Short-hand yet shorter: OR, The Art of SHORT-WRITING advanced in a more swift, easie, regular, and natural Method than hitherto.

WHEREBY The former Difficulties in placing the Vowels are removed; they, the Dip­thongs and Consonants, further con­tracted; the Particles, Pronouns, De­grees of Comparison, Persons, Moods, Tenses, Contrarieties, Repetitions, Sen­tences Negative and Interrogatory are shortned.

The Rules are plain, easie to be remembred and applied to any other Short-hand, that such as have learned other Authors may have hence a very considerable help to write more swiftly without altering their Foundation.

By GEORGE RIDPATH.

If any desire to be expeditiously taught, the Author may be heard of in Eagle and Child Court in St. Giles in the Fields, near the Church, or upon the Scots Walk at Exchange-time most Saturdays.s

London, Printed by J. D. for the Author, 1687.

To the Right Honourable PHILIP Lord Wharton, Baron of Wharton.

My Lord,

BEing about to publish the ensuing little Book, These are humbly to beg your Lordship's Patrociny, which I am emboldened to do on the following Reasons.

First, Because it had its Birth under your Lordship's Roof, while I had the Honour to be one of your Lordship's Domesticks.

And in the next place, because it is in it self improveable for promoting of Piety and Business, in both which respects your Lord­ship hath rendred your self eminent amongst those of your Rank.

By a long and undaunted owning and pro­fessing of the former, both in publick and private Capacities, your Lordship is no less signalized than your renowned Ancestor was at the famous Battel of Solan Mosse, where [Page] he purchased Victory for his Country, entailed Honour upon his Family, and enrolled him­self in the Registers of Fame as a Hero of the first Magnitude, whose Atchievement oc­casions one of the noblest Passages that the History of the Kingdom affords.

By your Lordship's Skill and Dexterity in managing the latter, you have aggrandized your Revenues, and made them more adaequate than formerly to the Splendor of your Family.

These things being considered, it seems very natural for this Enchiridion to cast it self at your Lordship's feet and beg your Protection, which tho the subject matter thereof be but mean, and seemingly below your Lordship's Grandeur to Patronize, yet being the best way I can conceive my self able to express my Gratitude for Obligations I am under to your Lordship, I hope it will be taken in good part from him who shall always look upon it as his Honour to have been, and ambitious still to entitle himself,

My Lord,
Your Lordship's much obliged, and very humble Servant, Geo. Ridpath.
Courteous Reader,

THE Usesulness of Short-hand is so gene­rally known, and readily apprehended, that it is needless for me to say any thing in its Commendation, and therefore I shall here only give an Answer to an Objection some make against it, and an account of this present Essay.

Object. It teaches to spell false.

Answ. They will scarcely be capable to learn this Art, that are not before-hand able to read and write, and consequently so acquainted with the Rules of spelling true, that they will be in no hazard of learn­ing to spell false.

I desire such also to consider that there is a great difference betwixt spelling false and short; for in this Art we acknowledg that the leaving out of super­fluous Letters is injoyn'd, but will not so readily grant that therefore we teach to spell false. Some able Criticks in our Language do wish that this Method were more in Practice; for as it is no Perfection in any Language to have more Letters in its Words than are sufficient to sound it, it can be no injury to it to have what is unnecessary expunged; and surely if this course were taken it would make our Language more easie to our own Youth to read, and to Fo­reigners both to read and speak. These Considera­tions have prevail'd with the French of late to leave [Page 2] out a great many of such Letters as they do not pro­nounce; and since we Apify them in many worse things, it will be no great Crime to do it a little in this.

In the next place, I desire such Objectors to consi­der, that we do not teach them to write the same way in Long-hand that they do in Short, but make the difference between the two plainly appear, and conse­quently teach true spelling in their Sense over again, for the Examples are first given as they should be in Long-hand, and then as they should be in Short-hand.

But some will still object and say, that by writing Short-hand they will get a habit of spelling false.

Answ. They may with as much Reason argue a­gainst learning Latin and French; because in the for­mer they are accustomed to pronounce all the Let­ters, and so because they read fine finé, in Latin they must needs read the English Word fine so too; or because they are accustomed to read nostre notre in French, they must needs read the English word Oister Oter too; or because in Arithmetick we express Numbers by Figures, we should in other cases get a habit of doing so too. But the contrary is so evident, that to make such Objections would be justly ac­counted ridiculous.

I shall now give you an account of this present Essay, as followeth.

Being very desirous to learn Short-hand, I perused all the Authors I could meet with for that end, but missing that Satisfaction I expected in them, I set about this Composure for my own use. In prosecu­tion of which I discovered several considerable things (not taken notice of by former Authors) that fall very naturally under Rules of Contraction, which [Page 3] after several Years Practice and Experience of their Usefulness, I now publish for common Benefit in the ensuing Method.

1. Here is an easie Alphabet, in composing where­of I took care to make the Characters distinct in their shapes, and easie to be joyned together, which several of our late Authors not observing, have dis­couraged their Learners on that account in the very Threshold.

2. Here are all the double Consonants (except two) intirely framed of the Letters of the Alpha­bet, whereas others make such Marks as have no dependance upon the same, and is consequently a double charge to the Memory.

3. You have here the places of the Vowels in better order than hitherto; others having assigned the place of a and e both at top, and o and u both at bot­tom, or a just above the Letter, and u just underneath it; the inconvenience of both which Methods you may see by these Examples, for according to the former, where e and u are only distinguished from a and o by their greater distance from the Letter before them, if one were writing in haste it will be difficult to keep due distance, and so the places being the same, there is hazard of confounding words of diffe­rent Signification; or if, according to the latter, one were to write Baruch, it must be writ thus r / b, and then one is at a loss where to joyn ch; or hu­mane, it must be writ thus h / m, and then you are at a loss again where to dispose of your following Letters, and so of all words of these sorts: but both these Inconveniences are avoided here, as you may see by looking upon Figure 3 in the Copper Plate.

