A Reply to the Answer Doctor Welwood has made to King Iames's Declaration, which Declaration was dated at St. Germaines, April 17th. S. N. 1693. and Published also in the Paris Gazett, Iune 20th. 1693.

Aetas parentum pejor avis, tulit Nos nequiores. Horat.

People endure Oppression with more Patience from an Usurper, then one ascending through a long Succession, as esteeming it more Natural, and no less then they look'd for, or as acknowledging to have deserved it for not seeing when they were well. Osborne's Advice to his Son: Second Part.


I am so far from triumphing over our Misfortunes, that I call God to witness, England can receive none that do not sensibly wound me; but the Wise Man in the Scripture advising us, To consider in the day of Adversity, I think it not unseasonable at this time to recollect the pre­sent State of our Affairs, and under a few short Heads expose the Calami­tous Condition of our Country to the view and the consideration of all dis­interested and honest People. Some of those things I shall offer here, have been already mentioned in Print, and others in private Conversation, a­mongst such whose Judgments tho' in some particulars differed from mine, yet who I have the Charity to believe are guided by Principles of Integrity, and in the pursuit of the ends they drive at prefer the publick Good before any private Advantage of their own. But tho I have sometimes discoursed to the same purpose with men in Place and Power, and such too as have the reputation of good Sence, yet what I have delivered with all the Sincerity man is capable of, has generally met with the Fortune incident to such meagre Doctrines as won't make the Pot boyl, and I have been listened to [Page 2] as Sermons are; more for decency than application. I have therefore re­strained my self hitherto from publishing my thoughts so freely, unwilling to oppose the rapid Tydes of Passion and Interest, which for these last five Years have born down all before them, and overflowing the defences of Law and Reason, have brought a deluge of Miseries upon t [...]is distracted Na­tion. But now that the Fulness of time is at hand, and our Ruin almost quite accomplish't, I think I am obliged to contain my self no longer with­in Table talk, but to do my Country all the Service I am capable of from the Shade I live in, by endeavouring to dispel those Mi [...]ts of Prejudice from be­fore their Eyes, and demonstrating tha [...] a Du [...]ch Government that never was founded in any Religion, has been much more destructive to us, then a Po­pish one could have been tho' seasoned with too m [...]ch. For I don't in the least doubt but that most of those who were the chief Incendiaries in the Late Revolution, and who scattered the Fears and Jealousies of Popery most, would now acknowledge, if they du [...]st speak out, that all the Pro­vocations of the last R [...]ign were in themselves as Impotent, as Unjust, and that it was impossible for so inconsiderable a Party to contrive any Mischiefs that required such violent Remedies as were pre [...]cribed. For whoever heard that a Country govern'd by Laws was enslaved by a Prince, whom his Subjects had entertained inveterate apprehensions of, even before his accession to the Crown, or would not laugh at the pretence of five or six thousand Papists endangering our Religion and Property, when there was a Million of Protestants, keepers of the Liberties of England. It was there­fore a vain Phantome to imagine that a King whose Subjects were suspiti­ous and watchful over, could surprise us with any material Innovati [...]ns in Religion, or undermine the Fundamentals of our Government; for as no man can be dangerously betrayed but by a Friend, so no Government can be subverted but by a Magistrate in whom a Trust and Confidence is reposed; agreeable to which is a Maxim of our modern Polititians, That the Eng­lish Liberties were never so much endangered as under vertuous Princes, the meaning of which is that our People charmed with an Opinion of their Justice, have been too unwarily apt to submit to such extensions of the Prerogative, that by the abuse of evil Successors have become Presidents for a too exorbitant exercise of their Power. This consequence is much worse because nearer at hand, if the Prince be vertuous only in the giddy conceit of the Populace, deluded by the fallacies of artificial men, for such an one carries the secret Venom about him, and is impatient of opportuni­ties to profit himself upon the dupes of his own Reign. And this is just our case; for by starting at a Shadow, we have embraced the very Sub­stance that we feared, in deposing a Lawful home-born Monarch, who could not, nor had a thought to hurt us, and exalting with a popular, but blind Zeal a little Forreign Prince, who has imbibed by his Education a dislike [Page 3] for English men, and has so modell'd his Affairs, as if the King truckled to the Statholder, and in [...]ended these three Kingdoms should be Provinces sub­servient to the Seven from whence he comes.

This may be deduced from every Act since the first Scene of this so fatal and expensive Reign; but it not being the subject of this place to launch into a thorow Comentary, I will only hint at what is freshest in our Memo­ries, and put you in mind of the late admirable Caution in the Conduct of our Fleets and Army. Was it from his Love to England that he broke his Promise to the King of Spain to send a Squadron of men of War into the Mediteranean, which was to be there before the beginning of last Spring, to act in Conjunction with the Spanish Admiral, in case the French attemp­ted any thing in Naples, or in Catalonia? Was it from his love to our Merchants, that he detained our Ships that had been a Year loaden at Spit­head, and might safely have ventured last November out without a Convoy? But were kept in under an Embargo, because the Dutch were not ready, and and neither Sir G. Rook nor they permitted to sail until our Holland Friends were pleased to joyn them, at such a time that it was true a Convoy became necessary, but such a Convoy as ought not to have been less than the whole Na [...]al strength of England? By this breach of Word with an Ally, his Catholick Majesty owed the safety of his whole Fleet at Naples only to the Storm that dissipated Mr. d' Estrees Squadron, but by it has since actually lost Roze; and by his tender care of our Smirna Fleet in keeping them safe so long in Harbour and hugging them as Monkeys do their young ones to death, our Turkey Trade, nay and the whole Exchange of London, were all at once upon the utmost precipice and brink of ruin.

I cannot but admire the Courage of our Sanguine Citizens, that still bears up against so many repeated Losses, for tho' the richest of their Tu [...]ky Ships were sunk at Gib [...]altar and Malaga, and those that escaped have lost a whole years Trade and Markets, yet some of them have been prevailed upon to bring their Offerings to the Exchequer, content to hazard the Pyra­cies of the Court for seven per cent, and to relieve the Seamens Wifes from Hunger, Mutiny, or sudden Death. I will not go about to compute the ir­reparable Loss we have suffered by this unheard of Conduct; how much our Staple Manufactures are endamaged, how many Merchants, Insurers, Packers, Dyers, Clothiers, Silkmen, and Weavers must starve or steal for want of business, and the disappointment of those Goods the return of this Fleet would have imported. A little time will demonstrate these effects without a Calculation; but I cannot pass over the industrious Sollicitations for Money, and the engaging arts the Court made use of to [...] the City, and secure them of amendments for the time to come, which indeed a­mounts to an assurance, that my Lord Falkland shall prove an expert Ad­miral for the future, and that Sir H. Goodrick shall plant a Battery at the [Page 4] Lands end, which will reach to Brest, and sink the Ships within that Har­bour. Missionaries were daily employed to soften and restore their aking hearts, and Letters from the Prince of Condy, and others were forged, and pretended to be intercepted in Flanders, which diminished the late Victory, and augmented the Losses on the French side: But when several of the Mer­chants had been invited to drown their Sorrows in the Cellars at Kensington, the Queen thought it a proper Season to send a select Committee of the Coun­cil Board to Guildhall, to whose august appearance [...] the Aldermen paid Re­verence and submitted.

These were some of the Delusions practised to lull poor men into a farther Confidence; to palliate our losses at Sea, and to disguise our disgrace at Land: But there is another Cheat that is still more offensive, because it is more familiar, and more vexatious then all the bare-faced Injuries of our Enemies abroad, because it is a Couzenage diffused all over England by A [...]thority, I mean the Falshoods that are twice a Week imposed upon us by that Dome­stick Animal the Gazetier. This worthy Author out-pitches the Fables of Tom Coriat, and all the Legends of the Saints, and Mr. Yard's almighty Pen has assumed the power of raising many hundreds that are dead to life, and has killed many thousands who will survive himself. I will not stay to rake that Kennel, and to insist upon the particular Lyes which every Gazettis stuffed with, and am sorry that well-meaning people in the Country suck in so much Poyson with the divertisement of a News-Book, and have such an alacrity in believing what ever is by Licence printed. But if any man with a little understanding, and as much leisure, will look over his accounts of Martinego, of the Streights Fleet, and his History of the Late Battel, and take the pains to mark his Contradictions, he must needs own, that if Sin­cerity and Truth have any pretence to the management of our Affairs, no Government ever had such a Libeller as Mr. Yard. For my own part, I take no pleasure in uncovering the nakedness of England, or proclaiming our Misfortunes; but since our Distempers are so industriously dissembled and concealed, I think every man who has no share going in the Imposture, ob [...]iged to explain our weakness, and lay open the State of our Condition, in hopes the Nation will unite to apply some Remedies to the Disease; for what honest man can bear with the deceit of such unfaithful Relations as go stampt out of a Secretaries Office, and passing upon the ignorant, confirm and fool them into a perseverence; of which tho' they who live in London may be disabused by forreign Prints and Letters from some Gentlemen in our own Army who scorn to lye; yet by those artifices Truth is perhaps for ever shut [...] remoter Countries. Thus they ply us with Contra­dictions, and at the same time that they confess the Victory was entire, they disable the Conquerours with killing two to one, forgetting the dishonour that attends our own Army, which they say was routed by so small a slaughter.

[Page 5]But the greatest Charms they think to captivate us with, are the swelling El [...]ies of P [...]o [...]es and Renown in War, with which they adorn their King, particularly his wond'rous Conduct and intrepid Valour in this Battle. I am l [...]ath to deny him so mean a qu [...]lity and a drug so common as Courage is, which our late blind Cobler Colonel Huson, and Millions of private Sen­tinals have had as great a portion of as any Flatterer can ascribe to him. B [...]t since we are stunn'd so much with this report, and that we know it is chiefly transmitted to us, accompanied with the ill favoured for eries of Mr. [...]ard, it has given inquisitive men the curiosity to inform th [...]mselves of naked Truth, especially since the P [...]ince of Oran [...]e has so often valued him­self in his Speeches upon having ventured his Life for us; for which the World as often saw there was no ground, and men of common sence are generally of opinion, that Boasting proceeds from Impotence and Affecta­tion from def [...]ct. I will not look back so far as to the Boyn, not to the Cause of the old Marshall's desperate and sullen Death, nor insist upon the pleasant prospect which his Highness had of the Siege of Mons, o [...] Namur, a [...]d of Huy; but I'le confine my self to London, where it is notoriously known, what early care he took to preserve to us the Blessings of his Reign, and made a safe but swift Retreat to a poor Curate's House, where on a Wisp of Straw this mighty Monarch hid himself that Night with a ma [...]nific Train of four Attendants. If any man will answer that he fore­sa [...] the Event betimes, and tha [...] it was not fit he should be so Prodigal of his Life as to stake it when the Game was loosing, I will not contest it with him, but make bold to add, that if he had vallued his own as little there, as he did the Lives of those brave men he sacrificed last Year at Stinkirk, his Courage now had made [...] for his Conduct then.

But I have been too long detained by the Army and the Turky Fleet, and it is now time to look towards the Civil administration of this Reign, which indeed is a consideration that ought to have had Priority in this Paper as it has in time, the motions of the Camp depending usually upon the Council of the Cabinet. But here we find nothing but prodigious Sums of Money given, and excessive Debts contracted; the Treasury like a great Glut­ton devouring vastly and digesting all as fast: All their Consultations tend to nothing but to War, and to the compassing the Sinews of it, and we are told this War is made in order to a Peace, as if a Feaver were a Receipt for Health, and the Plague a Medicine for long Life. Had we not Peace before? And did we not enjoy all the ease and plenty reasonable men could wish in the tranquility we lived? Were the French the Aggressors? Or have we entered into War for any other reason then to to please the humour of the Prince of Orange, who we have treated like a fondling Boy that cryed for the nois [...] of Kettle-Drums and Trumpets, and have presented him those Toys to play with? Has he made one significant March since the beginning [Page 6] of it? Have we taken e're a Town? (I suppose they will be ashamed to answer with [...]u [...]n and Dixmuyde) Have we won ever a Battle? Or can we brag of [...]'re a Skirmish that was faught on any Ground but in the Closet of the G [...]zetier? How long shall we bear with the vain Promises of a Descent into France, which have twice ended in nothing but the empty, tho' expen­sive preparations for it, and the sufferings of th [...] poor Owners, whose Transport Ships they hired? One would think that there were something more unintelligīble in this then in all their other motions; and to spend six or seven hundred thousand pound in two Summers upon a Dream and a C [...]i­mera, has something in it of a different complexion from Folly; nor can one well imagin that any mans understanding is so vitiated and false. This looks rather as if he fished for all the Expedients that could be invented to beggar England, and studied Projects to undo us, and making an Experiment how high he can provoke, and lowly we can submit, he shews a kind of Wantonness in Offending, and a Luxury in abusing the Patience of the Nation.

I know the Ministers, a sort of People often whipped upon the backs of Princes whom they serve, are blamed for this, and that these should be more then whipt, they shall have my consent; but since the Talents of several of them are known to all the World, and their Experience in the Government unque­stionable, I can no more believe them the Advisers of such bungling measures and oversights as are daily made, then I can suppose a Dutch-man ever can wish well to England, or a reasonable English-man fall in love with the High and mighty States. I have said before that I did not intend this Preface should be Comprehensive, and should but hint the present Mischiefs opera­ting; I will therefore only challenge any man to instance that Office in the State where the duties of it have been executed with tollerable diligence or discretion, and as if the Interest of the Kingdom had been half so much at their Hearts as the spoil and [...] of their Employments. Have we ever had any intelligence to direct us since the Revolution? Did we ever know when Monsieur Turville was to sail from Brest, and of what number of Ships his Fleet consisted? Did our own Fleet ever sail without such imper­tinent Orders as could have no effect but to be laught at? And with such Provisions as did not serve a Month, and sometimes such as poysoned the poor Seamen? What happened the last Year, is not to be imputed to our Con­duct, or our Valour, but to such an Errour in the French as never was be­fore by them committed, and is never to be hoped again. Whilst the Na­tion is reduced to the last degree of Poverty, have not Pentions been pro­fusely squandred to such as could pretend to neither Right, nor want, nor merit? When the Souldiers were starving for the want of Pay, and the Exchequer empty, has not Money been taken up at immoderate Interest, to pay the Portions of some Duech women who have been married here? Have we not since the beginning of this happy Revolution, fed the Duke of Savoy [Page 7] [...]nd the Princes of Germany with English Money, as if the Indies were ours, [...]r Sir Carbery Pr [...]ce's Mine had been of Gold? These are but a few blots, for it is endless to enumerate the Miscarriages of these last five Years. And yet as I said before, I can never think either the Ministers or inferior Officers capable of all those extravagancies of themselves. For tho' I can very ea­ [...]ly suppose them devoted chiefly to their own present Interest and advan­tage, yet there is a remembrance of their native Soyl that would some­times check the dissoluteness of these managements, and a certain Pride [...]hat people take in acting prudently, and not exposing themselves to the deri­sion of all mankind.

