The Worth of a Peny: OR, A Caution to keep Money. With the causes of the scarcity and misery of the want hereof in these hard and mercilesse Times: As also how to save it in our Diet, Apparell, Recreations, &c. And also what honest Courses men in want may take to live.

By H. P. Master of Arts.

LONDON, Printed by R. Hearne. 1641.

To the every way deserving and wor­thy Gentleman, M. Richard Gipps, eldest son unto M. Richard Gipps, one of the Iudges of the Court of Guild-Hall in the Citie of London.

SIR,

WHen I had finished this discourse of The Worth of a Penie, or, A Caution to keep Mo­ney, and bethinking my selfe unto whom I should offer the Dedication, none came more opportunely into my thought then your self: for I imagined, if I should dedicate the same unto any penurious or miserable minded man, it would make him worse, and be more uncharitable and illiberall; if unto a bountifull and free-minded Patrone, I should teach him to hold his hand, and against his [Page] nature make him a miser. I to avoid either, made choise of your selfe, who being yet unmarried, walk alone by your selfe, having neither occasion of the one nor the other: Beside, you have travelled France and Italie, and I hope have learned thrift in those places, and understand what a vertue Parsimonie is; for want whereof, how many young heires in England have gallop'd through their estates before they have been thirty? Lastly, my obligation is so much to your learned and good father, and for goodnesse your incomparable mo­ther, that I should ever have thought the worse of my selfe, if I had not Cum tota mea supellex sit chartacea, as Erasmus saith: I had not ex­pressed my duty and hearty love unto you one way or other,

Whose in all service I am truly, Hen. Peacham.

The Worth of a Peny: OR, A Caution to keep Money.

THe Ambassadour of Muley Hamet, Sheck. K. of Morocco, when he was in England about four or five yeares since; said on a time, sitting at dinner at his house at Woodstreet, he thought verily that Algiers was foure times as rich as London: An English Mer­chant replied that he thought not so; but that London was farre richer then that, and for plenty Lon­don might compare with Hierusalem in the peacefull dayes of Solomon. For my part, I beleeved neither, especially the Merchant, for in the time of Solomon, silver was as plentifull in Hierusalem as stones in the street; but with us stones are in farre more abundance, when in every street in London, you may walk over five thousand load ere you finde a single pe­nie. Againe, the generall complaint and murmure thorow­out the Kingdome of the scarcity and want of money, argues that we fall farre short of that plenty which the Merchant imagined.

And one time I began to bethink my selfe, and to look in­to the causes of our want, and this generall scarcity, and I found them manifold. First, some men who by their wits or industrie (or both) have serued and wound themselves into vast estates, and gathered thousands like the Griffons of [Page 2] Bactria when they have met with a gold myne) so brood over, and watch it day and night, that it is impossible for Charity to be regarded, Vertue rewarded, or Necessitie relie­ved: and this we know to have been the ruine, not onely of such private persons themselves, but of whole estates and kingdomes. That I may instance one for many, Constantino­ple was taken by the Turke when the Citizens abounding in wealth and money, would not part with a peny in the com­mon necessity, no, not for the repaire of their battered wals, or the levying of souldiers to defend them.

Another sort doat upon the stampe of their money, and the bright lustre of their gold, and rather then they will suf­fer it to see the light, will hide it in hills, old walls, thatch or tiles of their houses, tree-roots, and such places, as not ma­ny yeares since at Wainslet in Lincolnshire, there was found in digging of a backside to sow hempe in, an old rustie hel­met of iron, rammed in full of peeces of gold, with the pi­cture and arms of King Henry the first; and money thus hid, the owners seldome or never meet withall again, being many times prevented by sudden death, lost by casualty, or their forgetfulnesse.

Mounsieur Gaulart, a great man of France (though none of the wisest) in the times of the civill warres buried some two thousand crownes, a mile or two from his house, in an open fallow field; and that he might know the place again, took his mark from the spire of a steeple, that was right a­gainst the place: the wars being ended, he came with a friend of his, as neere the place as he could gesse, to look for his money, which he not finding, and wondering what the reason should be, after (in the circumference) he had gone about the steeple, (being right against it which way soever he went) quoth he to his friend, is there no cheating knave (think you) in the steeple that turnes it about, intending to cheat me of my money, imagining that it went round, and himselfe stood still, as Copernicus did of the Globe of the Earth.

Indeed much money and treasure, in former times, as of [Page 3] the invasion of the Saxons, Danes, Normans here with us, and of others in other places, hath been this way bestowed, and for this reason in such troublesome times become scarce for whole ages after: but this is no cause of want of money in our times, wherein (it is true) we have little money to hide, yet there are not wanting among us, those Monedulae, or mo­ney hiding Dawes, who repine and envie, that either King or Countrey, should be one peny better (yea even in the greatest extremity) for what they have conveyed into their holes. And most true it is, that money so heaped up in chests, and odde corners, is like (as one saith) unto dung, which while it lies upon an heape doth no good, but disper­sed and cast abroad, maketh fields fruitfull. Hence Aristotle concludeth, that the prodigall man is more beneficiall to, and deserveth better of his countrey then the covetous mi­ser, every trade and vocation fareth the better for him, as the Tailor, Haberdasher, Vintner, Shoemakers, Sempsters, Hostlers, and the like.

The covetous person is acquainted with none of these, for in stead of Satten, he suits himselfe with Sacken, he trembles as he passes by a Taverne doore, to heare a recko­ning of eight shillings sent up into the halfe Moone, for Wine, Oisters, and Faggots, for his owne naturall drink (you must know) is between that the Frogs drink,Scar beere brewed with broom in the Low Countreys at peny farthing the gallon is much like it. and a kinde of pitifull small Beere, too bad to be drunk, and some­what too good to drive a Water-mill: the Haberdasher gets as little by him as he did by an old acquaintance of mine by Li [...]ne in Norfolke, who when he had worne an hat eight and thirty yeares, would have petitioned the Parliament against Haberdashers, for abusing the Countrey in making their ware so slight. For the Shomaker, he hath as little to do with him as ever Tom Coryat had: for Sempsters (it is true) that he loves their faces better then their fashions: for Playes, if he read but their titles upon a post, he hath enough. Ordina­ries he knowes none, save some of three pence in Black-Horse-Alley, and such places. For Tapsters and Hostlers, they hate him as hell, as not seeing a mote in his cup once in seven yeares.

[Page 4]Another cause of scarcity and want of money, are peace­full times, the nurses of pride and idlenesse, wherein people increase, yet hardly get imployment, those of the richer and abler sort give themselves to observe and follow every fa­shion, as what an infinite summe of money yearly goeth out of this kingdome into forraine parts for the fuell of our fashionable pride? Let me hereto adde the multitude of strangers that daily come over into our warmer soile, (as the Cranes in winter betake themselves to Aegypt) where ha­ving enriched themselves through our folly and pride re­turne, and purchase great estates in their owne Countreys, enhaunsing there our moneys to a higher rate, to their exces­sive gaine, and impoverishing of our people of England. Let me adde hereto beside the great summes of money, and ma­ny other great and rich gifts, which have beene formerly conferred upon strangers, which how they have deserved, I know not; some I am sure like snakes taken up and having gotten warmth from the Royall fire (have been ready to hisse at, and sting (as much as in them lieth) both their finders and their founders.

