THE True English Interest: OR AN ACCOUNT OF THE Chief National Improvements; IN Some Political Observations, Demon­strating an Infallible Advance of this Nati­on to Infinite Wealth and Greatness, Trade and Populacy, with Imployment, and Preferment for all Persons.

By Carew Reynel Esq;

LONDON, Printed for Giles Widdowes at the Green-Dragon in St. Pauls Church-Yard. 1674.


GReat-Britain is ac­knowledged by all the world to be Queen of the Isles, and as capable to live within it self as any Nation: Having not only all things necessary for the Life of man, but also abundance of materials, and store of Manufactures and [Page]Commodities to a superflui­ty for Transportation. And is so incomparably situated, that Trade offers it self to all its Ports and Harbors. The Soyl of the Country rich, abounding with much Grain, Horses, Beefs, and Sheep that wear the Gol­den Fleece, and other Traf­fick: Also Mines of Tin, Lead and Sea-Coal unex­haustible; and no Nation in the Universe, but partakes of its wollen manufactures. Its Seas every where filled with shoals of Fish, that are as good as ready silver, to [Page]fetch in all manner of Fo­reign Commodities. Now it is a very hard case, if the Heavenly Bounty shall by nature thus furnish us with so great assistances, that we should not add to it and give some advance, by our own Art and Industry, bringing in whatever fo­reign Arts, Trades or Hus­bandries may be profitable to us: for doubtless we may Aggrandize our Trade, to an Inestimable Account, if we would our selves, and make our Territories, as rich and populous as we please, [Page]under so glorious a King and Government as we have; had we but that pub­lick spirit as we ought, and gave countenance to brave actions and industrious men, and minded the business of Trade and Populacy, as much as we do Pleasures and Luxury. Get first but Trade and People which will produce riches, and then pleasure will come of course. Riches are the Conveni­ence of the Nation, people are the strength, pleasure, and glory of the Nation: But Trade preserves both. [Page]And if we be but industri­ous no Nation can exceed us either in a home or forreign trade: For at home we have so many materials to employ people, and men hardy and ingenious enough to work and raise all sorts of manu­factures within our selves which we have now from abroad, yet we make not our own Silks we wear, our own houshold-furniture, I mean Tapistry, nor our own shirts to our backs, which three manufactures, if we had them full stockt, would make us infinitely [Page]rich and populous to Eter­nity. And for foreign trade and commerce, this Island lies so surrounded with our neighbour nations, and those of the chief concern and so near them, that it seems designed for all man­ner of riches, and the seat of Empire: Being a Land also pleasant, and its Metropo­lis London so great and glo­rious, that it invites all peo­ple that come over to stay here. So that the Country being thus accomplished, powerful, and substantial al­ready as to fertility and in­genuity [Page]of the natives, a lit­tle help and inspection will make it the most glorious place in the world; and his Majesty the most potent Prince in Christendom. I have hinted here at the chief advancements we are capable of, and those I am sure will do the work effe­ctually if encouraged; for though we are a Nation al­ready pretty substantial, yet it's easie for us to be ten times richer, and that in the third part of an Age, if we will set aside some portion of our time and mony, for [Page]publick actions, and such contrivances, that may be for the general good. We are come to this Improve­ment that we are, not so much by the indulgent care of rich men, as by the wants of some ingenious persons, forcing them to improve themselves for a livelihood: But what perfection should we arrive to, if (in imitati­on of his Majesty and Roy­al Highness, who much in­courage Trade, Ingenuity, and Discoveries, even be­yond any former Princes) other great and rich persons [Page]would set about the work, and private persons would get publick spirits, to labour after things so beneficial, not only to the nation in ge­neral, but to every man in particular? We take up our time about little businesses, and it may be factious di­scourses, when the whole profit of the nation, which is properly a nation of trade, lies unregarded: And half the charges that were spent in the last Rebellion would have brought the Gold of Guiny and Riches of the In­dies to us. Free Naturali­zation, [Page]and some kind of general Indulgence, the Bug-bear of former Ages, is now by Statists found to be the great security and cement of Society, as well as the Aggrandizing of them, to vastness of Trade, Riches and Populousness. What hath made the Hol­landers to bid defiance to the most potent Princes of Christendom but this? which now is plain to all the world, and legible to the most obstinate: And when other Princes are at loss for trade, men, mony, and [Page]vent for their commodities, they abound in all these: and though a small Country not much above the bigness of York-shire, yet is the richest, most populous, and most trading spot of the Uni­verse: although they have no Timber of their own, nor any grain or manufa­cturing materials, yet they have more plenty of Ships and all other Commodities, and reasonabler than any part of Christendom: And though they have already ten times as many people as their native Country will [Page]maintain; yet the great freedom, and trade they have, makes people of all nations flock thither as to a refuge and sanctuary: So that they carry all before them like a mighty torrent, Amsterdam declaring free­dom to all the world to come and dwell there, with equal liberty and privi­ledges as themselves; and might have still so conti­nued, had not their ingra­titude engaged his Majesty to make them a little more civil to him, whose Prede­cessors first set them up.

All of us both Country and City should be endea­vouring, how they may do good in their generation, and be beneficial to the publick: For if we were once full of people and full of trade, rents of Lands would quickly raise, the Kings revenue would be greater, the Nobility and Gentry richer, the Com­monalty more substantial, and the poor be all employ­ed to advantage. We want people, and yet as the case stands we want means to maintain them; when if we [Page]please, we may increase our people by multitudes, and grow infinitely rich by them too: For it is a sad case there should be so ma­ny lusty poor about every where, and yet so many manufactures want to be brought in, which would set at work millions of peo­ple more than we have to spare. For it is manufa­ctures must do the work, which will not only increase people, but also Trade, and advance it. It saves like­wise mony in our purses by lessening importation, and [Page]brings mony in by exporta­tion. How many decayed Gentry also of good fami­lies that want bread, and are dispatcht beyond Seas; when so many Forrests lie unimproved which would maintain them all, and might be so managed as to bring to his Majesty a good revenue also? I wish some great persons would make it their business to look af­ter such great things. In the mean time I have thrown in my mite, and en­deavoured to shew the chief Improvements, and have [Page]reduced them to a narrow room, that whoever hath a mind to bend his study this way, may with ease comprehend the ground­work of the English prospe­rity, and such Politicks as are proper for our Nation, hoping it may work a good effect, on some able persons which may be instrumental to the publick good, when they see the manner of bringing it about thus con­tracted under their eye and to their use, and behold so many advantages that may be made and yet lye unre­garded.


  • 1. INdustry. pag. 1.
  • 2. Money. p. 3.
  • 3. Trade in General. p. 5.
  • 4. Home and Foreign Trade. p. 7.
  • 5. Trade to particular Places. p. 9.
  • 6. Importation and Exportation. p. 10.
  • 7. Committees of Trade. p. 16.
  • 8. Manufactures. p. 17.
  • 9. Husbandry. p. 19.
  • [Page]10. Of the Chief National Improve­ments. p. 22.
  • 11. Linen Trade. p. 24.
  • 12. Of the Silk Trade. p. 25.
  • 13. Tapistry. p. 26.
  • 14. Of the Fishery. p. 27.
  • 15. Orchards and Vineyards. p. 30.
  • 16. Tobacco. p. 32.
  • 17. Of the Salt Trade, Latton, and Paper. p. 36.
  • 18. Of Mines. p. 38.
  • 19. Forests. p. 40.
  • 20. Cutting of Rivers. p. 42.
  • 21. Variety of Trades, Professions, and Manufactures. p. 44.
  • [Page]22. Of Employments, and Preferments. p. 51.
  • 23. Of Colledges, of Manufactures, and Enrichment of particular Pa­rishes. p. 56.
  • 24. Of Marriage, and Populacy. p. 59.
  • 25. Kings Revenue, Taxes, Customs. p. 68.
  • 26. Of publick maintenance, and pro­vision of Charity. p. 72.
  • 27. Learning. p. 76.
  • 28. Laws, and easing of Debtors. p. 80.
  • 29. Of Navigation and Sea Affairs. p. 85.
  • 30. Of New Inventions and Discove­ries. p. 86.
  • 31. Of Plantations. p. 88.

THE True English INTEREST.

1. Industry.

THE happiness and wel­fare of all People arises, by having or acquiring, through some Industry or other, such conveniency of lively-hood, as may not only keep them from Want and Poverty, but ren­der them pleasant and sociable to one [Page 2]another, this holds both in private Per­sons and Families, and also in bodies Politick: that they may be able to grow and flourish, at least bear up against the Malignity of Enemies and adverse For­tune.

Now Money being the common re­ceipt, and standard of all the world, as to commerce and community one with another, that Nation that hath most Money, or Goods Money worth, must needs be most substantial and wealthy.

And Money is gotten either naturally by digging it out of the Mines, or else by Trade and Manufactury, supplying those which have money with such things as they want: and so fetching of it to us by Merchandise. The first way we want, the having of it in the Mine, and therefore must have recourse to the se­cond, of Trade, Manusacture, and things Money worth.

