fall down in Snow.

CHAP. XI. Of Frost, and Thaw, &c.

FRost and Thaw are the Effects of quite di [...]ferent Causes; the one being occasion'd by the Influence of Heat, the other of Cold; and these two contrary Qualities do not give ground one to another without great struggle and contest.

The first beginning of Freezing is at the Waters, and this we call a Water Frost; its the Effect or Operation of the Morning Cold; which drawing down to the Waters in the Morning Twilight, and carrying the Vapours a­long with it, leaves a Waterish Hoar Frost upon the Ground behind it.

These Vapours lie upon the Waters until Nine a Clock; for by that time the Influence of Heat having warm'd the Waters, forceth them to remove their Quarters, first to the cold Tops of the Mountains, and thence to the cooler Regions of the Air, from whence they fall down in Showers of Rain about [Page 209] Twelve a Clock, this Frost only gains the Waters, Vallies, and Plains.

The Second Morning, the Cold doubles its Force, and Glaceates the Wa­ters, congeals the Earth, and riseth to the middle of the Mountains; [their Tops still continuing in the possession of Heat] This degree of Cold is over­powered by the Influence of Heat about Two a Clock, and falls down in Rain in the Evening Twilight.

The Third Morning, the Cold trebles its force, and gains the Tops of the Mountains. And the Influence of Heat commonly recovers this lost Ground a little before the Sun set; and in the Morning Twilight it falls down in a shower of Snow, covering only the Tops of the Highest Mountains.

The Upper and Lower Cold being now united, the Frost keeps its posses­sion of the Earth and Waters some­times for a Month or more together; and in some Countries [lying at a di­stance from the Sea] the whole Winter Quarter; the Wind all the time blow­ing Cold and Thin, the Mouth of the Sphere of Rarefaction being strait­ned by the joyning of the Higher and Lower Cold.


[Page 210]During the Time that the Earth and Waters continue in the possession of Frost and Snow, the Subterranean Heat breaks out of the Springs and Mineral Feeders, and joyning with the Heart of the Sun Rege [...]es the Spring­heads, and part of the Rivers, gaining them intirely into its possession: But the general Frost continues until the Vapours rising from the Southern or Western Ocean, recover the Wind in­to some of the Solar Quarters; which opening the Sphere of Rarefaction, the Wind blows warm and moist. For as the same Breath from an open Mouth warms ones Fingers, so from a con­tracted Mouth it will cool his Por­ridge.

The general Frost in the Northern Countries near the Pole, and in Coun­tries at a distance from the Sea, sel­dom Regeles, until the Subterranean Heat break forth, and joyn with the Heat of the approaching Sun, and then the Frost and Snow is dissolved in a very short time; and the Spring comes on much sooner than in those Coun­tries where the Regelation is more gradual.

[Page 211]Thus as a constant Intercourse of Day and Night gives the Active Animals liberty, by Rest and Sleep, to recover their wasted Strength and Spirits▪ so an Annual return of Frost and Snow, re­covers and repairs the Strength and Spirits of the Earth, which had been spent in the preceeding Summers Pro­ductions. For in this Natural World all things are repair'd by corrupting, preserv'd by perishing, and reviv'd by dying.

As the Operation of Cold did gra­dually gain ground upon the Influ­ence of Heat; so by the same methods and degrees Heat recovers its lost ground, the Fresh or Thaw beginning first at the Waters, and from thence riseth up to the Plains and Vallies; and last of all the Tops of the Moun­tains [which are for sometime kept in the possession of Frost and Cold, after the lower parts of the Earth be regeled] are gained.

CHAP. XII. Of the Sphere of Rarefaction.

THE Sphere of Rarefaction is a Sphere of Heat, wherein the Suns Reflections meet, and unite them­selves in their own defence against the Upper and Lower Cold.

And being placed in a middle be­tween them, it riseth or falleth, open­eth or closeth as it prevails upon them, or as they open or close, rise or fall. This Sphere of Heat, by Rarefying of Vapours and Exhalations, causeth Wind.

That Heat is the cause of Wind, is apparent from the Experience of such People, who, to cause Wind, usually set Chaff, Seeds, or Straw on Fire. And when Houses or Towns are ac­cidentally thus set on Fire, the Heat of the Flame, by Rarefying of the Va­pours and Exhalations round about, will raise the Wind to so great a height, as will make it a matter of great dif­ficulty to quench the Flame.

CHAP. XIII. Of Wind, Helms, and Arches.

WInd is the Nitrous part of Va­pour and Exhalation, Rarified and Dilated by the Sphere of Rare­faction.

