[...]
[...]

The Use of the Letters and Figures, directing to the twenty four Tables, or Brass Cuts; and the hundred eighty four Figures in those Tables, representing the Parts of the Body.

EVery Brass Cut, or Print, is called a Table; and the said Prints or Ta­bles, are twenty four, and have their respective Numbers set at the Foot of the Table, or Print, on the corner that is outmost, and against the Readers right hand. Each particular Figure is also numbred, and the Num­ber set over its Head, and the several parts of each Figure, are distinguished by Letters of the Alphabet, for the easier finding. To compare therefore, the Discourse with the Tables, I shall teach you by an Example or two. In Chap. 8. page 9. line 21. The word Coronalis, is marked with the Let­ter a; to which Letter, looking at the end of the said Chapter, you find a T. 15. f. 3. a a a. □ intimating that you must turn to Table 15. Figure 3. and that part of the Figure which is marked a a a. which represents the Coro­nal Suture of the Skull: The Mark □ shews that the former Citation is en­ded. Again, in the next line of page 9. by the word Lambdoides, you find Letter b, to which looking at the end of the said Chapter, you find b f. 4. b b. ▪ to teach you that in the 15 Table foregoing, Figure 4. and on that part of the Figure marked b b. you shall find the Suture of the Skull called Lambdoi­des: and this mark □ after b b. shews again that the Citation is ended. Again, in the same line, by the word Sagittalis, you find Letter c, to which turning at the end of the Chapter, you shall there find c f. 3. b b. f. 4. a a. intimating that in Figure 3. of the forenamed Table 15. and in that part of the Figure which is marked b b. Also in Figure 4. of the same Table, on that part which is marked a a you shall find the Sagittal Suture described. The mark □ shews the Citation is ended.

Note that where you find not among the Directory Letters, T. for Table, that Figure belongs to the fore-mentioned Table. Also you are to take notice that between two Citations, you shall find this mark □.

Finally. He that would make his most advantage by the use of this Book, should, having been present at some Anatomical Dissections of the whol Body; study the Tables first, with their Explanations on the opposite Pages; and then read the Discourse of Riolanus, and compare it all along with the Tables, which may be best done, if the Tables be bound up by themselves, so as to lie o­pen alwaies while he is reading the respective Chapters, referring to each Table.

A SURE GUIDE OR, The BEST and NEAREST Way TO Physick and Chyrurgery: That is to say, The Arts of Healing by Medicine, and MANUAL OPERATION. Being An Anatomical Description of the whol Body of Man, and its Parts, with their Respective Disea­ses, demonstrated from the Fabrick and Ʋse of the said Parts. In Six Books. VIZ.

1 Describing all, and every of the Bones of Mans Body, according to the Ancient Method.

2 Describing the Belly, and all its Parts and Bowels, with their re­spective Diseases.

3 Describing the Chest, and all its Parts and Contents, with their respective Diseases.

4 Describing the Head, and Face, with all their Parts Containing and Con­tained, and their respective Diseases.

5 Describing the Limbs of the Body, with the many Regiments of Muscles, and their Diseases.

6. Containing a new Description of the Bones, by a Method first invented by our Author, handling al the Diseases and Symptomes of the said Bones.

At the End of the Six Books, are added twenty four Tables, cut in Brass, containing one hundred eighty four Figures, with an Explanation of them; which are referred to in above a thousand places in the Books, for the Help of yong Artists.

Written in Latine, by Johannes Riolanus, Junior; Doctor of Physick, Physitian in ordinary to the Queen Mother of France many years together, and the last she had: And also the Kings Professor of Anato­my and Herbarism, in the University of Paris.

Englished by Nich. Culpeper, Gent. and W. R. Doctor of the Liberal Arts, and of Physick.

London: Printed by Peter Cole, and are to be sold at his Shop, at the Sign of the Printing-Press in Cornhil, neer the Royal Exchange. 1657.

To the Right Honorable, HENRY LAWRENCE, Esquire; Lord President of the Councel to his Highness, the Lord Protector.

Right Honorable,

IT being my hap some years since to find in the Stationers shop at Amsterdam, your Lordships Elegant Treatise of Baptisme, and being upon Enquiry, informed tou­ching the quality of the Author; I wondred what Gentleman it was, that having a stock of Honor & Repute in the world, had with­al so much Christian Courage, as to venture it in that kind. For I judged (and I suppose rightly) that for a Gentleman of name and note, at that time to dare to vindicate the true Christian Baptisme, contemning the clamorous censures of the weake Multitude of Pretenders to Religion and Learning, was an Act of more true and high Courage than to storm a Town. And I humbly conceive, Experience has evidenced the Truth hereof, since hundreds (not to say thousands) that have adventured their Lives to gain Honor and Riches in the Field, have in their hearts found it too hard an Adventure (however otherwise convinc't in their understandings) to own and acknowledg the true Christian Baptisme, and sub­ject themselves to the scorned practice thereof, with the evident hazard of much of their acquired Honor, and of their future Repute, and the advacement depending there upon.

That this action, nevertheless, of yours (my Lord) has not been attended, with al that Ignominy and Prejudice, which was only to be expected from Men; is the singular pro­vidence of God, giving Courage and Ingenuity, to many o­thers of note, soon after (much animated doubtless by so noble and generous a Leader as your Lordship) to acknow­ledg and submit to the Divine verity, and beautiful, and most [Page] lovely Rationality of that solemn Institution of our Mr. Christ▪ and his eminent blessing that part of the soldiery, Characterised thereby. Much affected therefore with your Lordships Christian Vertue in this kind, and desirous to commend the same to Posterity; It has not been since that time in my power to do it more effectually, than by prefix­ing your truly honorable Name in the Front of this excellent Anatomical Treatise, and best Foundation of the Art of Hea­ling, commonly though corruptly called Physick. The fitness of which Dedication, I shal with your Honors gentle Patience, thus demonstrate

Seeing this book is nothing (for the most part) but a Decla­ration and Exposition of the stupendiously admirable wis­dom of the Eternal our Maker, shining forth in the most cu­rious Fabrick of Mans body; to confirm and seal the beleefe of the Resurrection whereof (which is the very Foundation of1 Cor. 13. 15, 16. 17. 18. 30. 31. 32. Christianity) baptisme seems (by the Scripture) to have been cheifly ordained, by our great Mr. Christ; that as we had one solemn Ceremony to represent his sufferings and death, we might not want another to set forth and solemnize his burial and Resurrection (without which his own death and his Disciples Faith had been in vain) and to take possession in and by a Figure of our own Resurrection to come (For, we Colo. 2. 12. are, saith Paul, Buryed with Christ, in our Baptisme, and therein also risen with him; That is, in a figure, being through a solemn Ceremonious possession of our future Resurrection from the grave, instated into eternal life.) This being so (my Lord) to whom should this excellent Description of the body of Man in general, with al its parts, and their Respective Diseases, be dedicated, rather than to him that has vindicated to the Christian world, that excellent pledge of the Resurrection thereof; to wit, the Baptisme of Christ rightly solemnized: whereby al true beleevers are mightily assured, that though this curiously built House of our Earthly Tabernacle, be so­wen in the dust, yet it shal not there abide for ever, as the beasts that perish. Accept therefore (Generous Sir) from your most humble servant, this Testimony of your Christian [Page] Courage and sincerity, and suffer this excelleut Treatise to shelter it self under your honorable Patronage. And though this testimony of your vertue so publickly given, may (I fear) afford some disgust to your Modesty, yet I beseech your Lordship to let it pass, for the glory of our great Mr. Christ, and the Edification of Christendom. And I have much rea­son to hope, it may be a Monument of your honorable Me­mory, when probably the royal and Magnificent combes at Westminster, shal pledge the Fate of them in Pauls, and be overwhelmed with Dust and Ruins. Such is the desire and Hopes (my Lord) of him that craves leave to subscribe him­self,

Your Honors,
Most humble Servant, and true Admirer of your Christian Inge­nuity, Sincerity, and Courage, WILLIAM RAND.

Mris. Culpepers Information, Vindication, and Testimony, concerning her Husbands Books to be Published after his Death.

SO great are the Afflictions wherewith our Heavenly Father hath been pleased to exercise me his poor Hand­maid, that I have not only lived to see my dear Hus­band, (the Stay [...]d Solace of my Life) taken from me: but it hath been my hard hap also to see his Reputation, and Memory (which wil be dear to al Posterity, for the Works he hath written for the Common Good of this Nation) blemished, and Eclipsed, by the covetous and unjust Forgeries of one, who, though he calls himself Nathaniel, is far from being an Israelite in whom there is no guile; who was not content to publish a Hodgpodg of un­digested Collections, and Observations of my deer Husband deceased, under the Title of Culpeper's last Legacy; but to make the Deceit more taking, he steeled his Forehead so far, and brased it so hard, as not to be ashamed to forge two Epistles, one in mine, and the other in my Husbands Name; of the penning of which, he nor I, never so much as drea­med: And yet he impudently affirmeth in my Name, that my Husband Laid a severe Injunction on me to publish them for the general good, after his decease; and that they are his last Experiences in Physick and Chyrurgery. And in the Title of his Book, he said, They are the choycest, and most profitable secrets, resolved never to be published til after his Death. Al which Expressions in the Title and Epistles, are as fals as the Father of Lyes; and every word in them, forged and feigned. And he knew wel enough, that no discreet, honest man, that was a friend to my Husband, or me, would ever have agreed to such infamous and dishonest practices; and therefore I desire all courteous Readers of the Writings of my Husband, to take notice of this Deceit, and to assure themselvs that it never entred into his head, to publish such an undigested Gallimoffery, under the promising and solemn Name of his Last Legacy, and that whereby he gained his Reputation in the World, as the Imposter makes him speak in his forged Epistle. And I desire any in different Reader, that hath observed my Husbands lofty, and Mascu­line manner of expressing himself in his Prefaces, and Epistles Dedicatory, whether in case he had been minded or disposed to take so solemn a farewel of the world, as the Forger makes him to do; whether, I say, he would have done it in such a whining fashion, and so in the Stile of a Balade-maker, as to say, And now, if it please Heaven to put a period to my Life, and Studies, that I must bid al things under the Sun farewel: Farewel to my dear Wife and Child, farewel Arts and Sciences, farewel al worldly Glories, adiew Readers. Certainly my Hus­band would have been far more serious, and materi­al, in such a case, as any discreet man wil Judg. Neither can it be thought, that in such a solemn Valediction, he could possibly forget his wonted re­spects to the Colledg of Doctors, to whom he did so frequently address himself, in divers of his writings.

Courteous Reader, I shal say no more touching the abuse of the Book-seller, only to prevent (as much as concerns me) thy being abused for the future, know, That my Husband left seventy-nine Books of his own making, or Translating, in my hand, and I have deposited them into the hands of his, and my much honored Friend, Mr. Peter Cole, Book-seller, at the Printing-Press, neer the Royal Exchange (for the good of my Child) from whom thou mayest expect to receive in print, such of them as shal be thought fit to serve thee in due season, without any Disguises or Forgeries, unto which I do hereby give my attestation. Also my Husband left seventeen Books compleatly perfected, in the hands of the said Mr. Cole, for which he paid my Husband in his life-time: And Mr. Cole is ready and willing (on any good oc­casion) to shew any of the said seventy-nine Books, or the seventeen, to such as doubt thereof.

And if any Person shal question the Truth of any part of this Vindication, or Epistle; if they wil take pains to come to me, I wil face to face, justifie the truth of every word thereof, as I have subscribed my Hand thereunto in the presence of many witnesses.

I profess in the presence of the great God, the sear­cher of al hearts, before whom Mr. Brooks and I must one day give an account of al our Actions: That I have not published this Epistle or Vindicati­on, out of any dis [...]respect to Mr. Brooks (for I much resp [...]t the man, and would be glad to serve him to my power) but only to cleer my Husband from the solly and weakness cast upon him by the means above expressed. And out of tenderness to Mr. Brooks, I first tried other means of keeping, and afterwards of repairing my Husbands Credit, and then stayed long to see if he would repair (in any measure) the wrong done to my Husband, and myself. I desire to be.

Your Servant (in,
and for the Truth) Alice Culpeper.

Mris. Culpeper did the 18. of October, subscribe this Epistle in Vindication of her Hus­band's Reputation, before Ten Witnesses, as she had done another Epistle on the ninth of October, almost in the same words with this, except neer the Conclusion.

THE CONTENTS OF The First Book. Of Osteology, or the History of the Bones.

  • CHAP. 1. The Intent of the Au­thor is declared.
    1
    Chap. 2. Why we begin our A­natomy with the Treatise of Bones
    3
    Chap. 3. The Division of Osteology, or the History of the Bones.
    4
    Chap. 4. Of the Composition, and Defini­tion of a Bone.
    ibid.
    Chap. 5. Of the Qualities, or Natural Disposition of the Bones.
    5
    Chap. 6. Of the Conjunction of Bones.
    6
    Chap. 7. The Division of a Sceleton.
    8
    Chap. 8. Of the Head, being the first Part of the Sceleton.
    ibid.
    Chap. 9. Of the upper Jaw.
    11
    Chap. 10. Of the Orbitary Bone
    12
    Chap. 11. Of the inferior Jaw
    ibid.
    Chap. 12. Of the Os Hyois
    ibid.
    Chap. 13. Of the Teeth
    13
    Chap. 14. Of the Trunk, being the second Part of the Sceleton.
    ibid.
    Chap. 15. Of the Chest.
    14
    Chap. 16. Of the Limbs, being the third Part of the Sceleton: and first of the Scapula.
    15
    Chap. 17. Of the Shoulder.
    ibid.
    Chap. 18. Of the Cubitus, and Radius.
    16
    Chap. 19. Of the Hand.
    ibid.
    Chap. 20. Of the Bones of the Ilium
    17
    Chap. 21. Of the Bone of the Thigh.
    ibid.
    Chap. 22. Of the Leg.
    ibid.
    Chap. 23. Of the Foot
    18
    Chap. 24. In what Particulars the Bones of Men differ from those of Women.
    ib.
    Chap 25. Of the number of the Bones in a Mans Body.
    19
    Chap. 26. The History of an Infants Bones, till the Age of seven years.
    ibid.
    Chap. 27. Of the Head
    21
    Chap. 28. Of the Back and Breast-bones.
    23
    Chap. 29. Of the upper Limbs
    24
    Chap. 30. Of the Inferior Limbs
    ibid.
    Chap. 31. Of the Number of Bones.
    25
    The Second Book.
    CHAP. 1. General Precepts, which he that would be an Anatomist, must be first acquainted with
    26
    Chap. 2. Of the Natural and Legitimate Conformation of the Body.
    29
    Chap. 3. The Division of Mans Body.
    31
    The Medicinal Consideration
    ibid.
    Chap. 4. Of the lower Ventricle.
    32
    The Scituation of the parts of the Belly.
    ibid.
    The Medicinal Consideration
    33
    The Medicinal Consideration
    34
    Chap. 5. Of the Scarf Skin
    34
    The Medicinal Consideration
    ibid.
    [Page] Chap. 6. Of the Skin
    35
    The medicinal Consideration.
    36
    Chap. 7. Of the Fatty Membrane
    ibid.
    Chap. 8. Of the Fleshy membrane
    37
    The medicinal Consideration
    ibid.
    Chap. 9. Of the common membrane of the muscles
    38
    Chap. 10. Of a muscle in the general
    ibid.
    Chap. 11. Of a Tendon
    40
    Chap. 12 Of the muscles of the Belly.
    ibid.
    The medicinal Cosideration
    42
    Chap. 13. Of the Peritoneum
    ibid.
    The medicinal Consideration
    43
    Chap. 14. The Division of the Parts of the Belly
    44
    Chap. 15. Of the Navel
    ibid.
    The medicinal Consideration
    45
    Chap. 16. Of the Omentum, or Call
    ibid.
    The medicinal Consideration
    ibid.
    Chap. 17. Of the Guts
    46
    The medicinal Consideration
    48
    Chap. 18. Of the Mesenterium
    ibid.
    The medicinal Consideration
    49
    Chap. 19. Of the Sweet-bread, or Pan­creas.
    50
    Chap. 20. Of the Vena Porta
    ibid.
    Chap. 21. What is to be considered in the Vena Porta
    51
    Chap. 22. Of the Celiacal Artery
    52
    Chap. 23. Of the Stomach
    ibid.
    The medicinal Consideration
    54
    Chap. 24. Of the Liver.
    57
    The medicinal Consideration
    58
    Chap. 25. Of the Bladder of Gall
    59
    The medicinal Consideration
    60
    Chap. 26. Of the Spleen
    61
    The medicinal Consideration
    63
    Chap. 27. Of the Vena Cava, and Aorta, within the lower Belly
    64
    The medicinal Consideration
    65
    Of the Aorta descending
    67
    Of the Nerve of the lower Belly
    ibid.
    Chap. 28. Of the Kidneys
    ibid.
    The medicinal Consideration
    68
    Chap. 29. Of the Ʋreters
    70
    Chap. 30. Of the Piss-Bladder
    ibid.
    The medicinal Consideration
    71
    Chap. 31. Of the Genitals of a Man; and first of the Yard
    73
    The Medicinal Consideration
    74
    Chap. 32. Of the Groyns
    76
    Chap. 33. Of the Fundament.
    ibid.
    The Medicinal Consideration
    77
    Chap. 34. Of the Cod, and Stones.
    ibid.
    The Medicinal Consideration
    78
    Chap. 35. Of the Vessels which carry the true Seed, of the Seed-Bladders, and the Prostatae or Auxiliaries.
    79
    The Medicinal Consideration.
    80
    Chap. 36. Of the Genital Parts of a Wo­man, and first of the External.
    ibid.
    The medicinal Consideration
    82
    Chap. 37. Of the internal Parts of a Wo­man which serve for Generation
    83
    The medicinal Consideration
    85
    Chap. 37. Of the Pains of the Loyns.
    90
    The Third Book.
    CHAP. 1. Of the Chest
    94
    Chap. 2. Of the Dugs of Women.
    95
    The medicinal Consideration.
    ibid.
    Chap. 3. Of the external Parts of the Chest.
    97
    Chap. 4. Of the Pleura, Mediastinum, and Pericardium
    ibid.
    The medicinal consideration
    98
    Chap. 5. Of the Midrif, or Diaphragma.
    101
    The Medicinal Consideration
    102
    Chap. 6. Of the Lungs or Lights
    ibid.
    The medicinal consideration
    103
    Chap. 7. Of Respiration, or fetching of Breath.
    105
    Chap. 8. Of the Heart.
    107
    The medicinal consideration
    110
    Chap. 9. Of the Vessels, viz. Veins, Ar­teries, and Nerves contained within the Chest.
    113
    The Fourth Book.
    CHAP. 1. Of the Head.
    118
    The medicinal consideration.
    119
    Chap. 2. Of the Brain.
    121
    The medicinal consideration.
    130
    Chap. 3. Of the Eyes
    136
    The medicinal consideration
    138
    Eye-Lids Diseases.
    139
    [Page]Tear-Kernels Diseases.
    140
    Diseases of the Tunica Conjunctiva.
    ib.
    Diseases of the Cornea Tunica.
    141
    Diseases of the Ʋvea Tunica
    ibid.
    Diseases of the Pupilla
    ibid.
    Diseases of the Chrystalline and Glassie Humor
    142
    Diseases of the Optick Nerve
    ibid.
    Diseases and Symptomes of the Sight.
    ibid.
    Chap. 4. Of the Ear
    191
    The medicinal consideration
    192
    Chap. 5. Of the Face, and outside of the Mouth.
    194
    The Medicinal Consideration
    195
    Chap. 6. Of the Nose
    197
    The Medicinal Consideration
    198
    Chap. 7. Of the Neck
    199
    The Medicinal Consideration
    201
    Chap. 8. Of the Teeth and Gums.
    202
    The Medicinal Consideration
    ibid.
    Chap. 9. Of the Gums
    204
    Chap. 10. Of the Pallate
    ibid.
    Chap. 11. Of the Ʋvula, and Isthmus.
    ib.
    The Medicinal Consideration
    205
    Of the Isthmus
    ibid.
    Chap. 12. Of the Tongue
    ibid.
    The Medicinal Consideration
    206
    Chap. 13. Of the Larynx, or Head of the Wind-pipe.
    207
    The Medicinal Consideration
    208
    Chap. 14. Of the Aspera Arteria, or Wind-pipe
    ibid.
    The Medicinal Consideration
    209
    Chap. 15. Of the Oesophagus, or Gullet.
    ibid.
    The Fift Book.
    CHAP. 1. Of the Limbs▪
    210
    The Medicinal Consideration
    211
    Chap. 2. Of the Superior Limbs.
    ib.
    Of the Shoulder-blade, and the Arm from the Shoulder to the Elbow.
    ib.
    Of the Cubit, or part of the Arm from the Elbow to the Hand
    212
    Of the Hand
    ibid.
    Of the Nails
    ibid.
    Chap. 3. Of the Inferior Limbs.
    213
    Chap. 4. In what places Issues are com­monly made
    214
    Chap. 5. Of Veins usually opened
    215
    Chap. 6. Of the Arteries which are ope­ned.
    217
    Chap. 7. Of the Muscles, and first of the Forehead Muscles.
    218
    Chap. 8. Muscles of the hinder part of the Head.
    ibid.
    Chap. 9. Muscles of the Eye-lids
    ibid.
    Chap. 10. Muscles of the Eyes
    219
    Chap. 11. Muscles of the external Ear.
    ibid.
    Chap. 12. Muscles of the Nose
    220
    Chap. 13. Muscles of the Lips
    ibid.
    Chap. 14. Muscles of the lower Jaw
    221
    Chap. 15. Of the muscles of the Os Hyoi­des
    ibid.
    Chap. 16. Muscles of the Tongue
    222
    Chap. 17. Muscles of the Larynx
    ibid.
    Chap. 18. Muscles of the Pharynx
    ibid.
    Chap. 19. Muscles of the Gargareon, Ʋ ­vula, or Mouth Pallate.
    223
    Chap. 20. Muscles of the Head
    ibid.
    Chap. 21, Muscles of the Neck
    224
    Chap. 22. Muscles of the Shoulder-blades
    ibid.
    Chap. 23. Muscles of the Arm
    225
    Chap. 24. Muscles of the Cubit.
    ibid.
    Chap. 25. Muscles of the Radius
    226
    Chap. 26. Muscles of the Wrist.
    227
    Chap. 27. Muscles of the Palm of the Hand
    ibid.
    Chap. 28. Muscles of the Fingers
    228
    Chap. 29. Muscles of the Thumb.
    229
    Chap. 30. Muscles of Chest
    230
    Chap. 31. Of the Midrif.
    231
    Chap. 32. Muscles of the Back and Loyns, wherewith the Back-bone is moved.
    ib.
    Chap. 33. Muscles of the Belly
    232
    Chap. 34. Of the motion of the Ilium Bones, and Os Sacrum joyned together.
    ibid.
    Chap. 35. Muscles of the Testicles
    ibid.
    Chap. 36. The Bladders Muscle
    ibid.
    Chap. 37, Muscles of the Yard
    233
    Chap. 38. Muscles of the Clytoris
    ibid.
    Chap. 39. Muscles of the Fundament
    ib.
    Chap. 40. Muscles of the Thigh
    ibid.
    Chap. 41. Muscles of the Leg.
    235
    Chap. 42. Muscles of the Feet
    236
    Chap. 43, Muscles of the Toes
    238
    Chap. 44. Muscles of the great Toe
    239
    Chap. 45. An Introduction to the Art of Muscular Dissection, shewing an accu­rate Method to cut up the Muscles of the whol Body.
    ibid.
    [Page]The Frontal Muscle
    228
    The Orbicular muscle of the Eye-lids.
    ibid.
    Muscles of the Lips
    ibid.
    Muscles of the Nose
    ibid.
    The Temporal Muscle
    241
    The Masseter Muscle
    ibid.
    The Parotick Kernels
    ibid.
    The muscles of the Ears
    ibid.
    The muscles of the Eye
    ibid.
    `Muscles seated in the Neck
    242
    Muscles of the Larynx, Pharynx, and Gargareon
    243
    The muscles of the hinder part of the Head and Neck
    244
    Muscles of the Arm
    245
    Next thereunto, is the Rotundus minor
    ibid.
    Muscles scituate upon the Back and Loyns
    ibid.
    Muscles of the Breast
    246
    Muscles of the Cubit
    ibid.
    Muscles of the Radius, the Wrists, the Fingers, and the Thumb
    247
    Muscles of the Abdomen, or Belly
    248
    Muscles of the Yard
    250
    Muscles of the Fundament
    ibid.
    The Bladder muscle
    251
    Muscles of the Clytoris
    ibid.
    Muscles of the Thigh
    ibid.
    Muscles of the Leg
    253
    Muscles of the Tarsus
    254
    Chap. 46. Of the Veins, Arteries, and Nerves, belonging to the Limbs
    ibid.
    The Medicinal Consideration
    258
The Sixt Book.
  • A New Osteologia, or History of the Bones.
    Wherein he treats of the Bones, Liga­ments, and Gristles of the whol Body, by which the Frame of the Body is compacted together, the Muscles being removed; handling all the Diseases and Symptomes which happen unto the Bones.
    260
CHAP. 1.
260
Chap. 2. Of the great profit of this new Osteology, or Doctrine of the Bones
261
Chap. 3. What is to be observed in the bones of a dead Body not boyled
262
Chap. 4. Of the Nourishment, Sence, and and Marrow of the Bones
263
Chap. 5. Of Articulations, or joyntings of the Bones
ibid.
The Medicinal Consideration
265
Chap. 6. Of the bones of the Skull
267
The Medicinal Consideration
270
Chap. 7. Of the inferior Jaw-bone
ibid.
Chap. 8. Of the Teeth
ibid.
Chap. 9. Of the Bone Hyoides, and of the Ligaments
271
Chap. 10. Of the Heads motion, and Li­gaments
272
Chap. 11. Of the inside of the Ear
ibid.
Chap. 12. Of the Clavicula
273
Chap. 13. Of the Breast-bone.
ibid.
Chap. 15. Of the Ribs
275
Chap. 16. Of the Back-bone
ibid.
The Medicinal Consideration
277
Chap. 16. Of the Scapula
278
Chap. 17. Of the Humerus, Cubitus, and Radius.
280
Chap. 18. Of the Wrist.
281
Chap. 19. Of the Metacarpium, Fingers, and Sesamoidean Bones
ibid.
Chap. 20. Of the Os Ilium, and Thigh­bone
282
Chap. 21. Of the Patella
284
Chap. 22. Of the Tibia, and Fibula
285
Chap. 23. Of the Foot
ibid.
Chap. 24. The number of Bones for a Sceleton
ibid.
Chap. 25. Of breaking the bones
ibid.
Chap. 26. The Collection, and ordering of Bones for a Sceleton
287

THE FIRST BOOK OF ANATOMY AND PHYSICK, OF John Riolanus.

Chap. 1. The Intent of the Author is declared.

ANatomy, is considered and handled two waies, Phi­losophically, The Consider­ation of Ana­tomy is. Philosophical. and Physically, Galen, Lib. 1. Anat. The Philosopher searcheth out the structure of the Parts, their action, and use, that he may know him­self, & that the * Work-master may be admired in his(* Viz. God) work; and therefore the knowledg of the Parts alone does content him. But the Physitian, besides thePhysical, knowledg of this, brings al into a Practical way, and searcheth after the Natural dispositions of every Part, that so by veiwing the Anatomy of the Car­kases of sound and sick men, he may more easily know the accidents against Nature; which happen to those Parts, in such as are alive.

By Dispositions against Nature, is to be understood Diseases, whose gene­ration and end, whether it wil be good or bad, the way and manner of Curing, he that would know exactly, must be skilled both in Philosophical, and Phy­sicalBoth which are necessary. [...] Anatomy; and I dare boldly affirm, that he wil be an abler, and more skilful Phisitian that is wel skiled in this Anatomy, than he that contents himself, with the bare knowledg of the Parts.

This manner of shewing, and teaching Anatomy is new, but gives great light, & is wonderful necessary for a Phisitian, and I wil lay it down intermixed with the order of Anatomy in al the Parts, and shew particularly in every Part, what profit wil thereby redound unto a Phisitian, in his Practice. And [Page 2] seeing the Natural Constitution of every Part which Hippocrates cals Euphuian, and is commonly called Health, is three-fold, Similar, Organical, and common, The Preternatural Constitution of the Parts, called Sickness, must likewise be three-fold and make three kinds of Diseases, Viz. A Dis­ease of the Similar, a Disease of the Organical Parts, and a Disease common to both. The Similar Constitution, according to Nature, consists in Sub­stance, and Temper; The Organical Constitution, which pertains to the construction of the Organ, is placed, in number, Magnitude, Scituation, and shape or Conformation; which Conformation is again divided into Figure, Passage, Cavity, Roughness, and smoothness; The common Constitution of Similar, and Organical Parts, consists in Ʋnion and Connexion. This three-fold Natural Constitution, I wil declare in al the Parts; afterwards I wil lay down in a few words, what may be gathered from this Sound Consti­tution, for the Knowledg, fore knowledg, and Cure of a Diseased Constitu­tion; And Anatomy handled in this Method, wil be the beginning, Middle, and end of the whol Art of Physick. This is a short, easie, and clear Method, Quickly, and rightly to learn the Art of Curing; which propounds the same, visible to the Eyes of such as are wel verst in my Fathers writings, or in the Insti­tutions of Sennertus. for by this Method, I shal unlock, & display the treasures in Anatomy of Physick: But perhaps some Fool, that is unskilled, wil reprove our Disigne, & Object, that we confound the whol Art of Medicine, seing Anatomy is a Part of Physiology, distinct from the rest; and therefore ought to be taught apart, seeing Galen himself, in the beginning of his dissection of Muscles, reproves the Anatomical Book of Lycus; because in his Treatise of Muscles he inserted the Diseases of the Parts. If any prattle such things against us, they wil quickly hold their peace, if they read Gal. Lib. 2 admin. Anatom. Relateing, That Antient Physitians regarded Anatomy so much, that in al Hippocrates did in al his Books. Many are the Sorts of the Figures, both within, and without the Body, (saith Hippocrates, in Lib. de vet. Med.) Which have much different qualifications in the Sick, and the Sound; all which you must perfectly distinguish one from another, that you may rightly know, and observe the causes of every one of them.

According to Aristotle, Health, and Sickness, are the Fundamental And Profitable in Medicine. Parts of Medicine: Both of them are contained in the Parts; and Sickness compared with Health is the better discerned. Ad to this, That Aristotle Writes, that he that would Cure the Eyes, must first know the Structure of the Eye. Again, Hippocrates held, that Diseases were distinguished according to the Parts they were in [...]ierent in; and the principal Curative indications, were taken from the Affect, and the Part affected; and Remedies both Medi­cinal, and Chyrurgical were Prescribed and administred diversly, according to the Parts Afflicted. Therefore Galen wrote his Therapeuticks of the com­position of Medicines, according to the Parts afflicted: and Avicenna did wisely, when perceving that the Seats of Diseases could not be known with­out skil in Anatomy, Before the Diseases of the particular Parts he set down their Anatomy. And if we beleeve Galen in Lib. de Part med. The first Matter or Subject of Medicine, is the Body, as it is the Subject of Health and Sickness.

Our intent then is by a short and easie Method, To deliver in writing, andThe Intent of the Author. demonstrate in dead Bodies, of the seats of al Diseases, and Symptomes, both Internal, and External; and the particular way of Cure accor­ding to the order of Anatomy, which is publickly observed. A notable peice of Workmanship to learn Physick by, by which 'tis easie to manifest, and bring to light the Errours, in the Cures of Diseases and to instruct and inform such as are Studious in Physick, by that time they have been hearers and be­holders two yeares, of two Anatomies in a year, with diligent reading of [Page 3] Books, and excercize of the knowing of Plants, and other Drugs, and visiting of the Sick with him that is their teacher. Excellently said Johannes Ferne­lius in the beginning of his Pathology, I shal never think any man wel skilled in the knowledg of Diseases, unless he have been an Eye witness of the seats of them, in the Body of man, and know how they are affected against Nature; neither can be come to this unless he be skilful and exquisite in Anatomy, and whatsoever he reads or hears, let him seriously contemplate it in the Body of man, and settle the cheif knowledg of things in his mind.

Chap. 2. Why we begin our Anatomy with the Treatise of Bones.

THat kind of stile is two-fold, which is used in the explication of any thing, Gal. Com. ad Part. q. Lib. 1. de fract. et Cap. 1. Lib. The Method of teaching dou­ble. Synops. de Puls. The first is called Synopticus, when the Matter is briefly laid down; The other Diexodicus, when it is Copiously unfolded, nothing being passed by which is profitable to be declared: The former helps the memory; the latter cleers the matter to the understanding. For which Cause Galen divided his Books into Isagogical, and perfect; the first being fitted to young begin­ners, the other to proficients, as himself testifies. Lib. de libris Propriis. This is also confirmed by the authority of Hippocrates; Lib. de vet. Med. Where he adviseth Physitians to teach easie things to young students, and such as may be quickly learned; ad hereunto; That al men desire to learn apace, according to Aristor. Lib. 2 de Rhetor. Chap. 10. And the Method of breife teaching, is alwaies grateful, both to young students, and to perfect Masters; for it teacheth the former what things must be learned; and in the latter cals back to their memory what they have learned before, and almost forgotten, Gal. Lib. 4. de diff. puls.

Wisely, and Elegantly, did the Emperor Justinian judg, That a compen­dium of the Lawes was first to be propounded, to invite Novices to know­ledg. Then are al things delivered most commodiously when they are first delivered by a plain and simple way, and then by an exact and diligent in­terpretation; for if we burden weak, though studious minds at beginning, with variety and Multiplicity of things, we either make them desert their studies, or else young Men to great labor and distrust, and bring them by a longer way to what might be learned with more speed, less labor, and no distrust.

Therefore following the precepts of Galen, and Hippocrates, I wil describeWhy the Au­thor wrote a Synopsis. a briefe, and cleer Manual of Anatomy, following the counsel of Galen, who had rather write a Synopsis of his Books of Pulses himself, then to leave the business to another, who by not understanding his mind, and sense, should pervert or confound his meaning.

I begin with the Bones, because they are the foundation of al the Parts of the whol Body, which is substained, Included, Preserved, and moved by theWhy he begins with the Bones. Bones; which, according to Hippocrates, give stability, and form to the Body.

Therefore he that is studious in Physick, ought to be instructed in the per­fectThe necessity of writing of the Bones. knowledg of the Bones, before he come to behold the Anatomy of the whole Body: otherwise he wil be ignorant in designing the original, and in­sertion of the Muscles, and the sticking of other Parts to certain Concep­tacles of the Bones, unless he be skilled in the History of Bones; at which Anatomy is to begin, as Hippocrates taught, and after him, Galen.

Chap. 3. The Division of Osteology, or the History of the Bones.

THe History of the Bones is called. Osteology, of which are two Parts:The Parts of Osteology. Practice, and Theory. I cal that the Theory, which is conversant in the knowledg of their conformation and use. The Practice is the manual operation which comprehends both Ossilegium, and Ossifragium; Ossilegium, is the manner of preparing Bones to make a Sceleton; Ossifragium is that which searches out the joining, and knitting together of the Bones, and Joynts, by Liga­ments, and Cartilages, and by breaking, and deviding them; searches out their internal, and hiden Parts.

Note: See Chap. 26. and 27. Lib. 6. Of this Book.

Chap. 4. Of the Composition, and Definition of a Bone.

THat the Nature of a Bone may be perfectly understood, there are fourFour Confi­derations. things to be considered in it: The Matter, Efficient, Form, and End.

The Matter of the Bone is Proper, or Diverse.1. Matter, Pro­per. Generation.

Proper is considered Generally, or Specially.

Proper Matter, taken Generally, is double; the one for Generation, the other for Nourishment; the Bones are made of the Seed by consent of al Phy­sitians. The Seed consists of Humor, and Spirit: The Humors are of two Parts; the one thinner, of which the noble Parts are formed; the other thicker, of which the Bones are ingendred.

The matter of Nourishment is also two fold; Remote, and Neer: Remote, is Blood, by which al the Parts of our Body are nourished: Neer, is the Mar­rowNourishment. contained in the Cavity of the Bones, or a Marrowy Juyce shut up in the Spongious Bones.

The Proper Matter considered specially, regards the Bone already made, which is various in respect of substance, and quality; and so the substance ofConstitution. one Bone is diverse, by reason of the Epiphysis, which is Softer then the rest of the Bone; or the Apophysis, which is harder then the rest of the Bone: also the whol Bone, if it be Sollid, is harder without, then it is within. If it be hollow, the Internal Superficies is hardest.

As for what belongs to Quality, and Namely Color; the Bone, the more [...] it is, the more White it is; that which is hollow, is pale or red­dish.

By the diverse Matter of the Bone, understand that which compasseth itMatter di­verse. about; and it is a Membrane, and a Cartilage. The Membrane which com­passeth about the Bone, is called Periostion, and sticks firmly to it. By be­nefit of which, it Obscurely feels. The extremities of the Bones are covered with a Cartilage, which Facilitaces the Motion of the Bone, and hinders its wearing.

The Efficient Cause of the Bone, is the Implanted Generative Spirit, or2. Efficient cause. rather heat, which [...]orre [...]es and dryes the Matter of the Bone. Gal Lib. 1. [...]e fac [...]l. natural. acknowledgeth the faculty which forms the Bones; to which Heat and Spirit, do administer.

The form of a Bone is double; Essential, and accidental: That is called3. Form, Essential. Essential, which makes it to be a Bone, Namely, the Vegetable Soul.

[Page 5]The Face, saith Aristotle Lib. 2. de Generat. animal, is no Face, if it want the Soul; and so is the Flesh and Bone. But with Physitians, the form of Similar Parts, is nothing else then their temper. The temper of the Bone, is cold and dry; therefore Coldness and Driness constitute the form of the Bone. The accidental form, is the Figure of them, which is Proper, and pe­culiarAccidental. to every Bone, and is most commonly round in al Bones, both in Longitude, and Latitude.

The end of the Bones, is their Use; and this is general, and particular;4. End. General. Special. That is called General, which serves for the whol Body; and that is three fold, 1. To establish, and make firm the soft Parts. 2. To give shape, and Figure to the Parts. 3. To help the Motion, and Progress of the Body. The Particular end, or use, is that which is Proper to every several Bone.

From what hath been written, this Definition of a Bone, may be gathered; It is a Similar Part, most cold and dry, Formed by heat of the thick and Fat Definition. substance of the Seed; for the form and settlement of the whole Body.

Chap. 5. Of the Qualities, or Natural Disposition of the Bones.

THe Doctrine of Bones, ought to be double; one which treats of theDoctrine of Bones Double, Of Infants and men grown up. Bones of infants, which from their Birth til seven years of Age, differ in many things from such as are grown up: the other of men of perfect Age, which we now handle.

And seeing al Doctrin of Bones, is referred to Physical use, we must know the Condieions, and affections of Bones, wel and Naturally affected, which are either common to al, or Proper to some.

The common are nine which shal be Described, and Demonstrated, in ourAffection of the [...]ones are. Common. new Osteology, at the latter end of this Manual. In dry Bones wel Prepared, are five things shewed. 1. Hardness and solidity. 2. They have holes out­wardly, Especially toward the Extremities, by which is ingress given to the little Veines, and arteries, for Nourishment and life. 3. A cartilaginous Crust at the Extremities, and the Periostion, which compasseth about the whol Bone, the Cartilaginous extremities excepted. 4. Continuity, and Equallity in its whol substance; wherefore the callous, by which broken Bones are united, is not Natural. 5. A fit and convenient joyning of one Bone with another.

The affections Proper to the several Bones, are twofold; either such as re­gardProper, every Bone severally; or such as regard more Bones then one, joyned together.

1. The affections of the first sort, are four; Hollowness, Prominence,2. of Bones seper­ated. Roughness, and Smoothness; which affections are considered in the extreme superficies of the Bone, in as much as Bones are referred to mutual conjunction because they cannot subsist alone by themselves. The Head of the a Omoplata is hollow; the b Shoulder Bone sticks out; the c Ischium, or Huckle-bone, is hollow; the d Bone of the Thigh sticks out; the Skul is rough behind for the e insertion of Muscles, in other places 'tis smooth, and Polished: Al which affections, if they are such as Nature made them, they are according to Na­ture; if otherwise, they are beside Nature.

Also a Cavity is deep, or superficiary; that which is deep, is called f Cotyle; the superficiary g Glene. A Prominency, or Parts sticking out, is called Apophysis, or Epiphysis: Both of them are round, or long, or hollow: If it be round, it is called a Head; if it be large and long, it is absolutely Nam­ed a h Head; but if it be short, and depressed, it is called i Condylu [...]. The Heads or Condyli of smal Bones, are not Epiphysis, but Apiphy [...]is▪ as in the nether Jaw, and in the Ribs, and the Bones of the Fingers, and Toes. [Page 6] A long Apophysis, is either with a poynt, and called Corone; or simply long, and that according to the Figure of it, hath diverse Names; or k Styloides l Coracoides, m Odontoides; or else tis terminated in a Head, and then is called n Cervix or a Neck.

It is not absurd, that some Apophysis should be hollow, Seeing al Cavitieswhether Apo­physes have hollownesses. are, as it were, ingraved in the Apophysis; or else are made of two or three Apophyses, as in the Cavity of the Ischium, or Huckle-bone: and although somtimes a Cavity make the Body of the Bone, yet it is formed by a bony Circumference; which Seeing it sticks out obliquely, and orbicularly, without the plain superficies, it is worthily accounted an Apophysis; Gal. Lib. de Ossibus acknowledgeth the Omoplata to be an Apophyfis, which is a Cervix, the extremity of which, ends in the o Glene; therefore Cavities ought to be referred to Apophysis; and a Cavity if it be round and large, may be called a Head, for the Neck is alwaies subjected to the Head Gal. Proem. Lib. de Ossib.

In every Bone, which being joyned to another makes a Joynt, I observe the Body and the extremities, which are Adnata, or Enata; The body isThe Body the principal Part, formed of Nature, that it may be the foundation of the extream Parts; for Nature ever-more begins the formation of the Bones in theand middle, and produceth them towards the extremities. The extremities of the bones called Enata, are p Apophyses; Adnata are q Epiphyses: theExtremities, which are Apophysis, and Epithysis. Treatise of the Epiphyses pertains to the Osteology of Infants, therefore we wil not speak of it here.

Yet this you may know, that Epiphyses belong to the extremity of the Joynts of the bones; and that their Nature is to be sought out in Children; for in men grown up, they degenerate into Apophyses, no Foot-steps of the antient Division remaining; and yet inwardly they keep the condition of their Proper Nature, which ought to be like a pumice, and bloody; but the Apophyses are alwais harder.

The second sort of Affections are, the Articulations of bones, one with an­other,2. The Joynting of Bones. which in diverse bones, are different; which now we come to speak of, in General.

Chap. 6. Of the Conjunction of Bones.

SEeing it is not safe, nor comly for man, that Divine Creature, to creepWhy there are many Bones in man. along like Worms, and Serpents; Nature hath set his body bolt upright, with firm, and sollid bones; not only three, or four in number, but very many various, and distinct, whereby he may bow, and move himself every way; And that this Workmanship might be the more Elegant, the Bones are so Joyned together, that the extremity of one, enters into the Cavity of the other.

This structure is called a Joynt, the Nature of which, is much con­troverted amongst Anatomists; some contending that the touching of two bones one with another, makes a Joynt; others, besides touching, ad motion. So that it is the movable touching of two bones, which makes a Joynt.

If Motion be removed from the Definition of a Joynt, Galens Doctrine may easily be defended. He constitutes two kinds of Articulation; Diarthrosis, [Page 7] with mainfest Motion; Synarthrosis, with Obscure, or no Motion: and he assigns the differences of Synarthrosis, which are altogether immovable, to beConjunction of Bones is either by Articulation the Differences of which are Diarthrosis & Synarthrosis. Sutura, Harmonia, and Gomphosis; with those which take away Motion in the Definition of Articulation, refer to the third speeies of Articulation, which they cal Neutral, or mean, between Diarthrosis and Synarthrosis. Some give it a new Name, Amphiarthrosis, to wit, when the structure is so Obscure, and the Motion so hidden, that you know not whether it appertain to Diarthrosis, or Synarthrosis. But that place of Galen being il understood, deceives many Anatomists. This Doctrine of Galen seems more probable, thus.

The bones are knit together by Articulations, and Symphyses: Articula­tion, is the knittings, or touching of two bones; the differences of which are Diarthrosis, and Synarthrosis; the one hath evident Motion, the other Obscure, or none at al; and therefore the differences of each, are equal: but the one, for example sake, is called Enarthrosis Diarthrodes, with a mani­fest Motion; the other Enarthrosis Synarthrodes, with an Obscure Motion;The common species of which are. 1, Enarthrosis. Judg the like of the other differences.

Enarthrosis, is when a large, and long Head, goes into a deep Cavity; which seeing it is common both to Diarthrosis, and Synarthrosis, we wil give an example of them Both. The Motion of Enarthrosis Diar­throdes, is manifest in the Joynt of the Ischium: the Motion of Enar­throsis Synarthrodes, is Obscure in the Articulation of the Ancle with the Scaphois.

When a depressed, and plain Head, is received by a shallow and superficial2. Arthrodia. Cavity, this Joynting is called Arthrodia. an exemple of Arthrodia Diarthrodes, is in the conjunction of the Shoulder with the Omoplata. An example of Arthrodia Synarthrodes, is in the Bones of the Wrist, with the Metacarpus.

Ginglymos, is a mutual ingress of the bones, such as you shal usually see in3. Ginglymus. the hinges of Doors and Windows; in which that Part of the Hinge which bears and that which circles about, have a Mutual ingress one into another. The Motion of Ginglymus Diarthrodes, is manifest in the Elbow; the Moti­on of Ginglymus Synarthrades, is Obscure in the joyning of the Ancle to the Heel. Modern writers add a fourth to those three, which they cal Trochois, in which the Motion of conversion is apparent: such is the joyning of the first Vertebra with the second, but it is to be referred to Arthrodia; As for what belongs to Ginglimus, and its various differences, we wil thus Methodically handle them: Ginglimus is an Articulation of bones, by mutual reception;Which is Simple or Compound. and is simple, or compound: that is called simple, which is made of two bones, by one only and simple Articulation in the same Part, as in the juncture off the Elbow and Arm. Compound Ginglymus consists of a double Articul­ation, which is performed either in the same extremities, or in places distant, of two or three Bones, which by a double Articulation end in the same extre­mities. It is seen in the Vertebrae of the Neck. A compound Ginglymos by a double Articulation in places distant is seen in the Cubitus and Radius, in distant places of three bones is seen in al the Vertebrae of the Back and Loynes.

Besides Synarthrosis, containes under it, Harmonia, Sutura, and Gom­phosis, Proper species of Synarthrosis. 1. Harmonia. which are without Motion. a Harmonia, is a Conjunction of bones, by simple touching without mutual ingress; and is distinguished by a Line, either right, or oblique, or many fold. b Sutura, is the joyning of bones: as though the Teeth of two Jawes, or two Combs were thrust one within the other, and is altogether of one and the same form. Gomphosis, is when one bone sticks fast, and immovably in another, like a Naile in a Post.

Opposite to Articulation; is Symphysis, which is an immovable conjun­tion3. Gomphosis. Or by Sym­physts whose differences are three. of bones, as though they were united, which Nature brings forth at first [Page 8] divided, yet afterward in process of time, they grow together. Som are united without any discernable c Medium, others with a Medium interposed. And therefore, the simple differences of Symphysis are three; Syssarcosis Syneurosis, Synchondrosis. A mixed or compound Symphysis; is only one, viz. By a Nerve and Cartilage, which Galen cals Neurochondrodis. d Of these you may see more in. Com. at Gal. Lib. de Ossibus.

According to Galen, I thus expound the Doctrine of Joynts, Methodically.Galens Doct­rine of Joynts. The Conjunction of al Joynts is made by the touching of their extremities: This touching is either Articulus or Symphysis: Articulus is a▪ Natural joyning of Bones; which are divided amongst themselves, to the same use, for which they were formed; this use is either for Motion, or perspiration, or passage of some substance, or distinguishing of parts, or to secure them from hurting, as apeares by the Articulations, Harmonia, Sutura, and Gomphosis. Symphysis is a Natural Union of bones which were at first divid­ed, which grow together either with, or without an apparent Medium, because it is Obliterated, as in the Sternum, Os-sacrum, or Ischium, and the bony portions of the inferiour Jaw: and therefore the Conjunction of bones is divided into Articulus, and Symphysis, as it were into two species. Other­wise if Symphysis, be taken according to the mind of Modern Anatomists, and not according to the mind of Galen, wheresoever Articulation is, there must Symphysis needs be; for the Collection of bones, and Galen had ridiculously opposed Symphysis, to Articulation.

Chap. 7. The Division of a Sceleton.

THe whole Fabrick of the bones sticking together, is by Galen, called SCELETOS, It is vulgarly divided into the Head, the trunk and the limbs. Hippocrates, in his Book of the Nature of bones, constitutes six parts of the Sceleton; The Head, Neck, Breast, Back-bone, Hands, and Feet. Galen, into five, the Head, Back-bone, Breast, Hands, and Feet, as may easily be gathered from the series of his discourse, We follow the com­mon division, and according to the example of Galen, begin at the Head, which is the first bone formed by Nature; and as it were the foundation of al the rest: which are framed in respect of largness, according to the proportion of the Head.

Chap. 8. Of the Head, being the first Part of the Sceleton.

THe Head is defined by Galen, to be that whole substance which is aboveWhat the Head is. It's Diviston. What the Skul is. the Neck, and the dwelling place of the Brain.

It is divided into the Skul, and the Face, which latter comprehends both the Jaws.

The Skul, is a globous, and round body; hollow within, but this roundness is not exactly, spoehircal, by Reason of those Eminencies, which stick out be­fore, and behind, which make the Skul somwhat longish, and compressed on the sides towards the Temples. If the Skul be not somwhat longish, it isIts Natural [...]igure. depraved and this depravation is four-fold. 1. When it sticks not out before, 2. When it sticks not out behind. 3. When both Prominencies, are depar­ved, and then it is exactly round, 4. When its Longitude is turned into Latitude, which is inconsistent with life, because the Structure of the Brain, is perverted.

[Page 9]Not only one Bone, but many make the structure of the Skul, the numberThe number of the Bones of the Skul: of which is various in Authors, Galen Atributes seven thereto, and Sylvius follows him: others hold 14. As Bauhinus, by adding the six bones, of each eare, which are Parts of the rocky bone, and included in the Cavities of the Eare, and add nothing at al to make the globe of the Scul. But more rightly Paraeus ads fourteen bones to the Skul, but distinguisheth them, into containing, and contained, the containing are eight, the contained are the six smal bones, of the Eares. Hippocrates, Lib. de Oss. Constitutes the Skul o [...] eight bones, and yet he seems to comprehend some bones of the Face, this number the most excellent Anatomists follow; as Vesalius, Colum­bus, Fallopius, from whom we wil not dissent, because this number our Eyes can witness, in Dissections.

The intervails, or connections of those bones; are called Suturae, whichSutura what. knit and unite the Bones together.

Of Sutura's, some are Proper, others common: They are Proper, whichHow many­sold. Proper are. Three true ones. 1. Coronalis. 2. Lamdoides. 3. Sagittalis. distinguish the bones of the Skul one from another: they are common, which distinguish the bones of the Skul from those of the uper Jaw. The Proper are divided into true, and fal [...]e: the true, are the Saw-like Conjunctions of the bones intertexed, like the Teech of a Comb. They are held by Anatomists, to be in number three. 1. a Coronalis is on the forepart of the Skul, which passeth transversly from one temple to the other. 2. opposite to this is, b Lambdoides, placed in the hinder part of the Head. 3. c Sagittalis knits both these together, passing from the top of the Lambdois, by the longitude of the Skul, and somtimes comes even to the top of the Nose. The concourse of the sagittal and coronal suture, the Greeks cal Bregma; commonly 'tis called Fontanella, to which we apply causticks. Above the Ears, are to Sutures not like others, and therefore they are called false, or Bastard; they are called d Squamosae, from their scaly likeness, and joyn the bones of theTwo false ones. Common are three. 1. Frontalis. 2. Sphenoidea. 3. Ethmoidea. Temples, to the bones of the top of the Head. Modern Anatomists hold the common sutures to be three: The first is called e Frontalis, beginning at the outward Angle of the Eye, and passing by the middle of the Orbita, even to the Eye-brow, and keeps the same way by the other Eye. The second is cal­led f Sphenoidea, which Circumscribes the Os-sphenois, beginning at the hin­der par [...] of the Head, and ending at the furthermost Tooth of the upper Jaw. The third is called g Ethmoidea, and compasseth about the Os Ethmois, on every side; it seems rather to be Proper than Common, and belongs rather to Harmonia than Sutura.

The Sutures being wel known, 'tis an easie matter to distinguish the bonesThe Eight Bones of the Skul. of the Skul; which are eight in number, and somtimes nine when the Sagittal Suture passeth to the Nostrels, and passeth through the middle of the Frontal bone; which is often seen in the Skuls of such as are grown up: al of them are Proper, none common, unless the Sphenois, according to Galen.

1. The bone of the h Forehead distinguished by the first, Common, and co­ronalOs Frontis. Suture, which somtime is Cut into two part sby the Sagittal Suture is that Eminent seat of the Eye-brows; it includes two Cavities derived into the Nostrels.

The Second and third are called the bones of the i fote part of the Head, andOs Sintipitis. are seperated from one another by the sagittal Suture; below, by the Scaly Suture; before by the coronal: behind by the Lambdois.

Under these are the bones of the k Temples, which on the uper part ar [...] at­tenuatedThe Bones of the Temple. like a Scale, but the inferior Part is hard, and rough, and called rocky; therefore it is commonly divided into the Scaly, and Rocky Parts.

In the Rocky part are four Apophyses; l Mastoides m Styloides and n Lygo­matica; Its Apophyses. and the fourth is placed in the basis of the Skul, and may be called o Auricularis; in little Children it is an Epiphysis, and may easily be pulled off from the Rocky Bones.

[Page 10]In this last Apophysis, are the three Cavities of the Eare contained: TheThe Cavities of the Eare. 1. passage of hea­ring. 2. Concha 3. Labyrinthus. 4. C [...]clea. Os Occipitale. first is external, and called the p Passage of hearing, The second is called q Concha, and containes the internal Aire, and the three smal bones called r Malleolus Incus and Stapes, as also a hole passing into the Cavity of the Mastois. The extremity of this Cavity is directly opposite to the Timpa­num and hath two small holes; of which the greater is called the s oval window and is the ingress into the third Cavity, which is called the t Labirinth, by reason of its various Circulations and turnings; the other hole is narrower, and is the Passage to the fourth v Cavity which is called x Cochlea, from its rough and wreathed Figure.

The sixt bone of the Skul is called y Lambdoides and Occipitale, and is compassed about with the Suture Lambdois, the Extremities of which, are called Horns by the Antients; but by Galen, Aditions to the Lambdois. To these are Causticks somtimes applyed.

The seventh Bone is z Sphenoides; in which we must consider the external, [...]s-Spheneides. and internal table: In the internal table, are three Apophyses, which are cal­led a Clinoides; between these is a Cavity i [...]terjected, which is b called Sella Its Apophyses. Sphenoidis. The external Table hath fo [...] Apophyses; of which, two re­sembling the hollowness of a ship, are called c Naviculares, by Galen they are called Pterigoides: the other pass under the Zygomata, to the Temples, and are called Temporalls. Between the two Tables, or Plates, is an empty d Cavity passable to the Nose by a double hole, and severed within by a Bridg in the midst; this is alwaies wanting when the bone of the Forehead is sollid.

The eight bone is called Ethmoides, or according to Galen Spongides; itOs Ethmoides. consists of seven different portions, The first is pierced thorugh like a e Sieve: from which, within the Skul, ariseth an Apophysis, which is the second porti­onTabula cri­brosa. Crista galli. of the bone, and is like a f Cocks Comb; without the Nostrells, from the same Sieve-like Table, depends that bony substance, which makes the g bridg between the Nostrels; and this is accounted the third portion of the bone: ToSeptum Nas [...]. Two Spongy Bones. this Bridg of the Nose, stick two Spongy bones, which make the fourth; and fift part of the Ethmoides: The sixt, and seventh p [...]ions of the Ethmoides, are thin Scales, plain, and smooth, as broad as a mans Thumb; which make the internal side of each Orbita, beside the great Canthus, and underneath they cover three, and somtimes four cells, disposed from the great Canthus, even to the lower-most Orbita.

In the basis of the Skul, both internally and externally, certain Cavities are observed; of which some are called Sinus, others holes, others Fossa or pits; of which, see Sylvius, who was the first that handled them Methodically: we give them here Names according to their places, and Natures.

The Sinus are eight; two Maxillares in the uper Jaw, as many Frontals Eight Sinus. in the bone of the Forehead, so many Sphenoides in the bone Sphenois, and no fewer Maisioides in the Apophyses of the Mastois.

Holes are internal, or external; Internal are twenty five commonly, somtimesHoles internal. 27. twenty seven; twelve or thirteen on each side, and one without a fellow; which gives Egress to the Marrow of the Back. The first, is h Ethmcides; the the second, i Sphenoideus; the third, k Opticus; the sourth, l Scissura Orbi­talis; the fift, m Temporal, from the nerve of the third conjugation which passeth to the temporal muscle; the sixt, n Gustativus; the seventh, Gusta­tivus Secundus; the eight, o Cervical; the ninth, Caroticus; the tenth, p Aridi [...]orium; the Eleventh, q Jugulare; the twelfth, r Motivum Linguae, or Linguosum; the thirteenth, and last, s Impar, or Occipitale. The exter­nalExternal holes. 10. holes are ten on each side, according to Silvius; to which I ad an eleventh, to wit, the external hole of the Eare; besides, a [...] the Root of the Stilois, in the extremity of the auricular Apophysis, on the external part, is a hole di­vided into two within, divided with a very thin Scale. Of the external holes [Page 11] the first is called, Superciliare: the second Lacrimale, the third, Orbitarium externum; the fourth, Orbitarium Ethmoideum; the fift, above the palat; the sixt in the extremity of the Pallat; the seventh, the cleft under the Zygoma; the eight, and ninth, Supra Pterigoides; the tenth Mastodes; the eleventh, the external hole of the Eare.

The pits are internal, and external: six are in the internal basis of the Skul;Pi [...]s internal▪ External. two frontals, two temporals, and two occipitals. The external are seven on each side, to which I add an eight, to wit, the Cavity of the Nose: The first, Orbitaria; the second, Nasalia; the third, Zygomatica, the fourth, above the Pallat; the fift, under the Pallat; the sixt, Pterigoidea; the seventh, in the joynting of the inner jaw; the eight, in the hole of the sixt Conjugati­on.

Chap. 9. Of the uper Jaw.

THe other Parts of the Head, is called the Face; it comprehends both Jaws,The Fa [...]e what and is separated from the Skul, by the first common Suture.

The uper Jaw consists of many bones, about the number ofHow many Bones in the uper Jaw. which is some controversie amongst Anatomists; but passing by the vain and foolish opinions of modern Authors, I admit only of Eleven, passing by those portions of the Ethmoides, which [...]ome Anatomists reckon for several Bones: for those Bones only belong to the Jaw which are separated from the Bones of the Skul; neither are portions of them, but some of those bones contained within the Orbita, and form the Orbita of the Jaw; with other bones are por­tions of the bones of the head, as the productions of the Sphenois, the broad portion of the Ethmois; and therefore they are Childishly referred to the Jaw.

If any object, That they do belong to the Jaw, because they are beneath the common Suture that divides the Skul from the Jaw; wherefore seeing they are placed Beneath the said Suture, they may be attributed to the Jaw. But if the Apophyses of the bones of the Skul, which stick out beyond the round­ness of it, be referred to the Face; by the same rule the Apophyses, called Pterigodes, which stick out without the Globe, and r [...]t [...]ndity of the Skul, and are placed in the Same plain with the Vomer, and the Angles which sustain the Jaw, are to be reduced to the Jaw it self. And when Galen reckons the Os Sphenois amongst the bones of the Jaw, he reckons it as a Supernumerary. And therefore we must reckon but Eleven bones of the Jaw.

Five bones are placed on each side, and one without a fellow, which sustainsThe first Bone of the Jaw. the midst of the Pallat. The first, Galen Lib. de Oss. Cals a Melon: It may be called Zygomaticus, because it constitutes the greatest part of the Zygoma, and a great part of the Orbita, and Angles of the Eye: now Zygoma, is nothing else than a bony Semicircle made of two Apophyses, by the oblique Suture; of which the one passeth from the rocky bone; the other from the bone of the Cheek. The Second is called b Os unguis, or Ossiculum Lacri­male. The [...]. [Page 12] The third is called the c greatest bone, and containes the middle part3. of the Teeth; and finisheth the inferior part of the Orbita, and the internal part of the Nose. The fourth bone forms the d Nose, and so the Nose is form­ed4. of four bones, two are Proper, which we mentioned last; and two common. Modern Anatomists ad the bone called e Vomer, which is placed under the Sphenois, and Palat, which was not unknown to Hippocraces. It is like a Plow-share, and holds up the bridg of the Nose, to which it is Joyned by Su­tura, or Harmonia.

Chap. 10. Of the Orbitary Bone.

THe orbitary bones, which Hippocrates Lib. de Ossibus cals Hypopia byThe Orbitary Bones of the Eye how many. which the Eye holes are made, were first of al by Picolominus pro­pounded to be five; but he ignorantly pretermitted a portion of the maxillar bone, which joyned to the rest makes six, of which the hole of the Eye is made; but these bones are not Proper, excepting the ungular, or Lacrymal bone, but partly portions of the bones of the Skul, partly portions of the bones of the uper Jaw. The first is the a Frontal bone, which makes the fornace ofThe error of Picolominus, touching their number. this vault. The second is a portion of the Sphenois, situated in the deep exter­nal side of the Eye hole, even to the lesser corner. The third is b Lygomati­cum, which makes the lesser corner, and the middle pavement of the Orbita, or Eye hole. The fourth is c Maxillare. The fist d Lacrimale. The sixt the Scaly table, of the os Ethmois which makes the other side of the Orbita, and the greater Corner: these bones are to be discerned within the Orbita, with their Proper and common Sutures.

Chap. 11. Of the inferior Jaw.

THe inferior Jaw in such as are grown up, is but one bone; in which is toIts Parts. Basis. be noted, its basis, and its extremities. Its basis is the middle part of it, hollow within sticking out outwardly and is called the a Chin. The extre­mities are Angles, each extremity leads out two Apophyses, of which one isApophyses. Sharp called b Corone, and receive the tendon of the temporal Muscle; the other is a c Condyle, and may be called Articulatoria, because it serves for Articulation of the Jaw. Below these Apophyses is a Singular d hole by which Veins, Arteries, and Nerves pass to the Teeth; one portion of which passeth back again, neer the c Chin; and is dispersed to the Muscles of the Lips.

Chap. 12. Of the Os Hyois:

THe Os Hyois may be refered to the bones of the Head, because it is fastnedIts parts. by Nervous bones to the Apophyses of the Stylois. It is Compounded of five smal bones, of which that which is greatest and hollow is called the a basis,Basis. they which ad a sixt and a seventh bone understand the Ligaments wherewith this bone is tyed which as they are usually Nervous, so in some they are observ­ed to be Cartilaginous. From the extream parts of the greater and Funda­mental [Page 13] bone, one Cartilaginous b Horn, which is seldom bony, springs on the top,Horn. on each side it is fastned to the Cartilage Tyrois, which two Horns are usually num­bred for the eight and ninth bones.

The Os Hyois is the foundation of the Larinx and Tongue and by the Judgment of al Anatomasts receives the Tongue in its Cavity, but if a man may beleeve his ownEror of Ana­tomists. Eyes, they wil shew him that the Epiglottis only is received in its Cavity, and that the Tongue resteth on the uper side of its Basis.

Chap 13. Of the Teeth.

THe Teeth, are the instruments of Chewing the Meat, and forming the voyce.Their Nature They are bones although they differ in Nature from other bones.

They consist of two parts, one of which sticks out without the Gum, and is cal­ledParts, Basis and Root. the Basis. The other is hid within the Gum, and called the Root, the Root is not sollid but hollow, and so hollow, that it receives a smal Vein, a smal artery, and a smal Nerve.

The Roots of the Teeth are various in number and disverse in figure. The RootThe number of the Roots of the Teeth. of the Cutters is alwaies simple and right, distinguished only with a smal cleft for their firmer sticking. Also the Roots of the Dog-teeth are simple. The superior grinders have a threefold Root and Crooked, because they hang downwards, in the inferior grinders they are double and somtimes treble.

The number of the Teeth is various in regard of Age. In Children from theThe number of the Teeth. seventh Month even til they are two years Old and upwards; twenty of them usually come out by degrees one after another, and before they are wel towards four years of Age, they have no more, afterwards eight, or twelve others come out: So that they have twenty eight, or thirty two in both Jawes.

This number is distinguished into three orders by reason of their Situation andTheir Orders. bigness, the first four Teeth are called a Cutters. Those two which are next these, one on each side, are called b Dog-teeth. The rest being eight, or ten, are called c Grinders, They are placed in the Cavities of each Jaw, which Cavities are not continual but divided into Cells, and their conjunction, or Articulation is called Gomphosis.

Chap. 14. Of the Trunk, being the Second Part of the Sceleton.

THe Trunk comprehends the Back-bone and such bones as are fastened there­unto.Of what is consists.

It is compounded of the Back-bone and the Chest.

The Back-bone is a bony Channel which gives passage to the Marrow of the Back,The Back­bone what. and is stretched even from the Head, to the Os Coccyx. It consists of very many bones for its security and that it may not easily be hurt, as also that a man may bow himself, for necessity of action, these bones the Greeks cal Spondils, and the latins Vertebrae.

In every Vertebra you may observe two parts of which the one is internal, thick andTwo parts of a Vertebra. round, and is called the body: the other external with various Apophyses and hath no Name, the differences of the Apophyses are three, right, Oblique, and transverse,Difference of the Apophyses. the hindmost is sharp and is Properly called a Spina that which is b Lateral, and transverse is double, the c Oblique fourfold by which they are joyned together by Ginglymos in which three bones are required.

[Page 14]In the Oblique Apophyses two are above, and as many below; and therefore in al the Vertebrae, are seven Apophyses found. The whol Rachis or Back-bone, is divided into four Parts. The Neck, Back, Loyns and Os Sacrum: The Neck hath seven Vertebae, the Back twelve, the Loyns five, the Os Sacrum is either one, or three-fold in such as are grown up; in Children it is divided into five or six Parts: Wherefore the Back-bone in such as are grown up, is composed of twenty four Vertebrae; to which, if you add the Os Sacrum, which is a great Vertebra, it makes twenty five or twenty seven. The crooked-streight Figure of the Back-bone, which is admirably described by Hippocrates in Lib. 3. de Articulis, from verse 33. to 35. Cannot be noted in a Sceleton, though never so exactly made; but in aThe Vertebrae of the Neck, Carkass the Flesh of the Back being taken away it may; in the Vertebrae oft lie Neck, this peculiar thing is to be noted, That al the transverse d Apophyses are peirced through, that so they may give passage to the cervical Veins and Arteries; they have Cavities in the extremities, through which the Nerve being yet soft, is deduced: The e hindermost Apophyses, are double, for the rise and insertion of Nerves; but the two superiors have another structure and conformation, by reason of the motion of the Head; for the first wants a f Spina, and hath a thick round Body; the second sends out a g Tooth like Apophysis. Al the Vertebrae of the Neck are stricktly joyned and implicated lest they should slip a [...]under in the vehement Motions of the Neck.

The twelve h Vertebrae of the Back, are altogether one like the other: their Apo­physes The vertebrae of the Back. are al sollid, and continual, without any hole or division. The twelfth, or eleventh Vertebra, hath a different Articulation from the rest; al the rest are joyn­ed by Ginglymos; the eleventh, or twelfth, only by Arthrodia. And therefore the whol Motion of the Back-bone, bowing, extending, and Obliquation, is per­formed by that Vertebra.

The five Vertebrae of the Loyns, differ in Apophyses from those of the Back; forThe Vertebrae of the Loyns. the hinder Apophyses, or i Spinae, do not descend as they do in the Back, but are straight, and broad: the k transverse Apophyses are longer, and stand instead of Ribs.

Under the Loyns is the l Os Sacrum, which though it Seem one simple bone at theOs Sacrum. first view, yet being boyled a long time in Oyl, it is divided into five parts, and somtimes into six.

To the extremity of the Os Sacrum, is another cartilaginous bone joyned, whichCoccyx. is divided into three, seldom into fo [...] Parts and is called m Coccyx, the Crupper­bone.

Chap. 15. Of the Chest.

THe Chest, together with the Back-bone, make up the trunk of theThe Breast what. Sceleton.

The Chest is a bony Circumference, which holds the vital Parts, and is consti­tutedIt is four-fold. of a four-fold kind of bones; the Sternum before the Ribs on each side, the Claviculae at top, and the Back-bone behind, to which the Ribs stick.

The a Sternum or Brest-bone, in such as are grown up, is one only continuedThe Sternum. bone, distinguished by three or four transverse lines, which are but the footsteps of the Antient divi [...]ions; and these lines are more conspicuous on the inside, than on the out. On the extremity of this bone, depends the Cartilage or Gristles calledThe Cartilage called Sword­like. The Ribs. b Xyphoides, or the sword-like Cartilage; it represents a Shield in bruites.

The Ribs are twenty four, twelve on each side; of which, the seven uper most are called c True, because they are committed to the Sternum; the other five in­ferior [Page 15] are called d Bastard, because they are never joyned to the Breast-bone, but are joyned in a Cartilage, that they may the better give way to the swellings of the Liver and Spleen, and yeild to the Motions of the Diaphragma.

The e Claviculae are two, one on each side; whose Figure represents an Italica Clavicul [...]. S. They retain the Scapula in its Proper seat that it fal not upon the Breast.

Chap. 16. Of the Limbs, being the Third Part of the Sceleton: and first, of the Scapula.

