A SERMON Touching the Use of Humane Learning, PREACHED In MERCERS-CHAPPEL, AT THE FUNERAL Of that Learned Gentleman, Mr. JOHN LANGLEY, LATE School-Master of Pauls School in LONDON, on the 21 day of September, 1657.


LONDON, Printed by T. N. for GEORGE THOMASON at the Rose and Crown in Pauls Church-yard, 1658.

To the Honorable Sir Henry Yelverton, Baronet.


THere i [...] none amongst all my [...]ble Friends unto whom the Ded [...]cation of this Sermon doth more properly be long, then unto your Self. For [...]e­sides that debt of Honor which I owe to [...]our Family, not onely for the favors received from your self, but from your noble Father and Grandfather, n [...]w with God; When I consider the ve [...]y great love, and high esteem which your Fa­ther did bear to that good man, at whose Funeral this Sermon was preached▪ unto whose care [...]e in­ [...]usted the Two [...]rops of his Family, your Self, and your most hopeful Brother (whom God took from that School to a celestial Academy▪) and with al, your own hereditary possession of the same love and esteem, as a grateful return unto this learned man for his special care in your education; and when I further remember the noble thoughts and singular honor which this worthy man ever had towards your Father, your self, and all the Relations of your Fa­mily; it was not possible for me to look further for a name to inscribe before this smal Book. I have therefore assumed the boldness to put so poor a te­stimony of those honorable affections which I owe unto you, and of that great love which I bear to the nam [...] [Page] of that good man, who was so dear unto you, into your hands; as knowing withal how much the Ar­gument of this Sermon would be acceptable unto you, who can experimentally subscribe to the excellency and use of that Learning which it pleadeth for, and as an eye and ear witness can attest the Character of that worthy pe [...]son, to whose Obsequ [...]es this last of­fice of love was performed. My hearty prayer for you unto God is, that he will crown all those great Blessings which he hath bestowed upon you, with [...] more abundant greatness of his heavenly Grace, tha [...] you may be eminently serviceable to his great name, and may so tread in the steps of your worthy Pr [...]geni­tors (which I perswade my self you do) as not onely to keep up the life and power of Godliness in your own heart, and Family, but further to be a Comforter, Countenancer, and Encourager (as they were) both of learned and godly Ministers, and of others who love the Lord Iesus in sincerity. To his gracious protection and blessing I commend you, and all yours, desiring to be esteemed

Your most faithful and humble Servant ED. REYNOLDS.

A SERMON Touching the use of Humane Learning.

ACTS 7.22.

And Moses was learned in all the wisdom of the Egyptians, and was mighty in words and in deeds.

IN the former Chapter we read of a dispute between Stephen, and the members of a certain Syna­gogue in Ierusalem, called the Synagogue of the Libertines, of such Jews, who having been servants to the Romans,Iustin, Instit. l. 1. tit. 5. Vid. Rosin. Antiq. Rom. l. 1. c 20. Et Calvin [...] Lexic juridic. were manumitted and made free; for such the Romans called Libertines; of which sort of Jews, coming out of several parts of the world [Page 2] that Colledge or Convention seemeth to have been made up. Or, as Grotius supposeth, was built by them at Ierusalem for their Countrymen and Proselytes, as there are at Rome and Rhemes Col­ledges for English Papists.

Istae sunt haere­tic [...]rum machi­nae, ut convic [...]i de pe [...]fi [...]ia, ad ma [...]edicta se conferant Hier. Apol. 2. advers. Russianum.The issue of this Disputation was, that being worsted at Arguments, these Libertines do betake themselves to calumnies, and false accusations, as the Pharisees when their reasons were spent, were wont to take up stones to throw at Christ. They bring him from a scholastical to a judicial defence, from the [...]olledge to the Council, and by false wit­nesses charge him with blasphemy against Moses and God. Whereupon, being pro forma, permitted to make his defence (for persecuters will manage their cruelties under a form of Law, that they may appear the more specious) he doth it largely with much wisdom and courage.

The scope of the Sermon is to shew (upon a fair Issue with his accusers) that he was not guil­ty of the charge given in against him, that it did not follow, because he affirmed that Christ would destroy the Temple, and change the customs which M [...]ses deliv [...]red, that therefore he blasphemed ei­ther Moses or God; The Argument of his justi­fication, is by an Historical Induction. 1. If Abraham, Isaak, Iacob ▪ and Ioseph worshipped God without a Temple, and without such customs as Moses delivered, and Moses did without blas­phemy against them, make that alteration which God was pleased to command him to make: Then the Worship of God is not peremptorily [Page 3] confined to an outward Temple, or a Mo [...]aical mi­nistration. But Abraham, Isaak, Iacob and Io­seph by obeying the commands and beleeving the promises of God, did acceptably worship him without a [...]emple or Mosaical Ceremonies; there­fore it is no blasphemy to say that God may so be worshipped. 2. Again, if Moses, a great, a learn­ed, a mighty Ruler and Deliverer, did assure the people that a Prophet God would raise who should do as he had done, make new institutions, and set up a more excellent way of Worship, then it was no blasphemy against Moses or God, to say, that [...] customs by him introduced should be by that Prophet altered. But Moses himself did teach the people thus to beleeve: Therefore Ste­phen teaching the same did not blaspheme Moses. 3. Again, that which was not blasphemy to affirm of the Tabernacle, though it were set up by Gods special appointment unto Moses, is not blasphemy to affirm of the Temple. But it was not blasphe­my to affirm the use of the Tabernacle to have been temporary, and consequently alterable; there­fore to affirm the same of the Temple is not blas­phemy. Especially, since the Lord hath said, that he dwelleth not in Temples made with hands.

Together with these strong Arguments are inter­woven apologetical Reprehensions; Stephen justi­fying himself against their accusations now, by the same Argument whereby Moses was to be justified against their Fathers before. Moses did by wonders and signs in Egypt, in the red Sea, in the Wilderness prove himself to be a Ruler and [Page 4] Iudge sent of God, and yet your Fathers would not obey but thrust him from them, and made a Calf to worship. Now the Lord hath raised up the Prophet whom Mose [...] foretold, who by signs and wonders did prove himself to be of God, but you thrust him from you, and resist the Holy Ghost as your Fathers did. And your refusing of Iesus is no more argument against his doctrine and in­stitutions, then their refusing of Moses, was an Argument against his. In as much as you are not able to alleadge any thing why your Fathers should have beleeved Moses, which we are not able to alleadge, why you ought [...] to beleeve Christ.

