THE EXPERIENC'D FARRIER.

THE EXPERIENCED FARRIER, OR, Farring Compleated.

In TWO BOOKS PHYSICAL and CHYRURGICAL.

BRINGING Pleasure to the Gentleman, and Profit to the Countrey-man.

In Which You have the Whole BODY, SUM and SUBSTANCE of it in one Entire Volume, in so Full and Ample Manner, that there is Little or Nothing more Material to be Added Hereto.

For here is Contained Every Thing that Belongs to a True HORSE-MAN, GROOM, FARRIER or HORSE-LEACH, Viz. BREEDING; The Manner How, The Season When, The Place Where, The Colours, Marks and Shapes of all Stallions and Mares, and what are Fit for Generation; The Feeder, Rider, Keeper, Ambler and Buyer; As also the Making of several Precious Drinks, Suppositories, Balls, Pur­gations, Scourings, Ointments, Salves, Powders, Waters, Baths, Charges, Perfumes, And Directions how to use them for all Inward and Outward Diseases.

ALSO The PARING and SHOOING of all Manner of HOOFES, and in what Point that Art doth Consist; The Prices and Vertues of most of the Principal Drugs, both Simple and Compound belonging to Farring, (and where you may buy them,) Viz. Roots, Barks, Woods, Flowers, Fruits, Seeds, Juices, Gums, Rozins, Simples from Plants; Animals, their Parts and their Excrements, Minera's, Metals and Stones; Together with Chymical Oyls and Spirits, Electuaries, Treacles, Powders, Waters, Plaisters and Ointments, &c.

You have Also A Large TABLE of the Virtues of most Simples Set down Alphabetically, and many Hundreds more of Simples Placed one after another, for the Cure of all Inward and Outward Diseases, which you are to make Use of according to your Discretion; With many New Receipts of Excellent Use and Value; Never yet Printed before in any Author.

The Second EDITION much Enlarged and Amended, and Two New Sheets of the Prices and Virtues of DRUGS added to the Table of DRUGS, that was not in the Former Impression, with a Caution to the Farrier about his Buying of them; Also One Hundred and Fifty New Receipts, and Thirty Di­rections for the Physicking of Horses, with about Two Thousand New Simples, and an Advertisement touching their Usefulness; With many other New Additions, too tedious here to Rehearse.

By E. R. Gent.

LONDON, Printed by Richard Northcott Adjoyning to St. Peters Alley in Cornhil, and at the Mar­riner and Ancher upon New-Fish-street Hill, near London-Bridge. 1681.

[Page] TO THE READER.

Nil dictum quod non prius dictum YOU would say, That this Book, tho' New, is no otherwise then Old, by reason that a great part thereof are Collections, and therefore the less to be regarded; Let me Ask you one Question, Is the Honey the worse, because the Bee sucks it out of many Flowers? Or, Is the Spiders Web the more to be valued, be­cause extracted out of her own Bowels; Let not this be any Pre­judice to this Book, but peruse it without Partiality, and with the Judgement of a Farrier; And you shall then find, That these Old Collections are become New, not because they are New Printed, but because they are New Digested and Modelized, and put into a better Form and Method then ever yet before Printed; For let me tell you, there was never any thing in this Nature ever Printed before, but there was something or other wanting to make it a Compleat Book of Farring; But in this you shall find nothing wanting, either to the perfecting a Cure of all Diseases of a Horse, either inward or outward, or to the making a Man a Compleat Horseman. Besides, these Old Collections, you shall find a great many New Additions; As first, A Table of the Prices and Vertues of most of the Principal Drugs, both Simple and Compound belonging to Farring, as they are com­monly Sold at the Druggists in London, with a Caution to the [Page] Buyer of them; A Table so very useful, that 'tis much to be wondred at, that amongst so many Excellent Books of Farring as are Extant in the World, there should be nothing of this kind ever before annexed to them. Secondly, you have a large Table of the Nature, Temperature and Virtues of most Simples, set down Alphabetically. Thirdly, you have an Account of many Hundreds more of Simples, placed in order one after an­other, for the Cure of all inward and outward Diseases, with an Advertisement touching the Usefulness of them. Fourthly, wherever you find a Hand pointing in the Margin, you shall find such Receipts as have been often made use of with very good success, and which was never yet Printed before in any Author. Fifthly, you have the Gathering, Drying and Preserving of Simples and their Juices. Sixthly, you have the Method of ma­king of Syrups, Decoctions, Oyls, Ointments, Plaisters, Charges, Poultisses, Balls, &c. Seventhly, you have hot Medicaments ap­propriate to the Parts of the Body. Eighthly, you have Cold Medicaments appropriate to the same Use. Ninthly, you have the Properties of Purging Medicaments. Tenthly, you have the Properties of Altering Medicaments. Eleventhly, you have a Table of the Diseases of a Horse, either inward or outward, set down Alphabetically, shewing you where they do grow in any part of the Body; How you may know them, and what were the Causes that bred them. Twelfthly, you have in the Table of the said Diseases the Page quoted where to find the proper Cures for every Disease. Thirteenthly and lastly, you have Five Infallible Cures never yet put to Press before (which the Table of Diseases will direct you to) viz. The Glanders, Far­cin, Staling of Blood, Scratches, and making the brittlest Hoof that [Page] is so Tough that it will carry a Shoo Passing well; With many other things Contained in this Book, which is not here Inserted.

If you desire to Know the Ʋsefulness of your General Simples, set down in Order one after another, in the First and Second Part, be­fore every Disease. Look for page 229. and that will inform you.

Amend the Errata's before you fall to Practice.

The BOOKSELLER to the READER.

COURTEOUS READER,

HAving long since Printed with great Care, Pains and Industry, this my Experienced Farrier, for the Cure of all Inward and Outward Diseases, both in Horses and Mares; And finding it hath been Received by all Lovers of Horses or Horse­manship with a General and Friendly Liking, Emboldens me once more to Present You with a Second Impression, well hoping it may find no worse Ʋsage from you then the former had done, but be Re­ceived with the same Candour, Favour and Esteem equal with that, and the rather, by reason that the many Errors committed in the for­mer Edition, is now carefully Corrected and Amended in this, and very many Ʋseful Additions Added hereto, that were not in the for­mer Impression, there being no less then One Hundred and Fifty New Receipts; Besides, the Addition of two New Sheets of the Prices and Virtues of Drugs, very useful▪ for all Farriers to know, with a Caution to the Buyers of them; Also about Two Thousand New Simples, (with their Ʋsefulness declared) put to the End of the other General Simples, for the Cure of all inward and outward Diseases, which upon your Perusal you may find here and there scattered throughout the whole Work; You have also Thirty New Directions for the Physicking and Drenching of Horses, with an Account of Four se­veral sorts of Aloes (which may serve as the Basis and Ground Work of all Purges and Scourings) with their Goodness declared, and the distinguishing Marks how you may know one sort of Aloes from an­other, with many other things herein contained, which if at your Leisure you carefully Compare this Impression with the former, will quickly Inform you of the Truth hereof.

R. Northcott.

The TABLE.

  • THE shapes of a Horse page 1.
  • The Colours of a house in verse ib.
  • The shapes of a horse another way ib. and 6▪
  • A Proverb amongst Husband men on the colours of a horse 1
  • What things are good to strow amongst a horses Provender 2
  • Things that you are to have always by you in a readiness ib.
  • The Virtues of them declared ib.
  • Terms of Art to commend a Horse, if you know him to be good 2.
The Office of the Breeder.
  • The best manner of Breeding 1
  • Grounds to Breed in, and Change of Grounds 3
  • Choice of Stallions and Mares ib.
  • The Age of Stallions and Mares 4
  • Observations upon Covering ib.
  • Bad to cover after the Change of the Moon ib.
  • Covering in the Wane ib.
  • Burning when other horses cover her. ib.
  • Spaying of Mare-Colts, and of Gelding of Horse-Colts ib.
  • What time is best for a Mare to take horse ib.
  • How long time a Mare goes with Foal, how to Order her before she is covered, and how to make her conceive to have a Horse-Colt or Mare-Colt 5
  • The manner how to cover her, and to know whether she stands to her Co­vering ib.
  • How many Mares for one Horse ib.
  • How to order a Mare after she is co­vered 6
  • How to help her if she cannot Foal ib.
  • How to order her after Foaling ib.
  • How long Foals are to run with their Dams 7
  • The time of Foaling looked upon to be very improper because in the Winter-Season ib.
  • When Mares are fit to take horse 8
  • To know the true shape spirit and height of a Foal, from his Shin-bone, from the space between his Knees and Wi­thers, from his spirit and from his Hoofs ib.
  • Weaning of Foals ib.
  • Taming of Colts ib.
  • The time to break Colts ib.
  • Coiling the Stud, or making of Election 9
  • Of barren Mares ib.
  • General Observations concerning Mares, viz. Of Covering, of bringing of Foals, of making a Mare slink Foal, and to make her stand to horse; of Stallions for Trotters, and of Mares to horse. ib.
  • To put your horse and Mare into an empty house; not to chase the Mares; the wall-Eye is an imperfect Sight, and of choice of Mares, &c. ib. & 10.
  • Election of horses for War, for Swift­ness, for Travel and for Draught. ib.
  • To know whether your Mare be with Foal or not ib.
  • To make a Mare conceive a Male Foal. 11
The Office of the Keeper.
  • [Page]Of the horse in General, his Choice for every several Ʋse, his Ordering, Diet and best Preservation for Health, both in Travel and Rest ib.
  • Yhe Nature of a horse in general. ib.
  • Your Choice of a horse for the Wars. ib.
  • What Colours of a horse is best. ib.
  • Choice of a horse for a Princes Seat. 12
  • For Travel ib.
  • For Hunting ib.
  • For Running ib.
  • For the Coach ib.
  • For the Pack ib.
  • For the Cart and Plough 13
  • How to Order these several horses, and first of the horse for the Wars. ib.
  • Ordering a horse for a Prince or a great Ladies Seat. ib.
  • Ordering of Traveling horses at home and abroad ib.
  • Of Watering in the Morning, of Feed­ing betimes, and of Moderate Tra­veling. 14
  • To get a horse a Stomach ib.
  • Not to stop a horses Feet with Cow dung till they be cold ib.
  • Look to his Back, Girts and Shooes. ib.
  • Not to eat nor drink when he is hot. ib.
  • To labour him moderately, when the Weather is extream hot or cold. ib.
  • Not to Travel him too late 15
  • The Saddle not to be presently taken off when he is hot ib.
  • Horse-bread very good food ib.
  • River water not so good as standing­water ib.
  • Swine and Pullen is naught to be nigh a Stable ib.
  • The light of the Stable is best to be made towards the South and North. ib.
  • To be Tied with two Reins very safe. ib.
  • To Ride him on stony ways ib.
  • Wheat-straw and Oat-straw is best for Litter ib.
  • Of Dressing your horse 16
  • Of the Stable ib.
  • A Mud-Wall naught to be nigh a horse. ib.
  • Chopt straw good to throw amongst a horses Provender ib.
  • Bottles of Hay to be Tied hard is very good ib.
  • To sprinkle Hay with Water is also good, and so is Fennegreek strowed amongst his Provender ib.
  • Exercise is very good ib.
  • Grass is also good once a year, to cleanse his Blood and cool his Body ib.
  • A horse hath good store of Blood after Travel ib.
  • What you are to do in case of necessity coming late to your Inn 17
  • To give him Mares Milk to drink, if he be Poor, is very good ib.
  • The best time when to Water in the Winter ib.
  • Not good to wash a horse when he is hot. ib.
  • To light at every steep Hill very good ib.
  • How a fat horse is to have his Meat and Water ib.
  • Rubbing very good for a horse ib,
  • [Page] Boyled Barley is very good. ib.
  • Feet Picked after Travel ib.
  • Much Rest naught 18
  • Be careful to look to your Saddle for fear of Pinching him ib.
  • A Horsemans Rule in Verse ib.
  • Riding softly very good ib.
  • Trotters Oyl is very good to help stiff Limbs▪ ib.
  • Legs Bathed with cold Water is good to prevent Scabs and Swellings ib.
  • Washing at the Stable-door is very good if necessity requires ib.
  • Dressing upon Travel and Rest ib.
  • When to let Blood 19
  • Ordering of Hunting Horses ib.
  • Sir Robert Chernock's manner of feeding his horse in Buck-season for hunting ib.
  • Ordering of Running horses ib.
  • Ordering of Coach horses ib.
  • Ordering of the Pack and Cart-horse. 20
  • The Office of the RIDER and GROOM, and of things belonging to him, viz. His general an a particular Knowledge in Hand­ling, Sadling, Mouthing, Backing and Ri­ding of the great Horse, or Horse of Plea­sure ib.
  • Of the Stable, and what it ought to be built with; A brick Stable preferred before Stone. No Hog-sty nor Hen-Roost ought to be nigh it. Of the Man­ger, of a Pitched Floor, a Mud-wall [...] and of dung not to lie nigh a [...] [...]eels ib.
  • [...] of Stables approved to be better then Planked Stables for several Rea­sons ib.
  • The inconveniencies of a Plank-Floor shewed ib.
  • Your Care in the Choice of a Groom. 22
  • How a Rider ought to be qualified. ib.
  • What manner of Person a Groom ought to be ib.
  • To Saddle and Bridle a Colt 23
  • Of Mouthing ib.
  • Of Backing 24
  • Helps at first Backing ib.
  • What Lessons for what Horse 25
  • Helps and Corrections from his Voice, from his Rod, from his Bit and Snaffle, from the Calves of his Legs, from his Stirrop's and Stirrop-Lea­thers, and from the Ground. 25 and 26
  • Of large Rings ib.
  • Of stopping 27
  • Advancing ib.
  • Retiring ib.
  • Of bitting 28
  • Of streight turnes and turnings ib.
  • The first streight tnrn ib.
  • The other streight turn 29
  • How to help an ill Rein and Cure a Run­away Jade 30
  • The help ib.
  • Another for unconstant Carriage. ib.
The Office of the Feeder.
  • The Introduction to the Work touching the time limited for a hunting horse. 31
  • Their Reasons ib.
  • [Page] Long time inconvenient ib.
  • The first Ordering of the Running Horse, according to the several Estates of their Bodies. 34
  • To have an Eye to the particular Estate of a horses Body ib.
  • The first Fortnights feeding of a horse for a Match, that is fat, foul, or either newly taken from Grass or Soil 35
  • His feet stopped with Cow-dung ib.
  • Four Considerations in giving of Heats 37
  • The second Fortnights feeding 38
  • The first read ib.
  • The Ʋse of the Muzzel ib.
  • The first Scouring 40
  • Ordering of him after his Scouring. ib.
  • The third Fortnights feeding 41
  • The second Bread ib.
  • The fourth & last Fortnights feeding 42
  • The last and best Bread ib.
  • Certain Observations and Advantages for every Feeder to observe in sundry Accidents 44
  • Of Meat and Drink ib.
  • Observations for Lameness 45
  • Observations from the estate of his Body ib
  • From his Inclinations ib.
  • From his outward handling ib.
  • From his privy Parts 46
  • For his Limbs ib.
  • For Water ib.
  • Observations from the Ground to run on ib.
  • Observations from Sweat 47
  • Observations from the hair ib.
The Office of the AMBLER.
  • Observations in Ambling. 47
  • Mens Opinions and Errors 48
  • Ambling by the Ploughed Field ib.
  • Ambling by the Gallop ib.
  • Ambling by Weights ib.
  • Ambling in Hand, or not Ridden 49
  • Ambling by the help of Schooes ib.
  • Ambling by the help of fine Lists ib.
  • Ambling by the Hand only 50
  • Ambling by the Tramel ib▪
  • Errors in the Tramel ib.
  • The best Way to Amble a horse 51
  • The form of the Tramel 52
  • The true use of the true Tramel 53
  • VVhen to alter the Tramel ib.
  • VVhen to Mount his Back 54
  • VVhen to Journey ib.
  • The Office of the BUYER, wherein is shewed all the Perfections and Imperfections that are or can be in a Horse 55
  • Observations and Advertisements for any Man when he goes about to buy a horse ib.
  • The End for which to buy ib.
  • Election how divided 56
  • The General Rule ib.
  • Of Breed ib.
  • Of Colour ib.
  • Of Pace, or Trotting ib.
  • Ambling 59
  • Racking ib.
  • Galloping ib.
  • Stature 60
  • The particular Rule ib.
  • [Page] How to stand to view his Shapes, viz. His Eares, his Face, his Eyes, his Cheeks and Chaps, his Nostrils and Muzzle, his Teeth, his Breast, his fore-Yhighs, his Knees, his Legs, his Pa­sterns, his Hoofs, the setting on of his Head, his Crest and Mane, his Back, Ribs, Fillets, Belly and Stones; his Buttocks, his hinder-Yhighs▪ his Cam­brels, his hinder Legs and his Tail, &c. from p. 60. to p. 67
  • An uncontroulable Way to know the Age of a Horse, viz. By his Teeth, Mouth, Hoofs, Tail, Eyes, Skin, Hair and Barrs of his Mouth, from p. 65 to 67
  • The perfect shape of a horse altogether ib.
  • Rules to be observed of putting a horse to Grass, and taking him up again. 68
  • Of Cleansing and making a horse clean. 69
  • General Notes concerning some Simples. ib.
  • Of Syrups, Pills, Powders, Electuaries and Ointments ib.
  • Of Oyls, Roots, Herbs, Seeds, Rind or Bark 69 & 70

A TABLE of the Office of the Farrier, Alphabetically set down, p. 70.

A
  • Accopium, a Drink, with the Virtues and Nature of it 123 and 124
  • Atman, a Confection, with the Virtues of it 125
B.
  • Baths of all sorts 135 to 137
  • Bon [...]s, how many a horse hath, and where scituated 72
  • Blooding a horse, when the best time 73
  • Blood-letting, with Observations upon it 87
  • Of Burning 88
  • Burning Actual and Potential 90
  • Bread made for a horse to keep him in heart and strength of Body, and to keep him from faintness in his Labour and Exercise, be it never so sore. 116
  • Bread, to make another sort ib.
  • Bangle-Eares how to help 121
  • Balls Cordial, to Cure any violent Cold, Glanders, which prevents Heart-sickness, which Purgeth away all Molten-Grease, which recovers a Lost Stomach, and makes a Lean horse fat suddenly ib.
  • Blood cleansed, general Simples good for it 149
  • Bewitched, general Simples good for it 151
C.
  • Complexion [...]f a horse which is the most necessary Faces that a Farrier can Judge of his Infirmities by 74
  • Corrasives, 89. 115 and 145
  • [Page] Cauterizing 89 and 90
  • Cauterizing, in what cause 114
  • Cautery Potential 115 and 145
  • A Caustick 115 and 145
  • Cordial Powders to make 125
  • Charges of several sorts▪ 131 and 132
  • Copperas water 139
  • Conglu [...]inating Simples 146
  • Clensers of the Blood, Simples good for it in general, vide Blood clensed
  • Cordials and Strengthners of Nature; See for Simples that are good in ge­neral for it 151
  • To cast and overthrow a horse 153
D.
  • Diapente, a Drink, how to use it, and to shew you the Virtues of it 79
  • Diahexaple, a Drink, with the Vir­tues of it 79 and 80
  • Diatessaron made, or Horse Mithridate how made ib.
  • Drinks given when you neither have Diatessaron, Diahexaple or Dia­pente 81
  • Diseases of a horse known by the signes he shews, from 81 to 86
  • Drugs, the Nature of the principal sorts of them 94
  • Drinks in general for all inward Dis­eases of a horse that troubles the whole Body, from 126 to 128
  • Other general Drinks for the Cure of all inward Sickness ib.
  • A Drink very comfortable 131
  • A Drink Operative ib.
  • Drugs, their Prices; see for the Table of them between the first and second part Decoction, what it is 146
E.
  • Of the Elements and their Nature 73
  • Eyes a Caution about them 90
  • To make the black and red Aegyptia­cum, which are both Corrasives. For their Naures are to corrode and eat a­way all manner of proud and naughty Flesh, out of any old sore or Ʋlcer. 126
  • Drenches in general for all manner of Sicknesses 126 and 127
  • Dead Foal to expel, general Simples good for it 148
F.
  • A Farriers Office, in what part it doth consist 70
  • A Farrier ought to know principally five things 90
  • A Farrier what he ought to know before he goes about to Purge a horse 96
  • To fat a lean horse in twelve or fifteen days 123
  • Another for the same purpose ib.
  • Of Feavers, and how you may know e­very sort of them one from another. 129 and 130
  • Fatning things in general 143
  • Lust to provoke, Simples good for it in general 148
G.
  • Of Glisters and their Ʋses 90
  • Glisters for Costiveness 91
  • A Glister Laxative 90
  • A Glister Restringent 92 and 93
  • A Glister for a fat horse that cannot be kept clean ib.
  • [Page] A Glister in case of a desperate sickness ib.
  • A Glister for the Pestilence and all Fea­vers ib.
  • A Glister for the Cholick ib.
  • Advice given upon giving of Glisters, and what are to be put into them. ib.
  • Laxative Glisters, what simples are to be put into them 94
  • Gelding of horses, how and in what Season is best 119
  • Green Ointments, several sorts of them 138. 139 and 140
  • Glisters what they are 146
H.
  • Of the four Humors, Blood, Phlegm [...] Choler and Melancholy 74
  • Health, twelve causes of it 76
  • Horse-Treacle how made 80
  • Halting, where to find the Grief either before or behind 102
  • Horse-Spice how made; If you intend to make use of it amend the fault, for there is left out of it a quarter of a Pound of Anniseeds, and a quarter of a pound of the Powder of Liquoris. ib.
  • Of Hoofs and the several Kinds of them, viz. Brittle and rugged hoofr, long hoofs, crooked hoofs, flat hoofs, with broad Frushes, hoofs with narrow heels from 104 to 106
  • Of paring the perfect hoof and fore-Feet 106
  • Of paring the imperfect hoof, every one according to their Kind; First, of the broken hoof chap. 5, 6. 106
  • Of paring the rough and brittle hoof ch. 7. 108
  • Of Paring the long hoof, ch. 9. ib.
  • Of paring the crooked hoof, ch. 11. 109
  • Of paring the flat hoof, ch. 13. ib.
  • Of paring the over-hollow hoof. ch. 15. 110
  • Of paring the hoof that hath a broad Frush ch. 17 ib.
  • Of paring the hoof that hath a narrow heel ch. 19. ib.
  • Horse-Bread two sorts of it, to keep him in heart and strength of Body, &c. 116
  • A horse to be made not to Neigh, either in company, or when he is ridden 120
  • Humors drove back that flow too fast to a Wound you have in Cure▪ 140
  • Hair made smooth, sleek and soft. 153
  • Head perfumed, see Perfumes
  • To make a horse follow his Master, and to challenge him amongst never so many People 154
  • Heam to expel, which is the same as the after-Birth is in Women; see General Simples good for it 150
K.
  • Knitting Simples; see Conglutinating things
L.
  • Lameness, to Know where it lies, either before or behind 102
  • Loosening things in general. 143
M.
  • The principal Members of a horse. 70
  • [Page] Mash, how made 97
  • Mithridate how made 80
  • Milk to cause, general Simples good for it 148
N.
  • Neesing powder, Vide Perfumes for the Head.
O.
  • Oyls 69
  • Oyl of Oats with the Virtues of it. 130
  • Oyntments, Salves, Powders, and Waters 132 and 133
  • Oyntments green to make. 138, 139 140 and 141
  • Old Horses made seemingly young. 120
P.
  • Planets, their Names 73
  • Physicking Observations, see for more of them in the second Part. 86
  • Purgations, and their several Ʋses. 96
  • Physicking a horse and how to Order him after he hath it. 99
  • Pills of all sorts, and Purgations. 99 and 100
  • Pu refactives 116
  • Powders Cordial how to make 1 5
  • A Powder made of honey and Lyme, that will dry up any Wound or Ʋlcer. 131
  • Pills Purging 13 [...]
  • Pills what they are for 146
  • Purgings, or Scouring Simples in Ge­neral 141
  • Portion, what it is 146
  • A Plaister to dissolve and take away evil humours, which shall at any time fall down into the Legs of a horse. 135
  • Perfumes and Purgers of the head of all filthy and gross humours. 137 and 138
  • Purgings of all sorts, and they are five, viz. by Portions, by Glisters, by Sup­positories and by Grass 146
  • Certain Principles concerning Simples 140
  • Prices of Drugs, see for them between the two Parts
R.
  • Rubarb, its Nature 94
  • Raking of a horse. 87
  • Roots 69
  • Rowling of Horses, and of the Ʋse thereof 11 [...]. 118 and 119
  • Riding, who first Invented it. 121
S.
  • Shapes of a horse at large 67
  • Simples with Notes in general upon them 69
  • Sinews of a horse, their Number 70
  • Signes of the Zodiack, and Govern­ment of them 73
  • Sickness dangerous, how it cometh. 7 [...]
  • Sickness accidental. 73
  • Sickness Cured, when it cometh, and to prevent it before it comes ib.
  • Of Sickness in General, and of the Signes from whence it proceeds. 81 and 86
  • Sorrances, what they are in general, and Observations in the Cure of them. 88
  • Simples how mixed 87
  • Swellings hard and soft, and how you [Page] are to use them, in the Cure of them. 89
  • Of Sores 90
  • Suppositories, the several sorts of them from 94 to 96
  • Scourings, what they are 97
  • Scourings by Grass, by Sorrage, by Sallow and Elm, by Thistles, by Malt▪ 98
  • Scouring of a little stronger Nature. ib.
  • Of Shooing and paring all manner of Hoofs, and in what Point the Art of it doth consist 104
  • Shooing the perfect Hoofs and four Feet, and how the Shoo, Paring and Nail should be made 106
  • Of Shooing the rough and brittle hoof 108
  • Of Shooing the long Hoof 109
  • Of Shooing the crooked Hoof▪ ib.
  • Of Shooing the flat Hoof ib.
  • Of Shooing the over-hollow Hoof. 110
  • Of Shooing the Hoof that hath the broad Frush▪ ib.
  • Of Shooing the Hoof that hath the narrow heel ib.
  • Of Paring and shooing of the hinder Feet 111
  • Of shooing the Hoof that hath a false quarter ib.
  • Of shooing and paring the Hoof that is hoof-bound, 112
  • Of making of planch-shooes. ib.
  • Of paring and shooing for Enterfe­ring▪ 111
  • Shooes with Calkins, Rings, Welts and turning Vices, and of the patten shoo 112 and 113
  • Stars, white and black, and how to make them 120 and 154
  • Suppository, what it is 146
  • A Suppository for inward Sickness 127
  • Salves, Unguents, powders and Wa­ters 132 and 133
  • Scouring and purging things in ge­neral 141
  • Particular Scourings of all sorts for Running Horses, whose Grease must necessarily be Molten, as also for a fat Horse 142 and 143
  • Sores and Ulcers of all sorts to wash, general Simples good for them. 148
  • Swellings and Risings in the Skin, hard or soft, general Simples good to take them away 149
  • Simples and their certain Principles. ib.
  • Sweat to cause, general Simples good for it 150
  • Sores and Ulcers of all sorts to Cure, Simples good in general for them. 152
  • A stubborn Horse to be made go. 154
T.
  • To Trim an unruly horse 154
V.
  • Of the Vital Blood 71
  • Veins, their Number that you are to take Blood from ib.
  • Veins opened, for what use ib.
  • Veins taken up 90
  • Veins, for what cause they are taken up 116
  • Of Vomits 134
  • Wounds clensed, old or new, before you dress them 141
  • [Page] Wind to Expel Simples that are good for it in general 150
  • Venomous Beasts of all sorts to Cure, General Simples good for them. 151

ERRORS that hath Escaped the Press in the First Part of the Experienced FARRIER.

PAGE 6. line 28. for Clod reade Clot. p. 21. l. 38. f. li [...]ter up Horse r. litter up your Horse. p. 44. l. 17. f. streight r. start. p. 52. l. 30. f. Horse. r. Hose. p. 59. l. 7. f. o [...]g r. long. p. 62. l. 33. f. Melander r. Malender. p. 72. l. 13. f. Crow-scab r. Crown-scab. p. 75. l. 19. f. Myly Mouth r. Mayly Mouth. p: 77. l. 32, f. heat r. heats. p. 97. l. 29. f. small r. well. p. [...]00. l. 29. and 30. f. add them to. r. add to them. p. 102. In the Receipt how to make Horse-spice, put into it A quarter of a pound of Liquoris powder, and a quarter of a pound▪ of Anniseeds. which are left out of the Receipt. p. 102. l. the last. f. grie. r. grief p. 114. l. 22. f. Chords. r. Cords. p. 120. l. 6. f. take of a little r. take a little. p. 125. l. 2. f. of Honey r. take Honey. p. 147 l. 6. f. and it will r. will. ib. l. 28. f. Flag in Mortar r. Flag braised in a Mortar. p. 149. l. 24. f. dispenseth r. disperseth. p 150. l. 15. f. Ladanum r. Labdanum. p. 154. l. 3. [...]. so over r. throw over. p. 157. l. 1. f. Jallop r. Jallap. ib. A Parenthesis wanting to make it sense. p. 164. l. 16. f. Creauna r. Creanna. ib. p. l. 20. f. suppupuration. r. suppuration. p. 165. l. 3. f. eing r. being. p. 168. l. 20. is is wanting. ib. p. l. 30. Irish Slate 8. d. the pound r. 4. d. the pound.

[Page 1]THE EXPERIENC'D FARRIER.

The First Part.

The Shapes of a Horse.

HE must have the Eyes and Joynts of an Ox, the Strength of a Mule, the Foot of the same, the Hoofs and Things of an Ass, the Throat and Neck of a VVolf, the Eare and Tail of a Fox, the Breast and Hair of a VVoman, the Boldness of a Lion, the sharp and quick Sight of a Serpent, the Pace of a Cat, the Lightness and Nimbleness of a H [...]re, a high Pace, a deli­berate Trot, a pleasant Gallop, a swift Running, a rebounding Leap and Present, and be quick in Hand.

The Colours of a Horse in Verse.
If you desire a Horse thee long to serve,
Take a Brown-bay, and him with Care preserve▪
The Grey's not ill, but he is prized far
That is Cole-black, and blazed with a Star:
If for thy self, or Friend, thou wilt procure
A Horse, let him VVhite-Lyard be, he'll long endure,

The Shapes of a Horse. Another VVay.

1. Ox. He ought to have three of an Ox, which is a fair and full Eye, a large Neck▪ and to be strong and short Joynted.

2. Fox. Three of a Fox, which is to have a comely and short Trot, small and long Eares, and a Bushy Tail.

3. Hart▪ Three of a Hart. which is to have lean and dry Legs, to be well risen before, and a lean Head.

4. Woman▪ Three of a VVoman, which is to have a fair and large Breast, to have a beautiful and full Hair, and gentle to his Rider and Keeper.

A Proverb amongst Husbandmen.
If you have a Foal with four white Feet, keep him not a day.
If you have a Foal with three white Feet, make him soon away.
[Page 2] If you have a Foal with two white Feet, give him to thy Friend,
If you have a Foal with one white Foot, keep him to his Lives end,

These things are good to strow in a Horses Provender.

Turmerick, white Lilly Roots chop­ped small and dried. The Powder of Anniseeds, Licoris, Fennegreek, Bay-berries, Brimstone, Allum, Hemp-seed, Alacampane, or the Roots of Pollipodium of the Oak or Savin, Marshmallowes, Rhue, Hysop, Hore-hound, Colts-foot. If you give him the Herbs green, you must chop them small, if dry, beat them to powder, which Simples will keep him sound and in perfect Health; for their Vertues are to purisie the Blood, prevent Obstructions, open and resolve the Liver, cool the Blood, keep and preserve the whole structure of the body in sound and perfect Health.

These things you are always to have in a readiness by you.

Fennegreek a pound, Licoris half a pound, Bay-berries a quarter of a pound, London-Treacle one pound, Anniseeds a quarter of a pound, Cum­min-seeds a quarter of a pound, Grains a quarter of a pound, Turmerick a quarter of a pound, Long-Pepper two ounces, Alacampane half a pound, Allum half a pound, Brimstone half a pound, green Copperas half a pound, Savin three handfuls, Chopt-hair a handful.

These things Repeated over again, with their Vertues declared.

Fennegreek, Licoris, Bay-berries, London-Treacle, Anniseeds, Cummin-seeds, Grains, Long Pepper, Alacampane, all good for Colds.
Colds.
Turmerick, good to Purge the Blood, and to Cure the Yellows.
Yellows.
Brimstone, Alacampane, Allum, Savin, Chopt-Hair, good for the Wormes.
VVormes.

Throw these things a­mong his Provender. If you are ask's what fault your Horse hath, if you know him to be sound, you may answer him in this manner.

He hath neither Splint, Spavin, nor wind, gall Scratches, Crepances, nor Rats-tails, Mules nor Cib'd heeles, Sellander, nor Mallender, Curb, Ring-bone, Quitter-bone, Hough-bonny, Sit-fast, Ambury, Viues, but good Eyes and good Thighs; Or if you can affirm him further to be sound, you may say he [Page 3] hath neither Farcin, Foundred-foot, broken-wind, Moulten-grease, nor Running glaunders.

Of the Office of the Breeder.

The best Manner of Breeding.

YOU are not to breed in Fenny, Moorish Pastures, nor in Lands too Fertile, nor too Barren, the Golden Number is the best temper, yet to incline a little to hardness, is better then much rankness, the one breeds Health and the other Disea [...]es. Let the situation be a little Hilly, and in some places stony and rocky, for they are very good for Colts to play on, and helpeth their VVind, and knitteth their Joynts, and harden­eth and maketh tough their Hoofs; and no matter how rough and un­certain it is, for it will make them the more sure footed. As much ground as will keep a Milch-Cow, will keep a Milch-Mare.

Change of Groudns.

You are to have three sorts of Grounds, one to Foal in, another to Summer in, and a third to VVinter in. The first to be without danger, the second not to be without shelter of Bushes, or under VVoods, to de­fend from Stormes and Tempests; and the third is, to have good Ho­vels, Sheds, Barnes, or Back-stables, wherein may be stored VVinter-Provision. You are likewise to Accommodate your Grounds with Par­titions, to put each Cattel by themselves, as your young and old, rase or breeding Mares by themselves, your VVeanlings by themselves, your Fillies by themselves, and your stoned Colts by themselves, or else your Breed will come to nothing, and you may run the hazard both of your cost and pains.

Choice of Stallions.

You are to be careful, that neither your Stallion nor Mare have any of these defects, viz. Neither Moon-eyes, watery-eyes, or Blood-shotten eyes, neither Splint, nor Spavin, nor Curb, &c. Nor any Natural Imper­fection, for the Colts will take them as Hereditary from their Parents. I shall advise you that you choose the best and ablest, the highest spirited, the fairest coloured, and the finest shaped, whether it be Nea­politan, T [...]rk, Spaniard, Barbary, English, Dutch, Polander, French or German, and that you would inform your self of all natural defects in the Stallion, (for it is impossible to find out absolute perfection) and to a­mend them in the Mare, and what is amiss in the Mare, to see it Repaired in the Horse.

The Age of Stallions and Mares.

A Stallien ought not to be younger then four years when he Covereth a Mare, and he will beget Colts from that Age to twenty. And a Mare may bring forth from three years old to thirteen, when she is four years she will nourish her Colt best, but after she is ten years she is not good, for commonly an old Mare-Colt will be heavy in Labour.

Observations upon Covering.

Let your Mare be Covered from the end of the first Quarter to the full of the Moon, or at the full, for those Colts will be more stronger and har­dier of Nature.

After the Change.

It is not good for Mares to be Covered after the Change, for those Colts will be tender and nice.

The Wain.

Mark the VVain in that time the Mare was Covered, the same time of the Moon she will Foal.

Burning.

If your Mare hath been Covered, and the Colt Knit within her, if an­other Horse covers her he burns her.

Of Spaying a Mare-Colt.

If a Mare-Colt be Spayed nine days after it is Foaled, she will prove (as some say) Fair, Gallant and well.

Of Gelding of Colts.

The time of Gelding is when the Moon is in the Wain, the Sign in Arie: or Virgo, the time of the year is early in the Spring or Fall. Horses will be better shaped, and in less danger of Gelding, if they be Gelt at nine or fifteen days old, if the Stones appear, or so soon as you find them fall down into the God.

VVhat time a Mare is to take Horse.

If your Mare be Covered of St. Lucies day, which is the thirteenth of December, then she will Foal about St. Thomas's day, the same Moneth in the year following.

How long time a Mare goes.

During the time of her going with Foal, from the day of her Covering unto the day of her Foaling, is commonly twelve Months and ten dayes, unless it be a young Mare upon her first Colt, which may come sooner.

How to Order her before she is Covered.

You are to take her into the House about six weeks before she is Co­vered, and feed her well with good Hay and Oats, well sifted, to the end she may have Strength and Seed to perform the Office of Generation. But if you would have her certainly conceive, then take Blood from both sides of her Neck, and let her bleed nigh a quart of either Vein, which you must do five or six days before you have her Covered; If you desire to have a Horse-Colt of your Mare, then let her be Covered when one of the first Masculine Signes do reign, which are either Aries, Taurus, Ge­mini, Cancer, or Leo. But if she be Covered when any of the Feminine Signes be Predominate, as Virgo, Libra, Scorpio, Sagita [...]ius, Capricornus, A­quarius or Pisces, then be confident it will be a Mare, for it is so certain, that it seldom or never fails, especially if the VVind be either VVest or North, but VVest is best.

The Manner of Covering her.

You are to bring her out into some broad Place, and Tie her to a Post, then bring out some Stone Jade to dally with her, to provoke her to Ap­petite, then let the Stallion be led out by two men, and let him leap her, and let him do it in the Morning Fasting, and when the Horse is dis­mounting, throw a pale full of cold water upon her Shape, which by reason of the coldness will make her shrink in, and truss up her Body, and will make her retain her Seed the better; then take away the Stallion, and let her be put out of the Hearing of the Horse, and let her neither eat nor drink in four or five houres after, and give her a Ma [...] and white water. If she stands to her Covering, you may know it by this, if she keeps a good Stomach, and does not Neigh at the sight of a Horse, or if she does not Piss often, or open and shut her Shape often; or that if her Belly, four days after her Covering, be more gant, and her Hair more slick and close to her skin, &c.

How many Mares for one Horse.

If you Cover abroad, one Horse will serve twelve Mares, if you expect [Page 6] no other service from him; but if you keep him in the Stable where he hath extraordinary keeping, he will serve fifteen.

How to Order a Mare after Covering to her Foaling.

Keep her with the same Diet as before Covering, for three weeks or a Month after, lest the Seed be empaired before it be formed in the VVomb; and let her be kept sweet and clean without any Exercise, during three weeks or a Month, and to keep her in the House till mid-May, and not to turn her out before mid-May, and with her Feet well pared, and a thin pair of Shooes upon them, and take her in again the latter end of Sep­tember, if not before, and keep her to the end of her Foaling, and let her be loose in the Stable with good store of straw with her, that so the Foal may fall the softer, for a Mare does usually Foal standing.

How to help her if she cannot Foal.

If she cannot Foal, hold her Nostrils so that she cannot take her wind; or if that will not do, take the quantity of a VVallnut of Madder, and dissolve it in a Pint of old Ale, and being warm give it the Mare, if both fail, take the help of some understanding Farrier. If she cannot avoid her Secundine, then boyl two or three Handfuls of Fennel in Running water, and take half a Pint of it with as much Sack, or for want thereof, a Pint of strong Beer or Ale, with a fourth part of Sallet Oyl, mix them together, and give it her Luke-warm into her Nostrils, and hold them close for a good space, or, for want thereof, give her good green Wheat or Rye, (but Rye is the best) and they are as effectual. Let her not eat her clean, for that is very unwholesom and will dry up her Milk.

To Order her after Foaling.

VVhen she hath Foaled, and licked her Foal, Milk and stroak her be­fore the Colt doth suck, which will both cause her to bring down her Milk, but make it to multiply, and keep it that it doth not clod; which may cause her to become dry, which if there be cause, boyl as much Milk as you can get from her, with the Leaves of Lavender, or Spike, and bath the Udder with it warm till it be broken, and the Knobs and Knots dis­solved. Let her water after Foaling be white water, which is Bran put into her water, and give her sweet Mashes; and a Month after her Foal­ing give her a Mash, and put into it some Brimstone or Savin, which will be a great preservation to the Colt. And then if she be moderately la­boured at Plough, or Harrow, the Mare and Colt will be the better, pro­vided she be kept from Raw Meats while she remaineth in the Stable, = [Page 7] which will both increase her Milk, and cause her Colt to thrive the better. And that you suffer not the Colt to suck when she is hot, lest thereby you Surfeit the Colt.

How long Foals are to run with their Dams.

Let them run with their Dams a full year at least, but if they be choice Foals, then two years, for the loss of the use of the Mare will be no loss, in comparison of the benefit you will receive by the Foal; but if you want Accommodations VVean at seven Months, but be sure to keep them well, for what they lose the first year they will hardly gain in three following; And at the VVeaning give them Savin and Butter for divers Mornings together, or else the Worm and Gargil will hazard to destroy them; besides, have an eye to the Strangle, for it is apt to essay them, and if not taken in time it will destroy them; The first VVinter spare neither Hay nor Corn, that is, Oats in the Chaff, or in the Sheaf, or give him any Offal that comes from any Grain whatsoever.

The Time of Foaling look'd upon to be very improper, because in the VVinter-Season.

The Time of Foaling, as I have said before, I would have in December or January, which most hold to be a very improper time, the VVeather being cold, and but little Grass, which of Necessity she must be Housed, and fed with hard Meat, which will dry up her Milk, and so starve the Foal: But to satisfie this Scruple, and to tell you, That Experience is the best Master, for certainly the VVinter-season must needs be the best both for the Mare and Foal, being kept in a warm House; and as for her Milk, she will have great plenty, being fed well, and that more nourish­ing then that got at Grass, which will make him more lusty, and of greater Bone and Stature, and cleaner Limb'd, and more neatly Joynted and Hoof'd, and in better liking then that Colt Foaled in May or June, or any of the hotter Months, for though Grass doth yield great plenty of Milk, yet it is not so nourishing, because it is very thin and watery, therefore it will not yield so substantial Nourishment as the VVinter-food, [...]if it be good, for though the quantity of Milk is not so great, yet it is of greater goodness; And besides, the pinching Cold, Rains and Floods in VVinter, will so Nip the poor Colt, and enfeeble the Mare in such desperate manner, that the wanting her former plenty of Food and dry Lodging, her Milk will decay when the Colt hath most need of it, by which means they must needs both fall into extream Poverty; And over and above all this, by his Running abroad with the Mare, he becometh so savage and wild, that if any Infirmity seize upon him, his own unruliness being so great, the Cure may be very difficult, for infinite are the Number that hath perished in this kind.

VVhen Mares are fit to take Horse.

Observe their Chasing and Galloping up and down morning and even­ing, and their throwing up of their Noses, and lifting up of their Tails, riding on one anothers Backs, often Pissing, or opening of their Shapes, and closing of them again, which are Signes of Lust.

To know the true Shape, Spirit and Height of a Foal.

The same Shape that it carries at a Month old, he will carry at six years old, if he be not abused in after-keeping, and as the good Shape, so the defects also.

From the Shin-bone.

A large Shin-bone, that is long from the Knee to the Pastern in a Foal, shews a tall Horse.

From the space between his Knee and VVithers.

Look what space he has between his Knee and VVithers, double that will be his height when he is a compleat Horse.

From their Spirits to know their goodness.

If they are stirring Spirits, free from affrights, wanton of disposition, and very active in leaping and running, striving for Mastery, prove ge­nerally good mettl'd Horses, the contrary, Jades.

From his Hoofs.

If his Hoofs be strong, deep, tough, smooth, upright standing and hol­low, he cannot be evil, for they are the Foundation of his Building, and lend Fortitude from all the rest. Therefore the Barbary-Horse is well known by his Hoofs, for there is no Horse hath naturally so good a Hoof as he.

VVeaning of Foals.

VVean your ordinary Foals at the end of seven Months, your better at a year or two, and let them not be within the hearing of one another, and keep them very high the second year; but the third and fourth put them to hard Grasing.

Taming of Colts.

You are to make them familiar to you from the first VVeaning, and so VVinter after VVinter (in the House) use them to familiar Actions, as Rubbing, Clawing, Haltering, Leading to water, taking up of his Feet, knocking his Hoofs, and the like.

The Time to break Colts.

The best Time to break Colts to the Saddle is at three years old, and the advantage, or four at the utmost. But he that hath the patience to stay to see his Horse full five, shall be sure to have him of longer conti­nuance, and less subject to Disease or Infirmity, and on that (but by death) will hardly come to the knowledge of tyring.

Coiling of the Stud, or making of Election.

I advise you by no means to make too early Coiling: for some Horses will shew their best Shape at two and three years old, and lose it at four, others not till five, nay, six, but then keep it ever; some will do their best days work at six or seven years old, others not till eight or nine. But be the time when it will, let him preserve for his own use the best; those that be defective, I mean, such as bring incurable desormities, gross Sorrances, as Spavins, Ring-boncs, imperfect Eyes, or the like, make away with them.

Barren Mares.

If you f [...]nd any of your Mares grow into Barrenness, away with them, for though I could prescribe you Remedies, yet they are not worthy of your use.

General Observations concerning Mares.

In length and height a Mare groweth till she be five, and a Horse till he be six years old.

Covering.

VVhen a Mare is past two years old, she may be Covered, but the best time is after four years old.

Bringing of Foals.

Common Mares may bring Foals every year, but let your best bring but every second year, especially if they bring Horse-Colts.

To make a Mare stink Foal.

To make a Mare slink her Foal is to give her down her Throat with a Horn some water, with three Grig Eeles, which will make her slink with a great deal of safety.

To make her stand to Horse.

To make a Mare stand to Horse the better, is to let her stand by him two o [...] three days before he cover her

Stallion for Trotters.

Let your Stallion for Trotters be either Ne [...]politan Courser, or Arabian, Turk, or Barbary, and for Amblers, either the Spanish Jennet, or the Irish Hoboy.

Mares to Horse.

Put your Mares to Horse, from the middle of March, till the middle of May, or middle June, the Moon having newly changed.

To put your Horse into an empty House.

It is good to put the Horse and the Mare for three or four Nights to­gether in an empty house, and take him away in the Morning, and feed [Page 10] him well, and feed your Mare sparingly; but especially give her but little water.

Chasing the Mares.

At the end of six Months chase not the Mares, for then they are a quickning, and may easily be made to cast their Foals.

The VVall-Eye.

The wall-Eye of a Horse or Mare doth never see perfectly, especially when the Snow is upon the Ground.

Choice of Mares.

For your choice of Mares you ought to respect their Shapes and Mettles, that they be beautifully fore-handed, and that they be of a mean stature, large and broad, and the Stallion of like shape, but somewhat broader and taller, and temper their Natures thus. Put unto the hot Horse the cool Mare, and to the hot Mare the cool Horse.

If you will Elect a Horse for Service and Warlike Employment, then these are best.

The Neapolitan, the Sardinian, the Courser, the Almaine, the French, the Jennet, or the Turk [...].

Or if any of these Bastardized in themselves, or with a fair well Sha­ped and Mettl'd English Mare.

For Swiftness.

If you will Elect for Swiftness, then

The Arabian, the Barbary, which is a Horse of Africa. The Spanish, the Grecian, which is the Turky Horse. Or any of these Bastardized in them­selves with our English Mares.

For Travel.

If you will choose for long Travel and Service. Then, the English, the Hungarian, the Swedeland, the Poland, the Irish.

For Draught.

If you will choose for Draught and Service. Then, the Flanders, the Friesland, or any of the Netherlands, either Bastardized in themselves, or with our English Rases, and these are excellent for Coach, for Cart, for Pack or any Burthen. If you will choose for Ease, then the Irish.

To know whether your Mares be with Foal, or not.

If you pour a spoonful of cold Vinegar or Water into her Ear, if she shake only her Head, it is a sign she is with Foal; but if she shake her [Page 11] Head, Body and all, then it is a sign she is not with Foal. Or if she scoures, her Coat grow smooth and shining, and that she grows Fat, it is a sign that she holds.

To make the Mare Conceive Male Foals.

To make your Mare Conceive Male Foals, is to keep your Stallion proud, and your Mare poor; that his Lust mastering hers, he may only be predominate and chief in the Action.

Of the Office of the Keeper.
Of the Horse in general, his Choice for every several Ʋse, his Ordering, Diet, and best Preservation for Health, both in Travel and in Rest.

Of the Nature of Horses in general.

HE is Valiant, Strong and Nimble, and above all other Beasts most apt and able to endure the extreamest Labours, the moist quality of his Composition being such, that neither extream heat doth dry up his strength, nor the violence of Cold, freeze the warm temper of his moving spirits, for he withstandeth all defects of Sickness with an uncontrouled constancy. He is most Gentle and Loving to Man, apt to be taught, and not forgetful when an Impression is fixed in his Brain; he is watchful above all other Beasts, and will endure his Labour with the most empty Stomach, he is naturally given to much cleanliness, he is of an excellent Scent, and therefore not so much as to offend any man with his evil Sa­vours.

Your Choice of a Horse for the Wars.

Choose him of a tall stature with a comely Head, and out-swelling Fore­head, a large sparkling Eye, the white thereof covered with the Eye­brows, a small thin Ear, short and pricking; if it be long, well carried, and ever moving, a deep Neck, a large Crest, broad Breast, bending Ribs, broad and streight Chine, round and full Buttocks, a Tail high and broad, neither too thick nor too thin, a full swelling Thigh, a broad, flat and lean Leg, short Pasterned, strong Joynted.

Colours of a Horse.

The best Colours are brown Bay, Daple-gray, Roand, Bright-Bay, Black, with a white near Foot behind, white sore-Foot before, white Star, Chesnut or Sorrel, with any of those marks, or Dun with a black List.

Horses for a Princes Seat.

If you will choose a Horse for a Princes Seat, or for any Supream Ma­gistrate, or any great Lady; then choose the finest shape, that is Nimble, with an easie Pace, and Gentle to get up, familiar and quiet in the com­pany of other Horses, and let his colour be Milk-white, with red Frains or without, or else Dapple-grey, with a white Mane, and white Tail.

Horses for Travel.

If you choose a Horse for Travel, choose him for Strength, viz. His Joynts strong, his Pastornes short and streight without bending in his going, hollow and tough Hoofs, let him be of a temperate Nature, nei­ther too furious, nor too dull.

Hunting Horses.

If you choose a Horse for Hunting, let his Shape be generally strong, and well knit together, making equal Proportions, for as unequal Shapes shew weakness, so equal Shapes shew strength and durance; your unequal Shapes, are a great Head and a little Neck, a big Body and a thin But­tock, a large Limb to a little Foot, &c. Let him have a large and lean Head, wide Nostrils, open Chauld, a big VVheasand, and the VVind­pipe streight.

Running Horses

If you choose him for Running, let him have all the finest Shapes that may be. Let him be nimble, quick and siery, apt to flie with the least mo­tion; long Shapes are sufferable, for though they shew weakness, yet they assure sudden speed.

Coach-Horses.

If you choose him for the Coach, which is called the swift Draught, let his [...]hape be tall, broad and well furnish'd, not gross with much flesh, but with the bigness of his Bones; let him have a strong Neck, a broad Breast, a large Chine, sound clean Limbs, and tough Hoofs. And for this purpose your large English Geldings are best, your Flemish Mares next, and your strong Stone-Horses tolerable.

P [...]ck-Horses.

If you choose a Horse for Portage, that is, for the Pack or Hampers. Let him have a strong Body and Limb:, but not tall, with a broad Back, out-Ribs, full Shoulders and thick VVithers; for if it be thin in that Part, you shall hardly keep his Back from Galling, and be sure he take a large stride, for he that taketh the largest stride goes at the most ease, and rids his Ground the fastest.

Cart or Plough.

Lastly, if you will choose a Horse for Cart or Plough, which is the slow [Page 13] draught, choose him that is of an ordinary height, for Horses in the Cart unequally sorted never draw at ease, but the tall hang up the low Horse. Let him be big, large Bodied and strong Limb'd, by Nature rather inclin'd to crave the VVhip, then to draw more then is needful. And for this purpose, Mares are most profitable, if you have cheap keeping for them, for they will not only do your work, but bring you yearly increase; be sure you take them well-forehanded, that is, good Head, Neck, Breast and Shoulders; for the rest, it is not so regardful, only let her Body be large, for the more room a Foal hath in her Dams Belly, the sairer are his Members. And be sure you never put your Draught-Beasts to the Saddle for that alters their Pace, and hurts them in their Labour.

How to Order these several Horses. And first of the Horse for the Wars.

During his time of teaching, which is out of the VVars, you shall keep him high; let his Food be good Hay and clean Oats, or two parts Oats, and one part Beans or Pease well dried and hard, half a Peck at a Morn­ing, Noon, and at Evening is sufficient. In his days of rest, Dress him betwixt five and six in the Morning, and VVater him at seven or eight in the Afternoon. Dress him between three and four, and VVater him a­bout four or five, and give him Provender always after watering; Litter him at eight, and give Food for all Night. The Night before he is ridden, about Nine at Night take away his Hay, and at four of the Clock in the Morning give him a Handful or two of Oats, which being eaten, turn him upon the Snaffle, Rub him all over with dry Clothes, then Saddle him and make him Fit for his exercise; and when you have done with him, bring him into the Stable all sweaty, as he is, and Rub him all over with dry VVisps, then take off his Saddle, and after you have rubbed him all over with dry Cloaths, put on his Housing-Cloth, then put on the Saddle again, and girt it, and walk him about gently while he be cold, then set him up, and after two or three houres fasting, put him to his Meat, then in the Afternoon, curb, rub and dress him, and water him, and order him as aforesaid.

Ordering a Horse for a Prince, or great Ladies Seat.

You must Order him in the time of his Rest, like unto the Horse for Service; and in his time of Labour like the Travelling Horse, only you are to keep him more choicely. I mean, in a beautiful manner, his Coat lying smooth and shining; if he come in sweating into the Stable, after you have rubbed him down take off the sweat with a Sword Blade, whose edge is rebated.

Ordering of Travelling Horses at home and abroad.

Feed him with good Hay in the VVinter, and good Grass in the Sum­mer. [Page 14] His Provender, let it be good dry Oats, Beans, Pease or Bread, ac­cording to his Stomach; In the time of Rest, half a Peck at a Water­ing is sufficient, in the time of Labour as much as he will eat with a good Stomach.

Of Watering in the Morning.

When you Travel him, Water two houres before you Ride, then rub, dress and lustily feed, then bridle up, and let him stand an hour before you take his back.

Of Feeding betimes.

In your Travel feed your Horse betimes for all night, that thereby he may the sooner take his rest.

Moderate Travelling.

Travel moderately in the Morning, till his wind be rackt, and his Limbs warmed, then after do as your Affairs require. Be sure at Night to water your Horse two miles before you come to your Journey's end; then the warmer you bring him to his Inn the better, walk not, nor wash not at all, the one doth beget Colds, the other Foundrings in the Feet or Body, but set him up warm, well stopt, and well rubbed, with clean Litter; Give no Meat whilest the outward parts of your Horse are hot or wet with sweat, as the Ear-roots, the Flanck, the Neck, or under his Chaps; but being dry, rub and feed him according to the goodness▪ of his Stomach.

To get a Stomach.

Change of Food begetteth a Stomach, so doth the washing the Tongue or Nostrils with Vineger, Wine and Salt, or warm Urine.

Not to stop the Horses Feet with Cow-dung till they be cold.

Stop not your Horses Feet with Cow-dung till he be sufficiently cold, and that the Blood and Humours which were dispersed, be setled in­to their proper places.

Look to his Back, Girts and Shooes.

Look well to his Back, that the Saddle hurt not; to the Girts, that they gall not; and to his Shooes, that they be large, fast and easie.

Not to eat nor drink when he is hot.

Let him neither eat nor drink when he is hot, nor presently after his Travel.

To Labour him moderately, when the Weather is either extream hot or cold.

Labour him moderately when the Weather is either extream hot, or [Page 15] extream cold, that so you may avoid extream Heats or sudden Colds.

Not to Travel him too late.

Travel him not too late, that your own eye may see him well dried, and well fed, before you take your own rest.

The Saddle not to be presently taken off.

Take not the Saddle from your Horses Back suddenly.

Horse-bread very good Food.

Horse-bread which is made of clean Pease, Beans or Fitches, feedeth exceedingly.

River-water is not so good as standing-water.

Let your Horses Meat and Drink be exceeding sweet and clean, Stand­ing-water is better then River-water, for that is too piercing.

Swine and Pullen is naught to be nigh a Stable.

Let him lie clean and dry, keep your Stable sweet, let no Swine lie near it, nor let any Pullen come within it.

Let the Light of your Stable be towards the South and North.

Let the Light of your Stable be ever towards the South and North; yet so as the North-windows may in the Winter be shut close at Plea­sure.

To be Tied with two Reins.

Let him be Tied with two Reins.

To Ride him on stony wayes.

Ride him often on stony ways, that he may the better feel his Feet, and harden his Hoofs.

Wheat-straw, and Oat-straw, best for Litter.

Let his Bed be of Wheat-straw above his Knees, the Barley-straw is the softest, yet a Horse will covet to eat it, which is unwholesom; Wheat-straw, though it be hard to lie upon, yet it is wholesom to eat, and as for Oat-straw, it is the best in the Superlative, for it is not only wholesom to eat, but soft to lie upon.

Of Dressing your Horse.

Curry or Dress your Horse twice a day, that is before water; and when he is Curried, rub him well with your Hand, and with a Rubber, his Head should be rubbed with a wet Cloth, and his Cods made clean with a dry Cloth, otherwise he would be scabby between his Legs; you should wet his fore-top, his Mane and his Tail with a wet Mane-Comb, and ever where the Horses Hair is thinnest, there Curry the gentlest.

Of the Stable.

Let the Plaunchers of your Stable lie even and level, that your Horse may stand at his ease, and not prove Lame by too much oppressing his hinder Feet.

A Mud-wall is naught to be nigh a Horse.

Let not any Mud-wall be within your Horses reach, for he will natu­rally covet to eat it, and nothing is more unwholesom.

Chopt Straw is good to strow amongst his Provender.

Give your Horse plenty of Garbage (which is Chopt VVheat-straw) both with his Provender and without, for it is a mighty Clenser of a Horses Body.

Bottles of Hay to be Tied hard.

Let your Hay-bottles be very little, and Tied very hard, for so your Horse shall eat with a better Stomach, and make least waste.

To sprinkle the Hay with water is good, and to strow Fennegreek amongst his Provender.

To sprinkle water upon your Hay is most wholesom, and to sprinkle Fennegreek upon your Provender, is as sovereign; The [...]rst is good for the VVind, the latter for VVormes.

Exercise good.

Let your Horse have daily Exercise, for that begets a good Stomach to his Meat.

Grafs is good once a year, to cleanse the Blood and cool the Body.

Purge your Horse once a year with Grass, or green Blades of Corn called Forrage, for fifteen days together; yet before you purge him, in any case let him Blood, and whilest he is in Purging let him have no Pre­vender.

A Horse good store of Blood after Travel.

A Horse after Travel hath ever more Blood then any Beast what [...]o [...] ­ever, [Page 17] therefore it is good to take Blood from him to prevent the Yel­lows, or other Diseases that may follow.

What you are to do in Case of Necessity, coming late to your Inn.

If you come late to your Inn, so that your Journey be great and earnest, and that your Horse will not eat till he hath drunk, and yet is hot notwithstanding, then let his Drink be Milk given in the dark, lest the whiteness make him refuse it; this is both cordial and pleasant: If you cannot get Milk enough, then mingle Milk with water luke-warm.

To give him Mares Milk to drink if he be poor.

If your Horse either by Labour, or any Surfeits be brought low, lean and weak, give him Mares Milk to drink many days▪together, and it will make him strong.

The best-times to Water in the Winter.

The best Houres to water your Horse in the Winter (when he is at Rest) is betwixt seven and eight in the Morning, or four or five in the Evening.

Not good to wash a Horse if he be hot.

It is not good to wash a Horse when he is hot, but you may wash him above the Knees, so that you do not wash his Belly; and that you ride him after he is washed, and so set him up and dress him. The purer the water is wherein you wash your Horse, the more wholesom it is, so that it be not too extream cold.

To light at every steep Hill.

When you Travel, at every steep Hill, light, both to refresh your Horse and your self.

How a fat Horse is to have his Meat and his Water.

Let a fat Horse have his water at four times, and not as much as he will drink at once, and let him stand two or three houres every day with­out Meat.

Rubbing is good for a Horse.

Rubbing much, hard and well, doth profit, preserve, and it keeps both legs and body in strength, and he doth much delight in it, and it doth better then much Meat.

Boiled Barley is good.

Boiled Barley is a great Fatner of a Horse.

To Pick his Feet after Travel.

Cleanse and pick the Soles of his Feet ever after Travel, and stuffe them well with Ox-dung, and anoint his Hoofs with Grease, Tarr or Turpentine.

Much Rest naught.

Much Rest is the Nurse and Mother of many Diseases.

Be careful to look to your Saddle.

When you Ride, look often to your Saddle and your Horses Shooes, and you shall find much more ease in your Journey.

A Horse-Mans Rule.

If you do intend to keep your Horse in his Skin,
Go softly out, and come softly in.

Riding softly.

Ride moderately the first two houres, but after according to your oc­casions.

Trotters Oyl is good to help stiff Limbs.

Trotters Oyl is an excellent Ointment, being applied very warm to your Horses Limbs, to nimble them, and to help Stiffness and Lameness. And Dogs Grease is better, therefore never want one of them in the Stable.

To Bath his Legs with cold water, is good to Keep his Legs from Scabs and Swellings.

Bath the Fore-legs from the knees and Gambrels downwards with cold water, for it is wholesom, and both comforteth the Sinews, and prevents Scabs and Swellings.

To Wash at the Stable door, if Necessity requires.

If foul ways compel you to wash your Horses Legs, then do it with a Pail of water at the Stable-door, rather then to endanger him in Pond or River; and for walking, rather Sit on your Horses back to keep his spirit stirring, then to walk him in your Hand, for he will soon catch Cold that way, the Wind and Air getting between his Saddle and Back.

Dressing upon Travel and Rest.

Dress your Horse twice a day upon Rest, and once upon Travel.

Blooding.

Spring and Fall are the best times to take Blood from a Horse.

Ordering of Hunting Horses.

While he is at Rest, let him have all the quietness that may be, let him have much Meat, much Litter, much Dressing, and Water ever by him, and let him sleep as long as he pleaseth, keep him to Dung rather soft then hard, and look that it be well coloured and bright, for Darkness shews Grease, and Redness inward heating. Let Exercises and Mashes of sweet Mault, after his usual Scourings; or let Bread of clean Beans, or Beans and Wheat mixt together, be his best food, and Beans and Oats the most ordinary.

Sir Robert Chernock's Manner of Hunting in Buck-season.

He never takes his Horse up into the Stable during the Season, but Hunts him upon Grass, only allowing him as many Oats as he can well eat. And he approves of this to be a very good way, by reason that if there be any Molten Grease within him which violent Hunting may raise up, this going to Grass will purge it out; He hath Rid his Horse three days in a week during the Season, and never yet found any hurt, but ra­ther good by it, so that you turn your Horse out very cool.

The Ordering of your Running Horse,

Let him have no more Meat then will suffice Nature, drink once in twenty four houres, and dressing every day once at Noon only; Let him have moderate Exercise Morning and Evening, Ayrings, or the fetching of his water, and know no other violence but in his Courses only. If he be very fat, scoure oft; if of reasonable stature, seldom; If lean, then scoure but with a sweet Mash only; let him stand dark and warm, having many Clothes and much Litter, and that Wheat-straw only. Let him be empty before you Run, and let his Food be the finest, lightest and quick­est of Digestion that may be; The Sweats are most wholesom that are given abroad, and the Cooling most natural which is given before he cometh into the Stable. Keep his Limbs with cool Ointments, and let not any hot Spices come into his Body. If he grow dry inwardly, wash'd Meats is most wholesom. If he grow loose, give him Wheat-straw in more abundance. And be sure do every thing Neat and cleanly about him, which will Nourish him the better.

Ordering of Coach-Horses.

Let them have good Dressing twice a day, Hay and Provender their Belly-full, and Litter enough to tumble on. Let them be walk'd and wash'd after Travel, for by reason of their many occasions to stand still, [Page 21] they must be inur'd with all hardness, though it be much unwholesom. Their best food is sweet Hay, or well dried Beans and Oats, or Bean­bread; Look well to the strength of their Shooes, and the Galling of their Harness; Keep their Legs clean, especially about their hinder Fet­locks; And let them stand in the House warmly Cloathed.

Ordering of the Pack and Cart-Horse.

They need no walking, washing, or houres of Fasting, only dress them well, look to their Shooes and Backs, and then fill their Bellies, and they will do their Labour. Their best Food is sweet Hay, Chaff or Pease, or Oat-hulls and Pease, or chopt straw and Pease mixt together; To give them warm Grains and Salt once a week will not be amiss, which will prevent the breeding of Wormes, and such like Mischief.

The Office of the Rider and Groom, and of things belonging to him, Viz. His General and Particular Knowledge in Handling, Sadling, Mouthing, Backing and Riding of the Great Horse, or Horse of Pleasure.

Of the Stable, and what it ought to be built with.

TO begin first with the Winter-house of the Horse, the Stable: You ought to place it in a good Air, and to be made of Brick, and not Stone, for Brick is most wholesom and warmest, for Stone will sweat up­on change of Weather, which begetteth damps, and causeth Rheums in Horses. There ought not to be nigh it any unsavoury Gutter nor Sink, no Jakes, Hog-sty or Hen-Roust to annoy it. The Rack ought to be placed neither too high nor too low, and so well-Placed, that the Hay­dust fall not into his Neck, Mane nor Face. The Manger ought to be of an indifferent height, made deep, and of one entire Piece, as well for strength as conveniency. Let the Floor be Pitched and not Planked, and let there be no Mud or Lome-wall near it, for he will eat it, which will cause him to be sick, for Lome and Lime are suffocating things, and they will infect and putrifie the Blood, and endanger his Lungs, and spoil his Wind; Neither let any dung lie near his heels, for that will breed Cib'd and scabby heels.

Paving of Stables is better then Planked Stables for these Reasons.

First, they are much more durable and lasting.

Secondly, they are less charges by much.

Thirdly, for him to stand continually upon a pitched Floor, it embold­neth his Feet and treading the more.

Fourthly, it is the most excellent thing that may be for Colts, who are unshod, for it hardeneth their Hoofs, so that by custom they will be as bold to go upon stones, rocky and hard ways, as Horses that are shod; neither will it suffer the Hoofs to grow abroad in the manner of an Oy­ster; besides, the use thereof will make their Hoofs more tough, durable and hollow, insomuch that when they come to be shod, they will carry their Shooes much longer.

To shew the Inconveniencies of a Planked Floor.

First, it is more slippery, out of which reason a mettl'd Horse may be endangered, to be lamed or spoiled by some sudden slip, which a pitched Stable is not so subject to.

Secondly, the Planks oftentimes shrinking, if the Horse be high Met­tl'd and be subject to Curvet, he may break a Plank, and so Plunging may easily spoil or break his Leg.

Thirdly, when you put forth your Horse to Grass in the Summer, the Sun will so dry the Planks, that they will warp and loosen the Pins, and make them give way, that so when Horses that have gone for some Months before, not being handled, become wild and unruly, that when they come into the Stable, and feel the Planks to give way under them, will fall to Flinging and Leaping till they have dislocated the Planks, and not only both endanger himself but his Fellows also.

Fourthly, whereas you may imagine a Planked Stable warmer then a Paved one, I know the contrary, for your Pitched Floors have no Vaults or Channels under them, like as your Planked ones have, to carry away the water that the Horses make, by which means the Horses lieth over a dampish, moist Vault; and besides, the evil savour of the Horse-Piss will be ever in their Nose, which is very unwholesom and noisom, and many times the cause of many infirmities; neither can it be so warm as the other for chinks and holes, which are made by the Awger through the Planks, (which must always be kept open to let forth the Urine) to give way to the cold wind which cometh from thence, which cannot but be very unwholesom. Therefore I do affirm, that if your Groom do Lit­ter up Horse well, so that he may lie soft and warm, he will prosper bet­ter then upon a Planked Floor, provided it be laid even, not higher be­fore then behind, more then will carry the water to his hinder-feet, where [Page 22] there ought to be a small Gutter to carry it away, for by raising your Floor too much, his hinder Legs will swell, and so he will become Lame, by reason he bears too much weight on his hinder parts.

Of the Care in the Choice of a Groom.

After you have bred Colts according to my Instructions, and that that they prove to your Mind, then the next care you ought to have is of Grooms, which ought to be very expert in their Faculties, which consist­eth their Making or Marring, for you cannot say that a Colt three or four years old can be a perfect Horse, till he come to be Handled and made fit for his Masters Riding, which is to be made Gentle, Shod, Backed, Broken, Ridden, Wayed, Mouthed, and in brief brought to his utmost Perfection. His Rider therefore must be an Expert and able Horse­man, and his Keeper every way as sufficient, otherwise what defects you find in your Horse, are not to be attributed to him, but either to his Rider, or to his Groom; therefore let your care be, that they be both sufficient.

How a Rider ought to be Qualified.

If you desire your Colts to come to their utmost Perfection, then let your Rider be one who is Cried up to be an Experienc'd Horse-man; he must not be of life dissolute or debaucht, nor of Nature harsh, furious, cholerick or hair-brain'd, for the least of either of these Vices are very unseemly in a Person of this Profession; He must be Master over his Passions, for he that is not cannot make a good Horse-man. And it is not much to be wondred at, if a Horse fall into Imperfections or Vices, for these his evil conditions and faults are not so much to be imputed to the Horse, but to the Teacher, for he is not a good Horse-man that doth not bring his Horse to Perfection, by sweet and gentle means, rather then by Correction and severe Chastisements; yet not but that I allow of Correction, and that it is as necessary as Meat, if it do not exceed the limited Bounds of Moderation, and that it be done at the very instant when he offendeth, and doth justly merit the same, or else he will not know the Cause why he is Chastised; so on the other side, when he doth well, let h [...]m be Cherished and made much of, which will encourage him to go forward in well-doing.

What Manner of Person a Groom ought to be.

The Groom must be a Man that must truly love his Horse, and so shape his course towards him, as that the Horse may love and dote upon him; for a Horse is the most lovingest Creature to Man of all [Page 23] other bruit Creatures, and none more Obedient to him; Wherefore, if he be mildly dealt withal, he will be also reciprocal; but if he be harsh and cholerick, the Horse will be put by his Patience, and become Re­bellious, and fall to biting and striking; For the old Proverb is, Pa­tience once wronged, will turn into Fury. He must continually toy, dally and play with him, be always talking and speaking pleasing words unto him; He must lead him abroad in the Sun-shine, and then run, scope and shew him all the delight he can; he must duely Curry, Comb and Dress him, wipe dust, pick and clense him, feed, pamper and cherish him, and be always doing somewhat about him, either about his heels, or taking up his Feet, or rapping him upon the Soles; And he must keep him so well dress'd that he may almost see his Face upon his Coat; he must keep his Feet stopped, and daily Anointed, his Heels free from Scratches and other Sorrances, and to have so vigilant an eye upon him, to oversee all his Actions, as well feeding as drinking, that so no in­ward infirmity may seize upon him, but that he may be able to discover it, and being discovered may seek for to Cure it.

To Saddle and Bridle a Colt.

When your Horse is made Gentle, take a sweet Watering Trench, wash'd and Anointed with Honey and Salt, put it into his Mouth, and so place it, that it may hang about his Tush; then offer him the Saddle; but with that carefulness that you do not affright him therewith, suf­fering him to smell at it, to be rubbed with it, and then to feel it; then in the end to Fix it on, and Girt it fast, and at what part and motion he seems most coy, with that make him most familiar; then being thus Sadled and Bridled lead him forth to water, then bring him in, and after he hath stood a little Reined upon the Trench, an hour or more, take away the Bridle and Saddle, and let him go to his Meat till the Evening, then lead him forth as before, and when he is set up Gently, take off his Saddle and dress him, and cloath him up for all Night. The way to make him endure the Saddle the better, is by making it fa­miliar unto him, by clapping the Saddle with your Hand as it stands upon his Back, to shake it and sway upon it, to dangle the Stirrops by his Sides, and to rub them on his Sides, and make much of him, and be familiar with all things about him, as straining the Crooper, fastning and loosening the Girts, or taking up and letting out of the Stir­rops.