4. All others having enjoyned the proper Cha­racter of a Vowel to be writ when it begins a Word, instead thereof I have ordered a prick to be put in the Vowels place, which is sooner writ than any other Character, and will be also more beautiful.

5. Whereas others have only given a general hint, and some few instances to leave out superfluous Let­ters, I have given a particular account of them all, with Directions to know when they are to be left out, which must needs be a considerable help to the Younger, who cannot discern them, and the Elder who have not leisure to consider which they are.

6. I have given you such Rules for exchanging Letters of like sound, by which one may often serve for two or three, and such a plain Table of Syllables for beginning and ending of words as hath more de­pendance upon the Alphabet than any yet extant.

7. You have here Rules how to express the words of, to, with, from, by and for without writing any thing for them, and such a short way of expressing the small Particles a, the, this, that, these, those, and the Pronouns ours, yours, theirs, &c. and the degrees of Comparison, or the words more, most, than of the, among them, &c. as was never hitherto published by any.

8. Such Rules for shortning the Persons, Moods, and Tenses as will be of exceeding good use, where­by the words thou, he, we, ye, they, let, wish, may, can, might, ought, would, should, may, or can here­after are contracted, the words do, am, was, have, had, shall and will are left out.

9. The Moods, Tenses and Persons, are improved in the same manner in Sentences Interrogatory and Negative.

[Page 5]10. You have here Rules for contracting of short words when they come together, and for abrevia­ting of long words, expressing of Contrarieties, and Repetitions as short as any yet extant; which, being well adverted to, will sufficiently supply the want of, and be much more useful and practicable than such Tables (wherewith some Authors abound) which have neither sufficient dependance upon the Letters of the Alphabet, nor do naturally represent the thing signified; and consequently are difficult to learn, bur­densome to the Memory, and hard to retain; as may appear by this instance: Some Authors prescribe ab to be writ for abominable, and such like, which with as much reason may signify absolute, abundance, and any other word that begins with ab, whereas by ad­ding an m in the place of o according to the Rules here given, the root of the word is fully expressed, and consequently no doubt what it is, neither doth it occasion any burden to the Memory, nor difficulty in reading, both which are necessary Consequents of the former Method.

11. You have here a Table of Analogical Marks, wherein the Characters for the most part represent naturally the thing signified, and will consequently make a quick Impression on, and be no burden to the Memory.

12. You have also a Specimen of other Tables, with Directions how to compose them if so be you approve of them.

I desire the Ingenuous Reader before he gives his Censure of the Work, to consider well the constant use there will be of the above-mentioned Rules for shortning and leaving out of words which are so common in all Discourses, and in the next place to [Page 6] consider the natural Method in which they are laid down, so as they may be quickly learned, and not burdensome to the Memory to retain; and I doubt not but he will easily be perswaded, that besides the removal of former Difficulties, there is a very con­siderable Essay made here towards the Improve­ment, if not Perfection, of Short-hand.

I shall conclude with some Directions for the bet­ter learning this Art.

1. You are desired either to unfold the engraven Sheet at Pag. in which the Examples are, and let it lie before you, turning from the Rule to the Example in the said Sheet to which the Number will direct you; or to cut it out, that you may have it ready on all occasions, and by laying the Book upon it, and moving it to the several Examples, they will be as readily seen against every Rule as if they were writ on the same Page.

The Reason of my taking this Course was both to avoid the Expenses of engraving the whole Book, and because I judg it a readier way of teaching; for having once read over and understood the Rules, the unfolding of this Sheet, and looking upon the Examples, will instruct you sufficiently without turn­ing to the Book; the Sheet is also more portable upon all occasions.

2. Learn but a little at a time, lest you make it burdensome to your self; the best way is to write the Examples over and over, till you can do them readily. But be not discouraged tho you cannot read what you write at first, for that is common to all Beginners.

3. Observe there are several things peculiar to the Scotish Dialect which are marked S, so that the English Learner may omit them; and that there are several Anglicisms, or things peculiar to the Eng­lish Dialect, which are marked A, so that my Coun­try-men may do therein as they judg best.

4. If there be any thing you do not under­stand, advise with those of riper Years and Under­standing.

5. Such as have learned other Short-hands, and desire a further improvement, are desired to peruse the whole Book, wherein they will find several things of good use, but more especially the Contraction of the Verbs, Moods, Times, and Persons. I hope you will excuse the length of this, seeing it serves both for Preface, Contents, and Directions.

Farewell.

1. NOte that there are two Characters for I, the first of which must always be used instead of J Consonant, as in these words,

  • Jerusalem.
  • Jericho.

There are also two Characters for S, that the Lear­ner may take which of them he shall find most con­venient to joyn with other Letters. See the Alphabet.

For the better understanding of the following Rules, the Learner is desired to observe that the Letters a, e, i, o, u, are called Vowels, and the rest of the Letters are called Consonants.

[Page 8]It must be observed that the Letters J and V coming before themselves, or any other Vowel in the same Syllable, are Consonants, as in the words

  • Judah,
  • Vertue.

2. When two or more Consonants come toge­ther, they must be joyned one to another without taking off the Pen. The most difficult are given you for Examples in the Copper Plate at the Figure 2. but all of them except th and wh are the Letters of the Alphabet, and so will be easily learned.

3. How to express the Vowels.

When a word begins or ends with a Vowel, the said Vowel must not be expressed by its proper Character, but by a prick put in its place: which that you may the more easily remember and understand, observe that their places are according to their rank in the Alphabet, viz.

a
Being the first Vowel, hath the first place, viz. a little higher than the following Letter▪ but not just over it. See the Copper Plate at fig. 3.
e
Being the second Vowel, hath the second place, viz. just against the upper corner of the following Letter. See again at fig. 3.
i
Being the third Vowel, hath the third place, viz. just against the middle of the Letter. See fig. 3.
o
Being the fourth Vowel, hath the fourth place, just against the lower corner of the following Letter. See fig. 3.
u
Being the fifth Vowel, hath the fifth place a little lower than the following Letter, but not just under it. See again at fig. 3.