Unto this strong defence of Stephen, neither the Iudges nor his Accusers make any reply by way of Argument; but though he professed him­self to be at that time an eye Witness of the truth of Jesus his being in glory, yet in a rage and out­cry they cast him out of the City and stoned him. The stronger were his Arguments for the truth, the more excessive was their malice against him for it.

The words of the Text are a branch of the second Argument, drawn from the testimony of Moses, and the historical narration touching him: and they contain the fruit which followed upon the noble education, which he received from the hand and care of Pharaohs Daughter; he so prospered under it, that he became learned in all the wisdom of the Egyptians, and was a mighty man both for [Page 5] Oratory and Action. The Lord by these civil ac­complishments fitting him in part for the Govern­ment whereunto he reserved him.

In the Words we have first, his intellectual perfections. He was Learned and instructed, to­gether with the object of that Learning, All the wisdom of the Egyptians.

Secondly, His civil, moral and religious per­fections; a mighty man for Elocution, a mighty man for Action. He improved and put forth his intellectual abilities for the good and service of others, laid up all his power to do good to his Brethren, in due time when God should call him thereunto.

Moses was learned, or instructed and instituted. It noteth acquired Knowledge, by the benefit of learned Education. In all the wisedom of the E­gyptians; that Nation was antiently famous for wisedom: From thence some think that the Gre­cians derived their learning;Diod. Si [...]l. l. 1. for we read in Dio­dorus S [...]culus, and others, that Orpheus, Homer, Pythagoras, Plato, Lycurgus, Solon, and others did travel into Egypt for institution.Euseb. de praep. Evang. l. 10. sect. 5. Bochart. Geograph. sacra. lib. 1. c. 19.20. But Cadmus who first brought Letters into Greece, was a Pha­nitian, as Eusebius, and after him other learned men have fully proved. Therefore from the E­gyptians the Greeks did not primitively derive their Learning. What this wisdom of the Egypti­ans was, wherein Moses was learned, is by Philo in the life of Moses, by Diodorus Siculus, lib. 1. c. 2. By Sixtus Senensis, Biblioth. lib. 2. and others described, viz. Mathematicks, Astronomy, Geo­metry, [Page 6] Arithmetick, Musick, Natural Philosophy, Physick, Symbolical, and Hieroglyphical Writing, Civil and Political Knowledge, for which that people seemeth to have been famous, Isa. 19.11—14.

I shall not here enquire into the most antient rise or original of Learning, or seat thereof, which some carry beyond the Flood, and tell us of Pil­lars with Hebrew Inscriptions and Characters set up by Enoch and Seth; Nor shall I inquire whence the Egyptians derived their Learning, which some ascribe to Ioseph and the people of the Iews living there:Ioseph. Antiq. l. 1. Alex. Poly Hist. apud Euseb. de oraepar. Evang. l. 9 c. 17· Others to Abraham, of whose being in Egypt we read, Gen. 12.10. It is sufficient for us to know, that at this time there was Learning there, and that Moses was brought up and proved excellent in it.

Now we may here observe, First, The great care of the Kings Daughter to bring up Moses in in all kinde of good Literature, that thereby he might be fit for such great Services, as his so near relation to a Princes Court might pro­bably have brought him unto. And truly so great hath been the care of w [...]se Heathens in this particular (as we read of the Lacedemonians, Per­sians, and others) as may justly put to shame many Christians, who breed up their children many times so loosely, so ignorantly, so sensually, to gameing, sporting and excess, as if an inheritance did serve to no other purpose but to make the Heir of it useless, and good for nothing. And as we see many times good ground grow moss [...] and bar­ren [Page 7] for want of culture; so is it with good wits, which being neglected do usually become more vitious then those of less hope and pregnancy. The foundations of an honorable and comfortable Age are laid in the minority of children; if the plant be not kept strait at first, the tree will be crooked incurably at the last. No doubt but David had special care of the education of Solomon; for quickness of parts, without special culture would hardly have arrived at so great a pitch of Learning, especially in a disposition, as the e­vent proved, by nature sensual enough, and therefore he maketh mention both of his Fathers and his Mothers teaching him, Prov. It is as great a folly to lay up Estates for children, and to take no care of themselves who must enjoy them, as to be curious for an handsom Shoe, and then to put it upon a gouty f [...]ot.

And the greater men are, the greater should their care be for free and honorable, learned and religious education of their children. First, Be­cause it is a very incongruous mixture, greatness of estate, and meaness of understanding; the one will be a perpetual blemish and reproach unto the other. Secondly, Because there will be the more fuel of lust, if Learning and Piety be not laid up to season a full estate. We see nothing grow up­on a fat heap of muck, but weeds and trash: Therefore we find what great care Theodosius had to have a good Tutor to shape the minds and man­ners of his children The famous Arsenius, Niceph. l. 12. Ioseph. contr. Appion. l. 2. and Iosephus telleth us that Moses had a special care of [Page 8] the education of children in good Literature, and we find some evidence of it in the Scripture, where he commandeth the people to teach the words of the Law diligently unto their Children, Deut. 6.7.

And herein must our care exceed this of Pha­raohs Daughter, we must so provide to breed up our Children unto wisedom, as that we forget not the chief thing to have them seasoned with the knowledge and fear of God, which is the one­ly true wisdom,Ennopius in Maxim. S [...]z [...]m. lib 5 c. 2. Iob 28.28. Iulian the Apostate had great Schollars, Mardonius and Maximus to his Tutors, but being prophane Heathens and Scoffers at Christian Religion, they laid the foundations of that desperate Apostacy, whereby he fell from Christ to the Devil. He that begets a Fool, or by careless breeding maketh one, hath been the Author of his own sorrow; a wise Son maketh a glad Father. If thine heart be wise, saith Solomon. I shall rejoyce, Prov. 23.15. It is very sad for children to have wicked Parents, who wholly neglect their Education, and of whom Cy­prian tels us they will cry out at the last day, Pa­rentes sensimus parricidas. Our Parents have been our Parricides.