Wherefore we ought to furnish our selves, within our selves, of as many needs of life as may be, by Manufactures, and all Husbandries whatsoever, that our Country will make or bear, and [Page 3]want as few as we can, so shall less Mo­ney serve our turn, and yet we have store of Money by making and producing those things that draw in Money conti­nually.

2. Money.

THat Nation that values Money most, shall have most of it: where­fore it is good that the value of Coin be alwaies somewhat higher than in our neighbour Nations: so can we not fail of having it from them. Also to keep Mo­ney in a Nation it is good to allay it a lit­tle, and Coin much small Money, which disperses amongst the Commonalty and body of the Nation: and most of the large Coin ought to be made plain and ill shapen, so none will be carried away out of curiosity, whereas now all our fine Crowns are transported abroad and hoarded at home.

To bring in the old Gold again it were well, the broad pieces might go for [Page 4]24 shillings, and the 22 shillings for 26 shillings, and only these pieces raised which would be easily known by their wearing and age: this would bring them in a pace from beyond Sea, where they say great payments are made of our old Gold, and keep them from melting here: so if there were also a de-coy piece of Silver, as a fine Crown to go for five shillings and three pence, it would keep them in very much.

Also if we valued some Coin of ano­ther Nation very high, as suppose six pence in a Crown above the rate it went for there, it would be a means to bring over that Money hither; and to keep our selves from any loss, we might raise the value of our own Cloath or other Com­modity accordingly; so might any Town in England which abounds in a particu­lar Commodity, draw in much Money to them and Sale of their Commodity by valuing some one piece of Coin ex­traordinary, to go current so in their own Town.

Also Money is gain'd by letting any one Coin Bullion that will at the publick charge.

3. Trade in General.

BUT Money is chiefly gain'd by Trade, and making store of Manu­factures, which other Nations want: and improving of our Ground with va­riety of Husbandry Commodities, and to furnish them with such of our produ­ctions, for we ought to supply our selves within our selves, that we need few Fo­reign things, and make as many Com­modities at home as possible, that Fo­reigners want and so Export it to them.

For England is properly a Nation of Trade, and extreamly well scituated for Commerce, and the Inhabitants ingeni­ous, and fit for it, if incouraged: also furnisht within it self with store of Mate­rials, which are the grounds of Trade.

But being an Island and independent from our neighbours, the less War and more Peace we have the better; for Con­quest of unprofitable Countries help us not but hinder us, are chargeable and [Page 6]waste our People: our business is to keep at unity with our selves and enjoy a free Trade, keeping only some Forts and Islands in profitable places, whereby we become Masters of Trade.

Also such Laws might be made and contrived for the encouragement of Trade and Manufactures, that without cost or charge Industry would increase, many particular Arts rise of themselves, and Riches be produced of course. The chief things that promote Trade and make it flourish, are that it be free, na­turalization, populacy, comprehension, freedom from Arrests, certainty of pro­perty and freedom from Arbitrary pow­er, small Customs, all conveniency and advantages for trading People: Loans of Interest, publick places of Charity for all wanting and distressed People, and also Imployments ready for all persons that want it; the more strict also Laws are against grand Vices, the more serious­ness, Learning and Trade will flourish.

It would be for the advantage of Trade that what ever Apprentice had served his time in one Corporation should be free of any.

4. Home and Foreign Trade.

TRade is to be advanced every way at home and abroad, but especially the home, as being of more Consequence than the Foreign: for what ever we can raise at home we should never have from abroad. Foreign Trade is a secondary help, home Trade is our primary ad­vantage. Those Nations are observed to be rich and populous, who waste nor their People in Foreign parts, but enjoy a great home Trade, not going abroad themselves, but suffering all Nations that will, to come and fetch their Com­modities, as Persia, the great Mogull, China, and Japan, and the French our Neighbours.

Though we lying so naturally for Trade, ought to encourage Navigation, especially for the transporting our own Commodities, yet great care ought to [Page 8]be had that Seamen be not exported so much as they have been and are; for it hath been our business to breed them up and other Nations to steal them away.

For the People of this Nation are lessened by it extreamly, not one in three of them ever settling again at home, but are decoy'd away to New-England and Virginia, and several other places. And also the Dutch get vast numbers of them to their Islands in the East-Indies, and keep them there whether they will or no, first inticing them into their Ships with great wages.

To encourage home Trade we should enjoyn our own People chiefly to use our own Manufactures, and make them pay treble Custom that bring in any Foreign Manufacture, that we do make or may make at home, to encourage home-trade. It were excellent to erect store-houses for the publick work, and to buy up all Cloath and other Manufactures in dead times of Trade, that the poor might be alwaies kept in work.

5. Trade to particular Places.

WE should take all possible care to find all the particular Towns, and Provinces, and by In-land places, as well as general Countries, that want our Manufactures, that we might find store of vent for our Commodities. Sometimes private Creeks will entertain Merchandise as well as great Rivers.

The Guiny Trade would be much ad­vanced by being freer; the Norway Trade at present, we having occasion for such vast quantitities of Timber, swallows up abundance of our Money for want of more proper things for ex­portation. The French Trade by Im­porting so much of their Wines, Silks, Linnen, Papers, and Salt doth much exhaust our Money. The Barbary Trade would be good if Tangier might have a free entercourse to them; the Turky, [Page 10]Spanish, the Guiny, West-Indy Trade are very good to us, but the West-Indy Trade will be the only advantage to us, if we fix it rightly, which will vend not only all our own Commodities, but bring us store of Silver and increase Navigation.

6. Importation and Exportation.

WHere a Nation Imports by its voluptuousness more than it Ex­ports, it must needs come to ruine; Coin there going out in Specie for the over ballance is still maintained by ready Mo­ney. For Exportation is gain, but all Commodities Imported is loss, but rea­dy Silver or such Commodities, that be­ing carried out again brings in Silver from other Nations.

No Customs, or very small, should be paid for Exportation of our own Ma­nufactures. It were better to advance the Kings Revenue any other way than [Page 11]by gaining Custom on our own Com­modities, which hinders Exportation, or to encourage Foreign Commodities that we can make here to advance the Customs.

For as too much Importation is the ruine of Trade and Navigation, so Ex­portation is the life of them both: For we can never Export too much, but the more we do, the more still will be our benefit, which also procures greater Im­portation to profit as well as advance of Customs and Navigation: For let us but Export three times the Commodities we do, and we shall Import twice the Commodities we do, and yet be gainers; and the Customs and Navigation doubly advanced, and the Nation in general richer; whereas if the over-ballance be by Importation all these are so much weakened.

Wherefore it is a great mistake of some who think the forbidding several Commodities to be Imported, which we can produce, or turn into Manufa­cture our selves, that the Customs are thereby lessened, for though they may [Page 12]be lessned in that thing they will be high­ly advanced in another, through more Exportation, which of course will bring in more Importation.

Wherefore we should contrive to make as many various things as possible for Exportation, so should we grow rich of course, and Trade increase on our hands, which otherwise will daily de­crease.

For it is not all Trading advantages a Nation. A People may be undone by some kind of Merchandise, for many Merchants, so they advantage them­selves, care not what injury they may do to the Publick; for as they were wont formerly and do still serve those of Guiny, to carry them Beads, Looking-Glasses, and such like things, and bring away their Gold: so they deal often with their own Countrymen: for find­ing us fantastical and voluptuous, they tempt us with all sorts of French Toyes, Indy and Japan trifles, stain'd Calli­coes, Silks and such pleasant things, and fetch away our Money and solid wealth. But I say let us make store of all new [Page 13]Manufactures to tempt them with, and to barter for them, and not send Money, then come with what they will. But as things are now we are losers by most of our Trading, especially our French and Canary: we Import, as one Author saith of French Commodities, as Silks, Laces, Linen, and Paper, and the like, six­teen hundred thousand pounds a year more than we Export of our own: and of Canary Wine one hundred and fif­ty thousand pounds worth more than we Export also. And to the East-Indies we carry nothing but ready Money, and bring in again nothing worth any thing but Spices, and though the pretence is, that those things so Imported, when Ex­ported bring in more Money than they carried out, yet we find the Money de­cays, and they bring in little Money with them, only still more superfluity of Wines, Silks and unnecessary toyes. But it were well if we could manage the East-Indie Trade as the Dutch do, who carry no Silver from Holland, but drive the Trade with the Silver they get from Japan in exchange for other Commodi­ties, [Page 14]they bring to them, which we may do in a better and speedier way than they can, if permitted by the means of the West-Indies, the Isthmus of Panama be­ing within one hundred and sixty Leagues off Jamaica, and but six weeks Sail from Japan, and driving the West and East-Indie Trade under one Voyage, carry what Silver we will from the West-Indies thither if it is required, and so come back hither with East-Indie Goods, and West-Indie Silver. But of this more in another place.