Of Mouthing.

When he will Trot with the Saddle obediently, then you shall wash a [Page 24] trench of a full Mouth, and put it into his Mouth, and throw the Reins over the sore-part of the Saddle, so that the Horse may have a full feel­ing of it; then put on a Martingal, and you shall buckle it at such length, that he may no more then feel it when he Jirketh up his Head, then take a broad piece of Leather, and put it about the Horses Neck, and make the two ends of it fast by Platting, or otherwise at the Withers and mid­part before his Weasand, about two handfuls below the Throple, be­twixt the Leather and his Neck, let the Mattingal pass, so that when at any time he shall offer to duck or throw down his Head, the Cavezan be­ing placed upon the tender Gristle of his Nose, may correct and punish him, which will make him bring down his Head, and fashion him to an absolute Rein. Then Trot him abroad, and if you find the Reins or Martingal grow slack, straiten them, for where there is no feeling there is no Vertue.

Of Backing.

When you have Exercised your Horse thus, divers Mornings, Noons, or Evenings, and find him Obedient, then take him into some Ploughed Ground (the lighter the better) and after you have made him Trot a good Pace about you in your hand, and thereby taken from him all his wan­tonness, look and see whether your tackling be firm and good, and every thing in his true and due place, you may then (having one to stay his Head and govern the Chasing Rain) take his Back, yet not suddenly, but by degrees, and with divers heavings, and half-raisings, which if he en­dure patiently, then settle your self; but if he shrink or dislike, then forbear to mount, and chase him about again, and then offer to mount, and do thus till he be willing to receive you. Then when you are set­led, and have received your Stirrops and Cherisht him, put your Toes forward, and he that stays his Head, ler him lead him forward half a dozen Paces, then Cherish him; then lead him a little further and Che­rish him, and shake and move your self in the Saddle, then let him stay his Head, and remove his Hand a little from the Cavezan, and as you thrust forwards your Toes, let him move him forward with his Rein, till you have made the Horse apprehend your own Motion of Body and Foot, (which must go equally together, and with spirit also) so that he will go forward without the other Assistance, and stay upon the restraint of your own hand, then Cherish him, and give him Grass and Bread to eat, alight from his Back, then mount and unmount twice or thrice together, ever mixing them with Cherishings. Thus Exercise him till you have made him perfect in going forward, and standing still at your pleasure.

Helps at first Backing.

When this is effected, you may lay by the long Rein, and the Band a­bout [Page 25] the Neck, and only use the Trenches and Cavezan, and the Mar­tingal, and let a Groom lead the way before you on another Horse, and go only streight forward, and stand still when you please, which will soon be effected, by Trotting him after another Horse, and bring him home sometimes after the Horse, and sometimes equally with him, and some­times before, so that he may six upon no certainty, but your own plea­sure; And be sure to have regard to the well-carriage of his Neck and Head, and as the Martingal slackneth so to streighten it.

What Lessons for what Horse.

When this Work is finished, then Teach your Horse these Lessons: As if he be for Hunting, Running, Travel, Hackney, or the like, then the chiefest things you are to apply your self to, are to preserve a good Mouth, to Trot freely and comly, to Amble surely and easily, to Gallop strongly and swiftly, to Obey the Hand in stopping gently, and Retiring willingly, and to turn on the other Hand readily and nimbly. But if you intend him for the great Saddle, or the use of the Wars, then al­though the Lessons be the same, yet they are to be done in a more pun­ctual manner. So that if any Horse can be brought to the best, the ea­sier must needs follow with little industry. And it is a Rule in Horse­man-ship, That no Lesson which belong to the Wars can be hur [...]ful, or do in­jury to any Horse whatsoever, that is kept for any other purpose. Whence it cometh, that any Horse for the Wars may be trained for a Runner, or Hunter, at pleasure; but every Runner, or Hunter, will not serve the Wars; and every Horse-man that can make a Horse for the Wars, may be a Jocky when he pleases; but no Jocky (that I know) can make a Horse for the Wars. Therefore I will run a middle way, and sute my Lessons to both purposes.

Helps and Corrections.

Before you Teach your Horse any Lessons, you must know there are seven Helps to advantage him in his Lessons, to punish him for faults gotten in his Lessons. And they be, The Voice, the Rod, the Bit or Snaffle, the Calves of the Legs, the Stirrop, Spur, and the Ground.

Voice.

The Voice is an help when it is sweet and accompanied with Cherish­ings, and it is a Correction when it is rough or terrible, and accompanied with strokes or threatnings.

Rod.

The Rod is an help in the shaking, and a Correction in the striking.

Bit or Snaffle.

The Bit is an Help in its sweetness, the Snaffle in its smoothness, and they are Corrections, the one in its hardness, the other in its roughness, and both in slatness and squareness.

Calves of the Legs

Are Helps when you lay them to the Horses Sides gently, and Corre­ctions when you strike them hard, because they give warning that the Spurs follow.

Stirrop and Stirrop-Leathers.

Are Corrections, when you strike it against the hinder part of the Shoulder, and they are Helps when you thrust them forward in a quick Motion.

Spur.

Is a Help when it is gently delivered in any Motion that asks quick­ness and agility, whether on the Ground, or above the Ground, and a Correction when it is stricken hard in the sides, upon any sloth, or any fault committed

The Ground.

The Ground is an Help when it is plain and smooth, and not painful to tread upon; and it is a Correction when it is rough, deep and uneven, for the Amendment of any Vice conceived.

Of large Rings,

When your Horse will receive you to and from his Back gently, Trot forward willingly, and stand still obediently. Then intending him for the Wars, or other purpose, (for these Lessons serve all occasions,) you shall in some gravelly or sandy place, where his Footsteps may be discern­ed, labour him within the large Ring, that is, at least fifty Paces in Com­pass; And having Trod it about three or four times on the right hand, rest and cherish; then change the Hand again, and do as much on the left Hand, then rest and cherish; and change the Hand again, and do as much on the right Hand, ever observing upon every stop to make him re­tire and go back a step or two.

Thus labour him, till he will Trot his Ring on which Hand you please, changing within the Ring in the manner of a Roman S, and to do it rea­dily and willingly; Then teach him to Gallop them as he did Trot them, and that also with true Footing, lofty Carriage and brave Rein, ever ob­serving when he Gallops to the right Hand, to lead with his left fore­foot, and when he Gallops to the left Hand, to lead with the right fore­foot.

Object. Now here is to be cleared a Paradox held by many of our [Page 27] Horsemen, which is, That the Exercise of the Ring is not good for Running Horses, because it raiseth up his fore-feet, and make him Gallop painfully, and so an hindrance unto speed.

Answ. But if they consider that this habit, (if it be taken) is soon broken, either by the Horse-mans hand or discretion, who hath Power to make him move as he pleaseth; Or if they will truly look into the benefit of the thing it self, they shall finde it is the only means to bring an Horse to the true use of his Feet, and the nimble carriage of them in all advantages. For every Runner of Horses will allow, that for an Horse (in his course) to lead with his right foot, is most proper, and when at any time he breaks or alters it, it must be disadvantage, because, (not well acquainted to lead with the other,) he cannot handle it so nimbly. Now at his first Backing, by the use of his Ring and Change of Hands, he will become so expert and cunning with both, that whatsoever mis­chance shall alter his stroke, yet shall his speed and nimbleness keep one and the same goodness.

Of Stopping.

When you come to the place of Stop, or would stop, by a sudden drawing in of your Bridle-hand, somewhat hard and sharp, make him stop close, firm and streight, in an even Line; and if he err in any thing, put him to it again, and leave not till you have made him understand his error, and amend it.

Advancing.

Now if you do Accompany this stop with an Advancement a little from the Ground, it will be more gallant, and may be done by laying the Calves of your Legs to his Sides, and shaking your Rod over him as he stops.

If it chance at first he understand you not, yet by continuance and la­bouring him herein, he will soon attain unto it, especially, if you forget not to cherish him, when he gives the least shew to apprehend you.

Retiring.

After Stopping and Advancing, make him Retire, as before shewed. And this Motion of Retiring, you must both Cherish and Encrease, ma­king it so familiar with him, that no Lesson may be more perfect; neither must he retire in a confused manner, but with a brave Rein, a constant Head, and a direct Line; neither must he draw or sweep his Legs one after another, but take them clean, nimbly and loftily, as when he Trot­ted forward.

Of Bitting.

When your Horse is come to Perfection in these Lessons, and hath his Head firmly setled, his Reins constant, and his Mouth sweetned; You may then (if you intend him for the Wars) take away his Trench and Martingal, and only use the Cavezan of four or three Pieces, that is, a Joynt or no Joynt in the midst, and to that Joynt a strong Ring, and a Joynt of each side, with Rings before the Joynts, to which you shall put several Reins to use, either at the Post or otherwise. Into his Mouth you shall put a smooth sweet Canon bit, with a French Cheek suitable to the Proportion of the Horses Neck; knowing that the long Cheek raises up the Head, and the short pulls it down. And with these you shall Ex­ercise the Horse in all the Lessons before taught, till he be perfect in them, without disorder or amazement.

Of streight Turns and Turnings.

When he is setled upon his Bit, then you are to teach him to turn roundly and readily in the streighter Rings; and of these there are divers kinds, and divers methods to teach them. But I shall Fix upon two man­ner of streight Turns, as the Perfection from whence all Turnings are de­rived.

The one is when a Horse keepeth his hinder Parts inward and close to the Post or Center, and so cometh about and maketh his Circumfe­rence with his hinder Parts, opposing face to face with his Enemy.

The first streight Turn.

You shall to the Ring in the mid-part of the Cavezan, Fix a long Rein of two Fathom or more, and to the other Rings two other shorter Reins; then having Saddled the Horse, and put on his Bit, bring him to the Post, and put the Reins of the Bit over the fore-part of the Saddle, Bolsters and all, and Fix them at a constant streightness on the top of the Pomel, so that the Horse may have a feeling both of the Bit and Curb. Then if you will have him turn to the right hand, take the short Rein on the left side of the Cavezan, and bringing it under the fore-Bolster of the Saddle up to the Pomel, and there Fix it at such a streightness, that the Horse may rather look from, then to the Post on the right side. Then let some Groom or skilful Attendant hold the right-side Rein of the Cavezan at the Post, governing the fore-parts of his Body to come about at large: Then your self taking the long Rein into your hand, and keeping his hinder parts inward, with your Rod on his outward Shoulder, and some­times on his outward Thigh, make him move about the Post, keeping his inward parts as a Center, and making his fore-parts move in a larger [Page 29] Circumference. Thus you shall Exercise him a pretty space on one hand, till he grow to some Perfectness; then Changing the Reins of the Ca­vezan, make him do the like to the other hand. And thus apply him divers Mornings, and cherishing him in his Exercise according to his de­servings, till you have brought him to that readiness, that he will upon the moving of your Rod couch his hinder Parts in towards the Post, and lapping the outward fore-leg over the inward, Trot about the Post swift­ly, distinctly, and in as strait a Compass as you can desire, or is conve­nient for the motion of the Horse; And from Trotting you may bring him to Flying and Wheeling about, with that swiftness, that both the fore-legs rising and moving together, the hinder Parts may follow in one and the same instant. When you have made him thus perfect in your hand, you shall then Mount his Back; and making some skilful Groom govern the long Rein, and another the short, by the Motion of your Hand upon the Bit, and soft Rein of the Cavezan, keeping the Horses Head from the Post, and by the help of the Calve of your Leg laid on his Side, and your Rod turned toward his outward Thigh, to keep his hinder parts in­to the Post, labour and exercise him till you have brought him to that Perfection which you desire. Then take away the long Rein, and only exercise him with the help of the short Rein of the Cavezan, and no other. After take both the Reins of the Cavezan into your hands, and exercise him from the Post; making him as ready in any place where you please to Ride him, as he was at the Post.

The other streight Turn.

Now for the other streight Flying Turn, which is to keep his Face fixt on the Post as on his Enemy, and to move about only with his hinder parts, you shall take the same helps of the long Rein, and the short Reins of the Cavezan, and govern them, as before shewed, only you shall not give the short Rein to the Post-ward, so much liberty as before, but keep his Head closer to the Post, and following his hinder parts with the long Rein, by the help of your Rod make him bring his hinder parts round a­bout the Post; and observe, that as before he did Iap one foot over an­other, so now he must lap the hinder Legs one over another. In this Exercise, exercise him as the former, then (after a perfectness) mount his Back, and labour him, as before shewed. Then lastly, leaving the Post and all other helps, only apply him in such open and free places as you shall think couvenient, for upon the finishing of this Work your Horse is made compleat, and can perform all things that can be required, either for the Service in the Wars, for the High-way, or any other Galloping Plea­sure.

How to Help an ill Rein, and Cure a Run-away Jade.

Many Horses are so evil -beholding to Nature, for giving them short Necks, and worse set-on Heads, and so little beholding to Art to amend them, which causes many a good Horse to be left Cureless of those two gross insufferable faults, which are either a deformed carriage of the Head, like a Pig on a Broach, or else a furious Running away, got by a spoiled Mouth, or an evil habit.

The Help.

If it be a young Horse at his first Riding, then to his Trench; if an old, then to his Snaffle, (for I speak not of the Bit) but a pair of Reins, half as long again as any ordinary Reins, and Loops to fasten and un­fasten at the Eye of the Snaffle, as other Reins have. Now when you see that the Horse will not yield to your Hand, but the more you draw the more he thrusts out his Nose, or the more violently he runs away; then undo the Buttons of the Reins from the Eye of the Snaffle, and draw them through the Eyes, and bring them to the Buckles of the formost Girt, and there button them fast: then Riding the Horse in that man­ner, labour him with the gentle Motions of your Hand, coming and go­ing by degrees, and sometimes accompanied with your Spur, to gather up his Body, and to feel your Command, and in a short time he will bring his Head where you will place it. And for Running away, if you draw one Rein, you turn him about in despite of all Fury; and if you draw both, you break his Chaps, or bring them to his Bosom. In the end, find­ing himself not able to Resist, he will be willing to obey.

Another Help for unc [...]nstant Carriage.

There is another soul Error in many Horses, which these Reins also Cure, as this, When your Horse is either so wythie cragg'd (as the Nor­thern Man calls it) or so loose and unsteady Necked, that which way so­ever you draw your Hand, his Head and Neck will follow it, sometimes beating against your Knees, sometimes dashing against your Bosom, and indeed, generally so loose and uncertain, that a man knows not when he hath steady hold of him; A Vice wonderful incident to Running Horses, especially the furious ones. In this Case you shall take these long Reins, and as before you drew them to the Buckles of the Girts, so now Mar­tingal-wise draw from the Eyes of the Snaffle, betwixt his fore-Legs to the Girts, and there fasten them. Thus Ride him with a constant Hand, firm and somewhat hard, Correcting him both with the Spurs and Rod, [Page 31] and somtimes with hard Twitches in his Mouth when he errs; and with a few weeks labour, his Head will come to a constant carriage, provided, that you labour him as well upon his Gallop as his Trot, and leave him not till you finde him fully reclaimed.

The Office of the Feeder.

An Introduction to the Work touching the Limitation of time for Preparing the Running Horse.

I will not dispute the several Opinions of Men in this Kingdom, touch­ing the Keeping of Running Horses, because they are idle and frivolous. Only this I shall do, clear one Paradox, and that is the limitation of time, allowed for the making ready of a Horse for a Match or Wager.

Some do affirm, that a Horse newly taken from Grass, being foul, can­not be made fit under six Months: By which they Rob their Masters of half a years pleasure, thrust him upon a tyring Charge to make the Sport lothsom, and get nothing but a Cloak for Ignorance, and a few false got Crowns, that melt as they are possessed.

Their Reasons.

Yet as Hereticks cite Scripture, so these find Reasons to defend want of Knowledge.

As, The danger of too early Exercise, the Offence of Grease suddenly broken, the Moving of evil Humours too hastily, which leads to mortal Sickness; And the Moderation, or Helping of these by a slow Proceeding, or bringing of the Horse into Order by degrees and time; Or (as I may say) by an ignorant Sufferance.

These Reasons have shew of a good Ground, for too early Exercise is dangerous, but not if free from violence.

To break Grease too suddenly is an offence insufferable, for it puts both Limbs and Life in hazard, but not if it be purged away by whole­som Scourings. The hasty stirring up of Humours in the Body, where they superabound, and are generally dispersed, and not setled, cannot choose but breed Sickness; but not where Discretion and Judgement eva­cuateth them in wholesom, sweet and moderate Ayrings.

Long time Inconvenient.

And for the Moderation of all these, by the tediousness of time, as two Months for the first, two Months for the second, and as much for the [Page 32] last. It is like the Curing of the Gangreen in an old man; better to die then to be dismembred, better lose the price then bear the charge. For I appeal to any Noble Judgement, whose Purse hath experienced these Actions, if six Months Preparation, and the dependents to it, do not de­vour up a hundred pounds wager.

Now I allow but of two Months time at any time of the year whatso­ever, for an old Horse, or an Horse formerly trained, for I speak not of Colts; if he does it not in two Months, he shall not do it in fifteen.

But reply they, no Scouring is to be allowed, for they are Physical; they force Nature, and so hurt Nature; they make Sickness, and fo em­pair Health. And that indeed nothing is comparable to the length of time, because Nature worketh every thing it self, and though she be longer, she hath less danger.

I confess that Sibbesauce Scourings, which are stuff'd with poisonous Ingredients, cannot choose but bring forth Infirmity; but wholesom Scourings, that are composed of beneficial and nourishing Simples, nei­ther occasion Sickness, nor any manner of Infirmity, but brings away Grease and all foulness, in that kindly and abundant sort, that one week shall effect more then two Months dilatory and doubtful forbearance,

I call it dilatory and doubtful, because no man (in this lingring Course) can certainly tell which way the Grease and other soulness will avoid, as whether in his Ordure (which is the safest) into Sweat, (which is hazar­dous,) into his Limbs, (which is mischievous) or remain and putrifie in his Body, (which is mortally dangerous) since the Issue of any, or all these fall out according to the strength and estate of the Horses Body, and the diligence of the Feeder. And if either the one fail in Power, or the other in Care, Farewel Horse for that year.

All this Envy cannot choose but confess; only they have one broken Crutch to support them, which is, they know no Scouring, therefore they will allow of no Scouring.

Against Barbarism I will not dispute, only I▪appeal to Art or Discre­tion, whether Purgation or Sufferance, when Nature is offended, be the better doers.

But they Reply by a Figure called, Absurdity, that whatsoever is given to any Horse more then his Natural Food, and which he will Naturally and willingly receive, is both improper and unwholesom, To this I An­swer, the Natural Food of Man is Bread only, all other things (according to the Philosopher) are superfluous, and so to be avoided.

At this Argument both Humanity and Divinity laughs. For other Helps, as Physick, divers Meats, and divers Means, ordeined for both, even by the Power of the Almighty himself, tells the Contemners hereof, how grossly they err in this foolish Opinion. Nay, allow them a little shadow of truth, that things most Natural are most beneficial, then it [Page 33] must follow, that Grass or Hay, (which is but withered Grass) is most na­tural, and so most beneficial. Now Grass is Physical, for in it is contain­ed all manner of Simples, of all manner of Mixtures, as hot, cold, moist, dry, of all qualities, all quantities. So that whatsoever I give (which is good) is but that which he hath formerly gathered out of his own Na­ture, only with this difference, that what he gathereth is in a confused manner, clapping contraries together so abundantly, that we are not able to judge where the Predominant Quality lieth; and that which we com­pound is so governed by Art and Reason, that we know how it should work, and we expect the event, if it be not cross'd by some greater dis­aster.

But will they bind themselves to keep the Running Horse only with Grass or Hay? They know then the end of their Labours will be loss. Nay, they will allow Corn, nay, divers Corns, some nourishing and loose­ning, as Oats and Rye; some Astringent and Binding, as Beans; and some Fatning, breeding both Blood and Spirit, as Wheat; nay, they will allow Bread, nay, Bread of divers Compositions, and divers Mixtures, some before heat, and some after, some quick of Digestion, and some slow, And if this be not as Physical as Scourings a good Horse-man gives, I repent me that I have said any thing.

Nay, these Contemners of Scourings will allow an Egg, and that mixt with other Ingredients. And for Butter and Garlick they will use it, though it be never so fulsom; the Reason is, because their knowledge can arise to no higher a Stair in Physick; and Authorised Ignorance will ever wage battel with the best Understanding; Like foolish Gallants on St. George's day, who neither having ability to buy, nor Credit to borrow a Gold Chain, scorn at them that wear them; or Martin Mar-Prelate, that not having Learning worthy of a Deacon, found no felicity, but in Railing at Divine Fathers. There are another sort of Feeders, which in a contrary extream, run beyond these into mischiefs, and those are they that ov r-scoure their Horses, and are never at Peace, but when they are giving of Portions, (which they call Scourings) sometimes with­out cause, always without order, bringing upon an Horse such intole­rable weakness, that he is not able to perform any violent labour.

From this too little, and too much, I would have our Feeder to gather a mean; that is, first to look that his Simples be wholesom: then to the occasion, that he be sure there is foulness: And lastly, to the Estate of Body, that he may rather Augment then decrease Vigour, so shall his Work be prosperous, and his Actions without Controulment. To con­clude, two Months I allow for Preparation, and according to that time have laid my directions. Mine humble suit is, out of a sincere Opinion to Truth and Justice, so to allow or disallow, to refrain or imitate.

The first Ordering of the Running Horse. according to the several Estates of their Bodies.

This Office of the Feeder, albeit in general it belong to all Horse-men, yet in particular it is most appropriate to the Feeder of the Running-Horse; because other general Horses have a general way of Feeding, these are Artificial and Prescript from, full of Curiosity and Circum­spection, from which whosoever errs, he shall sooner bring his Horse to destruction then perfection. You are to have regard to three Estates of a Horses Body.

The first is, if he be very Fat, Foul, or either taken from Grass or Soil.

The second, if he be extream Lean and poor, either through over-Riding, disorder or other infirmity.

And the third, if he be in good and well-liking estate, having had good usage and moderate exercise.

If he be in the first Estate of Body, you shall take longer time for his Feed, as two Months at the least: for he will ask much labour in Air­ing, great carefulness in hearing, and discretion in Scouring, and rather a strict then liberal hand in feeding, If he be in the second Estate of Body (which is poor) then take a longer time, and let his Airings be moderate, as not before and after Sun, rather to encrease Appetite then harden Flesh, and let him have a bountiful hand in Feeding, but not so much as to cloy him.

If he be in the third Estate of Body, which is a mean betwixt the other extreams, then a Month of six Weeks, or a Fort-night, or less, may be time sufficient to dyet him for his Match. Now as this Estate participates with both the former, so it would borrow from them a share in all their Orderings, that is, to be neither too early, nor too late in Airings, la­borious, but not painful Heatings, nourishing in Scouring, and constant in a moderate way of Feeding.

To have an Eye to the particular Estate of a Horses Body.

Now as you regard these general Estates of Bodies, so you must have an eye to certain particular estates of Bodies. As if an Horse be Fat and Foul, yet of a free and spending Nature, apt quickly to consume and lose his Flesh, this Horse must not have so strict a Hand, neither can he en­dure so violent Exercise as he that is of an hardy disposition, and will feed and be fat upon all Meats and all Exercises.

Again, if your Horse be in extream Poverty, through disorder and mis­usage, yet is by Nature very hard, and apt both soon to recover his Flesh, and long to hold it; then over this Horse you shall by no means hold so li­berai a hand, nor forbear that Exercise, which is of a tender Nature, a weak Stomach, and a free Spirit, provided always you have regard to his Limbs and the Imperfections of Lameness.

The first Fortnights feeding of an Horse for Match, that is, fat, foul, or either newly taken from Grass or Soil.

If you Match a Horse that is fat and foul, either by running at Grass, or standing at Soil, or any other means of Rest, or too high feeding; you shall (after his Body be emptied, and the Grass avoided, which will be within three or four days) for the first Fortnight at leust, rise early in the Morning before day, or at the spring of day according to the time of the year; and having put on his Bridle washt in Beer, and tied him up to the Rack, take away his dung and other foulness of the Stabie; then dress him well, as in The Office of the Keeper. When that Work is finished, take a fair large Body-cloth of thick House-Wives Kersie, (if it be in Winter,) or of Cotton or other light stuff (if it be in Summer,) and fold it round about his Body, then clap on the Saddle, and Girt the foremost Girt pretty streight, but the other somewhat slack, and Wisp it on each side his Heart, that both the Girts may be of equal streightness.

Then put before his Breast a Breast-cloth suitable to the Body-cloth, and let it cover both his Shoulders, then take a little Beer into your Mouth, and squirt it into the Horses Mouth, and so draw him out of the Stable, and take his Back, leaving a Groom behind you to trim up the Stable to carry out your dung, and to truss up the Litter. For, you are to understand that he is to stand upon good store of dry Litter both Night and Day, and it must be Wheat-straw or Oat-straw, for Barley-straw and Rye-straw are very unwholesom and dangerous, the one doth Heart-burn, the other causeth Scouring. When you are Mounted, Rack the Horse a Foot-pace, (for you must neither Amble nor Trot, for they both hurt speed) at least a mile or two, or more, upon smooth and sound Ground, and (as near as you can) to the steepest Hills you can find; there Gallop him gently up those Hills, and rack and walk him softly down, that he may cool as much one way, as he warmeth another. And when you have thus exercised him a pretty space, and seeing the Sun begin to Rise, or else Risen, Rack down either to some fresh River, or clear Pond, and there let him drink at his pleasure. After he hath drunk bring him gently out of the water, and so Ride him a little space with all gentle­ness, and not according to the ignorance of some Grooms, ru [...]h him presently into a Gallop, for that brings with it two Mischiefs, either it teaches the Horse to run away with you so soon as he is watered, or else refuse to drink, fearing the violence of his Exercise which follows upon it. When you have used him a little calmly, put him into a Gallop gently, and exercise him moderately, as you did before; then walk him a little space, after offer him more water; if he drink, then Gal­him again (after calm usage;) if he refuse, then Gallop him to [Page 36] occasion thirst. And thus always give him Exercise both before and after water. When he hath drunk sufficient, bring him home gently, without a wet Hair, or any sweat about him. When you come to the Stable Door, provoke him to Piss if you can, by stirring up his Litter under him, which if he do not a little custom will make him do it, and it is a wholesom Action, both for his Health and the sweet keeping of the Stable. This done, bring him to the Stall, and Tie him up to the Rack, and Rub him well with Wisps, then loose his Breast-Cloth, and Rub his Head and Neck with a dry Cloth, then take off the Saddle and hang it by, then take his Body-Cloth and Rub him all over with it, espe­cially his Back, where the Saddle stood. Then Cloath him up first with a Linnen-sheet, and then over that a good strong Housing-Cloth, and a­bove it his Woollen Body-cloth, which in the Winter it is not amiss to have loyned with some Cotton, but in the Summer the Kersie is sufficient. When these are Girt about him, stop his Circingle with small Wisps very loose, for they will be the softer.

His Feet stopped with Cows dung.

After he is Cloathed, stop his Feet with Cows dung, then throw into the Rack a little bundle of Hay, hard bound together, and well dusted, and let him eat it, standing upon his Bridle. When he hath stood an houre upon his Bridle, take it off, and Rub his Head and Neck very well with a Rubber of Hempen Cloth, for this is good to dissolve all gross and thick Humors from the Head; Then after you have made clean the Manger, take a quart of sweet, dry, old and clean dress'd Oats, for those that are unsweet breed infirmities; Those that are moist cause swelling in the Body; Those that are New breed Wormes; And they which are half-dress'd deceive the Stomach, and bring the Horse to ruine. Though the black Oat is tolerable, yet it makes foul dung, and hinder a Mans knowledge in the state of his Body. This quart of Oats you shall dress in such a Sieve as will let a light Oat pass thorough it, and if he eat them with a good stomach, let him have another, and let him rest till e­leven of the Clock. Then Rub his Head and Neck as before, and dress him another quart of Oats, then leave him till one of the Clock, with the Windows close, for the darker you keep him the better, and will cause him to lie down and take his rest, which otherwise he would not, therefore you are to Arm the Stable with Canvass, both for darkness, warmth, and that the filth may not come near him. Then at one of the Clock use him as you did before, and give him another quart of Oats in the same manner, making of him clean by taking away his dung, and give him a little Knob of Hay, and leave him till the Evening. At the Even­ing come to the Stable, and having made all things clean, bridle as in the Morning, take off his Cloaths, and dress him as before. Then Cloath, [Page 37] Saddle, bring him forth, and urge him to empty; Mount, rack him a­broad, but not to the Hills, if you can find any other plain Ground, and Air him in all Points as you did in the Morning. When you have Wa­tered and spent the Evening in Ayring, till within Night, (for nothing is more wholesom and consumeth foulness, more then early and late Ayr­ings;) Rack him home to the Stable door, and there alight and do as you did in the Morning, both within doors and without, and so let him Rest till Nine at Night; then at Night come to him, and Rub down his Legs well with Wisps, and his Face and Neck with a clean Cloth, and turning up his Cloaths Rub all his hinder parts, then give him a quart of Oats in the same manner as you did before, and after that a little bundle of Hay; then Toss up his Litter, and make his bed soft, and leave him till the next Morning. Then the next Morning do every thing to him, without the least Omission, as hath formerly been declared, and thus keep him for the first Fortnight, which will so take away his foulness, and harden his flesh, that the next Fortnight you may adventure to give him some Heats.

Object. But to Answer an Objection that may be urged, touching the quantity of Provender which is prescribed, Being but a quart at a Meal, seeing there be many Horses that will eat a larger Proportion, and to scant them to this little, were to starve, or at the best to breed weakness.

Answ. I set not down this as an infallible Rule, but a President that may be imitated, yet altered at Pleasure: For I have left you this Ca­veat, that if he eat this with a good Stomach, you may give him another, leaving the Proportion to the Feeders Discretion.

Four Considerations in giving of Heats.

First, That two Heats in the Week, is a sufficient proportion for any Horse of what Condition or state of Body whatsoever. That one Heat should ever be given on that day in the Week, on which he is to run his Match, as thus; Your Match-day is a Monday, your Heating-days are then Mondays and Fridays, and the Monday to be ever the sharper Heat, but because it is the day of his Match, and there are three days betwixt it and the other Heat. If the day be Tuesday, then the Heating-days are Tuesdays and Saturdays; if Wednesday, then Wednesdays and Saturdays, by reason of the Lords day; if on Thursday, then Thursdays and Mon­days, and so of the rest.

You shall give no Heat (but in case of Necessity) in Rain or foul Wea­ther, but rather to defer houres and change times; for it is unwholesom and dangerous. And therefore in case of Showers and uncertain Wea­ther, you shall have for the Horse a loyned Hood, with loyned Eares, and the Nape of the Neck loyned to keep out Rain, for nothing is more dan­gerous then cold wet falling into the Ears, and upon the Nape of the Neck and Fillets.

[Page 38] 4. And lastly, observe to give the Heats, (the Weather being season­able) as early in the Morning as you can, that is, by the Spring of day, but by no means in the dark, for it is to the Horse both unwholesom and unpleasant, to the Man a great Testimony of folly, and to both an Act of danger and precipitation.

The second Fortnights Feeding.

You shall do all things as in the first Fortnight, only before you put on his Bridle, give him a Quart of Oats, then Bridle him up and dress him, as before shewed, then Cloath, Saddle, Air, Water, Exercise and bring him home, as before shewed, only you shall not put Hay into his Rack, but give it him out of your hand, handful after handful, and so leave him on his Bridle for an hour, then rub him, and after other Cere­monies, Sift him a Quart of Oats, and set them by, then take a Loas of Bread that is three days old, and made in this manner.

The First Bread.

Take three Pecks of clean Beans, and one Peck of Wheat, mix them together, and grind them, and bolt it pretty sine, and Knead it up with good store of Barm and Lightning, but with as little water as may be, labour it in the Trough very well, and break it, and so cover it warm, that so it may swell, then Knead it over again, and make it up in big Loaves, and so bake it well, and let it soak soundly, and when they are drawn, turn the bottom upwards, that so they may cool. At three days old give it him, for new Bread is hurtful, when you give it him, chip it very well, and cut some of it into small Pieces, and put them into his Quart of Oats you had formerly Sifted. About eleven of the Clock give him the same quantity of Oats, and let him rest till the Afternoon. At one of the Clock in the Afternoon, if you intend not to give him a Heat that day, Feed him with Bread and Oates as you did in the Forenoon, and so consequently every Meal following for that day.

But if you intend the next day to give him a Heat (to which I now bend mine aim) you shall only then give him a quart of Oats clean Sifted, but no Hay, and so let him rest till Evening.

At four of the Clock give him a quart of clean Sifted Oats, and after they are eaten, Bridle him up; Dress, Cloath, Saddle, Air, Water, Ex­ercise, bring home and order, as before shewed, only give him no Hay at all. After he hath stood an hour upon his Bridle, give him a quart of Oates, and after they are eaten put on his Head a sweet Muzzle, and let him rest till Nine at Night.

The Ʋse of the Muzzle.

The Use of the Muzzle being rightly made, is to keep the Horse [Page 39] from eating up his Litter, from gnawing upon Boards and Mud-walls, and indeed to keep him from eating any thing but what he receiveth from your own hands, they are made sometimes of Leather, and stampt full of holes, or else close, but they are unsavoury and unwholesom. Nay, in­deed all Leather is unpleasant. Besides, they are too close and too hot for him The best Summer Muzzle, (and indeed best at all times) is the Ner-Muzzle, made of strong Pack-thread, and knit very thick and close in the bottom, and so enlarged wider and wider upwards to the middle of the Horses Head; then bound upon the top with Tape, and on the nether side a Loop, and on the farther side a long String to fasten it to the Horfes Head. The best Winter Muzzle (and indeed tolerable at any time) is made of double Canvass, with a round Button, and a square La­tice Window of small Tape before both his Nostrils, down to the very bottom of the Muzzle, and upward more then a handful, and must also have a Loop and a String to fasten about his Head. At Nine of the Clock at Night, give him a quart of clean Oats, and when they are eaten, put on his Muzzle, and toss up his Litter, and so leave him.

The next day early give him a quart of clean Oates, rubbed between your hands with some Beer or Ale, and when he hath eaten them, Dress him and Saddle him as before, and being ready to depart, give him a new laid Egg or two, and wash his Mouth after it with Beer or Ale, and so lead him away, and at the door provoke him to empty, then Mount and Rack him gently to the Course, ever and anon making him smell an­other Horses dung.

When you are come within a Mile of the starting Post, alight and take off his Body-Cloth and Breast-Cloth, and Girt on the Saddle again; then sending away your Grooms both with those Cloaths, and other dry Cloaths to rub with, let him stay at the end of the Course till you come: then your self Rack your Horse gently up to the starting Post, and be­yond, making him smell to that Post, (which you call the weighing Post) that he may take notice of the beginning and ending of the Course. There start your Horse roundly and sharply, at near a three quarters speed, and according to his Strength of Body, Ability of Wind, and Chearfulness of Spirit, run him the whole Course through. But by no means do any thing in extremity, or above his Wind, but when you find him a little yield, then give him a little ease, so that all he doth may be done with Pleasure, and not with Anguish; For this manner of training will make him take delight in his labour, and so encrease it: The contrary will breed discomsort, and make Exercise irksom. Also during the time you thus course him, you shall Note upon what Ground he runneth best, and whether up the Hill or down the Hill; whether on the smooth, or on the rough, on the wet or on the dry, or on the level, or the Earth some­what Rising: and according as you find his Nature, so manage him for [Page 40] your own advantage. When you have Finished the Heats, and a little slightly Galloped him up and down to Rate his Wind and chear his Spirits, you shall then (the Groom being ready) Ride into some warm Place, and with your Glassing Knife, or scraping Knife, made either of some broken Sword blade, or some old broken Sythe, or for want of that, a thin piece of old hard Oaken wood, fashioned like a long broad Knife with a sharp edge, scrape off the Sweat of your Horse in every part (But­tocks excepted) till there will none arise, ever and anon moving him up and down: Then with dry Cloaths Rub him all over (Buttocks except­ed) then take off his Saddle, and having Glassed his Back, and rub'd it near dry, put on his Body-Cloth and Breast-Cloth, and set on his Saddle again and Girt it, then Mount and Gallop him gently, and ever and anon Rubbing his Head, Neck and Body, as you sit, then walk him about the Fields to cool him; And when you find he drieth apace, then Rack him homewards, sometimes Racking, and sometimes Galloping; and by no means bring him to the Stable, till you find him throughly dry. When you are come to the Stable-door entice him to empty, then set him up and Tie him to the Rack, and (as having prepared it before) give him this Scouring, made in this manner.

The first Scouring.

Take a Pint of the Syrup of Roses, or a pint of strong Honyed-wa­ter, and dissolve into it of Cassa, Agarick and Myrrhe, of each an ounce, and Jumble them well together in a Viol-Glass. Then being Mul'd, and made warm at the Fire, and the Horse newly come from his Heat (as be­fore shewed) give him this Scouring, for it is a strong one, and avoideth all manner of Molten Grease and Foulness.

Ordering him after his Scouring.

When you have given it him, rub his Legs well, then take off his Saddle, and if his Body be dry, run slightly over it with a Curry-Comb, and after that the French Brush, and lastly, rub him all over with dry Cloaths very well, and Cloath him up very warm, and if the Weather be very cold, to throw over him a loose Blanket. He must fast full two Houres after his Scouring, not departing out of the Stable, and keep him stirring therein, for it will work the better. After he hath Fasted on the Bridle two houres, then take a Handful of Wheat-Ears, and com­ing to him, handle the Roots of his Ears, then put your Hand under his Cloaths next to his Heart upon his Flanks, and on the nether part of his things; and if you finde any new Sweat arise, or any Coldness arise, or if you see his Body beat, or his Breast move fast, then forbear to give him any thing, for it shews there is much soulness stirred up, on which the Medicine worketh with a conquering quality; the Horse is brought [Page 41] to a little Sickness, therefore in this case you shall only take off his Bridle, put on his Coller, toss up his Litter, and absent your self, (having made the Stable dark and still) for other two houres, which is the utmost end of that Sickness. But if you finde no such offence, then give him the Ears of Wheat, by three or four together, and if he eat this handful, give him another, and so another or two. Then give him a little Knob of Hay well dusted, and draw his Bridle, and rub his Head well. An hour after give him a quart of clean Oats, and put two or three handfuls of spelted Beans amongst them, and see that they be very clean, and break amongst them two or three Shives of Bread clean chipt, and so leave him for two or three houres. At Evening before you dress him, give him the like quantity of Oates, Beans and Bread, and when he hath eaten them, Bridle him, Dress and Cloath him; for you shall neither Saddle, or Air him forth, because this Evening after his Heat, the Horse being foul, and the Scouring yet working in his Body, he may not receive any cold water at all. After he is drest, and hath stood two houres on his Bridle, then wash three pints of clean Oates in Beer or Ale, and give them him, for this will inwardly cool him, as if he had drunk water

After he hath eaten his washt Meat, and rested upon it a little, you shall at his feeding times with Oates and spelt Beans, or Oates and Bread, or altogether, or each several, or simply of it self, according to the liking of the Horse, feed him that night in plentiful manner, and leave a Knob of Hay in his Rack when you go to Bed.

The next day early, first feed, then dress, Cloath, Saddle, Air, Water and bring home as at other times; only have a more careful eye to his empty­ing, and see how his Grease and Foulness wasteth.

At his feeding times feed as was last shewed you, only▪but little Hay, and keep your Heating-days, and the preparation of the day before, as was before shewed. Thus you shall speed the second Fortnight, in which your Horse having received four Heats, Horse-man like given him, and four Scourings, there is no doubt but his Body will be drawn inwardly clean, you shall then the third Fortnight Order him according to the Rules following.

The third Fortnights Feeding.

The third Fortnight you shall make his Bread Finer then it was for­merly. As thus,

The Second Bread.

Take two Pecks of clean Beans, and two pecks of fine Wheat, Grind them well, and Searce them through a fine Raunge, and Knead them up with Barm and great store of Lightning, and make it up as you did the [Page 42] former Bread. With this Bread after the Crust is taken away, and being old, feed your Horse, as before shewed, for this Fortnight, as you did the former, putting it amongst his Beans and Oats, observing his Dressings, Airings, Feedings, Heatings and Preparations, as in the former Fortnight, only with these differences.

First, you shall not give your Heats so violently as before, but with a little more pleasure, as thus. If the first Heat have violence, the se­cond shall have ease, and indeed none to over-strain him or to make his Body sore. Next, you shall not after his Heats, give him any more of the former Scouring, but in stead thereof, instantly upon the end of the Heat, after the Horse is a little cooled and cloathed up; and in the same place where you Rub him, give him a Ball as big as a Hens Egg, of that Con­fection which is mentioned in the Office of the Farrier, and goeth by this Title, The true Manner of Making those Cordial Balls, which Cure any vio­lent Cold, or Glanders, which, &c.

The fourth and last Fortnights Feeding.

The fourth and last Fortnight you shall make your Bread much Finer then either of the former.

The last and best Bread.

Take three Pecks of fine Wheat, and one Peck of Beans, Grind them on the black Stones, and boult them through the finest Boulter you can get, then Knead it up with sweet Ale, Barm, and new strong Ale and the Barm beaten together, and the Whites of twenty or thirty Eggs; But in any wise no Water at all, but in stead thereof some small quantity of New Milk, then work it up. Bake it and Order it as the former. With this Bread, having the Crnst cut clean away, and with Oats well Sunned, Beaten and Rubbed between your Hands, then new Winnowed, Sifted and Dress'd, with the purest spelt Beans, and some fine Chiltern Wheat, with any Simple, or any Compound, feed your Horse at his Feeding times, as in the Fort­night last mentioned.

You shall keep your Heating-days the first Week or Fortnight, but the last Week you shall forbear one Heat, and not give any five days before the Match-day, only you shall give him strong and long Air­ings.

You shall not need this Fortnight to give him any Scouring at all. If this Fortnight Morning and Evening, you burn the best Frankincense in your Stable, you shall finde it exceeding wholesom for him, and he will take wonderful delight therein.

In this Fortnight, when you give him any washt Meat, wash it in [Page 43] the Whites of Eggs, or Muskadine, for that is most wholesom and less Pursie.

This Fortnight give him no Hay, but what he taketh out of your hand after his Heats, and that in little quantity, and clear dusted.

The last Week of this Fortnight, if the Horse be a foul Feeder, you must use the Muzzle continually; but if he be a clean Feeder, then three days before the Match is sufficient.

The Morning, the day before your Match, feed well both before and after Airing, and water as at other times, before Noon and after Noon, scant his Portion of Meat a little; before and after Evening Airing, feed as at Noon, and Water as at other times, but be sure to come home before Sun-set.

Late at Night feed as you did in the Evening, and give him what he liketh, according to his stomach, only as you can, forbear Bread and Beans.

This day you shall Coul your Horse, Shoo him, and do all extraordi­nary things of Ornament about him, provided that you do not give him offence to hinder his Feeding or Resting; For I have heard some Horse­men say, that when they had shod their Horses with light Shoos, the Night before the Course, that their Horse hath taken such notice thereof, that they have refused to eat, or lie down. But you must understand, that those Horses must be old, and long Experienced in this Exercise, or else they cannot reach these subtil apprehensions. But to pass by Curiosity, as plating of Tails, and all other unnecessary Ornaments, whereby they do injury to the Horse, I shall advise you for necessary and indifferent things, that they be done the day before, then in the Morning of the Course, because I would have him that Morning find neither trouble nor vexation.

The next Morning (which is the Match-day) come to him very early, and take off his Muzzle, Rub his Head well, right his Cloaths, and give them ease by wisping and using the plain Circingle, then give him a pretty quantity of Oats washed in Muscadine, or the Whites of Eggs, or if he refuse them, try him with fine dress'd Oats, mixt with Wheat, or Oates simple; when he hath eaten them, if he be a slow emptier, walk him abroad, and in the places where he uses to empty, there entice him to empty, which when he hath done, bring him home and let him rest till you have warning to make ready. But if he be a free Emptier, let him lie quiet.

When you have warning to make ready, take off his Muzzle, and put on his Snassle well washed in Muscadine, but before you Bridle him (if you think him to empty) give him three or four Mouths full of washed [Page 44] Meat last spoken of, then Bridle him up and dress him, and after pitch the Saddle and Girts with Cordwainers Wax, set it on and girt it gently, so as he may have feeling, but no straitness; then lay a clean Sheet over the Saddle, over it his ordinary Cloaths, then his Body-cloth and Breast-cloth, and wisp him round with soft Wisps, then if you have a Counterpane, or Cloth of state for bravery sake, let it be fastened above all. Being now ready to draw out, give him half a pint of Muscadine, and so lead away.

In all your Leadings upon the Course, use gentle and calm Motions, suf­fering him to smell upon any Dung, and in especial places of advantage, as where you find Rushes, long Grass lying, Heath or the like, walk in and entice him to Piss. But if you find no such help, then in especial places on the Course, and chiefly towards the latter end, and having used the same means before, break some of the Wisps under him, and entice him to piss.

Also in your leading, if any white or thick foam or froth rise about the Horses Mouth, with a clean Handkerchief wipe it away, and carrying a Bottle of clean water about you, wash his Mouth now and then with it.

When you come to the place of streight, before you uncloath, rub or chase his Legs with hard Wisps; then pick his Feet, uncloath, wash his Mouth with water, Mount his Rider, start fair, and leave the rest to Gods good Will and Pleasure.

Certain Observations and Advantages for every Feeder to observe in sundry Accidents.

There is no unreasonable Creature of Pleasure subject to so many dis­asterous chances of Fortune, as the Horse, and especially the Running Horse, both by reason of the multiplicity of diseases belonging unto them, as also the violence of their Exercise, and the nice tenderness of their keep­ing: and therefore it behooveth every Feeder to be Armed with such Ob­servations as may concern Mischiefs, and those Helps which may amend them when they happen.

Of Meat and Drink.

The first Observation that I shall Arm the Feeder withal, is the true di­stribution of Meat and Drink.

Let him observe, if there be any Meat, Drink or other Nourishment which you know to be good for him, yet he refuseth it; in this case you are not to thrust it violently upon him, but by gentle means and cunning enticements win him thereunto, tempting him when he is most hungry, and most dry; and if he get but a bit at a time, it will soon encrease to a greater quantity, and ever let him have less then he desireth; and that the sooner he may be brought unto it, mix the Meat he loveth best with that [Page 45] he loveth worst, till both be made alike familiar, and so shall the Horse be a stranger to nothing that is good and wholesom.

Observations for Lameness.

Our Feeder must observe, if his Horse be subject to Lameness or Stiff­ness, to surbate or tenderness of Feet, then to give him his Heat upon smooth Carpet Earth, or to forbear strong Ground, hard High-ways, cross Ruts and Furrows, till extremity compel him.

Observations from the State of his Body.

Our Feeder must observe, that the strongest state of Body, (which I account the highest and fullest of Flesh, so it be good, hard, and without inward foulness) to be the best and ablest for the performance of these Wagers; yet herein he must take two Considerations; the one the Shape of the Horse Body, the other his Inclination and manner of Feeding.

For the Shape of his Body. There be some Horses that are round, plump and close knit together, so that they will appear Fat and well Sha­ped, when they are lean and in poverty. Others are raw-boned, slender and loose knit together, and will appear lean and deformed, when they are Fat, foul and full of gross Humours.

From his Inclination.

So likewise for their Inclination, some Horses (at the first) will feed outwardly, and carry a thick Rib, when they are inwardly lean as may be. There be others that will appear lean to the Eye, when they are on­ly Grease. In this case the Feeder hath two Helps to advantage his know­ledge, the one outward, the other inward.

From his outward Handling.

The outward Help, is the outward Handling and feeling the Horses Body, generally over all his Ribs, but particularly upon his short and hin­dermost Ribs.

If his Flesh generally handle soft and loose, and the Fingers sink into it as into Doun, then is he foul without all question; but if generally it be hard and firm, only upon the hindermost Rib is softness, then he hath grease and foul matter within him, which must be avoided, how lean and poor soever he appear in outward speculation.

The inward Help is only sharp Exercise, and strong Scouring; the [...] will dissolve the foulness, the latter will bring it away.

Observations from the Privy Parts.

Our Feeder must observe his Horses Stones, for if they hang down Side, or low from his Body, then is he out of lust and heart, and is either sick of Grease, or other foul humours; but if they lie close, couched up, and hid in a small room, then he is Healthful and in good plight.

Observations for the Limbs.

Our Feeder must observe ever the Night before he runs any Match, or fore heat, to bathe his Legs well, from the Knees and Gambrels down­wards, either with clarified Dogs-grease, (which is the best) or Trotters Oyl (which is the next;) or else the best Hogs-grease, which is sufficient, and to work it well in with your hands, and not with Fire. For what he gets not in the first Night, will be got in the next Morning, and what is not got in the next Morning, will be got when he comes to uncloath at the end of the Course: So that you shall need to use the Ointment but once, but the rubbing as often as you finde opportunity.

Observations for Water.

Our Feeder shall observe, that albeit I give no directions for Watering him after the H [...]s, yet he may in any of the latter Fortnights (finding him clean, and his grease consumed,) somewhat late at Night, as about six of the Clock, give him water in reasonable quantity, being made luke­warm, and fasting an houre af er it. Also if through the unseasonable­ness of the Weather, you cannot water abroad, then you shall at your wa­tering houres water in the house, with warm water, as aforesaid. If you throw a handful of Wheat-Meal, Bran or Oat-meal finely powdred (but Oat-meal is the best) into the water, it is very wholesom.

Observations for the Ground to run in.

Our Feeder shall observe, that if the Ground whereon he is to Run his Match, be dangerous and apt for mischievous Accidents, as strains, over­reaches, Sinew-bruises and the like, that then he is not bound to give all his Heats thereon; but having made him acquainted with the Nature thereof, then either to take part of the Course, as a Mile, two or three, according to the goodness of the Ground, and so to run him forth, and a­gain (which we call turning Heats) provided always that he end his Heat at he weighing Post, and that he make not his Course less, but rather [Page 47] more in quantity then that he must run. But if for some special Cases, he like no part of the Course, then he may many times (but not ever) give his heat upon any other good Ground, about any spacious and large Field, where the Horse may lay down his Body and run at Pleasure.

Observations from Sweat.

Our Feeder shall take especial regard in all Airings, Heatings, and all manner of Exercises whatsoever, to the Sweating of the Horse, and the occasions of his Sweating; as if he Sweat upon little or no occasion, as walking a Foot-pace, standing still in the Stable, and the like, it is then apparent that the Horse is faint, foul sed, and wanteth Exer­cise.

If upon good occasion, as strong Heats, great Labour, and the like, he Sweat, yet his Sweat is white Froth, and like Sope-suds, then is the Horse inwardly foul, and wanteth also Exercise. But if the Sweat be black, and as it were only water thrown upon him, without any frothiness, then is he clean sed, in good lust and good case, and you may Adventure Riding with­out danger.

Observations from the Hair.

Our Feeder shall observe his Hair in general, but especially his Neck, and those Parts that are uncovered, and if they lie slick, smooth and close, and hold the Beauty of their natural colour, then is he in good case; but if they be Rough or staring, or if they be discoloured, then is he inwardly cold at the Heart, and wanteth both Cloaths and warm keep­ing.

Many other Observations there are, but these are most material, and I hope sufficient for any Understanding.

The Office of the Ambler.

Observations in Ambling.

THere is not any Motion in a Horse more desired, more useful, nor indeed more hard to be obtained unto by a right way, then the Mo­tion of Ambling; and yet (if we will believe the Protestations of the Pro­fessors) [Page 48] not any thing in all the Art of Horsemanship more easie, or more several ways to be effected, every man conceiving to himself a several Me­thod, and all those Methods held as infallible Maximes, that can never fail in the Accomplishment of the Work.

Mens Opinions and Errors.

But they which know truths, know the Errors in these Opinions, for albeit every man that hath hardly a smell of Horsemanship, can discourse of a way how to make a Horse Amble, yet when they come to the Perform­ance of the Motion, their failings are so great, and their errors so gross, that for mine own part, I never yet saw an exact Ambler, I confess some one man may make a Horse Amble well and perfectly, nay, more then one, peradventure many, and thereby assume unto himself the name of Perfection, yet such a man have I seen erre grossly, and spoil more then his labour was able to recompence.

But leaving Mens Errors, because they are past my Reformation, I will only touch at some special Observations, which in mine Opinion I hold to be the easiest, the certainest and readiest for the effecting of this work, and withal glance at those absurdities, which I have seen followed, though to little purpose, and less benefit,

Ambling by the Plowed Field.

There is one commends the new Plowed Lands, and affirms, that by toyling the Horse thereon in his Foot-pace, there is no way so excellent for the making of him Amble; but, he forgets what weakness, nay, what Lameness, such disorderly toyl brings to a young Horse, nay, to any Horse; because the Work cannot be done without weariness, and no weariness is wholesom.

Ambling by the Gallop.

Another will teach his Horse to Amble from the Gallop, by sudden stopping, a more sudden choking him in the Cheeks of the Mouth, thrust­ing him into such an amazedness betwixt his Gallop and his Trot, that lo­sing both he cannot choose but find out Ambling.

But this Man forgets not alone the Error before spoken (which is too great toil) but also spoils a good Mouth, (if the Horse had one,) loses a good Rein (if there were any,) and by over-reaching and clapping one Foot against another, endangers upon every step an Hoof-breach or Sinew­strain.

Ambling by Weights.

Another says there is no better way then Ambling by Weights, and [Page 49] thereupon overloads his Horse with unmerciful Shooes of intolerable Weight, and forgets how they make him enterfere, strike short with his Hind-feet, and though his Motion be true, yet is to slow, that it is not worth his Labour. Another solds great Weights of Load about his Feet­lock Pasterns, and forgets that they have all the Mischiefs of the former; besides, the endangering of incurable Strains, the crushing of the Crownet, and the Breeding of Ring-bones, Crown-scabs and Quitter-bones.

Another Loads his Horse upon the Fillets with Earth, Load, or some other Massy substance, and forgets the swaying of the Back, the over straining of the Fillets, and a general disabling of all the hinder parts.

Ambling in Hand, or not ridden.

Another struggles to make his Horse Amble in his Hand, before he Mounts his Back, by the help of some Wall, smooth Pail or Rail, and by Chocking him in the Mouth with the Bridle Hand, and Correcting him with his Rod on the hinder Hoofs, and under the Belly, when he treadeth false, and never remembers in what desperate frantickness it drives an Horse, before he can make him understand his meaning, as Plauging. Rearing, Sprauling out his Legs, and using a World of A [...]tick Postures, which once setled, are hardly ever after reclaimed; besides, when he hath spent all his labour, and done his utmost, as soon as he Mounts his Back, he is as sar to seek of his Pace as if he had never known such a Motion.

Ambling by the Help of Shooes.

Another finds out a new Stratagem, and in despight of all opposition in the Horse, will make him Amble perfectly, and thereupon he makes him a pair of hinder Shooes, with long Spurnes or Plates before the Toes, and of such length, that if the Horse offer to Trot, the hinder-Foot beats the fore-Foot before it. But he forgets that the Shooes are made of Iron, and the Horses Legs of Flesh and Blood, neither doth he remember with what violence the hinder-Foot follows the fore-Foot, nor that every stroke it gives can light upon any place but the Back-Sinews, then which there is no part more tender, nor any wound that brings such incurable Lame­ness.

Ambling by the Help of fine Lists.

Another (out of quaintness more then strong Reason) strives to make his Horse Amble by taking of fine soft Lists, and solding them streight about the Cambrels, in that place where you Garter an Horse for a sti [...] ­strain, and then turn him to Grass for a Fortnight, or more, in which time (saith he) he will fall to a perfect Amble, (for it is true, he cannot Trot but with pain, then taking away the Lists, the Work is finished.

[Page 50] But under the Correction of the Professors of this foreign trick, for it is a Spanish Practice; I must assure them, that if they gain their purpose, they must offend the Members; If they hurt not the Limbs, they lose their la­bour; but however, this is most assured, that the Amble thus gained, must be disgraceful, or Ambling and cringing in the hinder Parts, without come­liness, speed or clear deliverance.

Ambling by the Hand only.

Another (and he calls himself the Master Ambler of all Amblers) af­firms, there is no true way of making an Horse to Amble, but by the Hand only, and I am of this opinion, could this secret be sound out, or could a Man make a Horse do all that he imagined; but Horses are Rebellious, and Men are furious, and the least of either of these spoils the whole Work; and it is impossible for any Man to [...]adge an Horse to a new Motion, utterly unknown, against which he will not resist with his uttermost power. Be­sides, to do this Action with the Hand only, it must only be done from the Horses Mouth, and that Mouth must of necessity be altered from his first manner of Riding; for to use all one Hand must preserve all one Motion, and then where is his Ambling, which was not known at the first Backing? Again, we strive at the first Backing of an Horse, to bring his Mouth to all sweetness, his Rein to all Stateliness, and the general carriage of his Body to all Comeliness. Now in this course of Ambling by the Hand on­ly, the Mouth must be changed from the Chaps to the W [...]eks o [...] the Mouth, which is from sweetness to harshness, his Rein must be brought from con­stancy to unconstancy; for the Eyes that did look upward, the Nose and Muzzle which was couched Inward, must be turned outward, and the ge­neral comeliness of the Bodies Carriage must be brought to disorder and false treading; or else he shall never Accomplish the true Art of Ambling by the Hand only.

Ambling by the Tramel.

There is another, (I will not call him the best,) because his Error may be as great as any) and he will make his Horse Amble by the help of the Tramel only, which I confess is nearest, the best and most assured way, yet he hath many Errours, as followeth.

Errors in the Tramel.

First, he loseth himself in the want of knowledge, for the length of the Tramel, and either he makes it too long, (which gives no stroke,) or too short, (which gives a false stroke) the first makes an Horse hackle and shuffle his Feet confusedly, the latter makes him Roul and Twitch up his [Page 51] hinder Feet so suddenly, that by Custom it brings him to a string-halt, from which he will hardly be recovered ever after. Another loses him­self and his labour by misplacing the Tramel, and out of a Niceness to seem more expert then he is, or out of fearfulness to prevent falling (to which the Tramel is subject) places them above the Knee, and above the hinder Foot-hoof. But the Rule is neither good nor handsom; for if the Tramel be too long or loose, that is, gives no offence to the Sinews, and other ligaments, about which they must necessarily be bound, when they are raised so high, then they can give no true stroke, neither can the fore-Leg compel the hinder to follow it. And if they be so short or streight, that the fore-Leg cannot step forward, but the hinder must go equal with it, then will it so press the main Sinew of the hinder-Leg, and the Veins and Fleshy part of the sore-Thighs, that the Horse will not be able to go without halting before, and cringing and crambling his hinder-parts so ill­favouredly, that it will be irksom to behold it; besides, it will occasion Sweatings, and draw down humours, which will be more noisom then the Pace will be beneficial.

Another makes his Tramel of such course and hard stuff, or else Girts it so streight, or leaves it fretting up and down so loose, that he Galls his Horses Legs, and leaves neither Hair nor Skin upon them, at the best it leaves such a soul print and mark upon the Legs, that every one will ac­cuse both the Horse and his Teacher of disgrace and indiscretion.

As these, so I must conclude with the last Error of the Tramel, which is Mens Opinions, and though it be the most insufficient, yet it hath the greatest power to over-sway Truth, and that is, the Tramel is utterly un­necessary and unprofitable, and the Defender worthy of no Employment, alledging the Land only to be excellent.

The [...]rrors I have already confuted; it now remains (after all these faults finding, that I shew the truest, easiest, and that way which is most uncontroulable for the making of an Horse to Amble, with all the grace­fulness and perfection that can be required.

The best way to Amble an Horse.

When you are about to make an Horse Amble truly, and without con­troulment. First, try with your Hand by a gentle and deliberate racking and thrusting of the Horse forward, by helping him in the Weeks of his Mouth with your Snaffle, (which must be smooth, big and full) and cor­recting him first on one side, then on another with the Calves of your Legs, and sometimes with the Spur, if you can make him of himself strike into an Amble, though shuffling disorderly, there will be much labour sa­ved; for that proc [...]ivity or aptness to Amble, will make him with more easiness and less danger, endure the use of the Tramel, and make him find the Motion without stumbling or amazement: but if you finde he [Page 52] will by no means either apprehend the Motions or Intentions, then struggle not with him, but fall to the use of the Tramel in this manner following.

The Form of the Tramel.

But before I come to the Use and Vertue thereof, I will shew you the form and substance whereof it ought to be made; because nothing hath ever done this Instrument more Injury, then false Substances and false Shapes. Therefore some make these Tramels of all Leather, and they will either reach or break, the first marrs the Work by uncertainty, the other loseth the labour.

Another makes it of Canvass, and that galls.

A third makes it of strong Lists, and that hath all the faults of both the former, for the softness will not let it lie close, and the gentleness makes it stretch out of all compass, or break upon every stumble. And as these, so there are a World of other useless Tramels, for you must understand, that touching the true Tramel, the Side-Ropes must be firm without yield­ing an hair: The Hose must be soft, lie close, and not move from his first place, and the Back-band must be flat, no matter how light, and so de­fended from the Fillets, that it may not gall. And this Tramel must be thus made, and of these Substances.

First, for the Side-Ropes, they must be made of the best, finest and strongest Pack-thread, such as your Turky-thread, and turned by the Roper into a delicate strong Cord, yet at the utmost, not above the bigness of a small Jack-line, with a Noose at each end, so strong as is possible to be made; neither must these Side-Ropes be twined too hard, but gentle, and with a yielding condition, for that will bring on the Motion more easie, and keep the Tramel from breaking, now these Side-Ropes must be just thirty six Inches in length, and so equal one with another, that no difference may be espied.

For the Horse which must be placed in the small of the Fore-leg, and the small of the hinder-Leg, above the Feet lock, they must be made of fine Girt-Web, which is soft and pliant, and loyned with double Cotton: Over the Girt-Web must be fastened strong Tabbs of white Neats Lea­ther well Tallowed, and suited to an even length, and stamped with holes of equal distance, which shall pass through the Nooses of the Side▪Ropes, and be made longer or shorter at pleasure, with very strong Buckles. These Hose, the Girt would be four Inches in length, and the Tabbs ten.

The Back-band being of no other use but to bear up the Side Ropes, would (if you Tramel all the fore-Legs) be made of fine Girt Web, and [...]oyned with Cotton; but if you Tramel but one side, then an ordinary Tape will serve, being sure that it carries the side-Ropes in an even Line, without either Rising or falling; for if it rise, it shortens the side-Rope, and if it falls, it endangers tangling.

[Page 53] Thus you see what the true Tramel is, and how to be made; touching the use, it thus followeth.

The true Ʋse of the true Tramel.

When you have brought your Horse into an even smooth Path, without Rubs or roughness, you shall there loose the near fore-Leg, and the near hinder-Leg, then put to them the side-Rope, and see that he stand at that just proportion which Nature her self hath formed him, without ei­ther straining or enlarging his Members, and in that even and just length, stay the side-Rope by a small Tape fastened up to the Saddle. Then with your hand on the Bridle, straining his Head, put him gently forward, and if need be, have the help of a by-stander to put him forward also, and so force him to Amble up and down the Road, with all the Gentleness you can, suffering him to take his own leisure, that thereby he may come to an understanding of his restraint, and your Will for the Performance of the Motion, and though he snapper or stumble, or peradventure fall now and then, yet it matters not, do you only stay his Head, give him leave to Rise, and with all gentleness put him forward again, till finding his own fault, and understanding the Motion, he will become perfect, and Amble in your Hand to your contentment. And that this may be done with more ease and less amazement to the Horse, it is not amiss (at his first Tramel­ing) that you give your Side-Ropes more length then ordinary, both that the Twitches may be less sudden, and Motion coming more gently, the Horse may sooner apprehend it.

But as soon as he comes to any perfectness, then instantly put the Side-Ropes to their true length. For an Inch too long, is a Foot too slow in the Pace; and an Inch too short causeth Rouling, a Twitching up of the Legs, and indeed a kind of plain Halting.

When to alter the Tramel.

When the Horse will thus Amble in your Hand perfectly, being Tra­melled on one side, you shall then change them to the other side, and make him Amble in your hand as you did before. And thus you shall do, chan­ging from one side to another, till with this half▪Tramel he will Run and Amble in your hand, without snappering or stumbling, both readily and swiftly; when this is attained unto, which cannot be above two or three houres labour, (if there be any tractableness) you may then put on the whole Tramel, and the broad, flat back Band, Trameling both sides equally, and so Run him in your hand (at the utmost length of the Bridle) up and down the Road divers times, then pause, cherish, and to it again; and thus apply him, till you have brought him to that Perfection, that he will Amble swiftly, truly and readily, when, where, and how you please; then [Page 54] put him upon uneven and uncertain ways, as up-hill and down-hill, where there are clots and roughness, and where there is hollowness and false treading.

When to Mount his Back.

Now when he is perfect in your Hand upon all these, you may then ad­venture to Mount his Back, which (if you please) you may first do by a Boy, or Groom; making the Horse Amble under him, whilest you stay his Head to prevent danger, or to see how he striketh. Then after Mount your self, and with all gentleness and lenity, encreasing his Pace more and more, till you come to the height of Perfection. And thus as you did be­fore in your Hand, so do now on his Back, first with the whole Tramel, then with the half, and changing the Tramel oft, first from one side, then to another, then altering Grounds, till you finde that exquisiteness which you desire, and this must be done by daily exercise and labour, as twice, thrice, sometimes oftner in the day.

When to Journey.

When you have obtained your Wish in the Perfection of his stroke, the nimbleness of his Limbs, and the good carriage of his Head and Body, you may then take away the Tramel altogether, and exercise him without it. But this ExerciseI would have upon the High-way, (and not Horse­courser like) in a private smooth Road, for that affords but a cousening Pace, which is left upon every small weariness; therefore take the High-way forward for three, four or five miles in a Morning, more or less, as you finde his aptness and ability. Now if in this journeying, either through weariness, ignorance or peevishness, you finde in him a willing­ness to forsake his Pace, then (ever carrying in your Pocket the half Tra­mel) alight and put them on, and so exercise him in them, and now and then give him ease, bring him home in his true Pace. This Exercise you shall follow day by day; and every day increasing it more and more, till you have brought him from one mile to many; which done, you may then give him ease, as letting him rest a day or two, or more, and then apply him again; and if you finde in him neither errour nor alteration, then you may conclude your Work is finished.

But if any alteration do happen (as many phantastick Horses are subject unto,) if it be in the motion of his Pace, then with your hand reform it. But if that fail, then the use of the half-Tramel will never fail you.

Now if the Error proceed from any other occasion, look seriously into the cause thereof, and taking that away the effect will soon cease; for you are to understand, that in this manner of teaching him to Amble, you [Page 55] are forbidden no help whatsoever which belongs unto Horsemanship, as Chain, Cavezan, Musroul, Head-strain, Martingale, Bit, or any other ne­cessary Instrument, because this Motion is not drawn from the Mouth, but from the Limbs.

Many things else might be spoken on this subject, but it would but load paper, and weary Memory; and I am only at short Essays, and true Expe­riments, therefore take this as sufficient.

The Office of the Buyer, wherein is shewed all the Perfections and Imperfections that are or can be in a Horse.

Observations and Advertisements for any Man when he goes about to buy an Horse.

THERE is nothing more difficult in all the Art of Horsemanship, then to set down constant and uncontroulable Resolutions, by which to bind every Mans Minde to an unity of Consent in the buying of an Horse; for, according to the old Adage, What is one Mans Meat, is another Mans Poison; What one affects, another dislikes. But to proceed according to the Rule of Reason, the Precepts of the Ancients, and the Modern Pra­ctice of our conceived Opinions, I will as briefly as I can, (and the rather, because it is a labour I never undertook in this wise before) shew you those Observations and Advertisements which may fortifie you in any hard E­lection.

The End for which to buy.

First, therefore you are to observe, that if [...]ou Elect an Horse for your Hearts Contentment, you must consider the end and purpose for which you buy him, as whether for the Wars, Running, Hunting, Travelling, Draught or Burthen, every one having their several Characters, and their several Faces both of Beauty and Uncomeliness.

But because there is but one Truth and one Perfection, I will under the Description of the perfect and untainted Horse, shew all the Imperfections and Attaindures, which either Nature or Mischance can put upon him of greatest deformity.

Let me then advise you that intend to buy an Horse, to acquaint your self with all the true Shape; and Excellencies which belong to an Horse, [Page 56] whether it be in his natural and true Proportion, or in any accidental or outward increase or decrease of any Limb or Member, and from their Contraries, to gather all things whatsoever that may give dislike or offence.

Election how divided.

To begin therefore with the first Principle of Election, you shall un­derstand they are divided into two especial Heads, the one General, the other particular.

The General Rule.

The General Rule of Election is, First, the End for which you buy; Then his Breed or Generation, his Colour, his Pace, and his Stature; These are said to be General, because they have a general dependence up­on every Mans several opinions, as the first, which is the End for which you buy, it is a thing shut up only in your own bosome.

Of Breed.

The other, which is Breed, you must either take it from faithful report, your own knowledge, or from some known and certain Characters, by which one strain, or one Countrey is distinguished from another, as the Neapolitan is known by his Hawk-Nose, the Spaniard by his small Limbs, the Barbary by his fine Head and deep Hoof, the Dutch by his rough Legs, the English by his general strong knitting together, and so forth of divers others.

Of Colour.

As for his Colour, though there is no Colour exempt from goodness, for I have seen good of all, yet there are some better reputed then others, as the Dapple Grey for Beauty, the Brown Bay for Service, the Black with Silver Hairs for Courage, and the Liard and true mixt Roan for Counte­nance. As for the Sorrel, the Black without White, and the unchangeable Iron Grey, are reputed Cholerick; the bright Bay, the Flea-bitten, and the Black with white Marks, are Sanguinists; the Black, White, Yellow, Dun, Kite-glewed and the Py-bald, are Phlegmatick; and the Chesnut, the Mouse dun, the Red Bay, the blew Grey, are Melancholy.

Pace▪ as Trotting.

Now for his Pace, which is either Trot, Amble, Rack or Gallop, you must Refer it to the end also for which you buy; as if it be for the Wars, Running, Hunting, or your own Pleasure, then the Trot is most tolerable, and this Motion you shall know by a Cross Moving of the Horses Limbs, [Page 59] as when the fore-Leg, and the near Hinder-Leg, or the near fore-Leg, and the far Hinder-Leg move and go forward in one instant. And in this Motion, the nearer the Horse taketh his Limbs from the Ground, the opener, the evener and the shorter is his Pace; for to take up his Feet slovenly, shews stumbling and lameness; To tread narrow or cross, shews enter­fering or failing; to step uneven, shews toil and weariness, and to tread long, shews over-reaching.

Ambling.

Now if you Elect for Ease, great Persons Seats, or long Travel, then Ambling is required. And this Motion is contrary to Trotting, for now both the Feet on one side must move equally together, that is, the far sore-Leg, and the far hinder-Leg, and the near fore-Leg, and the near hinder-Leg. And this Motion must go just, large, smooth and nimble; for to tread false, takes away all ease; to tread short, rids no Ground; to tread rough, shews rouling; and to tread un-nimbly shews a false Pace that ne­ver continueth, as also Lameness.

Racking.

If you Elect for Buck-Hunting, Galloping on the High-way Post, Hack­ney, or the like, then a racking Pace is required: and this Motion is the same that Ambling is, only it is in a swifter time, and a shorter tread; and though it rid not so much ground, yet it is a little more easie.

Galloping.

Now to all these Paces must be joyned a good Gallop, which naturally every Trotting and Racking Horse hath; the Ambler is a little unapt thereunto, because the Motions are both one, so that being put to a great­er swiftness of Pace then formerly he hath been acquainted withal, he handles his Legs confusedly, and out of order, and being trained gently, and made to understand the Motion, he will as well undertake it as any Trotting Horse whatsoever. Now in a good Gallop you are to observe these Vertues. First, that the Horse which taketh up his Feet nimbly from the Ground, but doth not raise them high, that neither rouleth nor beat­eth himself, that stretcheth out his fore-Legs, follows nimbly with his hinder, and neither cuteth under his Knee, (which is called the swift cut) nor crosseth, nor claps one Foot on another, and ever leadeth with his far fore-Foot, and not with the near, he is said ever to Gallop comely and most true, and he is the fittest for speed, or any swift Employment. If he Gallop round, and raise his fore-Feet, he is then said to Gallop strongly, but not swiftly, and is fittest for the great Saddle, the Wars and strong Encounters; If he Gallop slow, yet sure he will serve for the High-way, but if he labour his Feet confusedly, and Gallop painfully, then is he good for no Galloping Service; besides, it shews some hidden Lameness.