Now then by this important duty we learn, 1. To set an high value upon such wise, learned and religious Tutors as at any time we enjoy for the discarge of this great Work. And 2. To be­wail it as a more then ordinary loss, when men whom God hath every way fitted with Learn­ing, industry, piety, and fidelity for so excellent [Page 9] a work are by a sudden stroke taken away from us.

We have considered the Care of the Kings Daughter for the education of Moses; let us in the next place consider, the blessing of God upon it, in that thereby Moses was learned in all the Learn­ing of the Egyptians.

Where first, It is very observable, the different end which God had in his Providence, and she in her particular Care; She intended, no doubt, the service of Pharoah, God intended to qualifie him the better, to be a Ruler and a Deliverer of his people from Pharoah; She intended the good of E­gypt, God intended the good of Israel. Many times the wise and holy providence of God, useth the di­ligence of one man to bring about effects for the good of others, which he never intended; as we see in Iosephs Brethren, and Hamans dictating the honor which was conferred upon Mordecai at that time, when he came to beg him for the Gal­lows which he had erected. God useth the coun­sels of men, to effect things by them which they never thought of. The Assyrian had his work, and God had his, Isa. 10.6, 7.Vid. Aug. in Psal. 75. & 93. & tract. 7. in ep. 1. Ioannis. & epist. 48. ad Vincentium. Iudas looked after money, Caiphas and the High Priests after interest and revenge, Pilate after Caesar and his favor; but Gods end was the Salvation of the World by the death of Christ. In re una quam fecerunt, causa non una propter quam fecerunt. God and Christ did it in Charitate, Iudas and the Jews in pro­ditione.

2. We may here observe, that Moses that great [Page 10] Prophet, whom the Lord did after speak unto mouth to mouth, Num. 12.8. is commended for his skill in the learning and wisdom of the Egyptians, a prophane Nation. ven Humane, secul [...]r, and Ex­otick Learning is a noble gift of God; and a very great Ornament and Honor un [...]o the most ex­cellent men. As it was mentioned for the honor of Daniel and his three Companions, that God gave them knowledge and skill in all learning and wisdom, Dan. 1.17. meaning, as appears ver. 4. the Learn­ing of the Caldeans: Not as if they were South­sayers, as the wise men of Caldea were; or Moses, a Magician and Sorcerer, as the Wise-men of E­gypt were, and as Heathen Writers charge him to have been. For the great miracles which Moses did;Plin. l. 30. c. 1. and the interpretations of dreams and visi­ons by Daniel, were from God, and not from the Devil, by the help of any Magicall Inchantments. In like manner Bezaleel and Aholiab are commen­ded by God for that Wisdom and Understand­ing, which they had in all manner of cunning Workmanship, Exod. 31.3—6. And it is menti­oned for the honor of Iabal, Iubal, and Tubal Cain, that they were the first inventers of some particular useful Arts for the good of Humane Society, Gen. 4.20, 21, 22. And of Solomon, that he spake of Trees from the Cedar tree in Lebanon, unto the Hyssop that springeth out of the wall, and that he spake also of Beasts, and of Fowl, and of creeping things, and of Fishes, 1 Reg. 4.33. The high esteem which the Hea­then had of the first Inventers of Liberal Sci­ences [Page 11] and necessary Arts and Manufactures, is noted as one principal cause by Diodorus Si [...]ulus, Lib 3. cap. 5. & i [...]. 5. c. 15. and others, of the divine titles and honours which were given unto them. And Paul mentions it amongst other his priviledges, that he was brought up a Schollar at the feet of the learned [...]amaliel, Act. 22.3. Yea by that Apostle the Lord hath given so much honor unto Humane Learning, as three times to make mention of Heathen Poets, and their sayings. Aratus, Act. 17.28.Iustin. Apol. 1. [...]. Me [...]ander, 1 Cor▪ 15.33. [...]. Epimenides, Tit. 1.12. [...], &c. Truth is Gods where ever it is found, Res fisci est ubicunque natat; as a Mine of Gold or Silver is the Kings in whose ground soever it be discovered.De doctr. Christ. l 2. cap. 18.39, 43. Confes. l. [...]. c. 15. Christianus Domini sui esse intelli­git ubicunque invenerit veritatem, saith Austin. A Christian knows that truth belongeth to Christ wheresoever he finds it. And again, Tibi servi­at, saith he, quicquid utile puer didici. As Israel took of the Egyptians, jewels of Silver and jew­els of Gold, as David consecrated the Spoils of the Philistims, Moabites, Syrians, and all Nations whom he subdued to the Lord, 2 Sam. 8.11. as the Crown of the King of Rabbah, was set upon the head of David, 2 Sam. 12.30. so the spoils of all secular Learning are to be dedicated unto Christ, and the use of his Church, who is said to take from Satan all his armor, and to divide the spoil, Luk. 11.22. For so in triumphs the enemies was disarmed, [...]v. dec. 4 l. 9. and the spoils carried in state be­fore the Victors Chariot. Such spoils did Origen, [Page 12] Tertullian, Cyprian, Clemens Alex. Iustin, Cyril▪ Lactantius, Hierom, Austin, Basil, Nazianzen, Arno­bius, &c. take from the Gentile Writers and de­vote them to the service of the Church of Christ. It is noted of Theodosius the Emperor,Socrat. l. 5. c. 16 that when he destroyed the Temples of the Heathen Idols, in Alexandria, yet all the vessels and statues of Gold and Silver he converted to the use of the Christian Churches. Yea [...]etrus Aerodius a learned Civilian out of Procopius telleth us, that the Christians did convert the very Idol Temples themselves in­to Churches,Decret. l. 1. tit. 8 sect. 4. wherein to worship Christ. For if an Idol, being nothing, did not so, defile meat, but that as a good creature (though not in idol communion) it might be eaten, if the conscience of no man were thereby offended, as the Apostle teacheth, 1 Cor. 8.4-7. 10.25.28. Certainly nei­ther doth it leave any such abiding pollution to any place, but that therein God may be worship­ped, 2 Tim. 2.8.

