A TREATISE Of the necessity of Humane Learning FOR A GOSPEL-PREACHER: Shewing the use of

  • I. Languages.
  • II. Rhetoric.
  • III. Logic.
  • IV. Natural Philoso­phy.
  • V. Moral Philosophy.
  • VI. History.
  • VII. Chronology.
  • VIII. Arithmetic.
  • IX. Geometry.
  • X. Astronomy.
  • XI. Geography.

AND The benefits of Learning in all Ages. Also this Question is Determined, Whether Grace be Essential to a Minister of the Gospel?

By EDVVARD REYNER late Minister of the Gospel in Lincoln.

LONDON, Printed by John Field, and are to be sold by Joseph Cranford, at the Sign of the Gun in S. Pauls Church-yard, 1663.


THe grand Enemy of humane Hap­piness, having baffled Man in his first Encounter, and cheat­ed him of his knowledge and his innocency together, hath studied ever since to improve his Follies, and thereby to com­pleat his Misery. In pursuance of which he saw it his concernment, to employ his policy in evacuating those means, whereby the Sons of Adam might attempt some re­paration of their loss, and raise their Intel­lectuals, so much depressed by the fall which he occasioned. Well understanding, that the interest of his Kingdom doth not a little depend upon the ignorance of men, as most proper to dispose them for his conduct, and that which brings in great throngs of Sub­jects to him from the Pagan World: which [Page]might well add eagerness to his industry: in seeking the advancement of it, in that other part which calls it self Christian. And here, because Light had broken forth, his business was, where he could not compass a total extinction of it, either to restrain its lustre, or disappoint its influence. The former he hath performed among the Pa­pists, with whom it is so muffled, as not to be seen by vulgar eyes. The Romish Church being made a Stove of Devotion, where Religion is hatched in the dark, and men may grow hot with the sentiments of a fiery zeal, without discerning any blaze, or spark of knowledge. But when the subtil Impostor meets with others, that cannot spare their sight, that care not for having their Candle shut up in a dark Lanthorn, and that born by another too; advised by their differ­ing tempers, he forms new Methods; and since they will not be patient without Light, he bestirs himself, either to embase its Puri­ty, or hinder its Efficacy, or counterfeit its Appearance.

Its Purity is embased, while it is mixt with shadow, with gross Conceits, wilde Fan­cies, perplex Opinions; while obscured by dark, abstruse, or imperfect Representati­ons; while deflowred by corrupt Glosses, and tinctured by some ill disposed Medium, [Page]through which it hath past, either in the form of a Version, or an Exposition.

It is infeebled in its Operation, and its Efficacy obstructed, when it is eclipsed through the interposition of some black sug­gestions, or clouded with doubts and scru­ples; when its raies are dissipated and dis­persed, being split with Distinctions, and bandied away in Disputes; when it is im­ployed onely to form the visible species of Sanctity, to exhibite the glitterings and splendors, the quaint colours and imagery of a bare Profession; while it serves but to gild mens Discourses, and cast such a brightness upon some of their Actions most exposed to observation, as may dazzle the eyes of others, that the impieties they more closely prosecute, may securely escape both their notice and suspicion too. Nor do there want other sinister purposes to which it may be applyed; as, the rarifying of mens self-conceit, till it swell and puff them up; the inkindling of heart-burnings and ani­mosities amongst them; whilest all the heat that accompanies the illumination of their mindes is derived upon their passions, and ferments their peevish humors, till they proceed to such Calentures of contention, as are ever attended with a cold fit of Charity, if not of Piety too. And so their Light [Page]serves onely to put out the fire of love, and making the fervency of their spirits exhale in their contests, leaves them to freez in the service of God, and the concerns of their souls: by which means Satan is high­ly gratified, and his designs of defeating the most necessary knowledge not a little pro­moted. He is well content it should shine for men to talk, but not to live by: he would either draw them to make an unprofitable use of it, or else withdraw them from making any at all: which he most usually, and not unsuccessfully, attempts, by entertaining their mindes with so many divertisements, and distracting them with such a variety of objects, as not to give them leave by me ditation to recollect, by a frequent and se­rious reflexion to unite those beams which have disfused themselves there; so as to beget a holy fervor within, and produce in the heart such a vital flame, as might im­part vigor to the whole man, and warm it into a pious activity. It is none of the least pernicious of the Tempters Arts, to set mens Affections at odds with their Judgements, and make their Practice dis­sent from their Principles: which he oft per­forms by presenting to them, in the most alluring forms, the various delights of sense, the sweetest and most gustful pleasures, which [Page]may infuse soft and easie prejudices into their minds against the strictness of their opinions, and release the severities of their deport­ment, till their indulgence extend not one­ly to the more modest sallies of a lustful in­clination, but to the bolder excursions of a dis­solute sensuality. Hence many live at such a distance from their knowledge, that their Notions and their Actions seem to be cal­culated for very different Meridians: it being commonly midnight with the latter, when bright day with the former.

Thus I have recounted the principal Ar­tifices, whereby the Prince of Darkness seeks to undermine and render ineffectual that Light, which men have received from Di­vine Revelation. A third Policy still re­mains, which is, the counterfeiting of its appearance; while men are induced to ow their Illumination either to the flashes of Fancy, the lightnings of a heated brain, the appearing of Lucifer their morning-star, or the rising of some new Luminary, to which that transformed Angel performs the office of an Intelligence.

The old Sophister hath of late earnestly applyed himself to the profession of Op­tics, and chiefly taught men that expe­riment, in which, by shutting out the Light that shines in the place where they are, ad­mitting [Page]none but at a little hole, they might have a more pleasant and delightful view of things; whilest objects from without should croud in, and offer themselves to their observation in the most lovely forms: For he knew, that when mens curiosity had once guided them to the trial hereof, those things which they saw right before would now be­come invers'd, and be quite otherwise repre­sented: and he, by a convenient disposing and presenting of Objects, might paint upon their minds what idea's he pleased; which would be more lively and express, the near­er their minds resembled unwritten paper, by being cleared of what good Principles were imprinted on them before. He hath cir­cumvented many by inviting them out of the Sun-shine of Divine Ordinances to re­fresh themselves in the shade, and take the pleasures of a retired Walk; where he hath led them on by degrees till the night hath overtaken them, and by concealing their way rendred the offer of his Lanthorn acceptable, who had ever an Ignis fatuus, or some wisp of error ready, to direct their goings: as not ignorant, that when men are benighted, Lights of this nature will be more admired and followed then all the Stars of Heaven; and there are no better guides to his black Mansion the pit of destruction.

He hath a great advantage for imposing upon such as he hath got into the dark; for here rotten wood will shine, and any cheap delusion serve to amuse the sight: though sometimes he may go to the cost of a more so­lemn cheat, of some garish apparition or splendid disguise of error: yea, he can match Mystery with falshood, and teach the most shallow conceits to be profound. He hath a new-fangled dress to recommend the vainest and most Antic Tenets; and can cloath an ill-contrived opinion with a venerable obscu­rity: By this means accommodating himself to minds of various conditions; some of which are taken with the surperficial gli­stering, others with the intricate dimness of what is propounded. But lest the cre­dit of his impostures, which have been so successful, might fall, to support it, and se­cure them from being detected, he hath tryed to disparage all External Light (and Internal too, of which himself is not the Author) and disoblige mens regard, both to Divine Declarations published in holy Writ, and to the Law of Nature, and those notices of good and evil, which are most in­timate and familiar to the mindes of men; and, lastly, to the sober judgements of Rea­son, and the genuine deductions either of Scriptural or Natural Principles. For it [Page]was easie to conclude, that if he could fetch men off from attending to these, he himself should have leave to indite their Creed, and have their faith pliant to his proposals: that he might be the Conductor of their Devoti­on, and the Infernal sire lend the Coal with which their Incense should burn.

But if he cannot deprive the Scripture of that Authority which it carries with men, he will endeavor to hinder them of a great part of the Contents and Advantages of it, by decrying all use of Reason and Learning in sacred matters. For, if he can prevail with men to renounce the former, then farewel so much of the Divine Will, as is not set down in Scripture in express terms, but onely, though clearly, implyed, and flow­ing from what is written by a fair and neces­sary consequence; which is the part of Rea­son to discern and deduce. Nor is its help less requisite to the discovery of the genuine sense, and importance of what is expresly recorded, and needs to be interpreted; which must be found out by observing the Tenor and Series, the Scope and De­sign of the Discourse, with the depen­dence of the several parts, and the propor­tion any particular place bears to others, by comparing obscurer Texts with clearer, shorter with fuller; those that have no li­mitations [Page]or restrictions with the like which have; and carefully distinguishing the va­rious acceptions of words, especially the fi­gurative from the proper. All which are the operations of Reason: which is further in­strumental to put a difference between Cere­monial and Moral Precepts; between those that are of particular concernment as re­strained to some certain Nation, Person, or Time, and those which are of a general A­spect, binding all indifferently, and perpe­tually. For, in as much as these are some­times in Scripture immediately connected or mingled together in the same tenor of speech, and enjoyned alike, without the least note of discrimination; there must be some other principle distinct from it to find out their difference, and that is Reason; which (be­sides that it may infer it from the Scripture it self, discerning which Commands are uni­versal and perpetual, by collation of other places; which singular and temporary, by consideration of circumstances) is peculi­arly fitted for acknowledging Moral Pre­cepts, because they are founded in Reason, have an essential consonancy to, and con­nexion with a rational Nature, and are con­tained in that Law which God hath written upon the hearts of all men, and publish'd by the voice of Reason; which indeed is not more [Page]useful to distinguish commands, then neces­sary to render us capable of them. For therefore the bruits are exempted from the demands of obedience, and have no Law imposed on them, because they being crea­tures destitute of Reason, it's impossible for them to discern the differences of good and evil, or to understand an injunction, and consequently to frame their actions by it: To which men are disposed by those rational faculties with which God hath invested them, and so come within the compass of an obligation, which could not else be fastened upon them. Wherefore Conscience, whose part it is to apprehend this obligation, ex­cite men to their duty, and challenge them for their neglect, must needs be an in­telligent and rational Principle; which evi­dently appears in that it operates by dis­course and ratiocination (whence its actings are stiled [...] reasonings, Rom. 2.15.) seeing it draws particular conclusions from universal rules; collecting from the Law of God generally proposed what ought to be done in special cases and circumstances: and from the agreement or disagreement of such and such actions to the Divine Will (which it finds by comparing one with the other) it judges them either good or bad, and thence infers mens duty for the future, [Page]and either their guilt, or their integrity as to what is past, while it directs, accuses, or ac­quits; all which it performs by a Syllogisti­cal Process. He therefore must resolve to make no use of God's Commands, who will not use his Reason: and he that would banish it, must send away his Conscience with it; yea, and his Religion too. For it is a reasonable service, Rom. 12.1. a service in which Reason, or what is endued with it, is presented to God. Irrational Creatures were offered in Sacrifice under the Law; but under the Gospel onely rational. We must present our selves to God; and not our Bodies onely, but our Minds, our reason­able faculties: John 4.23, 24. Matth. 22.37. Mark 12.33. for God will be worshipped in spirit: we must se [...] him with our un­derstandings, and l [...] [...]im with all our minds, as well as with all our hearts. Our Love must be intelligent, as well as af­fectionate; and not onely active, but con­templative, discovering it self in frequent thoughts and meditations of him, and in diligent enquiries into his Nature and Will. True Religion is so far from discarding or depressing that which is of greatest ex­cellency in the constitution of man, his Rea­son, that it doth exceedingly raise and ad­vance it; it cures its blemishes and imper­fections, and consigns it to spiritual and [Page]divine employments. God doth not destroy or void any thing in the new Creation which he made in the old, but onely mends and rectifies it, sanctifies and prepares it for those purposes to which it was designed by him, but since grown indisposed. The Candle of the Lord, of which the Wise-man speaks Prov. 20.27. is not here extinguish'd, but snuff'd that it may burn the brighter; and encreas'd with illustrious accessions from above. In short, He that is a Christian must be a Man; and he that is a Man must be rational. For it is Reason that makes the Man, and gives him so great advantage and preheminence above all other visible Beings. Take this away, and he becomes like the Beasts that perish which we sinde eminent­ly verified in No [...] [...]adnezzar; of whom, when he came from grasing, it's said Dan. 4.34. That his Understanding, or (as it is Verse 36.) his Reason (for both these are the same thing) returned to him: upon which he broke forth into the Praises of the most High, and made that excellent Con­fession in Verse 34, 35, 37. Those there­fore, who disclaim Reason, cast off the badge and cognizance of Humanity, and in effect give up their Names to an inferior Order of Beings, with a foul ingratitude reproaching the Bounty of Heaven, as if God had con­fer'd [Page]nothing valuable in that eminent fa­vor and mark of excellency, by which he hath distinguished them from brutish natures, and rendred them capable of apprehending spiritual objects, Heaven and future Happi­ness; yea, and of perceiving and enjoying himself, of which the irrational Creatures are utterly incapable, and that because they are devoid of Reason, which gives the ca­pacity: though there be further qualificati­ons requisite to an actual fitness for the fru­ition of God; yet these are such as cannot possibly be where the other is not. Let such then, and such onely, speak against it, as affect to be inapprehensive, and are in love with stupidity. Surely no considerative person can account it the praise of those in 2 Pet. 2.12. that they were [...], as brute Beasts, or (which the words properly im­port) as Animals without Reason. Was it the Perfection of the Galatians that they were [...], unintelligent? Gal. 3.1. Or did Agur commend himself when he said, He had not the understanding of a man? If it be of no moment, and not worth the having, why doth the Psalmist warn us not to be as the Horse, or the Mule, Psalm 32.9, with 8.that have no Under­standing, &c. and therefore are unteach­able, not capable of any counsel, or being moved with Arguments and Perswasions? [Page]For, if Men wanted an intellectual faculty, in vain would be that instructing and teach­ing offered in the foregoing Verse. Why doth God bid the Israelites, after their ab­surd and irrational Idolatry, Isaiah. 46.8. remember, and shew themselves Men? that is, make it appear they were reasonable Creatures by acting rationally. Why doth he call them to reason with him Isai. 1.18. and often ap­peal to the judgement of Reason for the justification of his proceedings? as Isai. 5.1, 2, 3, 4. Jer. 2.9, 10, 11. Ezek. 18.25, to 29. Micah 6.2, to 5. And why doth he so frequently in Scripture require us to understand, bring to minde, search, exa­mine, meditate, consider, judge, all which are rational operations, if Reason it self were useless to holy and divine intentions? Which that it is not, may abundantly appear from the use our blessed Savior made of it, especially in his Conferences with Pharisees and Sadduces; and his Apostles in their Discourses. The Gospel was exceedingly propagated by Paul's reasoning and dispu­ting, Acts 17.2, 3, 4. and 18.4. and 19.8, 9, 10. For Reason may do excellent service in managing those Arguments ad­vantageously which are for the Truth (though they were suggested by the Spirit) and in re­futing such as are brought against it. It is [Page]necessary to acquaint us with the vices of Ratiocination, and detect false reasonings; to discern the force of an Objection, and level an Answer aright; and, in short, to decide a Controversie, to prove, convince, and per­swade; none of which can be performed without reason shewn. All these things con­sidered, methinks none should in the least question the requisiteness of Reason, without which we can neither think nor speak con­sistently. Yet I finde an Objection, Object. urging the impertinency of it in divine matters, from its uncapableness of them; because it is said of the natural man (one who hath no higher Principle then Reason) that he re­ceives not the things of God,1 Cor. 1.14.neither can he know them, seeing they are spiritually discerned? To which I return, Solut. That divine matters, or the things of God, are of two sorts:

I. Some of them were publish'd in and by the Creation; God having there con­trived clear intimations of his own nature and minde into the constitutions and relati­ons of things, from whence, by a necessary resultancy, many verities and duties slow. For those intimations are either speculative, as, That there is a God; That he is wise, powerful, good, &c. or practical, as, That God is to be worshipped; That we are to [Page]do as we would be done by; That Parents are to be honored, &c. Now both these Reason may finde out by reflexion and dis­course, by considering the quality of the Ob­jects, and their intrinsic and essential re­spects; and consequently natural Men, though Heathens, may apprehend them. The Speculative they may, because God hath shewed these to them by the things which he hath made, Rom. 1.19, 20. And the Practical, because they have the work of the Law written in their hearts, and, while they want the Scripture, do by Nature the things contained in the Law, Rom. 2.14, 15. By Nature, that is, by the information of Reason (the onely knowing Principle in the Nature of Man) which, though imper­fectly, dictates to them the same things that the Moral Law, set down in holy Writ, re­quires. And though it discover not all Na­tural Precepts, yet when it hath received them from the Word of God, and wistly looks upon them, it cannot but acknowledge and embrace them with some natural resent­ments, as akin to those Principles of prime note, that are nearest alied to, and have the strictest conjunction with it self; which are so highly reasonable, and of so clear and conspicuous a Goodness, that it can readily approve, and easily evince the dueness and [Page]equitableness of what it sees descended from them. Hence that of our Savior to the peo­ple Luke 13.57. Yea, and why even of your selves judge ye not what is right? Of your selves; i. e. by that natural abi­lity which God hath given you for this very purpose, to distinguish between Right and Wrong, and discern what is in it self fit to be done, and what not?

II. There are other divine matters de­clared onely by after-revelation, which can­not possibly be collected, and certainly con­cluded from the essence, capacity, or habitude of the things to which they relate, because they do not result from them by any moral necessity, but are the intire effects of a free and positive Determination; the knowledge of which had been utterly unattainable, e­ven by the greatest sagacity, if the same gra­cious Will that conceiv'd had not disclosed it. Now of this sort are the Mysteries of the Go­spel, call'd the depths and hidden wisdom of God, 1 Cor. 2.7, 10. and the things of the Spirit of God, verse 14. And of these it is that the Apostle asserts the natural Man wholly inapprehensive without the Spirit. He receives them not. [...]. He neither conceives, comprehends, nor closes with them

1. He could form no conception of them, [Page]except the Spirit had revealed them in the Word: seeing they were the secrets of the divine Breast, the stupendious products of his good pleasure, and such as could not fall within the compass of man's imagination, much less of his certain knowledge, if they had not been presented to him from above. For he could not deduce them from the Prin­ciples of which he is naturally possess'd, since they have no necessary dependance on them; being of a quite different condition, because the matter of the other is necessary; of these, arbitrary. In those Maxims that are of natural cognizance, the terms do of themselves cohere by an internal congrui­ty: but in such as are onely known by su­pernatural revelation, they have no firm coherence, but what they receive from an ex­ternal constitution. In the former the terms are linked together by the Complexion and Properties of the things denoted by them, which therefore are perfectly inse­parable: in the latter they are coupled onely by the interposition of the divine Will, with­out which, as they were in themselves sepa­rable, so they had continued actually dis­joyned. Except therefore that Act, or De­cree of Heaven, to which they owe their conjunction, were promulged, the Propo­sitions which they make up, could they pos­sibly [Page]have been thought of, yet could upon no ground have been assented to. For in­stance; These Articles of the Christian Faith, That Eternal life is to be had by the death of Christ, and that we must be­lieve for the remission of sins, are not evi­denced by any necessary relation, or intrin­secal and natural tie between their subject and predicate (between Eternal life, and Christs death; between Believing and Re­mission) and could not have been rightly credited, had we not been expresly acquaint­ed with that determination of infinite good­ness that hath joyned them together. Where­as in those axiomes, that God is to be loved, and that he is to be honored, there is so in­timate and essential a connexion between the parts (between God, and the right to love and honor) that he, who seriously attends thereto, may from thence, without any su­pernatural Revelation, be constrained to ac­knowledge them undeniably true, and wor­thy of all acceptation: since it is impossible that love and honor, if due to any excel­lency, should not be so to the greatest and most transcendent.

2. The natural Man is not able through­ly to penetrate into, and comprehend di­vine Mysteries without the illumination of the Spirit, distributed betwixt the Ob­ject [Page]and the Faculty, whilest it sheds light upon the things revealed, representing them to the minde with the greatest evidence and advantage; and also assists and furthers Reason in the perception of them, clearing and strengthening it, and removing those prejudices under which it labored.

3. The Natural Man, without the influ­ence of the Spirit disposing him thereto, can­not fully close with, and affectionately en­tertain the things of God. He can have no experimental feeling, no kindly and per­manent impressions, no enlivening senti­ments of them.

Now take any, or all of the foremention­ed Senses, and what do they make against the use of Reason in religious affairs? Will any one say, that because it can have no ap­prehension of supernatural Mysteries before they be revealed, therefore it cannot appre­hend them when they are revealed? He may as well conclude, that because he cannot now look upon any of the Gold at present hap'd up in the Indian Mines; therefore, if it were taken out, brought over and laid before him, he should not be able to discern it. Or who would argue, that since his eyes are dim, or have a web grown upon them; therefore if ever he see well, it must be without eyes? And yet thus they do, who, because their Rea­son [Page]is weak, and wants much of its Primi­tive vigor and sharpness, cast it away as use­less to any spiritual employment: which is to act at the same rate of discretion with him, who should make blindness the cure of dimness, and put out his eyes to mend his sight. The Spirit performs to our mindes the office of a Perspective, rendring those things conspicuous which were before invi­sible, and giving a distincter view of what was less clearly seen. Now a Perspective supposeth a visive faculty, to which it ministers relief. No man would be so ab­surd as to think that he who hath got spe­ctacles hath no need of eyes: and yet he might, as well as conceit him who hath the Spirit to have no use of Reason. For this makes us capable of the operation and impressions of the Spirit, of apprehend­ing what he suggests, and so of being af­fected with it, both because affection ever supposeth an apprehension of the thing that excites it; and the most refined and spiri­tual affections are the workings of our ra­tional part. Reason is the sense of our souls; by this, when the Spirit hath put it into a right temper, we may see, and savor the things of God, and can see no more without it, then we can view or relish material objects without either sight or taste.

But I have outrun my intentions in the pursuit of a Question, which nothing but a notorious ignorance or a great perverseness could ever have started. The rather indu­ced hereto, because many of those, who were no Friends to Learning, were opposers of Reason also; who now possibly may be ra­ther silent then satisfied. And though, since the Scene of affairs was altered, their con­ceits walk not so much abroad as formerly, yet they may still keep within doors: upon which account an attempt of this nature, in vin­dication of Reason, may not be impertinent; onely it is so to be vindicated, as that no­thing above its due be ascribed to it; none of its extravagancies justified: it is by no means to be allowed when it grows immodest and imperious, and so big with Usurpation as to control the dictates of Heaven, to pro­proclaim its own infallibity, and to banish faith out of Religion: which it doth, when men will not admit of Divine Authority in any matters of which they are not able in all points to give a clear and natural account: for they must either suspect Gods credit, or prefer their own judgements before his, or at least attribute as great perfection to their own understandings, as Omniscience it self can challenge; as if nothing were too won­derful for them: whereas indeed the [Page]slightest and most obvious of these inferiour things are of sufficiency enough to pose and baffle them. To exact all Truth by the scant measure of our own comprehension, and set our seal to none which is not modelled to, and just of the same size with our capa­cities; to prescribe to an Infinite Under­standing, and not suffer his Conceptions in any case to be above our reach, nor allow him any Reasons to guide his Determinati­ons by, but what we are acquainted with, is extremely arrogant and supercilious. For, though it be most certain, that God offers no­thing to be credited by us, which is contrary to the sound dictates of Reason (whereof he is the Author) or which would destroy the clear and indubitable evidence of those dis­cerning faculties, which God hath bestowed upon us; seeing one Truth can be no more contrary to another, Scriptural to Rational, Supernatural to Natural, then God, who is the source of both, can be adverse to him­self, or be guilty of self-contradiction: Yet it is as certain that he can present some Truths of so vast a bigness, as that to take the full dimensions thereof, would be difficult above what the shortness of the most raised mind, in this present state, can hope to attain to. No understanding, but that which is so large as that nothing can [Page]escape it, can warrantably argue from an ig­norance either of the nature, cause, mode or end of any thing, to the non-existence of the thing it self. And to conclude that not to be at all, concerning which we understand not either how or why it should be so, is no less absurd in Theology, then in Physics and Politics. For this consequence in Na­turals would annihilate the greatest part of the world, and destroy all that which poseth humane sagacity, our very selves not ex­cepted. In Civils it would annul all pub­lic Decrees, Appointments, Transactions, when people have no prospect into the breasts of their Governors, to see the springs that turn the wheels of State, by being made partakers of the reasons thereof. As to Divine matters, it takes away all mysteries, and will not permit the Kings of Kings his Secrets, nor that priviledge of earthly Princes, to have a heart unsearchable, Prov. 25.3. when indeed it becomes both Prudence and Majesty sometimes to be re­served: and excellent purposes may be served by concealment, the nurse of humi­lity, veneration, observance and an inqui­sitive diligence. God may keep secret the reasons of some things which he requires to be done (as of divers in the Levitical Law) and also the modes of others (of [Page]which several in the Gospely that he would have to be believed; to the end he may teach us rightly to value his Soveraignty and Infallibility, his Authority and Testi­mony; and to account the one of it self alone a sufficient obligation to Obedience, and the other to Faith. Besides, that the under­standing might have somewhat to exercise its submission, as well as the will. And sure it can never submit to a better judge­ment, nor more securely credit, then where God relates: for though it cannot circum­scribe the thing in its whole latitude, nor discern how it should be what it is represent­ed; yet supposing the [...] (that it is so) to be certainly revealed, and attested by God, the clearness of the assertion will acquit our faith of blindness, and the infallibility of the Assertor, together with our own imper­fection, and liableness to mistake, vin­dicate it from unreasonableness. For not the evidence, or demonstration of what is testified, but the unquestionable cre­dit of the testifier is the onely ground and reason of Faith. I say, reason; because believing is a rational act, an assent to some truth, as proved by certain authority. Believing without good reason is not Faith, but credulity. Not, that it's necessary we should know the reason of the [Page] thing, but onely of our belief of that thing; of which no greater can be found then his attestation who is all-knowing, and infal­lible; in whom infinite Wisdom, Truth and Goodness meet and engage for our security: the first placing him as much beyond the possibility of a mistake, as the other two free us from the danger of a delusion, while we sincerely embrace his witness. In doing which we need not fear being any time dri­ven upon the belief of contradictions, or impossibilities. For it is as eternally repug­nant to his Nature to affirm an impossibili­ty, as to perpetrate any iniquity. Yet there want not those who either make or feign ab­surdities and contradictions in divine Do­ctrine: some make them by taking Scri­pture-expressions in an incongruous and in­consistent sense: as those, who, by intro­ducing a corporal presence, make the Do­ctrine of the Sacrament self-repugnant, and diametrically opposite to the most solid evi­dence both of Sense and Reason. Others feign absurdities by the errors of their ar­gumentations. For either they judge of some sacred Verities by wrong Principles, with which they have no connexion or affinity: or else charge them with strange and horrid Consequences, of which they are wholly in­nocent. Either they mistake the circum­stances [Page]and state of the case, and so proceed upon a false Hypothesis: or else their dedu­ctions are unnatural, wilde and impertinent: and so it is not the article, but their argu­ing that is unreasonable; which makes no­thing against the singular advantage of Rea­son in its sober and circumspect use, assisted by a superior direction, for finding out and maintaining Truth, and hindring the tri­umphs of Error: To which Learning also doth not a little contribute, as being the improvement and accomplishment of Reason; as that which advanceth and embellisheth our better faculties, which relieves the im­perfections of our understandings, and helps to vindicate them from that darkness and confusion that hath been the sad concomi­tant of mans degenerd [...] by which means they become more quick and piercing, and we less liable to be imposed on. Upon which ac­counts the Devil hath a great spight at it; and hath sufficiently exprest it of late, by working with so great a number of men to decry and vilifie it, and cast dirt upon those that were furnish'd with it: which was the ready way to procure entertainment for all delusions, as the consequence two apparent­ly proved. For then men committed their actions to the guidance of a wilde instinct, and counted it a great attainment to be be­side [Page]themselves. A phrensie then became desirable for its lucid intervals; the eyes of many were darkened, and their heads ak'd with light; they grew blind with Revela­tions, and unable to see for Visions. Then was the season that, by an overheat in the pur­suit of some extravagant opinion, disposed men to religious Agues, and put their piety into shaking sits. Then to swell with Inspi­ration, to converse with strange amuse­ments, to be full of Extasie, and possess'd with rapture, were esteemed the chief indi­cations of a sanctified temper. And if in others Religion were not acquainted with such impetuous concitations, but were more sweet and calm, more sedate and composed; or if conscious to [...]dgement and discretion, to consideration and [...]visement, it was censured as unworthy of its name, and stamped some­thing of a more base allay. Men had brought a new Stile into their profession, and not a few were (unawares) dating their Faith after the Roman account; while in guiding their course, they made use of such a Com­pass as often varied in obedience to odd and unusual attractives, and were ready to sail to any Latitude and with any Wind (whe­ther it came from Vaticano, or Averno was not material) so it blew but with pre­tence of a Commission from the Spirit.

Common Breasts had now got their Urim, and their Thummim too, and attain'd so far, that they left nothing for Heaven to com­pleat. Those that knew least were so impro­ved in confidence, as not to open their mouths under an Oracle. The infallible Chair sug­gests not a greater peremptoriness then breath'd in their dictates: which to con­tradict, or disbelieve, was infidelity, and something not to be expiated with less then an Anathema. Now he that could till the ground thought his Heifer the fittest to plow up God's Riddles, and accounted it some­thing that belonged to his Occupation to sow the seed of the Word. An ordinary Reaper would be thrusting his Sickle into God's Harvest; and he that could tent Sheep was well qualified for the oversight of God's slock. Nor is the Military Man to be forgotten, who challenged the Sword of the Spirit, as the proper appendent of his Profession, and sittest to be managed by him who wore the Belt. The Forge was now ambitious to form Instruments for the Ser­vice of the Gospel; and the Potter's Wheel to turn forth chosen Vessels. The Shears would undertake to divide the Word aright, and a Pick-Lock serve best to open the Scriptures, whilest the Key of Know­ledge was wilfully thrown away. Now all [Page]good Literature was under a Cloud: Arts and Sciences were neglected. and despised Names: the Tongues (except illiterate) were nigh to silencing; yea, those Langua­ges which divine inspiration hallowed were condemned for prophane: and Oriental Learning, which had lately shined so bright in the West, now seemed to be setting here. Mens being able to word it so abundantly in their own Tongue was thought sufficient to render all other superfluous, and made a Copia verborum commence their highest Degree of Learning; while their unsettled humors carried them to affect a fluency of discourse, as the greatest accomplishment that might entitle them to esteem and reputation: of which those held the principal place with many, who could at the lowest ebb of sense command a spring-tide of words, and fetch a whole slood of speech in the most insupportable drought of matter. Whose particular excel­lency it was to be very liberal of their stock of Language, and spend frankly upon poor Arguments; which the more weak and je­june they were, the sitter Objects of their bounty.

Thus strangely were men affected by the malign influence of new Light; which had now wel-nigh attain'd its Meridian, when this ensuing Treatise had its first Concepti­on: [Page]occasioned by a sad reflexion upon the great contempt and decay of Learning, and the many mischiefs spawn'd thereby. The Author (whose memory with me must ever be dear and precious) committed it to my care to see the Press delivered of it. Which accordingly I here present, together with a short Account of the advantages of the A­rabic Tongue; which I made bold to insert, because it is not inferior to divers others in usefulness, though it hath not had the happiness to be so well known, either by rea­son of the great scarcity or huge price of those Books that speak of it; and some but by the by neither, and in scattered hints. As for the Book it self, though the design of it principally respected those who slighted or were dissatisfied with Humane Know­ledge, yet it was not so narrow, as not to be comprehensive of others too, who profess respect to it. Amongst whom those may more especially claim an interest in the assistance which it offers, who either are better vers'd in the general Elogiums of Learning, then in the particular offices of the several parts thereof; or else more ready at the understand­ing of it as proposed in Systemes, then at the discerning of those improvements that may be made of it in reference to Divinty, and what tribute the several Arts and Sciences [Page]pay to this Queen of Disciplines. Some happily may be hence directed to use the knowledge which they have; others enabled to discover what they want; and a third sort quickned to the pursuit of what they neglect.

Liberal and useful Erudition ows most of the disparagement at any time cast upon it, either to the sloath or unskilfulness of those that have given up their names to it, be­cause too much unfurnished to produce any thing worthy of their education, or those just expectations which that hath raised in others. Their stock being so slender, and so pitifully managed, comes to nothing, and serves onely to make them, with greater con­fidence and ostentation, betray their own weakness, and invite derision. Nor are those to be excused, who, though better pro­vided of Academical improvements, yet not maintaining their familiarity with their Studies, grow so negligent and loath to be­stow any pains upon those performances which their charge exacts from them, that the crudeness of them renders them disgusted of others, and their conceptions become as je­june and void of any sprightful relish, as if their minds had never received any Arti­ficial seasoning, nor were tinctured with any principles besides those which are ordina­rily found among the vulgar throng of men. [Page]What proceeds from them is of such a condi­tion, that it might better become some rude and unpolish'd heads. And no marvel, if by this means many such be tempted to lift up themselves, and vy abilities with their Teachers: Who though they should high­ly extol and passionately defend Learn­ing, yet if they but sorily acquit them­selves when it comes to the proof, their very praises turn to a detraction, and make a blot where they intended a flourish. For it raiseth mens suspicion, and provokes their disdain, to see but mean and despicable pro­ductions issue from those things which carry a great port of commendation. Let Students therefore henceforward, as they would ap­prove the sincerity of their affection to good Literature, reckon themselves concerned to use such an industry in the prosecution of it, as may correspond with its dignity and use­fulness, and enable them to give such real demonstrations of its singular advantages, as may answer the largest reports that are made thereof. By this means they may rescue it from that scorn and contempt, to which the weakness of some, the laziness of others, and the unprofitableness of both have made it obnoxious.

As for those who are fallen out with Learn­ing, let them be intreated to demand of [Page]themselves an answer to these two Questions.

First, Whether their distaste had not its rise from Ignorance of it? For sure it can­not be undervalued in the general without a good competency of that. Whether have they walked the round of Knowledge, view­ed its several plantations, and tasted of the fruits that grow therefrom? If not; then they are concerned to inquire again, whe­ther they be not in the List of those that fall under the Apostles censure, 2 Pet. 2.12. who speak evil of the things that they understand not? And let them seriously ponder what a Charge is drawn up against them in that Chapter, and in the Epistle of Jude, where vers. 12. they are elegantly stiled, [...] Pet. 2.17. Clouds without water, carried a­bout of winds. Clouds, as opposing and obscuring that light which is without them: And clouds without water, either as being big with hot exhalations, and delivered onely of some transient slashes; or else as conceiving thunder, and bringing forth nothing but a huge noise. For so we find, vers. 16. that their mouth dischargeth great swelling words; such as are onely fill'd with emptiness, at best but stuff'd with wind: whil'st, by lofty and mystical terms, strange and uncouth phrases, in a great poverty of signification, they affect a [Page]more then ordinary grandure of expression. And that which compleats this part of the description is, that they are carried about of winds: of the various, yea contrary, blasts of a pretended inspiration; which, that it might be distinguished from the sweet and gentle breathings of the good Spirit of God, as being something more blustring and im­petuous then these are, it is in 2 Pet. 2.17. call'd a tempest; and they, Clouds carried with a tempest: because inspired with the vehemency of a storm, rather then the softness of a whisper; and feeling not calm and equable motions, but violent and tumultuous agitations; being not so much led as hurried by the Spirit, and indeed transported out of their own sight, and beyond all possession and ken of themselves, into a state of stupidity, which yet their imagina­tions are apt to advance into a signal testi­mony of a raised piety. Now if such as these condemn all acquired knowledge, they have more need to rectifie their judgement, then others to matter it.

The second Interrogatory is, Whether the displeasure they conceive against Learning, and the invectives they spend upon it, be not the results of pride and envy? Whether through the consciousness of their own im­perfections they be not afflicted with the ex­cellent [Page]accomplishments they behold in o­thers; and impatient of being out-stript, endeavor to bring down those to their own level by detraction, to whose pitch they de­spaired of rising by imitation? For it is a weakness incident to mean abilities, to pro­pose themselves as the standard from which all others should receive their just proporti­ons: and to be offended at that depth, which is greater then their own shallows. So those that go but a slow pace themselves, whether through feebleness or listlessness, use to be vex'd at the quickness of others, who can­not easily learn to be so dull, nor frame to pro­ceed at that sluggish rate.

I am strongly inclined to think, that many mens dissatisfaction grows hence, not that Science is not good, but that it is not theirs: Not that they discover not a brisk, and amiable lustre in those Pearls with which the Ring of Arts is all beset; but that they have not the wearing of it. 'Tis the excentricalness of their capacities, be­cause they are out of the circle, that makes all the Disciplines in the Encyclopaedia seem irregular. And this may the rather be thought, because if such men have got but a small pittance of Erudition, they will think never the worse of themselves for it, nor refuse its help, but use and shew it when [Page]ever they would set off themselves most, yea when they declaim against it; hereby teach­ing their Tongues to accuse themselves of in­justice.

If we respect parallel instances, we may find, that those, whose ambition is too great for their merits, and their hopes too small for their ambition, being destitute of means to advance them to any considerable eminen­cy, sometimes cry out of all preferment, dignities and honorable distinctions of men, earnestly contending that there ought to be an equality amongst them in condition, as well as there is in blood and excellency of nature: hereby deluding their aspiring thoughts with a pleasing satisfaction of bringing others to be like them, while they cannot attain to be like others. Again, we see some (in whom a greedy minde meets with a slender estate, and that not capable of accession or improve­ment) dissemble their covetousness in a scorn and contempt of riches; and use all the Rhetoric they have to prove that super­sluous which they have not. But when any op­portunity shall present either honor to the former, or wealth to the latter, they will re­ceive them with as affectionate embraces, as before they slighted them with feigned pre­tences. Nor is the case otherwise here. Those who are not invested with the orna­ments [Page]and accomplishments of the minde, ac­quired by learned Instructions, and liberal Studies, seek to disgrace what they cannot enjoy, and by their reproaches to sully the attainments of some, and check the en­deavors of others, that so they may bring all to the like nakedness with themselves. Yet certainly could they once be made masters thereof, they would be so far from rejecting them, as to give them a cordial welcome, and recant their former calumnies in ample commendations. It's not unusual for great perfections to suffer diminution by their di­stance, and appear the less because far re­moved from the beholders reach. And 'tis well known, that where Envy is judge, Ex­cellency it self is a crime. This ever be­stows the worst looks upon the best Objects, and designs the blackest Brands to what is brightest and most illustrious. But what Envy reads evil, Propriety corrects and signs good. If those men were but intitled to the eminent endowments, which they are now disaffected to while they shine in o­thers, they would soon be absolved from all their faults, and clear up into an un­stained innocency. Yea, the attempts of Envy are so inseparably compounded with Folly, that it cannot but disappoint its own intentions, and while it goes about to blot [Page]the reputation of Learning, it's constrain­ed to subscribe to its worth, being it self as plain a confession of the excellency of that which it seeks to deprave, as it is a clear discovery of the narrowness of those spirits in which it resides. To whom I shall onely say, that what is worthy in it self is never the worse because they want it. And to those, whose scruples against so useful a good as ingenuous Literature, whether rising in their own breasts, or received from others, grow from want of acquaintance with it, I shall address but this one request, That they will be pleased either to apply their endea­vors to the acquiring of it, and so suffer their judgements to be led by their experi­ence; or else seriously to weigh the various advantages of it, as they are represented in the following Discourse, and then calmly infer the most rational conclusion. For that plainly evinceth, that it is not so easie a mat­ter as many imagine to be well accomplish'd for the Ministerial Profession. No small variety, no inconsiderable proportion of knowledge will serve the turn. He must listen to the Tongues, be skill'd in the Arts, advise with the several Sciences, and be more then superficially conversant in all, who would fully penetrate into the mean­ing of sacred Writ, and be true to those in­tentions [Page]which consign him to that excellent function. The Languages especially de­clare their own requisitness, while they tell us all that we can know of the secrets of Heaven, and the concernments of Religi­on. These are the Vessels in which divine Truths set sail from Heaven with the brea­things of the Spirit, and since arrived at us from those forreign Parts, for which they were first bound; and are not to be un­laded of their rich fraught, but by such as are well accustomed to them. It renders the study of words necessary, that they are the representatives of things, the conveyances of Conceptions, the instruments of Com­munication, by which we may be let into the breast of another, and partake of his se­cret thoughts. Which is most true of those Words in which the Scriptures were origi­nally dictated (Hebrew, Chaldee, Greek) because they present the onely authentic Manifesto, and the sincerest Express of the pleasure of God (no other so securely admit­ting us to a participation of divine Counsels: seeing those terms must needs give the most certain aspect of the Authors minde, in which he himself hath chosen to exhibite it:) and therefore are most industriously to be consulted by all those who desire a through insight into it themselves, and undertake [Page]the Explication of it to others; lest they either misconstrue it, or else apprehend not the full importance of it; which those that ever adhere to a Translation, without gi­ving themselves the trouble of a further search, are liable to. For there are many times so great elegancies and such significant force in the Text, as must be in vain expect­ed from the most exquisite attempts of any Translation. Which (though it should re­ceive no disadvantage from the Renderers, a priviledge which few enjoy) yet it might through an infelicity of expression, charge­able onely upon the Language in which it is framed, be unable to deliver that pregnancy of conception which is conspicuous in the Original: the nearest way to give an inti­mation of it, being to go about by a larger circuit of words then is permitted to the bre­vity of a Version. For Tongues have their differing genius: and one can breathe as much in an accent or two, as will serve an­other to run with to a full stop: and crouds such efficacy into a single clause, as, when poured forth into another kinde of Speech, may replenish the large receit of an intire Period; and yet happily remain inexhausted. Thus it fares with those Languages, in which the Will of God was primitively de­livered; which in divers places are so com­pendiously [Page]copious, as to disclose that in a few words, which will give an Interpreter a sufficient task to represent in many: and sometimes display so rich a Sense, as other Languages are scarce able to tell the value of, or sum up, without the omission of seve­ral items in their account. The searching out of which might deliver that pleasure and satisfaction to the minde, which would be a sufficient price and compensation of the pains bestow'd thereon. The milk of the Word is then most sincere, when drawn im­mediately from those full breasts, the He­brew and Greek Texts: whereas it becomes more dilute by being siled through a Transla­tion, where, part of the cream sticking in the passage, it loseth somewhat of its deli­cious and genuine relish. This water of life, when carried away from its fountain by derivation into other Tongues, doth not always retain its high gust and generous Spirit; but sometimes is more flat, and savors of the veins through which it pass'd; exchanging an unimitable sweetness for some austere quality. And here, not to make particular mention of any of those neatnesses and beauties, those illuminations and graces of Speech, which are the pro­per embellishments of that fashion of Lan­guage wherewith the Will of God was [Page]cloathed when it came first abroad into the VVorld, which must of necessity be put off together with it; I shall onely take notice of some abatements sacred Writ hath su­stained by Versions in its substantial im­port, whether as to its comprehensiveness, its energy, or its direct and true intention. And that because Interpreters, who were not (as the sacred Pen-men) secured from all mistakes by an infallible guidance, did either extend their pains to too great a Sphere to manifest an equal exactness in every point; or not sufficiently attend to the scope and (a) Through disregard of the Time when those words were spoken Acts 2.13. viz. at the Feast of Pentecost, [...]. is ill rendred new win [...]; for there could be none of that then, the Spring not being past. See He [...] and Beza in loc. and Vander Landen's Exerc. 10. vini pleni. [...] there is rather sweet wine, the [...]est and mo [...]t sprightly. circumstances of some places; or pitch upon a less convenient pointing or reading, whence the LXX are thought often to vary from the Hebrew Verity; or they were not aware of the rise [...] pedigree of some words (as those many Arabic ones which occur in the Old Testament, especially in Job, who was an Arabian;) or of the adopted significations of others, as of those many Greek words in the New, which present either a Hebraism or a Syrism: or of the particular references of a third sort to a certain custom, Historical passage, or Geographical consideration. To which, in the last place, may be added their not distin­guishing rightly between appellatives and proper Names; so the LXX mistake those [Page]appellatives, [...] planicies, Jer. 32.44. [...] agri, 2 Kings 23.4. and [...] for­titudo, validus, Psal. 74.5. expressing them by [...]. And the Vul­gar Latine Interpreter, with others, in Acts 27.13. put Asson for [...] propè. But that mistake is more general, whereby [...] 2 Sam. 6.3, 4. is rendred in Gi­beah, [...]. LXX. whereas it signifies there in the hill, viz. at Kirjath-jearim (called also Kirjath-Baal, or Baalah, 2 Chron. 13.6.) where Abinadab dwelt, 1 Sam. 7.1, 2. which was a different place from Gibeah, as appears from Josh. 15.57, 60. Sometimes on the contrary proper Names are taken for com­mon. Thus, to say nothing of Gad, rendred a troop; Meni, [...]mber, Isai. 65.11. Achad, One, chap [...]. 17. and Amon, a multitude, Jerem. 46.25. all being proper names of Idols: Phaleg. 1.2. c. 22. Bochartus conceives that [...] 1 Chro. 4.41. should not be trans­lated habitations, but Meunims, or Mao­nites, as it is 2 Chr. 26.7. and Judg. 10.12. and in this very place by the Greek Inter­preters [...]. Ib. 1.3. c. 13. And further, that [...] E­zek. 38.2. which we (as it is generally ta­ken) express by chief, but the LXX by [...] is the proper name of the River Araxes, and the Region about it: and so the words will run, Prince of Rhos, Mesech, and [Page] Tubal; that is, of Armenia Araxene, Moschica, and Tibarenia, Countreys near adjoyning: from the two former of which it's probable the Russians and Muscovians received their original.

Thus we see that he may divers ways be defeated in searching out the true and full importance of divine Writ, who never con­sults the Hebrew and Greek Text, where he might often spy that, which hath either escaped the Version, or is less appositely re­presented by it. An instance of which we have Deut. 16.2. rendred, Thou shalt sacrifice the Pass-over of the flock and the herd. Whereas the Pass-over was not to be of the herd, but either a Lamb or a Kid, as is plain Exod. 12.3, 5. Here therefore is a difficulty, yet such as is made by the Trans­lation; for the Hebrew is clearly free from it: [...]. LXX. [...] the clear and proper sense of which is, Thou shalt sacri­fice the Pass-over (i. e. the Paschal Lamb) Sheep and Oxen: which were additional Sacrifices, besides the daily Burnt-offering, required at that solemnity; Num. 28.16. to 24. 2 Chron. 30.15. and chap. 35.1, 6, 7, 14, 16, 17. verses. Again, He that adheres to the usual rendring of Gen. 17.14. will sinde himself involved in the trouble of shewing how an Infant can be said to [Page] break God's Govenant, in being uncircum­cised, and upon this account be liable to be cut off; to which task he is not obliged, who attends to the words of the Text, and in stead of The male, the flesh of whose fore­skin is not circumcised, [...] Fut. K [...]l. a [...] &c. reads The male who shall not circumcise the flesh of his foreskin, &c. as meant of one, who not having been circumcised in his infancy, when grown up neglects it through wilful­ness or contempt, which guilt Children were not capable of; and this alone rendred the want of Circumcision so dangerous: Josh. 3.5, 6, 7. for it was omitted in the Wilderness forty years without such peril. A third instance Isai. 53.9. will afford us, where the Hebrew sounds more clearly, and with greater conso­nancy to Evangelical story, St Rivet and [...] More in socum. [...] from [...] excelsum. aedi­ [...] ed tum, t [...]mulus. thus, And they (i. e. the people, verse 8.) ordered his grave with the wicked, but with the rich man [was] his monument. The People would have had him buried with those Malefactors with whom he suffered; but God, otherwise disposed, and to shew the difference between them, by Joseph of Arimathea, called a rich man, Mat. 27.57. provided such a splen­did Monument for him, as became both an innocent and an excellent person: so that some beginning of his Glory brake forth in the honorableness of his entombment. Ano­ther [Page]incongruity, though indeed in none of the weightier matters, is to be seen Matth. 23.23. where we should read Mint, Dill, and Cummin: for [...] is Dill or Anet, not Anise, which is a different Herb, and in Greek [...].