It is an extream benefit to the Nation to encourage all manner of Exportations of our own Commodities to Foreign Countries, and countenance and embrace all Nations that will setch away our home Commodities, though in their Ships; so should we have a greater ad­vantage, than if we only transported them in our bottoms, for Foreigners would not come but they would be re­solved to take off our Commodities. Then the Commodities that they bring, they would be forced to sell at any rate, for they would not go back again with­out [Page 15]their Errand, so our Commodities would be highlier valued. Whereas our own Merchants beat the price down both at home and abroad. At home when they know we must sell to them or none else. Abroad in the manner re­cited by proffering the Goods so plenti­fully in their own ports: also by letting Foreigners come we should vend doubly to them, and our own: and the quick and large vend would raise the price. Wherefore the Act of transporting only in our own bottoms is apparently disad­vantagious to us, both as to Merchan­dise and the conveniency of Ships and Shipping Goods: also for Foreign built Ships, we might have at an easier rate to purchase them, and our Goods would be transported also cheaper, by having a double means, either by our own Ma­riners or Foreigners.

7. Committees of Trade.

BUT that there be more of Publick good in Merchandise, and the con­fusion of Trade taken away, it were well the Mysteries of Exchange were more publickly known; and also that there were a Committee of Trade, be­ing mixt with the chief able Merchants that understand Trade, and to continue alwaies; Who still should be on the discovery, and study for the Improve­ment of Trade, so should we have Trade brought more to a general benefit, and we may come to understand it is the best In­terest we have, to which purpose also it were expedient they had a Court Mer­chant, to end all businesses speedily amongst themselves without charge or delay, which now they are tired with.

8. Manufactures.

THe more Trade, Husbandries and Manufactures there are in a Na­tion, the more people there will be, more employment for them, and more riches; every thing again will vend the more one for another, being stockt with several waies of a lively hood, and not glutted and over-stockt with any one Manufacture, as we are with Cloath in England; when as if we had Linen, Silk, and Tapistry also, it would im­ploy us, and enrich us immeasurably. The Linen, Silk, and Tapistry would be more Merchandable than any thing; as vending not only here, but infinite­ly to our West-Indie Collonies.

For it is the Manufacturers of a Commodity, that is in general sale, that imploys people and produces the great profit; although the original Ma­terials are not in the Country, as Silks for example, the making of which [Page 18]employs abundance of people, and with them bring in other things by Expor­tation. The Dutch gain by making our Cloath, and they have their Wool from us.

Trade and populousness of a Nation are the strength of it; and the product of it is riches. Money, Trade, and populousness are by all means possible to be kept in a Nation; the more popu­lous, the more Trade; the more Trade, the more populous, and the more Trade and populacy, the more Money.

But then Trade must be regulated; for if a Nation pursue either but one or few Trades, populacy may be lost, for want of variety of Trades to employ men, for they will go to other Coun­tries where there is more Trade, and thus Trade will decay for want of Peo­ple, and so in the end People and Trade will decay, as here in England; both which we may easily remedy.

9. Husbandry.

AS it is an advantage to have va­riety of Manufactures, so also it is to have variety of Husbandries, for the more several Husbandries the ground is taken up with, the more every grain and Commodity will vent one for ano­ther, and so advance the rate of Land, produce greater profit and increase, and maintain more people; but of all Plantations at present, Vineyards, Or­chards for Sider, and Tobacco Plan­tations, would be the most advanta­geous, especially Tobacco; it sets an infinite of People on work, increaseth the rent of Land, and returns great profit to the planter, as can be proved beyond all exceptions, if time and oc­casion required.

English Sider is better than any. As good Wine hath been made here as in France, and as good Tobacco as in Spain, and sold for as great a rate by [Page 20]relation, and if it were planted in England, it would be profitable to us, better for Navigation, and the Kings Customs.

All manner of other Husbandries ought to be brought into the Nation that is beneficial, as Hops, Liquorish, Saffron, Madder, Clover-grass, San, Foin, Oade, Saffe Flowers that dies Scarlet, which thrives well here, and any other that are profitable.

The more a Country is enclosed, and the less waste Grounds, Commons, and Forests there are, the more populous, wealthy, and full of Trade it will be.

And the smaller Estates the Land is divided into, the better for the Nation; the more People are maintain'd, and the Land better Hus­banded.

As for the transportation of Wool, which some fancy would be an advan­tage; but truly that cannot be, for then we could not make Cloath so rea­sonable, and it would be a hindrance to the Manufacturing men; they object [Page 21]it would be better for the Graziers. Not so neither, for if they transported it in its kind, there would be no Ma­nufacture of Cloath at all, it would then fall to be cheaper than now. But to remedy the complaint of the Grazier, 'twere better there were less grazing ground, and more to tillage, and Gar­dening, or other Husbandry; so more People would be imploy'd; for grazing depopulates extreamly, and employs few hands. If Wool be cheap, so much the better for the Cloath Manu­facture; and it will encourage the Husbandman to sow Homp, Flax, or some other Husbandry, which were better for the Nation than grazing; or contrive to bring in People and Ma­nufacture, which would quickly make Wooll and every thing vend by store of Consumption; for 'tis want of several Husbandries, People and Manufacture that destroys us, and the employing of ground to so mean a profit as grazing; wherefore all care ought to be, to pre­vent it by more active and profitable Husbandry.

10. Of the chief National Improvements.

THese following Arts and Manu­factures, added to what we have already, would improve and advance England sufficiently, and make it rich and populous, that is, by setting up,

  • 1. The Linen Trade.
  • 2. The Silk Trade.
  • 3. The Tapistry.
  • 4. The Fishery.
  • 5. The Sider Trade.
  • 6. Planting of Tobacco.
  • 7. Vineyards.
  • 8. Enclosing of Forests.
  • 9. Discovery and Improvement of Mines.
  • 10. Advancing the Salt Trade.
  • 11. The Lattin Manufacture.
  • 12. The making of Paper.

Observe that these things bring a new stock of People; who being employ­ed upon new Trades, will not only main­tain themselves, but give employ­ment and Trade to all the old Pro­fessions, as much as if a new Na­tion were Planted in the midst of us.

11. Linen Trade.

THE benefit of these will be in­estimable, by the profit that will ensue thereby, and the vast employment it will give to People. The Linen Trade will save an infinite deal of Money we send to France and Holland, and employ half a million of People; keep in Til­lage much Land, set many Husbandmen on work, by the great quantity of Hemp and Flax, that will be sown for the car­rying of it on, whereas now we make not so much as the Sheets to our Beds, or Shirts to our backs. The Linen Ma­nufacture also is of greater vend than Woolen; as being used on more occa­sions, and in both cold and hot Coun­tries and never fails of Chapmen, or is ever dull.

12. Of the Silk Trade.

THE Silk Trade will also save us vast sums of Money, now sent to France and Italy, and we make it here better and cheaper. And then we should have it to furnish our selves and our neighbours; and transport abun­dance to our Southern Plantations, and bring with it Silver or such Commodi­ties, we must necessarily want or other­wise pay ready Silver for. This Com­modity also vends in hot and cold Coun­tries, and our Plantations in the hot Countries grow so considerable and po­pulous of late, that they will vend abun­dance of Silk, and Linen if we had it for them.

13. Tapistry.

THE Tapestry would set whole Towns on work and consume our own Wool, and wosted abundantly, and save Money in our purses; for the Upholsterers Trade, as it is now, con­sists much of Foreign ware, which is a damage to us, which we may make as well, and have enough to Export; also it encourages Weavers, Wosted-workers, Drawers, and Designers, and several other Trades that have a lively­hood by it; these Manufactures would employ a million of People.

14. Of the Fishery.

THE Herring Fishery would em­ploy nigh half a million of Peo­ple more, both by Sea and Land in ma­naging the Ships, and catching the Fish. It is supposed it may employ many thousand Busses, besides many other little Vessels and Boats attending them, then there would be abundance of employment at home in making Nets, Cordage, Sails, curing and or­dering the Fish, and employ abundance of Ship Carpenters, and raise all the Port Towns and Countries adjacent; and the Fish would bring in store of Silver, and is it self as good as Silver to fetch in any other Commodity we want, from any other Nation: and the most certain salable Commodity to all our neighbours that can be produced. We have better advantage for the Fishery than any Nation, the Trade being on our own Coasts, and our own Seas. [Page 28]But if we will we may manage the Trade with their People, procuring them to serve us in our Ships.

Now effectually to bring in both the Fishery, and the three former Ma­nufactures, besides Publick Acts of encouragement, Naturalization, and freement from Taxes, there is no way like this, that there be an Impost of forty thousand pound per annum, and on some Commodity that may be constant and certain, as Coal or the like, which should go to the raising of the Fishery, Linen, Silk, and Tapistry Manufa­cture; and be so ordered that forty pound per annum and a piece, should be duly paid to a thousand of the elder masters of Busses, and divers of the other three Manufactory Trades, which would give pensions to two hundred and fifty men of each Trade constantly, and as they die and fall off, the next Senior Buss-master or Manufacturing man to take place, and this continuing during their lives: and their forty pound a year to be paid not in ready moneys, but in Cloath or other Eng­lish [Page 29]Manufacture, which would in­crease the Trade also. If this course were taken, it would not only set up and keep up the Fishery, and those Manufactures, but all other Trades also, and enrich the Land vastly. And the Custom that would arise to the King by it, bringing in Foreign Goods, would be infinite, and observe, the Fishery, would be constanter to us than any Trade we have now.