[Page 9]You must also take notice that the places of the Vowels are the same after a Consonant as before one, and that the Letter y when joined to a Consonant hath always the sound of the Vowel i, and therefore is expressed in the same manner. In the next place observe carefully the places of the Vowels about the Letters l and s, you will easily understand these things by viewing the Examples at fig. 3.

4. When a Vowel comes between two Conso­nants, it is to be expressed by putting the latter Con­sonant in its place. See fig. 4.

In this Art we do not regard true spelling, but for swiftness sake leave out all the Letters that are not pronounced in speaking; which that you may the better understand, I have given in the following Ta­bles a particular account of all such Letters, with Rules how to know them and when to leave them out; the Learner must write them in Short-hand Letters till he can do them well.

1. e may be left out be­fore d in the last Syllable of a word, as forruledrul'd.
 wipedwip'd.
 stripedstrip'd.
2. before st, as forknowestknowst.
3. before th, as forknowethknowth.
4. before neth, as forripenethripneth.
5. before l, as forcouncelcouncl.
6. before m, as forthemthm.
7. before n, as fortakentakn.
8. before r, as forcooler.coolr.
9. as it may be left out in all these eight cases above­said before those Letters  
[Page 10]in the last Syllable, so it may be left out in all such words as it is not pro­nounced in when it is the last Letter of the word, viz. after b, c, d, f, g, k, l, m, n, p, q, r, s, t, u, v, w, observe the Examples, which the Learner is desi­red to write over in the Short-hand Characters un­til he be accustomed to leave out the Letters which are here left out.bribebrib.
 SpiceSpic.
 widewid.
 KnifeKnif.
 SageSag.
 makemak.
 stalestal.
 NameNam.
 nonenon.
 wipewip.
 risquerisq.
 harehar.
 casecas.
 hatehat.
In such cases as one word may be mistaken for another, as hate for hat, the Learner may add a prick in the Vowels place to distinguish.duedu.
 liveliv.
 oweow.

How to express Dipthongs.

5. When a Dipthong (which is two Vowels together in the same Syllable) begins or ends a Word, observe which of the Vowels is most sounded in pronouncing the Word, and write a prick in that Vowels place, and if the Dipthong be in the middle of a Word, put the Consonant which follows next after the Dipthong in the place of the Vowel which is most sounded. See Fig. 5.

[Page 11]

The following Table teaches which of the Vowels should be writ in all Dipthongs.
aeeEneasAeneas 
aiaarAir 
auaadienceaudienceA
ayaplaypla 
eaeseSeaA
eievenvein 
eoojopardyJeopardy 
euunuterneuterA
eyepreprey 
ieililie 
oaororroar 
oeododoe 
ForouwriteuasfundforfoundS
uaagardguard 
ueududue 
uiigiltguilt 
eauuButyBeautyA
iewuaduadiewA
uaiaqalquail 
These are Trip­thongsueeeqenQueen 
ueaeqesiequeasie 
awalalaw 
ewununewA
owosloslowA
eouurightusrighteous 

6. If neither of the Vowels can be spared, as in the word Oil, boil, &c. observe in the beginning of a word to write the proper Character of the first Vowel, and put the Consonant in the next Vowels place.

[Page 12]In the middle of a word write your last Vowel in the first Vowels place.

In the end of a word do the same. See the Ex­amples at Fig. 6.

Of Semi-vowels and Mutes.

When any of the Letters l, m, n, r, x, z, (which by the Latins are called Semi-vowels) come after a Vowel (in the beginning of a word) before ano­ther Consonant, the said Vowel may be left out; sor none of those Letters can be pronounced without sounding a Vowel before them, as l is pronounced as if it were writ el; which of the Vowels must be pronounced, the sense will teach.

The same Rule holds as to these Mutes b, c, d, f, g, p, t, except when any of them are joyned with l or r. Observe the Examples in the following Table, and write them over so often in the Short­hand Letters till you can readily write them, or any other Examples of this nature.

Amnonmnon.
alreadylredy.
forunreadynredy.
arguergu.
expectxpect.
Ezrazra.
obtainbtain.
adjustdjust.
foroff-goingfgoing.
Ignominygnominy.
up-goingpgoing.
out-lasttlast.

[Page 13]When two Consonants of the same sort come together either in the middle or end of a word, one of them may be left out and yet the Pronun­ciation not wronged, as will appear by these Examples in the Table.

attainatain.
attributeatribut,
aggravateagravat.
carefullcarful.
fearfullferful.
sinfullsinful.
SinfulnessSinfulnes.
errer.
FirrFir.

It many times happens that two Consonants of different sorts comes together, and yet one of them may be spared without marring the sense of the Word, concerning which take the following Rules.

bmay be left out in the end of a word after m, and when it comes between a Vowel and t,lamblam 
  dumbdum 
  debtdet 
  doubtdut 
cmay be spared be­fore k or q, and after s, and af­ter x,acknowledgaknoledg 
  acquaintaqant 
  DiscipleDisiple 
  excessxes 
dmay be left out before g, as and sometimes after n,JudgJug 
  grudggrug 
  Hand-maidHan-maid 
  FriendshipFrienship 
fwhen it is not pro­nounced before t,softsotA
  afteraterA
[Page 14]gmay be left out betwixt a Vowel and n, and when it comes between n and th.reinreign. 
  soverainsoveraign. 
  foreinforeign. 
  lenthlength. 
  strenthstrength.S
ghwhen it comes be­tween a Vowel and t,ritright.A
  mitmight.A
  sitsight. 
ughafter a Vowelthrothrough. 
hwhen it comes in the end of a word after a Vowel it may be left out in the word him, when the fore­going word ends with a Conso­nant or with e after a Conso­nant, or with h, and when it comes after r, and after c, as and after x,SelaSelah. 
  NoaNoah. 
  let imlet him. 
  hurt imhurt him. 
  smite imsmite him. 
  take imtake him. 
  catch imcatch him. 
  reach imreach him. 
  RetorikRhetorick. 
  RumRheum. 
  ScemScheme. 
  ScolarScholar. 
  xortexhort. 
lin the words will and shall, before not, and by Sco­tish Men, and those of the North of Eng­land after a, so before f,w'ontwill not. 
  sha'ntshall not. 
  smasmall.S
  fafall. 
  cacall. 
  hafhalf. 
  cafcalf. 
[Page 15]nwhen it comes af­ter m in the same Syllable.contemcontemn.S
  condemcondemn. 
pwhen it comes be­tween m and t,contemtcontempt. 
  xmtexempt. 
tbefore ch and af­ter p,strechstretch. 
  corrupcorrupt.S
thein the words them, these, those, when the words going before end with e or a Consonant.tak mtake them. 
  writeswrite these. 
  takestake those. 
wmay be left out be­fore r, and some­times before h.ritwrite.A
  holwhole.A

Of exchanging Letters.