Again, there is an indisposition of many men to part with money in these tickle times, being desirous, if the worst should happen, to have their friends about them, as Sir Tho­mas Moore said, filling his pockets with gold when he was carried to the Tower.

There is likewise, almost a sensible decay of trade and traffique, which being not so frequent as heretofore, by rea­son (as some would have it) the seas are now more pestered with Pirats then in times past, the Receipt of Custome, like the stomack wanting the accustomed nourishment, is constrai­ned to suck it from the neighbour veines, to the ill disposi­tion, and weakening of the whole body.

They are no few, or small summes, which in peeces of eight are carried over to the East Indies, no doubt to the great profit and inriching of some in particular, but whether of the whole kingdome in generall or not, I know not. What hurt our late questioned Patentees (in Latine Hirudi­nes) [Page 5] have done to the Common Body in sucking and draw­ing forth even the very life-blood from it, we know daily, and more we shall know shortly; I wish some of the craftiest, and most dangerous amongst them, might be sin­gled out for examples, remembring that of Tacitus, Poena ad paucos, timor ad multos.

All people complaine generally (as I have said) of the want of mony, which like an Epidemicall disease, hath over­run the whole land, the City hath little trading, Countrey-Farmers complaine of their Rents yearly raised, especially by their Catholique Landlords) which in times past have bin accounted the best, though now the case is altred, (and easily may the reason be ghessed) yet can finde no utterance for their Commodities, or must sell them at under rates. Scho­lers without money get neither Patrones nor preferment, Mechanique Artists no work, and the like of other profes­sions.

One very well compared worldly wealth, or money, un­to a foot all, some few nimble heeled and headed run quite away with it, when the most are onely looke is on, and can­not get a kick at it in all their lives.

Go but among the Usurers in their walk in Moore-fields, and see if you can borrow an hundred pounds of any of them without a treble security, with the use one way or other doubled, and as your selfe, so must your estate be particular­ly knowne. A pleasant fellow came not long since to one of them, and desired that he would lend him fifty pounds: quoth the Usurer, my friend. I know you not, for that rea­son onely I would borrow the money of you, for if you knew me, I am sure you would not lend me a peny.

Another meets a Creditour of his in Fleetstreet, who seeing his old Debter, Oh Master A. quoth he, you are met in good time, you know there is money between us, and hath been a long time, and now it is become a scarce commodity; it is true Sir, quoth the other, but (he looking down upon the stones that were between) in good faith I see none: and this was all the Citizen could get at [Page 6] that time, but afterward hee was well satisfied.

Whom would it not vex to be indebted to many of your shop-keepers, who though they have had their Bills truly paid them for many years together, yet upon the smallest dis­taste of a petty mistake, reckoning, or some remnant behinde, be called upon, openly ra [...]led at, by their impudent and cla­morous wives, insulted over, and lastly, arrested; which should, me thinks, teach every young Fashion-monger, ei­ther to keep himselfe out of debt, or money in his purse, to provide Gerberus a sop.

Another miserie proceeding from the want of money is, that when it is due unto you by your own labour or desert from some rich miserable, or powerfull man or other, by long waiting day by day, yea, hourly attendance at his house or lodging, you not onely lose your time and opportunity of getting it elsewhere, and when all is done to be paid after five in the hundred, in his countenance, or else faire and candid promises, which will inrich you straight, Promissis dives quilibet esse potest And some men there are of that cur­rish and inhumane nature, whom if you shall importune through urgent necessity, then are you in danger to lose both your money and their favour for ever.

Would you preferre and place your sonne in the Univer­sity? Let him deserve never so well, as being anable and ready Grammarian, yea Captain of his forme, you shall very hardly preferre him, without great friends joyned with your great purse; for those just and charitable times, wherin desert seld went without it due, are gone; the like I may say of the Citie, where if the Trade be any thing like, you cannot place your sonne under threescore or an hundred pounds, though by nature he were (as many are) made for the same, and of wit and capacity never so pregnant.

Or have you a daughter, by birth well descended, vertuous, chaste, faire and comely, indued with the best commendable qualities that may be required in a young, beautifull, and mo­dest maid, if you have not been in your life time thriftie to provide her a portion, she may live till she be as old as Creusa, [Page 7] or the nruse of Aeneas, Ca [...]et. are you shall get her a good match. ‘Nam genus & formam Regina pecunia donat.’ It is as true as old: Hence the Dutch hath a proverbe, that, Gentility and faire lookes buy nothing in the Market.

If you happen to be sick or ill, if your purse hath been lately purged, the Doctor is not a leisure to visit you, yea hardly your neighbours and familiar friends; but unto monied and rich men, they slie as Bees to the willow palms, and many times they have the judgements of so many, that the sick is in more danger of them, then his disease.

A good and painfull Scholer, having lately taken his or­ders, shall be hardly able to open a Church doore without a golden key, when he should ring his bells; hence it commeth to passe, that so many of our prime wits runne over sea to seek their Fortunes, and prove such Vipers to their Mother-Countrey.

Have but an ordinary suit in Law, let your Cause or Case be never so plain or just, if you want where with to maintain it, and as it were ever and anon to water it at the root, it will quicklie wither and die; I confesse, friends may do much to promote it, and many prevaile by their powerfull assistance in the prosecution.

There was of late years in France, a marvellous faire and goodly Lady, (whose husband being imprisoned for debt or somthing else) was constrained to be his Sollicitor, and in her own person to follow his suits in Law, through almost all the Courts in Paris, and indeed through her favour, gat extraor­dinary favour among the Lawyers and Courtiers, and almost a finall dispatch of all her businesse, onely she wanted the Kings hand, (who was Henry the fourth of famous memo­rie) he, as he was a noble, witty, and understanding Prince, understanding how well she had sped, (her suit being in the opinion of most men desperate or lost) told her, that for his part he would willingly signe her Petition; withall, he asked how her husband did, and bad her from himselfe to tell him, [Page 8] That had be not pitch'd upon his hornes, he had utterly been spoil'd and crush'd. So that hereby was the old Proverbe ve­rified: A friend in Court is better then a peny in the purse: But as friends go now adayes, I had rather seek for them in my parse, then in the Court, and I beleeve many Courtiers are of my minde. Againe, to teach every one to make much of, and to keep money when he hath it; let him seriously think with himselfe, what a miserie it is, and how hard a matter to borrow it, and most true it is that one faith, ‘Semper comitem aeris alieniesse miseriam.’ That miserie is ever the companion of borrowed money. Hereby a man is made cheape, and undervalued, despised; deferred, mistrusted, and oftentimes slatly denied. Beside, upon the least occasion upbraided therewith in company, and among friends, and sometime necessitie drives men to be beholden to such as at another time they would scorne to be, wherein the old saying is verified: Mis [...]rum est debere cui nolis.

And on the contrary, how bold, confident, merry, lively, and ever in humour are monied men; they go where they list, they weare what they list, they eat and drink what they list, and as their mindes, so their bodies are free; they feare no City Serjeant, Court-Marshalls-man, or Countrey-Bai­liffe; nor are they followed or dog'd home to their ordina­ries, and lodgings by City-shopkeepers, and other Credi­tours, but they come to their houses and shops where they are bidden welcome; and if a stoole be fetch'd into the shop, it is an extraordinary favour, because all passers by take no­tice of it; and these men can bring their wives, or friends, to see in Court the King and Queene at dinner, or to see a Maske, by meanes of some eminent man of the guard, or the Carpenter that made the scaffold.