His Stature.

Lastly, touching his Stature, it must be referred to the end for which you buy, ever observing that the biggest and strongest are fittest for strong occasions, and great Burthens, strong Draughts, and double Carriage, the middle Size for Pleasure and general Emploiments; and the least for Ease, Street-Walks, and Summer-Hackney.

The particular Rule.

Now touching the particular Rule of Election, it is contained in the discovery of natural deformities, accidental outward Sorrances, or in­ward hidden Mischiefs, which are so many and so infinite, that it is a World of Work to explain them, yet for satisfaction sake, I will in as methodical manner as I can, shew what you are to observe in this occasion.

How to stand to View.

When a Horse is brought unto you to buy (being satisfied for his Breed, his Pace, Colour and Stature,) then see him stand naked before you, and placing your self before his Face, take a strict View of his Countenance, and the chearfulness thereof; for it is an excellent Glass wherein to be­hold his Goodness and best Perfections. As thus,

His Ears.

If his Ears be small, thin, sharp, short, pricked and moving; or if they be long, yet well set on, and well carried, it is a Mark of Beauty, Good­ness and Mettle: but if they be thick, laved or lolling, wide set and un­moving, then are they signs of dulness, doggedness and evil Nature.

His Face.

If his Face be lean, his Forehead swelling outward, the Mark or Feather in his Face set high, as above his Eyes, or at the top of his Eyes, if he have a white Star, or white Ratch of an indifferent Size, and even placed, or a white Snip on his Nose or Lip; all are Marks of Beauty and Goodness. But if his Face be Fat, Cloudy or Skouling, his Forehead flat as a Tren­cher, (which we call Mare-faced) for the Mark in his Forehead stand low, as under his Eyes; If his Star or Ratch stand awry, or in an evil posture, or instead of a Snip, his Nose be raw and un-hairy, or his Face generally bald, all are signs of deformity.

His Eyes.

If his Eyes be round, big, black, shining, starting or staring from his Head, if the black of the Eye fill the Pit or outward Circumference, so that in the moving, none (or very little) of the White appeareth, all are signes of Beauty, Goodness, and Material; but if his Eyes be uneven, and [Page 61] of a wrinkled proportion, if they be little (which we call Pig-Eyed) both are uncomely signes of Weakness; if they be red and fiery, take heed of Moon-Eyes, which is next door to Blindness; if white and walled, it shews a weak Sight and unnecessary starting or finding of Buggards; if with white Specks, take heed of the Pearl, Pin and Web; if they water or shew bloody, it shews bruises; and if any Matter, they shew old over-Ri­ding, festered Rheums, or violent strains. If they look dead or dull, or are hollow, or much sunk, take heed of Blindness at the best. The Best is of an old decrepit Generation: if the Black fill not the Pit, but the white is always appearing, or if in moving, the White and Black be seen in equal quantity, it is a sign of weakness and a dogged disposition.

His Cheeks and Chaps.

If in handling his Cheeks or Chaps, you find the Bones lean and thin, the space wide between them, the Thropple or Wind-Pipe big as you can Gripe, and the void place without Knots or Kernels; and generally the Jaws so great, that the Neck seemeth to couch within them, they are excel­lent Signes of great Wind, Courage and Soundness of Head and Body. But if the Chaps be sat and thick, the space between them closed up with gross Substance, and the Thropple little, all are Signes of short Wind, and much inward foulness. If the void place be full of Knots and Kernels, take heed of the Strangle or Glaunders, at the best, the Horse is not with­out a foul Cold. If his Jaws be so streight that his Neck swelleth above them, if it be no more then natural, it is only an uncomely Sign of short Wind, and Pursiness or Grossness; but if the Swelling be long, and close by his Chaps like a Whet-stone, then take heed of the Vives, or some o­ther unnatural Impostume.

His Nostrils and Muzzle.

If his Nostrils be open, dry, wide and large; so as upon any straining the inward redness is discovered, and if his Muzzle be small, his Mouth deep, and his Lips equally Meeting, then all are good Signes of Wind, Health and Courage. But if his Nostrils be streight, his Wind is little; if his Muzzel is gross, his Spirit i [...] dull; if his Mouth be shallow, he will never carry a Bit well; and if his upper Lip will not reach his nether, old Age or Infirmity hath Marked him for Carrion. If his Nose be moist and dropping, if it be clear water, it is a Cold; if soul Matter, then be­ware of Glaunders: if both Nostrils run, it is hurtful; but if one, then most dangerous.

His Teeth.

Touching his Teeth and their Vertues, they are set down in a par­ticular [Page 62] Chapter; onely remember, you never buy an Horse that wanteth any, for as good lose all almost as one.

His Breast.

From his Head look down to his Breast, and see that it be broad, out­swelling, and Adorned with many Features; for that shews strength and durance. The little Breast is uncomely, and shews weakness, the narrow Breast is apt to stumble, fall and enterfere before; the Breast that is hidden Inward, and wanteth the Beauty and division of many Feathers, shews a weak Armed Heart, and a Breast that is unwilling and unfit for any vi­olent toyl or strong labour.

His Fore-Thighs.

Next look down from his Elbow to his Knees, and see that those Fore-Things be rush-grown, well horned within, Sinewed, Fleshy, and out­swelling, for they are good signs of strength, the contrary shews weak­ness, and are unnatural.

His Knees.

Then look on his Knees, and see that they carry a Proportion, be lean, Sinewy and close Knit, for they are good and comely; but if one be big­ger and rounder then another, the Horse hath received Mischief; if they be gross, the Horse is Gouty; if they have Scars, or Hair-broken, it is a true mark of a stumbling Jade, and a perpetual Faller.

His Legs.

From his Knees, look down to his Legs, to his Pasterns, and if you finde them lean, flat and sinewy, and the Inward Bought of his Knee without Seames, or Hair-broken, then he shews good Shape and Soundness; But if on the inside of the Leg you finde hard Knots, they are Splinters; if on the out-side, they are Screws or Excressions; if under his Knees be Scabs on the inside, it is the swift cut, and he will ill endure Galloping; if a­bove his Pasterns on the in-side you find Scabs, it shews enterfering; but if the Scabs be generally over his Legs, it is either extream soul keeping, or else a Spice of the Maunge; if his Flesh be fat, round and fleshy, he will never endure labour; and if on the Inward Bought of his Knees you finde Seams, Scabs or Hair-broken, it shews a Melander, which is a Can­cerous Ulcer.

His Pasterns.

Look then on his Pastern-Joynt and his Pastern, the first must be clear and well Knit together, the other must be short, strong and upright stand­ing; [Page 63] for if the first be big or swell'd, take heed of Sinew-strains and Gourdings: if the other be long, weak or bending, the Limbs will be hardly able to carry the Body without tyring.

His Hoofs.

For the Hoofs in general, they should be black, smooth, tough, rather a little long then round, deep, hollow and full of Sounding: for white Hoofs are tender, and carry a Shoo ill; a rough, gross Seamed Hoof, shews old Age or over-Heating. A brittle Hoof will carry no Shoo at all; an ex­traordinary round Hoof is ill for foul ways, and deep Hunting. A flat Hoof that is pumissed, shews Foundring; and a Hoof that is empty, and hollow sounding, shews a decayed Inward-part, by reason of some wound or dry Founder. As for the Crown of the Hoof, if the Hair lie smooth and close, and the Flesh flat and even, then all is perfect; but if the Hair be Staring, the Skin scabbed, and the Flesh rising, then look for a Ring­bone, or a Crown-scab, or a Quitter-bone.

The Setting on of his Head, his Crest and Mane.

After this, stand by his side, and first look to the setting on of his Head, and see that it stand neither too high, nor too low, but in a direct line; that his Neck be small at the setting on of his Head, and Long, growing deeper to the Shoulders, with an high, strong and thin Mane, long, soft, and somewhat curling, for these are beautiful Characters: whereas to have the Head ill set on, is the greatest deformity; to have any bigness or swel­ling in the Nape of the Neck, shews the Pole-evil, or beginning of a Fi­stula; to have a short thick Neck like a Bull, to have it falling at the Wi­thers, to have a low, weak, a thick or falling Crest, shews want both of strength and Mettle; to have much Hair on the Mane, shews intolerable dulness; to have it too thin, shews fury; and to have none or shed, shews the Worm in the Mane, the Itch, or else plain Maunginess.

His Back, Ribs, Fillets, Belly and Stones.

Look on the Chine of his Back, that it be broad, even and streight, his Ribs well compassed and bending Outward, his Fillets upright, strong and short, and not above a handful between his last Rib and his Huckle-bone, let his Belly be well let down, yet hidden within his Ribs, and let his Stones be well truss'd up to his Body, for all these are Marks of Health and good Perfection; whereas to have his Chine narrow, he will never carry a Saddle without wounding, and to have it bending or Saddle-back­ed, shews weakness.

To have his Ribs flat, there is not liberty for Wind.

To have his Fillets hanging, long or weak, he will never climb an Hill [Page 64] nor carry a Burthen. And to have his Belly clung up or gaunt, or his Stones hanging down, loose or aside, they are both Signes of Sickness, Tenderness, Foundering in the Body, and unaptness for labour.

His Buttocks.

Then look upon his Buttocks, and see that they be round, plump, full, and in an even level with his Body: or if long, that it be well raised be­hind, and spread forth at the setting on of the Tail, for these are comely and beautiful. The narrow Pin-buttock, the Hog or Swine-Rump, and the falling and down-let Buttock are full of Deformity, and shew both an Injury in Nature, and that they are neither sit or becoming for Pad, Foot-Cloth or Pillion.

His Hinder-Thighs.

Then look to his Hinder-Thighs or Gaskings, if they be well let down even to the middle Joynt, thick, brawny, full and Swelling; for that is a great Argument of Strength and Goodness, whereas the lank slender Thighs shew disability and weakness.

His Cambrels.

Then look upon the middle Joynt behind, and if it be nothing but Skin and Bone, Veins and Sinews, and rather a little bending then too streight, then it is perfect as it should be. But if it hath Chaps or Sores on the In­ward Bought or bending, then that is a Sellander. If the Joynt be swell'd generally all over, then he hath got a Blow or Bruise, if the Swelling be particular, as in the Pit or hollow Part, or on the inside, and the Vein full and proud; if the Swelling be soft, it is a Blood-spaven; if hard, a Bone-spaven; but if the Swelling be just behind, before the Knuckle, then it is a Curb.

Hinder-Legs.

Then look to his hinder-Legs, if they be lean, clean, flat and Sinewy, then all is well; but if they be fat they will not endure labour. If they be Swelled, the Grease is molten in them. If he be Scabbed above the Pa­sterns, he hath the Scratches; if he have Chaps under his Pasterns, he hath Rains, and none of these but aro noisom.

His Tail.

Lastly, for the setting on of his Tail where there is a good Buttock, the Tail can never stand ill; and where there is an evil Buttock, there the Tail can never stand well; for it ought to stand broad, high, flat, and Couched a little inward. Thus I have shewed you the true Shapes and true Deformities, you may in your Choice please your own Fancies.

An uncontroulable Way to know the Age of an Horse.

There are seven outward Characters, by which to know the Age of every Horse; As namely, his Teeth, his Hoofs, his Tail, his Eyes, his Skin, his Hair, and the Barrs in his Mouth.

His Teeth.

If you would know his Age by his Teeth, you must understand that an Horse hath in his Head just fourty Teeth, that is to say, six great Wong Teeth above, and six below on one side, and as many on the other, which maketh twenty four; And are called his Grinders; then six above and six below, in the fore-part of his Mouth, which are called Gatherers, and make thirty six. Then four Tushes, one above and one below on one side, and are called the Bit Teech, which make just fourty.

Now the first year he hath his Foals Teeth, which are only Grinders and Gatherers, but no Tushes, and they be small, white and bright to look on.

The second year he changeth the four fore-most Teeth in his Head, that is, two above, and two below in the midst of the Rows of the Gather­ers, and they are browner and bigger then the other.

The third year he changeth the Teeth next unto them, and leaveth no apparent Foals Teeth before, but two above, and two below of each side, which are all bright and small.

The fourth year he changeth the Teeth next unto them, and leaveth no more Foals Teeth before, but one of each side, both above and below.

The fifth year his sore-most Teeth will be all changed; but then he hath his Tushes on each-side compleat, and the last Foals Teeth which he cast, those which come up in their place will be hollow, and have a little Black speck in the midst, which is called the Mark in the Horses Mouth, and continueth till he be past eight years old.

The sixth year he putteth up his new Tushes, near about which you shall see growing a little of new and young Flesh, at the bottom of the Tush: besides, the Tush will be white, small, short and sharp.

The seventh year all his Teeth will have their perfect Growth, and the Mark in his Mouth will be plainly seen.

The eighth year all his Teeth will be full, smooth and plain, the black speck or mark being no more but discerned, and his Tushes will be more yellow then ordinary.

The ninth year his foremost Teeth will be longer, broader, yellower and fouler then at younger years, the mark gone, and his Tushes will be bluntish.

The tenth year, the inside of his upper Tushes will be no holes at all to be felt with your Fingers ends, which till that Age you shall ever feel; besides, the Temples of his Head will begin to be crooked and hollow.

[Page 66] The eleventh year his Teeth will be exceeding long, very yellow, black and foul, only he may then cut even, and his Teeth will stand directly opposite one to another.

The twelfth year his Teeth will be long, yellow, black and foul, but then his upper Teeth will hang over his nether.

The thirteenth year his Tushes will be worn somewhat close to his Chaps, (if he be a much ridden Horse) otherwise they will be black, foul and long, like the Tushes of a Boar.

His Mouth.

See that he does not over-hang his upper Teeth over his nether, for though it be the Mark of an old Horse, yet sometimes a young Horse hath that Infirmity. See likewise that he is not too deep burnt of the Lampas, and that his Flesh lie smooth with his Barrs, for if it be too deep burnt, his Hay and Provender will stick therein, which will be very troublesom to the Horse.

His Hoofs.

If his Hoofs be rugged, and as it were Seamed one Seam over another, and many Seams; if they be dry, full and crusty, or crumbling, it is a sign of very old Age; and on the contrary part, a smooth, moist, hollow and well-sounding Hoof, is a sign of young years.

His Tail.

If you take your Horse with your Finger and your Thumb by the Stern of the Tail, close at the setting on by the Buttock, feeling there hard, and if you feel of each side of the Tail a Joynt stick out more then any other, by the bigness of an Hazel-nut, then you may presume the Horse is under two years old; but if his Joynts be all plain, and no such thing to be felt, then he is above ten, and it may be thirteen.

His Eyes.

If his Eyes be round, full, staring or starting from his Head, if the Pits over them be filled, smooth and even with his Temples, and no wrinkles, either about his Brow, or under his Eyes, then he is young, if otherwise you see the contrary Characters, it is a sign of old Age.

His Skin.

If you take his Skin in any part of his Body, between your Finger and your Thumb, and pull it from his Flesh, then letting it go again, if it sud­denly return to the place from whence it came, and be smooth and plain without wrinkle, then he is young and full of strength; but if it stand, and not return instantly to its former place, then he is very old and wasted.

His Hair.

If an Horse that is of any dark Colour, shall grow grissle only about his Eye-brows, or underneath his Mane; or any Horse of a whitish Co­lour shall grow Meannelled with either black or red Meannels universally over his Body, then both are Signes of old Age.

His Barrs.

Lastly, if the Barrs in his Mouth be great, deep, and handle rough and hard, then is the Horse old; but if they be soft, shallow, and handle gently and tenderly, then is he young, and in good ability of Body.

And thus much be spoken touching the Office of the Buyer.

The perfect Shape of a Horse altogether.

First, there is required that the Hoof be black, smooth, dry, large, round and hollow; the Pasterns streight and upright, Fet-locks short, the Legs streight and flat, called also Lath-legged, the Knees bony, lean and round, the Neck long, high reared, and great towards the Breast, the Breast large and round, the Ears small, sharp, long and upright, the Fore-head lean and large, the Eyes great, full and black, the Brows well filled, and shooting outwards, the Jaws wide, slender and lean, the Nostrils wide and open, the Mouth great, the Head long and lean, like to a Sheep, the Mane thin and large, the Withers sharp and pointed, the Back short, even, plain and double Chined, the Sides and Ribs deep, large and bearing out like the Cover of a Trunk, and close shut at the Huckle-bone, the Belly long and great, but hid under the Ribs, the Flanks full, yet gaunt, the Rump round, plain and broad, with a large space betwixt the Buttocks, the Thighs long and large, with well-fashioned bones, and those fleshy, the Hams dry and streight, the Trunchion small, long, well set on, and well couched, the Train long, not too thick, and falling to the Ground, the Yard and Stones small; And lastly, the Horse to be well-risen before. And to conclude, the perfect Shape of a Horse, according as a famous Horse-man hath described it, is in a few words, thus, viz. A broad Fore-head, a great Eye, a lean Head, thin, slender, lean, wide Jaws, a long high reared Neck, reared Withers, abroad deep Chest and Body, upright Pa­sterns, and narrow Hoof; And this is the common, allowed and ap­proved Shape of a perfect Horse, so that if any of those things be deficient in him, he cannot be said to be a Horse of a perfect Shape. Wherefore I conclude, that if a Horse be of a good Colour, well Marked, and rightly Shaped, and right also by Sire and Mare, it will be seldom seen that he would prove ill, unless his Nature be alienated and marred, either in the Backing and Riding, or else that he be otherwise wronged, by the means of an unskilful Groom. But I may in this Point be taxed to hold a Pa­radox;

which helpeth Farcins, Yellows, Stavers, Scabs, Mainges, Agues, Feavers, Colds, Surseits, Glanders, or any other Malady, which may be any ways noxious to the inward part of the Body. And it also preventeth sudden Sickness, if you do suspect it. Fifthly, the opening of the two Plate or Breast-Veins do help the Anticor, Sickness of the Heart, Mor­foundring, which is the Foundring in the Body by over-riding, whereby the Grease of the Horse is molten; it also preventeth Diseases in the Li­ver, Lungs, and inward parts grieved; and sometimes Hurts in the Shoul­der, which causeth Lameness before. Sixthly, we use to touch the two Thigh-Veins before, which helpeth▪Foundring in the fore-Feet, Mallenders, Splent, Screw, Ring-bone, and such like infirmities in the fore-Foot, and such other higher Parts. Seventhly, we use to take Blood from the four Shackle-Veins before, and this is very good for the Crow-scab, Ring-bone and such like Diseases. Eighthly, we use to strike the two Spur-Veins, which Cureth the Farcin in the Sides, Morfoundring, swelling under the Belly, which is a Disease called the Feltrick, and the like. Ninthly, we prick the two Toe-Veins, which do help Frettizing, Foundering, Hoof­bound, beating of the Horses Feet by Riding upon hard and stony ways, and the like. Tenthly, we open the two Thigh-Veins behind, and this doth help the Grief of the Kidneys, swelling in the Hinder-Legs, Foun­dring, Sellenders, Scratches, Kybes, &c. And it also helpeth Diseases in and about the Belly, as Pissing of blood, Pissing oft after great and extra­ordinary hard labour, and the weakness of the Reins, the Back, Belly, Guts, or any other of the inward Parts, the Curb, Spaven, and such Dis­eases which come of Rankness of Blood. Eleventhly, we sometimes do open the four Shackle-Veins behind, and this is very good against Foun­derings, and other pains in and about the Feet. Twelfthly, we let Blood in the two Flank or Hanch-Veins, and this is most probable for all kind of Feavers, the Stones, Poverty and the Felter-worm. Thirteenthly, we draw Blood from the two Tail-Veins, which Cureth the Mange in the Tail, falling of the Hair, or Itch in the Tail. And these are for the most part all the Veins that are usually opened. So that the full sum or number of Veins which Farriers commonly open are thirty. Other Veins there are which are of a smaller proportion, and therefore not fit to be opened, I will not say that these Veins so opened doth Cure the Diseases absolutely; but it doth sometimes asswage the Malignancy of the Malady, sometimes it preventeth Diseases, and sometimes again it prepareth the Body, the better to receive such Physical Drinks which do inwardly Cure them, and such Salves, Oyls, Unguents, which do dry and heal up outward Infir­mities, &c.

How many Bones a Horse hath, and where they are Situated.

All the Bones which every Horse hath, whereby to make up an Orga­nical [Page 73] Body are these, viz. He hath in his Head thirty nine or fourty Teeth; The Bones in his Head do Comprehend the Crocks and Handles of the Scull, albeit they be composed of parts and parcels of other Bones, also the two flat Handles, which from the Pallat and the Fork or Throat hath five; the Chine hath fifty two, the Breast one, the Ribs hath thirty six, the fore-Legs and fore-Feet hath fourty four, and the hinder-Legs and Feet fourty, so as the whole structure of the Body of a Horse, whereby to perfect a full Building of Bones, consisteth of about two hundred fifty seven, or two hundred fifty nine, if they be rightly computed; which do represent themselves altogether at what time the perfect Anatomy of a Horse is laid open.

Of the Elements.

The Elements are four, and they give Life and Nutriment unto Man, and all other living Creatures; They are these, Fire, Air, Water, and Earth.

Their Nature.

The Nature of Fire is to be hot and dry, Air to be hot and moist, Water to be cold and moist, and Earth to be cold and dry.

Signes of the Zodiack

Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio, Sagittarius Ca­pricornus, Aquarius, Pisces; These do all Govern the twelve Months of the year, and are placed above the Zodiack.

Names of the Planets.

Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, Sol, Venus, Mercury and Lun [...]a.

The Government of the Signes.

Aries governs the Head, Taurus the Neck, Gemini the Shoulders and Armes, Cancer the Stomach and Breast, Leo the Heart, Virgo the Belly and Guts, Libra the Reins and Buttocks, Scorpio the Privy Parts, Sagittarius the Thighs, Capricornus the Knees, Aquarius the Legs, and Pisces the Feet.

The best time to let a Horse Blood in.

If there be no extraordinary cause, as in Case of desperate Sickness, or so; then Jan. the third and fifteenth, Feb. the fourth and ninth, Mar. the seventeenth and eighteenth, April the tenth and sixteenth, May the first and thirteenth, June the fifteenth and twentieth. But for July and August, by reason that the Canicular days be then predominant, Blood-letting is not so good, but only in urgent Case of Necessity. In Septemb. the eleventh and twenty eighth. Octob. the eighth and twenty third. Novemb. the fifth and

Seeds.

Gather Seeds and Fruits when they be fully ripe, and they also last but one whole year.

Rind or Bark.

Gather the Rind or Bark of any Simple when the Herb is ripe, dry them, and they will last many years.

The Office of the Farrier.

What Points Consist the Office of the Farrier.

IT Consists in four things, viz. Science, Experience, Knowledge and Handy Work; But I shall let pass the first three, and speak to Handy-Work, and that is, To Heat an Iron well, to Turn a Shoo well, to make and Point a Nail well, to Pare the Hoof well, to Cauterize well, to let Blood well, to be light and well-Handied, Bold and Hardy, and Dressing of a Horse well of such Ac­cidents as may happen unto him.

The Principal Members of a Horse.

Some hold that there be four, and make the Stones or Gignitors one; but I say there are but three, The Liver, the Heart and The Brain; and if he be offended in any of these he will die; but if any other Member be­sides these be hurt, he may live; and therefore the Stones or Gignitors can­not be one of the Principal Members, for you cannot touch any of those three, but you kill him out-right, or desperately endanger him. Now the Stones may receive hurt, and if I despair of Curing them, I can cut them out, without peril of his life.

Of the Sinews, and of the number of them.

There are two Sinews, or Tendons, which are white, and begin at the end of the Nose, and extend themselves along the Neck, and along the Back, and make their extent to the four Legs, and take their ligaments in the fore-Feet.

There are in every Horse twenty nine or thirty, great and small.

The two great Sinews which I named before.

It. Two Branches which are main Sinews that proceed from the Brain, and run down the Cheeks to the Teeth.

It. There are from the Shoulders to the first Joynt of the Armes, or fore-Legs downwards, two great Sinews.

[Page 71] It. From the Knees to the Pasterns are four great Sinews, with the same number in the hinder-part.

It. In the fore-part of the Breast, and above it, as well within as with­out, are ten Sinews, some greater and some smaller.

It. From the Reins of the Back to the Stones are four great Sinews. Lastly, one great main Sinew which runneth along to the end of the Tail. So as the full number of the Sinews are twenty nine, or thirty, which are to be discerned. But to speak properly, a Horse hath but one only Vein, which is that which we call the Median, or Lives Vein, which is in the Liver, being the true Fountain, Scource and great Tun, from whence the Canes, Conduit-pipes and little Veines, (as the smaller Rivers) do separate themselves, which do run through all the Parts and Members of the whole Body. Those Veins that do ascend to the Head and Body, are called Veins ascendent, and those which do run low as to the Legs, and lower Members, are called hollow or descendent Veins.

Of the Vital Blood.

Those are Veins which are Vessels of quick or running Blood, and is that, that when the Creature sleepeth, his Blood is in continual agitation, and never ceaseth.

Of the Number of the Veins that you are to take Blood from.

In the Neck, in the Weeping-Veins, under the Ears, and in six other places, of and about the Head; as in the Pallate-Veins, in the Tongue, in the Flank-Veins, in the Breast and Spur-Veins; In the four Members, to wit, the Legs, Thighs, Pasterns and Feet; also in sundry other Places, according as necessity shall require it, and in places which may the better kill the Ma [...]ady of the said Horse.

For what use you open the Veins.

To open the two Temple-Veins easeth the pain in the Head, coming of Colds, Rheums, Feavers, Yellows and Stavers, Drowsiness, Frenzie, the sleepy Evil, falling Evil, or any grief in or about the Eyes or Brain. Se­condly, we open the two Eyes or Weeping-Veins, being most sovereign for such Diseases whereunto the Eyes are subject; as Watery or Weeping Eyes, Blood-shotten, Pin and Web, Haw, or the like. Thirdly, we open the two Pallat-Veins in the Mouth, and those do Cure the Lampass, and any inward Sickness in the Body; as the Yellows, Stavers, Anticor, Sur­feits, Drowsiness, Tiredness, or weariness of the Body; or if he hath any Malady in the Throat, as the Strangle, Quinzy, Kernels, Pustils, either within or without; it many times helpeth Inflammations, Glanders, or the like; For the eating or swallowing of his own Blood, is most wholesom and Sovereign in such Cases. Fourthly, we do usually open the two Neck-Veins,

for some may Object unto me, that many times Horses, who are of the best Colour, best Marks and truest Shapes, do nevertheless prove Arrant [...]ades. I answer, I acknowledge all this to be true, for I have known Horses, who upon their first View, have been in extrinsecal shew so hopeful, as that they have promised what a man could expect from them, which notwithstanding when they have come to the Test, they have been a Scandal to their Sex; but this is not a thing frequent, for in every one of these who have thus miscarried, you shall have twenty prove right and answerable to your Minds.

Rules to be Observed of putting a Horse to Grass, and of taking of him up again.

Before you put your Stable-Horse to Grass, eight or nine days before, take Blood from him, the next day after give him the drink of Diapen [...]e, and a day or two after his Drink abate of his Cloaths by degrees, before you turn him forth, lest by doing them on the sudden he take more cold, and after his Cloaths are taken off, Curry him not at all, but let him stand in his dust, for that will keep him warm. Neither would I have you put him forth till the midst of May, at the soonest, for till that time Grass will not have Bite enough, (and let the day wherein you turn him forth be a warm Sun-shine day, and about the hour of ten) for Horses pampered in warm Stables, and kept close, will be subject to take cold.

Taking of him up.

Secondly, let him be taken up from Grass very dry, or else he will be subject to be Scabby, and that not later then St. Bartholomew's day, which is the twenty fourth of August, for then the Season doth begin to let fall cold dews, which causeth much harm to your Horse, and then beginneth the Heart of Grass to [...]ail, so as the Grass which he then feedeth upon breedeth no good Nutriment, but gross, Phl [...]gmatick and cold Humors which putrisieth and corrupteth the Blood, and take him up very quietly for fear of melting his Grease, for his Fat gotten at Grass is very tender, so that every little Motion dissolveth the same, whereby the Blood may be enslamed, and so be in danger of Sickness, if not of death. A day or two after you have him in the Stable, let him be shod, let Blood and drencht, as before is shewed you, for this preventeth Yellows, Stavers and such like Diseases, which the Gall and Spleen occasioneth, which the Heart and strength of Grass, (through the Rankness of Blood) doth en­gender in his Body.

But if you intend to be curious after you have taken him into the Stable, before you have either Blooded or Drencht him, you may clean him in this manner.

Of Cleansing or making a Horse clean.

First, therefore if it be a hot Sun-shiny day, take him out of the Stable into a place convenient, and there trim him, then take ordinary soft wash­ing Sope▪ and anoint his Head and every part of him all over therwith, and to have a care that none of it get into his Ears or Eyes, then wash him very well with warm water all over, then wipe him with a warm Linnen-cloth, and after rub him dry with woollen Cloaths, then Sope him all over again, especially his Mane and Tail, and wash him very clean with Buck-lee, with a Wisp or Woollen Cloth, and when you have sufficiently cleansed him, dry him as you did before, and so lead him into the Stable, and Cloath him up with a clean, thin, soft Cloth. And by this kind of trimming and cleansing him, you may so alter him, that the Owner can scarce know him.

General Notes concerning some Simples.

All manner of Marrows and Piths, of what kind soever they be must be kept by themselves in a dry cool place, and preserved from all Filth or Un­cleanness, and from the annoyance either of Wind or Fire, and so they will last full out a whole year.

Syrups, Powders, Pills, Electuaries and Ointments.

You shall keep no Syrops, no sweet Electuaries, nor Pills, nor Powders, nor Conserves of Flowers, nor any Ointments, Sewets or Emplaisters, or Conserve of Fruits or Roots, will last fully out two years.

Oyls.

Of Oyls, some will last long, some must be new made: Oyls extracted out of Wood or Metals will last long.

Roots.

Gather Roots in Autumn, but take the small Sprigs from them, and make them clean and dry.

Dry small Roots in the Shade and Wind, and great ones either in the Wind, or Sun, or by the Fire; Lay them in a dry place towards the South, and they will keep long, provided that neither Sun nor Moisture do injure them.

Herbs.

Gather all manner of Herbs when they do most [...]lourish, and dry them in the Shade, except they be very moist and apt to putrifie, they last for the most part a whole year.

sixteenth, Dec [...]mb. the fourteenth and twenty sixth. And these days we hold to be the very best, unless dangerous and sudden Sickness do cause us to alter the same, for in Cases of Necessity no days are to be regarded or observed.

More Observations of Blood-letting you may finde hereafter.

Of the four Humors. Blood, Choler, Phlegm and Melancholy.

Four Humors also there are, which be as it were four Children to the four Elements already spoken of: And these are, Blood, Phlegm, Choler and Melancholy, without which a natural Body cannot be made; for Blood naturally (if it be perfect) is hot and moist, but taketh most from Heat, and therefore is subordinate to Air; Phlegm is cold and moist, but the Principality thereof is Coldness, and therefore hath reference to Water: Choler is hot and dry, but his chiefest Nature is Heat, and therefore is Governed by the Element of Fire: Melancholy is cold and dry, but his chiefest condition is Driness, and therefore subjects it self to the Element of Earth. Now the Fountain of Blood is the Liver, which dispersing it self by the help of the Veins into all the parts of the Body, nourisheth and preserveth the same. Phlegm preoccupateth the Brain, being a cold and spungy substance, and the Seat of the sensible Soul. Choler inhabit­eth the Liver, which being hot and dry, maketh a pleasing Harmony with the Blood. Melancholy resideth in the Spleen, which is the Receptacle and discharge of the Excrements of the Liver, from whence we may Col­lect, that it hath its proper use and end: As for demonstration, Blood prin­cipally nourisheth the Body, Phlegm occasioneth Motion of the Joynts and Members, Choler exciteth and provoketh the Belly to avoid its Excrements; And lastly, Melancholy disposeth the Body to an Appetite. Whereupon all the Learned Philosophers do with one unanimous Assent agree in this, That in every Natural Body there are four Principal Instrumental Members, from which all the Parts of an Organi [...]al Body are said to be Framed, and these are the Brain, the Heart, the Liver, and the Stones or Gignitors, and each one of these do Perform its true Function to all the particular Members of the Body; for the Sinews do receive their Sustentation from the Brain, and these are called Animal spirits; the Art [...]ries from the Heart, which are Vital spirits; the Veins from the Liver, which are Natural Parts; and the Seed-Vessels from the Stones or Gignitors, as the Place of Generation.

Of a Horses Complexion, which is the most necessary Faces that a Farrier can judge of his Infirmities.

To speak of the Complexions of a Horse in a particular manner, which is one of the most necessary Faces that a Farrier can behold, both for the judging of Horses Infirmities, and also for the true Compounding of his [Page 75] Medicines for every disease; And therefore by the Colour of the Horse you are to judge his Complexion. For look which of the Elements is most Predominate in him, from that Element you may draw his Complexion; as thus, If he participate more of the Fire, then of any of the other Ele­ments, then we hold him to be a Cholerick Horse, and his Colour is ei­ther a bright Sorrel, a Coal black without any white, or an Iron Grey un­changeable, that is, such a Crey as neither will ever turn a Daple-Grey, a White or a Flea-bitten, and these Horses are of Nature light, hot, fiery, and seldom of any great strength. These Horses are most subject to Pe­stilent Feavers, Yellows and Inflammation of the Liver. Therefore every Farrier should be careful in his Composing of any Medicine for such a Horse, to purge Choler, yet very moderately, and not with any extra­ordinary strength in the Potion or Drench, because the Horse being in his best strength, not reputed strong, should you apply any violent thing to him, that little strength being abated, there were great danger in con­founding the whole Body. If the Horse participate more of the Air then of the other Elements, then is he of a Sanguine Complexion, and his Co­lour is either a bright Bay, or a dark Bay, which hath neither scouling Countenance, Myly Mouth, no [...] white Flank; Or a white Flea▪bitten, White Lyard like Silver, or black with a white Star, white rash or white Foot. These Horses are of Nature pleasant, nimble, free and of good strength. The Disease, to them most incident, is Consumption of the Liver, Leprosie, Glanders, or any disease that is infectious; They are of a good strong Constitution, and may endure strength in their Medi­cines, especially any thing that cooleth the Blood.

If the Horse participate more of the Water then of the other Elements, then is he of a Phlegmatick Complexion, and his Colour is either Milk white, a yellow dun Kite glewed, or a Pyde-ball, in whom there is an e­qual Mixture of Colours. Otherwise, if the Bay, the Black or the Dun exceed the White, he is said to be of that Complexion of which the Colour is greatest. These Horses are of Nature slow, and apt to lose Flesh. The Diseases which are most incident unto them, are Colds, Head-ach, Rheums, Staggers, and such like. They are able to endure the reasonable strength of any Medicine, because of the abundance of Phlegm which is in them, sufficeth both Nature, and the Potion to work upon. All cold Simples are to them exceeding hurtful, so are also they which are violently hot in the third degree; The first, because it bindeth too soon; The latter, because it disperses too suddenly, therefore Simples of a moderate Mean are best.

If the Horse participate of the Earth more then of the other Elements, then is he of a Melancholy Complexion; And his Colour is a Mouse­dun, Russet, Chesnut, Ashie Grey, dark Bay, having long white Hai [...], like Goats Hair, growing on his Legs; These Horses are of Nature heavy and faint-hearted. The Diseases to them most incident, are Inflam­mations [Page 76] in the Spleen, Frenzie, Dropsey, and such like; They are com­monly of better strength then they appear by their Actions, and are able to endure the strength of any reasonable Medicine; All cicatrizing and dry Simples are hurtful unto them, the cold and moist are the most profit­able. Having thus shewed you these four Complexions, Cholerick San­guine, Phlegmatick and Melancholy, together with their qualities and strengths; You shall understand now, that amongst Farriers there is another Complexion, or fifth Constitution, which is called the Compo­sition, or Mixture of Complexions; that is, when a Horse doth participate of all the four Elements equally, and in due proportion, and this is the best Complexion, and the Horse that is of this Complexion is ever one of these Colours; that is to say, of a fair brown Bay, dabled, or not dab­led, a Dable Grey, a Black full of Silver Hair, or a fair Roan red or black. And these Horses are of Nature most excellent, most temperate, strongest, gentlest and most healthful, though they may have any disease as the other hath, yet are they naturally inclined to no disease. But what infirmity soever falleth unto them, is meerly accidental, and not through any over­flow of natural distemperature. All Medicines must be compounded for them according to the Nature of the Sickness, and the time of their Languishment; for if the Sickness be young and new bred, then are they able to receive any well Composed Receipt; but if it be old, and the in­ward Powers and Faculties feebled, then you must be careful to help Na­ture, by adding to every Medicine, of what Nature soever, some Simple of Comfort, that as ill Humors be clensed, so Strength may still be repaired and maintained. And thus much for Complexions.

Twelve Causes of Health and long Life.

1. The First is Nature, good Digestion and good Nourishment.

2. The second is, Moderation in Feeding and Diet.

3. The third is, Moderate Labour.

4. The fourth is, moderate Use of Sleeping and Waking.

5. The fifth is, moderate spending upon Mares.

6. The sixth is, moderate Journeys.

7. The seventh is, wholesom Air.

8. The Eighth is, not to be exercised too soon after Grass.

9. The Ninth is, to be kept from raw and green Meats.

10. The tenth is, not to be suffered to eat or drink being hot.

11. The eleventh is, not to be neither washed nor walked at the end of his Journey.

12. The twelfth is, to give him with his Provender such Powders and Simples as are Prescribed you in all those Chapters, which are by me men­tioned, but more particularly in Page 2. And though he dislikes them at first, yet by mixing a little and a little at a time, they will become natural to him.

Dangerous Sicness how it cometh.

First, all Sickness cometh either by Heats in over-violent exercise, as when the Horse hath his Grease moulten, the Heart over-charged, the vi­tal Blood forced from the inward Parts, and the large Pores and Orisices of the Heart are so obstructed and stopped, that the Spirits cannot return back to their proper places, so as the Organs of the Body cannot rejoyce, but by this means the Body must of necessity languish, founder and mor­tifie.

Secondly, dangerous Sickness cometh also by Colds, as by indiscreet and negligent keeping, as well before as after long and violent exercise, and then is the Head perplexed, the Eyes dulled and pained, the Roots of the Tongue inflamed and fwelled, the Lungs with Rheums tickled and offended, occasioning strong and laborious Coughing, and the Nostrils often Distilling, and pouring [...]orth filthy and corrupt matter.

Thirdly, dangerous Sickness cometh also by Surfeit of Food, either by eating too much or too little of what is good, or also of what is not wholesom; so as the first killeth, or at least debilitateth the Stomach, op­presseth the Heart, and s [...]ndeth up those evil Fumes into the Head, by which are engendred the Stavers, Frenzies, and other mortal Diseases▪ The second putri [...]ies the Blood, and converts all its Nutriment into cor­ruption, from whence proceeds the Yellows, Farcins, Feavers, Mainges, and other such like Pestilent, Leprous and Lothsom Diseases, which suffo­cating the Heart, and clogging the Stomach, dilates and spreads it self universally over the whole Body, leaving no Member free, and confound­eth every Faculty and Member thereof.

Fourthly and lastly, dangerous Sickness come also by Accidents, as when a Horse receiveth some deep or perillous wound or Hurt, either in his Body, or elsewhere, in some vital or dangerous part, by means where­of Nature is so far offended, as that incontinently a general Sickness seiz­eth upon him, which if not prevented, Death immediately ensueth.

Signes to Know these dangerous Sicknesses.

If his Sickness proceed from the first, which are Heat, then are the Signes these, viz. The Heaviness of his Countenance, Swellings of his Limbs, especially of his hinder-Legs, Scouring and Loosness of his Body, in the begin­ning of his Sickness, short and hot Breath, a Loathing and forsaking of his Meat.

If from the second, viz. Cold; then the Signes are, A dejected Counte­nance, Dulness or Sleepiness of the Eyes, Pustels or hard Knots under the Caul, yea, and many times ins [...]amed Kernels and Swellings so high as to the very Roots of the Ears, a rotten▪ moist, inward and hollow Cough, he many times Chewing betwixt his Teeth, some loose, filthy and phlegmatick matter, immediately after [Page 78] his Coughing, which in some Cases is not an evil Sign▪ by reason that there­by the Cold rotteth and goeth away; Whereas on the contrary side, for a Horse to Cough clear and dry, doth demonstrate a dry Cough, which hath long time lurked in his Body, which is difficult to Cure, which will so discover it self at last, that his Belly will shrink up, and when he drink­eth Water will come forth of his Nose, and his Eyes will be either watery or mattery, and run continually, through pain he hath in his Head, pro­cured by means of his Cold, and his Hair will be rough and staring, &c.

If from the Third, which is Surfeit, then the Signes of his Sickness are these, A dulness of the Head, Eyes and Countenance, and that so violent, that he will not be able to lift up his Head from the Manager; A dull and dead Eye, and sunk into his Head, his Ears prickt upright, and the Tops of them cold, as also his upper Lips and his Sheath, his Pace reeling and staggering, and if he be too far gone he will be Mad, which you may know by his biting the Rack and Manger, or any Body that shall come nigh him; and sometimes bi­ting of himself, and beating his Head against the wall, &c. But if the Malady be not got into the Brain, then you shall find by the yellowness of his Eyes, Lips and Tongue, that it is turned to the Yellows, which will so infect his Blood all over, that if not prevented suddenly he will soon come to the Dogs.

Accidental.

The sourth and last Ground of his Sickness is, if it proceed from Acci­dental means, the Signes then are a perplexed and troubled Body, sweat­ing at the Roots of his Eares, Flanks, behind the Shoulders, against the Heart, sometimes trembling all over his Body, and sometimes glowing and burning in his Vital Parts, as in the Temples of his Head, against his Heart, on the inside of his fore-Legs, and on the inside of his hinder-Legs; his Mouth will be dry and hot, his Tongue will be subject to be inflamed and furied, he will have a Loathing against meat▪ and a great drought to thirst, and drink cold Water, and to keep his Mouth in the same when he hath done drinking.

To Cure Sickness before it comes, and to prevent it when it comes.

First, when you finde it come, to let him Blood, and for three Morn­ings together to give him the drink of Diapente, and keep him warm, and let him fast three houres after it, and then give him a Mash, and Hay after that. But in case Diapente is not to be had, then take Celand [...]ne half a handful, as well Roots as Leaves, well washed and picked, Wormwood and Rue of each half a handful, boil them in a Bottle of Ale or Beer to a quart, and strain it well, and put it into half a pound of sweet Butter, and two or three spoonfuls of Treacle, and give it him luke-warm.

But secondly, to prevent it before it comes, is when you turn him to [Page 79] Grass, to let him Blood likewise, and to give him the next day the Drink of Diapente, and so to abate his Cloaths (if he hath any) to harden him before you turn him to Grass, to prevent his taking of Cold.

The Drink of Diapente.

Take of Gentian, of Aristolochia rotunda, of Bay-berries, of Myrrh, and of the Shavings of [...]vory, of each a like quantity, and let them be Pounded severally, and finely Searced, and after weighed, so as the quantity may be just and even, not any one less or more then another, and after you have mixed them very well together, put them into a Gally-pot, close stopped, as that no Air get into it, and so keep it for your use.

How to use it.

If you Drench him for a Cold or Glanders, give it him in Muscadine, if for other Maladies, then in sweet Sack, and the quantity must be a Pint and an half. But if you cannot get either Sack or Muscadine, then give it in strong Ale or Beer; the quantity of this Powder of Diapente must be two or three spoonfuls, unless to a small, sick and feeble Horse, then ac­cording to your own Judgement, as you shall think requisite. The word Diapente is as much as to say Composition of five Simples.

The Vertues of Diapente.

It is the most Sovereign thing which can be given to a Horse by way of Drench, to Cure him of very many Diseases. It is good against all in­fectious Maladies, as Feavers of what Nature soever, all sorts of Pesti­ [...]encies, or contagious Colds, Coughs wet or dry, Glanders, Surfeits, inflam­mations in the Blood or Liver, Frenzies, Yellows; it purisieth, refineth and purgeth the Blood from all infection and Corruption; it easeth the over­flowing of the Gall, and the working of the Spleen; In a word, it Cureth whatsoever Diseases the Body of an Horse may be inwardly inclined unto.

The making of the true Diahexaple.

Take the Roots of round Aristolochia, wash them small, scrape them, and make them as clear as may be, then take Juniper-berries unexcorti­cated, and Bay-berries excorticated; take the purest and best drops of Myrrh, and the finest shavings of Ivory, of each an equal quantity, beat all but the Myrrh together, and Searce them fine. Lastly, beat the Myrrh and searce it also, then mix them altogether, press it hard into a Gally­pot, and keep it for your use.

The Vertues of Diahexaple.

This Powder or indeed Mithridate, is most Excellent and Sovereign against all manner of Poison, either inward or outward, it Cureth the bi­ting of venomous Beasts, and helpeth short wind and pursiness.

It Mundisieth, Clenseth, Suppleth, and maketh thin all gross Humors, it healeth all diseases of the Liver and Stomack, helps Digestion, and be­ing given in a Pint of Sack, it Cureth all Colds; it is good against Con­sumptions, breaks Phlegm, helps Staggers and all diseases of the Head. Gerrard.

It Recovers Tiring and Weariedness, and takes away Cramps and Convulsions, dries up the Scurvey, breaks the Stone, opens all inward Ob­structions, and helps the Yellows, the Gargil and the Dropsey. Diascordies.

It Cures all Diseases of the Lungs, as Glanders and Rottenness, gives ease to all Gripings and windiness of the Belly, provoketh Urine, takes away Infection, and kills Wormes.

A Drink to open an Horses Body, and to Clense it.

Take a Quart of New Milk, Sallet-Oyl, Honey, of each half a Pint, an Ounce of London. Treacle, and the Yolks of six Eggs, beat altogether, then put to it Licoras, Sugar-Candy, Anniseeds, (all in Powder) of each an Ounce, and infuse altogether, and so give it him, ride him after it, set him up warm, and let him fast two houres or more.

How to make Diatessaron, Mithridates or Horse-Treacle.

Take of the Powder of Diapente, two Ounces, and put it into a clean Stone-Mortar, and put thereto clarified or Life-Honey the like quantity; Let the Mortar be hot before you put them in, then with a Pestle of Wood work it till it come to a Treacle, then take it forth, and keep it in a Gally­pot close stopped for your use.

How to use it.

Take half an Ounce of this Confection, and dissolve it in a Pint and an half of Muscadine, or sweet Sack, and give it him Blood-warm, and as you see occasion, you may add to it of London-Treacle an Ounce.

The Vertues of it.

It is good for all Poisons and infectious Diseases, and drives sorth all manner of Sickness from the Heart, and is good for all sorts of Feavers, and all other desperate and dangerous Sickness, taking first Blood from him if there be cause.

How to make the Electuary of Diatessaron.

Take Gentian, Bay-berries, Aristolochia rotunda, or Birth-wort, of each [Page 81] two Ounces, all beaten to very fine powder; Put them into a Stone-Mortar, (as you did the other) with two pounds of clarified Honey, and work them together till they come to a Treacle, and when you have done, put it up into a Gally-pot, and keep it for your use close stopped, use it as you do the other.

The Vertues of it.

It resists Pestilence and Poison, and Cures the Biting of any venomous Beast; It is good for the Falling Sickness, Convulsions, and all cold Di­stempers of the Brain; As also for Colds and Coughs wet or dry, Sur­feits, Glaunders, Inflammation of the Blood and Liver, Yellows, and many other Diseases which a Horses Body is inclineable unto.

A Drink given when you neither have Diahexaple, Diapente or Diatessaron.

Take of Tarr two Ounces, of Honey an Ounce, black Soap two drams, and bay Salt a handful, incorporate them well together, then take two Egg-shells, the Crowns only being broken, so as you may get forth the Meat, and fill them full with this Medicine, and put them down his Throat, and walk or ride him gently up and down a quarter of an hour or more, warm Cloathed; that done, set him up warm, and Litter him well, and let his Drink be either Mashes or white Water for four or five days after, and let him fast three houres after his Medicine, and let his Hay and Provender be sweet and good.

Signes of all Sickness in General.

If you find in your Horse heaviness of Countenance, extream Loosness, or extream Costiveness, shortness of Breath, Loathing of Meat, dull and imperfect Eyes, rotten or dry Cough, staring Hair, or Hair unnaturally discoloured, a staggering Pace, frantick Behaviour, yellowness of the Eyes, of Skin, faint or cold Sweat, extraordinary lying down, or beating or looking back at his Body, alteration of qualities or gestures, not casting of the Coat, Leanness, H [...]de-bound and the like. All these are apparent Signes of distemperature and Sickness.

The Diseases of a Horse is Known by the Signes he makes.

If he be slower in Pace then he use to be, if his Eares hang down more then they are wont, if his Flank be more then usually hollow, if he burn between his Eares, or about his Pasterns, if in Travel his Stomach fail him, or his Mouth, that in his Labour do use to foam, become dry, all these are Signes of Sickness.

By Hanging of his Head.

If he hang down his Head, which was wont to be of a chearful Coun­tenance, it is a Sign of a Feaver, Head-ach, the Staggers or [...]ore Eyes.

By the Turning of his Head backwards.

If he turn his Head backward to the place grieved, if it be to the right side, it is a Sign of Obstructions in the Liver, but if he turn it down to his Belly, it is a sign either of the Cholick, Bots or Worms.

By Water Running from his Mouth.

When Water runs from his Mouth, it is either a Sign of the Staggers or wet Cough.

By his stinking Breath or stinking Matter from his Nostrils.

If his Breath stinks, or foul Matter issues from his Nostrils, it is a sign of an Ulcer in the Nose or Head; but if the Matter be white, then it is a sign of Glanders: If the Matter be black, then it is a sign of the Mourning of the Chine, if there be any such disease. But if it be yellow, then it is the Consumption of the Liver: but if he cast little Lumps out of his Mouth, then it shews Consumption and Rottenness of the Lungs.

By his Breath and Body being hot.

If his Body and Breath be hot, it is a Sign of a Feaver and Heat of the Stomach, if therewithal he forsake his Meat, it is a Sign of the Inflam­mation of the Liver, and either of dry or moist Yellows.

By his hollow Temples.

If his Temples be very hollow, it is a Sign of the Strangle or old Age.

By shortness of Breath.

Shortness of Breath, and beating of the Flank, is a sign either of a Feaver or the Strangle, but if the Passage of the Throat be stopped, it is a Sign the Film of the Lungs are broken, and the Spleen troubled, or else broken-Winded.

By the Swelling about the Eares.

If there be any thing Swelling about the Eares, it is a Sign of the Pole­evil: Swelling under the Eares is a sign of the Vives; and Swelling in the Mouth, is a sign either of a Canker, Flaps or La [...]pas.

By the Swelling under the Throat.

Swelling under the Throat is a sign of the Glanders, and Swelling about the Tongue-Roots, a sign of the Strangle: but if there be about the Tongue-Roots nothing but little small Knots, like Wax-kernels, then it is a sign but of a Cold only.

By his Swelling about hi [...] Body.

Swelling on the left Side, is a Sign of a Sick Spleen; Swelling in the Belly and Legs, a Sign of the Dropsey; and Swelling in the Flank, of Cholick only.

By his offering to Cough.

To Couch, or to offer to Cough, it is a Sign either of the Glanders, or of a wet or dry Cough, of a Consumption or Foundring of the Body.

By his Staggering.

Staggering is a Sign either of a Feaver, of the Staggers, or of swaying in the Neck: but if he stagger or roul behind only, then is it a Sign either of Foundring of the Body, or of pain in the Kidneys.

By the Hollowness of his Back.

The Hollowness of a Horses Back is a Sign of a dry Malady, or the Dropsey.

By his Trembling.

Trembling is a Sign of a Feaver, or Foundring in the Body: and here is to be Noted, that if he trembleth after he hath drunk, he hath during the time of his Trembling a Fit of an Ague upon him, and after he hath done Trembling he will glow, and some Horses after their Burning will Sweat also.

By the Staring of his Hair.

Hair staring is a sign either of a Cold Stomach, or of Foundring in the Body, but generally o [...] a Cold, or want of Cloaths.

By his Staling with Pain.

If he Stale with Pain, it is a Sign either of Foundering in the Body, the Wind-cholick or the Stone; and if the Urine which comes from him be yellow, it is a Sign of the Glanders; but if it be blackish and thick, it is a Sign of the Pain in the Kidneys.

By his Leanness and Gauntness.

Leanness and Gauntness is a Sign of Hide-bound, or of the Consum­ption, of the dry Malady, of Foundring in the Body, Inflammation of the Liver, the Yellows, Cholick or Wormes.

By his Loosness of Body.

Laxativeness or Loosness of Body is a Sign of a hot Liver.

By his Costiveness.

Costiveness in the Body is a Sign of dry Yellows, or Diseases of the Gall.

By his stinking Dung.

If his Dung stink, it is a sign of a hot Liver: if it have no smell, then of a cold Liver; but if it be undigested, then either of a Consumption, or of a dry Malady.

By his Lying.

If he desire to lie much on his left Side, then is he troubled with the Spleen, if on the right, then it is a Sign of Heat of Liver; and if finding no rest, it may be Bots, Wormes, Cholick, or Griping in the Belly; if when he is down he spreads himself abroad, it shews the Dropsey; if he groan when he is down, it shews either a sick Spleen, moist Yellows, Cholick, Bots or Film broken, if he be not able to rise when he is down, then either mortal Weakness, Foundering in the Body or Legs.

By his striking at his Belly.

If he strike with his Foot at his Belly, it is a Sign of the Cholick: but if when he striketh, he Fisk with his Tail also, then it is either Bots or rough Wormes.

By his being Scabby.

If he be Scabby and Ulcerous all over his Body, and about his Neck, it is a Sign of the Mange; if it be an Ulcer full of Knots, creeping about the Veins, it is the Farcy: if spreading abroad only in one place, it is a [...]nker: if the Ulcer be hollow and crooked, it is a Fistula; but if it be a spungy Wart, full of blood, it is then an Anbury.

By his Tongue.

If his Tongue hang out and is Swoln, it is a Sign of the Strangle.

By his eating and d inking much.

If he eat much and drink little, it is a Sign of a Cold Liver; but if he desire to drink much and eat little, it is either a Sign of a Feaver, rotten Lungs, Heat in the Stomach, Heat in the Liver, or the dry Yellows.

By his Dung.

It is necessary to observe his Dung, for it is the best Tell-troth of his inward Parts; and you must not judge it by a General Opinion, but by a private discourse with your self how he hath been fed, because Food is the only thing that breeds alterations,—as thus—

If he feed altogether upon Grass, his Dung hath one Complexion, as green; if upon Hay, then another, as a little more dark. If upon little Provender, then inclining to yellow. But to avoid both curiosity and doubt, observe well the Complexion of his Dung, when he is in best Health, [Page 85] and the best feeding, and as you finde it alter, so judge either of his Health or Sickness, as thus—

If his Dung be clear, crisp, and of a pale yellowish Complexion, hang­ing together without separation, more then as the weight breaks it in fal­ling, being neither so thin nor so thick, but it will a little flat on the Ground; and indeed, both in Savour and Substance, resembling a sound Mans Ordure, then is he clean, well fed, and without Imperfection. If it be well Coloured, yet fall from him in round Knots or Pellets, so it be but the first and second Dung, the rest good, as aforesaid, it matters not, for it only shews he did eat Hay lately, and that will ever come away first. But if all his Dung be alike, then it is a Sign of foul feeding, and he hath either too much Hay, or eats too much Litter, and too little Corn.

If his Dung be in round Pellets, and blackish, or brown, it shews in­ward Heat in the Body.

If it be Greasie, it shews foulness, and that Grease is Molten, but cannot come away. If he void Grease in gross Substance with his Dung, if it be white and clear then it comes away kindly, and there is no danger: but if it be yellow or putrified, then the Grease has long layn in his Body, and Sickness will follow, if not prevented.

If his Dung be red and hard, then he hath had too strong Heats, and Costiveness will follow, if not prevented; if it be pale and loose, it shews inward coldness of Body, or too much moist and corrupt feeding.

Signes from the Ʋrine.

Though the Urine be not altogether so Material as the Dung, yet it hath some true Faces, as thus—

Pale Colour.

That Urine that is of a pale yellowish Colour, rather thick then thin, of a strong smell and piercing condition, is an healthful, sound and good Urine; but if it be of an high, red Complexion, either like Blood, or in­clining to Blood, then hath he had either two sore Heats, been over­ridden, or ridden too early after Winter-Grass.

High Complexion.

If the Urine be of an high Complexion, clear and transparent, like old March Beer, then he is inflamed in his Body, and hath taken some Surfeit.

White like Cream.

If it carry a white Cream on the top, it shews a weak Back or Con­sumption of the Seed.

Green.

A green Urine shews Consumption of the Body.

Bloody streaks.

A Urine with bloody Streaks shews an Ulcer in the Kidneys, and a black, thick, cloudy Urine shews Death and Mortality.

Of Sickness in general.

Whensoever upon any occasion, you shall find your Horse droop in Countenance, to rorsake his Meat, or to shew any other apparent sign of Sickness, if they be not great, you may forbear to let Blood, because where the Blood is spent, the Spirits are spent also, and they are not easily recovered. But if the Signes be great and dangerous, then by all means let Blood instantly, and for three Mornings together, (the Horse being Fasting) give him half an Ounce of the Powder (called by me) Diahex­aple, and by the I [...]alians, R [...]gina Medicinae, the Queen of Medicines, brewed either in a Pint of Muska [...]i [...] or [...] or a Pint of the Syrup of Su­gar, being two degrees above the ordinary Molosses, or for want thereof Molosses will serve the turn, and where all are wanting, you may take ei­ther a Pint of Dragon-water, or a quart of the sweetest and strongest Al [...] ­wort, or in extremity, take a quart of strong Ale or Beer, but then warm it a little before the Fire. This must be given with an Horn, and if he hath Ability of Body, ride him in some warm place after, and let him fast near two houres after the Riding. At Noon give him a sweet Mash, Cleath very warm, and let him touch no cold water. The making of the Diahexaple you may finde in the Table.

General Observations in the Physi king Horses.

Know then first, that whensoever you give your Horse any inward Por­tion or Glister, give it him no more then Milk-warm, for there is nothing more Mortal to a Horse then the Scalding of his Stomach, for a Horse of all living Creatures, can worse endure to receive inwardly hot things: Be­sides, let his Drinks and inward Medicines be given him easily and gently, le [...]t in making too much haste you suffocate him, which if it do, you must then let his Head loose, and walk him up and down till the Passion be past. Now for the Administring of Pills, [...]alls, and such like Medicines, little Advice is required, if they be not made too great, only if you take forth his Tongue first, and then put them up into his Mouth upon the end of a stick, then let go his Tongue again, which when he draws it into his Mouth, he must needs force the [...]alls down his Throat. You are to Ad­minister your Physick [...]ermore fasting, unless upon urgent occasion, (as in case of sudden and dangerous Sickness) and the longer he be kept Fast­ing from Meat and Drink, as well before he taketh as Physick as after, it will be the better, for by that means his Medicine will work the more kindly in his Body; for he ought to be kept from eating and drinking, at least three houres before and after.

Purging Balls how made and given.

Take an ounce, or an ounce and a half of Aloes Succotrina, more or less, (according to the strength and Constitution of your Horse) powder it very well, and mix it with a little fresh Butter; Then divide it into three equal parts, and cover them all over with fresh Butter, to prevent the bitter taste of the Aloes: Make them about the bigness of a large Wall-nut, shaped thick in the middle, and sharp at both ends, and given him in the Morning fasting. If you think them not stiff enough with But­ter alone, you may mix some Bran with it, and then they will be as stiff as Dough or Paste.

What Exercise is meet with Physick.

A little moderate Exercise is very necessary, whereby his Physick may work the better, and the sooner, as to Trot him easily about, or to walk him up and down under the Wind in the warm Sun about a quarter of an hour. Then bring him into the Stable, and Cloath him up warm, and Litter him well, and let his keeper be with him three or four houres, ob­serving his Postures, and as occasion may require, to help him with all things necessary for his use. No Creature hath a moister Body then a Horse.

Of Mixing your Simples.

If your Horses Sickness be a Feaver, to mix always your Simples with warm Water, with Honey, or with Oyl; but if the Disease be Coughs, Rhenms, or any thing that proceedeth of cold Causes, then mix them with good Ale or Wine, but if he be brought low with Sickness, then mix them with Milk and Eggs.

Observations upon Raking a Horse.

Observe whensoever you Rake your Horse with your Hand, (which is to draw his Ordure out of his Fundament, when he cannot dung, that you anoint your Hand with Sallet Oyl, or Butter, or Hogs-grease: the like you must ever do when you put up any Suppository; but when you Ad­minister any Glister, you shall then but anoint the Glister-Pipe.

Observations upon Blood▪letting.

Observe in Blood-letting, that you take not so much Blood from a Colt as an old Horse, and but the fourth part from a yearling [...]oal, you must likewise have regard to his Age and strength, taking more or less, according to his Ability of his Body. Lastly, letting of Blood is either to divert Sickness and preserve Health, or to refresh and cool the Spirits, or to diminish Blood, or to p [...]rge Grease and bad Humours. Before you let him blood, moderately cha [...]e or exercise him, and let him rest a day before his blood-letting, and three days after, not forgetting that April and [Page 88] October are the two principal Seasons for that purpose, unless urgent oc­casion requires. He will bleed the better if you let him drink before you blood him, conditionally you do not heat him.

When he is bleeding, put your Finger into his Mouth, and tickle him in the Roof thereof, making him chaw and move his Chaps, and that will force it to spin forth, which when he hath bled enough, according to your Discretion, rub the Horses Body all over therewith, but [...]especially the Place where he is blooded on, for the Ancient Farriers hold that it is en­dued with a certain natural Vertue to comfort the weak and feeble Mem­bers of a Horse, and to dry up all evil Humours. And Tie him up to the Rack for an hour or two, lest he bleed afresh, for that will turn his Blood.

Signes to know when he wanteth Bleeding.

If he stand in need of Bleeding, his Eyes will look Red, and his Veins will swell more then ordinary; also he will have a certain Itch about his Mane and Tail, and still be continually rubbing them, and sometimes will shed some of his Hair also, he will now and then pill about the Roots of his Eares, or in those places where the Head-stall of the Bridle lies; His Urine will be red and high-Coloured, and his Dung will be black and hard; Also if he hath red Inflammations, or little Bubbles on his Back, or doth not digest his Meat well, or if the Whites of his Eyes be yellow, or the inside of his Lips, either upper or nether; Many other Signes there are of Bleeding, but let these suffice, &c.

Of Outward Sorrances what they are, and of General Observations in the Cure of them.

Outward Sorrances, according to my meaning in this place, are taken two manner of Ways, that is to say, either it is an evil state and compo­sition of the Body, which is to be discerned, either by the Shape, Num­ber, Quality or sight of the Member, evil affected and difeased: or else it is the Loosning and Division of any Unity, which as it may chance diversly, so it hath divers Names accordingly. For if such a Division or Loosing be in the Bone, then it is called a Fracture; if it be in any Fleshy part, then it is called a Wound or an Ulcer; if it be in the Veins, then a Rup­ture; if in the Sinews, then a Convulsion or Cramp; and if it be in the Skin, then it is called an Excortication: And of all these severally I in­tend to treat of in the Chapters following. Now for as much as in this General Art of Chyrurgery, or Sorrance, there are certain General Ob­servations or Caveats to be held inviolate, I will before I proceed any fur­ther, give you a little taste thereof.

Burning.

First, You shall therefore understand, that it is the duty of every good [Page 89] Farrier, never to burn or Cauterize with hot Iron, or with Oyl, or to make any Incision with Knife, where there be either Veins, Sinews or Joynts, but either somewhat lower, or somewhat higher.

Corrasives.

It. You shall never apply to any Joynt or Sinewy part, either Resalgar, Arsnick, Mercury, Sublimate, nor any such violent Corrasive.

Cauterizing.

It. It is ever better to Lance with a hot Iron then a Cold, that is, it is better to Cauterize then to Incise.

Blood.

It. Blood doth ever produce white and thick Matter, Choler a waterish and thin Matter, but not much, Salt Phlegm great abundance of Matter, and Melancholy many dry Scabs.

Bleeding.

It. You must never let Blood, except it be either to divert Sickness, and preserve Health, or to refresh and cool the Blood, or else to diminish Blood, or to purge bad Humors.

It. When you let Blood, take but the fourth part from a Colt, which you take from a grown Horse.

Swellings.

It. In all Imposthumes and swelling Sores, called Tumors, you must ob­serve the beginning of the Grief, the increase of the Grief, the perfection and state of the Grief; And lastly, the declination and ending of the Grief.

It. In the beginning of every such swelling Impostumes, (if you cannot quite destroy them) use Repercussive Medicines, if they be not near some principal part of the Body; but then not for fear of endangering Life, and in Augmentation; use mollifying Medicines, and suppling to Ripen them, and when they are Ripe, Lance them, and let out the Corruption, or dry them up, and in the declination of them, use cleansing and healing Medicines.

Hard and soft Swellings.

It. All Swellings are either hard or soft, the hard will commonly cor­rode, the soft will continue long.

It. If you thrust your Finger upon any Swelling upon a Horses Legs, then if it presently rise again and fill, then is the Hurt new and recover­able, but if the Dent do remain and continue still behind, then is it an old Hurt, and cometh of cold Humours, and asks great Art In heal­ing.

Sores.

When Sores begin to Matter, then they heal, but if the Putrefaction be great, then beware they rot not inwardly.

Cauterizing.

All Cauterizing or Burning, with hot Irons, straineth things enlarged, drieth up what is too much moistned, dissolveth things gathered together or hardened, draweth back things which are dispersed, and helpeth old Griefs; for it repineth, dissolveth, and maketh them to run and issue forth Matter, as you may finde more at large hereafter.

Burning.

It. You must sometimes burn under the Sore, to divert Humours, and sometimes above, to defend and withhold Humours.

It. It is ever better to burn with Copper then with Iron, because Iron is of a malignant Nature, Steel is of an indifferent Vertue betwixt both.

Actual and Potential Burning, what it is.

It. All Actual Burnings is to burn with Instruments, and Potential Burning is to burn with Medicines, as are Causticks and Corrasives.

Of blowing Powder into a Horses Eyes.

It. If you blow Powder into a Horses Eyes often, it will make him blind.

Of taking up of V [...]ins.

It. By no means take up any Veins in the fore-Legs, unless great ex­tremity compel you: for there is nothing will sooner make a Horse stiff and Lame. Many other Observations there are, which because they are not so general as these be, I think it meet to omit.

Five things a Parrier ought Principally to know.

1. First, what Diseases a Horse is inclineable to.

2. Secondly, What be the Causes of every disease in particular.

3. Thirdly, How, and by what ways and means these Diseases do accrew.

4. Fourthly, The Signes how to distinguish and know them.

5. And Lastly, the means and manner how to Cure them.

Of Glisters and their Ʋses.

The Nature and Property of Glisters are divers, therefore every Far­rier ought to know to what end they serve, and which hath Drugs or Simples, they ought to be compounded, for every Glister is to be made ac­cording to the Disease. Now some are to ease Griefs, and to allay the sharpness of the Humours, some to Bind, some to Loosen, and some to [Page 91] purge, and some to heal Ulcers. These Glisters by cleansing the Guts, re­fresh the Vital Parts, and prepare the Body, (if the Body be not at that time Soluble) to make the Purgation work the better, which if you give your Medicine without giving a Glister before it, you may stir up and pro­voke the peccant Humours, which by reason they cannot finde present way sorth, being hindred by Oppilations in the Guts, through Costiveness and Ventosity, and other Impediments, do attempt to make their Passage a contrary way, which cannot be done but with great hazard to the life of the poor Beast.

Now for the Composition of Glisters, you shall understand that they be made of four things, that is, of Decoctions, of Drugs, of Oyl, of such like Unctuous Matter, as Butter, or soft Grease, and fourthly, of divers Salts to provoke the Vertue expulsive. A Decoction is a Broth made of certain Herbs, as Mallowes, Marsh-Mallowes, Pell [...]ory, Camomile, and sometimes of white Lilly Ro [...]ts, and other such like things, which we do boil in Water to a third part, and sometimes we use in stead of Herbs and Water, to take the Fat of Beef-broth, of a Sheeps-Head, Milk, Whey, and some such kind of Liquor, mingled sometimes either with Honey or Sugar, according to the quality of the disease; the Glister being either Lenitive, that is to say, casing of Pain; or Glutinative, which is, joyning of things together; or else Abstersive, which is wiping away or cleansing of [...]ilthy Matter. You ought to Administer according to the Age, Strength, Greatness and Corpulency of the Horse; for if he be a Horse of a strong and able Body, of large growth and stature, fat and lusty, we use to put into the Glister of the Decoction three Pints; but if he be of a small growth, weak, sick, feeble or lean, then we do put in a quart of the same at most. Of Oyl we use to put in half a Pint, of Salt two or three drams at most, and sometimes we put Verjuice, sometimes Honey, as we finde cause; Drugs we use, are Sene, Cassia, Agari [...]k, Anniseeds, Oyl of Dill, Oyl of Camomile, Oyl of Violets, Sugar-Candy, &c. You ought not to exceed the quantity of three Ounces in one Glister at the most, neither must you exceed of Butter four Ounces, and let it not be above luke-warm when you give it him, let him be somewhat empty, and let him be Raked before you Administer it, give it him in a Glister-Pipe made for that purpose. Which ought to be twelve Inches in the Shank, which must be put home; and having the Confection within the Bladder, wring it with a very good strength into his Body, then draw out the Pipe by degrees cut of his Body, and not all at once, and clap his Tail close to his Tuel, and so hold it with your Hand close about half an hour at the least, to the end it may work in his Belly the better.

A Glister for a Horse that is very Costive of Body, and cannot Dung.

Take the Fat of Beef-broth a Pint and an half, of English Honey half a [Page 92] Pint, adding thereto of white Salt two drams, mix them well together, and Administer it Blood-warm, and clap his Tail close to his Tuel, and there hold it for half an hour at least, and if then it will not work as I am confident it will, let him Trot about easily about half an hour, and set him up warm Cloathed and Littered, and let him stand upon his Trench four or five houres, during which time he will purge kindly, then unbit him and give him sweet Hay, and an hour after he hath eaten give him a Mash of Malt, and an hour after that, white Water, and let him drink no cold Water in a day or two after.

The Vertues of it.

The Nature of this Glister is, to open and loosen the Body, to bring away with it all offensive Humours, to remove Obstructions ingendred in the Body by means of excessive Heat; it cleanseth the Guts, and slicketh away all slimy Substance which is residing in the Guts. The Horse that received this Glister was a small Seotch Nag, and was grown weak and poor, and low of his Flesh, but if he had been a great, large, fat, healthy or Corpulent Horse, you might have made it stronger.

Another Laxative Glister.

Take the Decoction of Mallowes, and mix therewith fresh Butter four Ounces, or Sallet-Oyl half a Pint, and so luke-warm Administer it, and or­der him as you did before.

The Nature of it.

This is of all the Glisters the most gentle, and is very Lenitive and a great Easer of pain, it is good for a Horse that is taken with any Con­traction or Convulsion, and generally for any Costiveness in a Horse whatsoever, proceeding from any Surfeits or Sickness.

Another Glister Laxative.

Take Pellitory two Handfuls, or for want thereof, Melilot two Handfuls, or if you cannot get any of them, then two Handfuls of Camomile, but Pel­litory is the best, boyl it to a Decoction, and add to it of Verjuice and Sal­ter-Oyl, of each half a Pint, of Honey four Ounces, of Cassia two Ounces, mix altogether, and apply it Blood-warm Glister-wise.

The Vertues of it.