This must therefore be what men call an Errour in the first Conjunction, the fountain Head is foul and puddled, and all the little Rivolets and Branches that flow from it are infected: When men dare do nothing but stud [...] the Taste and Passions of their Masters, they must forget their own: No building can advance when either the chief Architect is ignorant, and cannot, or obsti [...]ate and will not inform the under work-men: When for­reign Correspondencies and the Secrets of a Prince are wrapt up in mystery and clouds, diligence in Ministers is groping and stumbling in the dark. Men in such cases must and will lie still, intent on nothing but their Plea­sures and their Profit. If when he rows to Whitehall he has his Sight and Heart fixt towards Loo, we know the Obligations we have to him for the honour of his company. But Interests I hope cannot mingle so, as that England should long continue a Factorage for the States of Holland, for that ingrateful People, who have been a Goad in English sides ever since we erected them to what they are: It is very well known how in the Year 70. they pressed his Christian Majesty to turn his Forces against England, and offered to serve him with all their Ships of Burthen and of War to Trans­port his Army hither. They are generally Enemies to all mankind, and particular to us, and have ever prospered by the misfortunes of their Neighbours, and by breaking Leagues and Treaties with their Allyes through cowardice and a worse then punick Faith. We have baffled all their Treacheri [...]s until now that we conspired with them against our s [...]lves: But now the Ax is laid unto the very Root of England, and we are dwin­dling into Ruin at Home by an ambitious and unskilful War, and wasting in the extream parts by exposing of our naked Colonies, and transfusing the Trade of London into the Veins and Sink of Ams [...]erdam.

But yet by an old Maxim, which I am sure is misapplyed at present, they say, The King can do no wrong, and therefore the Ministers are arraign [...]d, and an industrious Party goes about excusing him by implication, because they load the others with all the miscarriages which have happen [...]d. This has long since produced Reports in Town, which are spread into the Countries too, that the present Ministers are to be dismist, and other Doctors cal­led [Page 8] to restore the Constitution of the Body politick. The late Congress a [...] A [...]op has confirmed this noise, and most conclude the Hands, tho' no [...] th [...] measures will be changed; for the T [...]m [...]erament of our complying Patri­ots has discovered it self sufficiently long since; and we know a Cat out of a hole is so like a Cat in one, that they differ i [...] Scituation only, not in Shape [...] But when I first heard the Earl of Sunderl [...]nd was coming, as the phrase is, into play again; I thought it a merryment and raillery both upon this King and him; for who could think that he who was the Author of all the un­answerable [...] methods of King Iames's Reign, should be enc [...]u­raged and employed in this, it being such a piece of Discretion as if a Sick man should send for the same Mountebanck to cure him that had ki [...]led his Father but a week before. But this it seems is not more strange then true; yet by this we may be [...]old the steddiness of this worthy Monarch of our Isle to the Princi [...]les by which he came, and the Professions he then made, since that only man whom he excepted against in his Declaration, and who now stands excepted from Indemnity by Act of Parliament, who for many years received a considerable Pension from the King of France, and who in the space of six Months altered his Religion twice; This very man in contempt of common Decency, to say no more, is coming in to be the Support and Pillar of our Church and State: What Effects this will have upon the minds of men we must expect to see, and wait the operations of hi [...] Councils, but in the mean time we heartily congratulate this able Polititian with King William for an old Sayings sake, That things must be worse before they will grow better.

I have li [...]tle more to add but apply my self to the people of England, and hope that they will now awake out of the Lethargick Fit in which they have lain so long; that they will make use of the few moments that are given them to manage their last Stake, and that they will think it high time to grow weary of the scandalous and destructive War, and labouring in vain to fill a Sieve. When we consider the vast Treasure that has been given and mispent, and that all the Returns we have are Beggary and disgrace; we ought to be ashamed that we have deviated so long from the known Maxims of our Government, which consists in Trade, and keeping as even as the times will bear the Ballance of our Neighbouring States, and not in runing blindly into a foolish and unprovoked War upon the Conti­nent, to please the humour of one man, and to preserve a Barriar for the D [...]tch. I am amazed to hear men talk of the approaching Sessions of Par­liament, as if the War were now but just begun, or that a Tax had not (as in King Iames's days) been Levied in all this Reign. It is pitty our Ancestors had not provided effectually against corruption in our Parliaments, which would have rendred them what they were designed, the best form of Go­vernment in the world; for we never had so much cause as now to lament [Page 9] the miscarriage of Sir William Coventry's, and the late Self-denying Bill Without refle [...]ing with any Conscience upon the monst [...]o [...]s Sum [...] which have im [...]verisht us already; the [...] threaten us with a General Excise, and another Tax which must compl [...]at a modest reckoning of six Millions for the next Campagn [...]. How can Country Gentlemen, or any who depend n [...]t on the Court, subsist? Tenants must throw up their Leases, and Land­lords quit their Houses, and all the ready Cash our n [...]merou [...] Allies have left us, m [...]st be engross't at last by those whose S [...]ma [...]hs never rise ag [...]inst a Clo [...]ting that Lists them in the Pay of secret Service. There is no man has a greater honour for Parliaments th [...]n I, but they must excuse me from thinking any thing so very Sacred that I see so liable to be debaucht, besides we know by our Histories and Records, that several of them have been whol­ly repealed, and many most irreverently nicknamed. That Parliament that will give away all we have, is as much a Tyrant as a K [...]ng that will force it, and therefore it not being imaginable that the Electors, who are their Principals, have delegated a power to them for their own undoing, since they grow so extravagant, I hope the collected Body of the Nation w [...]ll vindicate it self, and by an universal Remonstrance rescind their Acts, or disobey them. It was extreamly well answered by a most inge [...]ious and a learned Writer of our own, to those who said that Councils could not err, tho' private Persons may; That at first sight it is a merry Speech, as if a man should say that every single Souldier indeed may run away, but a whole Army cannot, especially having Hanniball for their Captain: I must beg leave to think at least as ill of this our Civil Council as he did of an Ecclesiastical one, for I suppose that no man will deny to me but that Sir Robert Howard and many more are capable not only of erring, but of Acting something with a C [...]urser name, either in the Pallace-Yard, or in the Strand, and therefore since I am sure the Walls of St. Stephen's Chappel have not the vertue of in­spiring any more Probity then Infallibility▪ into the minds of those who are equally prepossest against them both, I will be so bold as to pronounce there never was a more Erring Council then our own [...] at present, which [...]o carry the allusion a little farther, has neither Hanniball nor Pope at the Head on't, but a false Anti-King himself chosen, as they are called, in direct oppo­sition to the Fundamental Laws of this Kingdom. From what has been said I conceive that all intelligent and unbyassed People must conclude, that our Safety and our Restoration to Peace, to Trade and Plenty, lies in our Re­turn to our Duty and Allegiance to our Lawful King, who has in his Decla­ration offered us those very Terms which we demand, and think Essen­tial to our Government. They who promote a diffidence and distrust of his performance, do but persue the Imposture they set out with to this Revolu­tion, and continue those Arts by which they have enriched themselves with the Ruins of the Innocent and laborious Farmers of the Country. But I [Page 10] will prosecute this no farther here and hope all honest men will approve of these short [...]nimadversions which I have laid down, at least that they won't be ill received by such, from one who neither h [...]s, nor ever will have, any thing else to do with so depraved a Generation as now governs.


THe new Secretary having always had the reputation of good Sence, and a very smart Elocution, his Licencing Doctor Welwood's Answer to the Declaration of King Iames, made ever [...]body read it, a [...] soon as it appeared, but all that know the Secretary, conclude he never took the pains to read it himself, or he would so far have consul [...]ed his own credit, as to have denyed his Pasport to so frivolous, and so Scurril [...]us a Pamphlet. [...] so remarkably both, that it would be still as much neglected by me, as it has been despised by others, had I not at present more then ordinary lei [...]ure; for it is stuff [...]d with such ignorant Assertions, such weak and quibling Sophi [...]try, it so plain­ly prevaricates from the Genuine and clear Sence of the King's Words, and it rails so very cour [...]ly, that it can scarce im [...]ose upon the most unlet­tered men; and tho' I have resolved to give it a Reply, since it would be a tedious drudgery to follow the Author from page to page, I shall chuse to reduce under Heads what is most material in that authorized [...]ibel, and after I have handled them at large, I will more briefly take notice of what they don't comprise that deserves any Answer.

First, The Doctor makes much use of the Declaration that was last Year published in King Iames's Name.

Secondly, He flourishes with the male-administrations, during his Majesties abode amongst us.

Thirdly, He tells us no King is to be trusted who has once broke his Word.

And Lastly, He acquaints us after all the pains he has taken to Answer it, that he knows not whether it is King Iames's Declaration or no.

As for the Declaration, that was printed last year, besides that I can as­sure you, Doctor, I never yet saw it Signed with the King's own Hand; I can also assure you that it was as much misliked by many, almost all, of the King's Friends, as it can be exposed by his Enemies. If you won't take my Word for this, be pleased to peruse the Letters Mr. Secretary Iohnson ordered to be printed in Scotland, and in one of those charged upon Nevill Payne [...], you will find I am in the right. If I would take the Liberty you make use of, I might falsify, and utterly deny, that ever King Iames so much as [Page 11] saw it, but I think my self obliged in Honour and Conscience to deal inge­niously in every thing I publish to the World, and with all, Doctor, I t [...]ink the faithful relation of matter of fact, which I shall now make, will vindicate both the King, and the [...]ober part of those in his Interest from those dr [...]adful I [...]puta [...]ions, wherewith, upon the account of that Declaration, you are pleased to charge them.

The matter of Fact then is thus. King Iames designing last Year to come over, sent to several of his Friends to give him an account of what they tho [...]ght p [...]p [...]r for him to do, and how he ought to express his Intentions in a Declaration, that he might thereby make his reaccession more easie; but thinking it proper to keep his coming over as much, and as long a secret as he could, he so very darkly intimated for what Reasons he desired his Friends to consider of such a draught that the most solid and considerate of them did not believe there was any necessity to h [...]sten over their Notions; but some who are not so well able to give materials for things of that nature, & yet were very glad the King had been pleased to ask their Opinions, were more forward, so that the King not having heard from others, upon whose Judgmen [...]s he could have depended, was forced to order a Declaration to be drawn up according to the accounts that these men had sent; but tho [...] he had been so long from England (which might excuse his mistakes) he was himself so little satisfied with that Declaration, that he ordered him who had the custody of all the Printed Copies, that were at La Hogue, not to give out one there, and he sent express Commands with the draught that he sent over to be printed h [...]re, that not one of them should be dispersed amongst us, till he was actually Landed, and had advised with his Friends upon the place, what was fit for him to resolve, and particularly whether that De­claration was agreeable to the sence of these Kingdoms, and he had designed to have brought with him a Press and Printers, that if his Friends disappro­ved of that Declaration, he might put forth another, and wholly suppress that. Had he come over, he would have been before his Landing convin­ced, that it was not agreeable; for just about that time the French Fleet was beaten (and which was before the King could have come hither) there arrived at La Hogue Declarations drawn in Form with universal Mercy, and such as did engage the King to give us [...]ull Securities both for our Reli [...]ion, and for our Liberties; and there were sent likewise by the Penners of those Declarations more severe Animadversions upon that Declaration (which was indeed printed by, but published, both on this and the other side, contrary to the King's express Order) then any that were here authorized by my Lord Nottingham's Imprimatur. The King indeed ordered that Declaration to be drawn, but neither was the King, nor the Penner of it to blame that they were not furnished with more suitable [...]otions, since they sent for Instructions: Nor [Page 12] can I so much blame those Persons, t [...]at sent those materials; because that, altho' their thoughts h [...]d not been conversant with things of that so [...]t, yet men must have vast degrees of Modesty in their o [...]n [...]empers who would not [...]e [...]mpted to wade out of their d [...]pth by such a Complement as the King justly enough thought was then even necessary for his Affai [...]s to make them: Nor were those others who upon Captain S [...]ow's Landing immedi­ately [...]ate themselves to collect the s [...]nce of the Na [...]ion u [...]pa [...]onably to blame, that they did not upon first no [...]ice transmit their Sc [...]emes; [...]or the more solid men are, the more diffident they will be of themselves, especi­ally where t [...]e Advice is to be prop [...]rtioned to such a vari [...]ty of Se [...]ts and Interests, as are upon this Island. [...]ince the extream goodn [...]ss of the King has p [...]rdoned their having been too dila [...]ory (which they must and do acknow­ledge as a fault) it is hoped, their follow Subjects will not too severely censure such who would hazard their Lives and Fortunes for the good of England. That they would risk even the good opinion of the King, I think may be made evident by an account of [...] that were sent from hence. They not only wrote very frankly against that Declaration, but upon their seei [...]g [...]i [...], they also probed the inclinations of the King, and his then sole Secretary there, the Earl of Melfort, and that by exacting their fence of many particulars which are not proper to be mentioned in this Paper, but fitter to be referr'd to the debates of a Parliament; and the Answers they had were so satisfactory, t [...]at they were thereby encouraged to pursue their duty with all imaginable and renewed diligence. Some of those things in­ [...]illed u [...]on by them have been published in [...]ormer Pamphlets by the advice of the King's friends here, and since that you have had some of them pub­lished in the King's own Declaration. When these Pamphlets came out, you thought the good things they mentioned were but the Wishes of the Writers, and not the Inclinations, either of the King, or his Party; [...]ut now you see by his own Declaration, that they were agreeable to the King's own Sen­timents, and the advice of his Friends. Those things were not then said without Book. When the first Declaration first came out, and before there were returns to those Letters which were sent against it, there was written by one in the King's Interest, a Paper called Honesty is the best Policy, where­in the Author avers, and that upon his own knowledge, that, that Decla­ration was contrary to the King's own sence of things, as he inferred from discourses, that he had the honour to have personally had with the King at St. Germaines. I believe was the Author known, no body could justly ac­cuse him, for want either of Probity, or Love to England. After the An­swers of these Letters came over, the Iacobite Principles was written, which contained notions which are plainly hinted at in this [...]ast Declaration, and be­fore the Publication of this last Declaration, came forth the French Conquest neither desireable nor Practicable; and now it is evident by this Declaration that [Page 13] the good things asserted in those Pamplets in behalf of the King, were not the private Su [...]mises of the Author, but founded upon [...]ood authorities from St. Germaines, and since th [...]s Government has printed in Scotland some Letters that they have either intercepted or made, I will venture so far to betray the Secrets of his Majesty, as to transcribe some passages out of Let­ters that have been sent me from the Earl of Melfort; and many others have had Letters of the same purport. I have mine by me, and if the Parliament will obtain a safe con [...]uct for us, I will produce them, and I don't question but many others of his Majesties Friends wi [...] produce such other Letters, either written by the King; or his command, as would abundantly satisfie the Nation, that the King is ready to do all things necessa [...]y to secure them from all those dismal Hobgoblins, which some, through Malice, and others through Folly, have bug- [...]eared us withal. The passages I shall transcribe out of my Letters are as follow.