The Common and Ordinarie Causes why men are poore and want money.

THere must, by the Divine Providence, in the body of a Common-wealth, be as well poore as rich, for as an hu­mane body cannot subsist without hands and feet to labour, and walke about to provide for the other members, the rich being the belly which devoure all, yet do no part of the work, but the cause of every mans poverty is not one and the same. Some are poore by condition, and content with their calling, neither seek, nor can work themselves into a better fortune; yet God raiseth up, as by miracle, the chil­dren and posterity of these, oftentimes to possesse the most eminent places either in Church or Common-wealth: as to become Archbishops, Bishops, Judges, Commanders and Generalls in the field, Secretaries of State, Statesmen and the like, so that it proveth not ever true which Martiall saith,

Pauper eris semper, si pauper es Aemiliane.
If poore thou beest, poore thou shalt ever be,
Aemilianus, I assure thee.

Of this condition are the greatest number in every king­dome; other there are who have possessed great estates, but those estates (as I have seene and knowne it in some fa­milies, and not farre from the citie) have not thrived or con­tinued, as gotten by oppression, deceite, usury and the like, which commonly lasteth not to the third generation, accord­ing to the old saying, ‘De male quasitis vix gaudet tertius haeres.’ Others come to want and miserie, and spend their faire estates in waies of vitious living, as upon drinke and wo­men; for Bacchus and Venus are inseparable companions, [Page 10] and he that is familiar with the one, is never a stranger to the other, ‘Vno namque modo Vina Venusque nocent.’ Some againe live in perpetuall want, as being naturally wholly given to idlenesse, these are the droanes of a Common wealth, who deserve not to live, Qui non laborat, non man­ducet, saith the Apostle Paul. Both countrie, and citie swar­meth with these kinde of people. The diligent hand (saith Salomon) shall make rich, but the Sluggard shall have scarcity of bread. I remember when I was in the Low Countries, there were three souldiers, a Dutchman, a Scot, and an English­man, for their misdemeanors condemned to be hanged: yet their lives were begd by three severall men, one a Brick-layer, that he might help him to make bricks & carry them to walls, the other was a Brewer of Delft, who beg'd his man to fetch water and do other worke in the Brewhouse; now the third was a Gardiner, and desired the third man to help him to worke in, and to dresse an Hop-garden: the first two accepted their offers thankfully, this last the Englishman told his maister in plaine termes his friends never brought him up to gather Hops, but desired he might be hang'd first, and so he was.

Other having had great and faire estates left unto them by friends, and who never knew the paine and care of get­ting them, have as one said truely, gallop'd through them in a very short time; these are such of whom Salomon speaketh, who having riches, have not the hearts (or rather the wit) to use them: these men most aptly Homer compareth unto the Willow tree, which he calleth by a most significant Epithete, [...], in Latine, Frugsp [...]rda, or loose-fruit, because the palmes of the Willow-tree are no sooner ripe, but blown away with the winde. I remember in Queene Elizabeths time, a wealthy Citizen of London left his sonne a mighty estate in money, who imagining he should never be able to spend it, would usually make Ducks and Drakes in the [Page 11] Thames with twelve pences, as boyes are wont with Tile­sheards and Oister-shells, and in the end he grew to that ex­treme want that he was faine to begge or borrow sixepence, having many times no more shooes then fect, and sometime more feet then shooes, as the beggar said in the Com [...]die.

Many also there are who having beene borne to faire Estates have quite undone themselves by marriage, and that after a twofold manner; first by matching themselves with­out advice of parents or friends in heate of youth, unto proud foolish light huswifes, or such perfect Linguists, that one were better to take his diet inA place neer to Westmin­ster Hall where very good meat is dressed all the Terme time. hell then his dinner at home: and this is the reason so many of their husbands travaile beyond Seas, or at home go from towne to towne, taverne to taverne, to looke for companie; and in a word, to spend any thing, to live any where save at home, and in their owne houses.

Others there are againe who match themselves, for a little handsomnes and eie-pleasing beautie, unto very meane and poore kinreds, sometimes drawne in hereto by broking knaves, and necessitous Parents, who are glad to meet with such that they might serve them as props to uphold their de­caying and ruinous families; and these poore sillie young birds, are commonlie caught up before they be iudge, and pulled bare before ever they know they hast feathers; for their fathers in law, or some neere of the kinne, as soone as they have seene one and twentie, have so be [...]m'd them in bands, that they shall hardly as long as they live be able to flie over ten acres of that land their friends left them.

A Knight of eight or ten thousand pound land by the yeere doated upon a poore Alewives daughter, and made her a Ladie: it cannot be denied, but women of the meanest con­dition may make good wives, since Paupertas non est vnium, povertie is no vice; but herein is the danger, that when their husbands in a short time having, as it were, taken a surfet of their beauties, and finding their error, they beginne (as I have knowne many) to contemne them, and flie abroad, do [...]te upon others, and devise all the waies they can (being [Page 12] growne desperate) to give or sell all that they have, Besides such poore ones oft times prove so impious and proud, as that they make no conscience to abuse, insult over, and make sillie fooles of their husbands, as by letting and disposing of his land, gathering up his rents, putting away and enter­taining what servants they list, to verifie that old verse,

Asperius nihil est humili cum surgit in altum.
There's nothing more perverse and proud then shee,
Who is to wealth advanc'd from beggerie.

An Italian Earle about Naples of an hundred thousand crownes by the year in estate married a common Laundresse whereupon the old Pasquine (the Image of stone in Rome, the next sunday morning, or shortly after, had a foule and a most filthy shirt put upon his back, and this tart libell beneath; Pasquine how now? A foule shirt upon a sunday? the Resposto or answer in Pasquines behalfe was; I cannot help it, my Laun­dresse is made a Countesse; Besides another inconvenience is that beside the calling of his wit and judgement into ques­tion, he drawes unto him so many leaches and down-draw­ers upon his estate as his wife hath necessitous friends and kindred; but they that thus marrie are commonly such young men as are left to themselves, their parents, overseers, or faithfullest friends being either dead or far from them.

Others not affecting Marriage at all live (as they say) upon the Commons,Nil ait esse prius, meli­us nil coe­libe vita. unto whom it is death to be put into the severall, but spend that they have altogether in irregular Courses of life, as in change of houses and lodgings, enter­tainment of new acquaintance, making great feastes in tavernes, invitations and visits of their (common) mistresses, Coach hire, cloathes in fashion, and the like: besides the hanging on and intrusion of some necessitous parasites, of whom they shall finde as much use as of water in their bootes.

There are others againe of overgood, free natures and dis­positions, [Page 13] who are easily fetch'd and drawn in by decayed and crafty knaves (I call them no better) to enter into Bonds, and to passe their words for their old debts, and en­gagements; and this they are wrought to do in Taverns, in their cups and merriment, at ordinaries, and the like places. I would have in the fairest roome of one of these houses, the Embleme of a gallant or young heire,The old Embleme of suretie­ship. creeping in at the great end of a hunters horne, with ease, but cruelly pinch'd in comming forth at the small end, a foole standing not farre off laughing at him: and these be those fooles who will be so easily bound, and passe their words in their drink. Facilis de­scensus Averni, Sed revocare gradum, &c. It is easie slipping in, but the return and getting our full of difficulty.

Infinite also are the casualties that are incident to the life of man, whereby he may fall into poverty, as misfortune by fire, losse at sea, robbery and theft on land, wounds, lame­nesse, sicknesse and the like.