But, to dismiss misrepresentations of the Text; sometimes a Translation may very innocently occasion a mistake in him that cannot see beyond it, by the ambiguous As of M [...] ­sters, Mat. 23.10 which there, answers to [...], not to [...], as ma­ny of late have mistaken it. sense or As of those words in prison, 1 Pet. 3.19. reference of some word or phrase in it, of which the Original is not conscious. Hence divers of the Ancients have strangely interpreted and applied se­veral Scriptures, by pitching upon imper­tinent acceptions of words in the Greek Version, because they wanted the light of the Hebrew to guide them to the most proper. Thus One proves the Fable of the Phoenix (and from it the Resurrection) from Psal. 92.12. [...]. Tertul. de Re­sur. carni [...], oper. edit. Laurent. pag. 34. Another cites Numb. 23.19. in these words, Lactant. de vera Sapient. 1.4. c. 18. Non quasi homo Dominus suspenditur, &c. which he brings as a Prophecy of Christ's hanging on the Cross; mistaking [...], used by the LXX, not in its primitive no­tion of hanging, but Metaphorically, for to be various and inconstant in his word, and so it answers to [...]; this being the true import of the place, God is not as man, that [Page]he should lie. A third understands Psal. 128.2. August. in loc. thus, Labores fructum tuorum manducabis; Thou shalt eat the labors of thy fruits (which he subtilly distinguisheth from the fruits of labors) in stead of the labor of thy hands, the Greek being in­different to both significations by the ambi­guity of [...]. Others (as Amama observes, A [...]i [...]arb p. 551. who hath many instances of this nature) reading [...], Psal. 39.5. and deceived by the doubtful sense of [...], as formed from [...] a hand-breadth, or [...] wrestler, have taken this to be the meaning of the Text, P [...]giles posuistidies meos. Thou hast made my days full of wrestling: to which sense the Hebrew [...] is altogether a stranger. How re­quisite then is it to have acquaintance with the Original? But if any think it may be well spared where Commentators are fami­liar, I would gladly understand by what [...] they would judge of Expositions, and tell which is best where they meet with those that are very different. It's like such would approve of their interpretation of Psal. 17.14. who expound [...] by saturati sunt porcina. Cajetan, though a very learned man in his way, yet being [...] Linguist run into a gross mistake (as Mr. Cartwright relates) by reading Erasmus's Mellifie Hebr. l. 4 c. 10. [Page]Note on 2 Cor. 4.16. that de die in diem is not in the Greek [...], sed nove [...] whence Cajetan in his Com­ment puts nove in stead of de die in diem, and makes the Apostle to have written reno­vatur nove; upon which he delivers him­self with wonderful subtilty. So may it often befall those, who onely take up the sense of the Original at the second hand: which indeed they had need have an insight into, were it onely to understand that Trans­lation throughly to which they stick, where it retains such forms of speech as are proper to those Languages wherein the Scripture was penned. So doth ours in Hosea 4.8. They eat up the sin of my people: where sin is put for a sacrifice for sin, because the same word in Hebrew [...] (and so [...] Levit. 5.6.) signifies both. In those words Luke 11.17. A house divided a­gainst a house falleth; the Noun is repeat­ed, after the Hebrew usage, See Gen 19.24. Isaiah 16.7. to supply the place of a reciprocal Pronoun, which that Tongue wants; and so the sense is, A house divided against it self falleth; as may ap­pear from Matth. 12.25. and Mark 3.35. The like we finde Rom. 7.23. But I see another Law in my members—bringing me into captivity to the law of sin, which is in my members; that is, to it self. Further, [Page]the knowledge of that idiotism of the holy Tongue, the putting of a third Person Active indefinitely for a Passive or an Impersonal, will give light to divers expressions: As Micah 2.4. In that day shall [one] take up a parable against you; that is, a parable shall be taken up. So Revel. 16.15.—lest he walk naked, and they see his shame; for, and his shame be seen. So Luke 12.20. This night they require thy Soul, (as it is in the margin) that is, thy Soul shall be required. Lastly, to pass over other pro­prieties of the sacred Dialect, to live is put for life Phil. 1.21. after the maner of the Greek, as [...], an Infinitive for a Noun; and so the sense is, to me life, or my life is Christ, i. e. Christ is my life.

By this time it may sufficiently appear, that unlearned persons are unfit to under­take the Explication of God's Word, which the Apostle confirms, whilest he chargeth them with wresting the Scriptures to their own destruction, 2 Pet. 3.16. If any lay the same Action against learned men, let them consider, that when such distort any instance of sacred Writ, it is no effect of their Learning, but either of their Igno­rance, because they do not know enough; or of their perversness, and the depravedness of their minds, which disposeth them either [Page]to dissemble the Truth they have been con­vinced of, or to entertain such erroneous Conceits as may best comply with their cor­rupt inclinations. And though they may put false Glosses upon Scripture, and set Learning upon the Rack to force out some Testimony to their Forgeries; yet, what ever shallow heads may imagine, it will appear to him that throughly examines what ever they can squeez out of it, that it hath not spoken any thing which imports a real De­fence and Confirmation of them: and therefore is no more liable to be taxed upon this account, then the Scripture is worthy of blame, for being constrained to attend on unskilful Men, who lean upon it while they sacrifice to their unsound Opinions. It is the lot of the most excellent things to be ex­posed to abuse, which is not the natural re­sult of their own qualities, but of mens vices, and therefore ministers no just ground either of their rejection or disparagement. They argue but at a pitiful rate, who, be­cause some men do hurt with their Learning by misapplying it, and others do no good with it while they neglect to use it, there­fore conclude it a thing of no worth and goodness, but in it self offensive and dis­allowable. Such may do well to consider what Answer they will return to the same [Page]Argument, when levelled against the know­ledge of the Word of God; when it shall be objected, That it is of pernicious conse­quence, at least unprofitable, for private men to have familiar acquaintance with holy Writ; for many have from hence taken the occasion of gross Conceptions, and by it de­fended Positions both strange and impious; and others have been careless of imploying their knowledge to the purposes of a holy life. Its probable they would answer, that there are many private Christians well versed in Gods Book, who are not chargeable with either of these imputations, but make good use of their knowledge; and that others do not is their own fault. The like say I of Learning, which is not the worse (any more then the former knowledge) because some that have it are so bad. It hath done ex­cellent service in many, and would not have failed to have done so in more, had it been rightly managed. Arts themselves are not to be loaded with the Artists guilt. Who will condemn all Trades for dishonest, because there are none but have some dishonest men of them? And why should ingenuous litera­ture be more prejudiced by the irregularities of some that profess it? God himself hath given a signal Testimony to its excellency and usefulness, by choosing Persons of the great­est [Page]Sufficiency and Learning to pen his Word, viz. Moses, Solomon, Daniel, [...] D [...]ctus, peritus. [...] in Psal. 15.2.Ez­ra, (stiled [...] a ready or learned Scribe, Ezra 7.6.) Luke, who was a Phy­sician, Col. 4.14. with Philem. v. 24. and consequently a Scholar. And lastly, Paul, who was Disciple to Gamaliel a Doctor of the Law, and probably before had received some instruction at the Academy of Tarsus (his birth-place) to which Strabo gives the preheminence of all others, Geogr. 1.14. Athens and Alexandria not excepted: which may be the rather conceived, because of his acquain­tance with Heathen Authors, divers of which he cites. Now if God pitched upon such accomplish'd persons to pen his Word, shall we think that any illiterate men may serve to preach and explane it? If any in­terpose and tell us that the plough afforded an Elisha, the herd an Amos, the drag a Peter and John; they must needs grant, if they consult the Scripture, and do not in­dustriously shut their eyes, that God immedi­ately, and in an extraordinary maner, gave them such raised abilities as might bear proportion to the weighty imployment he cal­led them to: Especially when we finde the two last named, whom before ordinary parts and acquaintance with their Mother-tongue would suffice for the designs of a Net, and [Page]to deal in those petty fallacies that intangle mute and unwary fishes, on a sudden created unparallel'd Linguists, and made the Ma­sters of many Languages; having matter to support their words, high impartance to recommend their matter, mysteriousness to enhance the estimate of that importance, and clearness of understanding to unfold that mysteriousness. But since the primitive Times we have no example of any in an in­stant furnished with ministerial endow­ments, or whose intellectuals all on a sud­den, and without any culture, have shot up to a considerable height. Indeed there have not wanted some of late, who (their ambition leading them to affect the dignity of Instru­cters, and withall prompting an impatience of ascending thereto by degrees) found out a way, by pretending a divine Mandate, at the first step to go out Doctores Illuminati: though their Letters were never made Pa­tents, nor had the Seal of Heaven upon them; and their undertakings witnessed one­ly a great weakness matched with an extra­ordinary confidence. They doubted not to rank themselves amongst the Stars of the first honor, but their irregular motion pro­ved them very much deprest, and in stead of the vigorous splendor of Truth, you could perceive nothing but a long tail projected [Page]from a disheveled blaze. How great things so ever they boasted of, yet that their per­formances were a shame to their pretences is sufficiently known. Seeing then the qua­lifications requisite to the understanding and dispensation of the Gospel are not now be­stowed on a sudden, they must either be at­tained by little and little, or not at all; by the ordinary assistance of the Spirit in the way of an industrious diligence and artificial improvements; by advising with the Tongues about the Words, with Grammar and Rhe­toric about the Sense, with Logic about the argument of Scripture, with History about Customs, and with the several Sciences a­bout those things which are of Philosophi­cal Consideration. Concerning which I shall say nothing, having already slip'd into too great a prolixity; but shall conclude with this vote, That, since Learning is now grown into credit again, those that own it would not suffer any stain and disreputation to be cast upon it by the neighborhood of a vitious practise, nor maintain a separation between Knowledge and Piety; but present them to the World embracing each other in the fast­est closure, and discover the light of their minds in the lustre of their lives. It is to do a great disservice to God, and a real plea­sure to the envious one, to set two excellent [Page]Daughters of the same Father at variance; in putting on Learning to deride Grace, or Grace to despise Learning. It is no offence for humane Knowledge to clear the way, where divine Obedience is to walk: That may be allowed to hold the Candle while this doth its work. It is a most amiable sight, to behold the greet of science and innocence; the Arts and Vertues mingling their splen­dors in a happy conjunction: to see a minde no less fraught with excellent qualities then rare notions, and as eminent for a graci­ous disposition as a piercing conceit: to ob­serve a well ordered demeanor attend upon a well furnished understanding, and the fruits of righteousness ripen by the bright beams of ingenuous Literature. Which sight, that it may be as ordinary as it is ex­cellent, is the earnest wish of

An Honorer of true Goodness and good Learning. J. Reyner.


  • CHAP. I. THat the Knowledge of the Langua­ges is of great Use to a Minister of the Gospel. Page 1.
    • Sect. 1. Of the Languages in general. ibid.
    • Sect. 2. Of the Hebrew and Greek in com­mon. Page 3
    • Sect. 3. Of the Hebrew. Page 14
    • Sect. 4. Of the Greek Tongue. Page 22
    • Sect. 5. Of the Latine. Page 24
    • Sect. 6. Of the Chaldee, and Syriac; how they differ. Page 25
    • Sect. 7. The Usefulness of the Chaldee. Page 29
    • Sect. 8. Of the Syriac. Page 31
    • Sect. 9. [...]. Page 35
    • An Appendix concerning the Usefulness of the Arabic, added by another hand. Page 36
  • [Page]CHAP. II. Of the Usefulness of Rhetoric. Page 50
    • Sect. 1. Of Rhetoric in general. ibid.
    • Sect. 2. Of Tropes. Page 60
    • Sect. 3. Of Figures. Page 72
  • CHAP. III. Of the Usefulness of Logic. Page 81
  • CHAP. IV. Of the Usefulness of Natural Philosophy. Page 90
    • Sect. 1. Usefulness of Natural Philosophy declared, and proved. ibid.
    • Sect. 2. Objections refuted. Page 100
  • CHAP. V. Of the Usefulness of Moral Philosophy, or Ethics. Page 108
  • CHAP. VI. Of the Usefulness of History. Page 110
    • Sect. 1. Of History in general, as useful to understand Scripture. ibid.
    • Sect. 2. Of Jewish History. Page 113
    • Sect. 3. The History of other Eastern Na­tions. Page 115
    • [Page]4. Of Egyptian History. Page 120
    • 5. Of Grecian History. Page 123
    • 6. Of Roman History. Page 126
    • 7. Of Christian, or Church-History under the Gospel. Page 127
    • 8. Of History, as useful to know God's Works. Page 129
    • 9. Of History, as useful to know the Examples of Men. Page 131
  • CHAP. VII. Of the Usefulness of Chronology. Page 132
  • CHAP. VIII. Of the Usefulness of Arithmetic. Page 141
  • CHAP. IX. Of the Usefulness of Geometry. Page 147
  • CHAP. X. Of the Usefulness of Astronomy. Page 151
  • CHAP. XI. Of the Usefulness of Geography. Page 158
  • CHAP. XII. Of the Arguments, which prove the Use­fulness of Learning. Page 163 [Page]
    • Sect. 1. Seven Arguments propounded. Pag. 163
    • Sect. 2. Of God's affording means of Learn­ing, as Schools, &c. Pag. 164
    • Sect. 3. Of Religion flourishing when Learning abounded. Pag. 179
    • Sect. 4. Learning qualifies for all Public Employments. Pag. 185
    • Sect. 5. Satan makes use of Learning to oppose the Truth. Pag. 186
    • Sect. 6. Satan seeks by obstructing Learn­ing to undermine Religion. Pag. 190
    • Sect. 7. Testimonies concerning Learning. Pag. 194
    • Sect. 8. Of the Learning of the Antient Fathers. Pag. 201
    • Sect. 9. Of the Learning of the first Re­formers. Pag. 216
    • Sect. 10. The After-Promoters of Refor­mation were Learned. Pag. 227
  • CHAP. XIII. Objections against Learning answered. Pag. 234
    • Sect. 1. That the People may be the better for the Learning of their Ministers. ibid.
    • Sect. 2. That the Prophets, Christ, and his Apostles were learned. Pag. 236
    • Sect. 3. That Joel 2.28. and 1 John 2.27. [Page] make not at all against the need of Learning. Pag. 244
    • Sect. 4. An Objection, drawn from the ill effects of Learning, answered; and it shewn to be good in it self. Pag. 252
    • Sect. 5. An Objection against Rhetoric from 1 Cor. 1.17. answered. Pag. 256
    • Sect. 6. Of Paul's desire to know nothing but Christ. Pag. 258
  • A Determination of this Question, Whether Grace be Essential to a Minister of the Gospel? by the same Author. Pag. 259
    • Objection 1. From Tit. 1.8. answered. Pag. 289
    • Objection 2. From Psal. 50.16, 17. an­swered. Pag. 294
    • Objection 3. From Dan. 12.3. answered. Pag. 304


CHAP. I. That the Knowledge of the Languages is of great Use to a Minister of the Gospel.

SECT. I. Of the Languages in general.

THe Tongues or Languages are the Boxes or Cabinets, where­in all Sciences or sorts of know­ledge, the Jewels of all Truths both Divine and Humane, Theological, Moral and Natural, are laid up.

Skill in the Languages is a Key that unlocks and opens all these, and lets a man into the knowledge of them all. It is (as one saith) that to a Minister, which the Sea is to an Haven-town, to bring in all [Page 2]sorts of Provision from foreign parts to replenish and enrich the same.

Every Tongue hath a peculiar Idiome, or form of Speech, or innate Emphasis, Elegancy, and Perspicuity, which cannot be so fitly and fully expressed in a Trans­lation, without some Circumlocution, Di­minution, or Alteration.

Hence it is, that every Book is best in its own Tongue, wherein it was originally written by the Author thereof; that is, the soundest, and the clearest.

The Knowledge of Hebrew, Greek, and Latine, is requisite, because the Super­scription of our Saviors Title on the Cross was in these three Languages, Luk. 23.38. for three Reasons:

  • 1. That Christ's Death, and the Cause of it, which concerned all Nations, might be divulged to all the Na­tions,
    • to the East by the Hebrew,
    • to the South by the Greek,
    • to the West by the Latine,
    in regard of the present Confluence of People to the Feast at Jerusalem from all Nations, Joh. 12.20.
  • 2. To shew, That the Knowledge of these three Principal Languages con­duceth much to the clear and full un­derstanding of the Mystery of Christ crucified.
  • [Page 3]3. And that the Holy Ghost would have the Dignity and Study of them ever preserved, or kept on foot in the Church.

SECT. II. Of the Hebrew and Greek in common.

THe Knowledge of the Hebrew and Greek is needful for a Minister espe­cially, for six Reasons;

Reas. 1. Because the Hebrew and Greek are the Original Tongues, in which the Old and New Testaments were written. A competent knowledge of these Tongues gives a man great light to the right and clear understanding of the Original Text; and much satisfaction and delight to his minde: without some insight into the same, a man cannot understand the proper Signification and Emphasis of Words, Phrases, and Proverbs; nor the Idiomes or peculiar forms of speaking, which the Originals (especially the Hebrew) have in them; but he must see onely with other mens eyes; and take both the Transla­tion and Interpretation of the Scripture upon trust from others.

Reas. 2. Great Skill in the Original Languages is necessary to the true Trans­lation [Page 4]of the Bible into other Tongues; and to the serene, sound, and proper expla­nation thereof. For the Minde of God (as Divines observe) is primarily in the Origi­nal, and but secondarily in the Translati­on; which no farther contains the Word of God in it, then it agrees with the Ori­ginal, out of which it is translated.

This Difference must be put between the Hebrew and Greek Text of the Old and New Testament, and the Latine and all other Versions, that in the Original Text, & Res & Verba, both the Matter and the Words proceed immediately from the Holy Ghost, who suggested to the Prophets, Apostles, and Evangelists, & quae scriberent, & quomodo scriberent; both what and how they should write. In Versions (that are faithful) the Doctrine is from the Holy Ghost, the Words are from Men: who although they use the help of the Holy Ghost, yet not in that maner nor measure with the Prophets and Apo­stles. See Is. Casaub. Exercit. 13. ad Annales Baronii, pag. 273. Polan. Syntag. Theolog. lib. 1. cap. 40. Beza, Tractat. The­olog. vol. 1. ad defens. Castell. pag. 432.

Reas. 3. There is more need yet of Skill in the Originals to reform and refine former Translations; to amend the faults [Page 5]and mistakes, and supply the defects that still remain in them.

Divines observe, that much Divinity de­pends on smal Particles, upon such a Mood, Tense, Case, or Number; sometimes upon one letter, upon pricks and points. Many errors have been bred and fed by false Translations, and mistakes of Words and Letters, and by corrupt Glosses thereupon.

The holy Scriptures are vindicated, and many Truths are restored and confirmed by a rectified Translation, and sound in­terpretation of them according to the Ori­ginal.

Critical learning, and Scholia's, are of excellent use hereunto. Many learned Authors in these later times have perfor­med the same exquisitely beyond the ex­actness of the ancient Fathers; as Eras­mus, Beza, Piscator, Drusius, Salmasius, Casaubon, Grotius, Scaliger, Fuller, Ludo­vick de Dieu, Heinsius.

No Translation expresseth all places exactly, but sometimes gives either not the right, or not the full sense.

I. Not the right and proper sense. For those, who have used the greatest diligence and accurateness in translating the Bible, have not been exempted from being liable to mistake, (nimis augusta res est non er­rare) [Page 6]and probably, if they had after­wards set themselves to a more distinct search about some particular places, or seen those observations which others have made on them, they might have found reason to alter their former apprehensions, and translate some places otherwise then they did. Amam. Parae­nos. For it is no new thing for Lear­ned men, upon a review, to have espied faults in, and amended their own Versions, as Luther, Junius, Beza, &c.

Yea there are instances given out of se­veral places in our last English Translation, wherein there appears some discrepancy from the minde of the Text.

Besides that those slips, and mistakes, which are to be charged on the Press (which differ according to the diversity of Impressions) pervert the sence, and shew the use of the Original to direct to the true reading. Some Errata in our English Bibles may be a means of deceiving those that look no further; as well as the faults, which have crept into the Copies of the Latine and Greek Version, have deceived others who relyed thereon. Many in­stances might be given hereof. In the Vulgar Latine, evertit domum was put for everrit, Luke 15. Asia for Achaia, Rom. 16. vidua for Judaea, Act. 16, &c. See [Page 7]the like in the Greek Version; where through the carelesness, or unskilfulness of some hand, [...] was turned into [...], Psal. 132.15. [...] into [...], Psal. 89.46. [...] into [...], Psal. 31.16. [...] into [...], Isa. 45.1. Which mistakes, and many more, were derived into the Latine Trans­lation, and have not wanted followers; Amam. Antib. Bibl. & Paraen. de excit. [...]ng. stud. amongst whom was Austin, who was of­ten out as to the sense of Scripture, because he wanted skill to correct the Translation he used, by the Hebrew. This made him raise many doubts, and spend much time in solving them; and when all is done, look but in the Original, and you will see no ground for them, but all is plain and clear. Nor was he insensible of what fru­strations happened to him through his ig­norance: When he was pretty ancient, he learn'd the Greek Tongue; he bewailed his want of Hebrew, and commended the study of both.

II. The exactest Translation may some­times not give the full sense of the Origi­nal, either

1. Because a word or sentence in the Original may be more comprehensive, and admit of more senses, and those good and convenient, (For as words have different acceptions, so they may also have an am­biguous [Page 8]reference) then the word or phrase doth, which answers thereto in the Translation. In which case the Transla­tion cannot draw out all that is contained in the Text, and perhaps sometimes not hint the greatest part of it.

2. Because the Translation expresseth but one of the readings in the Hebrew, in those places where there are two, viz. the Keri and Chetib, one in the Margin, the other in the Text or line: which are re­quisite to be known, that when there is any difference in the sense, we may judge which is to be preferr'd.

Tremellius and Junius in their first Ver­sion rendered 2 King. 8.10. (after the Marginal reading [...]) thus, Abi, dic ei, &c. Go, say to him, Thou mayst certainly recover. But Junius in his latter work chooseth rather the Textual [...], and turns it, Dic, Non omnino revalesces; Go, say, Thou shalt certainly not recover.

So in Ezra 4.2. their first Version hath Et eidem sacrificamus, And we sacrifice to him; the latter, Non enim (alteri) sacri­ficamus; That according to the Margin, this to the line. Of the Keri and Chetib, the Marginal and Textual readings, see more in Ainsworth's Advertisement, next after his Annotations on the Pentateuch.

Reas. 4. Without the help of the Tongues we cannot understand those words of the Hebrew and Greek Text, which are retained in the Translation, as Jehovah, Messiah, Shiloh, Hosanna, Alle­luja, Nehushtan, 2 Kin. 18.4. Ephod, Urim, Thummim, Higgaion, Selah, Belial, Beel­zebub, Abaddon, Apollyon, Rabbi, Raka, Mammon, Amen, Anathema Maranatha, &c. to which I may add Christ and Jesus. To say nothing of the Titles of Psalms, and those proper Names which are Prophe­tical, and describe future events.

Nor can we, without the help of those Languages, know the meaning of such phrases retained in the Translation, as suit not with the genius of that Tongue, into which it is made, but are proper and pecu­liar to those, in which the Text was first penned. Thus, if not informed from the Hebrew Idiome, we should not know that the children of the Bride-chamber, Mat. 9.15. signifies the Bridegroom's friends; and the fire of God, Job 1.16. a great fire; and the voice of God, Psal. 29.3. thunder: with many other forms of speech of an He­brew extraction.

Reas. 5. Insight into the Original is needful, sometimes for determining which sense of any ambiguous word or Phrase in [Page 10]the Translation is agreeable to the Text; For words or expressions in a Version, may be capable of those senses, which the Ori­ginal will by no means admit of; and so those who are not able to con [...] it, may run into great mistakes: As it fared with many of the Fathers, who used the Greek Version of the LXX. and wanted skill in the Hebrew. For instance hereof, see Ama­ma's Antibarb. Biblicus. Though we be furnished with the Versions and Com­mentaries of learned men on the Scriptures, (as Beza, Piscator, Mercer, Drusius, &c.) yet we cannot read, or at least fully un­derstand them without skill in Hebrew and Greek, (of which we shall find some scatte­red up and down there) much less can we defend them against Opposers; nor be ca­pable of judging which is the fittest of those Expositions we meet with, when we are perplexed with variety. That sure is the best, which agrees best with the Ori­ginal; and so, without insight into it, we shall be uncertain which to follow.

Reas. 6. The knowledge of the He­brew and Greek Text is necessary for the deciding of Controversies, and defending of truth, and refuting of errors, and it con­tributes much to reconcile many differen­ces that are among Interpreters. Men [Page 11]generally appeal to it, as being the only authentick rule of Faith, (given by divine inspiration, and dictated by God himself, which cannot be said of any Translation, since no Interpreter had the same privi­ledge with the sacred Pen-men, to be in­fallibly inspired) when they will not stand to the determination of any Version. And it is reasonable, that the Original Text should have the definitive sentence in all doubtful Cases; for it is the only Judge or Rule of Controversies, from which we have no appeal: It is the touchstone of all Translations, by which they are to be tried, and from which they derive all their Authority. The Papists prove divers of their opinions from those places in the Vulgar Latin, which agree not with the Original. How then shall they be dis­proved but from the Original? Igno­ratio Hebraismorum multa absurda & impia dogmata invexit in Ecclesiam, In Gen. 48.16. saith Pareus, ‘Ignorance of the Hebrew Idi­ome hath brought many absurd and impi­ous opinions into the Church:’ and there­fore the knowledge thereof is the way to cast them out.

For the Invocation of Saints the Papists bring Gen. 48.16. Invocetur super eos no­men meum, nomina quoque patrum meorum, [Page 12]the sense of the Hebrew is, Let them be cal­led by my name. For the worshipping of Christ's Sepulchre, they alledge Isaiah 11.10. Et erit Sepulchrum ejus gloriosum, but according to the Hebrew, His rest shall be glory. For merit, Heb. 13.16. Talibus hostiis promeretur Deus, in the Greek it is [...], With such sacrifice God is well pleased. More instances might be given in the Old and New Testament.

The knowledge of the Tongues (as some observe) hath always been an individual companion of the Orthodox faith in the Church; Bowls Falt. Evang. pag. 72.73. Amam. paraen. the neglect and contempt of the Scriptures always accompanied the neg­lect and contempt of them. Luther saw that there was no other compendious way to reduce old Barbarism, then if the stu­dies of the Tongues should perish. When the knowledge of them revived, (which was about the year 1470) forthwith the clearness of the Gospel shined forth. Good skill in the Tongues makes men good Textmen, or Expositors; and Bonus Textu­arius, bonus Theologus. Hence those, that have searched most into the Text by the light of the Tongues, if Protestants, they are the most pithy Divines; if Papists, they are sounder then the rest, as Arias Montanus, Masius, Vatablus. They that [Page 13]have wanted the knowledge of the Tongues have erred greatly in Expound­ing the Scriptures, as the Commentaries of some of the Ancients abundantly te­stifie.

It is Musculus his counsel, Loc. Com. de facr. Script. p. 184. Sunt admo­nendi, imo vehementer urgendi Adolescentes sacrae Scripturae candidati, ut sacrarum Linguarum Ebraeae & Graecae cognitionem studiis suis non quasi parergon adjiciant, sed instar fundamenti in ipsum fundum menti­um suarum submittant. ‘Young men that study the holy Scripture should be vehe­mently pressed to lay the knowledge of the Greek and Hebrew as a foundation in the bottom of their minde; and not to adde it to their Studies as a by-work.’

See what Muscu [...] saith in that place, of the need of Professors of the Greek and Hebrew Tongues in the Churches of Christ, and in the Schools of the faith­ful.

So much of the General use of Hebrew and Greek considered joyntly. Now I will shew the Particular use of them se­verally, and of the Latine, to which I will adde the Chaldee and Syriac.

SECT. III. Of the Hebrew.

THe knowledge of the Hebrew is useful in four respects;

I. To understand the Greek of the New Testament, because

1. There are many Hebrew words, both Proper Names, and Appellatives, in the New Testament. See Pasor's Lexicon in fine.

2. The New Testament is full of He­braisms. Of which see Gataker against Pfochenius: and Beza on Act. 10.46. ‘The Apostles used Hebraisms (saith he) not only because they were Hebrews, but because when they discoursed of those things, which were written in He­brew, it was needful to retain many, lest they should seem to bring in some new Doctrine. And I do not wonder they kept so many Hebraisms, when many of them are such as cannot be so happily expressed in any other Idiom: that, except they had retained those forms of Speech, they should have de­vised sometimes new words, and new kinds of Speech, which no man had un­derstood.’ See also Beza's Theol. Tract. [Page 15]vol. 1. ad defensionem Castellionis de He­braismis pag. 431, &c.

The New Testament was written in a style, that hath the Tincture, and rellish of the Hebrew: by reason of which it differs much from the pure and genuine strain of the Greek. Hence learned men call the Language of the New Testament rather [...] then [...], that is, Jewish Greek, such as was peculiar to Graecising Jews; The words generally Greek, but the Phrase often Hebrew. Many Instances may be given hereof: Ex. gr.

[...], for [...], Luc. 16.8. a steward of unrighteousness for an un­righteous steward.

Moses was [...], Act. 7.20. fair to God, for exceeding fair: for the He­brews express a Superlative oft by the Name of God. Niniveh is said to be a City, [...] great to God, that is, exceeding great, Jonah 3.3.

—The inward man is renewed [...] ( [...] Hebr.) daily. So Mar. 6.40. they sate down [...] in ranks, in ranks. For the Hebrews double a word to express a distribution. See Mar. 6.7, 39.

—2 Corinth. 2.14. Thanks be to God, [...], qui facit ut semper triumphemus, so Beza: who makes us to [Page 16]triumph alway. Here [...] is used by Paul in the form of the Conjugation of Hiphil, to express the Emphasis of the Participle of Hiphil.

So the Greek Interpreters of the Old Testament, being Jews, put [...] (which properly is onely to reign) in Esay 7.6. and elswhere for to make a King, or to cause to reign, that it might answer [...] in Hiphil, which signifies regnare fecit, regem praefecit.

Thus [...] is used in the New Testament for to justifie, or absolve, which answers to [...] of the Hebrews, in which sense Master Gataker de stylo novi Test. contends, Contra Pso­chen. p. 80. &c. that it no where occurs in antient Greek Authors.

Nor is this unusual for the Pen-men of the New Testament (following herein the Greek Interpreters of the Old) to put new significations upon words (which before they were unacquainted with) to make them suit better, or be of the same lati­tude with some Hebrew words, that sig­nifie the same thing with them, but have other acceptions besides.

So [...] is put for a thing, Luk. 1.37. because [...] which answers to it in Hebrew, signifies both a word, and a thing.

[...], [...] properly a Law, stands for Do­ctrine, [Page 17]Rom. 3.27. because [...] denotes both.

[...] gratis in Gal. 2.21. signifies in vain, because [...] hath both these senses.

[...], commonly power, is put for wealth in Rev. 18.3. because [...] is indif­ferent to both.

[...], Hell is put for the Grave, 1 Cor. 15.55. because [...] stands for both.

[...] signifies victory, and denotes eter­nity, 1 Cor. 15.54. because [...] is ca­pable of both senses: and [...] in aeter­num, or for ever, is rendred by the Seventy [...], Amos 8.7. Lam. 5.20. Jerem. 3.5.

And that [...] in 1 Cor. 15.54. should be rendred for ever, Amama, and Heinsius (on that place) determine.

[...], which is to confess, is used for to thank, or praise, Matth. 11.25. he­cause [...] expresseth both. So Beza.

[...], with the Hellenists, imports both speaking, and answering; because [...] hath the notion of both: and it is of­ten used in the New Testament of one that speaks, when he is asked nothing. See Be­za in Matth. 11.25. and 28.5. Rev. 7.13. or who beginneth a Speech, when no Que­stion went before.

I will conclude this particular with this [Page 18] Observation, that because with the He­brews there is no distinction of Cases, but the Nominative (which useth to be the source and root of the rest) stands for all; therefore it is diverse times in the New Testament put for other Cases; as [...] for [...] Ephes. 3.18. so 2 Cor. 8.23. [...], for [...]. See also Rev. 1.5. Joh. 1.14. Luke 22.20.

II. This knowledge of the Hebrew is useful to understand some Prophetical vi­sions, which are of that nature, that their Explication is made by a Paronoma­sia, or Verbal allusion in the Hebrew; as Jerem. 1.11, 12. I said, I see a rod of an Almond-tree [...] Then said the Lord, Thou hast well seen, for I am [...] hasten­ing my word to perform it. So Amos 8.2. —Amos, what seest thou, I said, A bas­ket of summer-fruit [...] Then said the Lord to me, [...] The end is come upon my people.

III. To understand the different writings of the same proper Name sometime in Scripture: as in the Old Testament Je­hoiachin, 2 King. 24.6. is called Jeconiah in 1 Chron. 3.16. And Eliam 2 Sam. 11.3. is called Ammiel 1 Chron. 3.5. where the difference lies onely in transposing the [Page 19]words, Silas and Silva­nus may be the same name, and so Epaphras and Epaphro­ditus. For it's not unusual for names ending in [...] to be the Contracts of longer ones Se [...] Grot. in Luk. 1. and in Col. 1.7. and in 1 Thes. 1.1. Simon the Canaanite (Matth. 10.4.) Is thesame with Simon Zelotes, Luk. 6.15. onely one surname is exprest in two Languages, Hebrew and Greek. of which the Name is compound­ed; and putting the Name of God (Je­hovah, Jah, or El) first in one place, and last in another.

Jehoahaz 2 Chron. 21.17. is by a Metathesis written Ahaziah 2 Chr. 22.2.

In such like differences, one that is not skilled in the Language may be troubled to reconcile some places of Scriptures; and will be lieable to mistake in misapplying of Names. So he may also be, when Names that differ in the Original, are written alike in the Translation.

Thus Rahab, when put for the Harlot, is in Hebrew [...] with Cheth, when it stands for Egypt, [...] with He, Amam. Antib. B [...]blic. in loc. as in Psal. 87.4. where Austin, and others mi­stake; misunderstanding Rahab of the Harlot, and so interpreting it of the Ca­naanites, because she was a Canaanite.

IV. Hebrew is useful also to understand the Jewish writers, in whom such Re­cords may be met with, as are of excel­lent use to the Explication of many Pas­sages in the New Testament; as Doctor Lightfoot affirms in his Preface to his Harmony, and Chronicle of the New Testa­ment. [Page 20]There he shews the necessity of their Writings for the genuine explication of Matth. 5.22. In the Book it self he hath cleared out of Jewish Authors that puzling place, Matth. 27.9. where the quo­ting of Jeremy for Zechary hath made some deny the purity of the Text. He saith, Matthew here followeth the gene­ral division of the Bible into three parts, the Law, the Prophets, and the Hagiogra­pha; and therefore alledging a Text out of the volume of the Prophets, he doth it under the name of Jeremy, be­cause he stood first in that volume as they were ranked of old. Such a ma­ner of Speech is that of Christ, Luk. 24.44. All things must be fulfilled, which were written in the Law of Moses, and in the Prophets, and in the Psalms, con­cerning me, where he follows that ge­neral division, onely he calls the whole third part, or Hagiographa, by this Ti­tle the Psalms, because they stood first in that part. And in Matth. 16.14. —others say, Jeremias, or one of the Prophets; there is the same reason why Jeremy alone is named by name, because his name stood first in the volume of the Prophets, and so came first in their way when they were speaking of the Pro­phets.’

Skill in the Hebrew conduceth much to the knowledge of the Talmud (which is a great body of Doctrine, What the Tal­mud is, see Ain­sworth of the Hebrew Records. compiled by diverse learned Rabbins) that gives great light to the illustration of the New Testa­ment, See Grotius on Matth. 3.6. Lightfoot Horae Hebraicae in Mat [...]. as some that are learned therein shew. Talmudical learning gives light to the right understanding of Baptism; and Rabbinical learning is useful for clearing the Sacrament of the Lords-supper, as appears in Doctor Cudworths learned Piece concerning the true Notion of the Lords-supper.

Ainsworth in his Tract of the Hebrew-Records saith, That the Apostles alledg­ing sometimes the Testimonies of the Rabbines do teach, that their writings are not wholly to be despised. Paul nameth Jannes and Jambres, the chief Sorcerers of Egypt, 2 Tim. 3.8. out of the pri­vate Records of the Jews, as may yet be read in their Talmud. He rehearseth the Persecution of the Godly under Antiochus, Hebr. 11.35. &c. recorded in the Book of the Macchabees. Others speak of the con­tention between Michael and the Devil, a­bout the body of Moses, Jude v. 9. of the prophesie of Enoch, Verse 14, 15. of the marriage between Salmon and Rachab, Matth. 1.5. Yet some think these things [Page 22]might be received by Tradition, or divine Inspiration, or were extant in some known Books, and Records then in use, but lost long since, Josh. 10.13. 1 King. 11.41. and 14.19, 29. See a Catalogue of them in Beza in Jude p. 74.

SECT. IV. Of the Greek Tongue.

THe Greek Tongue is of use in two Re­spects; Usserius de ver­sione 70 Inter­pretum, cap. 3. first, in Reference to the Greek version of the old Testament, by the Septuagint; for by understanding it, and how it was used by the Jews, throughout Egypt, Syria, and Asia long before Christs time, and publiquely read in their Syna­gogues, scarce one in an hundred then un­derstanding the Hebrew, a fair account may be given why so many places cited by Christ, and his Apostles out of the Old Testament, are set down according to that Version; and that too where it differs from the Hebrew, as in Luk. 3.36. where Cainan is inserted out of the Septuagint, but is not in the Hebrew: so Acts 7.14. (taken out of Gen. 46.27.) seventy five souls are taken out of the Septuagint, the He­brew hath but seventy: so Acts 13.41. taken out of Habak. 1.5. The Apostle fol­lowing [Page 23]the Greek Translation, saith—be­hold ye despisers, for—behold ye among the Heathen, as the Hebrew hath it. So Acts 15.17. taken out of Amos 9.12. Hebr. 12.6. out of Prov. 3.12. 1 Pet. 2.6. (the last words) out of Isaiah 28.16. Many more Instances of this nature are collected by Taylor, and Bootius in their Examen Praefationis Morini, Sect. 4.5.6. and Ludovicus Capellus in his Critica Sacra, l. 3. c. 3.

The cause why Sacred Writers so oft fol­lowed the Seventy was, because, if they had wholly sleighted their Translation, it might have been a great prejudice to the Faith, both of those Jews and Gentiles, who had no other in ordinary use, the Greek being a Language common, and in­telligible to both.

Though this may be also observed, that many places are quoted by the Apostles out of the Old Testament, according to the Hebrew, and not according to the Se­venty, whom they leave sometimes, even when the sense in the Version is the same, and the difference but in words: to the end, that their indulgence to the Grecising Jews and Gentiles, in using the Greek Ver­sion received by them, might not be so in­terpreted, as if they accounted it Authen­tical, [Page 24]and not to be receded from. The pla­ces are Mat. 2.15. taken out of Hos. 11.1. and Matth. 8.17. out of Esay 53.4. John 19.37. out of Zach. 12.10. Rom. 9.17. out of Exod. 9.16. with many more to be seen in Capel. Critic. sacr. lib. 2. cap. 1. Usserius de 70. interpretibus, cap. 3. Taylor and Bootius in Examen Praefat. Morini, sect. 7.

Also the Greek Tongue is necessary to understand many Latine words derived from it, and many terms of much use in Di­vinity; and the several Arts, and to un­derstand the Greek Fathers, who have Commented on the Scriptures, and strenu­ously defended Religion by Theological Treatises.

SECT. V. Of the Latine.

THe Latine Tongue is necessary in four respects:

1. For getting Knowledge in the Origi­nal Tongues by reading Grammars and Lexicons.

2. For understanding the Greek Testa­ment, because it hath many Latine words inserted, though clothed in Greek letters, [Page 25]as [...], See Pasor's Lex. in sine. and many others. Beza in Matth. 5.26. reckons up twenty seven of them: these words cannot well be understood, without some knowledge of the Latine.

3. For making use of Commentaries on the Bible, Systemes, Tracts, Controversies in Divinity, Cases of Conscience, Histories, and briefly of Authors of all kinds, and of all subjects, who have written in that Tongue.

4. For understanding many English words, which are of great use in Divinity, and are borrowed of the Latine.

SECT. VI. Of the Chaldee and Syriac, how they differ.

THe Chaldee and Syriac are useful to help us to understand the Scrip­tures in the Originals: which in one sense are the Names of the same Lan­guage, in another they differ.

I. That Tongue, which is now general­ly understood by Chaldee, and is termed the Tongue of the Chaldeans, Dan. 1.4. is usually in Scripture stiled Syriac, the Aramite, or Syrian Language, Dan. 2.4. [Page 26]2 Kings 18.26. Ezra 4.7. and that ei­ther,

1. Because the Chaldeans and the Syri­ans had one and the same Language:

2. Or because Chaldea was of old e­steemed a part of Syria; as appears both

1. See Pliny. From Scripture, where Mesopotamia (which is stiled the Land of the Chaldees in Ezek. 1.3. as Tremellius and Polanus conceive, but more plainly in Acts 7.2, 4.) is commonly (in the Original of the Old Testament) called Aram Naharajim, that is, Syria interamnis. See Genes. 24.10. 1 Chron. 19.6. and Padan-Aram, Genes. 28.2, 5, 6.) and once Aram (that is, Sy­ria) without any addition, Judg. 3.10, with 8. Hence Laban, who lived in that Countrey, is called an Aramite, or Syrian, Gen. 25.20.

2. From other Authors, see Strabo lib. 16. and Pliny lib. 6. c. 12. who make Me­sopotamia, Babylonia (or Chaldea) and As­syria to be anciently included in Syria; and that Assyria is often called Syria, and the Inhabitants Syri, you may see proved by many Instances in Selden de DIs Syris, Proleg. cap. 1. and so were the Babyloni­ans too, Ibidem. as is plain from those words of Strabo; Qui de Syrorum imperio scribunt, cum Medos a Persis eversos dicunt, Syros [Page 27]autem a Medis, nullos alios Syros intelli­gunt, quam qui Babylonem & Ninum regni caput effecerunt. Here he calls that Mo­narchy, which was overthrown by the Medes (which the Scripture informs us to be the Babylonian or Chaldean) the Syrian Monarchy.

And may not that Tongue then well be called the Syrian, which was used by the Babylonians (with their Neighbors) Ez­ra 4.7, 9, 10. by the Chaldeans, Dan. 2.4. and by the Assyrians, Isai. 36.11? See Wolphius in Ezra 4.7. Willet in Dan. c. 1. Qu. 25. Fuller's Miscel­lan. l. 3. c. 20.

Thus you see in what sense the Chaldee and Syriac are Names of the same Tongue.

II. But that which hath commonly past under the Name of Syriac, since the Captivity in Babylon, is degenerate from the old Syriac or Chaldee, and but a cor­ruption of it. For the Jews returning from Babylon, having there forgot their own Language, the ancient Hebrew (which, Bibl. Polyglot. Ptoleg. being dispersed, they could not retain so well there, as they did in Egypt, when they lived together in Goshen) they used the Tongue of the Chaldees, which they had learn'd there (as necessary for Com­merce, and to render them capable of the Commands of those whom they served) but mixt some reliques of Hebrew with it: [Page 28]and altered it somewhat, See Freerwoods Enquiries, cap 9 by framing it ac­cording to the fashion of their own Coun­trey-Language: and afterwards it grew more impure, by the Addition of Arabic, Greek, Latine, and other exotic words.

The old Babylonian Syriac, thus cor­rupted, is that which now carries away the Name of Syriac: and it divides it self principally into two Dialects:

1. Introduct. ad lect. Ling. Ori­ent. Praefatio. The Jerusalem, which was used by Christ.

2. The Antiochian Dialect (in which there are ancient Translations of both Testaments) which varieth a little from the other; yet is not therefore to be thought a different tongue. For if the same story should be writ in Kentish, Devonshire, and Yorkshire Language, there would pro­bably be greater difference, then is to be found between those two Dialects.

The Syrian-Characters were brought in by the Antiochian Christians, in the In­fancy of the Church, that they might have nothing common with the Nazarites and Ebionites.

Now I have set down the Difference between Chaldee and Syriac, it remains that I shew the Use of each.

SECT. VII. The Usefulness of the Chaldee.

THe knowledge of the Chaldee is re­quisite,

I. For the understanding of those pla­ces of Scripture, which were written in that Language, though Chaldee be called Sy­riac in the Old Testament, of which before, as the Syriac is stiled Hebrew in the New) as Ezra, from chap. 4.7. to chap. 6.19. and chap. 7. from ver. 11. to ver. 27. and Daniel 2. from ver. 4. to the 8. chapter. Jer. 10.11. Vide Piscat. Scholias in loc.

II. For the understanding of Chaldee words scattered up and down in other pla­ces in the Original, and some Hebrew words, whose root is in the Chaldee: as also of many Chaldaisms in the Hebrew Text, when Hebrew words borrow a Chaldee signification: thus [...] in Chaldee is to con­sult, and so it is used, Neh. 5.7.

Many Hebrew Nouns and Verbs are for­med, and words altered after the Chaldee manner. See many instances hereof in De Dieu's Oriental Grammar, and in Bythner's Introduction to the Chaldee Tongue, and his Appendix de Aramaeismis, both at the end of his Hebrew Grammar.

III. For understanding of the Chaldee Paraphrases, which rendered the Hebrew Text for the help of the Jews, who were better acquainted with the Chaldee since the Captivity, then with the Hebrew.

These Paraphrases, See Prolegom. Bibl Polyglott. p. 86. especially those most ancient ones of Onkelos on the Law, and of Jonathan, Judges, Samuel, Kings, and all the Prophets, except Daniel, are represen­ted as very useful, in two respects.

1. In that they illustrate difficult and obscure places, and explane Old-Testa­ment Rites, Customes, Histories, and the genuine signification of words. For know­ing of which the Authors thereof had a farr greater advantage then others since, because they lived nearer those times, when the Hebrew was commonly spoken, and those Rites in use.

2. In that they confirm diverse Arti­cles of the Christian Faith, and afford the strongest arguments against the Jews. There are clear testimonies in them of the Person of the Messiah, his coming and Of­fices, which (as Amama in Consilio de stud. Hebr. saith) makes them afraid of Christi­ans, who are any whit versed in these Pa­raphrases; because they are with them of almost equal authority with the Text. There you may see those Prophesies, Gen. [Page 31]49.10. Psal. 45. Esa. 9.6. and 52.13. to the end of the 53. chapter plainly ap­plied to the Messiah.

IV. There are divers expressions in the New Testament, which frequently occurr in the Chaldee Paraphrases; as See Drusi­us & Grotius in Joh. 1.1. & Heins. Ari­starch. c. 3. The Word, which seems often there to denote a person, is by John (c. 1. v. 1.) applied to Christ.

The second death, and the world to come (see Deut. 33.6. Isa. 65.6. Jer. 51.39, 57. in those Paraphrases) and the false, or deceitful Mammon, (that is, riches) for so should [...], or [...], be ren­dred in Luke 16.9. since its opposed to the true Mammon, the true riches, ver. 11. and so it will be the same with [...] opes fallaces, which we meet with in the Chaldee, Hos. 5.11. Prov. 15.27. Nor is this sense repugnant to the word [...], or [...], both which carry the Notion of falshood and deceit, as they are divers times used by the Hellenists, which you may see proved by Heinsius, and de Dieu on Luke 16.9.

SECT. VIII. Of the Syriac.

THe knowledge of the Syriac is of good use in two respects.

1. To understand the New Testament, because it was the Native Language of Christ and his Apostles, which in the New Testament is called Hebrew, (being the Language of the Hebrews, and in part de­scended of the ancient Hebrew) as appears from [...], the pavement, John 19.13. and [...], the place of a skull, ver. 17. both these were Syriac words, yet called by John, See Fuller's Miscellan. l. 3. c. 20. & Dr. Hammond's Annot. in Ioh. 19.13.Hebrew. Which manifestly shew­eth, (saith Beza in locum) that the Syriac Tongue was then Vernacula Judaeis, Na­tive to the Jews.

There are many more Syriac words in the New Testament, See Pasor's Lex. in fine. as [...].

Besides, there are divers Phrases there, (called Syriasms or Syriacisms) yea the Stile it self savours of that Idiome: which must needs be so, if we consider, that ma­ny speeches of Christ, and his Apostles there recorded, were delivered in Syriac; and that the sacred Pen-men themselves conceived that in Syriac, which they ex­pressed in Greek, but so, as that by framing it to set forth the emphasis, and propriety of their own Language, they make it much different from other Greek.

Hence it is, that [...] stands for [Page 33] [...], See Canin. de locis obscur. N.T. p. 86. Matth. 6.12. & Debtors for sin­ners. [...] for [...], Mat. 25.25. Luke 15.21. [...] for [...], Heb. 1.2. and 11.3. [...] for [...], Rev. 6.8. See Drus. Praeter, in loc. & Fuller's Miscel. lib. 1. c. 7. because the same Syriac word denotes both; as [...] signifies both sins and debts.

[...] both Heaven and God: [...] both an age and the world: [...] both death and the pestilence. Hence also, because [...] in Hebrew, to be clear, in Syriac sig­nifies to overcome; therefore the Apostle after the LXX. renders [...] Psal. 51.4. (thou mightest be clear) by [...], thou mightest overcome, Rom. 3.4.

There seems also to be a Syriasm in [...], Luke 14.18. Fuller's Miscel. lib. 1. cap. 1. which expresseth that usual Syriac Adverb [...] ilicò, continuò (and so that place should be rendered, — And they all presently began to make ex­cuse) for [...] signifies una and also prima. Therefore [...] is several times in the New Testament put for [...]. Rev. 9.12. Mar. 16.2. with 9. [...], the first day of the week; the whole Phrase is Syri­ac, for [...] signifies both a Sabbath and a week, as Luke 18.12.