15. Orchards and Vineyards.

THE Sider Trade would be a brave improvement of rent: an Acre of Ground many times yielding fifty Hogsheads and more, besides it would save the bringing in abundance of French Wine, however it would bring into use our own Liquor; if we yet must drink Foreign also, 'tis more ex­cusable when we consume our own too. If it be made well it is a luscious and high bodied liquor, and esteemed by many far above French Wine, as our Herefordshire, and Devonshire Gentry can testifie, and it were a good thing that when they planted Orchards, they would plant with the best fruit, as Pip­pin, Pearmain, Redstreak, Golden-Rennet, which they may do as cheap as the worst, yet notwithstanding you shall see the common People plant whole Orchards of a pitiful sort of Fruit, that will not turn to half the account of the other.

Vineyards also would do abundance of good in saving Foreign Wines, and taking up the ground, helping thereby other Commodities to vend better. And if all Gentlemen would have but what Wine they could make on their own Ground, they would not be so much beholding to France as they are, and have so little thanks for it. The chief thing in Vineyards is in choosing a luscious sort of Grape, as the sweet Muscadel. Our ground is as good as theirs, if our Grapes were as good; and the earlyer the Grape is the better for us. And if when the Wine is made we do but pull out all the hard and unripe Grapes, and the green stalks of the Vine, we may make better Wine than they do, for 'tis that makes their Wine so rough and unwholsom, and often sowers so soon. I have drank as good Wine here in England, as ever came out of France, both for small Wine like Champeign, and a high Wine like Burgundy. Co­lonel Blunt and many others have had good Vineyards here of about two or [Page 32]three Acres of ground, and sold many Hogsheads to the Vintners.

16. Tobacco.

BUT that which would bring in­finite wealth to this Nation (if the Law would permit it) is the planting of Tobacco, it would also employ abundance of People, in til­ling, planting, weeding, dressing, and curing of it: it improves the rent of Land extreamly; for the Land which would not be worth otherwise above ten shillings an Acre, will by relation be worth three pounds per annum in To­bacco, and besides the Tenant shall make thirty pounds, and forty pounds an Acre, all charges paid: before the severity of the Laws against its plan­ting, it went well forward, and would still, if it were reversed; as those Countries where it began to be plan­ted, do much desire, and would, 'tis believ'd, willingly allow his Majesty [Page 33]the common rent of the Ground, or more, rather than be frustrated of it, if required. For by relation there were above six thousand Plantations of it, in Gloucestershire, Devonshire, Sommersetshire, and Oxfordshire: all the objections that are against it, can­not vye with the advantages that it produces. Some say it is not so good as Foreign; however if People will take it as they do, and it will go off, what matter is it. It might be better if no Tobacco were taken at all, but who can help that which is grown to so great a use and vogue in the world. But others say 'tis better than any Fo­reign Tobacco, especially for English bodies: and being a strong Tobacco, they can cure it, and bring it to tast in a manner as they will, like Virgi­nia, Spanish, or Barbados, and hath been often sold in London, by relation, for Spanish, and as dear as any others. Some say it would spoil Virginia, what though it should, we are bound to look to our selves at home first. Besides it were better, if that New-England [Page 34]and Virginia both, if possible, were remov'd farther towards the South, for then they would consume our own Commodities, and might meet with store of Silver and riches, whereas now they have little necessa­ry Trade for us, possessing only such things as we have. But they consume our People here by transportation, and take the Bread out of our mouths, by supplying Barbados, Jamaica, and the Southern Plantations, with the same Commodities as we do. How­ever it were better for Virginia, they planted no Tobacco, they living but poorly on it, and it takes up their thoughts from better improvements: as the planting of Mulberry trees, Vines, and Olives, as they begin in Carolina, by which means they would produce Silks, Wines, and Oyls, which would turn to a greater account; and besides our Commodities that we cannot raise, and so would breed a better commerce; again our planting here would not take away their To­bacco Trade, for we would not whol­ly [Page 35]ingross it to our selves, but plant it with equal liberty as others do, and vend our shares with them. It would help us, and not hinder them: if theirs be as they say so much bet­ter. Others object it would spoil the Kings Customs, and Navigation; but I think it would much advance them, for Foreign Tobacco is not at all prohibited to come in, and our Tobacco would fetch in so many other Commodities which will answer to the rest, besides the Custom of its Exportation; however it were better to supply his Majesty some other way, than by prejudicing the common good. And indeed it would be a great gain to this Nation, and his Majesty. All the South of England being fit for it; and as for Custom, Naviga­tion, and Foreign Trade; this is a Rule throughout, that the more home Trade, variety of Manufactures, and Husbandries we have within our selves, the more Foreign Trade we shall have also; from which flows Custom and Navigation: for home Trade is [Page 36]the foundation of Foreign, and if we are full of home Commodities, every private man will be of a publick spirit to gain Transportation for them.

17. Of the Salt Trade, Latton, and Paper.

THE Salt Trade would be a vast profit, if it were undertaken in all places of this Nation where it might. Whereas now we have most of our Salt from France. Then the Latton Trade would employ abundance of People, and consume our own Commodities of Tin, and Iron, prove an excellent thing for Exportation. Paper also if it were made here would employ many hands, and many Trades, And it is a thing so gene­rally used all over the world, that it could not miss of Sale; but this is not expected to be brought in, till [Page 37]we have the Linen Trade, on which this depends, as being made thereon. No Nation uses more Paper than we, and yet make none our selves, but only some small quantity of brown Paper, and Past-board, and if we made but the white Paper we used, it would set on work thousands.

18. Of Mines.

THere might be abundance of Mines of all sorts found out more than there are if carefully sought for.

Many Tin Mines might be found in Dartmore, and many places of Devonshire as well as Cornwall, also store of Marble Mines are there, and more might be discovered; also some where in the West are Mines of Loadstone.

Many Clays also are very profitable, as ordinary pot Clay, Tobacco-pipe Clay, crucible Clay, and such that will endure the fire, and serve the Founders; as in the Isle of Wight, and at Cheam in Surry, where it is sold for fifty shillings a Load, for the excellency of it, by that honest Gentleman Colonel Bugges, who now hath it in possession.

Clay that makes China, they say, [Page 39]is lately discovered within the Nati­on. More advantage might be made of Silver Mines, if regarded; and better Mines found out.

More Coal Mines, and Quarries of Freestone might be found out, if looked after.

There is a kind of Rock-Salt, they say, lately discovered in the North of England.

Though Mines yield no more than wages for the labour, yet it is great advantage to the Publick, in setting people on work, and besides gaining very profitable Materials.

19. Forests.

IF the Forests of England were en­closed, what a world of People would they give Estates to. Gentle­men that want Bread now, may then sit warm and be comforted; it would give Estates to all the wanting peo­ple of the whole Nation, for this Age; and let the next find out some­thing else in their Generation: besides his Majesties Revenue might be much advanced by it also, who might have three pence an Acre, per annum on all Fo­rest Lands enclosed; also the more Lands we have inclosed and planted, the more strong wealthy and populous we are; but the less enclosed and planted, the less strong and wealthy. If Forests were enclosed, the same Taxes would be a fourth part lighter than now they are, to every body. The Nation would be so much improved, which is as good as joyning another Coun­try [Page 41]to us for help: also what store of new People would this breed, for Trade, War, or Navigation. What abundance of Farmers it would en­crease, and maintain many thousands of poor Labourers; and abundance of Tradsemen also, to supply the others with necessaries. There would be several publick Offices, and Em­ployments for Ministers and others, in every new Parish. And there would be to this Nation, in general, abundance of gain; and more main­tenance for numbers of People, there being above seventy Forests and Chases, and several of them which are bigger than the Barbadoes; besides abundance of Wasts and Commons.

It is observed that those Countries in England, that are most enclosed and populous, are most wealthy. That which makes China also so re­markable, is their great Husband­ing and enclosing of their Country, that they say, there is no more Wasts, besides the Roads, in all that vast Dominion, which makes [Page 42]it so infinite full of People, Trade, and Cities.

20. Cutting of Rivers.

THis Nation might be greatly advantaged by cutting of Ri­vers, and making them Navigable from one Town to another, and so breed a good commerce, where was none before, as from London to Bri­stol, which is very Feazable to be done. From Farnam to Guilford; Southampton to Winchester, and from Maidstone higher into the Country; and from Lincoln; and in the North and West to many places. In the North of England, about Carlile, it may be cut quite across, and have course from Sea to Sea; as they have done lately in France, where they have cut a River across the Nation, from Burdeaux in our British Seas to Narbone; and Aude in the Mediteranean Sea: that they may now Trade quite [Page 43]through the Country about two hun­dred Miles.