Many run out of great estates, and have undone themselves by over-sumptuous building, above and beyond their means and estates.

Others have been undone by carelesse and thriftlesse ser­vants, such as waste and consume their masters goods, nei­ther saving nor mending what is amisse, but whatsoever they are intrusted withall, they suffer to be spoil'd and to runne to ruine. For, Qui modicaspernit, paulatim defluit: He that de­spiseth small things, falls by little and little, saith the Wise­man.

Some (yea a great many) have brought themselves to beggery by play and gaming, as never lying out of Ordina­ries, and Dicing-houses, which places, like quicksands, so suddenly sink and swallow them, that hardly you shall ever see their heads appeare any more.

Others (and great ones too) affect unprofitable, yea and impossible inventions and practises, as the Philosophers Stone, The Adamantine Alphabet, The Discovery of that new world in the Moone, by those new devised perspective glasses (farre excelling (they say) those of Galilaus) sundry [Page 14] kindes of uselesse wilde fire, Water-works, Extractions, Distillations, and the like.

If any would be taught the true use of money, let him travell into Italie; for the Italian (the Florentine especial­ly) is able to teach all the world thrift. For Itali [...] being di­vided into many Principalities and Provinces, and all very fertile, the inhabitants are many, (and by reason of often differences amongst them, apt to take up Armes) the peo­ple are subject to taxes and impositions, as in Florence the Duke hath a Custome at the gates, even out of hearbs, that are brought for Sallets, and Broaths into the City.

The Symptomes of a Minde dejected, and discontent for want of Money.

HE that wanteth money, is for the most part extreamly Melancholique, in every company, or alone by himselfe, especially if the weather be fowle, rainy, or cloudy, talke to him of what you will, he will hardly give you the hearing; aske him any questions, he answers you with Monosyllables, as Tarleton did one who out-eat him at an ordinarie; as, Yes, No, That, Thankes, True, &c. That Rhetoricall passage of Status transtativus, is of great use with him: when he laies the cause of his want upon others, as protesting this great Lord, that Lady, or kinsman owes him money, but not a de­niere that he can get: he swears, he murmures against the French, and other strangers, who convay such summes of money out of the land, besides our leather hides, under the colour of calve-skins, with that he shews you his boots out at the heeles, and wanting mending; he walks with his armes folded, his belt without a sword or rapier, that per­haps being somewhere in trouble; an hat without a band, hanging over his eyes, onely it weares a weather bea­ten Fancie, for Fashion sake: he cannot stand still, but like one of the Tower wilde beasts, is still walking from one end of his roome to another, humming out some new Northern tune or other; if he meets with five or ten peeces, happily [Page 15] conferred upon him by the beneficence of some noble friend or other, he is become a new man, and so overjoyed with his fortune, that not one drop of small drink will down with him all that day.

The Misery of want of Money inregard of Contempt in the World.

VVHosoever wanteth money is ever subject to con­tempt and scorne in the world, let him be furnished with never so good gifts, either of body or minde: So that most true it is that one saith, Nil infoelicius in se paupertas ha­bet quàm quòd homines ridiculos facit: The worst property that poverty hath, it maketh men ridiculous, and scorned, but oftentimes of such as are more to be contemned them­selves, in regard either of their ignorance, or vitious living, or uselesse company: if we do but look back into better and wiser Ages, we shall finde poverty, simply in it selfe, never to have been (as now adayes, in this last and worst act of Time) esteemed a Vice, and so loathsome as many would have it, it having been the badge of Religion and piety in the primitive times since Christ, and of wisdome and con­tempt of the world, among the wisest Philosophers, long before. But, Tempora mutantur, and in these times we may say with the wise man: My sonne, better it is to die then to be poore, for now money is the worlds God, and the card which the Divell turnes up trumpe to winne the Sett withall, for it gives birth, beauty, honour and credit, and the most thinke it conferreth wisdome to every possesso, P [...]cuniae omnia obediunt: hence it is so admired that millions venture both soules and bodies for the possession of it.

But there is a worse effect of poverty then that, it maketh men dissolute and vitious, ‘Oh mala paupertas vitii scelerisque ministral’ Saith Mantuan, It wresteth and maketh crooked the best [Page 16] Natures of all, which, were their necessities supplied, they would rather die then do as they sometimes do, borrow and not be able to pay, to speake untruths, to deceive, and some­time to cheate their own fathers and friends. What greater griefe can there be to an ingenuous & free spirit, who sitting at a superiors table and thought to be necessitous and onely to come for a dinner, to be plac'd the lowest, to be carve dun­to of the worst and first cut, as of boild beefe, brawn, or the like, and if the Ladie or loose bodied mistres presents unto him the milke from her trencher, then assuredly it is burn'd to the bodie, if he be carved unto out of a pastie of venison, it was some part that was bruised in the carriage and began to stinke, yet for all this he must be obsequious, endure any jeere, whisper for his drinke, and rise at the comming in of the Bason and Ewer. To do the which, any generous and truely Noble spirit had rather (as I am perswaded) dine with my Lord Maiors hounds in Finsburie fields.

Another miserie, a kinne to the former, is what discourse soever is offered at such tables, the necessitous man, though he can speake more to the purpose then them all, yet he must give them leave to engrosse all the talke, and though he knowes they tell palpable and grosse lies, speake the absurdest non-sence that may bee, yet must he be silent, and be held all the while for a Vau-neant: let these and the like examples then be motives unto all to make much of money, to eat their own bread in their houses; and to be beholden as little as may be to any for their meat, for, Est aliena vivere quadra, miserrimum.

How necessity and want compelleth to offend both against body and soule.

SEeke not death in the error of your lives (saith the Wiseman) that is,Wisdome. by taking evil courses, to procure unto your selves untimely endes, as those do who through extream necessitie are constrained to steale, lie, forsweare themselves, become cheaters, common harlots, and the like, wherof now adaies [Page 17] we liave too many examples everie where, to the hazard of their soules to hell, and their bodies to the handes of the Executioner.

Hereby we may see how much it concernes all parents to give their children vertuous education, in the fear of God, and to employ them betimes in honest vocations, whereby they may be armed against want and ill courses, and doubtles many (yea too many) parents have beene, and are herein, much too blame, who when they have given their children a little breeding and bringing up, till about twelve or fourteene yeares of age, they forsake them, and send them out into the wide world to shift for themselves, to sinke or swimme with­out trades or portion provided, so they be rid of a charge what care they; hence we see so many young men and wo­men come to untimely endes, who living might have beene comforts to their friends and parents, and prooved good members in the common wealth, I spake before of idle per­sons, whom Saint Paul denieth to eat, which are the droanes of a Common wealth, not to be pitied, whom Homer preti­ly describeth.

Of Frugalitie or Parsimonie what it is, and of the Effects thereof.

HAving already shewed you the misery of want, from the want of money, let me give you a preservative against that want, from the nature and effects of thrift, which if not observed and looked to, he shall live in perpetuall want, and indeed (next to the serving of God) it is the first we ought, even from children to learne in the world, some men are thriftie and sparing by nature, yea saving even in trifles, as Charles the first was so naturally sparing, that if a point from his hose had broken, he would have tied the same upon a knot, and made it to serve againe.

Others againe are thriftie in small matters, but lavish and prodigall in great, these we say are, Penny wise and pound foolish. Manie great Ladies, and our great dames are subiect to this disease.