Many times one Letter may be exchanged for ano­ther, and so one serve for two: observe the following Table.

cchBarucBaruch.A
fphFilipPhilip. 
 ghlaflaugh.A
  tuftough. 
kctakact.S
 ckattakattack. 
writexforccxesaccess. 
 ksthanxthanks. 
 ctsdistrixdistrict.S
scedefensdefence. 
qquqeryquery▪ 
shsciconshensConscience. 
 tioconshenshusconscientious. 
  conshonablconscionable. 

[Page 16]The Learners are desired to write over the Exam­ples in these Tables until they can readily write them, leaving out the superfluous Letters, the benefit they will quickly find in exercising them in the Short­hand Letters.

The Reader is referred to Fig. 7. in the Copper Plate for Syllables to begin and end words, and Ex­amples how to make use of the said Syllables.

The Learner is also desired to take notice that any Consonant being dashed through in the place of the respective Vowel, the said dash signifies ar, er, ir, or, ur.

And that a very little Line over or under a word, if it be only so big as to distinguish it from a prick, signifies the words over and under.

And that a Short-hand p joined above any word signifies upon. See the Examples for each in fig. 7.

8. How to write the small words, a, the, this, these, those, that.

For a, write a prick above the word towards the left-hand.

For the, a prick over it to the right.

For this and these, write two pricks in the Line asquint going upward from the left to the right­hand.

For those, write two pricks in the Line asquint go­ing downward the same way.

For that, write a prick under the Line towards the right-hand. See the Examples of each in in fig. 8.

9. The words my, thy, his, ours, yours, theirs, are called Possessive Pronouns, and must be writ thus.

For my or mine write a prick higher than the Line at an equal distance from the word that goes before it and that which follows.

For thy and thine write a prick in the middle be­twixt the words.

For his write a prick against the lower Corner in the middle betwixt the words.

For ours double the pricks in the first place.

For yours double them in the second.

For theirs double them in the third.

See at fig. 9. for the Examples.

If the word self come after any of these words (which frequently happens) write a very small Short­hand s under the said word.

If the word own (which also frequently happens) come after, add one prick more under the said word.

See the Examples at Figure 9.

10. How to express the words of, to, with, from, for, by.

For of write the following word a little higher than the Line off from the corner of the word that comes before it. See fig. 10.

[Page 18]For to, write the following word nearer to it in the same place, but remember to keep such distance as that it may not be mistaken as part of the for­mer word.

For with, write the word that follows it near the middle of the word that went before it, keeping due distance to avoid mistake.

For from, write the following word at a double distance from the word that went before it.

For by, write the following word near to the un­der corner of that which went before it, but so as you may keep a due distance from that word.

For for, write the following word in the same place at a greater distance.

See the Examples at fig. 10.

But in case the Learner think these Rules intricate or hard to observe, I refer him to figure 11. where there are other ways to express the said words as short as any hath hitherto been published, and which must be used however when such words begin a Line, and before the Possessive Pronouns, observe fig. 11.

12. How to write the Degrees of Comparison[?].

When the word more, which the Latins call the sign of the Comparative Degree, comes to be writ, it may be signified by a little mark towards the left­hand. See fig. 12.

The word then comes very often after words of the Comparative Degree, which may be known ei­ther [Page 19] by this word more which is the sign of it, or by its last Syllable, which in the English Language al­ways ends in er, and is either compared with others or it self, as wiser than he was, wiser than you; I say in such case the word than may be left out, for it cannot but be read by the sense.

When the word most, which the Latins call the sign of the Superlative Degree, is to be writ, it may be signified by the same mark as the Comparative Degree, only set toward the Right-hand. See Fig. 12.

The words of the, in the, among them, &c. do often come after the words of the Superlative De­gree which are known, either by this sign most, or by its last Syllable, which in the English Language is always in est, or st, and speaks always of a Person or thing in the highest or lowest Degree, as the wisest of the two, the richest in the Town. In such cases the said words of the, in the, &c. may be left out, and yet the sense will easily discover which should be read.

See the Examples one after another, fig. 12.

Of Verbs, Tenses, and Moods.

A Verb is a word that signifies the Person or thing spoken of, either to be doing something to others (and then it is called Active) or that some­thing is done to, or suffered by the said Person or thing, and then it is called Passive.

[Page 20]13. The words, I, thou, he, we, ye, they, do often come before Verbs, and are called Persons. See for their Characters, fig. 13.

There are three times of doing or suffering, viz. the time past, the time present, the time to come.

We express the time past by the words have, have been, had, had been, did and was.

We express the time present by the words do and am.

We express the time to come by the words will, and will be, shall, and shall be.

Now according to the order of Nature, and not of Grammar, supposing that many may learn this Art, that never learned that, I have put the time past first, the present in the middle, and the time to come last.

14. Therefore when the word have comes either after any of the words I, thou, he, we ye, they, or any other word, it is not to be writ, but the word that comes after it is to have the first Letter of it writ higher than the corner of the word before it, which being the first place is the place of have, which is the sign of the first time. See fig. 14.

Instead of the words have been, write after the same manner, but because that is a Passive Significa­tion, it must be distinguished by putting a little stroke on the back of the first Letter of the word that comes[?] after have been. See the Example, fig. 14.

