A THEATRE OF Politicall Flying-Insects. WHEREIN Especially the Nature, the VVorth, the VVork, the Wonder▪ and the manner of Right-ordering of the BEE, Is Discovered and Described. Together with Discourses, Historical, and Obser­vations Physical concerning them. And in a Second Part are annexed Meditations, and Observations Theological and Moral, in Three Centuries upon that Subject.

By Samuel Purchas, Master of Arts, and Pastor at Sutton in Essex.

Entered according to Order.

LONDON, Printed by R. I. for Thomas Parkhurst, to be sold at his shop, at the Three Crowns in Cheapside, over against the Great Conduit, 1657.


TO THE RIGHT HONORABLE, Truly Noble, and Religious LORD, Robert Earle of Warwick, Baron of Leez, &c.


THE Creatures are the Book of Nature, as said Anthony the Hermite, who being demanded by a Philoso­pher,Socrat. hist. Eccles. l. 4. c. 18. Niceph. l. 1. c. 43. how he could possi­bly spend his time in the Wilderness, seeing hee was destitute of Books? answered, My Book, O Philosopher, is the nature of all things created by God, which when I please, I can peruse and read. The world is Gods Library, God mani­fested and drawn out; and all the creatures are [Page] as Glasses, in which wee may see, and as Scaffolds and Ladders, by which we may ascend and draw nearer to him: For God is a light too strong for our sense, therefore we must (with him in the story) look for the Sun in the West, not in the East; behold the Lord as he is reflected, and refracted, first in the glass of his Creatures, and his Works: And then secondly, in the face of his dearest Son.

God in the School of Nature, useth a method so suitable and correspondent to our dulness, that our meditations should not want in the Creatures Volumes (I may say) wherein to read most excellent admonitions and instructions: In every creature are they engraven in ordinary characters, and in lesser a print; as in the Scriptures, they be written in capital letters once, the Creatures are as a bright glass, wherein we may behold our God; For as God is a glass in heaven, wherein all his creatures are seen, lo are the creatures a glass upon earth, wherein we may beholdSir John Hay­ward, Davids Tears. and know our God. They are Trumpets of his honour, witnesses of his worth, bel­lows [Page] of our love▪ spur [...] to our dulness, and judges of our unthankfulness.

There is some good in all creatures, the meanest hath a beam of Gods Majesty, yet some have more than others, the Bees moreOs [...]ld Crollii b [...] silica chimi­ca. than (almost) any. That a little neglected creature should bee so curious in Archi­tecture, and in the fabrick of her hexangle Combs should observe as just proportions as the best Geometrician, we should suspect for an untruth, if wee saw it not daily practised by them.

Nicostratus in Aelian, finding a curious peece of work, and being wondred at by one, and asked what pleasure he could take to stand as he did still gazing on the Picture? answered, Hadst thou mine eyes, my friend, thou wouldst not wonder, but rather bee ravished as I am, at the inimitable art of this rare and admirable peece. I am sure no Picture can express so much wonder and excellency as the smallest In­sect: But wee want Nicostratus his eyes to behold them.

And the praise of Gods Wisdome andRaymundus in Theolog. natu­rali. Power, lies asleep and dead in every crea­ture, [Page] [...] [Page] [...] [Page] untill man actuate and enliven it. I cannot therefore altogether conceive it un­worthy of the greatest mortals to contem­plate the miracles of Nature, and that as they are more visible in the smallest, and almost contemptible creatures, for there most lively doe they express the infinite Power and Wisdome of the great Creator, and erect and draw the mindes of the most intelligent to the first and prime cause of all things, teaching them as the power, so the presence of the Deity in the smallest In­sects.

What should bee presented to great men, but great and goodly gifts? In this perhaps many will comply with mee, but then readily deny, that a Discourse of Insects is to bee offered to your Honour; but I easily trample on such exceptions, for although the creatures herein handled, bee so small that they cannot fully bee known, and (as worthless, and useless) bee undervalued by many, yet by judicious wise men, who measure things not by greatness, but by goodness, they will not only be prized, but praised; not only magni­fied, [Page] but admired. In all parts of natural Philosophy, the knowledge whereof is most difficult; the contemplation labori­ous, and the nature most obscure. I haveAldrovand [...]d [...] [...]ector. (saith Aldrovandus) found that most diffi­cult which is conversant about Insects, and that for their notable, and admirable smal­ness, which is the reason (saith he) that no man as far as I know, hath delivered many memorable things of them: Only Ar [...] ­stotle of the Grecians have discovered some things worthy to bee known; and Pliny of the Latines somewhat more, which he col­lected from the Monuments of Greek and Latine Writers (which are now lost) and some few things besides there are, which later Writers have taken notice of, but all so lame and imperfect, that still much re­mains to be added and amended; and so brief and obscure, that many still are igno­rant and deceived.

Scaliger is very angry with Cardane, thatScalig. de sub­til. [...]xo [...]cit. 191. after Aristotle he should write of Bees, and add nothing new, nor true: Whereas learned Scaliger endeavouring to confute him, is guilty of many absurdities, I can­not [Page] but expect to hear the same reproach from some, whom I only request judici­ously to read, and then to censure.L [...]psii Praefa [...]. ad [...] ▪ Satu [...]nal.

Embroiderers, of threds of divers co­lours (in the new world of various fea­thers) make a costly and delightful Hang­ing: So VVriters out of a thousand par­cels, an uniform, and agreeing body; whom I have laboured to imitate, where I have failed, pardon my weakness, and accept my good will.

But my long Epistle is injurious to your Honours more necessary employments. The Lord preserve your Honours person, with your Honourable Consort, and all the Noble Branches descended from you.

Your Honors humble and lowly Orator, Samuel Purchas.


  • CHap. 1. Of the Excellency of Bees Page 1.
  • Chap. 2. Of the Name p. 2
  • Chap. 3. The Definition and Description p. 3
  • Chap. 4. Of the Kindes and Colours p. 8
  • Chap. 5. Bees nature and properties p. 11
  • Chap. 6. Bees Politicks, Ethicks, &c. p. 16
  • Chap. 7. Of the Bees senses p. 22
  • Chap. 8. Of the Queen-Bee p. 27
  • Chap. 9. Of the Drone p. 35
  • Chap. 10. Of the Generation of Bees p. 42
  • Chap. 11. Of the Hives, and ordering them p. 57
  • Chap. 12. Of Seats for the Hives, and Bee-Garden p. 61
  • Chap. 13. Of the Bees-work p. 67
  • Chap. 14. Of swarming, and hiving of Bees p. 77
  • Chap. 15. What Flowers the Bees gather of p. [...]
  • Chap. 16. Of the ordering of Bees p. 96
  • Chap. 17. Of Bees breathing p. 107
  • Chap. 18. Of Bees temperature, sleep, and age p. 108
  • Chap. 19. Of Bees Fig [...]ting and Robbing p. 111
  • Chap. 20. Of Bees Enemies and Sicknesses p. 116
  • Chap. 21. Of the Hony-dew p. 123
  • Chap. 22. Of Hony p 135
  • [Page] Chap. 23. Of Tree-hony p. 147
  • Chap. 24. Of Wa [...]e p. 157
  • Chap. 25. Observations and discourses Historical and Fabu­lous p. 161
  • Chap. 26. Observations, Physical, &c. p. 169
  • Chap. 27. Of divers kindes of Wild-Bees p. 179
  • Chap. 28. Of the Wasp p. 181
  • Chap. 29. Of the Hornet p. 186
  • Chap. 30. Of Humble-Bees p. 188
  • Chap. 31. Of Grashoppers p. 193
  • Chap. 32. Of American Bees p. 202

A Catalogue of such Authors as are cited, and made use of in this Tractate.

  • MR. R. Abbot
  • Abynzoar
  • J. Acosta
  • Actuarius
  • Aelian
  • Aesope
  • Mr. Adams
  • Agatharsis
  • Raimund de Agiles
  • Cor. Agrippa
  • Albertus
  • A. Alcynt
  • U [...]isses Aldrovan dus
  • F. Alvarez
  • Alex. ab Alexand.
  • Ambrose
  • Andernacus
  • Amyretus
  • Jo. Anglicus
  • Appian
  • Alex. Aphrodiss.
  • Hier. Fab. ab Aqua­pendente
  • Aquinas
  • Aristophanes
  • Aristoteles
  • Athanasius
  • Atheneus
  • Augustinus
  • Avicenna
  • Ausonius
  • Dr. Balcanqual
  • Hermolaus Barbarus
  • Baronius
  • Bartudas
  • Broughton
  • Basil
  • A. Battle
  • Bauhinus
  • Gorop. Becanus
  • Beda
  • A. Bellunensis
  • Pet. Bellonius
  • Bernardus
  • Pseudo-Berosus
  • Bodinus
  • Bonfinius
  • Mr. Bolton
  • Gio. Botero
  • Mr. Brathwayt
  • Geor. Brawn
  • Mr. Butler
  • Buxtor [...]ius
  • Cajus
  • A [...]oys. Cadomustus
  • Cae [...]. Calcag [...]nus
  • Calepine
  • Calvinus
  • [Page]Camden
  • Camerarius
  • Al. Campense
  • T. Cantipratanus
  • Julius Capitolinus
  • Cardanus
  • Georg. Cedrenus
  • Cor. Celsus
  • Ranulph Cestrensis
  • Chaucer
  • Chrisostomus
  • Chyt [...]aeus
  • Cicero
  • Ped. de Cieca
  • Claudian
  • Dr. Cleland
  • Mr. Cobbs
  • Columella
  • Natal. Comes
  • Val. Cordus
  • Fernand. Cortese
  • Mr. J. Botto [...]
  • P Botto [...]
  • Mr. Cowper Bishop▪
  • Elias Cretensis
  • Pet. Crescentiensis
  • Pet. Crini [...]us
  • Crollius
  • Aelius Jul. Crotta
  • Cael. August. Curio▪
  • Q Curtius
  • Cuspinianus
  • Cyprian
  • Dalechampius
  • Dr. Day
  • Diodorus
  • D. Dike
  • Dion
  • Dioscordes
  • Mr. Down
  • Jacob Ekcelius
  • Mr. Elton
  • Marcel. Empyricus
  • Epiphanius
  • Erotis
  • Estates of the world▪
  • Euripides
  • Eustat [...]ius
  • Eutropius
  • Fazelius
  • Dr. Featly
  • Fernelius
  • Fran. Fernandus
  • Marsil Fi [...]inus
  • G. Fletcher
  • Florentinus
  • Mr. Fosbroke
  • Franzius
  • Otho. Frisingensis▪
  • Fuchsius
  • Mr. Fuller
  • J. Fungerus
  • Galenus
  • Mr. Garey
  • Mr. Gataker
  • Theod. Gaza▪
  • Cor. Gemma
  • Geminianus
  • Gilpine
  • Hier. Girova
  • [Page]Rob. Gloce [...]rensis
  • Godignus
  • Godwin
  • Mr. T. Goodwin
  • Ber. Gomesius Mi [...] ­dis
  • Mr. Googe
  • Gregorius magn.
  • Gregorius Nazian.
  • Mr. R. Greenham
  • Hil. Greg. Gyrald.
  • J. Ja. Gryneus
  • Gualther
  • An [...]. Guevara
  • Guild
  • Hack [...]nit
  • Dr. Hakewill
  • Dr. Hall
  • Mr. Harris
  • Mr. Hartlib
  • Dr. Harvey
  • H. Hawkes
  • J▪ de la Haye
  • Sir Jo. Hayward
  • Helmont
  • Mr. Herbert
  • Herodian
  • Herodotus
  • Ant. le Herrera
  • Hesychius
  • Hesiod
  • Hieronimus
  • Higinius
  • Hilarius
  • Mr. Hill
  • Pet. Hispanus
  • Hippocrates
  • Mr. Hoard
  • Mr. Holbroke
  • Hollerius
  • Dr. Holland▪
  • Homer
  • Horatius
  • Job Ho [...]op
  • Hugo Cardinal.
  • Mr. [...]. Jacombe
  • Dr. James
  • Jarricius
  • Dr. Jeniso [...]
  • Josephus Indicus
  • C. Jobson
  • Dr. Jones
  • Mr. Johnstone
  • Josephus
  • Jovius
  • Isocra [...]es
  • Isidorus
    • Hispalen▪
    • Pelusiot.
  • Silius Italicus
  • Justine
  • Juvenal
  • Dr. Kilbie
  • Kimchie
  • Dr. H. King
  • Dr. J. King
  • Kran [...]zius
  • Lactantius
  • Dr. Lake
  • Jo. Langius
  • Mr. Lawson
  • [Page]Levin. Lemnius
  • Ambr Leo
  • Jo. Leo
  • Nicol. Leonicus
  • Lerius
  • Mr. Levit
  • And. Libanius
  • Linschoten
  • Lipsius
  • T. Livie
  • Matth. de Lobel
  • Mr. Lockyer
  • Lucian
  • Lucretius
  • Mocrobius
  • Magirus
  • J. Magnus
  • Olaus Magnus
  • Majolus
  • Bapt. Mantuan.
  • Martial
    • Episcop.
    • Poeta.
  • Matth. Martinius
  • Marullus
  • Matthiolus
  • Pet. Matthew
  • Mr. May
  • Menosa
  • Hier. Mercuri [...]lis
  • Mr. Merideth
  • Mesue
  • Ped. de Mexia
  • Mr. Milles
  • Jo. Miletius
  • Mizaldus
  • Rhodol▪ Modius
  • Moryson
  • Mouffetus
  • Nicander
  • Nicephorus
  • Nicetas
  • Nigidius
  • Niphus
  • Joach. Nizaeus
  • Julius Obsequens
  • Onesicritus
  • Paulus Orosius
  • Adamant. Origines
  • Ortelius
  • Osorius
  • Ovidius
  • Oviedo
  • Dr. Page, Sanct. Pag­ninus
  • Palladius
  • Guid. Pannyrollus
  • Paracelsus
  • Pausanias
  • Pennius
  • Perottus
  • F. Picolomineus
  • Phavorinus
  • Philo
  • J. Picus, E. of Miran.
  • Pigafetta
  • Pineda
  • Geor. Piscatorius
  • Guil. Plantius
  • Dr. Playfere
  • Plautus
  • Pliny
  • Plutarch
  • [Page]Polanus
  • Polybius
  • Porcacc [...]i
  • Dr. Preston
  • Dr. Prideaux
  • Dr. Primrose
  • Mr. Purchas
  • Mr. Randal
  • Raymundus
  • Mr. Remnant
  • Mr. Reyner
  • Mr. Reynolds
  • Ramusio
  • Beat. Rhenanus
  • R [...]bera
  • Matth. Ricius
  • Rivetus
  • Cael. Rhodiginus
  • Mr. Roberts
  • Mr. Rollenson
  • Hier. Romano
  • Rosinus
  • Mr. Rowlandson
  • Hieron. Rubeus
  • M. A. Coc. Sabellicus
  • Salmeron
  • Hen. Salmouth
  • Salvian
  • Sands
  • Mr. Sanderson
  • P. San [...]lorus
  • Joaon dos Santos
  • Jo. Sa [...]isberiensis
  • J. Caes. Scaliger
  • Dr. Sclater
  • T. Scot
  • Scr [...]bonius Largus
  • Selden
  • Seneca
  • Servius
  • Dr. Sibs
  • J. Silvester
  • Huld [...]ichus Smidel
  • Socrates
  • Solinus
  • Sophocles
  • Mr. Southern
  • Spanhemus
  • Spencer
  • J. Stobaeus
  • Mr. Stock
  • Dr. Stoughton
  • Strabo
  • Valfridus Strabus
  • Mr. S [...]uther
  • Stuckius
  • Mr. J. Stanes
  • F. Stancarus
  • Sylva [...]icus
  • F. Suarez
  • Suidas
  • Mr. Swift
  • Mr. Sym
  • C. Tacitus
  • Tarnovius
  • Dr. Jer. T. Taylor
  • Tertullian
  • J. Ra. Textor
  • Theocri [...]us
  • Theodoret
  • Theophilact
  • Theophrastus
  • Ped. Teixeira
  • [Page]A. Thevet
  • Mich. Toxites
  • Max [...]mil. Transilva­nus
  • A. Turnebus
  • Geor. Turonensis
  • Willer. Tyrensis Arch.
  • Tze [...]zes
  • Valerius Maximus
  • F. Valesius
  • Valleriola▪
  • Varro
  • Garrillasso de la Vega
  • L. Verulam
  • Vigetius
  • Vincentius
  • Virgil
  • Polyd. Virgll
  • Vi [...]chindus
  • Fulvius U [...]sinus
  • Dr. Usher
  • Dr. Wall
  • Dr. S. Ward
  • Mr. Watson
  • Weckerus
  • Dr. Williams
  • Jod Willichius
  • Xenophon
  • Zanchy

TO THE Author upon his Physio-theological History of BEES.