[Page 18]Others having had long experience in the world and ha­ving been bitten with want, (through their unthriftinesse when they were young) have proved verie good husbands at the last.

Others againe there be who cloke their miserable base­nesse under the pretence of thrift, as one would endure none of his familie to eat butter with an egge but himselfe, be­cause it was sold for five pence the pound.

The Definition of Frugalitie or Thrife.

FRugalitie is a vertue which holdeth her own, laieth out or expendeth profitably, avoideth unnecessarie expences, much buying, riot, borrowing and lending, superfluous build­ing, and the like; yet can spend in a moderate way as occa­sion and reason shall require.

It is a vertue very neare allied to liberality, and hath the same extremes, for as Liberalitie is opposite to covetousnes, so frugalitie is more opposite to profusenesse or prodigality.

This vertue is the fountaine or spring-head of benefi­cence and liberality, for none can be bountifull, except they be parsimonious and thrifty. Bonus Servatius facit bonum Bo­nifacium: is an old Monkish (but true) Proverbe: Quod ces­sat reditu ex frugalitate suppletur, ex quo velut fonte liberalitas nostra decurrit; qua ita tamen temperanda est, no n [...]mia profusione in [...]rescat, saith Seneca.

It avoideth ambitious buildings, pompes, showes, Court­maskings, with excessive feasts and entertainments, as M. Anthonie spent at one supper a thousand wild Boares: Heliogabalus had served him up at a supper likewise six hun­dred heads of Ostriches.For the Romanes had nodin­ners, but suppers, which were about three of the clock in the af­ternoon.

Vitellius at one feast, had two thousand fishes, and most of severall kindes, besides seven thousand fowles.

Many such like feasts have beene made by the Romane Emperours, and some so excessive, that an infinite quantity of bread, meat, and other good victuals (all sorts of people be­ing satisfied) hath been thrown into the River of Tiber.

[Page 19]Againe, on the other side, there are as miserable Eu [...]li'os, and base penurious slaves, to be found in all parts, yea in eve­ry towne of a kingdome, as one at Pr [...]rs Thorne, neere to Swafham in Norfolke, made his man pay a peny out of his wages for a rope he cut, when he was hanging of himselfe in his barne.

Another in the spring-time, because the market should not thrive by him, would make boyes climbe trees, and search steeples for all the Crowes and Dawes they could finde, which he lived upon, (while they lasted) to save o­ther victualls.

Now there is an [...], or a selfe-contented sufficiencie, which is most pleasing and agreeable to the Nature of many men, as Phocion when Alexander had sent him a gift of an hundred talents of gold, he sent it back again with this mes­sage, That he needed not Alexanders money; [...], &c. be the words of Plutarch.

The Derivation of the word Peny, and of the value and worth thereof.

OUr English Peny consisteth of foure farthings, and a farthing is so called from the old Saxon, or high Dutch, Ein vier [...] ding: that is, a fourth thing, because from the Saxons time, untill Edward the third, the Peny of this land had a Crosse struck so deep into the midst thereof, that you might break out any part, of the foure, to buy what you thought good withall, which was in those times their far­thing.

This word Peny, is so called, [...], that is, Poverty: because for the most part poor people are herewith relieved: the old Saxons called it P [...]nig the high Dutch Pfennig, the Netherlands Peni [...]uk in Italian Denaro in Spanish Dinero, in Latine Denarius, which some fetch from the Chaldean, Denar; but some body hath taught the Chaldean to speak Latine: it is indeed derived, A numero Denario, because De [...]em asses made a Peny; or according to Plutarch, A dicem ar [...]is, [...].

[Page 20]In the British, or Welch, it is Keniog, from being cur­rant, because it goes away faster then other money; as Scavernog is Welch for an Hare, because she runnes over the mountains faster then an ordinary runner in Wales can overtake or catch her, as my honest friend Master Owen Morgan, that Countrey-man, once (in good earnest) told me.

There are so many kindes of pence as there are severall countries or nations; our English pennie is a Scottish shil­ling; in the time of King Edward the first our English pennie being round and unclip'd was to weigh two and thirty graines of wheat, taken out of the midst of the care; twenty of these pence made an ounce, and twelve ounces made a pound.

There were also golden pence, as we may finde in Didy­mus Clandius de Analog. Romanorum: in a word, I might dis­course ad infinitum, of the varietie of pence, as well for the forme and stampe, as weight and value, though I sought no further then among those of our Saxons kings, but it were needlesse. I will onely content my self with our own ordina­ry pennie, and stay my Reader a while upon the not unplea­sant consideration of the simple worth of a single pennie, reflecting or looking back as oft as I can, and, as (Plinie advi­seth) upon my Title.

The simple worth of a single pennie.

A Pennie bestowed in charitie upon a poore body shall not want an heavenly reward.

For a pennie you may in the Low-countries in any market buy eight severall commodities, as nuts, vineger, grapes, a little cake, onions, oatmeale, and the like.

A pennie bestowed in a small quantity of Aniseed, Aqua vitae, or the like strong water, may save ones life in a fain­ting or swound.

For a peny you may heare a most eloquent Oration upon our English Kings and Queenes, if keeping your hands off, you will seriously listen to David Owen, who keeps the Mo­numents in Westminster.

[Page 21]Some, for want of a peny, have been constrained to go from Westminster about by London-Bridge to Lambeth; and truly said, Defessi sumus ambulando.

You may have, in Cheapside, your peny tripled in the same kinde, for you shall have Peny-grasse, Peny-wort and Peny-royall.

For a peny you may see any Monster, Jackanapes, or those roaring boyes, the Lions.

For a peny you may have all the Newes in England, of Murders, Flonds, Witches, Fires, Tempests, and what not, in one of Martin Parkers Ballads.

For a peny you may have your horse rubbed and walked after a long journey, and being at grasse, there are some that will breathe him for nothing.

For a peny you may buy a faire Cucumer, but not a brest of Mutton, except it be multiplied.

For a peny you may buy Time, which is precious, yea and Thrift too, if you be a bad husband.

I or a peny an Hostesse, or an Hostler, may buy as much chalke as will score up thirty or forty pounds: but how to come by their money, that let them look to.

For a peny you may have your dog worm'd, and so be kept from running mad.

For a peny a Drunkard may be guarded to his lodging, if his head be light, and the evening dark.

For a peny you shall tell what will happen a yeare hence (which the Devill himselfe cannot do) in some Almanack, or other rude Countrey.

An hard-favoured, and il-bred wench, made peny white, may (as our times are) prove a gallant Lady.

For a peny you may be advanced to that height, that you shall be above the best in the City, yea the Lord Major him­selfe; that is, to the top of Pauls.

For a peny, a miserable and covetous wretch, that never did, or ever will bestow peny upon Doctor, or Apotheca­rie for their physick or advice, may provide a remedy for all diseases.

[Page 22]For a peny you may buy the hardest book in the world, and which at some time or other hath posed the greatest Clerks in the land, viz. an Horn-book.

In so great esteem in former times have our English pence been, that they have been carried to Rome by Cart-loads.

For a peny you may search among the Rolles, and withall give the Master good satisfaction; I meane, in a Bakers basket.

For a peny a Chamber-maid may buy as much Red-Oker as wil serve seven years for the painting of her cheeks.

For a peny the Monarch of a Free-Schole may provide himselfe of as many Armes as will keep all his rebellious subjects in awe.