The Winds are either higher or lower, as the Sphere of Rarefaction riseth or falleth; they are thicker or thinner, as it openeth or closeth; they are Moist, Hot, or Dry, as they have more or less of Vapour or Exhalation in them.

The Pabulum of Winds, is com­monly called a Helm, from the Greek Word [...], which signifies Spiro ▪ to Breath; and they are Either Visible or Invisible.

The Visible Helms, are Either Opake, Mixt, or Translucent.

[Page 214]These Wind Helms fix upon the coldest parts of the Globe, as the Gib­bosity of the Sea, the Tops of the high­est Mountains, Mountain-Heaths, Waters, and Rivers.

The Matter on which these Helms consist, is a Vaporous Mist, which as it endeavours to rise up, is pressed down by the Sphere of Rarefaction; and by Rarifying the Nitrous part of it [which is always uppermost] into Wind, the still Body of the Air is put into a violent Flux, every Blast of Wind being only a Wave of Air; the Rapidity of its Motions is occasion'd by the Declivity of the Mountains.

Wherever the Grand Helm fixeth, from that Quarter the Wind blows, un­till the stock of Vapours be spent: For Instance,

If the Grand Helm fix upon the Mountains of Germany, the Second Helm fixeth upon the Gibbosity of the Eastern Seas; [by the Gibbosity of the Sea, I understand that middle Ridge where the Flux and Reflux breaketh;] the Third Helm fixeth upon Crossfelt, and that Ridge of Mountains; the Fourth Helm fixeth upon Skidday, and that Ridge of Mountains; and so for­ward [Page 215] until the Grand Pabulum be spent, and then the Wind ceaseth, and the Air is Calm.

That distance between Helm and Helm we call an Arch▪ over which [as the Vapours rise] the Wind blows them from Helm to Helm, one feeding and repairing another, until the Grand Stock be spent. And so on the contra­ry, if the Grand Helm fix upon the Mountains in Irela [...]d, the Wind blows West, forming Helms and Arches till that Stock be spent.

The Grand Helm is always Opake▪ consisting of all Vapour. The first Wind is Wet and [...]ainy, the Arch o­ver-Clouded; for as the Nitrous part of the [...] [...]iseth, and is [...]arify'd in­to Wind, it driveth before it the Rain, as the Sal [...] [...] [being fir'd] drives before it Hail shot.

The Second Helm is Mix'd, being part Exhalation, and part Vapour; the upper part of the Helm being Ex­halation, is Translucent; this Wind is Showry▪ and the Arch Cloudy.

The Third Helm is Translucent, be­ing all Exhalation, the Wind Dry, the Air Clear.

The Invisible Helms are all Exhala­tion, [Page 216] and they seldom rise as high as the Tops of Mountains▪ but fix upon Waters, Rivers, the Tops and Sides of H [...]lls, and high Buildings; these Winds are the lowest that Blow▪ one may go through them, and find a Calm upon the Tops of Mountains. This is a common Observation made by those who Live under the Moun­tains. The P [...]ulum of these Winds being soon spent, they change often.

Observations concerning Winds, Helms, and Arches.

When the Vapours and E [...]halations 1 rise from the Waters to the Skirts of the Mountains, and [...] Roll and Trail to and fro, the Sphere of Rarefa­ction is [...], and these Vapours and Exhalations being Rarefy'd into Wind, it blows till the Stock be spent. These are Spring Winds, and Summer Winds▪ they continue only from Ten a Clock till Three in the Afternoon, and are sometimes [...]arri [...]d about [...] the Sun they seldom rise as high as the Tops of the Mountain [...].

[Page 217]When the Vapours rise to the 2 Tops of the Mountains, and fix there in a Black and Opake Ledge, expect a Rai [...]y Wind.

When they are Opake at the bot­tom,3 and White at the Top, expect a Showery Rain.

When the Helm is White and Trans­lucent,4 expect a dry Wind.

When the Helms are even Ballanc'd 5 with Vapours and Exhalations▪ the Wind will Blow sometimes from both Helms, and sometimes a third Blast of Wind will come from a middle Point or Quarter; and sometimes also a Blast of Wind will come whirl­ing down from above our Heads with great violence.

When the whole Horizon is Helm'd 6 about, expect contrary Blasts, Whirl­winds, or Hurricanes.

When the Helms rise and close up the Arch with black Clouds, expect 7 great Rains.

[Page 218] 8 Where the Clouds begin to open and Brighten Mountain height, the Wind will blow from that Quarter; for there a new Helm is fix'd, and the Sphere of Rarefaction is faln a work­ing.