WHence this brave slame? and to what sacred fire
(Divine Prometheus [...]) do thy thoughts aspired
Mysterious Nature takes it ill, to be
Dethron'd from her retired Majesty:
Thy daring hand hath taken off her dress,
And shew'd her naked, mid'st her hid recess:
Thou hast broke up her Archives, and hast set
To sale, her Jewel, and her Cabinet:
Her Iliad in her Nut; and now thy Bee
Is not her work, but her Anatomy,
Which thou hast handled too, at such a rate,
That ' [...]were but one step higher to create;
Thou hast her Miracle so here made known
'Twas ner'e hers once, more, then 'tis now thine own;
Hers at the best was natural, but thine
Is through thy learned labour made divine;
Paradise is her flowry Garden, whence
Shee suck [...] Elixir all, and Quintessence,
This sacred sympathy wee ner'e did know
Till thy high soa [...]ing search had found it so:
That which wee all have yet admin'd was but
The shell, thou only feastedst on the Nut;
Whilst towring far above our common sense
Thou takest▪ heaven by thy violence;
And with thy soul on wing, invad'st the sky,
Bringing us Angels Manna from on high
In pious raptures; thus this work of thine
Gives us another table Smaragdine;
[Page]Above and Here are like, the Gordian Twist
Is thus unravel'd by our Trismegist:
Now Heaven and Earth in one combin'd we see▪
And God and Nature center'd in a BEE;
This wee must owe to th [...]e, thy learned sweat
Bankrupts, and leaves us dying in thy debt:
Pardon mee then if unto thee I do
Assert the keyes of Earth and Heaven too:
Gather our Bees! and hiv'd from Envies harm,
Thrive may those stocks from whence these Graces swarm.
N. T.

Upon the Authors Elaborate Treatise of BEES.

BRokers in verse condemn it as a crime
To preface Tissue with a ragged rime.
Oh this doth strike mee dumb! and bids mee look,
I draw no Curtain to eclipse thy Book:
No, if my Lackey-muse sets out, poor shee
Runs but to take up eyes to gaze on thee:
Let others soundthy worth in silver mettle
Whilst to thy Bees I [...]ang a jarring Kettle.
My Muse had kept at home, but that she sees
Even Drones themselves indulg'd amongst thy Bees:
I've sometimes view'd thy small Volaticks flye,
Like golden atom's hov' [...]ing in the sky;
And then descending gently one by one,
Like curled locks dishev'ld from the Sun.
[Page]This object pleas'd mee well, but when I spy
By wings of fancy poys'd with gravity:
Thy thoughts to soar a higher pitch, why then
My mind's unpleas'd, but better pleas'd again:
I've peep'd into thy Hive, thy Book, and I
Finde Bees t'have less of art and industry;
And sweetness too, and so must needs confess
I long to taste thy hony from the press.
Each page a comb, each word's a bell from whence
Mellifluous dew's distill in eloquence.
Were I to lead thy troops, hither I'de flye
On every leaf to prove their Chymistry.
Here tyr'd and weary thoughts may sweetness scan,
And re-assume new life with Ionathan.
Thy observation's quick, what thou hast writ
Speaks thee Dame Natures ch [...]efest favourite.
The thoughts of various Authors thou hast shewn,
And prov'd them flye-blown fancies of their own:
Thou knowest each Bee, their flight, and tracts their stage,
And so hast wrote a second Pilgrimage.
One hony'd 'ore a Tyrants eye to feast
Did run the Gantlope through a Hornets neast.
Wasp-like, who at thy Book exceptions take
Makes thee a Martyr for thy sweetness sake.
Io. Angier.

Ad venerabilem Apiarium Authorem, Mr. Sam. Purchas Ministrum, de Poly-historico suo Mellificio; nec non lectorem candidum, carmen Anagrammaticum.

Samuel Percas Nomen

Mel, curas apes Anagram.

MEl curas & apes, mag [...] oves has diligis illos
Nee [...]ugis, aut ullo negligis ipso modo.
Sancta Theologiae pandit mysteria docte
Sic tua conscribit suada Philo-lo [...]ia
Rhetorem & historicum libro nunc asplee docto
Ecce Minister ovum, atque ecce Magister apum.
Ja. Norricius.

To the Reader upon the Philo-logical and Theo-sophical Treatise of BEES.

WHat Aristotle, Pliny, wrote before,
Virgil, Aldrovana, Scaliger, Butler more;
In this one book see thou mayest more than any,
And marvell not if that I do say many.
All that have written of these Insects nature
So much, which very little are in stature.
I do not know whether for mine own part
[Page]Bees nature most, t'admire, or Masters art;
Who centuries hath perus'd, his eloquence
Besides experience, mark t'history,
Philosophy, ith' Treatise, Theol'gy,
You may call't an Encuclopedy, all
For tongues, arts, matter, pos'tive polem'cal;
A Bee-hive for thy life, most full of hony
Purchase then this Purcasan work, thy mony
'Twill far excell, exceed to thee as gainfull,
As 'twas though pleasant, to the Writer painfull:
For a subject so good you cann't less give,
Give then good words, and praise it while you live:
Or else amend, choosing, or to do better,
Or to desist from the censorious letter:
[...] Critical, the letter of con­demnation, Becman. See the La­tine Anagram.
There's hony in his name, more in his book,
Which is mellifluous, come caste as look;
Make this Anthology Pantol'gy thine
Ambrosian Purchas Nectar Divine.
I wonder not it is so natural
For thee to be 'bout Bees historical.
This Treatise framed with such artifice
Shews some paternal metemsychosis:
Though some Antilogists shall vilifie
The Work, Work-man, both have my Eulogy.
To Zoilus.
Can Mim [...]s do the like, will Momus like
This Polanthean Pantologick book?
With tongue or pen do not perstringe or strike,
Pie not be Mome, nor Mime, to be I look
While Bees shall be, and shall their Hony give
This Bee-masters name, fame, when dead shall live.
Ia. Norrice Pastor of Ca [...]ondun.

Upon the Authors Learned and Elaborate Treatise of BEES in both parts of it, an Encomiastick.

REader, read here a book of BEES dissected;
Their nature, stature, feature, parts detected;
Their feeding, breeding, building, industry,
Their prudence, providence, sagacity,
Their peace, their war, their love, their mortal hate,
Their Prince their Leaders, order in their state;
All these and more unfolded in such wise,
That it a Hive of glass, thou mayest surmise.
Then magnifie this little Creatures Maker,
That (it) of such endowments made partaker;
Wherein his Wisdome, and his power Divine
(As in the heavens above) do clearly shine
In text hand-writing; what-thou there dost see,
In smaller letters here imprinted Bee.
Next praise the Authors Bee-like diligence,
His reading, learning, long experience.
And then read on to that which follows next,
On the second [...]rt. Ecclesiast. 12. 10.
The Preachers Sermon on this pretty Text,
Doctrine distilling like the Hony-dew,
Mellifluous, most pleasant, upright, true.
O gather then the Hony from these leaves,
Those vices flye to which thy nature cleaves.
And learn those vertues which the Bees do teach▪
Thine understanding, else this book don't reach.
By his loving Friend and Neighbour, T. P. Master of Arts, P. P.

Ad doctum Authorem, in Mellifluam ipsius de Apibus historiam carmen, [...].

FLoribus eximiis mel Apes producere lustrant
Sic (Purchas) libris roseida mella legis.
Quae veteres scripsere diu, tutestibus aequis
Arte probas; Laudem dulce loquatar opus
Tractatus doctus, permisce [...]s utile dulci;
S [...]illans delicias Religione liber.
Hic labor, hoc opus est, Apibus medicina salubris
Conditur, ac medicam porrigis arte manum.
Mystica naturae narras, amor urge [...] habendi
Nectar Apis? placida discutis historia.
Gratulor ingenium, librum dum men [...]e revolvo,
Mel sapi [...] scriptis cum pietate [...]ovum,
Guil. Rogers A. M.

Upon the Authors Treatise of BEES.

WHat Creature ist' that God hath made?
But emblems forth some signal shade
Of that divine and highest power,
Who makes, unmakes, all in an hour,
The sea is fill'd with small and great,
The earth as full, and most compleat,
The glorious heaven beyond compare,
That place where Saints and Angels are:
The basest worm, who eats but dust,
Speaks glorious praise, and that most just;
[Page]Unto that God who made us all
In his own way; mysterial.
The eye of man is over dim
To see the glory that's in him:
His hinder parts wee may behold
Which hee in Nature doth unfold,
Here is the Bee, a creature small
Which Sans, the rest, may teach us all
His pains, who hath this Bee exprest,
Shews whether Bee or Drone be best;
Who reads this work shall therein finde
A skilful pen, an honest minde.
Peruse it well, and thou shalt see
More Hony here than in the Bee.
Io. Loane Minister of Little Stambridge.

In Melissologiam a viro omnifariam docto Domino Purchaso Elogium.

PLurima mandantur chartis de Apibus M [...]nimenta,
Parvi a [...] moments; plaeraque ficti [...]iis
Atque putatitiis v [...]nis sunt scriptar [...] ferta,
Munous vult falli credulus & fa [...]uus
Falsum pro ver [...] torpenti Com te pressus
Dev [...]rat, (bine sophia maximus ill [...] labor
Negligitur) satis esse putans in verba Magistri
Iurare, indubium quicquid id ipsus ai [...]
Amplectens: Genio arridet fallacia dulcis
Quodque [...]ove [...] pigrum semper erit placidum.
Sedlater in pu [...]ei veneranda scien [...]ia fund [...]
An [...]lare ac debet continuo rigidus
[Page]Qui studet optalum tandem comprendere Adeptum
Ille nucem frangat qui volet & nucleum.
Hoc iter adverum, quo tu mi Purchase docte
Tendebas, credent nobilius sapere
Ex rebus quam libris, mox commercia agebas
Parvis cum Insectis in quibus ipse Deut
Emicat illustris, quorum Idi [...]ma tenebas.
(Qui Polyglossus eras) ingenio facili.
Numinis hac tibi pandebant Magnalia summi
Atque loquebant [...]r scibile quicquid erat
De esse suo, absque mora [...]u Pyramidalia tecta
Ingrediens lustras Doedalea illa opera
De coitu, Genesi, partu, pastuque stupendo
Horum quid reginen, quae Polit [...]ia mane [...]
Illis contemplaris, quae ad civilia bella
Spectant, ad pacem quomodo sint reduces,
Ambrostum succum quis sit modus eliciendi
Stirpibus evariis arte sua Chymica.
I [...]super [...]is de parvis mille Arcana recludis
M [...]llificis, penitus quae latuere alios.
Quocirca tibi qui debetur bonore rependet
Quicunque ingenuus, proferet & merit [...]
Cunctis hac in re palmam preripuisse.
Plus & Apes viles insti [...]uisse suum
Impigrum Dominum de Diis, morum prob [...]tate
Occonomi cura, regis & officio
Qua spectam populum quem immensa volumina quorum
Lector in hoc solo nititur [...].
G. T.

To the Learned Author of this Bee-like laborious Treatise.

VVHat shall I praise the Author or his pen,
Or run division t'wixt them both? oh then
My Muse would tire, his name needs not my layes
His fathers Pilgrimage earst ware the bayes;
I then will sing the praise of Monarchy
In female sex, whose curious industry;
Just rule, sweet concord and frugality;
Mortals amaze, when into it they pry.
But learned Purchas spight of spears is bold
Their Castle to assault, and doth unfold
Their nature, kindes, products, and curious works▪
Their valour, order, wealth, and what ere lu [...]ks
Within the concaves of their golden wall
He hath spied out, and doth impart to all
Much worth's in least of things I now beleeve
The busie Bee hath taught me from her Hive.
Sith Natures Ark's broke ope, come all and view,
Mysterious arts, secrets both old and new,
But herein doth excell his proved skill
Surpassing far the rudenes [...] of my quill,
Grave meditations both Moral and Divine,
He hath extracted from dark Natures mine;
Much labour hath procured this pretious oar,
And gathered hony sweet suck'd from each flower:
And thus by imitation truly wise
He doth not scorn to learn of puny slyes.
Thank then the Author, admire the little Bee,
But give the God of Wisdome praises free.
Muse now be silent, let himself relate
The rare news he'ath brought from Scithian state.
I [...]. Fisher.


PAge 9. l. 6. blot ou [...] in Sc [...]liger, p. 10. l. 3 blot out not, p. lb. l. 14. r. about the Cape de burn Speranz [...], so black, yet both under the same Tropique, why the Abyssines are but Tawny Moores, when as, &c. p. lb. l. 16 r. are very black, p. 12. l. 38 r. quie [...]cent, p. 15. l. 22. r. A [...]drovandus, p. 30 l. 34. r. out of, p 30. in marg. r. Pod. de Mexla, p 35. l. 17 r. wasters, p. 42. l. 1. for may r. nay. p. [...]4, l. 31. r. Aristotle: p 45. l 5. r. sit: p. 46. l. 37. r. milk: p. 47. l. 28. r. analogous: p. 49, l 37. for none, r. any: p. 51. l. 22. for for, r. from: p. 52. l. 6. r. excrements: p. 75. l. 20 r. sicula: p. 75. l. 21. r▪ Hymetti; p 75. in marg r. Maiop [...]m [...]s▪ p▪ 97. l. 5. r. Mouse; p 99. l. 16. blot out then; p. 101 l. 19. r put a▪ p. ib. l. [...]4. r. upon the empty hive; p. 104. in m [...]rg. r. Fazellus; p. [...]10. l. 34. r. tattered; p. 115. l. 16. r. second [...] p. 119. in marg r. Joaon dos, &c. p. 122. l. 4. for after, r. often; p. 128. l. 10. blot out their; p. 130. l. 14. r. Pancy [...]ollus, p. 131. l. 4. blot out of; p. ib. in mar. r. Pancyrollus; p. 133. l. 20 blot out dew; p. 138. l. 32. blot out ascribe [...]; p. 144. l. 10. should have been placed p. 143. l 35, p. 157. l. 18. r. Hollerius; p ib. l 35. r G [...]z [...], p 160. l. 34, blot out which; p. ib l. 35 r. on the other side; p. 161. l. 10. r. Hermonax; p. 164▪ in marg. r. Tit. Livius; p. 165. l. 8. r. Olynth [...]a [...] p. 173 l. 7. for one ounce of; r. out of; p. 179. l. 29. r transverse; p 185 l. 32. r. once, p. 190. l. 1▪ blot out if; p. ib. l. 20. r. continue; p 195. l. 27 r. [...]usset; p. ib. l▪ 36. r. yet within all, &c. p. 201. l. 5. r. once; l. 16. r Diaconus▪

ERRATA in the Second part.

Page 258. in marg. r. D. Dike; p 261. l. 21. r. return; p. 267. l. 21. r. maketh them consistent; p. 310. l. 14. r. stubborn; p. 311. l. 5 r. make; p. 318. l. ult. r. spat; p. 3 [...]5 l 20. r. wrought; p. 348. l 32. r. reine; l. 33. r. Bees; p. 364. l. 15. for [...]angle, r taile; p. 370. last [...]ine, for Drones [...] Doves. p. 374. l. 6 r Plaucus; l. 24. r. in Pitchers; l. 26 r. advantage; p. 376. l 17. r. admit; l. 18 for were, r. are; p. 381. l. 12. for 10, r. T [...]; p. 382. l. 8. r. quaesitum; p. 386. l. 27. r. which i [...]; p. 387. l 9. r. last.

A Theatre of Political Flying Insects.

CHAP. I. The Excellency of Bees.

BEes are the most excellent of all Insects whatsoever, and expresse both worth and wonder in all their waies: They only afford delightful food, and plea­sant nourishment for man, whereas the best in other kindes serve only for Phy­sick, or the pleasure of the eye, or the delight of the ear, or the cloathing of the body: the most part whereof is by these also some way or other abundantly supplyed; so that natures power is no lesse in Bees, than in the greatest, and most perfect creatures;Jo. Rains. Text. Epithet. Dr Jones Comment in Epist. ad Phi­lem. Carden. l. 7. de Variet [...]t, rerum. for hee that made the Camel, and the Elephant, made the Bee too. This is somewhat, but yet not enough; because they are the most excellent Creatures for Prudence, and profit, ex­cept man; and indeed the divine wisdome hath thus ordered it, that wee might understand that Prudence consists not in the greatnesse of the body, but in the minde, which hath no need of magnitude, but as it is lesse, is so much the more excellent. Here is magnum in parvo, a little in quantity, but much in worth and quality.

The Bee is a little creature, but Gods smallest springs prove at length main Oceans, his least beginnings grow into great works, great wonders.

Who can imagine that so many pleights and joints, con­nexions, [Page 2] and concatenations, should bee orderly disposed in so small a fabrick? That in a body so little, the joints should move so actively, the wings stirre so nimbly, the sting pene­trate so deeply, the senses utter forth themselves so sharply, Nay, the lungs, (though scarcely visible) to breath so power­fully,Chrysost. Comment in Epist. Paull ad Philip. c. 2. c. 4. doth any then glory, or is proud for his skill in various arts! What in this respect is wiser, or better instructed than the Bee? What Artificer is so various, what Painter, what Geo­metrician can imitate her works?

Why do wee then marvail at the Tower-bearing shoulders of Elephants, and not rather where Nature hath planted so many senses, and such industry in such little bodies? where is hear­ing, seeing, smelling, tasting, and feeling, yea where are thePliny saith, no creature can live or move without them. Veines and Arteries in these so little bodies, which a little di­stance from us can scarcely bee seen with our eyes: And what shall wee say of the parts of the same? and yet in this little Bee is such sagacity and industry, as the like is not seen in crea­tures of greater quantity.

The great Artifex of Nature hath enlarged the smaller crea­tures with wisdome, and invention, so teaching that greatnesseTertul. adver­sus Marcion. lib. 1. is to bee found in meannesse (as the Apostle saith) strength in infirmities. Imitate if thou canst the Bees buildings, the Ants hills, or lodgings, the Spiders nets, the Silk-worms webbs.