First, All good Learning and wisdom is per se, and in its own nature desireable, as an ornament and perfection to the mind, as a part of that Truth whereof God is the Author. There is a know­ledge of God natural in and by his works: and a knowledge supernatural by revelation out of the Word; and though this be the principal, yet the other is not to be undervalued. For the works of God are great, sought out of all them that have pleasure therein▪ Psal. 111.2. Now all secular Learn­ing is the knowledge of Gods works, aeternae verita [...]is particula; a small emanation from eternal [Page 13] verity. Philosophical and Mathematical Learning, the knowledge of his works of Creation. Histo­rical and Political Learning, the knowledge of his works of Providence. Moral and Oeconomical and Civil Learning, the knowledge of those remain­ders of his Image and Law, which are left in the minds of men, for their direction and convicti­on. Grammatical, Rhetorical and Logical Learn­ing, the knowledge of the use of that Rea­son which God giveth us for imparting our minds, and evidencing our conceptions unto one another. So then all true Learning being a know­ledge of the works of God, and of that Truth which he, who is the supreme verity, hath im­planted in them, must needs be such as the works of God themselves are, honorable and excellent, and so per se desireable.

Secondly, All true Learning is desireable, for the uses whereunto it may be applied▪ We will consider these Uses.

1. In regard of evil men, many of whom are great Schollars, and eminent for various learning.

First, It serves to beautifie even them, and ren­der them, as learned men, great ornaments to their generation; as many harmful herbs do bear beauti­ful flowers, and are upon that account special or­naments to the Gardens were they grow. Goodly Statues of Gold or Silver, though dead, though hollow, and without heart or vital parts, are yet of great value, and special honor to the places where erected. Such are even prophane Learned men, in regard of their Learning.

[Page 14]Secondly, It is useful unto them to convince them of Gods glory and greatness, of his Sove­raignty and Will; and so if it be not praeexerci­tamentum, as Clemens Alexandrinus calleth it, unto the more comfortable knowledge of him out of his Word, namely, to kindle in them a desire to know more of so great a God from thence, it will ren­der them without excuse for abusing the know­ledge which they have, Rom. 1.19, 20.

Thirdly, It is by accident useful another way, viz. by honest and assiduous labours in the pur­suit of Learning, to keep them from the Tempta­tions of divers lusts, which by a loose and an idle life would be more ready to assault them. If Da­vid had been at his study, when he was on his house top, he had not been tempted unto Adul­tery.

Fourthly, It makes them thus adorned service­able to humane Society. Singular use have all Ages had of the learned labors of prophane Historians, Philosophers, Poets, Orators, Mathematicians, Physitians, Artists in divers kinds. And [...] it is a comfort to any man to live to some good purpose, and to be serviceable to his own and future gene­rations.

Fifthly, They are hereby useful to the Church of God: That God who can make use of the sins of men to do his people good by them, as of Io­sephs Brethren, to make way, by s [...]ng him, un­to the safety of Israel and his Family; can make use of the gifts and tallents he bestows on wicked men for the service of good men. The [Page 15] hands of those that did themselves perish in the Flood, were imploied in building the Ark for Noah and his Family. It is true, very often wicked men do use their learning against God, as they do all other his good blessings. Learned wickedness is Arm [...]ta [...] nequitia, [...]. Arist. [...]het, Tertul. ont. Hermog. c. 8. Apol. c 47, such learning de­generates into Pride, Arrogance, Scorn, Atheism, Heresie, contempt of godliness, (as Philosophers are called by the Fathers, Haereticorum patriar­chae, but all this is accidental, and the fruit of lust.) Yet, as a malignant Planet, when in con­junction with a good one may have a benign in­fluence; so it doth often fall out that they who are by sin enemies, may by learning be useful to the Church. The Jews are bitter enemies to Christ,Vid. Aug. de civ. Dei l. 18. c. 46. & in Psal. 58. yet God hath by their care preserved the old Scri­ptures from danger of corruption.

2. In regard of Holy men.

First, Though Learning be much inferior to Holiness; There are learned Devils, there cannot be holy Devils (for Holiness is the character of celestial not of infernal Angels, Deut. 33.2.) yet in Holy men Learning is a rare Ornament and ac­cession, as the golden Ring to the Gem which is in it. Like the marriage of an holy David to a beautiful Abigail.

Secondly, It enableth them to do the more service unto the Church of God, and the Truths of Religion. Every good gift sanctified is in such a way useful to the Church, as the proper nature and excellency of the gift doth admit. Sanctified Wit beautifies Religion, sanctified Reason defends [Page 16] it, sanctified power protects it, sanctified Elocuti­on perswades others to the love of it. As differ­ent gifts of the people, did with a different va­lue serve the Tabernacle, the stones of the Ephod, more pretious then the Badgers skins; so though every good man is ready to offer willingly to the service of the Church, yet great difference between the learning of a Paul, or the elequence of an Apollo, or the power of a Constantine, or the acuteness of an Austin, or the courage of an Athanasius, and the ordinary qualifications of in­ferior good men.

Thirdly, It enableth them to procure more fa­vor and to bring more reputation unto Religion ▪ by the greatness of parts wherein they may be o­therwise serviceable unto them, with whom it concerneth Religion to have the honour thereof preserved. God is pleased in his holy providence to make other interests, sometimes a preservative unto Religion, where it self is not immediately and per se regarded. Ahasuerus was amorous and uxorious, and that induced him to favour the Jews, whose worship he cared not for. Thus it is use­ful in regard of holy men.

3. In regard of the Church and truth of Reli­gion; It is useful as an Handmaid, in a way of at­tendance thereupon, and subserviency thereunto several ways.

First, Hereby the antient Fathers of the Church were furnished to confute the Pagan and Idolatrous worship of the Heathens out of their own Writers,Legimus non ut teneamus sed ut repudiemus, Ambros. proaem. in luc. as Paul did the Idolatry of Athens by [Page 17] the inscription of their own Altar, Act. 17, 23. As David killed Goliah with his own Sword, as a tree is cut down by an Axe, the helve whereof was made out of a bough of the same tree; this course Origin, Clem. Alex. Iustin, Eusebius, Tertullian, Minutius Felix, Terul. de testim Animae cap. 1. and many others of the Antients have taken, as likewise to shew that many doctrines of the Scripture have been owned even by prophane Writers; One God by Plato, one first Cause by Aristotle, Divine Providence by Cicero, the last conflagration by the Stoicks, &c.