SEeing the Scapula Omoplata, or shoulder-blade, belongs nothing at al to the constitution of the Breast, I seperate it from the Trunk, and set it at the begin­ning of the hands. In the Omoplata many Parts come to be noted for the originalIts Parts. and Insertion of Muscles. A very Necessary Part of the Omoplata being stretched to the Longitude of the Back, is called the a Basis, the extremities of which areBasis. Angles. called Angles; one is b Superior, the other c Inferior. The Basis is the sides of the Ribs; of which, the one is shorter and thinner, which is called the d Superior Rib; the other longer, and thicker which is called the e Inferior Rib. The wholRibs. Latitude of the Scapula is called the table; The ex [...]ernal Part of which, is Gibbous;Process. the internal hollow, that so it may receive the Muscle. The famous process or Apophysis ascending upwards from the basis, is called f Spina, the broad extremity of which, is called Acromium; which according to Galen and Hippocrates, is a distinct bone, and Cartilaginous in Children; but hard, and bony, in such as are grown up. Which after the twentieth year, and somthing sooner is turned into an Apophysis of the Spina. The pits on each side of the Spina are called Interscapuli­um; one pit is above it, the other below it, but the middle prominence of the Spina Pit [...]. which is bowed, is commonly called Pterygium or the crist. The other extremity of the Scapula, which is great, subject to the Acromium, and opposite to the Basis, is called the g Neck; in it you shal note, that Apophyses called h Coracoides, which was made for the security, and firmness of the Joynt of the Shoulder, the Cavity of the Neck, is called Glenoides.

Chap. 17. Of the Shoulder.

THe Arm hangs upon the Omoplata or Scapula, which is divided into threeThe three Parts of the Hand. The Head of the Bones of the Shoulder. Parts; the Shoulder, the Cubit and the Hand. In the Shoulder are two extremities for the insertion of Muscles; the upermost is called the Head, which a membranous Ligament, bred from the Cavity of the Glenois, compasseth about, besides the four Muscles which it involves: a little below this, the Orbicular nar­row place, is called the Neck: In the Head is a long Chink, by which the NervousThe Neck. Head of the Muscle Biceps ariseth. In the other extremity of the Arm, you may observe the Trochlea, about which the Cubit is turned: About the Trochlea areTroclea▪ Cavities. Apophyses two a Cavities, of which the external, is wider than the internal; in these are the Coronal Apophyses of the Cubit received: with the Trochlea are two Apophyses, which are called Condili the one inferior, and interior; the other superior, and exterior.

Chap. 18. Of the Cubitus, and Radius.

THe second Part of the hand is called Cubitus, & consists of two bones; of which the one which is superior and shorter, is called a Radius; the other, which isRadius Cubitus why there are two bones. inferior, and subject to the former, is called by the Name of the whol b Cubitus, and by some Ʋlna. Two bones are necessary in this Part of the Arm by reason of their double and contrary Motions, which could not be performed by one bone united by Ginglymus; for Ginglymus suffers only bowing and extending, and in no wise invertion; which the Radius being joyned by Arthrodia performs. The Obliquation of the Radius cannot perfectly be discerned unless in a new carcass, all the Muscles being taken away; for with great admiration you shal see the Radius turned about, upward and downward, upon the Cubit, being unmoved and also moved together with the Cubitus, when it is bowed and extended.

There is somthing worthy the noting in the extremity of the Cubitus: For in the uper extremity, is the Cavity, called Sygmoides, which embraceth the Trochlea ofCavity. Apophyses. the Arm; about this, are two Apophyses, called Corone; the lowermost is called c Olecranum: In the inferior Part the Cubitus, is an Apophysis, which is called d Styloides; the extremities of these bones alone, are joyned together by that Ginglymus, which consisteth of two Bones, passing into one another, in diverse, and distant places.

Chap. 19. Of the Hand.

THe Hand is divided into three Parts Carpus, Metacarpus, and the Fin­gers.Division.

a Carpus consists of eight bones, distributed into two orders, which are joynedCarpus. amongst themselves by Symphysis, by a kind of Harmonia; because the bones of the Carpus are moved the one from the other, either obscurely, or not at al: the first order makes Arthrodia Diarthrodis, with the inferior Cubit; the same order is joyned with the second order of the bones of the Wrist, or Carpus, by Arthro­dia; which second order is joyned with the Metacarpus, by Arthrodia Synar­throdis: So that this Motion, is either none at al, or insensible; but the first order with the second is moved obscurely.

The b Metacarpus, succeeds the Carpus, and is framed of five bones, if we addMetacarpus. the first bone of the Thumb, which some reject, because it is Obliquely added to the Metacarpus, and endewed with manifest Motion and contrary to the Nature of other bones of the Metacarpus, which make Arthrodia with the Wrist, and Enarthrosis with the Fingers; and yet the fourth bone of the Metacarpus, which sustains the Ring Finger, hath manifest Motion.

From the several bones of the Metacarpus, are several c Fingers stretched; onlyFingers. the Thumb excepted, the Fingers consist of three bones which are joyned to one another by Ginglymos; and therefore they admit only of bowing, and extending; the oblique Motion of them depends upon the Enarthrosis of the first bone with the Metacarpus.

Chap. 20. Of the Bones of the Ilium.

THe greatest and largest bones of the body, which being joyned with the Os Sacrum, sustain and erect the whol Trunk, are by the greatest Part called Ossa Ilium: In such as are grown up, they are one bone▪ but in Children divided intoa three parts; which yet hold their antient appellations, though the very Foot­stepsIts Parts. of them be obliterated by Age. The broader Part of the bone which frames the latitude of it, and is stretched out to the middle of the funnnel; is called b Ilium; Ilium. Pubis. Ischium. the other halfe, and superior Part, is called c Pubis; the other inferior Part d Ischium: Of these three portions, is made that great hole called the e the Funnel.

In these bones some particular things are to be noted; for Anatomists call the ex­ternal Face of the Os Ilium, the Back; the superior internal Cavity, they cal the Belly; the extremity of which, is called the Reb; the brims of which, both exter­nal,Back. Rib. Lips. and internal, are called Lips, or Brows, so as one is external, the other inter­nal. The extremity of the Rib, which sticks out, and is joyned to the Os Sacrum, is called the hinder Spine. And the other f extremity of the Rib towards the Fun­nel,Spines. is called the foremost, upermost Spine. There is under this, another called the former and nether Spine.

In the Os Pubis, a Spine is observed neer the Spmphysis, by its top: In the Ischium, a Spine, and a Bunch is noted; which Bunch is called Condylus.

Chap. 21. Of the [...]Bone of the Thigh.

THe Feer, as wel as the Hands, are divided into three Parts; the Thigh, Leg, and Foot.

The Bone of the Thigh is but one, and the greatest in al the Body. In the supe­riorThe Thigh Bone. Head. Neck. Apophyses. excremity, the a Head is round, to which a slender part is added, called the Neck: from the Neck are two Apophyses produced, to which, the Muscles called Rotatores, are fastned; and therefore they are called Trochanters; the foremost is called the lesser b Trochanter; the upermost, on the side, the greater c Trochanter. The other extremity of the Thigh, hath two d Condyli: ae Cavity being left be­tween, which admits the f middle, and eminents Apophysis of the Leg; and in like manner the Condyli are received by the g Cavities of the Leg, by a loose h Gin­glymus, the fore Part of which, is called the Knee, the hinder Part the Ham: thisKnee. Ham. Knee-pan Articulation is strenghtned before, with a smal bone, called the i Knee-pan, which is Articulated to no bone.

Chap. 22. Of the Leg.

THe Leg is composed of two bones; of which, the greater, and internal, isTwo Bones of the Leg. Tibia. Fibula. called a Tibia; The lesser, and external, b Fibula. The Fibia is Articul­uted by Ginglymos to the Thigh; the Fibula sticks to the Tibia, and toucheth not the Thigh. The inferior, and bunchy Parts of them both, are called Ancles; of which, the Fibia makes the c internal, and the Fibula, the d external.

Chap. 23. Of the Foot.

THe Foot is divided into the Tarsus, Metatarsus, and Toes. The Tarsus Division. Tarsus. consists of seven Bones, which Ruffius Ephesius cals Ostracodea, by reason of their hardness: The first Bone Articulated with the Tibia, is called Astragalus, or a Talus: The Bone under this, Pterna, or b Calcaneum: The third joyned to the Astragalus, Schaphoides: The fourth c Naviculare; to which is joyned the inner, and foremost portion of the Heel, which is called d Cuboides; the other three have no Names, or Else are called e Calcoidea. The f Metatarsus follows the Tarsus, and is formed of five Bones, and answers to the Metacarpus of theMetatarsus. Toes. Hand.

The Toes succeed the Metatarsus▪ coustituted of g three Bones apiece, except the great Toe, which hath only two Bones: smal Bones fil up and strengthen the inter­nodes of the Fingers and Toes in such as are grown up, which are uncertain in number, and called h Sesamoidea.

In the second Articulation of the great Toe, are two smal Bones worth the noting, and indifferent big, which are alwaies found in al Carcasses, and two at the origi­nal of the two Muscles of the Feet, mentioned by Vessalius, which are but seldom found, and are to be numbred with the Sesamoidea.

Chap. 24. In what Particulars the Bones of Men differ from those of Women.

THe Bones of Men and Women, differ in some parts, which Platerus first noted,Those which differ are. and Bauhinus follows him; but by their leaves, they noted many differences which are not found, and omitted some that are: we shal speak of them both sever­ally.

It is true, al the bones of Women, are less then those in Men, both in weight, andIn Substance. of the Bone. thickness, as also in length. Galen adds they are not so hard, but faith, that in al living Creatures, the Bones of the Females, are softer then those of the Males; and Aristotle held so before him.

The bones of the Head, are altogether alik, having neither more, nor fewer Su­tures;The Bones of the Head. although Aristotle thought otherwise; Namely, that Males had more Su­tures then Females, Ch. 7. Lib. 1. de hist. animal. and 7. Lib. 3. ejusd, operis, and Chap. 7. Lib. 3. de part animal. Yet the a Sagittal Suture, more often in Woman, passeth to the Nase, dividing the b Bone of the Fore-head in the middle.

It is fal [...]e that Aristotle held, Viz. That Males have more c Teeth, then Females,Teeth. as is cleer in Men, Sheep, Hogs, and Goats.

The d Larinx (if it may be numbred amongst the Bones) is less in Women, andLarynx. the Cartilage e Thyroides, sticks out less.

The f Brest in Women is depressed in the fore part, and sticks not out as it dothBreast. in Men, for the more accomodation of the Dugs.

The g Claviculae in Women are not so crooked, for the more comliness of theirClaviculae. Neck and Breast.

The inferior Part of the h Sternum, is broader then in Men, and many times hathSternum. a manifest hole in it; and the lower Bone upon which the i Sword-like Cartilige depends, is clest like a crescent Moon and makes a large hole for the Egress of the Mammaria Interna.

It is false that the k Cartilages, which in men become bony about the forty orCartilages of the Ribs. fifty yearts of their Age, become bony in Women so soon as their Breasts grow; Though it be true in Women when they are old.

In Women with great Breasts, Thorax is narrow, and almost poynted, by rea­son of the weight of their Breasts.

[Page 19]That Part of the Back above the Loyns, is no more bowed Backwards in Women, then it is in Men.Back.

The l Os Sacrum is shorter, broader, and more bowed outwards in Women,Os Sacrun. then it is in Men.

The Os m Coccyx, or Crupper Bone, is more movable, and not so strongly knit,Coccix. and more bowed Backwards in Women; not according to the opinion of Galen, but of Later writers. Galen: Lib. 1. de Semine.

The Buttocks of Women are broader and according to Aristotle, Lib. 4. de hist animal. Women are stronger in their lower Parts, and therefore the Os n Ilium Buttocks. most commonly is larger, but that largness bends more outward; by which means the Ossa Ilium are more hollowed outwardly.Os Ilium.

Upon this largness of the Bones, the Womb when it is great with Child leans as it were, upon Pillows, and sits as it were in a Saddle. Elegantly said Galen Lib. 14. deusu Partium, when he called the concourse of these Bones with the Os Sacrum, THE GREAT BONY VAULT or Arch. The oval hole is Smaller in Women that the portion of the Os Pubis, neer the Symphysis, may be larger; butOs Pubis. the Spina of the Os Pubis is turned outwards.

The inferior, or tuberous Parts, of the o Os Ischium, it fitted with a doubleOs Isehium. Cartilage, thicker softer; and this commissure is perfected by a short line, that in the travail, it being softned and loosed, the Bones of the Pubis may part.

The space between the Os Sacrum, Ilium, and p Pubis, where they are joyned together, is sarger in Women then in Men, least the narrowness of the Passage should hinder the comming out of the Child. The rest of the structure of Bones in Women, is like those in Men.

Chap. 25. Of the number of the Bones in a Mans Body.

THe number of the Bones of mans Body amongst Anatomists is uncertain Vesalius held 307. Galen 242. But in the Sceleton of a perfect man, there are two hundred and fifty six necessary Bones for the structure of it; which are thus numbred. Of the Skul, eight; of the upper Jaw, eleven; of the nether Jaw, one; of the Os Hyois, three; Teeth, thirty two; Back-bone, twenty four; Os Sacrum, three; Coccyx, three; Claviculae, two; Ribs, twenty four; of the Sternum, three; of each Hand, divided into four Parts, sixty two; Omoplata, two; Armes, two; Cubits, four; both Wrists, sixteen; both Metacarpus, eight; of al the Fingers, thirty; of each Foot, divided into four parts, sixty two; Namely the Bones of the Ilium, two; Thigh, two; Legs, four; Knee­pans, two; Tarsus, fourteen; Metatarsus, ten; Toes, twenty eight.

Besides these Bones, where of the Sceleton is made, there are eighteen other manifest smal Bones, In each great Toe four, Sesamoida; in the Head of the Muscles, called Gemeli, on each side, four. The rest of the Sesamoida are so smal that they consum or vanish away in boyling the Bones to make a Sceleton.

There is in each Eare three smal Bones, which ought to be kept apart with the Sesamoida; neither come they into the structure of the Sceleton. So that if you add the first number to the second, you shall find two hundred and fifty six Bones.

Chap. 26. The History of an Infants Bones, till the Age of seven years.

SEeing the Bones of Infants, from their Birth til seven years of Age, differ much from the Bones of such as are grown up, both in number, and figure, and [Page 20] especially in the Multitude of Epiphyses, and desectof Apophyses, therefore I thought it wel worth the while, to ad the Bones of Infants, to the Bones of men grown up, that the difference between them may apear more evidently, for this comparison makes much to take away the differences amongst Anatomists; and to unty the difficult knots, you shal find in Galens Doctrine of the Bones.

That this Osteology, was known to Galen, is manifest by various places in him; in which he declares the Bones of Infants, in his Book of the formation of the ChildIs Ancient. in the Womb, he describes the Head of the Infant, In the first book De semine, he treats of the Teeth of Infants, but before Galen, Hippocrates, was a diligent studier and observer of this Osteology; as his divine monuments of the Nature of Children, and of their breeding Teeth witness.

And the profit of this Doctrine is very great: not only in the education of Chil­dren,And profitable. which are marred, by the unskilfulness either of the Midwife, or Nurse. We see diverse Children at this day Borne, with great Heads, Bunches, Bow-Legs, great Ancles, Vnseemly knees, and at last are Lame when they begin to go, which deformities in the beginning of their Age, whilst their Bones are soft, may be amended, and how can a man amend them rightly, unless he know the Bones at that time exactly?

Excellently said Galen, in Lib. de causis Morborum Chap. 7. When he de­scribeth the deformities of Bones, which are in Children. The Natural figure, (saith he) of the members, and of the whol Body, is changed either in the Womb, or at the Birth, or after the Birth; It is depraved in the Womb when the formati­on is vitiated, by reason of abounding, or unfit matter, It is depraved in the Birth, when the Midwife takes it not righly, or binds it not up rightly, being born, after the birth the Nurse, in taking of it up laying it down, or carrying of it, or washing of it, or binding it up; in al these the Nature of every member is easily turned out of its course, and corrupted. These also happen in unfit Motions, whilst it is set to stand or walk, before its time, or exposed to vehement Motions. For unsea­sonable, and vehement motions weaken the Limbs, and the Legs, are turned in­wards or outwards by the waight of the Body; and those Limbs which should be straight are made crooked, the Parts of the breast are usually inverted by Nurses, by binding them too bard, in their first education; this we see almost continually in Virgins, whilst Nurses study to encrease those parts, which are about the Hips and Bowels that, they may exceed the bigness of the Breast, they bind the Parts about the Breast so vehement heard, that the breast becomes sharp, and they look as though they were broken backt; and somtimes are crook Shouldred.

You see by Galen, what miseries and deformities little Children are subject too; by reason of ill forming the Bones, which may be corrected whilst they are Young, and Flexible, and brought into what form you will.

Hippocrates Lib. de Septimestri Partu, gives the reason, why Children are Born Blind, Lame, or other wile ill formed▪ The Women that go with such Children are ill, or like to miscarry, in the eight month, for the maimed Embrion was greavous Sick, in the eight month; and the Disease, Caused, Impostumation, as it doth in men, but when the Embrion is main sick, at any other time it rather dies then suffers Apostumation: Hitherto Hippocrates, and Aristotle writes Sect. 10. Probl. 40. That Children may be hurt in the Womb, because their Legs are so tender.

The greather Bones of Infants are hollow, and the Marrow Bloody. After sixThe Marrow of the Bones Bloody. Months, the Marrow waxeth white, they have a Periostion, and a Cartilage at the ends, the extremities of the Bones, are Epiphyses, some few Apophyses they have, but a great number of Epiphyses, that according to Ingrassias they amount to, three hundred twenty one. But I think tis no such matter, neither indeed, have I yet been very sollicitus about, the counting of the number.

I never observed any Bone, of any bignes or length; which ended not in anTheir Epiphy­ses. How they wax hard. Epiphyses; now al the Epiphyses of Infants are Cartilaginous, and grow hard and are turned into Bones by degrees: Their hardness begins not at the Bone, to which [Page 21] they are joyned, but they take their bony substance first at the Centre beginning at the internal part and encreasing by degrees to the external. Or from the Centre to the circumference, outwardly they grow dry and hard by heat which is stirred up by Motion and rubbing the Joynts one against another in walking.

Chap. 27. Of the Head.

THe Sutures of the Head seem to be rather Harmonioe, distinguished by aThe Sutures Line, and not joyned together like Teeth of a Saw by mutual ingress. The joynings of the Skul are loose, so loose that they suffer the Dura Mater to passSagittal. out for the forming of the Pericranium. The Sagittal Suture alwaies passeth to the extremities of the Nostrils, but very seldom descends by the hinder part of the Head to the hole of the Marrow of the Back. The coronal Suture hath a mem­branous gaping at which place the pulsation of the Brain may be both seen and felt, this place is vulgarly called a Fontanella Coronal. Fontanella.

The temperal Bone seeing it is framed of two parts scaly and rocky, the parts of it are distinguished by Harmonia, which is not disanulled above the hole of the Eare, but beyond it, about the Apophysis Mastois.

The Bones of the Skul are very thin, neither shal you find the two tables or platesBones of the Skul. Their thick­ness. in them, before one year be Elapsed, between the Bones is some disparity because the Bones of the hinder Part of the Head are the thinnest, contrary to what they are in such as are grown up, at the concourse of the sagittal and coronal Suture is a cleft called Rhomboides, which a thick and hard membrane shuts and grows bony in process of time.

The c Frontal bone is alwaies two without any sinuous Cavity, the bone of theOf the Fore­head. hinder Part of the Head in Children new born; most commonly consists of four bones even til they are a year Old. The first is the whol and superiour breadth of the bone which compasseth and embraceth the Cerebellum, this is rarely divided, and yet there is a certain cleft in the top, caused by the sagittal Suture produced thither. The Second and third portion make the sides of the hole of the Marrow of the Back, and the middle part of the Circle. The fourth bone is placed in the extremity of this, and makes a portion of the great hole, this as yet I never observed. A trans­verse Line intersects the circle as though it were two. The Bones of c Bregma, atBregma. the concourses of the sagittal and coronal Suture, are imperfect by reason of the Fontanella.

The Bones of the Temples are manifestly seperated into two Parts, scaly andBones of the Temples. rocky, neither the Epiphysis called Stylois not the Apophysis called Mastois ap­pear in it, only the Zygomatica is seen, but that part of the rocky Bone subject to the hole of the Eare, makes the basis of the Skul, it is called next to the Sphenois and next to the Lithois by some, but may be called Auricularis, because it com­prehends the whol structure of the Eare, in Children it is an Epiphysis which easily is severed, and this is often observed in the Sculs of bruit Beasts that are grown up,Passage of the Eare. in which not with standing it is other wise framed.

In this auricular Epiphyses many things come to view, the passage of hearing is altogether Cartilaginous, about the fift or sixt month it begins to be bony, and yet it may be seperated even to the seventh month, but in the basis it is hollowest; even to the third year and longer.

But proceeding inwards to the extremity of this passage their is a bony d circle toBony Circle. which the Timpanum is fastned, this also is easily severed, but when the passag of hearing grows hard, the bony circle is so strongly knit to it, that it is inseperable. The e Cavities are very straight, neither can the admirable structure of the Laby­rinth be perceived in Boies, and yet that which is wonderful the three little Bones of the Eare f Malleolus g Incus and h Stapes, are of the same substance, bigness and form, even from the birth to extrame Old Age.

The Os Sphenois is divided into four Parts according to Fallopius of which theOs Sphenois. [Page 22] process called Pterigoides, constitute two; the seat which receives the Glandula Pituitaria, a third; The fourth part is subservient to the optick Nerves, which portions grow together, not long after the Nativity: but Fallopius very ill decrib­ed these portions of the Sphenois; for the third comprehends the seat, or Saddle, and also is subservient to the optick Nerves: The fourth is streched out below the Saddle, even to the Corone of the hinder part of the Head, and that division re­mains Conspicuous, even til three or four years be passed. In this Bone, are no winding Cavities; and the Os Ethmois, is totally Cartilaginous; the bridg of the Nose is bony at first, but grows hard along time after the other parts.

In the Eye-hole of such as are grown up, are six bones noted, Zygomaticum, The Bones of the Eye-holes. Sphenoides, Frontal, Ethmoides, Lacrymal, and Maxillare: The portion of which makes the pavement in Children, and is severed with a kind of Suture, which remains even till three or four years of Age.

The Lines, or Harmoniae of the upper Jaw, are like those, in such as are grownƲpper Jaw. up, a certain cleft only apears in the brim of the Inferior Orbita. In the beginning of the Pallat is a transverse line espied, which is stretched from one of the Teeth, called Cutters, to the other; and comprehends the four Cutters. As for the bones they are like the bones of such as are grown up, both in figure, number, and Sci­tuation. The Jaw-bone is not hollow, and the cels of the Teeth are covered, and as it were stopped up with a membrane.

The i Inferior Jaw in the midst, where the Chin is, is divided by Harmonia, andInferior Jaw. so consists of two parts, so continuing til two years be past.

The Teeth are ingendred in the Womb, when the rest of the parts are in­gendred;Teeth. but within the holes of the Jaws: they are in number twenty, ten in each Jaw; of which, are four Cutters, two Dog Teeth, and six Grinders, they al want Roots.

They begin to pass out of the Gums about the seventh Month, somtimes sooner if the Nurses Milk be very hot. Some few have Teeth when they are borne as, Cneus Papyrius Carbo and M. Curtius.

They do not break out altogether, but by degrees, in two years space; and theAt what time they apear. upper Teeth usually, come out sooner then the lower: first of al the Cutters, af­terwards two Grinders, then the Dog Teeth; the breeding of which, is most pain­ful to Children.

When Children have twenty Teeth, then they usually say, they have al their Teeth; neither indeed have they more, before they are three or four years of Age.

But when Anatomists say, that there is only twenty Teeth contained in the Gums, They do not tel you where the other Eight or twelve reside; neither dothWhere the hin­der Teethly. it seem like a truth, that new Teeth should be bred after the other are formed, and lie hid in the Gums. In the upper Jaw I have observed the other four, or six, hid under the Zygoma; but those of the lower Jaw under the extremity of the same, where they lie hid like points. Under the coronal Apophyses, because the space of each, seems at the Narrowest, to comprehend twenty eight, or thirty two Teeth.

Neither do these eight or twelve Teeth break out before the Jaws are made lar­ger,When they break out. which hapen about the fourth year of the Age: but contrary to the Nature of other Teeth, they continue as long as life continues: neither do they come out, as the other twenty teeth do; neither being plucked out, do they grow again.

Their generation is two-fold; one in the Womb, the other without the Womb;Their genera­tion. for in the Womb the Teeth are formed with the other parts, but are imperfect. Within each hole, is contained a Mucous, and hardish substance, concluded in a little white Membrane, which grows dry, and take a bony Nature by degrees, and to get out pierceth the Gum with its top; the Membrane compasseth the hole round, and like Glue retains the Tooth: The other portion, namely, the Root of the Tooth, remaines stil within the hole, being soft and Mucous, as the Feathers of [Page 23] Birds are; but it grows hard by degrees, and is parted in the middle, into three or, four Rots.

Under these Teeth, in every hole, is subjected the Seminal matter of another Tooth, a Membrane passing betwen them; which whilst it is fermented by the formative faculty, and growing up, it expels the former. This second matter thus included with a membrane, hath deceived many Anatomists, which thought the Teeth consisted of two Parts; and that other Part of the Tooth, was an Epiphysis of the Root: therefore Vesalius, and Columbus, held the Teeth in Children, ought not to be pulled out by the Roots, but transversly to be broken off, as thinking that a new Tooth grew up from the same Root, which could never be, if the former were pulled up by the Root. But Celsus in my Judgment wrote more truly, that there was a new Tooth in Children, which did expel the former, and somtimes grew out besides it, either aboue, or below it.

The middle part of the Hyois, being the basis of the whol bone, is Cartilaginous,Hyois. but soon becomes bony; and yet the sides remain Cartilaginous a good time.163 164

Chap. 28. Of the Back and Breast-bones.

THe Back-bone consists of twenty four Vertebrae, the Os Sacrum excepted! alThe Vertebrae of them for one years space, are divided into a three parts, the two first of the Neck excepted: the first part constitutes the Body; the other two make the sides of the hole, neither do they send out any process. Fallopius hath seen the firstFallopius his Observation. Vertebra of Children constituted of five parts; but the rest, of three only. The first part was where it was joyned with the Tooth of the second. Vertebra, called Pyrenois; the second, and third parts, were on the sides, in which both the su­perior, and inferior Cavities of the Joynts were; the fourth, and fifth parts per­fected the rest of the hole. The second Vertebra of the Neck, besides the three parts common with the rest, hath a fourth eminent Epiphysis, called Pyrenois or the Tooth.

In al the Vertebrae, the hinder part is b Acute, and altogether Cartilaginous, and then grows bony, and like an Appendix is joyned to the other parts. The trans­verse processes, are also Cartilaginous, but soon acquire a bony Nature.

The Os Sacrum consists of c five Vertebrae, with Cartilages between: So as theyOs Sacrum. may easily be discerned the one from the other: the hinder sharpness is totally Cartilaginous.

Al the Vertebrae consist of three parts, as al the Spines of the Vertebrae. The Os Coccix is altogether Cartilaginous, and undivided; Age divides it into threeOs Coccix. or four parts, which remain Cartilaginous til seven years be expired.

The extremities of the Ribs that are d joynted to the Back, are altogether Carti­laginous,Ribs Sternum. yet they soon grow hard: the Sternum of Infants, is at first. Cartilagi­nous, and yet divided by no line, and yet the Superior are Sooner bony, then the inferior, and the middle parts of them before the extremities, whence it comes to pass that the bony part is compased about with a Cartilage one each side, and re­sembles so many bony Knots in a board.

So soon as the Child is born, the inferrior part of the Sternum is Cartilaginous, and hath no division; then it grows bony, as I shewed you before; at last it is cut into six particulars, by a transverse line drawn from the Cartilages of the Ribs, to which you must number that which is by the Sword-like Cartilage.

Fallopius in his Observations, notes eight bones in the Sternum of Children▪ whichFalopius his Observations. afterwards are brought to seven, the two last being reduced into one: afterwards they are brought to fewer, six only apearing by that time the Child is seven years of Age; and though Fallopius think six alwaies remain, yet I have alwaies observed fewer.

[Page 24] Fallopius thus describes the Union of the bones. After seven years the bones of the Sternum are joyned together and become fewer by degrees, so that six only apear, one bone being made of the fourth and fifth and another of the sixt and se­venth. Besides this Union increasing, there are only four found, the third fourth fifth sixth and seventh growing together. Of the Sternum of Infants Read Sylvius, com. ad ch. 2. Lib. Gal. de Ossibus.

Chap. 29. Of the upper Limbs.

IN the Omoplata both Apophyses, and Epiphyses, are Cartilaginous, alsoScapula. the Neck with the Cartilage Glenois are of the same Nature. The eminence called Coracoides is an Epiphysis, yet the bone Acromium doth not seem seperated but it is an Apophysis incru [...]ed and terminated with much Cartilage, which is dryed after three or four years, and changed into a bony Epiphyses. called Acromium, as it is, described by Hypocraetes and Galen, at last that Epiphysis is turned into an Apophysis.

a The appendices of the shoulders in each extremity are Cartilaginous, and grow hard by degrees. Also the Trochlea is Cartilaginous, but is sooner turned into bone then the superior parts: the superior part of the Cubit called Olecramen, is an Epiphysis and after one years time grows hard and is joyned to the bone.

The b bones of the Wrist when the Child is born: are composed of one Cartilage,Wrist. afterward they grow bony and are distinguished from one another. But first they are spongy as the rest of the bones are, which from Cartilages become bones. The eight bone of the Wrist, turns bony last of al.

The extremities of the c bones of the Metacarpus and Wrist are Cartilaginous,Metacarpus and Fingers. which are hardned within less then a year.

Chap. 30. Of the Inferior Limbs.

THe Ilium in Children is composed, of three bones even til they are seven yearsIlium. of Age, to which the Ancients gave proper Names. a The first bone comprehends that widness which passeth to the midst of the Funnel, the other part is equally divided into two parts, a line being drawn by that Cleft of the Funnel Cros the Oval hole, and makes the Symphysis of the Os Pubis, the superior Part of this division is called b Os Pubis, the inferior c Os Ischium, the Lips of which arePubis. Ischium. Cartilaginous.

d The Thigh on the superior part sends out three appendices; a Head, and twoThigh. Trochanters which remain Cartilaginous Epiphyses, a good time, the inferior part of the Thigh hath two knobs, the appendix in Cartilaginous.

The Knee-pan at first is totally Cartilaginous; and is a long time ere it growPatella. bony.

The bones of the Tibia and Fibula, differ nothing from those that are grown upTibia. Fibula. save only in their appendices, both above and below, which are Cartilaginous, then grow hard, and remain seperated even to the tenth year and upwards.

In the Foot al the bones of the e Tarsus are Cartilaginous for some months, theTarsus. bone of the Heel excepted which is Bony within, though covered with Cartilages, without.

The Sesamoides remain Cartilaginous almost to consistent Age, two only ex­cepted,Sesamoides. which are in the first Joynt of the great Toe, for these grow bony presently after the Birth,

Chap. 31. Of the Number of Bones.

INgrassias, Propounds a fourfold number of the bones of Infants, the first con­tainsThe Number. two hundred thirty seven. The second three hundred fourty five. The third two hundred fifty nine. The fourth one hundred ninety two. But this last Number I doubt is devised, or else I do not understand what Ingrassias means.

These Numbers he thus composeth.

In such Children as are grown up are found three hundred five bones, in the Head seventy, to wit, eight in the Skul, twelve of the upper Jaw, one of the lower Jaw, six of the Ears, thirty two Teeth, eleven smal bones of the Os Hyois, which al joyned together make seventy. The Trunk comprehends sixty seven, Vertebrae twenty four, Scapulae two, Ingulae two, Sternum three, Ilium two. These joyned together make sixty seven. But if the Os Sacrum consist of five and the Coccyx of three, (as often it doth) then there wil be only sixty six. In both hands, eighty four, (adding the twenty four Sesamoides) in both Feet eighty four, the twenty four Sesamoides being also added, the total Number of bones wil be three hundred and five; form this Number if you take away thirty two Teeth which doth not appear in Infants, the result is two hundred seventy three, although the Teeth be­ing formed lie hid in the Gums, yet because there is no use of them, they are not reckoned amongst the bones.

In reckoning the second Number he proceeds thus, the Vertebrae of the Back-bone and Os Sacrum in Infants are divided into three Parts, the second excepted which is divided into four by reason of the Teeth, the Ilium is divided into three bones the Sternum into eight, the inferior Jaw of two, and the Frontal bone is double.

These diligently considered you should find amount to seventy two, which ad­ded to two hundred seventy three make three hundred fourty five, from which if you take away the bones which deserve rather the Names of Cartilages than bones, as the bones of the Wrist sixteen, of the Instep eight, of the Coccyx four, Sesamoides fourty eight; each Knee-pan and Hyois eight (the three smal bones remaining) which are in number eighty six, there remains two hundred fifty nine. In these Numbers the three hundred fitty one Appendices are not Numbred which if you ad to three hunded fourty five, the Body of the Infant wil be composed of six hundred seventy Bones.

The End of the First Book:

THE SECOND BOOK OF ANATOMY AND PHYSICK, OF John Riolanus.

Chap. 1. General Precepts, which he that would be an Anatomist, must be first Acquainted with.

SEeing that according to Aristotle Chap. 1. Lib. 1. post. Analyt. Every Doctrine and discipline which consists in reason and intelligence, is perfected by fore-knowledg, and Tullius Lib. 1. de nat. Deorum, saith that without fore-knowledg, neither any thing can be understood nor studyed, nor disput­ed. Before I set about my Anatomical work I thought good to premise certain general Precepts, which are the foundations of Anatomy, and wil give great light to our proceeding.

The Body of man is considered by Anatomists as composed of manyHow Anato­mists Consider the Body of Man. Parts, which they examine Limb by Limb, and by a diligent Dissection, they divide the whol Body, into its smallest Parts. They divide it first into three grand Parts, Containing, Contained, and Impelling; that is into the Parts, hu­mors, and Spirits. But in the Anatomical dissection of a dead Body, the HumorsIts Parts. and Spirits, are not considered, the Speculation of which belongs to Phy­siology, only the Sollid Parts are regarded, which are either such as make, or suchSollid Parts how many fold. as contain Humors and Spirits or the instruments of Motion, which is the Chief Action of a living Creature, for which it was made. The sollid Parts are similar or dissimilar. They are called similar Parts because they are most simple, fromSimilar Parts what how ma­ny. which, as from a principle, the dissimilar Parts are composed. The similar Parts according to Anatomists are Bones, Cartilages, Ligaments, Membranes, Fibres, Veins, Arteries, Nerves, Flesh, Fat. These are found almost in al Compound and dissimilar Parts, and the Corpulency of the Parts is formed of them. The Hairs, and Naills are excrements of the external Parts: Therefore an Anatomist ought to [Page 27] be wel instructed what these similar Parts are, that when he searcheth out the structure of the organical parts, Limb by Limb, he may know the Fundamentals of this structure.

1. A bone is a part of the Body, most cold and dry, Terrestial; and therefore1. A Bone. hardest, that so it may prop up the other parts of the body.

2. A Cartilage, or Gristle, is not so hard as a bone, which in Old Men somtimes2. A Cartilage. degenerates into a bone: The Cartilages are placed about the extremities of the bone, to ease them in their Motion; some are found separated from the bones, as the Cartilages of the inferior Jaw, in the Articulation of the Claviculae, in the Sternum, in the Articulation of the Tibia to the Thigh; besides the Cartilages of the Larinx, Wind-pipe, and such as are placed to prop up other soft Parts, as the Nostrels, and Ears.

3. A Ligament, or bond, is a part which binds the bones together, being of a3. Ligament. middle substance, between a Cartilage, and a Membrane; softer than a Cartilage, harder than a Membrane.

4. A Membrane, Skin, or Coat, is very soft, and subject to dilation. It is the4. Membrane. covering of other parts, or the Receptacle of somthing; as the Stomach, Bladder of Gal: I [...] being a hollow body, it receiving somthing, it may be called Tunica, a Coat; If it Embrace and cover a sollid body, it is propperly called Mem­brana.

5. A Fibrae is like a threed stretched over a Membrane, or Interwoven there­with,5. Fibra. to strengthen it: and because of its various Scituation, it is called Right, Oblique, and Transverse; not only to help the Membrane, but also to strenghten it. Every sort of Fibres, is thought to perform a several action; as the Right, to draw to; the Transverse, to retain; and the Oblique, to expel. Which Mo­tions notwithstanding, absolutely depend upon the inbred faculty of the Part; which as it hath a violent dilation, so hath it a willing, and Natural contraction, and is helped in these by the Fibres.

6. A vein, is a Membranous Vessel, round and hollow, allotted to contain6. A Vein. Blood, and distribute it for the Nourishment of the whol Body.

7. An Artery is a Membranous Channel of the same Nature, but somthing7. Artery. harder, and thicker; ordained for the containing and Distributing of the Arterious blood: The original of both which, Aristotle thought was from the heart; but wiser Physitians, hold the beginning of the Veins to be in the liver; but of the Arteries in the heart.

8. A Nerve is a Channel made to carry animal Spirit; and because this spirit is8. Nerve. most subtil, therefore the Cavity is so smal, that it is not discernable.

9. The Flesh is the foundation of organical, and dissimilary Parts, where bone9. Flesh. is wanting, and makes up the chief Part of our bulk. The flesh is in substance, soft and thick; made of blood alone, compacted together, and wel concocted, if it be red; but of blood, and Seed, if it be white.

A four-fold sort of flesh, is observed in the Parts; Viscerous, and Musculous, both of them very red; Membranous, and Glandulous, both of them white. For every substance of the bowels is called Flesh, or Parenchyma. The thicker sub­stance of certain Membranes, which are the containers of somthing, which by dilating and contracting their bodies, they attract, retain, and expel, are also called Flesh, or a Flesh-like substance. The thick, and spongy substance of the Glandulae, is called Flesh; but especially the substance of the Muscles deserves the Name of Flesh.

10. The Fat although it appear not til the whol body be formed, and when the10. Fat. Child is big, and grows to the Parts; yet because in the composition of organical Parts, it often concurs to make up the bulk, it is Numbered amongst the similar Parts. Fat is the thinnest substance of blood, Fat, and Oyly, sweating out through the tender Coats of the Veins, and hardning between the Membranes: It is two-fold, according to Aristotle; Soft, and external; Hard and internal. The one is Grease, The other Suet.

[Page 28]These three similar Parts; Bones, Cartilages, and Ligaments, shal be trea­ted of, as they are shewed in a Carcass, from top to Toe, after we have shewed the Muscles; because they are so joyned together, that one cannot be shewed without another.

But I desire al such as are studious in Physick, first to be wel acquainted in the Osteology or History of the dry bones in the Skeleton of a Man, before they come to the inspection of a Carcass; for so they wil the better understand the whol anatomi­cal discourse of the dissection, and find out the reason of my other Osteology in the bones of Carcasses.

The Rest of the similar Parts shal be shewed severally in the explication of the dissimilar Parts, seeing of the similary Parts aforesaid, viz. Bones, Cartilages, Ligaments, Membranes, Fibres, Veins, Arteries, Nerves, Flesh and Fat, the Bulk, or Material substance of the dissimilar Parts, is made up, and therefore you shal hear similary Parts often mentioned, in the explication of them; howbeit, in some places they exist apart, no waies joined, or united unto others, to con­stitute an Organ; but are considered with reference to their Particular uses.

But they concur together, and are united one with another, in organical Parts,Organical Parts, what? that they may perform their various Offices: for the effect of which, they are divi­ded into four orders: For in every Organ there is the principal Part by which the Action is performed: Another, without which the Action cannot be done: A third, by which the action is preserved. But in every Organ, the principal Part ought to be similar and proper to it, such as is not found in another Organ. But this similar Part cannot perform its action alone, unless it be helped by others; and therefore the concourse and Union of similary Parts is necessary. Wherefore, e­very Movable action, belongs truly, and poperly to an Organical Part; and none unless it be alteration, belongs to a similar Part; which out of the composition of the Organical, hath only use, which notwithstanding, it contributes to perfect the action of the Organical.

More over, organical Parts according to the dignity of their action, are dividedHow many. into Principal, and Administring. They are called principal, which supply the whol body with matter and faculty: Physitians hold them to be three; the Liver, Heart, and Brain: Aristotle held but one principal Part of the body, viz. The Heart, which is King and Ruler of al others. The rest of the Parts Minister, and are subservient to the principal. According to the various composition of the Organical they are divided into compound, more compound, and most compound: For the Finger is compound; the Hand, or Foot, more compound; the Limbs, are most compound.

But that we may seek out the structure of eath Part exactly; we must observeWhat is to be observed in each Part. the Name, Substance, Temperature, Original, Scituation, Quantity, Number, Figure, Color, Connexion, Communion, Action, and Ʋse. Connection differs from communion; for Connexion is the sticking of one Part to anther, of one or more Parts by which they depend; it is somtimes taken for the Original of the part it self, and yet the Original of some Parts is distinguished from Connexion: But communion is either universal, with Parts remote and neer, which is done by Veins, Arteries, and Nerves, by intervening of which, al the Parts have community with one another; or Particular, when some Particular Part communitates its self to some neer, or remote Parts, and so the Gal communicates it self by the Biliar pas­sages to the Liver, and the Gut Duodenum: The Reins, and Bladder have commu­nion by the Ʋreters. In this Method you may comprehend whatsoever may be spoken, or demanded of any Part: But in the History of Parts we must begin first of al with those things that are common to the whol Organ, then with those things which are Proper to the same Organ: but in describing the Fabrick of the body of Man, we wil follow the common order of Dissection.

Chap. 2. Of the Natural and Legitimate Conformation of the Body.

SEeing my design and intent of handling Anatomy, doth not consist in a bear andThe necessari­ness of it. simple comtemplation of the Parts of the Body, but is also referred to the use of Medicine; before we come to the dissection of the body of man, we wil describe in a few words the Legitimate and natural conformation of the Body of Man when it is alive, which is the basis whereby we judg of the Sicknesses and imperfections of Men or Women: this was necessary of Old in buying of Servants, in joyning Men and Women in Marriage that they might have Children, and in chusing select Men for Soldiers. And this knowledg is necessary even to this day; for in some Monasteries such as desire to lead a Religious life, the Physitian views them Naked from the Crown of the Head, to the Sole of the foot; and notes their respiration, and pulse, and voice in singing. This is done in buying Slaves in divers Countries, and also in buying Horses; and also Nurses are exactly viewed by Physitians for the education of Children, I mean the Children of Princes.

Therefore in Man-kind, you may consider the difference of Sex: Substance of Considerations in a Man wel formed. Body, Temperature, Greatness, Color, form, or Figure; as they are convenient in a perfect and wel formed body, that so by this, the difference of a body not wel formed may be known.

As for that which belongs to Sex, Man-kind is twofold: Male and Female. The Latin1. Sex. word Homo comprehends both: and a Women has been called Vira, and therefore a stout Women is called Virago: the differences of both I have Accurately expound­ed in my Anthopographiae. Lib. 2.

The substance of the Boby in Man ought to be fleshy not Fat; firm and sollid, not2. Substance. soft: the Limbs meanly hairy, for smoothness in Men, such as is in Women, argues effeminate conditions.

A healthful temper ought to be hot and moist, because life consists in, and is3. Temper. preserved by such a temper, yet is there a peculiar temper in every person, which by Physitians is called Idiosyncrasia; which if Galen could exactly have known, he would have thought himself equal with Aesculapius: but we must reduce this to the General. But by what signs this may be known, Galen hath declared in his little book of Art of Physick, and other Authors.

The Magnitude of the body is threefold, according to the threefold Dimension of4. Magnitude. the body. We shal consider cheifly the Longitude and Latitude: The natural and decent Longitude of the body ought to be four Cubits, the Latitude one Cubit as Goropius Becanus teacheth: this also is confirmed by Vitruvius who defined the just Longitude of the body of man to be six Roman Feet. And Agellius Lib. 3. ex Varrone, Noted that the highest pitch of a Mans height was seven Foot: but more Men are shorter, than taller than this. Vegetius Writes that Soldiers ought to be choson six Foot high, yet by Reason of difference of sex, Region, and Diseases, Men are either taller or shorter, for each soyl hath its Particular Nature: so the peo­ple of Asia are taller than those of Europe, and in Europe, those of the North parts, as Denmark, the Low-Countries and those of upper Germany are tal­lest.

The various Mensuration of bodies Hippocrates hath described Leb. de aer. aq. et loc. Commonly men are taller then Women; whereas in some other living creatures, Foemales are greatest.

The Latitude or thickness in a wel Proportioned body ought to be, almost half the Longitude, so that if the Longitude be six Foot, the Latitude ought to be al­most three: slenderness of body is subject to Consumptions, neither can the body be strong and fit for labor unless it be thick.

In the bigness of the body is Magnanimity and beauty, quoth Aristotle, Ethic. Lib. 4. For a man of a little and smal body cannot be fair; yet if you regard, [Page 30] understanding, there is little Wit commonly in those Tal bodies.

Elegantly said Celsus, Lib. 2. Ch. 1. The best disposed body is wel set, neither slender nor Fat, a tal stature is comely in youth but not so in Age, a slender body is weak, a Fat body dul.

The Color of the body is diligently to be marked, for such a Color as flourish­eth5. Color. in the Skin and countenance, the same is predominant in the Humors, and there­fore sanguine people are Red, Chollerick Yellow, Mellancholly Black or brown and dusky, Flegmatick are pale: a brown and ruddy Color are preferred before pale, which argues softness of body.

There is some difference in Authors about the Color to be Chosen in a Nurse, Aristotle perfers brown, others a Mingled Color of Red and white.

Now the Natural and Legitimate form of the Head, Brest, Belly, and Limbs, is to6. Form. of the Head. be considered. The Head ought to be round, and not Copped, unless the Neck be very thick: a great Head is preferred before a little one: from the Head ought the Nature of the Nerves, Veins, Flesh, and Humors to be collected.

A great Head requires a great Neck, which gives indication of a great breast, by reason of the Parts contained in the Neck: a great breast makes a large belly, and therefore the proportion of the rest of the Cavities depends upon the Head.

The Chest ought to be large, of an Oval Figure, and the Back-bone straight, theBreast. breast ought to be somwhat convex, not sharp, nor flat, nor depressed.

The Papps of Men, ought to be depressed, but in Women swelling round, and Glandulous, rather than Fatty, or Fleshy, because they are the Emunctories of the breast if the Woman give not Suck. If the Duggs be smal the Women are sickly, and if the Nipples look pale the Womb is Diseased, according to Hip­pocrates.

Whether are large breasts to be chosen in Nurses, or such as are mean in bigness?What Breasts are to be chosen in Nurses. Great breasts please not Moschio, because they are Fat, neither have they plenty of Milk; and therefore Fat Nurses are not to be preferred before such as are Lean, and Juicy; neither such as are tal, before such as are of a mean Stature: Aristotle Lib. 3. de hist. animal.

White colored Women, because they are Flegmatick, have but bad Milk.

From the breast, we pass to the belly, which ought to be round and sticking out:Belly. Women that have such bellies, the Poets praise, and say Venus had such a one. Hipp. Lib. de ve [...] Med. Notes that long and round bellies, ought to be conside­red of Physitians, because by looking upon them, 'tis easie to know which are fit for strong Purgations; for such whose Parts in the Abdomen are strong, and wel dis­posed, may easily Purge; but such as are slender, take strong Medicines with danger.

Very Fat Women are hard to conceive with Child, Hippoc. Aph. 4. Lib. 5.

As for what belongs to the Privities; Heliogabalus chose such for Soldiers asPrivities. had large Privities, because he thought they were lusty, stout Men. A very long yard is not fit for Venery, either because the strength of the Seed passeth out, by reason of the length of the Yard, if you wil beleeve Galen; or because the Muscles are tyred, by erecting a great, and long Yard. A mean Yard is most fruitful, andLimbs. gives most & longest pleasure in the act of Copulation. A long Yard, though indeed it fil the Neck of the Womb, yet it makes it not so fruitful; and is hurtful to such Women as are subject to the fits of the Mother, by stretching the Genitals: Neither are the Testicles when they are great and Pendulous, to be commended.

We pass to the Limbs, viz. The Hands and Feet, which ought to be equal in proportion to the rest of the Body: The Longitude of the Foot, from the Os Pu­bis, to the extremity of the Heel, ought to be equal to that of the Hand, from the Ala, to the top of the middle Finger. If the whol body be six Foot long, the Foot is three: both Hands and Feet, are somwhat fleshy in strong bodies; for although slenderness of Legs be commended in Horses, 'tis not so in Men.

An example of a perfect and absolute body wel formed, is to be Read in Sidonius [Page 31] Apollinaris, Lib. 1. Epist. 2. de Theodorico rege, wherein is one remarkable fault to be amended, not Noted by interpreters, for Excrementa read Extrema. Inter Extrema Costarum spi [...]a discriminat.

Chap. 3. The Division of Mans Body.

BEfore we expose the whol Body of Man, to Anatomical dissection, it ought to be divided into its Parts, or principal regions, that the Number and order of the regions, and where they begin, may be known.

A mongst the various divisions of the Body of Man, this in my mind seems theDivision of the Body. best, and to be preferred before the rest.

The body is divided into the Trunk, and the Limbs.

The Trunk is divided into three Principal Regions; the Head, Breast, and Belly.

The Head obtains the Superior place; The Breast, the middle: and the Belly, the lowermost.

The Members or Limbs are four branches sticking out from the Body, two Arms, and two Legs.

What are the bands of these Regions, I shal shew, when I come to speak of each Region apart.

The Medicinal Consideration.

I wil not stand here in rehearsing & designing the external Parts of the whol body, which are expounded in every Region of the same; but only consider the corpora­ture, or fleshy habit, which is covered with the Skin, like a Garment; which though it look for the most part beautifully without, it looks ill favoredly within. This habit of the whol body, makes the third Region of the body, to which the Humors come from the deepest Parts; the ill effects of which, are cleerly seen in the Diseases, and Symptomes which appear outwardly. The juyce which is seen in the leaf and branch comes from the Root.

I shal reckon up the cheife Diseases which use to infest the outward ha­bit of the body. Viz. Immoderate Fatness, or Leanness, Defluxions, Gouts, Dropsy, Cachexia, the whores Pocks, Plenty, or defect of Sweat, by reason of the openness, or closeness of the pores, Palsie, Convulsion, Unquietness, and weariness and al kind of swellings.

The Flesh of man, because its Nourished by purer Blood, is delicater than the flesh of other Creatures, and prefered before it by Canibals, or Man-Eaters.

Flesh, seeing it is Porous and Musculous, it hath empty spaces, which in men in health are filled with spirit and blood, but in such as are sick, with Water and wind; thence come Defluxions over the whol body, and other Diseases of the Skin.

The Habit of the whol body, is Purged and emptyed by sweating, by Cupping-Glasses, Scarrification, and Rubbing, according to the Doctrine of Galen, Lib. de Sanitate; by Bathings, Whippings, and Beatings, and blistering, and Rubify­ing, or Pimple-raising Applications.

Therefore seeing the smal Pocks and Measses, are but the scum of the whol habit of body, that is, of the Flesh, and sollid parts, their coming out is to be furthered, either at the beginning, or at any other time, with Sweating Medicamants, and such things as draw to the external Parts. Neither need you let blood so often, though the Patient be strong, twice if need be, is enough, because it hinders the Motion of Nature in expelling, unless either a dead sleep, or strangling with a Feaver, or bloody Flux, which is for the most part deadly, draw us to that remedy; not neglect­ing young Pidgeons Cut alive through the middle, laid to the Hands and Feet,: and somtimes to the Heart, and smal Cupping-Glasses fastned al about the body, [Page 32] with light Scarification. And somtimes bathing the Body in Luke warm Water profits, if the season of the year be convenient, to make the Measses and smal Packs come out the better.

Chap. 4. Of the lower Ventricle.

THe Dissection and Anatomical demonstration, must be begun at the belly, be­causeWhy the Dise­ction begins a [...] the lower Ven­triole. it is the sink and Kitchin of the body: and therefore soonnest Putrifies and stinks.

It is called in Greek Coilia because it is coile that is hollow; in latin Venter, in English the Belly.

Its substance is fleshy composed of various similar parts, which we shal propoundIts Substance. in order hereafter.

The belly seeing it is a most compound part, its own temperature is none at al, butTemperature. it follows the temperament of the parts contained in it, and especially of the Liver.

It hath its Original from the first comformation with the rest of the Parts.Original. Scituation. Quantity.

It is Scituated in the inferior part of the Trunk of the Body.

Its Quantity or widness is from the bastard Ribs, or Diaphragma to the Os Pubis or share Bone; and with these bounds it is Circumscribed above and below.

The whol widness of the belly is distinguished into three Regions; the superior called a Stomacbal, the middle called b Ʋmbiliar, and the lower called c Hypo­gastrica.

Again in every part, both the lateral and middle parts ought to be observed; the lateral parts of the stomachal Region are called d Hypochondria, of the middle Re­gion e Ilia. The middle is called the f Navil which is the centre both of the belly and of the whol body.

The lateral parts of the Hypogastrick Region are called g Groyns, the middle h Pubis, the share which after the fourteenth year both in men and Women is adorned with Hair, as a natural covering for those parts, which the common Law of bashfulness commands us to conceal.

In respect of number, the belly is but one; yet by the Peritonaeum it is divided into to Cavities; The greater holds the parts which prepare for nourishment. The lesser holds the bladder, and Genitals in men; and the Womb also in Women which never bear Children.

It is divided into parts containing, and contained. Parts containing, are pro­per,Parts contai­ning. Common. common, and diverse: common are five; i Cuticula, or scarf Skin; k the Skin, l the Fatty Membrane, m the Fleshy Membrane, and the Common Mem­brane of the Muscles.

Proper are, the Muscles of the n Abdomen, and the o Peritoneum. Proper. Diverse.

Diverse are, partly Fleshy, partly bony: bony are the p Vertebrae, and q Pelvis, which are parts of the Os Sacrum, and Ilium. Fleshy are, the Muscles r Psoas, s Sacrolumbus t Latissimus, v Sacer x Semispinutus, y Quadratus. I cal them di­verse, because those bones and Muscles, being Scituared in the hinder part of the belly, do make somthing toward the constituting of the belly, though they are re­ferred to another part, and pertain to another use.

The parts contained, are manifold; which are divided into such as nourish, andContained [...] Parts. Figure. such as engender; such as nourish are such as make Chyle, and such as make blood. The Genitals are of men, and of Women. The Figure of the belly, is Oval, by reason of the parts contained; which if removed, it is hollow, that it may be the seat of the Vessels dedicated to nourishment, and Generation; and therefore the latins cal it Abdomen, and the Greeks Epigastrion.

The color of the superficies of the belly, is like the color of the rest of the body;Color. in men of ripe Age it is Hairy from the Pubis, up to the Navil.

It is outwardly knit to the breast, and inferior limbs by the Skin; inwardly byConnexion. the Peritoneum.

[Page 33]It communicats with the principal parts, by Veins Arteries, and Nerves.

The use of the Belly is, to comprehend, and involve the parts of nourishment,Ʋse. and generation; take it individually, it consists of Musculous Flesh.

It hath action to compress the parts contained within its self, for the expultionAction. of excrements, upwards and downwards; and to force the Child out of the Womb.

The Medicinal Consideration.

From this discourse, a Physitian collects many things, in his Practice, useful. 1. That the Belly is the Sink of the Body, in which the vices of our intemperance reside; the Mother of all mischeifs, and the Nurse of Physicians; in which condition 'cis called Collatibus Venter, an Aldermans Belly.

He whose Belly grows to a great bigness, is called Ventrosus, Fat Guts. Some we read of, whose Bellies grew to a monstrous bigness, as Nichomachus Smyrnaeus, in Galen; in Athenaeus, Lib. 12. Deipnosophist, we read of a King that was chok­ed with fatness. But famous is that History in Michael Neander, in Erot. Hebr. ex. Talmud. in Jona. Rabbi. Ismael, and Rabbi Eliazer, had such great Bel­lies, that when they stood with their Faces together and their Bellies touched, two great Oxen might pass between them, and touch neither of them.

By reason of the Fleshy, and fatty substance of the Belly, it is subject to diverseSwelling in the Abdomen. swellings, Especially Aposthemes, either from the liver by the Vmbilicar Vein; or else the matter is sent from the Suppuration of the Reins; which being shut up in the Doublings of the Peritonaeum, may send their impurities into the external parts of the Belly.

This fleshy and fatty substance, ought to be mean; if it be greater, 'tis a discom­dityIts Constitu­tion what it should be. to life, if lesser it shews an ill Disposition of the Bowels: Therefore Hippo­crates wrote, that in every Disease, the parts belonging to the Belly, had better be som what gross, then to slender; for if they consume, tis very evil: therefore Phy­sitians were wont to handle the whol belly, especially the Hypochondria, which ought to be soft, equal, and fleshy.

The Scituation of the Parts in the Belly.

The largeness of the Belly is considered, according to longitude and depth, thatThe Scituati­on of the Parts in the lower Ʋentricle. so the Physitian may know in pains and wounds in the belly, which part is afflicted, or wounded.

According to depth, the parts are divided into upper, and lower; and therefore according to Hippocrates the pains in the upper part, are more light; those in the lower, more strong and dangerous.

According to Longitude by the division of the places, you may understand by theViz. bare looking upon them, or feeling them with the hand, what parts are afflicted, pained, or wounded. In the right Hypochondria is the liver, which passeth even to the Cartilage Xyphois; It passeth a fingers breadth beyond the bastard Ribs, on the sides forewards, two fingers. In the middle region, is the Stomach placed,Liver. Stomath. which incliness more to the left Hypochondrium, and descends four fingers breadth below the bastard Ribs.

In the left Hypochondria, lies the Spleen, which▪ Naturally hangs under theSpleen. bastard Ribs, the breadth of a mans Thumb.

The umbilicar Region, the Navel possesseth, above which, is the Gut calledColon. Colon, transversly seated; and in the whol compass of that Region, is the Gut called Jejunum, disposed: Toward the Back-bone, are the Kidneies. The be­ginningJejunum. of the Colon being bowed back from the right Kidney, under the Liver and [Page 34] Stomach, to the Spleen; afterwards passeth obliquely to the left Kidney: andKidneies. therefore the pains of the Colick, must diligently be distinguished from those of the stone.

In the middle, and side-Region of the Hypogastrick, in the Gut called Ilium con­contained;Ilium. Bladder. Right Gut. In the bottom of the belly, the bladder, under which lies the right Gut.

In Women, the Womb lies betwen the bladder, and the right Gut: under theVVomb. Guts, lies the Mesenterium, as the Sweat-bread doth under the Stomach. A little below the Navel, the Omentum is stretched about al the Guts, and divides all the internal parts with the Peritonaeum, from the external; those that lie deep, from those that lie at top.

The Medicinal Consideration.

In the Belly, are frequently al sortsof Tumors, Impostumes, Rumblings of theDiseases of the Abdomen. Guts, and Croaking; which proceed either from Tumors of the Parts conteined, or from wind, or collection of Water.

It is Cut on the sides towards the Hypogastrium, in the Caesarian dissection, to draw out the Child in a difficult labor. It is pricked neer the Os Pubis, to draw out Vrine, when a Catheter cannot be put in. It is pierced in the bottom of the Hypogastrium, neer the Navel, to draw out Water in the Dropsie Ascites, which Operation is called Paracentesis.

Chap. 5. Of the Scarfe Skin.

AMongst the parts which make the Abdomen, the first that comes to view, the Greeks cal Epidermis, the Latins Cuticula and we the Scarf-Skin.

Although, by its substance it seems to be Spermatical yet it differs muchSubstance. from it.

It's Temperature is none at al, and therefore no more words about it, but for itsOriginal. original, it is framed of the Excrementitious and Viscous Vapors of the Skin, which Sweating, out grow dry by the coldness of the Air, and like a thin Skin, compasseth the Skin round, and therefore it sticks to the Skin firmly and universally, and hath no other bounds then the Skin hath.

And although to the sight its substance appeares simple, yet Fabricius ab Aquae pendente wil have it double, one which is inseperably fixed to the pores of the Skin, the other seperable, without any offence to the Skin it self, but the thickness of the Cuticula, be it more or less, doth not encrease it's number, for though in some places it may be divided into many smal Skins, yet in no place can one be pulled off without another.

It hath no Proper figure besides what it borrows from the Skin it self, from whichFigure. it differs in this, that it is no way porous.

It is thought to partake alwaies of the same color with the Skin, and yet in BlackColor. Mores this being pulled of, the Skin it self is white.

It sticks firmely to the true Skin, and is an Excrementitious part as the HairsConnexion. are, and hath no communion with the principal parts, by Veins, Arteries, nor Nerves, because it wants them, and is insensible, as you may find, if you please to scrape it off from your hands, or any parts, or thrust a Pin or Needle under it.

It hath no action, only use, which is to shut the pores of the Skin, to make it [...]se. smooth, and bewtiful, polished and even.

The Medicinal Consideration.

By these things thus considered, a Physitian may see that the scarse Skin hath also its Diseases, though Hippocrates thought them to be only deformities, He makes [Page 35] a distinction whether they may be called Impostumes or diseases, at the end of Lib. 2. Prorrheticorum, because such as belong to the Scarfe-skin, per­tain most of al to the dignotion and Cure of Affects.

It is infected with divers Spots, both natural, and sickly; natural, are those many deformities of the Skin; Sickly, are the Meazles, smal Pocks, purple spots in Feavers, or any Spots of other Color; somtimes without a Feaver, when Nature sends any Wheyish substance of another Color into the Scarf-Skin.

Diseased spots of the Scarf-Skin may, and ought to be cured: but such as are Original from the birth, are very difficultly taken away, because they stick firmely to the Skin, as wel as to the Scarf-Skin.

This Scarf-Skin may be beautified; which Galen denies to be done, by an honest,It may be Beautified. and honorable Physitian; but allowes it to be done, by Court Physitians, and Bauds, and Chamber-Maids that wait upon their Ladies. In Women, the Cuticula is thick, smooth, and many time stops the pores of the Skin, and hinders free per­spiration. In men it's usually ful of pores, that so the Hairs may pass out.

Lastly, as the Scarf-Skin of the Body, being wel looked after, and adorned, procures beauty and and comliness to the Body; so being made rough with Spots, or burnt by the Sun, it unhandsoms a man. It is ridiculous to draw it off with blisters, that so it may come again the cleerer, you loose your labor as much as though you washed a Black-more.

The Scarf-Skin peels off in divers persons whilst it is dried or burnt, and the Skin it self in Leprosies, and diverse that have the french pocks; The Skin it self comes off by fleakes in such as are Leprous, and in some that are troubled with the Whore­masters Pox.

Chap. 6. Of the Skin.

AFter the Scarf-Skin, followes the Skin called in Greek Derma; it hath a substance diverse from other Membranes, the like of which you shalIts Names. never find in the whole Body, because it consists of Seed and Blood mixed together;Substance. yet so as that portion of Seed is predominant, which may be bowed, and distended: from which the Skin is accounted Spermatical.

Its temperature is cold and dry, or more properly, exquisitly temperate, yet soTemperature. it may be the Judg of feeling.

It is extended over the whol body, and on wraps it like a garment, and therefore its dimention is as the dimention of the Body is.

Although it seem but one, both to sight and touching, yet some hold it to consistNumber. of two Skins; but I could never find them to be seperable, only it may be cut into many parts by reason of its thickness.

It hath the same Figure which the body hath, that it cloatheth. Its texturFigure. is Slight, and very ful of smal holes, for insensible transpiration, and the passing out of excrements: and in diverse places, it hath visible great holes; as in the eares, Eyes, Nose, mouth, fundament, and privities of Men and Women.

It takes its Color from the predominant humor; for of what color the HumorColor. predominant in the Body is, of that color is the Skin, unless it be such from their birth, as in Ethiopia.

It is straightly knit to the Parts under it, and therefore immovable, excepting theConnexion. Skin of the Forehead.

It hath communion with the principal Parts, by innumerable veins, Arteries,Communion. and Nerves; the extremities of which, it takes on every side, for it hath neither of them all three peculiar to its self.

Whether by reason of its feeling, it perform action, a man may make a doubt;Action. for otherwise the membranes, which are the instruments of inward feeling, perform action also; but what Author ever said that the Membranes performed action?

[Page 36]We grant that it hath an excellent, and particular use, to defend and adorn theuse. body, to receive the exc [...]ements of the third concoction to clense the Body of fil [...]h fuliginous Vapors, and Sweat.

The Medicinal Consideration.

Let us now reduce this same conformation of the Skin, to a Physical use. ItsActects in Substance. Temper. substance against Nature, consists in i [...]s over thickness.

Its temperature is changed in diverse di [...]eases.

It's number is viciated, when the Cuticula is viciated, or gnawn through; or theNumber. Skin it self lost.

Often times its smoothness, is turned into roughness; or it is disfigured byFigure. pustles.

Somtimes its passages are stopped, or more open then they should be.

Its connexion, is marred in wounds, and Ulcers.Connextion. use.

Somtimes it's use is hurt, when it is insensible; or when it receives not only the excrements of the third concoction, but also of the whol Body.

Therefore the Skin, seeing it is the breathing place of the whol body, is subject to an infinite number of Diseases; and if the pores be shut, the Body suffers great discommodities, by reason transpiration is hindered; for the Body ought to ease it self that way, according to Hippocrates, Lib. de Alimento: The motion of the Body, to perspiration, the w [...]der it is, the healthfuller are men; the less perspirati­on men have, the more sickly are they; they which have quick perspration, are weaker, though better in health, and soonest recover when they are sick: such whose perspiration is bad, are strongest before they are sick; but when they are sick, their Cure is most difficult.

Diseases proceeding from disorder of the Skin, are more dangerous in winter; and in mal [...]gnant Feavers, by reason of the interc [...]ption of the transpiration, the Native heat is choaked. Breathing a Vein is a remedy for such.

From the substance, and Color of the Skin, Hippocrates propounded two prognosticks: Lib. 5 Aph. 71. and Lib▪ proegn. Part. 7. and 8.

Of the spots of the Skin, read Soranus, Chap. 38.

The Skin is like in Color, to the predominate humors, in the Body Hippoc. de humoribus.

Of divination by the Moles of the Skin, wrote Polemon, a Greek Author; and and amongst modern writers, Ludovicus [...]eptalius, Mediolanensis, Wrote most accurately.

Aristotle concluded the subtilty of a persons wit, from the subtilty and thinness of the Skin, rather than of the blood.

The thinne [...]s of the Skin, is the cause why man alone is troubled with the Le­prosie, according to Aristotle, Prol. 5. Sect. 10.

It is certain that concagious Diseases, may be drawn in through the pores of the Skin.

The Skin grows hard and dry, through burning Feavers, and somtimes it be­comesWhether Skin l [...]st, can be re­gained. as thick as an Elephants Hide: especially about the Back, Limbs, and Thighs, as I have seen it in many, like a tand Hide. The Skin lost, grows not again, but degenerates into a Scarre: For it is made by the first in [...]ention of Nature, but repaired by the second.

Chap. 7. Of the Fatty Membrane.

THe Greeks cal it Stear, and [...]imele▪ i [...] makes a common membrane, by rea­sonIts Names. of its consistence: in [...] is called [...]; and why not so then in men?

[...]substance, although it be somthing [...], yet is it soft, and Oyly, as you maySubstance. [Page 37] perceive if you handle it with your Fingers, or lay it by the Fire.

It ariseth from the thinner portion of the Blood, distilling through the VeinsOriginal. like dew, and congealing about the Flesh: this is the certain matter of the Fat; of the efficient cause only is the question made, Namely, Whether it obtaine its consistence by heat, or cold. Al acknowledg a moderate heat about the membranes, compelling, and applying this same fatty, and Oyly Liquor.

The Temperature then of the Fat, is moderately hot and moist.Temper. Scituation.

It is contained uuder the Skin, univer [...]ally over the whol body; the Forehead, Cods, and yard, (where there is no Fat) excepted.

Therefore the Fatty memb [...]ane, is large, as the Skin is.

In Number it is only one, unless you connex the Fleshy membrane, internexedNumber. with it, as Sylvius doth.

It hath no Proper Figure.Figure. Color.

In Color it is white; if at any time it be red, it is because blood, by reason of some Laceration, is mixed with it.

It sticks firmly to the Skin, neither can it be divided from it without scraping; and so it doth to the Fleshy Membrane.

The Fat cannot communicate with the principal Parts, because it is not truly nourished; nor yet lives, unless by apposition as stones do; neither yet is it sensi­ble: therefore it wants both Veins, Arteries, and Nerves; and yet al three of them pass through the Fat, that so they may come at the Skin.

As for the use of it; it warms the body in Winter like a Garment, and cools ituse. in Summer, by hindring the penetrating of the heat: It is like a Cushion for men to sit on, and in long fasting, it is turned to Nourishment of the Fleshy Parts neer to it, which Suck out its juyce.

Chap. 8. Of the Fleshy Membrane.

THe Fleshy Membrane lies under the Fat, and sticks to it, and is conspicuous in young Children newly born, where it is not hid with Fat. It is more ob­scure in such as are grown up, and yet it retains it Fleshy substance, as is evidentSubstance. about the Loynes, Cods, Forehead, and Neck.

Its temperature, is like the rest of the Flesh, ho [...] and moist; and it hath itsTemperature▪ original from the Blood.

It is scituated under the Fat, and stretched out over the whol body universally,Scituation. and is the fourth covering of the body. In bruits it is next to the Skin, which often moves by the intervening of this Membrane.

It is one single Membrane.Number. Figure. Color.

It hath no proper Figure, unless the Figure of the body which it covers.

It hath various colors in Disverse places; for it is more red in the Neck, Fore­head, and Cods, than else where.

It is joyned to the Fat inseperably in some places; so that the [...], andConnexion. Fatty Membrane, seem to make but one: in other places it may be seperated.

It communicates with the principal parts, by the extremities of the Ve [...]s, Ar­teries, [...]. and Nerves.