Such therefore are not a little mistaken, who affirm that there is neither much strength, nor yet such beauty in small crea­tures,Ant. of Gue­vara famil. E­pist. as in the greater; nay, that whereas the greater, as the E­lephant, and Horse are profitable, the lesser serve only to offend, whereas what Creature for profit can compare to the Bee, or the Silk-worm?

And though the greatest thing the Vulgar praise her for, is her laborious industry, yet indeed the least thing that may bee praised in her, is her industry.

For, If old times admire Calicrates
For Ivory Emme [...]s, and Mermeoides
Du. B [...]s fifth. day.
For framing of a rigged Ship so small,
That with her wings a Bee can hide it all.
Admire wee then th' all wise omnipotenc [...],
Which doth within so narrow space disp [...]nce
So stiffe a sting, so stout and valiant [...]eart▪
[Page 3]So loud a voice, so prudent wit, and art:
Their well rul'd state, my soul so much admires
That durst I lose the reignt of my desires,
I gladly could digresse from my design,
To sing a while their sacred discipline.

CHAP. II. Of the Name.

IN Hebrew a Bee is called, [...] Debora, from the order of their work, which they frame with admirable art and industry; Among the Greeks, Bee [...] had various names, according to the va­riety of Nations; and Countries, but the most Vulgar was, [...] (and Hesiod hath [...], from Hony, whereof the Bee is the Chymical preparer) and they are also called, [...], because no Insect is so profitably industrious. The Latins call them Apis and Apes, because as Virgil, they are trunca pedum prime, first bred without feet: And indeed the Worm or Potential Bee, called by the Greeks [...], Scbad [...]n, is without leggs, but after her Metamorphosis (of which afterwards) shee comes forth a six-legged creature, but because this Etymology answers not Analogy, as other com­pounds, it is supposed by others to bee a simple word: So also Servius and Pyr. Perottus in C [...]rnu [...]op. Lucian therefore calls them, [...], A. Canlep. in dictionar.

The word Bee, according to Goropius, is originally Dutch,Gorop. Be [...]an. Her [...]th. lib [...] and therefore English; and so composed (saith hee) because it affords us many things: Wax, for curing of dolours, wounds, Ulcers; for lights, Ceare-cloath, and many other things; and for Hony it would require a daies work to declare the benefit and worth thereof. And though these bee great benefits, yet there are more excellent and remarkable to bee observed from this Creature: For every Common-wealth, every King­dome receive their best directions and precepts, whereby the duties of the King towards the people, and of the people to­wards the King, and of the Citizens among themselves are [Page 4] most clearly taught. If they hold forth any patterns to us, wee readily write after them, and practise them. For it sig­nifies also, saith [...]ee, to command or rule, because it is the same supream Majesty, that affords and bestows all things, and commands all things. Wherefore the Architect of words by a singular prudence hath commended to us Monarchy, in­cluded in certain limits by the name of Bee; which state who­soever attains, it is necessary that hee imitate the King of Bees, who so deports and carries himself, that hee is beloved, provided for, and protected by all the Bees; and yet in the mean time so farre from offering injury or wrong to any, that he hath no sting to hurt any (so Goropius) but which i [...]truer and bet­ter, hee never useth it to the hurt of any.

CHAP. III. The Definition and Description of a Bee.

A Bee is a Flying Insect, four winged, six legged, best skilled in making of Hony, her shape is little, brown, bow­ing, oblong, not globous, as some: Her eyes are covered withMouffet. The­atr. insector. a horny membrane, or tunicle for their better desence and safeguard; they are of a shining black, like Jet, transparent asArist. de par­ [...]ibus, animal. lib. 2. [...]. 13. and also Plin. lib. 11. c. 37. Glasse, immoveable, contrary to Aristotle, who saith, all In­sects move their eyes, as four-footed beasts their ears; not sunk within their heads (as Mouffetus) but somewhat promi­nent, no eye-brows: Their eyes are placed on the outside of their cheeks, or rather are in stead of cheeks; o [...] long, greater above than below, through which the species of things vi­sible are conveyed to the common sense. The horns are cal­led by Aristotle, Antennae, because they hold them forth be­fore them; They are very pliable, and readily bending almost every way: they grow almost at the top of either eye, for de­fence with two joynts, one close to the head, the other towards the middle, so that shee can put them forth at full length, when shee will, and draw them d [...]wn again close to her head: And they are the proper instruments of the sense of feeling by which, with the least touch, shee suddenly senteth any tangible object, [Page 5] The Drones eyes are farre larger, being almost two thirds of their head, with two moveable wreathed horns, growing out together between the eyes, but extending like a fork.

For gathering her provision, shee hath two instruments, her fangs, and her tongue; her fangs in fashion of a pair of pincers, hang not as the jaws of other things, one over ano­ther, but side-waies, one against the other: Her tongue is of that length, that her mouth cannot hold it, but being doub­led between her fangs under her throat, it reacheth to her breast; it is divided into three parts, whereof the two outmost serve as a case to cover the third, which being the chief, the Bee in her work, putteth forth beyond the other, and draweth in again as shee pleaseth, and this third is likewise parted into three; so that there are five in all.

In their fangs or chaps, wherein are their teeth, their princi­pal strength consisteth; for in their conflicts, where they slay one with their sting, they kill twenty with their teeth, quickly biting off the wings, or breaking the leggs of their adversaries: And therefore Mr. Butler was somewhat deceived, who ac­counteth this pinching of other Insects (for against them only do they▪ use them) to bee rather a chiding, than a fighting, a warning, than a punishment; being indeed a deadly and mortal instrument of revenge; so that after a battel you shall see them lye sprauling, hopping away, and crauling in great multitudes, either drawing on the ground one, or more of their leggs, or doubling the nether part towards the ground, or turning the same awry to the one side, or other, but as many as are bitten, within a short space will certainly dye.

They [...]unne at first limp [...]ng away, but survive very little: And that they are not stung to death, that in such variety of mo­tions, proclaim their various hurts is very apparent.

First, Because there is no sting appearing in them; nay, more die lamed in their leggs, than hurt in all other parts; and besides, their leggs are not susceptible of a sting: And if you observe many of them, before they be let go by their Antagonists, the Victor retains her sting still: But saith one, their skin is so thin andMr. Remnant Hist. of Bee [...]. c. 3. dry, their spears come away again without hurt to themselves; but this is not so, for I have often seen them stricken in their backs, and breasts, and also between their pleights, or ringles of [Page 6] their nether part, and the sting herein detained. It is true in a great Carnage, very few are stricken with their sting, or spear which they are loath to use, when their fangs will right them; as they will against [...]osects, because it is deadly also to them­selves.

—Animam (que) in vulnere ponit.

But their stings they chiefly use against men, beasts, and Fouls, for knowing that their bitings are little, or no way pre­judicial against such able creatures, they will kill themselves to injure others: for their sting like a barbed arrow, once entred into skin or flesh, is holden so fast, that they cannot draw it out again; and when they would bee gone, leave therefore a part of their entrals fastened to it, so that when they overcome by sting­ing, they get a Cadmian victory, loseing thereby their own lives. They are hairy almost all over their bodies, especially the fore-part.

A Bee hath four drye pelluced skinny wings (and so have all Insects that live in fields, and wander about for their food) twoAristot. de par­tibus animal. lib. 4. c. 6. [...] are growing near together, on either side of their shoulders, but the inmost are somewhat shorter than the other, least they should hinder their flying; and these swiftly convey them into every place (though some miles remote) round about their ha­bitations, until by often using of them, they grow torn and jagged (the infallible characters of old age, and death) and are unable to support them, yet will they venture forth (but with the price of their lives) not being able to return.

The hinder part of their bodies is full of ringes, or pleights, ofCardan. de subtil lib. 9. which this reason is given: the beginning of motion must bee in some part, which if it were hard, could not be moved, but with the leggs, as Crabbs, but if it were all soft, it could much lesse be moved, because there is nothing firm; and therefore there is a necessity of these ringes, that interchangeably the hard parts may be mixed with the soft.

Their tails are somewhat sharp (the Drones more obtuse) within which is their stings joyned to their entrals, which ordi­narily lie bid (as Aristotle) least they should bee spoiled, but they readily exert, and put them out on all occasions rather (as I [Page 7] said) co offend men, and beasts, than their own kinde: there is another use of them for the consumption of the superfluousAvicen de a­nim [...]. lib. 8. c. 3 humidity.

They have a place for evacuation under them, and for gene­ration also, as some conceive. Her feet are six, dew-clawed, pliant, full of joynts, hairy; and as it were, two toes at the ex­treamity of either foot: her hindmost feet are longest, that shee may put them forward to her formost, which receive from her tongue the Bee-bread, and wax, and working it on the thighes of the hindmost, shee stands in the mean time on the middle-most; and though shee can, and doth ordinarily stand and go on all her feet, yet the two foremost have with her the use of hands, therewith shee stroaks and clears her eyes, be­fore her setting out, but principally in her working for the dis­posing of her labours to her thighs. All her feet are scabrous, and rough, to take hold at the first touch, and not that the flow­ers which they carry may readily stick on them, as one saith; this cannot bee, for they carry no flowers, but suppose him to understand the Bee-bread gathered of flowers, yet still he fails,Aldro▪ vand. de▪ Insectis. lib. [...]. for this is carried on the thighs, and only of the hinder feet.

In their head is a brain, their back and breast is a kinde of reddish fibrous flesh, in their stomach, is a heart and other ne­cessary members (of which more afterwards) in the hinder part of their bodies, is a little bottle, or bladder (it is not in the sto­mack, as Mouffet delivers) the mouth of it reacheth, or openeth into the stomach.

In this they carry hony, which with their heat, they defeca [...]e; purge, and concoct, whereby it lasts longer than all Aerial Ho­ny, or Manna, and rarely, if at all, corrupts. Sometimes they carry water likewise in this bottle, and not in their bill, ac­cordingMr. Hill Trea­tise of right or­dering Bees. to Mr. Hill his expression, nor yet in the soft mossinesse of their whole bodies, as hee also delivers; they have but one contracted entral, which extended, is as long as the body: The excrements are liquid, fluid, and yellow.

Aristotle in the Description of the Cham [...]leon, a vile (and in many Countries a Vulgar) Creature, is very exact, particular,Julius Caesar Scaliger com. in Aristot. de Hist. Animal. lib. 2. c. 14. and large. Scaliger having commended this, and wished for like diligence in others, saith, My judgement is, that a Philosopher [Page 8] must omit nothing, for though some things bee known to some, yet it is a secret to many, wherefore, whosoever writes, seeing hee wites to all, must do this common courtesie to all.

I question not, but that many will account mee too full, nay, tedious many times in this discourse; but I cannot shut a long foot into a little shooe, nor enclose so many Iliads of observa­tions (as one did the Iliads of Homer) in a Nut shell; for thisEcclesia. cap. 11. v. 3. would prove an indecorum, for though the Bee is little among such as flye, yet her fruit is the chief of sweet things; and shee is full of wisdome▪ and as the great Ocean hath in it things creeping innumerable, both of small and great beasts, so doth the Bee afford observations innumerable. Political, Moral, Physical, and Metaphisical, it is no wonder then if the Fisher­men in this Sea cannot take all, yet with industry may they have draught enough, and such plenty of various speculations as may delight, if not satisfie the patient Reader. Too much curiosi­ty may drown us with Aristotle in the bottome of the Sea, or burn us with Pliny on Mount V [...]s [...]vius.

CHAP. IV. Of the Kindes and Colours of Bees.

ARistotle reckons nine sorts of Bees, and Scaliger com­mendsAristot. de Hist. Animal. lib. 9. c. [...]0. this distribution, wishing hee had been so exact in other creatures, whereas here hee abounded more in words, than things. Albertus, herein Aristotles Ape, enumerates as many, butAlbert. Mag. tract. 4. c. 2. in strange and barbarous termes, which it seems he forged in the shop of his invention: But whatsoever the Ancients have re­lated concerning diverse kindes, and some Neotericks, to appear as knowing as any in former ages, have described; wee in these parts of the world acknowledge (because we know) but one sort of Domestick hony gathering Bee: Some indeed live in woods, as wild, others in hives, as more familiar and milde; but these interchangeably shift their habitations: And I questi­on not, but the wilder (because more remote from the companyAristot. de Hist. lib. 5. c. 19. of men) by familiarity will prove as gentle as any.

Aristotle commends a little round Bee in the first place, and in [Page 9] the next that which is somewhat long, and in shape (not colour) like a wasp. But (as I said) wee have in these parts of Europe, but one sort of domestick Bee. And yet Pliny, Varro, Co­lumella; and in a word, all receive this distribution of Bees from him; And which is more, hee confounds the Drone into two sorts, a Thief and a Drone, which Scalliger reconcileth well thus, that by the Theef is to bee understood that which others call a Drone.

Varro citing Menocrates tells us of three kindes of Bees, oneVarro de re rust. lib. [...]. black, a second red, a third party-coloured, which hee com­mends for the best.

In all the Islands of the Moluccas their hony is made ofPigafetta. certain Flies lesse than Ants. It is a report not confirmed by any, but supposing it true, the Bees (not Flies) were small, like unto the American Bees, and the Ants great, such as are in some parts of the Indies greater than our Flies.

Moreover, there is some difference in the bigness of Bees, but it is accidental, for they that are loaded (especially with water or honey) seem greater and longer than those that are empty. The Nymphs also when they come first abroad are not grown to the full bigness, which afterwards they have; and the old ones do wither and become little again.

Likewise in these three Ages their colours also do vary; for in their middle age they are brown, whereas before they are more pale, and at the last they grow grey, of whitish again, but these are differences of Bees in the same hive, and not of one hive from another, since these divers sorts are in every Hive.Natal▪ Com. Mythiolog. lib. 2.

The report is, That all Bees were at first of an Iron colour, but for feeding of Iupiter, had this reward bestowed on them to bee changed into a golden colour. But not to insist upon Fables.

In some Countries there bee white Bees, Aristotle saith, in Pontus. Many such are in America, not because they are thinner, or of a more transparent substance, or feed more sinely as some, rather they are a fainter and feebler kinde of Bees, forL. Verulam Silva S [...]lva [...]um cent. 1. 5. white is a penurious colour, and where moysture is scant, so blew Violets, and other flowers, if they bee starved, turn pale and white. Some assign this as a cause of colours, the ex­crementitious [Page 10] moysture, which as it passeth through a courser, or more fine, and delicate strainer, so are the colours brighter or darker. Others, Bees are not therefore brown or black, because their thin substance is easily dried, and that which is burnt andCard de v [...] ­rietat [...]er. c. 28. moist as a coal becomes black. Nor are Bees of one colour more than Wasps, because they feed of fewer sorts of food, than Wasps: For colours are disposed unto all things by the greatArist. de gen. animal. l. 5. c. 6 Creator, of which no more certain reason can bee given, then why some men are Negroes, others are not.

Now Negroes are not black by reason of their seed, this is confuted by Aristotle; nor yet by the heat of the clymate, for this is confuted by experience, in that Countries as hot, produceSelden [...] il­lust [...]at. on Drayt. Poly­albion▪ [...]. song. of a different colour, who can certainly shew why about the Magellanique-S [...]raits they are so white? about the Cape de Buon Speranza, when as in the East-Indian Isle, [...]ilan, and the Coast of Malabar, they are black both in the same parallel. Nor of the soyl as some have supposed, for neither haply willOnesicritu [...] a­pud Strabon▪ l. 11. other races in that soyl prove black, nor that race in other soyles grow to bee better complexioned; but rather upon the curse of Noab upon Cham, or the posterity of Chus. But of this can wee bee no more assured of than the former; for Chus inhabited a part of Mesopotamia watred by Gyon, a river of Paradise, and one of the branches of Euphrates. Sands Relat. lib. 2.

Some leaving the hot impressions in the aire, attribute it to the driness of the earth, as though the Libyan Desarts were not more dry (and yet the people no Negroes) than many parts of Africa, where they are all blacks.

Some ascend above the Moon to call some heavenly constel­lation and influence into this Consistory of nature, and there will I leave them; yea, I will send them further, to him that hath re­served many secrets of nature to himself, and hath willed us to content our selves with things revealed: As for secret things both in heaven and earth, they belong to the Lord our God, whose holy Name be blessed for ever, for that hee hath revealed to us things most necessary both for soul and body in the things of this life, and that which is to come.

CHAP. V. Bees nature and properties.

BEES are neither absolutely wilde, nor altogether tame crea­tures, but of a middle nature between both. Some Bees are not (as some conceit) ignorant or negligent in gathering honey, and framing their combs, but yet serviceable in meaner imployments (as fetching water, watching, and warding) but all are naturally skilfull in all their proper labours, and inter­changeably perform them. Their sting is more often the cause of their ruine, than instrumental for their relief; for loosing it (which they alwayes do when they sting) they unavoydably lose their lives; but with the fear of it they often chase away timorous persons from their Hives.

Some fancy that the cause of their humming noyse while they flye, i [...], least they should bee deprehended for theeves; whereas the robbing Bee, or theef, boldly discovers his purpose, as soon as hee comes near the hive which hee intends to assault, with a loud threatning noyse, proclaiming their destruction, if they shall resist, and not willingly permit their goods to bee plundered, endeavouring by fear to betray the courage that self­preservation should arm them with.