Secondly, Hereby we shame Christians, 1 Cor. 11.14. when out of prophane Writers we let them understand of the continency, justice, temperance, meekness, clemency, and other amiable moral Vertues of Heathen men, which they having abundantly more means, come so exceeding short of; and that Fabritius, Aristides, Antoninus, Epictetus, and many other vertuous Heathens shall rise up in judgement against them.

Thirdly, Scriptures have much of Poetry, Phi­losophy, Mathematicks, Law [...], Antiquities and customs of other Countries in them; in the un­derstanding of which by secular Learning we may be much assisted. Physicks in Genesis,Vid. Alting. probl. 2. Ethicks in Proverbs, Logick in the disputations of the Pro­phets, of Christ and his Apostles, Allusions to the natures of Beasts, Sheep, Goats, Wolves, Li­ons, Doves, &c. Many allusions in the Books of Ezra, Nehemiah, and Esther, to the customs of the Persians, many passages in the Prophets illustrable out of the Histories of the times and places to which [Page 18] they refer, many expressions in the New Testament best explicable out of the Roman Laws and Anti­quities. Many passages exquisitely parallel'd in humane Authors, and receiving much light from them,Cinnus lib. 2. cap. 13. as that learned and good man Mr. Gataker hath observed.

Fourthly, The Histories of the Scriptures, and the Miracles of Moses, Hier. in Dan. 1. of Christ and his Apostles may even out of Heathen Writers be confirmed (and a testimony from Adversaries is of great vali­dity) this hath been largely and learnedly proved by Mornay and Grotius in their Books de veritate Christianae Religionis. Mornay. cap. 26 Grot. lib. 1. sect. 16 & lib. 2 sect. 5.

Fifthly, The knowledge of Times by the Olym­piads, the fasti Consulares, and other standing ways of computation are exceeding necessary to the the exact distinguishing and digesting of sacred Chronology, and of the occurrences of Scripture to their proper times, De doct. Christ. l. 2. c. 28. as Austin hath noted.

Sixthly, Many Ecclesiastical Writers, who ei­ther write against the Gentiles, or Apologetical Discourses for Christian Religion, cannot be clear­ly understood without the reading of Secular Au­thors; those kind of Writings, as Origen against Celsus, Tertullians Apology, Theodoret de curan­dis Graec [...]rum Affectibus, Cyprian de Idolorum vanitate, Austin de Civitate Dei, Minutius Fe­lix his Octavius, and other the like, being brimful of such kind of Learning, and allusions thereunto.

To say nothing of the necessity of Grammar and Tongues to understand the words of Scripture; of Logick to understand the contexture,1▪ Th [...] 5.21 method, [Page 19] argumentation, and Analysis of Scripture; of Rhetorick to understand the eleganc [...]es of Scripture.

When I consider all these things I cannot but beleeve that the more learned men are (having gracious hearts as well as learned heads) the more sensible they are of their insufficiency, for so tremendous an imployment as the sound, solid, and judicious preaching of the word of God; and are more dismaid at the sense of their own wants for so weighty and arduous a service, then they do wonder at the boldness of illiterate men, who therefore venture with more confidence up­on it, because they know not that variety of learn­ing, as well as of spiritual wisdom and grace, which is requisite unto such an able discharge of it, as whereby a man may appear to be a workman who needeth not to be ashamed, rightly di­viding the Word of truth.

We have considered some of the many uses of Sec [...]lar Learning, H [...]xam. Hom 5 and that within the sphear of one onely profession, that it is as a dead hedge where­with men use to fence a quick one, or as Basils si­militude is, as those fulcimenta upon which men do raise and bear up their Vines; or as ground colours upon which gold is to be over-laid. I shall conclude with a few inferences from this point for our use.

First, Though there be excellent use to be made of Humane Learning, yet it is to be used with much caution, as Physitians use Opium, or other dan­gerous things with their due correctives.

1. Use it, not unnecessarily where the na­ture of the matter doth not rationally call for it. [Page 20] Some learned men have upon this account blamed some of the Antients,Alting. The [...]l. pr [...]bl p [...]rt. 1. problem 2. Melanct. Epist. pag 890. Raynold▪ confer. with Hart. p. 72. vid. ora [...] 2. Anti [...]Weigel. su [...]vissimi [...]o­c [...]issimi (que) viri D. I an. A [...] ­rowsmith. Hospinian. Hist. Iesuit. in prae [...]. et Hist. Sacram. p 401. Cic. de nat. De­orum lib. 1. de Prota. Abderit. Plutarch. in Ni­cia & in Peri­cle, de Anax. Socrat. l. 2 c 28 Sozom. l. 2. c. 4. Origen, Iustin, Clemens Alexandrinus and others, for mixing Philosophy with Theology, out of an opinion thereby the ea­sier to gain the Gentil [...]s unto the Christian faith. But none have been more blame-worthy in this case then the old Schoolmen, of whom Melancthon saith, that their doctrine is chiefly made up of two things, Philosophy and Superstition; and therefore it is well observed by a learned man that School-men and Canonists have been the fountains of that corruption which hath infected the Church of Christ; the School-men in doctrine, by opini­ons of Popery; and the Canonists in Discipline by the state of the Papacy, of which the main cause hath been the admitting of Aristotle and his Philosophy, In ipsa adyta & penetralia Eccle­siarum, as H [...]spinian speaketh. We finde even a­mongst the Heathens, men were punished for presuming to dispute of heavenly things, in the same manner as they did of natural causes; and for the like reason Aetius the Heretick being given to an er [...]stical and contentious way of ar­guing in divine things, as one much addicted to Aristotelical learning, thereby purchased un­to himself the Title of Atheist, as Socrates and Sozomen tell us.

2. Use it not vain-gloriously, and unto often­tation. It is a puffing, a windy, a flatulent thing; knowledge puffeth up, 1 Cor. 8.1. Tertullian calleth Philosophers, Gloriae Animalia. And I beleeve that this vanity doth scarce in any thing mote [Page 21] put forth it self then in pride of Wit or Memory in this way of learning. We may learn the dan­ger of it by the example of Herod, Act. 12. who was smitten with Worms because he gave not God the glory.