It will open the Body and Guts of the Horse very well, it will take from him all noxious and offensive Humours; it will carry away all spungy Matter; it will allay the sharpness of Humours; it will cleanse old Ʋl­cers; it will refresh and comfort the Vital Parts. But if you find you have given him too great a quantity, so that he Purgeth or Scoureth too much, then you may give him this Glister Restringent.

A Restringent Glister.

Take the aforesaid Decoction one Pint, and as much of Cows Milk (as it cometh warm from her) and put to it the Yolks of three New laid Eggs, well beaten and mixed with the said Liquor, and give it him Blood-warm. This is only to be applied to a Horse that is very Laxative, or that doth empty himself too much.

A Glister for a fat Horse that cannot be kept clean.

Take Mallowes three Handfuls, Marsh-mallow Roots cleansed and bruis­ed, and Violet leaves, of each two Handfuls, Flax-seed three spoonfuls, as many of the Cloves of white Lilly Roots as you can hold in your hand: Boyl all these in fair water from a Gallon to a quart, and strain it, and put thereto of Sene one Ounce, which must be infused or steeped in the Liquor three houres, standing upon the hot Embers, then put to it of Sallet Oyl, half a Pint, and being Blood-warm Administer it.

A Glister in Case of desperate Sickness.

Take of the Oyl of Dill, Oyl of Camomile, Oyl of Violets, of Cassia, of each half an Ounce, and of brown Sugar-Candy in powder, three Ounces, then take half a Handful of Mallow-leaves, boyl them to a Decoction in fair Water, then strain it, and put to it all the fore-named Ingredients, and Administer it Blood-warm. This helpeth all Feavers, it is good a­gainst the Pestilence, and all Languishing Diseases, most excellent against Surfeits, either by Provender or otherwise, and it will occasion great strength in a short time, if it be rightly made, and carefully given.

A Glister for the Pestilence and all Feavers.

Take the Pulpe of Colloquintida, half an Ounce (I mean the Seeds and Skin taken away) of Dragantium three quarters of an Ounce, of Centaury and of Wormwood, of each half a Handful, of Castoreum a quarter of an Ounce, boyl all these in three quarts of water to a quart, then strain it, and dis­solve into the Broth, of Gerologundinum three Ounces, and of white Salt three Drams, of Sallet-Oyl half a Pint, and Blood-warm Administer it.

A Glister for the Cholick.

Take Salt water, or new made Brine two Pints, dissolve therein a pretty quantity of Sope, and so Blood-warm Administer it.

Vertues.

This is very good for the Cholick, or any Sickness or Griping in the Guts or Belly. And let this suffice for Glisters.

Advice given upon giving Glisters.

1. Before you Administer any Glister, be sure to Rake him.

[Page 94] 2. When you put in the Glister-Pipe, apoint it first with Butter or Sallet-Oyl, and that you put it in and out gently, and by degrees, you must an­oint likewise the Hand and Arm.

3. Let him keep it above half an hour, by holding his Tuel close to his Fundament.

4. That you do Administer it but Blood-warm.

5. That you squeeze and press between your Hands the Bladder strongly.

6. And lastly, that you let him not drink any cold water in a day or two after, but let it either be a sweet Mash, or else white Water.

What things are put into a Laxative Glister.

Pellitory, Melil [...]e, Camomile, (but Pellutory is the best,) and of this would I make a Decoction, and to this Decoction would I put Sallet-Oyl, Ho­ney, Aloes and Verjuice of the Crab, Brank-urfine, Mallows or Marsh-Mal­lows, Fennel Roots, Parsley Roots, Jack by the Hedge.

The Nature of the Principal Drugs.

Agarick purgeth the Brain, Alloes the Breast and Body, Rhubarb purgeth the evil water, and it openeth the Liver, and helpeth Obstructions and Opilations, Aristolochia rotunda mollifieth the Breast, Liver and Lungs, and Ba [...]aury or Bay-berries do mortisie the peccant humours which do engender in the Breast or Entrails, near about the Heart; and Saffron (if it be discreetly given) doth marvellously comfort and enlighten the Heart.

What the true Nature of Rubarb it.

Rubarb hath two contrary Natures, for if you either scrape, grate or cut it, then it is a Loosner, for it dissolveth and openeth the Liver, and ex­pelleth the Obstructions thereof; it expulseth all bad Humours in and a­bout the Heart, Liver and Spleen; it cleanseth the Body, and sendeth a­way the peccant Humours among the Excrements, and all such things as may annoy or offend the Entrails. But if you shall pound or beat it in a Mortar, or otherwise, the spirit whereof being a subtil Body, will Transire and flie away, whereby the Operation thereof will be to bind, and be no way profitable.

The Nature of a Suppository.

The Nature of Suppositories are to help a Horse that cannot well empty himself, for a Suppository causeth him to discharge himself of many su­perfluous and evil Humours, which do disturb, annoy and distemper his Bod [...] with their peccant qualities and conditions, for they breed bad [...] which oft-times good Diet cannot amend, and therefore must be sent away by Purgation, that is to say, by Suppository, or Glister, or Por­tion, [Page 95] A Suppository is but a Preparative to a Glister or Portion, and is of all other things the gentlest you can use; it will Loosen the Guts, which may be bound and clogged with dry, hot and hard Excrements, which a Glister will not so well do.

The first Suppository.

Take a Candle of four or five in the pound, and cut off three Inches at the smaller end, and anoint the biggest part of it either with Sallet-Oyl or fresh Butter, and so put it into his Fundament, then with your Hand hold his Tail to his Tuel about half an hour, by which time the Suppository will be dissolved, then take his Back and Trot him up and down till he do begin to empty and purge himself, for by this means it will work the better and more kindly. This is she most gentle of all Suppositories that can be given. This dissolveth all hard, dry and hot Excrements, and sendeth them forth, and besides, it suppleth the Guts. Another, if you find him so weak, that you dare not without the peril of his life, ad­minister unto him any Portion, or Purging Medicine, then give him this Suppository.

The second Suppository.

Take of Common Honey six Ounces, of Salt-Niter one Ounce and a half, of Wheat-Flower, and of Anniseeds in fine Powder, of each an Ounce, boyl all these to a stiff thickness, and so make it into Suppositories, then take one of them and anoint it all over with Sallet-Oyl, and your Hand also, and so put it up into his Fundament the length of your Hand, then Tie his Tail betwixt his Legs, by fastening it to his Girts, and let it remain so half an hour, then ride and order him as before. This is good in case of Surfeits or inward Sickness.

Suppository the third.

Take a piece of Castle-Sope, and paring it, bring it into the fashion of a Suppository; and apply it, and order him as before is taught you. This is special good to purge Phlegm.

Suppository the fourth.

Take so much Saven as will suffice, and stamp it to a Mash, and stamp with it Stavesakar and Salt, of each two ounces; boyl these in common Honey so much as will suffice, till it be thick, and so make it up into Sup­positories, and administer one of them as you did before, and order him [...]o likewise. This purgeth Choler.

Suppository the Fifth.

Take an angry red Onion, and Pill it, and Jag it Cross-ways with your Knife, and so administer it, and order him as before. This purgeth Me­lancholy.

Suppository the Sixth.

Take common Honey a pint, and boil it till it be thick, and make it up into Suppositories as it cooleth, and administer it, and order him as before prescribed. This purgeth ill Humours, it cooleth and comforteth the Body very much, and causeth a good Appetite to Meat.

Observations to be observed in Giving of Suppositories, Glisters or Portions.

First, you must do it in a Morning Fasting, unless Necessity urgeth the contrary.

Secondly, you must not at those times suffer him to drink any cold wa­ter, no, not with exercise, but either sweet Mashes, or white water.

Thirdly, It is very needful, that before you administer either of them, to Rake him. And

Fourthly, That he be after kept warm.

Of Purgations and their Uses.

Purgation is an emptying and voiding of superfluous Humours, which do cumber, pester and disturb the Body with their peccant condition; which ill Humours do breed bad Nutriment, which when it will not be concoct­ed and amended, either by fair means or by the help of Nature, then it must be compelled, forced and driven away by Purgation, Vomit, Glister or Suppository; but to speak only of Purgations, Purging of Horses are either by Pills, or Portions; Pills are any solid or substantial stuff fixed together in one Body, and being made into round Balls are cast down the Horses Throat. A Portion is when you give him any liquid purging Matter to drink, whether it be Purging Powders dissolved in Wine or Ale; or that if it be any other liquid stuff. Now Pills purge and make clean the Head and Brain, bringing Phlegm and other gross Humours down into the Excrements. And Potions cleanse the Stomach, Guts, and every o­ther inward Member,

VVhat a skilful Farrier ought to know before he goes about to Purge a Horse, he ought to consider the Nature of the Simples.

Now the Art of the true Farrier is in choosing of the Simples, where­of these Pills or Portions are to be compounded, and in skilfully applying the same. First, then he ought to know what ill Humours he is opprest with, as whether it proceed from Choler, Phlegm and Melancholy, and where they do most abound, and then what Simples are best to purge those Humours, and with what quality or temperament they are indued, for some Simples are most violent and next Cousins to strong Poisons, as Sca­mony or Colloquintida: some again are gentle, as Manna, Cassia, Whey, [Page 97] Prunes, and such like; and some are neither too violent nor too gentle, but of a Mean, as Rubarh, Agarick, Sene and Aloes.

The Nature of the Disease, the Strength of the Horse, and the Climate he was bred in.

You ought to consider the Nature of the Disease, the Strength of the Horse, and with them joyn the Nature, Strength and Quantity of the Me­dicine, he must consider likewise the Climate wherein he was bred; And you are to make a difference between delicate and tender Horses, and strong and sturdy Horses, and in such Cases the quality and quantity is to be looked into of every Simple. The Climate likewise is to be respected, whether it be too hot or too cold, and you are not to administer as hot Simples in the Summer as in the Winter, nor so cold things in the Winter as in the Summer, you ought to have respect to the day, and to chuse that always that is most temperate, for too much Heat makes a Horse faint, and too much cold spoils the working of the Medicine.

When he is to have his Portion.

Give him his Portion in the Morning, after he hath fasted from Meat and Drink all the Night before.

To Ride him after it.

After he hath received his Portion, ride him gently after it, about an hour, and set him up, and let him stand on the Bit two houres after it, well Littered and Cloathed. If he be sick, let him lie down, but if that will do him no good, and that you finde him so sick that you fear his life, then give him a quart of warm Milk with a little Saffron in it, and he will do well, and give him no other Meat then a Math of Malt and white water to drink till his Medicine hath done working.

How to make a Mash.

Take half a Peck of Ground Malt and put it into a Pale, then put in as much scalding hot Water as will wet it very well, then stir it about half an hour, till tasting the Water you finde it as sweet as Honey, then being luke-warm give it to the Horse to drink. This Mash is only to be used after you have given him a Purge to make it work the better, or after hard labour, or instead of drink in the time of any great Sickness.

Now to come to particular Receipts and Medicines themselves; and though the Ancient Farriers do make but two kinds, that isto say, Pills and Purgations; yet I divide them into three, that is to say, Scourings, Pills and Purgations.

VVhat Scourings are.

Scourings are those wholesom, Natural and gentle purging Medicines, [Page 98] which stirring up no great Flux of Humours, do only keep the Body clean from such Evils as would arise and grow, being every way as wholesom in Health as in Sickness, and may most properly be termed Preparatives, or Preparers of the Body to entertain more stronger Medicines.

Scouring by Grass.

To speak of the most gentle and natural Scouring, which is Grass, which you are to give but for fifteen days together, and no more, for after that it Fatteth, the best Scouring Grass is a new Mown Meadow, for that will Rake his Guts very well, nor will he in such a place gather Flesh; but if you intend to Fat him, you are to take him out from thence, and put him into some other Pasture, where the Sithe hath not been. And this manner of Scouring will cause him to empty himself well of all his evil Hamours and Surseits, ease his Limbs marvellous well, do his Legs and Feet very much good, refine his corrupt Blood, and make him agile and full of Spirit. Next unto Grass is Sorrage, which is only the Blades of green Corn, as VVheat, Rye, Barley, and such like, being given him seven days and no more, which cleanseth and cooleth the Body very much, so doth the leaves of Sallows, and of the Elm-green Thistles, likewise being cut up and given him for about five days is a good Scourer. And the last of these gentle Scourings is the Mash of Malt as ascresaid; but as you are prescribed there to make it of a quarter of a Peck of Malt, you are to take a larger here (if you use it for a Scouring) a Peck of Malt, and put to it a handful or more of beaten Hemp-seed.

A Scouring to be given after a Sweat.

Take half an Ounce of Rozin of Jallop in Powder, half an Ounce of Cream of Tartar powdred, and half an Ounce of Licorish in Powder, make these up into Balls with fresh Butter, about the bigness of a small Wall-nut, and give him four or five at a time, in a Horn-full of Beer, one after another.

Scourings of a little stronger Nature are these.

To Mix with his Oats a Handful or two of Hemp-seed, or to take a Handful of the Powder of dried Box-leaves, and as much of Brimstone, and mix it amongst his Provender. These are to be used after Labour when he hath Sweat much.

They Purge the Head and Stomach.

These two Scourings work upon no Matter but what Nature will excel, they purge the Head, Stomach and Intrails, they kill all kind of VVormes, and dry up Phlegm.

Scourings of a stronger Nature.

Take of Sallet-Oyl half a Pint, of New Milk from the Cow a Pint, [Page 99] brew it together, and give it him luke-warm, or else take a Pint of Mus­cadine, and half a Pint of Sallet-Oyl, and give it him to drink, or the same quantity of Oyl and sack mixt together, and give it him luke-warm.

Their Vertues.

These Scourings clense the Head, Body and Guts, from all Phlegm or Molten Grease, which any violent labour hath dissolved, they are exceed­ing good for any manner of Cold, or stopping of the Wind-pipes, and if you add to them good store of Sugar-Candy it will be the better.

How to Order a Horse before you give him Physick.

In Winter if his Body be purged, it must be prepared by Blood-letting with Artificial Diet; you are to keep him a day or two without Hay, Straw, or such like hard Meats, which will hinder the Working of the Physick, and he must be kept for a time from all manner of Meat, because Emptiness is a great help to Physical Operation, otherwise it may happen to do more hurt then good. Two or three days before you purge him, let his Meat be either Wheat or Rye-Bran, prepared like as has been taught you, or else good Bread made on purpose with Beans, Pease, and some Rye in it. Or else good sweet Oats clean Sifted, and let his Drink be white Water only. And that Morning you intend to give him his Purge, let him be Fasting from either Meat or Drink.

The easiest sort of Pills.

The easiest Pills are these, either take twenty Cloves of Garlick clean pill'd and bruised, then a quarter of a pound of sweet Butter, and so roul up the Garlick in four or five Balls, as big as two Wall-Nuts a piece, and throw them down his Throat one after another; or else take a quarter of a pound of Butter, and as much red Saunders, beat them very well to­gether in a Mortar, and make them up in Balls, and give him them as you did the other; or else take a handful of Rosemary-leaves chopped very small, and mix them with a quarter of a pound of Butter, and make it into round Balls as the other, and give them the Horse; or else take five green Figs and put them down his Throat.

The strongest sort of Pill.

Take one pound of Lard laid in water two houres, and take no­thing but two Ounces of the clean Fat thereof, and stamp it in a Mortar, and put thereto of Licorish, of Anniseeds, and of Fennegreek beaten to powder, of each one Ounce, of Alloes beaten into powder one Ounce, of Agarick half an Ounce, knead them altogether into Paste, and make three or four Balls of them, and give them the Horse.

This Pill is not to be given but to a Horse of great Stature, and strong in Health of Body.

Purg t [...]ns that are the strongest C [...]rs [...]rs.

1. Take Myrrh and mix it with a Pint of white-Wine and it will purge all Sickness that proceedeth of [...] the Signs whereof his Belly will swell, be very hot, neither dang nor break Wind. Or

2. Take a Pint of Wine, and bea [...] a raw Egg therein, and add to it a quarter of an Ounce of [...] and half an Ounce of Myrrh beaten to powder, and give it him luke-warm, and it will purge all inward Dis­cases proceeding of [...] Or

3. Two spoonfuls of the powder of Dia [...]ente given with half a Pint of Swines Grease, purgeth all Diseases proceeding of [...] Or

4. Take as much black Sope as the bigness of a Wall-nut, a quart of new Milk, and a quarter of a Pint of Sallet-Oyl, and give it him luke-warm, and it purgeth all cold Infirmiteis, but it will make him exceeding Sick. Or

5. Take the Guts of a Tench or Barbel cut into small pieces, and give it him in a quart of white-Wine, and it will purge him from all Costive­ness and pain in the Guts. Or

6. Rye being boiled so that it burst not, and dried again, and given him in stead of Provender, purgeth and killeth all manner of Wormes. Or

7. Take of Alocs Sacco [...]rina one ounce, two drams of Rozin of Jellop, Gentian, Aristolochia and Elecampane, of each a dram, mix them well in a quart of Ale, and two Ounces of Butter, with two Eggs whites, and all well beaten; shake in the Aloes last, when it is a little warm, and give it him. Or

8. Take of Radish Roots one Ounce, of the Root called Panax, and Scamony, of each half an Ounce, beaten altogether, and boiled in a quart of Honey, and give him two spoon [...]nls of it to drink in a quart of Ale warm, and this will purge all gross Humours whatsoever. Or

9. Take Elecampane Roots boiled in Milk till they be soft, and add them to half a pint of Sallet-Oyl, and give it him luke-warm, and this will purge and cleanse any kind of Glaunders. Or

10. Take of sweet Sope a quarter of a pound, made up into Balls, and give them the Horse, and it will purge all Humours whatsoever, both vi­clently and most abundantly. Or

11. Take of white-Wine a pint, or for want of that, a quart of New Ale, so much of the powder [...] of the best and choicest, as you may take up upon a shilling at four times, give it him warm. This will purge away his filth and [...]lime, and carry away his peccant Humours which S [...] feits hath ingendred. Or

12. Take an Ounce or better of the best Aloes, and after you have beaten it to very fine powder, then work it up with a little sweet Butter, and then divide it into three parts, and cover them all over with clear Butter, as big as a small wash-Ball, and give them in a Morning Fasting [Page 101] upon the point of a Stick, and give him a Horn-full of warm Beer after them, and Ride him after them, and set him up warm. Prob [...]um est. Or

13. Take of the strongest Ale-wort one quart, of ordinary Honey a quarter of a Pint, of London-Trea [...]le two Ounces, mix and brew alto­gether well, and so give it him Blood-warm, and keep him upon the Trench warm Cloathed and well Littered six houres after, and let his Drink be white water or a sweet Mash: This both purgeth and com­forteth, put into his Drink, either the powder of Brimstone, or of Fene­greek or Turmerick, or [...] one or more together, according as he will be brought to like, which being well mixed, put into his Drink one spoonful at once. Or

14. Take of ordinary Honey, and mingle it with his Oats, which must be mixed by rubbing the Oats and Honey betwixt the Hands; let him eat his Oates thus mingled till you finde him quite Cured; which will be when he hath quite done Running at the Nose. This is one of the best and most certain Cordials that I know, for this disperseth all Phlegm and Choler; it also purgeth the Head, Brain and Blood, it venteth evil Hu­mours, it causeth good Digestion, and freeth him from Glaunders, Colds, Catarrhs, Rh [...]ums, running at the Note, and the like. Or

15. When you let Blood you may save it in a Bowl or Dish, keeping it stirring to keep it from Clotting, and give it him to drink in a Drenching-Horn, mingled with a Handful of Salt. This is good for a Cold. Or

16. Take an Ounce of Aloes Succotrina beaten to powder, and as much of the powder of Rozin of Jallop as will lie upon a six pence, mix them well with a little fresh Butter, then divide it into three parts, and cover each part all over again with Butter, about the bigness of a good handsom Wash-ball, and give them him in the Morning Fasting, with a drenching Horn-full of strong warm Beer after every Ball; And order him as you have Directions for sick Horses. This is a very good Receipt to scour a Hide-bound Horse that is sick of Moulten Grease, and that does not thrive, nor Fill himself, nor carry a good Coat. Or

17. Take a handful of Groundsel, half a handful of dried (or less of green) Wormwood, and half a handful of Red Sage chopped very small, and boiled in three Pints of strong Beer or Ale; Then strain the Beer from the Herbs, and put into it a good Piece of Butter, with as much of the powder of Mecho [...]an as will lie upon a broad shilling, and give it him luke-warm in the Morning Fasting, and order him as you do sick Horses. This Drink purgeth slime and Moulten Grease in Lumps, and makes a Horse thrive very well both in Winter and Summer. See the second Part for Purgations, for anothor of this kind.

Bran, how Boiled and Prepared to give a Horse that hath a Cold; As also what Seeds you are to give him amongst his Provender for the Cure of it.

Set a Kettle over the Fire almost full of water, and when it is ready to [Page 102] boil put in your Bran, and let it boil about a quarter of an hour; Then take it off and cover it with a Cloth or Board, let it stand till it cool a little, and give it him early in the Morning as hot as he can conveniently eat it; At Night let his Meat be Oates and white Water, but be sure you put into his Provender the quantity of an Egg-shell full of these Powders grossly beaten (lest he blow them away) viz. Linseed, Cummin­seed, Nutmegs, Ginger, Cloves, Fennegreek, Sileris-Montani, of each of these two Ounces, and of Brimstone six Ounces; but before you give him his Oates and Powders, give him white Water, and Rub him and Litter him well; Let him seed on Wheat-straw about an hour before you give him his Oates, and afterwards give him some Hay. This way of Feeding a­bout eight or nine days together, will quite free him from his Cold, if it be not too violent.

Horse-Spice how to make.

These several Powders mixed together make it, viz. Rubarb one Ounce, Turmerick two Ounces, Eleoampane six Ounces, Brimstone four Ounces, Fennel-seeds four Ounces, Grains of Paradise four Ounces, &c. Put all these together in a Glass or Gally-pot, and keep them till you have occasion to use them. The quantity that you are to give your Horse, is either greater or smaller, according to the strength and Consti­tution of your Horse; you are not to exceed above an Ounce at a time, mixed with a spoonful of the best Sallet-Oyl, and a spoonful or two of the Treacle of Jean, dissolved in a quart of strong Beer, which is very good for a Cold, and to make a Horse thrive. Or you may give him an Ounce of them in three pints of warm Beer or Ale, after Blood-letting, to pre­vent Diseases. If you leave out the Rubarb, you may give him a greater quantity, for that is a great Purger.

Rules to know where a Horse Halteth, either before or behind.

If he do Halt before, his Grief must of necessity be either in the Shoul­der, or Knee, or in the Shank, or in the Pastern, or in the Foot; if it be in the Shoulder, it must be either towards the Withers, or in the pitch of the Shoulder, you may know it in that he will a little draw his Leg after him, and not handle it so nimbly as he doth the other, if he cast his Leg more outward then he doth the other, it is a sign that he is Lame, and that the Grief lieth in his Shoulder; and if you take him in your Hand turn him short on either Hand, you shall finde him to complain of that Shoul­der he is Lame of, and he will either favour that Leg, or trip in the turn­ing, you may finde him Lame by his standing in the Stable, and he will hold out that Leg that is Lame more then the other; and if he complains more when you are on his Back then otherwise, then be sure the Grief lies in the Withers, and Gripe him hard, ▪and you shall perceive him to shrink, and perhaps offer to bite. If he tread thick and short before, then is the Grie [Page 103] upon the Pitch of the Shoulder close to the Breast, which you may finde by setting your Thumb hard to the place, and by Thrusting him with it, if you would have him to go back, whereat he will shrink and put back his Leg, Foot and Body; if the Grief be in the Elbow, you may know it by pinching him with your fore-Finger and Thumb, and he will hold up his Leg and offer to bite; and these be all the Griefs that lie in the Shoul­der of a Horse. If the Griefs lie lower, they must be either in the Knee, in the Skin, in the Pastern, or in the Foot.

When in the Knee.

If it be in the Knee, you may find it by his stiff going, for he will not bend it so nimbly as he doth the other. If it be in the Shank or Shin­bone, you may see it, and likewise feel the same, it being then a Back-Si­new strain, Splint, or some such like Sorrance or Annoyance If it be in the bending of the Knee, then it is a Mallender, which is also easily descried; when it is in the Pastern or Joynt, then you may know it by his not bending it so well as the other; besides, if you put your Hand upon the place, you shall find it very hot; if it be in the Foot, it must be either in the Cronet or in the Sole; if in the Cronet it is probable it came by some strain or wrench; if in the Heel, then it came by some over-reach, or else by some Disease in or about the Frush; If in the Sole, then it came by some Prick, Accloy, Retoire, Nail, Stub, Stone or Gravel. And thus I have shewed unto you the several ways that cause a Horse to be Lame be­fore, and how to know and distinguish the places grieved, together with the occasion of every particular Grief.

How to distinguish an old Grief from a New.

You have three Ways to finde out his Lameness, in what Joynt, Limb or Member of the Body soever.

1. The first way is to cause him to be turned at the Halters end, on ei­ther hand, suddenly and swistly, upon as hard a way as you can pick out; and if he have any Ach, Wrench or Grief in his fore-parts, it will appear: for when he turneth upon that Hand that the Grief is on, he will favour that Leg, and so run both towards you and from you, especially done at a little yielding Hill; and if he have any imperfection, he will soon shew it, for he will favour that Leg wherein the Grief resideth▪ But if you cannot finde it out this way.

2. Then your second way must be to take his Back, and Ride him till you have thoroughly heat him, then set him up for two or three houres till he be cold, then turn him at the Halters-end, or Ride him, and you may easily discover the least Grief that may be in him.

3. A third way there is, and that to know whether the Grief proceeds from a hot or cold cause, for if it proceed from a hot cause, he will Halt most when he is hot; but if it be of a cold cause, then he will Halt least when he is hot, and most ridden and travelled, and most at his [Page 104] first setting sorth, whilest he is cold, and thus much for Lameness and Halting before.

Now finding that his Lameness is not before, you may then conclude, if he be Lame at all it must needs be behind, and then it must of necessity be either in the Foot or in the nether Joynt, in the Pastern or in the Leg, in the Ham or in the Hoof, in the stiffling place or Joynt, or in the Hip. If the Grief be either in the Leg, Pastern or Foot, you may know it by the same Signes as I have inculcated to you already in the fore-Legs. If it be in the bending of the Ham it must be a Selander. If it be in the Hoof, then it is either a Bone or Blood-spavin, which is easie enough to be discerned, or else it must come of some Blow, Wrench or Strain, neither then will the swelling easily appear, which you may perceive either by the stiffness of the Joynt, or you may find the place to be hot and burning. If the pain lie in the stiffing place, you may know it by his Gate, for in his going he will cast the stifle-Joynt outward, and the Bone on the inside will be bigger then the other, besides his Toe will hardly touch the Ground. If it be in the Hip, which is upon the side of the Buttock; and if it be newly taken, you may know it in that he will go side-long like a Crab. And if it be an old Hurt, the Hip will be fallen lower then the other, and the flesh to shrink, which to discover it the sooner run him at the full length of the Rein, and he will be sure to favour that Leg the Grief is in; but if you find him to go upright without favouring any Leg, then take his Back and ride him till he be warmed, and then set him up till he be cold, and then lead or trot him in your Hand as you did before, and if he be lame at all he will be sure to complain. And so much for Lameness before and behind.

CHAP. I.
The True Art of Pairing and Shooing all ma [...]m [...]r of Hoofs, and in what Point the Art of Shooing doth consist.

The Art of Shooing consisteth in these Points, viz. in Paring the Hoof well, in making the Shoo of good Stuff, in well-fashioning the Web there­of, and well-piercing the same, in Fitting the Shoo unto the Horses Foot, in making Nails of good stuff, and well-fashioning of the same; and fi­nally, in well driving of the said Nails, and cleansing of the same. But sith neither Pairing nor Shooing is no absolute thing of it self, but hath respect unto the Foot or Hoof, (for the Shoo is to be Fitted to the Foot, and not the Foot to the Shoo) and there be divers kinds of Hoofs both good and bad, requiring great diversity, as well of Pairing as Shooing; it is meet therefore that we speak of the diversities of Hoofs, and then shew you how they ought to be paired and shod.

CHAP. II.
Of Hoofs and divers Kinds thereof.

[...]. Of Hoofs, some be perfect, and some imperfect. The perfect Hoof [Page 105] is that which is round, smooth, tough and short, so as he may tread more on the Toe then on the Heel, and also right, and somewhat hollow with­in, but not over-hollow, having a narrow Frush and broad Heels.

The imperfect Hoof.

The imperfect Hoof is that which lacketh any of these Properties be­fore-said, belonging to a perfect Hoof. If the Hoof be not round but broad, and spreading out of the sides and quarters, that Horse for the most part hath narrow heels, and in continuance of time will be flat Foot­ed, which is a weak Foot, and will not carry a Shoo long, nor Travel far, but soon surbate; and by treading more on his Heels then on his Toes, will go low on his Pasterns, and such Feet through their weakness be much subject to false quarters, and to Gravelling, which is most commonly seen in Flanders Horses, and such as are bred in moist Grounds.

Brittle and rugged Hoofs.

Secondly, if the Hoof be not smooth, but rugged and full of Circles, like Rams-horns, then it is not only unseemly to the Eye, but also it is a sign that the Foot is in no good temper, but too hot and dry, and that makes it to be Brittle, which defect is often seen in our English Horses.

Long Hoofs.

Thirdly, if it be long, then it will cause the Horse to tread all upon the Heels, and to go low on his Pasterns, and thereby to breed Wi [...]d [...]gall [...], whereunto the Jennets of Spain be much subject, by reason of their long Hoofs.

Cro ked Hoofs.

Fourthly, if the Hoof be not right but crooked. viz. broad without and narrow within, whereby the Horse is splay-footed, then it will cause him to tread more inward then outward, and to go so close with his Joynts to­gether, as he cannot well Travel without enterfering, or perhaps striking one Leg so hard against the other, as he becometh Lame. But if he be broad within, and narrow without, that is not so hurtful, notwithstanding it will cause him to Gravel sooner on the out-side, then on the inside.

Flat Hoofs.

Fifthly, if the Hoof be flat and not hollow within, is most commonly seen in Frezons and Flanders Horses, then it breedeth such inconveniencies as are before declared in the first imperfect Hoof. And again, if it be ever-hollow, then it will dry the faster and cause him to be Hoof-bound, for the over-hollow Hoof is a streight narrow Hoof, and groweth upright, for though the Horse treadeth upright, and not on his heels, yet such kind of Hoofs will dry over-fast, unless they be continually stopt, and cause him [Page 106] to be Hoof-bound, which Lameth him, making him to Halt, whereunto the Jennets and Barbary-Horses are much subject.

Broad Frushes.

Sixthly, If the Frush be broad, then the Heels be weak and so soft, as you may almost bend them together, and then he will never tread boldly on the Stones, or on hard Ground.

Narrow Heels.

Seventhly, Narrow Heels be tender, and he will at last grow to be Hoof-bound, to which defects the Jennets are most commonly subject.

CHAP. III.
Of Pairing the perfect Hoof and fore-Feet.

First, Pair the Scat of the Shooe, as even and plain as may be, that so it may sit close, and not bare more on one place then another, and take more of the Toe then the Heel, for the Heels must be higher then the Toes, be­cause all the weight of the Horses fore-Body lieth upon the Quarters and Heels of the fore-Feet. And therefore those Parts must be most maintain­ed, and taken off with the Butteris as little as may be, for the Heels are na­turally weaker then the Toes. But in the Pairing of the hinder-Feet is clean contrary, as you shall sinde hereafter in its proper place.

CHAP. IV.
Of Shooing the perfect Hoof and fore-Feet, and how the Shoo, Pairing and Nail should be made.

Make your Shoo of Spanish Iron, with a broad Web, fitting it to the Hoof, and let the Spunges be thicker and more substantial then any other part of the Shoo, yea, and also somewhat broad, so as the Quarters on both Sides may appear without the Hoofs a straw bredth, to guard the Coffin, which is the strength of the Hoof, and when you come to the pier­cing thereof, pierce it from the Quarter to the hard Toe, but not back­ward towards the Heel, and that the holes may be wider on the out-side then on the in-side, and that the Circle of the piercing may be more distant from the edge of the Toe, then from the edge of the Quarter, whereas it beginneth because the Hoof is thicker forward then backward, and there­fore more hold to be taken. Make your Nails of the same Iron as afore­said, the Heads whereof should be square, and not fully so broad beneath as above, but answerable to the piercing holes, so as the Heads of the Nails may enter in and fill the same, appearing somewhat above the Shoo, and then they will stand sure without shogging, and endure longer, and that that which pierceth them be of the same Size as the Nails, that is to say, [Page 107] great above and small beneath, which our common Smith, little regard, for they make the holes as wide on the inside as the outside, and their Nails of so great a Shouldering by driving them over-hard upon the Nail-hole, as that the Heads, or rather Necks of the said Nails cannot enter into the holes. For to say the truth, a good Nail should have no shouldering at all, but be made with a plain and square Neck, so as it may justly fill the piercing hole of the Shoo, for otherwise the Head of the Nail standing high, and the Neck thereof being weak, either it breaketh off or else bendeth upon any light occasion, so as the Shoo standeth loose from the Hoof, and is quickly lost. Moreover, the shanks of the Nails should be somewhat slat, and the Points sharp, without hollowness or flaw, and stiffer towards the Head above then beneath. And when you drive, drive at the first with soft strokes, and with a light Hammer, until the Nail be some­what entred, and in Shooing fine and delicate Horses, Grease the Points of the Nails with fost Grease, that so they may enter the more easily, and drive the two Talon-Nails first. Then look whether the Shoo standeth right or not, which you shall perceive in beholding the Frush, for if the Spunges on both sides be equally distant from the Frush, then it standeth right, if not, then amend it and set the Shoo right, and standing right drive in another Nail, that done, let the Horse set down his Foot again, and look round about it, to see whether it fitteth the Horses Foot in all places, and whether he treadeth even or just on it or not, and if you see that the Shoo doth not furnish every part equally, but appeareth more on one side then another; Then lift up the Horses other Foot, that so he may stand steadily upon that Foot, and so standing strike him on the Hoof with your Hammer on that side that the Shoo is scant, and that shall make the Shoo to come that way. The Shoo standing streight and just, drive in the rest of all the Nails, to the Number of eight, that is to say, four on one side, and four on another, so as the Points of the Nails may seem to stand in the out-side of the Hoof, even and just one by another, as it were in a Circular Line, and not out of order like the Teeth of a Saw, whereof one is bent one way and another another way. That done, cut them off and clinch them, so as the Clinches may be hidden in the Hoof, which by cutting the Hoof with a point of a Knife, a little beneath the appearing of the Nail, you may easily do. Thus done with a Rape, pair the Hoof round, so as the edge of the Shoo may be seen round about.

CHAP. V.
Of Pairing of the imperfect Hoofs, every one according to their Kinds. And first of the broad Hoof.

A broad Hoof, not being as yet grown to be too flat, may be holpen and kept from being flat, by the skill and diligence of the Farrier in well pair­ing and shooing it. And therefore to pair it well, let him take as much [Page 108] of the Toe with his Butteris as he can possibly, keeping it always under, but let him not touch the Quarters nor the Heels at all, unless it be to make the Seat of the Shoo plain, and let that be done so superficially as may be, so shall the Hoofs remain always strong.

CHAP. VI.
Of Shooing the Broad Hoof.

Make a good strong Shoo, with a broad Web, and broad Spunges, and pierced as is before-said, fitting it to the Foot, being first pared as is a­bovesaid, and from the Talon-Nail towards the Heel, let the Shoo appear a straws bredth without the Hoof, and set it on in such order and with such Nails as appertaineth unto the perfect Hoof, saving that you shall set five Nails on the out-side of his Hoof, and four on the in-side, because he weareth more without then within.

CHAP. VII.
Of Pareing the rough and brittle Hoof.

This kind of Hoof is most commonly weaker without then within, and because it is for the most part hotter then the other Hoofs be, the Heels may be more opened then the other, that so they may be the more easily stopt with Cow-dung, or other Ointment to keep it moist, and also the raggedness on the out-side of the Coffin should be Filed away with a Rape, and made smooth, and also more often anointed then other Hoofs; and as for the rest of the Hoof it must be pared as the perfect one.

CHAP. VIII.
Of Shooing the rough and brittle Hoof.

Make this Shoo neither too light, but so as it may well bear the Horse; nor yet too heavy, for then the Hoof being weak, will soon cast it, and pierce this Shoo, to be set on with nine Nails, five without and four within.

CHAP. IX.
Of Paring the long Hoof.

The long Hoof may be holpen by cutting away the Toe, for the shorter foot a weak and slender Leg hath, the better. And to say the truth, it is the short foot that maketh the strong Leg, and the long Foot maketh the weak Leg, being forced thereby to tread all upon the Heel, and on the Pastern, and let the rest of the Hoof be pared like the perfect Hoof.

CHAP. X.
Of Shooing the long Hoof.

Make this Shoo as round as you can at the Toe, that the bredth may take away the evil sight of the length; and if the Foot be very narrow, then let the Shoo disbord without the hoof, and pierce the Shoo the deep­er, and set it backward enough, because such kind of Feet dotread most on the Heels, and set the Shoo on with eight Nails, like the perfect Hoof.

CHAP. XI.
Of Paring the crooked Hoof.

First, look on what side the hoof is highest and least worn, and then pare all that away, and make it equal with the lower side which is most worn, without touching the worn side at all, unless it be to make the Seat of the Shoo plain, and as for the rest, pare it like the perfect Hoof.

CHAP. XII.
Of Shooing the crooked Hoof.

Make an indifferent strong Shoo with a broad Web, sitting it to the Foot, and Pare it not until you have laid the Shoo unto the Foot, to the in­tent you may pare it to the Horses most Commodity, which shall be done, if you pare the scant side, which most commonly is the inside, more to­wards the Toe, then the fuller or stronger side. And whereas the Hoof is weakest, there also make the Shoo strongest, and set on this Shoo with nine Nails, viz. five on the stronger side, and four on the weaker side.

CHAP. XIII.
Of Paring the flat Hoof, otherwise called the Promised Hoof.

Make the Seat of the Shoo plain, and take somewhat of the Toe, but touch not the Heel nor the Ball of the Foot, but leave both them so strong as you can.

CHAP. XIV.
Of Shooing the flat Hoof, or Promised Hoof.

Make this Shoo with a very broad Web, for the more it cover the weak Sole, the better, and let the mid-part of the Web that covers the Ball of the Foot be much thicker then the out-sides where the piercings be, and let it be so hollow as it touch no part of the Ball of the Foot, and let it be large and long enough in all places, so as the Horse may go at ease, and let it [Page 110] be pierced round about the Toe, to favour the Heels, and make ten holes for ten Nails, viz. five on each side.

CHAP. XV.
Of Paring the over-hollow Hoof.

Pare this Hoof round about, and especially the Seat of the Shooe, viz. round about by the Edges, to the intent the hollowness of the Hoof with­in may not be so deep, but more shallow then it was before, and let it be al­ways kept moist with stopping it, for fear of Hoof-binding, observing in your Paring so even a hand as may be, in all points like unto the perfect Hoof.

CHAP. XVI.
Of Shooing the over hollow Hoof.

Make a light Shoo in such order and form as was said before, to serve the perfect Hoof.

CHAP. XVII.
Of Paring the Hoof that hath a broad Frush.

Broad Frushes do cause weak heels, and therefore had need of little or no paring at all, and for that cause pare only the Toe, and also the Seat of the Shoo, so much as shall be needful, to the even standing of the Shoo, leaving the heels so strong as may be.

CHAP. XVIII.
Of Shooing the Hoof that hath a broad Frush.

Make this Shoo stronger towards the Heel then towards the Toe, and also let the Web be somewhat broad towards the heels to save them from the Ground, and set on this Shoo with nine Nails, because most commonly it is a great Foot, and in all other points make it like the Shoo with the perfect Hoof.

CHAP. XIX.
Of Paring the Hoof that hath narrow Heels.

Pare the Toe short, and make the Seat of the Shoo fair and plain, and open only so much, as there may be some little space betwixt the Frush and the Heel, for the less you take of the Heel, the better.

CHAP. XX.
Of Shooing the Hoof with narrow Heels.

Make a light Shoo with a broad Web, and let the Spunges be so broad [Page 111] as they may almost meet together, to defend the Heel from the Ground, and pierce it all towards the Toe, sparing the Heel so much as you can, and let the Shoo be long enough towards the Heels, and set it on with eight Nails, like the Shoo that fitteth the perfect Hoof.

CHAP. XXI.
Of Pairing and Shooing the Hinder-Feet.

The Paring of the hinder-Feet, is clean contrary unto the fore-Feet, for the weakest part of the hinder-Foot is the Toe, and therefore in pare­ing the hinder-Foot, the Toe must be always more spared then the Heels, but in all other points observe the order of paring, according to the per­fection or imperfection of the Hoofs before declared.

CHAP. XXII.
Of Shooing the Hinder-Feet.

Make the Shoo fit for the Hoof as is before-said, and let it be strongest at the Toe, and pierced nigher the Heel then the Toe, because the Toe is the weakest part of the Foot, and let the out-side of the hinder-Shoo be made with a Calkin, not over-high, but let the other Spunge be agreeable unto the Calkin, that is to say, as high in a manner as the Calkin, which Calkin is to keep him from sliding, but then it may not be sharp pointed, but rather flat, and handsomly turned upward, which is the best sort of Calkin.

CHAP. XXIII.
Of Shooing the Hoof that hath a false Quarter.

If the Horse Halt, then make him a Shoo fitting to his Foot, tacking it on the Quarter on that side that his false Quarter is on. If he do not halt then make him a Shoo, with a Button or Shouldering on the inside of the Shoo, and next to the Sole of the Foot, somewhat distant from the false Quarter towards the Toe, and that shall defend the sore place, so as the Shoo shall not touch it. And with this kind of Shoo you may Travel your Horse where you will.

CHAP. XXIV.
Of Pareing and Shooing for Enterfering.

Those Hoofs that enterfere, are most commonly higher on the out-side then on the in-fide, and therefore you should take off the out-side with a Butteris, to the intent that the in-side may be somewhat higher (if it will be) then the out-side, and then make him a Shoo fit for his Foot, which should be thicker on the in-side then on the out-side, and let that Shoo [Page 112] never have any Calkin, for that will make him to tread awry, and the sooner to enterfere, and let it be prepared in such sort that it makes him not to enterfere.

CHAP. XXV.
Of Paring and Shooing the Foot that is Hoof-bound.

First, Pare his Toe as short as may be, and pare the Sole somewhat thin, and open the Heels well, and make him a half-Shoo like a half-Moon.

CHAP. XXVI.
Of making the Planch-Shoo, or Pauncelet.

The Planch Shoo maketh a good Foot and evil Leg, because it maketh the Foot to grow beyond the measure of the Leg. Notwithstanding, for a weak Heel it is marvellous good, and it will last longer then any Shoo, and it is borrowed from the Moyl that hath weak Heels and Frushes, to keep the Foot from Stones and Gravel. Notwithstanding, wo be unto that Horse that hath need of such a Shoo.

CHAP. XXVII.
Shooes with Calkins, Rings, Welts, and turning Vices, and of the Patten Shoo.

Besides, all these kind of Shooes before recited, there be divers others, whereof some be made with high Calkins, some with Rings, some with Welts or Borders about, and some with Vices, some with Toes turned up­ward, some with Heels turned upward, and of many other Fashions, which though they be not so needful, I thought good to speak somewhat of them. And first, as touching Shooes with Calkins, that though they be intended to keep the Horse from sliding, yet they do him more harm then good, in that he cannot tread evenly upon the Ground, whereby he many times wrencheth his Foot, or straineth some Sinew, and especially upon Stony ways, where the Stones will not suffer the Calkins to enter, the Foot slippeth with more violence; yet some do not think him well shod, unless all his Shooes be made with Calkins, either single or double, yet of two Evils, double is the less, for he will tread evener with double then single Calkins, but then let them not be over-long, or sharp pointed, but rather short and flat. And thus much for Shooes with Calkins.

CHAP. XXVIII.
Of Shooes with Rings.

Shooes with Rings were first invented to make a Horse lift up his Feet high, [Page 113] but such Shooes are more painful then helpful, and is an unhandsom Sight in Horses, which thing is incident to most Horses that have not sound Hoofs, for having tender Hoofs, they fear to touch the Ground that is hard. Now such kind of Horses that have naturally these tender Heels, some for want of discretion, do think to amond them by adding there­unto high Calkins, or else Rings, and thereby cause him to have weaker Heels then he had before. Therefore I shall advise you to lay aside all these unprofitable Devices, and make all your Shooes, especially your sore-Shooes with Spunges, as hath been before taught.

CHAP. XXIX.
Of Shooes with Swelling Welts, or Borders about.

In Germany and high Almany, the Smiths do make their Shooes with a swelling Welt round about the Shoo, which being higher then the Heads of the Nails, do save them from wearing, which are the best fort of last­ing Shooes, for Mr. Blundevill travelled in those Countreys out-right above 500 Miles upon very stony Ground, yea, and upon Mountains, without removing Shoo or driving Nail, for the Shoo being made of well tem­pered stuff, weareth equally in all parts, and the Horse treadeth evenly upon them.

CHAP. XXX.
Of Shooes with turning Vices, and also Joynt-Shooes.

Some that use to pass the Mountains where Smiths are not easily to be found, do carry about them Shooes with Vices, whereby they fasten it to the Horses Foot, without the help of the Hammer or Nail, notwithstand­ing they are more for shew then any good use. For though it fave his Feet from Stones, yet it so pincheth his Hoof as he goeth with pain, and doth perhaps do his Hoof more hurt then the stones do, therefore it is better upon such needful times to use the Joynt-Shoo, which is made of two pieces, with a flat Rivet-Nail joyning them together in the Tow, so that you may both make it wide and narrow to serve any Foot, therefore the Rider ought to understand to drive a Nail, and to have his Instruments about him, meet for carriage, without the which there are but few Gentle­men of Almany that loveth his Horse, but can use those Instruments for that purpose as well as most Smiths.

CHAP. XXXI.
Of the Patten Shoo.

Because every Smith knoweth the use of this Shoo, and how to make it, I shall not need to use many words, but only shew you that it is a ne­cessary [Page 114] Shoo for a Horse that is hurt in the Hip, or stiffle, or shoulder, which will make him bear upon that Leg the Grief is on, and consequently make him use it the better.

In what Causes to Cauterize.

An Iron with a Button. The Drawing Iron. Cauterization or giving of Fire is of two Natures, viz. Actual and Po­tential. Your Cautery Actual is made by hot burning Instruments, with which you sear and burn those places which be requisite for the perfecting of the Cure you have in hand, which cannot be peradventure well Cured, but by giving of Tire; as in case of great Imposthumation, stenching of blood in Wounds, or in searing of Veins, Sinews, or the like, or else in case of dismembring, if other means be not at hand, whereby to stay the Flux of Blood without danger of bleeding to death. And if they that give Fire be not very skilful, I would advise them to practise upon Jades, and not Horses of price, to the end they may the better come to know how to carry their hand either lighter or harder, and also that they do make their Circles round, and their Lines streight and even. For this Actual Fire is a thing most necessary for them that do understand the Vertue thereof, and therefore ought to be very carefully applied, and never but upon very good Grounds; which in so doing, you shall find it to be a most Sovereign Remedy to hinder and stay all manner of Corruption, whereunto any Mem­ber may be inclined; provided that in the handling of your Instrument you touch not Muscles, Arteries, Sinews, Ligaments, Chords, or the like; for so you may utterly lame, where you would set upright. For by this Actual Fire you shall Joyn and Conglutinate Parts and Members severed, dry up superfluous Moisture, and sick Members swelled, and bring forth all evil and putrefactious Matter, congealed and gathered into Knots, as, Wens, Biles, [...]ustils, Exulceration, and the like: you shall also asswage old Griefs, and make perfect all such Parts of the Body as be any way Cor­rupted: neither shall you need fear the encrease of any evil humours, by reason that the Skin being severed by means of the hot Iron, it doth Ripen and digest all manner of putrifaction and matterative stuff, whereby it venteth and passeth away much more easily, healing and qualifying all grief and pain, causing the Member which before was subject to Festering and to Gangreen, to become the sounder and stronger, and the worst that can be made thereof, will be but a little Eye-fore, by reason of a Scar which it leaves behind it. But then you must have a very great regard un­to your Instruments, that they be made according to the nature and qua­lity of the Place and Member which is to be Scared; for one fashion will not serve in all Causes: for as the Places which are to be Cauterized, are commonly different in shape and proportion, so ought the shapes and fa­shions of your Instruments to be accordingly. You ought to have a care in the heating of them, for as they ought not to be too hot, so they ought [Page 115] not to be too cold, for by that means you may inflame the place too much. Your Instruments are to be made of Iron or Steel, which are the best to work with, and to be preferred before Gold, Silver, Brass or Copper, be­cause Steel or Iron will retain its own received heat longer then any other Metal, for the others, as they are the sooner made hot, so they are the sooner cold. Now Steel and Iron Metals are much more substantial and harder then the other Metals are, and though they are the longer a heat­ing, yet they retain their heat the longer. Again, a man cannot tell when those other Metals are hot enough, as also when they be too hot, and if you put never so little water to them to allay their heat, they pre­sently become too cold, the contrary whereof you shall find to be in the Nature of Iron and Steel.

Cautery Potential.

Now I will in a word handle Cautery Potential, which as the Cautery Actual burneth the Flesh by hot Instrument, even so doth Cautery Po­tential burn the Flesh by Medicine, of which there are three sorts or de­grees.

Namely, by Corrosive, by Caustick, or by Putrifaction.

Corrosive.

Corrosive, is when that is applied to the wound, wherein is dead or proud Flesh to corrode or eat it away, by which means the wound is pre­pared and made the more fit for Emplasters, Waters or Unguents, which do carnisie and make good Flesh, by which means the Wound which be­fore was foul, is now become clean, healed up and made sound, and these corroding things are commonly Precipitates, Sublimatum, Arsnick, Resal­gar, Leads white and red, Copper as white and green, Verdegrease, Allom, Viteral, Sandaracha, Chrysocollo, Origanum, Mercury, Aconitum, Capitellium, Romane, Vitrial, shaving of Ox or Harts-horn, red Coral, Spunge of the Sea somewhat burned, Ʋnguentum Apostolorum, Ʋnguentum Aegiptiacum, Ʋnguentum Caeraccum, Magistra, Sal niter, Cantharides, Apium, Aqua fortis, Siclamine, Melanacardium, and many more, that do burn, eat and corrode the Flesh, putting the poor Beast to a great deal of pain.

A Caustick.

A Caustick is a great Burner, for that being once put to the Skin, will in a short time make a Wound where none was before; for which we do use to make Issues, for Causticks are stronger and more violent then ei­ther Putrifactives or Corrosives; for whereas Corrosives do work only upon Skin broken, and to corrode and eat out dead, proud, spungy and naughty flesh, and Putrifactives do Ripen, Mollifie and prepare the Wound for the Caustick, so Causticks do break Skin and Flesh, and all; and therefore it is more violent, and burneth worse then any of the two former.

Putrifactive.

Now your Putrifactives are such Medicines as we do commonly apply to Swellings, which we do make for the most part of Medicines com­pounded, as Poltesses, rosted Sorrel, white Lilly-Roots and the like, for such things are Drawers, causing swellings which be hard and Fleshy, to become soft and putrifactive, and to prepare Sorrances for the Causticks, whose nature is to break and open, what before the Putrifactive had ripe­ned, which otherwise must have been done by Cautery Actual, or by In­cision. And this I do think sufficient to be handled upon this subject.

How to make Bread for a Horse to keep him in Heart and Strength of Body, and to Keep him from fainting in his Labour and Exercise, be it never so sore.

Take Wheat-Meal, Oat-Meal and Beans, all Ground very small, of each a Peck, Anniseeds four Ounces, Gentiana and Fennegreek, of each an Ounce, Licoris two Ounces, beat themall to fine Powder, and searce them well, and add to them twenty new laid Eggs Whites, and all well beaten, and as much strong Ale as will Knead it up, then make your Leaves like to Horse-bread, but not too thick, and let them be well ba­ked, but not burned, give it him not too new, and when you give it him give it him five or fix Mornings together, without any Provender, and thus you shall have him well winded, lusty, strong, hardy and healthy, whereby to be able to hold out and retain his Metal to the last.

Another sort of Bread.

Take of Wheat-Meal one peck, Rye-Meal, Beans and Oat-Meal, of each half a peck, Ground very small, Anniseeds and Licoris, of each one Ounce, and white Sugar-Candy four Ounces, beat all into fine powder, with the Whites and Yolks of twenty new laid Eggs well beaten and put to them, and so much white-Wine as will Knead it into a Paste, make them into great Loaves and bake them well, and after they be two or three days old, let him eat of this Bread, but chip away the out-side, Now the rea­son I prefer Meal before Flower is, because Flower is much more hot and binding, and therefore the courser the Bread is, the better it is for the Horse. And the reason why I put Rye into my latter Bread, is, because Rye is a Loosner and a Cooler, and therefore it will make him the more soluble.

For what causes Veins are to be taken up.

As touching taking up of Veins, you shall understand that it is a thing very behoof-full, as that many times the most exquisite Farrier living shall not be able to perfect this Cure, but by that way and means, for unless sueh Veins be either taken up, or some way stopped, which are noxious to the [Page 117] Cure, by feeding the Malady with its peccant Humours, the Farrier can never work by true Art. Again, Veins well taken up do prevent many Maladies, whereunto many Horses are much more propense then others are. And lastly, the taking up of Veins cureth some diseases which could otherwise never be cured. For the taking up of the Thigh-Veins sendeth away Spavens, Splents, Curbs, Kibed Heels, Swelled Legs, Scratches, Malen­ders, Farcin in the Legs, and the like Sorrances; besides, it causeth all Pains, Aches, Strains, stiffness in the Limbs, &c. Take up the Shackle-Veins, and it preventeth the Quitter-bone, Ring-bone. Swelling in the lower Joynts, Founderings, &c. Wherefore for as much as ignorant People, whatsoever Opinion they may have of their super-abundant skill, yet they are very much to seek, in that they do so much exclaim against ta­king up of Veins absurdly, affirming it to be a great means of Laming of Horses; but let them not mistake themselves, for assuredly it is the best and only Remedy against these and many more Maladies, and when they shall have made Trial, they will not be of so prejudicate an opinion.

Of Roweling of Horses, and of the use thereof.

The Roweling of Horses is so common amongst our simple Smiths, that they will Rowel him for any disease almost, without any sense or reason, whereby they needlessly torment the Horse, and bring a Flux of naughty humours down to the place, which causes him to be Lame, which might otherwise be sound. But this I must say of it, that if it be well used by a skilful Farrier, it is not only commendable, but causes great good to a Horses Body and Limbs.

Helps got by Roweling are these.

It separateth and dissolveth evil humours which are gathered together in any one place, it loosneth those parts which are bound, and bindeth those parts that are weakned, it strengthneth sick Joynts, and comfort­eth whatsoever is oppressed with any cold Phlegm. The use of it in Ge­neral is for inward strains, especially about the Shoulders or Hips, or else for great hard Swellings, which will not be mollified or corroded by any outward Medicine. Now if the Bruise be not taken away presently by applying to it some comfortable hot Medicine. There will arise a cer­tain Jelly between the Pot and the Bone which offendeth the tender Gristle, which covers the ends of every Bone, which makes the Horse halt most vehemently. Now nothing will take this away but Roweling.

Now the manner of Roweling is this.

When you have sound out the certain place of his Grief, after you have cast him upon some soft place, make a little Slit a handful below the [Page 118] place grieved through the Skin, no bigger then you can thrust in a Swans Quill into the same, then raise the Skin a little from the Flesh with your Cronet, and then put in your Quill, and blow all the Skin from the Flesh upward, even to the top, and all over the Shoulder, then stopping the Hole with your Finger and your Thumb, beat the place blown all over with a Hazel stick, and spread the wind with your hand into every place, and so let it go, then take some Horse-hair, or some red Sarcenet, half the bigness of a Mans little Finger, and put it into your Roweling-Needle, which should be at least seven or eight inches long, thrust it in at the first Hole, and put it upward, drawing it out above at least six inches, and if you please you may put in another above that, and then Tie the two ends of the Rowls together, and move and draw them to and fro in the Skin, not forgetting before you put them in, to anoint them with sweet Butter or Hogs Grease, and every day after likewise, for that will make the cor­ruption run out the better.

Now there are other Farriers think, that these long Rowels of Hair or Silk, do make a double Sore and a great Scar, therefore they make their [figure]Rowels of round Pieces of stiff Leather, such as is on the upper part of an old Shoo, with a round Hole in the midst, according to the form in the Margent, and then double it when they put it in, and then spread it open, and lay it flat between the Flesh and the Skin, and that the Hole in the Rowel may be just against the Hole in the Horses Skin, and once in two or three days to clense the Rowel, and to anoint it with Hogs-Grease or Butter, and so to put it in again.

Another French way of Roweling, which is Reputed to be the best Way.

Cut open the Skin with your Incision Knife the length of an Inch or more downwards; on the lowest part of the Horses Breast, close to the Side that he is lame on; then raise with your Finger or Cronet the Skin from the Flesh round about the Orifice, about the bredth of a six pence, which must be just the Size of the Rowel you put into it, whether it be made of the upper Leather of an old Shoo, or Horn of an old Lanthorn; [figure]but the upper Leather of a Shoo is best. The form of your Rowel must be in the shape of the Figure in the Margin, with a little Hole in the middle of it, wherein you must put a Needle and thread through it, as you find by the two Pricks on the top and bottom of the Hole. Then take a Quill and put it into the Hole, and do as you were taught in the Re­ceipt before, viz. To blow and beat the wind upwards all over the Shoul­der; when you have blown it as much as you think fitting, draw a Needle and Thread through the Rowel and Skin, closing the Rowel in the Slit, and let the Hole in the Rowel be right against the Slit you have cut, so that it may not move. Then run another stitch or two thwart the cut, as you [figure]see the manner of it by the Figure in the Margin; When you have stitcht it up, anoint it all over with Butter or Hogs Grease, and let the Rowel [Page 119] remain in for about a week or more before you take it out, and he will do well.

Instructions upon Rowelling.

If you Rowel him for any Swelling, then put in your long Rowel the same way that the Veins run, and seldom or never cross-wise, and the more you blow the Skin for a Swelling, the better, for the Wind is that that causeth Putrifaction, and makes the festered Humours to dissolve and distil down from the secret hollows of the Joynts into those open places, where it falleth away in Matter, and so the Breast becomes cured.

How to Geld Horses or Colts.

You are to observe in the Gelding of Horses. First, the Age, Se­condly, the Season of the Year. And lastly, the state of the Moon. For the Age, if it be a Colt, you may Geld him at nine days old, or Fifteen if his Stones be come down; for the sooner you Geld him the better, for Growth, Shape and Courage. Now a Farrier may Geld a Horse at any Age whatsoever, if he be careful in the Cure.

The Season of the Year to Geld in.

The best Season for Gelding is between April and May or in the begin­ning of June at the furthest, or about the Fall of the Leaf, which is the latter end of September.

The state of the Moon.

Now for the state of the Moon, the fittest time is ever when the Moon is in the Wane: as touching the manner of Gelding, it is in this sort, whe­ther it be Foal, Colt or Horse, after you have cast him upon some soft place, take the Stones between your fore-most Finger, and your great Finger, then slit the Cod, and press the Stones forth, then with a pair of small Nippers, made either of Steel, Box, Wood or Brazil, being very smooth, and clap the strings of the Stones between them, very near unto the setting on of the Stones, and press them so hard that there may be no Flux of Blood, then with a thin drawing Cauterizing Iron made red hot, fear away the Stone, then take a hard Plaister made of Rozin, Wax and wash'd Turpentine, well Molten together, and with your hot Iron Melt it upon the head of the Strings; then fear the Strings, and then Melt more of the Salve, till such time as you have laid a good thickness of the Salve upon the Strings, then loose the Nippers, and do so to the other Stone, and fill the two slits of the Cod with white Salt, and anoint all the out­side of the Cod with Hogs-grease, and so let him rise, and keep him in a warm Stable loose, that so he may walk up and down, for there is nothing better for him then moderate Exercise. Now if you do perceive that he doth swell in his Cod, and sheath very much, then chafe him up and [Page 120] down, and make him Trot an hour in a day, and it will soon recover him, and make him sound.

To make a white Star either on your Horses fore-Head, or in any other part of his Body.

After you have with a Razor shaved away the Hair so wide as you would have the Star, then take of a little of the Oyl of Vitriol in an Oyster-shell, and dip a Feather or a piece of Silk into it, (for it will eat both Linnen and Woollen) and just wet it all over the place shaved, and it will eat away the Roots of the Hairs, and the next that comes will be white. You need not do it above once, you may heal it up with your Copperas water and green Ointment.

To make a black Star or white Hairs black.

Wash often the place you would have made black, with Fearn Roots, and Sage sod in Lye, and it will breed black Hairs in a white Horse. Or take Souter Ink, Galls and Rust beaten well together, and anoint the place therewith, and it will turn white to black.

To make a Red Star.

Take Aqua fortis one Ounce, of Aqua vitae a penni-worth, of Silver to the value of eighteen pence. Put them in a Glass, and heat them well therein, and then anoint the place very well therewith, and it will imme­diately turn the Hairs to be of a perfect red Colour, but they will endure no longer then the casting of the Hair, which you must renew again if you intend it shall contiuue.

To make a Horse seem Young.

Take a small crooked Iron, no bigger then a Wheat-Corn, and having made it red hot, burn a little black hole in the tops of the two outmost Teeth of each side the nether Chap before, next to the Tushes where the Mark is worn out, then with an Awl-blade pick it, and make the Shell fine and thin, then with a sharp scraping Iron make all his Teeth white and clean; This done, take a fine Lancet, and above the Hollows of the Horses Eyes which are shrunk down, make a little hole only through the Skin, and put in the Quill of a Raven or Crow, and blow the Skin full of Wind, till all the hollowness be filled up, then take out your Quill, and lay your Finger upon the hole a little while, and the Wind will stay in, and he will look as youthful as if he were but six years old.

To make a Horse that he shall not Neigh, either in company or when he is ridden.

If either you be in Service of the Wars, and would not be discovered, [Page 121] or when upon any other occasion, you would not have him to Neigh or make a Noise, then take a List of Woollen Cloth, and Tie it fast in many folds about the midst of his Tongue, and he will not Neigh nor make any extraordinary Noise, with his Voice, as hath been often tried and ap­proved of.

To Help a Horse that hath Laved or Bangle Earer.

Take his Eares and place them in such manner as you would have them stand, and then with two little Boards or pieces of Trenchers three Fingers broad, having long strings knit unto them, bind the Ears so fast in the places where they stand, as that they cannot stir, then betwixt the Head and the Root of the Ear, you shall see a great deal of empty wrink­led Skin, which with your Finger and your Thumb, you shall pull up, and with a sharp Pair of Scissers clip away all the empty Skin close by the Head, then with a Needle and red Sllk stitch the two sides of the Skin close together, and then with your green Ointment heal up the Sore. Which done, take away the Splints which held up his Eares, and you shall find, that in a short space his Eares will keep the same place as you set them without Alteration; And this you shall find to be as certain and true as the healing of a cut Finger.

The first Inventors of Riding.

Bellirophons, as some Men say, was the first that Invented Riding on Horse-back. And the Pelletrones, a People of Lapithia, found out after­wards the manner of Bridles, Bits and Rings, to guide Horses withal. But they of Thessalia were the first that used the service of Horses in the Wars.

The Receipt of making the Cordial Balls.

The true manner of making those Cordial Balls, which Cure any vio­lent Cold or Glaunders, which prevent Heart-Sickness, which purge away all Molten Grease, which recover a lost Stomach, which keep the Heart from fainting with Exercise, and make a lean Horse sat suddenly.

Take Anniseeds, Cummin-seeds, Fennegreek seeds, Carthumus seeds, Elecampane Roots and Colts-foot, of each of these two Ounces, beaten and searced very Fine, two Ounces of the Flower of Brimstone, then take an Ounce of the Juice of Licoras, and dissolve it on the Fire in half a Pint of white-Wine; which done, take an Ounce of Chymical Oyl of Anni­seeds, then take of Sallet-Oyl, Honey, and of Syrup of Sugar, or for want of it, Molosses, of each half a Pint, then mix all these with the former Powders, and with as much fine Wheat-Flower as will bind and knit them altogether, work them into a stiff Paste, and make thereof Balls somewhat bigger then French Wall-nuts, Hull and all, and so keep them in a close Gally-pot, (for they will last all the year) yet I do not mean that you [Page 122] shall keep them in the Pot in Balls; because they cannot lie close, the Air may get in, and do hurt; as also the strength of the Oyls will sweat out­ward, and weaken the substance, therefore knead the whole Lump of Paste into the Gally-pot, and make the Balls as you have occasion to use them.

The Form of the Balls.

If you give them upon the end of a stick, you must make them sharp at both ends, and thick in the middle; But if you give him them in a Horn of Beer, make them about the bigness of a good big Wall-nut, and put down a Horn-full of strong Beer after every Ball, to clear his Passage, and to prevent sticking.

The Ʋse of these Balls.

Now for the Use of these Balls, because they are Cordial, and have di­ver excellent Vertues, you shall understand that if you use them to pre­vent [...]ickness, then you shall take a Ball and anoint it all over with sweet Butter, and give it him in the Morning in the manner of a Pill, then ride him a little after it (if you please otherwise you may chuse) and feed and water him abroad or at home, according to your usual custom. And thus do three or four Mornings together.

If you use them to Cure either Cold or Glaunders, then use them in the same manner for a Week together. If you use them to satten a Horse, then give him them for a Fortnight together. But if you use them in the Nature of a Scouring, to take away Moulten Grease and Foulness, then instantly after his heat, and in his heat. Again, if you find your Horse at any time hath taken a little Cold, as you shall perceive by his inward Rat­ling, if then you take one of these Balls and dissolve it in a Pint of Sack, and so give it him, it is a present Remedy. Also to dissolve the Ball in his or­dinary water, being made luke-warm, it worketh the like effect, and fat­neth exceedingly.

To give one of these Balls before Travel, it prevents tyring; to give it in the heat of Travel, it refresheth the weariness; and to give it after Travel, it saves him from all Surfeits and inward Sickness.

A Reccipt to Fat a Lean Horse in twelve or fifteen days.

First, Therefore to let him Blood if he wants Bleeding, then instead of Oats in the Morning give him Wheat-Bran prepared after this manner, Set over the Fire a great Kettle, and fill it almost full with fair water, and when it boyls put in your Bran, and let it boyl a quarter of an hour at least, then let it stand to cool, and in the Morning early give him of this Bran so hot as he can eat it, and let his drink be of the same water, and at night give him Oates and white Water, and let him be well Littered, and warm covered; but if it be in the Summer, his Stable ought not to be too [Page 123] hot, and at Night with his Oats give him an Egg full of this Powder, with which you are to continue him for the space of eight days, or according as you shall see cause. You must understand, that Bran thus prepared, drieth up his naughty, gross and corrupt humours, and doth the better prepare the Body to assume Lust, Courage, Strength and Flesh, together with the help of the Powder, which is this.

The Powder how to make a Lean Horse Fat.

Take of Cummin, Fennegreek, Sileris-Montani, Nutmegs, Cloves, Gin­ger, Linseed, of each two Ounces. Quick Brimstone six Ounces, make all these into Powder, and give him the quantity of an Egg-shell full with his Oats▪ every Night, but first let him be watered with white water, which is two or three handfuls of Bran stirred amongst his water, then Rub him, Litter him, and Cloath him well, and then give him some sweet Wheat­straw in his Rack, and let himseed on that for an hour, then give him his Oats mixed with his Powder, and when he hath eaten them, give him Hay at your pleasure, remembring to keep him warm, but so as with Mode­ration, and you shall find him amend exceedingly, but you must put into his Oats every time two handfuls of Nettle-seeds, for that is the thing that will principally cause him to Battle. It will also greatly avail to his amendment, if he be Aired every Morning and Evening, an hour after Sun-rising, and an hour before Sun-set, if the Weather be warm, and the Sun do shine. And this is the best Course you can take to set up a Lean and poor Horse.

Another Receipt to make a Lean Horse Fat.

Take of Elecampane dried, Cummin, Turmerick, Anniseeds, of each two Ounces, Groundsel half a handful, boyl all these together in a Gallon of Ale, with three Heads of Garlick well bruised and picked, then strain it, and give him a quart of it in the Morning fasting Blood-warm, and Ride him after it, but not to heat him, and thus do four Mornings to­gether, and in a short time after (if the year be seasonable) turn him to Grass, and he will Fatten suddenly. But if the time of the year will not serve, and that you have a mind to raise him in the Stable, then give him amongst his Oats this Powder. Take of Elecampane dried, and of Cum­min both alike, well beaten and searced, and when you give your Horse Provender, then give him half an Ounce of them well mixed amongst it for fourteen days together, and you shall find him to amend and prosper, after a strange manner: provided, that you give him seasonable Ayring, moderate Exercise, and Mashes and white Water.

Of the Drink called Acopum.

Take of Euforbium half an Ounce, Castoreum one Ounce, Adraces half a quarter of a pound, Bidellium half an Ounce and half a quarter, [Page 124] Opoponax one Ounce, Fox Grease half an Ounce, Pepper one Ounce, Laserpitium three quarters of an Ounce, Ammoniacum half a quarter of a pound, Pigeons Dung as much, Galbanum half an Ounce, Nitrum one Ounce and a quarter, Spuma nitri three quarters of an Ounce, Ladanum a quarter of a pound, Pyrethrum, and Bay-berries, of each three quarters of an Ounce, Cardanum two Ounces, Seed of Rue half a quarter of a pound, Seed of Agnus Castus one Ounce, Parsley seed half an Ounce, dried Roots of Ireos, or Flower-de-luce one Ounce and a quarter, and half a quarter, of Oyl de Bay as much, of Oyl of Spikenard three quarters of a pound, of Oleum Cyprinum three quarters of a pound, and half a quar­ter, the oldest Oyl Olive a pound and a half, Pitch a quarter of a pound and two Ounces, Turpentine a quarter of a pound; Melt of every of these that will be Molten, severally by themselves, and then mingle them to­gether with the rest of the Ingredients, being first beaten to fine powder, and after they have boiled a little on the Fire, take it off, and strain it in­to a clean Gally-pot, and so keep it for your use. And when you give your Horse any of it at any time, you must not give him of it above two spoonfuls in a Pint of Sack or Muscadine, and if by long keeping you find it wax hard then soften it with the Oyl of Cypress, so that it may be good and thick.

The Vertues of it.

It is both a Medicine and an Ointment, for it helpeth Convulsions in the Sinews and Muscles, it draweth forth all Noisom humours, and dis­burdeneth the Head of all Grief, being put up with a long Goose Fea­ther anointed in it, into the Nostrils of a Horse, it healeth, I say all man­ner of Convulsions, Cramps, Numbness, and String-halts, Colds and Rhumes; it dissolveth the Liver, being troubled with Opilations and Ob­structions, it helpeth Siccity and Aridity in the Body; it banisheth all weariedness and tiredness, if his Limbs be Bathed with this Medicine. And lastly, it Cureth all sorts of inward Diseases, if it be administred by way of a Drench, in Wine, strong Beer or good Ale.

The Nature of it.

It is hot in Working, otherwise it could not hold good in case of Sur­feits, Tiredness, and of Convulsions, and the like, wherein consisteth its chief Vertues, being administred outwardly; but being administred inward­ly, it is not altogether so hot, for it helpeth Feavers for the most part, and I think it is most safe, to give not above two spoonfuls of it in a quart of good strong Beer or Ale, though Mr. Markham adviseth to give four or five spoonfuls in Sack or Muscadine, which are hot things of them­selves.

The Confection called Arman.

To make this Confection, of Honey of Roses a pound and a half, as much as will suffice of the Crumbs of the whitest Manchet made into fine powder, then take of Cordial-powder of Nutmegs, and of Cinnamon of each an Ounce and a half, mix all these together, being first made into fine powder, then put it into a Gally-pot, and moisten it with Rose-Vi­neger, that it may be of a thick substance like unto Pap, and so keep it for your use. When you use it, put some of it upon the end of a Bulls Pizel into his Mouth, and let him champ thereon; but if you give it for the Quinsey or Feaver, give him down two Hornfulls of it, and do this in the Morning fasting, and let him fast two or three houres after it.