3d. Iuly, 1692.

I had Yours of the last Month, and the only one I have had this conside­rable time. In it I find your objections to the Declaration, and find that most of them are Just, and what shall be help'd in the next; There was not one Topick sent but was made use of, and if we have failed, it has been the fault of those that have not informed aright what would please, and not ou [...]s, and as for that draught you sent me, I had it at the Sea-side, when we were past thinking of Declarations. As to our Intentions, the King was re­solved to Govern by the known Laws of the Kingdom, to consult with his Par­liament in all things relating to the establishment of Peace and quiet in his Kingdoms, to maintain the Liberties and Properties of all his Subjects, to protect the Protestant Religion, and to obtain Liberty of Conscience for all Dissen­ters. He designed to except none from his mercy, excepting those who op­posed his Restoration, and to Govern so, as that he might gain him the Love of his People, and make them as fond of him as they had been violent against him; and tho' he could not at this distance tell how this was to be attained to, yet he was resolved if once upon the place, to have persued the true methods of doing it. Withal I must tell you, that no Declaration was ever pub­lished by the King's authority; for tho' it was printed, it was not to have been dis­persed till the King's Landing, and having met with some of his Friends, and if they had disliked it, even then it had not been Published.

11th. Iuly, 1692.

No man in the world wishes more heartily then my self to see Bounds and Limits fairly cleared betwixt the People and Monarchy of England, that so we may not oppose the Prerogative ignorantly, nor unknowingly ru [...] into Arbitrary Notions against the Liberty of the Subjects; if these Limits [Page 14] were once fixt, one who meant well might tread s [...]cure, which is now im­possible; for both Parties pretending to have right, and it may be in some things without reason, one may design well, and yet displease both, which could never occur if Prerogative and Property were once clearly defined and stated. What all this may end in is hard to foretell, and whether ever we shall be so happy to see things cleared on just and equal terms; but of this I can assure you it is the King's desire that it should be so.

Aug. 29th. 1692.

I am for large measures, and having the Crown established upon the Love and Affections of the Subjects, and that in our days we may see the King and People in mutual confidence of one another, and all Jealousies and Fears, and the grounds of them rooted out, that the design of the Court may be the Happiness and Prosperity of the People, and the design of the People to encrease the Glory of the Crown, and the legal rightful Succession there­of, that Liberty and Property might be secured, and that Prerogative which justly belongs to the Crown Established for their protection. All this might be now, were England so happy to lay h [...]ld on the Conjuncture.

22d. Septem. 1692.

The French King did not so much as pretend the Forces he sent should have English Pay, but his own, which looks far from de [...]nding great Sums of the Na­tion, and I can assure you he was as frank as any English man whatever for secu­ring the people in the possession of their Religion, Liberty and Property: Let not England stand in its own way, and oppose its own happiness, and I'le answer France shall not meddle, nay, if it were to meddle betwixt the King and his Peo­ple, it would be to gain the People more of their Will, to humour them more, not to complement the Crown, AND ANY MAN OF GOOD SENCE WILL FIND REASONS OF STATE FOR THEIR SO DOING. In another place of the same Letter, he says that The King of France when the King was to come last Year to us, said all he had to pretend to, was to wish the King happy in the possession of his own, and that in serving his Friend he had all he aimed at.

October 6th. 1692.

Things shall be established upon the antient English bottom, Religion, Property and Liberty shall be as in the freest of times, no man shall suffer for his Opinion in matters of Religion. The King will have a free Parlia­ment, with whom he will consult the settling of all these upon the most last­ing Foundations, and differences once cleared, he will govern according to Law, he will have no different Interest from that of England, and will make it his chief Study to gain the Love of his People, and to be more Lord of their Affections then of their Persons, he will avoid all Jealousies, and the occasion [Page 15] of them, and will look upon him as the worst of Traytors, who would advise him to do a [...]y thing might give his People any Iealousie, or Fear. In short, govern so as honest English men would have him, mind the Interest [...] [...]rade, and Honour of the Nation, and that against all its Rivals. This is the Inte­rest of the Nation, and will be performed, and being meant in the full ex­tent comprehends Liberty, Property, and Religion—In the same Letter ' [...]is said Parliaments shall be free, so free, that the Court shall not br [...]gu [...], so the People may rest assured of a free Parliament, and [...] inclinations to compose all Differences, and heal all Breaches in Church and State.

October 24th. 1692.

I assure you that I fall most naturally in with such measures, measures that if embraced would secure the Church of England entirely, give reasonable ease to all Dissenters, secure fully Liberty and Property, and make every English man happy in the free and full possession of his Birthright, s [...]cure Elections to Parliaments against tricks and frauds, and do all things for the People which they with Iustice can expect.

December 12th. 1692.

A Letter of that date speaking of our House of Commons here, says, that by restoring the King, they might have Condui [...]ns to secure all that ever they were afraid of, they [...] [...]ace, be free from Taxes have Trade, and all sorts of Plenty, and may shew themselves the true Ballance of Europe, since on that occasion there is no reasonable Peace, the French King would not subscribe to.

You see I have sate down some passages out of the Earl of Melfort's Letters to my self, which I believe give another Idea of the King, than we have been generally possessed with. There are in the same Letters many particulars, in which as I said it would not be decent to anticipate the debates of an House of Commons, tho' they are such as infinitly confirm me, that the King was then, and is now ready to make it next to impossible, that the boundaries of our Rights should be again broken down. There are many other Iacobites that are as Zealous as I can be for the good of their Country, and who have by them very explanatory Accounts, which may well justifie the King's saying, That he has been, and still is willing to condescend to such things as are most likely to give the fullest Satisfaction, and clearest prospect of the greatest Security, to all ranks and degrees of his People; And we may be satis­fied the King will continue in that temper, since every thing has been la [...]e­ly so fa [...]thfully and impartially laid before him, by an excellent Person, who I believe, Dr. you suppose to be the continuer of this last Declaration, [...] for whose parts you your self say you have a just esteem, I mean the Earl [Page 16] of MIDDLETON, who I esteem as much for his parts as Doctor Welwood or any body else can, and yet more for his Integrity then for his Par [...]s. I don't at all doubt but that [...]his last Decla [...]ation was grou [...]d [...]d upon the true relation that that noble Earl gave of the State and Interests of the [...]e Kingdoms, but I am sure he will think it no disreputation to him, no dimunition of his Merit, to say that he found in [...]he King a p [...]eparation to close with every thing he laid be [...]ore him as his own Interest, the Interest of his Royal Issue, and [...]hese his affli [...] Kingdoms.

Since I have mentioned the Earl of Middleton, I think my self obliged in th [...]s place to do him a piece of Justice. I had the honour to be with him se­veral times, when that Declaration, whi [...]h is so much exclaimed against first came abroad, and I positively aver, that I know no one man in England thought it worse calculated for the Service of his Master, and our Interest then he did, and I perceived him to have those wise, those honest, and honourable resentments upon that, and many other occasions, that I must loose all sence of Virtue and English Liberty, before I cease acknowledging that he is a true Patriot as well as a most faithful and able Minister.

I shall neither trouble my self, nor the Reader with remarks upon the fore­going Letters, but leave them to speak for themselves, after I have said, that they were written with that careless freedom of Style which men make use of when they have no manner of design that their Letters should be made publick. This I say to obviate the [...] of shallow and superficial Criticks, who always, and in every thing, expect Essays of Rhetorick, which i [...] not the language of business, whilst it passes through private hands, I think I have said enough to the first topick. You may if you please oc­casionally refer to the Letters themselves, but I will now hasten to consider Male-administrations.

I will not go about to extenuate, much less to justifie any ill thing done in the Reign of the King, I was not concerned in any one of those ill things, when he was here, I always called a Spade a Spade. I censured and spoke against those ill things then, and I never excuse them now; and yet if the Law-Bo [...]ks of England are to be credited, let our Government be as much an Original Contract as you will, they are not to be charged upon the King, nor is he to be punished for them; and for our future Security, we have the Age of the King, and the Infancy of his Son, besides both which he has been taught in the School of Affliction, never more to be so seduced by his Ministers: that the Nation will not bear such measures; and farther the concessions of this Declaration and all the promises of it are not only big with Provisions, but also are a Royal way [...] of owning that he was for­merly misled. And what ever were the faults of the last Reign, there are several Reasons for which a man would think that the authorized Writers for this Government should not so eternally recite them.

[Page 17]First, was not the Prince of Orange himself so well informed, that by the La [...]s and Constitution of England, the King of it is unacc [...]u [...]table, can do no Wrong, can be answerab [...]e for no Male-administration, that al [...]o' in his own Declaration nothing was left unsaid that Malice could think of and where [...]n every thing was a [...]gravated with all the Spightful C [...]lours that a fruitful in­vention and Libellous Pen c [...]uld give them, yet even in that he levelled no accusation agai [...]st the King, but against his evil C [...]uns [...]llors?

Again, tho' the re [...]son of that Maxim is to preserve the Head of the Go­vernment safe, [...]h [...]st t [...]e Peoples safety co [...]sists in having Justice and R [...]pa­ration upon the Ministers, have those [...]inisters nevertheles [...] been f [...]und out? Have any of those who were in your hands been punished? O [...] have they not rather been employed? It was a sign that Ie ff [...]ries was naturally pusilla­nim [...]us, that he despaired of rem [...]ining C [...]anc [...]l [...]u [...], when he saw that P [...]o­testant, Merciful Major General Kirk, so well with our Reformer. Had he lived till now in despite of T [...]unton Dean, he as well as Sir Iohn Trevor had had his Place. I am serious, Doctor; and that you may not believe what I say to be chimerical, I will bring you acquainted with some of those men that are now in Play.

Will you give me leave to introduce you to that good old Treasurer the Earl of D--by? If you please we will forget his qua [...]dum Nego [...]iations with that Parliament, which the lewd Whiggs, many of whom are your intimate Friends, called Pentionary, but I protest I can't help remembring that my Lord Montague told odd tales, as if he held some unfit Correspondencies with that Tyrant of France. Good God [...] that a man who stands Impeached by a House of Commons for such transactions with a Crown, with whom we now wage War, should be made the President of all our Councils! Is i [...] not more wild, and a greater protonation in our Politicks to place an Impeached man at the Head of all our Affairs, than even to make a I [...]s [...]ite a Privy Councellour?

But let the Marquess of Car--then make room for the Earl of Sun--land. The Preface has given some account of that eminent States-man, but I will tell you, Doctor, a Secret, upon condition that you will not tell that you have it from me, the Earl of Sun--land, this very Earl of Sun--land, tho' he has been out of Office, has not for a great while been out of business. I am sure for above these two Years he has not been out of it.

Are you at leisure, worthy Sir, to go to the Secretaries Office where Mr. Br--n is to be found, who must be a very adroit and experienced person, and well worth your acquaintance, for all the World knows he has run through all sorts of business. He was Secretary to that Offensive High Commission Court. The four Popish Bishops found him very useful. He could instruct Regulators, and at Tryals lend an Oath. Heavens bless me! No body but Sun—land could have recommended such a Tooll to F [...]—rd who must cer­tainly [Page 18] think himself overstocked with Reputation (of which deservedly he ha [...] a great share) or he could never have ventured so much of it, by p [...]t­ting the Secrets, and business o [...] his Office into such hands. I am really sorry he made such a choi [...]e; for there are some men in this Government, whom I would not have disgrace themselves. He is one of those, and I am sure he might have chosen out of his old acquaintance, men that would not have been a reproach to him.

Had Nature pleaded as strongly for his Father, I would have forgiven the Princes of Orange, tho' she had overlooked all the faults of her Uncle R—r and recommended him to the Cabi [...]et.

I believe, you a [...]e well known to Sir R—r [...] R—h, and I think I ought not to name him upon the accoun [...] of Regulation, because he [...]out started in the House of Commons all those, that laid it to his charge as a Crime.

I must confess this Government could not have found out a [...]i [...]ter man [...]o be a Secretary of War than handsom formal Mr. Bl—te; for [...] Speech in the House of Commons did to the utmost of his power demonstrate, that a standing Army was cheaper then the Militia. He talked himself out of Breath, and the whole House out of Patience, upon that subject; and I have been told by those that were by, that if he had any meaning what I have set down, was what he d [...]ove at. He is ind [...]ed a profound man, and therefore our Senates was not so much to blame, that they could not under­stand all he said, but so much is certain, he had a mind to a standing Army, and that propensity is a good qualifica [...]ion for a Secretary of War; and we shall comprehend his Reasons for what he would have maintained, when he thinks fit to publish his Notes.

I believe you will be weary before you have made these Visits, therefore we must let alone the Right Honoura [...]le [...] Lord C [...]nningsby, Sir R [...]bert Howard, Si [...] R. T [...]mple, Sir I. W [...]rd [...]n, and a mul [...]itude of other such excel­lent Persons (who are very well with the Government) till another opp [...]r­tunity.

Another reason why the authorised Writers for this Government should not so eternally insist upon Male-administrations of the last, i [...] because we have so many Instances of misgovernment under our Reformer, and I asure you, Doctor, his Title will totter if he may not discharge himself upon evil Ministers [...] from which [...] such Writers as you, by the doctrines of your own Pamphlets, shut him out.

In speaking to the Male-administrations of this Government, I must make use of a division, that some will think new; for I must speak of L [...]gislative Errours, as well as Execu [...]ive Male-administrations. Amongst the first I reckon the suspention of the Habeas Corpus, the gratification of the Articles of Limerick, and the Enacting of Marital Law, without punishing those that had exercised it before it was enacted, and also the numerous Pardons they [Page 19] have bestowed upon the Ministers of State, when they had broken tho [...]ow the most valuable of our Rights, when they had broken in upon the L [...]berty of our Persons. Thes [...], and many other such exorbitan [...] measures which have passed both our Houses, may be reckoned Legislative Errours.