9 In large Continents at great distance from the Sea, where there are not ma­ny Mountains, wherever the Wind-Helm fixeth, and the Pabulum is gather­ed, the Wind will blow from that Point or H [...]lm for some Months to­gether; These we call Trade Winds.

CHAP. IV. Prognostications of the change and alteration of Weather, from the Setting and Rising of the Sun.

Prognostications of Rain, from the Setting of the Sun.

WHen the Sun Setteth in [...] black waterish Cloud, the Vapours 1 are condens'd by the Evening Cold, and the Morning Cold raiseth them up into the Cold Regions of the Air, where they Swim until Nine or Ten a Clock next Morning, and then their own weight causeth them to sink and break into Rain.

When the Sun goes down wading,2 or forcing, [as they call it] the Va­pours are drawing down with the Evening Cold, and the next Morning Cold condenseth them into Clouds, which the next Day fall down in Showers of R [...]n about Twelve a Clock.

[Page 220] 3 When the Sun Sets broad and glim­mering, it Sets in thin Vapours, which the next Day will fall down in a mis­ling Rain.

Signs of fair Weather.

1 When the Sun Sets clear, and appears little and fiery, the Vapours are all spent, and you may expect a fair and hot Day to follow.

2 When the Sun Sets through thin Clouds, sharp edged like Swords, these are little Wind-Helms, and you must expect a fair and windy Day to fol­low.

3 When after the Sun is Set, its Beams strike the Air with a Crimson-red, you may expect that the next Day will be Fair and Windy.

Signs of Rain from the Rising Sun.

1 If before the Sun appears, its Rising Beams strike the Air with a Crimson-Red, [Page 221] expect Wind and Rain about Ten a Clock; for the Air is full of Vapours and Exhalations.

When the Sun Riseth broad▪ and 2 glimmering, and is presently receiv'd into a black Cloud, the Morning Cold rise [...]h, and takes up with it the Va­pours, which fall down in great Rains.

When the Sun Riseth clear, and se­veral 3 little black Clouds are ready to receive it, expect a Showery Day.

Signs of a fair Day, from the Ris­ing Sun.

If the Sun Rise little and fiery, and 1 the Vapours draw down to the Wa­ters, leaving a Dew upon the Ground, these Vapours about Ten a Clock are Rarify'd into Wind, which continues blowing only till Three in the After­noon, and Prognosticate a fair Season.

If the Sun Rise in thick Clouds, and 2 appear not till until Ten a Clock, ex­pect a clear Afte [...]noon.

[Page 222] 2 If the Sun appear not till Twelve a Clock, expect not only a clear After­noon, but a dry Season; for the Morn­ing Cold riseth not.

3 The Rising of the Morning Cold, and its lif [...]ing up the Vapours with it, is the cause of all the Rain we have.


BOOKS Printed for Iohn Newton, at the Three Pigeons over against the Inner-Temple-Gate in Fleet-Street.

A Charge given at the General Quarter Sessions of the Peace for the County of Surrey, holden at Darking, on Tuesday the Fifth day of April 1692, and in the Fourth Year of Their Majesties Reign. By the Honourable Hugh Hare, Esq One of Their Majesties Justices of the Peace for that County. The Second Edition Cor­rected.

An Historical Relation of the Conspira­cy of Iohn Lowis Count Deffieschi against the City of Genoua in the Year 1547. Written in Italian, by Augustin Mascardi, Gentleman of the Bed Chamber to Pope Urban the Eighth. Done into English by the Honourable Hugh Hare, Esq

An Account of the Isle of Iersey, the G [...]eatest of the Islands that are now, the only remainder of the English Do [...]inions in France, with a New and Accurate Mapp of the said Island. By Ph. Falle, M. A. Rector of St. Saviour, in the said Island, and Chaplain in Ordinary to His Majesty.

[Page]Mr▪ Falle's Sermon before the English G [...]ison in Iersey, April the 10th 1692.

—One Sermon at Whitehall, Decemb. the 30th, 1694.

—One Sermon before the Lord Mayor April the 21th, 1695.

A Discourse of Natural and Reveal'd Re­ligion in several Essays, By Mr. T. Nourse.

The Anatomy of [...] Earth, Dedicated to all Miners, By Tho. Robinson Rector of Outby in Cumberland.

The History of the Campagne in Flan­ders for the Years 1692, 1693, 1694, and 1695. All Written by Edward [...] Auergne M. A. Rector of St. Brelade in the Isle of Iersey, and Chaplain to His Majesties Re­giment of Scots Guards.

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