For had and had been, write in the same manner, only let the word which comes after had be writ at twice so much distance from the word that goes before it, as the word was that came after have, and let the word that comes after had been, have a [Page 21] stroke put on its back according to the former Rule. See the next Example▪ fig. 14.

When the word did comes after any of the Per­sons, or another word, it is not to be writ, but sig­nified by its place also, which is just against, or even with the upper corner of the word that goes before it, and therefore the word that comes after it must be writ in that place at such distance as it may not be confounded with the word that goes before it.

See the next Example, fig. 14.

For the word was it must be expressed the same way, but with this difference, that being of a Passive or Suffering Signification, a little stroke must be ad­ded to the back of the word that follows it, as for­merly. See further fig. 14.

The time present being between that which is past, and that which is to come, you must put such word as comes after do or am just against the middle of such word as went before them, only putting a stroke upon the back of such word as comes after am, because it is Passive. See fig. 14.

The time to come being the last, you must put the word that comes after will or shall against the lower corner of the word that went before them, allowing double the distance from that word for shall that you do for will: and for will be and shall be, adding a stroke upon the back of the word that follows them because of the Passive Signification. See fig. 14. adhuc.

Some perhaps may object that the places of the Tenses, and the places of the words of, to, &c. are confounded, but there can be no hazard of mistake in that, if it be considered that a Verb never comes after any of these words except to, concerning [Page 22] which you have a Rule in its place, and at first dash it will be seen that the word so placed as is directed here, is a Verb.

Note that hast and hath must be expressed the same way as have, hadst the same way as had, didst the same way as did; wast and were the same way as was, dost and doth the same way as do; and shalt and wilt the same way as shall and will. See the last Examples, fig. 14.

The Persons or Words which go before them will easily shew which should be read.

15. There are several ways of expressing our selves in doing or suffering, which the Latins call Moods, some of which fall under our Consideration in this Art. And first,

The Imperative or commanding way, or Mood, wherein we express our selves (when we command) by the words do, let, or be, as do you go, let us come, be you obedient.

The Persons or Words to which these words of command are usually affixed or joyned, are me, thou, him, us, you or ye, and them: concerning which observe the following Rules, viz.

To the first Letter of every such Person joyn over it in a commanding manner a straight stroke or short­hand l, and to distinguish be, because it hath a Passive Signification, put a small dash on the back of the said stroke, observe the Examples fig. 15. where you must also take notice that for the word us there is a Short-hand s.

16. Secondly, there is the Optative or wishing Mood, wherein we express our selves by the word [Page 23] wish, which is to be signified by a stroke put under the Person in a humble manner, but when the word wish comes after any other word it is to be expressed by putting a Short-hand w under the said word. See fig. 16.

17. Thirdly, there is the Potential Mood or way, whereby we express what may or ought to be done, which we do by the words may, can, would, should, might, ought, may, or can hereafter; concerning which observe that except have, had, or hereafter come after any of them, they do all belong to the present time, and therefore in that case the word that comes after any of them must be set just against the middle of the word before it.

The way to express them is thus.

If any of the said words may, can, &c. come after a Person, then the first Letter of such word must be joyned to the Person which is enough to express any of them, but because several of them, as may and might, can and could, begin with the same Letter, you must distinguish them thus; write the first Letter of might and could close to the upper corner of the Person, and joyn the first Letter of may and can to the lower corner of the Person, see the Example in fig. 17. where you must also take no­tice that to express the Passive Signification of be and been, &c. there is a little dash put upon the back of the first Letter of the word.

If the words may or can, &c. come after any other word, then the Persons, I, thou, &c. you must put the first Letter of such of them as it happens to be, above the Verb, but you must distinguish may from might, and can from could as formerly, and [Page 24] observe to add the little dash for the Passive Signifi­cation. See and observe carefully the Example in fig. 17.

Sometimes the Optative and Potential come to­gether, observe the last Example, fig. 17.

18. Fourthly, there is the Subjunctive Mood, which some also call Conjunctive, because it doth not compleat a Sentence except another Verb be subjoyned or conjoyned, the signs by which we ex­press it are the words when, if, seeing, as when you come; you see that something more is to be ex­pressed or understood, to make the Sentence com­pleat, as when you come you shall hear.

The manner of expressing these words is thus, you must when they come after any Person, or other word subjoin, (that is to say joyn to the lower part of it) a Short-hand wh for when, f for if, s for seeing. See fig. 18.

Sometimes the signs of the Optative, Potential, and Subjunctive, come together, as in this Exam­ple, I wish when you come you would stay. Con­cerning which see the last Examples of Figure 18.

19. How to express to and to be, which Latins call marks of the Infinitive Mood, I refer you to Figure 19. where you have Examples how to use them. As also to express the must which is called a Gerund, by putting a Short-hand in under the Person or last Letter of the Word before it.

Of Interrogatory Sentences.

20. For the words commonly made use of in asking Questions and their Characters, I refer you to number 20. in the Copper Plate, but take these following Rules for the use of them.

1. If they or any of them come before any of the Persons, I, thou, he, &c. you must put the said Person in the place of the sign of the time that goes before it, as in this Example, What have I? you must first write the Character for what and put I in the place of have, which according to former Rules is higher than the upper corner of the word going before it, at such distance as it may not be taken for part of that word, and so of all others of this sort. See fig. 20.

If the Verb come after the Person, as in this Ex­ample, what shall I do, write as before, only put the Verb against the middle of the Person which is the present time, and so of all others, observing the former Directions for distinguishing one Mood or way from another, and the words that are Passive from the Active. See fig. 20.

But it must be observed that the signs of the Op­tative or wishing Mood must be joyned to the lower part of the word of Question, as in this Example, what wisheth he for, the sign of the Optative Mood must be joyned to the lower end of the word what▪ See fig. 20.

The signs of the Potential Mood may, can, should, &c. must be joyned to the head of the Person, after any such word of Question, but be­cause of may and might, and can and coulds begin­ning [Page 26] with one Letter, joyn might and could to the upper corner of the Person on the left side, and may and can towards the lower corner on the same side. See fig. 20.

The signs of the Subjunctive Mood when, if, and seeing, being always to be read before the Person, there is no difficulty in them. See Figure 20. adhuc.