I don't question but s [...]me will think it very strange that I impeach a Par­liam [...]t, but what man that has common sence, can believe that the Nation ever intru [...]ed a H [...]use of Commons with a Power to destroy them, with a Power to surrender up all our Liberties, to ensl [...]ve the Nation, to sell our Rights to a [...]orreign (tho' [...] Dutch) P [...]ce, to sink our Ships, or to burn our Cities. They may as well make any of these, and Murder it self [...]egal, as long Imprisonments without assigned Crimes. Extravagant Acts of Par­liament are no Laws; and it our Senate House is delivous, we can be s [...]p­posed to render obedience (tho' a Lawful King were at the H [...]ad of them) upon no other reason, but because we are not in a condition to deny, or dis­pute it. OUR ORACLE COOK has some where in his Institutes an ex­pres [...]on to this purpose, Laws made against right Reason, and the [...]a [...] of N [...]tur [...], are N [...]ll in themselves [...] Can it be reasonable that the Habeas Cor­pus should be three tim [...]s one after another suspended, and that upon no better pretence than a Minister's shewing some Letters that he said came from Sco [...]land, and which were stuff [...]d with palpable Falshoods, such as King Iames's being Landed there with a gre [...]t Force; and of which Letters we n [...]ver heard more after the first su [...]pention of the Habeas Corpus? The Li­berty of our Persons is a Native Night. Our Common Law originally pro­vided for it by Wr [...], before it was provided for by S [...]atute, and the Act of Habeas Corpus was only to make u [...], as safe in the Vocation as in the Term, and to provide a Pu [...]ishment for the Judges, that denyed to obey that Writ; Those Judges that had before that Penalty was ascertained deny [...]d to obey the Wr [...]t, were punished severely in the Late times (when they went upon Principles of Liberty, tho' they went too far) and the Persons injured had Reparation made them out of the Estates of those Ar [...]itra [...]y Judges. C [...]sless Imprisonme [...]s was one of the most clamarous and best warran [...]ed G [...]ievances in the days of King Charles the first, yet the present Conservators of our Liber [...]y, have transmitted to after Ages a president for Parliame [...] ­ta [...]ily taking away that Liberty, whensoever the caprice of a fearful, or fool­ [...]sh Minister se [...]s up pretences of State for doing it. Certainly Pa [...]liaments [...] begin to [...]orget the design of their first Institu [...]on, begin to forget they w [...]re to assist us against Arbitrary Ministers, to secure our Rights, and not to sacrifice them. I believe had the old Custom o [...] instructing t [...]em been revived, few Flectors would have given a power to their R [...]presentatives [...] [...]o Imprison their peaceable Neighbours, without proof, for nothing. [...] no' [...]t can admit of no good excuse, yet something more like one might have [...]een offered, if that Act had been suspended only whilst they could ex­amine [Page 20] the cause of their pannick fear, but to repeat it, to reiterate such a prostitution of what wi [...]h all due Reverence to that Assemb [...]y [...]e it spoken) t [...]ey have so li [...]tle to do withal, unless to secure it by more express Laws, is of [...]amous example, and I would almost as soon have been o [...]e of the Re­gicides of King Charles the first, as such a murderer, such a sta [...]er o [...] our [...]u [...]d [...]men [...]al Rights. Was any of the men that were by vertue, I mean by the Villany, of that Suspenti [...]n committed, ever tryed to this day? N [...]y did the G [...]vernme [...]t e [...]er pretend to try any one man for Crimes committed before, o [...] during that Susp [...]ntion? The Nation remembers how many the M [...]ss [...]gers then locked up, how many were then Imprisoned in l [...]athsome Goals, how many were sent to the expensive Tower. [...] a Member of that Parl [...]am [...]n [...], I would not think a private Repentance would obliterate my [...]a [...]lt; I would print my Recantation of so destructive a Vote. I call it d [...]st [...]uc [...]i [...]e, because it has given an Inlet to Prerogative, that our Fore­fathers never knew; that no King ever once imagined, that a Parliament of England would countenance, tho' it were but for the least point of time.

But let us come to the Articles of Limerick, does not King William plain­ly act by that devouring Monster (as Doctor Welwood calls it) the Dispensing P [...]e [...]? Does he not grant them Indulgence for their Religion, allow them Arms, and a freedom from Oaths, and Securi [...]y against prosecutions for [...]eir Plundering? and does not he do all this by his own single autho­ri [...]y, tho' it was contrary to the Laws of the Land, the Rights and Privi­le [...]g [...]s, and the very Safety too of the Protestant Subjects of Ireland? Did ou [...] Parliament take any notice of the Illegality of this Act, nay, did they not ratifie it? I suppose the Parliament of Ireland was not so cram'd with men in Places, nor had the Members of it been so much softned by Pentions as the Members of our House of Commons are; for when an Act for confirm­ing those Articles was proposed to them, they could find that the first Ar­ticle of that Treaty, if confirmed, would make an Established Religion, and the sixth would deprive all Protestants of their Actions against the Papists ▪ by w [...]om they were pl [...]ndered, even whilst they lived in Peace with them. This you may find in a little Pamphlet, called an Account of the Sessions of Parliament in Ireland, 1692. Which Pamphlet was put forth by some Members of that Parliament, who are very fond of this Government, tho' they are willing that the Settlement in Ireland may be Religiously observed ▪ and that the Pro [...]estant and Britt [...]sh Interest there may be secured, as the Prince of Orange worded it and promised in the last paragraph of his own Declaration.

Did we pay so many men to make War in Ireland, and make at last such Conditions? Could the Prince of Orange to Reduce one Town, when h [...] had all the rest of these three Kingdoms assisting him to Reduce it, promis [...] to enervate the Act of Settlement, and yet must King Iames, when he wa [...] in the hands of the Irish, when very few others of his Subjects appeared fo [...] [Page 21] him, when the greatest part of the Protestants in Ireland were actually in Arms against him, or combining with his Enemies, forever stand confound­ed, because he was prevailed upon, contrary to his own Inclinations, and by a sort of fatal necessity, to Repeal that Act of Settlement? I believe if the Doctor will read Great Brittain's Iust Complaint, and the Answer to Doctor King's Book, he will not have Forehead enough to assert any more, as he does page the 36th. that the King was Master, and without controul when he passed that Act of Repeal, and the King promises to consent to every thing that an English Parliament shall think necessary to re [...]establish that Act, now he is really and proper [...]y Master of his own Actions, and tho' the King has good reason, and is obliged in honour to recommend to the Parliament of England those Irish that have followed him to the last, yet the rascally Irish (as this mannerly Pupill of Titus Oates, Doctor Welw [...]od calls them) do not appear dearer to King Iames then to the Prince of Orange; for King Iames will leave the method of recompensing those that have been Loyal to him, to an English Parliament. But King William falls out with the Parliament of Ire­land ▪ because they are not willing those Irish Papists who plundered even while they lived in Peace with them, should go unpunished; which in plain Eng­lish shews that King VVilliam to endear himself to the Nati [...]e Irish, is willing to give an Instance that he thinks Robbery is no Crime; but perhaps he re­membred what the Pyrate said to Alexander, & may think that [...] an Irish Popish Rapparee has no more natural conviction of the hainiousness of such a transgression then his Protestant Dutch Highness has shewn to his own Actions. I am past Wondering at any thing King William does, but Posterity will be astonished, that a Parliament of England could ratifie such Articles.

To proceed to another Head, it is notoriously known that several men were Executed by Martial Law before it was Enacted. When an Army is no better paid, then ours has been, either in England, Ireland, or Flanders, to empower a Commander to Shoot a man to Death, because he demands the Money he has earned for himself, and his Family, with his Sweat, and with his Blood, is a Law that requires great subtilty and argumentation, to prove it equal or just; but to give this power to imperious and cholerick Officers, without examining how many men had been before the settling of it, mur­dered in their rage, and to gratifie their own violence. I say to enact this Law without such a retrospection, and without guarding [...] against a too vigorous execution of it for the future, is what little becomes an English House of Commons, who ought to have a tender regard to the Life of the meanest Subject.

Let us come to consider of the numerous Parliamentary Pardons bestowed upon Ministers, who have falen foul upon our Laws; have not the Subjects, even the Peers of England been hunted by Proclamations, clapt into Prisons for High Treason, and refused the benefit of their Habeas Corpus, and this [Page 22] when there was no Information upon Oath, as the Law appoints to justifie such a proceedure? And have not the Ministers had all this pardon'd by a Parliament? Doctor Welwood does make so many Repetitions himself, that I hope he will not redicule me if I now and then repeat the same thoughts, and set down here, that Parliaments heretofore thought fit to punish, and not to skreen such Arbitrary Ministers, to make the reparation of the Subject more easie, more certain; but now they take part with the Ministers to op­press the Subject.

Another Parliamentary Errour under this Government is, that our Le­gislators don't at the beginning of every Sessions read the Prince of Orange's own Declaration; for there are in it some things that deserve their Reflecti­ons. These are the Words of one Paragraph.

‘And we for our part will concur in every thing that may procure the Peace and Happiness of the Nation, which a Free and Lawful Parliament shall determine; Since we have nothing before our Eyes in this our undertaking, but the preser­vation of the Protestant Religion, the covering of all men from Persecution for their Consciences, and the Securing to the whole Nation the FREE ENJOY­MENT of all their Laws, Rights, and Liberties under a Iust and Legal Government.’

I don't know, whether the present Gentlemen that meet at VVestminster, take themselves to be a free Parliament, but if they do, here is a very fair Invitation, which is also in other places expressed by declaring, that the design of his coming should be to rescue the English Government from the Vio­lencies and Disorders which had overturned the whole Constitution. Really if this was true, our Civil Fabrick wants a great deal of Reparation, and if he was in earnest you are to blame that you don't propose solid Securities against Arbitrary Government, and to prevent the possibility of Slavery for the future, as the Declaration has it in another place. But in troth after all, I know not whether the Prince of Orange takes the present for a free Parliament, because that I can name his Highness some Bills, that they have determined very unanimously to be for the happiness of the Nation, to which nevertheless King VVilliam has not thought fit to give his assent, no, he did not think fit to concur, tho' some men absolutely attached to his Interest, have ho­nestly (according to their Principles) told him that a Prince who comes in for the sake, and upon the Foot of Reformation, can never stand long un­less he really perform the business, and design of his exaltation. He has been so far from concurring, that it has been observed that every Session he has taken all our Money, but followed none of the Advice, either of a Parlia­ment, or of such, whose avowed Principles make them capable to go in heartily with his Government; nay he has reject­ed one Bill The Bill to ascertain the Salaries of the Iudges that the whole House of Commons passed Nemine Contradicente; Mr. Finch excepted; [Page 23] [...]nd which was not opposed by any body, but my Lord Nottingham in the [...]ouse of Lords. He hath been pleased to refuse some [...]ther Bills The Triannial Bill. The Bill of Mines. that were notwithstanding all the pains [...]e, and my Lord Portland took to hinder them, Voted [...]y a great majority of both Houses. Methinks the pre­ [...]ent Parliament should enquire what are his thoughts concerning them, since [...] seems it is not to them that he refers the accomplishments of the ends of [...]is Declaration. I believe there are some that sit now in Saint Stephen's Chappel, that have thought no King of England, no Hereditary King of Eng­ [...]and, ought to have a Negative Voice, and I wonder that no Person of [...]hat perswasion disputes the Title that their Elective King has to it; but in­ [...]tead of this (now these men are in Places) they can as well as other throw [...]ut the Judges Bill as soon as the Prince of Orange lets them know his Will [...]nd Pleasure. They let him carry Absolute Monarchy to a higher pitch then [...]hat in which the imagination of Xenophon placed his Cyrus; for Cyrus had [...]bout him many great men whom he consulted, who were called his Eyes [...]nd Ears, and who were in a sort the Representatives of his Subjects, but [...]ur present House of Commons are content that our All-sufficient Monarch should [...]o every thing by the advice only of that Stranger, that Gaveston, his Mon­ [...]eur Bentinck, who has the reputation of too good a Courtier, to expostulate [...]is Masters Will.

Will you give me leave, Dr. to repeat another Paragraph of the Prince [...]f Orange's Declaration.

‘But to Crown all, there are Great and Violent Presumptions, inducing us to believe, that those evil Counsellours, in order to the carrying on of their ill de­signs, and the gaining to themselves the more time for the effecting of them, for the encouraging their Complices, and for the discouraging of all good Subjects, have published that the Queen hath brought forth a Son, tho' there have appeared both during the Queen's PRETENDED Bigness, and in the manner in which the Birth was managed, so many just and visible grounds of suspition, that not only WE OUR SELVES, but all the good Subjects of those Kingdoms, do vehement­ly suspect, that the pretended Prince of Wales was not born by the Queen. And it is notoriously known to all the World, that many both doubted of the Queen's bigness, and of the Birth of the Child, and yet there was not any one thing done to satisfie them, or to put an end to their doubts.’

Doctor Welwood, you must forgive me, if I think, that it has been at least a great oversight in our Legislators, that they have not charged this Crowning Male-administration home upon King Iames. This was a Male-administra­ [...]ion that was not only to confirm at present, but to Crown and perpetuate [...]ll the Male-administrations of King Iames's Reign. The proof of it would [...]ave effectually silenced almost all mankind in the behalf of that King. It [...]s such an unnatural Male-administration, that I should have thought him [Page 24] worse then an I [...]fidel, that had so destroyed the Provisions our Law [...] made for his Family, for his Daughters. I would not only have allowe [...] him insane, but a Monster, if this had been proved upon him. The not pro [...] ­ving this upon King Iames, has laid a Foundation for Lancastrian [...] ons, and for eternal Standing Armies, which must remain for a Guard t [...] our Elective Crown. Had the Prince of Orange intended to have requite [...] that most particular Affection and esteem which he says we had formerly testi­fied to him and his dearest Consort the Princess, he should not have been willing we should have been left in the dark in this matter. Had the Parliament too [...] any care for our future Security, they would have cleared this point. Th [...] Prince of Orange was very particularly concerned to cl [...]ar it, since it was th [...] most Justifiable part of hi [...] Errand hither; the Parliament can never have [...] better opportunity to be satisfied of the truth of this matter, since now they and the Witnesses cannot be supposed to be constrained by an Exiled Prince▪ They have been challenged, they have been provoked to search to the very bottom of that Mystry of Iniquity. I will not use so rough Language, but I humbly recommend that inquiry to them this Sessions.

Certainly it was an Errour in our Legislators, that no Member of i [...] took any Oaths at the meeting of the Convention, and that they laid asid [...] the use of the Test, at a Juncture, when the whole Nation was allarum'd a [...] the exercise of the dispensing Power. I have heard a Jolly Papist say; tha [...] if the Priests can dispense with him for eating a Shoulder of Mutton upon a Fryday, he would even dispense with himself for that small matter, le [...] him be thought as Hetrodox by the rest of the Catholicks as they pleased. Upon my Faith a man would think if the Test and the Oaths can be dispen­sed withal by one of our three Estates (as some phrase it) they may be a [...] well dispensed withal by either of the other. I don't say this as being fond either of Oaths or of the Test. I have always thought, and have lately seen, that Oaths are no great Security to Governments, and I never had, nor will▪ have any hand in Test-making, tho' I can take twenty against Popery. All that I mean by this, is that methinks the Conventioners, our Senate, should not have fallen into that Dispensing Power the Nation had so lately cryed out upon with open Mouth.