That some Bees stay at home to receive the labours of thoseArist. in histot. Anim. l. 9. c. 40. that go to work (as Aristotle delivers) is but a fable; hee saith the Bees returning from their labour, shake themselves, and three or four attend and follow, and ease them of their burden.

That they carry in a windy season little stones to poise themselves, is a false relation; yet in a storm they will help themselves by flying under the Lee-side of an hedge, or en­compassing a high and hilly place (if there bee any) and so as it were by making a board (as Sea-men speak) take the advantage of the wind. But if it bee a plain Champaign Country, where evasions avail nothing; then if the wind blow strong against them, they flye low, and almost close to the ground, and rest often.

Aristotle saith, The smaller Bees are more industrious than [Page 12] the greater; his reason is, their wings are worn and jagged, their colour black, and their backs bowing, when saith hee, the greater are smooth and beautiful (like idle women) when indeed they are originally of one magnitude, but growing old, their bodies, are small thin, and grey, and their wings torn and tattered, a certain symptome of an approaching death, whereas the others beauty, and lustiness is a Crysis of their youth, not their idle­ness.

In the morning they are husht and still, saith Aristotle, un­till one (surely the Master of the watch) with two or three loud buzzings calls them all up as it were to work: But no such ex­citing sound could I ever hear; nay I am confident there is none at all. But some such like thing is practised by the Apes which some have transferred to the Bees.

Near the River Gambra in Africa, and in many other places [...]pt. Jobsons Golden trade. it is certain, that the Apes gather together towards night, some hundreds in a company, and in the trees (especially near the Rivers side) dance their Lav [...]lita's, and perform many strange Garbo [...]les; but about the setting of the Sun, one of the com­pany (called by the English Mr. Constable) with two or three loud voyces ceaseth all their disports, and after that they con­tinue quiet and silent untill the next morning when by a like voyce they have liberty given them to play and recreate them­selves.

When the Bees likewise return from work, they are (as Aristotle, and others) a while in a tumul [...]uous hurly burly, and then by degrees make less noise, and less, untill one flying about gives notice as it were that they must all to sleep; but it is no­thing so, for in full Hives in the latter part of the Spring, and in the heat of Summer, they make a great buzzing sound all night. Bees live in a Martial discipline like Souldiers in a Garrison, some al­waies watching and warding, understand it of the Summer season, when the chilling cold, or nipping frost doth not force them into their Hives: yet in the day time they continue it longer.

A hot Sun-shine or warmer aire (even in Winter) will quickly prompt them out of their Hives to take a short vagary near their stalls, but if the cold bee intense, they are quiessent, if not dormant.

[Page 13]Bees are indefatigably, that I say not covetously laborious, alwayes working, but never satisfied, alwayes toyling, but ne­ver coming to a period of their endeavours, sti [...]l progressive, never at their journies end, being impossib [...]e to bee st [...]nted, and the longer they work, the more [...]a [...]est they are, and impatient of delayes, or loyterings, while there is matter to work upon in the fields, and the weather is seasonable. Nay if the flowers decay and grow scanty; The Stocks that have enough, and to spare, will to keep themselves doing, rob from their neigh­bours.

For every Hive, or Commonwealth, endeavours to bee a Non-such, and to engross all within its own circumference, and by any means to make it self the increasing figure, though toyl, and restlesness continually attend it.

They are not offended with red coloured cloaths as some affirm, nor yet in [...]briated with sweet oyntments, no nor much offended with stinking favours: I have known twenty Hives together stand against a dunghil divers years, and thrive and pro­sper well, yet would I not perswade any to set them in such a place if hee can provide another.

They express not more love to their keepers than strangers, but they being used to them with greater confidence venture a­mong them, which some (more fearful) beholding fancie, that the Bees respect and love them more than strangers; whereas would they boldly come among them, nay take them in their hands, and carry themselves peaceably towards them (except when they bee irritated and offended before) they should finde all love and favour from them. They feed not on any flesh, nor need Pythagoras cavea [...]s for that purpose.

That some Bees gather not honey, but water for the King, and his guard, is a meer fable, for they mutually perform all im­ployments.Aelian lib. 1. c [...]p. 10.

That there is such an order that the elder Bees should have a proper place in every Hive, and the younger another, peculiar to themselves, is (as most of the opinions of the Ancients) a fabulous narration, for they are all promiscuously mixed to­gether.

Bees (as many other Insects) have neither visible bones, nor Cartilages, nor Nerves, nor fat, nor flesh, nor a brittle shell, [Page 14] as some land, and Sea-creatures have, nor that which may bee properly called a skin, but a body of a certain middle na­ture between all these like to a dry Nerve, but far softer.

Their body is divided into three principal parts, and there is motion in every part severed one from another, so that whatso­ever is the reason of their life, it is not fixed to any one member, but in the whole, and therefore Pliny was deceived, who ac­cords in the former, but denies that Insects, and therefore Bees have any symptome of life by motion in the head, except it bee cut off with the breast. Aristotle taught him this lesson, whichArist. de hist. Animal l. 4. [...]. 6. without trial hee took upon trust (as many more.) And Sealiger also after him, and is not content to entertain an errour, but in­solently insults over Galen, for placing the chief residency of theSealig. com in loc. soul in the brain.

It is true, that the heads of Eeles and Snakes cut off, live not long, when as the body lives a great while; nay a speedyL. Verul. cent. 4. 4 [...]0. way to kill an Eele, is to peirce her through the middle of her [...]il. Upon dissection I have found that onely the head being cut off, the horns, the chaps, and the tongue also will stir, and that a great while after the separation from the body. Now the reason hereof may bee this, Bees have the spirks diffused, amost all over, and therefore they move in their several peeces, whereas men and beasts move very little time after their heads are off: And therefore it is certain, that the immediate cause of death, is the resolution or extinguishment of the spirits, and that the destruction or corruption of the Organs, is but the mediate cause; but some Organs are so peremptorily neces­sary, that the extinguishment of the spirits doth speedily fol­low, but yet so, as there is an interim of a small time; but for Worms and Bees the spirits are diffused almost all over, and therefore they move in their several peeces.

Further to illustrate this, Iohn Leo, reports that men con­demnedJo. Leo. to suffer death in Egypt, have lived a quarter of an hour, divided asunder set upon a heated Caldron, sprinkled with unslaked lime, and understood, and given answers.

A living creature is sensible in every part, so that it can ex­erciseCa [...]d. de sub­til l. 9 it in regard of heat, and can also perform in every office that the organ, or instrument for that office is remaining; and hence are determined many controversies.

[Page 15]Some query whether a living creature can subsist without the head, others whether without the heart? Without the head they are not sensible, but live; without the heart they are sen­sible, but the heat quickly decayes, and motion, and life also.

Bees revive easily when they seem dead, being brought to the Sun or fire; the cause whereof is (as before) the diffusionL. Verul. Silva Sil. cent. 7. 69 [...]. of the vital spirits, and the easie dilating of them by a little heat; they stir therefore a good while after their heads are off, and that they bee cut in peeces, which (as before) is caused for that their vital spirits are more diffused throughout all their parts, and less confined to organs, than perfect creatures.

Augustins mentions the same with astonishment and wonder,August. lib. de quantit. anim. c. 3. Aristot. de pa [...]tib. animal. lib. 4. c 6 supposing that no reason can bee rendred for it, but that it is a secret work of God, left one soul should seem to bee divided into so many parts. Aristotle saith, that Insects are most like plants, because they have many beginnings in their essence, for as plants cut in peeces live, so Insects for a time, but plants more fully.

Bees when they flye lift themselves up; thus they do whenArist. de hist. anim l 4, c▪ 9 they arise from the Hive, but they can flye forth-right, without any visible elevation of themselves. Aldr [...]mandus would give a reason for it, because, saith hee, they want a taile, and therefore continue not long in the aire. But this by experience is found to bee otherwise, and birds that have long tailes, yet have a jumping motion in their flight, as the Wagtaile.

When the Hives are full of Bees, and well supplied with meat, neither moths, nor any other hurtful creature can much endanger them; but when they are few and weak, they easily miscarry by every adversary; so that it is not a signe of a better sort of Bee, as Aristotle delivers, but onely of want of num­bers or strength, when they neglect their own preservation, which sometimes they having formerly endeavoured, and finding their labours frustrate, they grow desperate and careless; but though in number they bee but few, and therefore their dangers many; their provision little, and therefore their fare poor and pinching, yet will they not forsake their own Commonwealth to communicate of the wealth or strength of others, but without repining rest contented, yet by diligence endeavouring to im­prove [Page 16] their store and numbers. But when they are so few that they cannot thrive alone, they will with a general consent (ex­cept their Generals, to whom such a resolution is deadly) some­times joyn themselves to another Hive, but alwayes with hazard, often with destruction.

Bees delight to play abroad before the Hive, flying in and out as thick as if they were fighting or swarming, in breeding time, once a day usually, if it bee fair weather, and ordinarily at a set time, each Hive observing the same hour of the day if it bee fair; and then they will expatiate and dance the Hay in circling motions, and surrounding Vagaries; and at other times when they have been long shut up with cold, or closer weather, the first fair day they will thus abroad both to recreate them­selves, and also to ease their bodies, for they evacuate for the most part flying.

CHAP. VI. Bees Politicks, Ethicks, and Economicks.

ONe drop of water hath no power, one spark of fire is not strong, but the gathering together of waters called Seas, and the communion of many flames do make both raging and invincible elements. And una Apis, nulla Apis, one Bee is no Bee, but a multitude, a swarm of Bees uniting their forces to­gether, is very profitable, very comfortable, very terrible, pro­fitable to their owners, comfortable to themselves, terrible to their enemies.

Bees are political creatures, and destinate all their actions to one common end; they have one common habitation, one com­mon work, all work for all, and one common care and love to­wards all their young, and that under one Commander, who is not an elected Governour; for the vulgar often want judge­ment,Basil. Concio▪ in Go [...]dium Ma [...]tyr. & Hexame [...] ▪ ho­mil. 8. raising the worst and wickedest to the Throne; nor hath hee his power by lot, for the chances of lots are absurd, and ri­diculous, conferring command often upon the meanest: Nor is hee by hereditary succession placed in the Throne; for often through pleasures and flatteries are they rude and ignorant [Page 17] of true vertue, but by nature hath hee the Sovereignty over all, excelling all in goodliness, and goodness, in mildness, and majesty.

They have all the same common laws, and with commonAmbros. Hex­am. l. [...]. c. 21. care, observe them all, and have one common bond, not to have any thing lawful for one, which is not lawful for another, but whatsoever is lawful, is lawful for all. And they have one common respect, and reverence to their Commander by whose counsel their Commonwealth is governed; a common house, a common care of posterity, common labour, common food, common generation, a common use and fruition of all things.

A Bee, like a man cannot live alone, if shee be alone, shee dies:J. Stobeu [...] lau [...] nuptiar▪ p. 67. As in the Fable of Menenius Agrippa, the whole body soon perished, when the rest of the members to ease themselves wronged the belly; so the whole Commonwealth of Bees will quickly bee dissolved if they labour, each Bee for her self, and neglect the publick. Nay the Drones, though they bee idle, yet are usefull instruments for the good, and preservation of the Commonwealth.

The Polity of Bees is admirable and imitable: Plato and Cicero after a divers manner prescribed the form of a Common­wealth, one how it ought to bee, the other how it was of old, but both lay down this as a maxime, that a civil life should imitate nature which is the best instructer. But what is Na­tures lesson, the irrational creatures best express, and chiefly Bees, and therefore Plutarch sends his Trojane to Virgil, that heePlutarch. reip. gerend. precep. might borrow a civil life from the Bees. For a civil man by natures rule is alwayes chiefe of the City, as the Commander among the Bees.

And again, hee saith, Bees conserve community unto theirPlutarch. [...]n seni si [...] geren. resp. last; for no man ever saw a Bee degenerate into a Drone, which some require of Civil Governours, that the vigour of their age being past, they should live idle at home. Great spirits de­generate no [...].

They express if not great reverence, yet I am sure great love to their Commander, without whom, they will bee, they willPet. Matthew continuat. Gen h [...]st of France. do nothing, and with whom they will bee any thing, go any whither, stay any where, bee content with any thing.

[Page 18]The Poet elegantly thus writes,Virgil. Georg. l. 4.

Besides not Egypt, nor rich Lydia [...]re,
Nor Medes, nor Parthian [...] do their King adore;
Whilst bee's alive in concord all obey,
But when bee dyes, all leagues are broke, and they
Themselves destroy their gathered food at home,
And re [...]d the fabrick of their Honey-combe;
'Tis bee preserves their works, him all admire,
And guard his person with a strong desire:
They carry him, for him they bazzard death,
And think in War they nobly lose their breath.

Xantippus therefore the Lacedemonian being General of thePolytius. Carthaginian [...] said, Hee had rather serve under the Comman­der of the Bees, than lead an army of Ants. I say, under the Commander of the Bees, who useth not his sting, that is, ex­erciseth tyranny against none, and orders nothing but that which is profitable for the Commonwealth; when as they that lead an army of Pismires, that is, men who neither will, nor know how to obey, never perform any thing notable, and praise­worthy; so that aptly Him [...] describing the Greeks, hastening to the Oration of Agame [...]non the General of the whole Army;Homer l. 2. [...]ad. and as hee calls him the Pastor of the people, compares them to Bees swiftly flying with their labours to the Hive, where their Commander is constantly resident.

The Egyptians on this ground placed on the top of the Kings Scepter the bird Cu [...]phus (which is a Stork) with aAldrovand. de insectis lib. 1. Caelii Calcag. Apol. p [...]o Al­fonso duce Fe [...]tar. Cornucop. Pyr. Per [...]ti. & Petr. Cri­nitus de ho­nest. disc plin. River-horse underneath it, implying that piety must suppress impiety, clemency ferity▪ And from hence the Tribunes of the Souldiers among the Romans carried their swords without edges, intimating that the Generals of Armies ought not to kill the Souldiers, but to correct them, as the Commander of the Bees doth her subjects; and perhaps on this ground, the Egyptians by the Hieroglyphick of a Bee signified a King, be­cause it becomes a Commander of a people, to mingle with the sting of justice the honey of clemency.

Memorable to this purpose was the practise of a certain King of Fr [...]ce, who having conquered the Ins [...]brians, and [Page 19] entred their City, by a symbole or type thus exprest his cle­mencyBaptist Man­tuan in exhort ad In [...]ub. wearing a coat full of Images or pictures of Bees, and this Motto written upon it, Rex mucrone caret, the King wants or useth not his sting.

Their Ethicks and Economicks appear in many particulars, They make frugality the basis of their subsistance, and there­fore as they laboriously gather store of honey they shut up the Cells still as they fill them, and untill Winter come, will not open them, but live in the mean time of Bee-bread, and such provision, as they get abroad, lest if they should prodigally waste while they may work, they might after starve when they cannot work. And in the pleasures of this life they are so mo­derate, that perfect temperance seems to rest onely in them.

They are neat and cleanly creatures, never suffering any filth or excrements long in the Hive, emptying themselves alwayes abroad. And if in the Winter while they are weak, and not able to indure the colder aire, filth bee contracted, yet as soon as the Spring comes, and they grow numerous, and strong, they diligently cleanse their Hives, and carry out all.

Their cleanliness also thus appears, That they will not suffer their dead to continue long in the Hive, but carry them forth to burial.

Their chastity is admirable, for whereas many other crea­tures couple together openly; Waspes also and Humble bees, and many sorts of wilde Bees scarce specifically differing from them, yet whatsoever the Bees do in Venus service they act in secret, and far remote from the eyes and knowledge of all men.

The Poets say, That this is the reason of it▪ Saturn the husband of Ops, and father of Iupiter, was wont to devoure his own children when they were brought forth (the reason of it was, because Saturn was named the god of time, and all times passing and returning, revolve again into themselves) which gave occasion to this history; when Iupiter was born his mo­ther Ops fearing the cruelty of her husband to him, concealed his birth, and the Cretans for fear that Saturn should hear the childe cry▪ [...]ung their brazen pans and kettles, which noise [...] the Bees following, came to the place where the Infant was, [Page 20] and fed him there with honey. Iupiter for so great a benefit, be­stowed on his Nurses for a reward, this admirable gift, that they should have young ones, and continue their kinde without wasting themselves in Venery.

Others report that Iupiter being much in love with a faireMr. May An­notat on Virg. Georg. Nymph called Melissa turned her into a Bee, and for her sake bestowed this, and other priviledges on the Bees.

And they are not less valiant than chaste, though industry and diligence may do much with all other creatures, yet little with these, no not to palliate their fierceness, let them bee ex­asperated near their Hives, you may as easily binde a Lion with a single hair, as by opposition and resistance, compose and quiet them, though the creature is but little, yet virtus no [...] minima. Is it not strange to behold such a little Insect to con­tend with the most mighty, to see such vigour in a creature without bones or scales, or hard defences, and yet to bee of­fensive to, nay prevalent over the most strong, and powerfull creatures!

In valour therefore, and magnanimity they surp [...]ss all crea­tures,Mr. Buller Femin. Monar. cap. 1. there is nothing so huge and mighty that they fear to set upon, and when they have once begun, they are invincible; for nothing can make them yeeld but death; so great hearts do they carry in so little bodies.