It is also observable, that [...] See de Dieu on Mar. 4.22. & Drus. Praeter. in Gal. 2.16. and [...], nisi, are sometimes put for [...], sed, because the Syriac [...] denotes both. See Mat. 12.4. and 24.36. Gal. 2.16. upon [Page 34] See De Dieu, on Mar. 4.22. & Drus. Praeter. in Gal. 2.15. the same account [...] See Heins. Exer. in 2 Cor. 2.5. is put for [...] Mar. 9.8. Joh. 17.12. Matth. 20.23. which our Translators, and others, not considering, have feigned a defect, and created a difficulty in that place, which should be rendred thus—is not mine to give, [...], except to whom it is prepared of my father. See Grotius on that place, and De Dieu on Mar. 10.40.

Lastly, See De Dien on Joh. 7.4. and Heins. Aristar. cap. 22. [...] stands for [...] openly, Joh. 7.4. and 11.54. Col. 1.15. according to the use of the Syriac [...].

II. The knowledge of the Syriac is useful for the understanding of that very ancient Translation, made out of the Hebrew of the Old, and Greek of the New Testament, into Syriac: which for the most part keeps close to the Original (whose Idiotisms, by reason of its Assinity thereto, it can excellently express) and represents it the most exactly of all others, as Dr. Walton, in his Prolegom. to the Oriental Bible, pag. 92. And in the judgement of Tremellius, (as he delivers it in his Epistle before the Syriac Testament, set forth, and Translated by him) there is scarce greater difference between the Greek and the Syriac, then there is between several Copies of the New Testament.

This Version helps much to vindicate [Page 35]those places of the Original; which diverse cry out against, as if they were corrupted, and would thence infer the Scripture unfit to be a Rule of Faith. See Instances here­of in Glassius's Philol. Sacr. lib. 1. and Hot­tinger's The saurus Philologicus, pag. 147. &c.

SECT. IX. Of Grammar.

IF there be use of the Tongues, then there is need of Grammar, for acquiring the knowledge thereof; which are not now attainable by an immediate miracu­lous Gift, for that was proper and peculiar to the Apostles, and others, at the first publishing of the Gospel, Act. 2.4, 5, 6. Scriptura non potest intelligi Theologice, Melancthornisi prius intelligatur Grammatice. For Gram­mar delivers the first Principles of a Lan­guage, shews the Formations, and Signifi­cations, Connexions, and Dependencies of words, and how they are put together to frame a discourse, of which no sense can be made without it.


SKill in the Arabic Language is by the unanimous consent of Learned men, of greatest note for Oriental Learning, represented as a consider­able attendant of Divinity; being able to do much service in unfolding the sence of Sacred writ; because a perfect knowledge of the Hebrew is not to be attained with­out it: which we may the rather be indu­ced to believe, if we consider, that we have but a part of that Language in the Bible; the onely Monument and Record [Page 37]of it, that hath escaped the injuries of Time. For it can not be thought, that this Mother-tongue should be so barren of words, as not to contain, in its whole ex­tent, a far greater number, then are at pre­sent in the Old Testament. Whence it comes to pass, the rest being lost, that we are to seek for the genealogies of many words we meet with there; of whose de­scent whilest we are ignorant, we cannot certainly rate and value them: nor know what eminency and riches of sence are en­tailed upon them. In which case, that Language must needs be acknowledged to do a singular good office, which is ready to minister relief, and in a great measure to supply the defect. And this the Arabic performs, enabled thereto, partly, because it is of great affinity with the Hebrew; as descended of it, and differing from it ra­ther in accidents, then in the essence and substance of the Language, as Ravis proves in his Discourse and Grammar of the Eastern Languages, and may be discerned from Schindler's Lexicon Pentaglotton. Partly, because it is an exceeding copious Tongue, abounding with words, and pre­served intire and complete. Hence, to speak more particularly,

I. The Arabic may help us to the roots, [Page 38](and so clear the meaning) of many He­brew words, which are not to be found in the present remains of the Hebrew Tongue.

Hottinger for proof hereof hath given a little Lexicon of Instances in his Smegma Orientale, l. x. c. 7. where he shews that from the Arabic we may understand that [...] contortum comes from [...] funem tor­quere: [...] statua from [...] posuit, erectum constituit; both which roots, antiently (without doubt) Hebrew, are still retained in the Arabic. [...] palatium, templum is derived from [...] in Arabic magnus, procerus fuit. [...], from [...] in Arabic. palatum; [...] being compensated by Dagesch in [...] as in [...] and [...] Magnas, from [...] multi famulitii furit. [...] le­gatus, from [...], or [...] ivit, profectus est. [...] gluma, from [...] fuste per­cutere. And from [...] carnosos clunes ha­buit, [...] cauda ovis, vel arietis, magna, & adiposa: which word, used Exod. 29.22. and Lev. 7.3. is appropriated to the Eastern sheep, in which that part is so ve­ry large and fat, Yn Lex. Ara [...] p. 146. that it ever weighs at least ten or twelve pound (as Golius attests) and sometimes above forty; whence we may discover some reason why that part was appointed to be burnt in sacrifice, as in the formentioned places we finde it was. To [Page 39]these may be added [...] descending from [...] donavit. [...] Elohim, See Pocock. Not. Miscell, pag. 34, 35. from [...] co­luit, servivit [...] coeli, from [...] excel­sum esse. [...] crudus from [...] semicocta, cruda fuit caro. And, to name no more, [...] found onely Habak. 1.9. from [...] copiosum, multum esse, whence [...] mul­titudo, copia, which derivation of De Dieu's is better suited both to the forms of the word, and the sense of the place, then the uncertain conjectures of others. For which of them is so clear, and well ground­ed, as this, A multitude of their faces [shall be] towards the East?

II. The Arabic, since it received not onely words from the Hebrew, but signifi­cations too, may give us a more certain aim at the sense of many Hebrew words (used also in the Arabic) which have been uncertainly, and sometimes unhappily explicated. Being such as occur more rarely, and perhaps but once: or, if fre­quently, yet in such acceptions as are not agreeable to some peculiar places of Scrip­ture, though well fitting the rest. Hence it is, that these following words are ex­plained from the Arabic: [...] Job 16.15. sutis. [...] chap. 30.17. vena, arteria, See Hotting. Thesaur. Philol. pag. 507. & his Smegma Orien­tale. li. 1. cap. 7. [...] chap. 33.20. fastidivit. And so may [...] chap. 40.12. (with us 17.) be from [Page 40]thence rendred femur, as it there signifies, where the Verb [...] is taken as well for fe­mur laesit, as for pavit. [...] chap. 37.11. may be more conveniently expressed by projicit, disjicit. [...] chap. 32.6. by tardavi. [...] chap. 21.32. properly by terra inculta. All which significations the Arabic furnisheth us with: as also that of the Verb [...] abscondere, recondere; whence [...] in Jer. 2.22. which, ac­cording to Bochartus, In Phaleg, lib. 3. cap. 5. should be rendred re­condita; Thine iniquity is laid up before me. See the like Phrase, Deu. 32.34. Hos. 13.12.

[...] or [...], commonly a, ab, in the A­rabic frequently denotes ad, versus, and so it must needs do in Genesis, ch. 13.11. where Lot going from Beth-el to the plain of Jordan (which lay East of Beth-el) is said to journey [...] East-ward. And in like maner [...] 2 Sam. 6.2. should be rendred to (not, from) Baale, as may ap­pear from 1 Chron. 13.6. See Fullers Miscell. l. 1. c. 4. and Amama's Antibarb. Bibl. ad Gen. 13.11.

The most learned of the Jewish writers are observed to have recourse to this Lan­guage for the meaning of diverse words in the Hebrew Text: as, of [...] ever­ri, and [...] everriculum in Isa. 14.23. of [...] Hos. 13.5. terra siticulosa: [Page 41] [...] being in Arab. See Pocock. not. Miscell. pag. 36, 37. Ad Hebraeae lin­guae perlectam cognitionem mult [...] plus confert (Ara­bica) quam cre­ditum est hacte­nus. Quod He­br [...]orum in Scriptutam commentaria docent, qui, quo­ties haret calcu­lus, ad hanc linguam confu­giunt tanquam ad sacram an­choram. Q [...]am­vis longe plu­ra observassent ex Ara [...]smo ad sacri Textus il­l utrationem, si [...]us linguae fu­islent peritiores. Bochar [...]. Phaleg lib. 1. cap 15.locus aridus & siticu­losus, from [...] sitivit. Of [...] Num. 11.5. melones from [...] Arab. melo. Of [...] Ezek. 27.24. vestes pretiosae, which Hottinger deduceth from [...] Arab. contorquere, quasi contortis filis contextae.

The same learned Author hath also proved, That the Greek Interpreters had a respect to the Arabic usage of words in many places of their Version, as in Mich. 7.3. where [...] usually turned aeru­mna (or, pravitas) animae suae, is expressed by [...], acceptum animae suae, from [...] Arab. cupido, res cupita. So in Ezek. 21.14. in translating [...] by [...], in stuporem conjicies eos, they seem to look at that sense of [...] where­by it sounds torpuit, stupuit: though it al­so denote post velamentum latuit, whence [...] Hebr. conclave. To these instances scattered by that industrious writer, well versed in the Eastern Languages, in his Smegma Orientale, Lib. 1. cap. 7. p. 144. 150. a whole heap might be added out of his Thesaurus Philol. p. 368. But there is the less need thereof, because this matter will be further evinced in the fifth particular. I shall rather observe, that our Translators have given such a sense of several Hebrew words, as the Arabic ministers, and warrants, and doth in it self [Page 42]carry the greatest conveniency to those pla­ces, in which they are found. So they have rendred [...] Deut. 33.3. they sate down, which is the usual notion of the Arabic Theme [...] accubuit, See De Dien in locum. and well expresseth the posture of learners. [...], Ezra 5.8. they make to signifie great, [ [...] great stones] which import must be acknowledged to the Arabic [...] ma­gnus, crassus fuit. And so must that signi­fication of [...] he commanded, Est. 1.10. and that of [...] a friend, expressed very fitly in Prov. 16.28. and 17.9. and derived from [...] which with the Arabians is copu­lare, conjungere: as De Dieu observes in Psal. 55.14.

In fine, that diverse of the Hebrew Themes had antiently, as, more Conjuga­tions, so more significations, then now they have, appears from their Derivatives, some of which are used in such acceptions, as have no affinity with any one, which their Theme still retains, but flow from some other which is lost; to the restoring of which the Arabic is most likely to contribute. Thus it helps [...] to that sense, pauper, miser fuit; the print of which remains in [...], Eccles. 4.13. indigus: [...] to stu­dium rei alicui impendit, of which some footstep is to be seen in [...] occupatio, ne­gotium. [Page 43]And lastly, [...] to remunerare, donare; a memorial of which is preser­ved in [...] portio, found Gen. 48.22. By which means the particular significations of these Derivatives are cleared and con­firmed.

III. The Arabic Tongue must explain to us those Arabic words which occur in the Scripture. Such are [...] Amos 5.26. Saturnus: [...] Gad, and [...] Meni, Isai. 65.11. of which see Mr. Selden de Diis Syris, Syntag. 1. c. 1. and Mr. Pocock in Not is ad Specimen Hist. Arab. p. 89, 92. who in pag. 203. makes [...] also in Prov. 30.31. to be borrowed from the Arabians, with whom it is as much as po­pulus; and so the sense there will be, [...], a King with whom is his People, reckoned as one of the things which are comely in going.

IV. By the help of this Language those many Arabisms which are in Scri­pture may be discerned, and divers words cleared, which are reputed anomalous, from the transposition of letters, the quiescence of the [...], their redundance, defect, or promiscuous use; which yet are regular and usual in the Arabic; and were, it may be, of old in use in the Hebrew too; which, no doubt, as well as other Tongues, per­mitted [Page 44]different ways of writing and speak­ing the same words in various places and ages. In Not. Miscel. cap. 4. Whence Mr. Pocock hath offered an excellent Conjecture, that many of the various Lections in the Hebrew (textual and marginal) grew hence, That where the words in the Text seemed to be of a cour­ser Dialect, or of a form then less in use, the Scribes, who were to see to the correct writing of the Copies, set down in the mar­gin, over against those words, a more pure and usual form, or such as was more esta­blished by Grammar Rules, whereby they would have them pronounced. Which yet is not to be accounted the indication of any Error, or Corruption, or the bringing in of any thing new. For if a Prophet, who was an Ephraimitc, had written [...] Sibbo­leth, and a Scribe of Jerusalem would have it be read Shibboleth with Shin, he had not corrupted the Text. The matter would come all to one, and the sense remain invi­olate. Therefore, though some words comply not with the Precepts given by Grammarians, which are conformed onely to the examples of the Bible, and not to the whole extent of the Hebrew Tongue, of which since we have no more monu­ments, we may well be ignorant of much of the ancient Hebraism: yet such words [Page 45]are not presently to be rejected as faults and mistakes. Of this sort are [...] 2 Kings 11.2. and [...] v. 4, and 9. [...] chap. 13.6. and [...] v. 17. [...] chap. 14.6. Of all which the excellent Author, last mentioned, hath given a Rea­son from the Analogy of the Arabic; and further shewn, since [...] there, in the middle of Quiescents, is turned into [...], how we come to finde [...] Hos. 10.14. [...] Zechary 14.10. [...] Ezek. 28.24. [...] Psa. 27.17. from [...].

Other Arabisms are observed by Hot­tinger, as [...] 1 Kings 21.21. In Grammatioa Haemonica, pag. 155. [...] Jer. 15.10. [...] Isai. 28.12. [...] Numb. 1.47.

V. Hence a fair account may be given of the consonancy of divers quotations in the New Testament to the Hebrew of the Old, though they be cited out of the Greek Version, which is commonly thought in those places to disagree from the Hebrew Text, as we have received it: which Text may herewithall be vindicated from any such Alterations, or various Lections, as some fancy to have happened to it in those instances. Thus [...] Jer. 31.32. See Pocock, no: Miscel. cap. 1, 2, 3. which we translate, I was an Husband to them, the Seventy (and after them the Apostle in Heb. 8.9.) render [...]. [Page 46]And to the same sense the Syriac Inter­preter: these following the Arabic use of [...] fastidire, nauseare, though in that Tongue it also signifie dominum esse, & maritari.

So [...] Isaiah 28.16. [in our Translation, Shall not make haste] is turn­ed by the LXX. [...], and so ex­pressed by Peter, 1 Pet. 2.6. and by Paul, Rom. 9.33. and 10.11. [...], Shall not be ashamed, because [...] (as the Arabic informs us) signifies as well to be ashamed, as to make haste; and likewise to fear: which last sense both the Chaldee and Syriac express in that place.

Again, [...] in Hab. 1.5. of which later Interpreters have gi­ven this sense, Behold ye among the hea­then, and wonder marvellously; according to the LXX, and the Apostle in Acts 13.41. have a different import: viz. [...] Behold, ye despisers, and wonder, and perish. And that because they took not [...] for a compound word, as others since have done, but for a simple one, descended from [...] injurius fuit, superbe vel insolenter se gessit, which is retained in the Arabic: in which Language [...] also signifies to be cor­rupted, and altered for the worse, whence [Page 47]it is rendred by [...], perish.

Further, in Hab. 2.4. [...] common­ly rendred is lifted up, by the LXX, and the Apostle in Heb. 10.38. is expressed by [...], which imports a drawing back, or being remiss, a sense well agree­ing to the Verb [...], as may appear from the Arabic.

He, that desires to see these Observati­ons more largely prosecuted, may consult the accurate Author of the Notae Miscel­laneae before cited; and learn moreover from him, how [...] Psal. 19.5. may sig­nifie [...], as the Apostle (after the LXX.) represents it Rom. 10.18.

VI. Skill in this Language is requisite to the understanding of the Arabic Versi­ons of the Old and New Testament, which conduce to the clearing of the genuine sense of Scripture; as Hottinger shews at large in his Analecta, Dissert. 2, and 6. What use Beza and De Dieu make there­of, may be seen in their Annotations.

VII. An Insight into the Arabic may contribute much to Historical purposes. As,

1. To explicate those Rites and Cu­stoms of the ancient Arabians, which Scrip­ture hath frequent respect to; as may ap­pear from many Instances, mentioned in the [Page 48]sixth Chapter of this Treatise, concerning the usefulness of History. And particular­ly from Ezek. 21.21. To which place Mr. In Notis Spe­cim. Hist. Arab. p. 327. Pocock hath given light, by acquaint­ing us with the Arabian manner of Divina­tion, used by them when they were to take a journey, marry, or perform some other business of great moment. They had three arrows in a little vessel, upon one of which was written to this effect, My Lord hath bidden me; upon another, My Lord hath forbidden; the third had no mark. He, that went to consult, pulled out one of these; if it happened to be the first, then he went forward chearfully, as if he had been admonished by God; but if the second, he desisted; if the last, which was without any writing, he put it in again, till he should be directed by the coming forth of one of the other. And here it may be noted, that [...] commonly rendred by tersit, Hierom explains by commiscuit, which comes near the Arabic notion of the same word, com­movit, agitavit; which sense it seems to have here in the place mentioned, from their agitation and confused mingling of their lots or arrows. He shaked together the arrows: not, he made them bright.

2. To understand those Arabic wri­tings, which illustrate the Ecclesiastical [Page 49]History, both of Jews and Christians. Plurimi Orien­tis Christiani sermone hoc, ip­sis vernaculo, multa condide­runt, quae ad varias Ecclesiae vices casusque dignoscendos, & sacram Histo­riam, splendi­dam universis facem accen­dant. Mr. Greaves in Orat. de Ling. Arab. p. 17. See Hotting. Analect. Dissert. 6. p. 257. 292. and his Histor. Orient. l. 2. c. 2. and o­thers, which declare the rise and success of Mahometism, its Principles and Constituti­ons; acquaintance with which may have no small influence upon the right explicati­on of Daniel's Prophecy, and of the Reve­lation: and give this further advantage (as the same Author Smegm. Orient. l. 1. c. 3. p. 54. takes notice) of dis­cerning what Doctrines and Rites crept in­to the Church, after the obtaining of that Religion in the world; as, the worshipping of Angels, the Invocation of Saints, the superstitious Consecration of creatures, the Mass, with many others diligently obser­ved from the Mahometans.

So much may suffice to evince the Uti­lity of this Tongue, which doth not more urge, then its facility invites to the study of it. For Erpenius Cited in Proleg. Bibl. Polygl. See M. Greave's Orat. de Ling. Arab. p. 19. (who well knew it, as being the great restorer of it in these Western parts) commends it as much ea­sier then Greek or Latine, yea, or Hebrew, being almost unacquainted with its difficul­ties, anomalies, and mutations of points. So that there are scarce so many irregular words in all this Language, as are in one only book of the Old Testament.

I shall conclude the whole matter with [Page 50]the words of that excellent Professor of the Arabic Tongue at Oxford, Not. Mis. p. 12. whose great skill therein renders his testimony of no small weight, where he speaks thus con­cerning its usefulness. Ego vero, si quid censeam, Theologo adeo utilem existimo, ut si Textum Hebraicum aliquando penitius excutere necessarium ducat, ea sine manifesto veritatis praejudicio, ne dicam dispendio, ca­rere non possit.

CHAP. II. Of the Ʋsefulness of Rhetoric.

SECT. I. Of Rhetoric in general.

RHetoric is useful for a Minister of the Gospel,

I. To discover the Tropes, Fi­gures and Elegancies, which are in the Ori­ginal; which those that are unlearned can­not discern nor unfold.

II. To deliver his minde in good words, in apt or congruous phrases and expressions, yet without affectation or ostentation (which Paul calls wisdom of words, that make the cross of Christ of none effect, [Page 51]1 Cor. 1.17.) but to Gods glory, the Churches profit, and edification.

There are three grounds thereof,

1. Eloquence is a Gift of God, bestow­ed upon many of his dear servants, as we may observe,

1. In the Prophets, and others in the Old Testament.

Aaron was a good Orator, I know (saith God of him to Moses) that speaking he can speak] that is, well and eloquently. Ainsworth. Exod. 4.14. and he shall be to thee for a Mouth] or, thy spokesman unto the peo­ple. God gave Moses a spirit of Go­vernment, and Aaron a faculty of Speech. Job in his book far exceeds all the Poems of the Greeks, and Latines, Ornatu, See Rivet's Isa­goge ad Scrip­turam, cap. 28.gra­vitate, & majestate. So many excellencies of words and sentences can scarce be found elsewhere. This is observed, that the Poetical parts of Scripture are written in a lofty and elegant Stile. Annot. in Job. 10.3. Job stretched all the veins of his wit in an eloquent way, to express the greatness of his grief.

Solomon sought out pleasant, accepta­ble, delightful words, Eccles. 12.10. that might both please and profit, tickle the ear and take the heart.

Isaiah was endowed with the Tongue of the Learned, Isa. 50.4 not only for spiritual In­struction, [Page 52]and seasonable consolation, but for apt and elegant elocution also. Some learned men, who have read Isaiah and Cicero, and compared them together, gave Isaiah the preeminence by far for Elo­quence: a [...] the Noble and Learned Philip Mornay, De verit. Religionis cap. 26. te­stifies: that whosoever reads them both will say, What is Cicero to Isaiah?—Then speaking of the Oration of Aeschines, in­veighing against Demosthenes (which Tully so much admired) he appeals to those that read both, what Eloquence, vehe­mency, or sublimity is there in that, in re­spect of the words of Isaiah, threatning the Jews, cap. 1, 2, 3, &c.—Hear, O hea­vens, and give car, O earth, &c.

See Franciscus Picus Mirandula (a man well able to judge) in lib. 2. de stud. Philos. cap. 2. and Theodorus Bibliander of the Elegancy of Isaiah, cap. 25. as cited by Rivet in his Isagoge ad Scripturam, cap. 28. and Budaeus de Asse, lib. 5. fol. 292.

2. This may be observed in the Apo­stles, and others in the New Testament.

Paul was [...], Acts 14.12. a Master of speech. The Lycaonians called him Mercury, whom they feigned to be the Interpreter of the will of their Gods, because Paul here ap­peared to be the chief speaker. There is [Page 53]as good Rhetoric found in Paul's Epistles, as in any Heathen Orator whatsoever: and some account the Eloquence of Cicero and Demosthenes but dull stuff to his Elegan­cies.

Beza in 2 Cor. 11.6. prefer'd Paul be­fore Plato in grandiloquence, before De­mosthenes in [...], before Aristotle and Galen in exact Method of Teaching.

Paul affected plainness in condescending to vulgar capacities, yet he could play the Orator excellently when he pleased; and did sometimes, (which some have obser­ved) as at Athens, Act. 17.22. and before King Agrippa, Act. 26.2. and in perswa­ding to unanimity, Phil. 2.1, 2. to unity, Eph. 4.1. to 7. to charity, 1 Cor. 13. in setting forth his sufferings, 2 Cor. 11.23, &c.

Apollos was an Eloquent man, [...] vir dicendi peritus, Act. 18.24. and migh­ty in the Scriptures.

The Corinthians were enriched [...], 1 Cor. 1.5. See Annot. in 1 Cor. 1.5. in all speech (or utterance) that is, as some interpret it, not in affected strains of Rhetoric, but in a gift of holy E­loquence (such as Apollos is commended for) which is a piece of a Christians ri­ches.

3. This is also observed, that after the [Page 54]Apostles Times the Church had always eruditos & eloquentes Doctores, learned and eloquent Teachers, Problem. loc. 118. pag. 375. (as saith Aretius) ex Oratorum numero conversos. Cyprian was first a Rhetorician.

Great Encomiums are given of the Greek and Latine Fathers for their Elo­quence. Clark's Lives. Hierom stiled Eusebius, Bishop of Caesarea, for his Eloquence, Romani elo­quii Tubam, the Trumpet of Roman elo­cution.—He saith that Lactantius was qua­si sluvius Tullianae Eloquentiae, He flowed with Eloquence, as Tully himself. It is said of Gregory Nazianzen, that the true beauty of his soul did shine forth in his E­loquence, Rhetoric being both his com­panion, and servant. Chrysostome was a golden-mouth'd Preacher, Mellitissimus Christi Concionator. He was so admired for his Eloquence, as that the people said, Satius esse solem non lucere, quam Chrysosto­mum non docere, ‘We had better want the sun,’ then the preaching of Chrysostom. Ambrose had an Eloquent Tongue.

4. This is observable in Modern Di­vines. Some of which have excel'd here­in, as Melanchthon, Calvin, and Viret, whose singular Eloquence, and skill to work upon the affections, Zanchy greatly admired.

2. Ground. Eloquence may be of good use for Perswasion (by soft and oily insinu­ations) and for working upon the affecti­ons, and to set a Lustre and an Edge on the Truthes and Messages of God. La­ctantius said, Magis creditur ornatae veri­tati, ‘Truth the more decently it is trim­med, the more readily it is embraced.’ Good Matter, clothed with good Lan­guage, is ordinarily more acceptable and taking. Experience shews that Elo­quence is an excellent instrument and as­sistant to the Truth, when rightly used; but when abused, it is potent and prevalent for the adverse party. Eloquent Apollos was as effectual a Propugner of the Gospel, as ever Tertullus the Orator was an Oppug­ner of the same.

Observe Gods blessing upon Eloquence or Elocution rightly used. Augustine con­fesseth that he was converted by the Elo­quence of Ambrose, Veniebant in animum meum cum verbis quae diligebam etiam res quas negligebam, Lib. 5 cap. 14. saith he in his Confes­siions. Ambrose his eloquent Tongue touched Augustine's heart with the know­ledge and love of the Truth.

Peter Viretus (as the Writers of his Life relate) was so exceeding Eloquent, that he drew many to be his Hearers, who [Page 56]were no friends to Religion: and they were so chained to his lips, that they ne­ver thought the time long, wherein he preached, but always wished his Sermons longer.

Mr. Acts and Mon. Fox reports of Mr. Rogers, and Mr. Bradford, Martyrs, that it was hard to say, whether there was more force of Eloquence and utterance in their Preach­ing, or Holiness of life and conversation in them.

But when men abuse Rhetoric, or use it for ostentation, or vain-glory, not to woo souls to Christ, but to win credit to them­selves, then God often blasts it; and it looseth its lustre, savor, vigor, and effi­cacy.

3. Ground of the Use of Rhetoric for a Minister is this, The holy Scriptures are full of Rhetoric, of Tropes, and Figures. Many passages in Scripture must be Tropi­cally or figuratively understood: else Cir­cumcision must be really Gods Covenant, Gen. 17.13. and the Lamb must be the Lords Passover, Exod. 12.11. Bread and wine must be flesh and blood, Matth. 26.26, 28. kine and ears (of corn) must be years, Gen. 41.26. Christ must be a door, Joh. 10.7. and a vine, Joh. 15.1. and the Prophets hair must be Jerusalem, Ezek. [Page 57]5.5. and the Image must be the Calf, Exod. 32.19.

The interpreting of improper or Tro­pical Expressions in a proper sense hath (as Glassius well observes) occasioned un­couth and absurd Opinions: Praesat. Rhetor. Sacr. as that of the Anthropomorphites, who attributed a real body and members to God: and many Jewish fables. Yea that deep-rooted per­swasion the Disciples had of Christs Tem­poral Reign grew from their understanding those Prophecies of the kingdom of the Messiah according to the proper and ge­nuine import of the words, in which the majesty and greatness of it is set forth by Metaphors taken from the condition of earthly Kingdoms.

Hence it is that many Speeches of Christ were mistaken, because Metaphorical and improper: as when he bid his Disciples take heed of the Leaven of the Pharisees and Sadduces, they understood him without a Metaphor, Matth. 16.6; but he corrects their mistake ver. 11, 12, then they saw Leaven was to be taken in a borrowed sense for Doctrine: so when he spake to the Jews about destroying the Temple, Joh. 2.19.20, meaning his body, ver. 21. and giving his flesh to eat, Joh. 6.51, 52. to Nicodemus of being born again, [Page 58]Joh. 3.3, 4. to the woman of Samaria a­bout living water, Joh. 4.11, 12, 14, 15. and ver. 32, 33, 34. and to his Disciples concerning the Meat he had to eat: as also touching Lazarus his sleeping, Joh. 11.11.

All these mistook the intent of Christ, because they understood him without a Trope, not attending to the secondary signification of his words.

Hereunto I may add the Testimony of Master Perkins upon Hebr. 11.12. pag. 93, 94. Rhetoric (saith he) is a good, war­rantable and lawful Art; because the Ho­ly Ghost useth Rhetoric much in Scrip­ture. Many of Pauls Epistles, of Christs own Sermons, and of the Prophets, espe­cially Isaiah, have as much and as ele­gant Rhetoric in them, as any Writers in the World: and, beside all other virtue, and divine Power in them, they do even for Figures, and Ornaments of Art, match any Orators, that have written in the La­tine, or Greek.—Every approved Rule of Rhetoric may be illustrated out of the Scriptures—and that the Scriptures of the Old and New Testament are the Fountain of Christian Eloquence, &c.—that they are filled with the most excel­lent Learning in all kinds: and you may finde in them as excellent Pattesns, and [Page 59]Presidents of Eloquence, as are to be found in any Author in the World.—They that deny liberty to a Minister to use Eloquence in preaching the word, which the Holy Ghost used in penning of the Scripture, they pull out of the hand of the Minister one of his weapons; and out of the wings of the Scripture one of her feathers.

But humane Eloquence must be prepa­red, as the Midianitish-women taken in war by the Israelites were to be purified, before they might marry them. See Deut. 21.11, 12, 13. it must be brought home to Divinity, and be pared and shaved with spiritual Wisdom, and then it may law­fully and profitably be used:— for it is a Damosel to Divinity, but not her Mi­stress.

Budaeus saith, De Asse lib. 5. fol. 292. Ego quidem certe in ea sum opinione, ut existimem Tropos Oratorios multo sublimiores, efficacioresque in sacra lectione inveniri, quam in priscorum Grae­corum Latinorumve monumenta; posseque Oratoriam Phrasim fieri ea lectione multo locupletiorem. He thought that Oratory may be much improved, and enriched by reading of the Scripture, since it hath loftier Tropes, then any other writings.

Here it may not be amiss to shew that [Page 60]the holy Scriptures afford instances of the most Tropes and Figures in Rhetoric.

SECT. II. Of Tropes.

FIrst the Kinds, of them which are four: 1. A Metonymie, 2. Irony, 3. Meta­phor, 4. Synecdoche.

Secondly, the Affections of them, which are four also:

1. Catachresis, 2. Hyperbole, 3. Meta­lepsis, 4. Allegoria.

First, Of the kinds of Tropes.

A Trope is an Elocution, whereby a word is changed from the proper or native Sig­nification to another, for ornament sake. Tropes are condimenta orationis.

I. Of a Metonymie, which is fourfold, scil:

  • 1. of the Cause.
  • 2. Effect.
  • 3. Subject.
  • 4. Adjunct.

Of the Cause and that either

  • 1. of the efficient.
  • 2. of the matter.

1. Instances of a Metonymie of the ef­ficient, when the Author, or Inventor, is put for the thing effected:

As Ancestors for their posterity, as Ja­phet and Shem, Gen. 9.27. Jacob and Is­rael, Psal. 135.4.

Moses, and the Prophets are put for their books and writings, Luk. 16.29, 31.

—The Spirit is put for a Revelation, or Do­ctrine, 1 Joh. 4.1. 1 Cor. 14.32.

—The Holy Ghost is put for the variety of Gifts in men for the edification of the Church, Joh. 7.39.

2. Of a Metonymy of the matter, when the name of the Matter is put for that which is made of it:—as Dust for a Man, Gen. 3.19. and 18.27.

—And Seed for a Son, Gen. 4.25. 2 Sam. 7.12.

2. Of a Metonymy of the Effect, when the Efficient is signified by the Effect. Thus God is said to be our Reward, Gen. 15.1. our Life, Deut. 30.20. Light, Psal. 27.1. Strength, Psal. 18.1. because he is the Author, or Cause of these.

—The Devil is said to be dumb, Luc. 11.14. and a spirit of infirmity, Luc. 13.11. because he made dumb and infirm.

—Thus Faith is our Victory, 1 Joh. 5.4. i. e. the Means and instrument of it.

Wine is said to be a Mocker, and strong drink is raging, Prov. 20.1. because it makes men so.

—Thus Bread is put for Corn, the matter of it, Isa. 28.28.

3. Of a Metonymy of the Subject, [Page 62]when the Name proper to it is brought to signifie the Adjunct of it.—Thus the Place is put for the Inhabitants, as Jeru­salem, Judea, and the Region about Jor­dan, Matth. 3.5.

Heaven for God, who dwels in heaven, Psal. 73.9. Matth. 21.25. Dan. 4.26.

House is put for children, or oss-spring, Exod. 1.21. 2 Sam. 7.11.

—For family, Act. 10.2. Luc. 19.9.

Sea is put for those that coast or dwell by it, or trade upon it, Isa. 60.5.

—Thus Princes, and Governors are put for their jurisdictions, Matth. 2.6. which place, thus understood, is best reconciled with Micah 5.2. for so the Princes, and the Thousands of Judah come both to one.

—The Cup is put for the Wine, 1 Cor. 11.25. Continens pro contento.

Power over the head is put for a Veil, the sign of it, 1 Cor. 11.10.

4. Of a Metonymy of the Adjunct, when subjects are signified by the Names of their Adjuncts. Thus

Adjuncts are put for their Objects: so God is said to be our fear, dread, praise, considence, hope.

Christ is called the desire of all Nations, Hagg. 2.7.

—The Sign is put for the thing signified; as the anointing for the priesthood, Numb. 18.8.

Bread and wine for Christ's body and blood.

—To sit is put for to teach, Matth. 23.2. and to rule, Psal. 110.1. 2 Thes. 2.4. that being the posture of Teachers, Matth. 26.55. and of Judges, Judg. 5.10.

To lift up the hand is put for

  • to swear, Gen. 14.22. Revel. 10.5, 6.
  • to pray, Psal. 28.2. and 63.5.

—Thus the Scepter is put for the King­dom, Gen. 49.10.

—The Sword for Magistracy, Rom. 13.4.

—The Keys for the power of the Church, Matth. 16, 18, 19.

—The Abstract is put for the Concrete, as wickedness for the wicked, Job 5.16.

And righteous­ness for righte­ous, 2 Pet. 3.13. The Names of Virtues, and Vices, are put for the persons, to which they are adjoyned.

Paul was was called [...] Act. 24.5. a pest, for a pestilent fellow.

—Thus pride is put for the proud man, or city: as Babylon, Jer. 50.31. Behold I am against thee, O pride.

Days denote Old men, Job 32.7.

—Thus Time is put for Things hapning or existing in it, 1 Chron. 29.30.—theTimes that went over David signified the vari­ous occurents, that fell out in his Time, See 2 Tim. 3.1, &c.

—And a day is put for some remark­able good, as Hos. 1.11. the day of Jezreel: or evil, as Job 18.20. the day of the wicked. Ezek. 21.29. and 22.14.

—Thus joy is put for Heaven, the place of it, Mat. 25.21, 23.

The second Trope is an Irony, which is a Speech by Contraries; when it is sharp, or biting, it is called a Sarcasm.

This is used,

1. By God himself to Adam, Genes. 3.22. Behold, the Man is become as one of us, &c.—to Israel, Judg. 10.14. —go, and cry to the gods whom ye have served; which was an Ironical upbraiding of them for their Idolatry. See the like in Jer. 22.23. Amos 4.4.

2. By Christ to the Pharisees, Mark 7.9.—full well ye reject the Commandments of God; he means, they did very ill in so doing:—and to his Disciples, Matth. 26.45. Bexa. Sleep on, and take your rest.

3. By good Men, as Elijah to the Wor­shippers of Baal, 1 Kings 18.27. and Job [Page 65]to his self-conceited Friends, Job 12.2. and 26.2, 3. Solomon to the young man, Eccles. 11.9. Paul to the Corinthians, 1 Cor. 4.8.

The third Trope is a Metaphor, when the like is signified by the like. It is a Simili­tude contracted to one word.

—So Eyes, Hands, Feet, Grief, Laughter, Repentance, and other Parts, Affections, Actions, and Adjuncts of the Creature, especially of Men, are attributed to God by a kinde of Similitude.

—So God is called a Rock, Buckler, Horn, high Tower, Psal. 18.2. a Sun, and a Shield, Psal. 84.11. a fountain of water, Jer. 2.13. a consuming fire, Heb. 12.29. a hus­bandman, Joh. 15.1.

—So Christ is call'd a Shepherd, a Door, a Lyon, a Lamb, a Vine—a bright morning-Star, Rev. 22.16. a foundation-stone, Isa. 28.16.

—So the Spirit, and the graces and opera­tions of it are set forth by water, John 4.10 14. and 7.38, 39.

—and by sire, Matth. 3.11.

—Yea, all the Mysteries of the Gospel, and what ever is spiritual, is Metaphorically ex­pressed in the holy Scripture; as Repent­ance, by washing, Isai. 1.16. by circum­cising the foreskin of the heart, Jer. 4.4. [Page 66] Faith by eating Christ's flesh, and drinking his blood, John 6.47, with 54. Pardon of sin, by blotting it out, Isai. 43.25. and by God's casting it behinde his back, Isa. 38.17.

See many Instances together in Mat. 16.18, 19. 2 Cor. 10.4. Eph. 6.14, to 17. Revel. 3.18.

—So the Church is called God's house, 1 Tim. 3.15. God's Husbandry, 1 Cor. 3.9. the righteous are called Wheat, Mat. 3.12. Jewels, Mal. 3.17. Sheep, Joh. 10.

—The wicked are called Dogs, Swine.

Seducers are called Wolves.

—The Devil a Serpent, a Lion.

—The Scripture sometimes gives the parts and properties of Men to other things, and so represents them as persons; as hands to the Spider, Prov. 30.28. mourning and weeping to the Ground, Job 31.38. Joel 1.10.

—Thus blood is said to cry, Genes. 4.10. the pastures to shout and sing, Psal. 65.13.

—the trees to clap their hands, Isai. 55.12.

—the waters to see and be afraid, Ps. 77.16

Add Psal. 19.1, to 6. Isai. 59.14.

The fourth Trope is a Synecdoche, which is fourfold: Of the

  • 1. Genus.
  • 2. Species.
  • 3. Whole.
  • 4. Part.

1. A Synecdoche of the Genus, when the Genus is put for the Species, or a Gene­ral for a Particular. So the living, Gen. 3.20. and all flesh, Luke 3.6. Rom. 3.20. and every creature is put for all men, Mark 16.15. Col. 1.23.

—Thus a common Name is used [...] for a proper; as the seed of the woman, and the Son of man, for Christ. A Prophet for Moses, Hos. 12.13. — the river for Eu­phrates, Gen. 31.21. Josh. 24.2, 3.

2. A Synecdoche of the Species, when the Species is put for the Genus, or a Parti­cular for the General.

—So the Greeks are put sometimes for all the Gentiles, in opposition to the Jews, Rom. 1.16. and 2.9.

Bread for all kinde of food, Gen. 3.19.

Peace is put for all good things, Temporal, Ps. 122.6, 7. and Spiritual, John 14.27. Rom. 1.7.

—The washing one anothers feet, for the whole exercise of love and humility, John 13.14.

Removing of mountains, for performing any thing difficult, and seemingly im­possible, Mat. 17.20.

3. A Synecdoche of the whole, when that is put for a part. Thus the World is put for the Roman Empire, Luke 2, 1. or for the [Page 68] Land of Canaan, as some understand Rom. 4.13. —for the Gentiles, in opposition to the Jews, Rom. 11.11, 12. 1 John 2.2.

All in Scripture is often taken for some of all sorts, distributively; not collectively, for all of every sort. 1 Tim. 2.4. Thus God will have all men to be saved.

—So Gen. 7.14. Mat. 4.23. Luk. 11.42.

—Thus the plural Number is used for the singular, as sons for one son, Gen. 46.23. daughters for one daughter, vers. 7. that was Dinah, vers. 15.

Thieves for one of them, Mat. 27.44. with Luke 23.39, 43.

—The Prophets (Acts 13.43.) for one of them, scil. Habakkuk, chap. 1.5.

4. A Synecdoche of the Part, when a part is put for the whole; as soul (Gen. 46.26, 27. Rom. 13.1.) for the whole man. So is the body, Rom. 12.1. and the blood, Mat. 27.4. and the heads, Prov. 11.26. The roof is put for the house, Mat. 8.8.

Gates for a City, Gen. 22.17.

—The singular Number is put for the plu­ral, as Man for Men, Job 14.1. and beast for beasts, Eccles. 3.21.

—Thus a certain number is put for an un­certain, that is the usual Phrase of Scrip­ture; as Job 5.19. in six troubles, yea, in seven, i.e. in many. Amos 1.3. Prov. [Page 69]24.16. 1 Sam. 2.5. Jer. 15.9. Eccles. 11.2. Revel. 4.5. Zech. 3.9.

So much of the kinds of Tropes.

Secondly, The Affections of Tropes follow, which are four.

I. A Catachresis, which is a harsher or more strained manner of speech, that seems to come in vi, non precariò.

—Thus wings are put for beams, Mal. 4.2.

—So the Priests are said to prophane the Sabbath, Mat. 12.5.

—The Israelites savour to stink in the eyes of Pharaoh, Exod. 5.21.

—Thus the people are said to see the thundring as the noise of the trumpet, Exod. 20.18. and John to see the voice that spake with him, Rev. 1.12.

II. An Hyperbole, which is the boldness of a Trope coming into one extreme, either by Amplification or Extenuation.

1. By way of Amplification, when our speech increaseth the thing, or is above it, which is called Auxesis.

—Thus Abraham's seed are said to be like the dust of the earth, Gen. 13.16. and the stars of Heaven for number, c. 15.5.

Jacob is said to hate Leah, that is, to love her less then he did Rachel, Gen. 29.30, 31. Luke 4.16. with Mat. 10.37.

Saul and Jonathan are said to be swift­er then Eagles, and stronger then Lyons, 2 Sam. 1.23.

—Thus it is said, that in Solomon's days silver was as stones, 1 King. 10.21, 27.

—That the world it self could not contain the books, if all was written, which Jesus did, Joh. 21.25.

—That David made his bed to swim, Psal. 6.6.—That Job washed his steps in butter, and the rock poured him out rivers of oil, chap. 29.6. See the like in Deut. 32.13. Gen. 49.11. Judg. 5.5.

—That our light affliction, &c. works for us [...], an exceeding ex­cessive eternal weight of glory. But, as one saith, Nec Christus, nec coelum patitur Hyperbolen. Here it is hard to Hyperbo­lize.

2. By way of Extenuation, when our speech lessens the thing, or is beneath it, which is called Meiosis or Tapinosis. So Da­vid calls himself a dead dog, a slea, 1 Sam. 24.14. —a weak despicable person. So did Mephibosheth, 2 Sam. 9.8.

—God takes no pleasure in wickedness, Psal. 5.4. i. e. he abhors and abominates it. —Lazarus sleeps, he means, is dead, John 11.11.

—God chooseth things that are not, 1 Cor. [Page 71]1.28. i.e. that are of small esteem, or of no account.

III. Affection of a Trope is Metalepsis, that is, the multiplication of a Trope in one word, Psal. 85.1. Thou hast been favourable unto thy land—the land is put for Judea, by a Synecdoche of the Genus, and for its inhabitants by a Metonymie of the Subject.

—So Gen. 3.15. the seed of the woman is by a Metonymie of the Matter, put for her off-spring, and by a Synecdoche of the Genus for Christ.

IV. Affection of a Trope is an Allego­ry, that is the continuation of a Trope, when more Tropes of the same kind are put in a sentence, as in Ezek. 16.3, &c. Eccles. 12.2, to 7. Here is a contex­ture of Tropes, Prov. 5.15, 16, 17. 1 Cor. 3.6, to 16. Eph. 6.11. Rom. 11.16.

—The whole book of the Canticles is Alle­gorical.

—Hither Proverbs are referred, and Para­bles (by some) and Allusions to other pas­sages in Scripture, as in 2 Cor. 3.13, &c. Gal. 4.22, &c. 1 Cor. 5.7, 8.

But these places (as also Eph. 5.31, 32.) are accounted Allegories in another accep­tion, (scil. as the word is opposed to the [Page 72] literal sense of Scripture, (whether proper or tropical) i. e. the representation of the mystical sense of some things related in the Scripture, which had a true literal meaning besides.

So much of Tropes.

SECT. III. Of Figures.

SEcondly, Figures follow, which are appendant either to Words, or, Sentences.

I. Instances of Figures appendant to Words, which are eleven.

First figure, Epizeuxis, which is a con­tinued repetition of the same word in a sentence, to express

1. An Emphasis, as I, even I am he, &c. Isa. 43.25.—The living, the li­ving, Isa. 38.19.

2. Or Affection, as my father, my fa­ther, 2 King. 13.14.—O my son Absa­lom, my son, my son, 2 Sam. 18.33. O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Mat. 23.37.

3. Or Certainty, Rev. 18.2. Baby­lon the great is faln, is faln.—Gen. 2.17. dying you shall die, that is, surely die.

4 Or Greatness in any kind, as multi­tudes, [Page 73]multitudes in the valley of decision, Joel. 3.14. that is, very great multi­tudes. —Psal. 68.12. kings of armies did flee, did flee, that is, fast, or apace.

5. Or an Inculcation of the same thing, as Isa. 28.10. precept must be upon pre­cept, line upon line.

The second figure, Anadiplosis, when the same word that is used in the end of a foregoing sentence, is repeated in the be­ginning of the following, as Psal. 121.1, 2. from whence cometh my help, my help cometh from the Lord, Rom. 8.16, 17. Luke 7.31, 32.

The third figure, Climax, or Gradati­on, that is, a continuation of an Anadi­plosis in divers degrees. When the suc­ceeding words ascend higher, or exceed, or transcend each other, it is as it were a going up by steps: as Rom. 5.3, 4, 5. Tribulation worketh patience, and pati­ence experience, &c. So chap. 10.14, 15. How shall they call on him, in whom they have not believed, &c. —So chap. 8.30. Whom he did predestinate, them he also cal­led, &c. So Joh. 1.1, 4, 5.

The fourth figure, Anaphora, when the same word is iterated in the beginning of sentences, as Deut. 28.3, to 7. —blessed shalt thou be, &c. ver. 16, to 20. —Cur­sed [Page 74]shalt thou be, &c. Mat. 5.3, to 12. and 23.13, to 17. Wo to you, Scribes, Pharisees, Hypocrites. Psal. 148.1, 2, 3, 4.

The fifth figure, Epistrophe, when a like sound is repeated in the close of sen­tences, or they end alike, 2 Cor. 11.22, 23. —so am I. Psal. 136. throughout, his mercy endureth for ever. Amos 4.8, 9, 10, 11.

The sixth figure, Symploce, or Com­plexion, when the like sound is repeated both in the beginning and end of divers sentences, as Psal. 136.1, to 8. 1 Cor. 11.4, 5, 6. and ver. 14, 15.

The seventh figure, Epanalepsis, when the same word is used in the beginning and ending of a sentence, as Eccles. 1.2. vanity of vanities, all is vanity. Phil. 4.4. Re­joyce in the Lord alway, and again I say, rejoyce.

The eighth figure, Epanodos, when words of one sentence are repeated with the order inverted in the next, as Mar. 2.27. The Sabbath was made for man, not man for the Sabbath. Isa. 5.20. John 8.47.

The ninth figure, Paronomasia, when a word by a change of some letter or syllable, is changed in signification also. This is a [Page 75]pleasant sound of words.—Isa. 5.7. he looked for [...] judgement, but behold [...] ac­cumulation, scil. of sin; and for [...] righ­teousness, but behold [...] a cry.

Jer. 48.43. [...] Fear and the pit, and the snare shall be upon them.

Rom. 12.3. [...].—Rom. 1.29. [...] [...] and Verse 31. [...] —So Rom. 2.1. [...]. So 2 Tim. 4.2. [...].

The tenth figure, Polyptoton, when words of the same Original are consonant among themselves in divers Cases. This Figure is a variation of Cases, as Rom. 4.18. who Against hope believed in hope.

Rom. 11.36. of him, through him, and to him are all things 2 Cor. 10.12. and 12.14. Hither may some Hebraisms be refer­red, as A song of songs, Vanity of vanities.

The eleventh figure, Antanaclasis, or a repetition of the same word in a differ­ent Signification. So Matth. 8.22. Let the dead bury the dead. So Joh. 1.10. the world was made by him, and the world knew him not.

Joh. 2.23. many believed ( [...]) in his Name, but Jesus did not commit him­self ( [...]) to them ver. 24.

Rom. 9.6. They are not all Israel, which are of Israel.

—See Mat. 26.29. 2 Cor. 5.21. 1 Tim. 6.5, 6.

II. Instances of Figures appendant to a Sentence which are eleven.

First, Exclamation, is to signifie the greatness of the thing, or to express our affections, or to excite and move affecti­ons in others; by an adverb of exclaming, expressed, or understood—and that by way

1. Of Complaint, or Lamentation, as Job 6.2. Oh! that my grief was throughly weighed—Lament. 1.12.—Rom. 7.24. Oh wretched man that I am, &c.