The Convention's choosing a Speaker upon a Corporation bottom; and a disputed Election possibly cannot in strictness of language be called a Le­gislative Errour, but yet it was such an one as made the Convention it self unfit to be termed any part of our Legislative Authority, and invalidated; if there had been no other exceptions against them, all the acts of that Con­vention, I am sure, made them at least disputable.

I think we may reckon amongst Parliamentary Errours, that our Conven­tion draw no better a Bill of Rights, did not qualifie, explain and limit the Dispensing Power that the threats that were used to B [...]scowen; Hampden [...] [Page 25] Powel, &c. and their being promised good Preferments, should be able to [...]fle all provisi [...]ns against Arbitrary Power, and leave our Constitution as doubt [...] and preca [...]ious as the Sycophants of both Robes have pretended it to be in the worst of times.

Whatever these two last particulars mentioned will be reckoned now, I b [...]lieve Posterity will allow them to be Legislative Errou [...]s, amongst which also will be reckoned their Scandalous throwing out of the Iudges hill, and the opposition that many of the House of Commons have made to a Bill for Regu­lating Tryals in Cases of [...]igh T [...]eason, and I averr that neither the future will, nor can the present Age assign any other reasonable cause for the treat­ment those Bills have met with, but the multitude of Officers and Penti­oners that corrupt all the debates of our Senate House.

I don't intend to run [...]hrough every Errour committed by our Legislators. I will omit the admission of Out Laws▪ such as Major Wildman, Manley, &c. into the Convention to make Laws for us, before they had r [...]versed their own own Out-Lawries. I will not mention that the Houses suffered themselves to be thr [...]atned by the Mobb, sometimes by Members within, and s [...]me­times by People without doors, and have given for excuse of what they have done those threats, the violence of the times, &c. and yet have looked and acted, and expect to be considered as a free Parliament. I will omit the non-prohibition the last Sessions of the exportation of our Money in Specie. These and many other Parliamentary errours I will omit, that I may as curso [...]ily look into the Executive Male-administrations.

Some of these which I have called, and which became at length Legisla [...]ive ▪ Errours were originally, and at their first setting out, executive male-ad­ministrations; and since I have spoke to them under the one, I shall not re­peat them under the other Head of my division. I will talk no more of Im­prisoning without Oath, nor executing b [...] martial Law before it was in Be [...]ng. I will not repeat the Articles of Lymerick. But did not the Prince of Orange m [...]ke his first Steps in the exercise of [...]his Government in both Kingdoms upon the Dispensing Power? Did he not before he was King, send Let­ters to the City of London, to choose unqualified Persons into Places of Trust? Did he not also, and that before he was King, send a Proclama­tion into Scotland that authorized and impowered Magistrates to officiate in Corporation who were not elected according to their Charter? Has not every Term excessive Bail been required, three thousand pounds for men that have not b [...]en worth th [...]ee hundred Shillings? Excessive Fines imposed (be­sides setting in the Pillory) a hundred Marks upon a Boy that was not worth so m [...]ny Pence, and now five hundred Marks api [...]ce (besides setting them three times in the Pillory) upon two that dispersed this Declaration, tho' one of them is not worth so many Gr [...]ts? Where is that Salvo contine­mento that we used to talk of? Have not Illegal and cruel Punishments been [Page 26] Inflict [...]d? one of the Female Sex set in the Pillory and Fined▪ severely for a foolish Song? Have not the Armies taken and forced free qua [...]t [...]r in Eng­land, Scotland and Ireland? Have they not been coun [...]enanced in doing it by those that sit at the H [...]lm? Are our Elections of Parliament men accord­ing to our old Constitution? Were not my Lord Nottingham, and the booted Apostle sent down to solicite against Colonel Mildmay's Election in Ess [...]x? Have there not been many bare-faced Sollicitations, Threats and Promises sent to Countries, Corpora [...]ions, and p [...]rticular Electors? Were th [...]re [...]ot grea [...] Sums of Money expended by the Court to hinder the Electi­ons of Wildman and others, who had been great authors of the Change, meer­ly because it was plain they made this Change with a design to secure their Country from the abuse of future Ministers? Have not Governours been imposed upon the Plantations abroad upon the quo Warranto Foot, and con­trary [...]o the opinion of the Privy Council, and meerly by the Arbitrary Command of King William? Are not such Judges out of favour, and their Salla [...]ies ill paid who will not do all Jobbs for the Court? I appeal to my Lord Chief Baron Atkins, and others of the Judges, whether or no I am a Slanderer. Has not an Order been sent down to the Custom-House at Dover, dispensing with the Act of Parliament which prohibits French Wines? Was not that Act which prohibits the bringing in of Silk for Sir Henry Li­merick Furnace's sake dispensed with the other day by a formal Act of Council? In the Name of God, is not all the world satisfied, that my Lord Bellamount was Closeted during the last Sessions, and that many others were so before the Parliament met, as well in Flanders, as in England? Was not the witty Iack How turned off because he would not hold his tongue when the Inter [...]st of the Nation called upon him to speak in the House? And when he had the misfortune to beat a Foot-man just before the last Sessions within the verge of the Court, did not the Court Animals tell about in triumph their Masters Sentiments; and how many good Speeches were spoiled by having Iack How upon that hank? When King William returned from that Skirmish of the Boyne (which is the only time he ever faught successfully) did not he threaten the whole Parliament in a Speech? But I must confess a man that Pays them so well may take the Liberty to use those Gentlemen a little Scurvily; but the Figure they should make and the treatment they then had, would have taught Barbarians how little they ought for the time to come to have wished success to King William's Arms. All that I have rec­koned up, except this last instance, are the measures of Adversity; but who can guess what would be the Maxims of his Government, if he could do those mighty things that he sometimes promises in his Speeches, and weak Men, and silly Women, expect at his hands? But I must return to what he does, as things are with him at present; Was not Mr. Ashton murdered by presumptive Treason, and Anderton against the plain sence of many Statutes, [Page 27] and without the least shadow or proof, and in despite of the conviction and repentance of several of his Jury; particularly the Foreman? have not many of the Judges hectored the Juries in their Circuits? But why should I go on to enumerate all the effects of the Prince of Orange's most Despo [...]ick Rule? Th [...]se Instances are enough to demonstrate the Imprudence, I had l [...]ke to have said Im [...]udence, of these Pamphleteers, and are enough [...]o verifie Osbo [...]ne's A­phorism which I have put upon the Title page; and to convince us that what he says is the true reason why we at present bear such infractions of our An­tient Constitution. The Aphorism is so pat here, that it will scarce be lost time to read it over again, People endure Oppression with more patience from an Vsurper, then one ascending through a long Succession, as esteeming it MORE NATURAL, and no less then looked for, or as acknowledging to have deserved it FOR NOT SEEING WHEN THEY WERE WELL.

I will not be so particular as to shew how especially of all their Scriblers, [...]t little becomes Doctor Welwood to exaggarate matters against King Iames, since his discourse [...] about a Dictatorial Power, &c. brought him for his Ar­bitrary Doctrines under the censure of the House of Commons. A House of Commons wherein some Members have been so notoriously, and of a sudden, so debauched, that when some of them have stood up to speak, those that sate next, have (as I am told) instead of crying hear, called out hyre him. [...]f I may believe a Person that I think of credit, this is true, but I am cau­ [...]ious of laying down any thing for matter of Fact that is not minutely true, [...]hat I will not vouch for this Report, tho' it is well handed to me. How­ [...]ver I must confess since Pentions have been so much talked of, and so much [...]nown, I think the promotion of no Test will ever so honourably carry down [...]he names of the Authors of i [...] to our Childrens Children, as the late self [...]enying Ordinance, and yet that ought to have been carryed a little farther; [...]or it were to be wished that every Member should make Oath he received [...]o Pay, either directly, or indirectly, from King William, and then a rea­ [...]onable man might know what to say to them; and how much soever they [...]ould oppose King Iames, yet they would certainly take some care of their [...]iserable Native Land.

I am coming, Doctor, to my third Head, which is in Answer to a Maxim [...]ou lay down and build very much upon, page the 4th. Your Maxim is, Ne­ [...]er to trust the Promises of one that has broke with us before, especially if those [...]ormer were backed with the Religious Sanction of an Oath. Doctor, don't you [...]mell a Rat? In good earnest, as ill as the Convention provided for our [...]ecurity, I suppose what I have mentioned may be either found in our new [...]ill of Rights, or plainly, and without straining a point be deduced from it, [...]nd tell me frankly was it not designed that the Coronation Oath should ob­ [...]ge King William to observe that paultry Bill of Rights, and also all our Laws? have observed, Doctor, you have an ill memory, and a worse observation, [Page 28] and for that reason I must remind you that the Male-administrations in th [...] Reign of King Iames are by your Libel, made breaches of his Co [...]onatio [...] Oath. I fancy upon reading it, that you reckon that noti [...]n the very hing [...] of our Constitution, because else, sure you can't but know that your whole [...] Treatise is impertinent, what hole then have you for King William to creep [...] out at? How shall he go Scot-free▪ But to proceed [...]radatim, did not the [...] Prince of Orange break his Oath to his own Country-men, by taking up [...] him the Statholdership, and this too when he was of years to be obliged by an Oath; for when they first made him Captain Gene [...]al▪ he took an Oath never to take the Power of the Statholde [...] upon him? Well but I will not ramble into the Vnited Provinces, I will let him, the People of Amsterdam and Tergous alone. But did not the Prince of Orange break his Word, hi [...] Declaration with us, when by advancing his Troops he mad it impracti­cable, for King Iames, when a Treaty was on F [...]ot betwixt him and the King, to summon such a Parliament as the Prince of Orange said he would refer every thing to, and for which the King had issued out several Writs [...] Nay▪ was the threatening, not to say insolent, inhumane, and unna [...]ural [...] M [...]ssage, he sent to the King, to command his removal from Whitehall a [...]s [...] unseason [...]ble a time of the Night, and to go by conveyance, that co [...]sid [...]r­ing the coldness of the Weather, must be so dangerous to his Health agr [...]e­able to what he promised to those of the Gentry and Nobil [...]ty, who invi­ted him over without design of carrying things so [...]ar, without de­sign to carry them to any extremity, either against the King's Person, or the Just Rights and necessary P [...]erogatives of his Crown? Nay farther, has King William since he was Crowned, kept his Oath with any of th [...]se Kin [...]doms? I think it is plain he has not. I dare appeal to his Friends of both the Ros [...]s, The Rose Tavern at Temple-Barr, and in Covent-Garde [...]. [...] dare appeal to his Advocates at Richard's Coffee-House, and to his activ [...] Friend Paschall, who delivered his Declaration at the Door of the House o [...] Commons: Nay I dare appeal to any man livi [...]g, that has Sence and Memo­ry, whether he has always kept his Word; I am sure England, Sco [...]land, an [...] Ireland complain of the breach of it. I know no body indeed that he ha [...] kept it with but the Irish P [...]pists; He has broke it with both Parties in Scot­land. I will give an account how he has broke it with the Episcopal part [...] there, when I come to shew in what an admirable, in how much a more set­led, condition Secretary Iohnson has left that Kingdom, but at present I wil [...] observe how he has kept it with the Parliament of Scotland, as I have hereto­fore, how he has kept it with the People of England. It is sufficiently known that those who delivered him the Crown of Scotland, took a most par [...] ­ticular care to make the Redress of Grievances, and the assertion of their o [...] Rights, the conditions of taking it. And the Conditions upon which only the [...] gave that Crown. I must allow for the honour of that Nation, and [...] miti [...] ­gation [Page 29] of what they did, that had they had a Right to do it, they acted like wise and serious men; they provided Substantial Securities by their claim of Rights, and they ordered those who presented their Crown, to secure their Liberties, by reading first their Claim of Rights, then their Grievan­ces (both which went to the bottom of things) and then to insist upon the exacting of a Promise from him to govern according to the one, and to Re­dress the other, before they administred the Oath unto him, by which they de­signed, and evidently implyed his being sworn to the performance, which In­structions were punctually observed by those that delivered that Crown; but within a very short time after that Crown was given, tho' it was upon this promise, yet notwithstanding the greatest part of that Parliament which placed the Crown upon his Head, humbly petitioned the present King (for which priviledge of Petitioning they had provided by their Claim of Rights as well as the Prince of Orange had in his own Declaration declared the slighting and rejecting Petitions delivered by Subjects, with respect and sub­mission to be a high strain of Absolute Power) I say altho' that Parliament humbly Addressed to the present King for his Assent to some Votes which they had passed for Establishing their [...]i [...]erties, and which were agreeable to their Antient Laws and Priviledges, and pursuant to their Claim of Rights, they were scornfully and disdainfully refused and rejected.

Will you gi [...]e me leave to mention some of the Laws of Scotland; such as were set down in the Prince of Orange's Declaration to that Kingdom?

According to the Scotch Declaration, the appointing of Judges in an unusual manner, and giving them Commissions, which were not to continue during Life, or good behaviour, was highly Illegal; yet King William after he got the Crown, found he was mistaken in that Paragraph, and nominated the whole Bench without subj [...]ting them to a Tryal, and the approbation of Parliament according as Law and Custom required, did not think fit to continue their Commissions during Life or good behaviour, and appointed them a Lord Pres [...]nt, tho' by express and antient Statutes he was to be Elected by the Bench.

By the Prince of Orange's Declaration, the Imposing of Bonds without Act of Parliament, and the permiting of free quarters to the Souldiers, are de­clared to be high and intollerable Stretches of Government (as indeed they are by the municipal Laws of that Kingdom) but yet under this Government with greater Confidence, and less Compassion then ever, Bonds have been in Scotland imposed by authority of Parliament, as may appear from their publick Proclamations, and many thousands of Souldiers have been maintain­ed upon free quarter for many Months together, countenanced and abetted in it by the Government, and the Funds for the reimbursing the Country, which were appointed by Parliament▪ have been otherwise diverted.

[Page 30]The Commissionating the Officers of the Army to sit as Judges upon the Lives and Estates of the Subjects, and the [...]u [...]ing People to death without a L [...]gal Tryal, Iury and Record were complained of in the D [...]cla [...]ation, w [...]re thought good reasons for Forefa [...]ing of King Iames, and were provided against upon this last settlement of the Crown: and yet both the caution gi­ven against them by the sentence of Forefaulture in the Person of King Iames, and the future provision made by the Estates prove too weak to restrain this Government from practising the same things; for Colonel Hill and Lieutenant Colonel Hamilton were ordered and empowered to pu [...] Glencoa and all the Males of his Clan under seventy to death; which was partly executed upon them without any Legal Tryal, Iury, or Record. Neither can their former enmi­ty and opposition to the Government furnish any appology for so barbarous a Murder, since they had all, either actually taken the benefit of the Indem­nity, then granted, and so were pardoned, or had Protections in their Pockets, which put them under the immediate care and safeguard of the Govern­ment.