21. When a Question begins with any of these words do, did, have, had, will, shall, write the Person that follows after any of those words, and put a prick close to the back of the Person to shew that it is a Question, and put the following Verb in its proper time. See fig. 21.

But if the word wish come after the Person, joyn the mark of the Optative to it, and put the Verb in its proper time. See fig. 21.

If the words may, can, should, would, &c. come before the Person, they must be joyned to the upper part of it as formerly, remembring also to distin­guish between may and might, can and could, and betwixt words of a Passive Signification and others, according to former Rules. See further, fig. 21.

Observe if the said words in asking a Question should come before any other word but the Person, the first Letter of each of them must be writ above the word they come before, but remember to write may and can below the word. See further fig. 21.

Note that tho at first one would think this last Rule is confounded with that in Number 17 Page, yet there is no hazard of mistaking one for the other; for the signs of the Potential Mood in that Rule are always to be put above or below a Verb, but here never.

Of Negative Sentences.

22. When the words not, never, neither, come either before a Verb or any other word, they may be exprest thus, not by a Short-hand n put upon the back of the first Letter of the word that follows it, never by the same dash'd through, neither by a Short-hand th joyned to the head of the n. See the Examples fig. 22.

Of contracting little Words when they come together.

23. Many times little words coming together may be joyned so as to be much shortned, especially if all of them end and begin with Vowels, or if the former end with the Vowel, and the latter begin with h, as com on for come on, t'us for to us, t'im for to him; and often when the first word ends with a Consonant, and the latter begins with a Vowel, as think ont for think on it.

The Rules for such Abbreviations are these.

When two or more words come together, one whereof ends with a Vowel, and the other begins with a Vowel or h, the last Vowel in the first word may be left out, and the first Consonant of the next may be put in the place of the Vowel that goes before it, as tak n for take on, where (e) is left out in take, and n put in the place of o against k; and so words beginning with h after one that either ends with a Consonant, or Vowel, h may be left out, [Page 28] and the Consonant which comes next after it may be put in the place of the Vowel that went before it, as tak n m for take on him, where m is put in the place of i against n and h left out.

When one Word ends with a Consonant, and ano­ther begins with a Vowel, write the Consonant which comes after the said Vowel, in the place of it, against the Consonant before it, as break open write the p in the place of o against the k. See the Ex­amples, of fig. 23.

Of Contrarieties.

When Words or Sentences which are just contra­ry one to another come together, the contrary part may be signified by a backward c thus, good &) for good and bad, Heaven &) for Heaven and Hell; whosoever believeth in Christ Jesus shall be saved, but) for whosoever believeth not in Christ Jesus shall be condemned.

Of leaving out Syllables.

There are Syllables which are common for end­ing many words, as ed, est, eth, &c. which for swiftness sake may be left out, and yet the Sense not be marred to any understanding Person; for if the root of the word be writ, the Sense will easily direct to the last Syllable, as if one should write thou understa me, sense will teach that it must be read thou understandest me, so thou lov me for lovest, teach for teachest; and so of any other word.

[Page] [Page]

[list of shorthand entities]

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[list of shorthand entities]

[Page] [Page 29]Many times half a long word may be left out, and yet be easily read, as Comis for Commission, Command for Commandment, and thus, the unright Pers. shant inher the Kingd. of Heav. will easily be read, the unrighteous Person shall not inherit the Kingdom of Heaven.

These last Rules being well considered, will be found more useful and practicable than Tables of Marks for words, as is hinted more at large in the Preface.

Of Repetitions.

In case of Repetitions, consider if the Sense may not be compleat, tho the word repeated be but once set down, as instead of whatsoever things are true, whatsoever things are honest, whatsoever things are just, &c. write whatsoever things are true, honest, just, &c.

Or if the Repetitions follow one another imme­diately you may write down the number under the words to be repeated, as for The Temple of the Lord, the Temple of the Lord, the Temple of the Lord, write, The Temple of the Lord.

[Page 30]I shall now give you the Names of the Scripture Books contracted, as they use to be quoted in Authors, which you may practise in your Short­hand Letters according to your Rules until you can do them perfectly.

  • Gen.
  • Ex.
  • Lev.
  • Num.
  • Deut.
  • Jos.
  • Judg.
  • Ruth.
  • Sam.
  • K.
  • Cr.
  • Zr.
  • Neh.
  • Est.
  • Job.
  • Ps.
  • Prov.
  • Ec.
  • Cant.
  • Is.
  • Jer.
  • Lam.
  • Ez.
  • Dan.
  • Hos.
  • Jol.
  • Am.
  • Ob.
  • Jon.
  • Mich.
  • Nah.
  • Hab.
  • Zef.
  • Zec.
  • Hag.
  • Mal.

Note that any number of Psalms above 66 may be expressed by the Fi­gures only without men­tioning the Psalm, it being known that there is no o­ther Book hath above that number of Chapters.

For Chapter write Cap.

For Verse write ver.

  • Mat.
  • Luk.
  • Mar.
  • Jo.
  • Ac.
  • Rom.
  • Cor.
  • Gal.
  • Ef.
  • Fil.
  • Col.
  • Thes.
  • Tim.
  • Tit.
  • Ph.
  • Heb.
  • Ja.
  • Pet.
  • Jud.
  • Rev.

Note that I have writ f for ph, because it is sooner writ, and cr for chr, be­cause h is not sounded after c.

[Page 31]Here follows a Table of Analogical Marks which will quickly be learned, most of the words therein being signified naturally by the Marks, for which I refer you to the Copper Plate at the end of the Book, where you will find them numbred as the words are here: so that if you look for the same number there that you find against any of the Words or Sentences here, the Mark against which the said number is placed signifies the same.

I did not think it material to bring them into exact order of Alphabet, which I hope the Learner will excuse, for they will be attained at twice or thrice writing over.