And that it is very Sensible, the rigor, and trembling of the body, which dependsAction. upon this Membrane, witnesseth: besides it hath a peculiar Motion in the Neck, Forehead, and Cods, where it is Musculous, and endued with Nervous Fibres.

Its use is to give foundation to the collecting and generating the Fat, to CloathƲse. the Body, and cherish▪ the internal heat, and defend it from external injuries.

The Medicinal Consideration.

Although, Cutaneous Diseases seem to belong to the Skin; yet if they continue [Page 38] long they have their foundation in the fleshy and fatty Membrane; shivering, shaking and trembling, belong especially to the Fleshy Membrane.

Chap. 9. Of the Common Membrane of the Muscles.

THe Fleshy Membrane being taken away, the common Membrane of the Muscles of the Abdomen follows next, being the fi [...]t common covering of the body, which comprehends al the Muscles in the body, (besides the proper Membrane of every Muscle) least in their Motion, they should pass out of their places.

Its Substance is very strong, yet thin and Nervous.Substance. Temper. Original. Scituation. Quantity.

It is sperma [...]cal, cold and dry, in temperature.

It hath its original, from the first formation.

It immediatly covers, and straitly binds in the Muscles, over which it is stretched.

Its wideness is thought to equal the dimension of the whol body; but in the Face, Neck, and superior Limbs, it is not easily found; and in the Legs, the Fascia Lata performes its Office.

Seeing it is admirable thin, it cannot be divided into two Membranes.Number. Figure. Color. Connexion.

It acquires its Figure, from the Parts it contains.

In Color, it is whitish.

It sticks stoutly to the Muscles, which it compasseth, neither can it be pulled off, but by a Skilful Dissector.

It hath no peculiar Nerves, Veins, nor Arteries

It is nourished, and is sensible, like the other common parts,Communion. Ʋse.

It is of admirable use, for it compasseth the Muscles like a girdle, and together with the Fleshy Membrane, is the foundation of the Fat; therefore, where it, or somthing like it, which performs its Office, is wanting, there the Fat also is wan­ting; as in the Forehead, Head, Face, and Cods, where the Fleshy Mem­brane immediatly toucheth the Skin, without any Fat: between them.

Chap. 10. Of a Muscle in the general.

BEfore I treat of the Muscles of the Belly, I wil premise the general Doctrine of the Muscles.

A Muscle is an instrument of voluntary motion, which depends upon our ownDefinition. Substance. wil, and because it governs the actions▪ It is a dissimila [...] part, compounded of ma­ny similar ones; but of those Parts, Flesh is predomina [...]te. So that the substance of the Muscle, is judged to be Fleshy: Yea and the Muscles are to be understood by the word Flesh in antient Authors; as Hippocrates, and Aristotle.

Besides, the Flesh, a Vein, an Artery, a Nerve, Fibres, a Membrane, a Ligament, or [...]endon, help to make up the composition of a Muscle.

[...] they are Fleshy, their Temperature it hot and moist.Temperature. Original. and [...]nsertion.

The true original of a Muscle, is from blood in the conformation of the first Parts; but by reason of its Connexion, in two extremes, It is said to arise from a stable Part, and to be inserted into a movable part, because it is ordained for moti­on, and al motion is caused by that which moves not.

This original and insertion, is known by the ducture and series of the Fibres, by which you may Judg of the Scituation of the Muscle, whether right, Oblique, or transverse▪ for in these positions al the Muscles in the body of man, both internal, and external, lie.

Their quantity and magnitude, is various, according to the variety of places,Quantity. and parts to be moved, which require either greater, or smaller Muscles.

There are aboundance of them in number, which according to my ObservationNumber. and computation, are four hundred thirty one: but because our body is double, the Muscles also are double; few their are without fellows, such as are the Sphin­cters; [Page 39] and the Diaphragma, or Midrif.

Their Figure is various, a Square, b Triangular, c round, d Long, e Trapezia, Figure. Lozing fas [...]ond, f Deltois, like the Greek Delta Δ g Scalena: usually they are round, whether you regard their Circumference, or bulk in long and thick Muscles: Therefore Hippocrates in Lib. de art. Defines a Muscle to be Flesh Circumducted in an orb: but the greatest Parts of the Muscles have a longish figure.

For the most parts, you shal observe the middle Part swelled, the extremitiesBelly. Head▪ Tendon. narrow. The middle part is called the Belly; in the immovable extremity; the Head, the moveable extremity, the Tendon, or Aponeurosis, which is the end, or insertion of the Muscle into the Part to be moved. Each extremity of the Muscle for the most Part, is Nervous; but the Tendon is Nervous in almost al the long Muscles: the Belly is fleshy, and Seldom Nervous.

The Color of a Muscle, for the most Part, is red; of a leaden Color in someColor. few, by reason of their impure Scituation, in some fil [...]hy place.

The Connexion of the Muscles is twofold; in the two extremities, and in diverseConnexion. Parts; the one of which stands stil, the other moves: also the Muscles move the Parts to which they stick, though they were not appointed for that use.

All the Muscles have communion with the Parts, by Veins, Arteries, and Nerves;Communion. which they admit above the Belly▪ or middle part of their Body, by which they obtain their motive power.

The Action of the Muscles, is either universal, or particular. Universal action,Action▪ is that which agrees to al of them, Viz. Motion: particular action, is the motion of some one certain Part; this motion is performed by contraction of the Muscle▪ whilst it is drawn back, towards its beginning, made shorter, and swels outwardly; and this agrees withal the Muscles, those of the Abdomen excepted, which being drawn back, swel within, because they have no opposite bone to with-hold them.

Therefore the true action of a Muscle, is contraction, or conservation of what is drawn; which motion is called Tonicus, in one Muscle remaining long in on figure; or in more Muscles extended, and acting together, as when the whol hand is long held elevated, and extended.

The motion of others Muscles, as extention and relaxation, are only by accident; from these motions depend the motions of the parts, which are not only disting­uished by difference of place before, behind, upwards, downwards; but also by figure.

Their Scituation is either larger, and that right, and is called Exten [...]io; or Ob­lique,Diversity. and that is either lateral, as the Abductor, and Adductor of the fingers; or with inversion, as the Pronatio, and Supinatio in the hand and Radius.

Also the Muscles, by reason of their like motion, are called fellows, Or pairs; fel­lows are somtimes in diverse & opposite places, & [...]et perform the same actionas; the Muscles which bow the Arms: such Muscles as perform a contrary motion are called Antagonists, and so such as bow the Arm, are antagonists to those that extend it.

Such as are fellows are alike▪ for the most Part▪ in Magnitude, Number, and strength; such as are antagonists differ according to the waight of the Part moved, or the vehemence of the action.

The ducture of the Fibres, shews the manner of action in every Muscle; and byHow it is known. them you may easily distinguish a right Muscle from a transverse, and Oblique.

The ducture of the Fibres is various also in the same Muscle, according to the diversity of its rises or insertions; and therefore one Muscle performs diverse acti­ons, as the Tranpezium; for by the extremities of the Fibres, you may know the Head and Tendon.

The Tendon is directly opposite to the Head.

If the Muscle act but one action, or many; according to the variety of its origi­nals, it obtains various Connexions, to wit, Heads and Tendons.

Chap. 11. Of a Tendon.

A Tendon is the least Part of a Muscle, by which we bend and move the bones. It is thought to consist of a Nerve, and a Ligament mixed together; so as that a Tendon is not found, unless it be in that Part of the Muscle where it is affixed to the Parts moved.

But a mans Eyes (if he wil beleeve them) tels him, that they are from the first forOriginal. mation, and that they are the cheifest Part of the Muscle, and take their beginning where the Muscle begins, and are disseminated through its whol Body. if it be a Nervous Tendon in the beginning, such it is in the end; if it be like smal strings at beginning, they are united to forme the Tendon afterwards. Such Tendons those Muscles have which perform strong actions, in bowing and extending, and tonical motion; as in the superior and inferior Limbs, and in the back to uphold the Trunk of the body. The rest of the Muscles, as they are fibrous at the beginning, so they are at the end.

The hard and stiff Tendons have much Fat about them to soften them, that they may the easier be moved; and therefore those Fibres dispersed amongst the Flesh, are nothing else but the Tendon divided, and the Tendon nothing else but the Fibres united; and therefore a Tendon is either compact and solid, or else divid­ed into Fibres.

Also Tendons are sollid or plain, or Membranous or round, or short or long. If they are Nervous at the beginning of the Muscle, so they are at the end. Som­times they are Nervous at the end of the Muscle, though the Head of it be Fleshy.

The hardness of a Sollid, long and Membranous Tendon, its thickness and Silver color is excellent: So that Fallopius affirmed, nothing was more beautiful in the Body of man, than a Tendon, and the Chrystalline Humor of the Eye.

Wherefore a Tendon, seeing it is a Similary Part, is bred of Seed, and is of a peculiar substance, no where to be found out of a Muscle. It wel deserves to be cal­led the cheifest part of the Muscle, upon which the action of the Muscle depends; the other Parts work together with the Tendon in the same action.

Chap. 12. Of the Muscles of the Belly.

THe Flesh extended over the Belly, is Musculous, which being joyned together, do make the Fleshy covering, which is Proper to it.

They are divided into twelve Muscles, six on each side, which have names partlyNumber. from their Scituation and rise, and partly from their Figure; of which Sort are Obliquus Descendens, Obliquus Ascendens, Rectus, Transversus, Pyramidalis, and Cremaster.

Of these ten are ordained to compel the internal Parts, and some to move the Os Sacrum, and Ilium; the two Cremasters hold up the stones.

Every one of them hath his proper Figure; the Oblique ones, in regard of theirFigure. Scituation action and Fibres, are divided into ascending and descending; the as­cending and Transverse, carry a plain Figure like a Membrane.

Their largeness is as great as the Latitude and bigness of half the Belly, and yetLargeness. the descending Oblique Muscle is larger then the Ascending, and the Ascending then the transverse: the lenght of the right Muscle, reacheth from the sword-like Carti­lage to the Os Pubis.

Although their Original be different, yet they al joyn so at the white line, thatOriginal. The white line. they seem to be but one Muscle. The White Line passeth from the Sword-like Cartilage by the Navel, to the Os Pubis, and makes a difference between the Mus­cles.

[Page 41]Although the Muscles of the Belly stick to diverse parts, from which they are saidConnexion. to arise, yet are they al inserted at the white line of the Belly; and at the Os Pubis, each of them receives peculiar Veins, Arteries, and Nervs.

The action of the Belly, is common, or particular. That is common which alAction. Common. Particular. of them equally act, Namely, to compress the Belly on every Part; neither can they act asunder in this. The particular action is, when Muscles that are parrs act apart, viz. Ascending or descending Muscles; those compress the breast, these move the Os Pubis, Ilium, and Sacrum, being joyned together, without any the least compression of the Abdomen; but these bones remain unmoved whilst the Ab­domen is compressed.

The use of the Muscles of the Abdomen, is whilst they lie stil, to cover the inter­nalƲse. parts, and defend them from external injuries, to cherish and conserve the in­ternal heat.

Pass we now to a particular description of the Muscles of the Abdomen, then of the Muscles that move the Os Pubis, and Sacrum. Particular Description. Oblique des­cending.

The a Oblique descending being scituate Obliquely, by reason of its Fibres, Ob­lique descending ariseth from the b seven or eight inferior Ribs, by certain fleshy in­tersections or Fibres intertexed with the Fleshy Fibres of the Serratus Major, and sticking to the Os Ilium, and Pubis, it ends in a broad c Tendon in the white line, and together with its fellow, makes one individual Tendon.

The Oblique d Ascending, ariseth from the e Os Pubis, and Ilium, and beingOblique as­cending. knit to the brims of al the bastard and true Ribs, even to the sword-like Cartilage, it ends in the f white line dy a broad Tendon. In this Muscle the late Anatomists observe a double Tendon embracing the right Muscle like a sheath; but the duplici­ty of the Tendon appears only above the Navel; for below, it is altogether inseper­able.

The right Muscle remains f fleshy from the Sternum, neer the g Sword-like Car­tilage,Right. and being extended along the longitude of the Belly, it is inserted with a Nervous end into the Os Pubis.

In it you may observe three Nervous h Intersections which strengthen it, and Veins which run a long the longitude of it; and the i Mammary descending, and the k Epigastrick ascending, meet about the l middle of this Muscle.

By this Anastomosis, Galen thought the consent of the Womb with the Dugs, was caused, and many modern Anatomists after him, which indeed is true.

Upon the extremities of the right Muscles, ly two smal Muscles, called m Pyrami­dales, Pyramidales. which sometimes are wanting, especial lie the right; but flesh makes up the defect. Their office is to compress the Bladder, and therefore they send their Ten­dons between the right Muscles, into that Part of the Peritoneum which includes the Bladder. And in the Child in the Womb, the n Ʋrachus is a production of the Pyramidal Tendons, which in Men of Age, makes but one string affixed to the bot­tom of the Bladder, and passing to the hole of the Navel, and remains stil in such as are grown up.

The o transverse Muscle, arising from the p transverse Apophyses of the Vertebrae ofTransverse. the loyns, and being fixed to the Os Ilium, and the bastard Ribs, ends under the right Muscle, by a broad q Tendon in the white line, and is stricktly united with his fellow.

Besides the Muscles which compress the Belly, neer the Pubis, by the transversalCremaster. Longitude of the groin, is the Muscle r Cremaster, prepared for the holding up of the stones. It is distinguished from the flesh of the Oblique ascending Muscle, be­cause it hath red flesh, is thinner, and disjoyned from it a singers breadth; it is invol­ved with the Peritoneum, even til it come to the Testicle, and makes the Tunicle called s Erithrois.

You shal perceive in the groin, the perforation of the Tendons of the Muscles of the Abdomen, that they may give passage [...] the Peritoneum, and the Crema­sters:

[Page 42]Seeing some of the Muscles of the Abdomen, conduce to the motion of the Os How the mo­tion of the Os Ilinm and Sa­crum is per­formed. Ilium, and Sacrum, I shal faithfully describe the motion of them, and the Muscles appoynted for that motion. These bones are closely joyned by Symphysis, and lie above the Thigh-bones, and under the bones of the loyns, for the procreation of man in the act of Copulation; in which action, the Thighs, and Back-bone re­maining immovable, only these bones move forewards, and backwards; the right and Oblique descending Muscles move them forewards, the breast resting; or very lightly moving, and that by longer intervals; the Muscles, t Sacer, and v Semispinatus, move them Backwards.

And therefore sacred Scripture, constitutes the Seat of lust to be in the Loyns, because by the motion of the Loyns, the Reins wax hot, which provokes the Geni­talls to Eiaculation of Seed: Gen. 36. It is written, Kings shal come out of thy Loynes; and Psal. 73. The Kingly Prophet complains, His loynes were filled with delusions, that is, with lustful Concupiscence, as St. Jerom interprets it; and in Luke, Let your Loyns be girded, that is, preserve your Chastity.

The Medicinal Consideration.

In the Muscles of the Belly, are often Inflamations, Imposthumes, and pains arising of wind; for according to Hippocrates, the pores of the flesh, and space between the Muscles, are filled with Blood and Spirit in such as are healthy; but with Wheyish substance, and wind in such as are Sick; and therefore Cramps happen in these Muscles, as is described by Sennertus Lib. 3. Part. 10. Chap. 8. Med Pract. And therefore these Muscles are somtimes troubled with a windy Spirit, arising from the Hypochondriacal Parts, being filled with Melancholly.

Chap. 13. Of the Peritoneum.

THe Museles of the Belly being taken away, the Peritoneum comes to view, which is a a Membrane stretched out over al the Parts of the Bowels, or Guts; from which extension, it hath it's Greek Name.

Seeing it is spermatieal, Its temperature can be no other than cold and dry.Temperature. Substance.

Its Substance is not simple, and uniform; but double, and unequal in thickness: for it is a double Membrane, joyned in some places, and disjoyned in other Some, to give passage to the Navel Vessels; and in the Hypogastrium, it is so doubled that it contains the Bladder and the Genitals, the Reins and Vreters, the Vena Cava, and the great Artery, and the Seminal Vessels in its duobling.

The inequallity of the substance of it is observed in Women, to be thickest from the Navel to the Pubis, that in the conception it may be stretched as the Womb is. But in men it is thickest from the Navel to the Sword-like Cartilage, that in Glut­tons it may stretch when their paunch is ful.

It takes its original from the first formation, unless, as some think, it take its originalOriginal. from the Dura Mater, which as they produce the Pleura, so the Pleura should the Peritoneum; and so their should be a continuation of these Membranes through­out the Body, as their is of the Skin.

Its Scituation is immediatly after the Muscles, and compasseth about all the Bo­welsScituation. of the Abdomen.

It is the largest Membrane in the whol Body, and most capacious, and answers toQuantity. the inferior Ventricle both in Longitude and Latitude,

[Page 43]It is double every where, because it consists of two Membranes; of which, [...] internal is the shortest; not so much because it bestows a Membrans upon every Part of the Belly and produceth the Mesenterium; but b [...]cause it doth [...] accompany the external to the Testicles, but ends in the Cavi [...] o [...] the Ab­domen.

The external passeth even to the Cods, and wraps the Testicles round and [...]kes that tunicle called Erythrois, and in its progress makes a smal Channel by when the Spermatick Vessels pass.

The same production of the external tunicle, is observed in the groin of Women, and is diduced even to the c Clitoris, and the round and lower Ligament of the d Womb.

The Figure of the Peritoneum is Oval, and longish, by reason of the Belly, forFigure. of it self it hath no Figure at al.

Its continuity is not pierced, it being an admirable piece of workmanship; for although Vessels pass into it, and out from it, yet al this is performed through the doubling of it, so that the internal Tunicle remains unpierced, which comprehends the Parts of the first Region, as the external doth the Parts of the second Region, which are placed within the Belly.

The Color of the Peritoneum is white, as the Color of other Membranes i [...].Color. Connexion.

It is firmely knit to the Vertebrae of the loyns, I mean the external Membrane, the internal hath no Connexion with them, but is disjoyned to receive the Rein, and redoubled to make the Mesenterium; also it gives a covering to the Diaphrag­ma, and the Liver, and produceth the Ligament which holds it, and depends upon the Sword-iike Cartilage.

Besides the general communion it hath with the principal Parts, by Veins,Communion. Arteries, and Nerves; It hath a particular communion with al the Parts contained; to which it gives Membranes, either thick or thin; and therefore it may be called the Mother of al the Membranes in the Belly.

It performs no action; but its use is great through out the Belly.Ʋse. 229

The Medicinal Consideration.

Let us now bring this contemplation of the Peritoneum, to a Physicaluse. By reason of its doubling, you shall perceive Serosus and sharp Cholerick Humors [...]o to get into those spaces, which make a bastard Collick, but have no foundation at al within the Guts, as a true Collick hath, but between the Peritoneum and the Guts; whence the Disease is bitter, and usually lasting: of which see Fernelius in his Pathology.

Somtimes other Humors flowing from the Liver, or from the Reins, get withinCollick. this Duplication, towards the Navel, or groyn, or Os Sacrum, and there impo­stumate, unless they were turned into Quittor before they fel into this Part.

Such Collical pains lie usually on the top of the Belly, and not deep; neither wil they suffer the Belly to be handled never so gently. Somtimes they come up even to the Diaphragma, by reason of the continuation of the Peritoneum, and then the danger is the greater.

Somtimes, by reason of those Productions of the Peritoneum which reach theRuptures. Stones, Serosus Humors pass down to the Cods, and make a watry Rupture.

You must diligently observe the production of the Peritoneum by the groyn; which being dilated (for it is seldom broken) receiveth the Gut Ilium, or the Call, whence is bred that swelling in the Groine, called Entero-Cele, or that called Epiplo-Cele; or when both the Gut and the Call do fal down, that other called Entero-Epiplo-Cele.

Cha. 14. The Division of the Parts of the Belly.

THe Parts of the Paunch included within the Peritoneum, I thus divide. TheyParts first. al pertain to the first Region, which are nourished by the branches of the Vena Porta; therefore the a Omentum, the Hollow b Part of the Liver, the c Gal, d Stomach, e Spleen, f Sweet-bread, g Bowels, h Mesenterium, and i Vena Po [...]ta, and the k Coeliacal Artery, make the First Region of the Body, contained within the Abdomen. The other Parts which are included within the doubling of the Peritoneum, are referred to the Second Region, which comprehends the l Reins, Second. m Vreters, n Bladder, o Genitals in Men; and the p Womb, with the Parts annex­ed, in Women.

It is extended even to the upper Part of the Breast, and q comprehends the Dia­phragma, r Mediastinum, s the Heart, and t Pericardium, v Lungs, x Trachea Arteria, y Oesophag [...]s, z Tongue, α Larinx, with the Trunks of the Vena Cava, and great Artery, even from the Throat to the groyn, according to Fernelius: but I extend it farther, even to the Limbs; whither so ever the greater Channels of the Aorta or Cava, the β Axillars, and γ Crurals pass.

Chap. 15. Of the Navel.

THe Navel from the birth, even to extream Age, is a knotty a Coition of theWhat it is. four Navel b Vessels; by which the Child is nourished in the Womb. That they should stick out on the out-side of the Belly, is impro [...]itable; therefore they are Cut off the c Child being born.

The continuation of the Vessels within the Abdomen remains, which grows dry by degrees, being deprived of its a [...]cient Office; and therefore it is to be considered u [...]der another Notion, in one that is grown up.

We shal treat of the Umbilicar Vessels, as they are found in the Carcass of a man [...]mbilicar Vessels. grown up; they are like Ligaments, included in the doubling of the Per [...]toneum; that which outwardly appears is the middle both of the Belly, and Body.

The d Umbilicar Vein passeth to the e cleft of the Liver, The Umbilicar f A [...]teties are g two, and descend to the Iliack h Arteries, Somtimes creeping along the sides of the Bladder to the i Hypogastricks, between the Arteries lies the k Ʋrachus fixed to the sides of the Bladder, and this is the original and insertion of the Umbilica [...] Vessels. The Ʋrachos is like a long and round Ligament, and its use is to hold up the Bladder.

The Umbilicar Vein puls the Liver foreward, lest by its waight it should depressuse. the Parts under it, The Umbilicar Artery upholds the l Bladder that it fal not down, although it be included in the doubling of the Peritonum.

The Medicinal Consideration.

To reduce that is said to Medici [...]al use; this shews that the Cutting of the Navel Vein is dangerous, that the place of the Navel is very perspirable because it pene­trates the containing Parts, Neither is there any thing▪ either within or without, that stops that passage, and therefore purging Medicines applyed, to the Navel Purge, and sweet things applyed to the Navel of Women pene [...]rate to the Womb: The Water in Dropsies many times breakes out at the Navel▪ and the affects thereof are grievous, not so much by reason of the sensibility of the Part, but the suddain hu [...] ­ting of those Parts whose Office it is to nourish the whol Body.

Therefore consider whether the Navel be the centre of the Belly or not, for other­wise, if the Parts below the Navel be longer than those above it, A multitude of Dis­eases are bred in the lower Part, because the Umbilicar Vein being shorter doth not sufficiently, pul back the Liver, which, by its waight, compresseth the Stomach and Parts under it.

Chap. 16. Of the Omentum, or Call.

BEfore you proceed to the Omentum or cal you must view how it covers al the Parts of the Belly, then their Scituation, which is of no smal moment to the art of Phy [...]ick.

The a Omentum, or Epiploon, or Cal, is a thin Membrane endewed with muchNumber. Fat, neither is it single but double, and so disjoyned in some places, that you may thrust your hand between, this you may see in that Part which is stretched out above the Guts, but about the Stomach and Spleen neer the Diaphragma, the space is not so evident, but it hath certain hid [...]ng places as the Poet Lucan saith, which not appearing was a bad Omen.

It was held to be an ill Omen also amongst the sooth saiers if it were not extended over the Guts.

The portion of it which is subject to view, is Naturally stretched out even to theScituation. Navel, somtimes to the groyn and Cods in Women between the Neck of the Womb and the Bladder, the greater portion is hidden in the left Hypocondrium.

It may be divided into four Parts, the first is called b Intestinal which is stretched out over the Guts; the Second c Hepatical, which ariseth from the Cavity of the Liver, including the smal Lobe of the Liver, and turns down to the deep Cavities thereof, the third is called d Lienal, because it lies upon the Spleen, the fourth e Mesenterical, being a production of the Mesenterium to the external Parts, andOriginal. from it is its original to be fetched.

The Medicinal Consideration.

The Omentum hath its Diseases, both Similar, Organical, and Common, forDiseases. Similar. somtimes it is distempered and inflamed, and ye [...] but seldome, it is oftner troubled with Imposthumes or Aposthemes which you wil, because it receives the filth of of the Liver and Spleen. Somtimes its mightily encreased with Flegm gathered to­gether, and grows to a huge bigness; neither is this swelling easily allayed either by internal, or external Medicines. If it be soft, Suppuration is to be sought, which seldom succeeds as i [...] should do, although you open the Part with a Caustic.

Somtimes a dropsical Water is concluded in the Cavities of the Omentum▪ ac­cordingOrganical to the Judgment of Hippocrates, and this is worse then if it were within the Abdomen, because it is easier drunck up by the Meseraick Veins; or by the Spunginess of the Spleen, the passages being first opened, and those Parts stirred up to it by some convenient Medicine.

[Page 46]The Omentum Fals down into the g [...]oine or Cods: and causeth those swellings which are commonly called [...]uptures: the Belly being wounded, the Omentum Common. breaks forth: and then a great portion of it may be tyed with a string neer the Belly and so cut of, because it soon putrisies, neither is it [...]afe to put it back again.

The first Concoction is made never the weaker by cuttings off Part of the Omentum, (though Galen thought otherwise) For the Concoction is made in the Stomach: and the Omentum doth not cover the Stomach, But is only knit to the bottom of it.

Chap. 17. Of the Guts.

THe Guts follow next according to the order of dissection, which are organicalƲse. Parts, hollow, appointed to carry the Chyle and to receive the Excrements. The thin Guts are appointed for the Chyle, the thick for the Excrements.

Their substance is Membranous and ful of strings, which may be divided into twoSubstance. Fl [...]shy. proper Membranes, of which, the a Inner is Fleshy, the b outward Nervous. But the Inner is rugged, and as it were [...]oulded that it may stay the Chyle in its wrinckles. that so the Mesaraick Veins may draw it the better, which like Horse-leeches draw the thinner Part of the Chyle from the Guts.

Besides the wrinkles, the Inside of the Guts is bedewed, And as it were de­sendedNervous. with a certa [...]e Flegmatick Slime, least the Membrane should be hu [...]t by the passage of Choler.

Besides these two proper Membranes there is a c common one, added from the Peri­toneum, Slimy. which it bestowes upon a [...] the Parts it contai [...]es.

The Guts are placed in the Abdomen and fil its whol Cavity without any confu­sion;Scituation. the Hypochondria excepted; and are disposed in various turnings by reason of the Connexion they have with the d Mesenterium.

They are seven times as long as the Body, and somthing longer.Longitude. General Di­vision.

This Longitude is divided into e thin, and f thick, not according to Scituation, but in respect of the Membranes: The thin which is taken from the inferiore Orifice of the Stomach, is the first & supreme in order, it consists of thin Membranes, the thick, is the Inferior in order, But the superior and shorter in Scituation, and more Capacious and hath thicker Membranes.

Again, the thin is distinguished into three Parts, or three Guts; of which the firstSpecial. is called g Duodenum, the second h Jejunum, the third i Ilium. The thick Gut is also divided into so many Parts or Guts: The first k Caecum: The second l Colon. The third m Rectum.

Al the Guts are hollow, that they may give passag to Chyle and Excrements. TheyCavity. are284 285 wrinckled round about within, al along their Longitude, even from the Stomach to the Fundament, that so they may stay the Chyle and Ex [...]rements of the first Conco [...]tion; but for expelling the Excrements, they have a kind of motion which presses downward by degrees. And thus much to wha [...] is common to al the Guts: It remains that we speak of them al severally.

The first Gut is called o Duodenum; because in length it is twelve Fingers1. Duod [...]num. bread [...]h.

The finding of this Gut is hard, for towards the back bone it must be sought for under the Sweet-bread with the beginning of the Jejunum; this position and Intertexture is diligently to be noted, because oftentimes the cause of obstructions & vomitings is without any failing of the Pylorus▪ but the choler flowing by the p Bili­ar Pore is hindred in his passage, and returning back into the Stomach causeth vo­miting.

In the very con [...]ines of the Duodenum and Jejunum, the passage of CholerBi [...]iar Pore. pierce [...] the Gu [...], and creeps downward a little way between the Membranes before i [...] pe [...]ceth the Inner Membrane, nee [...] which the q Channel of the Sweet-bread i [...] observed by Virs [...]ngus.

[Page 47]Where the Guts begin to be turned toward the left side, their the r Jejunum begins,2. Jejunum. which is thought to be emptier than the Ilium, by reason of his neerness to the Li­ver, and its Multitude of Mesaraick Veins: It lies altogeather in the umbilical Re­gion, and is in length about a Cubit, and an half.

The 290 Ilium follows, which is more slender, but in length surpasses al the rest3. Ilium. of the Guts. It occupies the Ilium, and Hypogastrium, and compasseth about the Jejunum it self with its inferior Part. In this Gut is that Disease which is called the twisting of the Guts, and the Iliack passion.

The fourth Gut in order, and the first of the thick Guts, is called 291 Caecum byThick Guts. 1. Caecum. Ancient Anatomists, and does retaine this Name, although it is altogether unlike to the Ancient description of it. It is not large like a Sack, neither doth it perform the Office of a second Stomach to Concoct the Chyle, which was not perfected be­fore: the Ingress and Egress, are by one hole. Now in its place, a Membranous Appendix is shewed, which is larger in a Child new born, than in a man grown up: and thence Sylvius took occasion to write, That many things were changed in ou [...] Bodies, both in regard of growth; and of the Guts, Duodenum and Caecum.

The Gut v Colon succeeds this; in which are many things worth our Considera­tion,2. Colon. to wit, its Largness, Scituation, Use, S [...]utters▪ two Ligaments, Its fringes of Fa [...], and its Connexion.

Of al the Guts, none more large, and Capacious, then this. It begins atLargness. the right Kidney neer the x Appendix; and being turned upwards, it lies under the Liver and Stomach, and passeth to the left Hypochondrium, where it is wrea­ [...]hed, and made [...]arrower.

In its Obliquation descending, it touches the left Kidney; and a little below, be­ingScituation. bowed like a Roman S. it ends in the top of the Os Sacrum.

In it, the Dunge and filth of the Guts, is kept: as also the wind of the first Re­gion. [...]se.

Least it should be dilated too much by Multitude of Dung, and Violence of wind,Ligaments. Nature hath strengthened this Gut with two strong Ligaments; which being stretched along its Longitude, they make greater foldings, and wrinckles in this Gut, then in any other. Insomuch that they seem like Ce [...]s to retain the Dung and because it wants the bond of the Mesenterium, and consequently that Humor which proceeds from the Fat of it; Nature hath placed about it, here and there,Fat. certain fringes of Fat to Moisten it.

That y Volve, or Shutter which Authors quarrel so much about, is not to beShutter▪s. passed by, being fastned to the beginning of the Colon, like a Membranous Circle, which hinders the flowing back of the Dunge into the Ilium▪ and the ascending of a Glister to the same place. Therefore it opens towards the Inferior Parts; that it may let the Dung pass out, and hinder it from flowing back.

It is knit to the Membrane of the Peritoneum, by a Membranous [...]ye, whatso­everCon [...]xion. Laurembergus wrote, accusing Riol [...]n [...]s of Ignorance▪ or dul-sighted­ness.

The last of the Guts is called z right, be [...]ause it passes straight from the top of the3. Right Gut. O [...] Sacrum, to the Fundament. This Gut, contrary to the Nature of others, besides the Internal fleshy Membrane, hath also an external a fleshy Musculous covering, like a sheath; that so it may the more forceably expel the D [...]g, which useth to clod in the extremity of the Colon, and right Gut. Therefore besides the compression of the Muscles of the Abdomen▪ and the Natural motion of the Colon, this same fleshy Sheath, crusheth the Dung; as it were with ones hand▪ that so it may pass out.

The Medicinal Consideration.

I pass now to the Diseases and Symptomes of the Guts. They suffer DiseasesGeneral Dis­eases of the Guts. boch Similar Organical and Common. For they are distempered by heat and cold, either with or without Humor. They are inflamed, wounded, Ulcerated, dryed, bound, loosened, made smooth the wrinckles being taken away▪ as in fluxes and bloody fluxes. Somtimes they are so stopped that the Excrements are Vomited up.

Besides these the common Diseases, the Guts severally considered, have their peculi­arPeculiar Dis­eases. Of the Duode­num. Diseases.

The Duodenum may be stopped by compression of the Sweet-bread, and then the food is Vomited up again two or three houres after it is eaten; because the passage is stopped.

The Ilium is subject to the Iliack passion, which is an Inflamation and not aIlium. twisting of that Gut; Somtime it fals down into the groyn, and somtimes into the Gods, which causeth Ruptures in those places.

Somtimes the Peritoneum being loosed or broken neer the Navel, the Disease cal­ledJejunum. Omphalocele commeth, in which the Jejunum slipps down.

The Colon is subject to the Collick, which ariseth either through sharp Humors,Colon. or wind, or extream cold Air. In it wormes are bred, which somtimes creep up into the Stomach and are Vomited out; This Gut alone is subject to Ulcerations, which causeth Putrefaction: which many think, comes from the Mesenterium, and most unfortunately use purging Medicines and Glysters which increase the evil and no way help it: Because the extremity of the Colon which is joyned to the right Gut is more fleshy, painful Impostums are bred there, which suppurate and are sooner cured then they would be, if they came from the Mesentery.

Somtimes Melancholy hard swellings are bred there which cause difficulty in go­ing to the stool and hasten death.

The right Gut hath its peculiar Diseases, Tenasmus, Inflamation, Impostumes,Right Gut [...] which end in Ulcers and fistulas, which are difficult to be cured and require, the help of the Chirurgion.

The Peristalcick motion of the Guts is Somtimes so perverted, that the Dung flowes upward, and Glysters are cast up at the Mouth. And so are suppositaries also, if you wil believe some Practitioners, but then the shutter of the Colon must needs be broken.

Al the Symptomes of the Guts are to be referred to the Excrements when they areSymptomes. excessive, as in Fluxes, or deficient, as when men go not to stool unless they be provok­ed by Medicine, both which Symptomes impair the health.

Fluxes are called Diarrhea, which is either Chylous or humoral: humoral is either Caeliacal, or Mesenterical, or Intestinal. When it comes with Ulceration▪ Paine and Blood, it is called a Bloody Flux. If it come without pain, and be like the Water in which raw flesh has bin washt, it comes from the Liver, and is called Hepatica. If it come through smoothness of the Guts, It is called Lienteria: if it come with Quitter it is called Mesenterical. The causes of al these Diseases yea may find in al Practtioners, and therefore we will make no longer stay upon them.

The internal Tunicle of the Guts Somtimes is severed & lost, which is thought to be turned into a long worm of two or three Cubits long, caled Tania, of which you may read in Spigelius Lib. de Lumbrico lato.

Chap. 18. Of the Mesenterium▪

THe a Mesenterium is the bond of the Guts, which keeps them in there places, [...] What it is. that they pass not into confusion and be thereby deprived of there action and use.

[Page 49]It is a double Membrane, between which, is Fat, and many b Glandulae, orIts Structure. Kernels, and a four-fold kind of c Vessels. This is the structure of it.

It is feared in the midst of the Belly, because it sticks to the transverse processesScituation▪ of the Vertebrae by Lygaments: thence is its original.

It sticks so firmely to the d Guts, that no division at al appears: between its twoVessels. Membraines, innumerable e Veins pass, which are called meseraick or Mesenterick. Also an infinite number of f Arteries from the Caeliacal Artery. Also it hath f Ner­ves from the Lumbals, or Nerves of the Loines.

The fourth kind of Vessels, are called g Venae lacteae, by Aselbus, the first finderVena Lactcae▪ of them out; of which we need not doubt, seeing it is now a common received truth.

This one thing troubles many, Namely, the diversity of their distribution: For in a beast ful fed, that is opened alive, these milky Veins are noted scattered about the Mesenterium; but some pass to the Sweet-bread, others to the Liver, others to the Trunck of the Vena Cava, none of them to the Spleen; neither like other, veins are they gathered into one Head; they seem rather to have their Root, and Founda­tion in the Sweet-bread, and from thence to be distributed this way, and that way.

These Milky Veins being granted, al difficulties which were formerly about theƲs [...] distribution of Chyle and blood by the same Channel, cease. For the Milky Veins carry the Chyle to the Liver, and the Meseraick Veins carry back the Blood to the Nourishing of the Guts. Therefore both these Channels may be stopped severally; which is to be noted of a Physitian, in curing of the Diseases of the Bo­wels.

The Mesenterium, seeing it communicates with the Liver by the h Vena Porta; with the Spleen by the i Caeliacal Arteries; and the Splenical k Vein; with the Guts by their Connexions, and hath a fatty Glandulous substance fit to receive Humors, and to retain al the impurities of the first Region; Physitians well cal it the Nurse of Diseases; for from that, as from a Fountain, do al the Diseases of the Bowels proceed: and al Physitians in prescribing Purges, and Remedies, have a special eye to that.

The Medicinal Consideration.

The Mesenterium labours under Diseases, both Simple, and Compound; it isDiseases of the Mesenteri­um. inflamed, and oftentimes uffers impostumes. It is Ulcerated, and by reason of its Vessels, often obstructed.

By reason of his fatty and Glandulous substance, it often swels to a great hard swelling, and is the Foundation of al Kings evil Swellings; which seldom come in great Number, but the Foundacion is here.

It is subject to bastard Collicks, which proceed of sharp Choler, and degenerate into Palsies in the inferior Limbs, and somtimes in the superior; and hence comes the Morbus Ructuosus, mentioned by Hippocrates, and Morbus Siccatorius. Of the Diseases of the Mesenterium, you may read Daniel Sennertus, and Matthews Martinius, who treats expressly of the Diseases thereof. Although the Mesar­aick, and Milky Veins, which carry Chyle, are fastned to the Guts like Horse-Le [...]ches, yet the matter is diversly drawn by those Channels, For the Liver draws Chyle by the Milky Veins from the Guts, but sends Blood by the Mesaraick Veins to the Guts; therefore both of them may be diversly obstructed.

For the milky Veins may be obstructed either al along through the thickness of Chyle; or else in their Roots within the Liver.How the Milky Veins are affe­cted.

If the obstruction be in the whol passage al along, then there ariseth a Chylous

[Page 50]Flux, either white, or tauny in Color. If in their Roots, either within, or neer the Liver, the Chyle hath a light Tincture of Blood.

If the Mesarick Veins be stopped within the Liver, the Liver cannot disburden itHow the Me­seraick. self of his Excrements, but they remaine either in the Liver, or in the Mesaraick Veins, and make most terrible obstructions, by reason of the multitude of the Veins, both within, and without the Liver.

The Milky Veins have no Trunck, but are seperated when they enter the hollow Part of the Liver; and therefore they are not so easily obstructed. And therefore al Humoral Fluxes of the Belly flow from the Liver or from distempers of the Mesaraick Veins. Thick Fluxes proceed from the Milky Veins, by reason of cor­rupted Chyle.

The Cure of both sort of Fluxes is the same, Namely, by such Medicines as cut,Cure. and purge out thick Humors: but in Liquid Fluxes of the Me [...]araick Veins, you must somtimes use strengthening Medicines, And somtimes bleeding and Vomi­ting is more proper for these Fluxes, than for those of the Milky Veins.

Chap: 19. Of the Sweet-bread, or Pancreas.

THe a Sweet-bread is a body neither truly b fleshy, nor truly Glandulous, butSubstance. in a middle betwen both: Yet it is very Syongy, that so it may receive the Excrements of the Spleen and Liver.

It lies under the Stomach like a soft Cushion▪ and is stretched from the c Liver toScituation. the d Spleen; and if it have its Natural conformation, it is as broad as the Palm of the Hand.

It receives the e Trunck of the Vena Porta; the Milky Veins, and the f SplenicalVessels. Vein, passeth to the g Spleen through its Cavity.

Besides, Virsungus Discovered a new h Channel in the Sweet-bread, passing aA new Channel long the length of it; which is inferred into the i Jejunum, neer the k passage of Cho [...]er: but for what end this was framed is yet uncertaine, whether it be to cleanse the Excrements of the Sweet-bread; or rather of the spleen, which are carried thi­ther.

So Fallopius found the Channels in the Sweet-bread, no way to communicateIts Ʋse. with the Veins, but that being filled with Choler, they empty themselves into the Bowels: o [...] whether rather, they carry a portion of Chyle to the Spleen, for a par­ticular making of Blood: but if this Channel do not touch the Spleen, then this Office is void, and it must be to cleanse the Sweet-bread of the Excrements it re­ceives, either from the Liver or Spleen; o [...] to carry away the fi [...]th of the Chyle, which happily may remain there.

It is observed, that this Part increaseth, when the Spleen decreaseth; so that it may wel be called the Spleens deputy. There is the Seat of Hypochondriacal Me­lancholy, & it is the entertainer of many Diseases, as wel as the ▪Mesenterium▪ both of them breed Sicknesses to the Body, if they be filled with evil, and filthy Humors.

Chap. 20. Of the Vena Porta.

WIthin the Belly, are two notable Veins contained; both of them takeTwo Veins. Porta. their original from the Liver: The one is called a Porta, which is sub­servient to the Places dedicated to nourishment, nether passeth it further. Theand Cav [...] other is called b Cava, which nourisheth the whol Body, from the Crown of the Head to the sole of the Foot, and passeth out of the Peritoneum, and creeps along [Page 51] the Back and Loines, with the great c Artery: Some think it is produced from the Heart, and not from the Liver. The Vena Porta ariseth from the hollow. Part of the Liver, which it filleth, and is called the Gate of the Liver, or the Vein which is seated at the Gates of the Liver.

The Trunk of the Vena Porta descending into the Belly, sends out a branch cal­ledBranches of the Vena Por­ta. Gastro Epiploon, which is distributed to the Stomach, and Omentum. The second d branch is called Intestinal, which is carried to the Duodenum: after that,Superior. it sends e two branches to the Gal, and the last f branch it sends to the right side of the Stomach.

These branches thus produced, the Trunck is divided into two famous branches; the g Splenical and h Mesenterical. This again, is divided into fower branches, ofInferior. which, the greatest keeps the name Mesenterical: The second is called i Haemor­rhoida, and passeth to the right Gut: The third is called C [...]calis, and passeth to the Gut Cae [...]um, or else to the beginning of the Colon: and the fourth passeth to, and nourisheth the remainder of the Colon.

The splenical branch, when it hath passed through the Sweet-bread, produceth four opposite Veins, aboue and below. The first is called k Gastrica Major, which ascends to the left side of the Stomack. Opposite to this is the right l Epi­ploica, which is distributed to the Omentum. The Coronaria succeeds this, and is distributed to the Somach, and the left Epiploica, to the Omentum.

Chap. 21. What is to be considered in the Vena Porta.

MAny things come to be considered in the Vena Porta.

1. It makes the first Region of the Body, with those Parts which it nourish­eth, and passeth with its Blood.

2. It contains a peculiar sort of blood, which is not circled, as the Blood of thePlace. Vena Cava is; and yet it may with the branches of the Caeliacal Artery, have aBlood. have transflux, and transvasation.

3. That it carries only Blood, and not Chyle, which is done by the Milky Veins, as also the impurities of the Liver and Spleen, to the Mesenterium, Sweet-bread,Office. and Guts.

4. That within the Liver, it hath either very smal, or no Communion at al by its Roots, with the Roots of the Vena Cava; and therefore each Vein carries itsCommunion. peculiar Blood. The blood of the Vena Porta is thick, and nourisheth the parts of the first Region. The blood of the Vena Cava, is subtile, fit for circulation, which nourisheth the parts of the second, and third Region.

5. That the branches of the Vena Porta within the Liver, are larger than those of the Vena Cava, if that do arise from thence.Larg [...].

6. That in a Diseased body, it is usually filled with Caco-Chymia; which, whether it ought to be emptied by breathing a Vein, a man may wel make a scruple, lest the Circulation of blood infect the whol Mass.

7. Whether the Vena Porta, after two or three Evacuations by the Arm, may not better be purged by the Hemorrhoids, or opening a Vein in one of theEvacuation. Feet?

8. That al impurities of the Belly, are contained in this Vein, from whence come terrible obstructions of the Spleen, and Mesenterium. Obstructions.

9. That there are no Shutters found in this Vein, as there are in the branches of the Vena Cava.

10. That the Vena Porta hath waies, whereby it disburdens it self, as the Veins [Page 52] of the Hemorrhoids: its reflux into the great Artery by the Caeliacal, and Vomi­ting of Blood against Nature, in Plethorick Bodies.

Chap. 22. Of the Caeliacal Artery.

THis is a branch of the great Artery descending, and accompanies the branchesOriginal. of the VenaPorta: for look how many branches the Vena Porta is divided into, so many also, is thea Caeliacal Artery divided; which notwithstanding, hath Pulse from the heart, and follows the motion thereof, as other Arteries do: but seeing his blood injoyes not the benifit of circulacion, as other Arteries do, so that it seems like a seperated Artery, Somtimes his motion is hindered, when thereMotion. is an Inflamation in the Abdomen; the rest of the A [...]eries gently mooving, as is often observed in Hypocondriack Melancholy, and other inflamations of the Hy­poc [...]ondrium.

Notwithstanding it hath Communion with the Vena Porta by mutual conjun­ctionAnastomosis. of their mouths; by which means there is a conflux of blood between them, whereby the vital Spirit of the Abdomen, is preserved.

This Pul [...]ation, or Palpitation, was known to Hippocrates, in Lib. 7. Epid. In that History of his, about the pulsation of the belly, neer the Navel; and in his Pr [...]gnosticks he makes mention of the same; If the Veins about the Midrife [...]eat, they foreshew either trouble of mind, or Madness.

The Caeliacal Artery in Hippocrates Book of the Diseases of Women, is called, the breathing place of the inferior Belly: See Duretus in Coacis. Page, 183.

Theb Splenical Artery, is notable; which is not brought by the Sweet-bread,Doctrine of the Splenical Artery. but creeps along the Longitude of the Diaphragma, neer the back bone: it is as big as the Splenical Vein, but Ambiguous in his progress, and gives no branches to the Parts neer it.

It is inserted into the Spleen by a double branch, as the Splenical Vein is; and therefore when the Caeliacal Artery is taken away, it is in vain to look for the Splenical; for there remains none, but two or three sinal Arteries, which pass to the Stomach.

From the Splenical Artery, neer the Spleen, pass two smal Arteries to the Sto­mach. From this faithful and true relation, you may easily know how malignant Vapours are carried from the Spleen and Mesenterium, to the Heart; whence in Pla [...]tus, he complained, that he had a Splenitick Heart, it leaped, and beat his Brest.

Chap. 23. Of the Stomach.

THe Stomach is the Kitchin of the first Concoction; it consists of proper Mem­branes,Membranes of the Stomach. and one a common, one which it receivs from the Peritoneum. The b internal is rugged, and hairy, like a peice of Silk: The c External is fleshy, that it may receive the heat of the Bowels which lie upon it, to wit, of the Liver and Spleen which heat it. And that it may the more easily compress, and hold together the internal, it hath a threefold sort of strings, which strengthen it to that end; and also when it is slackened with store of Meat, they do contract it again, so soon as the digested Aliment is forced out of the Stomach.Its Scituation.

It is b Scituate between the Liver, and the Spleen, as it were between two fires, bending a little towards the left Hypochondrium, if the Spleen hold its natural bigness; otherwise, when the Spleen is bigger than ordinary, it thrusts the StomachIts Size. into the middle.

[Page 53]The greatness of the Stomach cannot be exactly defined, because being empty, and exhaust, if strong, it is so contracted, that it is no bigger than a mans Fist. Being stretched and widened with store of Beily Chea [...], it wi [...] containe six pints of Drink, with a Pound or two of Meat, as is daily seen in Gluttons, and Toss-Pots.

There is but one Stomach in Mankind, which is somtimes divided according toNumber. the Longitude into two Cavities; which have their Ingress and Egress, like the Stomachus, and Pylorus. And such persons do vomit with great difficulty; and when they do, they cast up Excrementitious Humors without that broth which they took the same moment. Shal we say the separating faculty can work so quick, or rather that the broath is slipt down into the Lower division of the Stomach from whence it cannot easily returne, because of the narrowness of the upper Orifice.

If the Stomach be single and rightly shaped, it is of a longish Spherical Figure, Figure. and is compared to the Belly of a Bag-Pipe, setting aside the Oesophagus and Guts.

The Egress of the Stomach is equal in height unto its Ingress; that is to say, theTwo Orifices. two Orifices thereof, are equal in height, least the Meat and Drink should slip through, before they be digested; and then being digested by the strength of the Stomach Contracting it self, the Pylorus is opened, and the Chylus sent into the Gut.

The Ingress, or upper a Orifice of the Stomach, is in a special manner termedThe upper. Somachus, being the Seat of Hunger and Thirst, because it is crowned with two Nerves, called b Stomachici Nervi; and is consequently of an Exquisite sense.

The lower Orifice, is called c Pylorus; in which you shal observe a Valve, The Lower▪ round in shape, and as visible and remarkable as the Valve in the Gut Colon. This Va­lve is to hinder the Chyle from returning back again into the Stomach.

Besides these two Orifices in the Stomach, there is observable its d Bottom, orIts Bottom▪ Inferior Part, more fleshy than the rest; because therein the Meat is boyled or digested.

The internal e surface of the Stomach is wrinckled, and stored with fibres, thatInner Surface▪ it may thereby retain what is taken in for nourishment.

The Action of the Stomach is the Coction of Aliments; which though they beAction. Digestion how Caused. many, and of divers kinds; yet the Stomach, by a propriety, or inbred faculty which it has, does dissolv [...] and as it were melt them, and turne them into a sub­stance like Creme; which is [...] Chylu [...]. How that is done, I have already examined in my Anthropographia; and in my Answer to Wallaeus, a very learned Physitian of Leyden.

The Stomach has Communion, by reason of neighbour hood, with the Liver, Communion with other parts. the Gal, the Spleen, the Sweet-bread, the uppermost Guts, upper Part of the Mesentery; and also by the veynes which it has from the Trunk of Vena Porta, and the Splenical Branch. It Communicates also with the Heart and Lungs, by the Stomachicat Nerves; of which some Part is Communicated to the Heart and Lungs: it Communicates also with the Brain, by thef Stomachical Nerves, which proceed from the sixt Conjugation.

It does chiefly Sympathise with the Kidneis, when they are misaffected, eitherGreat Sympa­thy with the Kidnies. by want of Appe [...]ite, or by frequent Vomiting, by reason of g a complication of the Costal and Stomachical Nerves, disposed between the two Kidneis. From whence are derived Nerves, that are dispersed into al Parts of the Belly.

By reason of its Nervous substance, it has Communion with the whol Body;Communion with the whol Body. whence it is the in the Disease Cholera, the Ancles are contracted; & there is anxiety, and Unquietness of the whol Body, when the Stomach is disordered.

The Medicinal Consideration.

THe Stomach is afflicted with diverse Diseases, Simi [...]ar, Organick, and Com­mon. Stomachs Distemper. For it is troubled with a Simple, or Compound destemper, while it is over cooled, over heated, over-dried, or over-moistned: of which, Galen dis­courses accurately, in the seventh of his Method.

Also, it is Inflamed, Impostumated, and Ʋlcerated; and these three happenInflamation. Apostumation. Ʋlcer. Incision of its Bottom. cheifly in the upper, or lower Orifices, because of their fleshyness: somtimes they may happen in the bottom, which is wounded, and healed, yea, and can bear inci­sion, that any Iron, or other hard thing which hurts the Stomach may be taken out, when it cannot otherwise be voided, either upward or down ward: as we read in that story of a Prusian, who had swallowed a Knife.

Hippocrates observed a burning Heat about the Stomach, in his Aphorismes: [...]urning. which is dangerous, by reason of Choler shed between the Coates of the Stomach; or by reason of the neighbouring Parts burning, and Inflamed.

Somtimes the Gall touches those Parts of the Stomach which are next it, and [...]red by the Gall. scorches the same, as if it were burnt with a Fire brand red hot.

It is also troubled with Diseases of Magnitude, Increased o [...] Diminished; Dis­eases in Scituation, in Cavity, in Figure, and in Smoothness.

The Magnitude of the Stomach, Augmented, and Widened, as in Gluttons,Distended. does over much stretch the Stomach, and loosen its Fibres. So that afterwards, it cannot be sufficiently contracted to imbrace the Meat in such sort, as to turn the same into good Chylus: which is the Cause of crudity, and weakness in the Sto­mach.

And when the Substance thereof is so streitghned, through dryness or Swelling ofStra [...]ned. the Membranes, that it cannot sufficiently widen it self to contain the Meat; then is it pained after Eating, though but a little Meat be taken.

But the Stomach is more frequently Diseased by Dilatation, and Exolution, Widened and and slackned. or Flaggyness, and Slapness, both in persons otherwise in health, and such as are sick; while with Broaths and plenty of cold drink the Tone or [...] vigor of the Stomach, is so dissolved, that a loosness of the Belly is thereby caused: which is a [...]tributed to the Corruption of the Meat through an hot distemper of the Sto­mach; or to the Obstruction of the Mesaraick Veins: which Symptome, notwith­standing, is often Caused by the over great Laxity of the Stomach, which Fer­nelius calls Morbum Materiaea a Disease in the matter; and it must be Cured with strengthning and astringent things. This has been [...]served in the opening of dead Bodies, where the Stomach is found so [...], and so widened, that it would contain the Head of an Infant. And therefore it is very necessary for a Practitioner to observe the Diseases of the Matter, which are Cured with drying and astringent things, both given in, and applied outwardly. This was the Do­ctrine of that sect of Antient Physitians, which were termed Methodici, who made Laxity, and Astriction, the Cheife things observable in al Diseases.

Somtime the Stomach changes its natural Scituation, and is drawn back towardsChanges po­ [...]ure. the Midrife, which Causes shortness of Breath after Meales. Somtimes it hangs down as low as the Navel, as has been observed in Bodies dissected, which makes a bad life, and a bad Concoction.

It is obstructed when its upper, or lower Orifice, is troubled with some swelling,Obstructed. which hinders the coming in of Nutriment into the stomach, and its going out after digestion.

It is also Diseased with Smoothness, when the Inner Surface, which naturallyMade smooth. should be wrinkled, is become smooth, which Causes that symptome which is termed Lienteria, which is, when there is such loosness of the Belly, that the Meat comes away unchanged, just as it was Eaten.

[Page 55]Divers Symptomes infest the Stomach in respect of its Action being hurt, and in regard of the disorder of such things as are Evacuated therefrom. The A [...]tion ofAction Hurt. the Stomach is, Appetite, Concoction and Chylification. The Appetite is hurt, when it is Abolished, Diminished, or Depraved. It is Abolished, when there is no Stomach or Appet [...]te, or when Meat is loathed, especially flesh, which is theWant of Ap­petite. worst. Appetite is often Diminished in Diseases, which is not so bad. But the Depravation of Appetite is worse.

Now it is depraved, when there is a Dog-like Appetite which cannot be satisfied;Dog appetite. A [...]surd long­ings. or when evil things are desired; which kind of depraved Appetite, Pliny termes Malacia; and Galen, cally it Citta; in Latin Pica, the Mag-p [...]e

Chylification Abolished, or Diminished, is called, Apepsia, Inconcoction; andUndig [...]stion. S [...]ow d [...]g [...]stion. Ill dig [...]stion. by vulgar Physitians, Corruptio Chyli, a corruption of the Chyle. When Meat is long in digestion, tis called Bradu [...]epsia, slow Digestion. When the Meat is corrupted, its called Dysp [...]psia, ill digestion.

To Action hurt, belong the Feeling, Motion, and Pain of the Stomach. There is feling in the whol Stomach, but it is exquisite in the upper Orifice, by reason of certain Nerves of the Six Pare, which are there interwoven with admirable work­manship.

Feeling, is Abolished, and Diminished, when there is need of hungring andRe [...]sing Meat. thirsting, and yet the Stomach perceives it not, but refuses both Meat and drink. This proceeds from a great di [...]temper of Heat, or Cold; which causes Mor [...]ificati­on, unless the Patient be distracted.

The sence of feeling is depraved in the Pain of the whol Stomach, or of the upperHeart-burning Orifice thereof, which drawes the Heart and noble Parts to Sympathise therewith: wherefore this pain of the Stomach, is called Cardiogmos, Cardialgia and the aking of the Heart, or Heart-burning; and causes that kind of swouning, which is called Syncope Stomachica, the Stomach swouning; and comes through the Hearts Sympa­thising with the S [...]omach.

And to this Pain of the Stomach, belongs Anxiety, and U [...]quiet tumblings andAnxiety. [...]ossings; which the Greekes terme Riptasm [...]s, or Asse; from whence the Feaver Assodes, has its Name; in which the Sick are ful of unquietness,

The motion of the Stomach, is Relaxation, Coarctation; By theWant of Con­traction upon the Meat H [...]ccuping. Bel [...]hing. latter, it shuts it self upon the Meat to digest the same, and when that motion failes, there is nothing but [...]uctuations, and risings, both when a man is ful and fasting.

The motion of the Stomach is depraved in Hiccupings, and Bel [...]hings. Hic­cuping is more trouble some then Belching, and is an il sign in feavers, whether it come by fault of the Stomach it self, or by its Sympathising with some other Part, especially the Li [...]er. Hippocrates mentions a Disease called Morbus Ru [...]uosus, the Belching Disease.

Disorders in point of Excret [...]on are frequent in the Stomach; either upwards, inSymptomes in excretion a [...]e. Vomitings, and Spawlings; or downwards, in the Lienteria, Diarr [...]a, and Coel [...]a [...]a Affectio.

Vomiting happens, either by reason of obstruction of the upper, or of the lowerVomiting. Orifice; if the upper be obstructed, the Meat is stopped in the upper Orifice a while, and presently after Vomited: if the fault be in the lower, the Meat is retained a longer time, and at last Vomited up.

A daily Vomiti [...]g up of Choler, without further trouble, is no Disease, nor illOf Ch [...]ler. Symptome; because it happens by reason that a branch of the Choler carrying Ves­sel, is carryed into the Stomach; as Galen observes and proves by examples.

Vomiting of Blood is an evil Symptome, whe [...]her the Blood flow from the Liver,Of Blood. by the Veins which are branched from the porta, into the Stomach; or from the Spleen by theh Vas Breve. Somtime the Patients life is Vomited up this waies, according to that expression of a Poet.

O [...]t of his Mouth, he sperves his Purple Soul.

[Page 56]The frequent breaking up of wind with Belching, may be reduced to this Symp­tomeOf wind. of Vomiting; and this may be that which is termed Cholera Sicca, known to Hippocrates, and declared with its signs, by Ludovicus Dure [...]us in his Com­ment upon the Coick Praedictions of Hippocrates.

But there is a Malignant Symptome, called Cholera humida, Of Choler up and down. which is a violent, and plentyful voiding of Choler upwards and downwards, which kills within four daies; becauses very much Evacuation suddenly caused, is dangerous. H.p. 1. Book of Aphorismes; and al excess is an Enemy to Nature, according to the same Hippocrates. It proceeds from an Inflamation of the Sto­mach, which is allayed by cooling aud astringent Remedies, inwardly taken, and outwardly applied, but especially by the drinking of the spaw Waters, and other Medicinal springs of the like Nature; and by Laudanum discreetly given. We must avoid the use of cordial, and Stomach Pouders of an hot Nature, because they vex and fret the Stomach. The Physitians of Paris do let Blood, in a smal Quantity, though the pulse be very weak, least the Stomach Heat being suffocated, a Gangraene should arise.

Spawling, or Salivation, unless it be caused by anointing the Body with Quick­silver2. Spawling. (which they cal Fluxing) comes either from the Brain, or else (and that of­tentimes) from the Spleen, whose superfluous serosity is received into the Stomach and voided at the Mouth by spitting and spawling.

The Cardiacus Morbus belongs to the Diseases of the Stomach; of which, readMorbus Car­diacus. Trallianus Lib. 3. Chap. 5. 25. And Mercurialis in Varjis Lectionibus. Twas knowingly said of Seneca in his 15 Epistle; Bibere et sudare Vita Cardiaci est; drin­king and sweating, is the Life of a Cardiacal Person. Pliny, in his 23. Book, Cap. 1. of his Natural History, saies, that al Hope of Curing this Disease consists in the use of wine. Which he borrows from Varro, out of the 14. Chap. of the 13. Book. This Morbus Cardiacus, is an extreme Faintness of the Stomach, joyned with much sweating: it proceeds from an hot Distemper thereof.

Among Diseases of the Stomach Rumination ought to be reckoned, which is anRumination. inversion or turning of the Stomach, as it were Inside out, which in some Living Creatures is no trouble, as in those that chew the [...]ud. Of this Disease see what Horstius saies in his Epistles.

Out of this Anatomical and Pathological Discourse may be collected, what partsVomits wa­rily to be used. are purged through the Stomach by way of Vomit: whether it be safe to exagitate this Part by Violent Vomits: whether it be good to use a mans self to this kind of Evacuation; seeing no good Hu [...]wife makes a [...]lo [...]e-stool of her Pottage-Pot. The best way is, diligently to preserve the Stomach▪ and to Roborate [...]s Tone or con­tractive Vigor, rather than to dissolue and s [...]cken the same by Vomiting, unless Nature desire to di burthen her self that way, and the patient be easie to vomit, and such preparatives be prem [...]ed as the Antients were wont to use.

Wherefore they deal unskilfully, not to say wickedly, who after many otherVomits not to be given to persons very weak. Medicines tried, do give vomits to such as are at Deaths door, as the last help, which suffocate that little life which remaines, and bring a speedy death. But some wil say that Empericks and Mountebancks, do this with good success. I answer, if you should reckon up those patients who have taken them to their cost, you would find an hundred dead, for two robustions persons saved; who scaped by their good for­tune, not by help of the vomiting Medicament: it is better to use vomits rather at the beginnings of Diseases, while Choler works and ferments in places neer the Sto­mach, than when the Pangs of Death have seized upon the Patient. 'Tis Man slaughter, to wrong People in their health. The discreeter sort of Empericks, when they are called to such Patients, are wont to find fault with what other Physitians have acted, and to declare the Patient dangerously sick, and there upon, warily to give their Aurum Potabile or som such other. Medicine as a cordial and restorer of strength, until Nature being freed from al disturbance of Physick, begins to gather strength: and then they take opportunity to give a gentle Vomit which Purges [Page 57] serous, or such like Excrements, up and down. In very many Diseases, Hippocra­tes saies, 'tis better to be quiet, than to do any thing; that is, 'tis better to leave the work to Nature, than to give any Medicament. And if the Physitian knew that he is the Servant and Assistant of Nature, he would cure more Patients than he does. See Valesius upon the 19. Text of Sect. 2. of the 6. Book of Hippocrates Epide­micks.

Sluggishness of the Belly, and impurity of the Vessels, brings al into confusion. Hippocrates.

Chap. 24. Of the Liver.

THe Liver, which is the Instrument of making Blood, consists of a SubstanceSubstance of the Liver. Its Color. proper to it self, fitted, and ordained to that end; for it is like congealed blood, and therefore red, and the same color it imprints upon the blood; howbeit the Liver of some Fishes, is of another Color, viz. green, black, yellow as Saf­fron; in which Creatures, the blood receives its red color by passing through the substance of the Heart.

But in Men, and other living Creatures, which have the two Veins distinct, calledBlood, where, and how made. Porta, and Cava, the whol Mass of blood is wrought in the Liver; but one part thereof, less perfect than the rest, is by the Vena Porta distributed among those Parts which serve to nourish the Body; another part being conveighed by the Vena Cava, is perfected in the Heart, of which is made the Arterial blood, which is di­stributed to al the parts, and afterwards is transmitted into the Veins, that so in a Circular motion, it may pass again into the Heart, that by its flux, it may main­tain the perpetual motion of the Heart; as the Wheels of a Mil, are continually turned about by force of the Wind, or Water-fal.

Such blood is furnished to those parts, which having sence and motion, depend upon the Brain or Heart.

The Liver is a scituate in the right Hypochondrium, under the bastard, or shortScituation of the Liver. Bigness. Ribs, and fils with its bulk, al that Cavity to the Sword-like Cartilage. Somtimes it is so enlarged, as to exceed those Natural Bounds, and then it rests upon the Sto­mach, reaching as far as the Spleen, and descends three or four fingers breadth below the bastard, or short Ribs: which happens, partly through relaxation of the bands wherewith it is bound to the Midrif, and short Ribs, partly through swelling of the Liver it self, over loaded with Nutriment.

In Man-kind, there is one single Liver, which is not divided into Lobes, or Fin­gers,Number. as in bruit Beasts; yet there is a certain b Cleft to be seen, where the Umbilical c Vein creeps into the Liver; and many times two little Lobes, or Laps, are d seatedLobes, or laps. under the greater ones: somtimes there is only e one, which being hollowed, re­ceives the Trunk of Vena f Porta, which is included in a Duplication of the Omen­tum, or Call, that the Excrements of the Liver might be derived thither.

Although the Liver be one continued Substance, yet Anatomists divide the sameTwo Regions of the Liver. into two Regions; the one superior, and exterior; the other inferior, and internal. The superior, or upper, is called the g Gibbous, or bunching part of the Liver: the inferior is called the h hollow part of the Liver. Into the upper Region, the Vena Its Vessels. i Cava sprinkles its Roots: into the nether Region, the Vena k Porta sows abroad its Suckers.

Besides these Roots, there are observable, certain Branches of the Channel of Cho­ler, dispersed among the Roots of Vena Porta; and certain little twigs of the Milky Veins, which neer the Trunk of Porta, do enter into the Cavity of the Liver.352 353

[Page 58]It is the mind of Physitians, that both these Regions ought diligently to be ob­served,Diversity of the Regions, to be observed in practice. because in either of these Regions, the morbifick matter may be contained, which is diversly to be purged, according as it possesses the one or other Region: for as much as the bunching part of the Liver, is purged by the Kidneys, through the Vena Cava, the hollow part is purged by the Guts, by means of the Branches of Porta, which are terminated in the Guts, conveighing blood, and the evil humors of the Liver. I have seen Impostumes in the bunching part, when the hollow part has not been at al tainted: and on the other side, I have seen the hollow part impo­stumated, without any detriment to the bunching part.

Howbeit, inasmuch as I cannot see those two Regions separated so much as by a Membrane; I cannot beleeve that one part can be sick, and the other sound, unless the morbifick humor be contained within the Pipes of the little Veins.

Many Anatomists do affirm, that the Roots of Vena Cava, and Vena Porta, doWhether the Roots of Cava and Po [...], are united in the liver. meet together, and are united one unto another by many Anastomoses: others deny that there is any such Conjunction; among which, I willingly acknowledg my self for one, and give my voyce on their side: my Reasons I have els-where laid down, and Nature would have it so, that natural, and vicious Humors might not be confusedly jumbled together in the Liver.

You shal observe, how the Vein which is taken for Cava, takes its rise out ofHow blood is distributed from the Liver the upper part of the Liver, and is inserted into the Trunk of Cava, neer the midrif, that the Cava may forth with powr out the blood which it hath received from the Liver, or rather transmit the same into the neighboring Heart, scituate on­ly two or three fingers breadths off, and inclosed in the Pericardium, which clea­veth circularly to the Nervous Centre of the Diaphragma: whereby thou maiest perceive, that the greater part of the blood, goes into the right Ventricle of the Heart, that it may become Arterial, by a double Circulation, Particular, and General. A double Cir­culation of the blood. I cal that the particular Circulation, which is made from the right Ventricle of the Heart through the midst of the Lungs, so as that the blood comes again into the left Ventricle of the Heart. The general Circulation, is that which is made through the Channels, or large Pipes of the Cava, and the Aorta, after that manner which is described in my Treatise of the Circulation of the Blood.

The Medicinal Consideration.

The Liver being affected contrary to Nature, is subject to any distemper, eitherDiseases of the liver in respect of Temper. substance▪ Scituation. with, or without matter; and instead of good blood, it breeds that which is Chole­rick, Flegmatick, or Melanchollick. It is altered, and corrupted in its substance, whiles it loses its Tone, and becomes flaggy, and faint.

It changes its Scituation, when it is placed in the left side, and the Spleen on the right, which seldom happens: or when upon the slackning of those Ligaments wherewith it is fastened to the Midrif, and Sword-like Cartilage, it sinks below the short Ribs, as far as to the Navel.

Its Magnitude is changed, when it is so over-charged with Humors that it swelsMagnitude. again.

It's Figure, or Shape, is also changed, if we feel it to be round. Oftentimes itsShape. passages are stopt, namely, the Roots of the Cava, and Porta; or the Roots of the Gall-Bladder are stopt, though the other be open.

It has communion in regard of Neighborhood, with many parts which it touches,Communion with other parts: but especially with the Stomach, which it often harms, being inflamed, or impostu­mated: and somtimes it exulcerates the same, and makes an hole therein, to empty its self that way of its Quittor. With its hollow part, it touches the Guts, which are offended in Diseases of the Liver; and also the Peritoneum it self, by reason of the Coate which it imparts, and the Midrif, by reason of [...]m Connexion they have with the Liver, are drawn to sympathize in its Disea [...].

The Action of the Liver, which is Sanguification, or Blood making, is here byAction. the fore-recited Diseases: whereupon divers Diseases, and divers Pains do arise.

[Page 59]Wherefore the Similary Diseases of the Liver are al Distempers, and the LaxityIts Similar Diseases. thereof, from which some are termed Hepatici, who having a looseness do void Ex­crementitious Blood, like the Water in which Raw flesh has been washt, or Excre­mentitious Humors of bad and diverse Colors.

Its Organick Disease is obstruction. Its Disease common to the Similar andIts Organick, Common and Compound Dis­eases. Organick Parts, is an Ulcer and a wound. Its Compound Disease is al sort of Tu­mors, whence comes the Term of Inflamation of the Liver. also a scirrhus and a purulent Impostum, which is frequent enough.