Will you give me leave now to put you in mind of a matter that concerns both Kingdoms? The frequencies of Parliament for redressing of Grie­vances, the amending, strenthening, and preserving of the Laws with all freedom of Speech and Debates in them was insisted upon, and fundamen­tally established by the States of both Kingdoms, when they Elected their present Majesties to the Throne. How well this is observed and made good to both Kingdoms, is obvious enough. I believe it would puzzle Doctor Welwood to give any considerable Catalogue of Grievances Redressed. No, it is not for Redressing of Grievances, amending or preserving the Laws they are assembled, but for giving of Money. The craving Necessities of the State, the pressing circumstances of the Confederates and Forreign Affairs, the early Preparations of the French King an [...] honourable Peace, the good of the Protestant Religion, and Fears of King Iames; are become the cruel and everlasting Topicks, the common and ordinary Stale whereby the true intent of Parliaments is baffled, and the Money-business quickned and finished. The last is now so much the business of Parliaments, and the first so little, that is is an equal Wager that this Court may come at last to plead Prescription a­gainst Parliaments as to any other business but Money Bills.

Doctor, I am afraid you will be put hard to assign many redressed Grie­vances, but I can present you with an account of at least six or seven and twenty Millions that we have paid King William, a prodigious Sum for five Years (besides the Money that we have in that time lost by his management and the vast Sums he owes) Methinks our bounty should have made him kee [...] better touch with us, have made him perform his Promises.

I begin to pitty you Doctor, for as I said, you must not discount for the [...] things by laying the blame upon the advices of Ministers, thereby to eas [...] [Page 31] the Prince; because every Branch of Law, is a Breach of Promise by your own Doctrine, if such a poor Animal as I can pick out the sence of what you write. Methinks you are a little abashed, we have been a long time [...]very serious: Have you a mind to be merry, Doctor, and I will by repeat­ing a Jest, shew you how in a very few Lines you might have given a more effectual answer to th [...]s Declaration? The Story is worth your hearing, I have been told of a Witty Wagg, of King William's own party, who when he saw this Declaration at first, looked a liltle solmn, and cryed out, Pox take it, this may do mischief, but after he had recollected himself, he said, Now I think of it, it will signifie little, for King William has taken the best way to make this, and all Declarations of no effect; for there is no body can name any one Pa­ragraph of his own that he has kept to, so that the Nation I hope will never mind Declarations more. It was a severe Jest upon the Prince of Orange, because the best Friends he has must own it a true one, nor can King William plead ig­norance in excuse of what he does, since the Prince of Orange could so nicely and so Libellously anatomize in his own Declaration every breach of our Laws made in King Iames's Reign, and also since the doctrines of this Revo­lution and Doctor Welwood's Libell make the King of this Kingdom the au­thor of all that is done it.

Good Doctor, what shall we do? Shall we ever trust to the Promis of one that has broke his Word with us before? Shall we trust a man that has broke Promises that were backed with the Religious Sanction of an Oath? Come Doctor, be good na [...]ured: Advise the World to be good natured, to be forgiving, and forgetting, or King William's Government will be in a dangerous condition.

But let us not entertain our selves any longer with such dismal Prospects▪ Let us make to the last Head.

I perceive, Doctor, tho' not only the Hawkers have carryed Six penny­worth, forty pages, of you [...] Works through all the City, but the Govern­ment has industriously spread them through all the Villages of the Country, with as much diligence, as the Ordinaries do the F [...]st-Prayers; yet you, Sir, are not satisfied that it is King Iames's Declaration. Really, Doctor, I am forty that a man of your Fi [...]ure and Talents ventured to spend so much of your time upon an uncertainty; but that you may not too much repent of your labour, I will asure you, Doctor, that I have seen this Declaration Signed with King Iames's own Hand, which I will Swear to as much as I will to any Similitude of Hands, and belief may serve in this case, tho' I think it no evidence in Criminal Causes, notwithstanding its being used as such at some Tryals since the Reversal of Sydney's Attainder, in which Reversal to do them Justice, the Convention was in the Right; But to proceed, I don't desire the World should take my Word for this matter. I believe, there are many Members of the House of Commons know his hand as well as I, [Page 32] and if they will become Security for my Person on this occasion too, I will produce it, either to the House, or to any Member of it whose Honour I can trust. Upon my word Doctor, it is in Town Signed with his own hand, if I may trust my own Eyes, and I will assure you too, Doctor, as I said, [...] never saw the King's hand to that former Declaration, which you are so [...] very willing should pass for an authentick one. Where have you lived, Do­ctor, of late? You used to be a man of good Intelligence. I wonder you have not heard that this last Declaration was in the French Gazette, which the other Declaration would questionless have been too, had it been more then an unfinished undetermined Scrole. If you will be pleased to enquire the French Gazette of Iune the 20th. 1693. I believe you need not put your self to any farther trouble about the reallity of this being King Iames's Decla­ration; but if you are still in doubt, there is an Astrologer who is a Pri­soner in the Fleet, and who was formerly of another Profession, to whom you may apply, and if he is a Master in his Art, he will easily by casting a Figure, find that this Declaration has passed the Great Seal at St. Germaines, as well as the approbation of many of his Majesties Friends here.

The Gentleman who studies the Stars can spell his own Name out of this little hint, but altho' he fawned upon King Iames in his Prosperity, and has been a busie little stickler against him since his Misfortunes, and has had a mind to have a flirt at this Declaration, yet I pitty the hardships that Gentle­man has brought upon himself, and wish at last he would mind his own pro­per Function, and not trouble himself any more with Politicks, which God and Nature never designed for his Province, He will know I ken, but I will not expose him, who is more miserable already then I wish him, were it in my power to make him otherwayes.

I have said all I think necessary to the general Heads, and now shall pro­ceed to those things that have not fallen under them.

In looking over page the 6th. I perceive Doctor, you have a wonderful good opinion of the Face of Affairs in Scotland, therefore if you please I will compare Notes with you.

My Correspondents, Doctor, assure me that your Country-men are less affected then they were to the present Government, which they say appears by the general obstinacy against taking the Oathes, the Episcopal Party ge­nerally, and some of the Presbyterian Ministers themselves refusing; and those that have taken the Oaths, even amongst the Presbyterian Clergy, have taken them with such a Reservation and Explication as plainly shews that they have King William in suspition, and that they don't desire to place a Dictato­rial Power in the Prince of Orange. I think I had best send the explanation it self. We do take the Oath of Allegiance to King William and Queen Mary, in so far as they defend our Religion, and our Liberties according to the Claim of Right and their Coronation Oaths. I suppose you have heard of Mr. Windram [Page 33] Professor in Divinity at Glascoe, Mr. Iohn Ballendine, and Mr. Thomas Linnin, These men repeated these Words in the name of themselves and the Kirk of Scotland, and they demanded, and would not be satisfied till they had got Instruments from the Clerk of the Commission, who was empowered to ad­minster the Oaths unto them, that upon these terms only they had Sworn the Oaths and Signed the Assurances Now I have repeated their Explanati­on, methinks even these men have not bound themselves Hand and Foot. The Claim of Rights & the Coronation Oath have been, & may again be, broken by King William and Queen Mary, and then the Kirk of Scotland is at Liberty to step out of the way of their Allegiance; and by what has been done to King Iames, such Sallies as those are brought into president. There are prodigious numbers both of Noblemen and Gentlemen, who were living Peaceably, and willing enough to live peaceably, under the protection of this Government, some of whom are Imprisoned, others Fined in a Years Revenue of their Estates, besides many that are Banished, and all this meerly for refusing to take the Oaths at all; and it is no wonder that men of Spirit and Conscience so obstinately refuse the Oaths there, since by them they are to Swear Allegiance to the Prince of Orange and his Princess as King and Queen de jure, as Rightful and Lawful King and Queen of Scotland; but besides these that refuse, there are others that are not so well able to grapple with Tribulation, who have taken the Oathes against their will, and with a design never to keep them, for there is nothing more certain than that according the Scotch Aphorism. He that Swears against his Will, is of his old Opinion still; nor can this Government especially expect any great Security from Oathes, which is it self founded upon the breach of so many solemn and sacred ones. That face of Affairs which you are in love with, seems to me disfigured with greater Oppressi­ons and more ghastly Hardships then would be necessary to support a Law­ful Throne, and I am apt to think those hardships will force the injured Per­sons, and many of their Relations upon designs against the Government, to get rid of these particular Oppressions, which perhaps no other motive could so easily and so vigorously have put them upon. This rigid management of Iohnston and Ormeston (who is Justice Clerk) has so universally disgusted that I have it from men of both parties (men considerable in the Presbyterian as well as the Episcopal Party in your Country) that those Cameronian Dri­vers have more served King Iames then their own Master. The heavy Taxes both upon the Commons and Gentry, which are so great and unusual that they neither will, nor can be paid in many places, have much inflamed Scot­land, but they are more inflamed because at the first sitting of their Parlia­ment they were made believe, that a bloody and execrable Plot would be made out as plain to them as the Sun at noon day, which Plot at last dwin­dled into a few paultry Letters, which no body evident [...] and legally knew the meaning of, nor to whom they were written, insomuch that Nevill Payne [Page 34] upon whom they were fathered, when he came to his Tryal in Parliamen [...] was so like to have been acqui [...]ed, that the Court was forced to A joi [...] his Tryal to save their own credit, and besides, as I am informed, there ha [...] like to have been a palpable discovery made of some indirect endeavours [...] forge that Plot, and to equipp Evidences for it. I hear that since the la [...] Session of Parliament ended the c [...] [...]ns of your Representatives (wh [...] it seems mark down as well as look on) have severely l [...]ctured these Mem [...] bers that appeared credulous in that matter. Tho' your Parliament as we [...] as ours can over-hastily Vote a Plot, yet I find the general sence of that Natio [...] is against prosecuting upon intercepted Letters. Your wise Country-men an [...] the generality of your Nation too (as do all wise men in all Countries be [...] lieve the State may be informed by Letters that they meet with by chance [...] but they don't think them sufficient grounds to set on Foot, such Severitie [...] as Secretary Iohnston has alarum'd them withal. Besides many of those wh [...] are very Zealous for the present Government, think it an unheard of Bar [...] barity, that Novell Payne who has been three Years in Prison, and most par [...] of them in close Prison, after being tortured with Boots and Thummakin [...] and that in a very extraordinary and Illegal way, and when he ought so long ago to have been set at Liberty, because he had endured the Torture; say they think it barbarous that this so wronged, that this suffering, English [...] man, who ought not by the Laws of Scotland to have b [...]en put at all to the Torture (upon the Crime alledged, without any Evidence against him, and being no Native of Scotland) should be now at last put in hazard of his Life when after all the Parade of the Government, after all their busie preparation to destroy him, it appeared plainly that there was nothing, even so much as like sufficient Evidence against him.

I come, Doctor, now to give you an account of the State of the Episcopa [...] Party in Scotland, as I promised sometime since; but give me leave to re­peat here also, a Paragraph of the Prince of Orange's Declaration to the Peo­ple of England, which relates to the People of Scotland.

And we do likewise resolve, that as soon as the Nations are brought to a State of quiet, we will take care that a Parliament shall be called in Scotland, for resto­ring the Antient Constitution of that Kingdom, and for bringing the matters of Re­ligion to such a Settlement, that the People may live easie and happy, and for puting an end to all the unjust Violences that have been in a course of so many Years commit­ted there.

In another place of the same Declaration, he makes one of the great ends of his coming over to this Island to be the Covering and Securing of all such wh [...] will live peaceably under the Government as good Subjects from all Persecution upon the account of their Religion, even Papists themselves not excepted. Perhaps I could shew he has kept his Word best with the Papists; but before I have ended my History of the Scotch affairs, I suppose no body will think he has kept his [Page 35] Word with the Episcopal Protestants of the Kingdom of Scotland. There have been made since this Revolution, Acts of Parliament that make it im­possible for any that approve of Episcopacy tho' in the lowest manner to hold any Preferment, either in the Churches, or the Universities, notwith­standing they should be willing (as some were) to submit to this Govern­ment. By the Act of the Settlement of the Church a [...] the Clergy are ob­lig [...]d to declare, that they believe the Presbyterian Church-Government is the only Government Christ hath left in his Church. And instead of a Com­promise which King William seemed to promise at the opening of the last Sessions, care has been taken not only to Level, by de jure Oathes and Assu­rances, at the Civil Principles of the Episcopal Party, but such maxims and mea [...]ures have been set on Foot there, as must not only extirpate them out of their Churches, but out of their Country too; and all these things are to be laid at Secretary Iohnston's and his Masters doors; because with your leave, Doctor, I must inform the World that King William Governs your Nat [...]ve Country with a Dictatorial Power, and much like a Conquered Pro­vince, and by taking only his Advice made Mr. Iohnston, before he had the publick character of Secretary, the Vice-Roy of it, who like a great Bashaw in Tur [...]y has so little of his own property there, that it is plainly his Interest to comply [...]ith his M [...]ster's Will. But to return to the Episcopal Clergy of Scotland. They must subscribe the Conf [...]ssion of Faith, made at West­minster, and the shorter and larger Catechism's made at the same place. They must promise to observe an Uniformi [...]y to the pres [...]nt Presbyterians in Wor­ship and Discipline, and besides this they are to submit to Tryers, who must be satisfied of their Gifts, and I suppose too (according to the usual form of Tryers) they must be satisfied they have not too good a Benefice for an Epis­copal Clergy-man. But I beg pardon for this Note of my own, and will go on to tell you that all that have Benefices, not submiting to these Conditions, are to be deprived, and that all others who have none are to be banished if they exercise, tho' in private Houses, their Ministry; so that now there are no remains of Toleration in Scotland. The Idolatrous Church of England is so little admitted there, that all remains of an Episcopal Party will be rooted out, if Iohnston's Ministry, and this Government can stand.

Let us proc [...]ed to another Head. Because you are a Stranger, give me leave to inform you, Doctor, that so much, does not signifie only in our Language, and then give me leave to consider part of the eighth and ninth Pages.