For a peny you may walke within one of the fairest gar­dens in the City, and have a nose-gay, or two made you of what sweet slowers you please.

For a peny you may buy as much wood of that tree which is green all the yeare, and beareth red berries, as will cure any shrews tongue, if it be too long for her mouth.

A peny may save the credit of many, as it did of foure or five youngSome of them are yet living in London. Scholers in Cambridge, who going into the Towne to break their fast with puddings (having sent to their Colledge for bread and beere) the Hostesse brought them twelve puddings broil'd, and finding among them­selves that they had but eleven pence, they were much troubled about the other peny, they neither having any book about them to lay to pawn for it: quoth one, bolder then the rest, Audaces Fortuna juvat; Fortune favours the venturous, and biting off a piece of the puddings end, by wonderfull luck spit out a single peny that paid for it, which it seemes was buried in the oat-meale, or spice, so for that time they saved their credits. But I will leave this discourse of a Pe­nies-worth to their judgments and experience, who having been troubled with overmuch money, afterward in no long time, have been fain ( after a long dinner with Duke Hum­phrey, to take a nap upon penielesse Bench, onely to verifie the old Proverbe, A foole and his money are soone parted.

How money may many wayes be saved in diet, apparell, re­creation, and the like.

AS there are infinite wayes and occasions of spending and laying out money, which were superfluous here to recount, whereof some may be well omitted, but others not, except we would want meat, drink and our apparell with other externall necessaries, as horses, armour, books, and the like, in a word whatsoever may conduce either to our profit or honest pleasure, yet in husbanding our money in all these, there is a great deale of caution and discretion to be used, for most true it is, that of all nations in Europe, our English are the most profuse and careles in the way of ex­pence, go into other countries (especially Italy) the greatest Magnifice in Venice, will thinke it no disgrace to his Magni­fenza to go to market, to choose and buy his own meat, what him best liketh: but we in England scorne to do either, sur­fetting indeed of our plentie, whereof other countries fall far short. Insomuch as I am perswaded that our citie of Lon­don of it selfe alone eateth more good Beefe and Mutton in one month then all Spaine, Italy, and a part of France in a whole yeare. If we have a minde to dine at a taverne, we bespeake a dinner at all adventure, never demaunding or knowing the price thereof till it be eaten, after dinner there is a certaine sawce brought up by the drawer called a Recko­ning in a bill as long as a Brokers inventorie. I have knowne by experience in some tavernes sometime of at least twice and sometime thrice as much as the meat and dressing hath been worth: no question but a faire and an honest gaine is to be allowed, in regard of house rent, linnen, attendance of servants, and the like; there are without doubt very many ta­vernes verie honest and reasonable, and the use of them is necessary, for if a man meetes with his friend or acquaintance in the street, whither should they go, having no friends house neere to go into, especially in rainie or fowle weather, but to a taverne? where for the expence of a pinte or a quart of [Page 24] wine they may have a drie house & room to confer or write to any friends about busines, but to have in a bill 8. s. brought up for an ordinarie Capon (as my Lord of Northamptons gentlemen had at Greenwich in king Iames his time) 7. or 9. s. for a paire of soales, four shillings for a dozen of Larkes, would make a Horentine runne out of his wits: how ex­cellently in some houses are their Neates tongues poudred when the reckoning is brought you up? againe what can be more distastfull to an ingenuous and free spirit, then to stand to the curtesie of a nimble tong'd drawer, or his manie-ringed Mistris, whether they or your self shall have the disposing of your money; it is no small summe that our young Gallants might save in a yeere, if they would be wise in this respect. Beside in your owne private house or chamber, a dish or two, and a good stomack for the sawce shall give you more con­tent, continnue your health, and keepe your bodie in better plight, then variety of many dishes: this pleased ever the wisest and best men. Horace affirmeth him to live healthie and happily; Cui splendet in Mensa tenue Salinum: meaning by the small and poore salt seller, a slender and a frugall diet. Curius that Noble Romane, a man of mervailous honestie, temperance and valour (who overcame the Samnites and Pyrrhus himself) when the Ambassadors of the Samnites brought him an huge summe of gold, they found him sitting by the fire, and seething of Turneps for his dinner with an earthen dish in his lap, at what time he gave them this an­swere, I had rather eat in this dish and command over them, that have gold, then be rich my selfe, a while after being accu­sed for deceiving the state of money, which he had gotten in his conquests and kept to himself: he tooke a solemne oath, that he saved no more of all he gat but that one tree'n, or wooden barrell, which he had there by him. Marvellous was the temperance of the Romanes in their diet, as also of the Turkes at this day, the Italians and Spaniards, but it is in them naturall, not habituall, and by consequent no vertue as them­selves would have it, for the inhabitants of hot countries, have not their digestion so strong as those under cold climates, [Page 25] whose bodies by an Antiperistasis or surrounding of the cold have the natural heate repelled & kept within them, which is the reason that the Northerne nations are of all other the greatest eaters and drinkers; and of those, the French say we of England have the best stomacks and are the greatest trenchermen of the world, Les Anglois sont les plus gros mangeurs, de tout la monde: but they re deceived; those of Denmarke and Norway exceed us, and the Russians them. I confesse we have had, and have yet some remarkable eaters among us, who for a wager would have eaten with the best of them, as Wolmer of Windsor, and not long since Wood of Kent, who eat up at one dinner nineteen greene geese equall to the old ones in bignesse with sawce of gooseberries, ac­cording as I heard it affirmed to my Lord Richard Earle of Dorset at a dinner time at his house at Knowle in Kent, by one of his gentlemen who was an eye witnesse to the same.

But the truth is, that those men live the longest and are commonly in perfect health, who content themselves with least and the simplest meat, which not onely saves the purse, but preserves the body, as we may see in Lancashire, Shrop­shire, Cheshire, Yorkshire, and other countries which are remote from the citie; and it is Master Cambdens observation in his Britannia, Vt diutius vivant qui vescuntur Lacticiniis: they commonlie are long liv'd, who live by whitmeates, as milke, butter, cheese curds, and the like. For,That many dishes breed ma­ny diseases. Multa fer­cula multos morbos gignere, was truely said of Saint Hierome, as being apt by their sundrie and opposite qualities to breed much corruption. How healthfull are schollers in our Univer­sities, whose commons are no more then needs must! Neither would I have any man starve himself to save his purse, as an Usurer confessed upon his death-bed, how he was above two hundred pounds endebted to his bellie, for breakefastes dinners and suppers which he had defrauded it of in terme times at London, and in other places, employing his money to other miserable purposes.

Money may be well saved, in travaile or in town; if three or foure shall ioyne their purses, and provide their diet at [Page 26] the best hand, it is no shame so to do. I have known also some, who have been verie skilfull in dressing their own diet. Homer tells us that Achilles could play the Cooke excellent­ly well, and I beleeve it were not amisse for our English Travailers so to do in Forraign countries, for many reasons I have knowne.