Its Symptomes are, Action hurt, and that manyfold: and first of all, its attra­ctionIts Symptoms. of Chyle being abolished, breeds a looseness of the Belly, in which Chyle is voided. Its Retention abolished, breeds the Liver looseness called Diarrhaea Hepatica. But the Principal Action of the Liver, viz. Sanguification or Blood­boiling is abolished in the Dropsie, is diminished in Atrophia, and is depraved in Cachexia.

The Dropsie is defined to be, a frustration of Sanguification in the Liver, whenDropsie. in stead of blood or natural spirit, it produces nothing but Water and Wind, which are emptied forth into the Belly, whence come the Ascites and Tympanites, that is the Bottle-bellied, and the Drum-bellyed Dropsie; or else they are conveighed into the Habit of the body, whence comes the Dropsie Anasarca and Empneuma­tosis, viz. The Bloat-fac'd, Puf-Cheek'd Dropsie. Somtimes a Dropsie is caused through fault of the Spleen and other Parts, but not without the Liver be hurt, and likewise the heart, by means of the Circulation of the blood.

Atrophia (or falling away of flesh) is an hindrance of the bodies nourishment,Atrophy. by reason of the badness of the blood which the Liver Makes.

Cachexia is a depraved kind of Nourishment, by reason of bad Sanguification.Cachex [...]. Before these, is wont to march a simple accident, viz. Badness of Color in the Skin, either blewish white, or Yellow, by reason of Serosity or Choler shed into the Habit of the whol Body, even as far as the face, by which we discerne the evil dispositions of the Liver.

Chap. 25. Of the Bladder of Gall.

NOw follows the Folliculus Fellis, or Cystis Billiaria, the Bladder whichIts Name. is ordained to containe that Excrementitious Choler which flowes from the Liver.

Its substance is Membranous, being distinguished into two Coates.Substance. Scituation.

It is placed under a the Liver, & affixed to the greater Lobe or lap thereof, and as it were, overwhelmed therein.

The bottom of the Gal Bladder respects the inferior Parts, Its Neck, the superi­orBottom. Neck. Sinus. parts, and a pipe derived from the Gall-Bladder called Canalis Cysticus, is car­ried obliquely til it meet the Canalis Hepaticus. There is a Sinus, or bending neer the Orifice of the Bladder,

Its Magnitude varies according to the plenty or Scarsity of Choler, It is only one.Bigness. Number. It has been found somtime double, but that was contrary to the intention of nature. It's divided into the bottom, which is the lower Part, and into the Neck which is the upper Part.

It has an oblong shape resembling a large Pear, broad at the bottom and straitterShape. towards the Neck.

It is hollow that it may receivve Choler, and retaine it til a convenient time ofPassages of Choler. emptying the same: is has certaine pipes or Channels to carry Choler: the one b broader and longer, drawn out from the Liver to the beginnigng of the c Intestinum Jejunum, that is the Hungry Gut, or Gut termed Jejunum, by which the thickerMeatus He­paticus. Choler passes directly away; the other Pipe is d smaller and shorter, which is drawn Cross-waies, from the Neck of the bladder, to the foresaid passage. The former I cal Meatum Hepaticum, the Liver Channel; the latter I cal Cysticum [Page 60] Meatum, the Bladder passage, by reason of its Rise and Orifice. For the Meatus Cysticus carries the thinner Choler into the Meatus Hepaticus, which a porousMeatus Cysti­cus. Membrane, ful of little holes, rooted in the Liver had suckt therefrom.

Aud therefore we must observe, that there are two sorts of Choler in the Liver,Two sorts of Choler [...]in the Liver. Communion. and two Channels to Purge them away at divers times; which is a Consideration of great moment in the Cure of Diseases.

The Gall Bladder communicates with the Stomach by touching the same, which it heates so, as somtimes to burn the same, when the Gall Is inflamed in its Bladder. Somtimes it sticks to the Gut Colon which passes along hard by, which it often Colers Yellow, and provokes it to expell the Excrements.

This expurgation of Choler, being liable to be stopt, does vex the body with many Inconveniences.

There is seldom observed a third channel of Choler, which goes into the Stomach, unless some Part creep from the Meatus Hepaticus unto the Pylorus.

It has manifest Veins from the Porta called Venae Cysticae. Its Arteries and Its Vessels. Nerves are not so visible.

The Medicinal Consideration.

THe Gall-Bladder is subject to few Diseases. The most common are, when itsDiseases of the Gall-Bladder. Cavity or its Channels are obstructed. When its Cavity is ful of little stones, or filled with one great one, by reason of thick Choler changed into a stony sub­stance. Its passages are stopped in the Liver, or in the Gut. Also it is broken, through violeut motion in Vomiting; and sometime it is so distended with Choler, when the passages are stopped that should Evacuate the same, that it has been seen as big as both a Mans Fists.

Somtimes, when it is empty of choler, it dries up, so that nothing therefore remaines saving the ductus Hepaticus. If we beleive Fernelius, there could be no other Cause found of the death of some persons, than that their Gall-Bladder had no Choler in it: if so, the evil and venemous Quality of the suppressed Choler was so great, as to infect the heart, or to weaken and corrupt some noble part.

The Symptomes of this Part are more manifest; which do consist in its actionIts Symptomes. hurt, or in the undue proportion or quantity of the Excrementitious Choler. The Action of the Gall-bladder is attraction of Choler, which is either diminished, or abolished. The undue proportions or quantity of the Choler is, when either too little or too much is voided forth.

Which Symptomes cheifly appear in those Parts which Sympathise with the Gall­bladder,Their Signs. as in the Stomach, when Choler is vomited up; in the whol body, when Choler is shed abroad through the Veins into the habit of the Body, and deformes the Skin; or when it takes its Course into the Guts and causes a dysentery, or a Cholerick looseness.

But the original of these Symptomes is to be charged upon the Liver, being il dis­posed.Their Original.

And Democritus had good Reason to search diligently into the seat and Nature of Choler, when he made dissection of divers living Creatures, that he might be more able rightly to cure the Diseases of Body and mind.

When I see in an extream Yellow Jaundice, the whol Skin infected with Choler, &Diversity of Choler proved. that the Urins die cloaths Yellow, the stooles being in the mean time whitish; And when I see in another sort of Jaundice, both the Urins and stooles Yellow; This confirmes to me, that there are two sorts of Choler, and several waies for the expur­nation of each of them. In the Yellowest sort of Jaundice, in which the stooles areBy the differ­ent sorts of Jaundice. whiteish, the Meatus Hepaticus or Liver passage of Choler is stopped in the Ca­vity of the Liver. In the other sort of Jaundice when the stools are Yellow, it shews that a quantity of Choler passes away by the Urins and Guts, and the ob­struction [Page 61] is not so great nor so stubborn, as in the Yellowist sort of Jaundice, and therefore it is to be hoped the Cure will be more speedy.

Chap. 26. Of the Spleen.

THe Spleen is a Bowel placed right against the Liver, as its Lieutenant, and aThe Spleen described. kind of Bastard-Liver, that when the Liver is Diseased, it may assist the same in Sanguification or blood making.

It is of a a Substance spongy, soft, sprinkled al over with very many Vessels likeIts Substance▪ Fibres or threds; yet it is altogether unlike the substance of the Liver. It is in­folded in a Membrane b proper to it self, seeing it receives none from the Perito­neum.

Its Color is Black and Blew and obscurely Reddish.Color. Greatness.

Its greatness is uncertaine and not determinable, because it grows greater or less, according to the abundance, or defect of Humors which flow thither, & are collected therein. So that there is none of the Bowels which does so easily grow bigger and les­ser, as the Spleen.

In respect of Number, it is wont to Be single; Somtimes it has been observed toNumber. be double and threefold.

Consider in the Spleen its upper Part, which is termed the Head, and its netherParts. Part which is called the Taile.

Tis a placed in the left Hypochondrium, under the short Ribbs, opposed as itScituation. were to weigh against the Liver, that the Body might remaine equally bal­lanced.

When it keeps its Natural Constitution, its Temper is hot and moist enclining toTemper. dryness.

It is of an oblong shape, like a Tongue, in Brutes; but in Mankind, it is moreShape. like the Sole of a Mans Foot. In the fore Part towards the Stomach, it is b hollowed, that it might receive the c splenical Veins and Arteries, on the back part towards the Ribbs, its d bunching.

Its knit into the Stomach by two or three Veines remarkable enough, which doConnexion. make that so famous e Vas Breve, so called by reason of the shortness of the way. Through those Veins it disburthens it self into the Stomach: by the Veins and Arteries Splenical, it Purges it self into the Guts and Kidnies.

Ii's fastened to the bastard Ribs by Membranous Fibres sufficiently strong: somtimes it's fastened to the Stomach, and is knit at its point to the Midrif or Diaphragma.

It Communicates with the Heart, by a remarkable peculiar and admirable Ar­tery which it hath, which by a short way carries thither, the Vapours or [...]l Juyces thereof.

The Action of the Spleen is much doubled and controverted among PhysitiansAction con­troverted, di­vers Opinions thereof. and Anatomists: so Many Men, so Many Minds: Hippocrates did beleeve that it drew superfluous serosity out of the Stomach: which Opinion Aristotle followed, though others draw it to an attraction of Chyle, either out of the Pancreas and Me­sentery, or out of the Stomach.

Galen will have it emploied in Purging away Melancholy, which it draws from the Liver.

Others are of Opinion that it prepares Blood for the Heart that it may become Arterial, whether it be of the thicker parts of the Chyle, or of the dregs of the Blood carried thither.

Others say it prepares a superfluous wheyish matter, being the excrement of its own digestion, which it sends back again into the Stomach, to ferment the Meats when they are turned into Chyle.

The Arabian Physitians acknowledg such an Humor, but they assigne its office to be the provoking of Appetite. Galen thought that it did help to strengthen the Stomach.

[Page 62]In so great dissent of Authors what shal we resolve upon? every one brings probable reasons for his Opinion. Hofmannus conceives he has so sufficiently establshed his Opinion, that no wise man can contradict him. Shal I venter my Opinion among so many learned Champions?

I conceive that the Spleen does attract slimy Blood to nourish it self, and thatThe Authors Opinion. it sheds a special kind of fermentative Serosity through the Splenick Arteries into the Stomach; and because its Parenchyma or substance is of a Spongy and soaking Nature, it does by the Veins attract and suck out the superfluous humidity of the Stomach, that the Coction may be the better.

Howbeit, I deny not but that it may by Accident supply the Office of the Liver, when the same hath lost its faculty of Sanguification; but Blood cannot be made so good and perfect in the Spleen as in the Liver, seeing it is but a bastard Liver, and consequently makes but bastard Blood and impure, because not Clari­fied.

Hofman makes himself Ridiculous, while he eagerly contends in a little BookHofmans Opi­nion of the Spleens Sangui­fication exami­ed. which he has put forth, and up and down in his other writings, that the muddy part of the Chylus, is carried by the Mesaraick Arteries unto the Spleen; where it is turned into Blood, with which, the neighbouring Parts are nourished: and that the Excrements of this Blood are voided by Urins, Stool, and Sweat. That good Old Man is to learn, that the thicker Parts of the Chyle are not sucked out, but separa­ted and sent away into the greater Guts; and that the Mesaraick Arteries cannot do as he saies, because they containe Arterial Blood. neither do they reach any of them to the Spleen, because it has a peculiar Artery, which Arantius first described, and which I my self have often shown.

Again he ought to have rejected the Milky Veins of Asellius, which he allowes of; seeing none of them reach unto the Spleen.

Furthermore, that same bastard and impure Blood, bred of muddy Blood by a bastard Liver, wil be unfit to nourish the neighbouring Parts which serve for Cocti­on, though they appear filthy, for they need to be nourished with pure Blood for their preservation▪

The Cholerick, Melancholick and Wheyish Excrements of the said Blood, can­not be Purged away but by Veins and Arteries; the Arterics are allready taken up with carrying the muddy Parts of the Chyle. They must therefore of necessity be carried by the Splenick Vein into the liver, that they may be voided through the Guts or by the Kidnies, which would breed very great confusion in the Liver.

If Hofman had considered, that the substance of the Spleen is unlike the sub­stance of the Liver, its bigness different, its number uncertain, Color divers, Sci­tuation variable, because somtimes it sinkes down to the Hypogastrium, more often ascends towards the Midrif, somtimes descends upon the left Kidney, the Ligaments being slackned: and lastly, its shape, quite contrary to that of the Liver, and som­times there is no Spleen at all: also that the structure of the Vessels of the Spleen, is altogether unlike that of the Vessels of the Liver; he would never have so stifly affirmed, that that the Spleen made a peculiar kind of Blood out of the Chylus.

Nature does in none of the Bowels more sport her self, than in her shaping of the Spleen so variously and unconstantly. But the Structure of those Bowels which are necessary to the maintenance of life, is allwaies, one and the same and uniform.

Furthermore you may know that the substance of the Liver & spleen are unlike, by boyling the one and the other: for the substance of the Liver is firme, sollid and Reddish; that of the Spleen is Spungy, soft, and black and blue in Color: The substance of the Liver of Animals boiled, as of an Ox, a Sheep, a Goat, is eaten with content: the substance of the Spleen is not Mans meat, neither will other Creatures eat it, unless they be very hungry. But if the Office of the Spleen and Liver were the same in Brute as wel as in Men, they should have both alike sub­stance, and breed the same blood.

[Page 63]Where will you find a place to clense away Choler in the Spleen, as their is in the Liver? If the Spleen draw the more thick Part of the Chyle, it ought to have larger Veins, but they are exceeding smal, like unto threds. Wherefore Hofman does foolishly to enquire the Dioti or Cause why it is so, before he knows the Hoti, that it is so, which ought to go before, and be diligently enquired into, when the natural Action of Parts is sought after, because the natural Constitution is Com­pounded and accommodated thereunto. What cannot an ingenious Wit imagine? But al such speculations are ridiculous and void, unless they are approved by the Eye, and confirmed by diligent Section and Inspection of Bodies. See Aristotle in the third book of his Politicks, at the beginning of the 8. Chapter, who wil there in­struct thee.

If Hofman had known out of Aristotle, that such living Creatures as drink, have a Spleen, Reins and Bladder, he had more truly expounded that passage of Aristotle out of Hippocrates, of the true sence whereof he glories. The Spleen drawes out of the Belly superfluous humidities, it self being constituted of blood.

The Medicinal Consideration.

The Substance of the Spleen is liable to alkinds of Distemper, and to diversDiseases of the Spleen in Sub­stance. swellings, especially that kind of hard swelling which is termed Scirrhus. Som­times it is inflamed, and then the substance thereof is perceived to pant, by reason of the Multitude of Arteries, of which it is ful. It seldom impostumates. Its Coat does oftentimes grow thick and becomes Cartilaginous.

It often grows great by abundance of Humors, and grows [...]al again, somtimeMagnitude. of it self, and somtime by use of Medicines. It is better that the Spleen be smal, than great.

A double or triple Spleen is not good, because it is a fault in the Conforma­tion.Number.

The Scituation of the Spleen is somtimes changed, when its Ligaments beingScituation. slackened, its weight bears it downwards, or they being broke, it fals into the Hypogastrium or Parts beneath the Navel; and then it deceiveth unskilful and heed­less Physitians, who in Women take it for a Mole, or for a Scirrhus Tumor of the Womb, and in Men for a sort of Glandulous Tumor which lies hid in the Mesentery. In four patients it has been my hap to see the Spleen on this manner fallen down into the Belly.

Somtimes one or other of the Kidnies is seen to fal down in the same manner:Difference of the Spleen and Kidney when fallen. but it is easie to know the one from the other. When the Kidney is fallen, the swelling is round: when the Spleen is fallen the Tumor is oblong and an emptiness is perceived on the left side under the short Ribbs. And if the Tumor be movable, as it is at first, the Spleen or Kidney is easily reduced unto its Natural place:The C [...] of both. otherwise, after the space of six months, it sticks so fast to the Peritoneum before, to the bottom of the Bladder, to the Guts, and in Women to the Womb, that it must of necessity putrifie in that place; which it wil the sooner do, if either you give the patient Emollient Medicines inwardly or apply them outwardly. If you would prolong the patients life, you must often let blood, and beare up the Tumor with a truss or Swathe band.

What if the Spleen fal from its natural place, shal we sear and burn it with a red hot Iron? when it slips into the Belly shal we take that Course with it? It is a tick­lish and dangerous peice of work, notwithstanding Old Farriers or Horse Doctors have written, that the Spleen has been by that means consumed in Horses; and in some poor slaves on whom they durst Experiment so cruel a Remedy.

Much more dangerous it is by opening the left Hypochondrium to take away the Spleen; neither can its thick superfluous Humors be safely disolved by heating the [Page 64] same. I should by such a practise sear a contusion, after which an incurable sup­puration of the whol substance would undoubtedly follow.

There is none of the Bowels which in Diseases does more change its shape. Som­timeFigure. its long, somtime foursquare, somtimes round, according as it finds room to dilate it self in.

when it rests upon the Stomach, it does much hurt and disturbe the action there­of;Communion. and if it be fastened to the Midrif, is oppresses the same, or if it reach thither in its Bulk, it hinders the free Motions thereof.

Upon the Spleen obstructed depend the Black Jaundice, Hypochondriacal Me­lancholy,Obstructed, what Diseases it Causes. the ill Colors of Virgins and other Women, The Scurvy, or Hippocrates his great Spleens, out of which flowes a Malignant Wheyish Humor, which being spread into divers Parts of the Body, does in the Mouth cause Stomacace or Oscedo a sorenes with loosness of the Teeth &c. In the Thighs Scelotyrbe a soreness with spots, and wandring pains through the whol body, which are either fixed and a­biding in certain Parts, which we cal Rheumatismes, and the Germans refer them to the scurvy, as may be seen in such German Authors as have written of the Scurvy, especially in the Treatise of Engalenus. And therefore after universal Remedies, they use other appropriate Scorbuticks, which are destined to the Cure of that Disease.

Chap. 27. Of the Vena Cava and Aorta, within the Lower Belly.

THe Trunk of thea Vena Cava is commonly reported to arise out of the Liver,Liver is not the Original of Vena Cava. and to be divided into the superior and inferior Trunk, as if they were separa­ted, as it is in the stock of theb Aorta springing out of the Heart: but Ocular In­spection does demonstrate, that the Trunk of Vena Cava is separated from the Li­ver, which creepes beneath, and that near the top of the Liver by the Midrif it re­ceives a branch which grows out of the c Substance of the Liver, which carries blood into the Trunk of the Cava, that it may be carryed unto the Heart with other blood which ascends by Circulation.

Wherefore that same Trunk of the Vena Cava, is extended al along without Interruption from thed Jugulum or Neck even to thee Os Sacrum. There I make account is the Cistern of Blood, because a great part of the Blood is contained therein.

The Trunk of Vena Cava, in regard of the Liver, which by a branch supplies i [...] Vena Cava divided into Trunks. with Blood, may be divided into thef upper and lowerg Trunk. The inferior produces the Vena h Adeposa, which is dispersed into the fatty Membrane of the Kidney; and then thei emulgent, which is distributed into the Kidney: after that the k Spermatick Vein, whose right-side branch springs from the Trunk of Cava, and its left from the Emulgent; finally, it sends three or four branches called l Lum­bares into the Loins, which are spred abroad unto the Marrow of the Back.

When the Trunk is come to the top of Os Sacrum, it is divided into two Chan­nelsDistribution of the inferior Trunk. or Pipes, which from their Scituation are termedm Canales Iliaci, the Illiack Pipes. From these on either hand are produced other Veins, especially the a Sacra, b Hypogastrica, Amplissima c Epigastrica, and d Pudenda. In Women, the Hypogastrica, is longer than in Men, and Nourishes more Parts, and holds the Men­strual blood, till the time come that itmust be voided. Wherefore blood is con­teined in greater plenty about the Genitals of Women, than of Men.

The Epigastrica is observed to be two-fould in Women; the one ascends into the Musculus Rectus, the other opposite thereunto, descends as low as the Womb.

In this Trunk of Vena Cava, Fernelius after Galen, placed the seat of continualSeat of Fea­vers continual and I [...]rmit­tent. Feavers, supposing the Blood rested quietly therein: but seeing the blood is in perpetual motion, I make the seat of continual feavers to be in the Trunk of the Vena Cava, and in those great Pipes carryed along through the Limbs; as the [Page 65] sem [...]ry [...]f intermittent Feavers or Agues, is in the Vena Porta, or in the Bo­wells, which are nourished thereby.

Seeing the Veins are the Vessels and Cisterts to contain the blood, they have a thin coat, saving that the Trunk of Vena Cava has a thicker and stronger coatWhy Cava h [...] a thick Coat. than ordinary, to avoid breaking, in case the blood should work or boyl therein, which by means of the tenderness of the Coat, can sweat and breath thorough.

Tis a Question, whether the Veins have Fibres or no? some say yea, and someWhether Veins have Fibres. no. But seeing the Blood is thrust forward by the spirits and Hear, it has a natural ascent unto the Heart, and therefore it needs no Fibres to draw it, and if any were necessary, the right▪ ones would suffice, but the circular ones are interposed for strength, and some threds are observed in the Coat of a Vein, not to draw, but to strengthen the Coat. Wherefore the Contentions about the Fibres of Veins are but Vain Janglings; neither are we in Blood-letting so carefully and scrupu­lou [...]ly to observe the rectitude of the Fibres, as the Scituation of the Part affected.

Hippocrates in his Book de Morbo Sacro, does Elegantly call the Veins Spira­cula Why the Veins are called the Bodies Wind-Doers. Corporis, the Wind-doers or Breathing places of the Body; because when they are opened, a Fuliginous or sooty Spirit Issues out with the Blood, and the Air is likewise by them received in, to Cool the Body.

In Antient t [...]nes, and the daies of Yore, it was a Part of Sooth saying, to view the blood which flowed from their sacrifices, which if it appeared pure and laudable, it was a token of happy and joyful success; i [...] bad and corrupted; it was an ill sign, according to Lucan.

Nec Cruor emicuit solitus▪ sed Vulnere Largo
Effluxit nig [...]um rutilo pro sanguine Virus.
That is,
No usual Blood did spring from the large Wound,
But black and Venemous▪ for Red and found.

The Medicinal Consideration.

Seeing the Veins are the Cisterns of blood, it comes here to be considered howThe conditions of good Blood. the blood ought to be qualified in sound bodies, that so we may be able to judg of that which is corrup [...] ▪ Now inbodies that are healthy the blood is Red, Fibrous, and has a smal quantity of Whey [...]h Watermingled with it.

Whether the Eabres are made of an earthy and flegmatick matter which is drawnHow the Fi­bres in the Blood are br [...]. out into threds within the Channels or greater Veins, and is made smaller in the les­ser Veins, many doubt, supposing the four Humors to be conteined in the Mass of blood. Some admit of blood, but severed from the other Humors, which in the first Region are separated from the blood. Others distinguish the Alimentary Humors from the Excremen [...]tions▪ the former are confused and mingled with the Blood, the latter are to be seen collected in several Parts, as Choler in the Gall­bladder; Melancholy in the Spleen; and Flegm is diffused through al the Parts of the Region of the belly, notwithstanding Hippocrates acknowledged two fountains of Flegm, the Head and the Stomach.

Now the Quality or temper of blood is hot and moist. Its Quantity cannot beThe natural Temper of the Blood. Quantity of the Blood. defined. The Arabian Physicians, especially Avicenna, do write, that in a Sanguine body wel constituted, there are twenty four pounds of blood, so that a Man may▪ bleed twenty pounds and live▪ but if he bleed more, Death follows inevitably. That which preserves our life▪ is likewise the occasion of Death: for as good Blood in a moderate quantity preserves our life, so the same being vitiated, or too much in quantity, is the Cause of Sickness and Death it se [...].

When blood offends in quality, it is termed Cacochymia, when in quantity,Cacochymia & Plethora, what they are. it's called Plethora. Somtime the blood is corrupted and not the Serum o [...] Whey­ish Water, Somtime the serum is corrupt and the blood remaines found. Now the serum or Wheyish Water being corrupted, is the worst Humor in the body, [Page 66] grievously infecting, weakening▪ and destroying such parts as are therewith diseased.

Some Practitioners do make it a Question, Whether in the Veins, every Humor has its own proper Serum or not. I beleeve that there is but one kindCorruption of the Serum. of Serum, which according to the several degrees of its Corruption and Tin­cture, appears somtimes yellow and Cholerick, somtimes green and li­vid, or black and blue; somtimes Melancholick, and somtimes Milky. Aristotle counts the Blood corrupted, when it is changed into Serum Somtimes the Putre­faction of Blood is so great, that the whol Mass is turned into a rotten putrefied Se­rum. When the Corruption of blood, is yet greater, somtimes Worms are bredWorms breed in the blood. therein, which I have seen come away in the opening of a Vein. Such a Worm be­ing bred in the Veins, may somtimes flow into the right Ear of the Heart, and growHeart eaten by worms bred in the blood. great, and at length gnaw, and eat upon the Heart, as has been often observed in the Dissection of dead Bodies.

The Veins have in them, a Retentive Faculty, whereby they hold fast the BloodRetentive fa­culty of the Veins be­ing lost, what follows. within themselves: which Faculty being perished, they suffer the blood to leak out through al the parts of the Body, yea, even to sweat out, as I have seen in some Patients. But more often it flows out immediately by the Nostrils, Mouth, Lungs, Guts, Bladder, by the Womb, and by vomiting.

I have divers times seen in malignant burning Feavers, that the blood has beenBlood con­gealed. congealed within the Veins, like unto the pith of an Elder stick; which has been no­ted by Fernelius in his Physiologia.

Aretaeus writes, That the Vena Cava is somtimes inflamed, and thereuponVena Cava inflamed. comes to break, which I have seen my self to happen. The Trunk of Vena Cava cannot be dilated, so long as the blood circulates freely. Neither is it subject to swellings, termed Varices, which are wont to happen only in the Veins of the Thighs and Legs.

Of the Diseases of this Vein, and of the Blood contained therein, there is a two­foldCure of the diseases of Ve­na Cava, and the blood, two­fold. Purgation▪ Blood-letting. Cure; Purgation, and Blood-letting: but blood-letting is more necessary of the two in a Plethora, either ad vasa, or ad vires; or in a Plethorick Caco­chymia, or in a very great and putrid Cacochymia, that a portion of the extreamly corrupted blood may be taken away.

Blood-letting takes away such Obstructions as are caused by blood, but not those that are caused by Humors congested in some part of the Body: and therefore that same Euro [...]a so often mentioned, that freeness of passage caused by blood-letting, must be understood of the motion, and free passage of the blood through the Veins, and not of the removal of an Humor that is gathered together, and wedged fast into any part of the body.

I [...] blood-letting cannot be put in practice, the Question is, Whether PurgationIf blood may be lessened by other waies beside blood­lessing. alone, may supply its place, according to Galens Opinion, in his Book, de Sanitate tuenda; or spare eating, exercising the body, frictions, sweating? I suppose, where there is no Feaver, the blood may be diminished by the means aforesaid, and also by such Medicaments as draw the Serum out of the Veins; for so the Veins being emptied, the rest of the body may be extenuated▪ and this is observed, and put in practice in such Nations where the People are afraid of blood-letting. How­beit, to open a Vein twice or thrice, is a more speedy, and safe Remedy.

Forasmuch as Sylvius, and Carolus Stephanus, have written, that there is a ValveA Valve in Vena Cava. within the Liver, by the Trunk of the Vena Cava, which hinders the blood from returning back; Conringius saies, that it is to be found in Oxen. This favors that Opinion of the bloods being carried from the Liver unto the Heart. It seems to me, that Nature has placed that Valve, that the filth of the mass of blood should notIts use. flow back into the Liver, and obstruct the same: which filth, either she carries by some way out of the Cava into the Porta; or else she sends it forth into the habit of the Body.

Of the Aorta descending. Distribution of the Aorta des­cendent. Arteria Lit­nalis. Its Ʋse.

The descending a Trunk of the Aorta, sends forth so many branches, as the inferi­or trunk of the Vena Cava produces; but it sends withal, a remarkable Artery, cal­led Lienalis Arteria, undivided, by an indirect Course unto the Spleen.

That same Artery, as large, and wide as a Goose Quil, does furnish the Spleen with Arterial blood, that thereby the thick, and slimy blood, might be attenuated, and made fit to nourish the Stomach, and it's neighboring bowels, and that it might afford a fermenting juyce to the Stomach, to help its Chylifaction, by that same permixion of both sorts of blood. Peradventure likewise, when the Liver is vitia­ted, and extreamly obstructed, Arterial blood may be brought unto it, by the Splenick Vein, as it were a Natural Tartarum Vitriolatum, to open its Ob­structions.

Then it produces theb Caeliacal Branch, which is divided into as many twigs as the Vena Porta is, and has communion therewith, by a mutual Anastomosis of the Vessels, that is to say, by a mutual conjunction of their mouths.

This same Arterial blood, is not circulated, yet may it have a reflux into the Trunk of the Aorta, to disburden the parts of superfluous blood; which returning back into the Aorta, may conveniently be evacuated, by opening a Vein in the Foot.

The Trunk of the Aorta is made of a Membrane, six times thicker than a Vein;Thickness of the Membrane of the Aorta. and therefore it is not subject to that kind of Tumor, called Aneurisma, which the other smaller Arteries are subject unto, by reason of dilatation of their Coat, or its Rupture, or apertion, when in the Arm, an Artery is opened instead of a Vein.

The Aorta, and Vena Cava, do constitute that Region, in which the matter ofThe Circula­tory Vessels. continual Feavers is contained; but the blood does not remain quiet in that place, seeing it is perpetually moved round by Circulation: wherefore these two Vessels, the Vena Cava, and Aorta, are ordained both to contain, and circulate the blood, and may be termed the Circulatory Vessels.

Of the Nerves of the Lower Belly.

Between the two Kidneys, at the Base of the Mesentery, we must search diligent­lyContexture of the mesenteri [...] Nerves. for that same a Intertexture of Nerves observed by Fallopius, which is woven together of the b Stomachick and c Costal Nerves, concurring on both sides to form this Contexture; from whence are derived al the d Nerves, which are distributed unto the parts of the lower belly.

When this Contexture of Nerves is ful of evil Humors, Convulsions happen withwhat diseases arise therefrom the Colick pains, both in men and women, though the brain be no waies misaffected.

Chap. 28. Of the Kidneys.

THe Kidneys, which are the Instruments of separating, and drawing out the wheyish Excrement, do consist of a fleshy substance, solid and proper tosubstance of the Kidneys. themselves, so that the like is not to be found in the whol body.

They have a very thin c Membrane, or skinny Coat, which sticks close to their flesh; but they have another Coat which is loose, covered with Fat, which is called Membrana f adiposa, wraps, and infolds the Kidneys, and is produced from the Peritoneum.

Their Temper is hot and dry, that they may be the better disposed to attract theTheir temper▪ serous Humidities.

They area scituate in the Loyns, between a duplication of the Peritonaeum, scituation. which is no other than the Membrana Adiposa, and they seem to be placed with­out the Cavity of the Belly. The Reins are said to begin at the last bastard Rib.

[Page 68]They have in length, the breadth of four or five Fingers; their thickness is twoGreatness. fingers, and they are much about three fingers broad.

They are two in Number: somtimes, though rarely, there is but one, and thenNumber. it is commonly as big as two, and lies upon the back, the Channels of the Aorta and Cava being a little removed to afford a place for the single Kidney.

They are shaped like those Beans we cal Kidney-beans.shape. Color. Vessels.

Their Color is reddish.

You shal observe in their hollow side, the Emulgent Vessels, and the Ureter springing forth of that hollowed side. Their Vessels are the Emulgent c Veins and d Arteries, proceeding from the Trunk of the e Cava, and f Aorta.

And this is the outward Conformation of the Kidneys in a grown man or wo­man:Kidneys, how shaped in chil­dren. in Children it is otherwise til they are a yeer old, because the external face of the Ʋva being like a thick bunch of Grapes, does neatly resemble the Kidneys of a Calf: and upon the Kidneys, is placed the Glandula h Renalis, which is shaped like the Kidney, and in Children, dries up by little and little, til it become flat, be­ing separate from the Kidneys by a portion of the Membrana adiposa, though it be found not far off in either side.

The internal Structure of the Kidney, is admirable; which that you may con­venientlyIts internal structure ad­mirable. view, and search into, you must cut it artificially on the hollowed side; and then there wil present it self to your view, the enwidened a substance of the U­reter, which forms the Pelvis, or Basin; into which, from the upper part, as itThe Basin. were from an House-top, the wheyish Humor rains down drop after drop, through nine little fleshy Teats, called Carunculae b Papillares, which are acuminatedThe Teats. without, and are encluded, and thrust into c nine Pipes, made of the substance of the Ureter dilated. Therefore that covering, through which the wheyish Excrement drops, may be called the Cribrum Renum, or Kidney-sieve.The sieve.

In those papillary Caruncles, or fleshy Teats aforesaid, the Serum, or wheyish Excrement, is separated from the blood; which blood spends it self to nourish the Kidneys, or flows back again into the Emulgent Veins.393 394 395

The Medicinal Consideration.

The Similar Constitution of the Kidneys, contrary to Nature, consists in the De­pravationInfirmities of the Kidneys are Distemper. Impostume, Ʋlcer. of their Temper, and of their Substance. A distemper either single, or with matter, causes a Laxity or loosness in the substance of the Kidneys, whence springs Atonia, or want of their wonted vigor to act by. By means of an hot di­stemper, they come to be inflamed, whence follows an Imposthume, and at last an Ulcer, as wel in the internal, as external parts: for oftentimes a morbifick matter, is collected within the Membrana adiposa, which breeds Impostumes which com­press the Kidneys.

Laxity proceeds from a cold and moist distemper, or from an exceeding hot one,Laxity, how caused. Diabetes. Ischuria. which corrupts the Natural temper of the part; whence comes Atonia, or an impo­tency to contract it self; and from thence comes Diabetes, which is the Pissing sickness; or Ischuria, which is a total suppression of Urine, not only in one Kid­ney, but in both, by reason of Fraternity, and Co-partnership, by reason of an af­flux of a malignant air from one to the other; or by reason of a reflux of corrupt and filthy blood. Somtimes want of Appetite to meat, is a fore-runner of this dis­ease, by reason the Stomachs sympathizing with the Kidneys. Observe diligently [Page 69] when the Stomach is ill, if there be no Disease in the Kidney; for if there be, that's the cause of the Stomachs disorder.

The Number of the Kidneys is seldom changed, and if there be but one, it cannot be known that there is more; neither can that one perform as much as two: and therefore those that have but one Kidney, enjoy not their health so wel as they that have both.

Although the Kidneys seem fast fixed unto the Loyns by the fat, as it were withFalling down of the Kidneys. glue; yet do they somtimes fal out of their place, and lean forward, somtime they slip into the belly, not without detriment to the Patients life and health: this is a truth not to be questioned. Which comes to pass chiefly, not only by melting the fat in which they are wrapped up, but also by their weight, when they are grown so great, by reason of some tumor or stone contained in their Cavities, that they can no longer be kept in their place by such staies as were wont to hold them. Be­ing fallen into the belly, they stay there a while, and at last they putrifie, and impo­stumate.

Being in their natural Scituation, if they prove greater, or more weighty than or­dinary,Their swelling they cause a kind of numbness in the the thigh, by compressing the Muscle Psoa, and the Nerves, which descend into the Thighs, which are conveighed through the fleshy parts of the Muscle Psoa.

It the inner Passage of the Kidneys be stopped moderately, either by an Humor,stoppage. or by a stone, then the parties Urines are thin; or if the Obstruction be total, the Urine is wholly supprest.

If the inner Substance of the Kidney be exulcerated, the Patient makes urine withƲlcer. Matter, or Quittor in it.

If a Vein be opened, or broken, bloody urines are made: and because the Kid­neysVein opened, or broke. communicate with the Stomach by the Stomachical Nerves, the Stomach does sympathize with them, being sick, and enclined to vomiting.

The Action of the Kidney, is to attract Serum, and to separate, and expel theAction Hurt. same: these things it cannot do, unless it be sound and perfect; and therefore all the Diseases aforesaid, may pervert the same Action. The flesh of the Kidneys is dul of feeling, but the inward Membrane is very sensible.

Stones are often bred in the Cavity of the Kidneys, either in the pipes, where theystones bred in the Kidneys. grow like Coral, or in the Basin, where a round stone is formed. If the Stone en­crease so much as to cause a suppuration in the Kidney, towards the Loyns, by awhen curable by Incision. deep issue made in this part, the Quittor may be purged forth, and the stone extra­cted; otherwise, unless Nature do go before us, and shew us the way, it were a wic­ked thing to attempt an Incision of the Kidney, by reason of the thickness, and pro­fundity of the flesh in those parts.

The Kidneys do somtimes consume away, and cause an universal ConsumptionConsumptton of the kidneys. of the whol body; which comes either from putrefaction of the Kidneys, or through overmuch ejection of Seed or Sperm.

In new married Couples, and in such as are more wantonly disposed than ordina­ry,who most sub­ject thereunto. this Consumption of the Kidneys happens; which would make some man af­firm, that the matter of Seed, comes from the Kidneys, and that they carry a great stroak in the matter of Carnal Imbracements.

Observe, That oftentimes through weakness of the Kidneys, which cannot attractDropsie from the kidneys weakness. How to be cured. the wheyish Excrement, a dropsie is caused without any fault of the Liver. Nei­ther can the most effectual Diureticks open those passages. And therefore our chief Care must be to purge those, and the neighboring parts, and by Fomentations, to restore the lost Faculty of the Kidneys.

Whether or no, may we force in a sharp pointed Iron, to one of the Kidneys, that a passage may be made for the Serum, which is dammed up within the greater Veins, in case we cannot purge the same away with Hydragogues, or Water-Pur­gers?

Chap. 29. Of the Ʋreters.

THe Ureters are Channels or Conduit Pipes ordained to conveigh the Urine toTheir Des­cription. Substance. the bladder.

They consist of a single Membranous substance, which being enclosed in a du­plication of the Peritoneum, therefore Anatomists have said, that they borrow another Coate of the Peritoneum.

They are as long as the Space between the Kidnies and the bladder.Length. Scituation.

Resting upon the a Muscle b Psoa, they are obliquely carryed towards the Ossa Ilium, and rising up unto the bladder in the bottom thereof, they slip in between the two c Coates almost as far as the d Orifice, where they peirce thee bladder. They have no Valves placed in their Extremities, to hinder the going back of the Urine: but two Membranes meeting together, do exactly shut the Pas­sage.

Naturally they are as thick as Goos-quils, but in such as have the Stone and usewideness. to void little ones from the Kidney, the hollowness of the Ureters is so widened, that they have been seen as thick as a Mans Finger in the dissection of dead bodies.

The Original of the Ureters is rather from the bladder than from the Kidnies, be­causeOriginal. they are of a Membranous substance. Within the Cavity of the kidnies they are divided into nine Pipes, which are fitted to the little fleshy Teates called Carunculae Papillares, that they may distil the Serum into the Basin or large Cavity of the Ureters, within the Kidnies.

They are thought to have Nerves whereby they feel; but being of a MembranousNerves. Nature, their extream pain in the passage of a Stone, proceeds from the stretching of the Membrane.

Seeing therefore they are ordained to pass the Urine unto the Bladder, they areObstruction. offended with such things as pass through them, whether it be sharp Urine, or pu­rulent matter, or a little Stone, or a thick and clammy Humor, by which they are obstructed. So that the most usual Disease of the Ureters is Obstruction.

And if within the duplicature of the Bladder either of them be obstructed, there isStone. bred a Stone, which grows by little and little, which is not movable, but remains fastned to the Bladder, which when those that Cut out the Stone endeavour to pul away, they tear the Bladder. Neither do I think there was any other difference of the Bladder in these, in whom a double Cavity was observed, and a Stone lying close in the one of them.

Chap. 30. Of the Piss-Bladder.

THe Piss-Bladder, is the Receptacle of Urine; being framed of a MembranousIts Substance. Coates. substance consisting of two 2 Coates. The b third which they attribute there­unto, is a Duplication of the Peritoneum, within which it lies hid, hanging like a Bottel with its bottom upwards, and with this Partition it is severed from the Guts and other Parts, only in mankind, least with the weight of the Guts bearing there­upon, it should be forced out of its place.

Its natural size is smal when empty, because it is widened and contracted accor­dingMagnitude. to the quantity of the Urine, The efficient Cause of its Contraction, is the second and external Membrane, which is altogether fleshy, which Fabricius ab A­qua Pendente took to be Musculous, and after him Spigelius, who cals it Muscu­lum Detrusorem Vesicae. He might better have called it Expulsorem, the Expul­sive Muscle of the Bladder.

[Page 71]Its shape represents a bottle with the bottom upwards, whose bottom is in theShape. lower Part of the Hypogastrium, and its Neck lies hid beneath, under the Bones of the Pubis.

The Piss-bladder is but one in Number, yet severed somtimes into two Cavities,Number. after the manner before expressed.

It is perforated with three holes near the Neck. The first and greatest, is thatHoles. out of which the Urine passes: the other two being those by which the Urine comes into the Bladder, are the Ends of the Ureters.

Its Orifice is shut by the Muscle Sphincter, which is formed of the substance ofMuscles. the bladder contracted. There is another Muscle called Externus Spleniatus, as broad as two Fingers, which is pla [...]ed about the Neck of the bladder and the Glan­dules or Kernels resting thereupon, termed a Prostatae. The power of shutting and opening the bladder depends upon this Muscle.

The Piss-bladder has Veins and Arteries from the b Hypogastrical Vessels; itVessels. has Nerves in its Neck, from the Os c Sacrum, and in its body from a Nerve of the d six Pair. Which is diligently to be considered in Diseases of the bladder causing stoppage of Urine, which proceed from a fall caught upon the Loins or Os Sacrum

The Medicinal Consideration.

THe Piss-bladder is subject to an infinite number of Diseases. In its substanceDiseases of the Bladder. it is subject to al kind of Distempers, especially hot and cold: it suffers In­flammation, Tumors, Ulcers, and Palsie both in the Neck and whol Body thereof. Of which we shall Discourse particularly.

Its temper is perverted, when the bladder naturally cold and dry, comes to waxIn its Temper. hot, and fils into an inflammation.

Its Scituation is changed, when that Part of the Peritoneum in which it is in­cludedSaituation. is relaxed, whereby it slips a little downe; which causes a difficulty in pissing, unless the lower Part of the Belly be lifted up with the Hand. Somtimes by the weight of many little Stones it comes to have an hollow nook, by the side of the streight Gut near its Neck, and then the Stones do nestle in that corner, so that they cannot be perceived by putting in a Catheter: but the best way to feel them, is by putting ones Finger into the Fundament.

Its greatness or widness cannot certainly be defined unless it were empty; how­beitwideness. it is enlarged and widened according to the quantity of Urine. But if it be so much enlarged as to exceed the natural measure, then the Fibres of the Coates be­ing broken or too much slacned, the party cannot make Water, because the fleshy Membrane is deprived of that motion, by which the Urine ought to be expelled. And in this Case the Water cannot be voided otherwise than by putting in of a Ca­theter, which somtimes for a Month or two, must be done twice a day, until the Membrane have recovered its antient tone or contractive Vigour.

Somtimes the bladder is so contracted and straitned, by reason of a painful exul­ceration in its inner Part, and then grows thicker and as it were Cartilaginous; which hinders its distention: and in this Case, the Patient must often make Water with pain.

The Neck of the bladder comprehending its Orifice or the Channel of Urine, hasDiseases of the Nick of the Bladder. also its Diseases. It is frequently inflamed, swelled Ulcerated, obstructed, and is weakened by the Palsie, when it can neither be contracted not relaxed, seeing it is thicker and more fleshy than the bottom of the bladder. It is easily inflamed, and Fernelius was of Opinion that no other Part of the bladder is subject to inflam­mation: from whence proceeds an Ulcer, which is not so hard to Cure, as that which happens within the body of the bladder, because injections and convenient Candles may be conveighed thereunto.

It is frequently obstructed by the Stone lying hid in the bladder, or by aHow Obstru­cted. [Page 72] fungous body which grows therein. Yea and somtimes beyond the Neck, within the bladder, fungous or Sp [...]gy carnosities do arise, which do much trouble the bladder and fil the [...]ame. They arise often [...]rom a flux of blood, or a swelling Vein, which being opened causes a [...] incu [...]able Issue of blood, which [...]oon causes a Gangrene by rea [...]on of Clotte [...]s of Blood remaining there▪

Spungy Carnosities do grow without the Neck within the Ureter, which are te [...]ed Hype [...]sa [...]ses, which are easily Eaten away with Medicinal Wax Candles, made and fitte [...] for that purpose.

Oftentimes they happen in the Passage of the Urine after a Venemous Gonorrbea not wel Cured.

Al [...]o [...]he Neck of the bladder is obstructed by another external Cause, Namely by swelling of the Kernels [...]ermed Prost [...], which rest upon the bladder. But the Urine is often stopped by a Palsie in the Neck of the bladder, so that the Sphincter Muscles cannot contract no [...] dila [...]e themselves.

To open the Bladder and to search out the Diseases which are bred within o [...] The Key of the [...]ladder, an Instrument so called. without the same, a wonderful new Instrument has been invented, which I cal the Key of the bladder; its commonly te [...]ed a Catheter, and is u [...]ed by such as Cut Men for the Stone, being different from the Antient common Catheter. So long as this Instrument can easily be put in, so long there is great Hopes in Diseases of the Bladder: but when it will not Penetrate, all Hope as gone.

In such a Case, either the bladder is perfo [...]ated in the bottom of the belly by theBladder per­forated. Perin [...]um opened. Ʋrine let out with a Knife. Os Pu [...]is, to let out the Urine, or the Perinaeum is opened. But when a Cathe­ter with grates in it, upon which the Section is wont to be made, cannot be thrust in, to depress the Neck of the bladder which lies hid u [...]der th Os Pubis, a smal Knife is thrust deep in as far as the bladder sidewaies, until the Urine comes away: for so I have often [...]eed many from imm [...]ent Peril.

In persons far in years, who are greivously troubled to make Water by reasonEase for old M [...] that have the Stone. of a great Stone, which cannot be taken out without manifest danger of Death, to give them some releife in their Misery, the Perinaeum is out in the same manner, as is used to take out the stone, and the hole is kept open with a little Pipe. So long as the Pa [...]ient can be kept alive, the little Pipe is stopped with a Tent, and a Spunge is applied to receive the droppings of the Urine, if any be, until such time as the patient must needs make Water, and then the stopp [...]e is taken out, and afterwards put in again, and thus the cruel pain and continual provocation to piss, is Mitigated in such as have the stone.

Also by th [...]s means Ulcers of the bladder may be clensed and dried, if there be noUlcers of the Bladder clens­ed. Zecchi [...]s his Vain Brag. Stone, to fret upon the Ulcer.

Zecchi [...]s brags in his Counsels, that he invented this way of giving ease to Aged persons vexed with the Stone▪ ▪ but the Physitians of Paris did use this Pal [...]ia­tive Cure long before Zecchi [...]s was born, it having been practised this hundred years.

If a Stone in the bladder be little, and stick to the Neck of the bladder, or in theThe Stone Su [...]kt out. beginning of the Ureter, it may be drawn forth by a strong and continual [...]ucking of the yard, or it may be drawn out by an [...]cision made in the Ureter.

If the Stone [...]e great it cannot be taken out [...] by Cutting of the bladder, theCut out of the Bladder. In [...]ection being made upon the Perinaeum, as our Stone-Cutters are wont to do▪ for the way used by the Antients as it is described by Ce [...]sus is difficult and danger­ous.

And I beleive that kind of operation used in E [...]ypt, when they would take out theThe Aegyp­tion Operation [...]aught. Stone, [...] difficult, which is by blowing up the bladder with a Pare of Bellows. For this operation described by P [...]osper Alpi [...], is so absurd, that I doubt the truth of the story, because it is exceeding cruel and painful by reason of the ex­tream stretching of the bladder, which cannot indu [...]e distention, neither in its Neck, nor in the Ureter.

That way which F [...]b [...]cius Hild [...] goes to take out the Stone, is also ab [...]rdAnd that of Hild [...] is [...]aught. and dangerous. The way used by the Operators of Paris and by some Italians of [Page 73] the Nu [...]sion Family, is the only safe and easie way, by reason of the InstrumentsThe French & Italian w [...]y the best to take out the Stone. and of the Industrious Dexterity of the Artists; wherefore I wish other Nations had such Operators.401 402 403

Chap. 31. Of the Genitals of a Man; and first of the Yard.

I Proceed to the Genitals of a Man, among which, the Yard, which is associatedA Mans Yard with the Pi [...]s-bladder, because it casts out Urine through the Pipe of the Ure­ter, ought in the first place to be explained.

It is made up only of Skin for thinnes sake, of two hollow Ligaments, of theIts Parts Ʋretbra, the Glans or Nut, certain Muscles, Membranous bands, Nerves, Arteries and Veins.

The Skin is by it self, has no Scarf-skin, and is terminated at the Root of the Nut.Skin Being loose, it is there doubled in manner of an Head▪stal, that it may infold the Nut or Head of the Yard and make the Fore-skin, which the Jews and Maho­metansFore-Skin do cut off, out of a Religious Ceremony. Such Circumcised Persons can­not give that delight to Women in their carnal Embraces, as those can who have the Fore-Skin entire. And therefore their Women are better pleased with the carnal society of Christians.

The Fore-Skin is tied to the Nut by a little band which is termed Fraenulum, The Bridle. the Bridle: it is extended in the nether Part unto the O [...]fice of the Nut, in you [...]g Men that have not had to do with a Narrow-board Virgin.

The Skin being removed, there appeares a Membrane which closly girds in theThe Membrane Ligaments of the Yard, which may be a production of the Panniculis Ca [...]nosus.

This being taken away, the Vessels are seen which run along the Back of the YardThe Vessels. viz. Nerves, Veins and Arteries. The Nerves come from the Os Sacrum, the Veins and Arteries are portions of those termed Pudenda, which are spred out into the external Parts.

Then follow the Muscles of the Yard, two of which are erectors, and two areThe Muscles. Ejaculators. The Erectors do arise from the Tuberous Part of the Huckle-bone and are sidelong fastened to the Ligaments of the Yard; the Ejaculators springing out of the Transverse Ligament placed between the Huckle-bones, and from a por­tion of the Sphincter Muscle, are spread along the Ʋrethra, to press the Drops of Water or Seed which happen to rest there towards the O [...]fice of the Blader.

These Muscles being taken away, three Bodies come to view which form the Yard, Viz. The two Ligaments and the Ʋrethra.

The a hollow Lig [...]ments being dis [...]oined beneath in the Perineum, do ariseThe hollow Ligaments. from the Protuberancies of the Huckle-bone, and have in their progress, the b Ʋre­thra inter [...]ected. Neer the Os Pubis, being [...]oyned together they make a Pendulous Body terminated with the Nut, which is called c Penis, the Yard.

In those Ligaments we must observe the internal substance which is like the PithTheir internal Substance. of Elder, being Spungy, blackish and bedewed with black Blood, that it may encrease and decrease in the Carnal Conjunction, for the erection of the Yard de­pends upon these Ligamentss.

The Ʋrethra or Piss-Pipe, is a Channel of Spongy substance, that it may swelThe Urethra or Piss-Pipe. and [...]al with the foresaid Ligaments in the Carnal Conjunction; and therefore it is [Page 74] no continuation of the neck of the bladder, but is only fastened thereunto.

Observe diligently, the Obliquation, or Reflection of the Ʋrethra in the Perinae­um, Its Obliqua­tion in the Pe­rineum. Impostumated hard to cure. and how the scituation of the Orifice of the bladder lies hid under the bones of the Pubes.

In the Perinaeum, divers Tumors are raised: but such as adhere to the Ʋrethra, and impostumate, are dangerous, often degenerating into Fistulaes, because the Ʋrethra wil very hardly heal, and grow together. If it be eaten by a venemous and pocky Ulcer, it is not easily cured, and restored, unless by an exact Sudorifick Diet, or by fluxing with Mercurial Medicaments.

Balanus, f the Nut of the Yard, is an hollowed Kernel, wider in the middle, thanThe Nut of the Yard. the largeness of the external Orifice comes to.404 405

The Medicinal Consideration.

The Action of the whol Yard, viz. voluntary erection, and stifness, being or­dainedDiseases of the whol Yard are, Priapismus, for carnal Conjunction, if it be unvoluntary, and painful, it is a Disease which is called Priapismus.

It is caused by an inflamed disposition of the Ligaments of the Yard, and also of the Ʋrethra, or Piss-pipe, which is affected by reason of vicinity, and communi­cation in the same Action.

Weakness, and defect of Erection, is an imbecillity of the whol Yard withoutWant of Ere­ction. pain: It arises from a weakness, or a paralytick disposition of the Muscles, or Nerves of the Yard.

Somtimes the whol Yard is bowed, and crooked to one side or another; or ben­dedCrookedness upwards or downwards; which proceeds from a Convulsion of one of the Mus­cles, or from a repletion, and induration of the Nervous Ligaments of the Yard. Somtimes the Tumor called Ganglion, in the hollow Ligaments, is a cause of this Contersion, or crookedness of the Yard: of which Infirmity, Hollerius in his Com­ment upon the 63. Aphorism, of Book 5. and Caesar Arantius in Chap. 50. of his Book of Tumors, have treated.

Furthermore, The whol Yard is subject to Inflamations, Tumors, and Ul­cers.Inflamation, Tumors, and Ulcers

The Yard is but one in Number, for two had been needless: if we find two, it is Monstrous, and they are both useless; or one is but the rudiment of a Yard, or some fleshy Excrescence.

The just, and fitting length of the Yard, ought to be six or eight fingers breadth;Too long, if it be longer, 'tis inconvenient, and hurts the Woman in Carnal Conjunction, and must be shortened by a ring of wool put about it.

If we beleeve Galen, the extraordinary length of the Yard hinders Generation, because the Seed loseth its vertue in so long a passage; which I do not beleeve.

If the Yard be too short, it causes little, or no titillation, and is unfruitful.Too short Fallopius in his Book de Decoratione, teaches us how to make the Yard longer. Marteal mentions one that had so large a Yard, that when it stood erected, he could smel to it with his Nose.

The Fore-skin has its Diseases; somtimes it is too short, and somtimes tooOf the Fore-skin. long, and is incommodious. The Jews have it cut off, for which cause they are termed Apellae, that is, skin-less. If it cover the Nut of the Yard so close that it cannot be put back, the Disease is termed Phymosis: If it be depressed to the rootPhymosis Paraphymosis, of the Nut, and cannot be drawn upwards, 'tis termed Paraphymosis.

[Page 75]Both these Diseases, if they proceed from [...]ervency of Carnal Conjunction, whereby the Nut of the Yard remains swelled, if it be for a long time toge [...]her, fo­mented with extream cold Water, its swelling wil abate, and then the Fore-skin may freely be drawn up or down. An admirable Secret.

It is exulcerated with pocky Pustles; which being cured, if they leave any hard­nessExulcerated. behind them, it is a suspicious Argument that the Venom of the Whores Pox, does yet [...]e lu [...]king in the body. Seeing the Fore-skin is double, when it is [...]ut, both the internal, and external Membrane, must be equally cu [...].

The band of the Fore-skin termed Fraenulum, if it be more thick than ordinary,Thickness of the Fraenulum. and goes unto the hole of the Nut, and makes the same crooked, it makes men such as Galen cals Hypospadicos; so that they cannot ingender, because they do not cast their Seed directly into the Womb, unless it be cut.

The Nut is sub [...]ect to divers Tumors, and Ulcers, both internal and external. InUlcers of the Nut. its middle, where 'tis hollowed, it is often exulcerated, by reason of a sharp matter abiding there, and often putre [...]ying. But in the Whore-masters Pox, it is ful ofDe [...]ormation with warts. Warts, and deformed; which warts may be eaten off, and eradicated with pouder of Savin; but they grow again, if the internal Cause be not removed, by Medicines accommodated to cure the Pox.

The Ʋrethra, or Piss-pipe, which lies along under the two Ligaments of theThe Urethra▪ obstructed. Yard, has its Diseases. It is obstructed by the stone, which is taken out by Incisi­on thereof. It is inflamed, by reason of its Spungy, and blackish substance, like the hollow Ligament of the Yard. It oftentimes burns, and is pained by reason ofInflamed. the acrimony of the Urine; it is inflamed by the sharpness of a putrid Humor, which passes through the same, as in the virulent Gonorrhaea, and then it swels, and makes the Yard crooked, and stretches it with the Tentigo like a Rope; which dis­ease they term Gonorrhaea Chordata, the Corded, or Rope-stretched running of the Reins.

It is ulcerated by the Acrimony of Quittor, and purulent Matter; and somtimesƲlcerated. the Ulcer being not well cured, there grows up a spungy superfluous flesh, which is termed Carnositas; which must be diminished, or eaten away, with Corrosive Candles; otherwise it swels so as to shut up that passage, and stop the Urine, not without pain to the Patient.

To the Ʋrethra, and Cods, belongs that disposition which makes men termed Hermaphrodites, when the Testicles are hidden within the Septum of the Perito­neum, Hermaphro­dites. and the Cod is empty, or open in its middle part, by reason of the Ʋrethra being there perforated, seeing the sides of the Cod are like the Lips of the Womb, and the Yard is very smal. These things have deceived unskilful Midwives, and made them [...]udg Children so born to be Females.

Somtime the Ʋrethra is perforated above the Cod, or neer the Nut of the Yard, which is then shut up, and solid, which hinders the right e [...]aculation of the Seed, unless the Ʋrethra be opened, and a little pipe be put in, to make a passage. But when the Parties grow into yeers, the heat of the body being augmented, also by vi­olent exercises, and by plucking the same oftentimes, the Yard comes to be aug­mented, and the Stones which lay hid in the Groins, do fal into the Cod, unless it be per [...]orated as aforesaid; or the Stones remain in the Groyns, and often deceive Physitians, making them to think the Persons are bursten.

Such Persons having been accounted Women, do at last become Men. Howbeit,A woman is never changed into a man. there never was any Woman turned into a Man, unless she abused her Clytoris, be­ing prolonged, or some superfluous Flesh have grown out of her Womb, which may have the form and stifness of a Mans Yard, but is no way compounded as a true Yard. And therfore Women are rather delighted with the mutual rubbing of their bodies one against another, and by the lying of the one upon the other, than by the vain titillation, and unprofitable intrusion of those Parts.

Chap. 32. Of the Groyns.

BEfore we proceed unto the Stones, we are to take notice of the Groyns; inThings to be observed. Crural vessels. Process of Pe­ritonaeum. Muscle Cre­master. which are to be seen, the Crural a Vein, and b Artery, with the c Nerves des­cending into the Thigh, whereupon does rest the Production of the d Peritoneum, drawn through the holes of the oblique Tendons, and transverse Muscles.

Over this is spread the Muscle e Cremaster, being carried athwart through the Groyn into the Cod, and so unto the Testicle, which it encloses with two Coats; the one whereof is called f Erythrois, and the other g Elythrois.

Above the bending of the Groyn, you may see those Glandules, or Kernels, whichKernels. lie close to the process of the Peritoneum: below the Groyn, neer the Vessels, you may see other Glandules, or Kernels, bordering upon the Vessels.

Within the Process are contained, Vas h Spermaticum, the Spermatick Vessel,Spermatick Vessels. which carries matter to make Seed of, unto the Testicle; and another i Spermatick Vessel returning from above, and carrying the Seed from the Testicle, to the Seed- k bladders. In the Groyn, within the Process of the Peritoneum, descends the Gut l Ileon, the inward Coat of the Peritoneum being relaxed.

If it descend into the Cod, the said Coat is broken, and the descent of the Gut isDescent of the Gut Ileum. to be observed through the holes of the Tendons, which are interchangably disposed, lest in reducing the Gut by Chyrurgical Operation, it come to be placed among the Combinations of Nerves; for the hole of the last Tendon ought to be cut in sun­der, that the Gut may be reduced into the Cavity of the Belly; in which work, ma­ny of the very skilfullest Chyrurgeons have erred, to the loss of their Patients Lives.

Note that among the Kernels above the Groyn, do arise the Whore-pock buboesBuboes. or Swellings: among the Glandules, or Kernels, below the Groyn, pestilential swel­lings do arise; ordinary swellings do arise a little higher.

Here you shal consider whether it be safe to use that prick, or Thread of Gold or Lead about the Production of the Peritoneum, that the process which in the Rup­ture called Oscheocele, is broken, may be drawn together: or a Caustick to produce an Eschar, may be applied above the Groyn, to produce a Callous, or hard substance, which may stop the passage of the falling Gut. But care must be taken that the Caustick pierce not to the Vessels which lie beneath, viz. The Veins and Arteries, which being touched, the Patient dies for it.

The Seminal Vessels may be feared, and so a man become invisibly gelded, be­causeInsensible gelding. the Stones wanting their nourishment, do consume, and lose their Vigor. But I see on every side, great difficulties in these kind of Operations, which I judg to be dangerous; and therefore I conceive the best way is, to let them alone.

Chap. 33. Of the Fundament.

AT the same time, when the Cod is dissected, in the Order of Anatomy, by rea­sonOrder of Se­ction. of Neighbor-hood, the Fundament is to be dissected, and demonstra­ted.

The Fundament therefore, called Anus, and Podex, is the outermost end of theIts Name. a Intestinum rectum, or streight Gut, which is shut, and pursed together by a b round Muscle, called Sphincter.

It is two-fold; the one is skinny, and narrow, the other is broader, and more fleshy; which adheres to a transverse Ligament, which is placed between the Pro­tuberances [Page 77] of the Huckle-bone, and the extremity of the Coccyx, or Crupper­bone.

The Fundament has four Muscles, called Levatores; two of which are broad,Muscles. and two narrow: The broad do arise from the c Os Sacrum, and Os Ilium, and are inserted into the larger Sphincter: As for the other two, the former arises from the transverse Ligament, the hindermost from the Crupper-bone, whereinto they are terminated.

These four Muscles do relieve, and raise up the Fundament when it pouchesTheir use. forwards, and is ready to fal out in the expelling of Excrements which are more hard and sollid than ordinary. The Circular Muscles do shut, and contract the Fundament, lest our Excrements should come away against our wils: for by means of these Muscles, we may take our own time, and regulate this kind of Evacution according to our own pleasures.

The Medicinal Consideration.

The Fundament is liable to very many Diseases. It is somtimes possessed withIts diseases. Tenesmus. Falling out. an hot distemper, with a troublesom, and almost intollerable itching, which cau­ses a continual desire of going to stool, which is called Tenesmus.

In the Expulsion of the Dung, somtimes the Fundament fals out, which is redu­ced into its place with extream trouble and difficulty.

Somtimes it is palsied, and the Excrements come away whether the Patient wil orPalsie. no: and somtimes it is so straitened, that a man can hardly void his Excrements.

Within, and without it swels, the mouths of the Veins being swollen and knob­bed,Hemorhoids. which are called Haemorrhoides, both internal, and external.

Somtime 'tis inflamed, but it is more often impostumated; from whence pro­ceedsInflamation. an hollow Ulcer, termed Fistula Ani.

It is made rough with Warts, which are called, Condylomata, or Mariscae. ItWarts. Clifts. is exulcerated with smal Clifts, which are called Rhagades. It may safely be cut, according to Hippocrates, after any fashion, without hurting the Sphincter. Fi­nally, 'tis troubled with al kinds of Diseases.

Somtime it has a Scirrhous Tumor, which shuts up the passage of the Excrements,Scirrhous tumor. and causes a difficulty in pissing, by reason of the neer neighborhood of the Arse-Gut, and the Neck of the Bladder; which Parts do communicate their Infirmities one to the other.

It is somtimes found closed up in new-born Infants, and it is cut open: but ifClosed up. the Gut be found sollid, having no Cavity, there is no way but death.

Chap. 34. Of the Cod, and Stones.

WE are now come unto the a Cod, which is the Case of the Stones. It con­sistsThe Cods, their Coats. of two Skins, the outermost beingb Cuticular, and grown with hair in such as are of ripe yeers; it has the Epidermis, or Scarf-skin upon it. Under the hairy Skin, there is a fleshy Membrane which called Dartos; it is a Continuation of the Membrana Carnosa of the Belly, stretched down unto the Cod; by help whereof, the Cod is widened, or contracted into wrinkles. For the Stones sake, it is by a Membranous Portion divided into two Cavities, which receive the twoCavities. Stones.

The Cod has Veins and Arteries from the Privy Parts, and Nerves from the Os Vessels. Sacrum.

A Stone, or Testicle, is a Glandulous, or Kernellish Body, ordained to makeThe Stones, their Coats. Seed. It is compounded of many parts, of which, the first are three proper Mem­branes, for each Stone has two common ones, viz. the Cutis, and Dartos. The first of the three proper Membranes, is called Erythroides, which has its Original [Page 78] from an expansion, or widening of the Muscle Cremaster, which holds up the Stone.

The Second is the f Production of the Peritonaeum, which infolds the Testicle.

The Third immediately infolds the substance of the Testicle, and is called g Ner­vea, the Nervous Membrane.

The Membranes being taken away, the Substance of the Testicle comes in sight,Substance. which is h glandulous, white, pretty firm; and upon the same, overthwart, is pla­ced a smal body like a Silk-worm, which is called a Epididymis; to the one endEpididymis. Sperm Carrier. whereof, there cleaves Vas Spermaticum b deferens, the carrying Spermatick Ves­sel, which enters into the substance of the Testicle, and empties the Seminal matter thereinto: From the other end of the Epididymis, arises the Vas c Ejaculatorium, Ejaculator. the Ejaculatory Vessel, which in its beginning, is d ful of turnings and windings, as is the Body of the Epididymis, and firmly cleaves unto the Testicle by its ends, being loose, and separate in its middle.

The Testicles are excluded from the Cavity of the Belly, being placed in theScituation. Figure. Action. Cods. They are about the bigness of a Pigeons, or yong Pullets Egg. They are of an Oval shape, and their work, is to elaborate the Seed.

The Medicinal Consideration.

The Natural Constitution of the Cod, and Stones, being explained, let us nowDiseases of the Cods. examine the Preternatural disorder thereof. The Cod is apt to be swelled with divers fluxions, which flow either immediately into it, or into the Stones.

If the Gut fal into the Cod, or into the Cal, it makes that kind of Rupture whichOscheocele. is called Oscheocele.

If water or wind flow from the Cavity of the belly, into the Cod, they make those Ruptures which are termed Hydrocele, and Pneumatocele. Hydrocele.

If in the Spermatick Vessels, both Deferent, and Jaculatory, where they are fulCirsocele. of turnings and windings heer the Stones, thick blood be inrercepted, it breeds a tu­mor, which is called Circocele.

If Spongy flesh breed, and grow to the Membrane called Dartos, it is termedSarcocele. Sarcocele.

If the Testicle adhere to the said spongy flesh, it has the same name.

If the Stone swel, and exceed its natural bulk, it causes a swelling in the Cod.

If wind or water insinuate themselves into the Membranes of the Testicles, they produce those Tumors which are called Hydrocele, and Pneumatocele Testiculo­rum, Pneumatocele. which are familiar to Children.

Moreover, The Cod is inflamed, overrmuch widened, or contracted; bothInflamation. which dispositions, are inconvenient, and hindersom to life and Generation.

The Laxity thereof, is termed Rhagosis; Howbeit, it is naturally more lax onRhagosis. the left side, whether by reason of the weight of the le [...]t Testicle, or by reason of the weakness, and coldness of the left side.

The Stones are faulty in point of Scituation, while they lie out of sight in the bel­ly,Diseases of the Stones in Scituation. or when they are in the Groyns. By reason of the former Scituation, in que­stions of Divorce, men are pronounced impotent, though strong otherwise, because the Stones are not in their Natural place.

By reason of il Conformation in the Womb, they are faulty in point of number,Number. when there is but one, or when there are three, as in those who are called Triorches, who are by some thought to be very lecherous; which fault goes in some Families from Father to Son, and therefore it is a Disease.

They are faulty in shape, when they are uneven, by reason of the swelling, re­laxation,Figure. or divulsion of the Epididymis.

If there be a fault in the Color, there is a fault in the Substance, which ought toColor. be pretty sollid; when it is over-flaggy, and soft, it is faulty. If the Stones exceed the greatness of an Hens Egg, they are never the better, because they are liable toGreatness fluxions: and being swollen, or altered in their temper, they cannot rightly per­form [Page 79] their Office: if they are smal as Hazel Nuts, they have no power to en­gender.

Now the Action of the Testicles is to elaborate the Seed by their inbred virtueTheir Action▪ implanted in them to that end: wherefore they receive the seminal matter, and when it is sufficiently prepared, that is to say when it is impregnated with the Generative Spirit, they transmit the same into the Jaculatory Vessels, and the Jaculatory Ves­sels carry it into the Seminary Bladders.429 430 431

Chap. 35. Of the Vessels which carry the true Seed, of the Seed-Bladders and the Prostatae or Auriliaries.

IT remaines now that we Speak of the Vessels which carry the Seed to the Blad­der, and of the a Prostatae or Assistants. That same b carrying Vessel which isEjeculatory Vessels. called Ejaculatorium, and takes its original from the Epididymis, is in its Rise very ful of c windings and wrinckled.

Those Wrinkles being smoothed out do make the Vessel twice as long as before.Why Wrinkled Those Wrinkles are made to retain the most subtile Spirit of Generation, whichHow the Seed is voided. breakes forth violently in the act of Generation with a thin subtile and spirituous matter, which is mixed with that same other Excrementitious Seminal matter, which is conteined in the little d Seed-Bladders, so that they flow both together into the e Ʋrethra or Piss-Pipe.

And as in the Act of Generation that same most thin and pure Spirit leaps forcibly with the matter out of the Testicls: so by help of the f Muscles of the Yard, the Seminal matter which is conteined in the littlie Bladders is also cast forth.

For I make account that their is a three-fold Seminal matter, one most pure,Matter of the Seed threefold. which is made and kept in the Stone; the other is Superfluous and Excrementiti­ous, yet of use for the forming of the Conception, which is thrust away by the Stones and slides leasurly into the little Seed-Bladders: for it is not probable that the most pure Seminal matter and the Spirit which is the Auther of Generation, should be conteined amids the Nastyness of the Dung and Urine.