In private wrongs and injuries done to their persons (for which cause men will soonest quarrel) they are very patient, but in de­fence of their Princess and Commonwealth, they do most rea­dily enter the field,

—For them they hozzard death,
And think in War they nobly lose their breath.

Their War whatsoever some say to the contrary, is onely for­reign, for though in the same Hive, by a violent or accidental congression of two swarmes, there bee sometimes a deadly con­test, and bickering, yet still it is forreigne, for they were never united under one Commander.

They never fight (whatsoever some unexperienced Observers report) for food, nor fall out among themselves for meat, butMous [...]e [...] The [...] ­ [...]um Insect. alike communicate of all they have (though but little) and [Page 21] when it is spent (if it bee no gathering season) starve alto­gether.

Their Geometry appears in the fabrick of their combes; and their Astronomy in the knowledge of the weather, for they fore-know and presage windes and storms, and either keep themselves in their Hives, or go not far, perhaps fetch water, and quickly return.

When they flye not far from the Hive, but flye about it, theTheophrast. l. 1. de sig▪ tempestat. weather being serene and fair, it is an usual token of an ap­proaching storm, or tempest, Aratus prompted him (if not ex­perience) with this observation.

But above all, one excellent skill they have, which the most experienced females, though they much desire it, must yeeld themselves to want; for they know certainly when they breed a male, and when a female, which appears by this, that they lay their Cephen-seeds in a wide comb by themselves, and the Nymph-seeds in the rest, which are of a smaller size.

In their own Commonwealth they are most just, not the least wrong or injury is offered among them: but I cannot commend their justice towards strangers, for all that they can catch is their own, unless they may bee excused in this respect, that the Bees of divers Hives are at deadly feud, or ra­ther as Kingdomes that are at difference one with ano­ther.

If Bees, creatures without reason, have such Prudence, Providence, Fortitude, Chastity, Loyalty, Natural affection, such Government, Order, Discipline; How much rather ought men to express the same in their carriages and conversa­tions. If they abhorre Intemperance, Luft, Sloath, Rebellion, Cowardise, shall men practise them? They are then worse than Brutes, and deserve rather to bear the names of savage Monsters, than of civil and reasonable men.

CHAP. VII. Of their Senses.

CReatures produced of putrefaction are little, and weak in the senses; defective in their exteriors, much more in their interiors; yea they altogether want wisdome, and areCardan. de subtil. l. 9. Plin. Nat. Hist. l. 1 i▪ c 10. Arist. de Hist. animal. l. 4. Scalig. com. in Arist. de hist. an. l. 4. [...]7. stupid. And therefore Bees are prudent, because they are ge­nerated of a certain matter, and not without a parent.

Bees have all the five senses, though there do not appear all those outward Organs of senting, which some other Animals have: And so likewise Fishes have no visible Organ of hearing and smelling; and yet hear and smell, there is not seen perfectly in their heads a brain, yet is it the begin­ning fountain and feat of all these senses, phantasie, and me­mory.

Of all the five senses their sight seems weakest, yet is it clear, especially afar off, which guides them abroad, and di­rects them home, though sometimes they are three or four miles from their Hives.

But their sight is not so quick near hand; for sometimes they will flye against you, if you come suddenly cross them when they are laden; and also near the mouth of the Hive, ifMr. Butler Feminine Monarch. they light besides the door, they will run up and down seeking for it, as if they were in the dark (hereby verifying this truth, That things nearest the eye are furthest from sight) but then up they rise, and flying back a little way, turn again with a better view.

As many as fall besides the stool when it waxeth dark, ten to one but they lye abroad allnight; yea if at such times being troubled by any thing, they come forth out of the Hive, al­though they bee fresh and lusty, they will leap up and down, run, and flye to and fro, untill they bee weary, but by no means can they finde the way in again.

And therefore it is, that when they flye abroad they take much pains at the door in rubbing, and wiping their horney eyes, that they may better discern their way forth, and back again [...].

[Page 23]It is said by some of the Ancients, that Insects have onely the sense of feeling, which is manifestly untrue, for if they go forth right to a place they must needs see.

Their smelling is quick and excellent, for they will sent honey a mile from their Hives, and make haste to it, and when they flye aloft in the aire by it, sent any flowry Mead or Heath near them.

As soon as the hony-dew is fallen, they presently sent it, al­though the Oaks that receive it bee afar off; which the Poet (speaking of the excellency of this creature in this sense) thus expresseth,

—Ideoque per auras
Lucret. l. 4.
Mellis apes quam longe ducuntur odore.

Their feeling is as active as their other senses, nay more, for it is most individuate, it inheres in the subsistence of the creature,Mr. Brathwayt Third Essay of Touching. and cannot bee separated, or taken away without the detriment, or utter decay rather of the subject wherein it is. It may therefore bee called the living sense, although in divers dis­eases and occurrences also oft-time befalling the subject wherein it is, it may be deprived of it. As we read of Ath [...]n [...]goras of Argos, who never felt, any pain when hee was stung by a Scorpion.

Their feeling is so quick, that if you do touch a Hive very softly, or knock upon the ground near the stool, they presently resent it, making a general murmure, and many of them coming out of the Hive door, as it were to examine the cause.

And for their taste, this is evidently as active as their other senses; thereby they make choice of waters, and all other gatherings for their use and purpose.

And lastly, for their hearing, that also is good, though Aristotle doubts of it, nay denies it. Cardan saith, ThatArist▪ de hist. an▪ [...] 9. c. 40. Metaph. l. 1. c. 1. Card. de subtil. l. 9. Idem de varie­ta [...]terum l. 7. Bees, because they are so small creatures, cannot hear and see too; but being flying creatures, there is a necessity of seeing, and therefore an impossibility of hearing; but hee contradicts himself, when hee tells us, though untruly, that every morning (all being yet silent if not asleep) one (the Constable sure, or the Master of the Watch) by two or three Bombes or shrill sounds like a Trumpet, calls them all up to their work; and so [Page 24] likewise in the evening, flying about the Hive, with a small humming murmure commands them to sleep.

But if Bees hear not▪ to what purpose is the calling before they swarm, and also their encouragements in fight,—

—And then a voyce
I [...] heard resembling Trumpets winding noise.

And Scaliger acknowledgeth against Aristotle, that they hearScalig. Com­ment. in Arist. de Hist. animal. l. 9. c. 64. signa enim dont intu [...], alia atque alia etiam foris, mutat [...] mur­mure.

But in a word, further to manifest that they hear: If a swarm rise, and the Queen Bee miscarry, and fall by the way (as it oft happens) her company notwithstanding will light, expecting her coming. But being hived, they presently miss her; and with a mournful murmure bewail their condition. Some run up and down distractedly within the Hive, others without; and by and by making a sudden stop, fall into a passion of mourning, and then run up and down again, and then mourn a­gain, but in the mean time they send many to seek for her. I have often found her where shee hath been fallen, and taking her up, carried her to the Hive, where I have observed (not without admiration) how that at her first coming they have in a moment changed their former note and carriage, and with clapping of their wings, and a rejoycing murmure congratulated her presence; and those that were seeking about for her, al­though some rods distant from the Hive, in an instant, as it were, returned all home, and with a rejoycing gratulation welcomedL. Verulam. Silva. silvar. cent. 7. 6, 8. their Queen. And therefore they have hearing, which shews likewise, that though their spirits bee diffused, yet is there a seat of their senses in their head.

And as they have the outward senses, so have they the in­ward also, else could they not bee wise and prudent; understand wisdome or prudence equivocal, so called by reason of the re­semblanceF. Picolomin. universa phil. de m [...]ribus. it hath with true wisdome or prudence, being able to finde out, and to manage convenient means unto natural and self-ends.

Vertue is not taken or understood one, but many wayes, sometimes for the shadow, and a slight or light resemblance thereof, in which signification Bees are called prudent, whereas prudence properly so called, belongs not to them.

[Page 25]Bees have memory, which is not a sense or imagination, orCaelius Rhed. l. ect. Antiq. lib. 20. cap. 3. understanding, b [...]t a disposition or habit of any one of them, when the time also is joyned, or added to it, wherein the im­pression is made, and the vision is left in the minde; whence this is a consequence, those creatures have memory, which have sense and understanding of time, for wee remember onely in the sensual part of the minde; for if a horse hath been mired in a slough, when hee meets with the place again, hee will pre­sently remember that hee was there mired.

And herein Brutes differ from men, That a reasonable crea­ture doth not onely remember that hee hath seen, or heard, but also differenceth the spaces of the present time, from the time past; but Brutes onely know thus much, that they have fallen (into a pit, or other dangerous place) at this present, or some­times formerly.

Again, a man observes that hee remembers, which irrational creatures do not. And among all living creatures they have the best memory, which have the most clear, pure, and perfect ima­gination, of which sort are Bees and Pidgeons.

As some creatures besides sense, have memory, and natural prudence, so some go further, for they are disciplinable; but none have experience, or very little.

Now by sense wee are to understand that sensitive knowledge which is onely in the presence of the object, whether it bee by the internal senses, or by the outward common sense or phan­tasie: For under the name of sense, the Philosopher compre­hends whatsoever is necessary to perceive or understand in the presence of the object, but there is necessary in all, somewhat of the phantasie or imagination, to understand even that which is without. And therefore it is common to all brutes, as to under­stand, so also to have imagination; but memory addes an inward strength, and power of conserving the species and using them in the absence of the objects, that by this means any thing may remember those things which it takes in the sense, even then when they are not present, in regard of the externall senses.

This faculty, saith Aristotle, some creatures have, but not all, but yet hee declares not what creatures have, or what want it. They are commonly thought to have memory, which [Page 26] may properly and perfectly bee moved from one place to a more remote, either by a progressive motion on the land, or flying through the aire, or swiming in the waters, for memory seems for this purpose to bee given to creatures, that they may bee removed to a distant place, either to avoid that which is nocive and prejudicial, or to finde that which is useful, which they have any wayes made trial of.

Further, some creatures, saith Aristotle, with memory, have prudence, which (as wee said before) is not to bee understood properly, but metaphorically, for they use not discourse, nor ac­quire a habit, whereby they may judge of what they are to do; but oftentimes so act by a natural instinct, and so provide for the future, as if they had reason indeed, and therefore by a figure are called prudent.

And this prudence of Brutes is a special sagacity in some, which by the instinct of nature, are so ordered as that they seem to imitate the reason and prudence of men; but all brutes have not this prudence, but those creatures that have it, are so per­fect, that they have all of them memory.

And wee may adde further, that this natural sagacity, then chiefly merits the name of prudence when it is trained up, and perfected by the memory of former things.

Some creatures have not onely memory, but are also dis­ciplinable, but others are not: Of this last ranke are those, which though they have memory, want the sense of hearing, for hearing is the sense of discipline; for wee see many crea­tures, dogs, and horses, act by external signes, but never without a co-operation of hearing, whereby they are called and stirred up to understand the signes.Arist. Metaph. lib. 1. cap. 1.

Now Aristotle sets down an example in Bees which hee sup­posed not to hear. But Pliny, Scaliger, and many others affirme the contrary, and by good arguments prove their As­sertion.

Albertus willing to salve the Philosophers credit, invented this distinction. There is, saith hee, a hearing of a sound, as so, or of a voyce, as it is an articulate sound, now Bees hear in the former way, not in the latter; but this latter hearing, saith hee, is necessary to make a creature disciplinable; but whether many disciplinable creatures so hear, might bear a great question; [Page 27] for although when they hear such words or sounds, they come, or flye down, or speak after the fashion of men, yet are all these things done by a natural instinct (supposing memory, and the experience of such a sign, or voice.) And therefore Suarez [...]r. Suar [...] ▪ Metaph, disp. 1. saith well, It were better to say all creatures which are disci­plinable, have hearing, and perhaps sight, memory, and a meta­phorical prudence or sagacity. But to leave these nicer disputes, (as perhaps by some supposed) impertinent to our present Discourse.

CHAP. VIII. Of the Queen-Bee.

THe Queen-Bee is a faire and stately creature, longer by the half, and much bigger than a common Honey-Bee, yet not so big as a Drone, but somewhat longer. She differs from the Common-Bee both in shape and colour; her back is all over of a bright brown, her belly even from the top of her fangs, to the tip of her train, is clear, beautifull, and of a sad yellow, some­what deeper than the richest gold: Her head is more round than the little Bees, by reason her fangs bee shorter, her tongue is not half so long as theirs; and thereby nature hath disabled her for working, for it is impossible for her short tongue to ex­tract much out of any flower, were shee never so industri­ous.

Her wings are of the same size with an ordinary Bees, and therefore in respect of her long body, they seem very short, re­sembling rather a cloak than a gown, for they reach but to the middle of her train, or nether part. Shee hath streighter, and stronger legs and thighs than a Honey-Bee, which are of the colour of their belly, but her two hind-legs more yellow. Shee hath a lofty pace and countenance expressing Majesty: That shee hath a white spot in her fore-head glistering like a Diadem, I never saw, though it bee frequently reported: Nay I am sure of the contrary.

Her nether part is much longer than her upper part, and more sharp than any ordinary Bees, having in it four ringles or [Page 28] partitions, and in each ringle a golden bar instead of those three whitish rings, which other Bees have at their three partitions. The spear or sting shee hath is but little, and not half so long as the other Bees, which like a Kings sword, is rather born for shew and authority, than any other use. I beleeve they cannot use their sting, for I have provoked and forced them to sting by hard holding of them, and putting their taile to my bare hand, but could never perceive them willing to put it forth. Nay when I have forced it out yet shee would not enter it in my hand.

In a word, the Queen Bee in her whole shape and colour, is a goodly and beautiful creature.

—Velut inter ignos.
Luna minores.

As the Moon when in a clear night, shee fills her circle, is more and more eminently beautiful than all the lesser stars, so is the Queen Bee among the other Bees.

There are not two sorts of Kings, or Queens in any Hive, as Aristotle, and after him Pliny; and the most have delivered, but onely one, and though a King in place and power, yetArist de hist. Animal. lib 5. cap. 19. is in sex a female, Vocantur ab aliquibus matres qua [...]i quae pa­riant.

That two several Queens or divers companies should agree in the same Hive, though divided in their works, and neither intrench on the others subjects and labours, although the An­cients very confidently deliver it, yet it is a meer fableMr. Googe [...]. Book in Treat. of Bees▪. Many Kings in a Hive, but falsly: As Aristotle makes two kindes of Kings, or Queens, so in every Hive hee would have at once several Kings, for although one bee enough for government, yet not for generation, saith Scaliger, supposing with Aristotle, that they were instrumental, as the males, for the generation of Bees.Arist. de hist. Animal. lib. 5. cap. 19. Scalig. Comment. in loc.

The Queens cells wherein shee breeds, are not usually in the bo [...]tome, or under the combs, but on the edges, some on the outside, some more inward in the middle of the combs.

And they often exceed Aristotles number, who determines [Page 29] them to bee six or seven, whereas in some hives there are not soArist. de hist. Anim. lib 5. cap. 19. many, in others nine or ten.

It is a Chymerical fable that some have asserted, that the Bees first build their Commanders houses in the most eminent part of the combes, more large and beautiful than their own, and of the purest wax, and then inclose it with a waxen wall from the rest. Whereas indeed neither Commander, nor subjects have any particular habitations, for they live and lye between the combs, and the hexangle cells are repositaries for food, and nurseries for generation; and the orbicular cells are breeding places for the Royal issue.

And yet Aldrovandu [...] delivers it as a received and ancientAndro. de In­sect l. 1. truth that the Queen Bees cells are made in a more eminent part of the hive, very large, invironed with a fence, or wall, for an emblem of their greatness.

And as in conditions they are of three sorts, so they make a triple division of their cells; those nearest to the Queens Pallace, for the most ancient inhabitants, as the Queens guard, and next to those the younger, and such as are not yet a year old; but to the middle sort as the most strong and lusty are com­mitted the extremities. This is a fancy also.

The materials for the Queens generation are yellow, andArist. de hist. Animal. l. 5 [...] c. 22. Columel de [...]e iust. l. 9. there is not first a worm, but presently a Bee, ut aiunt, saith Aristotle. And Higinius as hee is cited by Columella, saith, the Commander is not procreated of a worm as other Bees, but in larger cells than the Honey-Bees, are found holes filled with a matter of a red colour, out of which the Queen Bees are bred, even at first with wings, so that it appears there was some glim­mering light among the Ancients concerning the Queens genera­tion, but dark and uncertain.

Know thus much, that into those orbicular cells is injected a spermy matter thick like cream, but inclining to yellow, wherein and whereout the Queen Bee is bred, it being both matter of generation, and augmentation, for shee is at first (when shee is visibly any thing a perfect Bee in lineaments and shape, though not in magnitude and dimensions, and feeds of that wherein shee is bred, until shee comes to her perfection.

The Bees never destroy the Nurseries, or breeding cells of the Queen Bee, as Aristotle delivers▪ and also Pliny, although after [Page 30] they intend to swarm no more, they kill all the Royal issue then in being (nay although they bee imperfect embrioes) to preve [...]t a future distraction.

Before the Bees swarm, the Queen Bee by a peculiar and distinct voyce (Hesic [...]ius calls it [...], which wee in EnglishHesic [...]ius▪ say Sing, for it is performed in a musical manner) some dayes before makes it known throughout all the Hive, that all may bee ready.

Ridiculous is the conceit of Didimus to pull off the extre­mities of the Queen Bees wings, that they may not flye away, for sometimes for recreation, and also for evacuation of their bodies, they use to go forth; and if their wings were cut would bee disabled to return.