And execrable is the miserable and base humour of many, who to save their money will live upon vile and loathsome things, as Mushromes, Snailes, Frogs, mice, young Kitlings, and the like. In times of extreme dearth or famine, people (I confesse) have been driven to look out for whatsoever could nourish, and (as we say) keep life and soule together; yea, and of farre worse things then these, as Iosephus report­eth of the Jewes, in that horrible and fearfull famine in Hie­rusalem, at the time of the siege by Titus and Vespasian: such we blame not, most blame worthy are they, who as it were surfetting of, or loathing that abundant plenty of all good and wholesome meats God hath afforded us in this land, and which God by name hath commended to his peo­ple, make these stuffe their greatest dainties; as I have known Ladies, who when they have eaten till they could eat no more of all the daintiest dishes at the table, yet they must eat the legs of their Larkes, roasted a new in a greasie tallow candle, and if they carved but a piece of a burnt claw to any Gentleman at the Table, he must take it as an extraordina­ry favour from her Ladiship. It were much to be wished, that they were bound to hold them to their Diet in a deare yeare, or a wet spring, when Frogs and Snailes may be had in greatest abundance.

Of Thrift and good Husbandrie in Apparell.

YOu must, if you would keep money in your purse to up­hold your credit, at all times be frugall, and thrifty also in your apparell, not dogging the fashion, or setting your tailor on work at the sight of every Mounsieurs new suit; there is a middle, plain and decent garbe, which is best, and most to [Page 27] be commended: this is commonly affected of the most staied & wisest: What mony might be saved, if we were so wise as the Dutch or Spaniard, who for these two or three hundred yeares, have kept themselves to one fashion? But we, the Apes of Europe, like Proteus, must change our shapes every yeare, nay quarter, moneth and week, as well in our dublets, hose, cloaks, hats, bands, boots, and what not: that Embleme was not unproper which once I saw in Antwerpe, which was an Hee and a Shee foole turning a double rimmed wheele upon one axeltree, one on the one side, and the other on the other; upon the Hee-fooles wheele, were the seve­rall fashions of mens apparell, on the others wheele of wo­mens; which, as with the revolution of time, went round, and came into the same place, use, and request again; as for the present, aloft, and followed of all, by and by cast down, and despised. I see no reason why a French man should not imitate our English fashion, as well as we his: What, have the French more wit then we in fitting clothes to the body, or a better invention or way insaving money in the buying or making of apparell? Surely I think not: it may be our English when they had to do in France, got a humour of affe­cting their fashions, which they could not shake off since: there is no man ever the warmer, or ever the wiser for a fashion, (so farre forth as it is a fashion) but rather the contrary; a foole: for needlesse expence, and suffering him­selfe to quake for cold, when his clothes in the fashion must be cut to the skin, his hat hardly cover his crown, but stands upon his perewig like an Extinguisher: and we know, by ridiculous experience, every day in the street, that our La­dies, and their waiting women, will starve and shiver in the hardest frost, rather then they will suffer their bare necks and breasts to passe your eyes unviewed. But some will say (as I have heard many) there is no man now adayes estee­med, that follows not the fashion; be it so, the fashions of these times are very fit to be observed, which is, to be deep­ly indebted to Mercers, Haberdashers, Sempsters, Tailors, and other trades, for the fulfilling of a fashionable humour, [Page 28] which a thrifty and wise man avoideth, accommodating himselfe with apparell faire and seemly, for halfe, or a third part of the others charge. What makes many of our City Tailors arise to so great estates as some of them have, and to build so brave houses, but the fashion? Silkmen and Mer­cers to buy such goodly Lordships in the Countreys, where many times they are chosen high Sheriffes, but the fashion? And I would fain know of any of our prime Fashion-mon­gers, what use there is of lac'd bands, of six, seven, and eight pound the band, nay of forty and fifty pound the band. Such d [...]ubing of cloakes, and dublets with gold and silver, points of five and eight pound the dozen to dangle uselesly at the knees,In Philop. Philopoemon, a brave Commander among the Grae­cians (as Plutarch reporteth) commanded that all the gold and silver which he had taken away from his enemies (which was a very great quantity) should be imployed in gilding, inlaying of Swords, Saddles, Bridles, all furniture both for his Men and Horse. ‘For gold and silver worn by martiall men, addeth, saith Plutarch, courage and Spirit unto them; but in others effeminacie, or a kinde of womanish vanity.’ Moderata durant, and Mediocria firma, were the Motto's of two as grave and great Counsellers as were (of their times) in Eng­land. A Gentleman in a plain cloth suit well made, may ap­peare in the presence of the greatest Prince. The Veneti­ans as wise a people and state as any other in Europe, are bound by the Lawes of their Common wealth, that their up­per garments (worne within the city) should ever be of plaine black: yea the greatest princes go many times the plainest in their apparell. Charles the fifth Emperour the Bulwarke and Moderator of Christendome in his time, went verie plaine, seldome or never wearing any gold or silver, save his order of the Golden Fleece about his neck. Henrie the fourth King of France (worthily stiled the ninth Worthy) many times in the heate of Summer would onely go in a suite of Buckram cut upon white canvas or the like; so little they, (who had the kernell of wisdome and Mag­nanimitie, cared for the shell of gaudie apparell: and it is [Page 29] worthy the observation, how for the most part, the safest and most excellent men in inward knowledge and multi­plicity of learning, have been most negligent and careles in their apparell, and as we say, Slovens;In Farra: Epistolarum Erasmus saith of Sir T. Moore, Quod à puere semper in vestitu fuit negligen­tissimus, That from a childe he was ever most careles and slovenly in his apparell. Paracelsus we read to have been the like; and to parallell him, our late Master Butter of Cambridge, that learned and excellent Physitian. There is much money to be saved in apparrell, in choise of the stuffe, for lasting, and cheapnesse: and that you may not be deceived in the stuffe or price, take the advice of some honest Tailor, your friend, as no question but every where there are many. I will instance one; In Cambridge there dwelt, some twenty or thirty years ago, one Godfrey Col­ton, who was by his trade a Tailor, but a merry compa­nion with his taber and pipe, and for singing all manner of Northern songs before Noble and Gentlemen, who much delighted in his company. Beside, he was Lord of Sturbridge-Faire, and all the misorders there. On a time, an old Doctor of the University brought unto him five yards of pure fine scarlet, to make him a Doctor of Di­vinities Gown: and withall, desired him to save him the least shred, to mend an hole, if a moth should eat it: God­frey having measured, and found that there was enough, laid it by: Nay, quoth the Doctor, let me see it cut out ere I go, for though you can play the knave abroad, I think you are honest at home, and at your work. God forbid else, quoth Godfrey, and that you shall finde by me; for give me but twenty shillings from you, and I will save you forty in the making of your gown: that I will, said the Doctor (who was miserable enough) with all mine heart; with that he gave him two old Harrie Angels out of his velvet pouch, which Godfrey having put into his pocket, the Doctor desired to tell him how he would save [Page 30] him forty shillings: marry will I (quoth Godfrey) in good faith Sir, let some other Tailor in any case make it; for if I take it in hand, I shall utterly spoile it, for I ne­ver, in all my life, made any of this fashion. I report this for the credit of honest Tailors, who will ever tell their friends the truth.

Of Recreations.