2. Of request, or wishing, Jer. 9.1. Oh! that my head were waters, &c.

Gen. 17.18. Oh! that Ishmael might live before thee—Deut. 5.29. and 32.29. Psal. 55.6. Oh! that I had wings like a dove.

3. Of admiration Psal. 31.19. Oh! how great is thy goodness, &c.

Rom. 11.33. Oh! the depth of the riches, &c.

4. Of reprehension, Gal. 3.1. Oh fool­ish Galatians! who hath betwitched you, &c. Matth. 17.17. O faithless and perverse generation, &c. and 8.26. O ye of little faith, why are ye fearful—Deut. 32.6.

5. Of indignation and commnation, Matth. 23.13, 14, 15, Wo to you Scribes, Pharisees, Hypocrites.

6. Of commiseration, Jer. 4.19. Mys bowels, my bowels, I am pained at my very heart.

7. Of obtestation, as 1 Thes. 2.10. ye [...] are witnesses, and God also, &c. Rom. 1.9. God is my witness.—1 Tim. 5.21.

The second figure, Epiphonema, which is usually added to what was declared, or proved before; for confirmation, or brief comprehension, or admiration, or consequence, or application thereof.

Piscator conceives that in 2 Tim. 2.11. to be an Epiphonema. It is a faithful say­ing,—and that in 1 Tim. 1.15.—that in Eccles. 12.15, 16. seems to be a remark­able Epiphonema.

The third figure, Epanorthosis, or Corre­ction, when something is recalled that was spoken before, as John 16.32. ye shall­leave me alone, and yet I am not alone, &c. —1 Cor. 7.10. I command, yet not I, but the Lord: and chap. 15.10.—I labored more abundantly, &c. yet not I, but the Grace of God in me—Gal. 2.20. Thus, I live, yet not I, but Christ liveth in me. So Gal. 1.6, 7. and 3.4. and 4.9.

The fourth figure, Aposiopesis, or Reti­centia, [Page 78]when part of a Sentence begun is kept in, or concealed, which yet may be understood, as Luk. 19.42. If thou hadst known even thou in this thy day, &c. So Gen. 3.22. Such imperfect speeches are caused sometime by perturbation of minde, as Psal. 90.13.—return, O Lord, how long? scil. wilt thou afflict? or defer to help us, Psal. 6.3.

This is frequent in Oaths, where the Imprecation is oft omitted, or for the most part concealed, Psal. 89.36. If I lye unto David, what then? then I will cease to be God.—or somthing of that Nature is to be understood.

—So Hebr. 3.11.

See 1 Sam. 14.44.

The fifth figure, Apostrophe, when a Speech is turned to another person, as that of Paul to the Gentiles, Rom. 11.13, 17, see Piscator; and to the Jews, Rom. 2.17.

—And of Moses to things inanimate, as Heaven and Earth, Deut. 30.19. and 32.1. So Isaiah begins his Prophesie against ob­stinate Israel, Isai. 1.2. Hosea 13.14. —O death, I will be thy plagues, Judg. 5.21. —1 Kings 13.2.

The sixth figure, Prosopopaeia, which is the siction of a person introduced, as speak­ing [Page 79]in our Speech—so in Rom. 10.6, 7, 8. Doth the righteousness, which is of faith, &c. See Piscator in locum.

Jotham in his parable Judg. 9.8, &c. brings in the Trees speaking like men, ver. 15. so Isai. 14.8, 9, 10.

The seventh figure, Aporia (Addubita­tio) that is a deliberation with ones self, Psa. 139.7, to 12. Luk. 7.31. Luk. 16.3, 4. Hos. 11.8, 9.

The eighth figure, [...], Anacaeno­sis (Communication) that is deliberation with others. Rom. 8.31. Gal. 4.21. Jam. 4.1.

The ninth figure, Occupatio, which is, to prevent a Question, or Objection, that we conceive might be made by ano­ther, and answer it.

The Objection, or Question is some­times expressed, sometimes implied. So Rom. 11.1. I say, hath God cast off his peo­ple? This some might take occasion to object from the last Verse of the former Chapter—To which he answers, God for­bid, &c. See also Verse 7, 19, 20.

—So Rom. 14.22. Hast thou faith? have it to thy self before God. Here is an Ob­jection understood, which some might have made. I have Faith, i. e. I believe all Meats lawful to a Christian, and so may eat any.

This Figure often occurs in the Epistle to the Romans. See chap. 2.13, 14, 25. chap. 3.1, 3, 31. and chap. 4.2. and chap. 6.1, 2, 15.

The tenth figure, Epitrope, or Permis­sion, when the doing of a fact is pardoned, at least seemingly,—which is often Ironical. Judg. 10.18. 1 Cor. 15.32. Rev. 22.11.

The eleventh figure, Synchoresis (or Concessio) when some saying or Argument is pardoned, 2 Cor. 4.8. and cap. 12.16, 17.

There are other Figures also, which Rhetoricians call Figurae secundariae, which I will pass over, and mention onely two, scil. Antithesis, when Opposites answer one another in a Speech, as 2 Cor. 6.8, 9, 10.—as unknown, yet well known—as dy­ing, and behold we live, &c. chap. 4.17. Rom. 8.13. Phil. 3.7.

Oxymoron, which is an elegant Conjun­ction of contraries, Acts 5.41—They had the honor to suffer reproach—1 Tim. 5.6. she is dead while she liveth.

He that desires to see more Instances of the several Tropes and Figures, may con­sult Glassius in that elaborate piece, which he calls Rhetorica sacra.

CHAP. III. Of the Ʋsefulness of Logic.

THe use of Logic to a Minister of the Gospel is fivefold.

I. For the rational under­standing, or clear and distinct notion of things, in their several habi­tudes, respects and order, and for the right defining and describing of things; and to discourse understandingly, properly, clear­ly, distinctly and methodically, not ob­scurely, extravagantly or confusedly.

II. For understanding the sense and scope of the Scriptures, the Dependence, Contexture, Method, and Argumentation of them: to discern evidently the Argu­ments and Conclusions in the Disputations of Christ, and of the Prophets and Apo­stles.

III. For the right Dividing of the word of Truth, [...] 2 Tim. 2 15. (which cannot be without the help of Logic, and Rhetoric, which are properly subservient to that end, &c. saith Mr. Burges in his Treatise of Assurance, pag. 620) and for proper Analysing of the Books of Scrip­ture into Heads and Chapters (according to the subject thereof;) and of Chapters in­to [Page 82]parts; of Texts into simple Terms first, then into Axiomes, or Propositions.

For want of Logic some tear the word in pieces (as it were with their teeth and nails) rather then divide it aright.

IV. See Dr. Cha­pel's Method of Preaching. For the plain, perspicuous, and me­thodical handling of Points of Divinity, or Doctrines, and of every Particular in them, in its right maner, due order, and proper place: which is a great help to the Understanding and Memory of the Hear­rers, and of the Speaker also.

V. For Disputations, and the handling of Controversies. Logic is of great use,

1. To understand rightly both the state of the question, and the force of the Arguments.

2 To proceed Syllogistically.

3. To detect Paralogisms, Captions, Argumentations, Fallacies, and Sophi­stries of the Adversaries of the Truth of God; as the Jews, false Prophets, and false Apostles: of the Broachers or Maintainers of Errors and Heresies: of Seducers and Deceivers. It is the work of a Minister [...] to argue against, Titus 1.9. and refute Gainsayers, and to defend Truth against all Opposers and Underminers, Phil. 1.17. Danaeus, in his Logical piece de Elenchis Haereticorum, reduceth their [Page 83]Sophisms and Fallacies to their several Heads, and shews the maner of detecting, and answering them.

4. To infer, or draw conclusions rational­ly, clearly and strenuously, according to the Rules of good and firm Conse­quence.

5. To confute the corrupters of the sense of the Scriptures.

Davenant saith, that Philosophy, In Col. 2.8. which teacheth the Rules and Art of right Disputing, (that is, Logic) apprime neces­saria est, & ab omnibus adhi [...]enda in diju­dicandis & tractandis omnibus Controver­siis quae spectant ad Religionem, is princi­pally necessary in handling, and adjudging all Controversies, which pertain to Reli­gion.

Pareus speaks of the Lutherans as no great friends to Logic: In Col. 2.8. and therefore at Ratisbone, when they would by no means be brought to dispute Syllogistically, though they had the best Cause, yet were sadly foiled by the Jesuits.

Augustine, in one of his Epistles, in­genuously professeth, ad dissolvenda Haere­ticorum sophismata, artem hanc (scil. Dia­lecticam) magnum sibi adjumentum attu­lisse.

I may give three Reasons of this useful­ness [Page 84]of Logic for a Minister.

1. Reas. Logic is of Universal use and Influence for all Arts and Sciences, and for all Artists, why not for Divinity? (which is the principal) and consequently for Di­vines.

Augustine, De ordine, lib. 2. cap. 13. saith—Dialectica est Disciplinae disciplina­rum. Haec docet docere, haec docet discere: quae scit scire, & alios scientes facere, &c. Logic is the Discipline of Disciplines, —This teacheth to teach, and to learn, &c.

2 Reas. Reason is the Eye of the Soul, and Logic the Art or Way of using Reason aright: Or it is a Faculty of Reasoning by Art, acquired by industry. They that would debar men of the use of Logic, (as one saith) would have them blind, Mr. Gataker. or blinded, that they may carry them as the Faulkner doth the Hauk, hoodwink'd whi­ther themselves please.

3. Reas. The holy Scriptures are full of Logic, of Logical Arguments both Artificial and Inartificial: of Axiomes, Simple and Compounded; and of Syllo­gisms of all sorts.

Christ himself made use of Logic in drawing consequences, or in arguing from an Antecedent to the Consequent, or [Page 85]from Premises to a Conclusion, in the same maner that we do: as to infer and prove from the story of the Creation, and of God's Institution of Marriage, the un­lawfulness of groundless Divorce, Matth. 19.4, 6.—from Hosea 6.6. to vindicate the lawfulness of his Disciples plucking and eating the ears of corn on the Sabbath-day, Matth. 12.7.

Thus Christ proves the Doctrine of the Resurrection by way of Syllogism, or Lo­gical Inference, from the saying of God to Moses, Exod. 3.6. with Matth. 22.31, 32, Luc. 20.37.38.

  • God is the God of the living,
  • God is the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob.
  • Ergo, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, must live:
  • and to that end, rise again.

Christ calls this by the Name of Scrip­ture, which was but a Logical Inference drawn from it, Matth. 22.29, 31, &c. with Exod. 3.6.

Thus Christ proves the Jews not to be of God, Joh. 8.47.

  • He that is of God heareth God's words,
  • Ye hear not God's words,
  • Ergo, ye are not of God.
  • This was a Categorical Syllogism.

[Page 86] Christ used Hypothetical Syllogisms also: as John 5.46, 47.

  • If ye had believed Moses, ye would have believed me:
  • But ye believe not his writings.
  • Ergo, how shall ye believe my words?

Thus Christ disputed against the Phari­seces—Assertion of the Messiah's being the Son of David, See Piscat. in locum. Matth. 22.43, 45.

If Christ be David's Son, then David should not call him Lord. But David calls him Lord—How is he then his Son?

Christ used a Dilemma to nonplus those that asked by what Authority he acted, Matth. 21.23, 25. The Baptism of John whence was it? from Heaven, or of Men? and they had Dilemmatical Reasonings with themselves what to answer to this Dilem­matical question, ver. 25, 26, 27. If we say, It was from Heaven, he will say, Why did ye not then believe him? If we say, Of men, we fear the people, Thus perceiving they were in danger to be catcht with Christ's Dilemma, if they answered to ei­ther part of it, they returned Ignoramus for their answer—we cannot tell. Thus Christ did clavum clavo pellere, drive out one wedge with another.

See more of Christ's Dilemmas in Luc. 6.9. Joh. 18.23.

Christ begun to be a Questionist, and a Disputant, when he was young, twelve years old, sitting in the midst of the Do­ctors or learned men in the Temple, [...], Luke 2.46. [...], both hearing them, Dr. Arrowsmith Orat. 2. Anti­weigel. pag. 12. and posing them. Ecce Jesum Quaestionistam! All that heard him were astonished at his Understanding, and Answers. Did not Christ herein put honor upon Learning, and upon learned men, and upon Disputa­tions?

The Prophets and Apostles do every where bring Arguments, or use Logical Reasonings, to press unto Vertues and Duties, to disswade from Vices; to con­vince, reprove, encourage, comfort, &c. drawn from Causes, Effects, Consequents, Examples, &c. from Promises or Threat­nings, Rewards or Punishments, &c.

Both Christ and his Apostles draw Ar­guments by good Logic from the Old Testament, to prove Articles of Faith in the New. Hence these Phrases occur so often,—it is written—it is written,—and what saith the Scripture? —or such and and such a Prophet?

How frequently and strenuously doth Paul prove Theological Points (and con­firm matters of Faith) by Logical Argu­ments? As,

Justification by Faith, not by Works, Rom. 3.20, 28. and 4.1, 2, 3, &c.

The Necessity of Sanctification, Rom. 6.2, &c.

The Filthiness of Fornication, 1 Cor. 6.13. to the end.

The Resurrection of the Body, 1 Cor. 15.13.

Paul was very Argumentative and Syl­logistical in his Epistles: He played the Logician notably in the Epistle to the Ro­mans; as Chap. 3. v. 28. [...]Therefore we conclude (scil. from the pre­misses laid down before) that a man is justified by Faith, &c. Paul's Syllogisms shew his Logic.

His Sorites, Rom. 5.3, 4. and 8.29, 30.

His Induction, Rom. 8.35, &c.

Enthymems are very frequent with him.

His Hypothetical Syllogisms are many; as Gal. 3.18. If the Inheritance be of the Law, it is no more of Promise—But God gave it to Abraham by promise— Ergo. The Conclusion is left out, as it is oft in Disputation.

As Christ, so his Apostles were Dispu­tants. Paul disputed against the Grecians at Jerusalem, Acts 9.28, 29. with the Jews, Epicureans and Stoics at Athens, Acts 17.17, 18. The Stoics were most [Page 89]famous for Logical Skill, they were ac­counted in those Times Dialectici maximi. Paul was able to dispute Logically and Philosophically with those Philosophers: —argumenta vibrare, idque Athenis.

He disputed daily in the School of one Ty­rannus, Acts 19.9.

Did not Stephen make use of Logic when he disputed against the Libertines and Sophisters of divers Nations, Acts 6.9, 10?

Logica est Radius divinae mentis, Alsted. Ency­clop. lib. 4. Di­dact. cap. 10.est Re­gina mentis humanae, lima ingenii, norma judicii, officina veritatis, & panacea me­moriae: atque ita necessaria est Theologis, Medicis, Jurisperitis, & ipsis Philosophis; sive velint docere, sive refutare, sive ex­plicare, sive probare; unde non abs re vo­catur Instrumentum Instrumentorum, & manus Philosophiae.

CHAP. IV. The Ʋsefulness of Natural Philosophy.

SECT. I. Usefulness of Natural Philosophy declared, and proved.

PHilosophy is either

  • 1. Natural, called Physics.
  • 2. Or Moral, called E­thics.

First, Natural Philosophy is of great use to a Minister of the Gospel. After the times of the Apostles the Church (as A­retius saith) had always learned Doctors (or Teachers) ex Philosophorum Scholis trans­latos: Probl. loc. 151. such were Justin Martyr, surnamed the Philosopher (in Platonicis disciplinis ad mira [...]ulum eruditus) Cyprian and Lactan­tius. Origen, Chrysostom, Hierom were Phi­losophers. Austin excelled herein; and writ divers Philosophical Pieces.

This is useful in two Respects:

I. To know the Natures, Properties, Ef­fects, and Operations of all sublunary Crea­tures:

1. Of the four Elements, as Fire, Air, Water, and Earth.

2. Of Meteors in the Air.

3. Of Minerals in the Earth.

4. Of all living Creatures: As,

1. Vegetatives; of all Trees, Plants, Herbs, Fruits, and Flowers, that grow out of the Earth. —the Kinds, Qualities, and Vertues of them.

2. Sensitives, or Animals; as of

  • 1. All Birds in the Air.
  • 2. Beasts of the Field.
  • 3. All creepings things on the Earth.
  • 4. And the Fishes in the Sea.

3. Rational Creatures; as of Spirits and Men.


  • Man's Body, the Fabrick, and all the Members of it.
  • Man's Soul, the Essence, and all the Faculties of it, and their Operations.

II. To make a fit application of the Creatures (scil. of the Natures, Qualities and Effects of them) to spiritual uses, as the Holy Ghost directs us in the Scrip­tures; which have much Philosophy in them; as Genesis, and other Books: and are full of Allusions to the Natures of all kinds of Creatures: [Page 92]

  • Of Beasts, as Lions, Wolves, Goats, Sheep, Lambs.
  • Of Fowls, as Doves, Eagles, Ravens.
  • Of creeping things, as Serpents, Worms, Ants.
  • Of Gnats, Flies, Locusts, Caterpillers.

Which we cannot make use of for our selves, nor teach or unfold to others, un­less we have the knowledge hereof in some measure, which the study of Natural Phi­losophy may much help us to.

This is needful for a Minister for seven Reasons.

Reas. 1. The knowledge of the Na­ture of the Creatures is but the know­ledge of God in the creatures: from his works of Creation and providence we may and should learn the power, wisdom, goodness and glory of God, (which Natu­ral Philosophy may, through God's bles­sing, much further us in) yea, the Deity of God, Rom. 1.20.

More's Anti­dote against Atheism. The subordination of end and means (which clearly demonstrate an intelligent Agent) in the works

1. Of Creation, especially in the fa­brick of the bodies of Animals, and in the forming of souls:

2. Of Providence, is (as some learned men conceive) the clearest demonstration [Page 93]of the existence of a God.

From hence, it is probable, Aristotle gathered and owned one first Cause, and Plato one God, and Cicero divine provi­dence.

By understanding the utmost activity of Natural Agents we may be assisted in the knowledge, and setled in belief of the divine authority of the Scriptures, and of the Deity of Christ; both which are with much conviction proved by that Argu­ment, which Mr. Baxter hath excellently managed in his Rest, part 2. page 215, &c. drawn from Miracles: the many and real miracles, with which the doctrine of the Scriptures, and the testimony of Christ and his Apostles concerning his Deity, were confirmed; since all miracles are the pro­duct of divine power, and the righteous God will not seal and confirm a falshood. For seeing the Jews, and others, the ene­mies of Christian Religion, do impiously object, that those miracles, which Christ wrought, were not above Nature, but performed through the exquisite know­ledge of it by Natural means; what way is there to silence such objections, but an accurate search and inquiry into the Cau­ses, Natures and Vertues of things, and the understanding how far their power and activity will extend?

Reas. 2. The knowledge of the Na­tures of the Creatures was part of God's Image stamped on Adam at his creation, (& upon us all in him, as being in his loins) as appears by Adam's giving of Names to the Creatures according to their Natures presently, as Hebricians well know. See Calvin in Gen. 2.19. And Piscator in ver. 19, 20, 23. saith, Ante lapsum eximia fuit in homine cognitio rerum naturalium: quippe Adam animalibus sibi a Deo addu­ctis, itemque adductae sibi mulieri, nomina ipsorum naturae convenientia imposuerit. Huc pertinet illud Pythagorae, qui dixisse fertur, Sapientem oportere fuisse hominem, qui primus nomina rebus imposuerit.

This knowledge Adam lost by his fall, for himself, and for us; and it must be reco­vered now by observation, study and indu­stry. To which Philosophy conduceth very much.

Reas. 3. Because a Minister should teach the people to read, understand, and make use of the books, not only of the Scriptures, Psal. 19. but of the Creatures also; which presupposeth himself to be well read in both.

Reas. 4. Philosophy is a very pleasant study, and affords much benefit, satisfacti­on, and delight to the mind of man, (which [Page 95]ignorance herein deprives men of) and why not to a Minister of the Gospel?

Reas. 5. Good skill in Philosophy may make a Minister more fit and able to un­derstand, discuss and determine some points of Divinity, (though not without the as­sistance of God's Spirit) especially those that have a physical Term in them: as about the body of Christ. He that would de­monstrate that not to be every where; or that Christ is not corporally present in the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper, must fetch his Arguments from the Nature and property of a Body, which are delivered in Physics. So about the freedom of the Will, which cannot be handled well, with­out the knowledge of Natural Philosophy: which may also give some furtherance unto his coming to Christ, as it did to the wise men, Mat. 2.1, 2. who came from the East to Jerusa­lem, being guided by the star, to seek and to adore Jesus Christ the new-born Savi­our. These [...] were professed Philoso­phers, great searchers of the depths of Nature. Why did they only follow the star which led them to Christ, when doubt­less this light was visible unto many be­side them? Because they knew it had more then Nature in it. Hence Bishop Hall infers, Contempl. l. 1. The Sages and the Star. That no man is so apt to see the [Page 96]star of Christ, as a diligent Disciple of Philosophy: that humane Learning well improved makes us capable of divine: but Philosophy without the star is but the wisp of error: and that God is the author of all knowledge, and would never have bestowed any Gift that should lead us away from him­self.

Reas. 6. God sends us to the Creatures for Instruction in moral and spiritual du­ties; now we are not capable of it, if we be not acquainted with their Natures. Thus he placeth an Ant in the chair to teach the sluggard wisdom. Prov. 6.6. He sets the Ox and the Ass, (Esa. 1.3.) the Stork, Tur­tle, Swallow and the Crane, (Jer. 8.7.) to read a Lecture to his people against dis­regard of God, and non-observance of his dealings with them. Christ sends his Dis­ciples to school to the Birds of the air, and to the Lilies of the field, to be taught Re­liance upon the Providence of God, Mat. 6.26, &c.

Many other Lessons may be learn'd from the Creatures, if we know their Natures and properties. See instances hereof in the several sorts of Creatures in Alsted's The­ologia Naturalis.

Therefore if God hath made other be­ings as Glasses (as One saith) to represent, [Page 97]as his own excellency, so our duty; we may safely conclude he would have us look in them. Where God teacheth we must learn; and have an eye there, where the finger of God pointeth to us, scil. in his works: which because all men cannot stu­dy and search into, it's necessary some should, namely Ministers, that declare them to others, as David did. The Crea­tures will not read Ethics to him that hath no insight into Physics. Skill in Na­turals may help to make good Morals.

Reas. 7. From Examples, which shew God to be the Author of Philosophy, and it to be of great use and excellency. That David was well acquainted with the works of Nature, as well as with that of Grace, may be gathered from divers passages in the Psalms: especially from Psalm. 104. (if that be his, as it seems to be, because it begins and ends as the former Psalm doth, which is his.) How often do we finde him contemplating the works of God, and admiring him in them?

Solomon was a great Philosopher, 1 King. 4.33. and full of humane, as well as of divine Learn­ing. Therefore it is said, he spake, or dis­coursed, of all kinds of Plants that grow out of the earth, from the Cedar to the Hyssop that springeth out of the wall.—He [Page 98]spake also of Beasts, Fouls, of creeping things, and of Fishes.

Philosophy was part of that wisdom, which God gave unto him, and made him wiser then all men. Solomon's wisdom ex­cell'd the wisdom of all the children of the East Country, Mat. 2.1. 1 King. 4.30. who were reputed the wi­sest in the world, Dan. 2.2. Such were the Chaldeans, and Arabian Philosophers and Astronomers,—and his wisdom ex­cell'd all the wisdom of Egypt. The Egyptians were famous for wisdom and knowledge in all Sciences, Annot. Isa. 19.11, 12. Many famous Philosophers went to Egypt for increase of learning and wisdom. The wisest among the Grecians professed they had their grounds of Philosophy from the Egyptians. But some Authors conceive the Grecians Philosophy to have been but the Jews Cabala with a new Name, and that other Nations derived their Philoso­phical knowledge from the Hebrews, espe­cially the Phenicians, Phoenicia is sometimes put for Canaan. (who were their Neighbors, and with whom Abraham so­journed) from whom Learning was by Cadmus carried to the Grecians, and re­ceived from them by the Latines, and so spread into these Western parts of the world. Yea, it is probable that by means of Solomon's wisdom, and knowledge, Phi­losophy [Page 99]was improved, and Physiology flourished, even in Egypt, Arabia, Chaldea. For it is said, 1 King. 4.34. that there came of all peo­ple to hear the wisdom of Solomon, from all Kings of the earth, which had heard of it; especially from Egypt, because of his alliance with that King, having married his daughter; and from Arabia, because the Queen of Sheba came thence, who brought her hard Questions to him, and carried away his Resolutions. Thus must his knowledge needs be spread in those Countries, where being cherished it rai­sed their fame, and invited those Grecians (who after proved the most eminent Phi­losophers) to undertake long journeys in pursuit of Learning.

Moses was learned in all the wisdom of the Egyptians, Acts. 7.22. that is, in Philosophy, and in all the ingenuous and liberal Arts of the Egyptians.

Job (who is stiled the greatest of the sons of the East, Job 1.3.) and his friends were eminent for profound knowledge. Their discourse evinced their acquaintance with Philosophical, as well as Theologi­cal knowledge.

God gave Daniel, Dan. 1.17. and his three Associ­ates, knowledge and skill in all learning and wisdom; that is, as Calvin saith, in [Page 100]the liberal Arts, (not in Magical Arts) and in natural knowledge. Nebuchadnezzar commanded they should be taught the learning (and the Tongue) ver. 4. of the Chaldeans; that is, as some expound it, the knowledge of Natural, Moral, and Rational things. They were trained up, through God's providence, by their Chal­dean Instructers, in commendable learn­ing, scil. of Arts and Sciences, wherein they attained unto a greater perfection then any in so short a time, as the space of three years; and they were preserved from the corrupt and unlawful Arts the Chalde­ans used; as Magic, Inchanting, Judi­ciary Astrology, and such like. As they would not defile themselves with the King's meat, so they would not be cor­rupted with the vain Arts of the Chalde­ans, or the superstitious precepts of their Teachers. Daniel was the Master or su­perintendent of the wise men in Babylon, Dan. 2.48, with 4.9.

SECT. II. Objections refuted.

Obj. 1. DOth not Paul condemn Philoso­phy, when he cautioneth the Colossians against it, Col. 2.8. Beware [Page 101]lest any man spoil you through Philosophy, that is, rob you of your souls, or your souls of Christ, or his Truth and Grace?

Ans. The Apostle meaneth not all Philosophy, but that which is vain and deceitful, an imposture or seducement, therefore said to be vain deceit, by way of Explication, or as a restraint, as Calvin, Zanchy, Davenant, and many others, in­terpret the words.

Philosophy may be taken in a triple sense.

The first sense. For the knowledge of the Natures and properties of the Crea­tures, and the Rules concerning the same; as also of Moral Vertues. This is the most true, proper, and genuine signification thereof.

This Philosophy is lawful and useful, for two Reasons.

Reas. 1. It is the birth of right Reason, (or, as one cals it, the child of rectified rea­son) it is the knowledge of Truth inven­ted by the light of natural Reason, which is put into man's mind by God himself. Res Dei Ratio, saith Tertullian. True Philo­sophy is the Truth of God, or a branch plucked from the eternal verity (as some phrase it.) It is [...], that which is to be known of God, much of whom may [Page 102]be seen in the Creature. Rom. 1.19. Psal. 19.1. Acts 14.17.

The book of Job is full of Arguments from things Natural, to dictate and mani­fest the infinite wisdom and power of God.

Doth not the Word of God send us sometimes to the teachings of Nature, and of natural things?

Reas. 2. The knowledge of the Crea­tures (or of natural things) and of Moral Vertues, may help in the knowledge of things spiritual and heavenly, as a specta­cle wherewith they may be better discern­ed, and serve as a step to ascend to the clearer discovery thereof.

True Philosophy helps grace (saith one) better to apprehend, Bains in Col. 2.8. and more fitly to teach others the things it knoweth; and it furthers and strengthens faith in a belie­ver, (though he believe not for Reason) when he seeth the consent of Reason. Cre­dimus supra rationem, sed non temere, aut irrationabiliter. Nam ipsa ratio concipit & illud cui fidem adhibemus sluere, & recte deduci ex principiis sacrae Scripturae, Davenant in Col. 2.8.

This Philosophy (or Philosophy in this sense) is good, Acts 17.28, 29. and allowed by Paul, else he should condemn himself; for he used it in disputing Philosophically with the Phi­losophers at Athens, and confuting them [Page 103]out of their own writings.

The second sense. Philosophy may be taken for the Errors of the Philosophers, or of Heathens, who excell'd in the know­ledge of Philosophy, affirming things false and contrary to the Word of God; as the eternity of the world; Vid. Zanch. in Col. 2.8. the mortality of souls; of Purgatory fire after this life, out of Plato; of Stoical Fate; Magick, and Soothsaying; of Heathenish deities, and the worship of them; and of divers devil­ish things; the doctrine of Demons; 1 Tim. 4.1. of the worship of Angels.

It's probable the false Apostles, under a pretence of secret wisdome, sought to obtrude some new doctrines (as this and others, drawn, it's like, Davenant on [...] 2.18. out of the fountains of the Platonists) upon the Colossians.

The Philosophers, as the Stoies, Epi­cureans, Aristotelians, Platonists, and o­thers, do not always deliver the dictates of right Reason, but sometimes the dreams or fancies of their own opinion.

We judge that true Philosophy, deli­vered by all the Philosophers, or others, which is agreeable to right reason, to truth, and good Maners. Hoc totum selectum ap­pellamus Philosophiam, saith Davenant.

Now the errors of Philosophers do not appertain to Philosophy, tanquam partes, sed [Page 104]pestes ejus, as the parts, but pests thereof; as the errors of Divines do to Divinity: and to introduce the errors of Philosophers into Divinity is dangerous, and damnable.

The third sense. Philosophy may be ta­ken for the Misapplication of the Rules of Philosophy, that are true in themselves (in the course and order of Nature) and agree­able to reason, to impugne the mysteries of the Gospel, and our faith therein, or to overthrow the Principles of Religion; which are far above Nature, and above Reason: As, the Creation of the world; the Resurrection of the body; the Trini­ty of Persons in the Unity of the Divine Essence; the Incarnation of Christ; (that a Virgin should conceive;) the Hyposta­tical Union of his two Natures; the Ju­stification of a sinner by the righteousness of another, &c.

All which are to be drawn from higher Principles then the light of Nature, (be­cause the like to all these is not in all Na­ture) scil. from the revealed will of God in his word; and are to be effected not by the vertue of Natural Causes, but by the omnipotency of God.

This is the abuse and perverting of Phi­losophy, which is pernicious, and hath helpt to breed heresie in many Articles of Faith [Page 105]and Religion. Then Philosophy is vain deceit indeed, and corrupts the soul with its delusions, and draws the heart away from Christ, and the simplicity of the Go­spel, Beza. Zanch. Davenant. when it is carried beyond its proper bounds and limits, to determine of such things as are above the capacity of Nature and Reason, and pertain to faith, and de­pend only upon the revealed will of God, and concern the worship of God, and the salvation of man, then it doth misere in nugas evanescere.

The errors of Philosophers, and the a­buse of Philosophy, are condemned, and disswaded from by Paul in this Text.

Now the abuse of a thing takes not away the lawful use of it.

Protestants blame the Papists for ma­king Philosophy a Mistress, rather then an Hand-maid, to Divinity; and for follow­ing Aristotle rather then Paul, Cartwright in Rhem. Test. in their opi­nions of God's providence; of Justification by works; of Free-will and Purgatory, and of many other things, wherein their Phi­losophical Agar hath malapertly gain­sayed her Theological Mistress Divinity: and though we embrace the help of those weapons against the presence of Christ's body in the Sacrament, which common reason puts into our hands, yet we bring [Page 106]them not but sharpned and headed out of the holy Scriptures, Fulk. which declare the perfect humanity of Christ, and all the essential properties of a true and natural body, Mar. 16.16. Luke 24.39. Acts 3.21.

Object. 2. Did not the ancient fathers sometimes inveigh bitterly against Philo­sophers and Philosophy, De Anima cap. 1. Adversus Her­mogenem, cap. 1. as Tertullian, who calls them Animalia Gloriae—Haere­ticorum Patriarchas, Adulteros veritatis, &c.—& Lactantius Instit. lib. 3. cap. 2. Hierom saith, Philosophi sunt Primogeniti Aegypti, Ad Ctesiph. contra Pelag. cap. 1.& Irenaeus adversus Haereses, lib. 2. cap. 19.

Answ. The abuse of Philosophy by the Heretics of old (Sophisters rather then Philosophers) as is conceived, gave those Fathers the occasion thereof. For in o­ther places, where they speak of it, as it is in it self, they much commend, and set it forth. Ye [...] Tertullian, though he was a keen opposer of those Philosophers, yet gave this good Testimony of the use and need of Humane Learning: De Idololatria, cap. 1. Quomodo quis institueretur ad prudentiam humanam, vel ad quemcunque sensum vel actum (sine literis) cum Instrumentum sit ad omnem vitam literatura? quomodo repudiamus secularia studia, sine quibus divina esse [Page 107]non possunt? videamus igitur necessita­tem literatoriae eruditionis, &c.

Si Philosophiam damnaret & rejiceret Apostolus, rejiceret utique lumen Rationis, Davenant in Col. 28. pag. 225.& Deum ejus Authorem summa afficeret injuria.

Vere dicamus nullam esse partem Philoso­phiae, aut humanae literaturae,Idem p. 228, 229.quae ab In­terprete sacrarum literarum non advoce­tur quandoque, quasi ad Symbolum suum conferendum.


Metaphysics I have omitted (though there might be use of them) because what is contained in them may be refer'd to Physics, Logic, and Divinity.

CHAP. V. Of the Ʋsefulness of Moral Philosophy, or Ethics.

MOral Philophy is useful for a Mini­ster, to have the knowledge of Ethics, Oeconomics, Politics.

Reas. 1. Because the holy Scriptures have much of all these in them (they be­ing a Rule of Maners to all sorts of men, and in all Capacities and Relations) espe­cially the Proverbs and Ecclesiastes; out of which Bishop Hall hath made an Ex­tract of Solomon's Ethics, Oeconomics and Politics.

Reas. 2. A Minister may be much helped in the knowledge of virtues and vices and of the concernments of both; and in aspirations after Goodness, especi­ally summum bonum, and Tranquillity of Minde, and in many other such things, even by the Moral Philosophy of the Heathen (who went onwards as their light leads them) wherein very useful and ex­cellent things are to be found.

This is of much use.

1. Rom. 2.14, 15. To declare that the Moral Law of God is written naturally in the Heart, [Page 109]seeing divers of the Heathen, who were amiably and laudably moral, were never by Grace elevated above Nature.

2 1 Cor. 11.14. Dr. Hall. To shew what Dictates or Doctrines even Nature teacheth men: Grace scorn­eth not to learn some things even of Na­ture.

3 To shame Christians, who enjoy Means of Grace, the light of the Gospel, yet come very short even of Heathen men in Moral virtues; as in Justice, Temperance, Meekness, Continency, Pa­tience, Amity, and fall sometimes into such foul Sins as are not named among the Gentiles, scil. without detestation; as the incestuous person in the Church of Co­rinth did, 1 Cor. 5.1.

CHAP. VI. Of the Ʋsefulness of History.

SECT. I. Of History in general, as useful to under­stand Scripture.

THe knowledge of History both sa­cred and civil affords both profit and pleasure, and is of great use to a Minister of the Gospel in three re­spects, scil.

For knowing and improving

  • 1. The word of God,
  • 2. The works of God,
  • 3. The examples of Men.

First of all, for understanding and im­proving the holy Scriptures.

Reas. 1. Because the greatest part of Scripture is written in a way of History.

Reas. 2. Much spiritual and profitable Doctrine is laid up in Histories, to wit,

  • Of Persons, Families, Nations, Polities, in the Old Testament:
  • and of Churches, in the New.

Yea some Scripture-histories contain Gospel-mysteries wrapt up in them. As [Page 111]the Mystery of God's Election and Reje­ction in the History of Isaac and Ismael, Rom. 9.6, 7, 8. of Jacob and Esau, ver. 11, 12, 13.—the Mystery of God's wrath, se­verity, obduration and rejection, in that of Pharaoh, ver. 17. Exod. 9.16.

—Of the two Covenants, in the History of the two places Sinai and Jerusalem, and of the two Mothers, Sarah and Hagar, Gal. 4.22. to the end.

Reas. 3. Because many passages of Scripture, both in the Old and New Testa­ment, cannot be well understood, explica­ted, illustrated or made use of to the be­nefit of our selves, or others, but out of Histories, or without the knowledge of Histories. As those Prophetical Scriptures, which speak of the four Monarchies, of the Pope and Turk; of the various state of the Church of God in several Ages.

There is in Scripture a mixture of Ci­vil with Sacred stories, as

Of the Jews affairs, and transactions with the Nations round about them, and with other Nations, that were remote from them; and what was done to the Jews (God's people) in the times of the Old Te­stament, to Christ and his Church, or to any of his members, under the New; by Kings, Emperors, Rulers, or their Offi­cers, [Page 112]at their Command, as by Herod, Matth. 2.3, &c. Acts 12.1, 2, 3. and by others, as Claudius, Acts 18.2. Nero, 2 Tim. 4.17.

Or, what befell them in the times of these Kings, or Emperors, as of Cesar Au­gustus, Luc. 2.1, 2. of Claudius Cesar, Acts 11.28.

Many passages in the Prophets may be best explaned out of the Histories of the Times, and Places, to which they proper­ly belong. Mr. Ruther­ford. A learned man saith that Josephus, Herodotus, Quintus Curtius, Xe­nophon, and other Heathen Writers, con­duce not a little to the Textual know­ledge of Chronicles, Nehemiah, Esther, Daniel: as those that write of the Baby­lonish, Assyrian, and Persian Kingdoms, and Empires, and the Roman History may add light to the Prophets and Evangelists, Acts, and Epistles of Paul in the New Testament.

The Scriptures have much of the An­tiquities, Maners, Customes, both of the Jews, and of other Countries also, in them, and there be many Allusions in them thereunto; and the Scriptures receive il­lustration from them.

SECT. II. Of Jewish History.

FIrst of the Jews. Whence if not from the Jewish Records, or Writers, should we learn—what the Scribes and Pharisees were? what the Elders, the Ru­lers of the Synagogue? what the [...], Luke 22.52? what [...], Mark 19.43? what their Synagogues, their Phy­lacteries, and the enlarging of the bor­ders of their Garments?—what was the rise of the Feast of Dedication, John 10.22. seeing the Temple was thrice conse­crated by solemn Dedication, and of which that in John must be understood? See Beza in Joh. 10.22. What a Sabbath-days journey? what the Samaritanes were, and where they worshipped, John 4.20? This conduceth to understand the parable of the good Samaritan. Luk. 10.33. and of Mat. 10.5. What those particular Customes of the Jews are, which are hinted, and re­ferred to in holy Writ? The knowledge hereof helps us more fully to understand Christ's Sermon on the Mount, and Matth. 23. chap.—and 21. chap. 8, 9, 12. Luke 7.44, 45, 46. and 11.44.

Rev. 16.15. Blessed is he that watcheth [Page 114]and keepeth his garments] This hath re­spect (as some conceive) to the twenty four Guards of Priests and Levites watch­ing in the Temple every night, Dr. Lightfoot's Temple-Ser­vice, cap. 7. sect. 1. where one walked the Round; who, if he found any of them asleep, might set fire on his garment.

Revel. 3.4. —They shall walk with me in white, De Dieu in loc.for they are worthy] This place seems to glance at that Custom of the Jews, that when enquiry was made of the Genealogy and imperfections of the Priests, whosoever was rejected, as to his Gene­alogy, had a black Garment put on him, and went out of the Court: but who so was found entire, and right, was invested with white, and ministred with the rest of the Priests.

Luke 13.33. —It cannot be that a Pro­phet perish out of Jerusalem] which speech of Christ looks to that custom, that none were to judge Prophets, but the Sanhe­drim, or great Council of seventy one, who used to sit onely in a part of the Temple at Jerusalem. Matth. 17.24. —They that received Tribute-money:] [...]. —that is half a Shekel, demanded of every Jew yearly for the use of the Temple: Of which see Grotius in loc. and Schickards Jus Regium Hebr. pag. 84.

It may be cleared from Jewish Wri­tings, how our Saviour could keep his last Passover a day before the Jews kept theirs (for the day after he had eaten it, and wherein he was crucified, was but the pre­paration to theirs, John 18.28. and 19.14.) and yet keep it at the due time: which Dr. Cudworth hath excellently made out in his Discourse of the Notion of the Lords Supper, chap. 3.

Lastly, Those words Hebr. 11.35. O­thers were tortured, not accepting deliver­ance, &c. have respect to Eleazar, and the Mother with her seven Sons, whose Faith and Constancy is recorded in the se­cond of the Maccabees, chap. 6. verse 19, 30. and chap. 7.

SECT. III. The History of other Eastern Nations.

THe Scriptures have also in them the Customs of other Nations: Both

  • I. Of those that were nearest the Jews.
  • II. And of those that were more remote.

First, Of those which were nearest the Jews, round about them: For they men­tion

1. Their Deities, of which many in the Old Testament, as Moloch, Baal-peor, Da­gon, Ashtaroth, &c. of which see Mr. Sel­den de Diis Syris. To those commonly ob­served some add Amon, an Egyptian and Libyan Deity, mentioned Jer. 46.25. in the Hebrew; [...] Amon of No, i. e. a place where Amon was worshipped, thence called No-amon, Nah. 3.8. See De Dieu in loc. and Bochart. Geogr. sacra, page 6. Others add [...] Achad, which we render [one] Isai. 66.17. but seems to denote the Sun, the god of the Assyrians. See Grotius in loc. and Scaliger in notis in frag­menta selecta.

2. Their Rites and Ceremonies; as of worshipping an Idol See Dough­ty's Analecta sacra in locum. by kissing the hand, Job 31.27. Their Women's being prostituted in the Temple of Venus Selden de Diis Syr. Syn­tag. 2. cap. 7. (in honor to her) among the Babylonians: to which Levit. 19.29. seems to have re­spect. Their observing lucky and unlucky days for such and such businesses, Levit. 19.26. and their several sorts of Divina­tion (as by the staff and liver) without which those two places are not to be un­derstood, Ezekiel 21.21. Hosea 4.12. Their custom of eating of the Sacrifices, which they offered to their Idols, upon mountains: See Dr. Cu [...]worth's Notion of the Lord's Supper, cap. 1. whence it is that Idolatry [Page 117]is expressed in Scripture by eating on the mountains, Ezek. 18.11. and by setting a Bed there, Isai. 57.7. (see also Ezekiel 23.41. and Amos 2.8. because they were wont not to sit at Feasts, but to lie on Beds, or Couches: which the Jews also used. So we read of John's leaning (or rather [...]. lying) in Jesus bosom; that is, with his head before Jesus breast, which was the usual posture, John 13.23, 25. To which See Heins. in Luke 15.22. Lazarus's being in Abraham's bosom may refer, Luke 16.22. as intima­ting his having the next place to Abraham at that heavenly Feast, where many from the East and West shall sit down with him.

From that See much of it in Mr. Gre­gory's Notes, cap. 7, 8. and H [...]t [...]inger's Histor. Orient. page 190, &c. Eastern usage (thence translated into the West) of making Te­losms or Images of some plague, or noxi­ous creature, which infested them (and that under a certain Position of the Heavens) that by vertue hereof they might drive it away: from that usage, I say, we may judge of the meaning of those Images of Emerods and Mice (the plagues vent a­mongst them) which the Lords of the Phi­listims sent back with the Ark, that so those plagues might be removed, 1 Sam. 6.4, 5.

A fair Reason may be given of divers [Page 118] prohibitions in the Ceremonial Law (other­wise somewhat strange) from the Rites and Superstitions of other Nations the Jews Neighbors) to which they are opposed. For God knew the Israelites prone to Ido­latry; so that the more Rites they had common with the Gentiles, the more easi­ly would they have passed over to their Worship and Maners.

Thus Exod. 23.19. and 34.26. after the Command of bringing in the first of the first-fruits into the House of God, it's added, Thou shalt not seethe a Kid in his Mothers milk: because it was the custom of the Idolatrous Heathen (as Dr. Cud­worth Notion of the Lord's Sup­per, page 26. proves) when they had gathered in all their Fruits, to boil a Kid in the Dams milk, and then in a Magical way to besprinkle all their Trees, Fields, Gardens, and Orchards, thinking hereby to make them fructifie. The Israelites may be for­bidden to sowe their Field or Vineyard with divers seeds, Levit. 19.19. Deut. 22.9. because this mixture was used by others for Magical Purposes. See Grotius in loc. and Hotting. Hist. Orient. lib. 1. cap. 8. And the Zabian (or Eastern) Priests are said to have worn linsey-woolsey garments, which might occasion the forbidding of such, Levit. 19.19. As the shaving of [Page 119]their heads and beards; and the cutting of the hair round, leaving onely some be­hinde, in use among the Arabians (thence called, those that have their corners polled Grotius and Junius in loc. and Dion. Vos­sius in Maimon. de Idolol. cap. 12. Jer. 9.26. margin, and 25.23.) did that other, verse 27. Ye shall not round the corners of your heads—or beard.

The next verse also hath respect to Heathen Customs: The latter part of it [nor print any marks upon you] is opposed to that of the Sabeans and Assyrians, who used to print marks on their flesh, and those See Grotius in Levit. 19.28. either the names of their gods, or some number standing for their name, or some Hieroglyphical note or character ap­propriated to them: To which Revel. 13.16, 17. refers, where we read of men, that have the mark or the name of the Beast, or the number of the name on their hand or forehead. See Grotius on that place. These Idolaters were thus marked probably in token of their serving such an Idol, their Baal, their lord: since it was a custom in the Eastern parts for Servants to have their Masters names imprinted on their foreheads: and so we read of the servants of God sealed there, Ezek. 9.4. Rev. 7.3. The Zabians used to sacrifice to Devils under the form of Goats; whence that Levit. 17.7. They shall no more offer their [Page 120]Sacrifices unto Devils, [...] to Goats, or Satyres. They offered onely leavened Bread, and anointed their Sacrifices with Honey. Hence Leaven and Honey seem to have been forbidden in Offerings, Levit. 2.11.

To be short, what better Expositors are there of these following places, then such as write of the Gentiles Maners and Superstitions? viz. Deuteron. 18.10, 11. 2 Kings 23.4, to 15. Isai. 65.3, 4, 11. and 66.17. Ezek. chap. 8. and chap. 23. vers. 39, 40, 41. Jer. 7.18.

SECT. IV. Of Egyptian History.

SO much in general of the Customs of the Nations nearest the Jews. To which some things may be subjoined, which relate particularly to the Rites and Anti­quities of the Egyptians. And,

I. Who can understand the meaning of Moses's excuse for not sacrificing in Egypt (Exod. 18.26. We shall sacrifice the abo­mination of the Egyptians) that hath not heard of their Apis or Mnevis, of their adoring an Ox, and counting Sheep and Goats sacred Creatures; which, for the Hebrews to have killed in sacrifice, would [Page 121]have been abominable to them? Which further clears two things:

1. Hence we may discern a Reason, why God, of all Beasts, chose these (Oxen, Sheep and Goats) to be sacrificed to him; namely, because they were deified by the Egypti­ans: by which means he might keep the Israelites from their Idolatry, and make himself acknowledged the onely true God. Thus, among Birds, God might pitch on a Dove for sacrifice, because it was worship­ed by the Syrians and Assyrians, who would not eat of, or suffer that creature to be hurt.

2. We may further discover hence, where the Israelites learn'd to worship a Calf, or Ox (as it's called Psal. 106.20.) in the Wilderness; to wit, in Egypt, Ezek. 20.7, 8. Whence also Jeroboam (newly returned from thence) brought that Wor­ship in again amongst them.

Cunaeus De Republ. Hebr. l. 3. c. 4. also thinks, that their burn­ing incense to the brazen Serpent, 2 Kings 18.4. sprung from the vanity of the E­gyptians, who had Serpents in so sacred account.

II. Egyptians Story will acquaint us fully how Shepherds came to be an abomination to the Egyptians: for which consult Cunaeus de Repub. Hebraeor. lib. 1. cap. 5. or Bo­chart. [Page 122]Geograph. sacr. page 375.

III. Their Antiquities will clear Isai. 18.1, 2. Wo to the Land of the Cymbal, or jingle, (for that is the meaning of the Hebrew, according to Geogr sacr. pag. 240. Bochartus and Annotat. on Isa. 18.1, 2. Mr. Gataker)—that sendeth Ambas­sadors by the Sea in vessels of Bulrushes up­on the Waters. That this Land is Egypt, appears,

1. In that abundance of such Instru­ments was used in the worship of Isis, the great goddess of the Egyptians.

2. It was ordinary there, to pass to and fro in Boats or Vessels made of a sort of Rush, which was plentiful in Egypt: and so were Reeds also; their plenty making them Amam. An­tibarb. Bibl. in Psal. 68.30. to be used Hieroglyphically to signifie Nilus, or Egypt. Whence it is, that the Egyptians are understood by the Com­pany of the Reed, in Psal. 68.30. or Pha­raoh by the Beast of the Reed, as the mar­gin hath it.