I once had a good swarm likely to miscarry, the Queen Bees wings being accidentally torn, so that going out of the Hive, shee fell besides the stool, and could not get up again. And al­though once and again finding her before the Hive, I put her into it, yet afterwards shee went forth, and was lost. And al­most all the Bees (in her loss) neglected their work, and began to pine away, untill I furnished them with a new Com­mander.

The Queen Bee never voluntarily deserts her subjects, as Aelian and others intimate, affirming that the Bees diligentlyAelian. lib. 5. cap. 12. seek her out, and return her when shee hath fled away.

Oftentimes when a swarm goeth forth, the young Com­mander being weak, is not able to follow, but falls down, some­times besides the stool, or sometimes further off, with whom some of the company will stay (such as being near her saw her fall) and encompassing her round will continue with her, except she bee taken up, and conveyed to the swarm or hive, untill they perish together. The Bees finde not their leader by theP [...]d. mexia de Bedae [...]xiomat. Philosoph. & Cantiprat. in bonum uni­versale de api­bus, lib. 1. c. 19. smell.

Many are confident that the Queen Bee never goeth off the hive, but with a swarm. Cantipratanus asserts this, but for­getting himself in the twentieth Chapter, hee saith, If her sub­jects bee weary with working, and cannot, or wander, and know not the way home again; the Queen Bee goes forth and findes them by their smell, and relieves them, and conducts them to the hive; but this is more fabulous than the former.

[Page 31]It is more than probable, that the old Queen Bees, go forth sometimes with the latter swarm (whether out of curiosity, or wantonness, or indulgency, or dislike of her proper house, or love to [...]er ancient subjects, I determine not) and this is the cause of the not thriving of many old stocks, after they have cast a second swarm; for although the Bees that are left, bee in a well replenished Hive, and therefore live out the Summer well, and work too, though not with that order and diligence as for­merly, yet will they rarely breed, but by degrees consume away, and come to nothing. I have exactly viewed divers such stocks that I have taken, and could never finde a Queen Bee among them.

If therefore you perceive a hive, after it hath cast twice, to have some quantity of Bees, and yet to work negligently, or not to increase in the Spring, suspect them to want a Queen, and supply them with one as soon as you can, if no other way, by driving a poor swarm into them, for which purpose alwayes reserve some.

It hath been a constant tradition, that the Queen Bee hath a special guard alwayes waiting on her, and that when shee goeth forth, she is alwayes attended with them. I have often seen her to go forth, but alwayes without attendance. It may pos­sibly fall out that some Bees may go abroad with her, and some others return when she comes back to the hive, but never as her special guard.

Mr. Butler saith, If the Queen Bee by her voyce bids them go, they swarm; this is warily to bee understood, namely of the latter swarm only; for the first is for ought I could ever finde out, at the will of the Commons; but there may bee a tacite consent of the Queen, but not solemnly by voyce, allow­ing their departure as in after swarms.

And again this is not alwayes true in second swarms, for after the Queen hath approved of their going forth, yet they will sometimes refuse, and manifest their dislike by massacring all the Infants of the Royal family.

I have observed some few Bees in the Spring in every good Hive, with crests, tu [...]ts, or ta [...]sels on their heads, some yellow, some murrey, in manner of a plume, some standing upright, some turning down, but in all other respects like other Honey-Bees.

[Page 32]Mr. Butler supposeth them subordinate governours and leaders, as Captains and Colonels: They are seldome seen but in May, and a little after; that they have any authority, or com­mand over the rest, or special place about the Queen Bee, I be­leeve not. This I am sure, I never saw any one of them attend her in her short progresses. Their working, I conceive wears oft this ornament.

The Queen Bee goes first out with the swarm, say some:T. Cantiprat. bonum univer­sale de apibus, lib. 1. cap. 14. but it is not so, for she goeth almost last, sometimes indeed shee comes forth half an hour before the swarm riseth, with a great company which environ, and attend her on the stool; but her company moves not untill the greater part are passed out of the hive, and then those that environed her begin to arise, and shee with them.

And as in the emission of a Colony, the Queen Bees go notAelian lib 5. c. 11. before, neither are they carried at any time as some report.

Sometimes as I said, shee comes forth before, and stayes without; at other times shee comes first to the bottome of the stool, and perhaps out of the door, as it were chiding their slackness; but then when the swarm begins to arise, shee re­turns in untill the greater part bee come forth, when shee fol­lows, and where they usually light, joynes her self to them.

Bees are governed by a Queen, which many hold not pro­perly to come to the supremacy by succession, but by a judil­cious and prudent election, whereas it is most apparent, that the elder of the Blood-royal goes forth with the first swarm, and so the next in order with a second, although sometimes especially in castlings, or second swarms; some others venture forth. I have known eight go forth in one swarm, for they can but dye, going forth, and death is certain and inevitable if they stay. And a younger by dividing the swarm, or first getting the highest place of the Hive, may bee peaceably obeyed, with the destruction of all the rest.

Nay being necessitated, their own leader miscarrying in swarming, or by some accident afterwards. I have preserved the stock by putting to them a Queen Bee taken from another. And once, because I would bee sure, I pared off a little of one wing, and some months after, for experience sake, took the [Page 33] Hive, where I found that Commander put in by mee, and no other Leader. So that though ordinarily the Queen Bee comes to her government by birth-right and seniority, yet sometimes by election, as in the miscarriages of their old Queen, and in second swarms when two are united together.

When several Leaders go forth, one whose party prevails gets the Throne, and all the other competitors are slain. When their proper leader by some mis-hap hath been lost, I have given them another (as I said before) with whom they have well agreed, and prospered, so also in the union of swarms.

And although they are willingly subject to a leader, yet do they not altogether lose their liberty; for the first swarm goes al­wayes forth at the will of the commons; and although the se­cond, and also the third, must have the Regal assent which usu­ally (being indulgent to their issue) upon petition they grant; yet if the Commons see it not convenient to diminish their numbers, upon the Queens grant, they kill the Probationer, and all of the Blood-royal; so that Prerogative avails little in the Commonwealth of Bees.

The Queen Bee (for it is an Amazonian Commonwealth) transcends in greatness and beauty of body; but which is most praise-worthy in a Commander, in mildness and gentleness, therefore though they have stings they never use them, which the breeding or mother Wasp doth, stinging more venomously than the smaller.

The Laws whereby this Commonwealth is ordered, are na­tural, not written in letters but engraven in their manners; and so studious are they of peace, that neither willingly, nor unwil­lingly do they offer injury to any of their subjects.

Who will not hate the Di [...]nis [...]i of Sicilia, or the O [...]man family among the Turks, of the present great Mogore, or Per­sian Tyrants? who (in practise) hold Monarchy to bee no­thing else but a lawless exorbitancy in all manner of lusts and mischiefs, which ought to bee far from a good Prince, le [...]t while hee seems to bee a man, hee discovers himself to bee far worse than these irrational Insects.

And as their life is not vulgar, [...]o neither their birth and ori­ginal; for whereas all domestick Bees, at first are imperfect creatures, worms fixed to their Cells, wanting many senses for [Page 34] twenty dayes together, and then that they may live a more perfect life after a death of twenty dayes, more transmuting their shape, come forth winged creatures; The Queen Bee is bred (as I formerly hinted) in another fashion.

There bee in every Hive ordinarily on the outsides of the combs (yet sometimes in the middle) but not near the verge [...], little concave cells (but one in a place) almost like acorn cups, but nothing neat so broad, yet somewhat deeper, very strong and thick of wax, orbicular, wherein the Queen Bee injects a sper­matical substance thick like cream, but somewhat more yellow, wherein the Queen Bee is bred perfect at first in all the parts, and lying almost round in it, feeds of it, and so grows as the chicken in the shell, first of the white, and then of the yolk (while the Hen sits upon it) untill it bee disclosed.

The Atbenians banished Pisislratus from their City; and the Syracusia [...]s Dionisiu [...] from his Royalty; and many other people several Tyrants for their want of humanity and mode­ration: But in the Bees Commonwealth, never any Com­mander gave occasion of dislike to the Commons. Shee orders others what to do for the publick good, or rather nature directs them; shee is provided for, and maintained by their labour, and they directed, protected, and preserved by her so­ciety.

How the Queen Bee governs, I will not (as many conjecture) cannot certainly determine; each Bee readily fulfills, and fol­lows her proper task, and all in all, aim at the publick welfare; none, how old soever, desiring a Writ of Ease, but all labour untill their labours kill them.

The Queen Bee lives not retired (constantly) in any part, but as occasion serves, is sometimes in one part of the Hive, sometimes in another, but works not▪ nature denying her fit­ting organs.

And because some have observed large orbicular cells on the edges (for the most part) of the combs, they have therefore supposed them to bee their pallaces, but they are sca [...]ce capable of half their grown bodies, and are onely seminaries for gene­ration▪ [...]ot places or pallaces for habitation.

CHAP. IX. Of the Drone.

THe Drone is a great Bee without a sting, the Vulgar opi­nion is, that hee is made of a Honey Bee that hath lost her sting; but no man ever saw that a Bee became a Drone.

Others seeing the fondness of this opinion, have thoughtJ. Stobaeu [...] de po [...]entibus ser. 45. that the Drone is a different species, and that as Bees breed Bees, so Drones breed Drones, which concelt, if the Author had observed, that at the time of their breeding, and many months before, there is not a Drone left alive to breed them, hee would have liked as well as the former.

Aristotle saith, That they onely are bred of the Bees, but the truth is, they are of the same species with the Honey Bee, but of a different sex.

Many reasons are laid down by Mr. Butler to prove theMr. Butler Feminine Mo­narch. c. 4. Drone to bee the male.

First, because though they bee great Masters of the Honey, yet untill the Bees begin to leave breeding, and have conceived for the next year (which some do in Iuly, most before August is expired) they suffer them, afterwards they begin to beat them away, which if some stalls do not, they dye naturally before October; and from thenceforth all the Winter untill the Bees breed again, there is not a Drone to bee found in rerum natura: When they are quite gone, then do the Bees lay no more seeds that year, but onely hatch and breed up those that are in the cells.

Secondly, because as the rather, and the more the Drones are, the greater and the earlier are the swarms: So where the Drones are few and late, there is small increase. And therefore if you kill the Drones of a Hive before they have done swarm­ing and breeding (as some sondly have done before Midsum­mer, to save their honey) neither will the swarms come forth that were formerly bred, nor the stock thenceforth breed any more. After which time bringing in Bee-bread as much as before, and having no young ones to spend part, they lay it up care­lesly in their cells, where it corrupteth and tuineth to stinking, [Page 36] stopping, which will cause them so much to mistike their Hive, that in Autumn they will yeeld to the robbers. And if by your care and watchfulness they bee then preserved, in February following, when the breeding time begins, finding their wombs barren, and therefore loathing themselves, they yeeld their goods to them that will take it, and after a while by conversing with the strange Bees, like of their company, and go away with them to their D [...]one [...]. But every fair day they will with them return to fetch that they left behinde.

Thirdly, because every living thing doth breed male and female of his kinde, and experience doth teach us, that the Bees do yearly breed as well Drones as honey Bees; and see­ing the honey Bees are females, it followeth necessarily, that the Drones are the males of the same kinde: And therefore the Drone in the learned languages hath his masculine appella­tion, as the honey Bee her feminine.

Fourthly, wee see the like in the likest Insects, the Wasps, Hornets, and Humble-Bees, of which in their proper places.

Fifthly, I adde the Drones are males, and the honey Bees females, because of the smalness of their voyce, which is al­wayesArist. de hist. Anim. lib. 4. cap. 11. smaller, and sh [...]iller in females than males, except Cows which bellow lowder than Bulls.

When the old Bees have ended their first brood of females, then last of all after the same manner, first in the Drone combe, which is one, and but one in every Hive, and almost the backwardest, made with deeper and wider cells for the nonce,Plin. Nat hist. l. 11. cap. 11. they breed the male Bees, or Drones, as was long since ob­served.

In the latter part of the year they breed some promiscu­ously with the Nymphs, but then they elevate their co­vers.

That not many are bred before Mid-May, not any before Mid-April (except a few by chance which are not suffered to live) as Mr. Butler asserts, is not so; for there are some in all swarms, and some stocks (with us) swarm by Mid-April, therefore must the breeding of many of the Drones bee then finished.

And after a Hive hath swarmed, though before you saw not [Page 37] one stir, yet then shall you take notice of their flying abroad every day about noon. But when the Hives are full, and yet swarm not so early as their fellows, they will then (but not often untill Mid-May) flye forth, and play a while, and then return into the Hive to fill their bellies.

But to put all out of doubt, that the Drones are males, I adde that the Drone in diffection hath two large testicles, greater, proportionably to his body than any other creature.

They are joyned together upward, but hang down towards the tail in two visible parts, of a whitish watry colour towards the ends, their ends or points are of the bigness of a small pins head, milk-white; the testicles are half as long as the nether part of the Drones body.

In the belly is a white entral longer when it is extended then the whole body. They have lungs (if my [...]yes deceive mee not) of a reddish colour, divided as it were in the middle. The outward part of the back and breast is of a grisly substance, under which is a kinde of flesh, all of a reddish colour, where is the heart, and other necessary parts, although (without a mag­nifying glass, by an expert Anatomist) not exactly to bee di­stinguished.

The eye hath a watry substance, and there is a visible brain in the head, of a reddish colour.

In the tail (which I had almost forgot, though often made trial of it) upon a little pressing, a saffron-coloured Ox-head, with stretched out horns, and a crooked snout will discover itBernard in Gomesiu. [...]iedis, lib. 1. de Sale. self, which one (cited by Aldrovan [...]) pressing a Drone to ex­periment whether it had a sting, reports as a strange, and never before heard of relation (I often saw it before I read him, or any other.) And hee concludes that nature in this portent doth shew the seminal reason of them, and how being lost they mayMr Remnant discourse of Bees, l. 1. c. 2. Arist. de gen [...]r. lib. 4. cap. 4. bee recovered; which how to effect, Virgil and others have at large discoursed. This is supposed to bee the instrument of generation.

The testicles are in the upper part of the belly, and so like­wise the males among birds have the testicles drawn in­wards.L. Verul. Silva Sil. cent. 9. 852.

The difference between male and female, in some creatures is not to bee discerned, otherwise than in the parts of generation, [Page 38] as in Horses and Mares; but some differ in magnitude, and that diversly, for in most the male is the greater; the chief cause is, for that the males have more strength of heat than the fe­males; now heat causeth greatness of growth generally, where there is moisture enough to work upon: But if there bee found in any creature (which is rarely seen) an over great heat in proportion to the moisture in them, the female is the greater, as in Hawk [...]s. Heat also dilateth the pipes and organs which cau­seth the deepness of the voyce.

Aristotle delivers that the Drones are bred by themselves if the Commander lives, but if shee dyes, they are produced in the Bees cells by the Bees, and these so bred, are more hardy and couragious than the other; but the truth is (as I hinted before) all Drones are bred by the Bees, when they are wearied, and almost spent with breeding of females, that by them they may have a new prolifical power whereby they may breed females afresh; but the Drones are first bred in the Drone combe, which is afterwards at least a great part of it fil­led with honey; and then in the latter part of the Summer, they breed some Cephens among the Nymphs.

As Aristotle could not determine about the breeding of theArist. de hist. Animal. l. 9. c. 40. Drones, so neither of the making of the Drone-comb, some­times hee layes it down, yet as the judgement of others (sus­spending his own, as in a thing uncertain and dubious) that they made their own combs in the Hive, or did assist at least the Bees in that labour; sometimes that the Bees made the Drone-combs, but yet onely then, when there was great expectation of much honey; whereas in a Hive stored with Bees, there are not many dayes difference between the beginning of their own combs, and the Drone-comb. Nay they begin the Drone comb and half finish it, before they make the Nurseries (for so I rather call them, than with Aristotle, houses or pallaces) for their Queen, of which there bee alwayes some in every hive. And therefore Aristotle was deceived, who saith, They made the Queens Pallaces or Nurseries onely, Cum faetus la [...]gior esset, when they had a numerous issue.

The Bees never destroy the Drone-combes as Aristotle af­firms, although they do the Drones, when they have no more need of them for that year.

[Page 39] Aristotle saith, The Drones are useful, if not too nume­rous, and the Bees because of them more industrious, but wherein they are useful hee mentions not. Nay, hee allows the Drones no service in the hive; but by his leave they are pro­fitable to the well-being and generation of the rest, being the males; and also by their heat in ha [...]ching the young, especi­ally after the stock hath cast a swarm or more, there being few Bees left, and most of them in the day time abroad at their work.

But the Drone works not at all as Mr. Muffet a [...]i [...]ms, whoMr. Muffet Theatrum In­sector. saith, they gather wax, and sometimes build the combs; but had hee seriously viewed them, hee should have seen a disa­bility to gather, nature having denied them fitting fangs and tongue, for they are very short, and not fitting to gather.

Aelian tells a long story, how that the Drones lye hid among the combs in the day, but in the night when the Bees are asleep, rob and purloyn the honey, which when the Bees understand (for most of them sleep being weary with working, and a few onely watch) they first correct them gently, and drag them out of the Hives by the wings. But for all that they will not bee amended (for by nature they are gluttonous, and l [...]zie) as soon therefore as they are gone abroad to work, they follow their work, namely fill themselves with honey; but when the Bees return and finde the spoyl, they deal no more gently with them, but kill them out right.