The third Seminal matter, is an Oyly Substance, which leasurely dropping out, does moisten the a Ʋrethra or Piss-Pipe in Men and the b Sheath of the Womb in Women; also it comes away by it self when the Yard is distended through lust, and in strong imaginations of the matters tending to Generation and somtimes at the sight of a beautyful Woman.

It is a Question whether this Oyly substance do flow out of the little Seed-Bladders or from the c Glandules of the Prostatae, which contein in them a Seminal matter, which is sent forth through smal pores beneath the Knob of the Ʋrethra.

The Matter which is conteined in the little Bladders, is forcibly cast out by way of Ejaculation or Squirting, through the holes which are near the foresaid knobby wart of the Ʋrethra.

Before the little Bladders be removed, you shal observe, how they are coveredWhence the Texture of Veins among the Seed-Blad­ders. round about and hidden under a Multitude of little Veins scattered round about them. Whether they be Veins or Arteries, what they serve for is not yet certainly known. Whether to supply matter to those Parts viz. The Seed-bladders, that it may be thence transmitted to the Protastae to be further Elaborated?

Touching this wonderful Intertexture of Vessels, we can as yet determine no­thing.

In the Prostatae and in the Seed-Bladders, is the seat of the venemous Genorrhea: The seat of a Virulent Go­norrhea. which if it be unseasonably stopped, the venom is communicated to the whol body, [Page 80] or flowes back into the stones and causes a Tumor in them: or if it extend so far as the Perineum, unless it be naturly repelled, it causes an Impostum and eates in­to the Ʋrethra or Piss-Pipe.

You shal do wel to consider whether it be safe in a virulent Gonorrhea, to open a Vein in the Arm, if the arder in these places be light and without a Feaver? In mywhat Vein to be opened in the Cure thereof. opinion it is better to take blood from the Foot, because the Saphena takes its rise near the Groin, and bestowes two branches upon those Parts, and therefore large bleeding in the Foot, when the Buboes break out, does powerfully revel.

Few or none except Julianus Palmarius a Physitian of Paris and Fallopius an Italian, are for Blood-letting in the Arm in such Cases, for it is held unsafe, for fear of the Whores-Pocks, by reflux of the venemous Humor into the Bowels and habit of the Body.

The Medicinal Consideration.

The Diseases of those Seed-Vessels, Seed-Bladders and of the Auniliary Glan­dulesDiseases of these Parts are, Distempers. or Prostatae, are, an hot or cold Distemper, which cause a corruption of the Seminal matter, either from an internal or an external Cause.

Also the Laxity of those Parts causes an involentary shedding of the Seed, whichLaxite whence Gonorrhea. is called a Simple or single Gonerrhea: or when it is with pain and inflamation, be­ing caused by infection of a Pocky Whore it is called Gonrrhaea Virulenta, the venemous Gonerrheae.

The flux of Seed which happens to some in their sleep is called Oxynorrigmos, it comes from the aboundance of hot and Spirituous Seed.

The Oyly subctance is exceeding needful, for in Men through want of the said Hu­mor,The Oyly Sub­stance how needful. either the sharpness of Urine hurts the Ʋrethra or Piss-Pipe, or it cannot freely pass, neither can the Seed be forcibly cast out, as Galen hints and I have known in many; who were cured with a liberal moistening Diet, a Bath to sit in, and Oyl of sweet Almonds, Squirted into the Ʋrethra with a Syringe. With the same Humor the Womans sheath is moistened in such as are lustful, and it drops away by it self without the Ejaculation of Seed.

The Action of the Yard, is not to transmit the Urine, but to Ejaculte or SquirtAction hurt, whence Barren­ness. the Seed into the Womb of the Woman. If it cannot perform that Office it causes Barrenness, which depends either upon the Yard, by reason of the Ligaments which cannot be blown up so as to raise the Yard; or because of the weakness or Palsie of the Muscles of the Yard: or upon the Stones being colder then they ought to be, or being too Flaggy, or less or greater then is usual: or upon the ill shapeing of the Spermatick Vessels, as in case the Arteries be wanting; or upon the defect or faul­tines of the matter. If the Man be Sickly or the Women have not her health, the Cause of Barrenness is attribted to an evil disposition of the whol Body: which makes that fitting and convenient matter to make Seed of, Cannot be from thence supplied to the genital Parts.

Neither is fruitfulness and Conception to be expected, unless the Man and Wo­man be restored to perfect health; and unless the fault of the Genitals (if there be any) be amended,

Chap. 36. Of the Genital Parts of a Woman, and first of the External.

THe Genital parts of a Woman are divided into the external and internal. TheExternal Ge­nital Parts. internal prepar Seed, or somwhat like seed, and aford place for the Conception. [Page 81] The External Parts are visible and must be viewed before we come to Section. Let us therefore stay a whil in the porch, before we pass into that sacred Cave or Closet of the Womb.

That outward Part which is adorned with Hair is called Pubis the Share: thatPubis. Cunnus I conceive th [...] Term Cunnus derived from the Greck Con­nos a beard, does properly signifie the Hair about the Fe­male Privity & not the Orifice it self, but only by a Metonymy of the Adjunct for the Subject. Carunculae Myrtiformes. Passage which is shut with two Valves or folding Doors (whence the name Ʋulva) is called in Latin a Cunnus, in English the Cunny, or Water-Gate. The Valves are termed Labra Cunni, the b Lips of the Cunny, or the Doors of the Water-Gate. These Lips being drawn aside, the c Nymphae come in sight, which are pretty firm Membranous excrescences, broader towards the top. At the top of the Nymphes we meet with a little fleshy Knob, covered with a thin Skin, which is called d Clitoris. The Nymphae being drawn asunder, the Carunculae e Myrtiformes [that is smal portions of flesh like Myrtle-berries] come to be seen, whereof two are lateral, seated on each side, the third lies beneath toward the Fundament, and the fourth is alwaies placed at the extremity of the Ʋrethra or Piss-pipe.

In Virgins, the Lips are, straiter then in other Females, and when their Thighs are opened wide, they appear stretched or bent. The inferior Membrane of the Nym­phes is also in Virgins bent and stretched out; but in their defloration and by frequent carnal conjunction, it is depressed: those Connexions are wholly Obliterated in Women which have brougth forth Children.

And these Parts may be seen in those which are living. And if you shal thrustNeck of the tromb. your Finger into a Womans a sheath or Scabberd [that is the Neck of her Womb] you wil feel it b Wrinkled, and if you carry your Finger higher, you wil find the c in most Orifice of the Womb, for so fa [...] a long Finger is able to reach. All that space is called Collum d Ʋteri, the Neck of the Womb or the Sheath of the Mans Yard, because it receives the Yard like a sheath or Scabbard, in the Act of Genera­tion.

In Virgins, after the Nymphes we meet with a Membrane or thin Skin drawn be­foreHymen. the Orifice, peirced through with a very little hole. This Membrane is called e Hymen. If this be found, we find no Carunculae Myrtiformes, if this be not found, those Myrtle formed smal portions of flesh, are so swelled, that they fil the whol Orifice or passage into the Womb, [...]o that you can Scarse put in your little Finger, without paining the party: so great is the narrowness of this passage, by reason of the foresaid Caruncles or Myrtle-Shap'd fleshy Excre [...]cences, being united together by certain Membranes.

It is to be observed, that those Myrtle-shap'd little bitts of flesh, are wholly obliterated in Child-birth and not to be seen, until the external Orifice of the Womb begin to contract it self again and to grow strait; which argues that they are nothing but plaites or Fouldings-in of this Orifice; which are unfolded and stretched or smoothed in the time of Travail, that the Child may more freely come forth; even as the Neck of the Womb is very thick, that it may be the more easily widened in the Birth. Hence I conjecture and conclude, that these Carunculae may more fit­ly be termed Carnositates and Plicaturas Orificii externi, certain fleshynesses and foldings of the external Orifice of the Womb.

These things being thus observed, we must proceed to dissection, that the structureLips of the Womb. of these Parts may be discovered. The f Lips of the Womb are made up of the Cu­ticula or Scarf-Skin and the Skin on which the Haires grow, and they have under­neath Fat and a fleshy Membrane which seemes to be of the Nature of a Muscle. It seemes to be spred in that place, that it may serve to draw the Lips together; but in­asmuch as it reaches into the Clitoris, it does in some sort resemble the Muscles of a Mans Yard, Yet those in the Clitoris are different from the other.

Those who have their Privity plumpe and Pappy, and the Lips thereof thick, the motion of their Muscles is very smal and hard to be discerned.

The Nympha a in young Women is soft, but as they grow in Years and by fre­quentThe Nympha Copulation, it is hardened and becomes almost like a Gristle. It is a pro­duction of the Skin of the Lips, or by Nature so made and there placed, to direct the stream of the Urine.

[Page 82] b Clitoris being the seat of Lasciviousness and Lust in Women that delight inThe Clitoris. mutual confrictions, is termed Tontigo, or the Womans Yard. It is made up of two Nervous Ligaments, not at al hollow as those of the Mans Yard; they proceed from the Tuberous or bunching Part of the Huckle-bone, and when they are come so far as where the bones of the Pubes are joyned together, they receive another body placed between them, which is white, and being joyned together they make up the Clitoris, which imitates a Mans Yard, as the Brests of Men have a resem­blance to Womens Dugs.

The Ligaments of the Clitoris have Muscles fastened unto them, as in Men pro­ceeding from the same place as those in Men, and they are covered with Skin, and that Skin in the extremity or end thereof is folded back, like a Mans Fore-Skin. Not without cause therefore is this Part called the Womans Yard or Prick.

The round c Ligaments of the Womb do reach unto this Part: whence it comes toThe Wombs Ligaments. pass that the Clitoris being rubbed with the hand, the ends of those Ligaments are likewise chated and heated, and the Tickling is extended as far as the Womb and Testicles, whence they arise and through which they have passage.

Those Ligaments of the Womb are somwhat hollow, as far as to the Groines, whence it comes to passe that a virulent matter being [...]om the Genitals expelled hi­ther, does breed Pockie Buboes or Swellings, and other Tumors which are not at al Malignant.

The Sheath is Compounded or made up of two Coates: the one is internal and Membranous, the other is external and altogether fleshy, like a Muscle, that it may open and contract it selfe, and in the Act of Generation Squeeze and Milk the mans Yard. But the inner Coat is wrinkled, like the Roofe of an Oxes Mouth.454

The Medicinal Consideration.

Having diligently surveyed these Parts, you shal now consider the DiseasesCommon Dis­eases of these Parts. Closure which are wont to happen upon them. And in the first place the external Orifice or passage into the Womb, is somtimes naturally shut up, the Lips being closed to­gether. This often happness in Girles newly borne. But this closure is more frequently found to be in the Nymphes; or instead of the Myrtle-shap'd Carnosities, we meet with the Hymen fleshy and unboared. Somtime after hard labour in Child-birth, these Parts being torne do grow to one another. This natural grow­ing together of those Parts in Children must be separated, and so it must in Women when it comes by accident.

I have seen some women conceive notwithstanding this growing together, there being a little hole left for the Seed to enter at, being eagerly attracted by the hungry womb. When the time of their delivery was come, by reason of much moisture flow­ing unto those Parts, this closure did of it self open. Maides and women that are thus closed up, are termed in Greek Atretae imperforated persons, such as are unboared or unbroached.

Somtimes the wideness and openness of these Parts is so great that it provesLaxity. loathsome and hurtful to Women, Namely such as have undergone hard Labor in Child-Birth; so that it is needful to straiten the same with Medicaments.

Somtimes in Women that have never had Children, by reason of over-frequent carnal Conjunctions, these Parts are so opened and widened, that they seek to Physitians, that they may recover their former straitness, and so bring their Hogs [Page 83] to a better Market. Howbeit, Virginity lost cannot be repaired, it may be couter­feited by Art, but it is not the Part of an honest Physitian to teach those Arts: it belongs only to Adulterers and Bawds, or such as get their living by prostitution of the Bodies of yong Women.

Furthermore, the Lips have their peculiar Diseases, they are Inflamed, Swelled, Peculiar Dis­eases of the Lips. Ʋlcerated from a common or extraordinary Cause viz. The Whores-Pocks. Also they are subject on their inner side to Warts, Pushes termed Thymi, resem­bling the Color of Flowers of Time, and certain smal Tumors called Condylo­mata resembling the Joynts of a Mans Fingers.Of the Nymphs.

The Nymphoe in somè Women, yea and in some nations do grow to such a filthy greatness, that they hang without the Lips, and then they must be cut. They are made ruff with Pustles or Pushes, but more often defiled and made ugly with the foresaid Thymi, Warts and Ʋlcers springing from the Whoremasters Pocks. Of the Clitoris

The Clitoris is somtimes exceeding long, resembling a Mans Yard: it is then termed Cercosis, Caudatio, the Long-Taile Disease; so that some Women do abuse that Part one with another when it is longer and thicker than ordinary. Such are those which are termed Hermaphrodites or Rubsters: for it was never known, neither is it possible, that a Woman should be turned or transformed into a Man.

But a Man being at his Birth reputed for a Woman, as aforesaid, by the coming forth of his Genital Parts, may be turned into a Man, that is to say, be acknowledg­ed for such.

Somtimes within the Sheath there hangs a fleshy Excrescence which rea­chesOf the Sheath. as far as the Lips and farther, very deformed and troublesome, and somwhat like a Mans Yard. It is rooted near the inner Orifice of the Womb, or it rises from the sides of the sheath, far within. It must be cut up by the Roots, or else it wil grow again, being a great trouble to marryed Women, because it hinders the en­trance of a Mans Yard, in the carnal Embracement.

Near the Caruncles or Carnosities before mentioned, there appeares within, aOf the Car­uncles. Vein, two or three, which are pretty ful, and drop Blood out like the Haemorrhoides, and are somtimes exulcerated, and may degenerate into Malignant Ulcers, unless they be wel looked to.

Within the Sheath, in the upper Part, in the very Orifice of the Womb, a Ma­lignantAn Ʋlcer. Scirrhous Tumor is bred, which at last degenerates into a Cancerous Ulcer. A sad and miserable Disease, if it arise through fault of the Womb and other Parts of the Body. If the said Ulcer proceed from the Whoremasters-Pocks, as oftentimes it fals out, it is curable, provided the foresaid Orifice be not wholly eaten up, and that the Ulcer have not crept into the inner Parts of the Womb. That may be per­ceived not only by the Instrument called Speculum Matricis, with which we look into the Womb, but also by putting up of a bodies Finger.

Chap. 37. Of the internal Parts of a Woman which serve for Generation.

THe external Parts being diligently viewed and accurately dissected, the PartsThe Way of shewing these Parts. of the Fundament come next to be cut up: and then the Symphysis or grow­ing together of the bones of the Pubis being discovered, the Gristle placed between the bones, must be cut asunder with a very sharp Pen-Knife, that the Thighs may be more easily displayed, and that their may be room enough made to handle the internal Parts.

The internal Parts may be divided into those which make up or belong unto theInternal Parts twofold. Body of the Womb, and those which prepare the Seminal matter. We must begin with the latter.

The Vasa Spermatica deferentia, that is, the a carrying Spermatick Ves­sels,Vasa Defe­rentia. are made up, like those in Men, of the Spermatick b Veine and the Spermatick [Page 84]cArtery. They have the same Rise in Women as in Men. Herein only they dif­fer, that they are not so straitly united, nor with so many turnings, as to make a broad d Parastata, which is not in Women,

They are divided into three Parts, whereof one is carryed into the Stones; the other to the Bottom of the Womb: and the third creeps along to the beginning of the Sheath.

The Testicles in a Women are otherwise framed than in Men: they have noTesticles. Epididymis; have but one Coat; their substance is soft, made up of little Bladders, wherein is contained a Wheyish substance, which is wont to spirt out upon the face of the dissector, if he take not heed.

Such a structure of the Testices in women and such a conformation of their Sper­matick Vessels, made Aristotle to doubt and others of his followers, whether the Female Sex were Prolisick and afforded Seed to the making of the infant, as well as the Male, as Galen after Hippocrates, maintaines they do.

From the Body of the Testicle the same Spermatick b Vessels preparatory are carryed to the bottom of the c womb, and to the d Hornes or Trumpets of the womb, which Vessels are far different from those in Men.

These things thus observed, let us take a View of the Body of the womb with theHorns of the Womb. Its Ligaments. external Parts thereof. Out of it there arises in its upper Part, the Hornes and four Ligaments, two broad and e Membranous, which are productions of the Peritonaeum. They are stretched out in Virgins and women that have not bore Children, resembling the displaid wings of Bats or Flitter-Mice. They hold the womb that it fal not down.

The other two Ligaments are round & somwhat f longish, which arise from the bot­tome of the womb near the Hornes. In their Rise they are hollow, and in their progress as far as the Ossa Pubis, we find them hollowed.

When they are come as far as the Clitoris, they are cloven and spred forth in the shape of a Goose-foot through al the fore part of the Thigh. I was the first that made discovery of that same Cavity and of the formerly unknown use of these Ligaments. According to the Opinion of the Ancient and latter Anatomists, they keep the womb from ascending upwards: but without these Ligaments, the womb cannot ascend, unless it should pluck away the Sheath and the Privities, which are contiuations of the body of the womb.

The Horn a of the womb being fistulous or hollowish, is observed in the lower Part thereof to be torne and jagged, as if the Rats had gnaw'd it: it conteins within it, a certain hard and round texture, which resembles the substance of the Jacula­tory Vessels in Men, and white Seed is there preserved and found.

Having observed these things, you shal proceed to the body of the womb;The Wombs. Substance. Coat. the Substance whereof is fleshy and Syungy, and as thick as a mans Finger. It is Cloathed with a Membranous Coat, whether it be proper or received from the Peritonaeum.

The womb is of an hot and moist Complexion: it is Scituated in the lower b PartTemper. Scituation. of the Belly, beneath the Navel, just in the middle betwen the c Intestinum Rectum or Arse-Gut and the d Piss-Bladder.

In Virgins until they have their Courses it is little and hard, after they have hadGreatness. their Courses, it grows softer: in women which have had Children it is greater and thicker.

It is shaped like a smal Gourd, a Pear or a Cupping-Glass.Shape. Number.

It is one in number and no more, yet somtimes divided into two Cavities by a Partition in the middle, which is the Cause that some women bring sorth two or three Children at a Birth.

[Page 85]The Cavity of the e Womb in Virgins and in those which have never conceived,Cavity. is so smal as to contain only a pease or a very little bean; In such as have born Children, it is larger.

The Action of the womb is conception, or attracting the Seed, and reducing theAction. same into Act, by causing the same to ferment and proceed to formation. And al­though this be that for which the Womb was ordained, yet it is by accident the Sluce or Outlet of Superfluous Humors in the Body, which do either continually flow unto this place, as in the Whites, or at certain seasons; as the Menstruous Blood, which being more than the woman needs for her Nourishment, is ordained to nourish the Child in the womb, and when it is born, it drops out of the Dugs in the form of Milk.

The Medicinal Consideration.

By out knowledg of the Natural Constitution of the Genital Parts of womenDisorders of the. we come more certainly to understand their departure from the said natural Con­stitution by several sorts of Infirmities.

The Spermatick Vessels are liable to obstructions, whereby the usual Flux ofSpermatick Vessels. Stones. Humors is stopped, which is very hurtful to women.

They swel together with the Stones, and become as big as a mans Fist; by a col­lection of Humors resembling Tallow or suet.

This is known by a swelling in the bottom of the Belly at the sides.

The Trumpet or Horn of the Womb is widened and moved by Seed, which be­ingTrumpet. there corrupted, seekes its passage out. But wonderful it is that the mans Seed should come thither, and that as Histories report, a Child should be conceived there. 'Tis very strang that a Child should be formed out of the Cavity of the womb; and it favours the Opinion of Paracelsus and Amatus Lusitanus, that a Child may be made in a Glass of a Mans Seed and menstrual blood, placed in Horses Dung, un­less both of them, the one being an Athiest the other a Jew, were known to be Impostors.

The womb is the Root, Seed plot and foundation of very near al womens Dis­eases,Womb it self. being either bred in the womb, or occasioned thereby.

It it be troubled with an hot distemper and inflamed, it causes intollerable bur­nings,Distemper. the Feaver Synochos and the burning Feaver, very troublesome Itchings? and finally it brings exulcerations, the Cancer and Gangraena.

If it be stung with servent Lust, it becomes enraged, causes Uterine fury and Madness; wil not let the Patients rest, but invites them to shake and agitate their Loins, that they may be disburthened of their Seed; and at last, they become shameles and ask men to lie with them.

Somtime it is drawn out of its place towards the sides, and is carryed this way andMotion de­praved. that way, as far as the Ligaments and Connexions of the Womb wil give leave; and it wil rise directly to the Liver, Stomach and Midrif, that it may be moistened and fanned; it Causes Choaking and Stranglings, and raises terrible and violent motions and Convulsions in the Body.

In a word, the Womb is a furious Live-wight in a Live-wight; punnishing Poor women with many Sorrows.

Although Hippocrates hath written and Fernelius confirmd the same, that the womb like a Globe does rowle it self in the Cavity of the Belly; yet are they rather the Horns of the womb, which are receptacles of Seed Spirituous and hot or putri­fied, which being swelled do move themselves this way & that way, til they have shed their Seed into the Cavity of the Belly: which Seed being dispersed, brings very cruel pains and stretches the Belly, until the force of the Spirits be Evaporated: hence comes that same swelling of the Belly and stifling about the Midrif.

[Page 86]Somtimes malignant Vapors ascending from the Womb by the Veins a and Arte­ries,Suffocation unto the Lungs and Kernels of the Throat, may cause choaking and stifling: and the malignant vapor of the Seed being so pernicious, is violently darted into the Brain, and al parts of the Body, from the VVomb, as from a Beast that spits poy­son.

The VVomb is but little when empty; but when it is silled with evil Humors, it swels above measure; and it has been seen to equal the Head of a new-born ChildCancerous Scirrhus. which is an incurable Infirmity, because it is a Cancerous Scirrhus, which is the worse for being tampered with by Medicines.

Somtimes the Orifice of the Womb being closed, and firmly sealed up, WaterDropsie flows out of the Belly into the Cavity thereof, and coming to a quantity, it brings the Dropsie of the Womb. Somtimes evil Humors are collected there, and by the force of Nature, do afterwards break forth. This often happens to Virgins, and o­thers, from the suppression of their Courses, the internal Orifice being stopped, as I said before.

The Womb is watered with a two-fold Humor, Seed, and Menstrual Blood; theWhether seed suppressed hur­teth women? suppression of both which, does many waies afflict Woman-kind, and the evacuati­on thereof, does them much good in many respects. Howbeit, we do not read in Hippocrates any where, that the retention of their Seed, is hurtful unto Women: he writes indeed, that the Womb being dry, does ascend to the superior parts to re­ceive moisture (which Galen laughs at) and that it desires to receive the Mans Seed to moisten it self; and that therefore marriagable Virgins that are troubled with fits of the Mother, should be married, and have the carnal society of Men. And therefore he makes the retention, or over-great flux of the Courses, the only general cause of Womens Diseases, and saies that Women cannot be in Health, unless they play the Women, that is, void their Menstrual Blood. In case therefore, that aWhat must be observed in letting blood to move the cour­ses? Woman, or a Virgin have her Courses stopt, whether or no may we hope by blood­letting, three or four times repeated from the Arm or Foot, to draw the blood unto the Womb? I remember the Story of a Woman in a Consumption, because of the stoppage of her Courses, from whom Galen drew blood in a large quantity.

That we may know to resolve this Question, three things are to be noted; The Matter, the Place, and the Expulsive Faculty. The Matter is Blood, which re­mains1 The suffici­ency of matter. over, and above what was necessary to nourish a woman for a months time, which was ordained to conceive Child, and to nourish it being born: wherefore we must consider, whether the woman abound with blood, so that she has what to spare, and void forth; for if she want blood, by reason of some fore-going disease, or be­cause she eats little, we are not to expect that she should have her Courses.

The place through which it ought to flow, is the womb, with the Hypogastrick2 Fitness of the place and Spermatick Veins: for these Vessels do contain the superfluous blood, until the due time appointed for this Purgation, and they send it forth either by the Ca­vity of the womb, or by the Spermatick Vessels, into the neck thereof. But if so be the Womb shal be dry, or hard, and the Spermatick Vessels and Veins obstru­cted, we cannot hope to procure the Courses to flow, by often blood-letting. And the Expulsive Faculty is not seated in the Genital Parts, which receive this blood,3 Strength of the faculty but depends upon the general strength of Nature, which thrusts this superfluous blood out of doors.

These three things ought therefore to concur, that a woman may have her Cour­ses, Matter, Place, and the Expulsive Faculty; and Medicaments ought to have aMedicaments, & other means to accomplish the Cure respect thereunto. A Vein is to be opened in the Foot, rather than in the Arm; Cupping-glasses must be applied without Scarrification to the inner part of the Thighs, above the Vessels: Convenient Purges must be given, with Apozemes that move Urine, attenuate, and open the mouths of the Veins. Pils of Steel, Mirrh, and Aloes, must somtimes be given, and Baths made to sit in: or a Vaporary must be used somtimes of blood-warm Water alone, and somtimes boyled with Hysterical [Page 87] and opening Herbs, the steam whereof, the Patient must receive into her Womb. Also Fomentations must be applied to the Os Sacrum, and the lower part of the Belly, and good Diet appointed, not heating, but attenuating and opening.

The Action of the Womb, is Conception; if it be abolished, the Patient is bar­ren:Symptoms in the Actions hurt. Sterilitie Which barrenness, depends either upon the distemper of the womb, or upon the il shape thereof, or the hardness of the inner Orifice, or the distortion thereof, or from fault of the Stones, and Spermatick Vessels, in which somwhat is wanting, ei­ther in point of structure, or of matter: and if a woman be sickly, she cannot make good Seed fitting to cause a Conception, til she recover the soundness of her health, and til the faults of her womb (if not incurable) shal be amended.

But forasmuch as the Womb is ordained, not only for Conception, but to eva­cuateSuppression of blood or seed. the Superfluicy of Natural Humors in the Body, such as are, superfluous Seed, and Menstrual blood: if they be totally, or in part suppressed, the woman cannot be in Health, nor if they flow too much. Hence comes the Gonorrhoea Over-great flux thereof. simplex [simple running of the Reins] or the Feminine Flux, either of blood, or Humoral, when only Humors come away: which last, if it be malignant, and the Humor be sharp, exulcerating, and of evil color, it is dangerous, and comes somtimes from an outward, venemous, and contagious cause; and therfore women ought dis­creetly to be questioned touching that matter, that they may be brought to acknow­ledg their Disease, and not deceive the Physitian under a pretence that they have the ordinary whites, to their own hurt, unless they acknowledg themselves faulty, or lay it upon their Husbands, whom it is better to accuse, if they be in any measure suspected, than to cal the womans Chastity in question.

Because we are treating of the Action of the Womb, which is Conception, I will speak a little touching the same, and shew, How a woman is disposed during Con­ception: What is the fruit, or work of Conception, v.z. how the Infant comes out of the womb, and how the woman is constituted in the time of her Travel, and what happens unto her after her Travel, until she be wel, and upon her Legs again.

Touching other Diseases, whereunto [...]he is subject, I wil speak nothing, because they differ not from such of the same kind as she is troubled with, when she is not with Child.

Wherefore, as the Abolition, or taking away of the Action of the womb, is Bar­renness;Moles, Abor­tion, &c. so the Action thereof being depraved, brings forth a Mole, or a fal [...]e Con­ception, or an Efflux of the Seed, after eight daies, or Abortion.

If the Conception be true, and legitimate, a Child is thereby begotten; for theThe Childe Conception Mans Seed being squirted into the a Sheath, is sucked, and retained by the b womb; and then the c internal Orifice being shut by its heat, and inbred vertue, it stirs up the forming Faculty of the Seed, and sets it on working: VVhereupon, of both Seeds mingled, the Child is framed; which is begun by a certain point, or littleRight shaping speck; which upon the third day is perceived to pant, in Egs that a Hen sits upon. Afterward, certain Skins are formed, within which, the foundations, or first threds of the Vessels, and al parts, are drawn out of the Seed, and the woof, or super-stru­cture, is produced out of the Menstrual blood, which comes upon it: and then the Placenta is made, being a Mass, or Lump of Flesh, termed also the d VVomb-Liver,The Placenta or womb-liver. which being glued to the sides of the VVomb, interposes it self between the e Na­vel-strings of the Child, and the Vessels of the Mothers womb, which before were joyned together.

Now the Conformation of the Infant, is different in the parts thereof; but the said difference, does more manifestly appear in the Vessels of the f Heart, which are united by a double Anastomosis, or Union of the mouths of the said Vessels, as I have described them, in my History of the Child in the Womb.

Some sickly VVomen, while they go with Child, have their health better thanWhy some chil­ding women are sickly, others not ordinary; but the Child fares the worse for it, because it sucks up the impurities of the Mothers blood. Others are worse at that time, because the impurity of the mass of blood, is carried into divers parts; and if it stick in the Stomach, it causes either strange longings, or frequent vomiting; in some, al the while they are big, in o­thers, [Page 88] to the middle of the time of their Belly-bearing.

If a Woman, during the whol time of her Conception, can make the Child par­take of her passions, it wil partake both of her Health and Sickness.

Whether or no, may we let blood, or purge a sick woman that is with Child?Whether a big­bellied woman may be let blood? Affir. Blood may be taken away at any time, especially in the first months, in which the Child being smal, needs little blood to nourish it; but in other months also, blood is taken away, if the greatness of the Disease require it, to save both Mother and Child.

And if any ill happen after blood-letting in such a Case, it must be attributed rather to the violence of the Disease, than to the blood-letting, or any other Remedy applied.

But if a VVoman with Child, be taken with the disease Cholera [a violent pur­gingWhether in the disease Cholera she may bleed? Neg. upwards and downwards of corrupt Humors] when she is in her seventh or eighth month; whether in such a case, is it safe to let her blood? If it be suspe­cted as hurtful in such women as are not with Child, lest their strength being by much Evacuation weakened, should be more perished, and decayed, much less is it to be allowed in such as are big-bellied, who have suffered plentiful, and immode­rate Evacuation out of their Veins; because it inclines the Patient to miscarry, while it defrauds the Child of its nutriment, and impoverishes the mother; so to go about to Cure a VVoman with Child, is a dangerous, and unheard of Practice. For if al Practitioners dis-allow the same in Men, and VVomen not with Child, both Greeks, Arabians, and Latines, both Antient and Modern; much more is it to be dis-liked in a woman seven or eight months gone with Child. If it be done in a smal quantity, it is to no purpose: what can the taking away of one little Porren­ger of blood do, to resist the furious agitation of Humors, and to extinguish a Fea­ver, seeing the blood is wont to come very slowly away, drop by drop, and the best first.

I say no more, lest I should seem with affectation to handle this Question, which shal be more accurately discussed in another place. He that desires to be acquain­ted with the Cure of VVomens Diseases, let him read Hippocrates his fift Book of that Subject.

It is worthy Observation, That the greater the Child grows in the VVomb, theWhether in big­bellied women, the womb grows thinner? Neg. more does the VVomb, and the Placenta, or VVomb-Cake, or VVomb-Liver encrease; so that neer the time of Travel, it is as thick as a mans Thumb, contrary to the Nature of other Bodies, which by how much the more they are distended, by so much the thinner they grow. If the thickness of the VVomb be less, either those VVomen are lean, or have little blood, or had a flux of blood a little before their Child-birth; and such do void little or no blood by way of the Child-bed Pur­gations.

Now the Child in the VVomb, lies round like a Foot-ball, floats in Water, be­ingThe posture, & accōmodation of the child in the womb. compassed with two a Membranes, the one called b Amnion, the other c Chori­on, has the d Placenta, or VVomb-Liver fastened to the sides of the VVomb, as a Mattress, or Bed to rest upon, in which the Mothers womb is purified, and in which the Unbilical, or Navel-Vessels are rooted, viz. e a Vein and two f Arteries, which carry blood to the Liver and Heart.

The Vena Porta has blood proper thereunto; and the Cava has also blood of its own, which must go unto the Heart to be circulated.

The Child in the womb, is nourished by the g Navel; it breaths a little, its Heart h moves, and exercises its vital Faculty, it feels, and is moved, and has been heard also to cry.

At last, when it finds it self perfect, whether in the seventh, or in the ninthThe Natural Birth. month, which is the ordinary time for a Child to be born, being impatient to be any longer there imprisoned, it breaks its bands, and prison doors, and seeking to come [Page 89] out, makes its own way, with the Head i foremost; and such an Egress is termed a Natural, and right fashion'd Birth.

Before that Nature begins to work, she moistens the waies before the Birth, with aWhat precedes the same. Clammy, and gluish Humor. The internal Orifice of the womb, and the whol Sheath, which in the last months, do by little and little grow thick, are moistened with the same clammy, glutinous Humor, that they may easily be enlarged to such a widness as shal be necessary for the going out of the Infant.

That the Child be rightly born, it ought to come out with its Head first, and its Face towards the Mothers Breech, the Membranes being first broken, and the water run out: After the Child, the Secondine, or After-birth, must come forth, viz. What follows the Placenta Carnea, or Womb-Liver, whol, and untorn. VVhen the Child is come forth, the Navel is tied a a Thumbs breadth from the Skin, and after it is tied, it is cut of, leaving only another Thumbs breadth.

The Infant being wiped and clensed, with its Head gently pressed together, and closed, is delivered unto the Nurse. The Midwife takes care of the Mother, who is careful of her privy parts, being pained, and to recover her languishing strength.

If the Birth prove hard and painful, a Feaver is raised, and the privy Parts are swelled, by laboring, and endeavoring in vain to bring forth the Child. SomtimesHelps to fur­ther hard labor her strength falls her, and other whiles Convulsions do arise. Then is blood drawn from the Arm, and the Foor, and the Genital Parts are fomented with Emollient, and laxative Fomentations, and are anointed within with opening Oyls, and fresh Butter. The Patient is put into a bath of luke-warm water, and sharp Clysters are given, to provoke the womb to excretion: and the inferior parts are provoked by Aperitive, and provoking Potions to open themselves.

Finally: when all wil not do, and the woman has passed over two or three daies in these Torments, if she appear like to die, and ready to faint away, if tokens of a Gangrene in the Privities do appear, although we are not sure that the Infant is dead, it is drawn out with an Hook, that the Mothers life may be saved; it is better thatDrawing the Infant out by an Hook. one die, than two, and the life of the Mother is to be preferred before the life of the Child. The Mother ought not to die to save the Child, and therefore the Caesarean Section [ripping the Child out of the Mothers Belly] ought not to be practi­sed.

'Twas elegantly said by Tertullian in his Book de Anima, cap. 25. Necessa­ria crudelitate trucidatur Infans ma [...]ricida ni moriturus; that is, It is a necessa­ry kind of Cruelty, to kill that Child, which otherwise would kill its own Mo­ther.

VVhen the Infant has broke prison, and escaped, if the Placenta, or After-birth do not follow, the Midwife must thrust her hand into the Cavity of the womb, and pul it [...]way gently, lest the bottom of the womb be drawn down.

If in a woman dead presently after her Delivery, you view the privy Parts, you shal observe the Caruncles obliterated and defaced, the Nymphes much diminished▪ so that only some Rudiments of them, are to be seen, and the inmost Orifice so wide, that it wil receive a mans four fingers bended together.

The widening of those Parts to let out the Infant, and the straitening of them a­gain,Admirable power of Na­ture. Child-bed Purgations what they are a while after, is an admirable work of Nature.

The widness and thickness of the womb, are diminished by little and little, by the coming away of the Loches, or Child-bed Purgations, which is nothing but that blood squeezed out, which had been shut up between the Spongy sides of the womb. But if the largeness of the womb be not diminished, nor the blood evacuated, it pu­tre [...]ies, [Page 90] and causes an Inflamation, and the womb continues stretched, and bard, as is the Child were yet within it, and at length a Gangrene arises, which brings un­avoidable death after it.

But if the whol Placenta be not drawn forth, it is no necessary cause of Death; and the place from whence it was pulled by force, for a while appears rough and uneven, til the whol womb be dried, and reduced unto its natural Figure: al which ought diligently to be observed, especially in Child-bed women that are sick.

The largeness and hardness of the Body of the womb continuing with a Feaver, isChild-bed Purgations re­tained, how to be evacuated a very dangerous, and doubtful Disease; and a great Question it is towards the Cure, whether we should open a Vein in the Arm, or in the Foot. Fernelius confidently lets blood in the Arm: Pereda a Spaniard, tels us, That we should not regard from whence the blood comes, but into what part it is collected, and bids us open the Vein which is next that part.

Cortesius in his Miscellanies, has sifted this Question, and favors the Opinion of Fernelius: howbeit, more profitable it is, and more secure, to take blood out of the Foot liberally, respect being had to the Patients strength, not neglecting coo­ling Clysters, Epithems, Fomentations, and Pessaries, made to provoke the womb to cast forth that putrified, and death-causing blood; and the rather to avoid the Calumny, and prating of il-tongu'd Gossips, by whom Remedies are defamed, which have been the means to save many peoples lives.

The Infant has no Diseases proper to it self, saving Teeth-breeding, Smal Pox,Diseases pro­per to Infants▪ and Meazles. Hippocrates under the name of Tooth-breeding, comprehends al Childrens Diseases, because chiefly when they breed their Teeth, Infants are so sick that many times they are taken away by death.

Many Diseases are raised by the pain of the Childrens Tooth-breeding. ThereTeeth-sickness are two times in which the Tooth-sickness does vex, and endanger the lives of Chil­dren, viz. When the Teeth first sprout, and when they break out of the Gums.

The Meazles, and smal Pox, are new Diseases, unknown to the Antient Physiti­ans,Meazles. Smal pox which are thought to be contracted, and bred in the Mothers womb, by the Mo­thers corrupt, and Menstrual blood; the fault whereof, Nature is wont to purge out, and scum away by those Eruptions. I say no more, lest I should seem to go beyond the bounds of an Anatomical Discourse. Neither is it my Design to deliver an exact Pathology, or Description of Diseases; but only to hint at such Diseases as are known by knowing the Natural Constitution of the parts of the whol Body.

Chap. 37. Of the Pains of the Loyns.

THere is nothing which we more frequently meet with in Hippocrates, and in the Practice of Physick, than Pains of the Loyns, whether they be primary, or secondary; that is to say, Attendants of other Diseases; which are oftentimes neglected by Physitians as Symptomatical, unless they be very stubborn, and soli­tary without a Feaver. The Causes of which pains, are not accurately enough de­clared, neither is their Cure sufficiently explained by al Practitioners.

This knot I shal endeavor to unty, and illustrate. The parts therefore of theA muster of such parts as are in the loyns lower Belly, being demonstrated, and the Guts taken away, we shal see the Loyns a covered with Muscles, both within and without, and fleshy b portions of the Mid­rif reaching down to the Os Sacrum, and the Trunk of the Vena c Cava descendent, also the d Aorta, and the two e e Kidneys. And if you shal cal to mind the cleaving of the Mesentery to the Loyns, and shal observe the Lumbary, or Loyn f f Veins, produced from the Trunk of the Vena Cava, and the Arteries proceeding from the g g Aorta, both conveighed into the holes of the Vertebra's as far as the marrow of the Back. Al these things being diligently viewed, and considered, wil give great light to our Consultation.

Galen complains in his Commentary upon Text 7. of the Second Book of Pro­ [...]heticks; and upon Text 8. of the Third Book of the same Work, of the Obscurity of the pains of the Loyns, because of the Ignorance of those Parts which compound [Page 91] and work upon the Loines; yet some causes he assignes of those pains, and Ludo­vicus Duretus that same sublime Interpreter of Hippocrates has added others, but they have not assigned all. I wil therefore do my endeavour to clear this point.

And in the first place, it is fit to take notice, that this pain is by the Greeks calledThe Name with its Ely­mology. in one word Osphualgia: the Latines term it Lumbago, and he that is made weak by pain in his Loins, is called Elumbis vel Elumbatus, disloined or unloined. In the French 'tis termed Erne as it were a Rene from the Kidney, which lies in the Loines; and when the pain arises from a Convulsion of the Fibres, the common people say their Kidneys are torn in sunder.

If this pain of the Loins be eased with Clysters, the Humors being emptied which were shut up in the Guts or Mesentery, the Common People say, that their Reins or Kidneys are wel dis-burthened.

Now that our enquiry touching pains of the Loins may be clear and Methodical,The Authors Method. it is necessary in the first place to distinguish the Parts constituting the Loins, which are pained, and the bordering Parts which as efficient Causes do give occasi­on to those pains, not neglecting the more remote Parts. Then we shal enquire into the common internal and external Causes of those pains, and to sum up al in a word, we shall consider the Parts which send the Humor, and the Parts which receive the same.

The Parts therefore which make up the Loines and are the subject of the pains,Parts which constitute the Loins. and Are the sub­jects of Pains. are these. The a Skin with the b fleshy Membrane, the c Muscles which are spread upon the five d Vertebraes, both without and within with the e Os Sacrum. Within the f Cavities of the Vertebraes, the Marrow of the back with its Membranes, and a numerous company of g branches of Nerves, and the Membranous Ligaments, which knit the Vertebra's one unto another. Also we must observe how the h Marrow of the back is in the Loins parted into an innumerable company of i threads, like an Horse-Tail, and that the whol Back-bone is moved in the Loines, by an Articulation of the first Vertebra of the Loines, with the last Vertebra of the Back.

They are deceived who think that by the word Loins Hippocrates understands only the Parts included viz. The k Nerves, the a Muscles of the Loins, the Spinal b Marrow with its Membranes, and the c Kidneys: for besides al these Hippocrates comprehends under the term Loins, the d great Vein and e Artery, and the f Sper­matick Vessels, and the g Vessels of the Kidneys, the h Bladder, the i Womb, the k Hemorrhoides and the thick l Guts. But I would fain see the places which seve­rally demonstrate those Parts.

Now the neighbouring Parts, which are able to hurt the Loins, by reason of theirParts border­ing upon the Loins which are The special Causes of their Pains. nearness, or heavyness, or by disburthening their Humors into them, are the Mesen­tery m which is knit unto the Loins, the lower Part of the n Gut Colon, the two o Kidnys which touch upon and cleave unto the Loins, by their p fatty Membrane, the Trunks of q Vena Cava and r Aorta which are spread along in the Loines, and the Vessels springing out of them, which are propagated into the Muscles of the Loins and the Back-bone. Of which sort are the Veins and Arteries of the s Loins, [Page 92] al [...]o the Haemorrhoid t Veins, which pass down al a long the Loins into the Funda­ment; as also the u Spermatick Vessels which swel with Spermatick Humor, which in their progress do send branches unto the Loines. In Women, the x Womb with its y Ligaments and z Testicles may hurt the Loins, but especialy in a Woman with Child, by reason of the weight of the Womb and Child. The Veins and Arteries of the Iliac α branches, which are spread abroad through the Os Sacrum, may vex the Loines.

The remote Parts which hurt the Loines, are, the a Liver by the Vena b Porta, Remote Parts and c Mesentery, and the d Head whils it disburthens it self of its Superfluities into the e Marrow of the Back according to Hippocrates in his Book de Glandulis. The Humor descends through the Cavity of the Spinal Marrow, as far as the Loines, and it cannot easily go farther, by reason that the Marrow of the Back is their di­vided into a f Million of Threds.

We must also observe the common Causes of the Pains, which are frequentlyCommon Causes of Pains. found in Pains of the Loines, as internal Rheumatismes or Fluxes of Humors, and external by the Veins, or an Humor between the Skin, whith flowes from the Head betwixt the Muscles and Fleshy Membane,

Oftentimes the btanches of the Vena Cava and Aorta do carry a Patt of boiling and Superfluous Blood, out of the greater Channels into the Loines, which they Disease either in the Muscly Parts, or in the Membranous Parts, or in the marrow of the Back; which is the Cause that a Palsie follows the Colick, or an Arthritis degenerates into the Colick and the Colick is changed into the Sciatica. Also, outward Impostumes of the Kidneys, and passions of the Gut Colon being either distended or exulcerated, are Communicated to the Loines. within and without in the Loines may arise Tumors, Impostumes, and Ulcers, yea, and the Loins are distorted by flux of Rheum, or some swelling. Their Fibres are distended by the Cramp. Many times pains of the Loines are stirred up by external Causes, asExternal Causes. a fall on the Back, or a Blow with a thick Stick, or some other massie thing.

These things being premised and wel understood, it is easie to explain very obscureCertain places in Hippocrates expounded. places in Hippocrates, touching pains of the Loines, which you shal find in the Commentaries of Duretus upon the Coick Prognosticks of Hippocrates, and others collected together in the Commentaries of Marinellus upon Hippocrates, in the word Lumbi.

There are two kinds of Loine Symptomes: for some are in the Loines, and others spring from the Loines: both of them are by Hippocrates judged to be very stubborn and hard to deal with,

In his Coicks he hath pronounced absolutly and without exception, Such as have pains in their Loines are in a very bad condition. And in the same Book, Diseases which arise from pain of the Back, are hard to cure. And how wil you under­stand those places, unles by a clear knowledg of the the Parts sending and Parts re­ceiving, as I declared before.

Certain it is, if in the beginning of Diseases their be pain in the Loines, with heavyness and a Feaver, Blood very hot or in great plenty is contained within the greater Vessels, which being more inflamed, if not timely prevented, may be car­ried into the Head or into the Lungs, from whence greivous Diseases may follow. In other places he does particularly explain the Causes of Lung pains.

[Page 93]If I should recite those places, I should fil twenty Leaves and upwards, wherefore I wil take in my Sailes and dispatch al in a word. Pains of the Loines in acute Malig­nantDanger of these pains in Feavers. Feavers or other Feavers in the beginning are dangerous▪ for they signifie a great Tumult in the Blood, and irritation of Humor within the greater Vessels, which is much to be feared if a speedy course be not taken to prevent what may follow, by a plentyful blood letting, especially in the Feet, to hinder the recourse of the blood to the upper Parts of the Chest or Head, where it is wont to produce divers terri­ble and deadly Symptomes.

We ought therefore to be very fearful of pains in the Loines which persevere in Feavers, although Blood have been often let, because in the Region of the Belly, Humors lie extreme deep, which may take their course suddenly to some of the nobler Parts, if they be not diligently Purged forth.

And therefore to cure such like pains of the Loins, Hippocrates was went toTheir Cure. open the Veins of the Ham or Foot: which is confirmed by him, in his Coicks: the pains of the Loins proceed from aboundance of blood there, and blood-lettings that are caused by pains of the Loins are large and plentyful. These things declare the necessity of blood-letting, when the Loins are pained with a Feaver.

Purging must not be omitted that the Vault of the lower Belly being loaded with Excrements may be emptied and clensed; out of Aphor. 20. Book 4. Though Hippocrates has written that such as complain of pains in their Loins, are loo [...]e [...] bellyed than ordinary; that saying does not take away the necessity of Purging in these cases.

Bleeding at the Hemorrhoid Veins is good both for the Kidneis and for pains of the Loins; and therefore the Hemorrhoids are to be provoked.

A lasting pain of the Loins without Heat or any Inflammatory disposition, unless it can be discussed with Fomentations, after purging & blood-letting often repeated, the Humor must be drawn out with Cupping-Glasses and Scarification, and by Application of Vesicatories, or making Issues on each side of the Back-bone; also with a Bath of fresh water qualified with Herbs, or by sitting in natural Baths, or having their water Pumped from on high upon the Parts affected. For the pains of the Loins are more vehement and stubborn if the serous matter be conteined with­in the Muscles as far as the Vertebras: and they are yet worse and harder to be cur­ed, if they come to the Marrow of the Back.

But those Symptomes which are thought to arise from the Loins, do not arise from the Parts which constitute or make up the Loins, but from the neighbouring Parts, which being spread upon the Loins, do cause pain, and transfer their Humors into other Parts, by a quick or slow motion, by the Veins and Arteries, such as are Vena Cava and Aorta, the Haemorrhoid Veins and the Mesaraicks. Out of Galen.

The End of the Second Book:

THE THIRD BOOK OF THE ANATOMY AND PATHOLOGY OF John Riolanus, THE KINGS PROFESSOR OF PHYSICK.

Chap. 1. Of the Chest.

LET us proceed unto the Parts of the Chest. Now the ChestIts▪ Bounds is the Mansion House of the Vital Parts It is bounded, and circumscribed below, by the a bastard Ribs, and b Midrif; a­bove by the c Claviculae, and the whol Circumference, and bulk thereof is made up of al the d Ribs, the Vertebra's of the e Back, and the f Breast-bone. And because the Neck comptehends the beginnings of certain Parts which belong unto the Chest, it is referred thereunto, rather than to the the Head, though it be the prop and Pillar thereof.

That the Chest may be wel shaped, it ought to be of an Oval Figure, and notShape. flat before, which is termed Pectus Tabellatum, a Table-shap'd Breast, and is a to­ken that the Party so Breasted, wil fal into a Consumption.

[Page 95]The Chest is Compounded of divers Parts, which are divided into external andParts. internal, that is to say into Parts conteining, and Parts contained. The conteining Parts are common and proper. The Common are five. The Scarf-Skin, the Skin, the fatty Membrane, the fleshy Membrane, and the Membrane common to the Muscles, which were explained in our Anatomy of the lower Belly.

The Membrane of Fat and the fleshy Membrane have one thing proper and pecu­liar in the Chest, that they receive the Paps in Men and Women. In Men there are only the marks of Paps or Dugs, in Women they are Parts made not only for a [...]e­minine ornament, but to nourish the Infant, of which we are now to treat before we pass any further.

Chap. 2. Of the Dugs of Women.

THe Dugs are made up of a company of Kernels very like the Kernels of Prune-Stones,Their Substance clustered together, and disposed confusedly in heapes upon a Mem­brane proper to themselves, in the middest of which there lies one Kernel greater than the rest, under the Teat.

The Dugs are placed upon the Brest, not to defend the Heart not to adorne andScituation▪ beautifie the Woman, but that the Infant may be more conveniently nourished, while the Mother embracing it in her Arms laies it to the Dug, and the Child T [...] ­kling her Nipple with its [...]ucking provoks her the more to love it, and to express her Love by frequent Kisses.

The largeness of the Dugs is different, according as the Woman is of a more or lessMagnitude▪ fleshy and la [...]civious constitution of Body: for the lustful heat of the Womb does puff up and swel a Womans Dugs. In a Marriagable Virgin they become more large, if she enjoy carnal Embracements with more than ordinary pleasure and con­tent,

Nature, our bountyful Mother, has given a Woman two Dugs, that she may nurseNumber. two Children; or if one brest be sore, the other may serve the turn for a time. And for this Cause they communicate Vessels one with another.

The shape of the Dugs is not flat but bunching out, that they might contein theShape greater Quantity of Milk. At the end of the Dugs, are the Teats, out of which drops the Milk, which the Infant sucks.

The Teat or Nipple is made of the Skin drawn together and boared with littleThe Teats. holes. It is wrinkled on the out-side that the Infant may more easily lay hold up­on it, and keep it in its Mouth.

Round obout the Teat there goes a Ring or Circle of different Colors in Women,The Circle about the Teats. in respect of their Age and of their being with Child or not with Child &c. In Virgins it is red, in such as are devirginated it is Black and Blew. In Women with Child it is larger than ordinary; and if they go with a Boy it is Black and Blew or red; if they go with a Girle, it is of a whiteish Color.

The Medicinal Consideration.

The largness of the Chest is commended as sound and healthful; but a narrowMis-shapen Chest. Chest is blamed because it occasions shortness of Breath, because the Lungs are ill housed wanting Room to display themselves. The shape of the Chest ought dili­gently to be considered by a Physitian when he sees any troubled with shortness of Breath. In healthy Persons, that the Chest may be perfectly shaped, it is requisite that it be round in the forepart and not sharp, and that it be streight before and be­hind; if it prove crooked, there is a fault in the Back-bone, of which we shal speak in our Doctrin of bones.

Terence blames the affected Care of Mothers who straitned the Chests of their yong Daughters, that they might become Slender and smal in the wast. [Such are [...]ghtly termed Wasp-wasted We [...]ches, because they seem divided in the middle▪ like a Waspe or Bee.]

[Page 96]A mis-shapen Chest by reason of the Crookedness of the Back-bone is more fre­quentlyBy Crooked­ness of the Back-bone. seen in Women than in Men, because they are the weaker Vessels. These Crookednesses we endeavour to correct with a firm Pair of Bodies, made either of hard Leather, or of strong Linnen with Whale-bones sowed between, or of very thin Plates of Iron. Also the Back-bone is daily by contrary motious bowed the other way.

Some are born thus Mis-shapen, and they are incurable, let the Rectifiers of Crookedness do what they c [...]

Many times Rhewmes fal upon the Muscles of the Back▪bone, which draw the Vertebraes awry, whence proceeds a mis-shapen B [...]-bone and con­sequently a Crooked Chest, because their shape depends upon the shape of the Back-bone.

To the evil shaping of the Chest appertains the falling down of the Brest, or theBy falling of the Brest. bowing in of the Sword-like Gristle, which hurts the Stomach and provokes vomi­ting, and also shortness of Breath by hurting the Midrif; therefore this Gristle ought speedily to be lifted up and restored to its place. Baptista Codron [...]us and Ludo­v [...]cus Septalius have treated of this Disease.

The Diseases of the Cavity of the Chest are Empyema, or a collection of quittorEmpyema. Dropsie. within the said Cavity, and the Dropsie of the Brest: all which Diseases require a perforation to be made between the fourth and fift Rib of the Chest on that side in which the Humor is conteined.

Somtimes winds do so violently distend the Lungs, that the Patient is in danger of Choaking, unless the Chest be opened by the Perforation afore said, which is often practised at Paris to the great benefit of the Patients and easing of the Chest; although no watry Humors come forth, but only wind, which Issues violently, with a noise. Those whose Chests are distended with wind, are by Hippocrates termed Pneumatiai.

The Dugs are to be considered at divers seasons, in a Virgin Marriagable, in aCondition of the Dugs. Married Woman, in a woman with Child, and in one that lies in Child▪bed and gives Suck: because in these several times they are subject to several Diseases. In ripe Virgins fully Marrigable, the Dugs are firm and solid. They become more soft andIn a marriag­able Virgin. swelling, when they are transported with a burning desire of carnal Embracements: and by how much the higher they swel without pain, and the fuller Orbe that they make, strow [...]ing and Kis [...]ing one another, the greater is their desire after bodily Pleasure, and it may be guessed that they have tasted the Sweetness of Mans-Flesh.

If when the Dugs are pressed, Milk drop forth, it is a sign of the Parties being withIn a married Woman. Child, though Hippocrates accounts it but an uncertain Sign. The Dugs of a Mar­ryed woman which were raised with the Ardency of fleshly lust, do sink and fa [...] by little and li [...]tle. Women that have large strouting Dugs are termed in Latine Mam­mosae Mulieres, and they are of an ho [...] Con plexion, lustful and lovers of Wine and good Liquor. If they happen to be of a cold Complexion, the swel [...]ing of their Dugs, comes from an Wheyish Humor which they suck in like Spunges. So saies Hip­pocrates.

Large and ponderous Dugs, do hinder Breathing, by burthening the Chest. So the swelled Breaths of Ancient Virgins and married women, are liable to the same Diseases. For either by reason of a Flux of Humors or of some bruise, they areInflamation of the Dugs. Impostum. inflamed and impostumate: somtime they become Scirrhous and Knobbed as it were with the Kings-Evil, by reason of the Kernels; and then a Kernel or two, if they be movable, ought to be taken clean away, by cutting the Skin before theyScirrhus. cleave to the Fat, the Disease encreasing and creeping on to infect other Kernels: Hence comes an incurable Cancer; Because the Dugs are ful of Kernels and spungy,Cancer. and therefore ordained by Nature to receive superfluous Humors. So that such Women as have them dried and shrunken up, are unhealthy and much troubled with spitting.

[Page 97]The Dugs of a Woman with Child, some time after her Conception, do swel byIn a woman with child. Distention by blood. little and little, by reason of the flowing back of the Menstrual blood, and they drop a mil [...]y Whey: but in Child bed women, they become yet bigger, by reason of a greater afflux of blood, than the Dugs are able to contain. From this distention springs a Feaver, on the third day after they are delivered, which lasts a day or two, or longer; unless the Milk be forced back, or some Child suck the Dugs.

This Milk is called in Latine, Colostrum, and many are afraid to nourish the Child therewith. Yet Spigelius has proved, That this first Milk is no bad milk, and that a Mother ought not to refuse to nourish her Child therewith.

If in a Woman with Child, the Dugs are liable to Inflamation, Tumors, and Ʋl­cers; In a woman that lies in. much more are they so in a Child-bed Woman, and one that gives suck, by reason of the curdling of her Milk. Dioscorides writes, That the swelling of the Dugs is brought down, by the application of bruised Hemlock, which Experience shews to be true. Howbeit, Dodonaeus approves not of this Medicine, by reason of the malignant, and venemous Nature of this Herb, which being applied unto the Dugs, may wrong the Heart.

Hippocrates in his Epidemicks, has this Saying: If the Nipples of Womens Dugs, and that which is red in them, be pale, their Womb is diseased.

There is a great League, and fellow-feeling, between the Dugs, and the Womb,Consent of the wom [...] & dugs▪ how caused? by reason of two Veins, viz. The Vena aMammaria, or Dug-Vein; and the b Epigastrica: and also by the Venae c Thoracicae, or Breast-Veins, which are Branches of the Vena d Cava, which in the bottom of the Belly, affords the Hypo­gastrick e Vein unto the Womb.

The Ancient Chyrurgeons were wont to cut off Cancerous Dugs with the Inci­sion Knife; but because it lucks not well, women are not willing to undergo so cruel a Remedy, neither do our Chyrurgeons practice it.

Chap. 3. Of the External Parts of the Chest.

THe proper Containing Parts are boney, musculous, or membranous. TheProper con­taining parts. boney Parts are of four sorts, viz. Twelve f Ribs, two Claviculae, or g Chan­nel-bones, the Sternum, or h Breast-bone, and the twelve Vertebrae, or i turning Joynts of the Back-bone, of which we have spoken in ou [...] Osteologia, or History of the Bones.

The Musculous parts, are either external, or internal, at least placed between the bones. The External musculous parts, are divided into Muscles proper to the Chest, or such as are referred to other parts; such as the Musculus a Pectorali [...], or Breast-Muscle; Serratus b minor anti [...]s, or the smaller fore-side Saw-Muscle; and the greater Saw c Muscle, or Serratus major; the rest belong unto the Chest, of which we shal speak in our Myologia, or History of the Muscles.

The Internal musculous Parts are, the Intercostal Muscles, both d internal, and e external; which are placed in the spaces between the Ribs, as their name im­ports.

Chap▪ 4. Of the Pleura, Mediastinum, and Pericardium.

THat continued membranous Part which incloses al the internal parts of theThe Pleur [...]what it i [...]. Chest, and bestows Membranes upon every one of them, like the Peritoneum, [Page 98] is termed f Pleura; which being every where g stretched out under al the Ribs, is firmly joyned to the bony Parts, and to the Midrif. Because of its thickness, it isIts thickness accounted double; but it cannot be demonstrated to be so, without tearing.

In Diseases of the Chest, when it swels, its doubleness is easily separated. Being on either side reflexed unto the Back, and rising up unto the Breast-bone, it is h re­duplicated, and makes the i Mediastinum, and leaves within it self a certain voidThe Media­stinum, what it is? space, ful of threds, which also comprehends the Heart, and the Pericardium: it is noths [...]g else, save a Production, or a doubling and folding of the Mediasti­num.

This Cavity of the Mediastinum, is diligently to be observed, as that which helpsIts Cavity. to form the voyce as an Eccho to beat back the sound: it does likewise separate the bulk of the Chest into two Cavities, and divide the Lungs one from another.

The Mediastinum is fastened unto the Claves, and the Midrif, by reason of the Pericardium, which is circularly knit unto the a Circulus Nerveus, and the Breast­bone; and by this Artifice, the Mediastinum, by help of the Pericardium, does hold the heart suspended, and becomes the band of the Midrif it self. Now the b Pericardium is the Bag, or Case of the Heart, which contains a watery HumorThe Pericar­dium, what it is? to moisten the Heart, from which it is round about so far distant, as is requisite that the Heart may freely move it self. If the Pericardium, or Heart-case has no pro­per Coat of its own, yet it does at least borrow one from the Mediastinum, which compasseth it about. By reason of the neer conjunction of the one unto the other, the membranous substance is no thicker, than the Membrane of the Mediastinum in other places.

The Medicinal Consideration.

Because Contraries compared together, are the better understood, having seenDiseases of the Costal muscles, i [...] the Natural Constitution of these Parts, let us now take a view of their Preternatu­ral Dispositions, or Diseases.

The Muscles, as wel those that are spred upon the Ribs, as those which are placed between the said Ribs, which are subject to divers Diseases, caused either by the Flux of Humors▪ from other parts, or by Humors collected in, and about the said Muscles.

They undergo divers Tumors, Inflamations, Impostumes, Rheumatick pains, springing from a serous, or wheyish Humor; al which do produce sharp pains inPains of the [...]des. How known from the Pleu­risie. the sides, with a Feaver, and somtimes with a dry Cough, which imitate the Pleuri­sie; wherefore the difference must diligently be marked, lest we apply the same Remedies to these pains of the sides, which are proper to a Pleurisie.

Hippocrates has observed this Difference; and after him Duretus, the Ghost of Hippocrates, and his Faithful Interpreter: For every Pleurisie is a pain of the side; but every pain of the side, is not a Pleurisie, or at most, but a bastard Pleu­risie.

But some wil say, both Diseases require the same Cure in respect of blood-let­ting, because the passage is easie for the Humors to go from the external parts, unto the internal. I do not deny that blood is to be taken away, but not so much, and so often, as in a true Pleurisy. And therefore Hippocrates in a pain of the side, was wont first to make use of Fomentations, that he might try whether the pain was in the side, or in the Membrane called Pleura; for a simple pain of the side is eased byHow they dif­fer in Fomentations, but the Pleurisie is thereby enraged the more, in which there is a continual Feaver, an In [...]amation, a Cough, and a pricking pain of the side.

And therefore the pains of the side differ in Scituation, and in matter; becauseScituation, one is [...]eated in the Membrane a Pleurd, and the b Intercostal Muscles; another in the grea [...] Muscles, which are spred upon the Ribs, such as are the c Pectoral Mus­cle [Page 99] the d Serratus major, and e minor, the f Latissimus, and the Muscles of the g Back.

They differ also in Matter, because wind, or wheyish Humors, or blood doesMatter. insinuate it self into the greater external Muscles, and is carried likewise, or slips down from the Brain, by the Veins termed h Thoracicae, or Chest-Veins: But the Humor which does possess the Intercostal Muscles, is brought by the smal Branches of the Vena i Azygos, or Vein without a Fellow, and does produce the true Pleu­resie.

It is not necessary that the Humor be contained within the Membrane Pleura, because it is not capable, nor apt to receive the Flux when the pain begins; but the Humor being shed abroad into the space which is between the Muscles, and the Pleura, it becomes partaker of the pain, which is more sharp in the Pleura it self, by reason of its Nervous, or Sinewy Nature, than it is in the Musculous Flesh.

The Action of the Chest, is motion, ordained for Respiration; which motion, is governed by Muscles and Nerves which are subject to the Palsey and Convulsion. To the Convulsion of the Muscles of the Chest, does belong the stoppage of the breath, difficult breathing, and Hippocrates his double-stroak'd fetching in of the wind.

The Membrane Pleura being inflamed with a continual Feaver, a pricking pain inWhether there may be a Peri­pneumonia, or no? the side, and a Cough, makes a Pleurisie, which some late Physitians do think, ne­ver lasts long, without a transmission of the Humor into the Lungs, which often cleave to the Pleura, yea, and that the Humor passes over by a Metastasis into the Lungs▪ and causes a Peripneumonia, or Inflamation of the Lungs.

Zecchius was the first that broached this Doctrine in his Counsels, building up­on the Authority of Hippocrates; others did in their writings, confirm it by rea­sons, as Vincentius Baronius, in his Book de Pleuropneumonia. And this Com­bination of two Diseases of the Chest in one, they term Pleuropneumonia, that is, the Side-and-Lung-sickness; which thing I gave an hint of, before them, in my An­thropography, or Description of Mans Body, in the Chapter which treats of the Lungs. That place of Hippocrates, is worthy consideration, which many have un­dertaken to explain: I for my part do thus interpret the same.

Oft-times the Lungs in one, or both the sides, do cleave unto the Membrane whichHow it is caused, accor­ding to our Author. covers the Ribs: or if they do not cleave thereunto when the side is first inflamed; the Membrane Pleura being soaked, and made softer by the afflux of Humors, does sweat out a clammy wheyish Humor; so that the Lungs when breath is drawn in, filling the whol Chest, do at length stick unto the said membrane Pleura, and there cleaving is made the faster by the heat of the Feaver. Neither does the motion of the Lungs hinder that same cleaving too aforesaid, because when the pain is en­creased, the Patient breaths short for fear of augmenting the same, and so the Lungs are moved very little: whereupon the Lungs are fastened to the part pained, and then the Pleurisy turns into a Peripneumonia, or Inflamation of the Lungs, or both these Diseases are joyned together; and therefore there follows an easy Expectora­tion, first of a bloody Humor, by reason of a light Exulceration both of the Pleura, and of the membrane of the Lungs, and then of the rest of the matter, which comes partly out of the side, partly from the Excrement of the Lungs Nutriment, or from the impurity of the mass of blood, passing by its circular motion through the Lungs: whence it is, that so great a quantity of a Cholerick and Flegmatick Humor flows, which is spit up with Coughing.

But if the Lungs do not cleave to the side, the blood-watry Humor being shed into the Cavity of the Chest, and scarce ever drawn back again, there is bred an Empyema; which if it be not voided of it self, it must be let out by opening the side; which Operation somtimes lucks wel.

[Page 100]So that according to the Doctrine of Hippocrates, whom Herophilus (as Cae­lius The difference of a Pleurisie, and Peripneu­monia. Aurelianus relates) and Cornelius Celsus do follow, there is a true Pleurisie, if there be joyned thereunto, an Inflamation of one side of the Lungs; if both sides be pained, it is a true Peripneumonia, or Universal Inflamation of the Lungs, be­cause the whol Lungs are affected both in the right, and left side; and continually beating upon the Ribs, they are apt to infect them with the blood-watry Humor wherewith they abound. Wherefore the Pleurisy, and the Inflamation of the Lungs, are Diseases of a brotherly Kindred, which help one another to destroy the Patient, or to comfort him, according as the Constitution of the Lungs is weak or strong; and as they are assisted with Remedies, especially, liberal blood-let­ting.

Neither can the matter causing the Pleurisy, be transferred, or propagated by any other waies into the Lungs by any Metastasis, or Epigenesis. Howbeit, we see in dead bodies, the diseased Pleura ten times thicker than ordinary, which argues that the seat of the Disease was there. I deny not but that it may be communicated to the Lungs, and that the Pleurisie may degenerate into a Peripneumonia, or Infla­mation of the Lungs, after the manner aforesaid.

Touching blood-letting, there has been for an hundred and fifty yeers, an eagerOn which side the blood is to be taken away in a Pleurisie? contention between the Modern Physitians of France, Italy, and Germany, from what part blood is to be drawn in a true Pleurisie, whether on the same side that is pained, or on the other side. At last, the Opinion of Hippocrates confirmed with the Authority of Galen, has prevailed, and got Victory over the Doctrine of the Arabian Physitians. The Physitians of Paris, and al true Artists, do follow Hip­pocrates; for they let blood on the Arm, of the same side which is pained. After three or four times letting blood in the Arm, for Revulsion sake, a Vein may be ope­ned in the Foot; but the diseased side must be first disburdened.

In blood-letting, we chuse our Vein, because the Patient is sooner eased by ope­ningOut of what Vein? the a Basilica Vena, if we consider the Rectitude of the Vessels by the Fibres: for this Vein is a continuation of the b Axillary Trunk, which produces the c Chest-Vein, which glides through the external parts of the Chest, and is joyned to the Extremities of the Solitary Vein called Azygos. This was formerly declared by Gordonius, a Physitian of Montpelier. Ludovicus Duretus has confirmed the same with Histories, in his Commentaries upon the Practice of Hollerius.

The Mediastinum is subject to divers Diseases. Its Membranes are inflamed asDiseases of the Mediastinum. Inflamation, Impostume, in the Pleurisie, because of the neer Neighbor-hood of the Heart, and the commu­nion of substance with the Pericardium. The Quittor therein collected, makes an Impostume, which is drawn out by perforation of the Breast-bone, or by an Instru­ment fitted for that purpose. Winds also are somtimes shut up within the CavityWind, of these parts, which do vex, and torment the Chest, and pierce it through as it were.

The Pericardium may also be inflamed, with much pain, and no little danger, be­causePericardium Inflamed, it is neer the Heart; which therefore is subject to frequent Swounings; and then the pulse is quicker, the Feaver stronger, the thirst more vehement than in the Pleurisie, or in the Inflamation of the Lungs.

Oftentimes abundance of moisture is collected therein, which causes Suffocati­on,Full of Humor and over-whelms the Heart. If thou canst not draw away the said moisture with such Medicines as purge wheyish Humors; what if you should boar an hole in the breast-bone, a Thumbs breadth distant from the Sword-like Gristle? because the Pericardium is there fastened, that the heart may hang pendulous. A doubt­ful Cure, is better than certain Desperation: it is better to try a doubtful Remedy than none at all, where there is no hope of help, save in some extraordinary provi­dence of God.

If there be no water at al in the Pericardium, the Heart pines away by little andDeficient of Humor. Worms. little, as it has been observed in many Patients.

Certain it is, that Worms are bred in the Pericardium, which feed upon the Heart, and are destroyed by the use of Scordium. Petrus Salius Diversus has [Page 101] treated of this Disease. Neither is it any absurdity, that worms should be sound within the Ventricles of the Heart; howbeit they are bred in the Vena Cava, and come from thence into the Heart.