The Vertues of this Arman.

It provoketh a good Appetite to Meat, and causeth good Digestion, and taketh away all Annoyances that troubleth the Stomach, it cooleth the inward heat in the Body, it helpeth all Agues and Feavers, and is most excellent against Surfeits; it is good for the Quinsey in the Throat, coming of Cold taken; and very good against the Gripings in the Belly or Guts, proceeding of Wind▪ This Confection was brought out of France.

How to make the Cordial Powder which we have likewise from the French.

Take Cynamon and Sugar, of each four Ounces, and of fine Bole-Ar­moniack two Ounces: make them into very fine powder, and mix them well together, and keep it for your use in a Gally-pot close stopped.

The Vertues of it.

It is good for Sick Horses that are far spent with a Consumption in the Flesh and Liver, &c. For it is a most Restorative Cordial, comforting the Vital parts, and Spirits Animal, and restoreth it to Sanity.

Another Cordial Powder, called, Electuarium Theriacum, by reason it hath much Treacle in it.

Take Syrop of Violets, Syrop of Lemons, Syrop of Roses, of each half an Ounce, adding to it an Ounce of London-Treacle, (which is the best of all Treacles for Horses) mingle them well together, and it is a most Sovereign Cordial to be Administred to Horses that are sick and weak.

To make the black and red Aegiptiacum, which are both Corrosives. For their Natures are to Corrode and eat away all manner of Deal, Proud, Rotten and naughty Flesh, out of any old Sore or Ʋicer, and they do also cleanse and prepare a Sore, and make it apt to be healed with Carnifying or healing S [...]lves.

Take two pounds of Course English Honey, Verdegrease, Dyers Galls, and green Copperas, of each four Ounces, make them all into Powder, and mixed together, and put into an Earthen Pot, and set it upon the Fire, keeping it stirring, but so soon as it begins to boyl, take it off and let it cool, for if it boyl too long it will become red, which will not be so good. This black▪ Aegyp [...]iacum is good to dissolve the Hoo [...]s of a Horse, if they be too dry, or hard, so as it will cause the Corruption, if any be in the Foot, to ascend above at the Cronet, where the Hair is, and also to re­store the Hoof of the Horse when the Sole is taken out, and in this Na­ture you must use this Unguent, but only at the third dressing after you have taken out the Sole.

The Red Aegiptiacum is thus made.

Take course Honey two poun is, Verdegrease four Ounces, green Cop­peras two Ounces, beat the Verdegrease and the Copperas very small to Powder, then put it into an Earthen Pot, and put unto it a little Vineger, and so boyl it very well till it become red, and keep it for your use.

General Drenches, or Receip's for all inward Diseases, or Sickness.

The Spaniards have this Receipt for all inward Diseases. Take Wheat-Meal twelve pounds, Anniseeds four Ounces in sine Powder▪ Brimstone in Powder three Ounces, Fennegreek in Powder three Ounces and a half, Cummin in Powder three Ounces, Honey two pounds, good Sallet-Oyl one pound and a half, of good Sack as much. These are all to be put into a Pot well nealed, and boyled until it be thick, and when it is cold to make it up into P [...]lls or Balls, you must keep it stirring while it is a boyl­ing, otherwise it will burn to, and when they are thus made into Pills, give him of them four or five Mornings together fasting. These killeth Wormes in a Horses Body, helpeth Diseases of the Lungs and inward parts, and is a very good Plaister applied outwardly. It is most useful in all cold causes, and it is so Cordial, that it will bring a lean and poor Horse unto Flesh and good state in a little time.

Another Excellent Receipt for all inward Diseases.

Take Wheat-Meal six pounds, or as much as will bring the Ingredients unto a sti [...] paste, Anniseeds two Ounces, Cummin two Ounces, wild or [Page 127] Bastard-Saffron two drams and an half, white-Wine four pint [...], Fennegreek one Ounce and two drams, Brimstone one Ounce and a half, Sallet-Oyl apint and two Ounces, English Hony one pound and a half▪ Make those things into powder that will beat to powder, then compound them together, and make it into a stiff Paste, and keep it in a Gally-pot close covered for your use.

When you use it, make a Ball thereof as big as a mans Fist, and dissolve it in two Gallons of fair water, till it be all Molten, let him drink of this Morning and Evening so long as he please, and let him have no other water to drink, to the end he may be the better compelled to drink it, which in the end he will do and like it very well. This is good for many inward Infirmities, it raiseth and battleth a Horse much better then either Grass or Provender, and giveth him Life, Spirit and Stomach, and keepeth him in perfect Health.

Another Receipt for all inward Diseases.

Take Fennegreek, Turmerick, Grains, Anniseeds, Licoris, long Pep­per, Cummin, of each half an Ounce, and of Saffron one dram; and of Herbs, take Celendine, Rue, Pelamontine, Hysop, Thyme and Rosemary, of all of them no more then will make half a handful, chopt small and boiled, first in a quart of good Ale or Beer, then put in your Spices finely powdred, and boil them again, then strain it and put to it the quantity of an Egg of sweet Butter, and an Ounce of London Treacle, and give it him Blood-warm, and Ride him moderately after it, and set him up warm, and let him fast three or four houres, and let his Drink be either a sweet Mash or white Water. This is very good against Feavers, Colds and the Yellows.

Another Receipt for inward Sickness.

Take Aristolochi [...] Rotunda, Bay-berries, Gentian, Anniseeds, Ginger, and of Trifora Magna, of each an Ounce, beat all the Simples to very fine powder, and mix them well together, then take of white-Wine or good Ale or Beer a quart, then put into it one spoonful of all of them, with half a p [...]nt of Sallet-Oyl, and of Mithridate two drams▪ warm these upon a Fire, and administer it Blood-warm, and Exercise him before and after his drink, but not to Sweat him, neither let him drink any cold Water in four or five days after, but either warm Mashes or white Water. This is most Sovereign for any inward Sickness, Droopings, forsaking of Meat, Feavers, Colds, Coughs or the like.

A Suppository for inward Sickness.

If he be so sick that you fear to give him any strong Medicine, and that Costive withal, then give him this Suppository.

Take of Honey six Ounces, of Salt-Niter one Ounce and a half, of Wheat-Flower and of Anniseeds beaten into fine powder, of each one [Page 128] Ounce, boyl all these into a hard thickness, and make it into Supposi­tories, and after you have Anointed your Hand with Sallet-Oyl, and the Suppository likewise, convey it into his Fundament a pretty way, and Tie his Tayl betwixt his Legs to his Girts, or else hold it close with your hand about a quarter of an hour till it be throughly dissolved, and this will purge kindly, and Loosen his Guts, so that you may be the more bold to Administer what Drinks, Cordials, or other things, which you think most requisite for his recovery.

Other General Dr [...]n [...]hes to Cure all inward Sickness in Horses, which trouble the whole Body; of Feavers of all sorts, Plagues, Infections, and such like.

Sickness in General are of two Kinds, one offending the whole Body, the other a particular Member, the first hidden, and the second visible. Of the first then, which offend the whole Body, are Feavers of all sorts, as the Quotidian, the Tertian, the Quartan, the Continual, and the Hectick. the Feavers in Autumn, in Summer, or in the Winter; the Feaver by Sur­fet, Feaver Pestilent, Feaver Accidental, or the General Plague; they are all known by these Signes, much trembling, panting and sweating, a sullen Countenance that was wont to be chearful, hot Breath, sainting in Labour, decay in Stomach, and Costiveness in the Body, &c. First, let him Blood, then give him this Drink, Take of Sellendine Roots, leaves and all, a good handful, as much Wormwood and as much Rue, wash them well, then bruise them in a Mortar, then boyl them in a quart of Ale or Beer, then strain them, and add to them a pound of sweet Butter, then give it the Horse to drink luke-warm; or half an Ounce of the powder of Diapente, given in Sack or Ale, two or three Mornings together. Or give him three or four Yolks of new laid Eggs, beaten with seven or eight spoon­fuls of Aqua vitae or Brandy. This is good when he hath his shaking Fit upon him. Or take four Ounces of Diapente, and mix it with four Oun­ces of clarified Honey, and keep it in a close Glass, and give him half an Ounce thereof in Wine or Ale; or take of Licoras an Ounce, of Anni­seeds, Cummin-seeds, and Elecampane Roots, of each half an Ounce, of Turmerick and Bay-berries, of each a quarter of an Ounce, of long Pepper and Fennegreek, of each two drams beaten small, and put five spoonfuls thereof into a quart of Ale, warmed with a little Putter or Oyl, and it is very Sovereign, for any Disease coming of cold Causes. Or Red Sage, Mint, Sellendine and Rue, boyled in Beer is good. Diatessaron is good simply of it self, so is Diapente, or Diahexaple.

There are several particular Receipts which I might give you for every sort of these Feavers I have Named, but I think these in General may serve instead of a more particular Account, only observe this Note by the way. That you must in all hot causes administer cooling things, and in cold Cau­ses hot things.

Signes whereby you may know every sort of Feaver.

Signes in General to know a Feaver, is by holding down of his Head, he will quake and tremble, and when his trembling is over, he will burn, and his Breath be hot, he will breath fast, and his Flank will beat, he will reel, he will forsake his Meat, his Eyes will swell and be closed up, and watering, his Flesh will as it were fall from his Bones, and his Stones will hang down, he will desire to drink, yet not drink much, neither will he sleep, but more particularly.

A Quotidian Feaver proceeds from hard Riding, being set up too hot in the Stable without Riding.

Quotidian or every days Feaver is known by Blood-shotten Eyes, short and hot Breathing, panting, loathing of his Meat, and stiffness in his Limbs, and his Sickness will not last above six or eight houres in a day, and then he will be well again.

Tertian Feaver proceeds from the same Causes as the Quotidian.

The Tertian or every other days Feaver, is known by the Signes for­merly spoken of, and this as the chiefest, that he will be sick as on Mon­day, and well on the Tuesday, and sick on the Wednesday following.

Quartan Feaver proceeds from the same Causes as the Tertian doth.

The Quartan Feaver, as some Farriers call, a third days Sickness, as thus: If his Fit begin on the Monday, he will be well on the Tuesday and Wednesday, and sick again on the Thursday. There is no other Sign to know it, then the coming and going of the Fits.

Continual Feaver proceeds from Heats and Colds.

The Feaver continual is that which continueth without any Intermis­sion, the Signes are want of rest, and falling away of the Flesh, besides certain Inslammations or Swellings, which will appear about his Withers and Flanks.

Hectick Feaver proceeds from a sick Stomach, being Scalded with hot Drinks, hath lost the power of Digestion.

The Hectick Feaver, which is the worst of Feavers, is known by this, that he will never eat with Appetite, and when you draw out his Tongue you shall find it Raw, his Flesh will be Loose and Flaggy, and his Body subject to trembling. All these Feavers do most commonly happen to a Horse in the Spring, because the new Blood is apt to be inflamed.

Autumn Feaver proceeds from new Blood being inflamed.

The Signes of an Autumn Feaver, is known by the same Signes I have declared, for they are the same Feavers, only altering the time of the year.

Summer Feaver.

A Feaver taken in the Summer is the worst of all ordinary Feavers whatsoever, especially such as are taken in the Dog-days. The Signes of this Feaver are, that his Arteries will beat most palpably▪ and wheresoever he staleth, you shall perceive he sheddeth his seed also.

Winter Feaver.

A Feaver in the Winter is not so dangerous as the Feaver before-men­tioned, yet if you do not remove it speedily it will continue long. The Signes are no other then hath been declared.

Feaver by Surseit.

The Feaver by Surseit is known by these Signes, he will beat upon his Back, his Breath will be short, hot and dry, and his Wind will draw only at his Nose with great Violence.

Feaver Pestilential.

The Feaver pestilential, is known by the holding down of his Head, forsaking of his Meat, shedding much water at his Eyes, and many times Swellings, or Ulcers, rising a little below his Ear-Roots.

Feaver Accidental

The Feaver Accidental comes by some blow or wound, by which any of the Vital Powers are let or hindred, which may bring him to a Feaver, then the Signes be, he will covet much to drink, but cannot, and his Flesh will fall away in an extraordinary fashion.

How to make the Oyl of Oats.

Take of Milk two Gallons, and warming it on the Fire, put to it a quar­ter of a pound of burnt Allom, which will make it turn to Curds, then take out the Curd and strain the Whey, then take a quarter of a peck of clean Husked Oats that were never dried, and put them in the Whey, and set them on the Fire till they burst and be soft; then put them into Cullender to let the Whey run through them, then put the Oats in a Fry­ing-Pan over the Fire, keeping them stirring, till you see the Vapour or Smoke of them ascend upwards, but as it were run about the Pan, then take them off and put them into a Press, and press them most exceedingly, and what cometh from them is the Oyl of them, which you must save in a close Glass.

The Vertues of it.

This Oyl of all Medicines and Simples whatsoever, is the most Ex­cellent and Sovereign for a Horses Body, as being extracted from the most Natural, wholesom and best Food which doth belong unto a Horses Body. This Oyl being given by four or five spoonfuls at a time in a pint of sweet Wine, or a quart of strong Ale, and some of the Whey poured into his Nostrils doth Cure the Glaunders before all other Medicines; it is also (given in the same manner) the best of all Purgations; for it purgeth a­way all those venomous and filthy humours, which feedeth the most incu­rable Farcy whatsoever.

How to make the Powder of Honey and Lime; which is so great a Drier, that i [...] will dry up any Wound or Old Sore.

Take such a quantity of unslackt Lyme as you shall think fit, beat it in­to very fine Powder, then take so much Honey as will make it up into a stiff Paste, then put it into the form of a thick Cake, or Loaf▪ and put it into an Oven, or burning Fire, till it be Baked or burnt glowing Red; then take it forth, and when it is cold, beat it into fine Powder, and then use it as occasion shall serve. If you mix amongst it the Powder of a burnt Shoo, it will be much the better.

A Comfortable Drench.

Make it of these Cordials, to wit, of Sugar, Cinnamon, Cloves, Nut­megs, Saffron, Licoris, Anniseeds; beat all these into fine powder, adding thereunto white-Wine, and all these infused in an Earthen pot.

An Operative Drink.

Put in such a quantity of these things as you think requisite for the Strength of the Horse, viz. white-Wine, Sallet-Oyl, Alloes, Rubarb, A­garick, Duke, or Duck-powder, Honey, Cordial-powder, &c.

Several sorts of Charges.

Take of black Pitch half a pound, of Mastick two Ounces, of Gal­banum four Ounces, of fat Pitch and of Turpentine, of each half a pound, melt them into a Pot together, and when it is half cold charge the place up to the Hanch, and so overthwart the Reins of the Back, and if it be not Cured at the end of eight or ten days, take it off and apply this Ointment. Take of Oyl de Bay, Althea, tried Hogs-Grease, of each half a pound, incorporate them altogether, and therewith anoint and chafe the place grieved.

[ [...] the Second Part for the Best of Charges, I. W. marked in the Margent▪]

A Honey Charge for a Wrench or Slip in the Shoulder, H [...]p or other Member; for all sorts of Scratches, and for stiffness of Sinews hurt, or any other way offended, to asswage Swellings and Tumours, and to draw away all bad Humours.

Take of Wheat-Meal two pounds, and put a little white-Wine unto it, and put it into a Kettle, as if you were to make a Poultess, and when it is well mixed, add to it of Bole-Armoniack in fine powder half a pound, of English Honey one pound, then set it upon the Fire and boyl it, keeping it continually stirring, and put to it in the boyling half a pound of black Pitch, keeping it stirring, and when you think you have boiled it enough, put to it of ordinary Turpentine, half a pound of Oyl de-Bay, Cummin, Althea, Sanguis Draconis, Bay-berries and Fennegreek, beaten to powder, and of Linseed-Meal, of each two drams, boil them altogether again, still keeping them stirring till they be well incorporate, and therewith Charge the grieved Member with it pretty warm, but not to scauld him.

A Restringent Charge to be applied to broken Bones, or to Bones dislocated or out of Joy [...]t, being first Set, and also to take moist Humours from weeping Wounds, and so to dry up bad Humours, which do pre-occupate the Body.

Take of Oyl de-Bay four Ounces, Orpin, Cantharides, and Euphorbium, of each two Ounces, make all these into fine powder, and mix them with your Oyl de-Bay very well, and therewith charge the place grieved. This is also very good to charge the Swelling of a Back Sinew-strain.

A celd Charge.

Take Bole-Armoniack▪ Wheat-Flower, the white of an Egg, and Aqua­vitae or white-Wine; beat all these together pretty thick, and lay it to the place grieved upon a brown paper, and when it is dry lay on fresh. You must keep that part out of the water, if you intend the Plaister should slay on.

Of Salves, Ʋnouents, Powders and Waters.

Take of Perosen, and of hard Rosin, of each one pound, of Frankincense, Virgin-Wax, or for want thereof, new Wax, and Sheeps Suet, of each half a pound, of old tried Hogs-grease one pound and a quarter, boil the Gums and Wax in half a pint of white-Wine, and then put into it your Sheeps Tallow and Hogs-grease, and when all is Molten and Incorporated to­gether, strain it, and whilest it is yet hot put in an Ounce of Venice-Tur­pentine, and so work all well together, which when it is cold, pour in the Liquor from the Salve, which put up into a Gally-pot for your use.

The Vertues of it.

This is a most Sovereign Salve to heal any green Wound, (that is not come to an Ulcer) and so dry it up.

Another most excellent Powder.

Take unslacked Lyme, the dry dust of Tanners Oken Bark, and an old Shoo Sole burned to a Coal, of each alike, make them into fine Powder, and mix them well, and keep them in a Box for your use.

The Vertues of it.

This Powder healeth the Buds of the Farein after they be broken, and skinneth them, and if they be washed with the Juice of Vervine and strong Vineger, mingled together, and this Powder cast upon them, will heal and skin them. It healeth likewise and skinneth all other Sores.

Another Oyntment.

Take half a pound of tried Hogs-grease, a penniworth of Verdegrease beaten to fine Powder, give them two or three Walms on the Fire, then take it off, and put into it half an Ounce of Venice-Turpentine, and stir it well together till it be cold, this Ointment will heal any Wound or Sore in a Horse.

Another Oyntment.

Burn a good quantity of Roch-Allum, and as much bay-Salt, and burn that also, make them both together into fine powder. Then take of common Honey, and of sweet Butter, of each alike, as much as will suf­fice, incorporate them altogether, by melting them over a gentle Fire, and with a Taint or Plaister apply it. And this Cureth any foul Sore.

A good VVater.

Take a pint of fair Water, and put into it of bay-Salt, and of green Cop­peras, of each the quantity of a Hazel-Nut, first, made into fine powder, let them boil a little upon the Fire, with this wash your Sore before you do apply any of your Salves, Unguents or Powders.

Another Salve.

Take of common Honey, two Ounces, Roch-Allom, Verdegrease and Vinegar, of each an Ounce, make your Allom and Verdegrease into fine Powder, then take of [...]ublimate finely powdered, two Ounces, boil them a little on the Fire, this laid Plaister-wise on the Wound once a day, or if the Wound be deep to Taint it with it, but before you dress it, wash the Sore with Water made of green Copperas and bay-Salt.

The Vertues of it.

This doth not only Cure all sorts of Wounds in the Body, but the Foot also, and it cleareth any Wound from dead and proud Flesh.

Another Salve.

Take the Buds or the tender tops of the leaves of Elder, (or for want there of, the inner Rin [...] of the Bark) one handful, and first shred, and after pound them very well, till you bring them to a Salve, and apply this to the Sore, binding a Cloth about it to keep it from falling off.

The Vertues of it.

This will Cure any Old or New Sore whatsoever in any part of the Body, as Galled Backs, Spur-Galls, Gravelling, Prick'd, being dressed every day once, and it will Cure a F [...]tula, if the Juice of it be injected in­to it unto the bottom.

An Oyntment.

Take the White of a new laid Egg, and Sallet-Oyl, as much as will suf­fice, and beat them well together, and before you apply it unto the Wound, pour into the Wonnd burnt Butter, and then lay on your Medicines with Hurds Plaister-wise. And this will Cure any green Wound.

Another.

An Ounce of black Sope, and as much Dogs Grease, with as much burnt Allom as will lie upon a six pence, melted upon the Fire together, is very good to heal or skin any wound or hurt, let the burnt Allom be put in last, when the others are melted.

How to give a Horse a Vomit.

Vomits are given to Horses newly taken from Grass, to bring away their gross and Phlegmatick Humours, which do abound in their Stomach and Head, which if they be not taken away in due time, may empair greatly the Health of the Horse. I never knew that Vomits were useful to a Horse till I met with a French Farrier, which I saw administred it to sun­dry Horses, which did work very kindly.

The Receipt is this.

Take two of the greatest Roots you can get of Poll [...]podium of the Oak, washed and scraped very clean, and Tie it to his Snaffle, Trench or Bit, then let it be steeped in the Oyl of Spike all Night, and in the Morning fasting put on his Bridle with the same Roots, and Ride him about with it about an hour fair and softly, and if he be troubled with any Rheuma­ [...]ick or Phlegmatick humour, or with any cold or silthy Matter, which [Page 135] may annoy his stomach, this will force him to vent it at his Mouth and Nose, and it will cause him to Cough and N [...]ez, where he will send forth a great abundance of silth and evil slimy stuff from off his Stomach and Head, as that in a very short time he will become very clean in his Body, for this will both refine his Blood, and exhaust all his watery Humours, which will make him found a long time after it. And this is not only to be applied to a Horse newly taken from Grass, but to any other Horse that hath taken Cold or to any Ketty, Foul, Foggy or Pursive Horse whatso­ever. This may seem strange here amongst us, but let any man make trial, and he shall find it to be most admirable.

Pur [...]ing Pills.

Take of Fresh Butter one pound, Alloes and Fennegreek, of each an Ounce, Life-Honey and white Sugar-Candy powdred, of each four Oun­ces, Agarick half an Ounce, make all these into fine powder, and being well incorporated with the Butter and Honey, make Pills thereof, and give them to your Horse, and if he be but a small and weak Horse, you must give him but two parts of three, but if he hath a strong Cold and Cough withal. Then

Take Fresh Butter, and of Mel-R [...]s [...]rum, of each four Ounces, of Alloes and Sene, of each an Ounce, of Rubarb and Bay- [...]erries, of each three Oun­ces, Coll [...]quintida and S ffron, of each two drams, Co [...]di l-powder one Ounce, D [...]k [...] or D [...]tch-powder four Ounces, make them all into fine pow­der, and mix them well with two Ounces of Mithrida [...]e, and with your Butter and Mel-Rosarum, beat and pound them well together, and make them up into Pills, and give them your Horse. This Receipt will purge him very well, though it heat him for some time, and let him be ordered as in other Physical Cures of the like Nature, and proportion your Pills according to the strength, greatness and corpulency of your Horse.

A Plaister to dissolve and take away evil Humours, which shall at any time fall down in the Legs of your Horse.

Take of Common Honey a pound, of Turpentine half a pound, of Ma­stick in fine powder two Ounces, of Frankincense and Bole-A [...]m [...]iack made into fine powder, of each four Ounces, of S [...]ng [...]is D [...]aconis three Oun­ces, six new laid Eggs, of the strongest Wine-Vineger one pint, of the Flower of Rice seven Ounces, mix all these together, and hereof make a Plaister, and lap the Legs of the Horse from the Feet to the upper Joyn [...]s, and do this but four or five times, and you shall find that it will perform a strange and rare Cure.

Of several sorts of Baths, and first of a Bath to dry up Humours.

Take Sage, Rosemary, of each a handful, and of the Bark of the Root [Page 136] of B [...]ch three pounds, and of the B [...]ks of young E [...]mes, Oaks and Ash, of each a handful, of N [...]p, Penvy-Royal, and of Coestnuts, the Rinds being taken away, of each a handful, three or four white Onions clean pilled and cut into small pieces or slices, Red Wine three Pottles, strong white-Wine Vineger two Pottles; Boyl all these together, and cause him to be walked a quarter of an hour till he be warm, then Bathe him with this Bath good and hot, and set him up warm, and let his Drink be either sweet Mashes or white Water, and thus Bathe him for three or four dayes to­gether, and let him not be Ridden in any Water for eight or ten days after.

The Ʋse or Vertues of Paths.

Baths are somentations, which are the most comfortable things of any to the Joynts and Limbs of a Horse, for they dissolve all ill Humours, and give heat and warmth unto all the Members that are benumbed with Cold, or for want of Blood it comforteth and strengthneth them, and giveth very great case to the pained Sinews. Besides, it asswageth Swellings, in or about any part of the Body; for Legs swelling stiff, or benummed, or for any other Joynt pained or grieved, or for any String halt, Cramp or Convulsion. Which Bath to Cure all such Maladies is this.

Bath 1.

Take Muscadine and Sallet-Oyl, of each a pint, Bay-leaves and Rose­mary, of each two handfuls, let them boyl half an hour, and when you are to Bathe your Horse therewith, rub and chafe the grieved place with a Wisp or Hair-Cloth a pretty while, then put the Foot into some broad Bowl or Pail, whereby to preserve the Liquor and Herbs, and Bathe him thus a quarter of an hour, which ended, bind upon the place a piece of Sheeps or Lambs Skin, with the Woolly side to the Leg, and let him stand so twenty four houres, apply this five or six times, and it will be a perfect Cure.

Bath 2.
A Bath to Cure all Go [...]dy and G [...]uty Legs, which cometh either by Farcin, Scratches, or the like, &c.

Take a quart or more of Chamber-ly, and put into it a Handful of Bay-Salt, a quarter of a pound of Soap, a pretty quantity of Soot, a handful or two of Misle-toe, Chopped small, boil them very well together, and Bathe the place very well therewith, and in three or four days Bathing it Morn­ing and Evening, it will not only take down the Swelling, but prevent the Farcin.

Bath 3.
Another Bath for the same purpose.

Take the Grounds of a Beer-Barrel, with the Barm, Smallage, Feather­few, [Page 137] Winter-S [...]vo [...]y, Co [...]rey, Mallowes, Ru [...], Se [...]- [...]l, Penny-Royal, Worm­wood, Archangel, of each a good handful, and of the Leaves and Berries of Misle-toe three or four good handfuls, Sheeps Tallow one pound, tried Hogs-Grease half a pound, three or four Handfuls of Rye or Wheat-Bran, boyl them altogether, till the Herbs and Misle-toe become soft, and be sure you have Liquor enough, and a little before you take it from the Fire, put into it some Hay, with this Bathe his Legs; first one, then the other, as was before shewed, and when you have Bathed that Leg sufficiently, make a Thumb-Band of the Hay in the Bath, and rowl it about the Leg above the uppermost or middle Joynt, and put off the Herbs between the Thumb-band and his Leg, which done, pour on the Liquor remaining upon the Thumb-bands, and so Bathe him for so many days once, as you shall think requisite, and it will bring down the Swelling quite and make him sound.

Bath 4.
Another Bath very Excellent.

Take Smallage, Ox-Eye and Sheeps Suet, of each alike, to a good quan­tity, chop them small together, and after stamp them in a Stone▪Mortar, then boyl them with Mans Urine, and bathe the grieved parts herewith warm, doing as before with [...]owl or Pail; then with Thumb-bands of soft Hay made, first wet in cold water, rap up the Member, as well above as below the Grief, and use it as often as you shall see cause. This Bath is very good for Swelled Legs upon Travel, or for any other Lameness which cometh either by stroke, strain or other Accident.

Bath 5.
Another Bath.

Take Savin, and the Bark and Leaves of the Bay-tree, Pellitory, Rose­mary, Sage, Rue, of each three Ounces, boyl these in a Gallon of white-Wine, until half be consumed; And Bathe your Horse as before is shewed.

To bathe a Horse in Salt water, is very wholesom, both for the Horses Skin, and for any Disease in the Stomach.

Bath 6.
A Bath for a Horse that is Tired or over-Travelled.

Take of Mallows, of Sage, of each two or three handfuls, and a Rose-Cake, boyl them together in water till it be all consumed, then add to it a good quantity of Butter or Sallet Oyl, and mix them together, and bathe all his fore-Legs therewith, and all the parts of his Body also, or to let him Blood, and with that Blood, Oyl and Vineger mixed together, pre­sently to anoint his Body, helps most sorts of Infirmities.

Of Perfumes or Purges of the Head of all filthy and gross Matter.

Perfumes are necessary to be applied to Horses in Cases of Colds▪ [Page 138] Glanders, Rheums, Murs, P [...]z [...]s, Catharrs, &c. For they do not only break a Cold, but dissipate congealed humours which do annoy the Head, Brain and Stomach of the Horse, and sometimes they expel and cause him to vent at his Nose and Mouth, much Filth and Corruption, which doth stop, clog and pester his Head and Body, and sometimes they do siccicate and dry up many bad Humours which are engendred in the Head and Brain. The Ingredients of which Simples wherewith we Persume sick Horses are many▪ As

The Juice of Onions snuffed up the Nose draweth forth raw phlegmatick Humours. The Juice of Coleworts squirted up his Nose, or the Juice of red Beets. The leaves of the Wind-Flower stamped, and the Juice squirt­ed up his Nose; or the Juice of Dazies purge the Head of filthy slimy Humours. The Juice of Sage draweth forth thin phlegm. The Juice of the Primrose stamped, strained and squirted up his Nose, is good to purge the Brain. The Juice of the small Cellendine purgeth the Head of foul and filthy Humours; The Juice of the Leaves or Berries of Ivy, that grows upon Walls, doth infinitely purge the Head; Fennel—Gya [...] or Ferula snuf­fed up the Nose, white Hellebore or Neesing—Root beaten to powder, after it is dried and blown up into the Nose, purgeth the Head and Brain from gross and slimy humours, wild white Hellebore hath the same Vertues; The Juice of sweet Ma [...]y [...]em draweth forth much phlegm; The Juice of stinking Gladdon squirted up the Nose, draweth down to the Nose great store of filthy Excrements; Mustard-seed beaten to powder, and blowed up the Nose, purgeth the Head; The Juice of Snees [...]wort squirted up the Nose, bringeth from the Brain slimy phlegm; The Juice of the Leaves of Elder purgeth the Head; The Juice of Mercury purgeth the Head of all gross and vitious humours; Pellitory, Pimpernel, Rosemary, the smoke taken up his Nostrils, or take a Feather and anoint it in Oylde▪Bay, and thrust it up his Nose, is good for any cold or obstruction in the Head.

The best Perfume of all.

But the best Perfume of all is to take the best Olibanum, Storax, Benjamin and Franke cense, bruised grossly together, and strowed upon a Chasing­dith of Coals, and let him receive the smoke of it up his Nostrils through a Tunnel, which will bring away abundance of tough Matter into water from the Head and Brain, insomuch that it will be almost ready to ex­tinguish the Fire; It is a most excellent Comforter of the Brain, and brings a great chearfulness to the Heart, and rejoyceth the whole Body.

The Green Ointment.

The Green Ointment, which Cure Sores whether old or green, Ʋleers, Fi­stulaes, Poll-evils, or what else; for where this Ointment cometh, no proud or dead Flesh will grow, no Flies will come near the place, or for [Page 139] Horse or Mare-Filly that is Gelt or Splad, anoint but the place, and they will neither swell nor fester, for it doth not only heal soundly, but speedily also, provided you lay nothing upon the Wound or Sorrance, where the Ointment is administred, as neither Hurds, Lint, Plaisters or the like, un­less you have occasion to taint a Wound which is deep, neither that for any long time, or too often; and besides, the seldomer the Wound is dressed, as once a day, or once in two days, it will heal the better and faster, especially if it be brought into good for wardness of healing. And together with this Ointment you may do well; wash the Sorrance with the Copperas water, which by reason it is always first to be used, you shall have it first, and the Green Ointment after it.

The making of the Copperas water.

Take two quarts of fair water, and put it into a clean Postnet, and put to it half a pound of green Copperas, of Salt a handful, of ordinary Honey a spoonful, and two or three Branches of Rosemary, boil all these till one half of the water be consumed, and a little before you take it from the Fire, put to it the quantity of a Doves Egg of Allom, then take it from the Fire and strain it into a Pan, and when it is cold put it into a Glass close stopped, and keep it for your use. And when you are to dress any Sore, first wash it very clean with this Water, and if the Wound be deep inject it with a Seringe.

The Vertues of it.

This Water will of it self Cure any reasonable Sore or Wound (but the green Ointment being applied after it is washed) will heal any old Ulcer or Fistula whatsoever, if they come to the bottom of them, and for green Wounds they have not their fellow; if you think good you may boyl it in Verjuice or Chamber-lye, one being a great Searcher, Cleanser and Healer, the other a great Drier.

How to make the green O [...]n [...]ment.

Take a clean Skillet or Postnet, and first put into it of Rozin the quan­tity of a Wallnut, which being Molten, put to it the like quantity of Wax, and when that is also Molten, put to them of tried Hogs-grease half a pound, and when that is Molten, put into it of common English Honey one spoonful, and when all these are Molten and well stirred together, then put in of ordinary Turpentine half a pound, and when that is dissolved, take it from the Fire, and put to it an Ounce of Verdegrease beaten to fine powder, and so stir it altogether, but be careful it run not over, for that the Verdegrease will cause it to arise, then set it again upon the Fire till [...] begin to Simper, then take it off, for if you let it boil too much it will turn red, and lose its vertue of Healing, and become a Corrasive, then strain it through a Cloth into some Earthen Pot, and keep it for your use close co­vered.

The Vertues of it.

This is the most Excellent Ointment that ever I knew, for de Grey hath done such rare Cures with it, that he hath been offered ten pounds for it. For it cleanseth a Wound be it never so foul, or infected with dead, proud, spungy or naughty Flesh it carnifieth and healeth abundantly, and withal so soundly and firmly, as that it doth never more break forth, it draweth forth Thorns, Splinters, Nails, and all such things in the Flesh, and in a word it Cureth all sorts of Sores and Wounds.

Another Excellent Green Ointment made only in the Month of May, which Cu­reth all sorts of Strains, Aches, Burnings, Scaldings and Swellings whatso­ever, either in the Throator any other part of the Body.

Take half a pound of each of these things here under-mentioned, viz. Rue, red Sage, Wormwood and young bay Leaves, beat them very well in a Mor­tar; Then take four pounds of new Sheeps Suet, and work the Herbs and it very well together with your Hands, till they be incorporated and become as one Lump; Then put to them two quarts of Sallet-Oyl, and Work that also till it become all of one softness and colour; Then put it into a new Earthen Pan, and let it stand covered eight days; then boyl it over a soft Fire the space of two houres or more, keeping it stirring all the while; Then put into it four Ounces of the Oyl of Spike, and let that boyl as long; The way to know whether it be well boiled, is to put a drop of it upon a Plate, and if it be upon a fair Green, you may assure your self it is enough; Then strain it through a new Canvass, and keep it in an Earthen Pot for your use. This Ointment will hold very good seven or eight years.

A very good Receipt to keep back Humours that flow too fast to a Wound you have in Cure, which will make it heal so much the sooner.

Take two pints of white-Wine Vineger or Tartar, and put to it an Ounce or more of the powder of Bole-Armoniack, and of common Salt well dried the like quantity, the powder also of the Bur-dock Root, or the Juice of the Leaves, and wash the swelled place round about with it, once or twice a day, and it will be a great help in Order to its Cure.

Another for the same Ʋse.

After you have beaten a penniworth or more of Camphire very small, dissolve it in a Pint of Verjuice, and boyl it about a quarter of an hour, then put it into a Glass close stopped, to keep for your use, and use it as you have Directions in the former Receipt.

To Cleanse a Wound Old or New before you dress it.

Take more or less of white-Wine Vineger, according as you have oc­casion, and put into it the powder of the Roots of Elder dried, or the Juice of the Leaves, with a spoonful of Honey, and a little powder of burnt Allom, and boyl it about half a quarter of an hour, and use it warm.

Another sort of Green Ointment, which is good to heal any Wound Old or New.

Take a handful of these Herbs here under-mentioned, viz. Rosemary, Wound-wort, Red Sage, Mug-wort, Comfrey, Rue and Southern-wood, &c. Cut them small, and boyl them in a pound and an half of May Butter, and the like quantity of Sheeps Suet; When you have boiled it according as you have Directions for the Boyling of Ointments in the lat­ter End of the Book, strain out the Ointment from the Herbs, and put i [...] into a Pot, and keep it for your use.

Of Purging or Scouring Things in general.

Turn-sole boiled in water gently purgeth the Body, Felt-wort or Bald­mony, Alloes or Sea Housleek is the most convenient Medicine for the Stomach, that is the Seed of St. Peters wort, the seed of Tutsan or Park-Leaves do purge Cholerick Humours, Dodder that groweth upon Savory, Hedge-Hysop purgeth mightily waterish, gross and slimy Humours, Sca­mony or purging Bind-weed, doth mightily purge, and it is very hurtful to the Body, if you do not mix it with Alloes, Colloquintida is a violent Purger, and is not to be used but upon some desperate Diseases, and then not to be given, unless it be mixed with some clammy things whereby the vehemency there of may be repressed, black Hellebore or Bears Foot, Hogs Fennel purgeth by Siege both Phlegm and and Choler, either of the Polli­podies purgeth Choler and Phlegm.

The Entrails of a Carp or Barble cut into pieces, and given him in white-Wine or Ale, or Rye sodden that it burst not, and dried and given him instead of Provender, an Ounce of Alloes made up in Balls of Butter, after it is finely beaten to Powder, purgeth excellently, Spurge boiled in Beer and given him, Hempseed, Fennegreek, Cassia, Honey, Sallet-Oyl, in Sack given him, the powder of Mechoacan boiled in Ale, or Ale-wort, London Treacle and Honey brewed together and given him, or Sene, A­garick and Licoris boiled in Ale and given him, or Gentian sliced and boil­ed in a quart of Beer till it come to a pint and given him.

Particular Scourings at large, and first of a Scouring for any Horse, sick or Sound, and especially for Running or Hunting Horses, whose Grease must necessarily be Molten.

Take twenty Raisins of the Sun with the stones pickt out, ten slit Figs slit round-wise, boyl them in a Pottle of Running Water till the VVater is consumed and thickned, then take the powder of Licoris, Anniseeds and Sugar-Candy, finely searc'd, and mix it with the Raisins and Figs, stamp­ing and working them together till they become a stiff paste, then making round Balls thereof of a pretty bigness, rowl and cover them all over with sweet Butter, and give as many of them to the Horse as you shall think meet for his Strength, provided that the day before, you give him such Exercise as will raise up his Grease, and that immediately before you give him this Medicine you also warm him throughly, that the Humours being again stirred up, the Medicine may work the more effectually.

Another Scouring to purge a Horse from ail Grease, Glut or Filthiness within his Body, which I think may go for as good a Scouring as can be Invented by Art.

Take of Anniseeds three Ounces, of Cummin seeds six drams, of Car­thamus a dram and a half, of Fennegreek-seed one Ounce and two drams, of Brimstone one Ounce and a half, beat all these to fine powder and searce them, then take a pint and two Ounces of Sallet-Oyl, of Honey a pound and a half, and of white-VVine four pints, then with as much fine VVheat-Meal as will suffice, make all into a strong stiff Paste, and knead and work it well; this Paste keep in a Gally-pot close covered for your use; when your Horse hath been Hunted, and is at Night or in the Morning very thirsty, take a Ball of it as big as a Mans Fist, and dissolve it in a Gallon or two of cold VVater, and it will make the VVater look white as Milk, then give it him in the dark lest the Colour displease him; if he drink it, then feed him, but if he refuse it, let him fast till he take it, which assuredly he will do in twice or thrice offering, and when he hath once taken it, he will refuse all other drink for this, and you cannot give him too much nor too oft of it if he have exercise. It is an excellent thing for all inward Infirmities whatsoever.

Another Excellent Scouring after any sore Heat, or for any fat Horse after his Exercise, with Directions how he is to take it, and how you are to Order him after it, with Cautions what to do when you give any Scouring.

Take a quart of good Sack, and set it on the Fire in a Bason or Skillet, it [Page 143] and when it is warm, take an Ounce of the clearest Rosin, being bruised very small, and by degrees little by little put it into the Sack, and keep it stirring for fear of Clotting, and when it is well incorporated into the Sack, take it from the Fire, and put into it half a pint of the best Sallet-Oyl, and in the cooling, stir them all very well together, then put [...] it an Ounce of brown Sugar-Candy beaten to powder, and being luke-warm, give it the Horse in the height of his Heat, as soon as you come home from Exercise, then Rub him well and Cloath him warm, and let him fast two houres after it, and keep him stirring in the Stable, for that will make Spirits work, for Rest doth but dull the Spirits. When you give him any Scouring, be sure that day to give him no cold water after it, for it is binding and knitting, and detaineth that soulness which the Scouring should take away.

Another Scouring when others will not work.

Take a quarter of a pound of sweet Butter, and so much of Castle-Soap, and half an Ounce of Alloes, beat them together, and add two spoonfuls of beaten Hemp-seed, and of Rosin half a spoonful, of Sugar-Candy an Ounce bruised, work them all into a Paste, and give it him in Balls imme­diately after his heat, and when you have warmed him, and stirred up the Grease and Foulness within him.

[There is in my second Part a very safe and easie Scouring.]

If you have a desire to see more Variety of Purgations of all sorts, look back.

Of Loosening things in General.

Brank-ursin or Seed, Hemp-seed, Fennegreek-seed, the Juice of the white Beets, Coleworts, Spinage, Mercury, Succory, white Sope and Spurge brayed together and given him to drink, Sallet-Oyl given him in Sack or Ale, or Anniseeds, Linseeds and Piony boiled in Beer, or the Bark of the Elder-Tree bruised and mixed with old Ale and given him, or take of the Decoction of Mallows, Sallet, Oyl and fresh Butter, Benedicta Lax­ativa, given him Blood-warm Glister-wise, or Rye thrown amongst his Provender, or Mustard-seed, or to anoint your hand with Butter or Hogs-Grease, and pluck away his Ordure, and then put into his Fundament a good piece of the great end of a Candle, or give him in Ale eleven Leaves of Lawrel stamped, the Seed of horned Poppey given him in Ale. All sorts of Docks being boiled are Loosners of the Belly, Marigold-Leaves, Burage, Bugloss, the Leaves of Hounds-Tongue boiled in Ale do mollifie the Belly, Syrop of Violets, black Hellebore or Bears Foot, Hogs Fennel Loosneth the Belly gently, Speraege or Asparagus.

Things good to Fatten a Horse in general.

Beans boiled in two Gallons of water till they swell or burst, and mix them with a peck of Wheat bran, and give it him in the manner of a Mash, [Page 144] and it will Fat suddenly, or Coleworts sodden and mixed with Wheat Bran, and give them instead of Provender, or to give him in stead of his Provender, the Grain called Buck, or to give him Parched Wheat mingled with Ale, or Wheat Bran mingled amongst his Provender, but be sure to keep him well dressed and cleanly lookt after, for without clean keeping his Meat will do him but little good, and to give him a little Meat at once for fear you Cloy him. Or take Sage, Savin, bay-Berries, Earth-Nuts, Bears-Grease mingled with a quart of Wine or Ale, and give it him, or to feed him a Month together with scalded Bran, or take Cummin-seed, Fen­negreek-seed, Siliris Montani, Nutmegs, Cloves, Ginger, Linseed, of each two Ounces, quick Brimstone six Ounces, made all into line powder, and give him an Egg-shell full of it every Night in his Provender, and white Water after it, and put into his Oats with his powder a handful of Nettle­seed, for that is a thing which will principally cause him to batten, and when he is Glutted with this Meat, then give him Bread, if he leave his Bread, then give him Malt, or any Grain that he will eat with a good Ap­petite, or to give him many Mornings together half an Ounce of Brimstone finely beaten with a raw Egg, and a penny weight of the Powder of Myrrh in a quart of Ale, or to give him three Leaved Grass half green and half dry for many days together, or to give him Pepper, Saffron, Anniseeds, Turmerick, Treacle, Licoris, Penny-royal and Archangel, mingled in Milk with the Yolks of Eggs, Barley dried or Barley boiled till it burst is a great Fattener, but most of these ways will not breed Fat that will con­tinue; but the best way to make him Fat, and to cause him to keep it, is to give him three Mornings together a pint of sweet VVine, and two spoon­fuls of Diapente brewed together, for that will take away all Infection and Sickness from the inward Parts, then to seed him well with Proven­der at least four times a day, viz. After his Water in the Morning, after his Water at Noon, after his Water in the Evening, and after his Water at nine a Clock at Night, and if you find that he eat not his Provender well, then to change it to another, and to let him have most of that Food he loveth best, and there is no question but he will grow fat suddenly. But if you will have a more particular Account, then turn to the Mirrour of all Medicines, to make the Leanest Horse that may be Fat, Sound and Fit either for Market or Travel, in the space of fourteen days, you may find before, with several other such like Receipts ensuing.

An Explanation of several hard Words belonging to Chyrurgery.
VVhat a Fracture is.

If there be a loosening in the Bone, it is called a Fracture.

VVhat a Wound is.

If it be in any Fleshy part, it is called a Wound.

VVhat a Rupture is.

If it be in the Veins, then it is a Rupture.

What a Convulsion is.

If in the Sinews, then it is a Cramp or Convulsion.

What an Excortication is.

If it be in the Skin, then it is called an Excortication.

Of Giving of Fire, and there are two ways of it, the one Actual, and the other Potential; the First is done by Medicine, either Corrasive, Putrif active or Caustick.
Cautery Actual.

The Actual Fire doth burn the Flesh by Instrument, which stoppeth Cor­ruption of Members, and stancheth Blood, provided the Sinews, Cords and Ligaments be not toucht, the Instruments to Cauterize, are Gold, Sil­ver, Copper or Iron.

Cautery Potential.

The Potential Fire doth burn by Medicine, of which there are three sorts or degrees, namely, by Corrosive, by Caustick, or Putrifaction.

The Corrosive.

The Corrosives are Simple or Compound, the simple Corrosives are Roch-Allom, burnt or un-burnt, Red Coral, Mercury sublimed, Verde­grease, Copperas white and green, and these Corroding things are called Precipitates, which are Eaters of dead Flesh. The Compounds are Ʋn­guentum Apostolorum, Ʋnguentum Aegyptiacum, and Ʋnguentum Coraceum, with others.

Medicines Putrifactive.

Medicines Putrifactive are such Medicines, which are applied to Swel­lings, which are made for the most part of Medicines Compounded, as Poultesses, rosted Sorrel, white Lilly Roots and the like.

What a Caustick is.

A Caustick is a great Burner, for that being once put to the Skin, will in a short time make a Wound where there was none before, and those things are Lye, Lime, Vitriol, Aqua-fortie and the like.

Corrosives.

Corrosives are weaker then Putrifactives, and Putrifactives are weaker then Causticks. Corrosives work in the soft Flesh, Putrifactives in the hard, and Causticks break the sound Skin.

Thus you see the use of these things, you may apply them at your plea­sure, [Page 146] for these Cure all sorts of Farcies, Cankers, Fistulaes, Leprosies, Maungies, Scabs, and such like poisonous Infection.

Of the several sorts of Purgings, which are Five, by Pills, by Pori [...]ons, by Glisters, by Suppositories, and by Grass.
What Pills are.

Pills are solid or substantial stuff fixed together in one Body, and being made into round Balls are cast down the Horses Throat, which purge the Head and Brain from Phlegm, and other gross Humours down into the Excrements.

What a Portion is.

Portions are when you give him liquid purging Powders dissolved in Wine or Ale, or that if it be any other liquid stuff, now Portions cleanse the Stomach and Guts from such naughty Humours, which Glaunders, Colds and Surfeits have ingendred in the Body.

What Glisters are.

Glisters are given at the Fundament, and are made up of four things, that is to say, Decoctions, of Drugs of Oyls, and such like Unctious Matter, as Butter or Grease; And [...]ourthly, of divers Salts to provoke the Vertue Expulsive. Now they are of several Natures, some to ease and appease Griefs, and allay the sharpness of Humours, some to Bind and some to Loosen, and some to heal, as in Cases of Ulcers and Old Sores within the Body, &c.

What a Suppository is.

A Suppository is only a Preparative to a Glister, and but only to cleanse and make loose the great Guts which cometh to the Tuel, and they help the disease of the Guts, being of Nature more gentle then Gli­sters are, and may be applied when Glisters cannot.

Purging by Grass.

Purging by Grass, is either by green Corn, Wheat, Rye, Barley, Oats or Tares, which is a great Clen [...]er and Cooler of his Body.

What a Decoction is.

A Decoction is a Broth made of certain Herbs, as Mallows, Mash-Mal­lows, pellitory, Camomil, and sometimes of white Lilly Roots, and other such like things.

Simples that are good to conglutinate and knit things together, either inward or outward.

Iris Illyrica beaten and sifted, and mingled with pepper, Honey and Cur­rants, [Page 147] and given him to drink in Wine and Sallet-Oyl, Conglutinateth any inward Rupture or Burstness, Dragant, Saffron, the fruit of the Pine, with the Yolks of Eggs given him to drink with Wine and Sallet-Oyl, is good to Conglutinate any inward Member or Vein broken, the Roots and Seeds of Asparagus sod in water and given him, and after three days give him Opoponax with Honey and Myrrh, and it will Conglutinate any in­ward Ulcer or Rupture whatsoever. The Bark of Ash beaten with Wine, and Plaister it, is a great Knitter of broken Bones, or the inward Bark of an Elm laid in Running water, and Bathe the place therewith, or the Roots of Rocket boiled in water, and plaister it, or Wilde Briony stamp­ed and plaistered also, Hazel-tails and the Seeds of red Docks made into powder, and given him to drink is good, or Bugel is a Knitter of Wounds inward or outward, so does Lions-paw, or Self-heal, the distilled water of sow-Bread doth Knit any broken Sinew in the Body. Bole-Armoniack beaten to powder, and finely Sifted and beaten with the white of an Egg, and spread upon the Leg, and covered over with Flox, is very good for a Sinew-strain, and is a great Strengthner of the grieved place, where a Bone hath been out of Joynt, and put in again; The yellow Wall Flower strengthens any weak part out of Joynt.

A Poultess made of brank-Ursin and applied is good, so is a De­coction of the Root of Butchers-broom or Knee-Holly, with the Berries made also into a Poultiss; the Root of the great Comfrey bruised and laid to them, doth consolidate and knit them together; The Decoction of the Leaves, Bark or Roots of Elecampane healeth them, being bathed therewith; The Roots of Eringo or Sea-holly boiled in Hogs-grease, and applied to them, draweth not only Bones out of the Flesh, but also Thorns, and healeth them again; An Ointment made of the Roots of Osmond-Royal or Water-Flag in a Mortar, with the Oyl of Swallows, and the place grieved anointed with it, is very good; Flix-weed doth consolidate broken Bones, so doth the leaves of the Holly-tree used in Fomentations, so doth Knot-grass and Moon-wort, the leaves of Mullen bruised and boiled in Wine, and laid to any Member out of Joynt, and newly Set a­gain, taketh away all swellings and pains thereof; the Leaves of Nettles also bruised and laid to them refresheth them; the Juice of Plantine appli­ed to any bone out of Joynt hindreth the Inflammation, swelling or pain that shall arise thereon; Solomons Seal knitteth any Joynt, which by weak­ness useth to be often out of its place; Or the Decoction of the Root being bruised and infused in Wine all Night, and given him, much helpeth to­wards the Cure; the Leaves of Turn-Sole bruised and applied to Bones out of Joynt is very good for them, &c.

Simples that are good to clea [...]se the Blood.

Avens, VVater-Cresles, or Brook-lime, Burage or Bugloss, Butchers broom or Knee-holly, Cardus B [...]nedictus, the red Dock, which is com­monly [Page 148] called Blood-wort, Fennel-seeds, Fumitory, Hops, VVall-Rue, or ordinary white Maiden-hair, Mustard-seed, the Root of the bastard Ru­barb, Sage, Succory, Scurvey-Grass, Smallage, VVood-sorrel, Star-Thistle, Ladies Thistle, the yellow VVall-Flower, &c.

Simples that are good in general to ex pel the dead Foal.

A [...]heal, the Herb Alkanet applied to her Shape draweth it forth, An­gelica, Brook-lime, or Water-Pimpernel, Centaury or sweet Chervil given her in Wine is very good. The powder of the Root of Cuckow­point, or the Juice of it given in Wine bringeth it away, Flax-weed or Toad-Flax is good, Flower de-luce made up in a Pessary with Honey, and put up into her Body bringeth it forth, Germander, Hore-hound, Fila­pendula or Drop-wort is good also given her; so is the Root of Master­wort; Ground-pine is excellent good to expel it. The Decoction of the Leaves and Branches of Sage given is also good, so is the Juice of the yel­low Wall-Flower, &c.

Simples good in general to provoke Lust in Horses.

The Decoction of Asparagus given him for some time, the seed of the Ash-tree powdred with Nutmegs is a great Increaser of it, Beans, Chest-Nuts, Cream of Cich-pease, or Cicers boiled in water and given. The Seeds of both the sorts of Clary, the pith of the stalk of the Burr-dock, before the Burr cometh forth; The weight of one Ounce of Cloves given in Milk provoketh it exceediugly; Bread made of Potatoes and Bean­flower, and given him, is a great Provoker of it; The Roots of Chervil, the Roots of Fennel-gyant, Spear-mint, Mustard-seed, Nettle-seed; The seed of the wilde Rocket encreaseth it exceedingly, Raisins of the Sun, sweet Almonds, Pine-Nuts, the pizzle of a Bull or Hart, Boars stones dried and powdred, and given him amongst his Provender, &c.

Simples good in General to increase Milk in Mares.

The seed or leaves of Burrage or Bugloss, Cicers boiled in Milk, Cocks-Head the leaves or seed of Fennel, the seed of wilde Rocket, Sow thistles, the seed of Vipers, Bugloss given him in Ale, Dandelion, &c.

Things good in General to wash all manner of Sores and Ʋlcers▪

Alehoof bruised with white-Wine and Allom, is very good to wash all sorts of them, Flixweed made into a Salve doth quickly heal them, how foul or malignant soever they be, the distilled water of the Herb worketh the same effect, but it is somewhat weaker. The Juice of Fox-Gloves doth cleanse, dry and heal them. The Juice of the Leaves or Roots of stinking Gladwin, and anoint any Scab or sore in the Skin, it taketh them [Page 149] away. The Juice of Purslain is good to allay the heat in sores and hurts, Meadow sweet, Ragwort, the Juice of the green Herb of Tobacco, wilde Tansie boiled with Vineger and Honey is good to heal moist, corrupt and running Sores, &c.

Simples that are good in General for all manner of swellings or risings in the Skin, viz. hard Knobs and Kernels, as also swelled Legs, Swellings under the Chaul, hard or soft, and to ripen them.

Archangel stamped with some Salt and Vineger, and applied, dissolveth them, Bdelium (a kind of Gum) doth ripen them; The leaves of the Beech Tree is good to discuss hot swellings; Barley-meal and Flea-wort boiled in water, and made into a Poultess with Honey and Oyl of Lillies, cureth swellings under the Throat; Brine dissolveth hard swellings, Chickweed boiled in water very soft, adding to it Hogs-Grease, with the powder of Fennegreek and Linseed, and a few Roots of Marsh-mallows stamped in the form of a Cataplasm or Poultess, and applied, taketh away the swelling of the Legs, or any other part. B [...]ook-lime or water Pim­pernel used in the like manner is also very good; the Decoction of Cole­worts taketh away the pain and Ach, and allayeth the swellings in swollen Legs, wherein any gross or watery Humours are fallen, the place being bathed with it warm. Oyl of Camomil is good to dissolve hard and cold swellings, Cummin put into a Poultiss is also good for them; so is Chervil bruised and applied, Cinquesoyl boiled in Vineger helpeth all hard swellings, so does Clary and Cleavers boiled in Hogs-Grease do the like; Cocks-head bruised when they are green, and laid as a Plaister, dispenseth Knots and Kernels in the Flesh; the Juice of Colts-foot is good for all hot swellings and inflammations. Endive applied asswageth all Swel­lings and Tumors coming of a hot cause, an Oyl made of the broad Flag Flower-de [...]luce, mollifieth all manner of Tumors and Swellings in any part of the Body; As also of the Matrice, the Roots of stinking Glad­win boiled in Vineger or the Grounds of Beer, and laid upon them, con­sumeth them, the Decoction of the leaves of the Goose-berry bush cool­eth them, Frankincense mingled with Honey, and applied, dissolveth hard swellings; the fresh Herb of Groundsel made into a Poultess, taketh a­way the heat and pains of them, and used with Salt dissolveth Knots and Kernels; Henban [...] asswageth all manner of swellings in the Cods or else­where, if they be boiled in Wine, or the Grounds of Beer, and applied either of themselves, or by a fomentation warm. True-love or one Berry hath the same Vertues. Hore-hound boiled in Hogs Grease is also good for any swelling in any part of the Body; St. J [...]h [...]s wort dissolveth swel­lings, Knotgrass cooleth all manner of hot Inflammations breaking out by heat, Hedge Mustard is good for swellings in the Stones▪ The Decoction of Rag-weed, or Pellitory of the VVall is good, Rye-bread, or the leaves [Page 150] thereof, ripeneth and breaketh Imposthumes and other swellings, so doth Wood-Sage, the leaves of Southern-wood boiled till they be soft, and stamped with Barley-Meal, and Barrows Grease, and applied to the place grieved is good for all cold Tumours. The Decoction of the Root of Scabins applied, doth wonderfully help all sorts of hard or cold swellings in any part of the Body, &c.

Simples good in General to cause Sweat, given inwardly or applied outwardly▪

Mountain Calamint given inwardly, or applied outwardly, being boil­ed in Sallet-Oyl, and the Body anointed with it, the Juice of Scabius given him with Treacle; Camomil used in Baths provoketh it, opening the Pores, and mitigating the Griping pains in the Guts and Bowels; the Juice of Bugloss mixed with Brandy, and the Body rubbed therewith is good, Master-wort or Herb-Gerrard is also good; Fennel-Gyant mixed with Sallet-Oyl, and the Body anointed with it. An Oyl made of Asa­rabaca, with Landan [...]m, by setting it in the Sun, and the Back anointed with it is good, Wood-sage, &c.

Simples, and other things that are good to Expel the Heam in Beasts, which is the same as the after-Birth is in Women.

Time, Winter-succory, penny Royal boiled in white-Wine and given, Common Horehound boiled also in the same Wine and given, Dittany given or put up in a Pessary, driveth forth the dead Foal, and expelleth the Secundine; Angelica driveth it forth also, so doth Parsley-seed, A­lexanders, Hops, Fennel, Savin and bay-Berries, the powder of the in­side of the wrinkled skin of the Gizzard of a Hen that Lays, dried and given in white-Wine is excellent, &c.

Simples good in general to provoke or expel Wind.

Alexander or House-parsley, Angelica seeds, Bay-berries, the seeds of the wild Carriots, Bishops-weed dissolveth it, Caraway-seeds, Cardamum seeds, sweet Chervil, Cummin taken inwardly, or given in Glisters is good for the gnawing of the Guts and Belly, Dill-seeds, the Herb Devils-bit boiled in Wine, Fennel-seeds, Filapendula or Drop-wort, Hemp▪seed, the Berries of Holly, Juniper-berries, the Root of Lovage, Lavender, Nep or Cat-mint, Nutmegs, wild Parsnix, or the Seeds or Roots of common par­sley dissolveth it both in the Stomach and Bowels, China-Roots, Winter and Summer-Savoury, penny-royal given him in Sack, Burnet, Saxa [...]rage, stone-parsley, the seed of smallage, Time or Mother of Time, Vale­rian, &c.

Simples that are good in general for Cattel that are bewitched.

Two drams of the berries or seed of True-love, or one berry beaten to powder, and given him for twenty days together restoreth him, Misle-toe growing upon Pear-trees and hung about the Neck is very good, Amara [...]ulcis, gathered in its Influency, is also good for it used as before; Peony is good. The branches of the Holly-tree is reported to defend, not only from Witch-craft, but Lightning also, &c.

Simples that are Cordials and Strengthners of Nature.

Gentian strengthens the Stomach exceedingly, and keepeth the Heart from fainting; Clove Gilly-Flowers are great Strengthners both of the Brain and Heart, and are very good to put into Cordials for sick and weak Horses, St. Johns-wort, Juniper-berries strengthens the Brain, and all the Limbs of the Body; Marigolds strengthens the Heart, so doth Saffron and Mustard-seed; Give not above two drams of Saffron at a time when you use it; Mother of Time is a great strengthner of it, Red Roses doth not only strengthen the Heart, but Stomach and Liver, and the retentive Faculty, and mitigateth the pains that arise from Heat, Bugloss, Balm, Mo­therwort, Mace, Cinnamon, Cloves, Anniseeds, Canary, &c.

Simples that are good in general, either taken inwardly, or applied outwardly, for the Biting or Stinging of any venomous Beast, viz. Adders, Vipers, Spiders, Wasps, Bees and Hornets, &c.

The Decoction of Agrimony given him, or the Juice of Alexander or Horse-parsley, Aristolochia rotunda or Birthwort, Asarabica, Balm, Wood­bitony, the powder of the dried Leaves of the blew Bottle given in Plan­tine-water, Comfrey, Bucks-horn, Plantine given him, with some of the Leaves laid to the hurt place is good against the Biting of Adders, the Juice of the Root of the Bur-dock, given him inwardly, and applied out­wardly to the place bruised with Salt, is also very good for them to ease the pain thereof, Water-Caltrops, Cantaury, Campions, Flower-de luce boiled in Vineger and given is good, so is the Decoction of the Root of Common Elder; the seed of St. Johns wort given inwardly and applied outwardly is good for them; so is Sage, Rocket, Penny-royal, Pimpernel, Ground-pine, Marjorem, Summer-Savory taketh away the stinging of Bees or Wasps, the Root of Spignel, the green Herb of Tobaccho applied to the place bruifed; the Leaves of the Tamarisk Tree boiled in Wine and given him is good, so is Valerian and Vipers Bugloss, the Flower of Barley or Wheat-meal boiled in Vineger, applied to the place grieved, is very good to draw forth the Venom, the Juice of Mead or Trefoyl is also good for them, &c.

A very large Account in general, of what Simples are good for all sorts of Sor [...]s or Ʋlcers, whether inward or outward, of what Nature soever.

Agrimony, Alehoof boiled with a little Honey and Verdegrease, doth wonderfully cleanse them, and stayeth the spreading and eating of the Cankers in them; the Juice or the Water of Angelica is very good to wash them with, so is Anemone or Wind-Flower and Archangel, Arsmart is good for putrid Ulcers, Alloes beaten to powder and strewed upon them is also good, so is the Juice of Broom and Water-bitony, the Water or Juice of Bistort, or Snakeweed, or of the Leaves, Buds or Branches of the Bramble is very good to wash them with; the [...]uice of the Leaves of the blew Bottle helpeth all Ulcers or Sores in the Mouth; Bugle, Burnet, wild Champions given inwardly, or applied outwardly, is very good, so is the Juice of Celandine and Centaury, the red berries of the VVinter-Cherries given inwardly, cleanseth the inward Imposthumes and Ulcers of the Reins and Bladder, and is also good for bloody and foul Urine; the Juice of the bruised Leaves of Chickweed, Cinquefoyl or [...]omfrey is good to wash them with, Cuckoe-point, the Root of it in powder, or the Herb boiled in Sheeps or Cows Milk healeth the inward Ulcers of the bowels; the distilled VVaters of Cucumbers given inwardly is very good for Ulcers in the Bladder; the powder of the Root of both kinds of Fern strewed upon them, drieth up the moisture in them, and healeth them speedily, so doth the powder of Sow-Fennel, or Fig-wort, the Juice or the VVater of Flix-weed injected into them, doth cleanse and heal them up, Elecampane Root beaten to powder and mixed with Honey is also very good. Dill burnt and laid upon moist Sores cureth them▪ Franckincense is good to Fill up hollow Ulcers, Hemlock is good for all creeping Ulcers and Pustles that arise from hot and sharp Humours, by cooling and repel­ling the heat. Take this Receipt for the Cure of all manner of Ulcers.

Take the green leaves of the yellow Henbane, three pounds and a half of them, stamped in a Mortar, and boil it in a quart of Sallet Oyl, in a brass Pan, gently upon the Fire, keeping it stirring till the Herbs are black, and will not boil nor bubble any more, then you shall have a most excellent green Ointment, which being strained from the dross, put it to the Fire again, and add to it half a pound of Bees Wax, four Ounces of Rosin, and two Ounces of common Turpentine, melt them together, and keep them for your use. This will cure any iuveterate Ulcer, Botch, Burning, green Wound, and all Cuts or Hurts in the Head.

The fresh leaves of Ivy boiled in white Wine doth wonderfully help to cleanse them; Juniper-Berries drieth up hollow Ulcers, and filleth them up with flesh; Knot▪grass, or the powder of the Herb or Seed, cools all Gangreens, Fistulaes, and foul and silthy Ulcers; Knape weed is a great Drier up of Moisture in them; Madder helpeth them in the Mouth, if [Page 153] unto the Decoction you put a little Allom and Honey of Roses, Herb Mouse-Ear is very excellent to stay the Malignity and spreading of them; Pellitory of the Wall, penny-Royal bruised and put to Vineger cleanseth them; The Juice of Plantain is good for old Ulcers that are to be healed; The Juice of Purslain is good for Inflammations in the privy Parts; the pow­der of Savin mixed with Honey cleanseth them, but it hindereth them from healing; The Juice of Rag-wort is very good also, &c.

Burning Compositions.

The gentlest is Ʋnguentum Apostolorum, next to it is Verjuice and Hogs-Grease beaten together; Next to this is Precipitate and Turpentine mixt together; Next to it is Arsnick allayed with any Oyl or healing Salve; Next to it is Mercury sublimate likewise allayed with some cooling Salve; and the worst is Lime and Soap, or Lyme and strong Lye beaten together, for they will corrode and mortifie the soundest part whatsoever.

To make Hair smooth, sleek and soft.

To do this, keep him warm at the Heart, for the least inward Cold will make the Hair stare, then make him Sweat oft, for that will raise up the Dust and Sweat which makes his Coat foul, when he is in his greatest Sweat, with an old Sword Blade scrape off all the white Foam, Sweat and Filth that shall be raised up, and that will lay his Coat even and smooth. And when you let him Blood, rub him all over with his own Blood, and so let it remain two or three days, and then Curry and Dress him well, and this will make his Coat shine like Glass.

How to cast and overthrow a Horse.

When you intend to Cast your Horse, bring him upon some even, smooth and soft place, or in the Barn upon some soft straw, then take a long Rope, and double it, and cast a Knot a yard from the Bought, then put the Bought about his Neck, and the double Rope betwixt his fore-Legs, and about his hinder Pasterns, and underneath his Fet-locks, then put the ends of the Rope underneath the Bought of his Neck, and draw them quickly, and they will overthrow him, then make the ends fast, and hold down his Head, under which you must be sure to have always good store of straw. Now if you would at any time Brand your Horse on the Buttock, or do any thing about his hinder-Legs that he may not strike, take up his contrary fore-Leg; and when you do Brand your Horse, see that the Iron be red hot, and that the Hair be both seared away, and the Flesh scorched in every place before you let him go, and so you shall be sure to lose no Labour.

To make an unruly Horse stand still to be Trimmed, that will not be Trimmed with Barnacles.

Take off one of his Stirrop-Leathers, and put it into his Mouth, and so over his Head as you do a Bridle, and girt up his Chaps very hard, and he will stand quietly to be Trimmed.

Another to make an unruly Horse stand still to be shod.

The common way is to put a pair of Barnacles upon his Nose, and Tye them very hard; but if you find that will not do, then at the same time put some round stones into his Eares, and Ty them up hard that they fall not out.

How to make a stubborn Horse to go.

Tye a small Cord or Line about his Stones pretty hard, and bring it be­tween his fore-Legs, and let it be of that length that you may reach the other end of it with your Hand when you are upon his Back, and when you find that he will not go forward, Jerk him with your Line, which is the only means I know of to break him of his stubborn tricks. If he be a Gelding, then strike him with a long Rod that is burnt at one end, and this will help.

To make a Horse follow his▪ Master, and finde him out and Challenge him amongst never so many People.

Take a pound of Oat-Meal, and put to it a quarter of a pound of Honey, and half a pound of Lunarce, and make a Cake thereof, and put it into your Bosom next to your naked Skin, then run or labour your self till you Sweat, then rub all your Sweat upon your Cake, then keep him Fasting a day and a night, and give it him to eat, and when he hath eaten it, turn him loose, and he shall not only follow you, but also hunt and seek you out when he hath lost you, or doth miss you, and though you be enviroued with never so many, yet he will find you out and know you, and when he cometh to you spit into his Mouth, and anoint his Tongue with your Spittle, and thus doing he will [...]ver forsake you.

How to make a black Star or white Hair black.

If you desire to make on a white Horse a black Star, you shall then take a Scruple of Ink, and four Scruples of the VVood of Oliander beaten to powder, incorporate this in as much Sheeps Suet as will suffice, and anoint the place therewith, and it will make any white Hair black, or take the Decoction of Fearn Roots, and Sage sod in Lye, and wash the place therewith, and it will breed black Hair, but you must wash the place very [Page 155] oft therewith▪ Or take the Rust of Iron, Galls and Vitriol, and stamp them with Oyl, or else take Souter-Ink, Galls and Rust, and beat them well together, and anoint the place well therewith, and it will turn any white Hair to be black.

Certain Principles touching Simples.

As touching Simples, some are only to ease pain, as Linseed, Camomile, soft Grease, Suet of all sorts, or any other Oyl that is hot in the first de­gree, and whensoever any of these Simples are compounded with their like, the Medicine is called Anodina or Lynogs.

There are other Simples which are astonishing, benumbing or bringing asleep, as Opium, Mandrake, Poppey, Hemlock, and such like, which are gross and cold in the fourth degree, and whensoever any of these Simples are compounded with their like, then the Medicine is amongst Leaches called Narcotica.

The third sort of Simples are such as incarnate, or breed Flesh, as Frank­incense, Flour, Saffron, Yolks of Eggs, and such like, which are hot in the second degree; and whensoever any of these Simples are compounded with their like, then the Medicine is called Sa [...]cotica.

The fourth sort of Simples are corroding, fretting and burning, as Ars­nick, Resigallo, Mercury, Lime, and such like, which are hot in the fourth degree; and whensoever they are applied Simple or Compound, then the Medicine is called Corrosive.

The fifth sort of Simples are those which be called Mollifying, and are four in Number. That is Green Mallows, white Mallows, Violets and Brank-Ursin.

The last sort of Simples are those which are called Cordials, and are three in Number, viz. Violets and Bugloss of both kinds.

And thus much touching the Nature, Use, Property and Operation of Simples.

The End of the First Part.

A TABLE
Of the Price, Value and Virtue of most of the Prin­cipal Drugs, both Simple and Compound, be­longing to Farring, as they are frequently Sold at the Druggists in London, viz. Roots, Barks, Woods, Flowers, Fruits, Seeds, Juices, Gums, Rozins, Simples from Plants, Animals, their Parts and their Excrements; Minerals, Metals and Stones; Together with Chymical Oyls and Spirits; As also Treacles, Oyntments, Electuaries, Powders and Wa­ters, &c.