3 Use it not proudly with contempt and dis­dain of the Word of God, like that prophane Wit who said, he did not dare to read the Scri­pture for fear of spoiling his stile. I have heard of some wretches even amongst us in our days, who presume to magnifie Socrates above Moses or Paul.

4. Use it not heretically in defence of error, as Eras­mus saith of the Arrians, hoc ipso fuere pestilentiores quod Aristotelicis argutiis essent instructi; and as Hie­rom complains that they rose è Platonis & Aristo­phanis sinu in Episcopatum. H [...]er. advers. Luciferan. Vid. Tert, Apol. c 46. de pres [...]r. c. 7. de anim. c. 1, 2, 3. Vid. Daven. in Col. 2.8. Alting. Theol. problem. p. 1 [...]. N [...]s à prophetis & Christ [...], n [...]n à philosophis & Epicuro erudi­mur. Te [...]tul. conn. Marc l. 2. c. 16 Vid. Da­naeam in Aug Euchirid. c. 4. sect. 9.10. We must take heed of making our Reason judge of Articles of Faith, or setting Humane Learning in the Tribunal against Divine Truth. For this it was that Tertullian calleth Philosophers the Patriarchs of Hereticks, and that the Apostle exhorteth us to take heed no man spoil us through philosophy and vain de­ceit, Col. 2.8. He meaneth not solid philosophy, the genuine issue of Right Reason; But the ar­rogance of Humane Reason to sit as a judge of those things that are supernatural and of divine Revelation, as Articles of Faith and forms of Worship, when it will acknowledge no Religion but what is deducible out of the princples of cor­rupted Reason, nor admit any conclusions which are not consonant to those principles.

[Page 22]5. Use it not prophanely, to inflame lust, as some elegant Writers do more corrupt by their lascivi­ousness ▪ then benefit by their politeness, as Ma [...] ­tial, Petronius Arbiter, Prohibe [...]ur Christianis fig­menta legere po [...]tarum, quia p [...]r oblectame [...] ­ta inanium fa­ [...]l [...]rum men­tem excitan [...] ad incentiva libidinum, I [...]id lib 3. Sent. de summo b [...]no [...] cap. 13. Vid. Tertul. de Idol [...]lat. cap 10. & Isidor. Pelut. lib. 1▪ Epist 63. &c. Cyprian said of the Adulteries of the Heathen gods, that by their examples fiunt miseris delicta religiosa. In such a use we may justly fear the rebuke which Ad Eustochium de custodiâ virginitatis, Aug. Epist. 119. Basil. de leg. lib. Gentil. Hieron ad Pammachium de obitu Paulinae. & epist. ad Magnum orat. num. 31.23.24▪ Ierom saith he had, Ciceronianus es, non Christianus.

But use it with Humility, Moderation, Sobriety, as an Handmaid to Christ; as Painters lay a worser colour, when they mean to superinduce another. Pare the Na [...]ls, cut the Hair, lop the luxuriances, carry it through the fire, as the spoils were appoint­ed to be, that it may be purged for the use of the Temple.

Secondly, This justly reproveth all the Ene­mies of Learning; who because the Apostle for­biddeth deceitful Philosophy, and telleth us how vain the professors thereof became in their ima­ginations, do thence condemn all the sober and just use of true Learning.Hoorubec. Commantar. de [...]eige [...]. Baldw. Casus. Conscien. lib. 4 c. 2 cas 9. Greg. Tholos. de Re [...]ub. lib. 17. cap. 12. sect. 5. Plati [...]. in fi [...]e vitae Pauli ▪ 1, 2 Such the Weigel [...]ans, who tell us that there is no knowledge of Christ in any Universities; that all Schools and Academies are enemies unto Christ, and all their Learning merae corruptelae; who shut all Learning out of the Church, and all learned men out of Heaven. Such was it seems Friar Francis the Popish Saint, who [Page 23] cursed a learned Minister of Bononia for going a­bout to set up there a School of Learning with­out his leave. Yea, such it seems was Pope Paul the second, of whom Platina telleth us, that he did so hate Humane Learning, that he esteemed the lovers thereof Hereticks, and exhorted the Romans not to breed up their children thereun­to. This hatred of Learning must needs proceed either from ignorance, for scientia neminem habet inimicum nisi ignorantem: Or from Malice, Aug. de civ. Dei l 18. c 52. Confess l 8. c. 5. Greg Naz. orat. 1. and a de­sire to have Religion betraied; (and therefore it is reckoned amongst the persecutions of the Church, that Iulian prohibited the children of Christians to be trained up in the Schools of Learning:) Or from Avarice, and out of a sacrilegious desire to devoure those Revenues wherewith the boun­ty of Benefactors hath from time to time en­dowed the Schools of Learning. I shall not spend time to confute so ignorant an absurdity.Aret. Problem. loc. 151. Ar [...]tius a learned Protestant hath fully done it to my hand. But I cannot but take notice of it, as doubtless a calumny cast upon Carolostadius and Melanchton, Sarius Com­ment. rerum in [...]be gesta [...]um▪ Ann [...] 1522. p. 116. as if they taught the Youth at Wit­tenberg to cast off all Philosophy and Humane Learning, having been themselves so taught by Luther, and that they turned to Mechanick im­ployments, one to Husbandry, the other to the Art of Baking, and that thereupon many young men did burn their Books of Liberal Arts, and betook themselves to Manufactures. But how honorably both Luther and Melanchton thought of Humane Learning in it self (though they [Page 24] might inveigh against the abuse of it in Popish Academies) is by learned men so abundantly cleared out of their own practice and Writings,Baldw. Cas. consc. l 4. c. 2 cas 9. D. Arrow. orat. 3 An [...]i [...]e [...]g. that I shall not need add any more in their vin­dication.