IV. From the Egyptians we may learn the meaning of the See Junius in Ezek. 8.14. and Selden de Diis Syr. Synt. 2 cap. 11. womens weeping for Tammuz, Ezek. 8.14. and of the Star of Remphan in Acts 7.43. which verse is quoted out of Amos 5.26. and that ac­cording to the Version of the LXX, who rendred Chiun there by [...], or as some Copies have it See Beza in Act. 7.43. [...], or [...]. be­cause [Page 123]this Name was better known to the Egyptians (in whose Land, and for whose King they made their Version) in whose Language it signified the same that Chiun doth in Hebrew, or Arabic rather, viz. Saturn. See De Dieu in Acts 7.43. and Doctor Hammond on the same place.

SECT. V. Of Grecian History.

Secondly, THe Scripture hath somthing in it of the customs of other Nations, more remote from the Jews, the Grecians and Romans.

I. Of the Grecians. For we read of di­verse of their Deities, as Jupiter, Mercu­ry (Acts 14.12.) Castor and Pollux (Acts 28.11.) and Diana, which were also wor­shipped by the Romans. We read too of the Athenian Altar, Acts 17.23. and the Ephesian Image, the [...], chap. 19.35.

The Grecian Games are frequently al­luded to in Pauls Epistles, who, planting Churches in Greece, attempers his dis­course to their usages. One of their four famous Games was the Isthmian, celebra­ted at Corinth, the customs of which he hath manifest respect to in 1 Cor. 9.24, 25, 26, 27. where you may see in the Greek [Page 124]several of their exercises (as running and pugilate) and the terms appropriate to them, as [...].

All which words require explication from those Grecian Solemnities, without knowing of which we cannot reach that great Elegancy, nor the full sense of those Verses. In that last word [...] the A­postle alludes to the probation of those who had performed athletical exercises, for it was examined whether they had stri­ven lawfully, before they were pronoun­ced Conquerors, and so crowned: which you may see in 2 Tim. 2.5. He that strove as he ought, was [...], approved, and so got the prize. Hence Jam. 1.12. its said of him that endureth tentation, [...], &c. He that strove or run amiss was [...] rejected, and missed of the reward. So that Pauls meaning in 1 Cor. 9.27. is, lest when I have performed the office of a [...], or Herald (which was to proclaim the prize, and the laws of the Exercises, and to ad­monish and animate the contenders) when I have shewed others the right way of stri­ving and getting the Crown, I my self miscarry, and be judged uncapable of it.

There is also an allusion to the Grecian Games in Phil. 3.12, 13, 14, 16. where we meet with more agonistical terms, as [...] (which is as much as to be crowned) and [...] or [...], which is used to denote his apprehending, or catching of the prize, or reward from the top of the Goal, who was judged the Conqueror.

So in 2 Tim. 4.7, 8. and in Heb. 12.1, 2, 3, 4, 11, 12. the Phrase is agonistical.

He that desires an Explication of the Customs of their Games, and so of those Scriptures which refer to them may con­sult P. Faber, or Lydius in his Agonistica sacra; or Doctor Hammond in his Anno­tations on the above-mentioned Places, who excellently sets forth the Emphasis of them.

In Acts 19.31. we read of the [...] See Doctor Hammond on that place, and Beza. the Exhibiters and Governors of the Games in Asia, which were at that time celebrated at Ephesus to the honor of Di­ana. Therefore Ephesus is stiled her [...], or Sacrist, verse 35. which Title was affected by every City, where their games were celebrated in honor of some of their Deities. See Master Gregorie's Notes, chap. 9.10.

The [...] verse 35. is also said to [Page 126]have been See Master Gregories notes before cited. an Officer in those Games.

In 1 Cor. 4.9. and 15.32. the Apostle hath respect to that bloody spectacle, when men, who were [...], devoted to death, were to sight on the Theatre with Beasts, that would rend them to pieces.

I will conclude this Head with the words of Scultetus; In Orat. pro conjun. Phi­lolog. cum Theolog.Graeciam igitur veterem noverit, Paulinas Epistolas qui nosse sata­git.

SECT. VI. Of Roman History.

2. THe Scripture hath somthing in it of the Roman Customs, and Antiqui­ties. See Acts 22.25, 28. and 25.10, 11, 16. and 26.32. Luk. 2.1, 2.

Let me hear without any help from the Roman History, what Cesar was, Joh. 19.12. and what is meant by Legion, Centuri­on, Publican, by the whole world, [...] The Roman Empire., and what by [...], Luk. 2.1.

He that hath not read, or heard that Tarsus, amongst other places, was privi­ledged with the freedoms of the City of Rome, cannot make it out how Paul could say, and say truly, that he was a Roman [Page 127]free-born, Acts 22.27, 28. when indeed he was a Jew born at Tarsus, verse 3.

The crucifixion of Christ was a Roman punishment, and so not to be perfectly un­derstood but from that History. To which there was something added of the Jewish usage, in giving him [...] Mark 15.23. For the Jews used to give a cup of wine with frankincense, or See Amam. Antibath. Bibl. in Prov. 31.6. myrrh to con­demned persons before their execution, grounding this Custom on Prov. 36.1. Give strong drink to him that is ready to perish, &c.

SECT. VII. Of Christian, or Church-History under the Gospel.

THus much may suffice to evidence the History both of the Jews, and Gentiles, to be useful for explicating many passages in Scripture. The same may be affirmed of the Christian History, or the History of the Church in the times of the Gospel, from which we must receive information, about that usage of being baptized for the dead, mentioned 1 Cor. 15.29. and about the [...], or Feasts of charity, Jude 12. the understanding of which is of use to clear the meaning of 1 Cor. 11.21, 22. And [Page 128]concerning the Nicolaitans, who they were, and what their Doctrine, Rev. 2.6, 15.

It is Ecclesiastical History that must give light to those places of Scripture which foretell of Antichrist, or which concern the Church all along, since the first pub­lishing of the Gospel.

From hence also must we be instructed in those Cases, wherein it is requisite to know the custom of the Churches, 1 Cor. 11.16.

Ecclesiastical History is one of the near­est attendants to Divinity, and therefore hath always experienced the same fate with it: Simul floruerunt, simul jacuerunt, both flourished, and both were out of respect together: as Isaac Casaubon shews in his Prolegomena to his Exercitations on Baro­nius's Annals.

Who so desires to see the use of this sort of History largely pursued, may read Grynaeus's Preface to the Ecclesiastical Hi­story of Eusebius, &c. rendred into Latine.

SECT. VIII. Of History as useful to know Gods works.

SEcondly, History is useful to a Minister for knowing the works of God, which are great and manifold, and declared by it.

History is the Theatre and representation of God's providence, (or divine dispensati­ons) as it exerciseth and manifesteth it self in managing the affairs of the world; but especially in reference to his children, and to his cause; in the preservation of his Church and Truth, notwithstanding the cruelty of Tyrants, and subtilty of Here­ticks, designing the extirpation of the one, and corruption of the other.

Herein are legible God's wonderful mer­cies and deliverances of his servants, and his judgements upon the wicked, in spe­cial upon the opposers of his Truth, and the persecuters of his servants, and the constancy of those many Martyrs, who seal­ed the Truth with their blood. All which may contribute much to the confirming of our belief of it, and the convincing of others.

Without History, how much of the manifestation and appearances of God in the world, how many eminent and signal [Page 130]instances of his wisdom, power and good­ness, would be lost.

The declaring of God's doings among the people is that the Scripture calls for, Psal. 9.11. and to whom doth this be­long, if not to God's Ministers? and what greater help to this, next the word of God, then History? sure, he that is fur­nished with it will be a Scribe better in­structed, and more able to bring forth of his Treasury things both new and old.

Men are ordinarily more awakened and affected with the Historical Relations, and lively Descriptions (because they come nearest to sensible representations) of such passages, or providential dispensations to any, wherein the mercy or displeasure of God is conspicuous, then if they only hear promises or threatnings. It would strike the minde with far more horror, to hear of the dreadful calamity brought upon the Jews by the Romans, after they had crucified Christ, and to have the particu­lars of their misery recounted, then only to read Christ's words where he denounceth destruction against them, Luke 19.43.

SECT. IX. Of History as useful to know the Examples of men.

THirdly, For knowing and improving the examples of men, their vertues and vices. By Historical relations we have the benefit of others good examples, and the comfort of their experiences; which may be improved (as well as the various passages of God's providence, both mer­cies and judgements) by the Ministers of the Gospel, to the exciting or supporting of others, as occasion is offered. And since men are so apt to be led by examples, he that is a good Historian hath a great ad­vantage for the drawing and working upon others; to make an apt application of stories and examples, (providential and personal) which is often much moving and taking with the auditors.

This use of History approacheth very near Christ's way of teaching by Parables; in many of which, there is as it were an application of an Historical passage to di­vine and spiritual purposes.

Histories are Pictures or Glasses, Mr. Part in Rom. 11.2. (saith one) wherein we may discern both what is good and bad, and what we may expect [Page 132]as a reward either of our vertues or vices; —and it is very profitable to be acquaint­ed with the Histories of the Bible, and to make use of them. Our Savior and Paul approve this by their practice, Mat. 12.3, 5. Have ye not read, saith Christ. 1 Cor. 10.1, &c. I would not that ye should be ig­norant, saith Paul] scil. of the Old Testa­ment-stories. So also practised James, Peter, Jude, John, as appears in their Epistles.—There was never any man of note for wisdom, who was a stranger in story.

Lege Historiam ne flas Historia, saith one. Read History that you may not be made an History.

CHAP. VII. Of the Ʋsefulness of Chrono­logy.

CHronology is of great use for a Mini­ster of the Gospel, to know eight things.

I. The several Ages of the world exact­ly, and the Times of Generations, and of Nations,

—of Governments, Kingdoms and Com­monwealths; the rise, growth, changes and periods of them.

—And of Governors, of Kings and Ru­lers, and the times of their reigns, (espe­cially of the Kings of Judah and Israel, both absolutely and comparatively, which have some knots, difficulties, and seeming repugnancies in them) and what fell out therein: as Christ's birth in the days of Herod the King, Mat. 2.1. and so John Baptist's birth, Luke 1.5, 13.

It may be needful to know the times of the reigns of Heathen Kings and Empe­rors, because some passages of Sacred story refer to them; as Christ's birth; the com­ing up of Joseph and Mary to Judea, to be taxed in the dayes of Cesar Augustus, Luke 2.1. to 8. the great dearth which Agabus prophesied, that came to pass in the days of Claudius Cesar the Emperor, Acts 11.28.

It's said in Dan. 2.44. Will. t. In the days of these Kings (that is of Syria and Egypt, as some conceive, or rather of the Roman Em­pire, as others) shall the kingdom of the Messiah be set up.

II. To know the particular times and seasons,

1. Wherein Persons of Note lived, [Page 134]—and who were contemporary, or what di­stance of time was between them.

2. Wherein such and such remarkable things were done by God or man, reported in the Old or New Testament.

To know the order and distinction of times, and of deeds done in them.

III. To know the several ages of the Church of God.

1. Under the Law, and the various states thereof, and what Prophets lived in each of them.

2. Under the New Testament, the seve­ral ages and states of the Churches of Christ, their beginnings, continuance, de­cay and dissolution; and what Apostles, or Ministers of Christ, lived in them.

To know the parts of Christ's life, (pri­vate and publick) and the years of his Mi­nistery, and what he did or suffered in every one of them.

To know the times of the Passovers while Christ lived upon earth, for the years of Christ's Ministery are reckoned accor­ding to the same.

IV. To know the particular times, wherein the several books of the Holy Scripture were written by the Pen-men thereof; which conduceth much to a right understanding of several passages therein, [Page 135]and to reconcile seeming repugnancies in the Scriptures.

Distingue tempora & concordabunt Scrip­turae.

The distinction of the times, wherein Paul writ his several Epistles, is of much use to shew, why the Apostles wrote so variously about the same things, as Cir­cumcision, and other Ceremonies. For to the Romans, chap. 14.1. he exhorts that they should receive them that are weak in the faith, &c. i. e. about Ceremonies and indifferent things.

But to the Galatians and Colossians he utterly condemns the use of Circumcision, Gal. 5.2, &c. Col. 2. the reason is, the difference of times, as Chrysostom hath no­ted. Ceremonies were alwayes in them­selves mortal; at Christ's death they be­came mortuae, dcad, but after that they be­came mortiferae, deadly to them that used them.

V. To know the times of fulfilling Prophesies, and Promises of things that are now

  • 1. Past.
  • 2. To come.

First Past, as those that were made con­cerning

1. Particular persons, as Josiah; the Prphecy of him foretold by the man of [Page 136]God, Piscator. 330. years before he was born, 1 King. 13.2. and concerning Cyrus by name, about 220. years before he was born, Isa. 44.28. which are so punctual­ly performed, as if these Prophecies con­cerning them had been a Narrative of things past, rather then a prediction of things to come.

2. Concerning people; as

1. Gen. 15.13. To the Israelites about their bon­dage, which was 400 years, beginning the account from Ismael's mocking and persecuting of Isaac, Gal. 4.29. which fell out 30. years after the promise, Gen. 12.3. which promise was 430. Gal. 3.17. years before the law, —and about their coming forth of Egypt out of bondage, Answorth. which was 430. years af­ter that promise, Exod. 12.41. God kept time to a day.

2. To the Jews concerning their Captivity in Babylon, and Reduction thence after 70. years, Jer. 29.10.

Concerning the coming of the Messiah in fulness of time, Gal. 4.4. exactly answering and fulsilling the prophecies thereof, as to Christ's birth and death, Gen. 49.10. Dan. 9.24.

God is punctual for time in all his per­formances of his Prophecies, and promi­ses, even to a day or hour; and for things, to a title.

Whatever God promised to Israel at any time with his mouth, he performed with his hand to the utmost, 1 King. 8.56. Jer. 33.14.

A clear demonstration of his veracity and fidelity, and of the verity of his word.

The same may be said of the times of God's fulfilling of Prophecies and Treat­nings of Evils past, both

  • to God's people,
  • and to the wicked, their enemies,
  • whether Persons or Nations.

Secondly, To know the times of God's fulfilling of Prophecies, and Promises, and Threatnings of things yet to come, which are expressed in the Prophets, especially in Daniel, in the Apostles Epistles, but especially in the Revelations: Concerning,

1. The Calling of the Jews, and of the Ten Tribes, in the latter days.

2. The Prophesying and slaying of the Witnesses, and their reviving, Rev. 11.3, 7, 11.

3. The downfall of Antichrist and Ba­bylon.

4. The ruine of the Turks.

Of Gog and Magog.

VI. To know the Epochas, the terms of Account, or the beginning of times in [Page 138]Computation, from which times, and things are resto [...]ed in Scripture; or the in­tervals, in which the measures of times are termined, as

From the Creation to the slood, See Perkins in his Introduction to his Digest. Alsted. Chron. cap. 1. 1656 years.

From the Flood to the Promise made to Abraham, 367 years.

From the Promise to the going out of Egypt 430 years, Exod. 12.40.

From the children of Israel's coming out of Egypt, when they began to be a free peo­ple, and a Nation of themselves, to the Temple, 1 King. 6.1. 480 years.

From the building of the Temple to the destruction of it, 427 years, in which is in­cluded the time of the Captivity.

From the beginning of Daniel's weeks to the death of Christ, (as Mr. Perkins thinks) 490 years, where they end.

VII. The knowledge of Chronology is necessary to the disposing of the Bible into an Harmony: or to the transposing of the order of Books and Chapters of the holy Scriptures, for the reducing of all into a continued History, See Mr. Samuel Torshel's de­sign. which some have endea­voured, and Dr. Lightfoot hath per­formed in his Harmony, for the New Testa­ment.

VIII. The study of Chronology is need­ful [Page 139]to know, and evince the verity, and certainty of the holy Scriptures; and to confirm the Conscience against Satan's Attempts to overthrow mens Faith by casting in suspicions of the truth of Scri­pture, because it doth not agree in the Account of Time with other Histories of the world, written by the most prudent men of all Ages. And with this Tenta­tion Funccius in his Epistle Dedicatory before his Chronology (reckoning up the advantages of the diligent observation of History and times) affirms himself to have been assaulted; which was the cause that moved him to undertake his Chronology, though otherwise unwilling to it.

Vossius speaks of his meeting with some, not versed in the Doctrine of Times, De scient. Ma­them. cap. 39. though else learned men; who could not be so soon induced to question the truth of Scripture by any thing, as the Discrepan­cy of Times in it, whom he, by answering their Objections, convinced of the use of Chronology.

From the Premises it appears, that Chronology is of great use to the under­standing of the Scriptures, which are ex­act in the Computation of times; and to the clear and distinct referring of Occur­rences or passages in Scriptures to their [Page 140]proper Times. The knowledge of the Times when, as well as of the Places where, persons lived, and things were done, tends much to the elucidating of them, and is very delightful. As God made eve­ry thing beautiful in his time, Eccles. 3.11. so there is beauty, satisfaction and pleasure in the knowing the times and sea­sons, wherein things were done, or came to pass.

The ignorance of times leads men into mistakes about passages of Scripture. Thus some have thought that the ship­wrack at Melita, Act. 27. was one of the three mentioned by Paul, 2 Cor. 11.25. whereas the second Epistle to the Corin­thians was writ long before that shipwrack. So Capellus (out of Baronius) in Histor. Apostol. pag. 63.

Chronology is the key for the right un­derstanding of the Prophets: to know the times, to which they refer, and the things acted in those times, See Grotii An­notat. in pro­phetas. is the way hap­pily to apply dicta factis.

CHAP. VIII. Of the Ʋsefulness of Arith­metic.

Arithmetic is useful for a Minister in two respects:

First, Rightly to understand, and exctaly to compute Scripture-numbers and accounts, as in Genealogies, Histories, Chronologies, Prophecies, and in other things.

Secondly, To search into, and finde out Scripture-mysteries, which are hid in num­bers. Arithmetic is a key to open to us the right understanding of numerical spe­culations.

There are two Mystical numbers to be taken notice of especially;

The one is contained in the Name of the Beast, Rev. 13.17, 18, which points out Antichrist to us.

The other is contained in the Measure of the wall of the New Jerusalem, which (as some Divines conceive) points out the Church of Christ, Rev. 21.17. [Here is wisdom, saith John, Rev. 13.17, 18. i. e. a thing that requires wisdom. Let him that hath understanding count the [Page 142]Number of the Beast, or the Name of the Beast, or the Number of the Name; that is, Brightman. the name of the Beast, which is ex­pressed by number (or a numeral name) or wherein number is contained, to wit, in the letters of which the name consists. For the Greeks, as also the Hebrews, had not sigures, as we have, but counted by letters: mens names in Greek contained numbers in the letters. Piscator in ver. 17. saith, that by these three names, scil. the Beast, the name of the Beast, and the number of the name, one and the same thing is signified, that is Antichrist.

This is called the number of a man, be­cause such a name of a man (saith Bright­man) out of whose numeral letters this number is made, 666, which he thinks to be [...], Latinus: that is the name, which the holy Ghost bids us number in place; the letters whereof do, according to the computation of the Grecians, make this number 666. Piscator in Rev. 13. shews how, in a Table.

Or, this is the number of a man, that is, which may be counted, and found out by man; which may be computed, or cal­culated by study and search: one calls this number an Arithmetical Riddle.

Dr. Potter, upon the number 666, [Page 143]goeth another way to work, very ingeni [...] ­ously to unfold this Mystery by Arithme­tical Calculation, [...] thus. The number, 666, is applicable to Antichrist, Dr. Potter. not in it self, but according to what is essential and remarkable in it, to wit,

  • its Rootae,
  • and
  • Figure.

I. Its Root [...], which is 25. This describes the Root or Basis of Antichrist's Hierar­chy, Colledge of Cardinals (who were but 25) instituted Anno Chr. 305, who onely with the Pope, the Head of this Corporation (which is the very Body and Essence of Antichrist) usurp all power and Authority in the Church.

This seems so,

1. In that it's said, Let him that hath un­derstanding (in Arithmetic) count the number of the Beast, to wit, by the extra­ction of the Root; which is the onely way men usually count by, when but one num­ber is exprest, as here. And this is said to be the number of a man, that is, such as is used among men.

2. Because Christ's number, or the number of the wall of the new Jerusalem, describes his Church, not in it self, but by its rootae, which is 12; as it hints the [Page 144]founding of it by the 12 Apostles, and o­ther things concerning it, as may appear from Revel. 21. The Spirit making 12 conspicuous in all the Particulars of the Description of it.

So the number of 25 is Remarkable in Rome, and much affected by the Papists, in many respects. For Rome had 25 Gates (as Jerusalem 12, Rev. 21.12.) 25 Chur­ches, 25 Titles, or Parishes. In two of their Churches 25 Altars, on each Altat 25 marks, or dints.

Their Jubilee is every 25 year: their chief Holy-days, are upon the 25 day of the moneth: and Bartholomew-feast is cele­brated at Rome on the 25 of August, though in all other places one day sooner. There is no one day of the moneth, which hath had originally so many holy days laid upon it as the 25.

The Articles of their Faith are 25, de­creed in the Council of Trent: which was begun by 25 Prelates, continued 25 Sessi­ons, and ended with the subscriptions of 25 Popish Arch-Bishops.

The Mass of Christ's 5 wounds, 5 times multiplied and repeated (which makes 25) will (say they) cure all diseases, and deli­ver souls from pains. So that they of Rome acknowledge some great mystery [Page 145]and vertue in this number.

The Emperor of Rome, the King of Spain, and Arch Duke of Austria, bear 5 Cinques, or 25 round spots in their Arms: which Device is recorded to have been sent from Heaven, in a more Celestial maner, then the Ancile of ancient Rome, as a sanctified Banner to lead Armies fortunate­ly. The Pope and Cardinals cause these 25 spots to be imprinted in the Frontis­piece of divers Books printed at Rome, for their better success and greater confirma­tion.

II. Its Figure. The Figure of 666, which is a square something more then as long again as it's broad (18 being to be mul­tiplied by 37, the product of which is 666) shews the figure of Antichrist's city, to wit, Rome, which is just such. As the Figure of 144, which is a perfect square, shews the Figure of Jerusalem. Thus far Dr. Potter.

Mr. Cotton, in his Exposition on Rev. 13.18. following Junius in his Notes on that Text, would have 6 to be multiplied by 10 (to make up 666.) So 10 times 6 is 60, and 10 times 60 is 600. Six is made the basis, because there are six Books of Decretals (of which the sixth is most com­pleat, being compiled by Pope Boniface, [Page 146]and called Sextus, in which the Pope's Canons are summed up) which are a cer­tain platform of Direction for all matters of Practice and Maners in the Discipline of the Romish Church. So six is a per­fect number of all things to be done there­in, for Doctrine, Worship, and Govern­ment: all their Administrations are found­ed and measured out from their Canon-Laws, which are all wrapped up in six Volumes, and the sixth is the most com­pleat of them all; therefore the Pope makes six the foundation. This (saith Mr. Cotton) is but the number of a man, that is, a meer humane invention. This 6 is multiplied by 10, because all the Go­vernment of the Roman State (saith he) is by Tenths, by Tithes. All the Peo­ple must give the tenth to the Priest, and the Priest to the Bishop.

To these numbers may be added the Virgin number with the Lamb, which is 144000, Revel. 14.1. (mentioned be­fore in Revel. 7.4. as the Number of them that were sealed) made up by multiplying the 12000 of the twelve Tribes, which are the Spiritual Progeny of the twelve Apostles. See Mede in Revel. 14.1. See Mr. Cotton in Revel. 13.18. he saith, This number of the Lamb's followers hath its [Page 147]rise from 12; 12 multiplied by 12 will arise from so many scores to so many hun­dreds: and 12 times 12000 is 144000; and the number of the Beast, scil. 666, is expresly opposite thereunto. See more a­bout it in Mr. Cotton.

CHAP. IX. Of the Ʋsefulness of Geometry.

GEometry is of use to a Minister of the Gospel upon a threefold ac­count:

First, For the explication of many pla­ces in the Old Testament, especially those which treat

  • I. Of Weights and Measures.
  • II. Of Edifices and Buildings, and of their Proportions and Dimensions. As,
    • Of the Fabrick of Noah's Ark.
    • Of Moses's Tabernacle.
    • Of Solomon's Temple.
    • Of Ezekiel's Temple, chap. 40. and City, chap. 48.
    • Of the New Jerusalem, Revel. 21.
    • [Page 148]Of the Division of the Land of Ca­naan among the Tribes, Psal. 78.55. Josh. 13.4.
    • And of several other particulars in Scripture, which are Geometrically described, or to which Dimensions are attributed.

I shall instance in two or three places, wherein the Spirit speaketh Geometrically, and cannot be understood without know­ledge in the Mathematics:

1. Dr. Potter, 666. About plain and superficial Measure in Ezek. 43.16. and most evidently in Ezek. 48.20. where he useth a circum­locution, that he might by a Geometrical phrase, and a number multiplied by it self, viz. 25000 by 25000, intimate the Square and plain measure of a piece of Ground.

2. About solid Measure, Rev. 21.16. where he saith, The City was measured 12000 furlongs; the length, breadth, and heighth of it are equal. So that it is set down as a solid Cubical Figure, containing three Dimensions, and so onely to be measured by solid Measure: and then the compass of Ezekiel's City (namely, 1800 great Cubits) will be the compass of this new Jerusalem; for Brightman, Villal­pandus, and others, make them both to be the same City.

Secondly, Geometry is an Help to the understanding of the Works of God, who hath ordered all things in number, measure, Wisdom 11 17 and weight. Pondere, mensura, numero, Deus omnia fecit.

Geometry is conversant about Order, and Measure, or Commensuration; which two do so excel, as Plato saith, [...]. God doth alway play the Geometri­cian; that is, he doth all, and every thing exactly, in order, as by Line and Measure: Or, as Plutarch interprets it, God doth, Octavo S [...]mp [...]s. 2. Problem. ratione, proportione, similitudine, omnes mundi partes exornare & dimetiri.

Etenim cum Deus (saith Pet. In his Epistle before his gene­ral Table of Geometry.Ramus) immensitatis aeternae spacia definire statue­ret, Geometria inprimis usus est, quae longi­tudinem, latitudinem, profundorum spatia terminaret, omniumque symmetriam, rati­onem, proportionem, similitudinem discer­neret, quae aerem levitate sublime tolleret, a­quam, terramque pondere deprimeret; quae denique coelestes globos ita tornaret, ut ad conversion is motum nihil rotundius effingi, nihil aptius expoliri posset. Itaque Mundi Architectus ille summus in fabricando ma­chinandoque Universitatis Opisicio Geome­triam inprimis adhibuit, neque Plato quid­quam magnificentius locutus est, cum dixit, Deum [...].

Thus Geometry conduceth much to the acknowledging and celebrating of the Wisdom and Power of God in his Works.

Thirdly, Arithmetic and Geometry are of good use to the fore-named Arts or Sci­ences:

As, in Ethics, to understand what Vir­tue is, which is said to consist in Propor­tion: and what are the bounds or limits of Justice: that a Geometrical Proportion should be kept in Distributive Justice, and Arithmetical Proportion in Commutative Justice.

—Also in Physics, Astronomy, and Geogra­phy.

Arithmetic and Geometry sunt duae illae alae Mathematicae, quibus Astronomi & Ge­ographi alta & profunda pervolant. Alsted. Fury­clop. Didact. cap. 7, & 8. pag. 126. in 4. Of the Antiquity, Certainty, Jucundity, U­tility of the Study of Geometry, see Alsted.

It is observed, the Patriarchs were Ma­thematicians.

There may be use of Mathematics in handling Points of Divinity. Bradwar­dine (the profound Doctor) made use of the Mathematics (wherein he excelled) of the Principles, Demonstrations, and Co­rollaries or Conclusions thereof, Sir Henry S [...] ­vile's Prelace before Brad­wardine's [...]. in handling Theological Points.

—silo Mathematico Theologica contexit.

CHAP. X. Of the Ʋsefulness of Astronomy.

AStronomy is useful for a Minister of the Gospel upon a double ac­count:

First, To know the Nature, Light, Motions, Magnitudes, Influences, and Operations of the Celestial Bodies, the Sun, Moon, and Stars; and of their Con­stellations. —And how they serve (ac­cording to God's appointment) for signs and seasons, for days and years, Gen. 1.14. —To know the Ordinances of Heaven, Job 38.33. the various Motions, and the marvellous and unspeakable Order of the Heavenly Bodies, which they keep as constantly, as if they walked by a Rule, Jer. 31.35. —As also to understand Eclipses. It is onely an Astronomer that can demonstrate that famous Eclipse of the Sun at Christ's passion to be miraculous, Luke 23.45. since it happened about the full Moon, for then was the Passover celebrated: but Solar Eclipses in the Course of Nature must be at the new Moon.

Secondly, To understand the Jewish Years, Moneths, Days, and their several Accounts hereof, and the dependences thereupon, as the Jewish Feasts:—and the Prophecies, Histories, Chronologies, that are in the Scripture:—and the clear­ing and reconciling of diverse Places, or Passages in Scripture; as the difference between the Jews and the Romans in fix­ing the beginning of their Hours, the Jews reckoning them from Sun-rise, the Romans from midnight, the clearing where­of will make those Places agree, which speak of the time of Christ suffering, and the circumstances of it.

In the night Christ was in the High Priests Hall, denied by Peter at the Cock-crowing, at the break of the day he was delivered to Pilate, [...], Mark 15.1. then accused before him till the sixth hour, Joh. 19.14. to wit, of the Romans, which was the first hour of the Jews. Af­ter that he was condemned and delivered to the Soldiers, and all things prepared for his crucifixion, which by Mark is said to be at the third hour, to wit, of the Jews, cha. 15, 25. but the ninth hour of the Romans, and the darkness from the sixth to the ninth hour is to be understood of the Jewish hours, that is from noon to three [Page 153]of the clock. See De Dieu on Mark 15.25.

And as John useth the Roman hours, cha. 19.14. so the Roman day, cha. 20.19. The same day at evening being the first day of the week, Jesus, &c. that could not be the evening before Sun-set: for when the two Disciples went with Christ to Emmaus, it was towards evening, and the day far spent. Now they supt there, and returned to Jerusalem, which was sixty furlongs di­stant from Emmaus, and (Luk. 24.13, &c.) told the Disciples what had happened to them, then Christ appeared in the midst of them, which must be at the evening after Sun-set, and that not taken after the custom of the Hebrews (for then he should not have appeared on the first day of the week, but on the second, because they begin their natural day at evening) but of the Romans, who reckon their natural day from midnight.

Hence also may that difficulty be clea­red of the Evangelists, calling that day, De Dien in Matth. 26.17. which was the preparation to the Pass­over the first day of unleavened bread, Mat. 26.17. Mark 14.12. for the even­ing after they are the Paschal Lamb with unleavened bread was, after the Jewish account, the beginning of the fifteenth day of the Moneth Nisan, which was the [Page 154]first day of unleavened bread, Numb. 28.16, 17. but, according to the Roman ac­count, that evening was the end of the fourteenth day, which was the day of Pre­paration.

The Jews divide their night into four watches, each three hours long. Their day had in it twelve hours Common, and three Temple hours, or hours of Sacrifice and Prayer, (which on their Feasts-days were signified by sound of Trumpet, Numb. 10.10. Grotius on Matth. 27.45.) which were most famous and notable distinctions of the time of the day. We read of them, Acts 2.15. and 3.1. and 10.3, 9. Matth. 20.3, 5. so that after this account what­soever was done after the third, and before the sixth hour, might be said to have been done the third hour, and so some recon­cile Mark 15.25. with Joh. 19.14. Christ was crucified the latter end of the third hour, a little before the sixth, for these was no Temple-hour between the third and the sixth.

I may give four Reasons of the use of Astronomy to a Minister of the Gospel.

Reas. 1. Because the heavens declare the glory of God. &c. Psal. 19.1, 2. his Ma­jesty, Power, Wisdom, Goodness, which shine brightly in them, and demonstrate [Page 155]his Deity, and the knowledge of them, is a means to come to the knowledge of God, and to the acknowledgement of a Deity. See how the site and course of the Sun evinceth the wisdom of God, made out in Doctor Browns Vulgar Errors, lib. 6. cap. 5.

Reas. 2. Scriptures have much of Astro­nomy in them: as Gen. 1.15, to 19. Job 38.31, 32, 33. In two respects especially.

1. Of their natural motions and revolu­tion in themselves; of the Sun and Moon es­pecially, Psal. 104.19. Psal. 19.5, 6, 7, and of the effects, and concomitants there­of, as the vicissitude, or continual succes­sion of night and day, of Summer and Winter, Gen. 8.22. and of the influences of the Sun, and of the Moon, and of the Stars, Deut. 33.14.

2. Of spiritual allusions to the Hea­vens, the Stars, their Light, Motion, and many other things, of which the Holy Scriptures are very full.

I might multiply Instances hereof. Psal. 84.11. Cant. 6.10. Dan. 12.3. Phil. 2.15. Jude 13. [...]. Without the knowledge of Astronomy we cannot ex­plain these things to others, nor make use of them for our selves, or draw forth the sense of many Scriptures, or the meaning [Page 156]of the Holy Ghost in them fully, and clear­ly; nor teach those spiritual things by them, which are hinted to us in them.

Ignorance in Astronomy buries many sweet and excellent points in Divinity, that may be learned from the Heavens, the Stars, &c.

Reas. 3. From Examples. Moses, & Da­niel imbuti fuerunt Astrologia, saith Calvin on Dan. 1.4. they were both indued with skill in Astrology, because Moses was lear­ned in all the learning of the Egyptians, and Daniel in all the learning of the Chal­deans, both which were skilful in true and genuine Astrology. Some think they of the East Country (as the Chaldeans) were the first that found out the courses of the Stars, and the rules of Astronomy; and give this reason, quod null a regio in mundo esset tam plana ad patefaciendum quaqua versus Horizontem, therefore they were more propense to learn that Science, to which al­so the Egyptians were disposed, having the advantage of open fields, and serene nights, fit for such contemplation. Coelius Rhodig. lib. 16. cap. 4. But sure this Sci­ence had a more early Original, it was known to those before the Flood; being requisite for the ordering of their Moneths and Years, and the computation of Time, [Page 157]which receives its measures from the mo­tion of heavenly Bodies.

Hence we have the years of the Patri­archs before the Flood summed up; and we read of the seventeenth day of the se­cond Moneth, when Noah entred into the Ark, and of the seventh, tenth, and first Moneth, Gen. 7. and 8 chap.

Besides, that the length of their Lives in that first Age of the World made them more capable of observing and de­termining the various Motions, and Peri­ods of the heavenly Bodies.

Reas. 4. Astronomy is a sublime part of natural Philosophy, lost by our fall in Adam, recoverable by observation, reading and study; and as light is sweet, and a plea­sant thing is it for the eyes to behold the Sun, Eccles. 11.7. so the knowledge of Light, of the Sun, Moon, and Stars is very pleasant and delightful to the Minde, and makes us more useful and profitable unto others.

CHAP. XI. Of the Ʋsefulness of Geogra­phy.

GEography is useful for a Minister in diverse respects,

1. In the General to under­stand the whole Course or Te­nor of Scripture-stories, both in the Old and New Testament, from the beginning of the Bible to the end: the History of the Creation, of our Redemption, and of Gods Providence in the Series thereof, all along from the first to the last, related in Gods Books.

To know the Distinctions, Bounds or Borders of Places, Towns, Cities, Coun­tries: the Situations of them, in respect of one another, and of the Heavens: the Longitude and Latitude of them, and their distance one from another: and the Natures, Properties, Commodities, or Discommodities of them.

2. In Particular, to understand

The Plantation of the world by Noah's sons after the flood.

The Journeys of Israel from Egypt, [Page 159]through the wilderness to Canaan.

The Stories of the Patriarchs, Judges, and Kings of Judah and Israel.

The Journals of the Prophets in the Old Testament. See Bunting's Itincra [...]um [...]o­tius Sacrae Scripturae.

Of Jesus Christ, John. 4.3, 4.

And of his Apostles in the New Testa­ment, and of their removals from place to place.

The Division of the land of Canaan a­mong the Tribes: the scituation and pro­portion, or quantity of their several allot­ments, absolutely and relatively, or in re­ference one to another.

The scituation of Neighbouring Coun­tries and Nations to the land of Canaan; how near, or far off, and on what side.

The Transactions of God's people the Jews, (possessing Canaan) with other Na­tions (either near or remote) by Trade, by League or War, by Amity or Hostility.

The Deportations or Captivities of the ten Tribes, and of the two Tribes, which were several and divers.

The Propagation of the Gospel by Christ and his Apostles, from place to place, from one Town, City, Country and Nation, to another.

The Accomplishment of some Prophe­cies, promises, threatnings, judgements; [Page 160]especially such as have reference to places, as well as to persons, as the downfal of Ba­bylon, of Antichrist, of Gog and Magog, the calling of the Jews.

The Histories of the four Monarchies, and of other Kingdoms, which are mentio­ned in the Scriptures, and of their Cities.

In the understanding of all which we may be much assisted by the knowledge of Geography, because the knowledge of the places where the persons were, and the things were done, gives light to the under­standing of the History thereof.

We cannot have a full notion and com­prehension of some affairs, events or occur­rences, without knowledge of the places where they were agitated, or fell out.

Neither can we understand many Pro­phetical Descriptions of places without the knowledge of their site and customs.

The want of skil in Geography hath cau­sed many wilde conjectures about the scitu­ation of Paradise; and made those guilty of a great mistake, as to many places of Scripture, that take the land of Cush (so often mentioned there) for the African Ethiopia; and the land of Havilah for that in East India, as Sir Walter Rawleigh in his History of the World hath demonstrated, l. 1. c. 3. and c. 8. sect. 10.

3. Geography is further useful for the clearing of some Texts in Scripture, wherein there is difficulty upon one of these two accounts.

1. Either when Places, that differ in their scituation, have the same name: as the two Edens, one in Mesopotamia, Gen. 2.8. the other in Coelo-Syria, of which A­mos. 1.15. — The two Sabas, one in Arabia Felix, of which Psal. 72.10. the other in Arabia Deserta; whence the Sa­beans were that robbed Job, chap. 1.15.

So the two Hamaths, one in Syria Zo­bah, of which 2 Chron. 8.3. the other in Phenicia in the Tribe of Nepthali, of which Numb. 34.8. Ezek. 47.16.

So Kedesh and Ramah were the names of divers places far distant. See Sir Walter Rawleigh of all these in his Hi­story of the world.

So two places are called Cesarea, the one near the rise of Jordan, of which Mat. 16.13. the other on the shore of the Mediter­ranean sea, mentioned Acts 18.22. and 25.1, 4.

So two places are named Antioch, one in Syria, of which Acts 11.26, 27. the o­ther in Pisidia, of which Acts 13.14.

Without knowing the different scitua­tion of these places, of the same name, we cannot distinguish between them; nor judge which of them is meant in such or [Page 162]such a place of Scripture.

2. Or when the same place hath several names in Scripture, which create a seem­ing repugnancy between some places, or ex­pressons therein, only to be reconciled by skill in Geography.

Thus, when Christ sent the Devils into the Swine, Matthew saith, he was in the Country of the Gergesens, Mat. 8.28. but Mark, of the Gadarens, Mar. 5.1. which is the same Country indifferently named from these two Cities in it, Gergesa and Gadara.

So the woman of Canaan, Matth. 15.22. is call'd a Syro-Phenician, Mar. 7.26. for the Jews call'd those, who lived about Tyre and Sidon and the sea-coast, in a strict sense, Canaanites, (see Numb. 13.29. Judg. 1.30, 31, 32.) but by others they were stiled Phenicians, Grotius in Matth. 15.22. and sometimes Sy­ro-Phenicians, to distinguish them from the Liby-Phenices in Africa.

The place, whither Christ went with his Disciples before he was apprehended by Judas, is said to be Gethsemane, Mat. 26.36. but Luke saith it was the mount of Olives, chap. 22.39. and John, differently from both, makes it a Garden beyond the brook Cedron.

In reconciling which there will be no [Page 163]difficulty to him, who hath seen a true de­scription of Jerusalem, and the adjacent places. For Mount Olivet lies beyond the brook Cedron, and part of it is call'd Geth­semane,See Dr. Lightf. Centur. Chorog. cap. 40.(the place of Oyl-presses) and at the foot of this Mountain especially it was, that they had their gardens: for they used not to have them in the City.

CHAP. XII. Of the Arguments which prove the Ʋsefulness of Learning.

SECT. I. Seven Arguments propounded.

HAving declared the particular use of Arts and Tongues for the Mi­nisters of the Gospel, I will further demonstrate the need and use of Learning for them by seven Arguments.

I. God's affording of Means for obtain­ing Learning in all Ages.

II. Religion flourished when Learning abounded.

III. Learning qualifies for all public em­ployments.

IV. Satan makes use of Learning.

V. Satan seeks to obstruct Learning.

VI. Testimonies given to Learning by the Learned.

VII. God hath used Learned men as the greatest Instruments of his service and glory.

SECT. II. Of God's affording means of Learning, as Schools, &c.

GOd hath in his good Providence ap­pointed, Argum. 1. and in all ages afforded his peo­ple ordinary helps and means for obtaining the knowledge of Arts and Tongues, as Schools, Universities, Colledges, the Semi­naries or Nurseries of Learning.

There were many Schools of the Prophets under the Old Testament.

Calvin on Amos 7.14. saith, Scimus tunc fuisse Prophetarum Collegia, & hoc satis notum est ex sacris Historiis. Colle­gia illa in hunc finem instituta fuerunt, ut Seminarium aliquod semper maneret in Ec­clesia Dei, ne destitueretur bonis & probis Doctoribus.

There was a Colledge or School of the Prophets upon the Hill of God, where they trained up young Scholars and Stu­dents, [Page 165]1 Sam. 10.5, 10. Some think it was in Gibeah of Benjamin.

— Another Colledge at Naioth in Ramah, whither David sled, and Saul followed him, whereof Samuel was Overseer, and Presi­dent, 1 Sam. 19.19, 20. the Teacher and Instructer of those that were called the children of the Prophets in that School. For though Prophesie be the special Gift and Work of the Spirit, yet it was fit, that they which afterward should be im­ployed in the service of God (as it's like that these were most of Levi) should be prepared, by Godly Instruction and Educa­tion, for the further works of the Spirit in them. See Doctor Willet on 1 Sam. 19.18.

By these two Instances (scil. of the Col­ledges at Gibeah and Naioth) it seems that Colledges of Students were priviledged Places, seeing the Israelite-Students in the former were not hurt, though in the Ga­rison of the Philistines: and David was secure in the later, though Saul was his enemie.

There was another Colledge of the Prophets, in the time of Elisha, at Beth-el, 2 King. 2.3. and another at Jericho, 2 King. 2.5.

Another at Gilgal, 2 King. 4.38, with [Page 166]43, where there were an hundred Sons of the Prophets.

Elisha's Colledge was so full of Scho­lars, that there was not room enough for them, and they desired it might be en­larged, 2 King. 6.1, 2, 3.

Among the Israelites forty eight Cities were appointed for the Levites, which were as the common Schools and Univer­sities for the whole Kingdom. See Willet in Dan. 1.4.

Some think, that Debir was an Academy or University of Palestina, that when the Jewish Polity came to be fixed, and they were in a succession of Government, then they erected publick Schools of Learning, appointed Cities, which to that end they priviledged, as this of Debir for one Josh. 15.15. (see Masius in loc.) which was there­fore called Kirjath-Sepher, which signi­sies a City of Books, or of Learning, though others conceive it to be a place where a famous Library was kept, in which many notable Monuments, and antient Records of many things done ever since the Flood were reserved.

In these Schools, or Colledges of the Prophets, there were two sorts: First, Some were called Prophets simply, as the Masters and Instructors of others, stiled [Page 167] Fathers, 1 Sam. 10.12. 2 King. 2.12. Secondly, Others were called the Sons, or Children, that is, the Pupils, or Scholars of the Prophets, yong Students taught and trained up by them in the way of Learning, and Prophesying.

Gods blessing upon those Schools of the Prophets amongst the Jews was so great, that upon many in them God bestowed the extraordinary Gift of foretelling things to come, 2 Kings 2.3, 5. and divers Mira­cles were wrought for them: two at Gil­gal, one in healing the deadly pottage, 2 King. 4.38. another in feeding an hun­dred of them with twenty Loaves, verse 42, 43, 44. a third at Jordan, in causing the Axe-head to swim, 2 King. 6.5, 6.

What an honor was it to these Schools of the Prophets, that Elijah went to visit them, immediately before he was taken up to Heaven, 2 King, 2. as at Beth-el, verse 2, 3. at Jericho, verse 4, 5.

In Babylon there were three famous U­niversities of the Jews, Nehardea, Sorah, [...]xtorf. Com. Masorct. cap. 6. Alting. Acad. Hebr. p. 30, 31. and Pumbeditha: erected by those that stayed there after the Captivity, and re­turned not with their Brethren (as some conceive) or by their Posterity, for the preservation of Religion, and the know­ledge of the Law, which (as some think) [Page 168]would have been lost, if they had not brought up their children in Learning; because by living and conversing with the Chaldeans their Tongue was corrupted; so that the Word of God delivered in it, without this remedy, would not have been so intelligible and useful to them.

The same course was also requisite to be taken by those which returned into their own Land; because their Language was then a Medley of Chaldee and Hebrew. After which time the old and pure Hebrew remained onely among learned men, and was taught in Schools, as among us the learned Tongues are accustomed to be. See Breerewoods Enquiries, cha. 9.

Afterwards Learning, and Languages flourished in Judea, as may appear in that seventy two learned men were sent to Pto­lemy Philadelphus, to translate the Hebrew Bible into Greek, (As Gellius in Noct. A [...]tic. lib. 6. cap. 17.) that he might with it en­rich his vast Library, consisting of almost 700000 Books, which was kept at Ale­xandria, a place renowned for the Schools of all Liberal Arts. Strabo lib. 14. Here Euclid set up a Mathematic School; after which, till the Times of the Saracens, there was scarce any excellent Mathematician, that was not either born, or educated at Alexan­dria.

Here also was an Academy of the Jews (see Hottinger, Eccles. Hist. part. 1. cap. 2.) Vossius de Sci­ent. Mathem. cap. 15. Antiqu. Jud. lib. 12. cap 1. & lib. 14. cap. 14. who were a great part of the Citizens, as Josephus relates. Of this place was Apol­los, Acts 18.24.

The Jews dwelt in other places of E­gypt, in Cyrene, and all other Nations, Joseph. ibidem. be­ing dispersed in the Countreys of their Conquerors in the several Empires, and distinguished into the Babylonian and Greek dispersion: the first made under the Chal­dean, the second under the Macedonian Empire, of which we read John 7.35. — Will he go [...], to the Jews dispersed among the Greeks in Asia, or Egypt? They, being dispersed among o­ther Nations, always endeavored to keep their Schools, which they cal'd Synagogues,

  • where­in they interpreted the Law,
  • where­in they conferred and disputed about the Scriptures, Acts 6.9.

Now, out of all Nations, whither they were scattered, some of all sorts went to Jerusalem, and dwelt there, at or before our Savior's time. For, Acts 2.5. it's said, There were dwelling at Jerusalem Jews, devout men, out of every Nation un­der Heaven, Parthians, Medes, &c. the Dwellers in Asia, in Egypt, and about Cy­rene, and Strangers of Rome.

The Cause hereof was either,

1. That Jerusalem being the Metropo­lis of Religion and Knowledge, the Jews sent their Sons to be instructed there, as Cornelius a Lapide conceives.

2. Or, as Dr. Lightfoot (on Acts 2.5.) thinks, because the whole Nation had then a general expectation of the Messias about that time, as he clears both from Scripture (out of Luke 2.38. and 3.15. and 19.11.) and their own Writings. This might make such multitudes flock to Jerusalem about this time, and take up their residence, where they thought the royal Seat of the Messias would be, that so they might par­take of the pomp and prosperity of his Kingdom. And that the Jews of these several Nations had their distinct Syna­gogues there, is intimated Acts 6.9. where we read, Divers arose of the Synagogue of the Libertines (that is, such, both Natural Jews and Proselytes, See Grotius and Lightfoot on the place. as had obtained the Roman Freedom) of the Cyrenians, of the Alexandrians, and of them of Cilicia, and of Asia.

Hence the Jews tell of 480 See Light­foot Centur. Chorographic. pag. 71. Juntus de Aca­dem. cap. 2. Syna­gogues, and Houses of Learning in Jeru­salem: for there used to be a House of Learning joined with a Synagogue.