Mr. Lee of the North his Engine, and Mr. Balyes Engine, both lately invented, will cut Rivers now at an easie rate, were they but employ'd enough; this would also set on work the poor extreamly.

21. Variety of Trades, Professions, and Ma­nufactures.

THese Arts and Mysteries, above mentioned, would employ at the least three Millions of People, more than are now ordinarily em­ploy'd. How bravely then should we help our needy People, and supply our selves, and store us with Money, brought in by Exportation, and what an infinite Trade and Con­sumption of home Goods would this produce.

Many more Arts and Mysteries besides may be brought in, as the making of Guilded Leather; all sorts of Normandy toyes; all manner of Dying; making curious Earthen ware of all sorts, China and the like, and abundance of others. Then Hus­bandry [Page 45]of all sorts, as Saffron, Li­quorish, Saffe Flowers, very profita­ble, and grows well; the Flower flyes Scarlet. It produces thirty pounds per annum of an Acre profit, all charges born.

We should study all manner of waies to get new employments for our People, that are profitable. What pains do the Dutch take to bring in [...]ll Trades into their Dominions; [...]hough we could do it here with much [...]ore gain and advantage, for Ex­ [...]mple, in making Latton, they bring [...]heir Iron Plates from Sweden, their [...]in from Cornwall, their Coals from [...]ewcastle, their Water from the [...]arthest part of Holland, besides the [...]arge of their duties here, and yet [...]ake great profit.

Thus let us encrease our People and Manufactures by Industry, and there [...]ill flow in to us all manner of Re­ [...]il Trades, and common Professions [...]ill encrease to advantage, as being [...]sie occupations, and which depend [...] the first, as having their Origi­nal [Page 46]from abundance of People that are not Retailers, which make n [...] productions, but only pass the Mo­ney already gotten, from one to ano­ther; gaining only by each other loss: Whereas Manufactures and Ar­tificers, breed and maintain People upon a grounded stock, supplying [...] with necessaries, we could not have otherwise; giving us also occasion to transport Commodities, and in ex­change bring in abundance of mor [...] Riches. Holland for the bigness hath twice the populousness and Trade tha [...] we have, being the Richest spot [...] Ground in the Universe; and ye [...] have but few Retailors, but the [...] chiefly consist of Merchants and Ma­nufacturing men, which is a greate [...] advantage to the Publick.

Again the more Goods of our ow [...] we consume, the more we profit o [...] selves, and less our Neighbours thus the Act for Burying in Woole [...] though by some despised, yet if [...] had gone forward, would have been great advantage in maintaining va [...] [Page 47]numbers of People, and consuming things of our own growth. There being many thousand persons that die weekly in his Majesties Dominions, which would have taken off much Woolen. And if all Men and Wo­men, were bound to wear Cloath in the Winter half year, it would be a great advantage to the Nation; for the more we consume of Foreign Commodities, the more we strengthen Foreigners, and weaken our selves, without we over ballance it by our own Exportation. For if we have not Manufactures, and home produ­ctions, had we never so many Silver Mines, they would be exhausted; as we have an Example in the Spani­ard, who consumes all the Silver he hath from the Indies on Foreign things he hath occasion for.

This is certain, that whatsoever Commodities we can make, plant, or produce at home, it is very disad­vantageous for us to fetch from abroad, and hinders us from riches and popu­lousness, which otherwise would en­crease [Page 48]extreamly: wherefore let us set up all Manufactures and Handicrafts possible; so should thousands also of Retail Trades be increased, as neces­sary to supply Manufacturing People; also advantaging Navigation by en­creasing of Ships and Mariners.

Where abundance of Manufacturing people are, they consume and sweep away all Country Commodities, and the wares of ordinary Retail Trades, with all sorts of Victuals, wearing Apparrel, and other necessaries, and imploy abundance of Handicrafts men, in Wooden and Iron work for Tools, and Instruments that belong to their Trades, and so maintain and encrease abundance of Husbandmen, Retailers, and Artificers of all sorts, and they again encreasing, take up more Ma­nufactures, and so they thrive one by another, ad infinitum.

It would advance Trade much, that who was Free and had served his time in one Corporation, should have liberty to set up in any.

And also that Apprentices should not serve above four or five years to many slight Trades; as also allowance for ingenious persons to set up themselves, without being Apprentice, if they have a mind to it. So should many lusty Lads, and able men become Appren­tices and sober Tradsemen, which are loth to live so great a part of their Lives in slavery, after they come to be grown up; thus would Industry be en­couraged, and many ingenious people get to themselves a better lively-hood, than those that have been longer bred up to it.

Also it were good that poor Manu­facturing men of all Trades should be free from Taxes.

And that there were Prizes and Re­wards for all manner of Ingenuity and Industry. But that I may speak once for all to Manufactures, the surest way to bring them in, and establish them here would be, to forbid all manner of Foreign wrought up Manufactures whatsoever to be brought in; whether Cloath, Silks, or Linen; also Lattin, [Page 50]Paper, Riband, Gloves, Lace, and the like, at least wise to put high Imposts on them; so should all Tradesmen here encourage them quickly to be made in England, to supply their Shops. There would not be a poor Manufacturing man, but would be sought to; and the Merchants, and Tradsemen too, would both contrive to Export our own Manufactories, so that then we might bring in what Foreign Commo­dities besides we would, having Com­modities of our own, to over ballance them. And the best of our Gentry, would be best pleased to wear our own Commodities, and the vainer sort would be pleased also, when there could come none from abroad to tempt them. And all people seeing the benefit that would follow, would promote it; and our own workmen being thus encou­raged, would grow great Artists, and curious in Modes and Inventions.

22. Of Employments, and Preferments.

WE ought to find out Em­ployments for all manner of wanting People whatever, that are able to perform any thing. As also all manner of decay'd People should find help and redress by some publick works of Charity, and provision for them, that there might be no Indigent people found amongst us.

Comfortable Preferments for many ought to be provided, rather than great Preferments for few.

It is good for the Common-wealth, that the Rich hoard not up their Mo­ney, but employ the poor people in general works, as building of Houses, Colledges, Bridges, or the like, Im­proving of Grounds, cutting of Ri­vers, discovering of Mines, and dig­ging of Quarries, planting of Wood, [Page 52]and many other things might be In­vented also. For we should endea­vour still to bring in some new Trades that may produce employment.

For employ but a multitude of Peo­ple any where in the Kingdom, in such a way what ever it is, that they may get their own lively-hoods, and they shall all not only encrease the stock of the Nation, but they shall bring great profit by the other Goods and Commodities which will of course be vended on them; how much gain therefore are new Employments and Professions, that not only maintain themselves and consume our own Commodities; but also save Money in our Purses; bring in riches, and make us flourish in People: Certain­ly the gain of it is incredible. An [...] had we but store of People, by Pro­fessions, Employments, Manufactures or any way, we need not seek vend for our Cloath or Corn abroad, fo [...] it would be consum'd at home at grea [...] rates.

And when once our own Nation were so populous, and all in employ­ment, that the product of our Coun­try, could not supply them, but we were forced to procure Commodities from abroad, not by our own ill Hus­bandries, but by the numerousness of our People, then would our Trade arrive to a height, and we to a flou­rishing Condition.

For there are several Mysteries and Employments, that even Women, nay Children of eight or nine years old, would earn more Money than they spend. As they say about Nor­wich, the gain of their small Chil­dren exceeds their expences above twelve thousand pounds per annum. Much advantages have been made in several Towns, by setting uniformly to some Employment. As at Man­chester Lace, Blanford Band-strings, Sheffeild Knives, Lancashire Fustians, Ipswich the best Sails that ever were made. Workensop Liquorish, Farn­han Hopps, Saffron-Walden Saffron, Winchcomb Tobacco. At Norwich, [Page 54]Canterbury, and Colchester, as also in Spittle-fields, and some Suburbs in London, the making of all sorts of Stuffs, Silks, Sattins, and Vel­vets, which arrive to a great height. Silks especially at Canterbury, and the Suburbs of London; and with little encouragement the Trade would be absolutely compleated. At Maidstone they drive an excellent Trade, only by Thread; which within this thirty or forty years, they did not vend above forty pounds a week, now it is so increased, that they vend a thou­sand pounds a week. So also at Exe­ter they vend, by relation, many thousand pounds worth of Serges eve­ry week. How profitable have the Dutch Collony been to Colchester, by being entertain'd there about twenty years ago; who setled a rich Trade of Stuffs there, which since is ex­treamly advanced; which was offered first to Malden, who have lost much wealth by refusal of so brave a proffer. In Foreign parts, Embden in Hollan [...] sets forth seven hundred Busses yearly [Page 55]to the Fishing Trade; Cambray main­tains thousands of People in making of Cambrick; Iper with Holland; and at Courtray Diaper and Damask. What an infinite of Tapistry-men are there at Arras, Brussels, and Delf. Geneva wholly lives on their Silk Ma­nufactury. And Genoa in Italy, main­tains eighteen thousand People on­ly in making Silk from the Worm.