Seeing the Heart hangs upon the Breast-bone, it wil not be unprofitable to ap­ply Topick Medicaments, and Fomentations, whether hot or cold, made to streng­then the Heart, unto this part, according as the Disease wherewith the heart is trou­bled, shal require. 575

Chap. 5. Of the Midrif, or Diaphragma.

THe Method of▪ Dissection has brought us to the a Midrif, the principal Instru­mentMidrifs of free Breathing, which separates the Chest from the Belly like a Par­tition wall, being tied to al the bastard Ribs, to two of the true Ribs, and to theScituation. Sword-like Gristle; and being on this manner oblickly stretched round about, it sends forth two b fleshy Productions somewhat longish, even to the utmost Vertebra's of the Loyns.

It is made up of Flesh, and a c Sinewy membrane, which is placed in▪ the CentreSubstance. thereof, the rest of its compass being fleshy, and of the Nature of d muscle. On that part which is towards the belly, it is covered with a membrane of the Perito­neum: on the other side, towards the Chest, it is compassed with the Pleura.

The Sinewy Circle is placed in the midst, to strengthen that part, that it may bear the point of the Heart beating thereupon, and that it may bear up the Liver: for the Liver hangs fastened to the Diaphragma, which is drawn upwards within the Chest, by help of the Mediastinum: for the Figure of the Diaphragma, or midrif,Shape. towards the belly, is hollow, within the Chest, it is bunching out.

It receives a Veins, and b Arteries, termed Phrenicae, from the Cava, and Aorta. Vessels It has two notable c Nerves, which taking their Rise between the fourth and fi [...]t Vertebra's of the Neck, are inserted into the Sinewy Centre of the Dia­phragma.

Seeing the midrif is a muscle of a peculiar Nature by it self, so that there is notMotion. such another in the whol Body, it has a perpetual motion like the Hea [...] ▪ if not so fast an one: for it is dilated and contracted; somtimes slowly, and softly; other whiles swiftly, and violently. Somtimes it is moved alone with slow and soft brea­thing, but more often with the Lungs, when the body is stirred with exercise; but in violent Respiration, it is compelled to follow the motion of the Chest.

Hippocrates cals the midrif, the Fan of the Belly, because by its motion of di­latation and contraction, descending and ascending, it fans both those Cavities.

Seeing therefore there are two parts of Respiration; Inspiration, and Expirati­on,How it moves in Respiration. it is worth our Enquiry in which part the midrif is moved. By motion I under­stand contraction.

In the Inspiration, or drawing in the wind, while it is brought unto a right line, that is to say, of hollow, is made streight, then the midrif is contracted. In the Expiration, or letting go of our breath, it is slackened, raiseth it self upwards, and of streight or even, becomes hollow. When it is moved alone, it directs our free Respiration, which is done by an insensible, and invisible motion of the Chest, while the whol body does rest in peace; otherwise, in violent fetching the breath, it fol­lows the motion of the Chest, which is elevated, and depressed (as we see after run­ning) not only by the Intercostal muscles, but also by the greater muscles stret­ched out upon the Chest, and by the muscles of the Abdomen. In which case the midrif is haled, and forced to follow the violent motion of the Chest.

The Medicinal Consideration.

The Midrife is somtimes Diseased of it self, somtimes by accident as SympathisingIts Diseases are. Distemper. with the Diseases of other Parts,

Of it self it is troubled with an hot or cold Distemper, also with Inflammations and Impostumes. And it communicates its disorders to other Parts neighbouring thereupon, and to the Brain, and upon this Account it is wont to cause a Phrenzy.

Fernelius saw hard Tumors fixed in the Root of the Midrif, which wastedTumors. away the Patients by a slow Consumption, without any Phrenzy or other Dotage.

When the Midrife is Inflamed, an acute Feaver does begin to shew it self: underInflamation. the short Ribs towards the Midrif a palpitation or panting is felt, the Hypochon­dria are drawn together by reason of the Membrane of the Peritonaeum: the Breathing is unequal, somtimes swift, somtimes slow, somtimes great and som­times little, and at length Convulsions happen.

The Midrif being wounded causes the Patient to die laughing, if we beleive Hip­pocrates, Wounds. Pliny and other later Physitians.

Wounds inflicted upon the fleshy Part of the Midrif are not so dangerous and deadly, as those in the sinewy or Nervous Part, and therefore Ʋlisses (in Homer) intending to give the Cyclops a deadly wound, chose the place where the Liver is fastened unto the Midrif, as Galen has observed.

In an universal Palsey of the whol Body the Midrif is affected, which is known by dificulty of breathing,

Chap. 6. Of the Lungs or Lights.

THe Lungs or Lights are the Instruments of breathing and framing the Voyce:Their to which end they are framed of a substance light, soft, Spungy, whitishSubstance. without, and reddish within, interwoven with many Vessels which are spred through the whol substance thereof; such as are the Bronchia Vessels. or a Pip [...] of the Wezand, and the Pipes of the Vena b Arteriosa and of the Arteria c Venosa, which go so in company, that the Bronchia or Wind-Pipes are interposedScituation. between the Veins and Arteries.

The d Lungs are Scituate within the Chest, and do with the Heart fil up Both the Cavities thereof, while they are dilated to fetch in breath; but they leave the Chest Empty, while they are contracted to expel the sooty or superfluousMotion. breath.

These interchangable motions of the Lungs are perpetual and never cease fromDivision. the beginning of our Life until we Breath our last.

Nature has Distinguished the Lungs into two Parts, placed in the several Cavi­ties of the Chest, and she has divided each Part into sundry Lobes, Laps, or Scollops, for the facility of motion and for their preservation, for by this means they do more easily spread abroad (as it were) their wings; and one Lap or Scollop being hurt orShape. corrupted, the other may remain whol and sound.

If you take a diligent view of the Lungs after they are taken out of the Chest, you shal see that each Part of each Cavity does in its shape represent the form of an Oxes Hoofe, for it is cloven and convex or bunching out in the external Part, and hollowMembrane. in that Part on which it touches the Back.

It is girt about with a very thin Membrane, which is manifestly porous and ful of little holes, that being pressed and overburthened in suffocations, it may disbur­then it self into the Cavity of the Chest, and also suck in again such Excrementiti­ous moisture, as shal there at any time abound.

[Page 103]This Bowel alone is nourished after another fashion than the rest of the Body,Peculiar man­ner of nourish­ment. for it borrows its blood from the Heart, from whence it has Vessels and not from the Vena Cava. And therefore those Physitians are shamefully over seen who in Diseases of the Lungs, are wont to say that they are oppressed by an afflux of blood, shed thereinto by an innumerable company of Veins.

They cannot receive Humors from the Head unless with coughing, so that where there is no cough, the Lungs are affected only by that blood which comes from the Heart.

The Medicinal Consideration.

The Lungs are extreamly necessary for the maintenance of Life, For we live Excellency of the Lungs. so long as we Breath, and no longer: Nor is it enough meerly to breath we must breath easily, or it wil go ill with our Heart and our whol body. For in Diseases, difficult breathing is of great moment, and was more regarded by Hippocrates than the pulse: And Galen composed three admirable Bookes of Difficult Breathing, according to the Doctrin of Hippocrates, howbeit they are obscure and not to be understood save by skilful Physitians and Anatomists.

I wil give you a little tast of them, after that I have laid open the Diseases of the Lungs.

Because the substance of the Lungs is soft and Spungy above that of the otherWhy the Lungs are so subject to Fluxions. Bowels, therefore it is more subject to Fluxions than the rest which flow either from the Brain, or from the Bowels, by way of the Heart.

They lie in the middle space between the Head and the Midrif, not only between the Hammer and the Anvil, as the Proverb is, but between two Hammers, where­with they are beat upon and hurt on both sides: whil the Head distils upon the Lungs, and the Liver affords impure or over plentyful Blood unto the Heart, whichthe Heart spues and casts back into the Lungs, whereby they are infected and overwhelmed.

Which infection of the Lungs springs not from the Heart, but from the distem­pered and ill disposed Bowels, which suggest unto the Heart very impure blood, whose vitiousness the Heart is not able to correct, save after many Circu­lations.

In the mean whil the Lungs are greivously offended by the foresaid blood passingThe chief Dis­eases of the Lungs. through the substance thereof, for they are subservient unto the Heart as it were in the Nature of an Emunctory Emissary or Common-shore, whiles the filth of the Heart flowes unto the Lungs with the Blood, whereupon the Lungs are subject to sundry Diseases.

For they are troubled with an hot or cold distemper, with a Cholerick andDistemper. Inflamation. Consumtion. Flegmatick Tumor, and a frequent Inflammation called Peripneumonia, or at least with an inflammatory disposition; also with Impostumes and Ulcers, which bring the Consumption: for from spitting of Blood comes spitting of quitter, and from thence the Consumption.

Also they are subject to a certain kind of Push or rising which in the endPush. Vomica. turnes into a secret mischievous Impostum termed Vomica, of which few escape.

If the Quitter be derived from the Lungs into the Heart, unless it pass readily into the Aorta, it suddainly choakes or stifles the Patient. If it be carried into the right ventricle, it Causes the greater danger, because it cannot be so easily Pur­ged out.

Furthermore the Lungs are obstructed in the Asthma either perpetual or comingAsthma by fits, which causes difficulty of breathing, which as it is more or less, is distinguish­ed with different names. The lesser is termed Dyspnea; the greater,Its Kinds. when the Patien cannot breath save standing or sitting upright, is termed Or­thopnaea.

[Page 104]Oftentimes the Patient is vexed also with a cough, which is somtimes moderateCough and somtimes vehement, with great wheezing and ready to choak the Patient, which Springs from a cruel feirce Catarrh or sudden and plentyful Defluxion. Whereupon by reason of the extreme troublesomness of the Cough which shake [...] the Lungs, there arises that disposition termed Spadon Vasorum, or a dilatation of the Vessels, being a dangerous and formidable [...]ort of A [...]e [...] ­risma.

In the Peripneumonia or Inflammation of the Lungs, there is no smal dis­puteWhether Blood­letting is good in these Cases? about Blood-letting, for it is written that Blood must be drawn from the com­mon Veins. Now there is none of those Veins which are usually opened, that communicates with the Veins of the Lungs; neither are there any branches distri­buted from the Vena Cava into the Lungs: which has by Galen in many places been disputed against Erasistratus.

The motion likewise of Nature shewes the same: for whereas in Diseases of the Bowels and in burning Feavers the Crisis is wont to happen by bleeding at the Note; in a Peripneumonia there is no such Crisis, because the Veins of the Nose from whence blood is wont to Issue, have no Communion with the Lungs.

If it be true that Blood naturally does pass from the right Ventricle of the Heart unto the Lungs, that it may be brought into the left Ventricle, and from thence into the Aorta: and if the Circulation of the Blood be acknowledged, who sees not that in Diseases of the Lungs, the blood flowes thither in greater quantity than ordi­nary, and oppresses the Lungs, unless it be first liberally taken away, and after­wardsAffermed. at several times, a little at a time be let out, to ease the said Lungs: which was the advice of Hippocrates, who when the Lungs were swelled, did take blood from al Parts of the Body, from the Head, Nose, Tongue, Armes, Feet; that the quantity thereof might be diminished, and the Course thereof drawn from the Lungs.

He himself in Diseases of the Lungs, bids us draw blood, til the Body were Blood-less, and in one that had a Consumption, when he saw that the corruption of the Blood infected and corrupted the Lungs, he took away blood in so great a quantity, that the Patients body remained quite empty of the same, in a manner.

Supposing that the Blood circulates, the Lungs are easily emptied by Phleboto­my. If the Circulation be denied, I cannot see how blood may be from thence drawn back; for if it should flow back by the Vena a Arteriosa into the b right Ventricle, the c Sigma shaped Valves do hinder it, and the d three forked little Valves, do hinder the recourse thereof, from the right Ventricle of the Heart into the Vena Cava. And therefore when the Veins of the Armes and Feet are opened, blood is drawn from the Lungs by reason of the Circulation thereof; and consequently the Opini­on of Fernelius comes to nothing, namely that in Diseases of the Lungs, blood should be taken rather from the right Arm than the left; because the blood cannot return into the Vena Cava, save by breaking two doors and Bolts, placed in the Heart.

Ulcers of the Lungs do often happen by reason of a fierce cough, caused by verySome Causes of Consumption of the Lungs. sharpe Serosities, or by spitting of Blood: which if it come from an opening of the mouthes of the Veines by reason of Aboundance of blood, it is not so much to be feared, as when it proceeds from eating asunder the Coats of the Veins, by the acrimony of Humors.

[Page 105]Nature in this case, out of Pitty, that our life might be preserved, ha [...] distinguish­edWhy the Lungs are distinguish­ed into Lobes or Laps. the Lungs into divers pipes and sundry Lobes, Laps or Scollups that the infecti­on might not spread over the whol Body of the Lungs, which is usual in al continued or evenly united bodies. And therefore we see many that have Ulcers in their Lungs do live long, if they have but an indifferent Care of them­selves.

If the Circulation of the blood be allowed, so that it passes often through theA twofold Circulation of the Blood. Lungs, & not through the Septum Medium or Partition-Wal of the Heart, we must maintain a two fold Circulation of the blood: the one is performed by the Heart and Lungs, whiles the blood spirting from the right Ventricle of the Heart is carried through the Lungs that it may come unto the left Ventricle of the Heart, (for it is squirted out of the Heart and returnes thither again) the other is a longer Circulation, by which the blood flowing from the left Ventricle of the Heart, com­passes the whole body by the Arteries and Veins, that it may return into the right Ventricle of the Heart. He that approves of one of these Circulations, cannot deny the other.

The Lungs as it were do hang upon and are fi [...]mly fastned to the claves and the Brest-bone, for they do not depend or hang by the Aspera Arteria, for so in a violent Cough and when the Lungs are overburdened, the Wesand or Wind­pipe and Parts fastened thereunto would be torn in peices. Howbeit the Lungs and Heart being inflamed (according to Hippocrates) if the Lungs fal to one side, the Patient faints away, lies Cold and senceless and dies within the third or fourth day. If the Heart be not inflamed, the Patient lives longer, and some escape.

Seeing the Substance of the Lungs ought to be light and soft to Facilitate respi­ration;Why Old Peo­ple are short Breathed. and in old, People it becomes dry and hard, either through the dryness of their temper, or by being filled with Flegm: this is the reason of that shortness of Breath we see in Old Men, which ushers them to their Grave.

Chap. 7. Of Respiration, or fetching of Breath.

THe proper action of the Lungs is breathing: which we must consider how itNecessity of Respiration. ought to be in bodies that are in health, that we may discern faults thereof, when it is depraved. In our whole Practice, especially if you regard acute Dis­eases, their is no Disease or Symptom so usual as difficulty in breathing. It is wel for the Patient, if in al Diseases, especially acute ones, he breath easily, because life is inseparable from Respiration, according to Galen in his 6. Book of the Parts Dis­eased. And if with al the Patient Sleeps kindly and sweetly, aud feels no pain in the noble Parts of his body, it is to be hoped the Disease wil end wel, be­cause Hippocrates never knew any one die, in whom these three conditions were found.

Now Respiration or breathing is twofold, free, or forced, free is that whereby theIts twofold. Air is gently drawn in and Issued out, without any remarkable motion of the Chest. And this depends only upon the Midrif, the Ribbs and whol Chest never moving:Free, and Forced. unless hapily the lower bastard Ribs are gently stirred; and this kind of breathing is truly natural.

The second sort of breathing, which is forced and violent: is partly natural, partly against Nature. Natural, when it depends upon our own power, so that we can make it quicker or slower, as when we puf out our wind with a long blast, and when we hold our breath. It is against Nature, when it depends not upon o [...]r wil, but upon the violence of the Disease. In this kind of Respiration the whol Chest is moved by al the Muscles, and the Midrif, to avoid the oppression and suffo­cation of the Lungs and Heart, which desire Air to cool them, and that their smoaky Sooty Vapours may be expelled.

[Page 106]There are two parts of Natural Respiration; Inspiration, and Expiration. Inspiration is caused by drawing in the Air, and the dilatation of the [...]hest by theParts of Na­tural respira­tion Inspiration Expiration Ascent thereof: Expiration, is a breathing out of fuliginous, or sooty Vapors, the Chest being drawn together by the descent thereof. Between these two motions, is interposed a two-fold Pau [...]e, or Rest, viz. The space between the drawing in, and blowing out of the breath; and the like space between the blowing out of the breath, and the drawing it in again, as in the Pul [...]e there is a two-fold Rest, ter­med Perisystole.

In Respiration, or breathing, Galen writes that three Organs are to be considered:Its three Or­gans. The Principal Mover, viz. the Heart; The Secondary Movers, namely, the Muscles; and the Things moved, viz. the Chest and Lungs. The Organs by which the mo­tion is performed, are the Animal Spirits, and the Nerves.

Now that unnatural, and disordered breathing, may be discerned, we must princi­pallyWherein Natu­ral Respiration consists. learn to know, wherein the Natural manner of [...]erching breath, does consist, viz. In the moderation, and equability of Inspiration, and Ex [...]piration, and of those things whereby Respiration is performed.

Now these are four; Motion, Rest, that which is moved, and that which by the motion, is drawn in, and carried forth. That Respiration wil therefore be mo­derate, wherein we shal observe a Mediocrity of motion and Rest, and of the di­stention of the Chest, and of the matter it self, which is drawn in, a [...]d breathed out, and wherein Persons in Health appear no waies changed from what they were wo [...]t to be.

And this Natural Respiration ought to be the Rule of the contrary, which is notDifferences of unnatural Re­spiration. natural, viz. of the hurt Respiration, and of that which is in moderate. Now Respiration is hurt as many wa [...]es as there are parts which make up Natural. Respi­ration, viz. Motion, Rest, Swiftness, or Slowness. So that he hurts of Respirati­on, are these following, namely, Defections from Natural Motion; Rarity, and Frequency of the Rest; Greatness, and [...]ma [...]ne [...]s of Inspiration and Expiration; Plenty, and penury of the matter drawn in, or breathed out, with cold, or heat.

Wherefore al difficulty of breathing, consists in Magnitude, or Paucity; Fre­quence, or Rarity; Swiftness, or Slowness; and consequently, Respiration is said to be faulty, when it is too great, or too little; too slow, or two swift; too fre­quent, or too rare; too hot, or too cold.

Also these Defections, as wel in excess, as defect, are to be considered, either in both parts of Respiration, or in one alone; also some are little without, and great within; others great without, and little within: and some ar [...] great, swift and fre­quent; others con [...]rarily, are little, seldom, and slow; and some are doubled, both in drawing, and rendring back the breath. These are the Compound Differences of Respiration hurt.

If Respiration fail, the Question is, Whether Perspiration can supply the defectWhether Per­spiration may supply the use of Respiration? thereof? Galen [...]aies it may, and he describes Perspiration, to be an eva [...]uation of Spirit, or Air, by the Arteries which are dispersed into the Habit of the Body, by receiving in of Air, and expelling fuliginous Vapors. For Hippocrates has written that the whol body is perspirable, within and without. And the Author of Trans­piration, or Perspiration, is counted to be the Heart, the Instruments are the Arte­ries; the Pores of the Skin, are the Passages by which the Transpiration is made.

But I very much doubt, whether Perspiration can supply the Office of Respirati­on for a time, the Heart not being moved, because I cannot perswade my self, that the Air can pass so far as the Heart, by the smal Arteries, unless they did gape very wide, seeing it would meet with the Arterial blood, to stop its course. The Arte­ries may indeed expel the sooty vapors of their blood, but it is hard for them to draw the A [...]r in again.

And if Perspiration be hindred by suppression of the smoaky vapors, then putrid Feavers are wont to arise; as Galen has observed in Book 11. of his Method. In [Page 107] which case, blood letting is good for Ventilation, and must be repeated, if need be.

Unnatural Respiration, is somtimes necessary in those that have their Health, toƲnnatural Re­spiration som­times [...] in healthy per­sons. expel smoaky vapors by forcible blowing out of the breath; or to expel the Excre­ments of the Bell [...], or to force out a Child by holding the breath. [...]x [...]fflation, or forcible puffing out of the breath, answers to Expiration; and holding of the breath is a long Inspiration, as much as the party is able to endure, for some necessary use; and it is performed (which is strange) by one very smal muscle, which shuts the Arythenois, and the Glottis.

Chap. 8. Of the Heart.

THe Heart is the Principal, and most Noble Bowel of the whol Body, theNobility of the Heart. Fountain of Life-giving Nectar; by the Influx whereof, the virality, or lively force of al [...]he parts, is recreated, and cherished; It is the first that lives, and the last that dies: by the benefit whereof, al the parts of the body do live, and subsist.

And therefore it is, that Nature has framed this principal Part with admirable Workmanship, both without and within, of a a fleshy substance, strong, and thick,Its Substance interwoven with al sorts of Fibres, and because it is the Seat of Native Heat, lest it should become dry, and parched up, she h [...]s [...]o [...]stened it with fat placed round a­bout, and wa [...]ered the same by cu [...]cumfusion of a whey [...]sh Liquor.

It is scituate in the middle of the Chest, hanging by the a Mediastinum, and b Pe­ricardium. Its Scit [...]ation. For those two parts do joyn in this Office, as hath been said in our Chapter of the Mediastinum.

The Heart is alwa [...]es of the same greatness; in some strong men it is more smalBigness and solid, than ordinary: in feeb [...]er Per [...]ons i [...] is greater, and of a looser substance, as [...]n some men, and frequently in women.

It is shaped like a Pine-Apple: having a broad bottom, and growing pointed to­wardsShape the top. The broad end is called the Basis, or b [...]ttom, which receives four Vessels; the Vena c Cava, running through the Breast, and opened neer the Heart,Vessels. and fastened thereunto; the Vena d Arteriosa; the e Ao [...]a; and the Arteria f Ve­nosa.

In the Basis we find little Cases, or Covers placed by the Vessels, which carry blood into [...]he Heart: They are called [...] Cordis the g Ears of the Heart, Ears. and are hollow. In grown persons, the right Ear is larger than the left: but in the child in the womb, and al Infants, the left Ear is larger than the right.

The other end of the Heart is termed the Conus, or poin [...]ed end. There appear Veins and Arteries h creeping upon the surface of the Heart, which seem ordained to repair the Fat as it spends.

Before we proceed to the inner Structure of the Heart, we are to consider how itAction, viz. the pulse. is moved: For its Action is Motion, or Puliation; because look what blood it re­ceives in, it drives the same out by pulsation.

There are therefore two parts of the Hearts motion; Systole, and Diastole; orSystole. Diastole. Contraction, and Dilatation: when it takes in blood, it is dilated or widened; when it expels the same, it is contracted, or drawn together: between both which motions, there intercedes a pause, or resting time, which is termed Peri-Systole. How these motions are caused, is a doubtful Question.

Rejecting the various Opinions of others, I wil tel you how I conceive this moti­ [...]ionCause of the pulse, according to our Author. is performed. It is probable, that the Heart being widened, cannot receive the [Page 108] blood, unless its dilatation be made by drawing back the Basis thereof to the Cone; that the Vessels may shed their blood, and the heart draw the same to it self. In the Systole the heart is contracted, and the blood received, is thrust out; and then the Heart becomes narrower, and longer than it was before. And because it is shut up in the Pericardium, or Heart-case, which is fastened circular-wise to the Sinewy Centre of the Midrif, with its Cone, or pointed end, it smites the Nervy Centre of the Midrif, and with its Basis, or broad end, and the Aorta sticking out, it smites the Breast at the same instant, when it is extended, and prolonged.

This perpetual motion of the Heart, though it depend in respect of its produ­ction,How necessary the circulation of the blood is to continue the motion of the Heart. upon the inbred faculty thereof, yet can it not alwaies continue, save by the coming in of blood, out of which, the Heart frames the vital Spirit: and in case at every pulse the Heart receive one drop of blood, or two, which it casts into the Aorta, and that in an hours space, the Heart pulses two thousand times, it must needs be, that a great quantity of blood, or al the blood in the Vessels, should pass through the Heart within the space of twelve or fifteen hours.

Now this quantity may come to fifteen, or twenty pounds of blood, which is as much as is contained in the Vessels, and therefore it must needs be that in the space of twenty four hours, the whol mass of Blood is twice or thrice passed through the Heart, according as the motion of the Heart is quicker, or slower.

And that this Circular Motion of the blood, might be performed with the grea­terWhether the blood do pass from the right Ventricle of the Heart unto the Lungs. commodity, and facility, William Harvey, an English man, the Kings Phy­sitian, the Author and Inventor of this motion of the blood; and Joannes Walaeus, a Professor of Leyden, and most eager Defender, and Protector thereof, wil have the blood to be carried through the Lungs, from the right, unto the left Ventricle of the Heart, not allowing that it should pass through the Septum, or Partition wal between the Ventricles of the Heart; and that the whol mass of Blood, in an hour, or two hours space, is circulated through the Heart, and the whol Body: which I do not allow of, and I have els-where laid down my reasons of the impossi­bility, and inconveniency of such a motion.The Heart is the Original of Vena Cava.

When I had observed that the Trunk of the Vena Cava was separated from the Liver, running continually from the Jugulum, to the Os Sacrum, without any in­terruption, and that it passed not through the Liver, as we may see with our Eyes, and perceive also by thrusting a smal stick thereinto; I came to be of Opinion, thatThe Liver of Vena Porta. They have different blood in them. the Vena Cava did spring from the Heart, as the Vena Porta takes its rise from the Liver; and that two sorts of blood were contained in those Veins, though both of those sorts are labored, and wrought in the Liver: the one of these sorts of blood being sent into the Porta, the other by a branch rooted in the Liver, twice as smal as the Trunk of Vena Cava, carried unto the Heart.What kind of blood is circu­lated?

The blood which is contained in the Vena Porta, is not circulated, although it have a flux, and reflux within its own Channels, and communicate with the Caelia­cal Arteries, which are joyned one to another by mutual Anastomoses.

Within those Vessels, the blood may pass to and fro reciprocally; but it does not run out according to the longitude of the body; neither is it in such a sense cir­culated.In what Ves­sels?

And therefore the Circulation which is made in the Heart, does borrow its matter from the Liver by the Vena Cava. The Circulatory Vessels, are the Aorta, and Cava; neither do their branches receive that Circulation, because the blood being shed into al the parts of the second and third Region, does remain there to nourish the said parts; neither does it flow back unto the greater Vessels, unless it be revel­led by force, when there is great want of blood in the larger Vessels, or when it is stimulated into some violent motion, and so flows unto the greater Circulatory Vessels.After what manner?

And so the blood which is brought from the Liver unto the right Ventricle of the Heart, does pass through the Partition wall of the two Ventricles, into the left Ventricle.

[Page 109]I confess that in a violent Circulation the blood is carried through the Lungs un­toHow the cir­culation is per­formed? the left ventricle of the Heart, where it is forcibly ejected into the Aorta, that it may afterwards be carried into the greater Veins of the Limbs, which communicate by mutual Anastomoses with the Arteries; and then from the Veins it flows up in­to the right Ventricle of the Heart, and so there is made a perfect Circulation, by the continual flux and reflux of the blood.

So that the blood in the Veins, does naturally, and perpetually ascend, or return unto the Heart, the blood of the Arteries naturally, and continually descends, or de­parts from the Heart.

Howbeit, if the smaller Veins of the Arms aud Legs, shal be emptied of blood, the blood of the Veins may descend to succeed in the place of that which is taken away, as I have cleerly demonstrated against Harvey, and Walaeus.

No man can deny the mutual Anastomoses of the Veins and Arteries, seeing that Galen has said it, and demonstrated the same by Experiments, and our dayly Ex­perience confirms the same.

Hippocrates himself, in his third Book of the Joynts, takes notice of this commu­nion of the Veins and Arteries, in a Discourse by it self.How necessa­ry the circula­tion of the blood is.

You see how necessary it is for the blood to circulate, that the motion of the Heart may not cease; and how this Circulation may be performed without confu­sion, and perturbation of the Humors, and without destroying the Ancient Art of Healing.

And therefore the Circular motion of the blood is necessary, to continue the mo­tion of the heart; as in Mils, the Water must perpetually fal upon the Wheel to make it turn about; also to warm again, and restore the strength of the blood,The Ʋtility thereof. which is decayed by the loss of Spirits dispersed up and down the body; whereas in the Heart, it is refurnished with new Spirits: and that the Heart being the Foun­tain of Native Heat, may be moistened with a perpetual Dew, lest by little and lit­tle, it should parch, and wither away, for want of that dewy moisture, or Life­giving Nectar.

By the Circulation of the blood in the Heart, the Causes of Life and Death, are more easily declared, than by the Humidum Primigenium, or Original Moisture bred in the Heart when the Child is formed; which is so little that it is soon consu­med, and the perpetual motion of the Heart continuing day and night without cea­sing, would at length wear away the Substance of the Heart, unless by a perpetual flowing in of the circulated blood, it were moistened, and repaired.Whether the Heart and Ar­teries are mo­ved at the same time?

Howbeit, we must hold that the Heart and Arteries do move by Course, one af­ter another, not being moved at the same instant with the same kind of motion; but taking their turns, and performing their work interchangably; for when the Heart sends out the blood, the Arteries receive it, and transmit it into the Veins; not that which is expelled the same instant, but that which is neerest the Veins.

This being granted, these parts must of necessity be moved one after another, and the swelling motion of the Artery when it rises under our Finger, is dilatation, or widening, and not contraction; although it seem very like the pulse which the Heart makes, when it contracts it self.

Having explained the Circulation of the Blood, we must now open the Heart,The right Ven­tricle of the Heart. which you shal see divided into two Ventricles by the Septum Medianum, or a Middle Partition: The one is termed the b Right Ventricle, being the wider and softer: The other the c Left, being harder, narrower, and compassed with a thicker wal, reaching as far as the Cone, or Point of the Heart, which the Right does not. The Right Ventricle receives the Vena d Cava, and the Vena e Arteriosa. TheIts Vessels. Cava pours blood into the Heart; the Vena Arteriosa carries back all, or a part thereof into the Lungs.

To the Orifices of the Cava, are adjoyned certain three-pointed f Valves, orTheir Valves. Shutters, which hinder the going back of the blood. The Orifice of the Vena Ar­teriosa, [Page 110] is compassed with three Valves, or Shutters, shaped like an old▪ fashioned g Greek Sigma, which hinder the reflux of the blood.

The Left Ventricle receives two Arterial Vessels, the a Aorta, and the Arteria b Venosa. Which latter, according to the Doctrine of some Anatomists, carriesThe left Ven­tricle of the Heart. Its Vessels. blood from the Lungs into the left Ventricle of the Heart, or carries Air prepared in the Lungs, into the said Ventricle, and likewise carries back fuliginous Vapors; howbeit, many do not allow the said use.

The Arteria Venosa hath in its Orifice, only two c three-pointed Valves, or Shutters. The Aorta carries back Arterial blood out of the left Ventricle of theTheir Valves Heart, and its Orifice is stopped by three d Sigma shaped Valves, or Shutters, which hinder the blood from returning back again.

It is to be observed that these three-pointed Valves, or Shutters, are membranous neer their Vessels; but they depend upon fleshy Pillars, which within the Heart are like unto Muscles, being fastened to the sides of the partition wall, or Septum of the Heart, which remains unmovable, saving towards the Basis, where it is softer, and gives way a little, when the Basis is drawn back, in the Diastole, or Dilatation of the Heart.

The Septum e medium, or Partition-wall of the Heart is porous, ful of little holes, which are somtimes manifestly discerned towards the Cone, or Point of theThe Septum Medium of the Heart. Whether the blood pass through it, or no? Heart. It is more probable, according to the Doctrine of Galen, that the blood does naturally pass through the said Septum. or partition wall, than through the Lungs. Howbeit, I deny not, but that in the violent Agitation of the Heart and Lungs, the blood is carried through the midst o [...] the said Lungs.

The Med [...]cinal Consideration.

Having finished these Observations, I proceed unto the Diseases of the Heart. The Heart (as Pliny saies) cannot endure long Diseases, nor suffer lingring tor­ments.Ʋsual Diseases of the Heart, art, And Galen tels us, That Physitians have not been able to find out, or in­vent Medicines able to cure an evil, and malignant distemper which has taken hold of the substance of the Heart. Wherefore this part is diligently to be preserved, which suffers not by its own fault, but by the Impurities of other parts wherewith it is infected and corrupted.

Wherefore, if the Heart be supplied with pure, and good blood, and be not infe­cted by con [...]agion of the neighboring parts, he Lungs, and the Liver, it flourishesSwouning most cheerfully, and causes a very long life. But by our Intemperance we suffer it not to continue in Health for the good of the whol Body. And therefore it is exer­cised with divers Diseases, by the loss of strength, that is to say, of Spirits, or by their Dissipation; such as are Syncope, and Leipothymia, or swouning and faintingFainting. away, which differ only in degrees: Syncope being greater than Leipothumia.

Oftentimes the Heart does counterfeit, and make shew of a kind of Apoplexy, but without snorting; neither does it leave a Palsey after it, or any feebleneis of Body, or mind. If this Disease return often with violence, at length it over-whelms and stifles the Heart, not only because the blood is stopped from going forth, by reason of the fulness of the Vessels, but by the Hearts being oppressed by some gross substance of the blood, forcibly crowded into the Ventricies of the Heart, stopping the pulsative motion of the Heart and Arteries, and causing somtime that the Pati­ent cannot speak, and bringing him finally to his Grave.

This Disease is as common among the Germans, as is the Apoplexy, by reason of their full, and Champion-like habit of body, contracted by their dayly Feastings, and liberal drinking, especially at dinner, which lasts til [Page 111] within Night, they in the mean time taking no care to abate their Plethorick habit by liberal blood-letting. Nor is it any wonder, if from so great plenty of blood, they fal into an Apoplexy, or the Heart-swoonings aforesaid. Hence depends the Explication of the 42. Aphorism of the Second Book.

The motion of the Heart is depraved in the Palpitation, or Panting thereof, andPalpitation it is interrupted in Syncope, and Leipothymia.

The Ventricles, and Partition, are oftentimes obstructed, being filled with littleThe Circula­tion intercep­ted by obstru­ction of the Ventricles, Or of bits of Flesh or Fat, wherewith the Heart is choaked, the Circular motion of the blood being stopped. Somtimes they stick in the right Ear of the Heart: whence follows Palpitation, or inequality, or Interception of the Pulse.

Worms are also bred in the Heart, of which Salius treats. There is a memora­ble Story of a certain English man, whose Heart was eaten into by a Worm. You may read the Story in Aurelius Severinus.

The Circulation of the blood is stopped, not only in the Heart, but also in theThe Velns. Veins, when they are stopped with very thick blood, or with blood congealed like the pith of an Elder stick, as I have often seen it after burning Feavers, and as it has been observed by Fernelius.

The most frequent Diseases of the Heart are Feavers, wherewith it is inflamed,A Feaver. and roasted as it were; so that the Original moisture thereof, becomes exhaust, and dried up: for as Ludovicus Duretus saies in his Commentary upon Hippocrates his Coick Discourses. We lose more of our strength by a feaver of seven daies continu­ance, than by the depraedation of our Natural Heat, in seventy yeers time: a yong man dies in seven daies, consumed by a Feaver, who might have lived seventy yeers under the sole Regiment of his Natural Heat. Differences of Feavers. In respect of the Cause, a Feaver is, Spirital,

The History of Feavers belongs to this place, which I shal dispatch in few words. The Hot Distemper of the Heart, is termed a Feaver. The Differences of Feavers are taken from their conjunct Cause, which is three-fold; The Spirits, the Hu­mors in the Vessels, and the Humors fixed in the solid parts of the body.

From the Spirits, a Feaver is termed Spirituosa, or Spirital; from the Humors in the Vessels, it is termed Humoralis; and from the Humors fixed in the solid parts, it is termed Hectica.

Though there be three sorts of Spirits, Natural, Vital, Animal; yet is it the Vi­tal Spirit alone, which being inflamed, causes the Spirital Feaver. There are fourHumoral Humors contained in the Vessels, whence comes four sorts of Humoral Feavers; the Sanguine, the Cholerick, the Flegmatick, and the Melanchollick. But the Hectick Feaver is distinguished by three degreee: For the simple Hectick aritesHectick, from the fixed Humor, being only inflamed; the middle Hectick is when the said Humor begins to wast; and the Hectica Marasmodes, when it is quite exhaust, and consumed.

The Modi of Feavers, or their manner of afflicting, is two-fold: for either theIn respect of the manner, Continual, Intermittent. Feaver is continual, or it intermits; it is putrid, or not putrid; malignant, or wel-affected. A continual Feaver never ceases burning, til it go wholly away. An intermitting Feaver, leaves the Patient some space of time free from burning.

The Cause of the Continualness of a Feaver, is the plenty of Morbisick matter and its nearness to the Heart, and the distance and paucity of the said matter is the Cause of its Intermission. A Putrid Feaver is caused by Putrefaction of the Hu­mors:Putrid, Imputrid Malignant, An Imputrid Feaver is caused only by the fervency of the Spirits and Hu­mors contained in the Vessels, or fixed in the solid Parts. A Malignant Feaver is caused by extream Pucrefaction, or by divers Symptomes greivously afflicting the noble Parts: a Well-affected Feaver, has none of al these. A great Feaver is theNon-malig­nant. same with a Malignant, and a little Feaver differs not from a Well affected. Hence are al the differences of Feavers taken; a spirital Feaver is continual indeed, yet lasts but a Day, and is therefore termed Ephemera: a Sanguin Feaver is also continual and threefold, Encreasing, standing at a stay, and decreasing; Putrid or Imputrid: It is by some termed continens to distinguish it srom the rest of the Humoral Feavers. Cholerick, Melancholick and Flegmatick Feavers, are con­tinual, [Page 112] when the Humors from whence they arise do Putrifie in the great Veins: when they Putrifie in the little Veins, or out of the Veins, they make Intermitting Feavers. An Hectick Feaver is also continual, but slow and lingering.

The Return of intermitting Feavers is termed their fit; the more than ordinaryThe sit of a Feaver. Its Exacerba­tion. Circuit Tertian Fea­ver. Quartans Quotidians violence of continual Feavers it called their Exacerbation. The beginning of a [...]i [...] is called Invasio, the time of Remission and Exacerbation, of intermission and accession, is termed Periodus or Circuitus, the Period or Circuit.

Now the Accessions or exacerbations of Feavers are various according to the various motion of the Humor. They come every third day, by reason of the pro­per motion of Choler, whence al bilious intermitting Feavers are called Tertians or third day Agues; as the Quartans come every fourth day, because the Melan­cholick Humor is moved upon that day; as Flegm is moved every day, whence quotidian Agues are Flegmatick.

Quintan, Septan, Nonan, or sift, seventh and ninth day Agues, as they are exceeding rare, so ate they not comprehended under any Rules of Art.

The Proper Symptomes of the beginnings of Ague-fits, do shew the sort of Ague what it is: so a shaking shewes a Tertian Ague, A grinding cold fit that makes a man think it would break his bones, argues a Quartan; and for the fit to begin with a mere simple coldness, is the token of a Quotidian.

A double tertian comes every day, as the Quotidian does, but with extream shaking; whereas the Quotidian comes only with a coldness.

Confused and implicated Feavers, are made of those Feavers, which we haveConfused. now explained. Confused or mixed Feavers, are made by mixiture of the Humors, as a Bastard Tertian is made by a mixture of Choler and Flegm. But ImplicatedImplicated Feavers are stirred up by Vicissitude of Humors put into Putrefaction or Commo­tion, where upon there is observed in them, distinct sits one following another, as in a double Tertian, and in a double and triple Quartan, and in a Semitertian, which is nothing else but a complication of a continual Quotidian and an Intermit­tent Tertian: and in the Feaver called Triteophyaea, which lasts thitty hours and longer.

Two Agues are observed to follow one another, so that the first being not quiteErratick finished, another which is worse succeeds and follows the same. But i [...] these sits are inordinat keeeping no certain Course, and returning upon several daies, they make such Agues as are termed Erraticae, wandring giddy Agues.

There are other differences of Feavers taken from the Symptomes, yet so as theyIn respect of Symptomes. may be reduced to these sorts I have spoken of: as the Feaver Epiala, Leipyria, Typhodis, Elodis, Pestilens, Causus, for they are al Humoral, and distinguished by some remarkable Symptomes.

In the Feaver Epiala there is a sence of heat and cold by reason of the unequalEpiala Leipyria motion of the Morbifick matter. In Leipyria, the outward Parts are cold, and the inner Parts burn with Heat, because the Feaverish Heat is drawn inwards. Typhodis and Eleodis are, in which the Patient sweats much, without any easeTyphodes. thereby. A Pestilential Feaver is no other than a putrid, but it Springs from an extream and remarkable putrefaction, and so deadly, that more die than recover. Causus is a name signifying extream Heat and burnning, such as is in a continualBurning Fea­ver. Feaver arising from Choler, so that a Cholerick continiual Feaver by way of Emi­nency is so termed.

Cremnodes Febris the Feaver so called, is said to proceed from an InflammationSymptomati­cal Feavers. of the Lungs: but such Feavers as are caused by Inflammation of the Internal Parts, are Symptomatical, neither are they properly termed Feavers. For here we speak of a Feaver only as it is an hot distemper of the Heart primarily affected.

Chap. 9. Of the Vessels viz. Veins, Arteries and Nerves conteined within the Chest.

I Have a few things to speak of one Part of the Trunk of Vena Cava, forIn the Chest are Veins. the whol Trunk has been sufficiently explained in our Chapter of the lower Belly.

You shal observe that the Trunk piercing through the Midrif, does receive that samea Hepatick branch which arises from the top of the Liver, and carries BloodHepatica into the Cava, and from that same Oblique insertion, unto the opening of the Trunk, in the right Ventricle of the heart, there is the distance of two Fingers breadth.

From whence we may gather, that Blood is carried directly from the Liver to the Heart, although it is mixed with other blood ascending by Circulation. That same opening of the Vena Cava, and its cleaving to the right▪ Ventricle of the heart, is contained and to be seen within the Pericardium: which when the Trunk has passed through, it ascends unto the Claves.

And therefore you may know, that the blood ascending unto the heart by Cir­culation, does also come as far as the Throat, and is derived into the upper Limbes, with that blood which descends from the Head by the Veins.

You shal observe, that this Trunk does afford no branches to the heart except thea Coronaria▪ but only to other parts of the Chest, and how blood shed out ofCoronaria the left Ventricle of the heart into the Lungs, may be revelled by Blood-letting, seeing it has two Doors to be broken open in the heart▪ before it can come to the Trunk of Vena Cava, which hinder the flowing back of the Blood from the Lungs.

You shal consider if the b Anastomosis of the Arteria Venosa with Vena Cava he remaining, by which the foresaid Reflux may be made: or whether the blood of the Lungs, ought not to return into the left Ventricle of the heart, that it may be made vital, and then speedily to be cast into the Aorta, from thence to be forth­with delivered over into the Veins.

Then you are to search for the Vena c Azygos or Vein without a fellow, whichAzygos Its Valves nourishes the Ribs. In it you shal observe two or four valves or shutters, not feigned and imaginary, but true, interchangably disposed, which resist the blood flowing in abundantly. I have many times shewed those valves, and an inferior branch of this Vein, ending into the Trunk of the Vena Cava, below the Kidneys. For which cause it cannot drink up nor transmit purulent matter into the Kidneys.

This branch serves to disburthen the Vena Cava above the Heart, if blood do any time there abound, or be contained in any great quantity, within the little branches or twigs of the Azygos, or solitary Vein.

Furthermore you shal search out the mutual Anastomoses of the twigs of theAnastomoses. Azygos o [...] solitary Vein, with the twigs of the Chest Vein, under the lesser saw­fashioned Muscle, near the Arm-Pi [...]ts. Hence it comes that in the Pleurisie, the pained side is better disbur [...]hened and the pain sooner eased, by opening the Vena Basilica, than any other Vein.

After the Azygos or solitary Vein, out of the Trunk of the Cava ascending, the Intercostals arise, ona each side one, if the branches of Vena Azygos, do not reachIntercostals unto the upper Ribs.

When the Trunk is come as far as the Claves it produces the Mammaria or Dug-Vein, which is twofold; b internal and external: they are both carried throughMammaria [Page 114] the Longitude of the breast-bone unto the Dugs. But the internal being the greater, having transmitted a branch through an hole in the Breast-bone, into the Dugs, Runs along unto the Right or streight Muscle, that it may Joyn it self to the Epigastrica. Hippocrates was wont to open the external, in Inflamation and pains of Parts belonging to the Chest: But now because of the Obscurity of those Veins, that operation is not of use: instead whereof Hors-leeches may be applied, or Cupping-Glasses with Scarrification.

In the parting of the Vena Cava you shal under it observe a great Kernel, placedThymus a Ker­nel so called. in the Throat under the Claves like a Pillow, that it may gently bear up and enfold the Subclavian branches. It is called Thymus. In yong Animals it is sost, as in Calves, and together with the great Kernel of the Pancreas or Sweet-bread, it is eaten as a dainty Dish.

By the swelling of this Kernel, Strangulations or a sence of Choaking may hap­pen even to Men, but in Women subject to the Mother it is more frequently swel­led, and Choaks them if they be not releived by Blood-letting. Some do recken up three smal Veins which are termed Thymica, Capsularis and a Mediastina: whereas notwithstanding the Capsularis and Mediastina, are one and the sameMediastina Vein.

From the b Ramus Subclavius, four notable branches do arise. The first is cal-Anterior Cervicalis. c Cervicalis the foremost Neck-Vein, which being drawn out upon the Musculi Mastoides, ascends unto the Chin and Waters the fore Parts of the Neck.

After this follows the d Internal Jugular, being larger than the external, whichInternal Ju­gular. ascends unto the Neck under the Musculus Mastoides, and about the middle there­of, it is divided into three Branches, one of which being greatest and thickest, creeping along the Ʋertebra's goes under the Scul▪ making its entrance at the hole which is near the Apophysis Styloidea, so as being applied to the lateral Channels of the Meninx dura or Dura Mater, is poures out its Blood and goes no farther.

The Second branch creeps through the sides of the Neck and is distributed under the Jaw.

The third goes into the Tongue and produces the Ranulae or Veins under the Tongue, the opening of which does wonderfully help in Diseases of the Brain.

A Finger-breadth distant from this Vein you have the Externa e Jugulatis, External Ju­gular. which creeping as [...]ant or sloaping under the Clavicula, it sends forth two twigs, whereof the one passes Obliquely unto the Delta-shaped Muscle under the Shoul­der-point and is united unto the Vena Cephalica; the other arises to the lateral Parts of the Head; where at the corners of the Jaw-bone it▪ is divided into two, and is distributed into the Jaws and al the Parts which are subjected unto the Jaw-bone.

The Other Portion, being carryed behind the Eares, is distributed into the Fore-Head and hinder Part of the Head, and upon the Temples with manifold branches; and in these Parts, by reason of the Veins, Fernelius did conceive that a serous Hu­mor was heaped together, which flowing down upon the Parts beneath, does breed Fluxions in the Habit of the Body: he conceived likwise that an Issue made, or a caustick applied to the Cavity behind the Eare, did more good, than if it had been made in the hinder part of the Head, because of a branch of the Jugular Vein, rea­ [...]hing unto the Eye.

This external Jugular Vein being opened by a skilsul Surgeon in sleepy Diseases,Whether and in what Case it may profitably be opened. is very good, as many Histories do testifie: but many wil not allow of it, who prefer two or three Hors-Leeches fastened according to the Longi­tude of the Vein, as far as the corner of the lower Jaw, where it sticks out and is visible▪

[Page 115]Howbeit you must observe, that the internal Jugular does in the Neck commu­nicate with the external; and there this external Vein being opened, although it reach not unto the Brain▪ yet [...]ay it disburthen this Part, seeing the internal Jugu­lar is hid, under the Muscu us Masto [...]d [...]us and cannot safely be opened. And therefore that sa [...]e opening of the Jugulars which is so much spoken of, is to be understood of the external Jugula [...], and not of the internal.

And because the Arteries and Veins are alwaies con [...]guous and coupled together,A [...]ries. Cor [...] in the same [...]e you shal lo [...]k for the sr [...]k of the a A [...]rta ascending. Spr [...] ­ging out of the left Ventricle of the Heart, it does presently even in its Rise pro­duce the two b Corona [...]y or Crown Arteries, which do compa [...]s the Heart like a Crown▪

These you wil not see exactly, unless you cut the Aorta and look into it through the left Ventricle of the heart: if there be only one, you shal [...]ind a little Valve plac [...]d at the O [...]fice thereof, as in the Coronary Vein.

The T [...]unk of the Aorta after a little progress, is without the Perica [...]dium di­vided into Two Branches, the one whereof is termed c Ascenden [...], the other d Descendent.

The ascendent is triparted, three Arteries being brought from the same place; that on the right side ascending to the Claves, makes the a Subolavia dexira; theSubclaviae other two a [...]cend unto the left [...]de; the first whereof, is called Ca [...]tis b S [...]st [...]a going upwards; the second is named c Subclavia [...]inist [...]a; and a d hile a [...]te [...] d Ax­illaris, Axillaris. when it is come as far as the Arm-pits, and [...]ends forth the e Arte [...]a. Cervi­calis, [...]er the Shoulder-point.

The Right Subclavian Artery having over-past the Claves, does produce that Ar­tery which i [...] termed Carotis f Dex [...]ra, which neer the corner of the lower Jaw­bone, is like the internal J [...]guiar Vein, divided into two no able B [...]anches▪ the g Internal, and h External. They are termed Arteriae Carotides. Sleepy Arteries;Carotides. because they being compressed, do make a man [...]al into a [...]eep sleep and take away he Voyce. Wh [...]h I have often demonstrated i [...] Dogs, and how the [...]ame is done b [...] [...]ying a Nerve of the sixt Conjugation.

Ga [...]en. in his Book, of the Utility of Respiration, does conceive▪ and proves byWhether the obstruction of the Carotides do cause deep Sleep? making experiment in Live Creatures, that Animalls are no way offended by [...]ing o [...] [...] the Jugular Arteries; and therefore he refers the Sleepy-Evil to the Jugular Veins. I shal [...]ather think, that in Apoplexies and Dead-sleeps the Arte­ries are stopped, than the Veins.

Valverda does [...] that Columbus made publick demonstration in a youth, that deep sleep is caused by compression or constriction o [...] the Caro [...]ick Arteries: but he does not tell us how he did it.

That the a [...]cent of the Carotick Arteries and their penetration into the brain by the holes of the Skul may be plainly perceived, you shal put in a very smal [...]rass W [...]re that wil be [...]d, with a knob at the end, into the several divisions of this Ar­tery; which may be done and shewed, by the vulgar way of dissecting the Brain, beginning from the upper Part, not from the lower Part a [...]ter the manner of Varo­li [...]s, and in the Neck you shal put your Probe into the Catotick Artery.

The Tru [...]k of the Aorta being writhen towards the left side, and bent downwardsThe Interco­sta [...]s. again, is born up by the Vertebraes of the back, and in its progress as far as the Os Sacr [...], ou [...] of each side produces as many Arteries as there are Vertebraes, nei­ther is there [...]ound any soliiary Artery to accompany the solitary Vein, but there are such like petty Arteries which supply its place.

[Page 116]Within the Chest they may be termed a Intercoastal Arteries: beneath in theLumbal. lower be [...]ly, b the Lumbal or Loyn Arteries: they insinuate themselves in [...]o the spinal Marrow by the holes o [...] the Vertebra's which may be proved by a memorable example in Galen, in his fourth Book of the Parts affected.

One out of a vehement Inflamation of the Lungs, fel into a P [...]lsie of his upper Limbs, and the upper intercostal Nerves being anointed, he was cu [...]ed.

I, and my most learned fellow Collegiate, Dr. Merlet, have seen a P [...]lsie caused byCommunion of the Arteries & spinal Mar­row. translation of the matter of a Pleurisie into the Marrow of the back, which Pal [...] freed the Patient from the eminent danger he was in by reason of the Pleurisie.

So Hippocrates, in his Coicks, observes, that a Convulsion takes away a Feaver, by translation of the Morbi [...]ick Matter into the Marrow of the Back. The hinder c Neck Artery may do as much, which waters the Marrow of the Neck.

I know not how the Humor which causes an Apoplexy, [...]alling through the fourth Ventricle of the Brain upon that Marrow of the back, should bri [...]g the Palsie into one side more than another: by that way before mentioned, viz. The Cervical and Intercostal Arteries, the serous Humor may be derived into either side.

By the same Reason, the serous matter may through the Celiack Artery return back into the Aorta, and by the little Arteries pene [...]rating the Marrow of the back, be derived into the Nerves of the inferior Limbs; and on the other side, the matter of a true or bastard Sciatica, by the continuation of the thickest Nerve, may return into the Marrow of the back, from whence it may be revelled by the Aorta into the Mesentery.

In the Chest we are to take notice of eight remarkable Nerves or Sinnews. TwoNerves. of which are called Diaphragmatici, two are termed Recurrentes, two Stoma­chici, and two Costales.

Diaphragmatici, the Midrif Nerves, taking their rise between the a fourth andDiaphragmatic [...]i [...]t Vertebra's of the Neck, from that same thick Nerve of the Neck which goes into the Arm; they de [...]cend between the [...]oldings of the Mediastinum unto the Nervous Centre of the Diaphragme, or Midrif.

The Recurrent b and Stomachic, are branches of a Nerve of the sixt Conjugati­onRecurrent. or pair, whose Trunk you shal seek for in the Neck near the internal Jugular, by the Apophysis Mastoides; where it is cle [...]t into two branches, the one of which is dis [...]emmia [...]ed into the Superior Mu [...]cles of the Neck: the other being placed be­tween the internal Jugular and the Carotis descends unto the Claves, where it is parted into two branche [...], the Recurrent and the Stomachic.

The bending back of the left Recurrent Nerve is found about the place where theTheir bending Back where to be [...]ound. Aorta is bowed in, and that easily▪ before the Pericardium is opened.

You shal find the bending back of the right Nerve, about the right subclavian Artery.

I have often seen Dogs live and run, after their Recurrent Nerves were cut, and have my self made publick demonstration thereof, but they could not bark a [...] all; and when these Nerves are tied they deprive the Animal of voyce, and being united the voyce returns: wherefore it is apparent, that these Nerve [...] serve to make the voyce▪ because they return upwards, that they may be inserted into the He [...]ds of the Muscles of the Laryn [...], Tongue, and Os Hyoide [...], which arise from the Inferior Parts.

You shal search for the Stomachic c Nerves beneath the Heart, near the Verte­bra's, Stomachic. they [...]e hid within the folding of the Mediastinum, and from them you shal perceive ten or twelve [...]wigs drawn into the a Lungs; and of the smal branches of the two Stomachick Nerve [...] folded and [...] together, is made that [...]ame Nervorum Mir [...]ilis Ple [...]us, wonderful contexture of Nerves in the upper Orifice of the stomach.

[Page 117]Afterwards the Stomachick Nerves creeping along the hinder Parts of the Sto­mach, are near the Back-bone between the two Kidney b Joyned to the c Costals, so as to make that d Contexture of Nerves, out of which al those Nerves are derived, which are distributed into the Parts of the lower Belly.

All e Anatomists derive [...]he Costal Nerve from the sixt pair, when as in the meanCostal. while, it ari [...]es from the same poin [...] of the B [...]n [...]rom which the [...]xt pair arises.

The costal Nerve, being come without the Scul, is strengthened as it were with a Knot tied about it, and it descends undivided upon the Neck; and when it is c [...] to the three last Vertebra's of the Neck, it is de [...]ended by ano [...]er Knot, and grows thicker by addition of three smal Nerves; and being slipped down within the [...]hest, in its progress near the Back-bone, under the Membrane Pleura, it is aug [...]ented by additions of other two smal Nerves proceeding from the Marrow of the Back.

Having peirced the Mid [...]i [...], it is Joyned to the Stomachick Nerves, to make that same Contexture of Nerves, [...]emb [...]ng a Net which is between the two Kidneys.

The End of the Third Book.

THE FOURTH BOOK OF THE ANATOMY AND PATHOLOGY OF John Riolanus, THE KINGS PROFESSOR OF PHYSICK.

Chap. 1. Of the Head.

THE H [...]ad being the Seat of the Soul, the Mans [...]on▪ House ofWhy the Head is placed in the [...]ig [...]est place? the br [...]in is placed a lo [...]t in the hig [...]est part of the Body, as it were the prime Castle, which co [...]m [...]ds, and bears Rule o­ver the whol [...]y. [...] saies [...] [...]ea [...] was th [...] pl [...]d on the top of the Body; because of the Eyes, which are the [...]couts and Guides of the Body: Aristotle saies i [...] was for to cool the Heart, by that coldne [...]s which [...]he brain would shed down thereupon.

[...]A [...] Head that is wel [...]ramed, ought to be of an indifferent Size; for a great, andIts Size. a little Head, are disallowed, and disprai [...]ed.

The Natural Figure of the Head is round, or spherical, son what longi [...]h, bun­chingShape. out before and behind, with two Eminences, and a little flat, or compres [...]ed towards the Temples.

The Head is divided into the hairy Part, and the [...]mooth Part, so long as it isDivision. whol, and unparted: The smooth part is termed the Face, and thereunto is the [Page 119] Forehead appertaining. The hairy part retains the Name of the Head.

The Head is otherwise considered in the History of the Bones: for it is divided into the a Skul, and the two Jaws, the b upper, and the c lower; and the Forehead appertains unto the Scull.

Again, The whol Head is divided into two direct parts, and two side parts. TheExternal parts of the Head. direct are the d fore part of the Head, which from the beginning of the Hair, arises four or five fingers breadth towards the top or Crown of the Head.

After which, the space of two [...]ingers, and as much after the Vertical point of the Crown, where the Hairs turn, is termed e Vertex: the hinder part is called f Occi­p [...]t; the lateral parts are called Tempora, g the Temples, or Times; because they discover the Times of a mans Age by their hollowness, hoariness, or baldne [...]s.

The Head is compounded, and made up of many parts, of which, some a [...]e exter­nal,The consti [...] ­ [...]ing parts. others internal; [...]ontaining, and contained.

The Containing, o [...] Membranous, or Bony; the contained, or internal, are the Brain, the Cerebellum, or petty brain, the four roots of the Spinal Marrow▪ and such Particles as are included in their Cavities.

The first containing part we meet with, is the h hairy Skin, which has also its E­pidermis, The hairy Skin. The fl [...]shy Membrane. or Scarf-skin. Under the Skin, lies the Fleshy i Membrane, which is the Foundation, & Seed-plot of the Hairs: which if it be Fleshy, it makes the hairy Skin movable, because it sticks close hereunto without any fat coming between.

The Pericraneum follows, which does immediately compass the bony Skul. ItPericranium is produced from the thick Meninx, which in Children, goes through the Su [...]ures, at what time they are not firmly closed, no [...] ioyned Tooth within Tooth.639

Besides the Pericranium, there is scraped from the Skul, as from other bones,Periostium the Periostium being a thin Skin, which immediately covers them. Wherefore the Pericranium is not the Periosteon of the Skul▪ but is spread out upon the Skul by a great Providence of Nature, that it might hold fast the Muscles which ariseIts use, from the Skul, such as are the temporal Muscle, the strongest in the whol Body, which with its companion, contracts, and lift [...] up the Jaw, and bears greater bur­dens in some bodies, than the other Muscles acting al together.

Also it strengthens, and closely comprehends the Muscles of the hinder part of the He [...]d. Descending to the Eyes, and stretched out under the Eye-lids, it makes the Conjunctive Coat of the Eye.

These Membranes being separated, and plucked off, and the a Skul having itsThe Skull▪ Cap taken off, it presents it self to ou [...] sight, being framed together of many bones, which are [...]oyned one to another, by looser, or faster Sutures, or Seams.

Somtimes there are no Sutures, or Seams to be seen, when the Skul is one conti­nued bone. But the History of the Skul appertains to that double Osteology, or Bone-story; the one of which has been pr [...]mised unto this Work, and the ot [...] shal be demonstrated at the end hereof.

The Medicinal Consideration.

The Head being the Fountain, and Original of almost al Diseases, according toGeneral Disea­ses of the head Hipyocrates, by reason of Fluxes of Rhewm, which flow from the Head into the in [...]erior parts, even as low as the Feet, does condole, and has a fellow feeling with all parts. Being placed on the top of the Trunk of the Body, like a Cupping-glass▪ it attracts, and receives vapors which mount from the inferior parts, according to Hip­pocrates in his fourth Book of Diseases: which vapors, the brain being s [...]gy like a kernel, does drink, and sup in, according to the said Hippocrates, in his Book of Glandules, or Kernels. The Vapors being con [...]ealed into Water, do fal down, [Page 120] and return up again like a River that ebbs and flows, according to Aristotle; which Hippocrates had taught before him, having in that respect▪ termed the Brain, the Metropolis of a cold, and moist, glutinous, and clammy Humor.

If the Shape of the Head be depraved, so that it be sharp pointed, or the longi­tudeShape depra­ved. thereof▪ be turned into latitude; such an Head cannot be [...]ound and healthy: and therefore either it is diseased, or the principal Faculties are weakened▪ If in Children new born, [...]uch a Figure be observed, it may [...]e corrected by Art, and with the Hand; as if it be great, and large, when the Child is a month or two old, d [...]ying Medicines being applied, and Fo [...]anels, or Issues made in the Nape of the Neck, the over-great moisture of the Brain may be dried up; and consequently the Head wil become less; which cannot be effected when the Children are grown up. A narrow Head, cannot be by Art enlarged, many Age whatsoever.

If the Sutures of the Skul are straiter tha [...] ordinary, o [...] [...]f there be no Sutures,Over lax, or loose, &c. or they be wider than is [...]i [...], the Head is subject to Diseases, because the smoaky Ex [...]ements of the Brain, have nor a free passage.

If the Head be more loose and open than is [...]it, it is the more exposed in the Inju­ries of the ambient Air.

These Inconveniencies may be remedied by help of Physick, or by wearing a Cap, or by going bare-head, as occasion requires.

I proceed unto the Particular Diseases of the Parts containing. And first of theParticular diseases. hairy Skin, whose Action is the breeding of Hairs, the efficient cau [...]e wh [...]eo [...] is a temper moderately hot and dry, and an indifferent Constitution of the Skin; and the internal cause is a sooty Excrement, which thrusting it self for [...]bly by the smal Pores, gains the form of a thred. The hurting of this Action, is a Symptome of the hairy Skin. The hurt thereof is three- [...]old, it is diminished in the Disea [...]e termed Ophiasis, in which the Hairs fal off from the hinder part of the Head along to theOphiasis. Fore-head, making bald wreaths like those of Serpents; or it is abolished in bald­ness, and the Alopecia, or Fox▪fal of the hairs.

The Cause of the falling off of the Hair of the Head, is the hot and dry distemper of the Skin, with a naughty and sharp Humor, eating away the roots of the Hairs.

The Naughtiness of the Humor is known by the color of the Skin, and of the blood, which comes out of the Skin being pricked.

Baldness is a deprivation of the Hair of the Head, by reason of an Hectical dryBaldness distemper, and hard Constitution of the Skin. A defect of Nutriment, and profi­table Humor, or of the [...]uligi [...]ous Excrement, causes this distemper of the Skin. Hence it is that Eu [...]uchs, because very moist, do never wax bald.

Gray-hairedness is a Symptome of the Hairy Scalp or Skin of the Head, by whichGray Hairs the Generation of Hairs is depraved, so that they grow white before the time. The cause of both these kinds of baldness, as wel that which comes Symptomatically, as that caused by Age, is the cold and moist distemper of the Skin, whereby the [...]uli­gi [...]ous Excrement of the Skin is allaied and tempered. When I say a cold distem­per, I mean the weakness of the Natural Heat: whence it comes to pa [...]s that by sickness and sorrow, many become gray-hair'd, because the Natural Heat is by both diminished.

Ulcers of the Head are either light, and possess the Scarf-skin only, which turnsDaddruf into little Scales, Scurf, or Dandruf, when the Head is combed: whence the Greeks term it Pituriasis, the Latins Porrigo: such like Ulcers are either dry and invisi­ble; or they are visible, and manifestly to be seen: their Cause is an hot and dry distemper of the Skin, with a sharp and thin Humor.

Ac [...]or, is a Disease of the Skin of the Head, compounded of a tumor, and an Ul­cer;Sor [...] Head the tumor is known by the inequality, the Ulcer by little holes, out of which flows a clammy Humor; which made Pliny cal the flowing Ulcers of the Head, Ceiron, or the Honey-comb. But the Honey-comb, though a tumor, and Ulcer of the Head, yet differs from the former, because it has greater holes, and the Humor that comes out is mattery like Honey, or of the Consistency of Honey. Pl [...]ny cals them Ulcers congealed together like an Honey-comb. The Cause of both these [Page 121] Diseases, is an hot and dry distemper of the Skin, with a sharp and biting Humor, which invites one to scratch: by scratching, the swelling is encreased, and at length Ulcerated, so that the holes break out: Vulgarly 'tis called Tinea, the Moath, be­cause the holes are like those of Moath-eaten Garments.

Hydrocephalos, or the Water-head, is a swelling of the Head, caused by aHead-dro [...]sie. whey [...]h Humor, collected and shed abroad between the Skul, and the Pericram­ [...]; or between the Skul, and Dura Mater, or within the Ventricles of the Brain fi [...]led with whe [...]sh moisture, which runs over as it were on al sides.

In Infants 'tis caused by squeezing of the Childs Head at the time of Birth. In those that are grown up, the cause hereof is a cold and moist distemper of the Head and whol Body, or a translation of [...]erous humors unto the Head, which generally is swelled, and rai [...]ed to a vast compa [...]s, by the humor under the Sk [...]n, or included within the Head.

P [...]ir [...]asis, or the Louz [...] Evil, is a Symptome of the hairy Scalpe, when in­steadLouzie Evil. of the [...]hicker Excrements, or together with them, L [...]ce are bred in the top of the Skin, or deep in the same.

The Cau [...]e hereof, is an hot and moist distemper of the Skin, with a putrified hu­mor not very sharp; which makes this Disease commonly subject to Children, and old Flegmatick Persons.

The Temple-Muscles are to be observed, which cover a great part of the Skul, whose wounds or bruises, do cause a Convulsion, and contract, and straiten the Jaw.

Chap. 2. Of the Brain.

THe Skul being duly sawed in sunder, and the covering removed, the a BrainThe Brains. appears, proportionated to the Skul which contained it; such as is the thing containing, such is the contained. Or suppose the Brain gives Figure to the bones when they are soft, then the Skul follows the quantity of the brain, be it great or little. But in case the brain follow not the Natural figure and magnitude of the Head, its conformation is faulty; and consequently sickly and adverse to the inter­nal Sences, both principal, and subservient, wh [...]ch it hurts in their Actions.

The Brain is compounded of a b Substance soft, waxy, or pliable, whitish:Substance. which because, like a Kernel, it drinks and sucks up humidities, it is therefore by Hippocrates, termed the great Kernel.

It is divided into two parts. That which is three times as big as the other, re­tainsDivision. the common name of the c Brain: the lesser part placed in the hinder part of the Head, is termed d Cerebellum, or the Petty-brain. Both these parts are coveredTwo Coats, viz. 1 Crassa-me­ninx. 2 The Tenuis meninx. with common Coverings, termed Meninges. The first Coat, or Covering, is cal­led e Crassa Meninx; the second f Tenuis Meninx. The Arabians termed these Membranes, Matres, or Mothers, because they were perswaded, that the other Membranes of the Bo [...]y, were propagated from these.

The first Meninx g hard and thick, being united to the Sutures of the Head, suspends the whol bulk of the brain; these Connexions must be viewed when the Skul is taken off. In the thick Meninx are observed innumerable h Vessels, where­with it is sprinkled and strewed: they are rather Arterial than Venal, being pro­duced from the Rere Mirabile, being drawn out from beneath upwards, as far as the Channels of the Meninx, where they unload their blood; and therefore it is the Membrane which is seen to beat and pant, rather than the substance of the Brain.

Now the Pipes belonging to this Coat, are four; whereof two are lateral, whichThe Pipes. run along the sides of the Sutura Lambdoides, that they may receive the blood [Page 122] from the internal Jugulars, and from the Neck Veins; or by them, according to the Doctrine of Circulation, the blood may flow back unto the Heart.

From the Union of these two Channels, is formed a third, longwise, drawn out directly as far as the Nostrils. In the Concourse of the three beneath, there springs a fourth c Channel or Pipe, which goes into the Substance of the Brain, between the Brain, and the Petty-Brain: it is not shut up in the [...]oldings of the Dura Mater, but there is a great Vein, so called by Galen, which descending into the d former Ventricles, makes the Plexus e Choroides, which is di [...]persed t [...]ough al the Ven­tricles,Plexus Cho­roides. Torcular unto the Basis of the Brain.

The Channel which runs longwise, deserves rather the name of Torcular, than the f fourth: because from thence, is the blood distributed into the lower parts, by innu­merable little Veins, through the turnings and windings of the brain.

These lateral Channels, neither do the Veins, nor the Arteries go into, and pass through with their Coats, but are terminated at the entrance; and therefore those Channels are rather Arterial, than Venal: for the Brain being of its own Nature cold and soft, ought rather to be nourished with hot, subtile, and Arterial blood, than with such as the Veins afford, being thick, and hard to penetrate.

And in case the Vein, and A [...]terial blood were confused and mixed together in these Channels, they would not pant or beat; and the Pulsation of the Channels demonstrates, that it depends not upon the Body of the Ar [...]eries; for there are no [...]e in that place, but upon the leaping of the blood, after the manner of Arteries.653 654

Now this Menbrane, namely, the Crassa Meninx, divides the Brain into two parts, as far as the middle thereof, by the Corpus Callosum. This Partition is ter­med a Falx, and being doubled on both sides, it severs the Brain from the Petty-Brain.Falx

The Tenuis b Meninx follows, which immediately incloses the brain, beingTenuis Me­ninx Why the Brain is full of win­dings and tur­nings? closely conveighed into the windings and turnings thereof; for the substance of the brain, is c without, after a wonderful manner, ful of deep turnings and windings, for the lighter passage of the Arteries, which disperse the blood here and there; and therefore Pelops, the Master of Galen, seeing those little Arteries dispersed up and down the Brain, did beleeve that there was the beginning of the Veins.