The Schools of the Jews, about our [Page 171]Savior's time, had very famous men; the chief were Hillel, and Schammai (the for­mer is said to have bred 80 eminent Scho­lars) and Simeon Hillel's Son, whom divers Learned Men See Hotting. Hist. Eccles. Nov. Test. part. 1. cap. 9. A [...]ing. Acad. Hebr. p 39. Lightfoot in Acts 5.34. make the same with him that took Christ into his arms, Luke 2.25. To whom add Gamaliel, Simeon's Son, and Paul's Master.

After the Destruction of Jerusalem, See Buxtorf. Tiber [...]as. Schools for Learning were still held up by the Jews: and the Jews had their Schools at Jafne, Zephoria, Cesarea, and Tiberias: and these declining, the three forementi­oned in Babylon flourished very much, when Learned Jews went thither from Pa­lestine.

The Jewish Writers say, there were also a great number of Colledges in Bither (a place in the Land of Canaan) destroyed by the Emperor Hadrian. — Buxtorf. Tal­mud. Lex. pag. 372.

Thus far of the Jewish Schools.

Dr. Willet upon 1 Sam. 19.19, 20. con­cludes out of Peter Martyr, That the noble Foundation of Universities, and Schools of Learning, is grounded upon the Exam­ple of the Prophets.

The same Author, upon Daniel 1.4. observes, that the Institution of Schools, to train up youth in good Letters, was very [Page 172]ancient: as among the Egyptians, where Moses was taught their Learning: and in Babylon, where Daniel and the three chil­dren were taught the Learning and the Tongue of the Chaldeans. Among the Grecians Athens was famous for the Study of Arts there was Plato's Academy, hence Livy calls Greece Sal Gentium) and in E­gypt Alexandria: yea, the rude Indians had their Gymnosophists, and the Romans had their Colledges of Augures; I may add their Philosophers and Rhetoricians.

The Persians and Arabians had their Magi. Grotius in Mat. 2.1. The Gauls had their Druides.

All Sects whatsoever had their Schools to advance their Way. Stephen met with some of them at Jerusalem, Acts 6.9. and Paul at Athens, Acts 17.18.

It is observed, that the Egyptians, Chal­deans, Babylonians, Persians, Grecians, Ro­mans, erected Schools, and by great Li­berality, and other ways, promoted Learn­ing, and encouraged Scholars.

Now let us view the Schools of the Christians, See Alsted. Chron. cap. 30. ultim. edit. which, upon the Planting of the Gospel, were set up at Antioch and Alexandria; the latter of which afforded many famous Men, as Clemens, Origen, Ammonius, Athanasius, Didymus, &c.

That the Primitive Church had her [Page 173]Schools (wherein Youths did learn the Principles of Religion, and the Liberal Arts, and heard the holy Scriptures ex­planed) and that Care was taken for setling Schools every where, where Churches were built, and for setting over them such Men as were invested with eminent Piety and Learning, See Magdeb. Cent. 2. cap. 7. & Cent. 3. c. 7. Ecclesiastical Histories do de­clare.

That there were many learned men in divers places in the first Ages of Christi­anity is an Argument, that there were Schools, in which they were educated.

In the time of Constantine the great, when Religion had its free course, the Christian Schools flourished, which were after shut up by Julian.

It is observable, that the University of Cambridge (to which Chronologers give preheminence for Antiquity to most Uni­versities in the World of a Christian Foundation) was restored by Sigebert, As Isaacson, Al­sted, Helvicus. a great Promoter of Christianity, presently upon the Conversion of the East-Angles (much furthered by him) about the year of Christ 631. For there was a British Aca­demy there long before: of which some make Lucius, the first Christian King of the Britains, the Founder. But it being ruined by the Saxons, and the Britains [Page 174]shut up in Wales, Dubritius (a great Cham­pion of the Truth against the Pelagians, as was also David, his Scholar, who held a Synod against their Errors) instituted an Academy (in the latter end of the fifth Century) on the River Wye, and after at Caer-lion on Usk in Monmouthshire, where many eminent Men were educated. Of which see Mr. Fuller's Church-History of Britain.

This Necessity and Use of Schools, U­niversities, and Learning, is as great now under the Gospel (if not greater in some respects) as ever it was under the Old Testament. And God hath plentifully furnished all Countries that have enter­tained the Gospel of Christ, especially all the reformed Churches in Europe, with famous Schools and Academies: and he hath wonderfully blessed them (as these in England, See Dr. Arrow­sm [...]h, 1. Orat. Antiweigel. p. 3.Scotland, Ireland, and those in the Low-Countreys, in Germany, the Pa­latinate, Bohemia) so that these Universi­ties have trained up, and sent forth learned, able, eminent Scholars, and godly Men, choice, useful Instruments of God's Glory and Service, both in Church and Com­monwealth.

The use and need of Schools and Uni­versities (which is evident in the holy [Page 175]Scriptures, and by the light of Reason, and practise, and experience of all Nations) as they are the means of Learning, Qui vult finem vult media. Fints est nobili­or mediis. infers and evinceth the need of Learning (as it is the end thereof) especially for the Mini­sters of the Gospel.

As there is necessity of Schools, and Universities, so of study and industry in them, for the attainment of Learning. For we cannot expect God should communi­cate these Gifts to us by Miracle, or imme­diate infusion of the Spirit (as he did to his Apostles) but they must be acquired through the use of ordinary Means fore­mentioned; which to contemn, or neglect, and depend upon immediate and miracu­lous Infusions and Revelations, is to tempt the good Spirit of God, and to provoke him to give us up to strong delusions, and to give heed to seducing Spirits, and to doctrines of Devils. Inspiration (of such common gifts) must be supplied by Edu­cation. The way Paul directed Timothy unto (even in reference to Ministerial abi­lities) was, Give attendance to reading, 1 Tim. 4.13, &c. meditate upon these things, give thy self wholly to them, that thy profiting may appear to all, ver. 15. As Timothy had not health by Miracle, but in the use of Means, 1 Tim. 5.23. so nei­ther [Page 176]had he Gifts for the Ministery by Mi­racle, but by Study.

In the Platform of Church-discipline, agreed upon in the Synod at Cambridge in New England, cap. 6. num. 6. it's said, ‘This we gladly acknowledge, that Schools are both lawful, profitable, and necessary, for the training up of such in good Lite­rature, or Learning, as may afterwards be called forth unto the office of Pastor or Teacher in the Church.’

Scholae non immerito vocantur Emporia & Mercaturae bonarum literarum: Scmi­naria Ecclesiae: armamentaria Reipublicae: vivaria Oeconomiae: officinae Pietatis: ma­gistrae Humanitatis: fontes Honestatis: scaturigines Utilitatis: nervi Morum & Disciplinae: horti Gratiarum: & uno ver­bo Cornu-copia omnimodae felicitatis—O fe­lices Ecclesias, quibus haec pietatis domi­cilia sunt adjuncta! Alsted. in Orat. de causis corrupt. Schol.

Of the causes, and uses of Publick Di­vinity Schools, see Zanch. tom. 7. orat. 1. —who saith in his fourth Tom. lib. 1. Thes. 2. in quartum praeceptum pag. 812.—‘It should be the great care of a pious Prince (or Supreme Magistrate) that, beside the public and Ecclesiastical Ministery, Schools should be constituted, wherein [Page 177]beside Humane Learning, and the Liberal Arts, the holy Doctrine of Religion should be faithfully delivered to youth, to conserve heavenly Doctrine in the Church, &c. and that maintenance should be provided for both.’ After­wards we see (saith Zanchy) that the Gen­tiles, and all Nations, Pag 813. that were not altoge­ther Barbarous, took care hereof; whereby their Religion might be conserved, and propagated, for they saw, Sine Scholis non posse consistere vel Religionem, vel etiam Politiam; that without Schools neither Religion, nor Policy could consist: —that Nature it self should teach a Christian Prince, that it is his office to take care of Schools, and Colledges.

He adds, Jeroboamus ille impius, Rex Apostatarum ab Ecclesia, &c. That wick­ed Jeroboam King of Apostates from the Church, and Kingdom of Juda, as he cor­rupted Religion, so he also overthrew the Schools in the Towns of the twelve Tribes; because he knew that the purity of Doctrine and Religion was conserved there by the faithful Prophets. But after­wards Elias and Elisha (his Disciple) know­ing that Religion could not be kept pure without Schools, restored them: and when the wicked Kings had transferred the Re­venues, [Page 178]which were due to maintain the Schools, partly to their own private use, and partly to slatterers, many good men contributed of their own substance to the maintenance of Students, who, be­ing content with a little, defended true Doctrine stoutly against the Priests of Baal.

Object. Doth not Beza in his marginal Note on Acts 6.9. call Universities Fla­bella Satanae, Satan's slaps to keep away slyes? Doth not Luther call them Ca­thedras pestilentiae, & Antichristi lumina­ria? the seats of pestilence, and lights of Antichrist? Doth not another call them the Synagogues of perdition, the pits of the Abyss, by the smoak whereof the sun of the Gospel is obscured.

Answ. What some worthy men have spoken of Jewish and Popish Universities, See Dr. Arrow­smiths Orat. 1. Antiweigel. pag. 3. that others have, out of little Candor, and great fury, transferred to Universities re­formed, as what Beza spake of the Jew­ish Academies (his words are, Academiae jamolim falsis Doctoribus addictae) and what Luther, and others spake of the Pontifi­cian or Popish Academies.

But the corruptions of some will not prejudice the Usefulness of Universities in general, or of others Reformed, and free from the same infection.

SECT. III. Of Religion flourishing, when Learning abounded.

THe second Argument, Argum. 2. to prove the usefulness of Learning.

Learning hath not been in the same state in all Ages since Christ, but ebbing and flowing like the water, waxing and waning like the Moon. But this is observable, that in those Ages wherein Learning a­bounded most, Religion hath flourished, and the Truth of God hath had most Champi­pions, Defenders and Witnesses of it, and for it.

The fourth Century was, as it is called, Chronol. ad Annum. 365. a Learned Age. Hoc tempore fulserunt in Ecclesia Dei clarissima lumina, saith Bu­cholcer. Many famous Lights shone in the Church of God in this time, who were the Hammers of Heretics.

The fifth Century was the like. These two Centuries for choice of Learned men, were compared to the golden Age, and are stiled the two Learned Ages.

In the sixth and seventh Century there was (as Authors observe) a great decay in knowledge, and scarcity of able men to [Page 180]defend Truth, and furnish the Church with­all. There were few in Italy then, as Ba­ronius observes—(haud in promptu esset, Annal. Tom. 8. A [...]n. 593. num. 62.qui utriusque linguae peritus esset) who were skilled both in Greek and Latine.

Yea Gregory the Great, who lived in the seventh Century who was, In his Critic. Sacr. lib. 4. cap. 29. (as Rivet saith) —Primus Papa & ultimus Episcopus Roma­nus, the last Bishop of Rome, and the first Pope; or the last of the good Bishops of Rome, and the first of the bad ones: This Gregory professeth that he was ignorant of the Greek Tongue, Gregor. Tom 2. 1 p [...]st. lib. 9. lib. 6. Epist. 29. Nam nos nec Graecum novimus.

That ignorant Age was a declining age, wherein men came short of their Predeces­sors in some Truths, as even Gregory him­self did; therefore it affords few, and those not full Testimonies of the truth.

The Ages of the Church (saith a learn­ed man) resemble the stars of the sky. Dr. Featly, Of the Names of visible Protest. in all Ages. In some Ages we may see many and glorious lights, likestars of the first and second Mag­nitude: in other Ages there are few Authors of any Note, or bright lustre (whose writings have come to Posterity) and in some Ages none but obscure and unknown Authors.

The same Author saith, that after we have passed the eighth Age of the Church, we fall into Cimmerian darkness.

Of the ninth Age Bellarmine cannot speak with patience—Saeculo hoc nullum extitit indoctius, Lib. 4. De Ro­mano pontifice cap. 12, ad li­nem.aut infeliciu [...] in quo qui Mathematicis aut Philosophiae operam da­bat, vulgo Magus putabatur. ‘There was no Age more unlearned, or unhappy, then this; in which whosoever studied the Mathematics, or Philosophy, was com­monly accounted a Magician. This is called an unhappy Age, empty of men famous for wit, or learning, in which the light of knowledge was not to be found, no not in Popes, Bishops, or Princes: but this Age was full of palpable Egyptian darkness: and it may be said of this Age, that it yielded no eminent men, Catholics, or Heretics.

As this ninth Age, so the tenth, and some other after, were barren of Learned Writers: Dr. [...]eatly. and therefore no marvel (saith my Author) if the Harvest we gather in these Ages of the Professors of the Truth, and defenders thereof by writing, be very thin.

In the tenth Century Learning was de­cayed by the fall of the Roman Empire, great corruption grew in this Century or thousandth year, Bi [...]ck. P [...]est. [...]. wherein (as some think) Satan was let loose. For at this time, Rev. 20.3. they of Rome forbad to marry; and indulged uncleanness themselves:—they also devised [Page 182]a carnal presence of Christ in the Sacra­ment.

This ignorant Age was a Monkish Age, much cumbred with Monkery, or with the dotages of Monks and Legendary Fables; wherein the Monks devised subtile tricks to delude the people, as the Oracles of the Holy Rood, &c. and that illiterate herd of Monks and Friers bore the greatest sway, and the blind led the blind into the pit.

In the fourteenth Century (as some com­pute it) Learning began to revive, Idem. there being a general Resurrection of all good Learning (a little before the receiving of the Gospel) at which the Monks were mad. For as in the first Plantation of the Gospel in Europe, Mellific [...]i Theolog. pag. 716. as Mr. Trap observes, God shipped the Arts before into Greece, that they might be as Harbingers unto it, as Tertullian speaketh; so in these latter Ages the Lord, intending a Reformation of Religion, set up the Turk to over-run Greece; and by the cruelty of the Turks, used against the Grecians (such as they ab­horred) and by God's Providence over-ru­ling it, divers learned men among the Greeks, left (as exiles) those parts, and fled into these Western parts; and by their means the knowledge of Letters, and stu­dy of Tongues, especially the Greek and [Page 183] Latine, began to spread abroad through diverse parts of the West. These were God's first Instruments (saith Mr. Trap) to restore humane Learning, that was al­most lost out of the world—as Chrysolo­ras, Trapezuntius, Gaza, Argyrophylus, Chalcondylas, Cydonius, and other. In like sort also afterwards John Capnio brought the use of the Greek and Hebrew Tongues into Germany.

In the beginning of this Age Hebrew was first taught in Oxford. Isaacson's Chronol. ad Ann. Christ. 1314.

In this Age knowledge increased very much by the means of Printing, which Art is said to be first invented at Strasburg in Germany by John Guttenburg. Here­by the Languages were divulged, and good Learning was generally communica­ted, and Books were more easily dispersed then formerly the Manuscrips could be. Shortly after, there were printed at Paris, Venice, Antwerp, and divers other places, the Works of sundry Learned men, stirred up by God to fetch the Arts back out of banishment. Pag. 716, and 717. Mr. Trap names divers of them. After that Humane Learning be­gan thus to reflourish, and lift up the head, Divinity also, that had been shamefully obscured and slurried with needless and endless Doubts and Disputes, was vin­dicated [Page 184]and illustrated by the knowledge of Latine, Greek, and Hebrew.

In this fourteenth Age (as also in the fifteenth and sixteenth Ages) God raised up divers Worthies, who, by their Confessi­ons, Writings, and Martyrdom gave a great and glorious Testimony to the Go­spel of Christ, and the Truths thereof, as Wickliff, Huss, Hierom of Prague; after them Luther, Zuinglius, Oecolampadius, and many others.

Then grew up that golden Age of gra­cious and excellent Divines, famous and matchless for depth of Learning, and heighth of Holiness.

If the Times of greatest Ignorance, Neglect, and Contempt of humane Learn­ing, were the Times, wherein Errors most prevailed, Superstition, and Idolatry was advanced, and Truth suppressed; and Po­pery did not fall, till Learning did rise: and if Religion flourished, and was best de­fended, when Learning most abounded, then Learning is useful, and needful for the Ministers of the Gospel.

SECT. IV. Learning qualifies for all public Employ­ments.

HUmane Learning qualifies, Argum. 3. and is need­ful for all Persons in publick Places, and Imployments, as Kings, Counsellors, Judges, Magistrates, Lawyers, Physici­ans (for who would not take advice of Learned Lawyers about their Estates, and of Learned Physicians for their Bodies) and indeed for every ingenuous Imploy­ment.

Henry the First, King of England, was bred up in Learning, and such a Prizer of it, as he used to say, That An unlearned King was but a crowned Ass.

Then Learning is most needful for a Mi­nister, to fit and furnish him throughly for the work of the Ministery, considering that no calling requires more abilities, or acqui­red parts, then the Ministry, which work

I. Is most Important, Weighty, and Worthy: for it is the Minister's office to be conversant in the Matters of God, and of Souls, of Heaven, and of Eternity, which are of the greatest Interest, and highest Concernment, and of the [Page 186]largest, and longest Consequence.

II. Is most comprehensive, and mani­fold: As

1. To give the Sense, clear the Diffi­culties, reconcile the Differences, and seeming Repugnancies of the Scriptures.

2. To handle positively all Points of Religion, and to discuss and determine Controversies, and Doubts about them.

3. To resolve and satisfie Cases of Conscience, and Scruples.

4. Eph. 4.24. Gal. 5.1. To detect false Teachers, and dis­cover the many Evils, Artifices, Cheats, Fallacies, and Sophistries of Seducers, and Impostors, and of Satan in them, whereby many poor simple Souls are de­luded.

Therefore saith Paul, Who is sufficient for these things? 2 Cor. 2.6. Do not they call for the best accomplishments?

SECT. V. Satan makes use of Learning to oppose the Truth.

LEarning is necessary to the Ministers of the Gospel, Argum. 4. for defence of the Truth, because Satan makes much use of Learn­ing to oppose the Truth, and fight against Religion, to maintain his Cause, uphold [Page 187]and promote his Kingdom: and Satan makes choice and use of Learned men to be his Agents and Champions, Advocates for Error, and Adversaries to the Truth of God. To this end

1. Satan stirred up Heathens, who were en­dued with Learning, to write books against the Christian Religion, as Porphyry (who was one of Julians bosom-birds) Celsus, Symmachus, and others.

2. Then Satan raised up Heretics with­in the Church, men of corrupt minds, destitute of the Truth (but of Parts, and Learning) to devise, defend, and spread Errors, Heresies and Blasphemies, and re­sist the Truth of God with all their might, as Arrius, Nestorius, Macedonius, Donatus, Pelagius, and many others.

3. How many learned Men hath Satan imployed, and ingaged since, in later times, to be defenders of Popery, or Romish-Ido­latry (as Jesuits, and many others) of Ar­minianism, Socinianism, Antinomianism, A­nabaptism, Familism, Libertinism; and of several old Heresies, newly raked up and revived?

It hath been the Jesuits brag, that Im­perium literarum est penes Jesuitas, the Empire of Learning is within their Domi­nion, and that we have not a Scholar-Pro­testant.

4. How hath Satan excited the Papists (those friends of Antichrist, and builders of Babylon) to be at great pains, cost, and charges to advance Learning with them, that they may the better overthrow the Truth of God with us. Hence it is that they have errected so many Universities in Spain, France, Italy.

How are the Colledges of the Jesuits, throughout the Pope's Dominions, promo­ted so as to allure even foreiners thereunto.

Then, do not the Protestant Reformed Churches stand in great need of Men, emi­nently Learned, to be able Defenders of the Faith, and strenuous maintainers of the Truths of Christ, against all Heathen­ish, Heretical, and Schismatical Adversa­ries thereof; whether secret underminers, or open opposers? to convince, and con­fute Learned, Subtile, Witty Adversa­ries, as Heretics, Jesuits, and divers others?

May not Learning (being well used) be as great a help, or advantage to the Truth and Cause of God, as Learning abused is an hinderance to it? an Engine, or Bulwark for Errors? Learning (as one saith) is part of the defensive Arms of true Religi­on. Did not the Israelites need Smiths to make them Weapons, to defend them­selves against the Philistines, as the Phili­stines [Page 189]did to offend Israel? It is very ob­servable, how God accomplished some of his servants, in all ages, with excellent Gifts, Graces, and Learning to refute, silence, and non-plus the most acute, and learned Adversaries of God's Truth, and Grace, which those times produced, as Moses to withstand the learned Egyptians; Atha­nasius to confute Arrius; and Austin, that learned Father, to oppose Pelagius; Jewel, Whitaker, Rainolds, Cartwright, Fulk, Perkins, men of great Learning, to refute the Jesuits; Moulin, Ames, Twiss, to confute Arminius.

Yea, the Devil can and doth sometime make use of Learning himself to serve his turn; as he did in his speaking out of the possessed man, See Mr. Rich. Rothwel's life in Mr Clark's Book of Lives. John Fox in Nottingham­shire, to Mr. Richard Rothwel: he quoted many Scriptures out of the Old and New Testament, both in Hebrew and Greek; he cavilled, and played the Critic, and backed his Allegations with Sayings out of the Fathers and Poets, in their own languages, which he readily quoted. So that the Company trembled to hear such things from the Man (who understood not Learn­ing, nor moved either tongue or lip) or rather from the Devil in the Man. But Mr. Rothwel, being not onely a gracious [Page 190]Man, but a great Scholar, was enabled by God to detect the Devil's Sophistry. —Was not his Humane Learning then of use to him?

SECT. VI. Satan seeks by obstructing Learning to un­dermine Religion.

THe Necessity and Utility of Learn­ing doth further appear by another Design of Satan, Argum. 5. which is, to undermine Religion by the obstructing of Learning, and discouraging thereof. This he hath practised by his Instruments, three especi­ally, scil. Julian, Antichrist, and Opini­onists.

1. Julian the Apostate, who endea­vored to suppress all Christian Religion by repressing the Schools of Learning: forbidding to Christians the use of humane Authors, of Philosophy, and the Liberal Arts; telling them in scorn, that their own sublime Learning might suffice. He prohibited the Children of Christians to be educated in Learning. He decreed, none should study in any School, who would not adore Idols, to deprive Men of Learn­ing and Abilities to preach and defend the Christian Faith, and confute the Hea­thens: [Page 191]for by this means, saith he, Theodor. lib. 3. cap. 8. pro­priis pennis configimur; ex nostris enim libris arma capiunt, &c. ‘We are beaten with our own Weapons.’ This is like the Philistines Design upon Israel, that there should be no Smith in all the Land of Is­rael to make them Swords or Spears. 1 Sam. 13.19.

2. Antichrist (Satan's eldest Son) this was one of his Projects, to banish Arts and Tongues, and to overspread all with Barbarism, which abandoneth Religion, and excludes Learning, and succeeds it as Darkness doth the Light. There was a time when Graece nosse suspectum erat, He­braice fere Haereticum: to understand Greek was a matter of suspicion, but to know Hebrew was almost Heresie.

Pope Paul the second pronounced them Heretics, See Platina in vita Paul [...] 2. who should commemorate the Name of Academy, vel serio, vel joco, ei­ther in jest, or in earnest: he exhorted the Romans not to bring up their Children in the Studies of Learning, telling them, it was sufficient if they could write and read: he so hated Humane Learning, &c.

How vigorously have the Papists dri­ven on this Design to hinder Learning (as much as they could) among the Protestants, of purpose to disable them, and disarm them of Weapons to defend the Truth of [Page 192] Christ, and to oppugn their Romish Do­ctrines and Tenets: but they have by all means promoted Learning in all kinds a­mong themselves, to defend themselves, and offend us; to oppose, yea, to over­come the Truth, if they could; but that is great, and will prevail.

That it is a Jesuitical Design to decry Learning and Universities, and thereby to extirpate the Protestants Religion, appears by Adam Contzen, a subtil Jesuite, in his Politics, lib. 2. cap. 18. sect. 6. who pre­scribes this, among divers others Means for the introducing of Popery, to banish (Protestant) Ministers out of the Common­wealth, and that at once, if it can conve­niently be; if not, insensibly, and by de­grees. For the Truth, when it wants Pa­trons, will fall, without striking a stroke. Antiministerial Designs are Antichristain Designs, into which many are seduced, and which are carried on by Jesuitical craft; that there should be no learned men to de­tect Popish Impostures, and refute their Errors.

3. This Design Satan carries on by Enthusiasts also, and tumultuous Opini­onists, mis-led and acted by a spirit of Er­ror, Delusion, and Faction, giddiness, and perversness; as those Anabaptists, Fami­lists, [Page 193]and Libertines in Germany, who aba­sed and abandoned humane Learning, and burnt all Books save the Bible.

Should not all the Reformed Churches indulge and encourage the Universities, and Nurseries of good Learning, as much as they can, for the Advancement of Learn­ing, and indeed of Religion thereby? Ought not all, that would approve them­selves the Builders of Sion, be active, to the utmost of their power, to countermine these dangerous Designs of Satan and his Instruments? Dr. Arrowsm. Orat. 1. Anti­weigel. It is a glory to the Transyl­vanians, that they lately founded Alba Julia; and to the Hollanders, that they erected an illustrious School and Colledge, Collegium Auriacum, at Breda; and to the Germans, that they restored or renew­ed the Academy at Heidelberg. Is it not an Honor to the English to uphold and main­tain the two famous Universities of Cam­bridge and Oxford in their just Priviledges, due Revenues, Honor, and flourishing State? to give all the Encouragement they can to Learning, and not to detract or diminish the least of any of these from them? Did not the Parliament acknow­ledge, that, for the Propagation of the Go­spel in New-England, Universities, Schools and Nurseries of Literature must be setled [Page 194]there, for instructing and civilizing them? See the Act for promoting the Gospel in New-England.

Even Leo the first, Emperor, professed that he would rather have Philosophers then Soldiers in his Pay.

SECT. VII. Testimonies concerning Learning.

LEarning hath been highly esteemed, Argum. 6. and much commended by the ancient Fa­thers, and all the Christian Reformed Churches, and by the most learned, ortho­dox, godly, judicious Modern Divines, and by others also, for the necessity, commodity, and excellency thereof.

Luther speaks thus, Luther. Epist. Tom. 1.Vehementer & toto coelo errare censeo, qui Philosophiam, & Naturae cognitionem, inutilem putant Theo­logiae. I make account they err exceeding­ly, who think Philosophy, and the knowledge of Nature, useless to Divinity. —And in another place he saith, Epist. Tom. 2. Ego persuasus sum sine literarum peritia prorsus stare non posse sinceram Theologiam; sicut hactenus ruen­tibus & jacentibus literis miserrime & ce­cidit & jacuit. Quin video, &c. I am per­swaded, that pure (or sincere) Divinity can in no wise stand without the Skill of Learn­ing: [Page 195]as hitherto Learning salling and ly­ing, it (scil. Divinity) hath most misera­bly both faln and lain. Yea (saith he) I see there was never a remarkable revelation of the Word of God made, but first, as by Baptists, Forerunners of it, he prepared a way by Tongues and Learning, rising and flourishing.

In his Book of the Institution of Chil­dren Luther thus commends the Tongues, Tom. 7. pag. 442. a.Vaginarum vice sunt Linguae, in quibus Gladius ille Spiritus, &c. —Arcae sunt, &c. The Tongues are as it were the Scabbards, in which the Sword of the Spirit, the Word of God, is sheathed. They are the Chests, or Cases, which keep this precious thing, this noble Jewel. The Storehouses, out of which a Preacher may fetch Gospel-provi­sion. The Cups, wherein we carry about this wholesom Potion: and the Baskets, in which the loaves with the fishes, and the very fragments are kept, that they be not lost. He adds, Pag. 444. [...].Quanquam & nobis ob­scurum non est, Spiritu Dei omnia prorsus fieri; tamen nisi suppetias mihi tulissent Linguae, per hoc quod literarum sacrarum certo & infallibili me constabilissem intel­lectu, sane priore in salebra misero mihi cum inimicis Evangelii etiamnum haeren­dum foret. In which, and the following [Page 196]words he declares, That if he had not been helped out by the Tongues, he had still stuck where he was, with the Ene­mies of the Gospel, in the mire of Popery: and in pag. Pag. 445. a. 445. he seriously bewails it, that he had not read more Poets and Histo­rians.—Quanta nunc ducor poenitentia, ob non plures & Poetas & Historiographos a me lectos.

Melancthon, Melancthon. in his Epistle before this book of Luther's, delivers himself thus, —Linguas profecto praecidi oportet iis, qui pro concionibus passim a literarum studiis imperitam juventutem dehortantur. Nam admissa Barbarie, &c. They deserve (saith he) to have their Tongues cut out, who dehort youth from the study of learning. For we see that when Barbarism hath been admitted, Religion hath been weakned. And I greatly fear lest things come to the same pass, except we with all our might defend learning, that most excellent gift of God.

Quantum Ratio dat Homini (saith Casau­bon) tantum Literatura dat Rationi, Casaubon.Religio Literaturae, & Religioni Gratia. What Reason doth give to a Man, that doth Learning give to Reason, Religion to Learning, and Grace to Religion.

Mr. Jeremiah Burroughs gives this te­stimony [Page 197]to Learning. Burtough's Heart-Divisi­ons upon Hosea 10.2. p. 88, 89. There is (saith he) a great delusion in many mens hearts, that makes them think it to be half Popery to give any respect to learning. Although the abuse of learning hath done much evil, (against that much hath been, and may be said) yet I dare avow this, that never, since the beginning of the world, could a man be found to speak against learning, but an ignorant man. Neither is it like, nay I may aver, it is impossible, that any but such will be found to the end of the world. Learn­ing hath so much of God in it, that it never had, nor will have any enemy, but ignorance.

Dr. Rainolds saith, Rainolds in his Funeral Sermon for Mr. Lang­ley in Acts 7.22. Humane Learning is a noble gift of God, and a great honor and ornament to the most excellent men. All Secular Learning is the knowledge of God's works, aeternae veritatis particula, a small emanation from eternal verity. Phi­losophical and Mathematical Learning is the knowledge of his works of Creation: Historical and Political lea [...]ning, the know­ledge of his works of Providence: Moral, Oeconomical, and Civil learning is the knowledge of those remainders of his image and law, which are left in the mind of men for their direction and conviction: Grammatical, Rhetorical and Logical learn­ing [Page 198]is the knowledge of the use of that Reason, which God giveth us for impart­ing our minds, and evidencing our concep­tions one unto another.

—In regard of the Church and Truths of Religion, learning is useful as an Hand­maid, in a way of attendance thereupon, and subserviency thereunto.

Dr. Gauden. Gauden saith, The excellent Gifts of all sorts of good learning are as the string to the bowe, and as feathers to the arrows of Truth; herewith Satan hath found himself much galled, hampered and chained.

—Learning is a Glass, wherein the fair fa­ces and beauty of Religion and Reason are best represented.—It is an intellectual beauty, and a mean of knowing something daily more excellent in the Creature, or Creation, then it did before.

Pitsaeus saith, Pitsaeus in Pro­cemio Relat. retum Anglic. pag. 23. Homines quo magis igna­ri, & a bonis literis & disciplinis alieni, &c. The more men are ignorant and e­stranged from all Arts and Sciences, the nearer they come to the life of beasts and savages. For unless the powers of the mind (by which we are distinguished from brutes) be by liberal Sciences ordered and modified, all their vertue will degenerate, not only into a likeness to, but into a de­gree [Page 199]of rudeness beyond beasts.—That of the Poet is true,

—Didicisse fideliter artes
Emollit mores, nec sinit esse feros.

Sigismund the Emperor (as some re­late) was much affected, that neither he, Bucholcer. Chronol. Anno 1437. nor any of his Courtiers, or Counsellers, were able (at the Council of Constance) to answer a foreign Embassador in the Latine Tongue: therefore he began to learn La­tine when he was old. — And when some of his Nobles, that had no learning, (and therefore hated it) disdain'd that he pre­ferr'd some men of mean degree before them, meerly for their learning; he an­swered that he had good reason to honor Scholars, as those that were singularly graced and gifted by God. Knights and Lords, said he, I can make in a day as many as I list, but Scholars God only can make, from whom cometh every good and perfect Gift.

It's true, many in these days decry Learn­ing, and lay it as low as they can, as un­necessary, if not dangerous; and they dis­esteem and dishonour the learned. But are they not (divers of them at least) fana­tic persons, who speak evil of the things they know not, both Tongues and Scien­ces? or do not some of them sometimes [Page 200]use it, (or rather abuse it, as I have heard) even when they speak against it? and dis­commend others wares, to get the better price for their own silly stuff? Usually they, that speak against learning, decry Reason (which they may as well do, see­ing learning is but the improvement of reason) when they are not able to speak one word of sense against it, without its help: Just as those that defame Logic must be beholding to it, to frame their Arguments for them? But such men, by disclaiming reason, tie themselves to op­pose learning without any reason, and so disoblige others regard to what they say. They are like those Tradesmen, who keep their shops dark on purpose, that they may better put off their bad wares. These are Fauxes (as one calls them) with dark lanthorns to blow up all.

It is accounted the character of wicked men to hate learning, and design the ru­ine of it: and some observe, that they never read in any Histories of any, but evil men, that were opposers of it.

Enemies to learning are no friends to the learned, (for they ordinarily bespatter and vilifie them) nor to Religion, (as hath been declared) no nor to Reason, or to natural gifts and abilities, which are much [Page 201]improved, heightned, and perfected there­by. For what are Arts but reason refined, rightned and ripened; or well regulated and well ordered, as far as the subjects and capacity of them doth extend.

SECT. VIII. Of the Learning of the Ancient Fathers.

GOd hath used such as the greatest in­struments of his glory, of good in his Church, and of service in their Generati­on, who have been indued with, yea ex­celled in humane learning; as

  • I. The Ancient Fathers.
  • II. The Modern Divines.

I. The Ancient Fathers were strenu­ous defenders of the Truth, justifiers of Christian Religion against the Jews, and against the Heathen, (discovering to the world the vanity of their gods, the absur­dity and impiety of Paganism) and against proud Heretics; and the vindicators of it from unjust aspersions, and injurious ca­lumnies.

They were all learned men, or bred and brought up in learning. I will set down some hints hereof, which I find in seve­ral Authors concerning some of them, in reference to the Centuries (or ages) after [Page 202] Christ, in which they lived, as the Wri­ters of their lives have placed them.

Justine Martyr, In the second Century. of a Philosopher (for he was at first a Platonist, and learned) be­came both a Christian, and a Martyr. He labored and suffered much for the Religi­on of Christ. He writ a book against all Heresies, and famous Volumes against Marcion the Heretic; he writ also Apo­logies for the Christians. He was renown­ed in all ancient Histories, for his great knowledge both in Religion and Philo­sophy.

Irenaeus was educated from his child­hood in Philosophy, and Arts. He was admired of all for his excellent learning and skill in humane and in divine things. Tertullian calls him Omnium doctrinarum curiosum exploratorem, an exquisite search­er out of all learning. He was an exact re­suter of Heresie. He confuted the Valen­tinians, and Gnostics, who were the in­venters (as one saith) of the most Chymi­cal Divinity that ever came into the fancy of man. He was laborious and prosperous in his Ministery, and converted almost the whole city (of Lyons in France) from Pa­ganism.

Clemens Alexandrinus, Jerom saith of [Page 203]him, Meo judicio fuit omnium eruditissi­mus: quid in illius libris indoctum? &c. That in his opinion he was the most learn­ed. Daniel Heinsius saith, In the Dedica­tion of Clemens his Works to Gustavus Adol­phus. He was second to few in Antiquity, to none in Learning: and that he labored to be an healer of the superstition of the Greeks, which at that time invaded the world. Cui primo omni­um errori vir sanctissimus gravissimo volu­mine medetur. His writings contain a trea­sure of divine and humane learning, and are full of eloquence. He excell'd in Hi­story, and in confutation of heresie.

Tertullian was skill'd in all kind of learning, Lactantius. and of chiefest esteem amongst the Latine Authors. Jerom saith, that his books against the Gentiles contain cun­ctam saeculi doctrinam, all the learning of his age, or all sorts of learning. Pamelius in vi­ta Tertulliam. He was di­ligently conversant in the Mathematics, and in Histories. Scult. Medull. He opposed in those times with great zeal the Heretics, as Marcion, the Valentinians, Praxeas, Her­mogenes, as also the Jews. He wrote a learned Apology in behalf of the Christi­ans, who were then falsly accused and persecuted; and he demonstrated to the very Heathen the verity of Christian Re­ligion, and the innocency of Christians.

Origen was (as is reported of him) from In the third Century. [Page 204]his infancy throughly grounded in all Learning; and he was accounted a Mirror of Piety and Learning, of all sorts Humane and Divine. He had a great acuteness in confuting the Philosophers, and those Ara­bians, who would have Souls to die with their Bodies, and Berillus the Heretic, who denied the Eternity of Christ: whom at length he reduced to the Truth; as he did Ambrose from the error of the Mar­cionites. He was a great honorer of Mar­tyrdom, a comforter of Martyrs. His whole life was a continual study, he would read at his Meals.

Cyprian was first a Rhetorician, after a Learned godly Bishop, and at length a glori­ous Martyr of Christ. He confuted Nova­tus the Heretic, whom he stiles in his Epi­stles an importunate Innovator, a mur­therer of Penitence.

Lactantius excelled all the Writers of the Church in Elegance, In the fourth Century. and lustre of Lan­guage. Jerom saith of him, that he was as it were a flood of Tullian Eloquence. He wrote many Treatises, which may be read with profit, and pleasure.

Athanasius was educated in all sorts of learning. He was a vigorous Opposer of the Arrians, therefore he was called, The Hammer of the Arrian Heretics, by whom [Page 205]he was extreamly hated, because they per­ceived the acuteness of his wit, Learning, and industry, in confuting of Heresies in the Nicene Council; therefore he was ex­posed to great trouble. Theodoret calls him, The Bulwark of Truth; Naziazen stiles him, The great Trumpet and pillar of the Church. He was great for his Learning, labors, sufferings, and constancy, and cour­age, even when not onely Bishops, but Emperors, Kingdoms, Armies, and Nati­ons, were set against him, yet the Empe­ror Constantine gave this character of him, Virum plane divinum existimo. I hold him to be indeed a divine man.

Hilary was a man of excellent parts. In his Epistle presixed to his works. Erasmus saith, that he was Ob vitae sanctimoniam, insignem eruditionem, & Eloquentiam admirabilem, aevi sui Lumen, ‘the light of his Age for sanctity of life, eminent Learning, and admirable Elo­quence’quanto stomacho saevit in Arria­nos, &c. He was a great Antagonist to the Arrians, whom he called, Devils, Antichrists, blasphemers, pests; he writ se­veral books against them. Jerom calls him The Trumpet of the Latine Tongue, (perhaps because he was the first that con­futed the Arrians in Latine) and the Con­fessor of our time.

Cyril of Jerusalem, a man of great Learning, Prudence, and Piety, Ecclesiastical Writers testifie of him, that he was Fortis­simus Christi Athleta, & Orthodoxae fidei assertor constantissimus. A most vali­ant champion of Christ, and most constant defender of the Orthodox faith. He suffer­ed many persecutions through the rage of the Arrians.

Basil called Magnus, Greg. Nazi­anz. in vita Bahlii. he was great eve­ry way, as in wit and Learning (in omni doctrinae genere summus, saith Suidas) skil­ful in all the liberal Sciences, and in all the Mathematics. Summus in cunctis apparuit, he was so excellent in every one, as if he had studied that onely one. Great in elo­quence, (Erasmus calls him the Christian Demosthenes) great in contending for, and in defending the truth, in confuting and convincing Heretics.

Gregory Nazianzene was Learned in Grammar, Vita Greg. Na­zianz. a Greg. Presbytero con­scripta.Rhetoric, Philosophy both Na­tural and Moral, Poetry, Arithmetic, Geo­metry, Astronomy, in all the Liberal Arts: in the study of which he spent many years. He was a man of great Authority and use in the Greek Churches: that who so op­posed his testimony was suspected of Here­sie. He is called A living Library of Phi­losophy and Divinity.

Epiphanius had great knowledge in the Hebrew, being educated by one Tryphon, a Jew. He was a learned, pious Divine, Cornarius Me­dicus. saith Cornarius, who translated him out of Greek into Latine, which work he un­dertook propter Authoris praes [...]ntiam, & operis raritatem, for the excellency of the Author and rarity of the work. He was a man (saith one) of a very good, honest, John Daille. and plain nature. He was semper Haereti­corum acerrimus oppugnator, alway a sharp opposer of Heresies. He wrote a Learned book against 80 Heresies, which contains variety of story in it. He purged all Cyprus from Heresies, and having ob­tained an Edict from Theodosius the Em­peror, he cast all the Heretics out of the Island.

Ambrose was Learned in the Liberal Arts, and excellent in Eloquence. He was very couragious for the truth. He denied the Emperor Theodosius entrance into the Church, until he had publickly confes­ed his fault, scil. that miserable slaugh­ter caused by him at Thessalonica. Daille saith he was one of the most firm Pillars of the Church in his time. He was called (saith another) orbis Terrarum oculus: the eye of the world, an eye as bright as any other in the world's orb in his time.

Gregory Nyssen, a famous man (as Sui­das) omnique doctrina exuberans, abound­ing with all Learning, and as excellent in Rhetoric as any of the Antients. He was the light and ornament of the Nyssen Church: a strenuous opposer of Eunomi­us his Heresie; he was a diligent, reve­rent, studious reader of the holy Scrip­tures, having a special eye to the proper and genuine sence of them.

Theodoret made such proficiency in Learn­ing and piety by his own ingenuity, and industry, through God's blessing, that he was made Bishop of Cyrus (a Town in Syria) while he was yet a young man. One calls him, Orthodoxae pietatis amantissimus pro­pugnator, haereticaeque pravitatis fortissi­mus oppugnator. A most loving propa­gator of Orthodox piety, and a couragious opposer of Heretical pravity. He wrote much against the Heretics. He of him­self condemned Nestorius, and put stop to his Heresie. He reduced many in his Diocess to the truth, with great labor, and hazzard of life, who were infested with the pest of Marcion. He wrote a volume against all Heresies; and an Ecclesiastical History, which is very useful to the Church. Bellarmine calls him virum pla­ne doctissimum, a very Learned man, [Page 209]Another saith, he had multifarium in omni disciplinarum genere scientiam, ma­nifold knowledge in all kind of Learn­ings.

Jerome was instructed at Rome (then the only Nursery of Learning) where he profited much in all sorts of Learning, and afterwards travelled over the greatest part of Europe, to encrease his knowledge, by viewing several Libraries, and conferring with the most Learned men. He was a great Linguist, hence called [...], excellent in Hebrew, well skil'd in the Chaldee and Syriac. His stile is elegant. He was vir in saecularibus valde eruditus, Trithemius. well versed in secular Learnings. Erasmus calls him facundissimum Ecclesiae doctorem, the most Eloquent Doctor of the Church. He was the boldest and most judicious censurer of the Ancients, John Dailie. and he happily improved a critical faculty upon them.

He wrote against the Pelagians: and was an extirpator of Heretics, and defen­der of the truth, he read over all his Li­brary, and learned Scriptures to a word, and translated the Bible out of the Origi­nal into Latine.

Chrysostome studied hard the liberal Sci­ences and Philosophy, and afterwards Di­vinity and Piety; Erasmus. he was famous for Elo­quence [Page 210]and zeal. He was called os aure­um, mellitissimus Christi concionator, prae­coque indefatigabilis, a most hony sweet, unwearied Preacher of Christ, for his elo­quent wisdom, and wise eloquence, throughout his works Sanctity and Scho­larship are joyned in one. He was [...], the most copious writer of any of the Greek Fathers now extant. A judi­cious man saith of him, A man cannot easi­ly take Chrysostome amiss any where, espe­cially in his Moral Discourses. He was a zealous propagator of the Gospel to dark places, and opposer of Idolatry and Heresie, and Heretics, as of the Marcionites, and the Arrians. He was bold in repro­ving sin, and not fearing sufferings, as ap­pears by his speeches to Eudoxia the Em­press.Nil inli pecca­catum tunco.Theodoret styles him eximium orbis terrarum luminare, The eminent light of the whole world. He was so beloved and reverenced of all men, that, when he was like to be silenced, the people cried out, Satius est ut sol non luceat, quam ut non do­ceat Chrysostomus, We had better want the shining of the Sun, then the preaching of Chrysostome.

Augustine was educated in Learning, In the fifth Century. Lossidius alias Possidonius. to the weakning of his Parents estate. He learned Grammar in his own city, and [Page 211] Rhetoric at Carthage, He was saecularibus literis eruditus apprime, &c. very learned in all the liberal Sciences: he writ of the Arts, as Grammar, Rhetoric, Logic, Mu­sic, Philosophy, &c. He defended the truth against the Arrians, Manichees, Pe­lagians, Circumcellians, Donatists, Pri­scillianists, and whatsoever error else pre­vailed in his time. He had several sharp conflicts with them, and confuted them by many Learned writings, as also by word of mouth in Disputations, as he did For­tunatus, and Placentius, both stiff Arrians: and thereby he convinced, and converted one Felix a Manichee, (that he recanted his error, and joyned to the Church) as he did also one Firmus, a rich Merchant and a Manichee, by a digression in his Ser­mon (when he was out, and forgot the sub­ject he thought to prosecute, and fell up­on a confutation of the Manichees) this Firmus came afterwards to him with tears, renouncing his error, and promising refor­mation. Augustine was called Malleus Haereticorum, The Hammer of the Heretics. Erasmus calls him acerrimum fidei Christi­anae propugnatorem, the most sharp and valorous defender of the Christian Faith. Another calls him The fairest flower of Antiquity. He was an instrument in God's [Page 212]hands of gaining many Pagans to the knowledge of the truth. Dr. Sibbs saith of him, that he challenged the doctrine of Gods Predestination out of the hands of the enemies of Grace, and flatterers of Na­ture, as being a man fitted with grace, learning, and wit for such a conflict. No Scriptures are more faithfully handled by him, then those that were wrested by his opposites, and such as made for the strengthning of his own cause; in other writings he took more liberty. His Scho­lars, Prosper and others, interessed them­selves in the same quarrel: Prosper, retain­ing Augustine's Doctrine, learnedly con­futed the Pelagian Heresie. Daniel Tos­sanus saith, that the Palmary or Master­piece of Augustine was, that he, above all the other Fathers, and almost alone, being provoked by the Pelagians, diligently dis­cussed the Doctrine of Predestination, and of Original Sin.

He onely of all the Ancients wrote Books of Retractations: for, as he pro­fesseth in his seventh Epistle, he wrote by profiting, and profited by writing. He always kept Scholars in his house quoad victum & amictum, —with food and rai­ment. His usual Prayer was, that when Christ came he might finde him aut pre­cantem, [Page 213]aut praedicantem, either praying, or preaching.

Cyril of Alexandria was famous for Pie­ty and Learning, he was President in the Council at Ephesus, in which he condemn­ed Nestorius and Pelagius, with their Er­rors, very learnedly and judiciously: he spake many elegant Sentences: he was so renowned, that the Grecian Bishops (as it is reported) gat some of his Homilies by heart, and rehearsed them to their people.

Fulgentius was Augustine's Scholar, In the sixth Century. and followed him foot by foot, especially in ad Monimum, & ad Petrum, the two best of his Works; he had great knowledge in the Greek and Latine Tongues: he con­tended earnestly against the Arrians (whose Opinion then had overspred all Africa) and other Heretics; and he suffered much for defending the Orthodox Faith. He was extremely persecuted by the Arrians, yet would not seek revenge (no not when he had opportunity) but would say, Plura pro Christo sunt toleranda, We must suffer more for Christ then so: and as he answer­ed Felix the Arrian that dealt so ill with him, Christiani est non ulcisci sese, Deus enim ulturus injuriam suis illatam.

Isidore was called by Casaubon, In the seventh Century.pius & [Page 214]eruditus Scriptor, a godly learned Writer; he was admired for his Learning and Elo­quence: he could fitly accommodate his speech both to the learned, and to the ignorant: it's said, He led an Angelical and Evangelical Life in the flesh.

Venerable Bede was very learned in Phi­losophy, Astronomy, Poetry, in Greek, Arith­metic, Rhetoric; but especially very con­versant in, and studious of the holy Scrip­tures: he was said to be the Honor of England, and the Mirror of his Time for Learning: so famous for it, and for Piety, that he was sent for to Rome to help to settle the Churches peace.

Damascen was educated in Learning, In the eighth Century. got the knowledge of all the Liberal Sci­ences, then he studied the Scripture, and Divinity: he was a diligent Preacher and Propagator of the Faith and Truth of Christ, and a great Opposer of Heretics: he was called a great Star in the Churches Firmament in that time when there was great darkness; but he by his life and doctrine illuminated many.

Bernard had pregnant and admirable parts for wit, memory, and understanding, a great Proficient in Learning, and had an excellent faculty in preaching. His Sen­tences were stuffed (as one saith) omni amoe­nitate [Page 215]& pietate, with all amoenity and piety: he was in great repute for his san­ctity of life and doctrine.

Thus I have given a brief Account of the ancient Fathers, that they were learn­ed, whom God made eminently useful in, and to his Church. Let me add two things by way of Caution:

1. Though they were learned and pious, yet they had their infirmities and ble­mishes; and were subject to errors and fail­ings even in their Writings, as hath been observed by many. See Daille's Treatise.