In Grand Cairo in Egypt, thousands of People live by hatching of Chickens in Stoves.

23. Of Colledges, of Ma­nufactures, and Enrich­ment of particular Parishes.

TO put in practice a thing bene­ficial to the Common-wealth, it should be made as Universal as possible; and that it be universal, all particular Parishes ought to be employ'd in it. So if it be but an employment of common Industry, yet it will turn to a rich and profitable account. Now Manufactories are so eminently advantageous, that those of all things would do the business of a Nation, being fit also for a ge­neral reception.

To which purpose 'twere well if in every Parish they had a Colledge of Manufactures, or some Art or [Page 57]other that would surely maintain the ordinary People in that Circuit.

And observe that those Parishes that have Forest, or waste Land belonging to them, it were well if a portion of it were set apart in this manner, or the like to the publick good, (viz.) Fourscore Acres to the Colledge of Manufactory, allowing twenty Fami­lies in the Colledge, each Family Lodgings for them, and four Acres of Ground, which they should have for the Manufacturing mans life. Also there might be Glebe Lands allowed for all the publick Offices of the Pa­rish beside; as the Minister, School­master, and Clerk, as also an allot­ment for the Poor of the Parish. By this means there might be some pro­vision of certainty. They may advance them what besides they please. In great Cities and Towns also, it were good there were publick Colledges of Manufactures erected, that should be bound to take in yearly so many hun­dred of poor People gratis.

The useful Manufactures, Trades, [Page 58]and Husbandries the People may be employ'd about, are many, (viz.) Cloath-Serge, Stuffs, Silk, Sattins, Velvets, Tapistry, Linen, fine and coorse; as Holland, Cambrick, Dia­per, Damask, Sail-cloath, Fustian, all manner of Cotten, Chamlet, Drug­get, making Thread, also Paper Lat­ton, Guilded Leather, Gloves, Rib­bands, Lace, and many more.

As also Husbandries of Hops, Or­chards, Bees, Liquorish, Saffron, To­bacco, Oad, Madder, the Saffe Flow­er, Rape Nurseries, Vineyards, Cher­ry Gardens, and all manner of Gar­dening.

So should the Country be enriched, and the People maintain'd, and all other Husbandry Commodities vend the better.

24. Of Marriage, and Populacy.

THE Country complains of small vend of Commodities, which proceeds especially from want of Peo­ple; for our People were consum'd mightily in these late years, some three hundred thousand were killed in the last Civil Wars; and about two hundred thousand more have been wasted in re-peopling Ireland; and two hundred thousand lost in the great Sickness, and as many more gone to Plantations. So that these things must bring us low of People: Where­as did we Establish the Fishery Ma­nufactures, and inclosure, it would quickly recruit us. For we are able to contain twice the number of Peo­ple we are, meerly by Inclosures: Though if we had but a million more of People than now, we should quick­ly [Page 60]see how Trade and the vend of things would alter for the better. And this would hinder people from going out of the Nation, when they may have Land, Preferment, or Em­ployment here.

Another way for increasing popula­cy, is by encouraging all sorts of trading people to come and Inhabit here, which is done by making all Nations free Denizens, that will live here. And why should not we, as the Hollanders do at Amsterdam, de­clare all the World to have freedom in our Nation, as their own; it would make us thrive infinitely, and bring in all the Arts, Manufactures, and Ingenuity of Europe. Some object, they would breed a mixt Nation. As for that they would signifie nothing, as to the number of our own; if it did, why may not several Nations live under one Government, as they do in Holland, trading people value not that; they love to live where they are most secure; Besides, coming in by degrees they would not be con­siderable. [Page 61]And generally they that come over are men that would Mar­ry English Women, so are English presently; and are good Preferm [...]nt to ordinary Women, being generally tradsemen, and Manufacturing men, as we see in many French and Dutch already, that are perfectly English. However in half an Age they would be as much English as our selves. The old stock going off, and the Children being born in England, sup­plying their places; and however at present live as quietly, and are good Subjects, and as great lovers of us and the Kingdom as others: or else they would never leave their own Nation, so formally to Inhabit here; for all that do so leave their Country, shew an extraordinary affection unto this place, and so are by all means to be received and countenanced. What ever they are before, when once they come here, to be under our Laws, Customs, and Government, they are soon all one with us. By this means also we should draw back our own [Page 62] English from Holland and all Europe esides, and many of our Plantations also; this and the Fishery would bring in an infinite Trade to England, and so drein Holland of her Men, Money, and Merchandise, that we should leave them bare of every profitable thing: And no way can we be too hard for them like this, for the Fish­ing Trade is that which clearly sets them up, the one gets them great Numbers of People, the other abun­dance of Money or exchange for all manner of Merchandises; by this they get so much wealth from all Places. Now if matters were regulated aright, we should very much out do them in their own way; this Island lies much better for Trade, and is a much more pleasant and capacious Country for Inhabitants, for they themselves had rather live and pur­chase Land here than there: Land being cheaper, more Seats to be bought, and every thing more convenient for such Merchants that have gotten Estates in their own Country. And if once [Page 63]they were settled and fixed here, they would bring over millions of Money, and many trading people also if they may be free Denizons, with a tolera­tion, and priviledges sutable. Ano­ther way of being populous is counte­nancing Marriage and a settled Life, giving it many Priviledges more than either single or debauched persons, and that none but Married persons be ca­pable of any profitable Office or Pre­ferment. This is the very Original of the well being and continuance of Na­tions. Upon this property, Families, and civil Government depends, also Trade, Riches, Populacy; and without this a Nation crumbles to nothing. Besides, Married People are more honest, oeco­nomical, and Industrious. By the Laws of Lycurgus, elderly Batchelors were banished the company of all ci­vil and honest people. Where a Na­tion is given to be Licentious, they breed but few Children. Lewd Wo­men make away their Children, or order it so they never have many. And it is an ill Custom in many [Page 64]Country Parishes, where they, as much as they can, hinder poor people from Marrying: for at present they are the very stock and seminary of the Kingdom, they marry apace, and get a laborious hardy Generation, which is best for a Nation. They value not Portions, so they are able to serve, work, or any way earn their living, which is a brave humour. For we ought to encrease the world for the publick good; and to be contented in a mean, and not sacrifice our thoughts to Ambition; and were it not for these poor honest people, we should be almost desolate. Strictness of Ma­trimonial Laws, and Penalties against lewdness, breeds constancy and plea­sure in lawful ties, and hinders the very thoughts of loose designs; ma­king people follow their callings quiet­ly, and soberly, when the pain of the Penalty spoils the sweet of Luxury, and every honest man would be glad, that by this means himself is also kept from such Vices, otherwise he would be apt to commit. There is a great [Page 65]complaint of many people flocking out beyond Sea to Plantations, why is it not prevented, it cannot be done by force, for who can keep in such that are ready to starve for want of Bread, wherefore it must be done by raising of Employments, Professions, and Trade for young persons, and Chil­dren, which would encourage People to get them. For by that means we may employ twice the number of People that we have. What makes New England, Jamaica, and the Plantations abroad, increase so fast; but because they have Employments and Estates for all People, and no poor among them; which encourages People to come from abroad, and their own People to Marry, and get Children: when they know as soon as they are grown up, they can give every Child an Estate, by setting them out so many Acres in a fresh Plantation, so they increase ad infinitum, till they have stockt the Islands and Country full; as they have in Barbadoes; which Island [Page 66]being not above twenty eight Miles long, and fourteen Miles broad, yet by relation contains fifty thousand English besides twice as many Blacks. And if we did set up Manufactures, and inclose the Forests, we should populate as much; we having several Forests bigger than the Barbadoes. And great Estates should not be de­sired to leave Children but so much as to help Industry. Why should not Ingenious persons, by publick esta­blishment, be allowed forty or fifty Acres to a Family, out of these Lands, which are now more charges than benefit. How brave a provision this would be for ruined Families, and improvement to the riches, popu­lacy and grandeur of the Nation. Who can blame people to go beyond Seas, when they cannot live here; it is meer need and force that drives them out of the Kingdom. And it is a sign of great. Ingenuity that they will go, and strive to live any where. England is not half Peopled, and yet we find not employment for those [Page 67]we have. Therefore judge you how it would encrease people and employ­ments, if the Forests were inclosed, and how many people lie wanting now, that this would help and re­lieve.