The Tenuis Meninx is three times so long as the Crassa Meninx, because it passes into the inner Parts of the Brain, and as a Veil it covers and separates, and divides the whol Bulk of the Brain into three Parts. For near upon the upper half of the Brain, which covers the Ventricles being placed upon the Corpus Callosum, it is on both sides Circularly separated and lifted up as high as the Roots of the Marrow of the Back, which do knit together that same upper portion. So that the Brain is divided into three Parts; on each side one over the Ventricles, and the third which includes the Ventricles, being continued, and no waies disjoyned.

A smal quantity of the d Corpus Callosum being cut of, the Two e former and The two for­mer Ventricles. upper Ventricles appear, which in their lower Part towards the basis of the Brain are larger, from whence they take their rise upward, being smaller at the top.

They are separated by a Thin Membranous Partition, which is framed of the Tenuis Meninx doubled together, and is called Speculum Lucidum, or the Bright Septum lucidū. Mirror, because it is transparent.a

[Page 123]The former Ventricles are perforated in the forepart towards Os Ethinoides, that the serosities may flow down from the superior Part [...] to that place.

Above the foremost Ventricles there is spred out a b Tripartite body, which is termed Corpus Psalloides, or the Welch Harp, sustained by three Pillars: whereofFornix. two are c Lateral: turned back about those d Eminencies which Galen calls the Chambers of the Optick Nerves:

The other foreward e Colomne, is placed between the two Ventricles. If you shal follow those two lateral Columnes, you wil find them to be productions of the Optick Nerves, which within the Ventricles do Joyn themselves one to another, as in the Basis of the Brain; behind the Choana, they are again united; whence I conjecture that the power of understanding and knowledg, is principally contained, in the former Part of the Brain, and that from thence the Animal spirit is drawn▪ which is administred unto the Eyes.

By the Concourse of the two Ventricles Between the two large Hillocks afore­said, and other subsequent Eminencies, is formed a Guttur or Channel, which makes the third f Ventricle. In the Basis of which Channel there is seen an g hole,The third Ventricle. which penetrates into the Choana, to purge out Wheyish Flegm into the throat, near the Palate.

In the sides of this Channel, the Circumjacent Eminences do form, some theNates Testes: Anus. h Nates or Buttocks, others the Testes or i Stones. For so those Eminencies or bunchings out are termed, being interchangably disposed, and from that Channel, the Hole which goes into the fourth Ventricle, is termed Anus or the a Arse-hole.

In the upper Part of this Channel is superincumbent that same Kernel which isConarium. termed b Conari [...]m the Pine-Apple Kernel, because tis shaped like a Pine-Apple. And over this Channel and the fourth c Ventricle, is a thin Membrane stretched out, derived from the Tenuis Meninx, upon which runs the d Plexus Chor [...]ides, def­fused through the foremost Ventricles.

In the entrance of the fourth Ventricle, there is placed a certain portion of theProcessu [...] Vermiformis. Brain more firm than ordinary which represents the taile of a River-Crab when the shel is peeled off. It is called Scolicoides and Vermiformis e Processus, the Worm­fashioned Production: is opens and shuts the passage into the fourth Ventricle. This is placed in the Cerebellum or Petty Brain; which contained within it self the two hinder most portions of the spinal Marrow, as the Brain contained the other two foremost, which I have named with Galen the beds of the Optick Nerves.

In that same f fourth Ventricle, there appeares a certain g Chink like a Writing-Pen,The fourth Ventricle. which is the Separation of the Marrow of the Back.

The Petty-Brain being pulled asunder, you shal see how it conteins within it the fourth Ventricle, between the two aftermost Roots of the Marrow of the back; and how being drier than the Brain, it gives Original to h seven or eight pair of Ner­ves, saving the Optick Nerve.

It is not ful of windings above but beneath, according to the external form of the brain it self. In like manner it is divided beneath into i two Parts, being continued above.

[Page 124]If you shal gently draw upwards the formost Part of the brain, as far as its basis,Pelvis. Glandula Pi­tuitaria. you shal observe the k Optick Nerves, and the Nerves, serving for a Motion, and then the b Choana or funnel dropping Wheyish moisture upon the c Glandula Pituitaria or Flegm-Kernel, which fils up and possesses the Sella Equina or Horse-Saddle. In the Choana or Funnel you shal see Four Pipes distillingTubuli. Seven pair of Nerves. Wheyish moisture into the Palate and throat. Then you shal consider the order of those seven pair of Nerves recorded in the following Verses.

The d First Pair sees, the e Second moves the Eyes;
f Third and Fourth tast, h Fift hears and makes us Wise.
The i Sixth is large and wanders all about:
k Seventh Larynx moves a prating Tongue so stout.

Then you shal search under the Dura Meninx in the basis of the brain about the Compass of the Sella Sphenoides, for the Rete Mirabile or wonderful l Net of Arte­riesRete Mirabile. interwoven one among another, being formed of the two m Carotides or sleep Arteries.

You shal observe in the Basis of the brain, that Wheyish Humors of blood is powred forth, in extream pains of the Head coming with Inflammation, which while they seek to go forth by the Cavities of the Ears, they cause extream sharp pains, which bring the Patient into Madness and Sicknes. Whether or no in such a desperate Case, may we boar either side of the Hindermost Part of the Head, to let out the superfluous putrid Humor, which corrupts the substance of the Brain?

The n Auditory Nerve is worthy of Consideration, which is inserted into the Cavity of the Eare, and by a little Channel slides down into the Palate, and is distributed into the inner Part of the Larynx: from whence comes that same Con­cent that is between the Tongue and Teeth, the Larynx and the Lungs.690

Observe Whether or no they be intersected Crose-wise, so as the right should from its original be carryed unto the left Part, and the left unto the right, which I have never seen.

Whether the Nerves in their Rise have Arteries Joyned in company with them? Whether the Nerves are made up of many smal threds? Whether the other Nerves differ from the Optick Nerve.

I wil not wholly pass over those four notable Questions: Whether the brain be moved? Whether or no the brain does cool the Heart? Whether the Ventricles of the brain are ordained only to contein Excrements? Whether or no the blood be there Circulated and how?

As to the first Question, I say that the substance of the Brain is not moved of itWhether the Brain have any Motion? self, by Diastole and Sistole, after the manner of the Arteries, but only the Crassa Meninx, which is sprinkled al over with Arteries, arising from the wonderful Contexture of Arteries, unto the upper Channels of the said Crassa Meninx: also the Channels do pant, and the brain is moved by elevation and depression of the substance thereof, according as it is driven by the Animal spirits.

The brain does cool the Heart, in asmuch as by Circulation, it sends back theWhether it cools the heart? blood unto the Heart being cooled in the Brain.

The foremost and uppermost Ventricles are Receptacles for spirits: the whey mayThe use of the fore Ventricles. indeed descend into the upper Ventricles, from the whole Mass of the brain, but it [Page 125] presently fals down into the lower Ventricles, that from thence it may flow through Os Ethmoides into the Nostr [...]s: if the Os Ethmoides or Colauder-bone be obstru­cted, it distils by the Choana or Funnel, or by the little holes over the Funnel, into the Palate and Jaws or Throat.

The Circulation of the blood is performed in the brain, with a slow pace. TheWhether or n [...] and how th ulood is Circulated in th Brain. blood rises out of the Net like-Contexture, by the Arteries of Dura Meninx, unto the foure Channels; afterwards it descends by the Veins unto the Heart, having been plundred of its spirits, which the brain drank up. And so the blood being cooled, is said to coole the Heart. Of al which I shall treat more fully in my Anthropographia, or large Description of the body of Man.

The Brain, being of its own Nature cold and moist, is nourished only with theWhat Bloo [...] the Brain nourish [...] with▪ purer and more spiritous arterial blood, which ascends by the Carotides and passes speedily forth. And though the Spirits are tempered, they loose none of their subtility, because they are not mingled with the Air. From the Plexus Mirabilis, blood ascends by the Arteries which spring from the said Plexus unto the Crown of the Head, where the blood Channels of the brain are Scituate. From whence it distils into the lower and side Parts of the brain, and also by that same great Vein mentioned by Galen, which makes the Plexus Choroides, it is distributed into the inferior Parts.

And therefore in bleedings of the Nose, the most pure blood does alwaies comeWhat Blood comes away in the Nose blee­ding. away, whereas that which is taken away by opening the Veins of the Arms or feet, seems alwaies most impure.

Whereby you may know, that it is only the Arterial blood which nourishes the brain and which comes away by the bleeding at Nose: and it was not without Cause that Fernelius would have it stopped, after it had bleed a pound, to coole the body and extinguish the Feaver. And therefore refrigerating and astringent Medicaments are to be applied, not only to the hinder Part of the Neck, but also before upon th Carotick or sleepy Arteries.

You shal observe that the Air drawn in by the Nostrils, does not pass under, norWhether the Air goes which is drawa in at the Nostrils? Whether it is mingled with the Spirits? enter into the foremost Ventricles of the brain, because they are void of any Insets, but being shed externally round about the Crassa Meninx, it cools the Surface of the brain. Nor is it mingled with the Spirits, because they ought to be most sub­tile, otherwise by permistion or mingling of the Air, they would become more thick and would not run so swistly by the Nerves al the body over.

The same I conceive touching the Air received into the Lungs; that it is not mix­ed with the vital Spirit but only cools the Lungs

Now that the brain may be demonstrated after that manner, which Varolius de­scribesThe Manner of Dissecting the brain and the History of its Parts. in a particular Book: You shal saw in sunder the Scul of a body newly dead, round about near the Eyes, and the hollow of the hinder part of the Head, and with a pair of Pinsers you shal take of the upper portion of the Socket of the Eyes, that you may draw out the Eyes hanging at their Optick Nerves.

Afterwards having pulled the Dura a Meninx from the Scul round about with help of a Spatula, leave it at the Basis of the Scul, where it sticks exceeding fast to the Bones. Then you shal take out the Brain and as much of the Spinal Marrow as you can both at once, and let some body hold the Brain turned upside down in both his hands whiles you shal dissect it.

But you shal first search within the Dura Mater for those four bendings or c Hollownesses, for the place of the d Press, the great Vein described by Galen which makes the Plexus e Choroides, and that division of the brain which resem­bles a f Sickle: Afterwards returning to the Basis of the Brain, you shal observe the Tenuis Meninx to be more easily plucked and separated in the lower than in the up­per Part: because the Petty-Brain in its Basis or Bottom is not so ful of turnings, away, and windings, as on the top. And therefore the thick Meninx being first taken we meet with that same Rete Mirabite, or Miraculous g Net, made of Multitudes of [Page 126] smal Arteries, springing from the h Carotick Arteries and two other i ascending through the holes of the Vertebraes of the Neck; but it will be torn, which cannot be prevented. Now each of the Carotick or Sleepy-Arteries enters within the Scul divided into two, to Weave that same wonderful Net, and creeping upwards, through the windings of the brain it is disseminated up and down every way even as far as the Longitudinal Cavity of the Dura Meninx.

The Carotis is drawn obliquated and as it were crook backt, within that same winding hole at the Basis of the Scul, and within its Cavity, containes certain very smal Bones, like those which are called Sesamoidea.

Neither has Nature placed these little bones only in these Arteries, but she has likewise inserted them into other Arteries, where it was requisite, that they should be kept open.699

Then you shal observe that the Processus a Mammillares or Teat-like Producti­ons do not run out so far as Ʋarolius has described them.

Then you shal see the growing together of the b Optick c Nerves near the Choana or Funnel. And therefore Masticatories may do good in the Diseases thereof. Also you shal observe that the Veins of the Plexus d Choroides descending to the Basis of the e Brain, are interwoven with exceeding smal Kernels.

In that place the Plexus Choroides is more easily discerned, than upon the fore­most Ventricles.

Afterward, you shal contemplate four tuberous Eminencies: two f before, sci­tuate in the middle of the brain, and the other two g behind, which constitute the Cerebellum, or petty Brain. Those Eminencies, or Risings, do receive four white and hard Roots of the Spinal Marrow, whereof the foremost, longest, and hardest, are drawn along between the greater Eminences of the Brain. The other two short ones, are carried within the petty brain; which a thickened Portion of the Marrow of the said petry-brain, placed athwart, as broad as a mans Thumb, does fasten to­gether like a Swath-band, and is by Varolius termed h Ponticulus: or rather it is the pavement of the Channel from the third, into the fourth Ventricle.

And the said Channel lies above those foremost Roots of the Spinal Marrow, and is stretched out according to their longitude. Between the growing together of the Optick Nerves, and the foremost Roots of the Spinal Marrow, there appears a four­squate hole, which is taken for the i Choana, or Funnel, serving to discharge the Excrements of the Ventricles of the Brain.

When you have viewed al these things, you shal pass over unto the a Petty-brain, where you shal separate from the Spinal Marrow the Processus b Vermiformis which lies between the two Tuberous Eminencies of the Petty-brain, by taking away the Membrana Choroides; that so you may see the c Chamber of the fourth Ventricle and the Cistern of the Animal Spirits.

Then you shal cut a sunder d the little Bridg, or the Band of the Roots of the Spi­nal e Marrow, that the f foremost and Superior Ventricles of the brain may appear, which you shal see separated by a partition g as long as ones Finger, drawn from one End towards the Fore-head, as far as the Petty-brain: it cleaves to the h Arched Roofe of the Ventricles, but beneath it is loose, and free from al ties, that the pas­sage of the Spirits might be free.

But you shal diligently note, that the Extremities of the said partition are double forked: the hindermost bifurcation is longer than the foremost, and it cleaves unto that same transverse Ligament, which connects the two Tuberosities or bunchings out of the brain, and so being spread out like a beam it bears up the Vaulted Arch [Page 127] of the Ventricles; the fore most bifurcation cleaves unto a little transverse cord, which resembles the Optick Nerve in thickness and in Color.

The same partition which is termed Septum i Lucidum, being pulled back, you shal manifestly descern the Vault of the Ventricles, which is called Corpus Psalloides or Harpe fashioned body; also you shal see that the foremost Ventricles make but one continued Cavity.718

Mean while you shal observe, that the inferior Ventricles placed at the Basis or bottom of the brain, are larger or at least equal unto the superior, and that the con­tinuity of the superior and inferior Ventricles is one and the same: or rather that there are but two Ventricles which contain the whole brain. For the a fourth Ven­tricle lies concealed in the Petty-Brain, and is manifestly seen to be wholly and only the [...]e.

Further you shal observe that al the b Nerves even the Optick ones, do arise out of those same Roots of the Spinal Marrow: and therefore al the Nerves in the body do arise out of the Spinal Marrow, within or without the brain.

For if those Prominencies, which are termed by Galen the beds of the Optick Nerves, are productions of the Roots of the Spinal Marrow within the brain: we may with good reason aver, that the Optick nerves chemselves do spring from the Spinal Marrow.

Finally you shal see that the moving Nerves that give motion to the Eyes, are continued, and make one Cord as it were: and that the Optick Nerves being bow­ed or turned back near the beds of the Optick Nerves, do ascend unto the foremost Ventricles.

You shal likwise see that the Testes or Stones are c portions of the Roots of the Spinal Marrow, growing out of the brain: and the Nates or d buttocks are portions of those Roots which are derived from the Petty-brain.

And if you shal compare this my description of the Parts which are to be seen in the brain turned upside down, beginning from the basis, with that of Varolius, you wil find it larger and different from his. And he that wil take pains to do as much, after he has once or twice seen me demonstrate these things, he wil acknowledg the truth of them with admiration.

Now that in the brain the Diseases & Symptomes thereof, may be distinguished as much as may be by their proper places, the whol bulk of the brain must be divided into three Parts, viz. The c brain properly so called, the Petty-braina and the 725 Marrow of the back.

But I divide the brain, as it is the subject of dissection into three Regions, theThe Parts of the Supreme Re­gion. uppermost, the Middlemost, and the Lowest. In the uppermost you shal observe the Turnings and Windings of the brain, the d Sickle, and the Corpus e Cal­losum.

In the Middlemost which is beneath the f Vault, you shal observe the ArchedOf the Mid­dle Region. seeling of the said Vault, being the Roof which is placed over the Ventricles; the Partition-Wal, born up by g three Pillars; three h Ventricles with certain i Emi­nencies, which make up a Channel to the fourth Ventricle.

And then you shal observe the Plexus k Choroides, the l Conarium, and the m Petty-brain, and the n fourth Ventricle therein concealed.

[Page 128]In the lowest Region, you shal mark the o Choana, or Funnel, the Glandula, Of the lowest Region. or p Kernel; the Mammillary, or Teat-like q Productions; the [...]even r Pair of Nerves; the s Re [...]e Mirable, or wonderful Net; and the Roots of the Spinal t Marrow.

And forasmuch as Casparus Hofmannus, in his Book against Montanus, and in his Institutions, cals those Men Fools and Blockheads, who [...]uppose that the Ven­tricles of the Brain, are the Shops, or Work-Houses where the Spirits are made; and so confidently, and arrogantly avers it to be impossible, that he accounts it a great Crime or Madness to think otherwise: I shal briefly examine his, by him sup­posed invincible Arguments, because no man has yet had the Courage to contradict them: only I shal in the first place demonstrate the contrary to be true.

The Animal Spirit is made of the Vital, which is continually brought in greatThe place where the Ani­mal Spirits are made accor­ding to our Auth [...]r. quantity, by the Carotick Arteries to the Basis of the Brain, where the branches meeting, and being woven together, do make the Rete Mirabile, from which in­numerable branches are derived into the Crassa Meninx; that the blood may a [...]cend on every hand to those blood-channels of the Dura Mater, which I co [...]ceive does a­lone palpitate, or pant; and I have seen in Fractures of the Skul, that when that Membrane is broken, the brain remains immovable.

Seeing therefore the foremost Ventricles are opened in the Basis of Brain, and e­qual in their widness to the upper Cavities of the said Ventricles, and are close unto the Rete Mirabile, from it the Ventricles draw their Spirits, or the Spirits exha­ling from that Texture, whose Arter [...]es are exceeding tender and thin, they are brought along into the [...]oremost Ventricles; and soon after, by the third Ventricle which serves instead of a Channel or passage, they are forthwith carried by a streight course into the fourth Ventricle, the Cistern, or Conduit Head of Spirits; that from thence they may be distribu [...]ed into the inferior Nerves, and into the Cavity of the Spinal Marrow.

But the seven Pair of Nerves are propagated from those four Eminencies; of which the two greater do form, and enclose the sides of the foremost Ventricles; the other two make the sides of the fourth Ventricle, whose Roof, and fore, and after parts, are made up by the double Apophysis Scolicoides.

Those four Eminencies are Spongy, and receive Spirits, which run directly into the Nerves of the Spinal Marrow by the [...]ourth Ventricle.

And no man can deny that the Nerves of [...]he brain are the off-springs of those four Eminencies: and so this Proposition is to be interpreted. All Nerves of the Body and Brain, do spring from the Spinal Marrow, either within, or without the brain.

I deny not that the Spirits are diffused through the whol substance of the brain, and not wholly contained in the Ventricles: but I aver that the Ventricles are the true Shops, or Work-Hou [...]es of [...]he Animal Spirit, which is distributed unto the seven Couple of Nerves, and to the Spinal Marrow.

That this is ab [...]u [...]d and impossible, Hofm [...]n does thus seek to prove:

1. Arg.

There is the Spirit made, where the Action is performed.

I Answer, many Actions are performed in parts, in which no Spirits are bred:The Argu­ments of Ho [...] ­man to the contrary, an­swered. and I deny that in the Body of the Brain, al Actions are performed. Again, there needs no other elaboration than their passage through the brain: for as the blood of the Veins, passing through the Hearts Ventricles, is in a moment made Vital; so the Vital Spirits running through the middle of the Brain, as far as the Ventricle, do become Animal.

[Page 129]For if it were needful that the Animal Spirit should be elaborated in the Substance of the Brain, it would lose much of its [...]ubtilty, because the brain is cold and moist.

2d Arg. of Hofman. If the Spirit be to act, it must needs be under the command of the Soul in the Vessels; for after that it is entered into the Sea of the Ve [...]tricles, what is there to compel the same to return into the stra [...]t passages of the Ne [...]ves?

I [...]n [...]wer: If the Spirit be diff [...]ed into the whol substance of the brain, being re­ally soft as Wax, how can it return into the Nerves, seeing there are no Vessels run­ning through the [...]ubstance of the brain? Those bloody marks wherewith it is sprin­ [...]ed, are poin [...]s of blood dropping down from above, out of the Arteries which runs between the winding substance of the brain. The great Providence of Nature, be­cause the blood could not pie [...]ce, nor pass through the midst of the Substance of the brain, hath carried the same through the Channels of the Dura Mater, as far as the [...]ood passages, whence [...] slides into the [...]ferior parts, and by the Press, o [...] that great Vein which Consti [...]utes the Plexus Choroides, it [...]ows into the Ven­ [...]ricles.

More probable it were to assign the Seat, and Shop of the Animal Spirits in the Plexus Choroides, which is diffu [...]ed through al the Cavities of the brain, as far as the ba [...]s thereof. But shew me (friend Hofman) the way by which the Animal Spirits made of the Vital, may be diffused into the substance of the brain, so as to flow back into the Nerves.

3d Arg. The Ventricles are surrounded within, with the Pia Mater, which [...]inders the ingress and regres [...] of the Spirits.

I Answer: If the Ventricles have for their Covering, the thin Meninx, the pas­sage is thereby the sa [...]er into the foremost Ventricles, without any loss at all. I have already demonstrated in an Entrance in the basis of the brain, being the way into the fourth Ventricle; there is no need of a reg [...]ess for Arterial blood, which ascends upwards by the Crassa Meninx, distilling into the brain, does on al sides afford Spirits to the whol brain; neither can the blood penetrate without Spirits.

4. Arg. Hofmans strongest Argument is this: Seeing the two superior Ventri­cles, open into the third, and that into the Funnel, and it into the Pallate, who will be Su [...]ety, that the Spirits will not ma [...]e their escape this way?

I Answer: This danger is easily shunned by the continual flux and pulse, or dri­ving of the Spirits to the Ci [...]ern; and that same hole is exceeding smal, and so deep, even to the O [...] Sphen [...]des, that it can equal the length of a mans [...]ger.

You who beleeve that the blood passes from the Right Ventricle of the Heart, through the Lungs, that it may return into the Left, are you not afraid lest we should lose our vital Spirits, when we blow ou [...] breath out in Respiration?

5. Arg. The Ventricles are not continued with the Nerves, but with the whol Body.

I Answer: If the Nerves proceed from those same Eminencies, which are Roots o [...] the Spinal Marrow, between the Brain, and the Petty-brain, and they are prin­cipal portions of the Brain; do not the Nerves arise from the brain it self? But you your self have often times written, that the Nerves arise within the brain, from the [...]oots of the Spi [...]al Marrow.

6. Arg. The Ventricles have now another Office, which cannot stand with that of the Spirits.

I Answer: That I deny any such Office. For the Choana, or Funnel, can p [...]ge away any wheyish Excrements which shal be in the Ventricles; but the grea­test part, flowing down by the external windings of the brain unto the basis, fals partly into the Os Ethmoides, or Colander▪bone, partly it descends to the basis of the brain; and if not by the Choana, yet by other holes neer abouts, it is purged into the Pa [...]ate.

[Page 130]But because Hofmans Spirits fail him in [...]andling this Qu [...]stion (can you for­bear laughing) for they are his own words, we shal also leave him to enjoy his self-love, with a great flock of bleating Animals (so he saies) which follows his absurd Opinion, provided that he be the Bel-weather. Let him no more triumph before the Victory, nor let him be so secure and undaunted, as not to fear Hercules himself.

That same new Tenent of Hofman, disturbs the whol Doctrine of Diseases of theHofmans Te­nent disturbs the [...]actice of Physick. Brain▪ and that I may declare so much, I wil chuse out only two Diseases, which have their Seat in the Ventricles, viz. The Epilepsie, and Apoplexy.

The Apoplexy he makes to be in the whol Substance of the brain, not in the Ventricles: The Epilepsie, he wil have to be caused only by vapors ascending into the Head, and di [...]ed through the whol substance of the brain. He allows of no Epilepsie from a primary affection of the Head, but only by Sympathy from other parts.

He assigns the Seat of the Apoplexy to be in the whol substance of the brain ob­structed, and avers that it is caused only by blood shed forth of the Veins; and makes the Cause thereof to be the obstruction of the Press introduced by Nymma­nus. But if the Torcular, or Press is obstructed, which is the fourth Channel car­rying blood into the Plexus Choroides, the passage of the blood and Spirits is in­tercepted. But according to Hofman in an Apoplexy, only blood is found shed out of the veins within the Ventricles, and therefore the To [...]cular was not obstru­cted.

It is a certain, and undoubted thing▪ confirmed by many Experiments, that in the Apoplexy, the Ventricles of the brain are obstructed, or there is an obstruction in the Choana, or Funnel. But especially the hole of the fourth ventricle which is shut with the Apophysis Scolicoides, is stopped by thick and clammy Flegm stic­king there; which if it be not discussed, or removed, being evacuated through the Funnel, it cause [...] death.

If the Matter be serous, and pass into the Spinal Marrow, it causes the Palsie in­stead of the Apoplexy; and so a greater Di [...]ease is cured by a lesser, the matter be­ing translated from one place to another. But if blood happen to be shed into the ventricles, present death follows.

But if [...]o be the Apoplexy should be produced by blood alone, as Hofman will have it; how could blood which was shed into the ventricles, pass into the Nerves without putre [...]action, and how could it enter into the Cavities of the Nerves?

In these two Diseases he hath be [...]rayed his own Ignorance, although he could find no such difficulty in the falling sickness, as Cra [...]o acknowledged, whose Wish was this: Would to God I could see before I die, the Essence of this Disease, together with the Cure thereof rightly explained.

The Medicinal Consideration.

The brain is exercised with many kinds of Diseases, with an hot, cold, moist Di­stemper;Principal dis­ [...]ses of the Brain. Distemper. with divers Humors, Flegmatick, Cholerick, Melanchollick, Sanguine, and Wheyish; which either do mo [...]est the Membranes of the brain, especially the Crassa Meninx, or are diffused into the Channels thereof, and being there stopped of their course, they cause most acu [...]e pains: or they slide into the exterior win­dings of the [...]rain, and by little and little, they distil into the substance of the brain, and the ventricles thereof; or into the hinder part of the Head, or the Petty-brain; or they descend into the lowest parts of the brain.

If the Humor ascend by the Carotick Arteries unto the brain, it may produce the same Diseases; now al Diseases that are caused by consent, or sympathy, withou [...] matter, only by evaporation, are not so dangerous, as if they were bred within the brain, so as that the morbi [...]ick Matter should be therein contained.

The brain, besides similar Diseases in Distemper, and Laxity, suffers also Dis­easesObstruction of th [...] Cavities. in Conformation, when as, according to the motion of the Moon, its bulk is en­creased, [Page 131] or diminished; in the Disorder of its Passages, when the Channels of the Dura Meninx are obstructed, especially the fourth, which is called Tor [...]ular, or the Press: which being obstructed, is thought to cause the Apoplexy, the passage of the Spirits to and [...]ro being intercepted. Which I do not beleeve, because the Spirits are shed abroad into the inferior Vessels from that admi [...]able Net of A [...] [...]es, called Rete mirabile, and that same Cavity being stopped, only the Plexus Choroides, being defrauded of its blood, is hurt.

The Ventricles are also obstructed, especially the fourth, which being s [...]opped,Of the Ven­tricles. present death follows, by reason of the stoppage of that continual influx of Spirits, which ought to be into the inferior parts, and the Marrow of the back.

The Choana may likewise be obstructed, which intercepts the Efflux of serousOf the Choana▪ [...] [...]u [...] and Flegma [...]ick Humors, whereby flowing back into the brain, they may cause the Episep [...]e, or Apoplexy, and induce divers deadly Diseases.

If the anterior, or foremost ventricles, are perforated into the Nostrils, the ob­structions of those passages, wil be very [...]u [...]ful to the brain.

A fault of evil Conformation, cannot be amended exactly: by strengthening, and drying the brain, both the fore-mentioned may be helped.

The brain is Inflamed, not only the Meninges, or Coats, but somtimes also in theSiriasis. proper substance thereof; whence comes the Phrenzy, and Siriasis, or Dog day madness; but not any Paraphrenitis.

Siriasis is termed from the Dog-Star; for in the Dog-Daies chiefly, it afflictsFrenzy. both Boys, and elder persons; and therfore it comes rather from an ex [...]ernal Cause, as long abiding in the Sun, &c. than from any internal Cause: as a Phrenzy comes only from an internal Cause, whether it be Primary, or Secondary, by consent of o­ther parts in a burning Feaver.

The brain may likewise swel, by reason of a Commotion thereof from some in­ternalTumors. Cause, it is called Ecplexis. Stupidity of the Head after a blow, is a bad sign, according to Hippocrates. At length these Diseases bring a Sphacelism in the brain, causing putrefaction, corruption, and mortisication.

Again, it is subject to a wa [...]ry Tumor, either in its Circumference, or within the Ventricles. If in its Circumference it is termed Hydrocephalos, or the Water-Head; and at length the wheyish Humor slipping by little and little, within the Ventricles, causes the sleepy Disease, and after it the Apoplexy.

And these I take to be Diseases of the brain; however Fernelius has written, that al the Disorders of the Head, which have been observed by Experience, are symp [...]omes, and not Diseases.

But he elegantly, according to his wonted fashion, does divide the Symptomes Symptomes of the bra [...]n. Or Membranes. into three Ranks, with reference to the parts affected. Some possess the Mem­branes; some the Substance of the Brain; and some the hollow Passages.

In the Pericranium, and Meninges, Pains are caused. In the Substance of the Brain, which is the Seat of the Animal chief Faculties, are contained the Symp­tomes of Fancy and Reason depraved, such as are, Dotage, Melancholly, Ecstasies, Lyncanthropy, Madness. Also the Symptomes of Memory abolished, such as are Forgetfulness, Foolishness, Doltishness, and blockishness. Symptomes consisting▪Or in the Ca­vities, and pas­sages. in the Cavities, and passages, are very many, appertaining to Sence and Motion; and to sleeping and waking, as dead sleep, sleeping Trance. Symp [...]omes of Motion are, Walking in ones sleep; to be taken stiff, as it were blasted, or Planet-struck; the Night-Mare, Convulsion, Falling-sickness, Unquietness, and tumbling, S [...]ive­ring, Shaking, Trembling, Palsies, Feebleness of the Limbs, and Apoplexy.

Symptomes in the undue proportion of what should be voided forth, do belongSymptomes of the Membranes Pain. to the passages and Cavities, as a Ca [...]arrh, Rbeumatismus, Bleeding at Nose. All these Symptomes [...]foresaid, I wil now declare particularly.

The Head-ach, either occupies the Pericranium, or the Meninges; if the Pe­ricranium, the pain is outwards; if the Meninges, the pain is inward. Each of these pains reaches unto the Eyes; because the internal Membranes do produce the Coats of the Eye, called Cornea, and Ʋvea; and the Pericranium produces the Coat Conjunctiva.

[Page 132]The kind of the Pain shews the Nature of the Disease. A sharp and biting pain does argue a Cholerick Distemper of the Head: a heavy pressing pain, shews a Flegmatick Distemper: a panting, or pulsing pain, argues somwhat of an Inflama­tion: A pricking pain shews an Erosion, or gnawing, caused by a sharp Humor, or a Worm which is rare. A stretching pain, argues abundance of Humor, or of win­dy Spirits, which distend the Membranes.

Now the Pain is either in the whol Head, or in the half, or in some one particle thereof. If it infest the whol Head, it is called Cephalalgia: if half the Head, Hemicrania, because the brain is divided into two parts: If the pain possess one part, as if a Nail were driven in there, the Arabians call it Clavus, and Ovum; the Nail, or Egg. If the pain of the Head, be of long Continuance, it is termed Ce­phalaea; which together with the Hemicrania, is periodical; but the Cephalalgia is a continual universal Head-ach.

A continual Pain of the Head joyned with a continual Feaver, and signs of ma­lignity, is exceeding dangerous, according to Hippocrates in the Second of his Prognosticks.

Pains of the Head are, Primary, and Proper; or Secundary, and by Sympathy from other parts: These are not so dangerous as the former.

The Principal Actions of the Brain, Imagination, Ratiocination, and Memory,Symptomes of the Substance of the brain. are diminished, depraved, and abolished. Depravation of the Fantasie and Rea­son, is Raving; the Imminution thereof is Foolishness.

There is a three-fold Hurt of the Memory; but the Abolition thereof has only found a name, being called Oblivion.

The Cause of Foolishness, is every great distemper of the brain, which is knownFoolishness. by its Causes, as by signs; or some ill shaping of the Head, which is easily dis­cerned.

Dotage, or Raving, consists in absurd Thoughts, Words, or Deeds. The Say­ingsDotage. of such as rave, are estranged from Truth and Reason, or not to the point in hand; their Deeds are either unusual, or undecent; their Thoughts are absurd, ri­diculous, and Chymerical.

The manner of Raving, ought to be distinguished to know the differences of theMelancholy. Melancholly which causes the same; for a Delirium, or raving with depravation of the Fansie, is termed Melancholly, which consists in a false Opinion touching things past, present, and to come; which being manifold, it is defined by vain fear, anxiety, or sorrow.

Again, Melancholly is either Primary, or Secondary: The Primary has its Ori­ginal in the brain; the Secondary springs from the Hypochondriacal parts, whence it is termed Hypochondriaca Melancholia, which is either Humoral, or Flatulent: the former is the worse of the two, and brings at last Madness, and Out-ragious­ness.

The Melancholy Ecstasie, is an excess of Melancholy, which is three-fold: AnEcstasie. Ecstasie simply so called; an Ecstasie with silence; an Ecstasie with a Frenzy: they are caused by black Choler, according to the divers degrees of its Adu­stion:

Foolishness with laughter is better and safer, than with seriousness and fierceness. Raving without a Feaver, is so much the better by how much the Parts under the short Ribs, or the Brain, are less heated.

The Resting, and binding up of the Sences, is Natural Sleep: The breaking off, or hindrance of sleep, is Watching: Either of which being out of measure, is hurt­ful.Coma, or Dead sleep. If Sleep be profound, 'tis called Coma, or Carus, Dead-sleep. If this Symptome be mixed of Sleep and Watching, so that the Patient seems to incline to sleep, with his Eyes shut, but is not able to sleep; it is termed Coma-Vigilans, the Drowzy Watch. But if one that has a sleeping Disease upon him, every time he is awakened, does rave, and talk idlely, the Disease is called Typhomania.

And if a man lie stiff with his Eyes open, and when he comes to himself, remem­bersThe Night-Mare. what was done about him, it is termed Incubus, the Mare; which is wont to [Page 133] happen in the right to such as lie upon their backs, or have glutted themselves with feasting; and it seems that they are choaked, by some Devil lying upon them, or by some Theif that has laid hold upon them to Rob and Murther them.

The abolition of al sence and motion saving Respiration, is called Catalepsis orCatalepsis. Catoche: whereby a Man is Frozen as it were in that posture he was in when the fit seazed upon him. It springs from a Cold distemper of the Brain with Flegm.

Carus is a deep Sleep, which comes upon Feavers and wounds of the temporalCarus. Muscles, or from an hot and moist distemper, or from much evaporation with sero­sities, moistening the substance of the brain.

A Lethargy is an Imminution of sence and Motion and also of the Memory ofA Lethargy. necessary things. It Springs from a Primary hot and moist distemper of the brain, joyned with a putrid Humor which provoks a Feaver and cherishes and keepes it up a long time. There is also Dotage adjoyned. Touching this Disease there is a saying of Hyppocrates in his Coicks Page 75. Which explaines all the Symptomes thereof. The existence or particular Nature of the Lethargy and Coma, consists in a loosness, as that of the Catalepsis in a Tension or ben­ding. Those that are in a Lethargick Sleep, at last become Apople­ctick.

An Apoplexy does oft times primarily and unexpectedly invade a Man, and som­timesAn Apoplexy. it followes some other Sleepy disease. It is an Abolition of sence and motion with respiration hurt, which at last brings snoring and suffocation, by reason thick Flegm flowing out of the Funnel and obstructing the Larynx or Wesand.

It is Caused by a Repletion of the Ventricles of the brain, either with a pituito­us or Wheyish Humor, or with blood, some smal Artery of the Rete Mirabile be­ing broken in the Basis of the Brain, or blood being carried aloft in a Plethorick body by the fourth Channel, rushes into the Ventricles.

If it be Simple and meer Whey, by strength of Nature out of the anterior Ventricles, it slips into the fourth Ventricle, and from thence into the Spinal Mar­row and so Causes a Palsie.

If it be a Flegmatick Humor stopped in the fourth Ventricle, or in the third, it cannot be discussed, and the brain is overwhelmed thereby.

If the blood be shed out of the vessels, it suddainly suffocates.

In the Carus or other Sleepy Disease, only the foremost Ventricles of the brain, are overwhelmed with Serosities, so that there is yet freedom for the spirits to pass into all Parts of the body.

But in an Apoplexy, all the ventricles of the brain, but especially the fourth, are obstructed, and unless the matter be discussed into the spinal Marrow Death fal­lows unavoidably.

Fernelius avouches that an Apoplexy is bred by an Obstructiou of that Rete Mirabile, the afflux of Arterial blood out of the Heart into the brain, being thereby intercepted. Therefore they are termed Carotides, because being obstructed they cause Carum or the Sleepy-Evil.

In the Apoplexy and Sleepy Diseases, besides general Medicines, as blood-let­tingCure of the Apoplexy, Ca­rus and sucid like Diseases. liberally twice or thrice repeted out of the Arm and foot; strong Purgation of watry Humors, Cupping-Glasses fixed unto the shoulders and the hinder Part of the Head, Topical Remedies, are not be neglected, which draw and Evacuate near the Part affected; such as is the opening of the Veins under the Tongue and of the external Jugular Vein, and likewise of the Temporal Artery: great Vesicatories applied towards the top of the shoulders to the Cephalick Vein, strong Medicines to provoke Sneezing, a Seton in the Neck, the string being often drawn about and anointed with Oyl of Vitriol, that it may bite the more and attract: opening the Veins of the Nose after the manner used by the Ancients, with a split Toothed Quil thrust up as far as the bottom of the Colander: a sharp injection into the Nostrils [Page 134] Nostrils by a syring, and within the furrows placed between the spaces of Os Vo­meris: drawing out of the Flegmatick clammy matter which sticks in the Throat and stops the Larynx, but thrusting a feather far into the throat: to which intent a strong vomit is good to cast forth any Humor that has flowed into the Wind-Pipe: neither must we omit extream hard rubbings with salt, and continual stirring of the body, if it be possible.

All which remedies are to be applied with all possible speed one upon the Neck of another, in an Apoplexy, because there is danger in delay. In Sleepy Diseases which proceed slowly, and are caused by matter falling down from the Parts above, they are more slowly administred, and without Precipita­tion.

You shal observe also, that a great Part of these Humors is gathered together in the turnings & windings which are outmost in the upper substance of the brain, which do either putrifie there, or slip into the ventricles of the brain: and yet these windings of the brain are not considered.

The Palsie is an Abolition of sence and motion, not in the whol body, as in the Apoplexy, but only in the greatest Part of the body, or in halfThe Palsie. thereof, which is termed Hemiplegia, or in one Part, which is called Paraplegia.

Fernelius observes, that sence is taken away, the motion remaining unhurt: and somtimes motion is taken away and the sence remains, because of the difference of the Nerves of the brain and the Spinal Marrow. In the Palsie, the Nerves of the Spinal Marrow are obstructed, but those of the brain, not: and therefore many Parts remain unhurt, especially the internal.

Somtimes the Palsie happens without obstruction of the Nerves, because the sostning and Humectation of the Nerves, brings a kind of Palsie.

In an imperfect Palsie when motion and sence are only dulled, the Disease isStupor. termed Stupor or Nothrotis, which arises from a moist distemper of the brain. A Stupidity or dulness of sence and motion in a Feaver, is wont to foretel a sleepy Disease to follow. When it comes alone without Feaver, it foretels a Palsie or an Apoplexy.

Vertigo, is a depravation of sence and motion, which makes the Patient thinkVertigo. that al things turn round: it springs from a windy Humor, which being agitated within the foremost Ventricles of the Brain, causes the foresaid Apprehension of all things turning about. If it Causes a darkness before the Patients Eyes, it is cal­led Vertigo Tenebricosa or Scotodinos. It arises from the Brain or from vapours ascending from the inferior Parts. That is worst which arises primarily from the brain, and it is a fore-runner of the Falling Sickness.

The convulsion is a violent pulling back of the Muscles towards their Head orConvulsion. beginning. It is threefold, Emprosthotonos, when the body is bent foreward; Opisthotonos, when the body is drawn backward: and Tetanos when both sides remain stif, by reason of an equal bowing or stretching of the Muscles on both sides.

The Cause of a Convulsion, is either an obstruction of the Nerves, or their being pricked by a sharp Humor, or a dry distemper, which dries the Nerves, and so makes them stif as a dried Lurstring; this is incurable. In one word, all Convul­sions are said to arise either from too much emptyness, or over fulness.

An Epilepsie or Falling-sickness, is a Convulsion of the whol body, coming byFalling-Sick­ness. fits, and hurting the Mind and sences. It is caused by an obstruction of the fore­most Ventricles of the brain, caused by an Abundance of sharp Humors, either, Cholerick or Flegmatick. Either it comes from the brain Primarily affected, or from some other Part sending Malignant Humors to the brain. If it proceed from the brain Primarily affected, it is the more dangerous: if by fault of the Spleen or some other Bowel venemously infected: the coming of the fits may [Page 135] be foreseen and prevented. The former comes in a moment, the latter by degrees.

Fernelius, besides the Humor which is the common Cause, accounts the pecu­liar Cause to be a venemous Air or vapour, which is exceeding hurtful to the brain; and therefore he conceives, it must be cured with specificks and appropriate Reme­dies, as wel as those vulgar ones.

Trembling is a depravation of Motion through weakness. It is caused by theTrembling. weakness of the motive faculty and the bodies heavyness. So that look how much the motive faculty endeavours to lift up the Member, so much does the heavyness of the said Member not sufficiently illustrated with spirits, press it down again. And therefore it arises, from obstruction of the Nerves, or from their being over-much softened, or from some external Cause, as by anointing with Quick-silver, or other Application thereof. There is a certain mixture of the Convulsion and trem­blings, which is called Spasmo-Tromois.

Shivering and shaking, are motions of the body, which happen in Feavers, andShivering and Shaking. they are forerunners of the fits of Agues, or of the Exacerbations of Feavers. They happen also, to such as have ripe Impostumes, when the Impostum is ready to break. And therefore Hippocrates observes a threefold Shaking-fit; the one fea­verish, the other Ulcerous, and the last Symptomatical.

Unquietness, Anxiety, tumbling and tossing of the body this way and that way,Tumbling and Tossing. called by the Greekes Asse; is a depravation of motion, which proceeds from a misaffection of the Stomach, by reason of a sharp Humor Nettling and Stinging the Nerves of the body, or the Membranes of the Back-bones Marrow. Which makes that the Sick cannot rest in one place or posture; but are forced every foot to change place and tumble here and there, and to change the posture of their Bodies.

Night-walking, ought to be reckoned among the Symptomes of motion de­praved:Walking in ones Sleep. because it is not preformed by Judgment and Reason, but by force of a Disease, namely of sharp Fumes which compel the Sick person or the healthy to rise up and walk in their Sleep.

I proceed to the Irregularity of the Excrements. The proper excretion of theSymptomes of things voided forth. brain, is either an Exhalation of a thin Vapour by the seames of the Scul or the pores of the Skin, or it is an Efflux of a thick Humor by the Nostrils and Palate of the Mouth. The Disproportion of this Excretion consists either in excess ot defect. That in defect has no Name, but it degenerates into a Cause of Diseases of the brain, of which we have already spoken.

The disproportion in Excess is various, either when blood does immoderatlyNose bleeding. flow from the Nose, or by drops. Both which Symptomes are Malignant. The former decaies the bodies strength, by reason of the loss of blood and Spirits, the latter betokens a repletion of the Head, and a Vain endeavour of oppressed Nature, And therefore drops of Blood coming from the Nose, is bad in a Vaporous Feaver. both as a Cause, and as a Sign.

The disproportion in Excretion of a serous and Phlegmatick Humor, is many­fold.Catarrhs. Their general Name is a Catarrh, which is a distillation of Humor from the Head into the Inferior Parts, from which Parts it receives divers Appellations. If it fal into the Nostrils, it is called Coryza or Gravedo; if into the Throat Branchos, Hoarsness; if into the Mouth and Palate Ptyelismos, or the Spawle. And these three sorts of Catarrhs, are vulgarly comprehended under the Name of Rheum.

A Catarrh falling upon the outward Parts of the body is named Rheumatismus Rheumatismus or Rheumaticus affectus, the Rheumatick Pains. If it fal upon the Joynts it re­sembles the Gout, save that it comes not by fits: wherefore an Eunuch may suffer upon the Rheumatick pains, but not the true Gout. See Galens Comment upon that Aphorisme. Boys and Eunuchs are not troubled with the Gout.

[Page 136] Galen makes frequent mention of the Rheumatick Disease, which was common at Rome, as it is with us in Paris: in his Second Book to Glauco: in his Book of Blood-letting, against Erasistratus &c. This Disease he cured by liberal Bloodletting. It is described by Hippocrates, in his Book of the internal Diseases, under the Name of a Joynt-pain, which is wont to trouble young People more than Aged.

The other differences of Catarhs with Reference to the diversity of Parts on which they fal, are Vain. It suffices to know, that al Fluxions upon internal Parts, are called likewise Rheums.

The Cause of a Catarrh or Flux of Rheum, is a cold and moist distemper, or an hot distemper with an abundance of Humors working in the Vessels, or without. Galen acknowledges both these Causes, in his Comment upon the 24. Aphor. Of the third Book.

The latter Physitians, following the Doctrin of the Arabians wil have the Humor which Causes the Catarrh, to be bred in the Head, only without the Vessels, by reason of Vapours ascending.

Fernelius contends that the Conjunct Cause of a Catarrh, is a serous matter, collected under the Skin of the Head, without the Vessels: and that the Ante­cedent Cause, is an Humor shut up in the Veins. If you desire to know more of this subject, Read Fernelius, who wil give you abundant satisfaction.

Chap. 3. Of the Eyes.

BEcause the Eye and the Ear may be demonstrated without meddling toThe Eyes. dissect the Face; I wil dispatch these Parts, before I proceed unto the Countenance.

The Eye, the Instrument of the Sight, is the principal Part of the face, placedScituations. in the Fore-Part of the Head, to direct the Actions of the body, because al acti­ons are directed forwards, by reason of the Scituation of the Hands. Seeing it is anParts. Organical Part, made up of many Similar Parts; some of those Parts are external and some internal. The external are the a Eye-lids, which are the Coverings of theThe Eye-lids. Eyes, wherewith they are covered, shut and opened. And therefore each Eye­lid is movable, howbeit the motion is more evident in the upper Eye-lids, and is performed by help of Muscles, of which we shal treat in our fift Book containing the History of Muscles. From whence the Reader may fetch what does appertain to the present occasion.

The Eye-lid is made up, of the Skin, a Membrane and muscles. The MembraneIts Membrane. stretched out under the Skin, it produced from the Pericranium, which descen­ding by the length of the Forehead unto the Eyes, is an underwofe for the Eye­brows, withal makes the conjunctive Coat of the Eye, which being fixed to the Brain of the Socket, detaines and binds the Eye in its Hole or Cavity.

The Extremities of al the Eye-lids, are terminated with a Cartilaginous orTarsus. Gristle edging, which is called b Tarsus, whereupon one by one in a row are fasten­ed the c Hairs of the Eye-lids; which are born with us, and look how long they are at our Birth, the same length they keep, during our whol life.

They seldom falt of by reason of Sickness, unless in a Malignant Whores-Pocks,Cilia. which mows down and makes wast of al the Hairs of the Body. These Hairs of the Eye-lids are termed Cilia.

The angular Extremities of the Eye-lids meeting together, are termed Anguli, Corners. the corners of the Eyes. The one is d greater, towards the Nose; the other is e les­ser, towards the Temples.

In the Eye-lids by the greater Corners are observed two little f holes, which areTear-Spouts. termed Puncta Lachry malia, or the Tear-Spouts, because the superfluous Hu­midities of the Eyes, or tears, do flow thither and Issue out of those Holes; which [Page 137] Humidites to receive, the Glandula Lachrymalis or a Tear-Kernel is ordained, being thrust into the little perforated bone, that the Humor might rather distil through this Hole into the Nostrils, than fal out upon the external Parts.

The upper Eye-lid has a Muscle that lifts it up termed therefore b Levator orMuscles. the Lifter, which arises from the bottom of the Orbita or Socket and being spred out upon the Muscle which lifts up the Eye, it is c widened into an Eye-lid, that when the Eye is lift up the Eyelid may therewith be raised.

The Musculus latus, or broad Muscle is common to the two Eye-lids; which being Circularly derived from the bony brim of the Socket, is spred out through both the Eye-lids, that it may serve to shut them both: and because it reaches in the upper Part as far as the Eye-brow it draws that likewise down, in a strong and close shutting of the Eye-lids. Unles any man wil contend, that there is a distinct Muscle for that use.

Now the Eye-brow is a Fleshy Hillock, adorned with Hairs, which serves for aEye-brow. Penthouse to overshadow the Eyes; it is depressed by the Orbicular Muscle of the Eye-lids, and lifted up, by the frontal Muscle.

These things being observed, the Eye-lids are cut away, and the Circular adhesionParts of the Eye. Fat of the Conjunctive Coat unto the Eye; that the Eye may de viewed, which is compact and made into a round bal or Globe of the fat which is placed d round about the same, to stop up the chinks and to make it more movable; and of six Muscles for motion; and of Coats, Humors, Veins, Arteries and Nerves.

Before the Fat be removed, the two Glandules or Kernels are to be considered inKernels. their Scituation, of which one is of the greatest moment, Viz. The Lachrymal or e Tear-Kernel; whose substance you shal observe to be Fleshy, soft and smal; and its Scituation to be within a little bone, beneath the same.

Then you shal look out the other Kernel which is wholly unlik the former, placed in the other f Corner; which is flat, White, and like other Kernels.

The Fat being carefully taken away, the a six Muscles present themselves; in the investigation whereof, we must begin at the b Trochleator, or the greater Oblique Muscle, Scituate at the greater c Corner; and there we must be careful to preserve the d pulley, being a little strong Gristle fastened to the bone, beneath and close by the Caruncula Lachrymalis or e Tear-spout; through which Gristle (like a Rope through a Pulley) the round Tendon of the Trochleator is drawn, and inserted into the upper Part of the Eye.

The other, Obliquus f Minor, must be sought for in the inferior Part of the Socket, being rould back under the Eye, it is terminated by the lesser g Corner. The other four, are right Muscles, whereof one h lifts up, and its opposite i draws down; the remaining two draw towards the k Sides. They al take their original from the Cavity of the Socket, by the hole of the Optick Nerve, and each one is produced right forewards to the Conjunctiva.

These things being observed, the Eye must be pulled out, that the inward stru­ctureTrue Coats. thereof may be made to appear: and in the first place you shal observe two true Coates of the Eyes, which are orbicular as the Eye it self: the rest are imper­fect coates: and before you cut asunder the Cornea or Horny-Coat, you shal take away the Nervous productions of the Muscles of the Eye, which some would have to be a m Coat, which is absurd.

You shal observe that the Cornea or n Horny Coat is transparent before, to serve [...] Cornea. the sight, but behind and on the sides, it is dark.

[Page 138]Its thick o Substance, is divided into little Skins, especially on the fore-side; when it is cut, presently the watery p Humor Runs out, which is also found Circumfused about the Ʋvea Tunica, or Grape-Skin q Coat, if the Cornea be di­vided in the hinder Part: this Humor cannot be stopped, because it presently Occurs, fllowing out like Water. 768 769

Afterwards you shal see the a Ʋvea or Grape-Skin Coat, and its open hole,2 Ʋvea. Pupilla. Iris. which makes the b Pupilla or sight of the Eye; the external Face or Circle of the Pupilla is termed c Iris, or the Rain-bow. The Circumference of the Pupilla is adorned with smal threds or little Fibres extended upon the Chrystalline Humor, which they retain in its Scituation.

The Pupilla, in Catts, is manifestly moved, in Men it is unmovable, unless it be somwhat slackened and straitned, by the Access and Recess of some extraordinary light.

These things being observed, pour out the Humors, and you shal find the e Christallin Humor overwhelmed in the Vitreous f Humor, and then the interior g Superficies of the Ʋvea Tunica wil appear black, and cleane; in Brute Beasts it is varigated, beingtainted with Green Black and Sky-Color. Wherefore, when you are to demonstrate the Eye, you shal have an Ox and a Sheeps-Eye in ready­ness, that you may compare them with the Eyes of Man-kind.

In the hinder Part of the Ʋvea you shal see the Optick h Nerve fastened, and the Marrow thereof piercing within that Coate.

There are three Humors conteined in the Eye; the first is the i watry Humor,The three Hu­mors of the Eyes. The Watry Chystallin. already run out, there remain two fastened together, the Chrystallin and the Vi­treous. The Christal is like a k Vetch, transparent, and being placed upon letters in a Book, it makes them shew larger, as a spectacle is wont to do. There is a Mem­brane attributed thereunto, termed l Chrystalloides. Hippocrates saies that in living Creatures it Runs like Water, or is more liquid at least.

The Christallin Humor being pulled out, there remaines the m Vitreous Humor,The Glassie. being compacted and not running about, by means of the Reticularis Tunica, or n Net-like Coat Interwoven: which being o cut asunder, by frequent chopping of the Pen-Knife thereupon, it becomes Liquid and runs about, the threddy Fibres being cut in sunder.

The Veins and Arteries which accompany the Optick Nerve unto the Eye, areTheir Vessels. more easily observed within the Brain, than in the Eye after it is pulled out.

Neither is the motive Nerve so easily detected being dispersed among the Mus­cles, as it is within the Brain, while you observe its progress, even to the very Eye-hole.782

The Medicinal Consideration.

Although the Eye be but a smal Part of the body, yet is there no Part aflictedThere are di­uers Diseases [...]e Eyes. and destroyed with more Diseases. And therefore the ancient Physitians, when they had diligently examined the structure thereof, they observed so many and so [Page 139] divers disorders in its Parts, as did amount to about one hundred and twenty, partly Diseases, and partly Symptomes, and distinguished them by their Proper Names; which in other Parts they did not do. And Rome and Alexandria had Physitians that attended only the Cure of the Eyes. In imitation of them I shallOf which some are general of the whol Eye. a [...] declare the disposition against Nature happening to the Eyes. And because most of the Names are Greek, few of them Latin, and our Chyrurgeons use them: after the example of Leonardus Fuchsius in his Medicinal Institutions, I wil retain and use them as Latin Names.

An Arabian Physition, Haly by Name, has writ a Book by it self of Diseases of the Eyes: and there is a considerable French Book of the same Argument written by Jacobus Guillemeau the Kings Chyrurgeon: unto which you may add if you please the Author of Medicinal Definitions: the Book of Galen touching the differen­ces and Causes of Symptomes; and a bastard Book de Oculis attributed to him.

The Eye therefore is afflicted either by being encreased, or diminished in itsDiseases of Magnitude. Quantity.

The Eye is diminished, when it consumes for want of nourishment: its Magni­tude is augmented when it swels without the Eye-hole or Socket.

Its Scituation is changed, when it fals without the Eye-hole, which Disease isOf Scituation. termed Ecpiesmos: or if it turn to one side or another, as in Squint-Eyed People, and in him that saw through his nostrils and was therefore called Rhinoptis.

There ought to be two Eyes: and therefore he that wants one, is diseased inNumber. Number, and is called Monoculus.

Furthermore the Eye is troubled by an hot and a cold Distemper and by infla­mationDistemper &c. of the whol body, which by putrefaction of the Humors is turned into an Impostume. It is somtimes Ulcerated, whence the Eye becomes spoiled and the sight diminished.

And in case an Inflamation of the whol Eye turn to Suppuration, which is called Hypopyon, and transparent matter be collected under the Cornea Tunica, shewing that the other Humors are not putrified, there is hopes the Patient may recover sight, the quittor being let out, by pricking the Cornea: which is happily practised at Paris; and so with the Quittor a watery Humor is let out, as in the couching of a Cataract.

Besides these general Diseases, al the Parts whereof the Eye is made up, have [...] Special Dis­eases of other Parts. their Diseases and Symptomes, which I will particularly and briefly explain, beginning at the Eye-Lids.

Eye-Lids Diseases. as Emphysema. Hydatis.

A moist distemper of the Eye-Lids with wind, or a flatulent Spirit, is called Em­physema. With much Wheyish Humors, its termed Hydatis, and by Celsus Vesica, and Aquula, which does so load and depress the upper Eye-Lid, that it cannot be lifted up.

An hot distemper of the Eye-Lid, Joyned with a thick Humor, is cald Scler­ophthalmia, Sclerophthal­mia. Xerophthal­mia. Psorophthal­ima Hard-eyedness.

A dry distemper without Humors, is Xerophthalmia: if it cause Itching, Pso­rophthalmia. Unto which may be referred the Phthiriasis, or Lowsie-Evil of the Eye lid.

If the said said hot and dry distemper Joyned with a sharp Humor, do cause Redness, pain, and falling of the Hairs, it is called Ptilosis, Milphosis, or Ma­darrhosis. Ptilosis

If it make the Inside of the Eye-Lid rough its called, Tracoma: which if it beTracoma Sycosis. Tulosis. Crithe Chalasion [...] great, so as to resemble the smal Seeds that are in Figs, its cald Sycosis; if it be hard and of long Continuance, its Name is Tulosis.

A little Tumor upon the upper Eye-Lid springing from a thick Homor, is called Crithe, the Barly-Corn. If it be greater and movable, because of its likeness to hail, it called Chalasion, the Hail-Stone.

[Page 140]A Disease of the Eye-Lids in Contiguity is, when the Eye-Lids stick unto theAnchiloble­pharon. Coat of the Eye, or to one another, which Disease is called Anchiloblepharon: the cause whereof is an exulceration of the Coat or the Eyes, or the Eye Lids: the exulceration being caused by an hot and dry distemper, with a sharp Humor.

Lagophthalmia is a Convulsion of the upper Eye-Lid, or a drawing back thereofLagophthalmia Ippos. by reason of a Cicatrice or some seam. Ippos is the trembling of the said Eye-Lid: both these Symptomes come by Consent of the Brain affected and therefore they are dangerous.

Ectropion, Inversion, is a Disease of the lower Eye-lid in Scituation of Figure:Ectropion. it is caused by a Scar without, or by an excrescence of internal Flesh.

Chalasis, or the loolness of the Eye-Lid, is caused either by a Palsie, throughChalasis. consent with the Nerves of the Brain, or by a moist distemper of the Eye-Lid: in both cases the Hairs are turned inwards.

The generation of the Hairs of the Eye-Lids being depraved, is called Trichiasis, &Trichiasis. Dystichiasis. it is twofold: when more are bredthan ordinary, its called Dystichiasis, when there is a row of Hairs more than usual. But when the natural Hairs are only longer and inverted, tis caled Phalangosis: in both these, the Hairs prick the Eyes: tis caus­edPhalangosis. by a moist distemper of the EyeLids, with much Humor which is not sharp.

Tear-Kernels Diseases.

The Caruncle or little bit of Flesh in the greater corner of the Eye, makes a Tu­morEuchantis. against Nature, which is called Euchantis: the Diminution of the said Ca­runcle is termed Rhyas, which causes a dropping of moisture from theRhyas. Eye.

Near the said Caruncle and the Nose, there breeds an Impostum through Inflama­tion, which is called Anchylops: which being broken and turned into a Fistula isAnchylops Aegylops. termed Aegylops. The Diseases of the Muscles of the Eyes, as distempers, Laxity and solution of Continuity, are distinguished by the Names of the Respective Symptomes.

Diseases of the Tunica Conjunctiva.

The hot distemper of the Conjunctive Coat with Humor as blood or Choler, if it be light and proceeding from an external cause, as the wind or dust, or a blow, isTaraxis. called Taraxis.

But if it spring from an internal cause as a Plethora or Cacochymia, it is termed Opththalmia. When it is but beginning, it is called Epiphora; which is a NameOphthalmia. Epiphora common to an Inflamation and fluxion.

And if the Inflamation be very great, so that it hinders the coming together of the Eye-Lids, and spoiles their Evenness, so that the white of the Eye becomes higher than the Iris and Pupilla, it is called Chemosis, as much as to sayChemosis. Hyposphagma Hiatus.

Hyposphagma is a collection of Blood under the Adnata Tunica, or an effusi­on of blood out of the Capillary Veins into the Adnata, proceeding from a blow or bruise. There is a Disease of Number, in the Tunica Adnata, called Ptery­gium: Pterygium and it is a certain Membranons Eminency reaching from the greater corner of the Eye to the Pupilla; or a certain hard knob of the Adnata it self: both spring­ing from a moist distemper Joyned with a clammy Humor.Phlyctena.

Phlyctena, is a pustle or smal Tumor of the Adnata or the neighboring Cor­nea, proceeding from a thick and sharp Tumor, so that it terminates in an Ulcer.Botrion. Epicauma.

And if it be hollow, it is called Botrion, or Fossula; if it be become crusty tis named Epicauma. After the Ulcer follows a Scar, which is the Hardness and thickness of a Spermatick Part springing from a wound or Ulcer.

Diseases of the Cornea Tunica.

The Ulcers and Scars of the Cornea Tunica, have a great resemblance with theCheloma. Diseases of the Adnata, in regard of neighborhood: yet are they distinguished, because the Ulcers and Scars in the black of the Eye, that is, in the transparent Part of the Cornea, belong only to the Cornea: such as is the Cheloma, which is a broad Ulcer of the Cornea, about the Iris.

Argemon, is a round Whitish Ulcer of the Cornea towards the Circle of theArgemon. Iris.

Scars in the Black of the Eye, or in the Transparent Part of the Cornea, do dif­ferAlbugo. in the degrees of more or less. The greater Scar of the Cornea, about the Iris or Pupilla, because of its whiteness is called Leucoma and Albugo: if it be smal it is termed Nephelion or Nebula, the Cloud: if the Scar be thin, its calledNebula. Caligo. Achlys, Caligo, a Mist or Darkness.

Diseases of the Uvea Tunica.

The rupture and Exulceration of the Cornea, is attended by a Disease of theProptosis. Ʋvea in Scituation, which is called Proptosis, Procidentia, when the Ʋvea sticks out above the Cornea.

If the Extuberance of the Ʋvea be smal, its called Myocephalon or the Flie-Head,Myocephalon Staphyloma Melon Clavus. because it resembles the Head of a Flie: if it be great, tis termed Staphy­loma, because it resembles a Grap-Stone, or Melon as being like an Apple. If their be an inveterate Ulcer of the Cornea through which the Ʋvea fals out, its called Elos, Clavus, the Nail.

The Ulcers of the Cornea and Adnata, if they be Malignant are termed Carcinomata.

Diseases of the Pupilla.

The hole of the Ʋvea is termed Pupilla the Apple of the Eye. Between the Pupilla and Cornea there is a space, ful of Spirit and Watry Humor.

There is a double Disease of that space: Zinifisis, springing from a dry distem­per,Zinifisis. which consumes the Watry Humor and Dissipates the Spirit; or from a wound, which lets out the Watry Humor, and suffers the Spirit to vanish and reek away.

The other Disease of the space, is an Obstruction from a corrupted Flegmatick or purulent Humor. If it proceed of a purulent Humor or Quittor, it is calledHypopium. Suffusio. Hypopium: if the Obstruction be caused by Flegm, its termed Hypochyma Suf­fusio. But Hypopium followes an Inflamation, and Hypochyma is caused for the most Part by a Congestion or Concretion of a thick Humor: if the Disease be pro­per or primary, and do not arise by consent from the Stomath, sending Vapors up into the Eye.

Fernelius saw a thick and perfect Suffusion bred in one daies time; for if a thick Humor suddenly falling into the Optick Nerve do blind a man in a moment: why may not the same Humor falling lower into the Pupilla, breed a sudden and per­fect Suffusion?

The narrowness of the Pupilla, springs either from the first formation in theCorrugatio. Womb; or from a dry distemper, and then it is called Phthisis or Cor­rugatio.

Galen writes that a smal Pupilla from from ones Birth is occasion of a very sharp sight but when it happnes a whil after, tis bad. In his first Book of the Causes of Symptomes. Chap. 2.

The Dilatation of the Pupilla is called Mydriasis or Platu-Corie. It springsMydriasis. from a moist distemper, or from a Rupture, or by breach of Continuity caused by a blow.

Diseases of the Chrystallin and Glassie Humor.

Diseases of the Vitreous and Chrystallin Humors, are either a distemper sim­pleDistemper or with Humors conjoyned; or such as happen in the consistence of the said Humors, viz. Thickness and hardness. The distemper of the Humors and Coats of the Eye, if it happen without a Tumor or an Ulcer, is commonly attri­buted to the weakness of the Faculty, and the quality and quantity of the spirits being misaffected: but neither of these is a Disease; they are rather effects of a Disease: for what is the weakness of a faculty other than Actio laesa, the action hurt.

Thickness of the Spirits is caused by a cold and moist distemperature, either pro­perThinness of the Spirits. Their Paucity to the Eye, or by consent with the brain or some inferior Parts.

Paucity of Spirits comes from a dry distemper, either of the Eye or the brain: the Cause and fomenter of which distemper may be a Cholerick Humor not purged out of the body, being the cause and Effect of a distempered Liver.

The thickness and hardness of the Chrystallip Humor is properly termed Glau­cosis Glaucoma or Glaucoma, because the color thereof resembles that of an Owles Eyes: it proceeds from a cold and dry distemper, and is therefore familiar to aged Persons.

The Disease of the Chrystalline Humor in respect of its Scituation, has no name, but if it be somwhat higher and flatter than ordinary, it produces a Symptome, whereby all things appear double.

The watry Humor may run out, by a prick in the Eye, but it is bred again inRunning out of the watry Hu­mor. Thickness of the Visive spi­rit. Children, as Galen saw by experience, and as we may observe in Chickens.

The Visive or seeing Spirit implanted in the Eye, may become thick, and sur­round the Chrystalline Humor with darkness and obscurity: as the implanted Hearing-Spirit of the Ear, being rendred thick, does cause deafness or thickness of Hearing.

Diseases of the Optick Nerve.

The Optick Nerve may be troubled with any kind of distemper, and with soluti­onObstruction of continuity; but the proper and usual Disease thereof, is Obstruction, which is known by a sudden blindness, the other Parts of the Eye being al sound: which made the Neotericks cal this Disease Gutta Serena, and somtimes Amaurosis. Amaurosis

Diseases and Symptomes of the Sight.

Sight abolished is called Caecitas Blindness: when it is diminished only, tisCaecitas Amblyopia Myopsis Nyctalops termed Amblyopia, thick sightedness: and it is accounted twofold Myopsis and Nyctalops: In the former the Patient is Pore-blind, and is fain to look close to what he would discern and to hold his Eye-Lids almost shut together. In the lat­ter, the Patient can see only by day, but very little or nothing at al by night, or very obscurly: the other differences of sight diminished are comprehended under the general name of Amblyopia.

Sight depraved, is a fals perception of things before the Eyes: its termed Paro­rasis Hallucination or Hallucination.

The Causes of these Symptomes, are no other than those Diseases of the Eyes,Causes of blindness. of Anchylo-Ble­pharon. which we have before recounted. For the Cause of blindness is, the Obstruction of the Optick Nerve, Glaucoma, Leucoma, Hypopion, Hypochyma, Proptosis, the larger Mydriasis, a Pterygium or Film covering the whol sight of the Eye, Anchylo-Blepharon or Gluing together of the Eye-Lids.

Imminution or Impairing of the sight, is caused by the other Diseases of the Eye-Lids. As by a thin Scar of the Cornea, called Nephelion and Achlys; and by a [Page 191] Leucoma and a smal Mydriasis, which touches but Part of the Sight.Myopsis Nyct [...]uopsis

Dry distemper of the Humors of the Eyes cause Myopsis: the over Humidity and thickness of the said Humors, makes a Man that he cannot see in the Night.

The Causes of sight depraved is an Hypopion beginning; or an Hypochyma, Namely, when the Humor is not yet united and grown together, so that the visive Spirit can pass too and fro between the Parts of the Humor through the empty spa­ces: whence it is that some see flies as it were, and certain dark bodies, move before their Eyes.

When true objects presented to the Eyes, have a fals Appearance, the sight isHallucination Amalops depraved, and termed Amalops: so al things appear Yellow, to such as have the Jaundice.

But that kind of Symptome happens, when the Cornea which is spred out be­fore the sight of the Eye, is infected with Blood or Choler.

The Animal action of the Eye is hurt somtimes, as Feeling and Motion: theEyes pain Feeling of the Eye is hurt by extream Pain thereof, which notwithstanding, ac­cording to the Judgment of Celsus, remains within the Eyes, and draws not the Brain into consent, as Pain of the Eares is wont to do. The Causes of al Pains in the Eyes, is a distemper, or Solution of Unity.

The hurting of the Eyes Motion, is either a Palsie, Convulsion, or Trembling.Palsie Convulsion Trembling In the Palsie and Convulsion, the Eyes become stif and fixed: in that sort of Convulsion called Tetanus, they are unstable, as in the Trem­bling.

The Natural Action of the Eyes, is likewise hurt, as Nutrition.

To the Jrregularity of the Excrements of the Eyes, does belong the Involuntary shedding of Tears. Its caused by a moist or cold distemper of the Eyes, or fromFlowing out of tears. pricking by a sharp Humor, or some external Cause; or from the Erosion of that same Caruncle, which is in the greater corner of the Eye.

Hereunto likewise belongs the filth of the Eyes, which is by the Greeks calledLaeimai Laeimai: they are caused by an extream distemper of the Eye, which makes a dissolution or melting down of matter.

The simple insirmities of the Eyes, are the spotts and Scars of the ConjunctiveSpots and Horny Coates, which are both Diseases and Symptomes.