ROOTS.
  • ANgelica strengthens the Heart, and is good against Pestilence and Poison. The price the Pound is—0 s. 6. d.
  • Aristolochia Longa of long Birth-wort, brings away the Heam in
    See more of them in the Table of Simples.
    Beasts, (which is the same as the after-Birth is in Women) The price the Pound is—0 s. 9. d.
  • Aristolochia Rotunda, of Round Birth-wort, Powdered and Given in Malaga Wine, is good for Ruptures, both of them Resist Pe­stilence and Poison. The price the pound is—0 s. 9 d.
  • Bistort is good against Pestilence and Poison, Bruises, Huxes and Staling of Blood. The price the pound is—0 s. 8 d.
  • Costus Amarus and Costus Dulcis are both hot and dry, and are good to bring away Wind, given him; And boiled in Sallet-Oyl, and applied▪ outwardly to any Pain or Grief in the Legs, easeth it. The price of them the pound is—2 s. 4 d.
  • Agarick, Look for it farther in Simples out of Plants, and for the Vertues of it in the Table of Simples.
  • [Page 157]
    You may give him two Ounces of it by it self.
    Jallop powdered, is very good to mix amongst other Powders; Correct it with Liquoris Powder, to prevent Gripi [...]g, to Purge a Horse. The price the pound is—3 s. 3 d.
  • Turmentil is a kind of Cinquefoyl, and is dry in the third degree, but moderately hot; It is very good Given in Pestilential Diseases, and for Poison. See more of the Usefulness of it in the Table of Simples. The price the pound is—0 s. 8 d.
  • China, see the Virtues of it in the Table of Simples; the price the pound of the Lupid or Flinty, is—2 s. 6 d.
  • The price of the best the pound is—3 s. 6 d.
  • Di [...]tany is hot and dry in the third degree; It bringeth away the Heam in Beasts; the price the pound is—3 s. 4 d.
  • Doronicum Romanum is hot and dry in the third degree; It is a great Strengthner of the Heart, and is a very Sovereign Cordial; It preserves wonderfully against Pestilence and Poison, and is also good for the bit [...]ng of any venomous Beast. The price the pound is-5 s. 0 d.
  • Elecampane, See the Virtues of it in the Table of Simples; the price the pound is—0 s. 6 d.
  • Eringo, see the Virtues in the Table of Simples the price the pound is—1 s. 0 d.
  • Gentian, see the Virtues in the Table of Simples▪ The price the pound is—0 s. 7 d.
  • Galangal, see the Virtues in the Table of Simples; the price the pound is—2 s. 4 d.
  • Hermodactils purge Phlegm from the Joynts, and therefore they are good for the Diseases of them Their Vices you may correct with long Pepper, Ginger, Cinnamon, Mastick, &c. The price the pound is—1 s. 4 d.
  • Hellebore, black and white; see for Bears-foot in the Table of Simples, and you shall there find the Ʋses of them; the price of them the pound are—1 s. 0 d.
  • Liquorice, see the virtues of it in the Table of Simples; the price of it in the stick the pound is—0 s. 7 d.
  • Mechoacan, is to be Corrected with Cinnamon; it is temperate, yet drying; it purgeth phlegm from the Head and Joynts; it is also very good for Coughs and pains in the Reins, and is also good a­gainst the most pockey and inveterat [...] Farcy that is; You may [Page 158] safely give as much of the Powder of it, as will lie upon a Six-Pence; The Price of it formerly was about 5 s. but now it is worth 10 s. and hardly got for that.
  • Meum is very good given in Pestilential Diseases, and is much of the Virtue of the Angelica Root, and is used in the room of it, when it cannot be got, the price the Pound is—3 s. 0 d.
  • Poll Pody of the Oak, is a great Dryer up of superfl [...]ous Humors from the Legs being Corrected with Fennel-seeds, Anniseeds, or Ginger, &c. The price the [...]ound is—0 s. 6 d.
  • O [...]ice of Florence is hot and dry in the third degree; It resists Poison, and helps Shortness of Breath, the price the pound is—0 s. 8 d.
  • Rubarb, see the virtues of it in the Table of Simples; it is worth from 4 s. to 48 s. the pound.
  • Turmerick▪ see the virtues of it in the Table of Simples; the common Price in the Race is about 7 d. but now it is worth 1 s.
BARKS.
  • Cinnamon is hot and dry and binding; It strengthens the Stomach, and helps Digestion, Coughs and Destuction of Humors upon the Lungs, Dropsey and pain in Pissing; There is hardly a better Re­medy to be given to a Mare or Cow that is Foaling or Calving, to ex­pedite it, and to comfort them after it, then two drams of the Pow­der given in white-Wine or Ale. The price of it the Ounce is—0. s 6 d.
  • Cassi [...] Lignea is somewhat more Oyly then C nnamon, and is much of the virtue of that only this is Lo [...]sening, whereas the other is binding. The price of it the pound is—1 s. 6 d.
  • Pomgranate-Rinds or Pill, cools and binds and is therefore very good to stay Fluxes or Scourings. It helps also Digestion, and strengthens the Stomach, the price the pound is—1 s. 0 d.
  • Tamarisk B [...]rk is good to strengthen weak and feeble Joynts, infused in Ale and gives, and the burnt Ashes of it made into an Ointment, and applied to the Place grieved, the price of it the pound is—1 s. 0 d.
WOODS.
  • Lignum vitae is a great Drier up of evil Humors, causeth Sweat, resists [Page 159] Putrefaction, and is good for the Pockiest Farcy that is, as also for all manner of Scabs, Ulcers and Leprosie, give him inwardly in the Nature of a Diet-drink, (not exceeding a quart of it at a time), the price of it the pound is—0 s. 2 d.
  • Saffafras is a very large and fair Tree growing in Florida, and smells very much like unto Fennel. It is hot and dry in the second degree, and is also a great Drier up of evil Humors, the Decoction of it, or some of the Chips, with Lignum vitae boil [...]d in a Horses Drink that is given for the F [...]rc [...], is a great Furtherer of the Cure: It is very good also to open Obstructions and Stoppings in the Stomach, and is a great Strengthner of the Breast, if it be weakned through Cold, the price of it the pound is—0 s. 6 d.
  • Sanders white the pound is—3 s. 6 d.
  • Sanders yellow the pound is—2 s. 4 d.
  • Sanders read the pound is—0 s. 6 d.
  • They are all cold and dry in the second and third degree; They stop De­stuctions from any part of the Body, helping Inflammations, and cools the Heat of Feavers, the yellow is accounted the best, but the Red is good enough to use for Horses. See more of the virtues of them in the Table of Simples,
FLOWERS.
  • Staechas or Stoechados is hot and binding, and opens stoppings in the Bowels, and is a very great strengthner of the whole Body. They are not much unlike in Shape and Sent unto Lavender, the price of them the pound are—1 s. 6 d.
  • Belaufi is a Red Flower, and is very Binding, and is often given with very good success to stop Scourings and bloody Fluxes, the price the Pound is—2 s. 0 d.
  • Clove-Gilliflowers strengthens the Heart, Liver and Stomach, Pro­vokes Lust, and Resists Pestience, the Gardens do afford them you.
  • Saff [...]on, see the virtues of it in the Table of Simples, the price the Pound is—30 s. 0 d.
  • Metholet is good for the Reins, the price the Pound is—0 s. 10 d▪
FRUITS.
  • [Page 160]Bay-berries, see the Virtues of them in the Table of Simples; the price the pound are—0 s. 4 d.
  • Juniper-berries, see the vertues of them in the Table of Simpses, the price of them the pound are—0 s. 4 d.
  • Gauls, see also the vertues of them in the Table of Simples; the price of the best the Pound are—0 s. 8 d.
  • Raisins of the Sun helps the Inflammations of the Breast and Liver; they help Coughs and Consumptions, and cleanse and Loosen the
    All these within this Bracket are bought at the Grocers.
    Belly. The price of them are very well known by every good Housewife
  • Nutmegs strengthens the Brain, Stomach, Liver and Body; They ease Pain in the Head, and stop Lasks or Loosness, the price the Ounce are—0 s. 5 d.
  • Mace is a great Comforter of the Heart and Spirits; the price the Ounce is—0 s. 10 d:
  • Cubebs, is a kind of Pepper that comes out of the Indies, its hot and dry in the third degree; They expel Wind, and cleanse the Stomach from tough and vitious Humours, and provoke Lust. The price the pound are—1 s. 0 d.
  • Tamarinds are cold and dry in the second degree; They cool the Blood, Liver and Stomach, and purge Choler, and are also good for the Yellows. The price the pound are—0 s. 9 d.
  • Mirtle-berries are dry in the third degree, they Loosen evil Humors; the Price the Pound are—1 s. 2 d.
  • Long Pepper is hot and dry in the fourth degree; see the Vertues of all the sorts of them in the Table of Simples; the price the pound is—0 s. 8 d.
SEEDS.
  • Angelica-seeds, see the virtues of it in the Table of Simples; the price the pound are—0 s. 9 d.
  • Broom-seeds, see the virtue of them in the Table of Simples, the price the pound are—0 s. 9 d.
  • Grains of Paradice, see the virtues of them also in the Table of Simples, the price the pound are—0 s. 7 d.
  • Anniseeds, see also the virtues of them in the Table of Simples, the price the pound are—0 s. 7 d.
  • [Page 161] Burdock-seeds, bruised and given in white-Wine or Ale causeth a Horse to stail freely, that could not stail before, the price the pound are—0 s. 4 d.
  • Fennel-seeds are good for the same purpose; They cause also Milk in Mares, the price the pound are—0 s. 10 d.
  • Cardamum-seeds heat and kill Wormes, cleanse the Reins, and cause a Horse also to stale. The common price of them is 3 s. 6 d. but now they are worth—6 s. 6 d.
  • Staves-Acre, see the virtues of it in the Table of Simples, the price the pound is—1 s. 0 d.
  • Cummin-seeds, heat and dry. They stop Blood, expel Wind, ease Pain, and helpeth the Biting of venomous Beasts; And being outwardly applied in Plaisters, are of a discussing Nature, the price of them the pound are—0 s. 6 d.
  • Fennegreek-seeds are also of a discussing Nature, they ease Inflammati­ons both internal and external; they are also very good for Colds, given him amongst his Provender, or boiled amongst his Oates, keep­ing his Body solvable, the price of them the pound are—0 s. 4 d.
  • The price of them in powder is—0 s. 6 d.
  • Linseed hath the same virtue as the Fennegreek, the price the pound is—0 s. 3 d.
  • Common Nettle-seeds provoke Lust, and is a great Fattener of a Horse given him amongst his Provender; the price of them the pound is—0 s. 8 d.
  • Pa [...]sley-seed, see the virtues of them in the Table of Simples, the price the pound is—0 s. 4 d.
  • Peony-seeds helpeth the Wilde Mare, Convulsions and Falling Sick­ness▪ the price the pound are—1 s. 0 d.
  • Plantine-seeds are good for the Plague and Pestilence, the price the pound are—0 s. 9 d.
  • Saxafrage-seeds, see the virtues of them in the Table of Simples, the price the pound are—1 s. 4 d.
  • Poppey-seeds white and black provoke Sleep, the price of them the pound are—1 s. 6 d.
  • Pu [...]slain-seeds, see the Table of Simples for the virtues of them, the price the pound are—1 s. 4 d.
  • Lupines are a kind of small flat Beans, they ease the pain of the Spleen, [Page 162] kill Wormes given inwardly, and being outwardly applied, cleanse filthy Ʋlcers and Gangrenes, helps Scabs, Itch and Inflammations, the price of them the Pound are—0 s. 10 d.
SIMPLES out of PLANTS.
  • You may Give one Ounce and a half of it by it self.
    Agarick purgeth Phlegm and Cholar, cleanseth the Breast, Liver, Sto­mach and Reins, you are to Correct it with Powder of Ginger; the Price of he best the pound is—7 s. 0. d.
  • The outward Parings of it the Pound is—1 s. 6 d.
congealed JUICES, GUMS and ROZINS.
  • Aloes Succotrina, see the Virtues of it in the Table of Simples, the price of it the pound is form 1 s. 8 d. to 8 s.
  • Barbadoes Aloes hath the same virtues as the other but is a great deal stronger, and therefore the better Purge for a Horse of the two for an Ounce and a quarter of it is a Purge strong enough for the strongest BodiedHorse almost that is; The price of the best the pound is—1 s. 8 d.
  • Ass [...]loetida, see the virtues of it in the Table of Simples, the price the pound is—1 s. 4 d.
  • Camphire is cold and dry in the third degree, if beaten to Powder and mixed with Oyle of Olives, and the Temples anointed with it easeth the pain in the Head coming of Heat; It takes away also any hot In­flammation in the Eyes, and cools any place that.' tis applied to. The price commonly the pound was 6 s. or 7 s. but now it being very scarce, it is worth 16 s.
  • Bitumen, see the virtues of it in the Table of Simples, the price of it the pound is—3 s. 0 d.
  • Colophony the pound is—0 s. 4 d.
  • Benjamin is a very good Perfume for a Horse Head that is stuffed with a Cold, the smoke being received up his Nostrils through a Tunnel, strowed upon a chaffing-dish of Coals. The price the pound of the best is—5 s. 0 d.
  • The price of the course which is good enough for a Horse is—2 s. 6 d.
  • GUM COPPAL and Gum Anime are in Nature much alike; It is good for pains and Meagrim in the Head, and to stop Desluctions that flow [Page 163] from thence if it be used as the Binjumin. It is also a great Strength­ner of the Sin [...]ws. The price of it the pound is—2 s. 6 d.
  • Gum Lack see the virtues of it in the Table of Simples, the price the pound is—1 s. 0 d.
  • Gum Armoniack, or Amoniack, softends, draws and heats, dissolved in vineger, and applied Plaister wise, taketh away hardness in the flesh and made in o an Cintment with Sallet Oyl, is good to anoint the s [...]ff and wearied LImbs of a Horse; An Ource of it made up into a Pill according to Art, Loosneth the Belly, and is good for a Horse that stales Blood. The price the pound is—1 s. 6 d.
  • Opopo [...]x is of a heating, mollifying, digesting quality. See more of the virtues of it in the Table of Simples. the price the pound is-5 s 4 c.
  • Gum Arabick thickneth, cooleth and correcteth sharp humors, helpeth Burnings, and keepeth the Place from Blistering, the price the pounds is—0 s. 10 d.
  • Opium is good to cause Sleep, but be very cautious how you use it, two or three Crains is enough to give him at a time, the price the pound is—12 s. 0 d.
  • Gum Dragon is good for Coughs and Distillations upon the Lungs, and is also a good put into Poultisses to sodder Wounds together, especially Nerves and Sinews that be hart, the price the pound is—1 s. 6 d.
  • English Liquoris Juice strengthens the lungs, and helpeth Colds and Coughs, and is better for use then the Powder of Liquoris, the price of it the pound is—1 s. 0 d.
  • Spanish Liquoris-Juice is of far better use then the English, and hath the same virutes as the English▪ but more effectual for the Purposes aforesaid, the price of it the pound is—1 s. 4 d.
  • Accatiae is a small Thorn growing in Egypt, out of the leaves and fruit wherof is drawn a Juice or Liquor, which being dried is called by this Name; it is cold and very Ast [...]ingent and binding, and therefore is very good to st [...]p Lasks, Loosness, or Scouring; The Apothecaties hath seldom the right, but instead thereof use the juice of Sloes, which they call by this Name; The price of the Right is worth five or six shillings, but of the common but one.
  • 'Tis not so strong as Alloes Suc­ce [...]ing.
    Rozin of Jallop is a very good Purge for a Horse; but if you think it too dear, you may use the Powder of the Root, the price of it the Ounce is about—4 s. 6 d.
  • [Page 164] Mastick, see the vertues of it in the Table of Simples, the price the pound according to its goodness is from 2 s. to 5 s.
  • Manna is a very safe and gentle Purger, you may give him a quarter of a pound of it, or more, dissolved in a Pint of Canary, or four want of that, aquart of warm Ale or Beer; It is temperately hot and cleanseth the Throat and Breast. The price the pound is according to its good­ness from 2 s. to 6 s but now it is so scarce that it is worth 11 s.
  • Olibanum is hot in the second degree and dry in the first; You may give an Ounce of it safely at a time; It helps Loos [...]ess and the shedding of the Seed; It is also good for Colds and Coughs, and to make Plaisters of, the price the [...]ound is—2 s. 0 d.
  • Burguncy-Pitch is good applied as a Plaister, for all Pains coming of B [...]u [...]ses or Dislocation, the price the pound is—0 s. 4 d.
  • Bdelium, see the vertues of it in the Table of Simples, the price the pound is—5 s. 6 d.
  • Gum Carauna outwardly applied is very good fo Aches and Swellings in the Nerve and Joynts, and also good [...] draw back humors from the Eyes▪ spread upon a Leather, and laid behind his Eares, the price the pound is—10 s. 0 d.
  • Pitch common Mollifieth hard Swellings and bringeth them to Suppu­puration; It cleanseth Ulcers and filleth m with Flesh; The Table of Simples will shew you more of the use of [...] the price the pound is—0 s. 2 d.
  • Rozin, all the sorts of them are good to f [...]l [...] holl wU cers and Woun [...]s with Flesh and to comfort the Body oppressed with cold Griefs, the price of the best the pound is—0 s. 3 d.
  • Stone-Pitch is very good to strenghten w [...]ak and sway [...]d Backs, or Sinew-strains, applied in the nature of a Charge, with other strength­ning Gums, the price the pound is—0 s. 5 d.
  • Sangus Draconis in the Lu [...]p the Pound is:—3 s. 0 d.
  • Sanguis Draconis is drops the pound is—4 s. 6 d.
  • They cool and bind exceedingly and are very good given inwardly or applied outwardly, for the stopping of Fluxes of blood.
  • Tartar French is the Excrements of Wine which sticks to the Vessel; it is hot and dry an cleanseth, the pricethe pound is—0 s. 6 d.
  • Tartar Renish the pound is—0 s. 7 d.
  • Frankincense applied to the Temples, stops the Rheum that flows to the Eyes, and also is very good to stop th bleeding of Wounds, though the Arteries be cut, if it be applied to them made up into a Salve or [Page 165] Ointment. The price the Pound is—0 s. 4 d.
  • Borax inwardly taken in small quantities, stops Fluxes and the Run­ning of the Reins, and eing be atcn to fine Powder, and put into green Wounds, Cureth them specaily; The best is that that comes out of the Silver and Godl Mines, the Price the Pound is—2 s. 6 d.
  • Turpentine common, see the vertues of it in the Table of Simples, the Price the Pound is—0 s. 3 d.
  • If you intend to clcanse the Horse Reins, being soul, which you may know by the Mattering of his Yard, then make it up into Balls, accord­ing to Art, with some Flower and Bole-A [...]moniack, and give him a Ball of it every Morning till you find him Cured.
  • Turpentine Venice the best the pound is—1 s. 3 d.
  • Tar [...] is very good for a Cold given a Horse, mingled with the Flower of Brimstone, the Fat of Rusty Bacon and Honey, made up into Balls with some Powder of Liquoris, and given him for two or three Mornings together; It is also good to put into Salves for the Cure of Wounds; The price the pound is—0 s. 2 d.
  • Gum Elmni is very good for Fractures in the Skull, and also for Wounds, and is commonly put into Plaisters for that purpose, the common price of it the pound when it is plenty is about 2 s. but now it is worth 3 s. 0 d.
  • Eusorblum is a Gum that comforteth wounds; you may see more of the vertues of it in the Table of Simples, the price the pound is 0 s. 8 d.
  • Labdanum, is a Gum that is of a very heating Nature, yet mollifying; It is used in Plaisters to open the Mouth of Veins, and is also good to keep hair from falling off, and for pains in theEars, the price the pound is 1 s. 10 d.
  • Myrrh is a Gum that heats and dries, yet opens and softens the Womb, given in­wardly, and expels the Heam in Beasts, (which is t he same as the after-birth is in Women). It is also very good for Cold and Coughs, and outwardly ap­plied fills up hollow Ulcers with Flesh. The quantity that you may give him inwardly with saf [...]y, is about two or three drams, with other Compounds; You may sie more of the ver [...]ue of it, if you look into the Table of Simples, she price of it the pound is—2 s. 6 d.
  • Storax Calamite is a sweet Gum, which helps Coughs and Distillations upon the Lungs. It is also a very good Perfume for Sickness in the Head, to draw a­way evil Humors from thence, the price of the best the pound is—7 s. 6 d.
  • Storax Liquid is much like Tarr. It is good put into Plaisters, to modifie hard Wounds and Swellings, the price the pound is—0 s. 8 d.
  • Galbanum is a Gum that is hot and dry, and disussing applied to her Shape, ex ­pels the Heam; See more of the vertues of it in the Table of Simples; the price the pound is—2 s. 6 d.
ANIMALS, their Parts and Excrements.
  • [Page 166]Issing glass is made of the Skin of Fishes; it is a very great Strength­ner of a weak Back given inwardly, boiled in Milk with some fine Bole▪Armoniack; if you find it very clear and sweet when you break it, you may conclude that it is very good, the price of it the pound is—3 s. 6 d.
  • Oysters newly opened and applied to a Pestilential Swelling, draweth the venom out of it, the price of these are very well known.
  • Grashoppers bruised and given in Ale or Beer, is very good to [...]ase the Griping Pains of the Guts and Bladder, every Meadow affords plenty of them, which you may have for Gathering.
  • Cantharides are Spanish Flies, that will raise Blisters in any sound part of the Body, if they be bruised and applied, the price of them by the Ounce is—0 s. 3 d.
  • Harts-Horn-Shavings resists Poison and Plague, provokes Ʋrine, and strengthens Nature very much, the price the pound is—1 s. 4 d.
  • Ivory Raspt strengthens the Heart and Stomach, and helps the Yel­lows, the price the pound is—0 s. 4 d.
  • Ivory burnt strewed upon a Galled Back, or any raw place, drieth and healeth it up, the price the pound is—0 s. 10 d.
  • Wax sotens, heats and fills up Sores with flesh put into Oyntments and used as a Salve, the price of the white the pound is—1 s. 6 d.
  • The price of the Yellow is—1 s. 3 d.
  • Honey is a most excellent cleansing thing, and profitable in all inward Ʋlcers and Wounds, in what part of the Body soever they be; It also opens the Veins, and strengthens the Reins and Bladder. The price the pound is—0 s. 6 d.
  • A Stags Pizzle dried, and the powder given him in Ale, helps the Bi­ting of venomous Beasts, stirs up Lust, and provokes Urine, the price the Ounce is—0 s. 6 d.
  • The Bone that is found in a Stags Heart, being well dried and beten to powder, and given him in Ale, is also very good against Poison and Pestilence, the price of it the Ounce is—1 s. 4 d.
MINERALS, METALS and STONES.
  • Verdegrease, see the Nature of it in the Table of Simples, the price the pound is—1 s. 8 d.
  • [Page 167] Allom Common the pound is—0 s. 3 d.
  • Allom Roch is the best, see the virtues of them in the Table of Simples, the price the pound is—0 s. 5 d.
  • Bole-Armoniack is a certain red Earth which is cold and dry, and dri­veth back evil Humors; It is also very good to stop Bleeding, either inwardly given, or outwardly applied, by strewing the powder of it upon Wounds; the Greasiest is accounted the best, the price of it the Common the pound is—0 s. 2 d.
  • The pric of the best is—0 s. 4 d.
  • Quick-silver is good given a Horse that hath his Guts Twisted by Wind, and is also good for the Farcy▪ you may give him with safety a quarter of a pound of it at a time with Sallet-Oyl, the price of it the pound is—3 s. 6 d.
  • Brimstone, see the Table of Simples for the virtues of it, the price the pound is—0 s. 2 d.
  • Flower of Brimstone is better then the common Powder, for any in­ward use you apply it, Therefore I advise you wherever you meet with any of the common powder in your Medicaments, take this in the Room of the other▪ the virtues are the same with the common Brimstone, but more effectual in [...]peration; 'Tis good for Colds, Coughs and rotten Lungs, as also for the Wormes, Yellows and Mange, the price the pound is—0 s. 6 d.
  • Red Corral prepared according to Art, that is made into a very fine powder, and about as much of it as will lie upon a broad shilling given him in Claret or Beer, stops any Issue of Blood, Scouring or Run­ning of the Reins, if it be often Repeated; you may see more of the virtues of it in the Table of Simples, the price the pound is—6 s. 0 d.
  • Steel Filings cleanseth not only the Reins and Bladder from Gravel, but is also a great Purifyer and Sweetner of the Blood, the price the pound is—0 s. 6 d.
  • White-lead is of a cold, dry and earthy quality; It helps inflammations and dries up evil humours, the price of it the pound is—0 s. 4 d.
  • Lythargy of Gold and Silver binds and dries much, they fill up Ulcers with flesh, and heals them; the Gold is accounted the best, and is worth the pound—0 s. 5 d.
  • The Silver the pound is—0 s. 3 d.
  • Red Lead mixed with Sallet-Oyl, being beaten to a very fine Powder, [Page 168] and the grieved place where the Pole-evil is anointed with it every day, and heated well in with a hot Fire shovel, will sink it, the price of it the pound is—0 s. 3 d.
  • Lapis Haematites or Blood-stone, is good to stanch Bleeding inwardly and outwardly, being Ground very fine, and given him. It hath also many other Medicinal Vertues. The price the pound is—3 s. 0 d.
  • Sal Prunella the pound is—0 s. 10 d.
  • Mercury Precipitate the pound is—8 s. 0 d.
  • Sal Armoniack is hot and dry in the fourth degree, the pound is 1 s. 0 d.
  • Sal Jemma, see the vertues of it in the Table of Simples. the price the pound is—0 s. 4 d.
  • S [...]t-Peter refined in the Lump evaporateth▪ It comforteth the Sinews, and taketh away tyring and weariness; The price in the Lump or Chrystallized the pound is—1 s 0 d.
  • Tutia is a certain Mineral that is cold in the first, and dry in the second degree, and is very good for the defects in the Eyes, the price the pound is—2 s. 0 d.
  • Vitriol, which we call Copperas is of two ▪Kinds. viz. Vitriol Ro­manum, which we call green Copperas, and Vitriol Albium, which we call white Copperas; They are both hot and dry, but the white ac­counted the stronger; They take away Scurfs and kill Scabs, boiled in Spring water, and the grieved place Bathed therewith, the price of the white the Pound is—1 s. 6 d.
  • The price of the Green the pound is 2 s. 4 d. It is very good laid in Spring▪water (till it be Coloured) for sore Eyes
  • Vitriol Common, or Copperas green and white, which is sold at the Colour-shops is worth about three half pence▪ or two pence the pound
  • Irish Slate beaten to a very fine Powder, and about an Ounce of it given in a quart of warm [...]le is very good for a Horse that hath been bruised by Falls, the price the pound is—0 s. 8 d.
SIMPLES that you may buy [...]heaper at the Druggists, t' en you can prepare them your selves.
  • Elecampane Powder the best the Pound is—1 s. 2 d.
  • Elecampane Powder the common the Pound is—0 s. 8 d.
  • Liquoris Powder the best the Pound is—1 s. 4 d.
  • [Page 169] Liquor is powder the common the Pound is—0 s. 5 d:
  • Red Sanders Powder the best the Pound is—1 s. 4 d.
  • Turmerick powder the best the Pound is—0 s. 11 d.
  • Powder of Ginger the Pound is—0 s. 6 d.
PRICS of s veral Things bought of the GROCERS.
  • Sugar▪candy white is good for sore Eyes, being beaten to Powder and blown into them, the price of it the pound is—1 s. 4 d.
  • Sugar-candy brown is good made up with other Simples or Compounds for Colds or Coughs, the price the pound is—0 s. 10 d.
  • Common Treacle is also very good for Colds, Coughs and Surfeits, made up with other Compounds or his Drink sweetned therewith, and a Lump of sweet Butter put to it, the price the pound is—0 s. 3 d.
OYLS.
  • Oyl of O rganum is very good for all manner of Swellings, occasioned by Bruises or Strains in the Nerves and Sinews the price the pound is—32 s.
  • Oyl of Euphorbium helps Sinews and strengthens them, mollifying their hardness the price the pound is—32 s.
  • Oyl of St. Johnswort is also very good for all Sinew-Strains and Swel­lings in any part of the Body, the price the pound is—1 s. 6 d.
  • N [...]v [...] Oyl is good to strengthen the Nerves and Sinews, the price of the best the pound is—0 s. 6 d.
  • The price of the Common is—0 s. 3 d.
  • Oyl of Turpentine is good for Swellings, Bruises, Strains and old sores and F [...]ulaes, the price the pound is—0 s. 6 d.
  • 'Tis com­monly adul­terated with the Oyl of Turpentine. This is also adulterated.
    Oyl of Spike is also good for all manner of St ains, whether in the Shouder or Joynts, and also for all manner of Swellings in any part of the Body the price of the righ the pound is—1 s. 0 d.
  • Oyl of Peter is very good for stains, hard swellings splints, spavins and [...]ruises. The Places grieved being anointed with it, the price the pound is—2 s. 6 d.
  • Have a care of the adul­terate.
    Oyl of Exceter is also good for the same Distempers, the price the pound is—1 s 6 d.
  • Oyl of sweet Almonds, helps Colds and Coughs wet and dry sweet­ned with brown sugar Candy; it is good also for Ulcers in the Bladder and Reins, and is a great Enc [...]easer of seed; if you give it inwardly, use new, for it will soure in three or four days, the price the ounce is—0 s. 4 d.
  • [Page 170] Oyl of Bays is good for the Cholick, and is a Sovereign Remedy for any Disease in any part of the Body coming of Wind or Cold, you may safely give him feur or five drops of it at a time, in any Com­pound Medicine appropriated to that use, the price the pound is—1 s. 4 d.
  • Have a care of the Adul­terate.
    Oyl of Swallows is very good to anoint the Sinews of a Horse, that stumbles or ae shrunk, to stretch and make them give way again, and is also good for all manner of Bruises, Sprains and Strains, the price the pound is—1 s. 6 d.
Chymical PREPARATIONS bought of the Druggist.
  • Mercurius dulcis sub. the Ounce is—0 s. 6 d.
  • Tarta [...]um Vitriolarum the Ounce is—1 s. 0 d.
Chymical Prices of CYLS and SPIRITS, which do Corrode and eat off dead and proud Flesh, and Dony Excrescences.
  • Aqua fortis Singlethe Pound is—2 s. 0 d.
  • Aqua fortis double the Pound is—4 s. 0 d.
  • Oyl of Anniseeds the Ounce is—0 s. 8 d.
  • Oyl of Organum the Ounce is—0 s. 3 d.
  • Oyl of Tartar Deliq. the ounce is—0 s. 6 d.
  • Oyl of Vitriol the ounce is—0 s. 3 d.
COMPOUNDS or ELECTUARIES.
  • Diascordium stops fluxes, and mightily strengthers the Heart, it is not so hot, but it may be Given to a sick Horse to provoke Sleep, one ounce of it is enough to give him at a time, dissolved in a quart of warm Beer the price the ounce is—0 s. 2 d.
  • Diatessaron, see the virtues of it in the First Part; 'Tis worth the Pound at the Apothecaries 1 s. 8 d. but if you make it your self, you may make it for 1 s.
  • Mithridate is good against Poison, provokes Sweat, is good for Con­sumptions and Colds, helps the Cholick, by expressing the Wind, as also Ulcers in the Bladder, two or three drams is enough to give [Page 171] him at a time dissolved in a quart of Ale or Beer, the price the pound is—6 s. 0 d.
  • London-Treacle is a very good Cordial; It resists Poison, and is an excellent Antidote against pestilential diseases; it strengthens also a cold Stomach, and helps Ingestion; You may give him with safety two Ounces of it by its self, or more, (according to the strength and courage of the Horse) dissolved in a Pint of Sack, or for want of that a quart of [...] Ale or Beer sweetned with Honey. But if you put it into [...] where there are other compounds mixed with it, then [...] the price of it the pound is—2 s. 0 d.
OYNTMENS.
  • [...] O [...]ntment, is a most excellent [...] in the Nerves and Arteries coming of [...] as a [...]so for old B [...]uises-dead pa [...]sies, Chillness, Coldness or [...] or any particular Member, by hard Travel or otherwise; 'Tis indeed a mest precious Fewel both for Man or Beast, for any Dis­ease in any part of the Body coming of cold; It is also very good for the W [...]n [...] [...] if the Belly be anointed with as, and chase) and heated invery well; 'Tis sold at the Apothecaries by the Pound, for—1 s. 01 1 s. 2 d.
  • Dialtlae [...] is very good to moisten hard Wounds, and to soften hard Swellings, or any Bony Excrescence in the Flesh; It is sometimes given inwardly to a Horse or Cow, (with very good success) that is in great danger of loss of life, by licking up any venomous or poisonous thing, either at Hay or Grass, or when they have over-Gorged them­selves by eating too much delicious food, as Clover-Grass, Turnep­tops, or the like, which will cause them to swell so full, that they will be ready to burst. If you find him in this desperate condition, give him according to his Strength and Constitution, more or less of this Ointment, mixed with the like quantity of Castle-sope, dissolved in some warm Beer, and Ride or stir him afterwards, which will not on­ly make him Piss freely, but also cause him to scoure, which is the best means I know of to be use for the preservation of his Lifoe. This is sold at the Apothecaries also for about 1 s. 8 d. the pound. If you desire to knew for your farther satisfaction, what things this ointments is made up with, take this Acceunt of them; They are these viz. Sallet-Oyl, [Page 172] Marsh-Mallowes, Linseeds, Fennegreek-seeds, Bees Wax, Rozin and Turpentine. If he be a strong, lusty and healthy Horse, you may venture to give him two Ounces of each. But this I leave to the skilful Farrier, Discretion.
  • Patch or Piece Grease, was formerly made by the Shoomakers from the shreds of their Leather boiled in Spring water, on the top of which a­rises a certain Oyly Unctuous Matter which they skin off, and boil up with other Ingredients to a Salve. 'Twas many years ago frequently used to Liquor Boots and Shooes with, and only made by them for that purpose; But the more skilful in the Art of Farring hath found out a far better use for it, viz. The Curing of many outward Di­stempers, which you shall have an Account of in its due time and place; This most excellent Receipt or Salve is almost quite lost to Posterity, for few or none can make it truly. I knew only but of one, and she is a Shoomakers Wife, who keeps this secret to her self, (and you cannot much blame her for it) by reason of the great profit and advantage she bath made by the sale thereof, having got many
    She has been dead about lafayear, but he Son contrives in the H use, and sells it.
    a fair Pound by it. Her Name is Mrs Harvey, and keeps a small Alchouse in Bedford-Bury street, near Covent-Garden, at the Sign of the Hornes.

The Virtues of it. 'Tis a most Excellent Ointment of it self both for Man or Beast, for all Pains and Aches in the Limbs New or Old; As also for all manner of Stains and Swellings, in what part of the Body soever they be. But more powerful and effectual it is in Operation, for these several Di­stempers. If it be used according to Markhams Direction, viz. To Melt ten Ounces of it on the Fire, and after you have taken it off put into it these several Oyls here under-written, viz.

  • Oyl of Spike four ounces.
  • Oyl of Origanum one ounce
  • Oyl of Exceter an Ounce and a half
  • Oyl of St. Johns-wort three ounces.

Stir all these very well together and put it up into a Gally-Pot close coverd with a Bladder and Leather over that, and keep it for your use.

A CAUTION: If you cannot get Piece-Grease use Goose Grease, but this is not half [Page 173] so Powerful in Operation as the other. But this I must needs say of it, it is of such thin and subtil Parts, that it will quickly search to the bottom of the grieved Part.

How you are to use it.
  • Melt your Ointment over the Fire, and anoint the grieved place and rub and chafe it in very well with your hand, holding at the same instant before it a hot Brick-bat, or Fire shovel to make it sink in the better.
  • Anoint it once in two days, but rub and chase it in twice or thrice a day, and give him moderate Exercise.
  • The Price of this excellent Salve, as she commonly sells it for the Pound is—4 s. 0 d.
SPIRITS.
  • Spirit of Lavender is a most excellent Cordial, and may serve in the Room of many more; you may give him half an ounce of it in a quart of warm Ale or Beer sweetned with Honey or Common Treacle. This is sold at the Apothecaries by the ounce for—0 s. 4 d.
Compound Powders bought of the Druggist.
  • Horse Spice, see the Virtues of it in the Receipt how to make it in the First Part, the price the pound is—0 s. 6 d.
  • Diapente, see also the Vertues of it in the First Part, the price the pound is—0 s. 10 d.
Another single Powder.
  • Carolina is a kind of Sea-Moss, that grows upon the Rocks; It is cold, binding and drying, and is good for hot Inflammations, and to kill Wormes, you may safely give him as much of the powder of it as will lie upon a shilling in Ale or Beer, the price the pound is—0 s. 4 d.
WATERS.
  • Treacle-Water hath the same vertues as the Treacle, the price the Pint is—4 s. 6 d.

A Caution to the Farrier about the Buying of his Drugs.

These several Drugs both Simple and Compound, which the Farrier makes use of in the Cure of any inward or outward Di­stemper, [Page 174] does commonly Rise or Fall according to the scarcity or plenty of them; And therefore I Advise you, whenever you have occasion to buy any of them, do not depend too much upon the Prices here set you, but get them as cheap as you can. For 'tis customary amongst the Druggists not to sell any thing, unless they get double, if not treble profit by what they sell, though withal I must tell you, they are here valued as near to their standing selling price as can be possibly, for Goods that do Rise and Fall, yet not­withstanding this, I am perswaded to believe they yet get four pence out of every shillings worth of Goods they generally sell, &c.

THE SECOND PART OF T …

THE SECOND PART OF THE EXPERIENC'D FARRIER.

SHEWING, I. The Nature, Temperature and Vertue of most Simples, for the Cure of all inward and outward Diseases, never yet Printed in this Nature be­fore.

II. You have things in general, set down one after another, for the Cure of all diseases, which you may use as your discretion serves

III. You have severally particular Receipts for the Cure of all Diseases.

IV. Where you find the Hand Pointing, you shall finde such Receipts that were never before Printed.

V. You have the Gathering, Drying and Preserving of Simples and their Juices.

VI. You have the way of making and keeping of all necessary Compounds.

VII. You have hot Medicaments appropriate to the Parts of the Body.

VIII. You have cold Medicaments appropriate to the Parts of the Body.

IX. You have the Properties of Purging Medicaments.

X. You have the Properties of altering Medicaments.

XI. You have a Table of all the Diseases of a Horse, either inwardly or outwardly, set down Alphabetically, where they do grow in any part of a Horses Body, and how you may know them, and what was the cause that bred them.

XII. And lastly, you have in the Margent of these said Diseases, the Page quoted where to find the proper Cure for every of these Diseases, with many other things contained in this Book, not here inserted.

The Second Impression much Enlarged and A­mended by A. O.

LONDON, Printed for Richard Northco: Adjoyning to St. Peters Alley in Cornh [...]ll; And at the Anchor and Marriner near London-Bridge. 1680.

Purging Simples.

Rubarb, Cassia, Tamarinds, Myrobalans, Aloes, Seeny or Senna, Me­choachan Root, Agarick, Pollypody, Carthamus, Bastard or Spanish Saf­fron, Dwarfs Elder, Ensula or Devils Milk, Hermodactils, Jallop, Tur­bich, Scamony, Hellebore or Bears foot, Colloquintida, Spurge-Olive, Spurge-Flax, Lawrel, Soldanella, Turn-sole, &c.

Binding-Simples. Look for them in the Table, at the latter End of the Book.

Foreign Simples that are Heating.

Ginger, Zedory or Set-wall, Galangel, Acorus or Water-Flag, Calamus Aromaticus, or the Ariomatical Reed, Costus, Cinnamon, Nutmegs, Mace, Pepper, Cloves, Cardamums, Cubebs, Kermes, Sanders, Sassafras, China-Root, Guiaccum or Lignum vitae, Sarsaparilla, Aloes wood, &c.

Home-bred Heating Simples.

Pellitory of Spain, Mustard Common, and Treacle Mustard, Rocket, Nettles, Flower-de-luce, or Orrice, Elecampane, Cyprus, Angelica, Lo­vage, Hartwort, Gentian, Turmentil, Paeony, Madder, Rest-harrow, Sea-holly, Common-Grass, Liquoris, Sow-bread, Radish-roots, Anemone or Wind-Flower, Wall-Flowers, Tyme, Marjorem, Penny-Royal, Polium, Basil, Origanum, Mint, Calamint, Wormwood, Mug-wort, Balm, Hore­hound, Bitony, Speedwell, Ditany, Sage, Clary, French Lavender, Scor­dium, Rue, Gromel, Saxifrage, Aristolochia or Birth-wort, Asarabaca, Burnet, Germander, Ground-pine, Feather-few, St. Johns-wort, Hysop, Cranes-bill, Doronicum or Leopards-bane, Cardus Benedictus, Mother­wort, black Chameleon Thistle, Valerian, Fumitory, Eye-bright, Cen­tory, Rhaphonticum, Coriander, Wood-bine, Broom, Ashen-Keys, Misle­toe of the Oak, poplar, Cummin-seeds, &c.

Cooling Simples.

Mandrake, Night-shade, Winter-Cherries, Henbane, Poppey, Housleek, Purslain, Dogs-Tongue, Plantine, Knot-Grass, Comfrey, Sorrel, Agri­mony, Sower-dock, Primrose, Cabbage or Garden Coleworts, Flea-bane, Colts-foot, Hops, Bistort, Strawberry Bush, Cinquefoil, Goose-grass or Cleavers, Scabius, Cats-foot, Melilots, Fennegreek, Red Cicers, Lupins, Sumack, Myrtle, Yarrow, Tamarisk.

Before you enter upon the Use of these Simples, (unless you know them very well) Look into the Table of Simples to see the Nature of them, for some of them are very pernicious, unless corrected by Art.

THE Nature, Temperature and Vertue of most Simples, set down Alphabetically. As also some Drugs, Liquors, Seeds, Rozins and Juices, &c.