25. Kings Revenue, Taxes, Customs.

IT is a great strength, and advance also to a Nation to allow the Prince a considerable Revenue, for so will he be able to countenance his Subjects, and defend them from all assaults. And the keeping a plentiful Court, some small Forces, and Na­vy, gives good Preferment to the Subjects; but Taxes were better raised any way than from the Land, for that drives the Money out of the Coun­try, which seldom or never returns. And is hard to be got to it upon any occasion, but it would be great advantage to his Majestie, and gratifie his Subjects infinitly if he could get a considerable Revenue some where from without, by which means his own people might be eased at [Page 69]home, which would bind them to him Eternally, besides the great ad­vantage it would be to the Nation, by such a yearly Income of Silver continually; and questionless the King of England might have five times the Revenue he hath brought yearly to him from the West-Indies, when he pleases, besides the vast Trade which would ensue by it, to all his Sub­jects. However there might be waies found out, that no Taxes might ever be laid, on the substantial part of the Nation, Country, or City, Land, or Houses, but only on the Vices of the people, as in all Taverns, Ale-houses, Foreign needless Com­modities, and on debauched persons, and also double Customs on all such Goods brought over, that we might make here, as Silks, Linen, Ta­pistry, Lace, Gloves, Ribands, Pa­per, and many things more.

Also whereas persons design'd to live singly, alwaies are debauch'd themselves, and great corrupters of others; besides by avoiding Marri­age [Page 70]they partake not of the common troubles and charges of the Publick, as others do, but shift themselves, and live scandalously, spending their Estates idlely. It were well that no single person were capable of Pre­ferment, and that all persons who Married not at twenty five years old, should pay the tenth part of their Estates to his Majesty: for they might better spare it than any body. For it Engratiates his Majesty ex­tr [...]amly in the hearts of his People; and the generality and sober part of the Nation to be eased from Taxes, and all oppressions, which ought to be properly the Penalty of Vicious persons; which if all things of this nature were discovered, would raise a greater Revenue than ever yet hath been known. And this done with­out grievance to the Nation but be­nefit.

And nothing advances the King of England more than to be esteemed the Champion, and vindicator of the Protestant Religion throughout [Page 71]Christendom, and to ballance those Princes that shall seek to disturb them. And let this Nation be a Sanctuary for them from all parts; so should his Majestie be truly great in himself, and in the eyes of all the World; and nothing could he desire to be done, but would be effected; so also should we be silled with Trading and Mercantile people throughout all Europe. For it is ob­served that where the Protestants are countenanced, there all manner of Trade and improvement follow more than in other places, as well as ad­vancement in Reason and Philosophy: Being a rational and industrious peo­ple, not having their Souls or man­nes inslam'd to superstitious Principles, which makes them hold to all inge­nious prosecutions: but having their minds free, and ready to embrace any improvement, learning or Trade. And if his Majesty desires to advance his Empire, it is but granting more priviledge to Trade, and security to mens persons, and properties from [Page 72]Arbitrary power; and controul: then his fellow Princes; and he shall not fail to draw to him all the Hands, Hearts, and Purses of the neighbouring Nations.

26. Of publick maintenance, and provision of Charity.

THere is a great deficient in the Nation, which is Employment, and aid for young Gentry that have not been bred up in the University, or cannot get Preferment thence, yet are Learned or Industrious, though of small Fortune; and again a sub­sistance for decay'd and meriting men of elder age. Also a maintenance for decay'd and sick Souldiery and Seamen; likewise a provision for In­genious Manufacturing men, so should Ingenuity be encouraged, and com­plaints [Page 73]of poverty, and discontent be taken away from the midst of us. And for a way to raise these, four Colledges, for each of the afore­mentioned degrees, might be found­ed of five thousand pound per annum Revenue a piece, and two hundred persons in each Colledge, which would be but twenty thousand pounds a year in all, a rent which some one vain person oftentimes confounds in debauchery. And yet this would give a small subsistency of Lodging, and twenty pound five per annum to eight hundred persons in the four Colledges; and as they die others to be chosen in their rooms. To effect this, a Fo­rest or two only inclosed, and well Tenanted to the best advantage, would suffice, which were a noble enterprise, for the generosity of doing good, is beyond all other actions, nay there is one Foundation, which would by relation, largely answer all these ends, if it were looked into, and that is St. Katherines Hospitals, in the Tower, whose Revenue is said [Page 74]to be above twenty thousand pounds per annum. Also there is another near the Bath, of above a thousand a year, and now turns to no account for the publick, considerable. And many more doubtless might be found out in the Nation, if inspected, that are not Alienated, but only wrongly executed, or lie dormant.

The advantage of a Nation is to have many Preferments, for indu­strious and necessitous persons, though but of an indifferent maintenance, for too much many times prejudices peo­ple; but a moderation comforts, and doth much good, and 'tis pity there is not some way found out, that all persons in any calamities, may have some comfortable relief. And it were well if the Parliament would take this so necessary a thing into consi­deration; what were one Tax of three or four hundred thousand pounds, for so great a work as this, if it could be done, no other way: to give Pre­ferments to all sorts of Gentlemen and Scholars. According to their better [Page 75]Education, and Employment for the meaner sort, by planting them in Col­ledges of Art and Manufactories, that there might not be any but may live well one way or other. Certain­ly to so great and good a work, all people would joyfully contribute.

27. Learning.

KNowledge in a Nation, makes a wise and sober People, as well as wealthy and ingenious, and apt for every good thing; therefore Ignorance ought to be destroy'd, all manner of waies and Learning encou­raged.

To which purpose it were well that the Arts and Sciences, were taught in the Mother Tongue, and all man­ner of Books of use and Learning, in any other Language Translated into our own; and that there were a publick maintenance for Professors, and Scholars that should teach the Sciences in the Mother Tongue; and Accademies erected for that purpose, so should youth quickly improve in Knowledge, and men be fuller of wisdom then at twenty, than now they are at forty yeares of age. Not that I would have the Languages neglect­ed, [Page 77]but all may learn those as before. But that the English Tongue may be promoted and made excellent, general, and useful in all manner of Know­ledge. And young Gentlemen that have a mind to it, may attend the Sciences without so much trouble, and cracking their brains so many years about Learning the Languages. This would make the generality of the Nation more Wise, Learned, and useful one to another, both to them­selves, and Country, and our Lan­guage would be popular, and esteem­ed in all places. For the desire of re­taining Languages, is only for the Learning contain'd in them, which if disclosed without them, their extra­ordinary use ceaseth.

It were an excellent advantage al­so to all persons, especially Scholars and Students, that the Arts and Sci­ences, and all manner of the best Knowledge were reduced into a nar­rower room, and exacter Method; and that there may be one Book, that may be composed in each Art, [Page 78]and Science, that may be absolute and compleat in its kind, and those to be written and compiled, by men selected for that purpose, that are very eminent in such Arts and Sci­ences, that they who have a desire to Knowledge, should be able pre­sently to resort to the choicest Book, and improvement in any Art or Sci­ence. And come to knowledge and perfection in study, with much less reading and trouble than now. Learn­ing might be so reduced, that all Knowledge at large might be well bought for three hundred pounds (or less,) which now ten thousand will not purchase.

And for a contracted Receptory of all Knowledge, it were good there were an Enciclopedia or Body of all the Arts and Sciences, in two or three Volumes, in the Mother Tongue. Alstedius hath done very ingeniously in this kind, in the Latin, but yet is capable of much Improvement; and a Book of this nature would be most rare and excellent, and if it were [Page 79]exactly performed, would give to mankind as much knowledge as were necessary.

Also store of Libraries in great Ci­ties, are very useful; they are as good almost as so many Academies for where there is a great concourse of People, there are many of extraordi­nary parts, who yet have not abilities to compass a stock of Books, which if they had a freedom of access to, would of themselves arrive to great knowledge and perfection. Much more might be said of this Subject, but I refer that to my Discourse of Advance­ment of Learning.

28. Laws, and easing of Debtors.

CAre ought to be had, that the property, liberty, and advan­tage of the Subject be the especial grounds of Laws; and such Laws extreamly promoted, that make for a general good and profit to the Pub­lick. As for establishing unity in a Nation, encouraging Trade, giving employment to the People, and en­creasing populacy, and settling Estates, the Registers Office to be Erect­ed, might be beneficial if well ma­naged.

And if Usury were abated it would promote Trade, advance Lands, make men abler to give security, encrease common Charity, and generally make men more Industrious.

Taking of Arrests on mens persons, would also be beneficial to the Nation. [Page 81]And if all Debts under fifty pounds were ended in the Parish where the Debt was, by the chief of the Pa­rishoners, it were very well.

And all Debts under a hundred pound were concluded by three the next Justices of Peace, it would prove of good consequence.

Also care ought to be had, that men should not be Imprisoned at all for small Debts, nor long for any Debt, mens persons being not an equal pawn for so vile a thing as Mo­ney. And for great Debts, if the Law and Goods would not satisfie, the person should be free, for by Impri­soning he is undone, that should main­tain his Family; then all come to beggery. So the Nation is prejudiced by the malice of ill Creditors. And if men are more in Debt than they are worth, they should yet have some small matter, as a fourth part unto themselves and Family, uncapable to be seized on; otherwise the Common­wealth suffers more by the absolute undoing of a man, than is counter­vail'd [Page 82]by so exact Justice; besides, Religion, and the Laws of nature, bind us to more Charity, and the Creditor that Imprisons, and undoeth a man, ought to maintain him and his Family; if not, the Law ought to take care he may, without being beholding to the Creditor; for 'tis better a Rich Creditor should lose something, than a Poor Subject be lost or rot in a Prison.