They were not acted with an infallible spirit (as the Pen-men of sacred Writ were) therefore they must be read with consideration and discretion; their Wri­tings must be tried by the Touchstone of God's Word. To be altogether exempt from Errors is the Priviledge of the holy Scriptures.

Divers Divines have given Rules for the right understanding of the Fathers. See Scultet. Medull. Patr. Dan. Synops. de Legendis Patribus, John Daille in his Treatise concerning the right use of the Fathers.

2. Lest any should think these ancient Fathers had no need of their humane Learning, or might have been as well with­out [Page 216]it; it's true they stood in need of more Learning in some kinde then they had at­tained, the want whereof was the Cause of their Errors and Mistakes Ex. gr. Au­gustine, by reason of his good insight into the Hebrew and Greek Tongue, fell short, and failed much of solid Interpretation in his Expository Books. Luther instan­ceth in his Comment upon the Psalms: he mentioned Hilary too. Ambrose also, by reason of his Ignorance in the Tongues, erred oft in his Expositions. See Luther in libello de Instit. pueris, where he shews, that Patrum Errores in sacra Scriptura pro­venerunt ex Linguarum ignorantia, pag. 442, 443, 444. The Errors of (some) of the Fathers grew from their Ignorance of the Tongues. Had it not been better for them to have had more knowledge thereof?

So much of the Learning of the Fa­thers.

SECT. IX. Of the Learning of the first Reformers.

Secondly, Now I shall shew briefly the Learning of the Modern Divines, which may be cast into two Ranks:

I. Those former, who were the happy [Page 217]Reformers of Religion, or honored by God as Master-Builders to lay the Foun­dation, and begin the Work of Reforma­tion.

II. These later, who vigorously car­ried on the Work of Reformation.

I. The Learning of those former Di­vines, whom God raised up in pity to his poor Church, when the Apostacy of Po­pery had so far overspread, and prevailed. They were many of them learned, men of great skill in Arts and Tongues; and o­thers competently learned: and all, men of invincible courage, and indefatigable pains, excited and qualified by God to be the Restorers of the true Christian Reli­gion from its bondage in Ignorance and Su­perstition; and strong and stout Opposers of the Pope and Popery in the Points of Doctrine, Worship, and Practice. These lived in (or about) the fourteenth and fif­teenth Centuries.

Berengarius lived in the dismal dark­ness, and depth of Popery: Century 14. Ussertus de Christ. Eccles. succes. cap. 7. pag. 196, 197. he profited in the School above his Equals; and was well-skill'd in the Liberal Arts, an excel­lent Logician; of great account for his Learning and Piety. He was expert in the Scriptures; and also in the Writings of the ancient Fathers. He was a Champion [Page 218]for the Truth in the Point of Transubstan­tiation; opposing the Corporal Presence of Christ in the Sacrament. He had almost drawn all Italy, France, and England to his Opinion. He was of a bold, undaunted spirit and courage. His Life and Conver­sation was so unblameable, that therein (as one saith) he starved the Malice of all his Adversaries. Fuller.

Petrus Waldus, though he was not one of the Modern Divines, yet something is observable in his Story, which is useful to our purpose. Alsted. Chronol. He was a rich Citizen of Li­ons in France, converted by seeing one fall down dead in the streets; upon which he betook himself to teach and admonish his House and Friends to repent, and to study the Scriptures himself: and he profited so well therein, that he translated divers parts thereof out of Latine into French. Friar Rainer, an Adversary to the Truth, and to the Waldenses, saith, That Waldus, being tolerably learned, taught those that resorted to him the Text of the New Te­stament in their Mother's Tongue; and that the Waldenses (who were his Followers and Auditors) had above forty Schools, In Dioeceli Pa­taviensi. and divers Churches, all within one Dio­cess: yea, they were (as others witness) of that ability, that they had divers Con­ferences [Page 219]and Disputations with the Roma­nists, and had the better. Vide Usserium cap. 6, 8.

As for the Doctrines and Tenets of the Waldenses, Vide Usserium in cap. 6, ad cap. 10. & Protest. Evi­dences. they preached against the Do­ctrines and Practises of Rome; as the Pope's Power, Transubstantiation, the Adora­tion of Images, and of the Cross, against Prayers for the dead, Purgatory, Invocati­on of Saints, extreme Unction, Auricular Confession, with many more.

John Wickliff was brought up in Merton Colledge in Oxford, he was famous both for life and learning, he excell'd in the knowledge of the Arts and School-Divi­nity; he was admired of all for his singu­lar abilities, and sweetness of demeanor: he was Divinity-Reader in Oxford: he was a diligent faithful Preacher of the Go­spel under King Edward the third, who always favored, and protected him against the rage of his Adversaries. He denied the Pope to be the Head of the Church, Mr. Fuller. Mr. Clark. and pronounced him to be Antichrist: he confuted and condemned his Doctrines a­bout Bulls and Indulgences, Masses, Tran­substantiation, &c. He was a great Enemy to the swarms of begging Friars. He wrote above two hundred fair Volumes, most of which were burned by Subinck Arch-Bishop of Prague in Bohemia: he wrote [Page 220]many Books of Philosophy, and some of Metaphysics. Dr. Featly. The University of Oxford crowned his person and doctrine with a fra­grant Garland of Praises, whose doctrine was not onely favored by divers Nobles, but also by the third part of the Clergy of England. In all his sufferings he shewed an undaunted spirit.

John Huss was educated in Learning at Prague in Bohemia, he was a great Scholar, and a famous Preacher in that University: he was converted by reading of John Wick­liff's Books, Mr. Fuller. which Queen Ann's Cour­tiers, who brought her (being Sister to Wen­ceslaus King of Bohemia) over into Eng­land to Richard the second King of Eng­land, did here light on, and carried them into their own Countrey; which Huss had the happiness to read, approve, and disperse: which proved a means of the Conversion of Bohemia; for Wickliff's Books first discovered the Romish Super­stitions unto them: he stoutly opposed the Pope's proceedings, and gave a blow to the man of sin under the fifth rib, which in Scripture is always observed to be mor­tal. The Gentry and Nobility of Bohemia did highly favor him.

Jerom of Prague had his first breeding there, but he much enriched himself in [Page 221]Learning by his travels abroad to the most principal parts, and Staple-places of learn­ing. At Paris he commenced Mr. of Arts; and in the University of Colen, and Heidle­berg, had the same degree confirmed un­to him. He was a man of admirable learn­ing, Eloquence, Memory, Courage, and Zeal. He was converted, as John Huss, by reading one of Wickliff's books, by which he perceived the abominable super­stitions then used in the Church; and be­gan by degrees, first in his judgment to dislike them, after in his practice to disuse them, and lastly in his preaching to con­fute them. He earnestly contended for the Truth, against the enemies of it, and openly opposed the doctrine of Purgatory, and Prayers for the dead; and thundered against the ill lives of the Monks and Fri­ers. He proclaimed and defended the in­nocency of John Huss, and condemned his false accusers. After his great and grie­vous sufferings, being brought before the Council, he so learnedly vindicated him­self, and refell'd his enemies, that they were astonished at, and silenced by his O­ration, which he concluded thus, That all such Articles as Wickliff and Huss had written against the enormities, pomp and disorder of the Prelates, he would firmly [Page 222]hold and defend even to death.

Martin Luther born 1483. Century 15. at 14. years of age went to Magdeburg, from thence his Parents removed him to Isenak, a fa­mous School, there he perfected his Gram­mar-learning. He went thence to the U­niversity of Erford, Anno 1501. where he profited much in the knowledg of Logic, and other Learning, and read over Cicero, Livy, Virgil, and other Latine Authors. When he was twenty years old, he was made Mr. of Arts, and read as Professor Aristotle's Physics, Ethics, and other parts of Philosophy.

After his Conversion he began to read Augustine's works; Mr. Fuller. he also read over the Schoolmen, especially Occam, whom he esteemed, for acuteness of wit, before Aqui­nas and Scotus, and he studiously perused Gerson. In these Studies he spent five years in the Colledge at Erford.

When Luther was twenty six years old, John Staupicius (who endeavoured to promote the University of Wittenberg, then lately begun) removed Luther thi­ther, where at first he explained Aristotle's Logic and Physics, yet intermitted not his study.

When he was 30. years old he was made Doctor in Divinity after the maner of the [Page 223]Schools, at the charge of Duke Frederic Elector of Saxony. The Prince hearing him preach admired his excellent parts.

Then he betook himself to the study of the Greek and Hebrew. Afterwards Luther published his Propositions against Indul­gences, and opposed the Pope's Suprema­cy, Purgatory, and other Tenets of Po­pery.

Luther also confuted Nicholas Stork, Mr. Fuller.Thomas Muncer, and other fanatical Ring­leaders, broaching new Doctrines, who pretended Revelations Angelical, and con­ferences with God, and denied the Bap­tism of Infants.

The Pope's Advocates promised Eras­mus a Bishoprick of rich revenue, if he would write against Luther; but he answe­red that Luther was a man too great for him to write against, and that he learned more from one short page of Luther's Wri­tings, then from all Thomas Aquinas his Books.

Bucer called Luther the first Apostle of the reformed Doctrine; not simply, for Wickliff, Huss, and those forenamed, preached the same before; but Luther was the first, who in Bucer's age and me­mory, publickly and successfully, set on foot a general Reformation of the Church [Page 224]in these Western parts. John Huss bare a torch before Luther, and shewed him his way. See more of Luther in his life.

Huldericus Zuinglius was sent to School at Basil at 10. Born 1487. years of age, where he ex­ceeded his School-fellows in learning. At Bern he learned Rhetoric, Poetry, Orato­ry and Logic. At Vienna in Austria he studied Philosophy, and perfected his for­mer parts. At Basil he taught others what himself had learn'd. He commenced Ma­ster of Arts, and studied School-divinity and Greek, wherein he excell'd. He was chosen Pastor at Zuric, (anno Christi 1521.) where, beside his Ministerial la­bors, he studied Hebrew, and was able to expound those two major Prophets, Isaiah and Jeremiah. He prevailed with the Se­nate at Zuric to erect a School for La­tine, Greek and Hebrew.

He was admired in Switzerland, and fa­mous at Zuric, as Luther in Germany, and at Wittenberg. He was solid in all maner of learning, and a diligent searcher of the Scriptures, being expert in the Original Tongues. He was so great an opposer of the Pope's Pardons, Indulgences, and proceedings, that the Cardinals them­selves (as is reported) sought by great gifts to allure him to their side. At Zuric he [Page 225]disputed with Franciscus Lambertus, a Fri­er, about the Intercession of the Saints, and the sacrifice of the Mass, and convinced him of his error, so that he confessed and forsook his error, and gave glory to God.

Then crept in the opinion of the Ana­baptists, which he opposed with all his might.

His works are large witnesses of his gifts and graces, parts and pains.

Oecolumpadius, he was educated in Re­ligion and Learning, first at a School in Germany, call'd Heelbronna, then at Hei­delberg. Here he attained to that perfection in learning, that at the age of 14 years he was made Batchelor of Arts, with great approbation, and continued there till he was Master of Arts. Afterwards he fell close to the study of Divinity, and read the Schoolmen, (Aquinas, Gerson, and others) with indefatigable pains, and much profit. He studied Greek at Stutgard, and Hebrew at Heidelberg. Anno 1515. he was call'd to be Preacher and Pastor at Basil, and commenced Dr. in that University; about the same time that Erasmus came to Basil to print his Annotations on the New Te­stament; for the perfecting whereof he u­sed the assistance of Oecolampadius, a man (saith he) In his Pre­face to his An­notat. on the New Testa­ment. eminent not only for piety, [Page 226]but for skill in three Languages; and con­fessed he was much helped by him.

The Writers of his Life give this chara­cter of him, that he was a worthy instru­ment of advancing the truth of Christ; which he defended against Eckius and Fa­ber, and others. He was very successful in appeasing Sects and contentions, that arose in the Church. His fame both for piety and learning spread so abroad, that Philip Prince Elector Palatine committed his youngest son unto his tuition. He was a diligent, faithful Preacher of the Gospel, and pro­moter of Reformation in the Church; in­to which he brought the right administra­tion of the Sacraments, and the censure of Excommunication. He declared his judgement against the Mass, and other Popish doctrines; against sprinkling with holy water, and many superstitious actions; to which his doctrine (sinking into his au­ditors hearts) put a period. He was fa­mous in the City of Basil.

SECT. X. The after-Promoters of Reformation were Learned.

I Have briefly declared the Learning of the former Modern Divines, who first set Reformation of Religion on foot; to wit, their Education in Learning, their study and increase of it; and the means thereof, scil. Schools and Universities; their need and use of it, as to the work God gave them to do; and the success thereof in their generation. Now fol­loweth,

2. The Learning of the latter Divines, Century 16, 17. who carried on the work of Reformation vigorously in Doctrine and worship, that was happily begun by the former: and were Eminent for Learning, as well as for Piety; and were very instrumental in pro­moting the truth of God, and in defending it against the Adversaries of it: and in ex­tirpating Errors, Heresies, and Supersti­tions, and many of them were Pillars in the Church of God, famous in the work of the Ministery, for their labors in Preach­ing, and also in Printing, and for the suc­cess of both in the conversion of sinners, and edification of Saints, and the confir­mation [Page 228]of staggerers, and reduction of the erroneous; in the planting and watering of Churches. Who have set forth so ma­ny Learned Systemes, Commentaries, and Tractates, and Disputations of Divinity, as former Ages cannot parallel.

Their number being very great, and their Lives being largely described by many Writers, I shall refer you to them, for in­formation concerning their Learning and Godliness, and usefulness, what blessings they were in their Generation, and onely name some of them that were of chief Note.

Outlandish Divines.
  • Paulus Fagius.
    Cent. [...]6, 17.
  • Martin Bucer.
  • Philip Melancthon.
  • Peter Martyr.
  • Wolfgangus Muscu­lus.
  • John Calvin.
  • William Farel.
  • Peter Viretus.
  • Stephen Zegidine.
  • Peter Ramus.
  • Benedictus Aretius.
  • Henry Bullinger.
  • Emmanuel Tremellius
  • Zachary Ursin.
  • Martin Chemnitius.
  • Ralph Gualter.
  • Hierom Zanchy.
  • Anthony Sadeel.
  • Lambert Danaeus.
  • Theodore [...] Beza.
  • Daniel Tossanus.
  • Francis Junius.
  • Luke Trelcatius.
  • Amandus Polanus.
  • David Pareus.
  • [Page 229]John James Grynae­us.
  • Abraham Scultetus.
  • John Piscator.
English Divines.
  • John Frith.
  • Thomas Bilney.
  • William Tindal.
  • John Rogers.
  • Laurence Sanders.
  • Rowland Tailor.
  • John Bradford.
  • John Juel.
  • William Whitaker.
  • Alexander Nowel.
  • William Perkins.
  • John Rainolds.
  • Thomas Holland.
  • Robert Abbat.
  • Andrew Willet.
  • Robert Bolton.
  • William Wheatly.
  • Dr. Sibbs.
  • Dr. Taylor.
  • Dr. Preston.
Scottish Divines.
  • John Knox.
  • Robert Bollock.

Cum multis aliis.

Vide Melch. Adamum de vit is Theologo­rum, tum Germanorum tum exterorum.

The later Divines may be refered to three heads, according to the several Forms of Church-discipline, which they held forth in judgement and in practice Episco­pal, Presbyterial, Congregational. What man [Page 230]hath been famous, and eminently instru­mental in the work of the Ministry for la­bours and success (under any of these Forms) who have not been Learned, or endued with a good measure of acquired parts, as of knowledge in the Tongues and Arts.

1. For Episcopacy. How many very Learned, Laborious, Godly Bishops hath England bred, as Hooper, Latimer, Rid­ley, Cranmer, who were most zealous, couragious, faithful Martyrs for Christ, and for the Truth.

And many since, who have been famous for their Learning and Labors, both in Preaching and Printing; and for their pie­ty and charity; who by their worthy works yet speak, though they be dead, as Bishops, Jewel, Abbot, Babington, Cowper, Davenant, Downame, Hall, Usher, who was a Magazine of Learning, and Mirror of Sanctity, Humility and Cha­rity.

Beside many other pious, Learned, and useful men, who were for Episcopacy, though they were not Bishops.

2. For Presbytery. The old Non-con­formists, who opposed Episcopacy and Cere­monies, were many of them Learned men. Dr. Ames in his preface to Mr. Bayn's [Page 231] Diocesan's Tryal, saith, that Mr. Deering, More, Greenham, Perkins, Rogers, Cart­wright, Fenner, Parker, Philips, Hieron, Bradshaw, Brightman, Dr. Rainolds, Dr. Fulk, and Whitaker, with many others, were apprehended as men agreeing in one spirit, having had indeed the spirit of glo­ry resting on them, as their Works do shew, together with those Letters Testimonial, which they left written in the hearts of many thousand Christians.

To these may be added Gerson, Bucer, Century 16, [...].John Dod, Arthur Hildersham, Robert Ni­cols, John Ball, Richard Rothwel, Paul Bayns; who were all as really Learned, as truly Godly; famous for their great Abilities and Labors. Read their Lives, and you shall see the same made out fully, and clearly.

Besides many pretious Divines of great Note for Holiness and Learning, both for­merly, and lately, (yea even at this day) in all the Reformed Churches, not onely in England and Scotland, but in other Countries, who were (and are) for Pres­bytery. The Assembly of Divines, that sate at Westminster by Authority of Parlia­ment, was a Demonstration of the excel­lent Learning of the Ministers of the Presbyterian Judgement.

3. For Independency, or the Congrega­tional way. Many Ministers of this both in Old England and in New, have been choicely Learned, and excellently accom­plished with Gifts, as well as Graces; as Re­verend, holy and Learned Dr. Ames, Mr. Jeremiah Burroughs, Mr. Sidrach Simpson, Mr. Carter, Mr. Strong, with many others, some deceased, others yet living.

Many Pastors and Teachers, in the Churches of Christ in New England, were eminently Learned, as well as exemplarily Godly, and very famous and successful in Ministerial Labors; as Mr. Thomas Hook­er, Mr. Peter Bulkeley, Mr. Davenport, Mr. Thomas Shepherd, Mr. Allen. Mr. George Philips, Mr. Norton.

And Mr. John Cotton. B. D. whose Name is as an ointment poured forth, a most deservedly famous man of God, of whom Mr. Norton (his Successor, as Teacher of the Church in Boston in New England) relates, In his Narra­tive of Mr. Corton's Lafe and Death. that he was a General Scholar, studious to know all things, the want whereof might in one of his Profession be denominated Ignorance. The greater part of the Encyclopaedia he excelled in. Those Arts, which the University requires such a proficiency in from her Graduates, [Page 233]he both digested and refined by his more accurate knowledge of them. He was a good Hebrician; in Greek a Critic; and could with great facility both speak and write Latine in a pure elegant Ciceronian stile. He was a good Historian; no stran­ger to the Fathers, Schoolmen, Councils; abundantly exercised in Commentators of all sorts. His Library was great, his read­ing and Learning was answerable, him­self a living and better Library. But though he was a constant Student, yet he had not all his Learning out of his books.

Yea some of the Separation have been Learned men, I mean, the leaders of them; as Mr. Ainsworth, Mr. Robinson, Francis Johnson, Mr. Smith, and others.

Now if God hath used such as greatest Instruments of his Glory, and of good in his Church, even from one Generation to another, who have been Learned men, as I have made it appear by instances, to wit, in the ancient Fathers, and Modern Di­vines; yea even under the several Forms of Church-constitution and Government:

Then, Learning is useful and needful for a Minister of the Gospel in these days, and will be in succeeding Ages.

CHAP. XIII. Objections against Learning an­swered.

SECT. I. That the people may be better for the Learn­ing of their Ministers.

MAny Objections are made against the use of Learning, for the Mi­nisters of the Gospel.

Object. What are the people better for the Learning of their Ministers?

Answ. The people, which are unlearned, may enjoy the benefit of all the Studies, and Learning of their Ministers (in the extract, result, refinement, or quintessence thereof, as a Learned man saith) in, and by their labors in preaching, and writing; by which they convey the same unto them, which the people could not by their own private industry have attained.

So that the Ministers of the Gospel may be said to study (even Learning, as well as Piety) for the People; as Mothers, and Nurses eat, and digest food for their children, to whom they give suck: and [Page 235]the people suck Learning, and Knowledge out of the Breasts of the learned labors of their Ministers (both Sermons, and Books) in Translating, and Expounding the Holy Scriptures: in handling points of Divinity, in deciding Controversies, in resolving Cases of Conscience, in compo­sing Tracts, &c.

In all which Learning is prepared, and fitted for the Peoples reception, and dige­stion: and by all which they are made par­takers of the Sap, and Virtue of their Ministers Parts, and Studies, Gifts, and Graces.

Hereby the people may be kept from Errors, and Heresies; from corrupting, or rejecting wholesom Doctrine; from per­verting, and wresting the holy Scriptures, which (as S. Peter saith) they that are un­learned (to wit in themselves, 2 Pet. 3.16. and in their Teachers) do unto their own destruction. That saying is very true, scil. that judici­ous Believers can never be unthankful de­spisers of those Gifts of good Learning in their Ministers, by whom they have been instructed foundly and plainly in the truth.

SECT. II. That the Prophets, Christ, and his Apostles, were learned.

THe Prophets in the Old Testa­ment, Obj. 2. Christ and his Apostles in the New, had not Humane Learning, —Ergo there is no need of it for the Mini­sters of the Gospel? They carried on their Ministery without the knowledge of Arts and Tongues, may not Ministers do so now?

Answer in five Propositions.

The first Proposition. Mr. Rutherford. The Prophets, and Christ and his Apostles were learned, and had all the learning and Tongues that we now have, and these (Gifts) are the same in them and in us, in the names, sub­stance, and proper use of them, but other­wise acquired then ours are. The maner of obtaining them is double, scil.

  • 1. By Infusion.
  • Or,
  • 2. By Education.

I. By Infusion or inspiration from the Spirit of God, immediately and extraordi­narily, without the help of Schools or study.

Thus the Prophets and Apostles were Act. 2.4. [Page 237]plentifully furnished with all gifts of know­ledge and abilities.

1. Of Learning (to wit the Arts and Languages) needful to carry on the work of Prophecy in the Old Testament, and of preaching the Gospel, of planting and wa­tering Churches in the New.

2. With the knowledge of God and his will, of Christ and the mysteries of the Gospel, and the things pertaining to the kingdom of heaven. This came to the Prophets and Apostles from God by re­velation.

Jesus Christ was filled with all the trea­sures of wisdom and knowledge both hu­mane and divine, Col. 2.3. by the spirit which he received above measure, Joh. 13.34. wherewith he was anointed above and for his fellows. The spirit of wisdom and counsel, &c. that made him quick of un­derstanding, Isa. 11.2, 3. Hence it is, that, when he was a child, he disputed a­mong the Doctors and learned men in the Temple, Luke 2.46. among whom he was found, Vers. 48. when his parents had sought him sorrowing. He grew in wisdom and knowledge, so as, Vers. 40, 52 according tothe pro­portion of his age, the gifts of the Spirit were augmented in him. He being greater then Solomon, could not come short of [Page 238] Solomon's wisdom in any thing, Matth. 12.42.

II. The manner of obtaining learning is by Education, in Schools and Universi­ties, by study and industry, by the reading of books, and teachings of men, &c.

This is the ordinary means God hath appointed to serve his providence in, for attainment of learning and knowledge, both humane, scil. of Arts and Tongues, and divine, to wit, of God and Christ, of Law and Gospel, &c.

The same knowledge of the doctrine of Moses and the Prophets, and of the myste­ries of salvation, and of speaking with Tongues (in the substance and nature of the gift) which came to Paul by immedi­ate Revelation from God, Gal. 1.11, 12. Eph. 3.2, 3. and to others of the holy men of God, 2 Pet. 1.21. Timothy acqui­red by Paul's teaching, 2 Tim. 3.10, 14. and chap. 2. ver. 2. and by his parents education of him in the knowledge of the holy Scriptures from a child, 2 Tim. 3.15. and by study and industry, 1 Tim. 4.15, 16.

Thus the Prophets and Apostles had learning and knowledge both divine and humane, infused and inspired into them by the Spirit, immediately, supernaturally, extraordinarily, and miraculously in respect [Page 239]of the maner, and (of the measure) of their obtaining them, which is now ceased, and cannot be expected without tempting of God.

We must seek to acquire all these from God, by pains and diligence, in the use of the means God hath appointed for that purpose. Paul exhorts Timothy thereun­to, to study and meditate, and to give himself wholly to these things, that his profiting may appear in all things, or to all men, and to stir up the gift that is in him, for fitting himself more to the work of the Ministery, 1 Tim. 4.13, 14, 15.

Obj. The Council perceiving that Peter and John were [...], unlearned men were amazed, Acts 4.13. Ergo, the Apo­stles had no humane learning?

Ans. They counted the Apostles un­learned, because they, being fishermen, were not trained up in learning, nor educated in Schools, as the Pharisees were; therefore they wondred that men unlearned were so well-skill'd in the doctrine of Moses and the Prophets; and could speak so boldly of the mysteries of the Gospel.

They wondered at Christ's learning, see­ing he was a Carpenter's son, (as then re­puted) and never learn'd at School, Matth. 13.55, 56. John 7.15. How knoweth [Page 240]this man letters having never learned?

The second Proposition. Though many of the Prophets were call'd, or taken from secular imployments, as Elisha from the plow, King. 19.19, 20. Zechariah from husbandry, chap. 13.5. Amos from the herd, Amos 1.1. and 7.14. and divers of the Apostles from their nets, ships, and fishing, as Peter, Andrew, James and John, Mar. 1.16, to 21. and Matthew from the Custom-house where he sate, chap. 9.9.

Yet others of them were educated in hu­mane learning, Acts 7.22. as Moses was in all the learn­ing of the Egyptians, by the care of Pha­raoh's daughter; Dan. 1.4. and Daniel in the learn­ing and Tongue of the Chaldeans, by Nebu­chadnezzar's command.

Paul was brought up at the feet of Gamaliel, Acts 22.3. Festus told him of his much learning.

The third Proposition. Christ and his Apostles made good use of Tongues, Arts and Sciences, for opening the Scriptures, and for explaning, applying, and pressing the Doctrines contained therein, and what they delivered to their hearers.

Of Tongues, in citing and translating Scriptures out of Hebrew in the Old Testa­ment into Greek in the New, and ex­pounding them; and in speaking to men [Page 241]of several Nations in their own Language, Acts 2.4, 5, 6. 1 Cor. 14.18.

Of Arts, as Rhetoric, Logic, Philoso­phy, as hath been declared before.—Their use of learning shews they had learning.

The fourth Proposition. The Prophets and Apostles made use of books, of the holy Scriptures chiefly, and also of humane Authors to read them.

Mr. Weemse saith, [...], Divine [...] pag. 66. that the Prophets and the Apostles (to wit, some of them) learned their humane Arts and Sciences from men, as Moses did from the Egypti­ans, Daniel from the Chaldeans, Paul from Gamaliel; but, as they were Prophets and Apostles, they had their divine know­ledge immediately from God, yet they were to retain and keep it by reading: S [...]m.as the fire that came from Heaven upon the Altar was miraculous; yet when it was once kindled they kept it in with wood, as we do our fires. Yea, they daily increa­sed in knowledge by reading of books, especially the holy Scriptures. Daniel, though a great Prophet, did exercise him­self much in reading the books of the Pro­phets, chap. 9.2. I Daniel understood by books the number of the years.

Paul, a great Apostle, yet made use of Books: 2 Tim. 4.13. he writ to Timothy to bring him [Page 242]the Books he left at Troas, See Piscator in 2 Tim. 4.13. in his Obse. v. [...]. Cal­vin observes (upon that place) now that Paul, being aged, was to prepare himself for death, yet he desists not from reading Books. Here is commended (saith he) to all the godly diligent reading of Books, by which they may profit. Hence the Fury of those Fanatic persons is refel'd, who, contemning Books, and condemning all reading, boast of their own Enthusiasms onely. Paul commends reading to Timo­thy, 1 Tim. 4.13.

It's certain Paul read humane, yea Hea­then Authors, as the Greek Poets; for he alledgeth Sayings out of them: As of

Menander, to convince the Corinthians, 1 Cor. 15.33. Evil words corrupt good maners] whereby he refutes the Verse of another Poet, to wit, Anacreon, as some think, —Let us eat, and drink, for to mor­row we shall die, vers. 32.

Of Epimenides to reprehend the Creti­ans, Titus 1.12.

Of Aratus to shame the Athenians, Acts 17.28. when he disputed against the Philosophers there.

Scultetus collects out of 2 Tim. 1.6. that Paul was read in Plato's Writings, for he useth some of his words, as [...], which is verbum Platonicum. Peter quotes [Page 243]a common Proverb, or rather two, [...], &c. [...], &c. 2 Pet. 2.22. The Dog is turned to his vomit, and the Sow to her wal­lowing in the mire.

The fifth Proposition. Some of them made use, not onely of Books, for further information of their Minds, but of their Notes, or Writings, for the help of their Memories; as Paul did of the Parchments, 2 Tim. 4.13. which he left at Troas, and sent for. The Cloak] whereby he was covered from showers, and kept warm. [...]. But some think the word signifieth Scriniolum, or Theca Libraria, a Desk, or Coffer, wherein Paul laid his Books, or Writings. Calvin in­clines to this sense,—The Cloak I left with Carpus bring with thee when thou comest, and the Books, but especially the Parchments. What these Parchments were is difficult to determine. Some conceive them to be a Scheme, or draught and model of Divine Truths methodically digested, which Paul had prepared and accommodated to his own use, or transfer'd to the use of others, as Apollo, or Timothy, or Titus, 1 Cor. 4.6. Hence one infers, ‘If Paul had been al­ways supplied with miraculous assistance, what needed he to have committed any thing to writing for his own use? or to have been so solicitous for his Parch­ments?

SECT. III. That Joel 2.28. and 1 John 2.27. make not at all against the need of Learn­ing.

Obj. 3. HAth not God promised to pour out his Spirit upon all flesh in the latter days, Joel 2.28, 29? and that the Anointing we have received teacheth us all things, 1 John 2.27? What need is there then of Learning, of Books, or Stu­dies for the Ministers of Christ? Is not the Teaching of the Spirit sufficient with­out all these?

Answ. Hereto I return a triple Answer.

First, Joel 2.28. That Prophecy in Joel 2.28. of the effusion of the Spirit in extraordinary Gifts of Tongues, and of Prophesying, &c. was fulfilled at that time, when the Holy Ghost came upon the Apostles (on the day of Pentecost) in the form of cloven Tongues, like as of fire, &c. Acts 2.1, to 7. (for they that spake in this place were Peter, and the eleven, Acts 2.14.) Peter asserts it for their vindication, that the Apostles were not drunk, Verse. 5, 16, 17. vers. 15, 16, 17. This was a wonderful and miraculous pouring out of the Spirit shortly after Christ's Ascen­sion, Mr. Holling­worth. and for the honor of it, Ephes. 4.8. [Page 245]that God might have a Church among the Gentiles before the fall of the Jewish Church. As the miraculous Confusion of Tongues was the casting off of the Heathen, Gen. 11.7. so the Gift of Tongues in this variety was a means of their Conversion.

Though such extraordinary Gifts were conferred on some others (besides the A­postles) afterwards, as Prophesying on Aga­bus, Acts 11.28. and the Daughters of Philip the Evangelist, Acts 21.8, 9, 10. and other Gifts, 1 Cor. 12.28. yet they were confined to the Primitive Times one­ly of the New Testament (when the Gospel was first published) as proper and peculiar thereunto. But such extraordinary Gifts are now ceased, as I shewed before.


  • 1. For kinde.
  • 2. For maner, by immediate in­fusion, or without means.
  • 3. For measure, the Apostles be­ing filled herewith.

And we must now look for the pouring forth of the Spirit,

I. Onely in ordinary Effects: As,

1. In regenerating, renewing, or sanctifying Graces.

2. In quickening, strengthening, com­forting Operations, though in a greater measure.

3. In common Gifts.

4. In the performance of holy Duties, and in the efficacy of the Ordinances, through the working of the Spirit, for the conversion of more Souls, and greater edi­fication of them.

II. To obtain these Gifts, and Graces, Comforts, &c. of the Spirit, and the growth and increase thereof, in, and by the use of the Means, which God hath appoint­ed for that purpose.

Secondly, 1 Joh. 2.27. That Promise in 1 John 2.27. must be thus understood—The anoint­ing ye have received (that is, the Spirit of Christ) [...]eth you all things, so that ye need not be taught either better things, Mr Cotton in locum. or in a better maner then he teacheth. Yet the Spirit ordinarily teacheth by Means, that is, Hildersham in Psal. 5 [...].7. chiefly [...] the Ministery of the Word, and not by immediate Inspirations, or Enthusiasms, or by any other out­ward Means so much. Faith, that grand saving Grace, and greatest work of the Spirit, comes by hearing the word preached, Rom. 10.17. Therefore Christ at his A­scension gave gifts unto men, and appointed some to be Apostles, Prophets, Evangelists, (extraordinary Officers) some Pastors and Teachers (i. e. standing Officers of the Church) for the perfecting of the Saints, [Page 247]for the work of the Ministery, &c. and these to continue (for the Ministery is necessary) in the Church, till we all come into the U­nity of the Faith, &c. that is, till we be made perfect in Christ; till we all come in Heaven—Eph. 4.8, 11, 12. Christ, who hath promised his Spirit, Jer. 2.15. promiseth Mini­sters also, and gifts to them, and requires they should not be despised (Luk. 10.16.) nor their Office. 1 Thes. 5.20. despise not prophesying. Hence Paul calls the Mini­stery of the Gospel the ministration of the Spirit, 2 Cor. 3.8. whereby the Spirit is conveyed into us (Gal. 3.2.) and works in us. The Spirit first breathed the word of God into the Prophets, and Apostles, to write the same, 2 Pet. 1.21. and now he breaths in the holy Scriptures, and in, and by the Ministery of them upon our souls.

This is observable, that where our be­ing taught of God is spoken of (which some conceive to be immediately) some­thing is mentioned, either going before, or following after in the context, relating to the Ministery of the Word, to shew that that is the Means, whereby God ordinarily teacheth his people. Ex. gr.

Joh. 6.45. It's written in the Prophets, John [...].15. Mr. Hild [...]r [...]h.They shall be taught of God—he adds imme­diately, Every man therefore that hath [Page 248]heard and learned of the Father, cometh unto me: q.d. The Father teacheth no man (ordinarily) but in, and by the hearing of he Word preached.

Isaiah 30.21. Thine ears shall hear a word behind thee, saying, This is the way, walk in it, when thou turnest to the right hand, or to the left.

When God promiseth to teach and guide his people aright by his Spirit, they being in danger to be seduced, or drawn out of the right way, in the 20 verse he shews (or premiseth) how, or by what means the Spirit will do this—thine eyes shall see thy Teachers, &c.—Then follows, Thine ears shall hear a word behinde thee, &c. q. d. I will accompany the Ministery of my Word with the efficacy of my Spirit in the dis­pensation of thy Teachers, to instruct, and guide thee in the right way.

1 Joh. 2.27.—The anointing ye have re­ceived, teacheth you all things: in verse 24. he declares how—Let that (scil. doctrine) abide in you, which ye heard from the be­ginning, verse 7. which was preached at first by Christ, and after by his Apostles, Luk. 1.2. The Spirit of Christ teacheth us all things by the Doctrine, or Word dwelling, or abiding in us, Act. 2.42. Joh. 15.7.

1 Thes. 4.9. Touching Brotherly love ye need not, that I write unto you, for ye are taught of God to love one another. Com­pare the first verse herewith—We beseech and exhort you, as ye have received of us, how ye ought to walk, and to please God, so ye would abound more and more, to which add the tenth verse.—God teacheth by his Ministers.

Thus the Spirit of Christ teacheth or­dinarily by the word, and the Ministery of it (for the Word and the Spirit God hath joyned together, Isai. 59.21. Let no man put them asunder) that is, in the Church of God chiefly: though he doth teach also by Christians exercise of their Gifts and Graces, for mutual edification in private Communion by Exhortation, and Admo­nition, &c. which is enjoyned in the Go­spel, Col. 3.16. 1 Thes. 5.14. Hebr. 3.13. and 10.24. Jude 20. Acts 18.26. 1 Cor. 14.35.

Thirdly, Though the Spirit be the principal Teacher of us, yet he useth his Gifts (which he bestows on us) as instru­ments, wherby he teacheth us, and enableth us to teach others. The Spirit of God is the Author of every good Gift in us, Jam. 1.17.

1. Of all saving Graces, which are the [Page 250]fruits of the Spirit in us, Gal. 5.22, 23. As he is the Spirit of Regeneration, and San­ctification, 2 Thes. 2.13.

2. Of all spiritual Gifts, qualifying for Church-offices, and Christian Communi­on, 1 Cor. 12.4, to 12. Rom. 12.6, to 9. Eph. 4.8.

3. Of all common Gifts, which quali­fie and enable men for Callings, and Im­ployments.

Bezaleel was filled with the Spirit of God, that is, the Gifts of the Spirit, in wisdom, understanding, and knowledge; and in all maner of workmanship, to devise cunning works (all those things, that did belong to the Tabernacle) to work (curiously) in gold, silver, and brass, Exod. 31.2, 3, 4.

The skill of Husbandry is the Gift of God, Isai. 28.26. God teacheth the Hus­bandman (by his Spirit) how to plow, sow, reap, and thresh; as he doth the Soldier how to handle his weapon, Psal. 18.34. and 144.1.

The skil of a Smith in blowing the coals, and in forming Tools, Instruments, Weapons, &c. the fruits of the Forge, in the work of his Trade, is the Gift of God also, Isai. 54.16.

Much more are Arts, and Tongues, or Liberal Sciences, the Gift of Gods Spirit, [Page 251]as being more excellent in themselves, and indeed having more of God in them: and more needful and eminently useful for the highest Callings, and Imployments, espe­cially for the Ministers of the Gospel, as hath been demonstrated. The Apostles, being filled with the Holy Ghost, speake with other Tongues (even all kinde of Languages) as the Spirit gave them utter­ance, Acts 2.4. [...], to speak Apophthegms, wise and weighty, grave and gracious Sentences. The Spirit now teach­eth us Arts, and Tongues, as well as the way of preaching, not by revelation, or immediately, as formerly, but by Means, as Schools, Universities, and humane Teaching.

Hence I infer, that the Teaching of Gods Spirit, as the principal cause, doth not exclude the Gifts of the Spirit (and in particular of Arts, and Tongues) from be­ing Instruments, which the Spirit useth to teach us, and to make us more fit to teach others; considering the Spirit of God is the Author of them all, and he, bestowing them on us, may imploy them, or work by them as subservient to himself, as he pleaseth. As the inward teaching of the Spirit doth not exclude the outward teach­ing by the Ministery of the word (for [Page 252]these are Subordinates, not Opposites, Consistents, yea, inclusive the one of the o­ther, not Repugnants) Christ, that promi­sed to teach his people by his Spirit, pro­mised also to give them Pastors, and Teach­ers, throughly furnished with all abilities, requisite for the work of the Ministery, Ephes 4.11, 12. the perfecting of the Saints, and for the edifying of the body of Christ.

Hence it is that (as some have observed) the perfection of humane Arts, both Li­beral and Mechanic, is to be found in the Church; because God ordinarily pours his Spirit, and all the Gifts of it, both special and common upon it, most plentifully.

SECT. IV An Objection, drawn from the ill effects of Learning, answered, and it shewn to be good in it self.

Obj. 4. VVHat is humane Learning, but the wisdom of this world? which carnal men, yea Heathens affect, and seek most after, which God will bring to nothing, 1 Cor. 1.18, &c. which stands in opposition to Christ, and his Go­spel (and crosses the wisdom of God) and by which both Jews and Gentiles slighted Christ, refused him, and accounted the [Page 253]preaching of Christ foolishness, verse 23, 24. and mocked at it, Acts 2.11, 13. and the Ministers of it, Act. 17.18? Is not Learning the wisdom of the flesh, which is enmity against God, Rom. 8.7? and upon these accounts a great obstruction to mans salvation? Further, doth not hu­mane Learning puff men up, and make men proud? and qualifie men (as subtilty did the Serpent, Gen. 3.1.) to be fit instru­ments for Satan to work by, in oppugning Truth and Holiness, and the Kingdom of Christ? to devise and defend Errors, He­resies, Blasphemies, Wickedness, and also malicious, mischievous Designs?

Answ. First, these are not the genuine, or proper effects of Learning in it self, but as it is in men, by reason of their corrupti­ons, and of Satans tentations. So that all these are Vitia personae, non rei, the faults of the Persons that are learned, not of the Thing, or of Learning it self.—Or these are the effects of Learning abused to the perverting of the simplicity of the Gospel; to the putting false Glosses upon the Scri­pture; or to the maintaining of Evil in opinion, or practice; and to the service of Satan against Christ.—Or these are the effects of Learning, prided and gloried in; or overvalued, set above its proper place, [Page 254]and price, and prefer'd before Gods Spi­rit, and the saving Graces of it, or repu­ted sufficient to teach Christ, to convert, and save souls.

Now the carnal abuse of Learning (no more then of any thing else) takes not a­way the lawful use thereof. Not onely Meats, Drinks, Cloaths, &c. but Grace it self, and Reason may be abused.

Secondly, It is demonstrable by Reason, Experience, and Scripture also, that humane Learning is good in it self, it being the knowledge of God in the Creatures; and the good Gift of God, who is the Author and Donor of it (as he is of all good) there­fore it is not enmity, but complacency, or pleasing to God: and it is good in the na­tural tendency, and efficacy of it. Indeed it is but a subordinate good, yet subservi­ent to an higher end, both in its Nature, and in Gods appointment and donation of it. God hath so wisely contrived, and or­dered all his Gifts (both superior, and infe­rior) as that they should not clash toge­ther, nor one give impediment to another: but all conspire and move (as wheels in a Clock) to promote the chiefest good, that is, Gods Glory, and mans Salvation. Nei­ther Arts, nor Tongues, nor any other Gift of God, can be any hinderance there­unto, [Page 255]except our corruptions make them so to be.

Learning in it self, or rightly used, is a threefold Good.

1. A Natural Good, the profit and plea­sure of the knowledge whereof is discover­ed and discerned by the light of Nature; and upon that account so much prized, de­sired, and labored for by all sorts of men, yea, even by the very Heathen. Yea, by the use of Learning the Heathen have attained to so much knowledge of God from the Creatures (scil. of his eternal power and Godhead, Rom. 1.20.) as made them unexcusable, though not sufficient to save them.

2. It is a Moral Good, for regulating, reforming, and restraining even carnal men, the very Heathen.

3. It is a Civil Good, to qualifie men for all Callings, and employments, (as hath been shewed) and for Societies.

But Learning sanctified and spirituali­zed, proves a great help and blessing every way, both to them that have it, and to o­thers also: but of this before.

III. It's not Humane Learning (or Arts, or Tongues) in it self, but that wisdom of this world, by which men slight, neglect, and reject Christ, and the Gospel, that Paul [Page 256]condemns, and God will bring this to no­thing, and make it to be foolishness, 1 Cor. 1.12, 20. and that wisdom of the flesh, or fleshly wisdom, which is the corruption and pravity of our Nature, or proceeds from it, and makes us walk contrary to God; this Paul condemns, and it is enmity against God, Rom. 8.7.

SECT. V. An Objection against Rhetoric from 1 Cor. 1.17. answered.

Obj. 5. DId not Paul disclaim wisdom of words, as making the Cross of Christ ineffectual, 1 Cor. 1.17. and 2 Cor. 1.4? what is Rhetoric, or Eloquence else?

Answ. First, by the wisdom of mans words Paul means not Rhetoric, or Elo­quence, considered simply or purely in it self, but the affectation of Eloquence, high­slown Phrases, vain soaring expressions, pomp of words, painted speech; as if the efficacy of preaching stood therein, or they could add virtue to the Gospel to call, or save souls.

Secondly, There is a lawful use of Rhe­toric in Sermons, as hath been declared, so it be

1. Free from affectation, and ostenta­tion.

2. Humbly, soberly, and fitly made Use of, as we see in the Prophets and A­postles.

3. So it may probably have an insinua­ting influence, or influential insinuation upon the hearers.

4. So it tend and serve clearly, plainly, and livelily to set forth Christ, and his Cross, and the Truths of the Gospel in a taking way; and no way to darken, dim, or obscure the same, as painted glass doth the light.

Aretius, Problem. loc. 118. pag. 375. speaking of Learning and Elo­quence, saith, Contra illa non aliter dispu­tat Apostolus, &c. The Apostle disputeth no otherwise against these, then as they obscure the Cross of Christ:—and it must be granted (saith he) that eloquence and wisdom are good things in themselves, and the gifts of God: and if they be rightly used, they adorn piety, and may profit wonderfully.

SECT. VI. Of Paul's desiring to know nothing but Christ.

Obj. 6. PAul desired to know nothing but Christ, and him crucified, 1 Cor. 2.2. Ergo, not Arts, and Tongues?

Answ. 1. He knew humane Learning already, being educated at Gamaliel's feet; and he was a Pharisee, and they excelled in knowledge, and were great teachers thereof in Christ's time.

2. Yet he valued it not in comparison of Christ, and the knowledge of him, Phil. 3.7, 8. he counted it but dung.

3. He desired to profess, or teach no other skill, but the knowledge of Christ. This was his main, yea his sole design; which doth not hinder, but that he might make use of Learning, so far as it would be subservient to the advancing of it. And indeed so we find him doing in the fifteenth Chapter of this Epistle, verse 33. where he cites a Heathen Poet, as was before ob­served. The earnest intention of some one end doth not oblige to a neglect of any means, that may conduce thereto.

A DETERMINATION OF THIS QUESTION, Whether Grace is Essential to a Minister of the Gospel?

Question. WHether Grace be Essential to a Minister of the Gos­pel? or Wwhether the want of Grace doth annul his Admission? or be a sufficient cause of Eje­ction?

Answ. Though Grace be a most de­sirable Qualification of a Gospel-Minister, and a most excellent help, and furtherance, [Page 260]eminently useful to the work of the Mini­stery, both for performance of the Duty, and for success of Labors; and I wish, Oh that God would! that all the Ministers of the Gospel were Preachers from Grace, as well as from Gifts; from conscience and ex­perience, as well as from science; from their hearts, as well as from their heads: yet it appears not to me, that Grace is Causa sine qua non, or of so absolute necessity to the Ministery, as without which a man cannot be (or should not be allowed, or continued to be) a Minister of the Gospel.

To make good this Assertion, I will give three Grounds.

I. Ministerial Gifts, and saving Graces, are things distinct in themselves, and se­parable in the subject.

II. The Ministery of the Gospel is or­dained by Christ, principally for the good of others.

III. The Testimonies of eminent Di­vines in the Case.

First Ground. Grace is not Essential to a Minister of the Gospel, because Mini­sterial Gifts, and saving Graces, are things distinct in themselves, and separable each from other in the subject.

Here I will first clear three things, scil.

  • 1. What these Ministerial Gifts are.
  • 2. That they qualifie men for the work of the Ministery.
  • 3. That God is the Author and Doner of these Gifts to that end.

And afterwards I will shew the Distin­ction, and Separability of Gifts, and saving Graces.

First, What these Ministerial Gifts are, which dispose men for that work, and are adequate to the end of the Ministery now: these are the ordinary

1. Gifts of common Illumination, Of Common Illumination, and the effects thereof, see Pemble's works, pag. 60. and Dickson on the Hebr. 6.4, 5, 9. pag. 93. and knowledge of Religion, and the Mat­ters thereof, which is attainable either by inward sense and experience, or by in­tellectual Speculation: and though both these do more exactly accomplish a man for the Ministery, yet the latter onely may in some cases suffice: especially con­sidering that experience can assure us of nothing, that I am to press upon others, which Scripture also doth not suggest and confirm.

2. The Gift of Preaching, Prophecy, or Interpretation of the Scripture, of ope­ning, or unfolding, and applying the same.

3. The Gifts of utterance, and of prayer.

4. The Gifts of Arts, and Tongues, which are useful as handmaids to Divinity, and to the Ministery.

5. The Gift of Argumentation, or rea­soning, to confirm or defend the Truth, to confute errors, and convince Gainsayers, &c.

The second is, that these Ministerial abilities do qualifie men for the work of the Ministery, as they make them suitable and competent thereunto; and fit them to perform their office (and the several acts thereof) by Gifts: as to pray by a Gift of prayer, to preach by a Gift of preaching, and to dispute by a Gift or faculty of Dis­putation; and not to preach other mens Sermons, or say other mens prayers only.

Hence, a man, endowed with good parts, natural and acquired, by diligent reading, study, discourse, and prayer to God for Il­lumination, Direction, Assistance, &c.

1. May attain to a large, clear, di­stinct knowledge of Religion, and the se­veral Principles and Points of it.

2. May be able to teach the same plainly, soundly, and profitably to others, to instruct, convince, reprove, confirm and comfort others.