Good Doctor, did not the Prince of Orange charge the King with a suppo­ [...]uious Prince of Wales, and his partizans with a French League, the Murther of his Brother, and the Earl of Essex? Did these things contribute towards the King's misfortunes? Are they true? Or were they false? I believe you must allow, that nothing contributed so much to the King's Misfortunes, and [Page 36] our Miseries, as these malitious Calumnies. Were they his Friends, or his Enemies that set them about? I will not name Saint Iones's Grad-Irons, nor the Irish Massacree, and all the other Stories, wherewith the Mob [...] were carried headlong to Perdition. Besides this, a man without aggravation might say, that when the Prince of Orange had Bribed some to put the King upon ill [...]m asures, he Bri [...]ed others even to give a worse turn to them a­broad, than they (as bad as they were) deserved, and to six Intentions to them, which the King never so much as dreamt of. You can't but be sensible an ill t [...]ing may be aggravated by Billinsgate flights, because, Doctor, your own Talent lies that way.

Page the fourte [...]nth, you charge King Iames with endeavouring both be­fore and after his Accession to the Crown, to advance the exorbitant great­ness of France, and you say that this is a truth so generally known in Europe, that even the Popish Princes lay it at his door with the heaviest Execrations. These are heavy Charges, but you are pleased to let the proving of them a­lone, and I protest, Doctor, you are the only man in the world, upon whose bare Word I would have believed things of this importance. However from these discoveries of yours, you infer, that the present War is for the de­fence of our Country, our Religion, and our Liberties. The Protestant Re­ligion and English Liberty are so dear to me, that I must consider them first. I did never hear that our Religion and our Country were attacked by France. I thought we declared War first against France. Well! but you will tell us, that our Religion and Liberty are concerned in the defence of Flanders, as well as in that of our own Country, because, if P [...]pish Flanders is lost, it is impossible for either our Religion, or Liberty to subsist. I answer, First, that Flanders was not attacked, until after this Revolution, and so the danger of Flanders, did not draw us into this War. And then Secondly, with submission if we had kept out of this War, and from the expence of a Land Army in Flanders, our Trade would have flou­rished, and our Navy, with the fifth part of that Expence we have been at, might have been so increased as would have secured our Religion and Liberty from all the Power of France, and of the whole World too. But farther, supposing I should grant that we must be yet more watchful over Flanders, are we nevertheless bound to ruin our selves for its defence? Is not this to submit at present to a mischief, the avoiding of which for the fu­ture is the only reasonable and National motive why we should take any care at all of those Provinces?

But, Doctor, how does it appear that King Iames has labour'd for the Granduer of France? If you know any thing of a French League, produce it. My Lord Sunderland's Letter, Li [...]ens'd in 89. denys his knowledge of it, and I think his Evidence may be taken upon this Head. The Duke o [...] York's labouring to obtain those Peaces of Aixe La Chapell, and Nimeghe [...] [Page 37] which were so advantagious for the Conf [...]derates, are no very good proofs of your assertion. King Iames's threatning the King of France when his Ar­my was hovering about the Mase, and his sending the French King word when he offered to fall down upon Holland to divert is In asion that brought about this Revolution, that if he Invaded Holland he would send his Quota for th [...]ir de [...]ence, according to the Treaty of N [...]meghen, is a strong contra­diction to what you say; and upon the whole I am so far from bei [...]g of your mind, that I believe the majority of the Consederates will ascribe the present Granduer of France rather to the Prince of O [...]an [...]e's want of con­duct, Government and Oeconomie in their common Affairs, t [...]an to any endeavours of King Iames either before, or since his accession to the Crown.

If a man had nothing else to do, one might since you insist upon the Se­curity of our Religion by this War, make pretty work with that Article of the Confederacy, whereby the Prince of Orange engages himself to maintain the Vsurpa [...]ion of the [...]op [...] against the Franchises of the Ga [...]can Church, and with the [...]ecl [...]ra [...]ion Monsi [...]ur S [...]homb [...]rg put forth in Dauphin, this time twelve M [...]nth. And in answer to what you say, of the King's laying his Crown at the Feet of the Pope (which you your self, Doctor, can't but know it a mali [...]ious an [...] groundless Calumny) a man might expose your Master for having so often [...]a [...]pered with the Court of Rome for having had so great Friendships with many Popes, for being in a direct Confederacy with one, nay, for having as it were fought under his Banner when he came to be our Deliverer. With these things a man might divert the Reader, but I don't love to take all advantages of rallying, nor to aggravate upon all occasions; and I know Correspondencies may be held with a Pope as a secular Prince. If you will consider this short Paragraph, it may help you to an answer to many Excursions that you make.

Page the 23d. you are pleased to [...] King Iames for want of gratitude. I believe few Princes ever shewed a greater disposition to it. He lost his Crowns because he would not shift his Hands, after he had put out his Li­berty of Conscience, neither could he be perswaded to suspect those who had formerly shewed themselves hi [...] Friends, tho' in many of them appeared a peevish opposition to Liberty of Conscience it self. I never pretended to like the Methods that were then taken to introduce Liberty of Conscience, but the thing it self was both wise and Christian, and many of those with whom the King was displeased, did not only oppose the manner, but the Liber­ty, and yet King Iames conti [...]ued them in places of the greatest Trust, and was at last Sacrificed by his too great Confidence in their Fidelity. Besides this, how came you to reproach King Iames with ingratitude, since your Master has so signalized himself for it towards those that have served him in Holland, England, Scotland, and Ireland? Why should I name the Al [...]rins, [Page 38] &c. in the Vnited Provinces? Halifax, Shrewsbury, Delamere, Wildman, Manle [...], &c here? One of those very men that brought him the Crow [...] of Scotland? The Officers of Lo [...]don [...]rry and Iniski [...]ling, &c? I say why should I name these, when the whole Whigg-Party every day, in every Coffee-House, charge him with an Ignorance of his own Interest; becaus [...] he scarse rewards any body, but those that have opposed him? He seem [...] to have a Green-sickness, Palate in that matter, and to love Ingratitude, a [...] young Wen [...]hes do Dirt and Charcoal, because it is destructive to the Con­stitu [...]ion of his Government. King William has interwoven with his P [...]l [...] ticks all the Faults that we complained of in the time of King Iames, with out immixing that Oec [...]nomie, that good Husbanery, that application which must be allowed, even by his worst Enemies to be King Iames's Talents, and It's o [...]d, not to say R [...]diculous, to see the Prince of Orange every where fi [...] the Commissions of the [...]eac [...], and the Militia and almost all the Places o [...] Trust with men whose Principles a [...]e di [...]ectly opposite to his own Title, an [...] who opposed his Election to the Crown: This is as has been formerly sa [...] by a Jacobite Pamphlet [...]er, a Sin against the Holy Ghost of this Revolutio [...] and I am sure is a monstrous and undeniable Instance of the Prince of Orang [...] Ingratitude to those that put the Crown on his Head.

There remains two or three things still, to which I suppose you will e [...] ­pect an Answer. Page the seventeenth you repeat the Words of a Spee [...] the King made to the Parliament, 1685. where he told them, that he pleas [...] himself with the Hopes, that by Gods blessing & their assistance, he might carry the R [...] ­putation of this Nation higher in the World, than ever it had been in the time of any [...] his Ancestors. These Words of this Speech you think are Synonymous [...] this clause. He has set it before his Eyes as his noblest aim to do yet more for [...] Constitution than the most renowned of his Ancestors. Had you taken notice [...] the word C [...]stitution, and not over [...]ked the next clause of his Declaratio [...] which is, and as our chiefest Interest to leave no umbrage in relation to Religio [...] Liberty, and Property. I say if you had observed the word Constitution, as that clause, you could not fallen into such a mistake. It is plain the Ki [...] designed to make himself glorious, and to secure his own Interest by givi [...] us good Laws, and did not in his Declaration talk of Campaigning; an [...] let me assure you, the less a King of England loves Wars abroad, the [...] it is for his People at home.

But if it will not take up too much of your time, I will give you my Se [...] of that very Expression in the King's Speech, 1685. and be not surprise [...] Doctor, if I declare that I firmly believe that all the King said might ha [...] been brought to pass, if the People of England, and particularly the St [...] W [...]ïggs, had done their part. Will you not grant that the Wealth, the o [...] fluence of People, the greatness of their Trade, the number and strength their Shipping, together with the plentiful Magazines of Naval and Ma [...] ­tial [Page 39] Stores, raise the highest Reputation to Islanders? Did not our Con­quests: [...]pon the Continent always cost us very dea [...] in Blood and Treasure? And did they not end in loss and disgrace? Whilst Edward the Third and Henry the Fifth were making a noise with their Victories, poor England was lamenting that vast consumption of its People and Coyn, which had very near destroyed this Nation, whereas the Reputation which i [...] acquired by an increase of Trade, and Riches is much more durable, much more extensive, and will, upon an Island, resist with greater vigour the rude and cross shocks of For­tune. I sha [...]l make this more evident by comp [...]ring the Reigns of three of our [...]wn Princes, Edward the Third and Henry the Fifth gained many [...] glorious V [...]ctories, and conquered several Provinces in France, by which they rendred their Names dreadful to France (tho' their Influences were scarse felt or feared any where else) but what Fruit did England, nay even themselves, reap from all this? The disgraces of the latter part of Edward's Reign almost withered all his former Laurels, and England was so drained of Money, that its Treasure, with that of the Conquered Provinces, was not suf­ficient to pay that Army upon its return, which under the conduct of the Black Prince, had restored Don Pedro to his Kingdom of Castile, neither can we discover any better fruits of the Conquest of Henry the Fifth, his Reign was short, and upon ballancing of Accounts, nothing fell to our share, but our loss of our bravest Officers and Souldiers, and an immence mass of Money thrown away in that unfortunate War. Upon the other hand Queen Eliza­beth by applying her Councils and Thoughts to the Shipping and Trade of this Nation, did so encrease the Wealth and Strength of it, as enabled her to support the whole Protestant Interest, to secure Scotland from the French Clutches, to recover France out of the very Jaws of the Spaniard, to defend and establish the Common-wealth of Holland against all the Power of Spain, and at last to break the strength of, and to humble that great Monarch, to whose aspiring Thoughts all Europe seemed too mean a Quarry, and whose Ambition could not be satisfied with less then the Empire of the Universe. By these methods she out-did all the bravest Actions of our former Kings, and extended the dread and reputation of the English Name, hither to confined to our bordering States, to the utmost corners of the Earth, and hath withal thereby Established such a solid Foundation for our future greatness, as hath already withstood, without any sensible decay, a greater effusion of Blood and Treasure in our last Civil Wars, then was spent in France in the Reigns of Edward the third, and Henry the fifth, which Reigns nevertheless had al­almost anihilated this Nation. From all this it doth evidently appear that whensoever a King of England applys his whole thoughts to the encrease of the Shipping and Trade of this Nation, he must raise our Reputation, Strength, and influences proportionable to the advances he makes in them. That this was and must be King Iames's design, and what he meant in that [Page 40] Speech quoted by you, is pretty plain to every body that has any know­ledge of King Iames his Genius, who is truly a Trading and Navall King, and it is as plain to any man that reads Mr Pepy's Memoires, which are submit­ted to the scrutiny of the Books, and challenge the men that are now in the Navy, and Admiral [...]y Offices as to the truth of every thing he asserts, that King Iames proceeded [...]ui [...]a [...]ly to it. No Prince was ever more careful to encrease and encourage Trade, which he understands better than any Prince in Eu [...]ope, None more diligent to appoint Convoys or the Security of it, and none ever took juster measures in order to those [...]nds. None ever was more indefatigable in the encreasing of the Navy Royal None ever more industrious in filling the Magazines with Naval and M [...]litary Stores. But above all by his project of Liberty of Conscience, our Trade, Weal [...]h, and People, and consequently our Shipping would have been encreased to the envy and terrour of all our Neighbours. It was an early disc [...]very of those designs and measures of his, which would have p [...]oved so fatal to their Common-Wealth, that induced the D [...]tch to forward the Prince's under­taking; and did I think the Prince of O [...]ange had any re [...]ard to any thing besides his own unmeaning Will, could I believe he was touched with any love of his Native Soil, I should believe that love, upon thes [...] Considerati­ons, made him also the rather attempt the Revolution he effected. I can more easily believe he did it upon that account, then upon any of those Mo­tives which were plausibly expressed in some parts of his Declaration. Up­on the whole, those Hopes of King Iames might have been accomplished, if [...]hey had not been frustrated by the restiness of some, the giddiness of o­thers, and the artful Treachery of too many, with whom he trusted his most inward thoughts. They might have been accomplished, if the implacable aversion of some men to his Person, of others to the Family of the Stuarts, joyned with the Flatteries first of the pretended Church of England men, and then of Fanaticks, had not made him uncertain which way to turn, and so given an easier oppertunity to his corrupted Ministers to betray him into such Councils as brought forth this Revolution. Which Revolution has fa­tally diverted the application of our Councils, Strength and Treasure into a Channel which will never turn to anaccount; and into a sort of War, where­in our Trade and Shipping are neglected, whereby certain and inevitable Ruin is overtaking us, unless we suddainly come to an end of it. And not­withstanding, Doctor, what you say page 13th. time will inform all true English men and lovers of their Country, that they ought for the sake o [...] it to set their Hands and Hearts to the Accomplishing the King's Restora­tion, as the only means to secure to us lasting Peace and Happi [...]ess, our Re­ligion, and our Liberties; nor will all the bantering Stuff wherewith you de­claim, page 19th. and 20th. frighten us from [...] Restoring him.

[Page 41]I have dwelt a little too long upon this Head, but before I conclude I must go as far back as Page the third, wherein you challenge all the Kin [...]'s Declarati [...]n-makers to give but one single Instance from History, that ever a People who nom a just and recent sence of an invasion made by a limit [...]d Monarch upon their Laws and Fun [...]amental Constitution, had thereupon withdrawn their Allegiance from him, and conterr'd it upon another, did ever afterwards willingly and tamely subm [...]t to his Government again.

By this bold Challenge, Doctor, I find you have not read much History, for such instances so frequently occur in the Records of all Countries, that I will undertake that if you will be at the pains to search, you may find for one instance where a Monarch was excluded for ever, six instances where a limited Monarch dethroned by his People for Male-administrations, has by the same People either himself been called back, if alive or his Children, if he was dead; neither does the last any thing alter the case; for since all these vi [...]lent Hurricanes of State, occasioned by popular Reformations, require it may be sometime to wear o [...] the present Fit, in that interval the expell [...]d Prince ma [...] dye; but if the People come again so far to themselves a [...] to re­store the Children, by the same Revolution of their Inclinations they would unquestionably have done the same thing to the Father, if he had been alive.