The Duskynes and obscurity of the Eyes, is when the Bal of the Eye, does notObscurity represent any outward object to him that looks upon it; which is a token of Death in an Acute Feaver.

Chap. 4. Of the Ear.

THe Ear, being the Instrument of hearing, is divided, into the a ExternalThe Ears Parts Part, broad and gristly, and the b Internal, which lies hid in the Os petrosum.

The external Part is termed c Auricula, made up of a d Gristle, which is co­vered with a Skin ful of e Folds, and made hollow, with divers f windings; with an hole g through the same placed upon the side of the Head, just against the hole ofWindings h Os Petrosum.

It is more beautyful, when smal: for a great pair of Asses Ears are un­comly.

The Ear was placed as it is, for the Conveniency of hearing: and if the Scituation of the Ear inverted would not have been deformed, it had been more commodious for hearing, then placed as it is upright and Joyned to the Temporal Bone. For we see such as are thick of hearing, put the hollow of their hand behind their Ear, that they may hear the better.

In the Ear you shal observe two Parts; one is called i Tragus, andTragus Antitragus the other k Antitragus the Names of the other Particles of the Ear, are useless.

[Page 192]In the Auricula is conteined the first passage, or Hole of the Ear, and reachesHole of the Ear as far as the m Tympanum or Drum: its entrance is fenced with Hairs, to keep out dust and crawling Bugs, that might otherwise enter in. There is a collected, theEar-Wax Cholerick Excrement of the Ear, called Ear-Wax, which Bird-Limes and intan­gles any Dust or creeping thing that would pass that way. Its termed Marmo­ratum.

The internal Ear Concluded in the Os Petrosum, is altogether boney, and di­videdConcha into three Cavities. The first Cavity is the b Concha: In the extremity of the first c hole is the Membrane streched out, which terminates upon the d Drum: it has a string that runs cross it, as we see the Military Drums have.The Drum 798

Furthermore, we observe three littel Bones, the e Maller, thef. 7. B. □ Anvil, and the g Stir­rup:Four little Bones. others ad a h fourth, which is a little Scal of a bone, such as is found in the Carotick Artery near the Os Sphenoides. But this is vain and unuseful.

Fortunatus Plempius places another Membrane at the other extremity of the Concha, but how or where it is extended, he does not explain: whether at the two petty windores, whereof the one is the entrance of the labyrinth and the other of the Cochlea, or elsewhere? It is a most hard peice of Service to find out and demonstrate the internal structure of the Ear.

In the Skuls of i Infants, and in a Calves-Head, it is more easily observed, by lifting up with a Pen-Knifes Edge that same portion of k Os Petrosum, which within the Scul reaches unto the Basis of the Brain.

In the Concha you shal observe on the left side an Hole, which passes into the winding Cavity of the Apophysis Mastoides, or Teat-like Pro­duction.

The Auditory l Nerve, being m drawn through the n Cochlea, when it is come toThe Nerve the Concha, it slips through an hole or o Channel, which opens on the right side of the Concha, into the Pallate, by the Process which is termed Apophysis Pterygoi­dea.

And this is the natural structure of the internal Ear; for the finding out whereof we are obliged to Fallopius, after Carpus, who discovered those little bones the the Hammer and the Anvil. The third, namely, the Stirrup, Philippus Ingrassias brags to have himself first observed.

In living-Creatures, there is an inbred and implanted Air in the Cavities of theImplanted Air Ears, as there is a visive Spirit in the Eye, shut up within the Cornea Tunica.

The Medicinal Consideration.

The Gristle of the external Ear if troubled with Pustles or Pushes, is confused,Diseases of the [...]ar. Swels, is inflamed and exulcerated. By cold it contracts Sphacelation, is con­tracted and djes do what a Man can: and its somtimes cut of both in sick and in sound Persons. Whence the Greek phrazes Colo [...]oma and Acrotiriasmenoi, for persons that are Crop-Eard.

The greatness of the external Eare, though it be ill favourd, cannot be helped.Parotis what it is. The Swelling and Inflamation of the Kernels which are beside the Ears, is termed Parotis, which in regard or the narrowness of the place and nearness to the brain, is [Page 193] not very safe, happening upon an acute feaver, though it have the name of Dioscouros or Castor and Pollux, because of its good token, for such it gives when it is critical; proceeding from the strength of Nature, and attended with light somness of the Pa­tient following the same. In Children and young People a Parotis does many times break forth, void of danger; caused by the over great moisture of their brains.

In the hollow behind the Ear; according to the advice of Fernelius, a Caustick must be applied, in Diseases of the Ears and of the Eyes.

The first Auditory passage of the Ear, because tis fleshy is obstructed by a Tu­mor,Of the Audi­tory passage. by a Caruncle or bit of Flesh growing up, or by quittor Issuing out, or by Fi [...]h, or somwhat from without. It is inflamed, and impostumated, and Ex­ulcerated either of it self, or by means of some eating Medicine poured into the Ear: or by a Cholerick Humor: wherefore Hippocrates saies that when Deaf persons fal into Cholerick Loosnesses, their deafness is lessened, or taken away: and when their loosness is stopped, their deafness returnes.

This passage is terminated inwardly by the Drum, which either of it self and primarily, or secondarily and by accident through consent of the Bowels, but espe­cially through fault of the Head, is troubled with a very painful and dangerous In­flamation, which draws the brain into Sympathy.

The internal Cavities, because they have no Periostium, are not pained, unlessOf the inner Cavities. Of the Drum the Auditory Nerve be affected, whose ofspring makes the Drum: from its inflamation proceeds an Impostum and from that an Ulcer: which tears asunder the Drum.

It is broken, not only by an Ulcer, but also by a blow and a vehement sound; whence it is that those who dwel by the Fals of the River Nilus, are al deafe, by reason of Lovd roaring and Headlong fal of the flowing Water.

Also the loosness and over great moisture of the Drum is to be considered, be­cause it may Cause Deafness.

The proper Symptomes of the Ear, are those which belong to the hurts of hearing,Symptoms of the Action burt. Deafness. and the Irregularity of Excrements.

The hea [...]ing is hurt in a threefold Manner. When it is abolished, it is called Surdita [...], Deafness: which if it come from the Womb and is born with the Pati­ent, it is incurable: if it come by accident, it may be curable.

Hearing diminished is called Barucoia, thickness of hearing.Thickness of Hearing. Noise in the Ears. Their Cause

Hearing depraved consists in a noise and ringings or buzzings in the Ear; tis called Paracousis.

The Causes of Deafness and Thickness of Hearing are the same, save that they differ in Intension and Remission: and therefore the foresaid Diseases of the Audi­tory passage and of the Drum may cause these Symptomes.

Paracousis or Noise in the Ears springs from a distemper of the drum, being more moist or more dry than is fitting: which, as it causes a more exquisite sence than or­dinary, so also does it cause a ringing in the Ear, as being affected with the very lightest motion of the internal implanted, or external Air, of while the spirits do continually flow into the Ears; which cannot be conteined in so close a Room▪ of some Spirit may stir it self within the Dug-like Cavity.

Several sounds are imagined in the Ears according to the various motion and mode of the flatulent Spirit which causes the same. So that if it be thick, whi­sperings are heard and Hummings▪ if thin, Hissings: and when it moves by fits and starts, it presents a tinkling, as it were of bells.

Somtimes noises are imagined without any fault of the internal Eare, by consent of the Head, whiles the internal and external Arteries being hotter than ordinary, do beat more violently than they are wont to do, and do make a great sound in the Ears, if the Patient do lie upon one of them.

The differences and Causes of this seeming Noise in the Ears, are neatly expressed by Fernelius in his Pathologia.

In natural Deafness, springing from mis-formation in the Womb, and not fromTheir Cn [...] any of the Causes aforesaid: whether may we experiment that which fel out unex­pectedly [Page 194] wel to a certain Deafe man: who thrusting an Ear-Picker very far into his Ear, rent the Drum and Break asunder the smal bones and afterwards, attained hearing?

Whether in a ringing of the Ear may the teat like Process be perforated, to let out the Spirits which make a tumult in that Cavity?

Whether does the thickness of the Tympanum hinder Transpiration? so that the flatulent Spirits cannot break out? whether or no wil it avail to rub the extremi­ty of the Auditory Channel, behind the Grinding-Teeth, with Mustard of some other opening Liquor?

The Irregulary of Excrements in the Ear, is not only of Cholerick and WheyishSymptomes of the Excre­ments. Excretion of blood Choler serum, quittor &c. Humors, but also of quitter and blood, proceeding from the brain: neither is so great a quantity of quittor as is avoided, bred in the Cavities, but in the Brain.

If an intollerable inflamatory and pulsatory pain does occupy the hinder parts of the head, and the matter flows thither and there stops, the pain abiding: it wil be safe to boar an hole in the hinder part of the Head, that Egress may be given to the quittor; when no great danger is like to follow from the said operation.

The Ear-Worms termed Eblai, which are voided from the Ears, belong to theWorms. Irregularity of things voided from these parts.

It is good in Children for the internal and external Parts of their Ears to run and void much Humor, because it purges their Brain and prevents great Dis­eases.

There is in Diseases observed a great Sympathy between the Eares, Mouth, Lungs and Wesand: and therefore when the Ears are hurt, the voyce is changed, by reason of the Auditory Nerve, which being spread into the Throat, reaches as far as the Wesand or Wind-Pipes Head.

And when Nature has been accustomed to Purge out the Excrements of the Brain, by the Ears: the stoppage of that Purgation, has made many to die sud­denly.

Chap. 5. Of the Face and outside of the Mouth.

THe Face is the broad and fore part of the head, comprehending the Fore-HeadThe Face des­cribed. in a living and dead Man without dissection; and therefore the a Fore-Head, b Eyes, c Nose, and Mouth with its d Lips, as far as the Chin, do belong unto the Face: which, as it is the subject of Anatomical dissection, is divided into the Parts internal and external.

The External Parts are the Scarf-Skin and the Skin, which are thin and veryIts Paris. smooth in Women. The internal Parts, are the Muscles of the e Nose, f Lips, and inferior jaw, whose empty Spaces are filled up with fat.

Moreover the Musculus Latissimus, does cover the side of the Face, as far as the Fore-Head; yea and it compasses the whol Neck, excepting the hinder Part thereof.

The Muscles of the Lips, are the Extremities of the Mouth: the other Muscles which belong to the lower Jaw, as the a Temperal Muscle, the Muscle called b Masseter, possessing the sides of the Face, shal be explained in our History of the Muscles.

The Mouth therefore is a Slit in the Skin of the Face, necessary for breathing,The Mouth described. speech, and nourishment of the body: for by the Mouth we breath, speak and re­ceive our Food.

The extremities of this Slit art termed c Lips which are moved by Muscles in theirThe Lips. opening and shutting.

The utmost bound of the Face is called the d Chin, as the upper extremi­tyThe Chin. thereof from the Eye-Brows to the beginning of the Hairs is termed the e Fore-Head.

[Page 195]The sides of the Face are the f Cheeks. The internal Parts of the Mouth, as theThe Cheeks. g Teeth, Gums, h Palate, i Throat, k Tongue, shal be described in order. The l Larynx m Os Hyoides, n Pharynx, and the o Glandules, appertain unto the Neck.

The Face, besides Veins and Arteries has a notable p Nerve from the third pair,The Vissels. which is carryed along between two q boney plates, under the pavement of the Orbita or Socket of the Eye, and is branched up and down like a Gooses Foot, through the whol Face, by the Nose, as far as the Lips.830 831

The Medicinal Consideration.

The Skin of the Face, is the Looking-Glass wherein are seen the Diseases of theDiseases of the Face. Body, especially of the Liver, Spleen and Lungs: for look what Humor bears sway in the bowels, the same shews it self forth in the Face. If there be a lasting Ruddyness in the Cheeks, it is a Sign of an hot Liver: if the Redness be seated upon upon the balls above the Cheeks, it argues an hot distemper of the Lungs. If Choler stick in the pores of the Skin, it causes Freckles: if the Color proceed fromSunburning. The Rose. being in the Sun, it is termed Ephelis. If Redness remain setled on a great Part of the Face, it is named Gutta Rosacea, and those who are spotted on that manner are termed Antirhoei.

Palenes is commonly seen in Virgins and such as are recovered out of some Sick­ness.Green-Sickness

The Green-Sickness, is a slow Feaver in Virgins and other young Women that want their Courses.

In such as are sickly and crasie, the Color of the Face is without blood because the whol Mass of blood is Wheyish, and therefore the blood of the Face being such, must needs be of an Wheyish Color. Those that are so affected, are called Lip­haemoi, blood-les. A bad Color of the Face, both in Sick and sound persons, is termed Cacochroia

Furthermore, the Face is made rough and deformed by burning Pustles, Ionthi, Vari, Fici, Naevi, and Spilloi.

An hard Push is called Ionthos, because it represents a branch of the flowringIonthos. Violet.

Varus is an harder knob, and not so red and fiery as the Ionthos, Ficus is a cer­tainVarus. Wart.

Lichen, Impetigo or Darta, is a roughness or Scaly Eminence of the Skin, if itLichen. be dry; if it be moist, it Exulcerates and runs.

Naevi, Warts, are smooth knobs white or blewish: which if they be of aWarts. bad Color, they must not be tampered with, least some worse and can­cerous disposition follow: and Seneca saies that a face without Warts or moles is not pleasing.

It is a wonderful thing how these Warts of the Face do produce others in divers Parts of the body, which answer the measure of the Face as far as the Neck. Of which subject Ludovicus Septalius has composed a most Elegant Book.

Black and blew Color in the Skin of the Face, proceeding from a bruise, is cal­ledHypopium. Hypopium.

Spilloi are Sooty Excrements of the Skin, intruded into the pores thereof, whichSpilloi. [Page 196] are pulled out, either by a pin, or by squeesing the Skin, or by some emollient Me­dicament or Pomatum, if they be hard and thick.

Pani, are scarrs in the Face.Pani Mentagra.

Mentagra, an Impetigo or Dry-Scab of the Chin, which troubled the Gentle­men of Rome in Plinnies time, where it was a Popular Disease: is a Malignant Scab, which remaines many years and is hardly curable, and to alters the Skin of the Chin and Lips, that a Man continues Beard-les al his Life long.

The Action of the Skin of the Face being hurt is termed Cynicus Spasmus, TheCynicus spas­mus. Dog-like Convulsion, or torture of the Mouth expressing the snarling of a Dog: for it is a depraved motion of the Muscles of the Face, belonging to a Pal [...]e or Con­vulsion.

It is be Paralytick the Retraction is made in the sound Part, because of the disso­lution of the opposite Parts: If it be convulsive, the Part affected is drawn back: Those Nerves which are affected in this Symptome, do arise from the spinal Marrow between the second and third Vertebra of the Neck.

Galen attributed this depraved motion of the Mouth to the Muscle termed Latis­simus.

Besides the Cynicus Spasmus, there is another Convulsion very ordinary, of the upper Lip towards the Eye, by the disorder of that same Nerve of the third pair described above, which being cut a sunder, below the Socket of the Eye, the said Convulsion is healed.

The particular medicining of the Face besides the universal, is twofold, the one called Commotice painting and plastering with Fucuses &c. The other Cosmetice Painting Beautifying beautyfing and adorning without any thing laid on: the latter Galen allowes to take away the ill favouredness of Women: but the former, he disallows in a Physitian, and leaves it to panders, bawds and Whores

The Use of those Fucuses, unless skilfully mannaged does quickly wrinkle the Skin, such as are the Spanish- White, and Purpurissus or Lovly-Red.

The Diseases of the Lips are very many, distempers, Inflamation, Swelling, Ul­cers,The use of the Lips. and others consisting in evil conformation, al which pervert the use and action of the Lips which serve to shut the Mouth, form the speech and for the easie recepti­on of meat and drink, to contein the Tongue within the Mouth, to cast forth the Spittle out of the Mouth, for Trumpeters to make a strong blast, for Infants to Suck with, and both in Men and Women to express their mutual Affection by Kis­sing,Diseases of the Lips. and to beautifie their Faces: and therefore if a Mans Lips were cut of, he would appear very deformed, just like a snarling Dog.

Such as have great Lips and sticking out, are called Labeones: such as are bornIn their Shape with imperfect or cloven Lips, are said to have an Hares Lip: this defect is amended by Surgery. If the Lips be loose and hanging, it proceeds from a Palsie. He that has the insides of his Lips turned outwards is termed Brochus: and he that has swelling Lips is called Cheilo. Those are by Arnobius termed Mentones, whose Chins stick out.

The Chops of the Lips are called Rhagades. Somtimes Tumors and little blad­dersChops Tumors break out upon the Lips, especially in Feavers, when Nature drives the virul­ent Humor out of the Veins and Arteries into the Lips, which Avicen saies is a good sign, that the Feaver wil quickly cease: and experience does many times confirms the same. Yet somtimes Tumors and Ulcers in the Lips are in Diseases signes ofƲlcers Death, as in the two Brothers Hermoptolemus and Andreas in Hippocrates.

Bad Color of the Lips in Diseases is no good sign: in such as are wel, it argues aBad Color fault in the Lungs or in the blood.

`Moles and Warts black and blew and Scirrhous sticking upon the Lips, areMoles and Warts. &c. things to be warily handled, and not to be tampered with by way of Incision.

Somtimes the Lips do naturally Swel, especially the lower Lip, when the Jaw is drawn out, and then the lower Teeth before are higher than the upper, and include them.

[Page 197]The principal hurt of the action of the Lips, is depraved Speech. But this Symptome wants a Name.Symptomes

The depraved trembling motion of the Lips, happens by consent of the StomachTrembling distempered, by reason of a Membrane common to the Lips and Stomach. Whence it is that those who are ready to vomit, have a trembling in their nether Lip: which trembling is called Seismos.

The opening of the Mouth is hurt, when the Jaw is become stif and immovable:Shutting its shutting is hurt when the Jaw is Palsied, as in Feavers, by reason of the Heat of the bowels and Lungs, and difficulty of breathing.

Much spawling, and want of Spittle, do belong to the Diseases of the Mouth,Frequent spit­ting. though they have other remote Causes: for Spittle is necessary for chewing of meat, for speech and Tasting; but immoderate Spittle is hurtful, and the voidance there­of is accounted filthy and undecent. Touching the Cure of Lips cut of, Taliaco­tius has written.

Chap. 6. Of the Nose.

THe Nose, the Instrument of Smelling and of clensing the brain, is placed in theThe Noses Scit­uation. middest of the Face; dividing the Eyes and Face into two even Parts.

The length and breadth thereof is uncomly, if it exceed a Mans Thumb in length and thickness.Magnitude

The Figure of a Mans Nose contributes much to his healthy living: for an highShape Nose is better than a flat Nose, and wide Nostrils are to be preferred before narrow ones.

It is divided into two a Cavities, which are called Nostrils severed by a partition,Cavities and reaching as high as the Colander-bone.

The Depth and Widness of the Nose, are greater within than they appear out­wardly: for that same space which lies between the two tables or boards of the Pa­late and Os Sphenoides, divided into two Cavities by the Os Vomeris, reaching to the Partition of the Nostrils, belongs unto the Nose.

That space is filled up with Spungy Bones, which are portions of the Colander­bone.Spungy Bones Spungy Car­uncles. And those▪ Spungy bones are filled with Spungy bits of Flesh, which drink up the Flegm which flows from the Head, that Snevil might not be alwaies drop­ping out of the Nose.

These bones and Caruncles or Spungy bits of flesh do likewise serve to Filtrate and strain the Air, which, the Mouth being shut, is drawn in at the Nostrils, that it may be imparted pure unto the Lungs and brain.

The Nose therefore is compounded of bones, Gristles, Membranes and Muscles.Bones

It consists of b Two Bones, which stick outwards and fashion the same. Five Gristies Gristles are dependant upon those bones, two being lateral placed by turnes, and movable through the help of Muscles. They are termed Pinnae and Alae Nasi the Wings and Pinnacles of the Nose. There is a Gristle placed between them, which is called Septum, the partition, and it depends upon that same boney a partition, placed between the bones of the Nose, being a continuation of Os Vomeris.

The Nose is cloathed externally with the Cuticula and Cutis under which lie theMembrane Muscles b Muscles. The inner Parts of the Nose are invested with a Membrane sprinkled with fleshy Fibres, by the help of which, the Pinnacles of the Nose are contracted, when the breath is strongly drawn in; as the said Pinnacles are widened by other external Muscles, the description whereof you shal find in my History of the Mus­cles. Book the 5.

To the Nose do belong, the Seive like plate of the Colander bone, and the Ma­millary or Teat-like Productions ending at these bones, and given out to be the Organs or Instruments of Smelling.

Some would doubt whither those Caruncles or little bits of Flesh which are thrust into the Spungy bones, are the proper Instruments of smelling, or only some [Page 198] way subservient thereunto; because when they are overmoistened, or by any Dis­eases impaired, the smelling is depraved, or wholly lost.836 837

The Medicinal Consideration.

The Gristly Parts of the Nose, are Inflamed, Bruised, and Ʋlcerated; theDiseases of the whole Nose. hony Parts are broken; al of them are troubled with distempers, but especially with organick Diseases springing from a bad Conformation, as when the Nose is crooked inwards like a saddle; which is oftimes caused by external Causes: but if a Child be born with a Saddle-Nose, it may be then raised and rectified. For as Plato reports in his Alcibiades, if the King of Persia had a Daughter so born; they did thrust Pipes into the Childs Nose, and reduce it by little and little to its right shape, by widening the bones and Gristles, whiles they were yet Waxy and pliable.

An over great and high Nose, cannot be cut shorter without making the party more deformed. If in persons grown up the Nose be Swelled with Tuberous Ex­crescencies of Flesh; that fault may be mended by cutting of the said luxuriating Flesh.

The inside of the Nose is apt to Swel, and is infested with Inflamatory bunches,Of the inside Tubercula Ozena which come to suppuration: but far within in the Spungy bones and their Caruncles, there is bred a filthy stinking Ulcer called Ozaena, which is offensive both to the Pa­tients and al that come near them, and is very hard to cure. Somtimes the little bones are corrupted and come out at the Nostrils. The Caruncles being swelled with or without an Ulcer, cause the Polypus, which fals into the Nostrils, or it filsPolypus the hollow places above the Palate, reaching as far as the Throat.

The Polipus is neatly discribed by Celsus in his sixt Book, Chapter the eight. Unless it be of a Malignant Color and painful, it may safely be cut away by the Roots, if possible, which is the true▪ Cure, for otherwise it wil grow again, if any Part be left remaining after section.

A Malignant Cancerous Polypus must not be medled withaleither by cutting, burning, or caustick Medicaments, for if it be exasperated it eates and devours the whol Face.

Symptomes of the Nose are either its action hurt, or simple affections thereof,Symptomes of the Nostrils. Smelling lost or the Irregulary of what is voided forth. The action of the Nose is Smelling, which is abolished, diminished or depraved. The Causes of the smel diminished or abolished, are the same, to wit, the obstruction of the inward passages of the Colander-bones and the Mammillary productions, in which the [...]melling is exercised.Diminished. If the foremost Ventricles be stopped, other parts of the Nose remaining intire, it is known by the perfection of speech, which shews that the Colander and Spungy bones with the Mammillary Productions, are free.

The Smelling is depraved, when al things seem to stink, and when the Patientdepraved. perceives a stink in his Nose, which is likewise discerned by the standers by. The true Cause of this Symptome, is a putrified Humor congealed in those Cavities. If the Putrefaction be within the Scul, the stink is not perceived by the Patient, but is discerned by those which converse with him, as Fernelius judiciously ob­serves.

Simple affections of the external Nose, are spors which are black and blew or red,Spots and deforme the same. They must be taken away, or corrected with some Fucus, if there be no other Remedy.

The Irregularity of Excretions, consists in Bleeding at the Nose, and in aNose-bleeding Coryza Flux of Serosities therefrom, which causes the Coryza or Grauedo, or a continual Nose-dropping. Hippocrates in his sixt Book of Aphorismes saies, Such as have running Noses, are unhealthy.

[Page 199]In bleeding at the Nose, the blood either comes from the Nostrils opened byCause of Nose­bleeding. picking, or from that same long Cavity of the Dura Mater, which reaches unto the Nostrils: if the Veins be opened by the sharpness of the blood or the abudance thereof, after it has flowed a while, it must be stopped by opening a Vein in the Arm, unless the blood flow critically.

Fernelius would have al bleedings at the Nose to be stopped, be they what they wil, and would have a Vein opened to that end, contrary to the Doctrine of Hip­pocrates. Blood coming from the inner Parts of the Nose may be stopped: but it is very hard to stop the same when it comes from the Menings or Coates of the Brain.

Dropping of blood from the Nose in burning and Malignant Feavers, is bad, bothIts Cure. as a Cause and a signe: because it does not ease the Patient, and it shews a Plenitude in the brain, and that nature being weak is not able to disburthen herself. In such a case, great care is to be taken of the head by Revulsion, and Derivation of the blood, and by cooling of the Head, for fear of Inflamation or some Sleepy Disease.

If bleeding at the Nose be stopped in young people accustomed thereunto, and their brains Ake through fullness, they must be let blood.

The Ancients did open the inward Veins of the Nose, which Practice is left off, because the way they did it, is to us unknown.

Fernelius writes that Wormes as long as ones Finger have been found in Saddle-Noses, being there bred▪ which at last made the Patients mad and killed them: those Wormes were thought to have been cast out of the brain, where as indeed they were born and bred in the Cavities of the Nose. For Wormes bred in the Ventri­cles of the brain, cannot come out, unless they should eat a sunder or break the Sieve-like table of the Colander-bone.

That which Fernelius has written, is worthy of consideration in reference to Diseases of the Head. That in Nose-bleedings, the blood comes out not from the brain, but out of the Veins of the Nostrils. The Veins (saith he) do run into the Nose not from the inner Parts of the brain, but out of the Cavities of the Mouth and Palate, which are wide and open enough, so as they seem to be the Emissaries of superfluovs blood; Even as the Haernorrhoid Veins, and those which belong to the Neck of the Womb. Wherefore the brain being burthened with blood is not eased, if the blood flow not from the Cavities of Dura Mater. But I beleive it flowes out of the brain. And Galen and Areteus do write, that the Veins within the Nostrils, beneath the Colander-bone, may be opened by Art.

Sneezing may be said to belong unto the Nostrils, because they being vexed doSneezing cause Sneezing. Also Sneezing is referred to Diseases of the Head, and especially to the Epilepsie or Falling-Sickness, because it is a momentany Concussion or Convulsion of the brain. So saies Hippocrates in the seventh Book of his Aphoris­mes. It is caused by heating or moistning of what is contained in the Ventricles of the brain.

Chap. 7. Of the Neck.

THat Part which is interposed between the Head and the Chest, is termedThe Necks use Collum, and Neck: ordained for the Service of the Wind-Pipe and Lungs, and as a Pillar to sustain the Head upon.

It ought to be of an indifferent length, that it may be healthy and useful for theIts Length. body: because a Neck too short consisting of but six Vertebraes, by reason of the shortness of those Vessels which are carryed into the Head, is liable to the Apoplexy or Sleepy Diseases; and a Neck too long containing eight Vertebraes, does at length bring a Consumption: because the Lungs being shut up in so strait a place do by little and little Wax overhot, and wither away by degrees.

The Neck is made up of divers Parts, which are divided into Conteining andIts Parts. Conteined. The Conteining are common or proper, the contained are manyfold.

[Page 200]There are reckoned two common containing Parts, the Scarf-Skin and the Skin. The containing proper Membrane is its Coat viz. The Musculus Latus, which seems to be a Propagation of the Membrana Carnosa.

The Parts contained are manyfold viz. The Muscles of the a Head, of the b Neck of the c Os Hyoides, of the d Tongue, of the e Larynx and he f Pharynx; which being orderly dissected and taken away there comes in view the g Larynx, the h Os Hyoides, the Pharynx, the i Tongue, the k Kernels, The l [...]our jugulars, the two m Carotick Arteries, A Nerve of the n [...]ixt Conjugation both descending and Recurrent, the Cervical o Veins and p Arteries; and the greater number of the [...]e Parts, is placed in the foreside of the Neck: in the hinder Part thereof are the q Vertebraes, and the hinder r Muscles ordained to move the Head and Neck.

I wil reserve the Explication of the Muscles to my Myöl [...]gia or History of Mus­cles, where the Reader may look, if he denre to know the Muscles of every Part.

But you must diligently observe the Kernels placed upon the a Cartilago Thu­roides or Door fashiond Gristle, which are larger in Women than in Men. In this order therefore you shal search for the Parts of the Neck, and separate them if you can one from another, or take them out.

And first of al, the Musculus Latissimus being taken away, you shal search diligent­forIts Vessels. the Nerve of the b Sixt pair, placed between the internal jugular Vein and the Carotick Arteries. The c Internal Jugular has little values or shutters near the Claves, but the d external Jugular has none.

The Carotick Artery at its entrance into the Skul, has two very smal thin bones, which hinder and keep back the Arterial blood, when it would flow in too vio­lently.

The Nerves of the sixt Pair being both of them tied in a living Dog, he cannot bark having lost his voyce, if one only be tied, he barks but faintly and by halves: which is diligently to be observed.

Then you shal consider the Os f Hyoides, how it is suspended with strong bandsOs Hyoides. and firmly fastened to the Apophyses g Styloides; how it sustaines the Larynx, the Epiglottis and the Tongue. For the Cartilago h Thyroides, is by its Hornes an­nexeded to the Os Hyoides.

And therefore the Os Hyoides is the Foundation of those Parts, and yet is it moveable in swallowing: and Rondeletius saw one taken Speechles as in a Palsie, by reason of the dissolution of the Reluctancy of the Muscles of Os Hyoides. Which is a thing to be observed in that bone.

Besides those Kernels resting upon the Cartilago Thuroides, there are other lit­tleKernels. ones, placed al along the internal jugular and orderly disposed, into which the brain disburthens it self.

Under the lower Jaw, in the upper and foremer Part of the Neck, are seen two other Kernels, which do often swel, and in them the Kings-Evil is bred.

At the Root of the Tongue are the a Tonsillae, termed Antiades; certain Kernels so called. Whose pain and swelling are by Ʋlpian termed Antiagri.

Al these Kernels are diligently to be considered in Fl [...]ions which happen in the Neck, whether they be the Scrophulae Kings Evil or Bronchacele. 863

The Medicinal Consideration.

The Neck is subiect to Similar Diseases arising from distemper, and to DiseasesSimilar Dis­eases of the Neck. The Organi­cal Diseases. as Bronchocele. Organical, consisting in bad Conformation: if it be too long, or too short, or the Vertebraes thereof be out of Joynt, especially the second; in Magnitude, if it be swelled, as in the Bronchocele, Kings-Evil and Squinsie.

Bronchocele is a Swelling in the Neck, near the Larynx, arising from an humor collected in that place, or from the Kernel of the Cartilago Thuroides being longer than ordinary and producing superfluous flesh; or it is an Impostum proceeding from the Tumor Atheroma or Steatoma, or it is a Dropsie. Bronchocele does not proceed, as many have imagined, from immoderate Clamors and Cryings out, or by drinking of melted Snow, as the fashion is among the Inhabitants of the Alpes or other high Mountaines; but from thick and clammmy Flegm, which slides thi­ther by bittle and little out of the Head and the external Parts thereof, down behind the Eares. Which is the Judgment of Fernelius.

It may be questioned, whether the matter be contained between the Musculus latus and the Skin, or whether it lie al concealed under the Musculus Latus. For if the matter be collected there, it cannot be drawn out, because it is crept in be­tween the spaces of the Muscles.

If it lie outward to the sight, it may be rooted out and cured. It is wont to begin with a wind, which distends and separates the Skin from the Membrana Carnosa: or the Musculus Latus it self, is separated from the Parts which lie be­neath the same.

Into the which space the matter flows by degrees, which differs according to the various temperament and Constitution of the Patients.

It grows by little and little, and receives nourishment, not by the Veins, but by certain little Pipes which Nature creates.

Bronchocele differs very much from the Kings-Evil-Swellings, which rise un­derKings-Evil the Jaw and in the Neck, of a rounder shape, distinct one from another, or clustered together. They spring from a Flegmatick clammy matter, which drenches the Kernels and makes them swel; and therefore look where there are Kernels, there the swellings arise.

Scirrhous Tumors have in them somwhat of the Nature of the Kings-Evil-Swellings, which makes them suspected. They happen under the Jaws, in the Groins, behind the Ears, and in al Parts of the Body where there are Glandules or Kernels. And somtimes in certain places of the Body, a portion of Fat grows hard and makes a Scirrhous Tumor and somtime the Kings-Evil.

The Tumor Gongroni is mustered among the external swellings ofGongrone. the Neck. It is cau [...]ed by an Humor, not so thick as that in the Kings-Evil, or Bronchocele.

Angina the squinsie, is a Tumor of the Neck either internal or external: or anSquinzie. internal or external inflamation of the Neck.

The external is properly called Synanche, the Internal is termed Cynanche. Galen conceives that this distinction of Names is vain and of no use in Practice. But I account the same necessary. For although general Medicines do serve for both, yet in Cynanche where the Patient can neither fetch breath nor speak, the danger is greater: and therefore Medicines are to be speeded with al hast possible: yea and the Wind-Pipe must be opened ere twenty four hours are past, that the Patient may by that means receive breath, til such time as the upper Part of the Larynx be unstopped. For in that kind o [...] Squinsie, where no outward swelling appears, the Larynx alone is inflamed and obstructed. In other Squinsies the Circumja­cent Muscles of other Parts are affected: In the Cynanche, the Fluxion is in the Arytaenois and the Glottis, and in other Musculous Carnosities of the Larynx, by which means the passage of the Larynx is stopped, and death follows unvoidably, [Page 202] for though there is some little passage left for Liquors, yet no man can live without fetching his breath.

A Leek thrust into the Throat, with some sharp biting Powder sprinkled upon it may do good, as also some strong drawing Medicine or a Vesicatory applied to the Larynx, and Scarifications made here and there about the Larynx. Touching the Squinsie, read Hippocrates in the 27. and 34. Aphorismes of his sixt Book. In the third Book of his Prognosticks, And in the 49. Aphorisme of his seventh Book.

Chap. 8. Of the Teeth and Gums.

I Return now unto the inner Parts of the Mouth which are there conteined, and may be seen with the Eyes, such as are the Teeth, Gums, Palate, Ʋvula and Tongue, of which in order.

I wil begin with the Teeth, the Instruments of Chewing and of speaking; foruse of the Teeth. those that are Tooth-les cannot wel chew and grind their Meat, neither can they pronounce their words clear and plain as they ought to do.

There is a twofold consideration of the Teeth; as they are in Infants, til they are two or three years Old, and as they are in persons of riper years.

In Infants they break out by Course, first the Cutters, then the Dog-Teeth, afterCondition of the Teeth in Infants. them the Grinders, and they have but twenty til they are three years Old, at which time the rest break forth.

These first Teeth are called Dentes Lactei, the milk Teeth, which have under them another branch, which wil shoot forth another Tooth, if the first be pluckt out, or come out of it self.

There are two seasons observed in which Children are most tormented with Tooth-breeding: the one is when they first sprout within the Gum, the other is when they break out of the Gum. And under the Term of Tooth-breeding Hip­pocrates does in a manner comprehend al Childrens Diseases, because Children are troubled with many Diseases upon that account, springing from the pain of Teeth­breeding, and bringing them to their Graves.

In Persons grown up the Teeth are distributed into two ranks or a rows, accor­dingIn grown Per­sons. to the two Jaws in which they are fixed. In each Jaw are reckoned fifteen or sixteen Teeth, and they are of three sorts. The first four placed in the forepart of the Jaw, are called b Cutters: next them on either side, are the two c Dog-Teeth, and after them on each side five Grinders. They are immovably fastened in their Holes called Alveoli, by that kind of Articulation which is termed Gom­phosis.

They are bound and fastened both by their proper Ligaments and by the Gums.

They recive Nerves, Veins and Arteries within their Roots, which are hollow,Their Vessels. and therefore they are pained more than any other of the bones. The external and bare Part of the Tooth, is termed its Basis, the internal which is covered, is called the Root, which is double or triple.867

The Medicinal Consideration.

Tooth-Sicknesses of Infants, have two times in which they are wont to tormentDiseases of the Teeth in Infants. and kil. The first is when the Tooth first sprouts within the Gum, which is called Odaxismos, which causes the Gums to Swel and be inflamed, brings Feavers, con­tinual Vomiting and Loosness: the other is the time of the breaking forth of the Tooth, which is called Odontophua, and then the poor Infants are most of al vexed and tormented with pains.

[Page 203]The teeth of grown Persons are troubled with divers Diseases, as Distempers, Dry­ness In grown per­sons. through Age, and Loosness; with Organick Diseases in Number Deficient, when they fal out; or in Number exceeding, when there are two or three rows of Teeth: or when there is but one Bone, in the place of so many Teeth.

In Magnitude exceeding or deficient, as when there be long gag Teeth, that go out of their Rank, or when the Teeth are too little and worn away.

In Scituation, when they stand not close together, or when the lower Teeth are not just against the upper, or when the upper Teeth fal within the lower, or when Teeth grow in the Palate of the Mouth.

Diseases common are, when the Teeth Scale and moulder away with rotteness,Symptomes of the Teeth are. Setting on edge Tooth-ach. or when they are broken.

Symptomes of the Teeth, are the hurting of the proper and peculiar feeling of the Teeth, which is called Haemodia, Setting of the Teeth on Edge; or the hurting of the common feeling of the Teeth, which causes the Tooth Ach, which is termed Odontalgia or Odontagra for the likness it has to pains of the Gout. Pain of the Teeth is reckoned among the greatest torments which are in the world, although a Tooth be so smal a Part. Celsus Book the sixt Chap. 9.

Simple Affections of the Teeth are Blackness, Rustyness and a clammy gluish­ness (which Hippocrates counts the sign of a strong Feaver) also a stony Crust which grows upon them.

Symptomes in the Irregularity of things voided, are, A Stinking of the Teeth,Stinking. Excrescence. Worms. Bleeding. an excrescence and Worms, which are bred within the Cavities of the Teeth, or a flux of blood immoderately flowing, after the drawing of a Tooth, which is som­times a cause of Death. See Duretus in his Comments upon the Coicks of Hippo­crates, where he explains what is the grinding of the Teeth in Diseases.

Dryness of the Teeth in Sick people, foretels a Convulsion or Madness.

It is worth the enquiry. Whether into the plaee of a Tooth drawn out, anotherWhether a Tooth may be fastened in the place of one drawn out? may be thrust in at the same moment, and fixed in the Room thereof, so as to stick fast and be cloathed with the Gums flesh, and to abide and serve to chew the Meat with the other Teeth?

He that shal consider that the Teeth have Life, do receive Veins, Arteries and Nerves; do feel, are pained; and firmly tied and fastened with certain bands into the Gums: wil never say that a strang Tooth, thrust into the place of one pluckt out, can be made so like to the other Teeth, as to perform the same Office with them and stick there as long as they shal do. Yet some Physitians in favour of a Norman Tooth-drawer, would perswade Men that it is possible to substi­tute such a Tooth, and they have upbraided me with Incredulity and Ignorance, because I am not of their mind.

You are to consider the holes in the upper and lower Jaw-bone, through which are drawn the Nerves Veins and Arteries, which are inserted into the Roots of the Teeth.

In the upper Jaw there creeps an Artery which running towards the Eare, is there burnt, or seared up, and to that place and upon the Temples, an astringent plaster is laid to stop the Veins by which the Flux of Rheum does come.

There creeps an Artery in the Lower Jaw near the Corner, which is to be seared where it beates, or topicks are to be laid thereupon, to ease the Tooth-Ach of the lower Jaw.

Somtimes a bony Fungus or Spungy substance grows out of the hole of a Tooth,How the Spun­gy excrescence is taken out of the Tooth-hole. and comes to be so big as to fil the Patients Mouth, and at length to choak him, if prevention be not used, by cutting off the said excrescence and burning the Root thereof.

You shal observe that the brain hurts the Teeth by Distillation of Rheum, the Stomach hurts them by Fumigation or raising fumes and steems which annoy them: and that the Lungs likewise do in some Measure dammage the Teeth.

That there is a Regeneration of the Teeth, and that Teeth grow out in every AgeWhether Teeth do breed in al Ages? of Man, is most certain: yet must we not rely upon this Regeneration of Teeth, [Page 204] so as certainly to make account thereof, and expect it after seven years are over.

To Clense the Teeth you shal find an Admirable Water, in the 96. Counsel of Fernelius

Chap. 9. Of the Gums.

THe Gums are certain parcels of Flesh folded about the Teeth, which cover theThe natural Constitution of the Gums. Preternatural. holes of the Teeth within and without: but without they are wider and more swelling. When this Flesh of the Gums grows Proud and covers the Teeth more than it should, it causes pain and hinders Chewing, also the Loosness of the said Flesh is troublesome, because it makes the Teeth to become loose.

Inflamation of the Gums is called Parulis: if the Flesh grow from an Ulcer, itsParulis. Epulis. Cancer. termed Epulis. Somtimes the Gums are Cancerated, and somtimes they bleed immoderately.

The Gums are Eaten up by Ulcers called Aphthae: in the Scurvy (which the Old Physitians called Stomachache and Oscedo) the Ulcers of the Gums are Ma­lignant.

Somtimes these Aphthae or Ulcers of the Gums are so Malignant, that they eateApthae. into the Tongue, Ʋvula, and Tonsillae, without suspition of the Venereal Pox. such are described by Aretaeus, and such appear in that strangling Spanish Disease, which the Spanjards cal Garotillo, and which is common to the inhabitants of Nap­les (who cal it Ʋlcus Syrianum Faucium) perhaps by reason of their Commerce with the Spanjards, who are much subject to the Kings-Evil: and therefore the Malignant Humor of the Kings-Evil does Produce such Symptomes in the Mouth and Jaws.

Chap. 10. Of the Palate.

THe Palate is the a Vaulted Roofe of the Mouth, which is a very thin bone,The structure of the Palate. cloathed with a b Nervous Skin, which is wrinkled, by reason of the Crevesses which are ingraven in the bone: and therefore it sticks very hard to the bone, which has no Periostium▪

This most tender bone does many times become rotten in the Whores-Pocks,Its Rottenness. the Palate being boared through (if care be not taken in time) whether the infecti­on be lodged in the Mouth, or within the Nose: which Hole so boared does much hinder the Patient in chewing of Meat and in speaking unless it be stopped with a plate, Cotton, or Spunge.

Chap. 11. Of the Uvula and Isthmus.

AT the inner part or further part of the c Palate hangs the d Gargareon orThe Ʋse of the Ʋvula. Ʋvula, a Fleshy Particle, which is given to mankind to help his speech, and to some birds which imitate the speech of Man: it hangs therefore at the farthest end of the Palate, to help our speech, being that to the voyce, which the Quil is to the Musical Instrument, whose strings are struck therewith. It is therefore called the striker bp Paulus Aegineta in the 51. Chapter of his sixt Book.

It hinders liquid things from running back into the Nostrils, and it purifies the Air which enters into the Wind-Pipe. Therefore such as have no Ʋvula, are hoarse in speaking, part of what they drink runs into their Nose, and because of the impurity of the Air which they draw into their Lungs, they fal into a Con­sumption.

It has a Muscles for motion, though it be moved very obscurly or rather suspend­edIts Muscles. [Page 205] in Aequilibrio. Of these Muscles you may read in my History of the Muscles. Lib. 5.

To this Particle are adjoyned certain Lateral Ligaments, which being widenedLigaments. and spred forth by a Defluxion of rheum, they resemble the wings of Bats or Flitter-Mice, and are very troublesome to the Patient. Naturally they ought to be dry, and drawn back toward the Palate bone: they are two, and do include the b Kernels termed Tonsillae.

The Medicinal Consideration.

This Part, viz. The Ʋvula o [...] Gargareon is Inflamed Swelled, Lengthened Its Diseases. Staphyle. Columella. Chalasis. and grows Lank. When it is inflamed it represents a Grape, and is termd Staphyle, if it represent a Pillar, tis called Columella and Chion; if it grow loose and slap by reason of the Rheum, tis called Chalasis Gargareonis; and then it is contracted and drawn back, by sprinckling salt or Peper upon it, whereby the moisture thereof is dried up.

If it hang down too much, part of it is cut away; if the lateral Membranes are re­laxed it is called Imantis by Aretaeus; who elegantly describes the Relaxation ofImantis. those Ligaments in his first Book de Causis Acutorum, Chap. 8. Of the Gargareon read Hippocrates, in his third Progn, sent. 31.

Of the Isthmus.

Isthmus is a place or space between the Larynx and Pharynx, seated in theIsthmus de­fined. Diseases of the Tonsill [...]. Throat, like a Neck of land between two Seas, which is an Isthmus.

The Kernels there placed are called a Antiades and Paristhmia. The swelling of those Kernels is called by the same names by which the Tonsillae are called when they are inflamed. Somtimes they swel and grow to such a great­ness, that they descend into the Throat like two Apples and hinder the Patient from swallowing and fetching breath.

They are often inflamed and Impostumated, and then they must be pricked deep in with a lancet, to let out the blood or quittor, otherwise they choak the Patient. Somtimes they are inflected with Cancerous Tumors, which are incurable.

Chap. 12. Of the Tongue.

THe Tongue, which is the Instrument of tasting speaking and swallowing; isThe Tongues Substance. Number. made up of a b Fleshy and Spungy substance, compassed about with a thin Membrane. Although it seem one, yet is it divided into two Parts, which are so separated, although closly connexed; that one side may have the Palsie and the o­ther be free, and the one side may be discoloured and the other not.

It is placed in the Mouth and throat, born up by the Basis of the c Os Hyoides, Scituation. and tied with a strong band. It was very conveniently thus seated, that it might discover the Diseases which lie hid in the three Cavities of the Body viz. The bel­ly Chest and Head. For it is soaked and tainted with the moist and fuliginous Excrements of those Parts, and has the Color of that Humor which bears most swey in the Body.

And therefore because it is the Instrument of Tast, of speech and of the Mind, it was requisite that it should correspond and communicate with those principal Bo­wels: and therefore as the Urin is in al Diseases lookt upon and examined, so ought the Tongue to be diligently considered. Hippocrates Lib. 6. Epidem: Sect. 3. Text 14.

[Page 206]The Tongue shews what the Urin is: which Galen has confirmed in his Com­mentary upon that place.

The Magnitude of the Tongue is to be considered: for naturally it ought to beMagnitude. as long as a mans middle Finger, but hardly so thick as the said Finger, and not broader than the breath of two Fingers. Such is the natural greatness of the Tongue, that it may be fit to speak with, otherwise a thick, over-long and over­broad Tongue, doth much hinder a mans Speaking.

The a pointed end of the Tongue, which smites against the Teeth, is termed Pro­glossis: Proglossis the broad end which lies hid in the Throat, is called Basis Linguae, the bottome of the Tongue. That it may not run out to far or wander from its bounds, it is retained by a band under neath, which is called Fraenum Linguae, the bridleFraenum of the Tongue.

It has Veins from the Jugular, Arteries from the Carotick. The Veins underIts Vessels. Kernels. the Tongue are called Hypoglottides or Ranulae: and two Kernels placed there are likewise termed Ranulares, in which, grown round and hard, the foundation of the Elephantiasis, a kind of Leprosie, is bred, as appeares by the swelling of the Lips, Pushes of the Face, and thickness of the Tongue.Muscles It has c Nerves for tasting and motion. For though it be of it self Voluble in speak­ing, yet for the more strong motions of chewing, swallowing and spitting, it stands in need of d Muscles, of which you may read in my History of Muscles Lib. 5. 879 880

The Medicinal Consideration.

The Tongue is subject to divers Diseases, Similar, Organick, and common.Diseases of the Tongue. Similar. Organical. For it is liable to al kinds of distempers; to loosness or softness, hardness, Density and Rarity of substance.

It is Organically Diseased, when it is swollen in al its dismensions and cannot be conteined within the Hedg of the Teeth.Common.

It is inflamed, when the Tumor called Batrachium rises under the Tongue, and turnes to an Impostum: out of which being opened, there flowes a substance like the white of an Egg and somtimes true quittor. If it be removed never so little from its place, the Cause is in the Os Hyoides, or in its Muscles, being either Palsied or Convulsed.

It is also Ulcerated by those simple Ulcers termed Aphthae, and somtimes with Malignant Ulcers, which putrifie, Eat and consume the same.Whether its substance wil grow again.

That the substance of the Tongue may grow again is confirmed by many Histories, and that the same being lost, a man is not wholly deprived of speech.

There have been some seen who could speak distinctly enough, so as to be under­stood, without a Tongue. But peradventure they had some Part of their Tongue remaining far within, which with the Glottis and Ʋvula did frame the Speech.Its Symptomes

Symptomes of the Tongue, of the first kind, are two, the Marring of Speech and Tasting. Speech is marred three waies, by Abolition, Imminution and De­pravation.Speech Abolish­ed. Traulotis. Psallotis. Stammering Abolition of Speech is termed Anaudia. Depravation of speech is of two sorts, Traulotis, Psallotis or Balbuties. Traulotis is when the Patient can­not pronounce some one letter, and Psallotis or Psellismos is, when he cannot pro­nounce divers letters. Ischnophonia, Stammering, is a stoppage of the Tongue, so that the Patient cannot proceed in his discourse, but repeats one and the sameTonguetied. letter often over before he can proceed. Anchyloglossos and Mogilalia are when the Tongue is tied either too strait or too loose.Tast Vitiated

There is a threefold marring of the Tast, not distinguished by names: for it is abolished, depraved and diminished.

[Page 207]The depravation of tast happens when the Tongue is filled with some evilTast depraved Humor. So that what ever it tasts is infected with that Humor and tasts thereof. Tast is abolished when the Tongue perceives no tast in any thing.

The motion of the whole Tongue is abolished in the Palsie, diminished when thePalsie of the Tongue. half of the Tongue is Palsied, without any hurt to the Tast.

In a total Palsie of the Tongue, there is great fear that the Patient wil fal into an Apoplexy, though Fernelius saw none to follow: but we must not be too confi­dent, but meet the Disease when it is coming.

In a total Palsie of the Tongue the Patients are dumb: in a Palsie of half the Tongue, they speak untowardly.

A simple affection of the Tongue, is its Color changed, which comes not onlyTongue dis­coloured. from the primary distempers thereof, but cheifly by Sympathy with the Bowels.

There is a certain trembling or wavering of the Tongue observed in Diseases of the Brain, which is a forerunner of the Phrensie, according to Hippocrates in his Coicks.

Chap. 13. Of the Larynx, or Head of the Wind-pipe.

THe Larynx is the Head of the a Aspera Arteria or Wind-pipe, the instrumentThe Larynx. its of modulating our speech, and the Channel by which Air is breathed in and out.

Tis seated in the Forepart of the Neck which is termed the Throat.Scituation

In Men it bunches out more than in Women, for the Women have two Kernels placed thereby, which swel more than they do in men, and so make the Neck even, taking away that same deformed Protuberancy, which is seen in Men.

It consists of five Cartilages or Gristles, whereof the two greatest do make upGristles Thuroides Cricoides. Arytaenoides. Glottis. the Body of the Larynx: the first is called b Thuroides, the second a Cricoides, and those are the two largest and hardest. The third is the b Arytaenoides, which is placed upon the Cricoides and shuts up the Larynx. Within there is observed a fourth, which is called c Glottis, being the principal Instrument of framing the Voyce, which is contracted and dilated with the Arytaenoides: but the Arytae­nois with the Glottis, is so firmly shut, when we draw our Breath in, that it strives against the Muscles of the Throat and Chest which resist the same, to hinder Exspiration or the going out of the breath, by which al the Muscles are loos­ned, and Expulsion ceases from the inferior Parts. Only the Glottis Acts, in the Modulation of our Speech.

And that nothing either solid or Liquid might fal into the Larynx, it has a cover, which is called d Epiglottis. It stands alwaies open for Respiration sake, nor is itEpiglotti [...]. depressed save by the weight of what is eaten and drunk.

The whol Larynx is Moveable by way of Ascent and Descent, through help of Muscles, for to Facilitate our swallowing.Its Moti [...].

Again, two Cartilages or Gristles are moved by themselves viz. The Thyrois and the Arytaenois. The former is widened and contracted, the latter is shut and opened. For those are contrary motions, which are performed by e separated Muscles, which spring from the Cricois an immovable Gristle, which is placed toIts Muscles. fasten the Gristles and Muscles, as a foundation to make the Circle of the Larynx. Touching the Muscles, I shal speak in my Doctrine of Muscles.

The Larynx though it be Gristly, yet in Old Men it becomes boney, and it has been found to be so in some that were to be hanged, whom the Halter could not choak: and not only the Larynx, but also the gristly Channel of the g Aspera Arteria. Either those parts were boney or the Halter way too thick, so that it could not sufficiently force and rend the same.

The Medicinal Consideration.

The Larynx is subject to a distemper, a Tumor and Inflamation, which whenDiseases of [...] Larynx. it happens, it hinders Speech and Breathing and strangles the Patient without any appearance of swelling, without.

Within fifteen or twenty hours it kils a Man, his mind and sences remainingSquinzie. sound and perfect. An Horrid Symptome it is, in which besides general Reme­dies, if Scarrification of the Neck, wil do no good, we must proceed ad Broncho­temiam, viz. To open the Part by Section.

And this Disease is that most Pernicious Angina which Hippocrates make [...] men­tion of: Liquid things penetrate into the Stomach, but al breathing is stopped, and consequently sudden death must needs follow.

The Action of the Larynx is breathing, and the forming of speech and singing.Privation of Speech. Hoarsness. want and dis­ficulty o [...] b [...]ea­thing. Privation of speech is termed Aphonia, the depravation thereof is Raucedo Hoar [...] ­ness: the Imminution thereof is called Ischnophonia.

The Interception of Respiration is termed Apnoia, the Imminution thereof Dyspnoia.

Both these Actions are hurt, either by a proper Disease of the Larynx, or of the neighbouring Parts, or of the Parts remote, especially of the Lungs, from whence the matter of speech is supplied and respiration proceeds. For the Larynx affect­ed, does only stop the waies of breathing.

The Epiglottis has its Diseases; either it is relaxed, or it is too much contractedDiseases of the Epiglottis. and straitned, or it becomes hard, whence proceeds difficulty in swallowing.

Some there are who can more easily Swallow meat than drink, and in such the Epiglottis is become hard and sti [...], so that it wil not be born down save by the weight of solid meat, with which that which is liquid slips along.

When it is become loose and Flaggy by reason of a Catarrh, it cannot be conve­niently raised up; and when it is become straiter and narrower than it ought, it does not exactly shut the Arytenoides: which causes that crumms of bread and some portion of what is drunk, do slip into the Wind-pipe.

Nature has provided against this inconvenience, having by the sides of the Glottis, which is almost alwaies shutting, framed and set certain Cavities, which receive, such portions of meat or drink as slip beside, so that they are cast out again by coughing.889

Chap. 14. Of the Aspera Arteria or Wind-Pide.

IN the Fore-part of the Neck is placed the a Channel of the Aspera Arteria, theƲse of the [...] ­sand. Instrument of speech and breathing, because it brings Air into the Lungs and carries out sooty Vapours; also there the Voice is formed and begins to be Arti­culated.

It consists of many Semi-circular Gristles, which are severed one from another,Its Gristles. and are imperfect behind, not filling up the Circle, by reason of the Oesophagus or Gullet which lies beneath it, being the Channel of Meat and Drink.

The Aspera Arteria or Wind-pipe is lined within by a Membrane,Its Membrane. which is drawn from the Mouth into the inner parts of the Wind-pipe and Oesophagus.

The Medicinal Consideration.

The Pipe of the Aspera Arteria is troubled with an hot or cold distemper, with an Humor flowing from the Brain, whence comes Branchos, Raucedo or Hoars­ness.

The Wind-pipe being wounded is curable and may securely be cut, under theWhether the wouds of the wind-pipe are Curable? Larynx, between two Gristles, in a very choaking Squinsie.

May we not experiment this operation in a choaking s [...]oppage and whe [...]zing with rattling in the Wind-pipe, seeing that it may be as safely practised in this case as in the other? that sweet attenuating and cutting Liquors may be taken or forced in, to cut the Flegm and bring it up, if it be possible, and pain, caused by Chough­ing, hinder no [...]?

Chap. 15. Of the Oesophagus, or Gullet.

THe Oesophagus is the a way for the meat to pass into the Stomach. The be­ginningWhat the Pha­rynx is. thereof is termed Pharynx, which is moved by the help of Muscles, b to thrust or swallow the meat.

It is made up of a proper Fleshy Membrane. Woven together with straight andMembrane of Oesophagus. circular Fibres. It has another internal Tunicle which hath its original from the c Mouth.

Within the Chest, that it may give way to ths Aorta Artery, leaving the Back­bone, it inclines and is wreathed a little towards the right hand.

Two Kernels support that part which is so turned aside, and stay it on eitherIts Kernels. hand, which being drenched and swelled with some Humor, do bring a great Im­pediment to the swallowing.

Oftentimes the end of the Oesophagus which is joyned to the Stomach, and is inObstruction of the Oesophagus. Latin termed d Stomachus, is obstructed by a Tumor either proceeding from Flegm or Melancholy, which turnes at last unto an Ulcer and brings Death▪

Which Disease is known by the hard descent of soild meat into the Stomach, which somtimes staies, and many times is vomited up again.

The End of the Fourth Book.

THE FIFTH BOOK OF THE ANATOMY AND PATHOLOGY OF John Riolanus, THE KINGS PROFESSOR OF PHYSICK.

Chap. 1. Of the Limbs.

HAving gone over and finished the Trunk of the Body, I proceedThe Method of handling. unto the Limbs, whose Muscles, Veins, Arteries and Nerves with the Diseases of those Parts, I intend to explain, which cannot be done without Anatomical dissection.

But before I proceed to that work: it wil do very wel to contemplate the lex [...]eral Conformation of the Limbs, and and withal to shew you what Veins are wont to be opened, and in what places Issues may be made.

The Limbs are made up of the Scarf-Skin, the Skin, the fatty Membrane, theParts of which the Limbs are compounded. Flesh of Muscles, Veins, Arteries, Nerves, Bones, Ligaments, Gristles and Kernels. These Parts I shal so divide in the Limbs, as I did in the Trunk of the bo­dy viz. Into parts containing and Parts contained.

The Parts containing are the Scarf-Skin, the Skin, the fatty Membrane, and the common Membrane of the Muscles. Al the other Parts are conteined, being com­prehended by these. Touching the Scarf-Skin and the Skin, I shall repeat nothing, [Page 211] because they are the same and al a like in al Parts. The Membrana Adiposa or fatty Membrane, is spred out in the Arm as far as the Wrist: and in the Leg, from the Groin unto the Ankles.

After that, follows the common Membrane of the Muscles, which comprehends the Muscles in their natural Scituation. In the Thigh the Fascia Lata supplies its place.

The Medicinal Consideration.

The Universal Diseases of the Skin are divers distempers, simple,Diseases of the Skin. or with Humors conjoyned. If the distemper be with Humor it makes the Skin rough or swollen, whence springs the Scab, the Mange, the Morphew, Scurfe, Leprosie, Tetters, Itch, Pustles, Blains, Water-Bladders, Yellow-Blisters, Warts, Scalds, Moles, Biles, Night-Blains, Ring-worms, Lowsie-Evil, Chops, Black and Blewness, Smal Pocks, Meazles, Whores-Pox and Elephantiasis or a Cancerous Tumor, over the whol body.Of the Flesh.

The Flesh is infested with al kinds of Tumors, Inflamations, Carbuncles, Cho­lerick Tumors, Phlegmatick Tumors, Melancholick Tumors, Cancers, Watry Tumors, Windy Tumors, Impostums of al sorts, Steatoma the Fat impostum, Atheroma the Pap impostum, Meliceris the Hony impostume, an Ulcer, a wound and a Gangrene.

An Athletick or Champion-like constitution of body, high fed, and as we say, lusty and ful of Beefe, is dangerous. Hippocrates shews the Reason in his 1. Book, Aphorisme the 3. and Celsus saies, that when a Man becomes Corpulent, he ought to suspect least he be fatted to the slaughter. And in Hippocrates his A­phorismes we are told, that fat Men are not so Long-lived as lean Men are, and there are some of cold Constitutions. who have hot Stomachs.Of the Vessels. Of the Bones.

Veins and Arteries have Diseases proper to themselves, the Nervs have their peculiar Diseases, and the Joints have theirs. And the bones are subject to fra­ctures, Dryness, Disjoynting, Rottenness, &c. Which shal be explained when we come to treat of the bones.

Chap. 2: Of the Superior Limbs.

The Limbs both Superior and inferior are divided into three principal Parts: theThe general▪ division of the Limbs. Special divi­sion. Arm into a Brachium from the Shoulder to the Elbow, b Cubitus from the Elbow to the Hand, and the c Hand: The Leg into the d Thigh the e Shank, and the f Foot. And forasmuch as the whol Arm hangs upon the f Shoulder bone, as the whol Leg upon the h Huckle bone, and those bones are not reckoned to appertain unto the Back-bone, the best way is to begin our description of the Limbs from them, viz. Of the Arm from the Shoulder-blad, and of the Leg from the Huckle-bone.

Of the Shoulder-blade and the Arm from the Shoulder to the Elbow.

The Axillary Kernels.

The Shoulder-blade i Joyned to the k Arm, makes a Joynt: in the bending of which Joynt beneath, Kernels are placed, which are counted to be the Close stooles of the Chest or Heart, as the Parotides or Kernels behind the Ears, are of the brain, into which those Parts do empty their Excrements. The place of these Kernels is called the Arm-Pit.Diseases of the Kernels.

These Kernels do frequently Swel, Impostumate, are infected with the Kings-Evil, and subject to Buboes, yea such as accompany the Whores-Pox, as in the Groin.Of the whol Joynt.

This Joynt is liable to be disjointed, but it is more often vexed with the Gout, Rheumatisme, and other Fluxions. The strong smel of the Arm-Holes proceeeds from these Kernels. Upon which Martial has wittily and neatly played in one of his Epigrams.

[Page 212]
Laedit te quaedam mala fabula, qua tibi fertur
Valle sub alarum trux habitare caper:
Hunc metuunt omnes, neque mirum, nam mala valde est
Bestia.

That is,

An ill Report your Credit (Sir.) does wound,
How that a stinking Goat has dwelling found
Within your hollow Arm-Pits shady Grove,
A beast which al Men fear, and none do love;
And good Cause why &c.

Of the Cubit or part of the Arm from the Elbow to the Hand.

The Articulation of the Brachium with the Cubit, is more hardly disjoynted; admits Fluxions which do there breed divers Tumors hard to cure. In which case,The Diseases of the Joynts of these Parts. unless diligent care be taken, the very bones are altered and the Cubit is made crooked, and such as are on that manner crook't, are by Hippocrates termed Galliag­gones.

If such a croockedness be caused by a retraction of the Muscles, it is more easily cured, than if it come from a repletion of the Cavities by a thick, clammy, con­densed and dryed Humor.

The Articulation of the Cubit to the Wrist is subject to many Diseases, the Gout, the Rheumatisme, the Tumor Ganglium which possesses the tendons of the Muscles; Flegmatick Knobs and other Tumors.

Of the Hand.

The Hand is divided into thec Wrist thed After-Wrist and thee Fingers. ToDiseases of the Hand. these Parts the Diseases lately named are common. A Disease in number is here usual in Children from the Womb, viz. A Sixt Finger growing to the Thumb o [...] little Finger. It is easily taken away, by the Incision Knife.

Of the Nailes

The Fingers are cerminated and closed up by the Nailes, which are liable toDiseases of the Nails. divers Diseases, in Figure, in Magnitude, wh [...]l they grow thick, wrinkled, un­equ [...]l, rough, [...]ooked as in leprous persons; they are also Cleft; and fal off in the time of Sickness and afterwards breed again. The Color of the Nailes is changed in time of Sickness. Also there is a sore Disease of the Nailes termed a Whi [...]e-Loafe o [...] Felon.

A Whey i [...]h very sharp Humor is bred under the Naile near the bone, which causes most bitter and intollerable pains, and brings an Inflamation first of the Hand, and after of the Arm also, unless the Humor be let out, by cutting the pappy flesh of the Finger to the very bone.

The Pappy Ends of the F [...]gers are aften corrupted, and pu [...]rifie, and somtimesOf the Pappy Ends of the Fingers. the last Joynt of a Finger must of necessity be out off, by reason of a sphacelation of the bone.

Paronyc [...]ia Gr [...]corum, viz. Opening of the Skin at the corners of the Nailes and Issuing of blood therea [...], is a [...]leight Disease, which does not affect the tendons and Nerves of the Fingers Ends, as that Panaritium Arabum, a Disease of this Part described by the Arabia [...] Physitians.

[Page 213]The Ancient Phylosophers, and Physitians, were wont to Divine, and tel For­tunes, by the Nails of Mens Fingers: touching which kind of Divination, Camil­lus Baldus has lately written.907 908 909

Chap. 3. Of the Inferior Limbs.

The Inferior Limbs are commonly divided into three Parts; The Thighs, theDiseases of the inferior Limbs. Shank, and the Foot. The Os Ilium is joyned to the Thigh, and from thence we are to [...]ake measure of the length of the Leg. In the bending of the Os Ilii, and the Thigh, are placed many Kernels, above and beneath; in which divers Buboes arise, both Pestilential, Venereal, and springing from common Causes: of which we have spoken in our Chapter of the Per [...]o [...]eum.

These inferior Limbs are liable to the same Diseases with the superior, which I wil not repeat. Proud Flesh is often bred in the hinder parts by contusion of the Thighs, occasioned by long and hard sitting, or riding. Fernelius does elegantly explain the material Cause hereof.

It is not caused by afflux of Humors, but only by the nourishment of the Part, which being ulcerated within or without, if it be not stopped, it is by continual ac­cess of Nutriment spread abroad, and swelled, and produces oftentimes as it were certain Pipes of Veins and Arteries, by which it is nourished. So, when the Skin remaining whol, the Flesh underneath is bruised and [...]orn, a mighty Swelling does arise by little and little, without any pain, but furnished with exquisite sence, and Natural Heat.

In the Joynt of the Thigh, about the Cavity of the Huckle bone, is bred the GoutThe Sciatica. called Sciatica. If the Humor flow into the Ace [...]abulum, and cause the Head of the Thigh-bone to slip out of its place, it breeds a Disease in Scituation hard to cure, and which at last causes the Patient to hault.

If a very sharp pu [...]rid Humor does corrode, and bring corruption into the Joynt,The Hip-Consumption. it produces a Disease called Phthisi [...] Coxaria, the Hip-Consumption, which makes an end of the Patient by degrees. If an Humor flow into that part where the great Nerve arises, which creeps up and down the hind parts of the Leg, Notha Is­chias, The Bastard Sciatica. o [...] a Bastard Sciatica is produced.

Swellings of the Knee, either springing from a Flegmatick Humor, or from Infla­mation,Swellings of the Knee. are oftentimes very dangerous, or long-lasting, and at last do hasten the Patients Death.

The Foot is divided into thea Ta [...]sus, b Metatarsus, and thec Toes. The first Bone of the Tarsus calledd Pte [...]na, is subject to a Disease springing from Cold or Fluxion, which i [...] called Pernio, a Kibe: And because this Bone receives a veryKi [...]es. thick Tendon, if it be bruised and wounded, it causes in [...]vitable death, by the very Convulsions thereby raised.

The Toes of the Feet, by comp [...]ssion, and straitness of Shoo [...] or Boots, have painful Corns breeding upon them, the unw [...]y ex [...]pation whereof has somtimesCorns. brought a Gangrene into the Part.

The whol Leg from the bending of the G [...]oyn unto the T [...]s, is somtimes excee­dinglyThe Legs. Elephantiasis, of the Arabia [...] swollen with an hard, and il-favored Tumor, which is called Elephantiasis, Arabum: The Arabian Physitions, Elephants Leg, because it makes the Leg of the Patient resemble that of an Elephant.

But the Shank and Foo [...] are chiefly [...]iable to defluxions which are caused either inSwellings. such as are newly recovered out of sickness, by [...]he Humors falling down into those parts; or primarily by the evil Disposition of the said parts.

[Page 214]The principal matter of these Tumors, is Wind or Water, or a clammy Fleg­matick Humor, which produces the swelling called Oedema.

Somtimes the Toes of the Feet, as wel as the Fingers of the Hand, are deficient or superfluous in their Number. There is a little knob grows somtimes under the little Toe called Gemursa, because it makes the Patient groan.

Di [...]eases consisting in the Evil-shaping of the Shank and Foot are frequent.Ill shape Hence arose those nick Names Varus, one that has crooked Legs bending inward; Valgus, one that has Legs bending outward; Compernis, one narrow between the Knees; Scauripeda, one that has hunching Ankles, that interfer and hinder his going; Pansus, one that has a broad or Splay foot; Atta, he that treads only on the fore part of his Feet, as it were on Tip Toes; Plautus, he that is Splay­footed or Broad-footed, al which Infirmities are seen in grown Persons and in Children.

Some are borne with their Legs contracted, others become so by ill Swadling in the time of their Infancy, and by untoward Carriage in their Nurses Arms. Som­times one foot is longer than the other which Causes halting.

Somtimes the Feet do Stink intollerably, by reason of their much heat andStink Palsie Sweat; which must be helped. Oftentimes there happens a Palsie of the lower Limbs, by reason of a Defluxion of Humors out of the Mesentery, into the Lum­bal Nerves. Many times a bastard Sciatica does possess the whol Thigh as low as to the Ankle-bone, even as far as that most thick Nerve does reach, which comes from the Os Sacrum. Pains of the Knees are extream bitter and make stout Men cry out.Knees pains. Because of the consent the Knees had with the Veins in the Mothers Womb. And Pliny saies that a Mans life lies in his very Knees.

Fluxions of Rheum into this Joynt are long lasting, dangerous and hard toWounds of the Ankle. Cure, in the Judgment of Pardus, which daily experience does confirm. And a blow or wound in the Anckle, that same great Tendon being bruised or wounded, do bring Death, not without great Convulsions, so saies Hippocrates.

Chap. 4. In what places Issues