A.
  • AGaricum, or Agarick is a kind of Mushrom or Toad-stool. It is hot in the first, and dry in the second degree. It expelleth Humors, purgeth all phlegm and choler, and is good for the Liver and Kid­neys; correct it with the powder of Liquoris.
  • Agripa is an Ointment that is good against all Humors.
  • Amoniacum is hot in the third degree, and dry in the second; it loos­neth and dissolveth Humours.
  • Allom, commonly called Roch-Allom, is hot and dry in the third degree, it is a drier up of Humors, and is good for fore Mouths, and old Cankers and Fistulaes, and killeth the Wormes taken inwardly.
  • Alloes is hot, and that in the first and second degree, but dry in the third, it is extream bitter, yet without biting; it is the most Natural Purger of Man and Beast that is, for it strengthens the Heart, and revives the Spi­rits; it is also of an Emplastick and Clammy quality, and somtimes bind­ing, being externally applied.
  • Sweet Almonds when they be dry be moderately hot; but the bitter ones are hot and dry in the second degree; there is in both of them a certain Fat and Oyly substance, which is drawn out of them by pressing of them. They provoke Urine, and is very good for the Lungs and Liver.
  • Anniseed are hot and dry in the third degree, saith Galen, but others, that they are hot in the second degree, and much less then dry in the se­cond degree; they are good to expel Wind, provoke Urine, stir up Lust, and is a great cleanser of the Breast from phlegmatick Humors.
  • A [...]stolochia, which we call Birth-wort or Harts-wort, is hot and clean­seth, but if it be Rotunda, then it is so much the stronger, being hot and dry in the fourth degree, and draweth and purgeth thin Water and Phlegm, and is good to open the Lungs, and is good against all manner of Poison whatsoever, or the Biting of any venomous Beast.
  • Armoniack, both draweth, cooleth and softneth.
  • Arsnick of both kinds, is hot in the third, and dry in the first degree, it bindeth and eateth away proud and naughty Flesh, and is a very strong Corrosive.
  • [Page 178] Assafoetida, or Devils-Bit, is a stinking Gum that is hot in the third, and dry in the fourth degree, it cleanseth evil Humors, it is good for the Yel­lows and Staggers in a Horse, a little piece of it being dissolved in Brandy, and put it into his Eares.
  • Asphaltum, is Pitch that is mixt with Bitumen, it is hot and dry, and omforteth any swelling.
  • Asponteo is hot in the first, and dry in the second, it cleanseth and draw­eth, and is good to comfort the Stomach.
  • Ashes are hot and dry in the fourth degree, and cleanseth mightily.
  • As [...]rabacca is hot and dry with a purging quality, yet not without a certain kind of binding, the Roots are hot and dry, more then the leaves, they procure Urine.
  • The black Alier Tree, the inner Bark of it is of a purging and drying quality, it purgeth thick phlegmatick Humours, and also Cholerick down­wards, and also by vomiting, which must be used with care.
  • Of Aller or Alder Tree, the leaves and bark of it are cold and dry, and Astringent, and is used against hot Swellings and In [...]lammations, especi­ally of the Almonds and Kernels of the Throat, the bark of it is used a­mongst poor Countrey Dyars, to Dye Cloth, Caps, Hoose and such like.
  • The Ash Tree, the leaves and bark of it are dry and moderately hot, the Seeds are hot and dry in the second degree, they stop the Belly, being boiled in Vineger and Water, the Se [...]ds provoke Urine and stir up bo­dily Lust.
  • Asp [...]d [...]lls are hot and dry in the third degree.
  • Anemones, all the kinds of them (which are Wind-Flowers,) are sharp, biting the tongue, and are of a binding faculty.
  • Adders Tongue is dry in the third degree, and is good for Wounds in the Breast and Bowels, and is good for Ulcers and Inflammations.
  • Arsmart▪ or Water-Pepper is hot and dry, yet not so hot as Pepper, is good for Ulcers, cold Swellings, Bruises, and to lay under the Saddle, to make tired Horses go.
  • Alh [...], all the kinds of them are dry with little or no heat, and are en­dued with a binding quality, they are good for green Wounds being brui­sed and boiled in an Ointment; It is good for the Wormes, Gout, Cramp and Convulsions of the Sinews, provokes Urine, and is good for cold Griefs of the Head, biting of mad Dogs, Lethargy, Cholick, Obstructions of the Liver and Spleen, Stone, and expelleth the dead Birth.
  • Archangel or dead Nettles are hotter and drier then Nettles, approach­ing to the temperature of Hore-hound, and is good for the bleeding at the Nose, Ulcers, old sores, Bruises and Burnings, and to dissolve Tu­mors.
  • Alkanet, the Root of it is cold and dry, and bindeth, and because it is bitter it cleanseth away Cholerick Humours; the Leaves are not so for­cible, yet they do bind and dry, and is good for the Stone, Yellows, Le­prosie, [Page 179] venomous Bea [...]ts, Fluxes and Bruises by Falls, Wormes.
  • Angel [...]ca is hot and dry in the third degree, and op [...]n [...]th and attenu­ateth, digesteth and procureth Sweat, and is good against Poison, Plague, Cold, Wind, Cough of the Lungs, Strangury, short Windedness, stoppings of the Liver and Spleen, biting of mad Dogs, Ulcers and old [...]ains.
  • Alexanders or wild Parsley, the seeds & roots are less hot and dry then the Garden Parsley, they cleanse and make thin, being hot and dry in the third degree. They are good to consume Wind, provoke Urine, and is good for the Strangury, and opens the Obstructions of the Liver.
  • Amara dul [...]s, which is woody Night-shade, the fruit and leaves of it are in temperature hot and dry, and cleansing and wasting away, it is good to remove Witchcraft, Tied about the Necks of Cattel, and is good to re­move the Obstructions of the Liver and Spleen, difficulty of Breathing, Bruises by [...]alls, congealed Blood, Dropsey, Yellows.
  • Water-A [...]ri [...]ny is hot and dry in the second degree; It is good to se­cure and open; It maketh thin, thick and gross humors, and to expel and drive them forth by Urine, and therefore is good for the Dropsey; It opens Obstructions of the Liver and Spleen, kills Worms, Itch, Scabs, Flies and Wasps. It is good to strengthen the Lungs, and is good for a Cough and broken Wind in Cattel.
  • Aleho [...]f or Gro [...]d-Ivy is hot and dry, and because it is bitter it scoureth and removeth stoppings out of the Entrails; It is good for inward Wounds, Pains and Gripings by Wind, Choler, Spleen, Plague, Poison, old pains in the Joynts, sore Mouth and Throat, Ulcers in the Privities, Itch, Scabs, Web in the Eyes, Redness and Wateriness in them, and Deaf­ness.
  • Amaranthus, which is called Flower Gentle, is good for the Running of the Reins and inward Bleeding.
  • Garden Arrach, or O [...]rach, is moist in the second degree, and cold in the first; It is a Loosner of the Belly, and fortifieth the expulsive faculty, and is good for Swellings of the Throat being bruised and laid to it, and being taken inwardly is good for the Yellows.
  • Wild [...] Arrach and stinking by smell, is good given inwardly for the Fa [...] ­cy, and is good for any disease of the Womb.
  • A [...]ns called Col [...]wo [...], or Herb B [...]n [...]t, hath a drying and binding fa­culty, with a certain salt quality, wherby they clense, the decoction of them Loosneth the Belly, and is good for the Diseases of the Chest and Breast; It is good for inward Wound [...], the Heart, a cold Brain, Obstructions, Cho­lick, Fluxes, Ruptures, Plague, Poison.
  • Agarick cometh of the Larch Tree, which is almost like a Pine-tree, and the leaves and bark is in temperature like it, but not so strong. It pur­geth away gros [...] and phlegmatick humors; it troubleth the stomach, therefore Ging [...]r is to be Mixed with it; it is hot in the first degree, and dry in the second; it is good against short Windedness, Cough of the [Page 180] Lungs, Consumption, comforteth the Stomach, and is good against Worms.
  • Agnus C [...]stus, the leaves and roots of it are hot and dry in the third de­gree, they are of very thin parts, and waste and consume Wind.
B.
  • Balm is hot and dry in the second degree, and it mundisieth and clean­seth, it chear [...] up the Heart▪ opens Obstructions of the Brain, and is a re­medy against the stinging or biting of any venomous Beast, Mad dogs, the bloody Flux, Surfeit, short-windedness.
  • The B [...]rberry bush, the leaves and berries are cold and dry in the second degree, and as Gallen affirmeth, are of thin parts, and have a certain cut­ting quality; they are good to stop La [...]ks and bloody Fluxes, the inner Rind of the Tree is good to purge the Body of Cholerick Humours, and is good for Agues, Scabs, Itch, Tetters, Yellows, Boyls, Scalding and the Farcin.
  • Garden-B [...]zil is hot in the second degree, but it hath adjoyned with it a superfluous moisture, and therefore not very good to be taken inwardly, but being applied outwardly to the stinging of any venomous Beast, Wasps or Hornets, it taketh away the venom.
  • Wilde Bazil, the seeds are hot and dry.
  • Bazil V [...]lerian is dry in the second degree.
  • Bay-berries are vehemently hot and dry, and are good for all manner of Rheumes, shortness of Wind, especially for any disease of the Lungs, they are good against Poison, Consumptions, Phlegm, helpeth Tiredness, Cramps, Stone, stopping of the Liver, the Yellows and Dropsey, and pro­vokes Urine.
  • Bdelium is a Gum that is brought out of Arabia and the holy Land, and is hot and dry; it softeneth and draweth away Moisture, and is good for all manner of hard Swellings whatsoever; it is most excellent for mix­ture with a Poultess, against hardness and knots in the Sinews, and being drunk, breaks the Stone, and expels Urine.
  • Beans are moderately cold and dry, and are very Windy, Ladies Bed­straw is good for the Stone, and stays inward and outward Bleeding.
  • White B [...]ets are in moisture and heat temperate, and is a Loosner of the Belly, and is of a cleansing quality, and provoketh Urine.
  • Red Beets are of a binding quality, and therefore good to stop the bloo­dy Flux.
  • Water B [...]tony is hot and dry, and is good for Ulcers and Bruises.
  • Whi [...]e Runn [...]ng Bitony smelling like Marjorum, is hot and dry in the third degree, it bindeth Wounds and Conglutinateth, and is good for Diseases of the Liver, for the Wormes, Old Sores and Wounds, and is commonly called Centau [...]y.
  • Beech-Tree, the leaves of it doth cool, and the Kernels of the Nut is somewhat moist, the leaves are good for hot swellings, and the Water that [Page 181] is found in the hollow places of it, will Cure Man or B [...]ast, of any Scurf, Scab, or running Tetters anointed therewith.
  • Blites are of a cold and moist Temperature, and are good to stay Fluxes of Blood.
  • Bilberries called by some VVhorts, and Whortle-berries, are cold, even in the latter end of the second degree, and dry also, and are of a binding quality; there is two sorts of them, a black and a red, the black are good for hot Agues, and to cool the heat of the Liver and Stomach, and do bind the Belly, the red are more binding, and stay any Fluxes of Blood whatsoever, used outwardly or taken inwardly.
  • Byfoil or Tway-blade are often used for Wounds both green and old, and to Conglutinate and Knit Ruptures.
  • Bitumen is the fatness of the Earth swimming above the water, which cast upon the Shore condensates and becomes hard, and resembles dry pitch, it discusses, mollifies, glutinates and defends from Inflammation; It takes away gross humors in all parts of the Body, and cures the Weak­ness of the Sinews, Palsey, and diseases of the Arteries from a cold cause.
  • Birch-tree, the Juice of the leaves is good to wash a sore Mouth or Throat, and is good to break the Stone in the Kidneys or Bladder.
  • Birds-foot, all the kinds of them are of a drying quality, and therefore very good to be used in Wounds drinks, and to be applied outwardly for the same purpose; but the paler Flowered Birds-foot is good to break the Stone in the Back and Kidneys, and helpeth the Rupture taken in­wardly.
  • Bishops-weed is hot and dry in the third degree, of a bitter taste, and something sharp withal; it provokes Lust, causeth Urine, is good for the Wind, and for the biting of venomous Beasts.
  • Bistort or Snakeweed is cold and dry in the third degree, the leaves and roots are excellent good to resist Poison or Plague, and is good for all manner of Fluxes of blood whatsoever, and stayeth a Lask, is good for the Yellows, Ruptures, or Burstness and staling of blood.
  • One blade is a very Cordial Herb, and will cause sweat, and is sove­reign against the Plague, by expelling the Poison, and is an excellent VVound-herb for green and old wounds, and Sinews cut.
  • The Bramble or black Bush, the flowers and leaves of the unripe fruit do very much bind and dry, and is good for all kind of Fluxes, the buds, leaves and branches of it, while they are green, are of good use in Ulcers and putrid Sores; the Root is good against the Stone in the Reins or Kid­neys; the leaves of them are good for sore Mouths and Throats, or Quin­sey, the powder of the dried leaves strewed on Cankers do wonderfully heal them.
  • Burrage and Bugloss is in a mean betwixt hot and cold, the leaves and roots are good against Pestilential Feavers, Poison of venomous Beasts, Yellows, Itch, Tettars, Wormes, Weakness, Corruption, Cough, sore Mouth or Throat.
  • [Page 182] Blew-bottle is naturally cold, dry and binding; the powder of the dried leaves is good taken inwardly, is good for broken Veins, and given with Plantine water expelleth Poison or the Plague, the Juice of it is good to sodd [...]r green wounds together, and is good to heal Sores in the Mouth; And the Juice of the leaves dropped into the Eyes, taketh away the In­flammation of them.
  • Bra [...]k-ursine, Bears-breech and Acanthus is betwixt hot and cold, being somewhat moist, with a mollifying and digesting quality, as are these of the Mallow▪ and are good to put in Glisters to Loosen the Belly; the Decoction taken inwardly is good for the bloody Flux and Burstness; and is good for Hectick Feavers; Or applied made up in a Poultess, unite broken bones, and strengthens the Joynts that have been put out, and is an excellent Remedy for burnings by Fire.
  • White B [...]iony is hot and dry in all parts in the third degree, both the white and the black are furious Martial Plants, and purge the Belly with great violence, and therefore you are to Correct it, and then it is very good for all manner of Griefs in the Head, as also for the Joynts and Si­news, Cramps and Convulsions, Dropsey, provoketh Urine, and is good for the Stone.
  • Brook-lyme or VVater-Pimpernel is a hot and biting Martial Plant, and is of the same Nature as Water-Cresses, and are good to cleanse the blood, provokes Urine, and breaks the Stone.
  • Butchers broom is hot in the second and dry in the first, and is of a cleansing Nature, it openeth Obstructions, provoketh Urine, expelleth Gravel and the Stone, and is good for the Strangury, Yellows and pain in the Head.
  • B [...]oom and Broom-rape, the Twigs, Flowers and feed of it are hot and dry in the second degree, they are of a thin Essence, and are of force to cleanse and open, and especially the feed which is drier, and not so full of superfluous moisture, it is good for the Dropsey, Cleanser of the Reins, Kidneys and Bladder from the Gravel and Stone.
  • Bucks-horn Plantine is of a drying and binding quality, it is good against Poison, Stone in the Reins and Kidneys, stoppeth a Lask, and is good for a bloody Urine and bloody Flux.
  • Bucks-horn is called Harts-horn, Herb-Ivy, Wort-cresses or Swines cres­ses, their vertues are the same with Bucks-horn Plantine.
  • Bugle is of a mean Temperature, and is good taken inwardly to dissolve Congealed Blood that is occasioned by Bruises or Falls, and is effectual in all VVound-drinks, it is good for Fistulaes, Gangrenes, the leaves of it being bruised and applied to them.
  • Burnet is a drier and a binder, yet it is meanly cool, it is a most precious Herb little inferiour to Bitony, it stancheth bleeding as well inwardly as outwardly, and is good to stay the Lask and bloody Flux; It is good for all old Ulcers or Running Cankers and moist Sores, to be used either by [Page 183] Juice or Decoction of the Herb or Root, the seed is also good for the same Purposes aforesaid.
  • The Butter-bur or Petasitis is hot and dry in the second degree, and of thin parts, the Roots is good against the Plague and Pestilential Feavers, by provoking Sweat, the Powder of the Root given in VVine is good to resist the force of Poison; It is good for VVheezing and difficulty of Breathing, kills flat and broad Worms.
  • Bran is hot and dry, and dissolveth very much.
  • Bur [...]-deck is dry and wasting, the root is something hot, the leaves are cooling and moderately drying, and is good for old Ulcers and Sores, the Juice of the leaves or roots is good against the biting of any venomous Beast, the seed of it is most excellent to provoke Urine, being beaten to Powder, and drank in white-Wine or Ale, and remedieth the pains in the Bladder; It is good for Burnings, Cankers.
  • Bu [...] re [...]ds are cold and dry of Complexion.
  • Vipers bugloss, all the kinds of them are cold and dry of Complexion.
  • Sea Bind-weed is hot and dry in the second degree.
  • Beares- [...]oot or black Hellebore is hotter in taste then the white, and is in like manner hot and dry in the third degree; it is safer to be taken, being purified by the Art of the Alchymist, then given raw; the roots are good against all melancholy diseases, as Quartan▪Agues and Madness; It is good for the Falling Sickness, Leprosie, Yellows▪ pains in the Hip; the Root beaten to powder, and strewed upon Ulcers or putrified Sores, con­sumes the dead flesh, and instantly heals them. It will help Gangrenes in the beginning, twenty Grains is a sufficient dose for one time, and let it be Corrected with half so much Cinnamon. The Root boiled in Vi­neger is excellent good against S [...]abs, M [...]nge and Leprosie, a piece of it being put into a Hole made in the Ear of a Beast troubled with a Cough, or that hath taken any Poison, and taken out in twenty four houres, help­eth them; And is very good also to Rowel Cuttel withal that hath the Gargel, and also for many other uses.
  • Bal [...]mo [...]y or F [...]ltwart, the roots are hot, cleansing and scouring, some say it is likewise binding withal.
  • B [...]l [...]om is hot and dry in the second degree, and is good for new and green wounds.
  • Bishops-weed. Herb-VVilliam, Amtos, the seed is hot and dry in the latter end of the third degree; it is given against the biting of any venomous Beast; It causeth Urine, it is good against Poison, the Plague and all Pe­stilential Feavers.
  • Sweet Briar or Eglantine Balls are binding, and are good for bloody Fluxes, and is good to stop a Lask or Loosness.
  • VVilde Briar-balls are greater Binders, and are good to stop a Lask and bloody Flux, and for staling of blood, and is a great Drier up of evil Humours.
  • [Page 184] Bucks-thorn or Laxative Ram, the Berries as they are in taste bitter, so they are binding, and are also hot and dry in the second degree, and doth purge thick phlegm and cholerick humors.
  • The Box-tree is of a binding quality, and is good against the biting of mad Dogs.
  • B [...]acca is cold and dry in the second degree, it closeth things opened, it softens hardness, filleth places empty, and do extenuate all excretions.
  • The Flower of it is best, used for any inward use.
    Brimstone is hot and dry in the third degree, draweth and disperseth hu­mors, killeth the Itch given inwardly, and outwardly applied it is good for Coughs and rotten Phlegm; It is good likewise for the Wormes, be­ing mixed with a little Salt in his Provender; it helps Lethargies snuf­fed up the Nose, heing beaten to powder.
  • B [...]learmoniack is a certain red Earth, which is cold and dry, which draw­eth and driveth back evil humors, and is also an excellent defence against Fluxes of Blood, and all manner of bleeding whatsoever, either taken in­wardly, or outwardly applied.
  • Brine, or Water and Salt is of the same Nature as Salt is, it is good given inwardly to kill Wormes, or applied outwardly to dry humors, and takes away swellings.
C.
  • All Cabbages and Coleworts have a drying and binding faculty, with a certain salt quality, whereby they cleanse, and being boiled in Broth opens the Belly, but the second Decoction binds; the Juice of them drank is good against the Poison of venomous Beasts, they are good against a Consumption, obstructions of the Liver and Spleen, Stone, Swellings, Sores and Scabs, and the Juice being dropped into the Eyes with Honey is good to clear them.
  • The Sea-Colewort is of a biting quality, the first decoction Loosneth, and is more cleansing then the other kind; the seed bruised and drank killeth Wormes, the Juice of them cleanseth and healeth Sores, dissolveth Swellings, and taketh away Inflammations.
  • Calamint or Mountain Mint is of a fervent taste and biting hot, and of a thin substance, and dry after a sort in the third degree; it wasteth away thin humors, cuts and maketh thick humors thin; it is good for Ruptures, Convulsions, Cramps, shortness of Breath, torments and pains in the Sto­mach, helpeth the Yellows, killeth Wormes given with Salt and Treacle, killeth Scabs either inwardly taken or outwardly applied, and killeth the Wormes in the Ears; the Juice being dropped therein.
  • Camomel is hot and dry in the first degree, and of thin parts, and heat­eth moderately, and drieth little; it mollifieth and dissolveth all Griefs, and especially for the Liver; it is good for Swellings, Cholick, Stone, Pains in the Belly, Cold, Yellows, Dropsey and Cramps.
  • [Page 185] VVater-Caltrops are of a cold Nature, and consisteth of a moist Essence, being made into a Poultess, are good for Inflammations, Swellings, Can­kers, sore Mouths and Throats, they are good for the Farcin and Stone, especially the Nuts being dried, they resist Poison, and this biting of ve­nomous Beasts.
  • VVilde Champions are reserved to those of the Garden, they are good to stay inward bleeding, taken inwardly; and outwardly it doth the like to Wounds; it expelleth Urine and Gravel, and purgeth the Body of Cholerick humours, and is good against the poison of venomous Beasts, the Plague, &c. and is good for old Sores, Fistulaes and Cankers, to cleanse and heal them
  • Cardus benedictus is good for pains in the Head, the Yellows and other Infirmities of the Gall, cleanseth the Blood, helpeth the Itch, biting of mad Dogs, and other venomous Beasts, and is good for Agues.
  • VVilde Carrets are hot and dry in the second degree, expelleth Wind, provoketh Urine and causeth Lust; they are good for the Dropsey, Cho­lick, Stone, for running Sores and Ulcers, the seed of them worketh the same effects as the roots do.
  • Caraway-seeds are hot and dry in the third degree, hath a moderate sharp quality, whereby it breaketh Wind, provoketh Urine; the seeds are good for Colds in the Head and Stomach.
  • Cellandine is hot and dry in the third degree, the Juice of it put into the Eyes cleareth them from Films and Cloudiness, which darkneth the Sight, it is good in old filthy creeping Ulcers, to stay their Malignity of fretting and running, and to cause them to heal the more speedily: It heals also Tettars, Ring-wormes and spreading Cankers, the powder of it mixed with brimstone killeth the Mange, it is good taken inwardly for the Yel­lows, and openeth the Obstructions of the Liver and Gall.
  • The lesser Cellandine, called Pilewort, is hot and dry, and more biting and hotter then the greater, and cometh nearest in faculty to the Crow-foot, it is good taken inwardly for the Farcin, and to be applied outward­ly for the same Disease.
  • The ordinary Centaury purgeth cholerick and gross Humors, openeth the Obstructions of the Liver and Gall, helpeth the Yellows, killeth Worms, is good for Cramps and Convulsions, against venomous Beasts, it cleanseth foul Ulcers, and killeth spreading Scabs; all the Centaurys are much of one and the same Nature, only take this Observation, That in Diseases of Blood use the red; if of Choler, use the Yellow; but if of Phlegm or Water, the White is best.
  • VV [...]nter-Cherries, the leaves are cool, and are used in Inflammations, but not opening as the Berries and Fruit are, which draw down the U­rine, and expel the Gravel and Stone out of the Reins, Kidneys and Blad­der; it is also good for all Imposthumes in them, likewise to cleanse them, and is good for bloody and foul Urine.
  • [Page 186] Chervil is of temperate heat and moderate driness, but not so much as the Parsley; it warms the Stomach, and is good to dissolve congealed blood in the Body; it is good for the Stone, the wilde Chervil applied dissolveth Swellings in any part of the Body.
  • Sweet Chervil or sweet Cicely, the Roots warmeth the Stomach oppressed with Wind and Phlegm, and is good for the Consumption of the Lungs, it is good against the Plague, the Juice of it is good to heal Ulcers.
  • Chest-Nut-tree, the Fruit is dry and binding, and is neither hot nor cold, but in a mean between both, the inner Rind that covereth the Nut is of so binding a quality, that it will stop any Lask or Loosness whatsoever, and likewise the bloody Flux.
  • Earth Chest-Nuts are hot and dry in quality, and also binding in qua­lity, but the seed is hotter, they provoke Lust exceedingly, the seed pro­voketh Urine.
  • Chickweed is cold and moist, and of a waterish substance, it cooleth without binding, and is good for all Swellings and Imposthumes whatso­ever, Itch, Scabs, Cramps, and is good for Ulcers and Sores in the privy Parts.
  • Bastard Chickweed is like to the other in Vertue and Operation.
  • Cinquefoil, or Five-leaved Grass, the Roots of it are dry in the third de­gree, and without biting, for they have very little heat and sharpness, it is good given inwardly for Agues, and to cool the heat of Pestilential Fea­vers, the Juice of it drunk for certain days together, Cureth the Quinsey and Yellows; It is good for the Falling Sickness, Cough of the Lungs, the Roots boiled in Vineger is good for all hard Swellings, Knots and Ker­nels, and Lumps growing in any part of the Flesh, and all Inflammations and St. Anthonies Fire, and all sorts of running and foul Scabs, and is good for Ruptures or Burstings used with other things, taken inwardly or outwardly applied, and is good likewise for to stay bleeding of Wounds, inwardly taken or outwardly applied.
  • Garden Clary, or more properly Clear-Eye, is hot and dry in the third degree, the feed put into the Eyes doth clear them of Motes, and takes out the red spots out of them; It is good for Swellings, and draweth forth Splinters and Thornes out of the Flesh; the Powder of the Root put up the Nose purgeth the Head and Brain of much Rheum and corruption; It is a great Strengthner of the Back, the Juice of it drank in Ale or Beer expelleth the secundine.
  • Wilde Clary is hotter and drier then the Garden Clary, the seeds provoke lust, warmes the Stomach, scatters congealed Blood in any part of the Body, and helps dimness of Sight, being put into the Eye, and there let it remain till it drop out of it self, and it will cleanse the Eyes from putri­fied matter, and by often using of it will take off a Film.
  • Cleavers or Goose-grass is moderately hot and dry, and somewhat of [...]in parts; it is good for the biting of any venomous Beast, for the Yel­lows; [Page 187] it stayeth Lasks, bloody Fluxes and bleeding Wounds, being brui­sed and laid to them, as also to close up green Wounds; the powder of the Herb dried and strewed upon old filthy Ulcers helpeth them, and be­ing boiled with Hogs-grease, helpeth all hard swellings about the Throat, being anointed therewith. It is a great Cleanser of the Blood and Strengthner of the Liver.
  • Clowns wound-wort is hot in the second degree, and dry in the first, and is a most excellent Wound-herb for all green Wounds, and is a Stancher of Blood, and will dry up fluxes and humors in old fretting Ulcers and [...]ankers that hinder the healing of them; A Syrup made of the Juice of it is infe­riour to none for inward Wounds, Ruptures of Veins, and Pissing of Blood.
  • Cocks-head, red Fitching or Medick Fitch▪ the green leaves bruised and laid as a Plaister disperseth knots or kernels in the flesh, and being dried and taken in Wine helpeth the Strangury; and being anointed with it provoketh Sweat; it is a good food for Cattel to make them give good store of Milk, so is Alder and Medick Fitch.
  • Columbines are thought to be temperate, between heat and moisture, the Leaves are used in Lotions for sore Mouths and Throats, the seed openeth the obstruction of the Liver, and is good for the Yellows.
  • Colts-foot, the leaves of it while▪ it is green have a drying quality and are somewhat cold, but the dried leaves are not so biting; they are good for Wheezings and short-windedness, Agues, Inflammations and Swellings, St. Anthonies Fire and Burnings.
  • Comfrey is cold and dry, and of an earthly quality, the use of this is the same with Clowns wound-wort; the great Comfrey help­eth a bloody Urine, and is good for all inward Wounds, Bruises, Hurts and Ulcers of the Lungs, is good for the falling or shedding of the seed, and is good made into an Ointment for all pains and old Aches.
  • Coral-wort cleanseth the Bladder, and provoketh Urine, expels the Gravel and Stone, and easeth pains in the Sides and Bowels; it is good for inward Wounds, especially for those in the Breast and Lungs, and is good for outward Wounds made up in an Ointment, it stops Fluxes, and is good to dry up the watery humour that is in Ulcers, that hinder their Cure.
  • Red Corral bindeth and meanly cooleth, and is very effectual against Issues of Blood, and easeth the difficulty of staling, and is good for the Falling Sickness.
  • Costmary or Alecost, or Balsam-herb, is hot and dry in the second degree, & provoketh Urine as well as Maudlin; it purgeth choler and phlegm, and is good for Agues, and dries up all thin Rheums from the Head and Stomach.
  • Of Cud-weed or Cotton-weed, their kinds are of a binding and drying quality, and are good for defluxions of Rheums from the Head, and to stay all Fluxes of Blood whatsoever; it helpeth the bloody Flux, and is good for inward and outward Wounds, Hurts and Bruises, and is good for burst­ness, the Wormes and old and filthy Ulcers.
  • [Page 188] Crabs-Claws is a great strengthner of the Reins; it is good for St. An­thonies Fire, and all Inflammations and Swellings in Wounds, and an Ointment made of them is good to heal them. It is a most excellent thing for bruised Kidneys, and upon that account Pissing Blood.
  • Winter-Cresses is hot and dry in the second degree, the seed causeth Urine, and drives forth Gravel, and helps the Strangury; the Juice of them made up into the form of an Ointment, with Wax, Oyl and Tur­pentine, cleanseth foul Ulcers.
  • Banck-Cresses, the seeds are of a fiery temperature, and doth extenuate and make thin, they strengthen the Brain, and is little inferiour to Mu­stard-seed, and are good to stay those Rheums that fall down from the Head upon the Lungs; It is good likewise for the Yellows, and the paint in the Hip.
  • Sciatica-Cresses are hot and dry in the fourth degree, like to Garden-Cresses both in smell and taste; they are good to put into a Poultess to help all old Pains and Griefs in the Hips or Joynts, and other parts of the Body that is hard to be Cured.
  • Garden-Cresses are sharp and biting, and therefore it is hot and dry, whilest it is young and tender, the seeds are much more biting then the Herb, and is hot and dry almost in the fourth degree, and is good for Pains in the Hip, and hard Swellings and Inflammations.
  • Dock-Cresses are of nature hot, and somewhat obstersive, and clean­sing, the Juice of them is good for ulcerated Sores.
  • Water-Cresses are hot and dry, they cleanse the Blood and Humors, serve in all other uses in which Brook-lyme is available, as to break the Stone, and to provoke Urine, and cleanse Ulcers.
  • Cross-wort is of a binding and drying quality, and is a most excellent Wound-herb, both inwardly taken and outwardly applied, it sendeth forth Phlegm out of the Stomach, and is good for Ruptures and Burstness.
  • Crow-foot is a fiery hot Herb not fit to be given inwardly unless it be Corrected, it will draw a Blister as well as Cantharides.
  • Cuckow-Point, or VVake-Robin is hot and dry in the third degree, it is good given against the Plague or Poison, being mixed with Vineger, it is good for short-windedness and Cough of the Lungs, it is good to pro­voke Urine, is good for the Itch, Ulcers, and to take away the Pin and Web in the Eye.
  • Calamus is of a hot heating quality, saith Dioscordes; but Gallen and Pliny affirms, that they have thin and subtil parts both hot and dry, it pro­voketh Urine, expelleth Poison, and is good for inward Bruises, and the Juice of it strained with Honey taketh away the dimness of the Eyes.
  • Corneflag is of force to waste, consume and dry, as also of a subtil and drying quality, being stamped with Frankincense and Wine, draweth forth Splinters out of the Flesh; It is likewise good for hard Swel­lings.
  • [Page 189] Cowslips of Jerusalem is of the temperature of great Comfrey, and is somewhat more drying and binding.
  • Colloquintida is hot and dry in the latter end of the second degree, and therefore it purgeth, cleanseth and openeth, and performeth all those things that bitter things doth, but that the strong quality that it hath, is as Gallen saith, of more force then all the rest of the Operations, there­fore it is not rashly to be used, but upon some desperate Diseases.
  • Cranes-bill is cold and somewhat dry, with some binding quality, it hath power to joyn and sodder together, and is therefore good for Burst­ness and broken Bones.
  • The seed of Garden Cummin is hot and dry in the third degree, and hath also a binding quality, and is good for the Wind, the Chest and Lungs, and all Raw Humors, and is good to put into Plaisters and Poul­tesses for Swellings.
  • The seed of Cockle is hot and dry in the latter end of the second de­gree, and is good against the Yellows.
  • Camock is hot in the third degree, it cutteth and maketh thin, the Bark of the Root given in white-Wine causeth Urine, and breaketh the Stone, and drives it forth.
  • Cyprus-Roots, long and round, are of a hot Nature, the Ashes of them burnt is good for Ulcers in the Mouth, Cankers, &c.
  • Cypres, the fruit and leaves are dry in the third degree, and Astringent, the Nut being stamped and drunk in Wine, stoppeth the Lask and bloody Flux.
  • Cassia Fistula or Pudding-Pipe, the Pulpe is moist in the latter end of the third degree, it gently purgeth Cholerick Humors and s [...]imy Phlegm.
  • Cochinile is given alone, and mixed with other things in malignant dis­eases, as Pestilential Feavers and the like, and is a great Cordial.
  • Cynamon hath power to warm, and is of thin Parts, it is also hot, dry and Astringent, it breaketh Wind, provoketh Urine, and is good against the fretting pains of the Guts and Entrails, proceeding of cold Causes.
  • Cloves are hot and dry in the third degree, they streng [...]hen the Sto­mach, Liver and Heart, provoketh Urine, the Oyl of them taketh away the Pin and Web in the Eye.
  • China Roots is thought to be moderately hot and dry, it strengthens the Liver, removes the Dropsey, Cures malignant Ulcers and Scabs, and is good in a Consumption, and for the Farcin.
  • Copperas are of two sorts, green and white, they are hot and dry, but the white is much the stronger, they are great Driers up of evil Hu­mours, being outwardly applied they kill likewise Scurfs and Scabs.
  • Costus hath an heating and attenuating quality, it is good to help Strains, Convulsions and Cramps, killeth Wormes, and is good against the biting of Vipers, and against Windiness in the Stomach.
  • Calafonia or Colofonia, doth incarnate Ulcers, and doth Conglutinate things that are separated.
  • [Page 190] Camphopa is a kind of Gum which is cold and dry in the third degree, and preserveth the Body from Putrefaction, and bindeth Humors, it is good against Poison, Plague and Feavers.
  • Cantharides are certain Spanish Flies which are hot and dry in the third degree, they increase Lust taken inwardly, and being applied outwardly to any part of the Body they will raise Blisters.
  • Cardamonium is not, and extenuateth Humors, and being mixt with Vineger killeth Scabs.
  • Castorum is hot and dry, and purgeth much.
  • Cerusa is a white Ointment made of Oyl and white Lead; It is cold and dry in the second degree, and is a great healer and shealer of Scabs.
  • Cito or Cisto is dry in the second degree, and bindeth much.
  • Citrons or Cithrons are cold and moist in the second degree, they do cleanse and pierce.
  • Cam [...]ry is cold, and conglutinateth and bindeth, and is good against Ruptures.
  • Castro or Cosse, being bitter, is hot and healeth Ulcers.
  • Cane-reed is hot and dry in the third degree.
D.
  • Daisies are cold and moist, being moist in the end of the second de­gree, and cold in the beginning of the same. They are good for Wounds in the Breast, and therefore sitting to be made into Oyls, Ointments and Plaisters, as also into Syrups; the great and wilde ones is a very good Wound-Herb, and the distilled water of them both is good to refresh the inward parts and to allay the heat of choler; They are good for Ulcers. Swellings, Kernels, Bruises by Falls, Ruptures, Burstings and all Inflam­mations.
  • Dandelyon, vulgarly called Piss-a-beds, is like in temperature with Suc­cory, that is to say, of wilde Indive, it is cold, but it drieth more, and doth withal cleanse and open▪ by reason of the biting quality it hath, and therefore is good for the Obstructions of the Liver, Gall, Spleen and Yel­lows; the distilled water of it is good to allay the heat of Pestilential Feavers, and to wash Sores.
  • Darnel is hot in the third degree, red Darnel drieth with sharpness. The Meal of it is good to stay Gangrenes. Cankers and putrid Sores; It kil­leth Ring-wormes and soul Scabs; If it be used with Salt and Radish­roots, with Brimstone and Vineger, it dissolveth Knots and Kernels, and being boiled with Wine, Pigeons dung and Linfeed, dissolveth those that are hard to be dissolved; Darnel Meal draweth forth Splinters and broken bones, being applied as a Poultess; the red Darnel boiled in Wine stayeth the Lask and bloody Flux, and all other Fluxes of Blood.
  • D ll is hot in the end of the second degree, and dry in the beginning of the same; or in the end of the first degree; it provoketh Urine, and is [Page 191] good against Windiness; it is good to case Swellings and Pains.
  • Devils-bit is somewhat bitter, and is of a hot and dry temperature, and that in the latter end of the second degree; it is good against the Plague and all Pestilential diseases; as Poisons, Feavers, and biting of venomous Beasts; It is good for Bruises either inward or outward; it is good to expel Wind, drive forth Wormes. The distilled Water of it is good for green Wounds, old Sores, and cleanseth the Body inwardly, and the Seed outwardly, from Sores, Scurss and Itches.
  • Docke, all of them are generally cold a little, and moderately, and some more. They do all of them dry, but not after one manner, yet some are of opinion that they are dry in the third degree: The red Dock clean­seth the Liver, but the yellow is best to take when the Blood is afflicted with choler. The Seeds of most of the kinds do stay Lasks and Fluxes of all sorts; they are good for the itch and breaking out of the Skin, if it be bathed therewith.
  • Dodder is of the Nature of the Herb on which it groweth; is more dry then hot, and that in the second degree; It is a Purger of Choler and Phlegm from the Head, Obstructions of the Liver, Gall and Yellows.
  • Dogs-grass, Quich-Grass; or Couch-Grass, opens Obstructions of the Liver and Gall, stopping of Urine, and easeth the pains of the Belly, In­flammations, and wasteth the Stones in the Bladder, and Ulcers thereof. Also being boiled, the seed doth more provoke Urine, and stayeth the Lask; it is a good Remedy against all Diseases coming of stoppage.
  • Doves-foot or Cranes-bill is cold and somewhat dry, with some binding quality; It is good for the Wind; Cholick and Stone▪ the decoction thereof in Wine is a good Wound-drink for inward Wounds, Hurts or Bruises, and is good to cleanse and heal outward Sores, Ulcers, Fistulaes and green VVounds, and is excellent for Ruptures.
  • Ducks-meat is cold and moist in a sort in the second degree; it is good for Inflammations and St. Anthonies Fire.
  • Dragons is under Mars, and therefore the best way to use it is after it is distilled, and then the VVater of it cleanseth all internal parts of the Body, and so it doth the external from Scurfand Scabs, and being drop­ped into the Eye taketh away the Pin and VVeb, and is good against Pe­stilence and Poison.
  • Dogs-tooth is of a very hot temperament, and of an excrementitious Nature.
  • The Roots of all the Daffodils are hot and dry in the third degree.
  • Dyars-weed is hot and dry of Temperature, the Root as also the whole Herb heats and dries in the third degree; it cuts, attenuateth, opens and disgests; It is good for the biting of venomous Beasts and Poison, taken inwardly or applied outwardly.
  • Bastard-Dirtany is hot and dry in the second degree, and of a wasting, attenuating and opening quality, and is good for the Stone in the Kidneys and Bladder.
  • [Page 192] Dropwort or Filipendula is hot and dry in the third degree, opening, cleansing and a little binding; All the kinds of them have the same fa­culty, unless it be the pernicious Drop-wort; they are good against pains in the Bladder, and break the Stone.
E.
  • Elder is of a drying quality, glewing and moderately disgesting; It pur­geth choler and phlegm, both the inward Rind and the Berries, and the Dropsey; the Bark of the Root worketh more powerfully then either of them; it is good against the biting of any venomous Beasts, the Juice of it asswageth the hot Inflammations of the Eyes, and all manner of Burnings and Scaldings, being laid to the grieved place.
  • Dwarf-Elder called Dane-wort▪ and Wall-wort, it is of Temperature hot and dry in the third degree, it doth waste and consume by Purging of Choler, and Phlegm and Water, and is more powerful then the com­mon Elder, and hath all the Properties of it.
  • The Elm-Tree, the Leaves and Bark of it is moderately hot, with a cleansing Faculty, the Leaves bruised and applied healeth green Wounds, it is good to Cure a Scurf, Ruptures, broken Bones, Swellings and Burn­ings.
  • Endive and Succorie are cold and dry in the third degree, and withal somewhat binding, it is a fine cooling and cleansing Plant; the Garden Endive is colder, and not so dry and cleansing; the Juice or the water of it is good to cool the excessive heat of the Stomach and Liver, or any inflammation in any part of the Body, and being applied outwardly it is good for Ulcers, hard Swellings and Pestilential Sores.
  • Elecampane is hot and dry in the third degree, especially when it is dry, for being green and full of Juice it is full of superfluous moisture, which somewhat abateth the heat and dry quality thereof; It is good for Colds and Coughs, and to warm a cold Stomach, Wind, short-Winded­ness, Wheezing, Stone in the Bladder, resisteth Poison, the Plague, Cramps, Convulsions, Wormes, Cankers, Fistulaes.
  • Ensula, or Devils-Milk, is hot, sharp and drying, and draws choler from the Joynts.
  • Eringo or Sea-holly, breedeth Seed exceedingly, and is hot and moist, it is good for the Yellows, Dropsey, Cholick, provoketh Urine, expel­leth the Stone; the Roots bruised and applied outwardly is good for the Farcin, or taken inwardly for the same disease; it is good for broken Bones, and to draw thornes out of the Flesh; the Juice dropped into the Ears helpeth the Impostumes in them; the distilled water of it is good for all the Purposes aforesaid.
  • Eye-bright is hot and dry, but yet more hot then dry; the Juice or the Water of it is good to help all Infirmities of the Eyes that cause dim­ness.
  • [Page 193] Elusa is a Herb like a Spunge, and is hot in the fourth degree; it dri­eth and cleanseth exceedingly, and of some is called Wolfes Milk.
  • Excrusion is that which we call Oxicration, it is a certain Composition of Aceto and Water, and is good to allay Swellings and Tumors.
  • Eggs, the Whites are cold and the Yolks are hot, and doth strengthen and incarnate, the shells beaten to powder and given in Beer or Ale, is very good to expel the Stone out of the Bladder.
F.
  • Fern, both the kinds of them, Male and Female, are hot and dry, and somewhat binding, their Vertues are both alike; the Roots of them are good to kill Wormes, the green leaves purge the Belly of cholerick Hu­mors; An Ointment made of the Roots, bruised with Hogs-Grease is good for the Wounds in the flesh, the powder of them is good to dry up moistures in malignant Ulcers.
  • The Water Ferne or Osmond-Royal is hot and dry, but lesser then the former, and hath all the Vertues the other hath, but more effectually, and is good for Wounds or Bruises, and the like; the decoction thereof being drunk or boiled in an Ointment or Oyl, as a Balsam or Balm, is very good for Bruises, or Bones broken and out of Joynt; it is good for the Cholick, for Ruptures, The Decoction of the Root in Wine provoketh Urine exceedingly, and cleanseth the Bladder and Passages thereof.
  • Featherfew heateth, it is hot in the third degree, and dry in the second; it expelleth the Secundine being drunk. It is good for a Cough, and to cleanse the Reins of the Bladder, and to expel the Stone out of it. It purgeth phlegm and choler, is good for the Head-ach and Wind-cholick, and performeth all that bitter things can do.
  • Fennel-seed is hot in the third degree, and dry in the first; it openeth Obstructions and stoppings of the Bladder, and maketh the Stone to a­void by Urine. It is good for all manner of gross humors, and is good for the Liver and Lungs, and is of the same Nature as Anniseeds are.
  • Sow-Fennel, or Hogs-Fennel, the kinds of the Herbs, especially the yel­low sap of the Root, is hot in the second degree, and dry in the beginning of the third; it is good against Wind in the Belly and Stomach; It Loos­neth the Belly gently, and purgeth Siege both by phlegm and choler.
  • Fennel-Gyant is hot in the third degree, and dry in the second, and is Astringent and binding, and is good for the bloody Flux.
  • Filipendula or Dropwort, vide Dropwort.
  • Green Figs serve to ripen Tumors, soften and consume hard swellings, and are good for Pursiness, Coughs and Diseases of the Lungs, the De­coction of the leaves, and the place washed with it, is a most excellent Remedy for the Leprosie, Scurf, Scabs or Running Sores.
  • Fuss-balls do dry, and are good to lay to a Gall'd Back.
  • The yellow Water-Flag or Flower-de-luce, and all the kinds of them are [Page 194] very Astringent, cooling and drying, and helps all Lasks and Fluxes, whe­ther of Blood or Humors; it helps all foul Ulcers, the Juice being applied to them.
  • Flax-weed or Toad-Flax, all the kinds of them are of the same Tempe­rature with wild Snap-Dragons, whereof they are kinds; it provokes U­rine, opens the Obstructions of the Liver and Spleen, helpeth the Yel­lows, expelleth Poison, driveth forth the dead▪ Foal, and is good to cleanse soul and cankerous Ulcers and Fistulaes.
  • Flea-wort, it is cold and dry, the Fryed-seed taken stayeth the Flux and Lask of the Belly; the seed is good for hot Agues and burning Feavers, and other Inflammations; It is good for the diseases of the Breast and Lungs caused by heat; It is good for the Head-ach and all hot Impost­humes, and breakings out of the Skin; it is good for old pains in the Joynts, &c.
  • Flix-weed drieth without any manifest sharpness of heat; It is good for Lasks and bloody Fluxes, and for all Issues of Blood whatsoever; it is good for broken bones to consolidate them together, it heals all sores and putrified Ulcers.
  • Flower-de-luce is hot and dry in the third degree; it purgeth choler and tough Phlegm, helpeth the Yellows and Dropsey; it easeth the pains in the Belly, and is good for the Liver and Spleen; it is good for Cramps, all manner of Poison, provoketh Urine, helpeth the Cholick, and is good to comfort all cold Joynts and Sinews, and is good for Ulcers and Fi­stulaes.
  • Fluellin or Lluellin is of a binding quality, and is good for hot Swel­lings, Wounds, Ulcers and Cankers, and is good to stop a Lask and bloo­dy Flux.
  • Fox-Gloves, in that they are bitter are hot and dry, with a certain clean­sing quality; the Juice of it is good to heal green Wounds and old Sores, to cleanse, dry and heal them; It purgeth the Body of tough Phlegm, and is good to open Obstructions of the Liver and Spleen, is good for the Farcin, and other breakings out in the Skin.
  • Fumitory is cold and somewhat dry of Operation, and cleanseth by U­rine. It is good for the Liver and Spleen, Yellows, Stavers, Plague, [...]ore Mouths and Throat, and all manner of Breakings out in the Skin.
  • The Furz-bush, or Fuzen-bushes, are hot and dry of Complexion, and is good to open Obstructions of the Liver and Spleen; the seeds are good to cleanse the Reins from the Gravel or Stones, provokes Urine, and is good against the Yellows.
  • Frankincense hath power to bind, saith Dioscordes, it is good for Wounds Old and New, and also for Ulcers.
  • Flax or Line, the seed thereof is hot and dry, and it ripeneth and mol­li [...]ieth.
  • [Page 195] Fitches are hot in the first, and dry in the second degree, and they do open and cleanse; see Oblibanum.
  • Herb Frankincense, the seeds and roots are hot and dry in the second degree, and are of a digesting, dissolving and Mundifying quality.
  • Feltwort or Baldmony, the Roots are hot, cleansing and Scouring, some say it is likewise binding and of a bitter Taste.
  • Fennegr [...]ck is hot in the second degree, and dry in the first, and is a Loosner of the Body, and is good for Colds, and a Killer of Wormes.
G.
  • Gentian Felt-w [...]rt or Baldmony, there are two sorts of them, and both under the dominion of Mars, they both resist Poison and Pestilence, strengthens the Stomach, the powder of the dried Root is good against the biting of a mad Dog, or any other venomous Beast, opens Obstru­ctions of the Liver; it is good taken inwardly against Bruises by Falls, provokes Urine exceedingly, is good for Cramps, it expectorates tough Phlegm, and kills Scabs, and all manner of fretting Sores and Ulcers, kil­leth Wormes, is good for the Farcy and Yellows taken inwardly. The root made into the form of a Tent is good to open Sores, being put therein.
  • Garlick is very sharp, and hot and dry in the fourth degree, it causeth Urine, is good against the biting of a mad Dog, and any other venomous creature, purgeth the Head from tough Phlegm, killeth Wormes, helpeth the Lethargy, is a Preservative against the Plague, is good for foul Ul­cers, breaketh Imposthumes and other Swellings, and for all those Dis­eases the Onion is also effectual, but they are better applied outwardly then received inwardly, because they have their Vices as well as their Vertues.
  • Clove-G [...]lliflowers are so temperate, that no excess, neither in heat, cold, driness nor moisture can be perceived in them; they are great Strength­ners both of the Brain and Heart, and are very good for to be put into Cordials for hot Pestilential Feavers, and expel Poison.
  • Stock G [...]lliflowers are referred to the Wall-Flower, although in Vertue they are much inferiour.
  • Garden Ge [...]m [...]der is of thin parts, and hath a cutting faculty; it is hot and dry almost in the third degree; it opens and cleanseth, for it opens the Obstructions of the Liver and Spleen, and difficulty of Urine; It is good against Poison, Ulcers, Cramps, Agues, Falling Sickness, Head-ach, Yellows and Wormes.
  • VVater Germander is hot and dry, and hath a bitter taste, harsh and earthly.
  • Stinking Gladwin is hot and dry in the third degree, it purgeth choler and phlegm, the powder or Juice of it put into the Head draweth forth much corruption, and being given inwardly is good for Cramps; It is [Page 196] good for the Strangury, provoketh Urine; the Roots are very good in Wounds, and draweth forth Splinters or Thornes out of the Flesh, the Roots boiled in Vineger dissolveth any hard Swelling or Tumor; the Juice of the Leaves and Roots heal the Mange, and all other running and spreading Scabs.
  • Golden Rod is hot and dry in the second degree, and cleanseth with a certain Astriction or binding quality, and is good for the Stone in the Reins and Kidneys; it is good taken for inward bruises, and outwardly applied for outward ones; it stayeth Bleeding in any part of the Body, and of Wounds also, the Fluxes of Humours, the bloody Flux, Ruptures. It is an excellent Wound-Herb, inferiour to none, either taken inwardly, or outwardly applied, and is good for all Sores and Ulcers whatsoever, whether they be in the Mouth or Throat.
  • Gout-wort Cures all manner of pain in the Hip or Joynt-aches.
  • Gromel, the seed of it is hot and dry in the second degree; it is good to break the Stone, and to avoid it out of the Reins and Bladder by Urine, and helpeth the Strangury.
  • Gum Armoniack outwardly applied, dissolves hard Knots and Swel­lings in any part of the Body, and inwardly given cures hard Milts, and frees from Obstructions, moves Urine, and fetcheth forth Stones.
  • Winter-Green is a very good Wound-herb, and is good taken inwardly, being bruised for Ulcers in the Kidneys or Neck of the Bladder; it stay­eth also Fluxes whether of Blood or Humours, as the Lask, bloody Flux, bleeding Wounds, and taketh away Inflammations, and is good for foul Ulcers, Cankers and Fistulaes.
  • Groundsel hath mixt Faculties, it cooleth and disgesteth; it is a uni­versal Medicine coming from heat, whatsoever they be; it is good against the Yellows, Falling Sickness, provokes Urine, expels Gravel in the Reins and Kidneys, is good for Griping in the Bowels and Cholick, and dissolveth any hard Knobs and Kernels in the Body.
  • English Galingale hath a heating quality, and some do reckon it to be hot and dry in the second degree: the greater Galingale Roots are hot and dry in the third degree, but the lesser are somewhat hotter; it is good for cold Griefs in the Stomach, strengthens the Brain, and comfort­eth the Sinews.
  • Ginger heateth and drieth in the third degree, and is good for the Sto­mach, answering the effects and qualities of long Pepper.
  • Glass-wort is hot and dry, the Ashes of it are both drier and hotter, even to the fourth degree, and have a Costick and burning quality.
  • Green-weed or base Brome are hot and dry in the second degree; they are thought to be in vertue equal with the Broom, the Dyars use it very much to dye withal.
  • Galls are dry in the third and cold in the second; they cleanse and m [...]n­difie, they keep back Rheums and such like Fluxes, and doth dry up the [Page 197] same, and are good to stop Lasks and bloody Fluxes, and the falling out of the Fundament.
  • Grains of Paradice are hot and dry in the third degree, they comfort the weak, cold and feeble Stomach, and helpeth the Ague, Farcin and Falling Sickness.
  • Gum Lacke is hot in the second degree, and comforteth the Heart and Liver, and openeth Obstructions, expelleth Urine, and is good for the Dropsey and Yellows, and expelleth the Stone out of the Reins and Bladder.
  • Fresh Grease is hot and moist in the first degree, and mollifieth, ripeneth and healeth Wounds, Imposthumes and Ulcers.
  • Galbanum is a Gum which is hot in the third degree, and dry in the se­cond: it softeneth, stoppeth and draweth away evil humours, and is good against Colds, the Fume taken up the Head, as also for the Dizziness thereof.
H.
  • Hearts-ease is obscurely cold, but more evidently moist, and of a fat and slimy Juice, like that of the Mallow, for which cause it moisteneth and suppleth, but not so much as that, it is good for the Inflammations of the Lungs and Breast, Scabs and Itch.
  • Hearts-Tongue is of a binding drying Faculty, strengthens the Liver, and is good for the Lask and bloody Flux, and is good against the biting of Serpents.
  • Hawk-weed, all the kinds of them are somewhat dry, and somewhat binding, and is good for the heat of the Stomach, the Fits of the Ague, the Wind, provoketh Urine, is good for the biting of venomous Beasts, the Dropsey, the Wind-Cholick, and is good to digest thin Phlegm from the Chest and Lungs, it is good for Ulcers, Burnings, Inflammations and St. Anthonies Fire, and being made into a Poultess, is good for Cramps and Pains in the Joynts.
  • The Hawthorn-Berries are very binding, therefore are good to stop a Lask, the Berries dried and drunk in white-Wine is very good against the Stone and Dropsey, the Seed bruised after it is cleared from the Down and drunk, is good for the tormenting pains of the Belly.
  • Hemp is hot, the Seed consumeth Wind, it is good for the Yellows, o­peneth the Obstructions of the Liver and Gall, and is good for hot In­flammations, the Seed Loosneth the Belly, strewed amongst a Horses Pro­vender, and allayeth the troublesom Humours of the Bowels.
  • Hedge-Hysop is drying, and is good outwardly applied to pains in the Hips or Joynts, and is good to cleanse old and filthy Ulcers.
  • Herb-Robert is good for the Stone, and to stay all inward Flowings of Blood, and is a great Healer of green Wounds, and is good for old Ulcers.
  • Herb True-love, or One-berry is exceeding cold, and the Leaves or Ber­ries [Page 198] is good to expel Poison of all sorts, as also the Plague and Pestilence, is good for the Cholick, green Wounds, and to cleanse old and filthy Ulcers, and is good to discuss all Swellings in any part of the Body.
  • Hore-hound the white and the black are hot in the second, and dry in the third degree, it helpeth the Obstructions of the Liver, openeth and Purgeth, and is good against Colds, Consumptions, short-windedness, an Expeller of Poison, and a Cleanser of old Sores and Ulcers, cleareth the Eye-sight, and snuffed up the Nostrils, is good for the Yellows.
  • Horse-ta [...]l is of a binding Faculty, and doth moderately dry, and is good to Cure Wounds, nay, though the Sinews be cut asunder, and is good not only for all inward Ulcers of the Bladder, but all outward Sores, provoketh Urine, helpeth the Stone and Strangury, and is good for all Lasks and bloody Fluxes, and Pissing of Blood, or Bleeding at the Nose.
  • Housleek or Sengreen are of a cooling Nature, and is good for all inward Heats as well as outward, as in the Eyes and other parts of the Body, it cooleth all hot Inflammations, as St. Anthonies Fire, Scaldings and Burn­ings, Cankers, Tetters, Ring-wormes, &c.
  • Hounds-tongue, but especially the Root is cold and dry, it is good for Coughs and short-windedness, the biting of mad Dogs, and is good for green Wounds, and is good inwardly for the Farcy.
  • Holly-holm or Hulver bush, the Berries are hot and dry, and of thin parts, they expel Wind, they purge the Body of gross and Phlegmatick Humours eaten not dried, but if they be dried and beaten to powder and eaten, they bind the Body, and stop Fluxes, and the Lask, the Bark of the Tree and Leaves are good in Fomentations for broken Bones and Mem­bers out of Joynt.
  • Heath-bush hath a digesting Faculty, the Flowers and Leaves are good to lay upon the biting of venomous Beasts, and the Bark and Leaves may be used for the same Causes as Turmerick is.
  • Harts-horn is dry, yet it strengthneth very much, and expelleth Poison.
  • Honey is hot and dry in the second degree, it cleanseth the Stomach and Entrails, stoppeth Humours and incarnateth Wounds, and cleanseth also the Reins and Bladder.
  • Hyacinths do little cleanse and bind, the seeds are dry in the third de­gree, but the Roots are dry and cold in the first.
  • Hellebore, vide Bears-foot.
I.
  • St. Johns-wort is hot and dry, being of substance thin, and is a most ex­cellent Herb for inward Bruises, or Hurts, or outward Wounds, it is good to open Obstructions, dissolve Swellings, and strengthen those Parts that are weak and feeble, it is good for Bleedings inward or outward, for the [Page 199] biting of any venomous Creature, and is good to cast forth the Stone in the Bladder by Urine.
  • Ivy that groweth upon Walls or upon Trees, it hath a certain binding and cold substance, and somewhat biting, the Flower of it is good for the bloody Flux and Lask; the Leaves or Flowers outwardly applied, is good for the Nerves and Sinews; the yellow Berries of them are good for the Yellows, and killeth the Wormes, is good for the Plague, pro­vokes Urine, breaks the Stone; It is good for to cleanse foul Ulcers, Sores and green Wounds, or for Burnings and Scaldings; The Juice of the Berries and Leaves squirted up the Nose, purgeth the Head from Rheum, and cureth the Ulcers therein, and is good given for a Surfeit.
  • The [...]uniper Bush is hot and dry in the third degree, the B [...]rries are also hot but not so dry; they are good against Poison, Plague, the biting of any venomous Creature, provokes Urine, is good for the Dropsey, strengthens the Stomack, expels Wind; they are good for the Cough, Shortness of Breath, Consumptions, Pains in the Belly, Ruptures, Cramps, and strengthens all the Members of the Body; A Lye made of the Ashes of the Wood, and the Body Bathed therewith, is good for the Mange, and all manner of Scabs, the Berries break the Stone, and brings a Horse to a Stomach, and is good for the Falling Sickness.
  • Jack by the Hedge, or Sauce alone, is hot and dry, but much lesser then Garlick, the seed boiled in Wine is a good Remedy against the Wind-Cholick or Stone, the green Leaves are good to heal Ulcers.
  • Iris is a Root that is hot and dry, it cleanseth and ripeneth, and is good against Colds, and purgeth Ulcers.
  • Iron-Rust is hot and dry in the second degree, it comforteth and retain­eth evil Humors.
K.
  • Knot-Grass, all the kinds of them are cold in the second degree, and dry in the third, and are of a binding quality, it is good to cool the heat of the Stomach, and to stay any Flux of Blood or Humours, as Lask, bloody Flux, it is good for the Falling of the Seed, provoketh Urine, helpeth the Strangury, and expelleth the Gravel and Stone, it killeth Wormes, is good to cool all manner of Inflammations, and to expel the Poison or Venom of any venomous Creatures; it helpeth Gangreens, Fistulaes, Cankers and Ulcers, and is good for fresh and green Wounds, and to strengthen broken Joynts and Ruptures.
  • Kidney-wort, or VVall-penny-royal, or VVall-penny-wort, the distilled water of it given▪ is good to allay all hot Inflammations of the Stomach and Liver, or Bowels, and being outwardly applied, is good for outward Heats, Inflammations and St. Anthonies Fire, and healeth [...]ore Kidneys, torn and fretted by the Stone, provoketh Urine, is good for the Dropsey, it helpeth the bloody Flux, and Cureth green Wounds, and stayeth their Bleeding.
  • [Page 200] Knape-weed helpeth to stay Bleeding at the Mouth and Nose, and o­ther outward parts, and all inward Bleedings of Veins, and also the Flux of the Belly and inward Bruises, it is good for Ruptures taken inwardly, or outwardly applied, it drieth up the noisture of all Cankerous and Run­ning Sores, and healeth them up gently.
  • Knee-holm or Butchers broom, the Roots which are chiefly used, are hot and meanly dry with a thinness of Essence, the decoction of it provoketh Urine, breaketh the Stone, and driveth forth Gravel; It raiseth up tough Ph [...]egm that sticketh at the Chest and Lungs, and the Berries of it is good for the Yellows.
L.
  • Ladies Mantle is good for Inflammations and to stay Bleedings, Fluxes of all sorts, and helpeth Ruptures and Bruises, it is one of the best Wound-herbs that is both inwardly taken and outwardly applied.
  • Lavender is hot in the first, and dry in the second degree, it is good for all the Griefs of the Head and Brain, that proceed of a cold cause, it strengthens the Stomach, and freeth the Liver and Spleen from Obstru­ctions, expelleth the dead Foal and Secundine, the Flowers distilled and so used, are good to cause Urine, and to ease the pain of the Cholick, it is good for the Falling Sickness.
  • French Lavender hath a cold and earthly substance, by reason wherèof it bindeth, it is of force to take away Obstructions, to extenuate and make thin, to cleanse and to strengthen not only all the Entrails, but the whole Body also.
  • Sea Lavender is very Astringent or Binding, the Seed beaten to pow­der, and given in Wine or Beer helpeth the Cholick and Strangury, and stayeth all Fluxes of Blood.
  • Lavender-Cotton is hot and dry in the third degree, it resisteth Poison, and helpeth the biting of any venomous Creature, the Powder of it is good for the Mattering of the Yard, it killeth the Wormes and Scabs.
  • Ladies Smecks or Cuckoc-Flowers, all the sorts of them are hot and dry in the second degree, they differ not much from the Water-Cresses, they provoke Urine, break the Stone, and warm a cold Stomach.
  • L [...]ttice is a cold and moist Herb, but not in the extream degree of Cold; they Loosen the Belly being boiled. It is good for the pains of the Bowels coming by choler, they are naught for short-Windedness and the Lungs.
  • Water-Lilly, the seed of it hath a drying force, the leaves and flow­ers of it are cold and moist, and cool all Inflammations both inward and outward; the Seed as well as the Fruit stayeth Fluxes of Blood or Hu­mors, either inward or outward, and is good for the Mattering of the Yard.
  • [Page 201] Lilly of the Valley, called Conval-Lilly or May-Lilly, the distilled water of it helpeth all Inflammations in the Eyes, and the Pin and Web.
  • White Lillies, which are the Garden Lillies are hot, and partly of a subtil substance; but the root is dry in the first degree, and hot in the second, they expel Poison, and are very good in Pestilent Feavers. An Ointment made of the Roots with Hogs-Grease is good for Scabs, and unites Sinews when they are Cut, and is a great Clenser of Ulcers, the Oyl of it is good to bring any Head-swelling to ripeness to break.
  • Licoris is very familiar to the Body of Man or Beast. It hath a certain binding quality, which warmeth and cometh nearest of all to a mean temperature, and because it is sweet it is meanly moist. It is good for a Cough, shortness of Breath, and for all the Griefs of the Breast and Lungs; And for the Diseases of the Kidneys and Ulcers in the Bladder; It is good for the Strangury; Heat of Urine, the fine Powder of it blown into the Eye helpeth the Pin and Web.
  • Common Liver-wort is good for all the Diseases of the Liver, both to cool and to cleanse it, and helpeth all Inflammations in any part of the Body; the Yellows, Mattering of the Yard; it is good for Tettars, Sores and Scabs.
  • Loose-strife or Willow-herb is good for all manner of Bleedings inward and outward, as bloody Fluxes and bleeding Wounds.
  • Lovage is hot and dry in the third degree. It openeth and disgesteth Humors, provoketh Urine, warmeth a cold Stomach, is good for the pain in the Belly coming by Wind, resisteth Poison, is good for the Quinsey, taketh away the redness of the Eyes.
  • Lung-wort, which is a kind of Moss growing on sundry sorts of Trees, is good for Coughs, Diseases of the Lungs both in Man and Beast, and is a most excellent Remedy boiled in Beer for broken-winded Horses.
  • Leeks, Scallions or Onions are hot and dry, and do attenuate and make thin, and Loosen all evil Humors in the Body.
  • Ʋnslack [...] Lime is hot and dry in the fourth degree, it drieth and cor­rodeth.
  • Lawrel and Bays are hot and dry, they cleanse and mundifie.
  • Lee is hot and dry in the fourth degree; it is very adustine, cleansing and piercing.
  • Lithargirto is of two Kinds, one of the colour of Gold, the other of Silver; it is dry and bindeth, softneth, incarnateth, cooleth and clo­seth up Wounds. The golden Colour is the best.
M.
  • The Root Madder, which the Physicians and Diars use, is disputed whether it bind or open; As it is of an obscure binding force, so it is of nature and temperature cold and dry; it is of divers thin parts, [Page 202] by reason whereof the colour doth easily pierce; it is good for inward Bruises, or outward Bruises; It is good for the bloody Flux, provokes Urine, Cures the Yellows, by opening the Obstructions of the Liver and Spleen; And anointed with Vineger Cures the Tettar or Ring-worm.
  • VVhite Maiden-hair, all the kinds of them are dry, and maketh thin, and is between heat and coldness; it is good for a Cough, shortness of Breath, the Yellows, Diseases of the Spleen, stoppage of Urine and Stone, (In all which Diseases the Wall-Rue is as effectual) stayeth both Bleedings and Fluxes of the Stomach and Belly, being green it Loosneth the Belly, and avoideth choler and phlegm from the Stomach and Liver, cleanseth the Lungs and Blood, and being boiled with Camomil, dissolves knots, allayeth swellings, and drieth up moist Ulcers; the Lye made thereof is good to cleanse the Skin from Scabs, and from dry and Run­ning Sores.
  • Golden Maiden-Hair hath all the Vertues of the former.
  • Of Mallows and Marsh-Mallowes, either of them hath a certain heat and moisture, and the leaves and roots of them boiled in water with Parsley and Fennel-roots openeth the Belly, and are good for hot Agues, they are used in Glisters, the Juice of them given is good for the Falling Sickness; the leaves bruised with Honey, and laid to the Eyes, taketh a­way the inflammation of them; it is good against Poison: A Poultess made of them, and applied, is good for all hard Tumors, Inflammations, Impostumes and Swellings; it is good for Scaldings and Burnings, and for St. Anthonies Fire. Marsh-Mallows are more effectual in all the Dis­eases before mentioned, and in Decoctions and Glisters, to ease all pains of the Body, making the Passages slippery for the Stone to descend.
  • Maple-t [...]e [...], the Decoction of the Leaves and Bark strengthens the Li­ver, and to open Obstructions of it and the Spleen, and to ease the pain proce [...]ding thence.
  • Myrobala [...]s p [...]rge gently Melancholy, and comforteth the Heart and Liver.
  • VVilde Ma [...]jore [...] doth cut, attenuate and make thin, dry and heat, and that in the third degree, strengthens the Stomach, helps the Cough, Con­sumption of the Lungs, cleanseth the Body of Choler, expelleth Poison, and is good for the biting of venomous Beasts, helps the Dropsey, Scabs, Mange, Yellows.
  • Sweet Marjoreni is excellent good for all the infirmities of the Head▪ squirted up the Nose, and taken inwardly, is good for to comfort a cold Stomach, and the Diseases thereunto belonging, and being outwardly applied is good for the Obstructions of the Liver, and being put into an Ointment, it warmeth and comforteth the outward parts, as the Joynts and Sinews, for Swellings, and for places out of Joynt.
  • Marigolds are hot almost in the second degree, especially when they be dry, and are much of the Nature of Saffron, the Juice of the Leaves [Page 203] mingled with Vineger, and anoint a hot swelling with it asswageth it, they comfort the Heart and Spirits, and expelleth any Pestilent or Ma­lignant quality that may annoy them.
  • Master-wort, the Root is hotter then Pepper, and therefore good in all cold Diseases, or Griefs of the Stomach and Body; it is good for Rheum, shortness of Breath, and expelleth the Stone by Urine, casts out the dead Foal, it is good for the Dropsey, Cramps, Falling Sickness, Poi­son, provokes Sweat, it cleanseth and healeth all green Wounds.
  • Sweet Maudlin, the Vertues of it is the same with Cost-mary, or Ale­cost, and therefore I refer you unto Costmary for satisfaction.
  • Medlars are cold, dry and binding, the Leaves are of the same Nature, they are good to stop all Fluxes of Blood inwardly given, and the dried Leaves beaten to powder, and strowed upon bleeding Wounds, stayeth the bleeding of them, and healeth them up quickly; the Stones of them made into powder, and given in white-Wine, wherein Parsley Roots hath layn, in [...]using all Night, doth break the Stone in the Kidneys, and help to expel it.
  • Melilote or Kings Claver is hot and dry in the first degree, it hath a cer­tain binding quality, besides a wasting and ripening quality; it is good for spreading Ulcers; it is used to be put into Glisters, the Flowers of it with Chamomel, to expel Wind, and into Poultcsses to asswage Swellings, with the Juice of it with Oyl, Wax▪ Rosin and Turpentine, is made a most Sove­reign drawing Emplaister, the Herb boiled in Wine breaketh the Stone.
  • French and Dogs Mercury are hot and dry in the second degree, and hath a cleansing Faculty; the Juice of it purgeth choler and watery hu­mors, it is good for waterish Eyes; it cleanseth the Breast and Lungs from Phlegm; the Juice put up the Nostrils, purgeth the Head of Ca­tarrhs and Rheums, helpeth the Yellows; it helpeth all Running Scabs, Tettars, Ring-wormes, and being applied as a Poultess allayeth all Swel­lings and Inflammations, and given in Glisters it evacuates from the Belly all offensive humors. The Dogs Mercury, though it is less used, may serve to the same purposes to purge waterish humors.
  • Of all the Mints, Spear-Mint or Heart-Mint is the most wholesom, it hath a heating, binding and drying quality. The Juice taken in Vineger stayeth inward bleeding, dissolveth [...]mpostumes being laid to with Barley Meal, and applied with Salt, helpeth the biting of a mad Dog; it is good in all manner of breakings out of the skin, and is good against Poison.
  • Nep or Cat Mint hath the same faculties with the other.
  • Horse-Mint is hot and dry, it dissolveth Wind in the Stomach, helpeth the Cholick and short-windedness; it is good against the biting of ve­nomous Beasts; the Farcy taken inwardly, and squirted up the Nostrils▪ purgeth the Head of evil humors.
  • Misletoe, the Leaves and Berries are hot and dry, and of subtil parts, the Bird-lime doth mollisie hard Knobs, Tumors and Impostumes, ripeneth [Page 204] and discusseth them, and being mixed with equal parts of Rosin and Wax, heals old Ulcers and Sores; Missletoe bruised, and the Juice put into the Eares, healeth the Impostumes in them in a few days.
  • The Missletoe of the Oak being given inwardly, Cures the Falling Sick­ness, or hung about his Neck.
  • Money-wort, or Herb Two-pence; it is moderately cold, it stays Lasks and bloody Fluxes, Bleedings inwardly or outwardly, and is good for all Wounds inward or outward.
  • Moon-wort is cold and drying more then Adders Tongue, and is good for all manner of Wounds both inward and outward; it stayeth all inward Bleeding, as Veins broken, bloody Fluxes, and the like; it consolidateth all Fractures and Dis [...]ocations; it is good for Ruptures; it is reported that it will unlock Locks, and unshooe Horses that tread upon it.
  • Tree-Moss is cold and binding, and is the more binding according to the nature of the Tree it grows upon; that of the Oak is the most bind­ing, and is good to stay Fluxes and inward Bleedings. Moss boiled in Milk, with the powder of Anniseeds, Elecampane and Licoris, is a most excellent Medicine for a Cold or Cough.
  • Mechoachan-Root is hot and dry in the second degree, and purgeth fil­thy humors; It is very safe, and is good for inveterate Coughs, Cholick, Dolour and the Farcin.
  • Ground-Moss is dry and astringent, without any heat or cold; It break­eth the Stone, and driveth it forth by Urine, being boiled in white-Wine and given, and being boiled in Water and applied, easeth all Inflammati­ons and pains coming of a hot cause.
  • Mother-wort is hot and dry in the second degree, by reason of the clean­sing and binding quality. It is a very great Comforter of the Heart, pro­voketh Urine, cleanseth the Chest from cold Phlegm, and killeth the Wormes in the Belly; it warmes and dries up the cold humors in the Body, and helps the Cramp and Convulsions of the Sinews.
  • Mouse-ear is hot and dry, of a binding quality; it is good for the Yel­lows, it is good for the Stone and pains in the Bowels, and is a very good Herb for inward or outward Wounds; it is good for the Dropsey, and stayeth the Fluxes of Blood both outward and inward; the Juice of it is good to stay the spreading of all fretting Cankers and Ulcers whatso­ever.
  • Mugg-wort is hot and dry in the second degree, and somewhat bind­ing, it expels the dead Foal, it breaks the Stone, and is good for stoppage of Urine; the Root made up with Hogs-Grease to an Ointment▪ taketh away Wens and hard Knobs.
  • The M [...]lbeerry-Tree; the Mulberry is of different parts, the ripe Ber­ries, by reason of their slippery moisture, doth cleanse and open the Body, the unripe fruit is cold and dry in the second degree; the Bark, but chiefly the Root is hot and dry in the third degree; the unripe fruit being [Page 205] binding, is good to stop Lasks and bloody Fluxes, the Bark of the Root killeth the broad Wormes in the Belly; the Juice made of the Berries is good for Inflammations and Sores in the Mouth or Throat.
  • Mullein doth dry, the Leaves are of a digesting and cleansing quality, the Root is good against Lasks and Fluxes of the Belly; it is good for Burstness, Cramps and Convulsions, for old Coughs; the Decoction of the Root in red Wine, or in Water wherein Steel hath been quenched, doth stop the bloody Flux; it opens the Obstructions of the Bladder and Reins, the powder of the dried Flowers is good for the pain of the Cho­lick; the Decoction of the Roots and Leaves are good to dissolve Tu­mors, Inflammations or Swellings; the Seed bruised in Wine draweth forth thornes and splinters.
  • Common Mustard-seed doth heat and make thin, and is a Loosner of the Belly; it also draweth forth, and is hot and dry in the fourth degree, it cleanseth the Blood, strengthens a weak Stomach, and heats it if cold, and is very good for the Head; it draweth forth splinters and bones out of the Flesh, provokes Urine, resisteth Poison; it is good applied out­wardly, to fetch out cold or any other pain of the Body or Joynts, and is good for all Scurfs or wilde Scabs.
  • Hedge Mustard is good for Diseases of the Chest and Lungs, and for Coughs, shortness of Breath, Yel ows, and is used commonly in Glisters, the seed is good against poison or venom.
  • Millet is cold in the first degree and dry in the third, and is of a thin substance, the Meal of it mixed with Tar, and applied to the biting of any venomous Beast, is good to take out the venom.
  • The Myrtle Tree consists of contrary substances, a cold Earthliness, it hath a subtil heat and drieth; the Leaves, Fruit and Juice doth bind out­wardly applied, and inwardly taken stayeth all Issues of Blood.
  • M [...]st [...]ck is good to draw forth splints and nails out of the Flesh, it bind­eth and strengthneth weak parts, and is good for old or new strains, and inwardly taken strengthens the Stomach, and is good to stop the Distil­lation upon the Lungs.
  • M [...]lva is cold and moist, it stoppeth, softneth and mitigateth pain.
  • Malva vis [...]us is very dry, it softneth, loosneth and mitigateth.
  • Mace is dry in the third degree, without heat, and only bindeth, it is a comforter of the Heart and Spirits.
  • Ma [...]na is of equal temper, hot and dry, it openeth, mollifyeth and in­carnateth.
  • Mariaton or Martiaton is a hot Unguent against all cold humors; it helpeth the grief of the Sinews, purgeth cold watery matters, and ripen­eth Tumors.
  • Marrow, of what kinde soever, is cold and moist, and mollifieth Ul­cers; Now the best Marrow is that of a Hart or old Stag, the next that of a Calf, the next that of a Sheep, and the last that of a Goat.
  • [Page 206] Myrrhe is a sovereign Gum, it is hot and dry in the second degree, it conglutinateth, bindeth and cleanseth Wounds; it is good against all colds, it killeth Wormes, and helpeth Pursiness, for though it doth cleanse much, yet it doth not exasperate the Arteries, also it doth incarnate; it helps all diseases of the Lungs, the cholick, stops Fluxes.
  • Morcosita or Marcasita is hot and dry, it comforteth, bindeth and melteth humors.
  • The fruit of the Myrtle-tree is dry in the third degree, it doth bind good, and loosen evil humors.
N.
  • Narlwort or VVhitlow-grass is good for Imposthumes in the Joynts.
  • Neepe or Cat-mint, is good for the Head ach, coming of cold causes, all Catarrhs, Rheumes; It is good for windiness of the Stomach and Belly, Colds, Coughs and shortness of Breath; the Juice given inwardly is good for Bruises, the Decoction of it is good to bathe Scabs with.
  • Nettles are of temperature dry, a little hot scarce in the first degree, they are of thin and subtil parts; the [...]eed provoketh Urine, and expel­leth Gra [...]el and Stone out of the Reins and Bladder; It is good against the biting of venomous Beasts, biting of mad Dogs; the Juice of them is good to cleanfe Sores, Fistulaes and Wounds; and such as are fre [...]ting, corroding and eating Scabs and Manginess; it is good for to strengthen those Places that are out of Joynt, and is good for Aches and Defluctions of humours upon the Sinews. The seed of them is a most excellent thing to fatten a Horse, being strowed amongst his Provender.
  • Common Night-shade is wholly used to cool hot Inflammations, either inwardly or outwardly, and is no way dangerous to use as the other Night-shades are. It is good to wash a sore Mouth with, as also all cor­roding and fretting Ulcers and Fistulaes; A Cloth wet in the Juice, and applied to any swelling taketh it away; have a care you take not the deadly Night-shade for this; if you know it not, you may let them both alone.
  • The Roots of Narcissus or Daffadill are hot and dry in the second de­gree, and are of such wonderful oualities in drying, that they glew to­gether great Wounds, either in the Flesh, Veins, Sinews or Tendous; They have also a certain cleansing and attractive Faculty; It taketh a­way the aches and pains in the Joynts, and stamped with Hogs-Grease and Leaven, bringeth to maturation hard Impostumes, and stamped with Darnel-meal and Honey, draweth forth thornes and scabs out of any part of the body; the Juice of the Root drunk is good for the Cough and Cholick.
  • Neesing-root or Neesing-wort is hot and dry in the third degree, and hath been taken for a wilde kind of Pellitory of the Wall.
  • Navel-wort or Penny-wort of the Wall is of a moist substance, somewhat [Page 207] cold, and of a certain obscure, binding quality. It cooleth, repelleth and driveth back, scoureth, consumeth and wasteth away.
  • Nutmeg is hot and dry in the second degree, and somewhat astringent; it breaketh Wind, and is good for all cold Diseases of the Body.
  • Nutshells burnt are hot and dry, and do skin and stop the Flux of Matter.
  • Nasturiu [...] is hot and dry in the fourth degree, it burneth, draweth, melteth and killeth Wormes.
  • Nitrum is of the same Nature as Salt-Peter is, and it mundifieth ex­ceedingly.
O.
  • The Leaves and Bark of the Oak and Acorn-Cups do bind and dry in the third degree, being somewhat cold withal; the powder of the Bark or Cups stayeth all manner of Fluxes and Lasks, and stayeth the Mattering of the Yard; the Acorns procure Urine, expel Poison; the distilled wa­ter of the Oaken Buds are good taken inwardly, or outwardly applied, to asswage Inflammations, and stop all manner of Fluxes. It is good in Pestilent and hot Feavers; it cooleth the heat of the Liver, breaketh the Stone of the Kidney, the Water found in old hollow Oaks, is good to anoint [...]oul Scabs.
  • Oats are naturally dry, they do dry, bind, cleanse and comfort all the inward parts, and is the only Simple that agrees with the Composition of a Horses Body, and therefore the Oyl of them is the only absolute and perfect Medicine that can be Administred for any inward Sickness; You are taught how to make it in my first Part.
  • Oaken Apples are hot and piercing, and much of the Nature of Galls.
  • One berry-Herb, True-love, or Herb-Paris is very cold, whereby it re­presseth the rage and force of poison, both the Berries and powder of the Herb.
  • One-blade, half a dram of the Powder of the Roots is a Sovereign Re­medy against the Plague, and is a very good Wound-herb.
  • Or [...]his, which is called Dogs-Stones, they are hot and moist of operation, and provoke lust very much, and kill Wormes.
  • Onions are hot and dry in the fourth degree, and do attenuate and make thin, they help the biting of a mad Dog and other venomous creatures; used with Honey and Rue, they kill Wormes; the Juice of them is good for Burnings and Sc [...]ldings.
  • Orpins are cold and dry, and of subtil parts▪ and is seldom used inward­ly, but is used outwardly to cool all hear or inflammations upon any hurt or wound, and is good for Scaldings and Burnings, the Juice of it and Sallet-Oyl being beaten together and anoi [...]ed therewith; And the Juice of it mixed with Honey, and given down his Throat; you shall find it a better and sooner Cur [...] then a Dogs-turd.
  • [Page 208] Orpiment [...] is a kind of Metal, of which the Artificial is called Arsnick, is hot in the third degree, and dry in the second, it Bindeth, Corrodeth, Burneth and Fretteth, and is a Corrosive.
  • Opium is cold and dry in the fourth degree, and is a Liquor made with Poppy, dried and mixed with Saffron, and doth astonish and provoke Sleep.
  • Ol [...]banum is hot and dry in the second degree, and warmeth, bindeth, closeth and incarnateth Wounds.
  • Oyl of Olives or S [...]llet-Oyl, is of a very temperate Nature, and chan­geth its quality according to the Nature of the Simples mixed with it, it is a Clean [...]er of the Body by a gentle way of Purging from Molten-Grease, and expelleth Poison.
  • Opoponax is a Gum that is hot in the third, and dry in the second de­gree; It purgeth thick Phlegm from the remote parts of the Body, viz. Brain, Joynts, Feet, Nerves and Breast, and strengthens all those parts if they be weak; It helps also old rotten Coughs, Gouts, swellings of the Spleen, Strangury, difficulty of Pissing; You may give six drams of it Corrected with Mastick, and dissolved in Vineger.
P.
  • Parsley is hot and dry, but the Seed is more hot and dry, which is hot in the second degree and dry almost in the third, the Root is of moderate heat, it provoketh Urine, and breaketh Wind in the Stomach and Bowels, and Loosneth the Body by opening the Obstructions of the Liver, it break­eth the Stone, expelleth Poison, and is good for the Yellows.
  • Parsley-Pi [...]rt or Parsley Break st [...]ne, is hot and dry, and of a cutting quality, it provokes Urine, and break▪ the Stone, and helps the Stran­gury.
  • Parsnip- [...]oots are moderately hot, and more dry then moist, it procures Lust though windy, provoketh Urine; but the wilde Parsnip hath a more cutting, attenuating, cleansing and opening quality, and is of more use in Physick; it helpeth the biting of venomous Creatures, or dissolveth Wind in the Stomach and Bowels, the Seed is of more use then the Root, the Countrey-People call them Madneps.
  • Cow-Parsnips, the Seed of them are of a cutting quality, and is good for a Cough, short Windedness, Falling Sickness, Yellows, the Root scraped upon a Fistula, taketh away the hard skin growing thereon, the Seed given cleanseth the Belly from tough Phlegm.
  • Pellitory of Spain is very hot and burning, and is the best Purger of the Head that is from pains, the Powder of it being blown up his Nostrils.
  • Pellitory of the Wall cleanseth and bindeth, it is good for an old and dry Cough, short Windedness, Stone, Gravel, Wormes, and is put into Glisters to mitigate the pains coming by Wind; it is good for the Ob­structions [Page 209] of the Liver and Spleen, it is good for a sore Throat, it asswa­geth hot Swellings, Impostumes, Burnings and Scaldings by Fire or Wa­ter, or all other hot Tumors or Inflammations, it cleanseth foul rotten Ulcers and Scabs.
  • Penny-royal, both the sorts of it are of a drying Faculty and of subtil Parts, it maketh thin tough Phlegm, and warmeth any cold place where it is applied, it expelleth the dead Foal and Secundine; it helpeth the biting of venomous Creatures, it cleanseth soul Ulcers, it is good for Cramps, Convulsions of the Sinews, the Cough, Dropsey and Yel­lows.
  • P [...]ony Male and Female doth gently bind with a kind of sweetness, it is a little hot, but it is dry and of subtil parts, it is good for the Falling-Sickness, the Root being hung about the Neck, and some of the Juice of it given inwardly, and is good for the Night-Mare.
  • Pepper-wort or Dittander is good for old pains and griefs in Joynts; and for Scabs.
  • Perwincle is hot in the second degree, and somewhat dry and binding, it is good to stop Fluxes of Blood, and all manner of Bleeding inwardly and outwardly.
  • St. Peters-wort is of temperature hot and dry, and is of the same Na­ture as St. Johns-wort, but somewhat weaker, it purgeth Cholerick Hu­mours▪ helpeth old Pains and Griefs, and Burnings by Fire.
  • Pimpernel, both the sorts of them are of a drying Faculty without bi­ting, and somewhat of adrawing Faculty, in so much that it will draw forth splints out of the Flesh, and purgeth the Head put into the No­strils, they are a great Cleanser of Ulcers, and a Sodderer up of Wounds, it is good for the Plague, and all Venom taken by Venomous Beasts, and Mad Dogs, it opens the Obstructions of the Liver and Spleen, provoketh Urine, expelleth the Stone and Gravel, the Juice of it cleareth the Sight.
  • Ground-Pine or Cham [...]pitys is good for the Strangury, and all Diseases of the Liver and Spleen, and gently openeth the Body, casteth out the dead Foal; It is good for all Pains in the Joynts, Dropsey, Yellows, Poi­son, Falling Sickness, to cleanse foul Ulcers, and to sodder up the Lips of green Wounds.
  • Water Plantine is cold and dry of Temperature, is good against Burn­ings or Scauldings, and is good to stay Fluxes of Blood.
  • Rib-wort Plantine is cold and dry in the second degree as are the other Plantines, the Vertues are referred to the kinds of Plantine.
  • Land Plantine is of a mixt Temperature, for it hath in it a certain wa­terish colour, with a little harshness and coldness, and is therefore cold and dry in the second degree, the Juice of it is good for all pains in the Bowels, and stayeth the Distillation, Rheum in the Head, and is good for all manner of Fluxes of Blood, inwardly taken or outwardly applied, [Page 210] it is good for shortness of Breath, and Consumption of the Lungs; the Seed is good for the Dropsey, Falling Sickness, Yellows, Stoppings of the Liver, the distilled water of it is good to cool the hot Inflammation of the Eyes, and taketh away the Pin and Web; It is good for all manner of Burnings and Scauldings, is good for [...]ore Mouths, and is good for all Ul­cers and Cankders; it is good for all manner of Scabs, Tettars and run­ning Sores, and is a very good Wound-Herb, either inwardly taken or outwardly applied.
  • Polipody of the Oak, Polipody of Fern, Indian Polipody, are dry with­out biting, it purgeth Choler and Phlegm, and is good for the Cholick, it is good against a Cough, shortness of Breath, and distillations of thin Rheums upon the Lungs.
  • Poppies of all sorts are cold, it is a great causer of Sleep, it stayeth the Flux of the Belly, the Leaves or Heads made with a little Vineger and brought to a Poultess with Barley-meal and Hogs-grease, cooleth Inflam­mations and St. Anthonies Fire.
  • Prim or Privet, the Leaves and Roots of it are binding, and is good to wash sore Mouths, to cool Inflammations, and to dry up Fluxes, and is good for Ulcers in the Mouth and Throat, and all Swellings and Im­postumes, and is good against all Fluxes of the Belly and Stomach, and bloody Flux.
  • Pepper is hot in the third degree. All the sorts of them heateth, pro­voketh Urine, digesteth, draweth, disperseth and cleanseth the dimness of the Sight, and is good to be put into Medicaments for the Eyes; It is an Expeller of Poison, and is good for all diseases of the Breast and Lungs, helps Wind, is good for the Cholick.
  • Pitch is drawn from the Pine-tree, by the force of Fire, and is the last Running, and Tarr is the first, which is the thinner; it is hot and dry, and Tarr more hot, and stone Pitch more drying, it conglutiuateth and gathereth together.
  • Petrolium is a certain Oyl made of Salt Peter and Bitumen, and is hot and dry in the second degree, healeth Wounds, and comforteth weak Members.
  • Philonium, of which there are two kinds, Philonium Romanum, and Phi­lonium Persicum, and are excellent Positions, and most comfortable in the loss of Blood.
  • Pomegranat is cold and dry, provoketh Urine, and is good for the Stomach; the Rind, Seed or Flowers of them beaten to powder and given, stop the Lask and all Issues of Blood.
  • Pomecitron, the Rind of it is good against all Poisons.
Q.
  • Queen of the Medows, Medow-sweet, or Mead-sweet, is cold, dry and binding, and is good for all manner of inward or outward Bleedings; [Page 211] It helps the Cholick, stayeth the Flux of the Belly, healeth old Ulcers, Cankers and Fistulaes; the distilled water of it is good for the Inflam­mation of the Eyes.
R.
  • Radish, Horse-Radish and Garden-Radish, are hot in the third degree, and dry in the second; they drive forth the Gravel and Stone out of the Bladder by Urine.
  • Horse-Radish is hot and dry in the third degree, and hath a drying and cleansing quality; It killeth Wormes, and being bruised and laid to old Griefs taketh them away, and is a Provoker of Urine, and likewise good for the Dropsey.
  • Rag-wort is called St. James-wort or Stagger-wort, is hot and dry in the second degree; It cleanseth, disgesteth and discusseth; The Juice of it is good for Ulcers in the Mouth or Throat▪ for hard Swellings, Impost­humations and Quinsey; it is good to stay Catarrhs, thin Rheums and Distillations from the Head into the Eyes, Nose or Lungs; the Juice is good to heal all green Wounds, and to cleanse and heal all filthy Ulcers in any part of the Body; it is good for all Pains and Aches in any part of the Body likewise.
  • Rattle-Grass, there is two sorts of it, the red and they yellow; the Red is good to heal up Fistulaes and hollow Ulcers, and stay the Flux of Hu­mors to them, and other Fluxes of Blood, being boiled in red Wine and given. The yellow Rattle-grass is good for a Cough, and dimness of Sight, the Seed being put therein.
  • Rest-harrow or C [...]ammoack, is hot in the third degree, it cutteth and maketh thin; it provoketh Urine and driveth forth the Stone, which the Bark of the Root doth very powerfully. It is good to open the Obstructi­ons of the Liver and Spleen, and is good for a Rupture.
  • The wilde Rochet is hot and dry in the third degree; it provoketh U­rine exceedingly, expelleth Poison, killeth Wormes and other noisom creatures that breed in the Body.
  • Wint [...]r-Rochet or Cresses, is hot and dry in the second degree, the Seed of them provoketh Urine, helpeth the Strangury, and expels Gravel and the Stone. It is a good Wound-herb inwardly given, or outwardly ap­plied: It cleanseth▪ and healeth foul Ulcers and Sores by the drying qua­lity they have.
  • Roses of all sorts, the leaves and the flowers of them consist of divers parts, as binding, yet moist and watery, they come very near to a mean temperature; the white and the red are very binding, and those that are not full blown, do cool and bind more then those that are blown; they being dried and b [...]aten to Powder, stayeth the Lask and Pissing of Blood, the Red strengthens the Heart and Stomach, asswage inflammations, the [Page 212] Mattering of the Yard and Fluxes of the Belly, the Beards of them are binding and cooling.
  • Rosa S [...]lis or Sun-dew, the water of it distilled helps a salt Rheum distil­ling from the Lungs, Wheesing, shortness of Breath, the Cough, and to heal Ulcers in the Lungs, comforteth the Heart.
  • Rosemary is hot and dry in the second degree, and of a binding quality, and is good against all Fluxe, of Blood, and cold diseases of the Head and Stomach; It is good for the Lethargy and Falling Sickness; It opens the Obstructions of the Liver, and is good for Windedness of the Belly; It is good for dim Eyes, Yellows, Cough, Consumption.
  • Rubarb the best, which is the Indian, hath two contrary Natures, for if you either cut, scrape or grate it, then it is a Loosner, for it dissolveth and openeth the Liver, and expelleth the Obstructions thereof; It ex­pulseth all bad humors in and about the Heart, Liver and Spleen; It cleanseth the Body, and sendeth away the peccant humors among the Ex­crements, and all such things as may annoy or offend the Entrails. But if you shall pound and beat it in a Mortar, or otherwise, the Spirit there­of being a subtil Body, will Trans [...]e and flie away, whereby the Operati­on thereof will be to bind, and no way profitable.
  • Garden Patience or Monk [...] Rhubarb, is a kind of dock bearing the Name of Rhubarb, for the purging quality therein; It purgeth Choler and Phlegm, the Seed binds the Belly and stayeth any Lask or bloody Flux, the distilled water of it is good to [...]eanse and heal soul Ulcers, and to allay the [...]nflammation of them.
  • Bastard Rhubarb hath all the Properties of the Monks Rhubarb, but more effectually for inward and outward Diseases; It Cureth the Yel­lows, the Seed boiled in Wine helpeth the Farcin, the Stone, provoketh Urine, helpeth the dimness of the Sight; It is a Cleanser and Cooler of the Blood.
  • The Properties of the English Rhubarb is the same with the other, but much more effectual, and hath all the Properties of the Indian Rhubarb, except the force of Purging, wherein it hath but half the strength; it pur­geth the Body from choler and phlegm; it cleanseth the Stomach, Liver and Blood, opening Obstructions, Curing the Yellows, Dropsey, clean­seth the Reins, being taken with Venice Turpentine.
  • Medow Rue bruised is good for old Sores; It is a Loosner of the Body; It is good for the Yellows and Plague.
  • Garden Rue is hot and dry in the latter end of the third degree, and the Wilde in the [...]ourth; it is of thin parts, it consumeth Wind, and disgesteth gross and tough Hamors, provoketh Urine, is good against Poison, the Plague, the pains and gripings of the Belly. It is good for the Cough, Wind-cholick, Wormes, Dropsey, stops Bleeding; It is good for the Far­cin, Scabs, Tettars and Ring-wormes.
  • Rupture-wort is dry, closeth up and fastneth; It is good for the Rup­tures, [Page 212] Fluxes, Mattering of the yard, Strangury, stopping of Urine, Stone and Gravel. It is good for all Griping Pains in the Stomach and Belly, Obstructions of the Liver, Yellows, Wormes, Wounds. It stayeth the defluctions of Rheums from the Head, and drieth up the moisture of Fi­stulaes and Ulcers.
  • Reeds are hot and dry in the second degree; and are Drawers out of splints and thornes out of the Flesh.
  • Rye is hotter then Wheat, and is more forcible in wasting and consuming away; It ripeneth Imposthumes, Boyles and other Swellings.
  • All the Rozins are hot and dry; the Rozin of the Cedar-tree is the hotter, the Rozin of the Pitch-tree is not so sharp and biting, and there­fore not so hot; the Rozin of the Firr-tree is in a mean between both; the liquid Rozin of the Pine is moister; The Rozins which are put in Plaisters, which is our common Rozin, stoppeth, softneth, clea [...]seth, draw­eth and purgeth wounds; and is good against cold Causes.
  • Risigallo is a Composition of old Sulphur, or Orpiment and unslackt Lime, and is a most strong Corrosive.
S.
  • Saffron is binding, it is hot in the second, and dry in the first degree; It strengthens the Heart, is good for the Consumption of the Lungs, and shortness of Breath; it is an excellent thing in Epidemical diseases, as the Plague, and is good for the Yellows.
  • Garden Sage is hot and dry in the beginning of the third degree, or in the latter end of the second. It is good for the Head and Brain, strength­ens the Sinews, restoreth Health; It is good for a Cough, biting of Ser­pents, expelleth Wind, drieth the Dropsey, and is a Cleanser of the Blood. It is good to put into a Water to wash a sore Mouth withal, and is good for old Cankers and Sores.
  • Wood-Sage is hot and dry, yet less then the common Sage, being hot and dry in the second degree. It disgesteth and discusseth Swellings and Knots in the flesh. It is good for Ulcers, Sores, Burstness, green Wounds, and provoketh Urine.
  • Solomons Seal is binding, the Roots of it is good in Wounds and Hurts, to cleanse them, and to dry and restrain Fluxes of Humors and bloody Flux and Lask; It is good for Ruptures and Burstness taken inwardly, or outwardly applied, and is good for inward and outward bruises.
  • Sanicle is bitter, and hath a certain binding quality, so that it clean­seth and strengthneth, and is hot and dry in the second degree, and in some Authors hot in the third; It is a most excellent VVound-herb, either outwardly applied, or inwardly given, and is good for Ulcers and Impostumes in any part of the Body. It is good to stop a Lask and all Fluxes of Blood, either inwardly or outwardly. It is good for the Ulceration of the Kidneys, and pains of the Bowels and Ruptures. It [Page 214] is good in binding, restraining, heating, drying and healing, as Comfrey, Bugle, Self-heal, or any other of the Consounds, or Vulnerary Herbs whatsoever.
  • Sarasens Consound or Sarasens Wound-wort, is dry in the third degree, with some manifest heat; It is a good Wound-herb, and is good for the Obstructions of the Liver and Gall, Yellows, Dropsey, for all Ulcers of the Reins, or other inward Wounds and Bruises, and for Ulcers in the Mouth and Throat, and pains in the Stomach.
  • Sawce alone, vide Jack in the Hedge.
  • VVinter Savory and Summer-Savory is very good for the Cholick, the Summer-kind is the best; it expelleth Wind in the Stomach and Bowels; it provoketh Urine, it cutteth tough Phlegm in the Chest and Lungs; the Juice dropped into the Eyes cleareth the Sight, if it proceed of thin cold humors, distilling from the Brain, and being used in a Poultess is good for old Aches and Pains in the Hips and Joynts coming of cold.
  • Savin is hot and dry in the third degree, of subtil parts; It cleanseth old Ulcers, being dried and mixed with Honey; It is good to break Car­buncles, Plague-Sores, Farcin, Wormes, Scabs, Itch and Running Sores, Cankers, Tettars, Ring Wormes; it kills the quick Foal, and expels the dead.
  • Common Saxafrage, the Root and seed thereof is of a warm and hot Composition, it cleanseth the Reins and Bladder, and dissolveth the Stone, and expels the Gravel by Urine, helps the Strangury, cleanseth the Stomach and Lungs from phlegm.
  • B [...]rnet Saxafrage, the Seed, Leaves and Roots of the great and small, are hot and dry in the third degree, and of thin and subtil parts, they have the same Properties as Parsley hath in provoking Urine, and easeth the pains of the Cholick, breaks and avoids the Stone by Urine, and is good against Venom, and is good for Cramps and Convulsions, the Juice of it dipped into Wounds drieth up the moisture of them.
  • Scabius. three sorts there are of it, though there be many others, yet these be most Familiar, and the Vertues of these and the rest are much a­like, it is hot and dry in the latter end of the second degree, or near hand in the third, and of thin and subtil parts. It is good for Coughs, short Windedness, and all other Diseases of the Breast and Lungs, ripening and digesting cold phlegm, and other tough Humors, it ripeneth also all in­ward Ulcers and Impostumes, it is good for running and spreading Scabs, Tetters and Ring-wormes.
  • English S [...]urvey-Grass is evidently hot and dry, very like in taste and quality to the Garden-Cresses, it openeth and cleanseth the Blood, the Liver and Spleen; it openeth Obstructions, and Evacuateth cold, clammy and Phlegmatick Humors both from the Liver and Spleen, the Juice of it is good for soul Sores in the Mouth.
  • Self- [...]eal is of the temperature of Bugle, moderately hot, dry and some­thing [Page 215] binding; It is a most excellent Herb for inward and outward Wounds or Bruises in any part of the Body, it stayeth the Flux of Blood in any Wound, and cleanseth soul Ulcers and Sores.
  • The Service-Tree, the Berries are cold and binding, it is good to stay bleedings of Wounds, Lasks and Fluxes of Blood.
  • Shepherds Parse is cold, dry and very much binding, it help all Fluxes of Blood, either caused by inward or outward Wounds, and also Flux of the Belly, and bloody Flux, or Pissing of Blood, is good for the Yellows, and being made into a Poultess helps Inflammations, and St. Anthonies Fire, an Ointment being made thereof is good for all Wounds in the Head.
  • Smallege is hotter, drier, and much more Medicinable then Parsley, it openeth the Obstructions of the Liver and Spleen, cleanseth the Blood, provokes Urine, helps the Yellows, Agues, the Juice is good for sore Mouths and Throats, cleanseth all the foul Ulcers and Cankders, being washed therewith; The Seed is good to expel Wind, kill Wormes, the Roots are effectual to all the Purposes aforesaid, and is stronger then the Herb.
  • Sope-wort or Bruise-wort is hot and dry, and a little Scouring; the Juice is good to heal up green Wounds; it provokes Urine, expels the Gravel and Stone, and is good for the Dropsey.
  • The Sorrels are moderately cold, dry and binding; the common Sor­rel is good to cool hot Diseases, Inflammations or heat of Blood, for it puri [...]ieth it, it killeth VVormes, and is a Cordial to the Heart, which the Seed doth more effectually, being more drying and binding, and therefore stayeth the humors of the bloody Flux, and Flux of the Stomach; It is good to resist Poison, expelleth the Gravel and Stone, helpeth the Yel­lows. The Juice of it with Vineger killeth the Itch, Scabs, Tettars, Ring▪wormes and the like.
  • VVood-Sorrel is cold and dry, like Sorrel, and serves for all the Pur­poses that the other Sorrels do, and is more effectual in hindring the Pu­tresaction of Blood, and Ulcers in the Mouth and Body, and cooleth Heats▪ Inflammations and Pestilential Feavers, or other contagious Sick­ness.
  • Sow-Thistles are of a mixt temperature, for they consist of a waterish substance, cold and binding; the Milk of them is good for short winded­ness, and causeth the Stone and Gravel to be avoided by Urine; it helpeth the Strangury, it causeth Milk in Cattel.
  • Southern-VVood is hot and dry in the third degree; the Seed is an An­tidote against all deadly Poison, and is good to kill VVormes; it is good to draw forth thornes out of the Flesh; the Ashes of it drieth up old Ul­cers that are without Inflammation.
  • Spignel provokes Urine, helpeth the Strangury, and all Joynt Aches, the powder of the Root with Honey breaketh tough Phlegm, and drieth [Page 216] up the phlegm that fasteneth upon the Lungs; the Roots are good against the biting and stinging of venomous Beasts.
  • Spleen-worts are of thin parts, and are in a mean temper; it is good for the Spleen, helpeth the Strangury, wasteth the Stone in the Bladder, and is good for the Yellows.
  • Straw-berry leaves do cool and dry with a binding quality, they are good for all hot inflammations and swellings, applied outwardly, and being inwardly given, after they have been boiled in Vineger, doth cool the Liver and Blood, and asswage all inflammations in the Reins, pro­voketh Urine, and allayeth the heat and sharpness thereof, stayeth the bloody Flux. The Juice of the leaves are good to make a Lotion for a sore Mouth or Ulcerstherein.
  • Succory and Endive are cold and dry in the second degree, and withal somewhat binding, they cleanse phlegmatick and waterish humors out of the Stomach, opens the Obstructions of the Liver, Gall and Spleen, is good for the Yellows, heat of the Reins, Urine and Dropsey; the water or the Juice of the bruised leaves applied outwardly, allay swellings, in­flammations and St. Anthonies Fire, and to wash Pestilential sores.
  • Wilde Succory agrees in nature and temperature with the Garden Suc­cory, and as it is more bitter, so it doth more strengthen the Stomach and Liver.
  • Stone-crop, Prick Madum▪ or small Housleek, grows upon the ground with divers branches, with thick and whitish green leaves; it is cold in quality, and somewhat binding, and therefore very good to stay deflucti­ons that flow from the Eyes; it stops Bleeding both inward and outward, helps Cankers and all fretting Sores and Ulcers; it abates the heat of Choler, expels Poison, resisteth Pestilent Feavers, and is good for Agues, you may take it inwardly for all these Diseases. It is good likewise for the Farcin.
  • Snap-Dragon, all the sorts of them are hot and dry, and of subtil parts.
  • Star-wort is of a mean temperature in cooling and drying; it is good for the falling of the Gut by the Inflammation of the Fundament, and is good for the Falling Sickness.
  • White Sattin Flower, the seed of it is hot, dry and sharp of Taste, the seed of it is good for the Falling Sickness; There may be made of it an excellent Ointment of the leaves of it, and Sanicle stamped together, ad­ding thereunto Oyl and Wax.
  • Sea Star-wort is hot and dry in the third degree; the roots of it given in white-Wine, driveth forth by Urine watery and gross humors, and therefore it is good for the Dropsey and Poison, and is good for all in­ward and outward Wounds.
  • S [...]aves-Acre, the seed of it is extreme hot, almost in the fourth degree, being beaten to Powder, and mixed with Oyl or Lard, kills Lice, Itch [Page 217] or Mange in Man or Beast. It is dangerous to give it inwardly.
  • Sncese-wort, all the kinds of them are hot and dry in the third degree.
  • Star of Bethlehem, the kinds of them are temperate in heat and driness, the Roots of them roasted and applied with Honey in the manner of a Poultiss, healeth old eating Ulcers, and softneth and discusseth hard Tu­mors.
  • Spinach is cold and moist almost in the second degree, but rather moist, it Loosneth the Belly, but maketh it windy.
  • Set-well, vide Valerian.
  • Sene is of a mean Temperature, neither hot nor cold, yet inclining to heat, and dry almost in the third degree; It is of a purging faculty, and that in such sort that it is not troublesom, having withal a certain binding quality, which it leaveth after the Purging.
  • All Spurges are hot and dry almost in the fourth degree, of a sharp and biting quality, fretting and consuming; the Milk and Sap is in more special use then the fruit and leaves, the Root is of least strength, the strongest is that of the Sea.
  • Scammony, the Juice doth mightily purge, and is the strongest Purger whatsoever, and is very hurtful to the Stomach, if you mix it not with All [...]es, or some other things, to correct the evil qualities of it.
  • The Sycamore-tree, the fruit of it is somewhat sweet of taste, and is of temperature moist after a sort, and cold, as be the Mulberries. The Li­quor that issueth out of the Bark of this Tree, in the beginning of the Spring, before the Fruit appeareth, taken up with a Spoon or Spunge, and dried or made up into a Cake, and kept in a Gally-pot, mollifieth and closeth Wounds together, and dissolveth gross humors, and is good in­wardly given, or applied outwardly against the biting of Serpents; it doth soon putrifie.
  • Storax or Stirax is a sweet Gum, which is of a heating, mollifying and concocting quality; It is an excellent Perfume for the Head, and draw­eth many evil humors from thence, as Colds and other Sicknesses in the Head.
  • Sanguis Draconis is supposed to come from the Dragon-tree, it hath an Astringent faculty, and is good to stay Fluxes of Blood.
  • Sloes, vide black Thorn.
  • Scallions are hot and dry in the second degree, they are good for Scabs, and for the Lungs.
  • Sarsafras or Ague-Tree, the boughs and branches thereof are hot and dry in the second degree; the Rind is hotter, the Root is the best part of it, it procureth the same effects as Cinnamon doth.
  • Sanders white, red and yellow, are all cold and dry in the second [...]r third degree; They are of an Astringent and strengthning [...]uality. They drive back Humors, and stop Defluctions from any part, [Page 218] helps Inflammations, and cools the Heat of Feavers. The yellow is ac­counted the best.
  • Sna [...]ls with shells are of the same Nature as Snails without Shells are.
  • Snails without shells do conglutinate very much, and is good to put in Medicines for Ruptures; the distilled water of them is good for a Con­sumption.
  • Sandevoir is most excellent for dim or Rheumatick Eyes, being laid a­steep in Running Water.
  • Soap is hot, it draweth [...]orth Splinters and Nails; it mollisieth, drieth, cleanseth and purgeth.
  • Salnitre, some use for this Salt Peter, it is hot and dry, and evaporateth; it comforteth Sinews, and taketh away tiredness and weariness.
  • Salgemma is a kind of Salt which is hot and dry, it cleanseth and bindeth.
  • Sallows or VVillows bindeth and drieth vehemently.
  • Sal [...] is hot and dry in the second degree, cleanseth and killeth Wormes.
  • Sagina, or Saggina, or Sorge, of some called Pannicum Indicum, is only hot and dry.
  • S [...]lmoniack is hot and dry in the fourth degree, and cleanseth.
  • Sarcocolla is a Gum of the kind of Euphorbium, and is hot and dry in the second degree; it cleanseth, incarnateth and comforteth wounds.
  • Sevadalce is hot in the second, and dry in the first degree, it cleanseth and openeth.
  • Serapino is a Gum of Ferula, it is hot in the third, and dry in the second degree; it mollifieth, loosneth and is good for Colds.
T.
  • Tarre is drawn out of the Pine-tree, and is the first Running, Pitch is the second, it is hot and dry in the second degree; it is good against Colds or evil Humors gathered together in the Breast, and draweth Wounds. It is outwardly applied with other Ingredients to the Scratches, and is good to anoint a Horses Nose with, to keep the Infection of the Plague from him.
  • English Tobaccho killeth Wormes, a little of it chopped small or beaten to Powder, after it is very dry, and put amongst other Medicines. It is good for the Stone in the Kidneys to help the Pain, and to expel the Gra­vel; It is good boiled, in Chamberly with Brimstone, Allom and green Copperas, to kill the Mange or all manner of Scabs; the Oyl of it is good for all manner of Aches, Cramps and Convulsions; a Pipe filled with it, and put into a Horses Fundament, which the wind of his Body will draw it out, is a very good Glister for all manner of Wormes there, and to cleanse his Body.
  • Tam [...]inds are cold in the third degree, and dry in the second; they are very temperate, and gently purge adust Humors.
  • [Page 219] The Tamarisk▪Tree hath a cleansing and cutting Faculty, with a ma­nifest driness; it is somewhat binding, it is good for inward Bleedings, Cholick, Yellows, biting of venomous Beasts, the decoction of it with some Honey is good to stay Gangrenes, and fretting Sores and Ulcers, and to kill Nits and Lice being washed therewith, the Wood or Bark is good for all the Purposes aforesaid, as well as the Branches; it is good given to a Horse to kill the Farcin.
  • Garden Tansie that smells sweet, is hot in the second degree, and dry in the third▪ and that without smell is hot and dry, and of a mean Tempe­rature, it is good to consume Phlegmatick Humors, the decoction of the Common Tansie opens all Stoppings, is good for the Strangury, it expels Wind, the Seed is good for the Wormes, being boiled with Oyl is good for shrunk Sinews and Cramps.
  • Wilde Tansie is cold and dry almost in the third degree, having a bind­ing quality; It stayeth the Lask and all Fluxes whatsoever; it is good for Burstness, and is good for all Joynt-Aches or Pains; it is good for in­ward or outward Wounds, and to heal Running Sores, it cooleth the hot Fits of the Ague be it never so violent, the distilled water of it dropped into the Eyes, or a Cloth wet therein, taketh away the heat and inflam­mation of them.
  • Of Thistles in general, all of them provoke Urine, the Juice of them will cause Hair to grow where it is fallen off.
  • Treacle Mustard and Methridate Mustard both purge the Body upwards and downwards, it breaks inward Imposthumes; It is a very good An­tidote against Poison, Venom and Putrefaction; it is also available in many Cases, the Common Mustard is used, but somewhat weaker.
  • The Black-thorn or Slo-Bush, all the parts of it is cooling, and binding, and drying, and good to stay Bleeding at the Mouth and Nose, stop the Lask of the Belly or Stomach, bloody Flux, and to ease the pains of the Bowels and Guts, that come by overmuch Scourings, the Leaves are good to put into Lotions, to wash a sore Mouth or Throat with, wherein are Sores or Kernels, and to stay the defluctions of Rheums to the Eyes or o­ther parts, and to cool the heat of them.
  • Thorough-wax or Thorough-leaf is of a dry Complexion, and is good for all sorts of Bruises and Wounds inward and outward, and old Ulcers and Sores likewise; the decoction of the Herb or the Powder of it taken inwardly, and the leaves bruised and applied outwardly, is good to Cure Ruptures and Burstings.
  • Thyme is hot and dry in the third degree, it is a great Strengthner of the Lungs, it purgeth the Body of Phlegm, and is good for short-winded­ness, an Ointment made with it is good for hot swellings, it comforteth the Stomach, and expels Wind.
  • VVilde Thime or Mother of Thime, is of Temperature hot and dry in the third degree, it is of thin and subtil parts, cutting and much biting, [Page 220] provokes Urine, easeth the Griping pains in the Belly coming by Wind; it is good for Cramps, Ruptures and Inflammations of the Liver, it is good for the Lethargy, Pissing of Blood, Coughing, strengthens the Sto­mach, expels Wind, and breaks the Stone.
  • Turmentil or Serfoyl is binding, and therefore good to stay all Fluxes of Blood or Humors, whether at the Nose or Mouth, or any Wound in the Veins or elsewhere; It resisteth Poison, Plague, Pestilential Feavers, and contagious diseases, and expelleth the Venom from the Heart by Sweating, there is not found any Root more effectual to help any Flux of the Belly, Stomach, Spleen or Blood, then this taken inwardly or applied outwardly; it opens the Obstructions of the Liver, helpeth the Yellows, it is good made into a Plaister to strengthen the Reins of the Back; it is good for Ruptures and Bruises by Falls taken inwardly or applied out­wardly; and 'tis a most excellent Wound-herb applied outwardly to rotten Sores and Ulcers any where of the Body, or for any inward Wound, it dissolves hard knots and kernels any where about the Body.
  • Turnsole or Heliotropium purgeth Choler and Phlegm boiled with wa­ter and given, and being boiled with Cummin helpeth the Stone of the Reins or Bladder, provoketh Urine, the Herb bruised and laid to any old Pain in the Joynts taketh it away, the Juice of it is good to take away Wenns, and to dissolve hard kernels or knobs in the Flesh.
  • Medow Trefoyl or Honey-suckles is cold and dry, and are good to put into Glisters, it is good in a Poultess for Inflammations and Swellings, the Juice dropped into the Eye taketh away the Pin and Web, and taketh a­way the Blood-shotten of them▪
  • Hart-trefoyl is a great Strengthner of the Heart, fortifieth it against Poi­son and Pestilence, and defending it from the noisom vapors of the Spleen.
  • Pearl-Trefoyl, it differs not from the Common▪sort, save only it hath a white spot in the Leaf like a Pearl, and is of great Vertue against the Pin and Web in the Eyes.
  • Tu [...]bich is a Root that is hot and dry, and purgeth by moderate draw­ing, (f it be corrected,) gross, viscid and putrid Phlegm from the Brain, Breast, and remote Parts and Junctures.
  • Tutsan or Park-leaves, the faculties are such as St. Peters-wort, which declares it to be hot and dry; it purgeth humors, it is good for burnings by Fire; it is a very good Wound-herb, either inwardly given or out­wardly applied.
  • Tartar is the Excrement of Wine which sticks to the Vessel, and is hot and dry in the third degree, and only cleanseth.
  • Turpentine is hot in the second and dry in the first, it doth draw, skin, incarnate and conglutinateth things together, and is good for the Mat­tering of the Yard given inwardly, being made up by Art into Balls, with Flower and bole-Armoniack.
  • Thuris Cortex is dry in the second degree and bindeth.
  • [Page 221] Trifora Magna is a certain Composition which will provoke Sweat, helpeth Griefs in the Stomach, and taketh away all cold Rhumes.
  • Tutia Preparata is a certain Mineral that is cold in the first, and dry in the second degree, and is very good for sore Eyes.
  • Turmerick is hot in the third degree, and openeth Obstructions, it is good against the Yellows, and all cold Distempers of the Liver and Spleen, and Fattens by a certain hidden quality.
  • Tastil wilde is cold in the third and dry in the first degree, and com­forteth and bindeth.
V.
  • Garden Valerian is hot but not much, provoketh Urine, being dried and given, helpeth the Strangury, it is good for short Windedness, the Roots of it being boiled with Licoris, Raisins and Anniseeds, helpeth to open the Passages▪ and expectorates the Phlegm easily; it is good for the Plague, and those that are bitten and stung by any venomous creature; it expelleth Wind, and being boiled in white-Wine and dropped into the Eyes, taketh away the dimness of Sight, or any Pin and Web; it healeth any inward sores and wounds, and also all outward wounds and hurts, and draweth out splinters and thornes out of the Flesh, the Herb being bruised, and laid to the place grieved.
  • VVilde Valerian some hold, that being dried and beaten to Powder, pur­geth upwards and downwards.
  • Both the Vervaines are very dry, and do meanly bind and cool; it is an excellent Herb for the Womb, and all the cold Griefs belonging there­unto, as Plantain doth the hot. It is hot, dry and bitter, opening Ob­structions, cleansing and healing; It is good for the Yellows, Dropsey, the defects of the Reins and Lungs, and all inward pains and torments of the Body; it is good against the Plague, and the venom of venomous Beasts, against Agues, the Wormes, the diseases of the Liver and Spleen, and all diseases of the Stomach and Lungs, Coughs, shortness of Breath, and to cleanse the Bladder from all evil humors, that engender the Stone, it healeth all Wounds both inward and outward, stayeth Bleeding, and healeth old Ulcers in any part of the Body being used with Honey; It is good for Swellings used with Hogs-grease, the distilled water of the Herb or [...]uice dropped into the Eyes, cleanseth them from Films.
  • The Branches of the Vine and the Leaves do cool and mightily bind, and stayeth Bleeding in any part of the Body, and are good to stop a Lask and bloody Flux, the Leaves are put into Lotions for sore Mouths, and be­ing put into a Poultess with Barley-Meal, cools [...]nflammations of Wounds.
  • All the Violets are cold and moist while they are fresh and green, and will cool any heat and distemper in the Body, either inwardly given, or outwardly applied, Impostumes▪ also and hot Swellings, they purge the Body of Cholerick Humors, the Powder of the Purple Flower helpeth the Quinsey and Falling Sickness; it is good for the Liver, Yellows and hot Agues.
  • [Page 222] The sorts of Vipers Grass, are hot and moist as are the Goats-beards, it is very good for the Plague, poison of venomous Creatures, falling Sickness▪
  • Of Wall or Vipers Bugl [...]ss, the several sorts of them are cold and dry of Complexion, it is good against the biting of Vipers or any other venomous Beasts, and also against poison or any poisonous Herbs, the Roots comfort the Heart, tempers the Blood, allays the hot Fits of Agues.
  • Vineger, especially if it be of Wine, is cold and piercing, to wit, cold in the first, and dry in the third degree, it cuts Phlegm.
  • Vermilion is a certain Metal drawn from Quick sulphur, and Quick-sil­ver, it draweth, healeth, incarnateth, bindeth and comforteth Ulcers.
  • Verdegrease is hot and dry in the third degree, and is a Corrasive that eateth away dead and proud Flesh, and is good to be put into Ointments for green Wounds, or for the Scratches.
  • Green and white Vitriol may be taken inwardly, a few drops of it with other things for the Farcin, and outwardly applied to take away Wenns or hard Kernels, or to eat away a Quitter-bone or Splint, or to take off Warts from the hands; if you will stay the eating of it, or that you will have it eat no further then where you lay it, wet all round where you lay it with water, you must take it out of the Glass with a Feather, or a piece of Silk Tied to a stick, for it will eat both Linnen and Woollen. The white is the strongest, but the green is most safe for any use.
  • Vitriola Caleanthum is reckoned amongst Metals, and is a kind of Inkey Earth, it draweth and fretteth.
  • Vitriola Herba is an Herb that groweth on the VVall, and is taken for Pellitory on the Wall.
W.
  • Wall▪flower or Winter-Gilliflower, all the kinds of them are of a clean­sing faculty, and of thin parts. The yellow kind works more powerfully, and are of more use in Physick; it cleanseth the Blood, and freeth the Liver from Obstructions, expelleth the Secundine and dead Foal, stayeth Inflammations and Swellings, comforteth and strengthneth any weak part out of Joynt, cleanseth the Eyes from Films, and cleanseth also filthy Ul­cers in the Mouth, and is a good Remedy for all Aches and Pains in the Joynts and Sinews, and is good for the Farcin.
  • The VVallnut-Tree, the Bark of it doth bind and dry very much, and the leaves are much of the same▪Temperature, they kill the VVormes in the Belly, with other things put to them; they help the biting of a mad Dog, or the venom or poison of any Creature; the Kernels of them when they are old are very Astringent, and will stop a Lask; the Oyl of the Kernels taken inwardly helpeth the Cholick, and expels VVind; the di­stilled water of the green husks, before they be ripe, is good to cool the heat of Agues, as also to resist the Infection of the Plague, being applied to the sores; it cooleth also the heat of green VVounds and old Ulcers, being Bathed therewith.
  • [Page 223] Wold, Weld, or Dyars-weed, is hot and dry of Temperature, also the whole Herb heats and dries in the third degree; it cuts, attenuates, re­solveth, opens, disgests; it is good taken inwardly, or applied outwardly against the venom of venomous Beasts, as also for the Plague or Pesti­lence, and is good for green Wounds.
  • Wheat is hot and dry in the first degree; it hath a certain clammy, stopping quality; the Oyl of it pressed out between two thick Plates of Iron, healeth all Tettars and Ring-wormes, used warm. The green Corn chewed and applied to the place bitten by a mad Dog healeth it; Sliced Wheat-bread, soaked in Red Rose-water or Spring-water, and ap­plied to the Eyes that are hot, red and inflamed, or blood-shotten helpeth them. And hot Bread applied to the Kernels of the Throat, healeth the Kernels thereof; the Flower of it mixed with the Juice of Henbane stay­eth the Flux of Humors to the Joynts, and being boiled in Vineger help­eth the shrinking of the Sinews, the Flower of it mixed with the Yolk of an Egg, Honey and Turpentine, doth draw, cleanse and heal any Bile, Plague-sore or foul Ulcer; the Decoction of Wheat-bran is good to Bath those Places that are bursten by a Rupture, and the said Bran boiled in Vineger, helpeth all Swellings and Inflammations, it helpeth the bi­ting of Vipers and all other venomous Creatures. Wasers put in water and given, stayeth the Lask and bloody Flux.
  • The Willow-tree, the Leaves, Flowers, Seed and Bark, are cold and dry in the second degree, and binding; they are used to stay bleeding of VVounds, and all other Fluxes of Blood; it helpeth to stay all thin, hot and sharp distillations upon the Lungs; the Leaves bruised with some Pepper is good for the VVind-cholick. The water of the VVillow-tree received of a Branch cut, is good for dimness of Sight, for Films, and to stay the Rheumes that fall into them, provokes Urine being stopped; the Flowers of it boiled in white-VVine hath an admirable faculty in drying up of humors. The Bark worketh the same effect.
  • VVoad is dry and without sharpness, the wilde VVoad drieth more, and is more sharp and biting; it is so dry and binding, that it is hardly fit to be Given inwardly; an Ointment made thereof stancheth bleeding, and is good in such Ulcers as are bound with moisture, for it takes away the corroding and fretting humors; it cools Inflammations, quenches St. An­thonies Fire, and stayeth defluctions of Blood in any part of the Body.
  • VVood-bind or Honey-suckles are cleansing, consuming and disgesting; the Flowers are good for the Lungs, provokes Urine, helps Cramps, Convulsi­ons, Palseys, and whatsoever Grief comes of Cold or Stopping; the Flowers are more effectual then the Leaves, & the Seed is as effectual as the Leaves.
  • Pond-weed doth bind and cool like as doth Knot-grass, but his Essence is thicker then that; it is good against consuming and eating Ulcers, and all hot Inflammations.
  • VVormwood is hot and dry in the first degree, just as hot as the Blood; [Page 224] it remedies Choler, provokes Urine, helps Surfeits, Swellings in the Belly, and is the best Herb for the Yellows that is; Take of the Flowers of Wormwood, Rosemary and black Thorn, of each a like quantity, half that quantity of Saffron boiled in Beer or Ale, and this now and then used will keep a Horse in perfect Health; Wormwood is good against Poi­son, Quinsey, biting and stinging of venomous Creatures, Cholick, Wormes, and to keep Clothes from the Moths; it helps the Spleen, strengthens the Heart, and heats the Stomach.
  • VVillow-Herb, vide Loose-strife.
  • Wallwort, or Danewort, vide Dwarf-Elder.
  • Woodroff is of Temperature like unto our Ladies Bed-straw, but not so strong, being in a mean between heat and driness; it prevaileth in Wounds, as Cruciata and other vulneary Herbs doth.
  • The Leaves and Berries of the Wafering Tree are cold and dry, and of a binding quality; the Decoction of the Leaves is good to Seringe a sore Mouth with, and is good for the Diseases of the Gums, and fastneth loose Teeth.
  • VVormes do conglutinate and comforteth Sinews.
  • VVhite Lead is a great drier and shealer of Scabs, and is good put into Medicines, for Scratches, and for Sellanders and Mallenders.
Y.
  • Yarrow, called also Nose-bleed, Milfoyl and Thousand-leaf, it cleanseth and is meanly cold, but it most of all bindeth; An Ointment of it Cu­reth wounds, and is good for Inflammations; It is good for the bloody Flux. The Ointment is good not only for VVounds, but Ulcers likewise and Fistulaes, especially such as are bound with moisture. The Hair be­ing washed with the Decoction, stayeth the shedding of it, taken inwardly is good for the Mattering of the Yard, and the Juice of it is most excel­lent, or the decoction of it injected into the Yard with a Syringe, to stop the extreme flowing of the Seed, although the Issue dorh cause In­flammation and Swelling of the secret parts, and though the Spermatick Matter do come down in great quantity, as hath been very well proved.
  • VVater Yarrow is of a dry Faculty, by reason it taketh away hot In­flammations and Swellings.
Z.
  • Zuche, which are called G [...]urds▪ are cold and moist in the second de­gree, and allayeth all manner of Inflammations, or hot Swellings.
  • Softning or dissolving Herbs are Four, viz.
  • Mallows, Marsh-mallows, black Violet and Bears-breech.