Once the Drones do not only serve for generation (as hath been shewed) but do also much help the females by reason ofPlin. Nat. hist. l. 11. c 11. their great heat in hatching their broods. And for these causes they are alwayes in breeding-time mingled with them through­out the Hive: Although afterwards (when they have been much beaten, and can go no where single, but one or other will bee on their jacks) they gather all together in a cluster for their safety in one side of the Hive; so that it is true at sometime,Arist. de hist. Animal. l. 9. c. 40. which the Philosopher spake indefinitely, Ten [...]nt alvei locum pe­nitiorem. And yet their hanging together will not serve their [...]um, for the Bees, when they are disposed, will quickly make them part, and depart, when there is no use of them, there willMr. Butler. bee no room for them.

The Bees breeding, or laying of seeds, beginning to cease in [Page 40] some sooner, in some later; and these Amazonian Dames ha­ving conceived for the next year, begin to wax weary of their mates, and to like their room better than their company. It seems incredible to some, that the honey Bees should re­ceive a prolifical vertue from the Drones, which they should exercise eight months after, and yet they consider not, that if a Hen be trodden a day or two, some affirm the eggs will be pro­lificalHier. Fabriciu [...] abaqua pen­dente de [...]or­matione o [...]i & pull [...]. the year following. And Dr. Harvey attests the same; but yet upon the experience onely of twenty dayes, it is con­fessed, that it is sufficient for that latter; and Aristotle saith, That generous Hens will lay sixty eggs, before they sit, others more; so that they will bee sometimes prolifical two or three months, but afterwards they must bee trodden again, or the eggs will bee addle. But to leave this untill wee treat of Wasps, when wee shall have a more fit occasion to handle it.

The Bees having conceived, begin to neglect, nay to molest their Mates: At first not quite forgetting their old familiarity, they gently g [...]ve them Tom Drums entertainment; they that will not take that for a warning, but presume to force in again among them, are more shrewdly handled. You may sometimes see a handful or two before a hive, which they had killed within, but the greatest part flyeth away, and dyeth a­broad.

They are but short lived creatures did they live their utmost date; for eating much, and being idle, onely in the heat of the day, with a great humming sound, they flye forth, and fetching a short compass or two, having emptied themselves, and whe [...]ted their stomachs, they return to feed, and that alwayes of the pu­rest honey, whereby they may become so foggy, that oft▪times before the Bees meddle with them, you may see hundreds in a day crawl rather than flye out of the Hive, but not able to re­cover the stool again miscarry abroad.

And whereas poor stocks (I mean such as have few Bees, though otherwise well provided) despairing of their own con­tinuance, let the Drones alone, not disturbing, much less killing of them, yet not one will out-live October.

Some may ask, Is not the male more worthy than the fe­male?Bedae axiom. How is it then, that the Drones are but vassals to the honey Bees? which as they excell the Drones in vertue and [Page 41] goodness, so in power and authority, ruling, and over-ruling them at their pleasures. Albeit generally among all creatures, the males as most worthy, do master the females.

And this Sesostr [...]tus King of Egypt, who conquered a greatCoelli Calcag. Comment [...]e verborum & rerum signifi­cat. part of the world did thus express according to H [...]rod [...]tus. If hee overcame any people without contention, or battel, hee made them bear the badge of a woman engraven in their wea­pons, but if they did fight it out couragiously, the cognizance of a man. Yet in these, and a few others, the females have the preheminence: And by the Grammarians leave, the Feminine gender is here more worthy than the Masculine. So in all the kindes of Hawks, the female doth command the male, as being the stronger, and the better armed. And the female of theArist. de hist. l. 9 c. 1. Bear, and the P [...]nthar are more bold and couragious, stronger, and of greater spirits.

The female Ounce likewise, though less than the male, yet isJo. Caii hist. rarior Animal. Weeker. de secret. l. 8. more cruel.

Ridiculous is the conceit of Democritus to catch the Drones. Wet, saith hee, the covers of the Hive with water, and in the morning you shall finde the Drones busie sucking thereof, for feeding of the best honey, they are alwayes thirsty; Nay be­cause they feed of the best honey, and not Sandaracha which is hotter, they are not thirsty; for the Bees all Winter long, while they live, thereof drink not at all.

Timely ridding of the Drones by the Bees, is a good signe that they are like to bee forward the next year; because the stocks that have cast often, do beat long with their Drones, al­though there bee twice so many as bee needful for the Bees, that are left, therefore (to save the honey which these would devour) it is not amiss to prevent them; and about a fortnight after their last swarm to diminish their numbers, which you may do safely in the heat of the day, killing them with your fingers: And the bruising of them with your fingers before the Hives mouth, will sometimes cause the females to take the worke out of your hand, and fall upon them them­selves.

Some use Drone-pots made of Oziers, the twigs being set so close, that the Drones, although they go forth, yet cannot easily return in again. But the catching this way doth much [Page 42] trouble; the Bees may sometimes keep out the Queen. And therefore I like not of them.

CHAP. X. Of the Generation of Bees.

IT hath been an ancient tradition, that Bees have a twofold production, as many other creatures, by generation and pu­tresaction. About this latter way, Virgil, Cardan. Aldrovandus, and many others have been copious; but whether there bee any solidity in this particular, I am somewhat dubious, because it was never authentically proved to bee performed by any. But they tell us that the best sort is procreated of a corrupted Lion; And therefore say it is no wonder, that being so small crea­tures they fear not any, [...]ay prevail over the greatest, with a Lion like courage assaulting them.

A second sort is bred of a Bull, and therefore they are called the daughters of Bulls, because they are bred of their car­kasses.Suidae Histo­r ca.

A third sort of a Cow.

A fourth sort of a Calf, but tell us not wherein these kindes differ, for they forgot waking what they dreamed of sleep­ing.

Would I spend words to no purpose, I might easily for the general, evince the invalidity of this opinion, for in Brasile, Peru, and most of the new world where are many sorts of Bees, and some in colour and magnitude not differing from ours, there were no such creatures, whereof (if they were lost) they might bee again recovered, before they were transported by the Spaniards.

But more absurd is that opinion of others, that of the ashes of Bees bedewed with sweet wine, and exposed to the Sun inMuffer Thea­trum Insector a warm place, there will bee a present resurrection of the for­mer burnt Bees.

Perplexed and various are the opinions of the Learned, con­cerningDr. Harvey de genera [...] Animal. ex­ercitat. 13. the generation of Bees.

The first workings of nature are as dark as midnight, and [Page 43] with their subtlety do not less be-fool, and deceive the strongest understanding than the bodily eye.

Some not comprehending their conception and generation, have fondly delivered that they carried the spermatical matter of their original into their hives, gathered out of flowers, and after hatch them, either from the white honey suckle, or the reed (orArist. de hist; l. 5▪ c. 19. Calamus) or from the Olive because, in yeers abounding with Olives, there are plenty of swarms. Not considering that the first brood is hatched before any of these flowers bl [...]ssome, and that some of these flowers are not at all in the Northern Regions where is the greatest plenty of Bees.

And for the Olive, Pliny denies that they taste of it, andPlin. Nat. hist. lib. 21. c. 12. idem. lib. 11. cap. [...]. Card. de subtil. l. 11. Scalig de sub­til, [...] 51 exer. therefore saith, it is better away; and yet hee was sometime of a contrary opinion.

Cardan denies that they lay eggs, but are bred of honey. This Scaliger well opposeth, because, saith hee, There can bee no generation of honey, for then it should bee the seed of the Bee; but this is false, neither of honey corrupted, for it cor­rupts not, but preserves from putrefaction.

Scaliger questioning whether Bees did copulate or not, saith that of the dew in leaves of plants, worms are produced, and therefore dew opportunely gathered, and fo [...]erted with a ge­nital heat of the Bee may be animated into a worm. But the first, and chiefest breeding of Bees is in end of February, when they scarce stir forth at all, or not untill the dew be ex­haled. And howsoever untill May, dews are known to have little efficacy, or excellency, besides you may visibly see the eggs when they are first injected into the cells, they are eggs, and not a dew.

Scaliger, though hee propounded the former opinion, yet held not to it; for whereas Aristotle delivers it as an opinion of some that the Bees bred by copulation, and that the Drones were males, and the honey Bees females; this saith hee is falseScalig Com­ment in Arist. de hist. Anim. l. 5 c. 19. (although without reason or experience) for the Bees indeed are females▪ but the Kings are the males: And Muffet also ac­knowledgeth no males but the Kings.

I beleeve, saith Muffet, they propagate by copulation, and the greater are males (namely in his sense the Queens) and theMuffet in Theatr. Insect. l. 1. c. 3. less females, but whether they tread as Cocks hee professeth that he knew not.

[Page 44] Toxites supposeth that Bees copulate, and that the Bees areMichael To­xites in Ono­m [...]stico super Theophrast. the Males, and the Kings Females: And that the Kings do at certain seasons cast forth worms in multitudes as flies, their flye­blotes, and that the Drones sit upon them, and hatch them after the manner of Serpents.

Another saith, the matter in which they blow or breed, isMr Remnant hist. of Bees. something that they gather of the flowers or plants, and bring home, and put into the holes, or cells of the combes, which they mix finely with a little water, and then blow in it a thing less then, or as little as a flye-blote. But this cannot bee, for wee finde nothing in the cells wherein the seed is injected, but the seed it self. And again, the Bees seed is much bigger than a flye-blote.

And as to others, so to Aristotle, the generation of BeesArist de gene. lib. 3 cap 10. seemed very ambiguous and doubtful; for whereas among fi [...]es some generate without copulation, he sometimes sup­posed the same of Bees, and argues thus: They must either fetch their young else-where, as some in his age opinionated, which young must be either bred of themselves, or be pro­duced by some other living creature, or they must generate them, or partly fetch them, and partly generate them: For so some supposed that they fetched onely the Drones, or else they must generate them by copulation, or without copulation. Thus Bees by copulation among themselves to breed Bees, Drones to breed Drones, and the Queens to breed Queens. Of all the rest from one kinde, either from the Queens, the Drones, or the Bees; for some, he confesseth in his time, held that the Drones were males, and the Bees females: Others held a contrary opinion, that the Bees were males, and the Drones were females.

But against all these tenets, Aristotles reasons as impossibi­lities. If, saith he, they breed not, but fetch their young else­where, of necessity it must bee, that there be Bees without any labour of Bees, namely in that place from whence they fetch their seed; for why do they come to perfection, being carried away, and not in their own proper places.

And again he saith, It agrees not with reason that the Bees are females, and the Drones males, because nature never gives females weapons to defend themselves withall.

[Page 45]Now the Drones are weaponless being without stings. And on the contrary, it is not reasonable to imagine that the Bees are males, and the Drones females; for no males are diligent and laborious in educating of their young Cock-pidgeons, and most males among birds, sits part of the day, as well as the female, and as diligently [...]eed their young. Some say the Pa [...]tridge makes two nests, and the Hen sits upon one, and theDr. Har. exer­citat [...], 8. Cock upon another, but they are mistaken. The males also of beasts of rapine seek out, and provide for their young.

And that some Bees should be males, some females, is alto­gether likewise improbable, for in all creatures the male differs from the female, externally many fowls differ not, as Crows, Rooks, and many small birds.

And that by generation they should procreate, is as unlikely, because no man ever saw it.

At last he determines that the Bees are females, but as plants have both sexes, because the sex is not to be distinguished. But if the Drones are bred without copulation, then also keeping the same order, the Bees, and their Commanders, are bred without copulation.

He concludes after a long uncertain discussion of this doubt, That the Kings or Queens Bees breed themselves, and the Bees. It is necessary also that the Commanders be procreated by some, but neither of the Bees, nor of the Drones, therefore of themselves.

Now the Commanders cels being last made, and but few in number, they breed therefore their own kinde (few according to the cels) and also the Bees. And the Bees breed the Drones, and they breed nothing; and so the Generation determines in the third number, Non tam [...]n satis adhu [...] explorata quae eve [...]iant babemus; so that in all this we have it confest; there is much to little purpose: The Drones, whatsoever some say to the con­trary, is the Mak-Bee, and although he be not seen to engen­der with the Hony-Bee, either abroad as other Insects do, or in the Hive, which (whatsoever some have projected) is impos­sible, yet without doubt is hee the Male-Bee, by whose natural heat, and masculine vertue, the Hony-Bee which breeds, both Hony-Bees and Drones conceiveth; that they are Males, we have sufficiently proved in the former Chapter.

[Page 46]In the next place the main Query i [...], how the Bees receive a prolifical power from them.

Albertus denies by copulation; but granting the Drones toAlbertus Mag­nus. lib. 16. be Males (which is undeniable) and the Hony-Bees Females.

Aristotle concludes for it, he saith, co [...]nt ea in quibus m [...]n it Arist. de Hist. animal. lib. 5. c. 2 femina est. Those creatures conceive by copulation where there be Males and Females. And again; they that are bred of the same fort, or kinde, if there be among them Male and Female, e coitu generantur, are bred by copulation: And this is assertedIdem de Hist animal. lib. 5. c. 1. Geor. Piscato­ [...]us. by others.

That they engender not together, Aristotles Argument is, because there be but few young in their cels; but other Insects that are procreated by copulation ingender long, and hatch quickly: This Reason is frivolous, nay false, for the Bees areArist. de Gene­rat. lib. 3. c. 10 numerous in their young (that I say not almost innumerable) and they hatch quickly, sooner than the Wasp. And yet that Wasps are bred by Generation (being cognatorum generatio) and not Bees: He attributes it to a defect of Natures bounty towards them, because nihil ut apum, habe [...]t genus divini­tatis.

So that according to the Philosophers axiome, and the weakness of his reason to the contrary, they do engender together; but because this is not visible, and therefore perhaps may be de­nyed by some cavilling Sceptick. I will further shew that the Hony-Bee may have a Masculine vertue from the Drone, o­therwise than by copulation. For in the Eele, and the Purple, (a Shel fish whereof Purple comes) is no Sex visible, yet by their slaver, not by copulation do they produce their young, and perpetuate their kinde.

And many other sorts of fishes do not by copulation become fruitful, and generate their kinde; but when they have brought forth, or laid their Eggs, the Male bedews, or sprinkles themArist. de Hist. animal. l. 6. c 1 [...] Dr. Harvey de generat ani­mal. exercitat. 40 with a seminal mo [...]stuie, whereby they are not addle but prolifical.

I have seen, saith Dr. Harvey, the Male-Fishes to follow­the Females in shoals in breeding time, that they might sprinkle their new laid Eggs with their Milt, or seed. Thus the Sepia or Cut [...]le-fish.

There is a Fish called Glanis, in the River Glanis in Hetru­ria: [Page 47] The Female whereof by rubbing her belly on the MalesArist. de Hist. lib. 6. c. 13 belly is fruitful; and so the Scate and all Fishes with a full tail with the rubbing of their bellies together engender: And so in a word do all fishes, besides broad griftly fishes.

All Fishes that bring forth Eggs, their copulation is scarcely visible, but without a Male they conceive not, nor any otherAmbrose hex­am l. 5. c. 20. Creature where there are Males. Vultures faith Ambrose con­ceive without a Male, and generate without conjunction; but Aldrovandus on good grounds denies this; and also Albertus, U [...]ys Aldro. O [...]n [...]holog. l. 3 who saith, they are often seen to tread.

When the Bees have conceived, they deliver their seed, not by their tail, but by their mouth, faetum edu [...] ore editum ut Arist. de Hist. animal. l. 5. c. 19 a [...]unt quidem; and this was the cause that some thought that they fetcht it elsewhere from some flowers: Aristotle therefore speaking of it, speaks doubtfully [...], for it is a very ob­scure thing.

And that they blow their seed, our Vulgar expression inti­mates, for their young is called spat, that which the Bees spit forth, or deliver by their mouthes.

If wee affirm the seed of the Bee to be blown, it cannot so properly be called an Egge, Aristotle saith Aquapendens was ve­ryAquapen. de formatione o­vi & P [...]lli. p. [...]9 Arist. de Hist. lib. 5. c. 29▪ 30 Dr. Har. de generat. ani­mal. exercitat. 61 careful not to call the seed of Insects Eggs, but Worms, yet Dr. Harvey cites him, as if he sometimes or promiscuously, cal­led the Worms, Eggs; It is true, hee called the seed of a kinde of Grashopper Eggs, but it was before they were quickned but when they are hatcht, hee calls them no longer Eggs, but worms: Although indeed they may seem when they have done feeding, and are inclosed in their cases to be amalogous eggs, but not while they feed; and therefore Aristotle saith,Arist. de gener▪ l. b. 3. cap. 9. Every kinde of worm when it hath attained his full end, and perfect magnitude, is as it were an egge, for the shell hardens, and for a time it stirs not, which, saith he, is apparent in the worms of Bees, Wasps, and Caterpillars.

But the Philosopher enumerated too fast: Of Caterpillars it is true, and of all others that have proper, or natural cases, but such as have adventitious, as Bees, and Waspes, never harden.

An egg properly is that, out of a part whereof a living crea­ture is produced, and the residue is meat for it, improperly [Page 48] that is an egg out of the whole whereof, a living creature isAqua pend. bred, as the eggs of Spiders, Ants, Flies.