A.
1Altogether.
2all that is in the World.
3Angel.
4Angels that fell, or fal­len Angels
5Antichrist.
6Apostle.
7Apostles of Christ.
8false Apo­stles.
9to ascend.
B.
10Back to back.
11Babylon.
12come out of Babylon my People.
13thou Hypo­crite, thou canst not see the Beam that is in thine own Eye[?]
14to backslide, or back­sliden.
15backward.
16black.
17before.
18behind.
19before and behind.
20above and below.
21belong.
beginning of the World [...]
[...]
[Page 32]25near the be­ginning.
26at the be­ginning.
27after the be­ginning.
28from the be­ginning.
29from the be­ginning to the end.
30from the 11th to the 14th.
31the 14 and 15 com­pared.
32good be­ginning.
33bad begin­ning.
34about the beginning.
35between.
36both toge­ther.
37bottomless Pit.
38blind.
39before the Foundati­on of the World.
40beneath.
41broad Gate, or Way.
42broad is the Gate that leads to Destructi­on, and many there be that en­ter thereat.
43broken Ci­stern that will hold no Water.
44broken.
45broken in pieces.
46broken in two.
C.
47Christ.
48Christian.
49Christianity.
50Christ com­ing into the World.
51Christ came into the World to save Sin­ners.
52Cross.
53Christ's Hu­miliation.
54Christ's Ex­altation.
55Christ sit­teth at the right-hand of God.
56Christ's As­cenfion.
57Christ's Bu­rial.
58Christ's Death.
59Christ's Re­surrection.
60Christ cru­cified.
61Christ will come to judg the World.
62Christ's Blood.
63Christ sweat drops of Blood.
64the Blood and Water that came[Page 33]out of Christ's side.
65the Suffer­ings of Christ.
66Children of Christ.
67in Christ.
68in and through Christ.
69in and by Christ.
70through Christ.
71out of Christ.
72near Christ.
73far from Christ.
74from Christ.
75by Christ.
76rely on Christ.
77forsake Christ.
78many are called, but few are chosen.
79in Cove­nant with Christ.
80Christ re­ceived into the Heart.
81Cross of Christ.
82he that will be my Dis­ciple, must take up his Cross and follow me.
83Jesus Christ.
84Christ Jesus.
85our Lord Jesus Chr.
86Church.
87Church of Christ.
88Reformed Church.
89Church of Rome.
90Church of England.
91Church of the Jews.
92corrupt Church.
93Church mi­litant.
94Church tri­umphant[?].
95suffering Church.
96Church of God.
97Covenant of Works.
98Covenant of Grace.
99Covenant.
100broken Cove­nant.
101Covenant­breakers.
102in Cove­nant with God.
103Consci­ence.
104Consci­ence a­wakened.
105bad Con­science.
106sear'd Con­science.
107Circumci­sion.
108uncircum­cision.
109coming into the World.
[Page 34]110compassed.
111compassed about.
112compassed round.
D.
113Darkness.
114blackness of dark­ness.
115Devil.
116the Chil­dren of the De­vil.
117the Devil can turn himself into an Angel of Light.
118the Devils believe and tremble.
119Chains of darkness.
120Doctrine.
121point of Doctrine.
1221st, 2d, and 3d, Doctrine.
123false Do­ctrine.
124corrupt Doctrine.
125Doctrine of Devils.
126downward
E.
127Eye.
128Eyes of God.
129Eyes of the Lord.
130Eyes of Angels.
131Eyes of Devils.
132Eyes of the World.
133Eyes of the People.
134proud look.
135even.
136equal.
137unequal.
138uneven.
F.
139Fall head­long up­on.
140fall head­long into the bot­tomless Pit.
141from the one side to the other.
142from one end to the other.
143from top to bot­tom.
144Foundati­on of the World.
145before the Foundati­on of the World.
146Fragments
G.
147God.
[Page 35]148great God.
149God in Christ.
150God in Christ re­conciling the World.
151Gospel.
152Gospel of Christ.
153go for­ward.
154go back­ward.
155go to the left-hand.
156go to the right­hand.
157go up­ward.
158go down­ward.
159go up and down.
160go for­ward and back­ward.
161go out of the World.
162gathered together.
H.
163Heart.
164upright Heart.
165covetous Heart.
166Heart set on the World.
167Heart set on Christ.
168double Heart.
169hard heart.
170soft Heart.
171contrite Heart.
172broken Heart.
173contrite and bro­ken heart.
174false heart.
175unclean Heart.
176rotten Heart.
177Hypocrite in Heart.
178headlong.
179heavenly.
180in Heaven.
181God in Heaven.
182with God in Hea­ven.
183Christ in Heaven.
184with Christ in Heaven.
185Saints in Heaven.
186with Saints in Heaven.
187Angels in Heaven.
188with An­gels in Heaven.
189Hell.
190in Hell.
191Devils in Hell.
192with De­vils in Hell.
193Souls in Hell.
[Page 36]194wicked in Hell.
195the wicked shall be turned into Hell, and all the Na­tions that for­get God.
196Flames of Hell.
197Torments of Hell.
198Purgatory.
I.
199Idolaters.
200idolatrous.
201Idolatry.
202In the middle.
203Jesus Christ the se­cond Per­son of the Trinity.
204inseparable
205inward or inside.
206innume­rable.
K.
207King.
208Kingdom.
209Kingdom of Hea­ven.
210Kingdom of Christ.
211Kingdom of Satan.
212Kingdom of the Earth.
213Key that openeth and none can shut.
214Knowledg
215Knowledg of God.
216Knowledg of Christ.
217knowledg of my self.
218knowledg of thy self.
219knowledg of our selves.
220knowledg of your selves.
221knowledg of them­selves.
222knowledg of the Lord.
223knowledg of the Lord J. Christ.
L.
224Labyrinth.
225little.
226long.
227Lord.
228longer.
229longest.
230Lord God.
231Lord Jesus Christ crucified.
232look unto Christ.
233look unto Christ on the Cross or Christ crucified.
[Page 37]234they shall look un­to him whom they have pierced, and mourn.
235look up.
236look down
237look for­ward.
238look back­ward.
239look be­fore and behind.
240look round about.
241look above
242look be­low.
243look on this fide.
244look on that side.
M.
245Magistrate.
246Minister.
247mistake.
248great mi­stake.
249foul mi­stake.
250greatly mistaken.
251fouly mi­staken.
252Mystery.
253misunder­stood.
254to medi­ate.
255thou Hy­pocrite, thou canst see the Mote that is in thy Neigh­bours Eye, &c.
256Man Men.
257upright Man.
258upright way.
259fallen Man
260righteous Man.
261sinsul Man.
262in Man.
263between Man and Man.
264bloody Men.
265damned or reprobate Man.
N.
266Narrow way.
267New Te­stament.
268neverthe­less.
269notwith­standing.
270numerous.
O.
271Outside.
272outward.
273Old Testa­ment.
274Our Fa­ther which art in Heaven.
275Providence
[Page 38]276Prudence.
277Papist Popish.
278Prote­stant.
279Prison.
Q.
280Quarter.
281quarterly, or 4thly.
282quartered.
283quartering
284in the 4th place.
285Question.
286in questi­on.
287without question.
288under que­stion.
289questi­oned.
290question­less.
291hard que­stion.
292plain que­stion.
293questioned about.
294intricate question.
R.
295Round.
296round a­bout.
297run head­long.
298run back­ward.
299run head­long in­to the bottom­less Pit.
S.
300Sharp­sighted.
301Sword.
302Sword of God.
303flaming Sword.
304Serpent.
305crooked Serpent.
306break the Serpent's Head.
307old Ser­pent.
308scattered.
309Sacrament.
310holy Scrip­ture.
311through Scripture.
312by the Scripture.
313Shipwrack
314having made Ship­wrack of Faith and a good Consci­ence.
315straight gate.
316strive to enter in at the straight gate.
T.
317Trinity.
318Trinity in Unity, or one God[Page 39]and three Persons.
319Mystery of the Tri­nity.
320first Person of the Trinity.
321second Person of the Tri­nity.
2third Per­son of the Trinity.
324Tempter Temp­tation.
325in Temp­tation.
326fall into Tempta­tion.
327many Tempta­tions.
328from Ten­tation.
329in the way of Ten­tation.
330out of the way of Tentati­on.
331great Ten­tation.
332through the strength of Ten­tation.
333fall by Tenta­tion.
334fall before Tenta­tion.
335under Tenta­tion.
336tremble.
337double­tongued.
338Lord's Ta­ble.
339come to the Lord's Table.
340at the Lord's Table.
341go from the Lord's Table.
342worthy re­ceivers of the Bo­dy and Blood of Christ.
343unworthy receivers of the Body and Blood of Christ.
344Profaners of the Lord's Table.
W.
345Wilder­ness.
346World.
347beginning of the World.
348end of the World.
349old World.
350this World
351the World that is to come.
[Page 40]352in the World.
353in this World.
354in the World to come.
355both in this World, and in the World to come.
356neither in this World, nor in the World to come.
357World without end.
358greatest part the World.
359least part of the World.
360Corrupti­on of the World.
361corrupt World.
362The De­vil, the World, and the Flesh.
363the World shall be burnt with Fire.
364without God in the World.
365round a­bout the World.
366up and down the World.
367through the World.
368from one end of the World to the o­ther.
369Worship­pers of God.
370Word of God.
371Works of God.
372Works of Crea­tion.
373Works of Provi­dence.
374Vengeance
375to bring down Venge­ance on their own head.
Y.
376You.
377every one of you. all of you.
378in you.
379at you.
380near you.
381on both sides of you.
[Page 41]382above and below you.
383even with you.
384higher than you.
385lower than you.
386behind and be­fore you.
387through you.