OF Recreations, some are more expensive then o­thers, as requiring more addresse and charge: as Tiltings, Masques, Playes, and the like, which are proper to Princes Courts: but I speak of those which are pro­per to private men, for such is our nature, that we can­not stand long bent, but we must have our relaxations, as well of minde as body; for of Recreations, some are pro­per to the minde and speculation; as reading of delight­full and pleasant books, the knowledge of the Mathema­ticall and other contemplative Sciences, which are the more pleasing and excellent, by how much the pleasure of the minde excelleth that of the body; others belong to the body, as walking, riding upon pleasure, shooting, hunting, hawking, bowling, ringing, Paille Maille, and the like, which are Recreations without doores; others are within doores, as chesse, tables, cards, dice, billiards, [...]ioco d [...]oco and the like: but the truth is, the most plea­sing of all is, riding with a good horse, and a good compa­nion in the spring, or summer season, into the Countrey, when blossomes are on the trees, flowers in the fields, corn and fruit are ripe; in autumne, what sweet and good­ly prospects shall you have on both sides of you upon the way, delicate green fields, low meadowes, divorces of Christall streams, woody-hills, parks with deere, hedge­rows, orchards, fruit-trees, churches, villages, the houses [Page 31] of Gentlemen, and husbandmen, severall habits and fa­ces, variety of countrey labour and exercises, and if you happen (as often it falleth out) to converse with countrey men of the place, you shall finde them for the most part understanding enough to give you satisfaction, and some­times countrey maids, and market wenches, will give as unhappy answers, as they be asked knavish and uncivill questions; others there be, who, out of their rusticall sim­plicity, will afford you matter of mirth if you stay to talk with them. I remember, riding once by Horn-Castle, neere to Stikeswold, in Lincolneshire, in the heat of sum­mer, I met with a Swineherd keeping his hogs upon a fallow field. My friend (quoth I) you keep here a compa­ny of unruly cattell, I poore soules, they are indeed (quoth he) I beleeve, said I, they have a language among them­selves, & can understand one another, I as well as you and I: Were they ever taught? Alas, poor things, they know not a letter of the book, I teach them all they have: Why, what sayes that great hog with red spots (quoth I) that lies under another, in his grunting language: Marry, he bids him that sleeps so heavie upon him to lie further off. But to our purpose; The most ordinary recreations of the Countrey are football, ska [...]es, or nine pins, shooting at butts, quaits, bowling, running at the base, stooleball, leaping, and the like; whereof some are too violent and dangerous: the safest recreations are within doores (but not in regard of cost & expence) for thousands sometimes are lost at Ordinaries, and Dicing-houses; yea, I have known goodly Lordships to have been lost at a cast, and for the sport of one night, some have made themselves beggers all their lives after.

Recreation, is so called, à Recreando, that is from (by a Metaphore) of creating a man anew; by putting life, spirit and delight into him, after the powers of his minde and body have been decayed, and weakened, with over­much [Page 32] much contemplation, studie and labour, and therefore to be used onely to that end: some go for recreations which trouble and amuse the minde as much, or more then the hardest study,In Basilicondoron. as Chesse, which King Iames therefore cal­leth, Ouer-Philosophicall a follie: and indeed, such Re­creations are to be used, that leave no sting of repentance for sinne committed by them, or griefe and sorrow for losse of money and time many dayes after: I could in­stance many of that nature, but I will onely give some generall rules to be observed in some of them.

If you have a minde to recreate your selfe by play, ne­ver adventure but a third part of that money you have: let those you play withall be of acquaintance, and not strangers, if you may avoid it.

Never mis-time your selfe by sitting long at play, as some will do three or foure dayes and nights together, and so make your selfe unfit for any businesse in many dayes after.

Never play untill you be constrained to borrow or pawne any thing of your owne, which becommeth a base groom better then a Gentleman.

Avoid quarrelling, blasphemous swearing, and in a word, never play for more then you are willing to lose; that you may finde your selfe, after your pastime, not the worse, but the better, which is the end of all Recrea­tions.

There are some, I know, so base and penurious, who for feare of losing a peny, will never play at any thing; yet rather then they should want their recreations, I would wish them to venture at Span-counter, and Dust-point with Schole-boyes upon their ordinary play-dayes in a Market-place or Church-porch.

Of such honest wayes that a man in want may take to live and get money.

IF a man hath fallen into poverty or distresse, either by death of friends, some accident or other by sea or land, sicknesse, or the like; let him not despaire, for, Paupertas non est vtium; and since the Common-wealth is like un­to an humane body, consisting of many members, so use­full each to either, as one cannot subsist without the o­ther; as a Prince his Counsell and Statesmen are as the head, the arms, are men of Arms, the Back, the Com­munalty; Hands and Feet, are Country and Mechanique Trades, &c. So God hath ordained, that all men should have need one of another, that none might live idlely, or want imployment; wherefore Idlenesse, as the bane of a Common-wealth, hath a curse attending upon it, it should be clothed with rags, it should beg its bread, &c. I re­member I have read in an Italian Historie, of one so idle, that he was fain to have one to help him stirre his chaps when he should eat his meat. Now if you would ask me what course he should take, or what he should do that wanteth money, let him first bethink himselfe, to what profession or trade of life he hath been formerly brought up, if to none, to what his Genius, or naturall disposi­tion standes most affected unto: if he hath a minde to tra­vaile, he shall finde entertainment in the Netherlands, who are the best pay-masters except the Emperour of Russia, and the Venetians (I meane for the most meanes) in Europe. If you list not to follow the warres, you may finde entertainement among our new Plantations in America, as New England, Virginia, the Barbadas, Saint Christophers, and the rest, where with a great deale of delight you may have variety of honest employment, as fishing with the net or hooke, planting, gardening, and [Page 34] the like, which beside your maintenance you shall finde it a great content to your conscience to be in action, which God commaunds us all to be, if you have beene ever in a Grammer-Schoole you may everie where finde children to teach, so many, no doubt, as will keepe you from starving, and it may be in a gentlemans house, or if you get entertainment of any who followeth the Law, or practifeth Physick, you may with diligence and pra­ctise prove a Clerk to himselfe or some Justice of the Peace, by the other you may get the knowledge and na­ture of herbes and all forraigne Drugges from his Apo­thecarie, and perhaps manie good receipts for agues wounds and the like: I have known many this way to have prooved in a country towne tollerable Physitians, and have growne rich, if being borne a gentleman (as our gentlemen doe) you scorne to doe any of these, you may get to be a gentleman usher to some Ladie or other, they are not a few that have thrived passing well this way, and in a word, rather then in miserable and piti­lesse want, let a man undertake any vocation and labour, alwayes remembring that homely (but true) distich of old Tussers.

Thinks no labour slaverie,
That bringes in pennie saverlie.

And as a necessary rule hereto coincident, let every man endeavour by a dutifull diligence to get a friend, and when he hath found him (neither are they so easily found in these dayes) with all care to keep him, and to use him as one would do a christall or a venice glasse, to take him up softly and use him tenderly, or as you would a sword of excellent temper and mettall, not to hack every gate, or cut every staple and post therewith, but to keepe him to defend you in your extremest danger. False and seem­ing [Page 35] friends are infinite, and such be our ordinarie acquain­tance, with the complement of glad to see you well, how have you done this long time, &c. and with these we meete every day. In a word, for a conclusion, let every one be carefull to get and keepe money, know the worth of a penny, and since we are born, we must live, Vivions nous, let us live as well, as merrily as we can in these har­dest times, and say every one of us as Sir Roger Williams that brave souldier said to Queene Elizabeth, when he wanted pay for himselfe and his souldiers; Madam, I tell you true, we will be without money for no mans pleasure.

FINIS.

This keyboarded and encoded edition of the work described above is co-owned by the institutions providing financial support to the Text Creation Partnership. This Phase I text is available for reuse, according to the terms of Creative Commons 0 1.0 Universal. The text can be copied, modified, distributed and performed, even for commercial purposes, all without asking permission.