Thirdly, We must get our Learning season­ed with Holiness, else it will not serve us to re­press any temptation. Great Learning will con­sist with monstrous Wickedness. Who more learned then the Scribes and Pharisees, and who more graceless, Joh. 7.48. and more bitter enemies to the doctrine of Salvation? Who more learned then the Athenian Philosophers, and who great­er deriders of the Apostles Preaching?Act. 17 32. Never had Christian Religion more bitter Enemies then Celsus, Porphyrie, Iulian, Libanius, and the like great Professors of Humane Learning. None do the Devil more service in his oppo­sition to the Church of God, then men of great parts, that are enemies to Godliness. A proud Heart, and a learned Brain, are Satans Warehouses, and Armories, the Forge where he shapeth all his Cyclopical Weapons against divine Truth. The Egyptians here are noted for wise men, and yet they were of all others the most sottish Idolaters; insomuch that o­ther Idolaters derided them for theirs, as we finde in Iuvenal;

[Page 25]
Oppida t [...]ta canem venerantur, nemo Dianam.
Iuvenal. Satyr. lib. 5.
O sanctas gentes quibus hac nascuntur in hortis Numina!

Though therefore we must covet the best gifts, yet we must still remember there is a more excellent way; and consider if the knowledge of the wisdom of Egppt be so honorable, how glorious is the ex­cellency of the knowledge of Christ, in comparison whereof all other knowledge is loss and dung? Si tanti-vitrum, quanti veram margaritam? If a glass jewel be so valuable, how excellent is an in­estimable Pearl?

Themistocles though he was ignorant of Musick, Aug. ep. 36. Quid mihi pro derat ingenium per illas doctri­nas agile, cum def [...]rmiter & sa [...]rilegâ turpi tudine in do­ctrina pietatis errarem! Aug confess. l. 4. c. 16. lib. 1▪ c. 8. yet knew how to govern a State; and a Beleever, though he be ignorant of all other learning, yet by the Knowledge of Christ will be a blessed man, whereas all the learning in the World, without this, will leave a man miserable. To know the whole Creation, and to be ignorant of the Creator; to know all Histories and Antiquities, and to be unacquainted with our own hearts; to be good Logicians to other purposes, and in the mean time to be cheated by Satan with Paralogisms in the business of our own Salvation; To be power­ful Orators with Men, and never to prevail with God; To know the constellations, motions, and influences of heavenly Bodies, and have still un­heavenly Souls; To know exactly the Laws of men, and be ignorant and rebellious against the Laws of God; To abound with worldly Wisdom, and [Page 26] be destitute of the fear of God, which makes wise to salvation, is all but a better kinde of refined misery; the Devils have much more then all this comes to, and yet are damned. We must therefore study to improve our Learning unto the use and furtherance of holiness, to bet­ter our minds, to order our affections, to civi­lize our manners, to reform our lives, to adorn and render our profession the more amiable, to consecrate all our other endowments as spoils unto Christ, to lay our Crowns at his feet, and make all our other abilities and acquirements Handmaids unto his glory. When Learning is thus a servant unto godliness, godliness will be an honor unto Learning.

Fourthly, Since Learning is so excellent an Endowment, The Teachers of it ought to be had in great Honor.Quis enim [...]ir­tutem amplecti­tur ipsam. Prae­mia si tollas? Iuven. Sat. 10. And I scarce know a greater defect in this Nation, then the want of such encouragement and maintenance as might render the Calling of a School-master so ho­norable, as men of great Learning might be invited unto that Service. Errors in the first concoction, are not mended in the second, what is lost in the School, is hardly ever fully recovered in the University. And by how much the fewer men of great worth and parts are imployed in that service, by so much the more should the loss of rare and worthy men in that way be be­wailed by us. And certainly were they while we enjoy them so honored as they should be, [Page 27] they would be as much lamented when we are deprived of them. We read of the honorable Interment which Augustus gave unto his Master.Dion. lib. 48. p. 376. Iul. Capital. Auson. in G [...]at. Act. Homer. Iliad. 9. Of an honorable Statue with M. Antoninus Philosophus erected unto his. Gratianus the Emperor made Ansonius his Master Consul: and Achilles made his a fellow-sharer with him in his own honour.Cod. l. 10. tit. 15 And we read in the Im­perial Law, that Learned Grammarians, after they had taught diligently for Twenty years, had special honour conferred upon them, and were numbered amongst those who were Vica [...]iae dignitatis.

What necessity there is to have the mindes and manners of Children formed and seasoned,Vid. Qui [...]til. l. [...] cap. 1, 2. while they are pliant and ductile, before licence break out into pride and luxury, before lust grows head-strong and intractable, while they are a Rasa tabula, tender trees, and capable of shaping, we need not to be told.Philo de praeir. & paen. Omnium hominum gravida est anima, said Philo, and want Masters, as Midwives to shape and fashi­on the Off-spring of them: And even Hea­then men have complained of the carelesness and neglect of Parents in this particular.Aelian. var [...] hist. l· 12. Diog. Laert. l. 6. Diogenès was wont to say that a man were better be some mens Sheep then their Son; the care of their Cattel being greater then of their Chil­dren. If then you set a value upon your Chil­dren, you ought accordingly to prize religi­ous and learned Instructors of them, and to take [Page 28] care to put them under such. For if Grammer Schools had everywhere holy and learned men set over them, not onely the Brains but the Souls of Children might be there enriched, and the work both of Learning and of Conversion and grace be timely wrought in them.

Great was the happiness of this City in this particular, while it enjoyed this Worthy man, and great the loss in being deprived of him; For though through Gods goodness there be many excellent men remaining, out of whom some reparation may be made of so great a damage; yet still I look on the departure of this man, as if the middle and most precious Stone in a rich Iewel should drop out, which though many others remain in, cannot but be greatly missed, and bewailed.

Moses was unto the people of Israel, Poe­dagogus ad Christum, as the Apostle speaks of the Law, Gal. 3.25. and of other Teachers, 1 Cor. 4.15. And although he were so great a man, as no other Prophet (much less ordi­nary person) could parallel, Numb. 12.6, 7, 8. yet there may be resemblance where there is not equality.

Give me leave to make the comparison in several particulars; Three of which we have in the Text, Moses was Learned and Mighty in word and deed, in which Three, consisteth the excellency of a Teacher, and therefore the same [Page 29] is noted of Christ the great Prophet of the Church, Luke 24.19. Act. 1.1. Learning qua­lifieth the Teacher; Word and Work, Doctrine and Life, Institution and Example leadeth and directeth the Schollar. And so Homer describeth Phaenix the Master and Instructer of Achilles, Homer. Iliad. 9. [...].