There are another sort of Tables called Classical▪ on account of which some value their Invention very high; they are composed after this manner, by making any Letter or Character you please have eight or more different Significations, by putting a prick or any any other mark you will at top and bottom, and three on every side, as in this Ex­ample.

  • ḃ ballance.
  • ˙b belied.
  • ·b billows.
  • .b bolster.
  • ḅ bulwark.
  • b˙ blameless.
  • b· blindfold.
  • b. blotted.

and so of all the Letters of the whole Alphabets which are extant, and as many more as you can in­vent. But for my own part, I do not much ap­prove of this Method, it being very burdensome to the Memory, and when learned, difficult to retain. The best composed Tables that ever I saw, contain­ing [Page 42] a great many words which very rarely occur; and indeed, I think it impossible to compose such as shall be of constant use (except one accustom them­selves to write only after one Man, and then it is not worth the while to do it) for there is as much va­riety of expressing Conceptions (upon the same Subject) as there is of Faces. But if the Learner think well of that Method, he may by this Exam­ple compose Tables to himself which he will more easily remember, than those of anothers Compositi­on, for which the Authors have no reason to shew, but only because they will have it so: And tho it (it is true) there is no Art either to be invented or learned without some burden to the Memory, yet there is a great difference betwixt bestowing Pains in learning that which is a Rule in all cases of that sort; and that which serves only one case, and such as perhaps seldom occurs, and such are most of their Tables.

I had composed Tables of my own that had some more reference to the things signified than those I now mentioned, and consequently less difficult to learn; but upon the very same Reasons I have here given, I omit them, only giving you a Specimen of them, that if they seem plausible to you, you may exercise your own invention in framing them ac­cording to the following Exámples.

I made all the Capital Print Letters to signifie the Titles and Attributes of God the Father, which be­gun with the said respective Letters, as A to signifie Almighty, All-seeing, All-sufficient, and All-wise [Page 43] distingushed one from another by a prick put at the upper corner on the left side for Almighty, at the lower corner for All-seeing, at the upper corner of the right side for All-sufficient, and at the lower corner of it for All-wise, and so of all the Letters of the Alphabet; and then all the small Print Letters to signifie the Attributes of Christ, and some of them those of the Holy Ghost, and the other sorts of Letters to signifie the good and bad Qualities of Men and Things in the same manner.

FINIS.

ERRATA.

EPist. Dedic. line penult. for and ambitious, read and is am­bitious. Page 6. l. 11. f. Pag. r. pag. 29.

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