Also it would be a great advantage to the Publick, and Trade one with another, and Foreign parts also, if Bills of Credit were made to be good in Law, and answer Debts; which should without ready Money, main­tain, and advance Trade infinitely; for these Bills would pass current as well as Money, and save also very much the telling, and luggage of car­rying Money up and down, and hin­der the loss received by bad, or clipt Coin, and manage a vast Trade with the tenth part of the Silver now used, which would make Money abound every where for the Common uses, [Page 83]and the ordinary conveniences of life. Many excellent improvements might be made by several new Laws.

Also how many old Laws are there that bar us of our advantage; and how can we expect to thrive till such be repealed?

We complain of ill rents of Lands, and yet barr that which would advance them; as planting Tobacco, and bring­ing down the Interest of Money. We complain of want of vent for our Commodities, and forbid Foreigners [...]o Export them but in our own bot­toms, who will sooner do it than our own, and to more advantage to [...]s.

We complain of want of Trade and Manufacturing People, and forbid them setting up Trades, that have not [...]een Apprentice to it Seven years: [...]pon which account, of late many Cloathiers and Serge dealers would [...]ave been put down, had not the fa­ [...]our of the Judges eased them a lit­ [...]le for the present. Again, none can [...]e free of Corporations, without they [Page 84]have served seven years in the Corpo­ration.

And also there is a Law to forbid any man to build a House, that hath not four Acres of Ground belonging to it.

And many more old Laws there are, that hinder our welfare and im­provement, and how is it possible for us to thrive if the Laws forbid us?

29. Of Navigation, and Sea Affairs.

NAvigation, and Sea affairs might be much advanced, by having publick Schools of Geography, and Navigation; and such there may be Erected, whereby Youth may be taught in a twelve-months time, to conduct a Ship at Sea, as if they had been Masters and Pilates many years; so that when they come to Sea, they are Masters of their Ships at first sight; and then their chief business will be to advance the Art of Navigation, by continual experience; instead of spending their times in com­mon Notions, of which they are already sufficiently stored. The finding out the Longitudes, and making Salt wa­ter fresh, are two great secrets now in search after, and there is great hopes of them; which if performed [Page 86]will be very publick advantages; so would also Post Ships to Sail with all Winds swiftly, which some imagine feazible.

30. Of new Inventions, and Discoveries.

THere have been of late many In­ventions, Improvements, and Discoveries, very praise worthy; the Discovery of Magellan Streights, more than ever by Captain Norbury; and Hudsons Bay, with the Beaver Trade there, by Captain Guillam, Captain Goosberry, and others, by his Majesties encouragement: also set­tling of the Guiny Company; and the settling of New York by the Duke; and Carolina by the Proprietors; the discovery of the Isthmus of Panama by the Jamaica men; the making of fine China, brought in by Prince Rupert; the making of fine Glass, beyond Ve­nice, brought in by the Duke of [Page 87] Buckingham; the polishing Glass in the nealing without grinding; and the way of cementing Glasses, by Mr. Reeves; the polishing Marble by a new Mill expeditiously, by Major Calthrop; several Engines for making Rivers Navigable, by Mr. Lee of the North, and Mr. Baily; the bringing in of Saffron, Liquorish, Xantfoigne, Clo­ver, Lucerne, and of late the Saffe Flower, that dies Scarlet, and of ve­ry great gain to the planter, as twen­ty or thirty pounds per annum an Acre above all charges; the making of Lat­ton is found out also, if encouraged; an excellent Sider Engine, that both grinds and presses Apples, and will make you, by it, ten Hogsheads a day, found out by Mr. John Worlidge, of Petesfield. Also an excellent inventi­on of late, for whitening black and brown Hair, so as to make light coulored Peri­wigs.

Many such useful Inventions and Dis­coveries would daily be produced, if Re­wards, and Encouragements, or Pensions were appointed for the Inventors.

31. Of Plantations.

IT concerns the English to Plant and fix Colonies, only in the chiefest and most considerable fastnesses for Trade and Design: and not to waste men in large and unprofitable Terri­tories, which hath ruin'd the Spa­niard.

Most of our Plantations in the West-Indies, except Jamaica, and Barbadoes, are but unprofitable. And Barbadoes is small, but Jamaica is the place that will turn to a great advantage to the English on many accounts, as by ly­ing so near the Isthmus of Panama; and for several other advantages which I shall not now mention. But the very scituation of this Island is extra­ordinary remarkable, and it was the greatest blessing imaginable, that we left the Enterprize of Hispaniola, and set on this Island; for if we had stu­dyed an Age to six in a place, where [Page 89]we might Center, the richest Trea­sure, and Trade of the Indies, here it must be: for Jamaica is scituated so well for Trade, or conquest of the Main, if there be occasion, that no Island in the World lies like it for advantage: it being the Key of the Indies, and naturally the seat of Riches and Empire. So that if they had but a Trade once with the Indies adjoyn­ing, they have no way to avoid being the richest Colony in the Indies: It being wholly surrounded with the main Land, and Islands, lying in the very Belly of all Commerce, in the In-land Sea of Porto-bell, which is in the heart of America, and near the Mexican Gulph, between Peru and Mexico, facing to the South and West; the richest Continent in the World; from which not distant any where much above an hundred Leagues; and against it, on the North, lie the two great Islands of Cuba and Hispaniola; and a little be-hither Eastwards, are the Caribbee Islands; but this lyeth in the midst of all, as Queen of the In­dian [Page 90]Isles; and no Ship that comes from the West-Indies, but must pass by one end of this Isle, before they come to the Gulph of Florida: which place all Ships must pass that come for Europe. And had we but a Trade with the Indies, so near neighbours to us, we should vend more Commo­dities than we could send them, and have in exchange store of Silver.

'Twere the Spaniards Interest also to let us have a free Trade and share with them, of some few Port Towns on the Continent, to maintain a Trade and neighbourliness between us; so should we not endanger them, but equally de­fend the Indies with them; and they, by our means, have twice the riches yearly come home to Spain, as they have now. But of this in another place.

Concerning our Plantations in Ame­rica, the Southern Plantations are the most advantageous to us; and it were well hereafter we planted no more be­hither Jamaica, but settled and re­moved, if possible, rather our Northern [Page 91]Colonies more forward. And these now insignificant Islands to us of Ne­vis, Mountserat, Antego, and St. Chri­stophers, if removed more Southwards, might prove very advantageous to us. For our North Colonies, as those of New England, and the rest afford on­ly such Commodities as we have our selves, and so breed no good Com­merce; besides, they hinder Trade to our Southern Plantations, by supply­ing Barbadoes, Jamaica, and the rest, with such things as we do: so that they take the bread out of our mouths, and are [...]ther a disadvantage, than ad­vantage to us; whereas if they had been at first planted near the Bay of Mexico, they would by this time have run down as far as the Silver Mines, by course of ordinary populating, and besides breed so much Trade, that they would have taken off all our Commodities we had to spare.

I could easily demonstrate, if it were required, a more particular account of the West-Indies of the Spaniards Inte­rest and ours, and what great advantages [Page 92]we might have there if we pleased. But I shall refer this to a more seasonable occasion.

In conclusion; no opportunity should be slighted, but that we fix Colonies of our own People abroad in the chiefest fastnesses, and most considerable places of Trade and absolute advantage. Yet the whilst, encouraging populacy and Manufactures at home, by priviledging the best Foreigners and Artificers, and Tradsemen; countenancing them as our own, with all manner of promotion, to bring in their Colonies hither: for 'tis observed that those sober Trading Peo­ple encrease wealth extreamly, and have none that want amongst them, but con­trariwise set on work all the Industrious round about them; and so we should by this means of countenancing all the In­genious and Industrious, have no poor or idle persons amongst us, but be full of peo­ple, wealth, and riches, full of all Trades, and Arts whatsoever. Land at thirty years purchase, and Employment and Preferment for all persons.


THere is now newly Printed, that most excellent piece of Daily De­votions, or the Christians Morning and Evening sacrifice: Digested into Pray­ers and Meditations, for every day of the week, and other occasions; with Dire­ctions for a Godly Life: By John Collet, D. D. Dean of St. Pauls, and Founder of that famous School near adjoyning; the last Edition, with a brief account of the Authors Life, by D. T. Fuller.

There is now ready for the Press, a Relation of Two Voyages to New-Eng­land; Performed in the years of our Lord 1638. and 1663. With a Chronologi­cal Tableof the most remarkable pas­sages, since the first planting of New-England, by John Josselyn, Gent.

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