But to produce some Instances, I shall omit many that might be given from the Emperou [...]s and Princes of Germany, the Antient Kings of Macedon, and the several Kingdoms of Greece, all which were limited Soveraign­ties. I will not men [...]ion Fe [...]dinand of Naples, Charles the fourth, Leuis the fourth, and Charles the seventh of France; nor will I speak of Sueno and Christopher the second of Denmark, or Alphonso the third of Castile; I will not insist upon Lasius King of Poland any more then upon those Revoluti­ons that were not long since in Flanders, Brabant, &c. where those People transf [...]rr'd their Allegiance to the Duke of Alanson, and being so many di­stinct and limited Principalities make so many several Instances. I say I will no [...] must upon any of these Examples, tho' they are all pretty apposite, and are still upon the Records of Time (as you phrase it) unl [...]ss you, Doctor, have lately razed them. But to come to your own Country, were not Reuther, Donald B [...]n [...], and Atherick Kings of Scotland, exp [...]lled by their People for their Irregularities? Did not their People transfer their Alle­giance to others? And were not they afterwards restored by the same Peo­ple, the two first in their own Persons, and the last in his Posterity? Will you look over what we have done in England? Does not Iohn Milion in his History of it tell you that Ethelred when he was expelled, and the Allegiance of his People transfered, was sent to by his People, who declared they [Page 42] preferred none before their own lawful Soveraign, if he would promise to Go [...]ern better than he had done? I set down the Words of the Historian, and if you will look into him, you will find his People rep [...]ssessed Ethelred upon promise to do so. In the same Historian you may find no l [...]ss than two others of the same Name that were expelled, and r [...]called in Person by their People. I will conclude this Head with the Restoration of King Charles the Second; was not King C [...]a [...]les the First, not only deposed, but put to Death by his Subjects, and that upon the Allegation of more nume­rous Crimes and some of them more hainous too, than those charged upon King Iames? Was not his Son Charles the Second, after his Father's Death, expelled the Kingdom, and the Allegiance of the People of England trans­ferred first to many, and then to a single Person under the Name of P [...]o­tector, tho' in effect a King? And ye [...] was not the very same despised, calumniated, and abju [...]ed Charles Stuart (as they then called him) after­wards peaceably and willingly called home by the uni [...]ed desires of the Peo­ple of England? Had the Father King Charles the First been then a [...]ive, would not he as cer [...]ain [...]y have been calle [...] home, since the revulse of the People was so strong as to Canonize him a Martyr, and to appoint upon the account of his usage a Day of Humilia [...]ion and Repentance to all after Ages? Nay, since the Injury done to him has left still such an impression, that many men who have had a Hand in this Revol [...]tion, yet remember his Blood shed with Horrour; and since, however contradictory it was to the Principles of this change, the Convention it self caused Ludlow to be sent away with a Proclamation at his heels; and farther, since multitudes of People in all parts of England attribute almost all our Misfortunes to that V [...]ng [...]ance wherewith God retaliates the Injustice of his Death? I say all this considered, can it be doubted that King Charles the First would have been b [...] this change of the Peoples temper re-possessed of his Throne, had he had the good luck to have gone into Exile?

From all these Instances, and many more that may be met with in Story, I think we may infer that nothing is more certain, than that the love which People have to the rightful Descendant and Successor of a Family that has a long time held the Reins of Government, and which has been submitted to by them, will at last prove too hard for any Fascination with which the People may for a while be inveigled by the arts of an Usurper, and his Emissaries, together with the Billinsgate of such Scriblers as your self.

That the King will be Restored, I don't at all question. The Follies, the Faults, the Unsuccessfulness and Ingratitude of the Prince of Orange make way for his Restoration. Our Injustice, and his Right enter a strong Claim for him in the Courts of Providence, and our own Consciences; His own repentance [Page 43] [...] the Male-administrations that were committed during his Reign, and the [...]ecurities he off [...]rs against such Errours for the fu [...]ure corroborate his Title, [...]d will infallibly dispose all mankind to receive him. But af [...]er all I must [...]onfess, that how much soever I have all along been convinced that he will [...]ome home, and that the Monarchy of England is Hereditary, and conse­ [...]uently that he is our Rightful and Lawful, and only King (of all which I [...]m absalutely convinced) I say as much as I am satisfied of all these parti­culars, yet I should have had le [...]s Heart to serve him, had I not been well [...]atisfied also that Common Pro [...]estancy, the Church of England as it is Esta­blished by Law, and our Civil Rights would be all Safe, if impartial Liber­ty of Co [...]science (w [...]ich does not imply sharing Ecclesiastical Prefer­ments, but freedom to all sorts of People (be their perswasion what it will) to worship God according to the [...]ictates of their own mind, withou [...] any Penalty) I sa [...] Common Protestancy will be safe if such a Liberty is settled. The Church of England may make her self now safe, by drawing at present proper Civil Securities within the Walls of our H [...]use of Commons, and tendering them in the first Parliament after the Restoration. The same promise of ra [...]ifying Laws now made might give us u [...]questionable Securi­ties for our Civil Rights, if the present House of Commons would think it their duty to provide any Securities for the Nation. But farther if these Gentlemen don't think that their business, yet we have another paragraph in the Declaration that will, if it is not our own fault, effectually secure us (and I think we need not be afraid of a Revolutionary Parliament under a Popish King) In the paragraph I mean, the King promises with all speed to call together our Representative Body, and therein to inform himself wh [...]t are our united Interests and Inclination; and with their concurrence to redress all our Grie­vances and to give all those Securities of which we shall stand in need. And in ano­ther place he particularly promises they shall chain up your dev [...]ing Mon­ster, explain and limit the Dispensing Power, and most effectually secure the Church of England, more effectually than that Promise you recite page the twenty ninth could be supposed to secure it before this Dispensing Power was either circumsc [...]i [...]ed or defined, and before the Power of the Judges to interperet away our Laws was provided against. We have not only his Promises, the King's being Sixty, and his Son not Six, our advantages a­gainst him by reason of the King's being of a Religion, that is not popular amongst us, but also our own Tenures and tempers, and his experience that English men, nay that the generality of the Members of the Church of England will not live up to all the stretches of Prerogative and Passive Obedience, to pro [...]ect us against future I [...]regularities. It will not be the King's fault if any umbrage for Jealousies is left, in relation either to Religion, Liberty, or Pro­perty. It is not. He sees it is not, his Interest to leave any, and therefore [Page 44] ever since he first heard of the Prince of Orange's intended design of con [...] and likewise what Jealousies (whether well or ill grounded) his Peo [...] have had, he has been always willing to condescend to ample Securiti [...] and in this last Declaration he very plainly invites us to secure our selves [...] the future, encourages us for the future to Word our Acts of Parliament m [...] cautiously. What Despotick Doctrines may be found in our English Stat [...] Books? And when the Duke of Queensborough (one of King William's p [...] sent Privy Counsellours) was Commissioners in Sco [...]land, was not that fo [...] of speaking Absolute Power without reserve introduced into their Laws? [...] was the King the safer for these extravag [...]nt Complements of these Par [...] ments? Did these Flatteries of those Houses subjugate the minds of [...] People of these Kingdoms? I am glad to see by the wording of the King Declaration, that hi [...] Majesty is sensible, that soothing expr [...]ssions give [...] real Power, don't establish the Interest of the C [...]own. I said some ti [...] since, that I wou [...]d make no Apology for the Male-administrations of Ki [...] Iames's Reign, but yet if we would Saddle the righ [...] Hors [...]s. I think Parl [...] ments and Pulpits come in for their share of reproof, as well even as t [...] King's Ministers, and I am sure are more blameable by our Constitutio [...] than the K [...]ng. For was not that Parliament of Scotland more faulty [...]o [...] introducing such a luscious Expression into the Laws of their Country tha [...] King Iames, or his Minister, for using the very Words of an Act of Pa [...] liament in the Declaration of Indulgence that was sent [...]hithe [...]? As I sai [...] in another case, Extravagant Acts of Parliament never have the validity [...] Laws, but yet they may mislead Kings. It is happy for Kings, when the keep exactly to the Fundamental Constitutions of their respective Kingdoms; but sure they are pardonable, if not excusable, when Representati [...] Bodies tempt them in [...]o Errours, unless by s [...]me Declaration of their own they seem to have a thorow knowledge of the Constitution Indeed th [...] Prince of Orange seemed in his Declaration to u [...]derstand our Constitutio [...] so well, that he understood even the Chicaneri [...] of our Beautif [...]ux, and f [...] this reason, and by the doctrines of this Revolution is inexcusable; but believe King Iames never heard our Constitution so frankly debated, [...] men that he might confide in, as he has since his Misfortunes. Heretofor [...] the men that spoke unflatteringly to, were at enmity with him, and [...] men are with great reluctancy, [...] their Interest by their avowed A [...] versaries, but now it has been laid before him by such as daily hazard the [...] selves for his Service; and you see the Fruits of such Representatives are [...] Royal Word to do more for our Constitution, than the most renowned [...] his Ancestors, which implies that he will give us better Laws even the Edward the third, or Queen Elizabeth, &c. To protect the Church of Eng­land as Established by Law, and to secure its Members, all the Churches, & [...] [Page 45] to recommend Liberty of Conscience to a Parliament. To leave the Dispensing Power to that Parliament, to consent to every thing n [...]ces­sary to secure the frequent calling and hol [...]ing of Parliaments, the free Elections and fair Returns of Members, and provide for impartial Tryals and to consent to all things that are necessary to re-establish the Act of Settlement in Ireland. And to exchange Chimney-Money, or any other part of the Revenue of the Crown, for any other easier Assessmen [...]. These things are Particularly mentioned, and the general Promises imply his willingness to agree to any thing, that can contribute to our Happiness, tho' he could not in his Declaration enter into all the particulars of Grace and Goodness, that he shall be willing to grant, some of which particu­lars are in other mens Letters, and some too in Letters I have by me, tho' they are not, as I said, at the beginning proper to be mentioned out of Parliament. Those Particulars he promises are so beneficial, and I am so confident of his Majesties exact Performance, that as much as you and I differ in Politicks, and the Rights and Titles of Kings, yet I will put the Issue of things upon that, and joyn with you in Prayer, that God may give him Success in the prosecution of his Right, as he sincerely intends the Confirmation of our Liberties. I heartily say this Prayer, and I wish no more to facilitate the Restoration of the King, than that all his Subj [...]cts would say it with as honest a regard, both to their Country, and the King as I do. Then no more Blood would be shed in this quarrel. Then these Nations, and his Majesties Family would return to their duty. Then the Prince of Orange must be soon content to return to his proper Station, to his Statholdership in the Vnited Provinces. And then we should be delivered from those Tyrannical Oppressions and Bu [...]thens, with which we have been oppressed, and are like to be destroyed.

I had once thoughts of closing here, but I can't forbear making one observation upon the Words of the Declaration cited at the end of my last Paragraph, which observation is this. The King with a Royal decorum avoids writing Libels (tho' by what, Doctor, you have provoked me to say of the Male-administrations of the Prince of Orange you may see he did not want matter) The King thinks it enough to tell his People, what he will do for them, and not becoming his character to tell the world what the Prince of Orange has done either against him, or them. He will no more imitate the Prince of Orange in sending over Invectives, than the French King will the Dutch, in being so mercinary as to expect repayment for what he has, or shall do for the King. The King declares he will forgive, and be reconciled to all his Subjects that don't after his Landing oppose him (tho' they venture neither Life nor Limb for him) and which is remarkable, there is no expression in this whole Declaration which shews the least unwillingness to be reconciled even to his own [Page 46] Family, notwithstanding the ill treatment and unjust usuage he has met with from them to whom he had been so indulgent. I pray God that the whole Family may be yet reconciled if it be his blessed Will and Pleasure.

It is time to end; for I have answered all that is material in your Li­bel, and I have tyred my self, and, I believe, my Reader with poring upon it, tho' I have avoided in many places ridiculing your tedious re­petitions, fantastick discoveries, &c. as likewise giving an exact and full detayle of the Ministers, and managements of the present Government. When I first scratched down my rough draught, I designed to have used you a little familiarly, and therefore collected some ma [...]erials for railery, to which you have very much exposed your self, but upon second thoughts I concluded the Times too tedious even for Tragicomedy, and too busie for a long Pamphlet. If you don't some where or other meet with a full Answer to any thing you value your self for, it is because I did not think it of so much weig [...]t as you do. I have not urged the third part of what I could say against what you have written; but if any body will with care look over what I have said, I presume, no farther Antidote will be wanting to preserve them from the infection of your Libel. Your good breeding, Doctor, has not been very remarkable, your Inferences are very weak, and your Ignorance very notorious. To pass by forty other in­stances of either the greatest disingenuity, and most impudent falsificati­on, or else the most apparent Ignorance, that ever appeared in Print; can any thing manifest a more notorious want of knowledge in History then what you say page 25th. where you peremptorily affirm that King James made more steps in four Years time towards the reconciling this Nation to the Church of Rome, then was made in France it self from the death of Henry the fourth until about three Years before the Edict of Nants was revoked; for did not Lewis the 13th. who succeeded Henry the 4th. attack the Prote­stants by force of Arms, kill many thousands of them in the Field, tear out of their hands no less then 300 Walled Cities and Forts? Did King Iames make any Steps like these? Did he attack the Protestants by Force? As a Friend, I advice you never to Print again, till you have read and thought more, since had the Press been free, and men had leisure to read Sportive Pamphlets, a man might lash'd you most unmercifully.

After this friendly Advice, pardon my taking leave of you without any farther Ceremony than giving you for a subject of your Contemplations a grave observation that Mr. William Prynne made after he had tumbled over all our Annals. His observation is.

Vsurpers of Crowns without Right, tho' they court the People with Corona­tion Oaths, and fair Promises of good Laws, Immunity from all Taxes and Grievances, Prynne's Rights & Laws of English free-men. yet usually prove the greatest Tyrants and Oppressors to them of all others.

[Page 47]You see Doctor, I have brought you acquainted with Mr. Osb [...]rn [...]. Mr. Wilson, and Mr. Prynne, all men that were never taxed with holding any [...]respondence with your grand and sworn En [...]my the Old Passive Obe [...] [...] Principle. I leave you to enjoy their Company, and bid you Adieu.


SInce so severe a Critick as Doctor Welwood will not fail reproaching me for being a Plagiary; I think it not amiss to break the Stroke of his Accusation by fre [...]ly owning that where Great Brittains just Complaint has said things directly to my purpose, I ordered the Transcriber for the Press to set them down, and many times in the same Words, not only because I know not how to cloath them with better, but also becaus [...] I [...]m really of too lazy a disposition to disguise the Stealth, tho' a few [...]ours would have done it.

This Reply had been ready against the meeting of the Parliament, if it could have been Printed, for it has been at the Press above two Months, and had it not been so near finished, the History of throwing out Mr. Brockman's Bill, together with the manner of guelding it, would have made a very entertaining Paragraph amongst the Legislative Errours. Whatever parts of the Preface or Reply come too late, for the reasons of writing them they must be considered, with respect to the time in which it was hoped the whole would have been published.


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