First, Our dear Brother was a Learned man, Learned in the whole Body of Learning; not onely an excellent Linguist and Grammarian, Historian, Cosmographer, Artist, but a most ju­dicious Divine, and a great Antiquary in the most memorable things of this Nation. Into whatsoever parts of the Land he travelled, he was able to refresh and to instruct his Fellow-travellers in the most remarkable particulars of every Country. Pausanias was not more accu­rate in the description of Greece, then he of England. And I have heard, that he had it sometimes in his thoughts to have published some thing in this kind. He was a man of a solid Iudgement; he always spake è sulco pectoris, and I have, not without very great satisfaction, heard him give his Notions upon difficult places of Scripture, and Arguments of Divinity in or­dinary discourse, as if he had elaborately studi­ed them.

Secondly, He was mighty in Word, able out of a full Treasury, and Store-house of Learning, to bring forth both new and old. I never knew [Page 30] any learned subject spoken of in his company, wherein he was not able most dexterously to deliver his opinion. He was a man of a copious Discourse, but withal so solid and judicious as did ever delight his auditors, never weary them. As Livie said of Cato, Natum ad id diceres quodcunque ageret, we may say of him, Doctum in hoc uno crederes, quodcun (que) diceret.

Thirdly, He was as Moses, a Worker as well as a Speaker, he was not a barren Fig-tree, that had leaves without fruit; nor a tinckling Cim­bale, noise without love; he taught by his Life as well as by his Learning. Verbis tantum philoso­phari non est doctoris sed histrionis, as he said; and dicta factis deficientibus erubescunt, Tertul. de pati­entia c. 1. saith Ter­tullian. And indeed he was a man of fixed and resolved honesty, and wondered in his sickness what men did learn Christianity for, if it were not in every condition to practice it, and adorn the profession of it. Time was, when fearing whether his conscience and his Imployment would consist together, he put himself to much pain and trouble to resign the place, which he then held in the City of Glocester. For the times were then such, that many durst not take his re­signation, till at last he met with a worthy Gen­tleman, who feared no mans displeasure in do­ing that which he knew was his duty.

Fourthly, He was as Moses, a patient man; patient in his Business, Moses was patient in his Iu­dicature [Page 31] from morning to evening, Exod. 18.13. and he patient in his School in like manner. Patient in his sufferings, willingly with Moses bearing the reproach of Christ, and not fearing the wrath of any man in comparison of the re­verence he did bear to his own Conscience. Patient in sickness, composing himself with as an unshaken confidence to dye, as in time of health he would have gone about any other busi­ness.

Fifthly, He was as Moses, a faithful man, Heb. 3.5. most exactly answerable to the Trust of his place: Opprimi potius onere officii maluit, quàm illud deponere, as once Tully spake. It was hardly possible for any friend by any importu­nity to draw him from a most punctual obser­vation of timely attendance upon the duties of his place. And so tenderly fearfull was he of miscarriage herein, and so sensible of any the least defect, that in a former sickness he desired, if he should then have died, to have been buried at the School door, in regard he had in his mi­nistration there come short of the duties which he owed unto the School. And this we shall ever find true, the more active, able, conscien­tions, faithful, any are in discharge of duty, the more humble, the more jealous, the more fear­ful they are of their coming short of it. The ful­lest and best ears of corn hang lowest towards the ground; and so those men that are fullest of worth, are most humble, and apprehensive of their own failings.

[Page 32]Sixthly▪ He was as Moses, a constant, resolved, steady man. Moses would not bate Pharoah an Hoof, kept close to every tittle of his Commis­sion, Exod▪ 10.9, 26. So was he punctual and un­moveable from honest principles. Vir Rigidae in­nocentiae, as Livy said of Cato. He was of Po­lemo his judgment in this point, Debere, inesse quand [...]m mo [...]ibus contumaciam, Diog. Laeril. 4. that men having proved all things should hold fast the best, and be pertinacious in goodness.

Seventhly, He was as Moses, a wise man; Moses was often put to the use of his wisdom to com­pose the distempers of a froward people; and a masculine Prudence is requisite to tame and calm the wilde and unswaied humors of young children. It is noted as a special peece of So­crates his wisdom, that he did by his institution fix and reduce the wandering and vitious inclina­tions of Alcib [...]ades. Vid. Greg. Tho­los. de Repub. l. 15. c 1. I might go on in this pa­rallel, and instance in the Authority, Gravity, Meek­ness and Zeal for the truth, which were observe­able in this our dear friend, as they were emi­nent in Moses. But I shall add onely this one thing more, The great care which he had of the School at his last, that there might be an able Suc­cessor chosen. Of Moses his care in this particu­lar we read, Numb. 27.15, 16, 17. And this good man the evening before he died with great ear­nestness commended it to the Company, by a member thereof, who came to visit him, that they should use their uttermost wisdom and care [Page 33] to chuse an able, learned, religious, and orthodox man into the place, naming one of whose fitness, both he, and the Company, and School had had before great experience. And so much were they pleased to honor the judgment and integrity of this worthy man, that presently after his death they pitched upon an excellent learned man whom he had so providently commended unto them.

I might add one parallel more, in the death of this good man to Moses. The Lord bid Moses go up to the Mount and dye, Deut. 32.49, 50. and he did so, Deut. 34.1.5. This worthy Friend of mine, the Friday and Saturday before his own Fit, was pleased to visit me, lying at that time under a sore fit of the Stone. It pleased the Lord the Monday following to bring a like Fit upon him, and sending to enquire of his condition, he sent me word how it was with him, and that he looked on this Fit as a Messenger of death from God unto him. And accordingly though in obe­dience to Gods appointment, he made use of means, yet he still insisted upon it, that his time of dissolution was now come, and accordingly, with great composedness and resolvedness of spi­rit, waited for death as a man doth for a loving friend whom he is willing to embrace. I assure my self that he had with Moses a sight of Ca­naan, which made him so undauntedly look death in the face.

I shall conclude with that Exhortation, Let us go up to the Mount, and by faith look into our [Page 34] heavenly Country; let us have our eyes fastened upon Christ our Salvation, and then we may with old Simeon sing our Nunc Dimittis; with the Apostle be willing to depart and to be with Christ, which is best of all; and with Moses die not onely patiently but obediently, as knowing that we have a City which hath foundations made without hands, eternal in the Heavens, whose Builder and Maker is God.


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