THE EXPERIENCED FARRIER.
The Second Part.

Before you Enter upon the Drenching and Physicking of Horses; Take these Directions with you.

I. THAT all Diseases are Cured by their Contraries, and all parts of the Body are maintained by their like, viz. If Heat be the Cause of the Distemper, then appropriate those Medicin [...]s that are cold to it; If cold, then give hot; If Wind be the cause of Illness, then finde out in your Table of Simples proper Medicines for that Disease, and use them according to Directions.

II. Apply not the Medicines to one part of the Body, that are appropri­ated to another part, viz. If the Brain be over-heated, use not such Me­dicines as cool the Heart and Liver.

III. If you give distilled Waters for the Disease you intend to Cure; Give such Water as is distilled out of the Herb proper for that Disease, and sweeten it with the same quantity of Syrup as you give Water, made also of the same Herb, or some other proper for the Disease.

IV. If the Disease of the Body lie remote from the Stomach and Bow­els, then use Pills or Balls, which is the most proper Physick for the Di­stemper, because they are longest in digestion, and therefore the most fit to carry off the Disease by degrees.

V. Rather be found faulty on the safer side, by giving your Physick too weak then too strong.

VI. Consider the natural temper of your Horses Body that is afflicted, and support it in that, or else you weaken and destroy Nature, in stead of Repairing it; as the Heart is hot, the Brain cold, so apply your Simples accordingly.

7. Those Medicines that are hot in the first degree, are just of the heat [Page 226] and temper of the Blood, and therefore most wholesom and proper for the Body.

VIII. All Medicines that are opening and provoke Urine, are best given in white-Wine or Ale, for they are of an opening Nature, and a great Strengthner of the Reins.

IX. All Medicines that are given to stop any Loosness or Scouring, let him fast three houres or more before he receive them.

X. Let your Medicines be proper to the humor offending▪ or else you will weaken Nature, not the Disease.

XI. If the Humor offending be thin, that you intend to remove, then let your Medicine be gentle; but if it be thick and tough, then give him some cutting and opening thing the Night before, to prepare his Body the better for his Purge the next day.

XII. Have a care how you use binding Medicines, when you purge tough humors.

XIII. If your Horse be bound in his Body, either Rake him with your Hand, (being first anointed with Sallet Oyl, Hogs-Grease or sweet But­ter, before you pull his baked or hard dung from him) or else give him a Glister before you give him a Purge.

XIV. You must consider the strength and stature of your Horse, and accordingly prepare your Medicines, either stronger or weaker.

XV. If you give your Horse a Drench for a Cold, you usually give him of these sorts of Powders. viz. Fennegreek, Liquoris, Bay berries, Anni­seeds, Cummin-seeds, Grains of Paradice, Long Pepper, Elecampane, Turmerick, &c. But be sure you exceed not above three Ounces of them in his Drench at one time.

XVI. If you give a Horse a Scouring that is very strong and lusty, you may venture to give him with safety an Ounce or more of the best Bar­badoes Alloes, (which is the strongest sort of Aloes that is) powdred and made up into Balls with fresh Butter, as you have Directions after­wards.

XVII. If you give Aloes Succotrina, you may give an Ounce and an half of it. (because it is of a weaker Nature than the other) dissolved on the Fire in half a Pint of white-Wine, and brewed afterwards in a quart of strong Beer, with about two Ounces of fresh Butter put into it, which by reason of the Loosning and Opening quality it hath, will cause the Aloes to work so much the sooner and better. This Proportion is to be given only to a large and strong constitutioned Horse, a less quantity will serve a smaller.

An Advertisement about the several sorts of Aloes, and how you may know not only their Goodness, but also distinguish them one from another.

There are four several sorts of them, and differ only in Purity, viz. Aloes Caballina, Aloes Hepatica, Aloes Barbadoes, and Aloes Succotrina.

[Page 227] 1. Aloes Caballina is a yellowish sort of Aloes, much of the colour of a boiled Liver, and is somewhat dearer, stronger and better then Aloes Hepatica. This is seldom sold by it self, but kept only to mix amongst the black and courser sort of Aloes, to give them a good colour.

2. Al [...]es Hepatica is much of the same kind with the Caballina (for they come over mixt together) but is of a blackish Roziny colour when Re­fined, which is accounted the best colour.

3. Aloes of Barbadoes is found out but of late years, but is accounted the strongest sort of all the kinds of them; If it be of a duskish sad brown, and hath an Eye of yellow amongst it, you may conclude it to be good; but the most common colour is black like unto Pitch; An Ounce of either of these three is a Purge strong enough for most reasonable Horses.

4. Aloes Succotrina is the weakest, but best of all the kinds of them; If you break it thin, and find it of a clear Roziny colour, and transparent, you may be satisfied 'tis the very best. This is four times dearer then the other sorts, and is also Given to Horses, (but in a larger quantity) by those that value not their Purses.

XVIII. If you make your Balls of the Powder of Aloes and Butter, mix it not all at once with the Butter, but work it up in a little at first, and then divide it into three equal parts, and cover every part over with fresh Butter, about the bigness of a small Wash-ball, which will prevent the bitter taste of the Aloes from offending him when you give them, give him a Horn-full of warm Beer after every one of them, not only to prevent sticking, but to clear his Passage, the better for the remaining Balls. But the best Way of making of Balls of Aloes for a Scouring you may find after the best Receipt for the Glanders, within a leaf of the latter end of the Book.

XIX. If you put London-Treacle at any time into your Horses Drinks, put not above one Ounce of it at a time where there are other Ingredi­ents, but if you give it by it self, you may give him two Ounces of it dis­solved in a pint of Sack, or for want of that a quart of good Ale or Beer.

XX. When you physick your Horse at any time, give him his Hay so spa­ringly over-night, that he may stand two or three houres at the Rack­staves, and let him fast three or four houres after he hath taken it.

XXI. 'Tis good to stir him a little after he hath taken his Drink, which will make his physick work so much the better.

XXII. If you are about the Cure of any outward Wound or Sore, the best way to Expedite it, is to keep the place warm▪ which is done by clapping a plaister of Burguna [...]-P [...]tch over the Medicine, which will be a means to de [...]end the grieved part from the Air or VVind.

XXIII. If a Horse hath swoll [...]n, or Gourded Legs, and hath been poi­soned with the Medicines of other Farriers, and is fallen into your hands for Cure; then be sure before you undertake to meddle with him, to [Page 228] wash his Legs very well with warm▪ Whey, (or for want of that, Milk, but Whey is best) for this will clear off the venom and poison of their Medicines, and make the Cure more facile and easie to be effected.

Directions how to Order a sick Horse.

Whensoever you find your Horse sick at any time, either of Feaver, Farcy, Molten-grease, Cold, or any other Distempers, &c. and that you have given him something in Order to his Cure, and yet you find his Sto­mach so bad, that he falls from his Meat, then to recover it again, and to strengthen and keep up his weak and feeble spirits give him first, (to bring him to a Stomach) half a Pint of white-Wine, Vineger or Verjuice luke­warm, sweetned with two or three spoonfuls of Honey, well dissolved in it over the Fire. And about three or four houres after it, give him the common Cordial for Horses, which is made of a quart or three Pints of strong Beer, with a good big Toast of Houshold Wheat-bread crumbed into it gross and well boied. Before you give it him, while it is cooling, put into it two or three spoonfuls of Honey, and about two Ounces of fresh or salt Butter, and let him have it luke-warm; Give him at Night a Mash of Malt, or Oats, that are boiled till they are bursten. After he hath eaten them, let him feed upon Hay for about an hour or more, then give him warm-VVater to drink, with a handful or two of VVheat-Bran stirred amongst it; The next morning give him his Cordial again, and at Nine or Ten of the Clock warm-VVater and Bran, and boiled Oats, and now and then a Cordial of white-VVine and Honey, and moderate Exercise once or twice a day, (if he be not too weak to walk.) This is the only Method that I know of that you can use for the Recovery of a sick and weak Horse, and for to Remedy his Costiveness which does usu­ally attend Sicknesses.

2. The longer he Fasts after you have given him his Drink, (condi­tionally he be in good heart and strength) the better effect it will have in working upon the Disease for which it was given. For three or four houres is time long enough to fast, but if he be a sick, feeble and weak Horse, then two houres is enough.

3. After he hath Fasted according to his strength, give him some com­fortable thing to Recruit his Spirits; a [...] a▪ Mash of Malt, boiled Oats, s [...]al [...]ed Bran, &c. which will be a means to put Heart and strength into him again, which his Drench and Fasting may in some measure have weak [...]ed.

4 If you use your Horse to scalded Bran, Mashes of Malt, or boiled Oats, and have boiled Fennegreek amongst them▪ or given him it at any time amongst his Provender, he will be the more ready and willing to take his Oats thus prepared, (which is very good after any Drench you have given him.) viz. To boyl a quarter of a pound of Fennegreek with half a [Page 229] peck of Oats till they burst, and throw them into the Manger scauld­ing hot, and though he cannot well eat them till they be somewhat cold, yet the steam that doth arise from thence is very wholesom to open and comfort his Head and Brain, and to free him from Colds and Stuffings therein. If you find him nice and not willing to eat them, decoy him with a little Wheat-Bran strowed upon them, which to the liking he may have to that, possibly may cause him to lick them up both together; The Water that is drained from his Oats put into a pale of cold Water by it self, and give it him to drink luke-warm, after he hath fed a little while upon Hay.

[...] An Advertisement, not only touching the Ʋsefulness of the general Simples, set down in Order one after another, in the First and Second Part, for the Cur [...] of all inward and outward Diseases, but also of the Table of Simples.

Wherever you Meet with such Simples in the First and Second Part, imagine not that they were put there to no other end nor purpose, then to blot or blur Paper with, or that they were intended only to make the Book swell large and big, to bring profit and advantage to the Book­seller. I confess to the ignorant and unskilful it may appear so, by rea­son of their want of Knowledge and Judgement, to discern and appre­hend the several Uses for which they were written. But if the ingenious and skilful in the Art of Farring, (to whom these things were principally intended) consider them, and seriously weigh the Nature and Virtue of every one of them, (as their Table of Simples will acquaint them with) they will quickly come to understand their usefulness, and readily em­ploy them to the same end they were first designed and intended for, viz. Not only to emprove their Knowledge and Understanding in the Nature of them as to the Autherick, but also as to the Practick, in bettering their skill in the Physical Uses of them, conditionally they will be so ingenious as to compound and fit up their several Juices or Powders into Medica­ments according to Art, as their Genius and Inclinations may lead them. Neither are they placed here because there wants Receipts for the Cure of all Diseases, either inward or outward; but for the general good of all (as I have said before) that will be studious to divert and recreate themselves in compounding and making up of new Medicines proper and suitable to the Diseases they intend them for; so that here you see, that so long as you have this Magazin or Storehouse of Nature to come to, this Book will never be old, but be always fresh and new, unto those that will resort unto it for their Emprovement.

To make Oyl of Camomil, which is very Sovereign for any Grief in the Limbs, which proceeds from a cold Cause.

Take a good Hand [...]ul of Camomil, and bruise it in a Mortar, then put it into a quart of Sallet-Oyl in some convenient Vessel [...]it for your use▪ and let it remain therein three days and three Nights, then strain out the Oyl from the Camomil, and put into it some fresh Herbs, and let them stand also the same time, then change it twice more as you did before, and your Oyl is made.

To make Oyl of Spike, which is good for all manner of Sinew-strains, or Pains or Aches in the Limbs.

Take the Flowers of Spike, and wash them in Sallet-Oyl, then stamp them well, and put them into a Canvass Bag, and press out what Oyl you can get, then put it into a Glass and set it by, and it will clear of it self, and wax fair and bright, and smell very strong of the Spike.

You may make Oyl of other Herbs after this manner.

To make Oyl of Mastick, which is good for any cold Grief.

Take two Ounces of Mastick, and two Ounces of Olibanum, and boyl them in a quart of Sallet-Oyl to a third part, then put it into a Canvass Bag, and press out what Oyl you can get as you did the other, and let it stand by you about twelve or fourteen days, and it will be perfect.

Comp [...]hensive Termes Explained▪

1. The Five greater opening Roots are, Fennel, Smallage, Parsley, Sparagras and Knee-holly. To which may be added, Garliek, Onions, An­gelica, Liquoris, Gentian, Cichoxy, En­dive, Celandine, Squills and Master-wort.

2. The Five lesser opening Roots, are, Eringo, Grass, Capers, Rest-Har­row and Madder. To which you may add, Turmerick, Birthwort, Ele­campane, Horse-radish, and Polli­podium.

3. The Five softning Herbs, are Marsh-m [...]llows, Mallows, Mercury, Violet-leaves and Beets; To which you may add, Pellitory of the Wall; Coleworts, A [...]rach, Melliolet and white Lillies▪

4 The Hairy Herbs are, Maiden-Hair, Wall-Ru [...], Spleen-wort, Harts­ [...]orn and Trichomanes; The greater are Peony, Lavender, Rosemary, Sage and Poppey.

5. The four Cordial Flowers are, Borrage, Bugloss, Roses and Violets. To which you may add Saffron, Ma­rigold, Spickn [...], Rosemary, Clove­gilliflowers and Poppy.

6. The four greater hot Seeds are, [Page 231] Annis, Cummin, Caraway and Fennel. To which you may add Cardamoms, Grains of Paradise, Pepper and Mu­stard-seed.

7. The four lesser hot Seeds are, Amom [...], Bishops-weed, Parsley and C [...]rro [...]s. To which you may add, Cubebs, Di [...]b, Rochet, Smallage and Er [...]simum.

8. The four greater cold Seeds are, Cucumber, Gourd, Cit [...]ul and Millon; To which you may add, Poppy, Hen­bane, Night-shade and Hemlock.

9. The four lesser cold Seeds are, Endive, Le [...]tice, Succ [...]ry and Purslain. To which you may add Cm [...]kweed, Dandelion and Plantine.

10. The three hot Flowers are, Camomil, M [...]lilot Oris or Flower-de­luce; to which you may add, Saffron, Lavender and Rosemary.

11. The four hot Ointments are, Martiarum, Aragon, Althaea and Agrippae; to which may be added, Nervinum, Laurinum, Anodynum and Amarum.

12. The four cold Ointments are, Rosarum, Album Camphorinum, Po­puleon, R [...]frigerans Galeni; to which may be added, Sumach, Night-shade, Pomatum and Diaphompholigos, which are all bought at the Apo­thecaries.

The Gold and Hot Ointments Repeated over again, with their Vertues belonging to them.

1. Martiarum, is good for all cold Diseases of the Body, as Palseys, Convulsions, Cramps, stiffness of the Nerves and Joynts, Falling Sickness, Lethargy, &c.

2. Aragon hath all the Virtues of Martiarum.

3. Althaea softens, dissolves and asswages pains in any part of the Body, and is good against stiffness and contracting of the Nerves, helps Palseys and Convulsions, and is good to conglutinate and closeup the Mouth of Wounds.

4. Agrippae is very excellent for all watery Tumors in the outward parts, by anointing them therewith; it kills Wormes, and expels water by Purging.

5. Nervinum, is good for the Nerves, to comfort, strengthen and a­mend their defects, proceeding from cold and dead Palseys, Convulsions, Cramps, Numbness, Bruises and old Aches, &c.

6. La [...]rinum, is good for all cold and moist Diseases of the Brain, Nerves, Stomach, Liver, Spleen, Reins and Joynts; it helps weariness, and is good for all old Aches and pains, and other Diseases.

7. Anodynum, is good to asswage Tumors, Inflammations, and easeth pain in any part of the Body.

8. Amarum, anointed on the Belly and Chest, and between the Shoul­ders, expells water, and kills Wormes, opens Obstructions of the Liver and Spleen, provokes Urine, the Shape being also anointed with it expels the Heam.

[Page 232] 9. Rosatum, is of a fine cooling Nature, very useful for all Gaulings of the Skin, and frettings accompanied with cholerick Humors, Tettars, Ring-wormes, and is good to mitigate Diseases of the Head coming of Heat.

10. Album Camphoratum, is an excellent cold Ointment to asswage pain, and is a great Drier, and is good for Scabs, Burnings and hot Inflam­mations, Chasings, Frettings or Gaulings of the Skin; it dries up Ul­cers, and takes away their Itching in the time of healing.

11. Popul [...]eum is very cooling Ointment, which softens and eases pains.

12. Refrigerans, cools and moistens, and is good to Cure Inflammati­ons, Tumors, Wounds and other Maladies, proceeding from hot and dry Diseases.

13. Sumach is good for the Falling of the Fundament, and helps Pain [...] and Weakness in the Back consolidates Ruptures, &c.

14. Night-shade, is a very cooling Ointment.

15. Poma [...]um, is a softning, cooling and asswaging, and comforteth weary Limbs.

16. Di phompholigos, cools, dries, heals and skins, Wounds, Sores and Ulcers, &c.

These are all very costly Ointments, and are to be used only by the Rich, which value not their Purses; yet the honest and plain Farrier hath far more cheap, and every whit as good, proper and useful Medicines for the Cure of the said Distempers as the others are, conditionally he takes the pains to look them out, which he may here and there find scattered throughout the whole Work.

Of the Ʋse of A [...]timony.

Crude Antimony is a Mineral much like unto Lead, the best coming from Tra [...]silva [...]ia and Hungaria, and is known by its bright and long Flakes; 'Tis an excellent thing to put into a Horses Provender, to cleanse and purifie his Blood, and to free his Body from [...]olds, or other Distempers, that lie hid and lurking therein to destroy him; The man­ner how you are to use it, is to beat it very small, and then Sift it through a [...]ine Sieve, then strow about a quarter of an Ounce of it Morning and Evening, (for about a Month together) in a quarter of a Peck of his Oates, being first wet with good Ale or Beer. 'Tis sold at the Druggist for 6 d. the pound. The Filings of Steel Needles is also very good for the said Distempers, used after this manner.

General things good for the Joynts and Sinews, that hath in them any Ach, or Numbness, Weakness or Swelling.

If it proceed from a hot Cause, you must apply cooling things to it, but if from a cold Cause, hot things.

[Page 233] The Oyl that is pressed out of Almonds is a great Mitigater of Pain, and all manner of Aches, Aquavitae, Archangel, Alh [...]al, Balsam, Bur­gundy Pitch spread upon Leather, and [...]aid to the Place grieved, draweth forth all manner of Pain▪ Burnet, Brandy, Bay-leaves, Brank-ur [...]in, the Oyl of Chamomel, the bruised Roots of Comfrey, Cowslips, Chickweed, Centaury, Cow-Parsnips, Germander, Hawk-weed, Mallows or Marsh­mallows, Mug-wort, Mullen Penney-royal, purslain, the great Leaved Dock, Saxafrage, English Tobacco, Garden Tansie, wilde Mother of Thyme, Sow-Fennel, Flower-de luce, Turpentine, Rag weed, stamped very small, and Boiled with some Hogs-grease, to the consumption of the Juice, and at the end of the Boiling it, add to it Mastick and Olibanum▪ and anoint the place with it. Pepper, Saffron, Garlick, Rosemary, Frankincense, Myrrh, Sciatica Cresses, wilde Tansie, Spignel, yellow Wall-Flower, Nep, Catmint, Herb Gerrard, Mustard-seed, &c.

Particular Receipts for Aches.

Take Accopium and mix it well with Sack, and chase it very well in with your Hand, and if it be of a cold Cause, it will take it away at three or four times doing.

Another.

Take Brandy or Aquavitae, and Chafe and Bath the place grieved very well with it, and dry it in with a hot Fire shovel, then take a Rag, and dip in the Brandy or Aquavitae, and strew the inside of it all over with Pepper, finely beaten and [...]earced, and bind it to the place grieved, and swath it up with a dry Rowler, and do it thus once every day till he be­come sound.

Another.

Take of sweet Butter half a pound, of Aquavitae a Gill, of Saffron hal [...] a dram, Pepper [...]inely beaten and [...]earced three drams, three Heads of Garlick bruised, mix them altogether, and let them stew on the Fire, and not boil, till it come to a Salve. This being chafed in very warm to the place grieved, and a brown Paper wet in the same, and bind to it, with a dry Cloth upon that, and so used Morning and Evening, will cure it.

Things good in General for St. Anthonies Fire.

The Juice of Houseleek tempered with white Lead, the Juice of the green Leaves of Garden Night-shade mixed with Barley-Meal, is good for it and all hot Inflammations. Allum put to the Juice of white Beets, the Roots of Cinquefoyl boiled in Vineger, the distilled water of Colts-Foot; with Elder Flowers and Night-shade, and applied, Crabs-claws, the Juice of Wall penny-wort, with the Leaves and Flowers of Feather-few is good for it, and all hot Inflammations and Swellings, the Roots of Bug­loss [Page 234] mixed with Sallet-Oyl and Barley-Meal, Water sengreen or fresh water souldier, Ducks-meat, the leaves of the Goose-berry bush, or Hawk­weed bruised and applied with Salt. The Juice of Kidney-wort applied also, taketh away all outward Heat and Inflammations; the Juice of Mallows or Marsh-mallows boiled in Sallet-Oyl, and applied, is very good; a Poultess made of Barley-meal and Hogs-grease, with the green Heads of Garden Poppy bruised and applied with Vineger is also very good, so is the Juice of Purslain; An Ointment made of the Juice of Garden Rue, with Oyl of Roses, Ceruse and a little Vineger, and applied, is most excellent; the Juice of the bruised leaves of Succory is good, so [...]s an Ointment made of Woad, and the place anointed with it. But be­cause it is a Disease very rare to be found in Horses, you shall have as strange a Cure. 'Tis this.

A particular Receipt for St. Anthonies Fire.

After you have cast him, slit the Skin of the fore head of the Horse un­der the sore-top, and open the same round about with your Cornet, rounding it about an [...]nch every way, which done take a Worm, which you shall find in a Fullers Teasel, and blow it in alive with a Quill into the place, and have a care you kill not the Worm in stitching up the Skin again, for in twenty days the Worm will die, and in that time the Horse will be throughly cured. If you would know the Nature of the Disease, you may find it hereafter, in a Table set down Alphabetically, shewing where the Diseases of a Horse do grow, and the causes of them.

Things good in general for the Antichor or Heart-Sickness.

To let Blood▪ if you know he wants it, and to give him a Purgation of Sack, Sallet-Oyl and Sugar Candy, or Sugar and Cinnamon given him in Sack or Diapente, or Dr. Stephens Water, Butter-burr, Avens, &c.

A particular Receipt for the Anticor or Heart-Sickness.

After the Swelling appears, and you have taken a good quantity of Blood on both sides of the Neck, give him the Drink of Diapente with B [...]er or Ale, which you may find in my First Part, putting therein one Ounce of brown Sugar Candy, and half an Ounce of London-Treacle, which will drive the Sickness and Grief from his heart; which-done, an­oint the Swelling with this Ointment.

Ointment.

Take Hogs-Grease, Boars Grease and Bas [...]licon, of each three Ounces, Incorporate them well together, and anoint and rub the Swelling every day, till it become soft, then open it, and let forth the Corruption, and wash the sore with the Copperas water, which you may find in my First Part. And [...]aint it with your green Ointment, which you may sind as a­foresaid, and it will be soon whole.

Things good in General for an Ʋpper or Nether A [...]taint, or any hurt by Over-Reaching.

Before you apply your Salve, lay the Place bare without hollowness, and wash it with Beer and Salt, or Vineger and Salt, and then what will Cure a Mallender or Sellander will Cure this.

Particular Receipts good for an upper Attairt.

Take Venice-Turpentine one Ounce, and Brandy three spoonfuls, beat them well together till they come to a Salve, and anoint the Sore very well therewith, and heat it well in with a hot Iron, and do this three or four times, and it will cure him.

Another.

Take of Sanguis Draconis three quarters of an Ounce, Bole-armoniack one Ounce, Sallet Oyl as much, Mastick three Ounces, Sewet as much, and as much Hogs-grease, melt and mix all these together, and lay it to the swelling, and it will take it away.

A [...]other.

Take one or two Handfuls of Saexafrage, and all the Sewet of a Loyn of Mutton, and a Pint of white Wine, chop the Herb, and Mince the Sewet very small, and boil them all very well [...]ogether, then take a good quan­tity of Horse-dung newly made that goes to Grass, and mix with the o­ther Ingredients, and work it to a Salve, and apply it Plaister-wise hot to the place, renewing it every day so long as you think convenient, and this is a very excellent Cure.

Another for the Nether Attaint.

Take a Piece of Filletting, and bind it about the Pastern Joynt, pretty hard, which will cause the blister or swelling the better to appear; then let out the corrupt Jelly with your Incision-Knife, and crush it all out, then heal it up with your Copperas water, and anoint it with the green Ointment.

Things good in General for the Stavers, Head-ach or Farcin.

To let Blood to hang about his Neek, the Root of Amara dulcis, the Juice of Sow-Fennel or Hogs Fennel squirted up his Nose, or the Seed and Root of Cow-Parsnip boiled in Oyl, and his Head anointed therewith; The Seeds of Brank-Cresses blown up his Nostrils, or Ducks-Meat ap­plied to his Forehead made into a Poultess; or his Head Bathed with the distilled water of common Elder, taketh it away if it cometh of a cold cause; Flea-wort bruised and applied after the same [...]anner do h [Page 236] the like, so doth Germander and Henbane bruised with Vineger and ap­plied, the dust of Tobacco blown up his Head with a large Quill or Kix, causeth him to Neese, which easeth him from the pain; the Root of Pellitory of Spain dried and beaten to Powder, and used in the same man­ner, doth the like. The Juice of Cellendine put into his Eares, or Assa foetida dissolved in Brandy, and put into his Eares, or Verjuice and Salt put into his Eares; or Groundsel and Aqua vitae stamped together and put into his Ears, &c.

Particular Receipts for the Stavers.

After you have taken Blood from him, take the quantity of a Hazel-Nut of sweet Butter and Salt▪ dissolve it in a Sawcer full of white-Wine Vineger, then take Lint or fine Flax dipt therein, and so stop both his Eares therewith, and stitch them up and let it remain there about twelve houres, and he will be Cured.

Another.

Take of bitter Almonds an Ounce and a half, of the Gall of an Ox two drams, of black Ellebore made into fine powder a half Penniworth, of Grains, Castoreum, Vineger and Varnish, of each five drams, boyl all these together till the Vineger be consumed, then strain it and put it into his Eares, and do as you did before.

Another.

Aqua vitae and Garlick so much as will suffice, and stamp them together▪ and put into his Ears, doing as before.

Another.

Take the Seeds of Cressy, of Poppy, of Smallage, of Pursly, of Dill, (the Seeds only of these Herbs) and take also Pepper and Saffron, of each two drams, make them all into fine Powder, and put to them of Barley­water two quarts, boiling hot from the Fire, and [...]et it infuse therein three houres, and strain it and give him one quart thereof, and his Hay sprinkled with water, and the next day give him the other quart fasting, and let him drink no cold water for four or five days after, but only white water, unless sometimes a sweet Mash, and this will cure him. You must Note that in this Disease of the Stavers you must be sure to let him Blood, before you give him any Medicine.

Another.

[figure] After you have sharpned a small and tough Oaken or Ashen stick, and made a Notch at one end like a Fork, (to keep it from Running so far into his Head) put it into his Nostrils, and Job it up and down to the top of his Head, which will cause the Blood to descend freely; then in the Mor­ning fasting give him this Drink well brewed together, viz. One Ounce [Page 237] of the Powder of Turmerick, with as much of the powder of Anniseeds in a quart of strong Beer or Ale, with a pint of Verjuice, and a quarter of a pint of Brandy; and stop his Eares with Aqua vitae and Herb-Grass beaten very well together. Put an equal quantity into each Ear, and stop Flox or Hurds over it to keep it down, and stitch them up with a Needle and Thread, and let it remain in for about twenty four houres, then unstitch them and pull forth the Hurds, and the next day blood him in the Neck, and give him his Blood with a handful of Salt put therein well stirred together ro keep it from clotting, and he is in a fair way to be cured.

Things good in general for the Yellows.

Agrimony, Water-Agrimony, the Bark of the black Elder Tree, Hops, Fennel, Smallage, Endive, Succory-Roots, Garden-Arrach, Orach, Asarabacca, Ash-tree, the Juice of Coleworts, the inner Rind of the Bar­berry Tree, or Berry, Bay-berries, Burr-dock Roots, Wood-Bitony, Bi­stort or [...]nakeweed, Red Beetes, Burrage or Bugloss, Butchers-broom, Calamint or Montanie Mint, Camomel, Cardus benedictus, Celandine, the Juice of Cinquefoyl, the Juice of Cleavers, the seed of Columbines and Saffron boiled together, and given him, Dandelion, Dodder of Thyme, Eringo, Flax-weed or Toad-Flax, the Juice of the Flower-de-luce Fumitory, the Fuzz-bush, Garlick, Gentian, Feltwort or Baldmony, the seed of Germander, Groundsel, the Roots of black Hellebore, the yellow berries of Ivy, Liver-wort, Madder, Maiden-hair, Wall-Rue, the seed both of the male and female, Mercury, Wilde-marjorem, Worm-wood, Mouse-Ear, Hedge-mustardseed, Cow Parsnips, the Roots of Penny royal, the seed of Plantine, Bastard-Rubarb or the great round leaved Dock, Rupture-wort, Sarasens Consound, or Sarasens Wound-wort, Shep­herds Purse, the Seeds and Roots of Sorrel, Spleen-wort, Tamarisk, Tur­mentil or Setfoyl, Vervain, Ground-Pine, Myrrh, Ivory or Harts horn, Long-Pepper, Licoris, Anniseeds, Ganders or Geese dung, Misle-toe▪ white Thorn, the Roots of Parsley, Pimpernel, Chick-weed, Sheeps dung steeped in Beer; You are to let him blood in the first place.

A particular Receipt for the Yellows.

Take an Ouuce of Mithridate, and dissolve it in a quart of Ale or Beer, and give it him luke-warm. But if you have no Mithridate, give him two Ounces of London Treacle, and for want of that two or three spoonfuls of common Treacle.

Another particular Receipt for the Yellows.

Take of Turmerick, Burr-dock Roots, long Pepper, of each about half an Ounce, Anniseeds and Licoris in fine Powder and searced, of each, a [Page 238] spoonful, Celandine the Leaves and Roots one handful, chopt small, and strain the Celandine, and put them into a quart of strong Beer, and boyl them a little on the Fire, and in the Cooling sweeten it with London-Treacle, and put into it a good piece of Butter, and give it him Blood­warm, and give him white water, and he will do well.

Another.

Take of the best Live Honey, half a pound of Saffron and Fennegreek made into fine powder as much as will suffice, incorporate these with your Honey to a stiff Paste, and so make thereof three Pills, and dipping them in Sallet-Oyl give him them, and ride him and walk him gently an hour, and set him up warm.

Another.

After you have let him Blood, take a quart of Ale, and put an Ounce of Saffron, and an Ounce of Turmerick into it, being first made into fine Powder, and with the Juice of Sellandine so much as will suffice, and give it him Blood-warm.

Another for the Yellows.

After you have blooded him on both sides the Neck, and third Barr on the Palat of the Mouth; Give him Camomil, Elder leaves and Celan­dine, of each a small handful chopped indifferent small, with a little of the inner Rind of the Barberry Tree boiled in three Pints of strong Beer or Ale till they come to a quart. Then strain the Herbs from the Li­quor, and give it him luke-warm fasting in the Morning, with a piece of sweet Butter melted in it, and sweetned with two spoonfuls of Honey or Common Treacle; And Order him as you have Directions in the Phy­sicking of Horses.

Another for the Yellows.

To let Blood as before. Then give him Turmerick and Anniseeds beaten to powder, of each an Ounce, with half an Ounce of the powder of the inner bark of the Barberry tree, or for want of that a Gill of the Juice of Celandine; Give him all these either in a Pint of white▪Wine Vineger, or in a quart of stale Beer, and half a pint of Brandy luke-warm, fasting in the Morning; Give him with it a spoonful of the Flower of Brimstone at the Mouth of the first Horn you give him; but none with the rest; And Order him as you do usually sick Horses.

Another for it.

After you have let Blood, as you must always do in this Disease, mix two penniworth of Saffron beaten well to powder, and a Thimble-full [Page 239] or two of the powder of Turm [...]rick with fre [...]h [...]utter, and make it up into a small [...]all, and give it him for three or four Mornings together fasting, and it will cure him.

Simples that are good in Gener l for the Cure of the black [...]aurdice or Yellows.

The Decoction of the Flowers of Sorrel made in white-Wine or stale Beer, and sweetned with Honey helpeth it given him often; the powder of the Leaves and Bark of the Tamarisk Tree, is also good given him in beer, so is the Juice of the leaves of Broom, a [...] also the Seeds given him several Mornings together in beer till you see Amendment; A Horn-full of it is enough to give it him at a time.

A Particular Receipt which is very good for the Cure of it.

Take the Roots of red Docks, the Roots of burr-docks, and slice a good quantity of them, and put them into a Bottle of Beer, with a little Mithridate, close stopped, and give him a Horn or two full of it, in the Morning fasting.

Things good in General for the Falling-Evil▪ Planet-struck, Night-Mare or Palsey.

Fifteen of the Seeds of the single Peony given him in four Wine; to hang a Flint-stone over his Head, or some old Sythe or old Iron, or to give him exercise before and after water, and to mix Hemp-seed in his Provender▪ and to enforce him to Sweat, Mis [...]etoe of the Oak given, Mu­stard-seed, the Seed of the black Poplar, Cinquefoyl, Germander, Hysop, St. Johns wort, &c.

Particular Receipts for the Night-Mare.

Take a handful of Salt, half a pint of Sallet-Oyl, brown Sugar candy four Ounces, mix them all very well together, and warm them on the Fire, and give it him Blood-warm two Mornings together, and it will cure him.

Another.

Give him this purging Pill, take of Tarr three spoonfuls, of sweet But­ter the like quantity, beat them well together with the powder of Li­coris, Anniseeds and Sugar-candy till it be like Paste. Then make them into round Balls, and put into each Ball two or three Cloves of Garlick, and so give it him, observing to warm him before and after, and let him be fasting likewise two or three houres before and after.

Things good in General f r Cramps, or Convulsion of the S [...]n [...]ws.

Rhub [...]rb taken inwardly, the Seed of Bastard St. Johns wort given, the [Page 240] Oyl drawn from sweet Marjorem, and the grieved place anointed with it is good, for all manner of Aches coming of a cold cause, Calamint given inwardly, Bitony, Elecampane, Master-wort or the Herb Gerard given in­wardly, the roots of Valerian given, southern-wood, or the seeds of the La­dies Thistle given, Juniper-berries given, Bay-berries, China-roots, Brank-Ursine taken inwardly, or applied outwardly, the leaves of the Burr­dock bruised, and laid to the place grieved, Oyl of Chamomel, Centaury applied to it, Costus, the Juice of Chick-weed made up with Hogs-grease, and anoint the place grieved with it is very good, or to force him to sweat by Clothes, or to bury him in a Horse dunghil only with his Head out, Alheal or Centaury bruised and applied to them is very good, so is sow-Fennel bruised with fallet-Oyl and Vineger, and applied, so is Gen­tian and Germander bruised and applied, the powder of stinking Glad­win boiled in Ale or Beer and given is good, a Poultiss made of Hawk-weed and Barley-meal, and said to the place offended is also good. La­vender is good for them given inwardly, the roots and seeds of Marsh­mallows boiled in the Grounds of Beer, and applied, is also good for them, so is a decoction of Mugwort with Camomil and Agrimony, and the grieved place bathed therewith warm, Penny-royal applied with salt, honey and vineger is also good, Hermodactils and Venice-Turpentine given inwardly is also very good, the Juice of the green herb of Tobaccho made into an Ointment and applied, is also very good, &c.

Particular Receipts for the Cramp.

Chafe and rub the Member contracted, with Vineger and common Oyl, and then wrap it all over with wet Hay or rotten Litter, or else with wet Woollen Clothes, either of which is a present Remedy.

Another.

After you have sweated him well in a Horse dunghill, anoint him with this Ointment, take of Hogs-Grease one pound, of Turpentine a quarter of a pound, of Pepper half a dram, of new Wax half a pound, of sallet Oyl one pound, boyl them altogether and anoint him with it.

Another.

Take Pimpernel, Primrose-leaves, Chamomel, Crow-foot, Mallows, Fennel, Rosemary, of each six handfuls steeped fourty eight houres in fair water, and boil them in it till they be tender, and Bath him therewith four days together, Morning and Evening, and apply the herbs to the place with a Thumb-band of Hay wet in the same Liquor, and anoint the said Member every day about Noon, with Petroleum, Nerval, and Oyl of Spike mixed together.

Another.

Take two quarts of strong Ale, and of black soap two pounds, and boyl them together till they look like Tarr, with some Brandy, and anoint the place grieved therewith.

Things good in General for all Colds or Coughs wet and dry, or for any Con­sumption or Pu [...]refaction of the Lungs.

Agrimony, Bay berries, Elecampane, Licoris, Anniseeds, Long Pepper, Moss of an Oaken-pale or Timber-stick boiled in Milk, Briony, a great purger which must be Corrected, the Gum of the Cherry-tree dissolved in Ale, Colts-foot▪ hawks-weed, Hore-hound, Juniper berries, Pellitory of the Wall given him with honey and brown sugar candy, penney royal boiled in Milk, Ground pine, the Juice of purslain, the Juice of Jack by the hedge, Scabias, Vervan, Fennelseeds, Fennegreek, Cardamum, Cumin, Ciliris Montany, Nutmegs, Cloves, Ginger, Linseed, Brimstone, Ger­mander is good for all moist Colds, hempseed, Raisins of the Sun, sallet Oyl, Garlick, Tarr given him in an Egg-shell, Sellendine, Mustard and Allum boiled in Milk or Beer, Rubarb, Cassia, Myrrh, Herb-grass, Ca­raway seeds, Marjorem, Currants, Millolet, Lions-foot, Ladies Mantle, Opoponax, Galbanum, Storax, a hedge▪Hog dried in an Oven and beaten to powder, and mixed with his Provender, or Groundsel shred small with the powder of Anniseeds boiled in Beer, Hysop, Water and Salt brayed together and given him, is good for a new Cold, or Oyl de Bay, Anni­seeds and Licoris, of each alike made into fine powder, and sowed in a Linnen Cloth and fastned to his Bit, and to ride him upon it, is good to break a new Cold, Ivy berries dried and beaten to powder and given in Beer, the seed of bank Cresses, Feltwort or Baldmony, the Root of Cen­taury boiled in Beer and sweetned with Treacle, the root of Mullin or Long-wort, Ferula, Rosemary, bitter Almonds, Grains of Paradise, Lung-wort or Wood Liver-wort, or take a Hen Egg after the white is taken out, and fill it up with Butter, Tarr and salt, and put it down his Throat for three Mornings together, is very good for an old Cough, the pow­der of Angelick taken in the distilled water of Agarick and Wood-bitony mixed with common Treacle or Honey is very good, the root of bur­rage or bugloss made into an Electuary and given is also good, the Juice or the decoction of Cinquefoyl with Honey cureth the Cough of the Lungs, Featherfew with the Juice of sow Fennel put into an Egg, (the White being taken out) with brown Sugar candy, or a little London Treacle and given, is excellent, a syrup made of the green leaves of the fruit of the Fig-tree is good for all the diseases of the Breast and Lungs, Hysop boiled with Rue and Honey is good, so is Lungwort, Maiden­hair, [Page 242] wilde Rotchet, sugar and sallet Oyl is also very good, the Liquor of the wounded beech tree given in the decoction of Colts-foot is also very good for him, so is also Polipody with sugar candy; Or any of these Juices with Honey and sugar candy made into a paste, with the Flower of brimstone and Liquoris is very good, &c.

Particular Receipts for Colds.

Take the Moss that is growing upon an Oaken pale or Timber stick, one handful or better, and boil it very well in three pints of new Milk, with a green Root of Elecampane cut into thin and small slices with some Licor [...]s, and let it boyl till the Milk be half consumed, then strain it and press it throughly, and as it is a cooling put into it a good piece of sweet Butter, and of ordinary Treacle so much as will suffice, and so give it him Blood-warm. This is good also for the Head ach, Frenzy, Stavers, Pose, Cold, Cough wet or dry, shortness of Breath, rotten Lungs, Glan­ders, Lax, Leosness, bloody Flux, or the like Diseases. You may boil them in Al [...] or Beer, I mean the Ingredients you make up your Drink with. Let him have this Drink three Mornings together, and it will cure both his Cold and Cough wet and dry.

Another to take away a Cold, Poze or Ratling in the Fead, how violent soever without giving any inward Medicine.

Take a small quantity of fresh or sweet Butter, and of Brimstone made into fine powder, work them together till they be one entire body, and of a deep yellow gold colour, then take two long Goose-wing Feathers, and anoin [...] them herewith to the very Quills on either side, which done; rowl them into more of the powder of brimstone, and so put them up into either Nostril one, and at the But end of the Quill put a strong pack­thread, which must be fastned over his Pole, like to the Head-stall of a bridle, and ride him moderately after it about an hour, and this will provoke him to snort and snuffle out of his Nose and Head, much of con­gealed Filth which is in his head, then tie him to the Rack for an hour after, and this will purge his head very clean, then draw forth the Fea­thers and he will do well, keeping him warm, and giving him Mashes or white Water for four or five days together. This you may safely use to a Horse, that is ready to Hunt or Run for any great Wager, and the day is so near that you durst not give him any inward drench.

Another very good, though short.

Take of Time one handful, boyl it in a quar [...] of strong Ale till it come to a Pint, then strain it, add thereunto of ordinary Treac [...]e two spoon [...]uls, and give it him Blood warm.

Another for a new taken Cold.

Take Water and Salt and brew them well together, and give it him blood-warm.

Another for a Cold newly taken.

Take a Hens Egg, and make a little hole on the top to take out the White and Yolk; then take Tarr and Butter, of each alike, and put it into the Egg after you have workt it very well together, and give it him three Mornings together.

Another which will Cure a long taken Cold, yea, though it be accompanied with a dry Cough, and shortness of Breath or Pursiveness, and it hath done Cures that hath been held very impossible to have been effected.

Take of the Conserve of Elecampane three quarters of an Ounce, and dissolve it in a Pint and an half of sweet Sack, and give it him in the Morning fasting, and ride him gently a little after, and thus do several times till you find the Infirmity do decrease.

The kinds of this Conserve, and how to make it.

There are two kinds thereof▪ one is called particularly a Preserve, and the other an absolute Conserve. The first is Simple, the other Com­pound, both very Sovereign, but the Conserve is the best. They will keep a whole year close stopped; The Simple you must preserve as you do all other green Roots, and keep it close in a Gally Pot, in its own Syrup, and when you use it, beat it in a Mortar together with its Syrup and refined Sugar made first into fine Powder. Now your Compound or Conserve is thus made, first let your Roots of Elecampane be neatly Candied, and made very dry and hard, and get the youngest Roots you can, which must be kept also in a Gally-pot, or Glass, close stopped in a dry and warm place, where they may not give again, and when you use it, beat so much of it in a Mortar as you shall use, with the Syrup of Colts­foot, and the Powder of refined Sugar, still working it till you have brought it to a perfect Conserve, and give it him in sweet Sack. The first of these two, which is the Simple, helpeth any ordinary Cold or stopping, it comforteth the Lungs, enlargeth his Wind, purgeth the Head from all filthy matter, and dissolveth many other Obstructions as well in the Body as the Head. But the Compound or Conserve work­eth better effects in the Body of the Horse, espe [...]ially if the Malady be old and dangerous, or if there he any Taint in the Lungs, Liver or in­ward parts: This Conserve in time by the frequent use thereof will [Page 244] Cure all dry Coughs which are held to be incurable. But if you have not these Conserves take this other Receipt.

Another.

Take of the Syrup of Colts-foot one Ounce, of Elecampane Roots dried, Anniseeds and Licoris, of each half an Ounce, all made into fine powder, an Ounce of brown Sugar-candy, which must be divided into two parts, then take sweet Butter as much as will suffice, and so make this up into three Balls good and stiff, which done, roul them in your other moiety of your powdred Sugar-candy, and so give it him Fasting, and ride him gently for half an hour, and so set him up warm, and let him fast three houres after it, and let him drink no cold▪Water, unless it be with Exercise, and sprinkle his Hay with Water, and his Oats with Beer or Ale.

A Fume for a Horse that is stopped in the Head, and that he voideth Filth and stinking Matter out of his Nose.

Take of Auripigmentum and of Colts-foot made into powder, of each two drams, with Venice-Turpentine, work them into a stiff Paste, and make them into small Cakes the bredth of a six-pence, and dry them a little, and put one of these Cakes into a Cha [...]ing-dish of coals, covered with a Tunnel, and so fume him, and this not only during his Physick, but at other times after.

For a new Cold give him this Cawdle.

Take the Yolks of four new laid Eggs, and beat them well together, and dissolve them with a quart of good Ale, then take three Nutmegs, with a little Anniseeds and Licoris, made all into fine powder, and as much Pepper in fine powder as you can put upon a six-pence, and put these in also with a piece of sweet Butter, and two or three spoonfuls of ordinary Treacle, and of brown Sugar-candy four▪Ounces, warm them all upon the Fire till the Treacle and Butter be molten, and give it him Blood-warm four or five Mornings together, and this is an infallible Cure.

Another for a Cold.

Take four Ounces of Horse-Spice, half an Ounce of Diapente, one Ounce of the powder of Elecampane Roots, half an Ounce of the Flower of Brimstone, one penniworth of common Treacle, one penni­worth of Honey, half a quarter of a Pint of Sallet-Oyl; Take all these together with a little Wheat-Flower to a Paste, made up in a small Ball every Morning so long as it lasts, wrapped up in sweet Butter.

Another, which Cures any Cold or dry Cough, shortness of Breath, Pursive­ness, or broken-Winded.

Take of Tarr and sweet Butter of each three spoonfuls, and work them well together, with the fine Powder of Licoras, Anniseeds and Sugar-candy, till it be brought to a hard Paste: then make it into three round Balls, and put into each Ball four or five Cloves of Garlick, and so give him them, and warm him before and after he hath received them, and be sure that he be fasting before he takes them, and let him fast three houres after them.

Another for the same Purpose.

Take of the white Fat or Lard of Bacon, a Piece four Fingers long, and almost two Fingers thick both ways, then with your Knife make ma­ny holes in it, and stop it with as many Cloves of Garlick as you can conveniently get into it, then rowling it in the Powder of Licoras, Anni­seeds, Sugar-candy and Brimstone, of equal Proportions alike, and give it him in a Morning fasting, twice a Week, till you find amendment, and Ride him after it, and sprinkle his Hay with Water.

Another.

Take a Red Herring, and take out the Bones, and rowl it up in Tarr, and give it him down his Throat, and it will Cure him.

Another.

Take of the Juice of Licoras, London-Treacle, Anniseeds, Turmerick, Fennegreek and long Pepper, of each an Ounce, beat the hard Simples into powder, then put to them two Ounces of English Honey, and as much of Sugar-candy, and incorporate all together, and make thereof Balls as big as Pullets Eggs, and give him two or three in a Morning Fasting, and give him two new laid Eggs after them, and at Noon give him a Mash, keep him warm, and do this twice or thrice.

Another for a desperate dry Cough.

Take a pint of burnt Sack, Sallet-Oyl and red Wine Vineger, of both a quarter of a pint, of Fennegreek, Turmerick, Long pepper, and Lico­ras, of each a spoonful in powder, and give it him half at one Nostril▪ and half at another, and do this twice a Week, and Ride him after it, and let him fast two houres, and keep his Head and Breast warm.

Another for a Horse that [...]ath a Ratling Cold in his Head.

Take a quarter of a pint of Mustard made with white-Wine Vineger, [Page 246] and put to it more when it is made, another quarter of a Pint, to make it Liquid, then put to it an Egg well beaten, and two Spoonfuls of Sal­let-Oyl, then let it be luke-warm, and work it very well together till it foams again, and give it him in three Parts, one down his Mouth, and the other two at each Nostril.

Ano [...]her for a Cold long Setled.

Take three Heads of Garlick and Roast them in Embers, then mix them with three spoonfuls of Tarr, as much Powder-Sugar, and half a pound of Hogs-Grease, then with Anniseeds, Licoras, Elecampane, Fen­negreek and Cumminseeds made into Paste, and give as much at once as a Ducks Egg.

Another for a dry Cough or Ro [...]ten Lungs.

Take Elecampane, the Flour of Brimstone, Licoras, Fennel-seeds, Lins [...]ed, of each an Ounce, and of Clarified Honey one pound, work the Powders and those together, and to a Pint of sweet Wine put two Ounces of these, and give it him Morning and Evening, and Ride him after it, and let him fast one hour after Riding.

A Cordial Powd [...]r for any ordinary Cold, and to prepare a Horse before Travel, and to Preserve him from Mischief after Travel.

Take of English Licoras, Elecampane Roots, of each an Ounce, of Su­gar Candy an Ounce and a half, and beat them into fine Powder, and [...]