3. May be through God's blessing in­strumental for the good of others; for edifying the body of Christ; for building up in knowledge, faith, holiness, and obe­dience; for carrying on the work of the Lord, promoting Reformation, and fur­thering the salvation of others; and for information of some (who have Grace real­ly) of some things they knew not before; and for resolution of some doubts and scruples.

4. May be useful in the Church of God to defend and maintain the Christian Religion, and all the Points of it (especially Controversal) against the Adversaries of the Truth and Grace of God, as Papists, Ar­minians, Socinians, and others that are Heterodox; which some men of great Learning, parts and studies (but it's questio­nable by their lives and ways, whether they had true saving Grace) have done more soundly and strenuously, even to the con­vincing of Gainsayers, and to the silencing or stopping the mouths of Adversaries; then many who have true Grace, but want such Gifts, are able to do—Probatum est.

For there are many real Christians, who have good experience of the practical part of Religion, yet want abilities for the Controversal part, or defence of the [Page 264]Truth against the oppugners of it.

Hence also I infer, that datur Medium, or there is a Mean between a Ministers Preaching from Experience of the New Birth, or work of Grace, &c. in his own soul, which is indeed the most comfortable and effectual; and a Ministers taking a Sermon out of a book (which he never made) and getting it by heart, and saying, or preaching it.

The mean between them is a Ministers making of a Sermon by a Gift God hath given him, and by study; and preaching it afterwards, though he hath not the Ex­perience of it in himself.

As there is a Mean between praying by the Spirit (or the Spirit of Prayer) and reading of a prayer out of a book, or using a bare form of prayer; and that Mean is praying by a Gift, or a Gift of prayer.

As there is a difference between a Scho­lars pronouncing an Oration, which he hath onely gotten by heart, and his uttering one he made himself, according to the Rules, and Art of Oratory.

The third thing is, That God is the Au­thor and Donor of all Ministerial Gifts to that end, that they may qualifie Men for the Work of the Ministery, whether they be extraordinary Gifts, as in former [Page 265]times; or ordinary, as in our days; which God bestows on some men, not on others, as appears by some Scriptures, which I shall endeavor to explane: As,

Ephes. 4.8. Ephes. 4.8. When Christ ascended on high, he gave Gifts unto Men; that is, Church-Gifts, or Ministerial Abilities, suitable and needful for the Work of the Ministery, both in the Primitive Times, and to the End of the World: and upon the variety and diversity of these Gifts Christ founded the several Offices and Of­ficers in his Church; He gave some A­postles, some Prophets,Verse 11.some Evangelists] these were extraordinary Officers, to be and continue in the Church but for a time; —God hath set forth us (saith Paul 1 Cor. 4.9.) [...], the last Apostles: which implies there should be no Apostles after them, none should succeed them in Apostleship, but onely in the Ministery of the Gospel: — and some Pastors, and Teach­ers, which are to continue as standing Of­ficers in the Church, Verse 13.till we all come in the Unity of the Faith, &c. —unto a perfect man— that is, till we all come in Heaven.

Quoties a Deo vocati sunt homines, dona necessario conjuncta sunt officiis, saith Calvin on Ephes. 4.11.

Herein —commemorat discrimina dono­rum [Page 266]in Ecclesiae Doctoribus, saith Piscator Diversitatem donorum Ministerii Ecclesi­astici, saith Rollock.

Dr. Hammond in Ephes. 4.7. calls these Gifts capacities and qualifications for the serving of Christ in the Church; which are given by Christ severally, and in divers degrees, not in the same maner and measure to all.

To this end Christ ascended, Annot. in Eph. 4.10. that he might fill all things, that is, replenish the Church with his Gifts.

The next Scripture is 1 Cor. 12.4, 1 Cor. 12.4, to 12. to 12. Now there are diversities of Gifts, but the same Spirit, &c. The diversity of Gifts the Apostle speaks of in this place seems to be, not saving Graces bestowed on God's Elect for the Salvation of their own Souls, but Ministerial Gifts conferred by God on Men for the discharge of Church-Offices, or Administrations; for the propagation and confirmation of the Gospel unto others, for the edification of the Church. These Gifts were of two sorts:

1. Some were extraordinary, suited to those Times, Verse 9. as Faith, not that we call saving Faith (which is proper to God's Elect) but the Faith of Miracles, —and the Gifts of Healing, Verse 10.—the working of Mi­racles, — Prophecy, that is, the foretelling [Page 267]of things to come from extraordinary Re­velation, —discerning of spirits, —Gifts of Tongues. Verse 6. These Paul calls [...], diversities of Operations, or di­stinctions of Actions, as Beza renders it, the doing of which exceeds all natural power; yet it is the same God that work­eth all in all.

2. Some were ordinary, Verse 8. to continue in the Church, as the word of wisdom to the Pastor, to enable him to apply the Word to the people; and the word of knowledge to the Teacher, to handle Doctrinal Truths. Verse 5. There are diversities of Admini­strations, or Ministeries, which Beza ex­pounds, —Sic signate vocat Apostolus fun­ctiones Ecclesiasticas toti coetui Ecclesiae for­mando & nutriendo destinatas.

The Gifts are divers, as the Offices and Functions in the Church are divers; yet they all flow from one and the same Foun­tain, that is, Verse 7, 11. the Spirit of God (who di­videth, and dispenseth all these, to every man severally (for kinde and measure) more or less as he will; the Will of the Spirit of God being the Rule of this Distribu­tion:) and they are all referred to the same end [...], for the profit of all, scil. the edification of the Church.

Having declared and cleared these three [Page 268]things, I must proceed to shew, and prove, That Ministerial Gifts and saving Graces are distinct in themselves, and separable in the Subject; which I shall endeavor to do by three Arguments.

Argum. I. God gives Ministerial Gifts to many men (as those five fore-named, scil. of common Illumination, of Preach­ing, of Prayer, Utterance, of Arts and Tongues, of Argumentation) to whom he gives not saving Grace. Even common Experience is a plain Evidence, and full Proof hereof. Ergo, Grace is not essential to make a Minister of the Gospel.

As, on the contrary, God gives Grace to many, to whom he gives not Ministerial Gifts. —Ergo, These are not necessary to make a Christian.

But God gives both Ministerial Gifts and saving Graces to some of his servants, who are thereby most accomplished, and throughly furnished unto all good Works, 2 Tim. 3.16, 17. that is, to all the Services of their Ministe­rial Function; and made most able Mini­sters of the New Testament,2 Cor. 3.6.not of the Let­ter, but of the Spirit. This is appropriated, or peculiar but to some Ministers of the Gospel, not extended or common to them all.

In former Times God gave Gifts extra­ordinary [Page 269]for kinde to many, to whom he gave no saving, sanctifying Grace; to bad, as well as good. A man might have them, yet miscarry, and perish; might want them, yet be saved.

Paul's words in 1 Cor. 13.1, 2, 3. hold forth the distinction or separability of ex­traordinary Gifts, and saving Graces, each from other.

A man may have the Gift of Prophecy (to prophesie truly, and not be truly god­ly) and of Tongues, &c. A man may un­derstand all mysteries, and all knowledge, and have all faith, that is, all the degrees of a Miracle-working faith, and yet want love, that is saving Grace, and so perish.

Baalam prophesied particularly of Christ to come; and spoke of many things con­cerning Israel, foretelling their excellency, Numb. 23.9. their multiplication, ver. 10. Piscator. and happy death. —and he is called a Pro­phet, 2 Pet. 2.16. because sometimes he had Revelations from the true God, Num. 23, and 24. and uttered Divine Oracles as from the mouth of God. And he desired to die the death of the righteous, yet he would not live their life: he was a wicked man, a Soothsayer, and a Sorcerer; he loved the wages of unrighteousness, 2 Pet. 2.15. and he was rebuked by the dumb Ass for [Page 270]his iniquity and madness.

Caiphas prophesied Joh. 11.51, 52. of Christ, that he should die, &c. though he spake it out of his own malicious sense; thinking it better, that Christ should ra­ther perish, then their Nation.

Many will plead their extraordinary Gifts, Mat. 7.22, 23. and Works, as Prophecy, Ejection of Devils, &c. as done in Christ's Name; yet Christ will not own them.

Now if God give Gifts both ordinary and extraordinary to some, to whom he gives not saving Grace, then Ministerial Gifts are distinct in themselves, and sepa­rable in the subject.

Argument II. (which may give both light and strength to the former) is the examples of some such, who have been al­lowed Ministers and Preachers of God's word, who had Gifts, but no Grace. I will give four instances thereof.

First Judas. He had not Grace. Christ knew it, (though it was not discovered to others then what he was) yet he chose him to bean Apostle, and gave him a joynt Commission, Judas had the Faith of Mi­racles, and by it wrought Mi­racles, saith Calvin in 2 Cor. 12.9. equal with the rest of the Apostles to go and preach the Gospel; and power to work Miracles, & cast out Devils. See Mat. 10.1, to 9. yea, through the whole Chapter, compare it with Mat. 11.1. Mar. [Page 271]3.14, 15, to the 20. and 6.7. Luke 9.1, 2. They all (that is, the whole twelve Apostles) were sent out; they all did Mi­racles; they all cast out Devils; they all returned to Christ, and gave him an ac­count of their success, Luke 9.6, 10. compar'd with Mar. 6.30. God wrought by Judas as well as by the rest. Peter saith, that Judas had part of the Apostolical Mi­nistery, Acts 1.17. as truly as any of the rest. A true Apostle, though he proved truly a Reprobate, and Apostate, ver. 25.

No difference was discerned between Judas, and the rest of the Apostles, in parts, or powers, or pains, or in the success of the Ministery: the Scripture makes no distinction between him and them therein; but Judas, for any thing the Apostles could perceive, was equal to them in all these.

Therefore when Christ said, that one of them should betray him, they enquired among themselves who it should be. Peter beckoned to John to ask Christ who it was of whom he spake, Luke 22.21, to 24. John 13.21, to 27.

Christ revealed his minde (touching his Passion) to Judas as well as to the rest, Mat. 20.17, to 20. and eat the Passover (at least) with him, Mat. 26.20. Luke [Page 272]22.14, 15. some think, that Judas eat the Lord's Supper also.

Also Christ required perseverance of Judas, when he said to the twelve, Will ye also go away? John 6.67. to wit, in his Ministery and Discipleship, or in fol­lowing of Christ, and in walking with Christ, from whom many of his Disciples went back, and fell off, ver. 66. yet Judas (as one saith) truly practised secret thieve­ry, and injustice, even while he exercised his publick Ministery, John 12.6. and Christ knew he was a Devil; and so he would prove himself at length, to be a man possessed and acted by the evil Spirit, John 6.70, 71. Have I not chosen you twelve (saith Christ) and one of you is a Devil, and a son of perdition, John 17.12. and he was a Traitor, and he did more a­gainst Christ then all the Jews did.

The second Example. Those Paul speaks of in Phil. 1.15. Who did preach Christ of envy, and strife,—of contention, ver. 16. not of good will, nor sincerely, sup­posing to add affliction to Paul's bonds, (he being then in prison at Rome for the Go­spel) what then saith Paul, ver. 18. so Christ be preached, that is, in true doctrine, though by some that did it not of good will, or love, or in truth, (that is, in since­rity [Page 273]and integrity of minde) but in pre­tence only, or out of envy to outstrip Paul, or cruelty to make his chain more heavy, or to procure his death, &c. yet therein I do rejoyce, yea, and will rejoyce; because by the preaching of these, who were insincere, (saith Piscator on this place) as well as of those that were sincere, & gloria Christi innotescit, & salus electorum promovetur, The glory of Christ was made known, and the salvation of the elect promoted there­by.

These had Gifts, else they could not have preached Christ: but had such any Grace in their hearts? No, their end in it argued a high degree of malice, wickedness, and immanity in them. Now, would Paul have rejoyced, that Christ was preached, though by such persons, if he had thought that their preaching could do no good? or that it was not lawful for such to preach?

The third Example. See Beza's An­notat. on Mat. 23.2, 3. The Scribes and Pharisees they sit in Moses Chair (saith Christ) all therefore, whatsoever they bid you do, observe, and do. Christ allowed the people to hear them, therefore he allowed them to teach.

They sat in Moses Chair as Teachers, and Expounders of the Law by Office; they did succeed Moses in the ordinary Office [Page 274]of teaching the Word of God: therefore Christ would have them to be heard, though their persons were wicked, lest their Ministery (which was the Ordinance of God) should be contemned, and theirs also, whom he should after send. Though their Actions were not imitable, because they said, and did not, yet while they sat in Moses Chair, that is, as long as they preached the Doctrine of Moses, they were to be heard, and therefore they were al­lowed to teach: they were true Priests Mal. 27. by Office, though they were not good and gracious men.

The Scribes and Pharisees had Gifts, but no Grace, Matth. 5.20. and chap. 23.13, &c. Christ denounced many Woes against them for their hypocrisie and ini­quity; their Ministery was but Legal, not Evangelical, yet Christ enjoined his Di­sciples (who were Gospel-believers) to at­tend to, and observe their Ministery.

Is it not lawful now for those Ministers to preach, and for the People to hear them, who, as to their Lives, are not worse then the Pharisees; and who, as for their Do­ctrine, are better, scil. who preach Christ and the Gospel truly, which the Scribes and Pharisees did not at all?

The fourth Example. Demas, whom [Page 275] Paul calls and acknowledgeth to be his fellow-Laborer, Philem. 24. to wit, in the Work of the Ministery, Col. 4.14. or Co-adjutor (as well as Marcus, Aristarchus, Lucas) who was well esteemed of by the Apostles, yet afterwards fell away, 2 Tim. 4.10. and continued in his Apostasie, as Calvin on Philem. 24. thinks: and Davenant on Col. 4.14. who shews the cause of it out of Dorotheus in Synopsi. Rolloc upon that place conceives it probable, that Demas at that time was a Minister of the Gospel, but afterwards deserted that Calling to seek wealth, or betake himself to his worldly affairs.

Dr. Hammond on 2 Tim. 4.10. saith, —Demas, that did assist Paul in preaching the Gospel, hath now left him, &c. and is gone to Thessalonica, whether to his Home there, or to trade, and get Wealth in that place.

To the same purpose Espencaeus in 2 Tim. 4.10. Otium hic Apostata, quie­tem, securitatem, vitam periculorum exper­tem maluit; & domi in tuto esse, & deli­ciis frui, quam cum Magistro periclitari. —& abiit Thessalonicam] ubi vivere possit, relicta Roma, ubi Paulo commori timeret, aut pro ejus societate incarcerari, & ad mar­tyrium abduci; ita fugit periculum, ut exi­stimavit: [Page 276]atque hic erat unus ex ejus Ad­jutoribus, & iis qui valde laudabantur.

Byfield on Col. 4.14. and Elton on that place conceive, that Demas forsook Paul, and fell away after he had been his Com­panion and Fellow-laborer.—See Hyper. on 2 Tim. 4.10.

Indeed Beza on 2 Tim. 4.10. is of O­pinion, that Demas repenting afterwards returned to Paul; seeing there was men­tion made of him in the Epistle to Phile­mon, vers. 24. as one of his [...], which (Beza thinks) was pro [...]able to be writ­ten after his Epistle to Timothy.

But Ludovicus Capellus in his Historia Evangelica saith, that the second Epistle to Timothy (which speaks of Demas's Apo­stasie) was written anno Christi 64. Nero­nis 11. and that this Epistle was the last of all Paul's Epistles, written by him in his latter bonds, a little before his Martyr­dom, which he seems to intimate in 2 Tim. 4.6, 7, 8.

He affirms also, that his Epistle to Phi­lemon was written anno Christi 56. Nero­nis 3.

Mr. Perkins in his Digest placeth the se­cond Epistle to Timothy as the last of Paul's Epistles, which he writ before his Martyrdom, or Beheading; after that E­pistle [Page 277]pistle, he writ to Philemon.

Mr. Roberts, in his Key of the Bible, the second part, in his Chronological Table be­fore the Epistle to the Romans, gives Rea­sons why the Epistle to Philemon was writ­ten before the second Epistle to Timothy, before Demas his Desertion, or Demas had returned again unto Paul. In pag. 763. he saith, that Paul wrote his second Epistle to Timothy last of all those Epistles he wrote, a little before his Martydom, as all circumstances evince, and the Epistle it self intimateth, 2 Tim. 4.6. See also pag. 898. of the Time. So Hyperius in Philem. 24. Demas adhuc erat constans, quum haec (scil. epistola scriberctur) sed quando illa secun­da ad Timotheum conderetur, Paulum & Religionem universam deseruit cum in ea legatur, 2 Tim. 4.10.

By this it is probable, that Demas never recovered his fall, nor returned to Paul af­ter it.

Argum. III. Ministerial Gifts, and sa­ving Graces, are distinct and separable, and go not alway together: otherwise no man could be a gracious man, but he that hath Ministerial gifts; and no man could have Ministerial gifts, but he that hath Grace: both which are apparently false in common experience.

Hence great Parts, and eminent Abili­ties in matters of Religion, are no sure signs of Grace, they may make a man [...], not [...], able to teach others, not holy himself.

Though these Gifts alone, be they never so excellent and useful in themselves, and to others, yet without Grace. they can­not save those that have them, nor enable them to act out of pure love to Christ, and souls, or out of sincere desire to Gods Glory: but they are like the Carpenters, that built an Ark to save Noah, and his Family, and perished themselves in the wa­ter: or like the Tyrians, that did help to build the Temple, but did not worship God in it, nor partake of the priviledges of it.

Ground 2. Grace is not essential to a Minister of the Gospel, because the Mi­nistery of the Gospel is ordained by Christ, not for the Ministers own good so much (though that also be included) as for the good of others, principally. There­fore God may bless it, and make it instru­mental for the benefit of others, [...] for a public good (and work that end by it) though the Instrument, 1 Cor. 12 7. and 14, 12. or Per­son God useth, be not sanctified here, nor shall be saved hereafter. A Minister may preach to others, and himself be a cast-away, [Page 279]1 Cor. 9.27. he may by his Gifts profit others, and yet not procure salvation to his own soul.

God imployed Cyrus (though he had not known God) to restore his people out of captivity, and reedifie the Temple, Isaiah 45.1, to 5. That saying of Austin is alledged by some Divines to this pur­pose: The seed, that is sown by a foul hand, may bring forth fruits, as well as that, which is sown by a clean and sound hand.

If a mans Ministery may (by Christs ap­pointment) do good to others, though he be not sanctified, and saved himself, then Grace is not essential to a Minister of the Gospel.

Ground 3. The testimonies of some, who were Eminent, Godly, Learned, Judici­ous, Sound, Orthodox Divines (in their Generation) in the Case. In the close of this Ground I shall declare, how far I con­sent with them, and wherein I dissent from them.

Master Perkins in his Art of Prophesy­ing, chap. 10. saith, Grace (or holiness of heart) makes not a Minister, yet it is very necessary.—In his Exposition upon Christs Sermon in the Mount, Mat. 7.6. he saith, We may lawfully use the Ministery of those men, whose lives and conversations be evil and [Page 280]offensive, if their Doctrine be sound and good, &c. The vertue and efficacy of the Word and Sacraments, administred by men, is not from the Minister, but from God. A Letter is not the worse, because brought by an unhonest and unlawful Carrier.

Master Paul Bain in his Comment on Eph. 4.11. saith, There are three sorts of Ministers, 1. some are ignorant and scandalous: 2. some of knowledge, and free from crime, but unsanctified: 3. some are truely sanctified. The first Christ per­mitteth, or inflicteth as judgements, Mat. 28.19. for to him is all Power and Judge­ment committed in heaven and earth. The second sort Christ giveth, and that for the good of the Church: for if men be quali­fied for Life and Doctrine, and have a cal­ling, (are inwardly excited, and outwardly called, that is approved of the Church, de­sired, or after accepted by the people) they are to be held as Ministers, given for the good of the Church, though their Persons are not approved, and Christ shall say, De­part from me ye workers of iniquity.Mat. 7.23.The third sort are those, that are qualified, cal­led, and sanctified inwardly. Now these are given of Christ, as men according to his own heart, that is, delegated by him.

He saith on Eph. 3.7. that The Ministe­rial [Page 281]Gift, which the God of Grace giveth, maketh a Minister. This doth form him ad intus, as skill in this, or that Manuary Science, doth make an Artificer.

Master Hildersam in Psal. 51.7. saith, A man may be a Preacher of Gods sending, though he be an Hypocrite, and have no truth of Grace in his heart, as those in Phil. 1.18. and as Judas was; he was sent of God to preach, Mat. 10.4, 7. yea, and God wrought with him too, Luk. 9.6. and yet he was but an Hypocrite in heart, he ne­ver had truth of Grace in him, when he was at the best.

In pag. 802.—he saith, Paul was so zea­lous for much preaching, and rejoyced so much in the glory he knew redounded to God by it, that speaking of some in Rome, who preached the truth, and sound doctrine, without all truth and soundness of heart, Phil. 1.18, he saith notwithstanding, Every way, whether in pretence, or in truth Christ is preached, I therein do, and will rejoyce: surely they were very bad men, of whom he saith, verse. 15, 16. that they preached Christ of envy, to increase his grief, and trouble, when he was in bonds for the Go­spel. How could Paul rejoyce in such mens preaching will you say? Certainly he knew, though they were so bad in themselves, yet [Page 282]their doctrine, which was both for matter and maner sound, might, through Gods bles­sing upon his own Ordinance, become effe­ctual to the conversion and comfort of Gods Elect: for be you sure of this, that if Paul had been of that minde, that he, that is a wicked man himself, cannot by his Mini­stery be the instrument of the conversion of another, he would never have said of such men as these, I do rejoyce that Christ is preached by them, yea, and I will rejoyce in it.

Doctor Airay upon Phil. 1.18. pag. 174. saith, That a Minister and Preacher of the word is gladly and joyfully to be heard, that preacheth Christ, and the Doctrine of the Gospel soundly, and truly, with what minde soever he preacheth the same. To which purpose also is that of Christ, Mat. 23.3. where he willeth to hearken to the Scribes and Pharisees, sitting in Moses seat; whereby he meaneth, that the Doctrine which the Scribes and Pharisees delivered faithfully out of Moses, was gladly to be received, howsoever in their actions, and lives they were justly to be noted. The Rea­son is, because the word is the Lords, which they bring, with what minde soever they bring it, or how vitious and bad soever they be, that bring it

Master Pemble in the Nature and Pro­perties of Grace, and Faith, pag. 125. saith, The common Grace of the Spirit (whereby men are enlightened in the know­ledge of heavenly things) is the cause of an Historical Faith, or general assent to the truth of the Scriptures; which Grace God bestows upon the unregenerate, and unsan­ctified, more for others then their own good: some light shines upon them, whereby they may know and assent unto divine Truths, for a common good of the Church; yet o­thers may be instructed by their teaching: for Christ in the building of his Church doth also use the help and ministery of such men, according as Solomon did in the building of the material Temple; who im­ployed not the natural Israelites, but the Reliques of the Canaanites, and strangers, that lived in the Land, to be bearers of burdens, and hewers of stone, and overscers of the work, 2 Chron. 2.17. and these men, though unsanctified, and such as do not themselves heartily esteem, and affect that which they know, yet in the general they believe it, and willingly teach it, to the be­nefit of the Church.

Master Samuel Hieron in his Treatise called The Preachers Plea, saith, That Mi­nisters bad life is no sufficient Argument [Page 284]against Preaching, or hearing them.—Put case it were so (which, thanks be to God, it is not) that all Preachers did confute their own Sermons with their evil lives; and had Esaus hands with Jacobs voice, and were like a sile, which smootheth other things, it self remaining rough; yet this could make nothing against Preaching: for is Physic nought, because many Physicians perhaps live contrary to their own Rules of Physic? or is Law damnable, because some Professors thereof do live lawless? giving Rules of equity to others, themselves keeping none but ill Rules? No man will be so without sense to affirm it. Why then? shall the course of Preaching be condemned for the supposed misdemeanors of them that Preach? God forbid, who but a Fool, or a froward heart will tread the Holy Doctrine of God under his feet, because he is a man not of a good carriage, that delivereth the same.

Master William Fenner in his Sermons on Revel. 3.1. called Christs Alarum to drowsie Saints, saith, I dare not say absolute­ly, that a carnal Minister shall never have good success in his Ministery; as if a Mini­ster should conclude he was a good man, be­cause God hath blessed his labors. No, that is not a good Argument: for

1. It is the Word that converts, not the [Page 285]Person of the speaker, I dare not tie God to the goodness of any mans Person; God, as he is a Creator, is a wise God, and can write well with a bad pen, and cut well with a blunt naughty knife.

2 Such may be sent of God, and gifted for the Ministry, and therefore, for all that I know, they may be an organ of Conversion sometime.

3. Paul rejoyced, that Christ was preach­ed by the false Apostles, though it were but of envy, Phil. 1.15, 16, 17. Object. How could he rejoyce in that, that was a wick­ed maner of Preaching? Answ. Surely he could not rejoyce in it, but that he thought it might do some good.

4. If a carnal Minister cannot be the means of Conversion, some man cannot be assured of his salvation.

5. They may say at the last day, Lord, Lord, &c.

6. Why else doth Christ bid his people hear the Scribes, and Pharisees, but that he im­plies they may be a means of good unto them.

7. Judas was sent out to preach, Matth. 10.4. Christ said to him, as well as to the rest.—When ye go Preach, saying, The King­dom of Heaven is at hand, verse 7.

8. Experience hath found this to be true, some Godly Souls have confessed this very [Page 286]thing, that such as now they see to be palpa­bly carnal, &c. have been the means of their conversion. God may make the crow­ing of a Cock to he a means of awakening Peter's conscience; the temptations of the Devil to be the means of Luther's quick­ning.

Mr. Anthony Burgess in his Treatise Of Faith and Assurance, pag. 503, 504. saith, A corrupt or ungodly Minister may be used by God for conversion, because the Ministe­ry is Gratia gratis data; not Gratia gratum faciens, it is appointed for the public good of others, not for the Ministers good so much.—And pag. 114. I make no question, but a man of abilities may do good by his gifts, although he himself be naught, otherwise Paul would not have rejoyced, that some preached Christ out of envy, nor would Christ have remitted his Disciples to the Scribes and Pharisees Ministery as he did, when he bad them hear them as long as they sate in Moses chair, deliver true do­ctrine from the Scriptures. In pag. 503. he saith, This was a question discussed of old between the Orthodox and the Donatists, who held, that if any Minister fell into gross sins, neither the Preaching of the word, nor the administration of the Sacraments could do any good to others. See Danaeum [Page 287]de Haeresibus, cap. 69. The Anabaptists now teach the same.

Mr. Thomas Manton in his Exposition on Jude verse 20 saith—Sometimes this Gift (I conceive he means of Prayer) is given to carnal men because of their Ser­vice in the Church. Gifts are for the body. They may have great abilities to pray and preach, and may be carryed on with full gales of outward assistance.

Hieronymus Zanchius, in Phil. 1. ver. 12. ad 27. pag. 45. where this question is handled, whether the Ministery of such men as are not sanctified may be effectual, and is to be allowed,—in ver. 18. pag. 38. hath these words, Diversitas affectuum & finium, quibus adducebantur Ministri ad praedicandum Christum (scilicet, quod alii modo simulato, ex invidia, & contentione, alii animo vero & sincero) nihil impedivit profectum Evangelii, cum ab omnibus idem Christus praedica­retur, ac proinde & ipse & Philippen­ses, aliaeque Ecclesiae habuerint causam, cur debuerint debeantque de hac re magis gaudere, quam de suis vinculis dolere. And further, De hoc dogmate, propter vitia Mi­nistrorum, illorum legitimum Ministeri­um non desinere esse sanctum, & efficax in credentibus, eoque non esse deserendum, [Page 288]aut contemnendum, convenit inter omnes Ecclesias, quae verbum Dei sequuntur, ade­oque etiam inter nos & Pontificios con­sonat Apostolus dicendo, "Gaudeo & gau­debo.

Sed, si vitia sint & manifesta & enor­mia, ferendi non sunt, praesertim si admo­moniti non corrigantur.

David Paraeus in Rev. 3.1. speaks thus, Efficacia Ministerii non fluit, vel pendet a bonitate Ministri, Deum enim quandoque per mortuos Episcopos Ecclesiam vivisicare & regere, exemplum praesens contra Dona­tistas testatur, & Pontificios Sophistas, qui, &c.

Theodorus Beza, De veris & visibili­bus Ecclesiae Catholicae notis, saith, Nos non sentimus Ministrorum vitiis aboleri posse Ministerii vel dignitatem, vel etiam effica­citatem.

I freely concur with these faithful ser­vants of Chris. in their Testimonies pre­mised, thus far: viz.

1. That Grace is not absolutely neces­sary to a Minister of the Gospel.

2 That a man may have good Ministe­rial Gifts, though not saving Grace.

3. That such a man may by his Gifts be instrumental for the good of others. But, as for the wicked, profane, and scanda­lous [Page 289]Ministers, (as well as Ignorant, and In­sufficient) I judge them not fit (especially after admonition, without emendation) to be tolerated in the Church, either to preach, or administer the Sacraments, but worthy to be ejected, to the end that bet­ter men may be brought into their places; how unfit and unworthy then are such to be made Ministers? I wish with Calvin, De scandalis, pag. [...]31.Utinam tali hominum colluvie exonerari, purgarique Ecclesia posset, (speaking of openly scandalous and vitious Ministers) that the Church was purged, or disburden­ed of them!

Objections against the former Assertion.

Object. 1. It is required of a Gospel-Mi­nister, that he be [...] holy, Tit. 1.8. Ergo, Grace is essential to a Minister of the Go­spel?

Answ. There is a threefold holiness men­tioned in Scripture, from each of which persons are denominated holy, scil, by

  • Profession.
  • Separation.
  • Inhesion.

1. The first kind or mode of holiness is visible profession of Holiness, reformation of life, unblamableness of conversation; to be free from all open and scandalous sins.

Such as have this work upon them may be called Saints by calling: because they answer God's call in some degree, scil. by conviction of their judgement, and outward profession, and reformation; though not totally and effectually by through-conver­sion to God, and sanctification in Christ: for such may fall away, and discover them­selves but Hypocrites at last, because the root of the matter is not found in them.

Men may hold forth such a shew, sem­blance, or appearance of holiness in their lives, under which there may be true Grace, (though there be not in some) and for which they are counted holy by others, in the judgement of charity, they not know­ing their hearts, nor being able to discern any thing to the contrary in their lives. Men have now no infallibility in their dis­cerning; even Paul was mistaken in De­mas, and in divers others; Philip in Simon the Sorcerer; the Church at Jerusalem in Ananias and Sapphira.

Such an holiness (though more is most to be desired) may qualifie persons to be Members of visible Churches: and this ho­liness (at the least) ought to be in all that are called, or allowed to be Ministers of the Gospel. 1 Tim. 3.1, to 8. A Bishop must [Page 291]be blameless, sober, of good behavior, given to hospitality, not given to wine, no stri­ker, nor greedy of filthy lucre, not a brawl­er, nor covetous, &c.

2. The second sort of holiness is by consecration to an holy use. In Scripture­phrase many persons and things are said to be holy, to wit, by Dedication, and De­signation, as being set apart from common use to holy service, which were not inhe­rently holy in themselves, some of them being subjects not capable thereof: the word of God abounds with instances of this kinde.

A Minister of the Gospel may be said to be holy, in being set apart to the work of the Ministery, (which is an holy work, or calling, 1 Tim. 3.1.) two ways.

1. By his own inclination of heart, bent of spirit, a [...] or readiness of minde thereunto, to serve God in the Ministery, above any other calling; being furnished with gifts suitable thereunto, as he must be [...] apt to teach, 1 Tim. 3.2.

2. By an outward call to it, in way of Election, and Ordination, according to the Gospel, whereby he is separated to the work.

3. The third and best sort of Holiness is Inhesion of Grace in the soul, or the Reno­vation [Page 292]of the inward man into God's image.

This is the sanctification of the Spirit, (1 Pet. 1.2.) or in Christ, 1 Cor. 1.2. a true Regeneration, this must be found in all that would be, or shall be saved.

This inherent holiness is required to be in a Minister of the Gospel, in respect

  • 1. Of himself.
  • 2. Of his Office.

1. In respect of himself, it is his duty to be holy, and necessary both necessi­tate Praecepti & Medii, both by God's com­mandment, and as a necessary means of his own salvation: Heb. 12.14. for without holiness no man can see God, or save his own soul, though he may by his Gifts promote the good of others.

2. In respect of his office, or Ministery; to be inherently holy will conduce very much to the Ability and Efficacy of his Ministery, to make him a more able, fruit­ful Minister of the Gospel, and will qua­lifie him better to be set apart to that work. God doth call for inward sanctity in Ministers above others, because of their near approach to God, and that influence, which their lives (if holy) will have upon others; but open sinfulness is a discredit to the Gospel, and dishonor to his Calling, [Page 293]an obstruction to the success of his labors: it carries a great aggravation, and foul stain with it, and may do much hurt to others, by way of example. But I conceive, that, though inherent Holiness be most necessa­ry for a Minister of God, in respect of him­self, in order to his own salvation, yet that it is required of him in respect of his Of­fice, to qualifie him to be a Bishop (or Gospel-Minister) upon the ground of Expediency, Conveniency, or Commodi­ty, ad bene esse, or as some other particu­lars are in Paul's Catalogue of qualifica­tions in Titus 1.7, 8. propter melius, for the better, not of absolute necessity, as causa sine qua non, or ad esse; as if a man could not be a Minister except he had the real work of Grace or holiness in his heart. He is most fit and able every way for the work of the Ministery, who hath Grace as well as Gifts, and is inherently holy; but the bare or simple want of holiness doth not uncapacitate a man for the Mini­stery, nor annul the same, if other things concur in him, as Gifts, and a Call, in­ward and outward, and unblamableness of life. Christ knew Judas to be a close Hypocrite, yet he chose him to be one of the twelve, and he was useful in the Church for a time.

Dr. Taylor in his Comment upon Ti­tus 1.8. A Bishop must be holy, saith, Necessary it is for a Minister to be clothed with the robes of holiness, both inward and outward: yet this must not so be taken, as that holiness is so Essential to a Minister, as that he cannot be a Minister that wanteth it, for Judas may be Disciple and a Devil too; but that it is a dangerous estate to him­self, and hurtful to others, for him to be de­stitute of Holiness.

Object. 2. Unto the wicked God saith, What hast thou to do to declare my Statutes, or take my Covenant in thy mouth, &c. seeing thou hatest instruction? &c. Psal. 50, 16, 17.

Ergo, None should be Preachers of God's Word and Testament, but such as have Grace.

Answ. To this I answer three things:

First, O [...] Psal. 50.16. That Unto the wicked God saith] Appellationem impii (saith Musculus) Scri­ptura dai non cuivis peccatori, sed plane malitiosis, qui ex destinata malitia, non ex errore, peccent. ‘The Scripture gives this name of wicked not to every sinner, but to those that are malicious, who offend of fore-thought malice, not of error.’ The wicked do offend far otherwise, then those that sin through error. See Muscu­lus's [Page 295]Distinction of wicked men into two sorts in that place. The worst kinde are they, who cover the malice and impiety of their hearts with a counterfeiting, or colour and pretence of Piety, and probity in life; who by Hypocrisie seek the name of Piety among men (when in heart they are wick­ed) and they cover these wickednesses, which they design as wicked men, with the paint or counterfeit of external and dissem­bled Piety: therefore they are not aperte, but occulte impii; not openly, but covert­ly impious.

Et hi sunt (saith Musculus) qui hoc loco reprobantur. ‘These are the wicked, who are reproved by God in this place.’

They had God's Covenant oft in their mouths, that is, they did in words, or by external confession, profess the Name of God, and Piety before men, and pretended to a Covenant with God, and that they were his People, yet they denied God in their hearts, lives, or works. They were haters of Reformation, contemners of the Word of God, vers. 17. addicted to theft, lust, or adultery, vers. 18. to evil or de­ceitful speaking, vers. 19. to slandering and calumniating near Relations, vers. 20. They transformed God into an Idol after their own fancy, vers. 21. By the de­scription [Page 296]of their improbity it appears, that these were obdurate, obstinate, wilful, re­stractorily wicked, though covertly and con­cealedly, as much as they could.

To such as are so wicked God saith, What hast thou to do to declare my Sta­tutes? &c. Quamobrem usurpas tibi Sta­tutorum meorum & foederis administrati­onem ad te non pertinentem? saith Musculus. Why dost thou usurp to thy self the Ad­ministration of my Statutes, and Cove­nant, which doth not belong to thee? Est ergo Deo prorsus abominabile, &c. The office of a wicked man is abominable, sive illud siat praedicando, &c. whether it be done in preaching, sive Ceremoniis externis ipsum colendo, or in worshipping him in outward Ceremonies. A man may be a sinner, and not a wicked man. Mr. Caryl shews the difference between them in five things in Job 10.7, 15. Job confessed himself to be a sinner, vers. 6. but thou knowest, saith he to God, that I am not wicked. The best of Saints are sinners on Earth, and the worst of Saints are not wicked. Sin is not inconsistent with Grace, but wickedness is; yea, a man may have no Grace (or be void in heart of the true fear of God, and Piety) and so be an unregenerate man, and yet not be a wick­ed [Page 297]man in Scripture-sense, or be [...], which signifies an ungodly, restless, lewd, turbulent man. See his character Isaiah 57.20. And why such as are not wicked (being fitted, and called) may not be al­lowed to preach the Word, I do not see. Yea, a man may commit gross sins, and yet, not concealing the malice of his minde with hypocrisie, not be in so high a degree wicked and abominable in the sight of God, as those that cloak their Impiety and Hypocrisie.

Those that are so wicked (and are known to be so) are unworthy to be Mi­nisters of God's Word.

The second thing is, Though the Ser­vices, which those that are Sinners perform, (in the general) are displeasing to God, as their Prayers, Praises, hearing the Word, giving Alms, Prov. 15.8. and 21.27. Isai. 66.3. Yet

1. God doth require them to do the same.

2. Though they sin in doing them, yet it's a greater Sin not to do them.

3. God may reward them for the same.

4. They may be instrumental for the good of others thereby.

I. They may be such things in them­selves (or for the matter of them) as God [Page 298]requires, or which are their Duty to do; as Praying, Hearing, Praising God.

Duties of the Moral Law, which all men (even bad, as well as good) are bound unto: As,

1. To pray to God. The neglect hereof is noted as a sin in the very A­theist, that fool, who saith in his heart, There is no God, Psal. 14.1, 4. in the workers of iniquity, Psal. 53.4. in the very Heathen, for which God poureth forth his wrath and judgement, Psal. 79.6. Jer. 10.25. Even by the Light of Nature all men are bound to pray unto God, as the Mariners in Jonah 1.6. acknowledged in a tempest; and by the Law of Creation to seek to God for what they want.

2. To praise, and give thanks to God for his Mercies. David excites all the Creatures to praise God, as a natural Duty according to their several capacities, Psal. 148. and Psal. 145.21. Let all flesh bless his holy Name. And vers. 10. All thy Works shall praise thee, O Lord, and thy Saints shall bless thee. God hath given a general Command to all men upon Earth to sing unto the Lord, that is, to praise the Lord, Psal. 68.2. and 96.1.

So that Prayer and Praise are Natural Duties, imposed and incumbent upon all [Page 299]men, as they are men; and part of the Natural Worship, which all are bound un­to by the Light of Nature, and Law of their Creation, to perform to God, as obli­gatory to all Mankinde, even to the wicked.

II. Though the wicked cannot perform these Duties of Prayer, Praises, Hearing aright, or without sin (as to the maner of doing them) but they displease God there­in; yet it is a greater sin in any, even in the wicked (and shews more slighting of God, and disregard to God) to neglect or omit the matter of a Duty (or the Duty it self) as not to pray, not to praise God, not to hear the word, then to fail, fall short, or miscarry in the maner of perform­ance; as not to perform these aright, scil. in faith and fervency, with affection and sincerity. This is a greater sin, because to omit the Duty wholly, as to the matter of it, is (as one saith) to disobey totally: to sin in the maner of doing it is to disobey God but in part onely.

In performance there is some good, scil. the matter of the Duty, or the thing done: it may be some acts or circumstances be­sides may be good (materially, though not formally) but in omission of Duties there is no good at all: now ubi major pri­vatio [Page 300]boni, ibi majus malum.

They do evil, that pray, praise God, or hear the Word amiss; but they do worse, that do not these at all.

III. God may reward men for the mate­riality of their Duties, or for the things they do (as being good in themselves) though he utterly dislike the formality thereof, or their maner of doing them. God hath, out of his infinite goodness, sometimes shewed respect to the good things that have been done, even by un­godly men (though they were but the car­case, and wanted the soul and life of good Works) so as to reward them temporally.

Thus God heard the Prayer of Ishmael, though a profane wretch, Gen. 21.9, 10, 17. and Ahab's Prayer, when he was humbled by fear, 1 Kings 21.29. See how it pre­vailed with God to defer a temporary Judgement, and to grant some Deliverance to Rehoboam, when he humbled himself (which some think was but outwardly) 2 Chron. 12.6, 7, 14. External Humi­liation may prevail to remove an outward Judgement, Exod. 9.27.

IV. The Services even of those that were unsanctified may be instrumental for the good of others; as the Teachings of the Scribes and Pharisees were: they were [Page 301]grand Hypocrites, &c. yet Christ allowed them to teach (and take his Statutes and Covenant into their mouths) else he would not have bidden others hear them, scil. for the benefit they might get by their Doctrine, more then by their Examples; for they said, and did not.

The third thing is, God's Expostulati­on with Sinners about their Services, or Performances, seems to imply, not a Pro­hibition of such things as Duty obliged them to do, but rather a Reprehension of them; Either

1. For the maner, that they did them amiss, not so as he prescribed, or otherwise then he required; or end, as seeking them­selves therein, Hosea 10.2.

2. Or for their unsuitable carriage, or bad lives accompanying the same.

Hereupon God rejected their Services, and expressed his dislike of them, as being not his, but theirs, because of the iniqui­ties inherent in their Persons, or practised in their Actions, or adherent to their Du­ties in their performance of them.

God reprehended the Jews (in his Ex­postulation with them) Isai. 1.10, to 16. not simply for their Sacrifices and Oblati­ons, —solemn Feasts and Assemblies, as treading in his Courts, making Prayers, &c. [Page 302]because God had commanded all these to be done as their Duties, (yea, God com­plains of his People sometime for the want of these, Isai. 43.22, 23, 24.) but be­cause they did not do these aright; they did them hypocritically, not sincerely, without due affection and devotion of heart, and outward reformation of life: and their hands, wherewith they brought and offered their Sacrifices, and which they spread forth in Prayer, were full of blood, Isai. 1.15. (i. e.) Cruelty, Oppression, Murder, &c. Therefore God refuseth to own, or to accept these their Duties, or Services, as being done

1. By such persons as they were.

2. In such a maner as they did them.

Yea, they were abhorred of him.

See the like Expostulation of God with his People Jerem. 6.20. To what purpose cometh there to me Incense from Sheba? &c. your Burnt-offerings are not acceptable, nor your Sacrifices sweet to me. God tells them that their Services were none of them pleasing to him, because they rejected his Laws, and wilfully said, We will not hear­ken, scil. to the Prophets, vers. 17, 19. and their lives and courses were displeasing to him.

Christ reproved the Scribes and Phari­sees [Page 303]in Matth. 23.23. not for tithing Mint, Anise, and Cummin, (for these were com­manded by the Law, Levit. 27.30.) but for omitting the weightier matters of the Law, as Judgement, Mercy, and Faith: these ought ye to have done, and not to leave the other undone. Christ blames not those that do the smallest things command­ed (as some expound this place) but those that think, when they have done these, Annotat. they have done all that is required, and so securely neglect the greatest Duties.

Paul reproved the Jew in Rom. 2.17, to 23. not for teaching others, but for not teaching himself, ver. 21. or for do­ing the contrary himself to what he taught others, as stealing, committing adultery, vers. 22. not for abhorring Idols, but for doing as ill, or worse, that is, committing sacriledge.

May it not be conceived, that God in this Psal. 50.16. reprehends the wicked, not simply for declaring his Statutes and Words, but for the maner, because they did it in hypocrisie; and for the concomi­tants thereof in them, seeing they hated Instruction, and rejected his Words, v. 17.

And may not these words, What hast thou to do to declare my Statutes? &c. be understood rather as an Expostulation [Page 304]with them about it, then a Prohibition of them to it? [...] Quid tibi? What is it to thee? As if God had said,

1. How unfit, unable, and unworthy art thou to declare my Statutes, &c. seeing thou art so vile, and dost so, and so?

2. Or how durst thou, or wast thou not afraid, or how hadst thou a face to speak of my Statutes and Covenant?

3. Or what profit or benefit will it be to thee, seeing thou hatest instruction, and livest contrary thereunto, and art so hy­pocritically and desperately wicked in thy self, loathsom and abominable in the sight of God? All thou doest is in vain, but lost labor, as to thy self: thy declaring my Statutes, &c. (in such a maner) will neither be grateful to me, nor useful to thy self; thou shalt have neither acceptance nor recompence from God for the same af­ter this life.

Isai. Annotat. 1.11. [...] Why, or where­fore, or to what end, or to what purpose unto me (or in regard of me) is the multitude of your Sacrifices?

Object. 3. If an unconverted Minister may by his preaching be an Instrument of converting Sinners, then he may be saved, and glorified thereby; or in saving others he may save himself, because God hath [Page 305]promised, that they that turn others to Righteousness shall shine as Stars for ever and ever, Dan. 12.3.

Answ. The Ministers of God's Word are not (yea, cannot) be saved by, or for their Works (as the Good they do to o­thers, either Temporal, or Spiritual) but upon another account, that is, by their Faith in Christ, and through the Grace of Christ, the onely way to Salvation, both for Minister and People. Peter professed his hope hereof by no other means, Acts 15.11.

Yet the good success of their Ministerial Labors (through God's blessing) in the Conversion of many Souls, will be found to their Praise, Honor, Glory, and Joy, at the Appearing of Jesus Christ; and will add Brightness or Splendor to their Glo­ry, and Pearls to their Crown, and Ful­ness to their Joy: They shall shine as Stars for ever and ever (according to God's Promise) that is, share in the highest de­gree of Heavenly Glory (as some expound it) who are not onely the Children of God themselves by Faith in Christ, but Spiri­tual Fathers to beget others unto God, and gain many Souls to God's Kingdom. Hence it is, 1 Thes. 2.19, 20 that Paul saith to the Thessa­lonians, —Ye are our hope, joy, and crown [Page 306]of rejoycing, in the presence of our Lord Je­sus Christ, at his coming, ye are our glory and joy.

As for those Ministers, that are instru­mental (or used by God) in the Conver­sion or Salvation of Sinners, to further the same, yet are unconverted themselves, though they cannot be saved hereafter, yet they shall be rewarded some way here by Temporal Remuneration. None can shine as Stars in the Kingdom of Heaven, which do not enter into it, which without Conversion none can. Therefore the place objected must not be thought to respect any that are unregenerate. For Glory ever supposeth Grace. And those, that have Grace to carry them to Heaven, shall, if they here turn many to Righteousness, have greater degrees of Glory when they come there.



PAg. 10. lin. 5. for confute read consult. p. 12. l. 17. r. no other marc. p. 16. l 1. [...] r. [...]. ib. l. ult. [...]. 1. [...]. p. 17. l. 4. [...] r. [...]. p. 33. l. 1. r. and Debtors. p: 38. l. 17. sunt r. fuit. p. 40. l. 28. r. [...]. p 41. in the margin l. 7. r. multò plus. ib. in marg. l. 30. r. cap. 15. p. 45. l. 4. [...]. r. [...]. p. 52. l. 6. as r. and. p. 59. l. 24. r. monumentis. p. 67. l. 30. delc or. p. 69. l. 15. as r. and p. 75. l. 2. [...] r. [...]. p. 84. l. 8. r. Disciplina. p. 94. l. 2. r. Creatures. p. 97. l. 8. r. that may declare. p. 99. l. 7. r. alliance. ib. l. 16. r. long journeys thither. p. 103. l. 15. r. wisdom. p. 109 (r. 108.) l. 20. r. did lead. p. 119. l. 6 r. that other prohibition. p. 132. l. 14. fay r. fias. p. 138. l. 2. restored r. reckoned. ib. l. 4. r. terminated. p. 142. l. 21. r. this place. p. 143. l. 1. r. in­geniously. ib. l. 7, 10, 30. r. root. p. 162. l 23. r. whither. p. 207. l. 6. prae­senttam r. praestantiam. p. 216. l. 5. r. his want of good. p. 227. l. 20. r. Theodore. p. 229. l 22. as r. in. p. 230. l. 4. r. hath. ib. l. 19. r. Abbot. p. 234. l. 1. for VI. r. XIII. p. 238. l. 3. r. The other manner. p. 243. l. 2. r. [...]. p. 246. l. 15. maketh r. teacheth. ib. l. 19. to r. by. p. 252. l. 16. VIII. r. IV. p. 299. at top for Psal. 15. r. 50.

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