Insects first breed a worm (although it be not yet a wormArist. de gen. lib. 2. c 1. untill it be hatched, but indeed rather an egg) and this after a space of time is a kind of egg, for the Aurelia hath the faculty of an egg, and a living creature is bred of it, receiving in the third nutrition, the end of generation.

That the Bees blow as a Flye or Wasp, is affirmed by some.Mr. Butler, Mr. Levit, Mr. Remnant. And a [...] the blotes of the flyes are nourished by the flesh wherein they are blown, and by the earth wherein they are bred, so the spat or brood of the Bees, saith Mr. Levit, are nourished by honey and water; but of this in his place.

The Bees seed is white, about the bigness of a Butterflies, not round, but oblong, which they lay close under the honey­combes. In the middle of the bottome of the void cellsMr. Butler round like a ring, saith Mr. Butler, but although he was a great observer, yet for want of observing himself, and following, as he supposed Aristotle, he was mistaken in Theod. Gazas trans­lation,T. Gaza who renders the word, [...] by obliquus, which Scaliger well reads ad latus.

The Bees seed first sticks to the side of the cell, saith Aristotle, ad latus jacet, alwayes (as I remember) at an angle,Arist. de hist. Animal. l. 5. c. 19. some distance from the bottome, and so doth the Wasp lay her seed, and not close to the bottome; thus it sticks with one end, and with the other end bends slope-wise towards the middle of the cell.

And after it is hatched, it lyes a while cross, or side-wayes, with the mouth somewhat erected, and grows so long as the matter of augmentation continues, which is not long, and then it falls to the bottome, and raiseth it self up that it may be fed. It will raise it self up, and sink as it were within it self by con­traction when it pleaseth; for though it have not feet, yet the skin is somewhat scabrous whereby it rouls, or moves it self higher, or lower within the cell.

The Bees in their breeding discend by degrees towards the nether part of the combs, filling one cell after another: But when their chief breeding is past, they do not precisely ob­serve this order, but lay up their food promiscuously among the young Bees, where they find the cells empty.

[Page 49]First, The seed sticks to an angle above the bottome, when it is hatched, it falls after a little space to the bottome, but can­not come forth to take food, which yet Aristotle seems to grant to be necessary: First, he saith, It is nourished, but tell [...] not how: Secondly, he saith, over against the cells, where the young are bred, the hony is laid up, he tells us not where­fore.

But Scaliger saith, That the young may eat thereof, ut Ac­cumbe [...]i Scalig. Com­ment. in Arist. de hid. l. 5. c. 19 c [...]us opp [...]natur, supposing, as he professeth, a few words before that, the worms and hony were both together in one cell, for he rationally concluded, they could not live and grow without food, they were not locomotive, and therefore could not go forth of their cells for it. How therefore they should receive it, was the great mystery. He supposeth the worms to stick fast on one side of the cell, and the hony on the other, that with bowing of their bodies, they might [...]eedthem­selves. The worm, saith he, sticks so fast to the side▪ as if she were glewed or rivited there, but by no means at the bottome, lest she should be drowned with the hony. And this supposition of the worm and the hony being together in the same cell, made him conceive the worm smaller than the Bee; for saith he of the seed is generated a worm, which worm is alwayes less than the Bee; but this is not so, for the grown worm is every way as great, and as large as the Bee.

But neither of the former opinions are true ordinarily, for the Bees are bred usually in the combs before, or in the lower part of the other combs, the hony (if there be any) being repo­sited in the backward combs, and the upper parts of the other. It is true indeed, that the Bee-bread is oft laid up in the void cells, among the breeding cells; not that the young may feed themselves, but that therewith being ready, and near at hand they may be [...]ed by the Bees.

The seed is never visible in Bee or Wasp, that I could dis­cern upon dissections of many in one part or other.

Cardan affirms that they cannot have eggs within them, andCardan. de subtil. l. 11. be exercised in their continual labours, because neither Silk­worm, nor Grashopper as long as they flye, have none; sup­pose the assertion true, that they have not eggs within them (but blow their seed which I beleeve) yet is this instance and [Page 50] reason very weak. Scaliger answering him, justly denies what he saith, but contradicts not his instance, onely saying, That they that are well versed in natures secrets can determine this; whereas it is well known, that the Silk-worms when they have wound up themselves into their bottomes after twelve or four­teen dayes eat themselves out a winged creature, but have little lust to flye presently for fulfilling their lust, and engendring to­gether: Whereby the male having spent himself▪ falls down, and dies, and the female also as soon as she hath laid her eggs, which is not long after.

As for the Grashoppers, they will flye nimbly with eighty, nay one hundred eggs in them as big as the eggs of Pismires, and the claw-tailed Humble-Bee (of which afterwards) works as diligently, and flyes as deliverily when she is great with young, as when she is barren.

Fabricius concurs with Cardan, and therefore renders this asFabric ab Aqua p [...]nd▪ exer. a reason why some creatures lay eggs, and bring not forth li­ving creatures, because if they were detained in their bodies untill they were hatched, with their weight they would hinder their flying: It is true, if many were animated within them at once, it might be so, otherwise not, as is manifest by the former example.

And that it is possible for Bees to flye with eggs, Scaliger Scaliger de▪ [...]u [...]til. exer. [...] 91. makes good by these following instances: Hee took a Glow­worm engendering with a female, and put them all night into a box with a hole in it. The male continued at his work next day, and at noon giving over, dyes; from that hour untill evening the female laid many eggs which were hatched in twenty hours, and presently went their way; so that some Insects speedily hatch, and perfect their eggs.

Therefore he concludes Bees may copulate in a few hours, and presently lay their eggs.

Likewise he relates, that when he was a stripling, that he took of the greater sort of flies, one marked with white strakes, and holding it some while in the hollow of his hand, being de­lighted with the shape, it brought forth many white worms notable for their motion. And therefore as shee carried worms▪ so may Bees eggs when they flye.

But the Flesh-flye, Butter-flye, and many other Insects [Page 51] without all controversie flye about with their eggs in them. Now Scaliger at last discovered his little experience in the na­ture of Bees, when thinking to answer more fully; hee mars all: For whereas Cardan saith truly, they are in continual labour, hee denies it, and affirms, that the Bees having gotten honey by labour, they take the benefit of it without any more working: Whereas it is certain, that they never give over working (the season being fitting)▪ as long as there is any thing to gather, and they give over breeding, before they give over working.

The seed being hatched lives, and excerns excrements▪ All Insects first make a worm, except a certain sort of Butter-flye, which produceth a certain hard thing, like wilde-saffron seed, but fluid within.

Now the generation of Insects in these worms, is not caused in some part onely, as that some part of the egg, turns to the formation▪ the rest to the nourishment, but the whole alters untill it attain the just and due proportion.

Creatures which produce a worm first; bring forth a smallArist. de gene­rat. l. 3. c. 4. one, which is increased by it self, without any addition, as meal by leaven is made of a little mass a greater.

And again, some creatures have this property in themselves, thatIdem de gene­rat. l. 3. c 9. they have an increase for themselves, as the worms of Bees, others gather it abroad, as the worms of Butterflies, called Caterpillars.

This is, if at all, but partly true; for after they are hatched, there is a small augmentation from the seminal vertue; but as soon as they are capable of food, they must have it, or else after three or four dayes they will dye, as I have often experimented▪ whereas when they have done feeding▪ and are shut up with their waxen covers, they will (though out of the Hive) live, and come to perfection, but will bee perhaps longer in their Metamorphosis, than if they were continued in it. I have had some three weeks before they have eaten themselves out.

Creatures shaped without the females womb have in the egge, as well matter of nourishment as matter of generation of the body, because after the egg is laid, and severed from the body (of the Hen, or other creature) it hath no more nourish­ment from the Hen, but onely a quickfling hear when shee sits, but as soon as the chicken i [...] disclosed▪ there is not much [Page 52] longer any matter of nourishment, but it must receive it else­where.

Aristotle acknowledgeth that they void excrements, and can there bee excrements without a supply of food, or a mutipli­cation of a little seed above a hundred fold by the feminal vertue, or ambient aire, especially where the excrement are four times so much as the seed, or egge was at the beginning; yet Aldro­vandus concurs with Aristotle, saying, That the worms of Bees and Wasps have within them that which is the matter of their augmentation; the contrary whereof is evident, for if the Hives be not provided before hand, or supplied daily with food in stormy▪ and unseasonable weather, the young brood will dye in the cells, and you may see the old ones carry them out in abundance upon the first change of the weather, and then breed again.

Often towards the end of Summer, if hony-gathering bee not plentiful, they will draw out the young unfledge Cephens, and sometimes (though rarely) the Nymphs, lest for want of sufficient meat they should all starve together.

Fishes produced of eggs (as almost all are) either within the females, or without them, at first receive no meat, sed [...]rescunt hausto [...]vi humore, but afterwards are nourished when they grow with the river water.

In the generation of Animals which are procreated by an af­terDr. Har. de gen. animal. exer. 44. addition of parts (as the chicken in the egge) there is not to bee sought another matter, out of which that which is to bee produced, is to receive the shape of a body, and another out of which it is made, nourished, and increased. But here in the eggs of Insects, it is otherwise, because they are not at first per­fect, and therefore must have an increase, and augmentation else­where, untill they attain their just magnitude.

The eggs or worms of Insects have from without them thatHarvey de gen. exer. 62. whereby they increase. But how they have it, is a riddle. Seeds of herbs▪ as Beans, &c. attract by their husks, or shells the moisture of the ground, which they suck in like spunges, andIdem exerci­tat. 9. are therewith nourished as well as if they received the same by veines. But thus the worms in the combs cannot bee sed, the meat being remote from them.

The Bees vomit forth the honey which they have gatheredIdem exer. 6. [Page 53] and digested in their bellies, and lay it up in their Hives, and af­ter the same sort the Hornets, and the Wasps nourish their young. The assertion is not true, or very ambiguous and im­perfect. If hee understands that the Hornets and Wasps empty into their cells what they collect, and gather, then is it not true, for they lay up nothing that ever I could finde. If it bee under­stood that they feed their young with what they gather, as also the Bees, with what they gather, and also with that which they have formerly injected into their combs, when the wea­ther will not permit them to gather abroad, than it is a truth, but darkly, and imperfectly delivered.

So then wee see after that they are disclosed, they must have meat; out of their cells they cannot come, nor creep, they are not locomotive, like Caterpillers.

Now the main Query is, how they should have it? And the ignorance of this caused Aristotle, and others to deny, that they received any, so that from the history of their being a worm, to their metamorphosis into a Bee, wee hear of nothing.

Concerning this, I was long without satisfaction, and finding that it was impossible to observe the particulars among the Bees, because of their numbers and closeness, I sought to finde it out by observation in other Insects of somewhat differing, yet of a like nature, in many particulars. I considered that yearly in my empty Hives there Hornets, I took notice therefore daily of the progress and order of their work, and generation, which I found to bee thus:

The Hornets neast is begun by one mother, or breeding­hornet at the first, which in the top of an empty hive wrought a very short little drossie pendant peg or pin, about the bigness of the tag of a point of the outer dry parings of pales, or other old timber with a mixture of a gummy liquor that flows from oaks principally (of which matter are all her combs fra­med) this short peg shee made the foundation and center of a Canopy, or Tent like to a half globe, in the center of which with [...]o, she worketh six or seven hexangle cells, all concurring and meeting together in the center, but all ju [...]ting out on each side downward, and having wrought them half their depth to an angle of every cell somewhat above the hono [...]e, shee in­jecteth into each a several seed, and then on the out-side of those [Page 54] cells begins six, or seven more, but all co [...]entring in the same point with the former; and when they are wrought half their depth, shee injecteth into each a particular seed; but before this is done and finished, shee quickens and hatcheth the for­mer, encompassing with her body, or lying round like a ring about the pin that is the center of the globous depending Tent, or Canopy, but in the inside of it, that her heat may equally transmit it self to each cell, and enliven every seed.

Within a few dayes thus receive they life, and begin to stir, at first sticking at the taile end, and then falling to the bottome, do they raise themselves upward. Now the mother sometimes sits upon, or rather about them, and the latter brood also to hatch and comfort them, and sometimes goes abroad and fetch­eth food for them, and giveth it them as a bird her young, with her mouth going from one to another: And as they grow shee worketh the cells deeper, until they attain their perfect growth, which will bee above three weeks; and then the first brood be­gin to bee torpid and dull, and receive no more food, which when they refuse, shee worketh a cover over them, whiter than the combs, and they so continue shut up about three weeks, and being transchanged from a worm to a Horner, eat of the cover, and come forth, and work, and breed their kinde, but then being many, in broad combs.

And as they are fed, so also I am confident are the Bees, although they come to their perfection in a shorter space: For they also after they have fed about eighteen dayes, and attained their growth, are shut up by the Bees, with awaxen cover, and con­tinue so about the like space wherein they are metamorphosed, and eating the cover before them, lift up the rest with their head, and come forth winged creatures.

Of this metamorphosis of Insects, Aristotle thus; EveryArist. de gen. Animal. l. 3. c. 9 imperfect conception produceth first a worm, which is after­wards perfected by a change and metamorphosis, and becomes a living creature.

In the generation of Animals formed and transfigured of aDr. Harvey de generat. Anim. exercitat. 44. 56. matter prepared and provided before-hand, and all the parts begin to appear, and are distinguished together by a meta­morphosis, and a perfect creature is brought forth: But some, one part or member being made before another of the [Page 55] same matter, afterwards are together nourished, augmented, and formed.

The frame of those begins from some one part as the ori­ginal, and by the help thereof, the other members are added and joyned together; and these wee say are done by a Epige­nesis, or after addition of parts, namely, by degrees, part after part, and in respect of the other, properly i [...] called genera­tion.

After the first sort is the generation of Insects, where the worm by a metamorphosis is bred of an egge, of the beginnings are procreated of a corrupting matter (the moist drying, or the dry moistening) of which as▪ of a Caterpillar grown to a per­fect magnitude, by a metamorphosis a Butterflye appears in the just magnitude. Give mee leave to vary from so learned an Author, and diligent observer.

It is a truth that there is no metamorphised creature, and addition of a new matter or magnitude, yet in many there is a diminution for those that have not adventitious cases, or co­vers, as Bees, Hornets, and Wasps, but natural hardened shells or covers, as Caterpillars, &c. have so much (as the shells or covers) subtracted from the being and substance of the future Butterflyes.

And this also holds not that all the parts begin to appear, and are distinguished together for the change and metamorphosis of Insects is not altogether, but by degrees, part after part is changed, and altered, as wee will further make appear in the particulars.

The alteration of Insects in some is made of the whole, as Bees, they having no membranous skins or shells about them, but the cells of the combs, and not of any parts of it: But every such kinde of worm, when it hath accomplished his magnitude and greatness, is made as it were an egg, for the skin hardens, and all that time it is immovable from its place, yet moves in its skin, cell, or shell, as is visibly evident, for touch the out-side and they will contract, and s [...].

Now the cause hereof is, because nature hastens▪ and before it bee a perfect egg; brings forth so▪ that the worm by degrees, grows to the bigness of a soft egg, and after in season▪ eats through the cover or shell (for they are not reposited in cells [Page 56] as Bees) and comes forth as a chicken out of an egg being per­fectedArist de gen. lib. 3. cap 9. in the third generation. Their metamorphosis is their perfection, and yet some groundlesly have delivered the con­trary.Mizaldus me­morabil, cen. 1. 60. Wonderful, saith one, are the metamorphoses of some creatures, for Caterpillars getting wings degenerate into a But­terflye.

The worm being now dead, presently the alteration beginsMr. B [...]er Feminine Mon. c. 4. from a worm to a Bee which is twofold in shape, and in co­lour. The first alteration in shape is the division in the middle▪ then the other division between the head and shoulders, Thus Mr. Butler. But it is otherwise, for the transmutation as in a Wasp, begins to be first visible in the superiour part, and the eyes are first discerned, and then the incision between the head and the shoulders, which yet as it grows more perfect, becomes smaller, the middle incision or division is scarcely visible, when the eyes may bee seen, then the legs, and the horns begin to bee framed, and the wings are last finished.

When they are perfect they thrust up the covers over their heads, which hang at their backs till they come forth, their fangs and tongue hang down on their breast, but when they are come forth, they then contract them (untill they have occasion of their use) and draw them up close bending under their throats, that they are scarcely visible, but when they eat or work; their colour is at the first ash colour, and so are their wings, but in a little space they convert to a dark brown untill they grow old, when they become gray.

And thus it is in many other creatures. Fishes procreated ofArist. de hist. l. 6. c. [...]. eggs, have their eyes apparently great, and oblong, contrary to those creatures which are bred of worms, where the head and eyes are last. But hee was deceived, for in the metamorphosis of flying Insects, the alteration begins at the head, and is first visible in the eyes.

As in dry weather Bees gather most honey, suppose it with moderation, for immoderate drought (as in the year 1652.) withers away the flowers; so moist weather produceth store of Bees, suppose it still with moderation, for otherwise (as in the year 1648.) the perpetual raines washed away all the substance of the flowers, that not onely the swarms, but old stocks gene­rally dyed. I lost above half a hundred, 1648▪ for my share.

[Page 57]Now the reason why moist weather produceth store of Bees, is because the Bees do spa [...] and breed the faster, and preserve and nourish their brood the better by the moisture that falleth in those times, which in dry weather they cannot so well get, or rather approve not so well of, for after a warm rain, you may see them drinking on every herb, you can hardly set your foot on the ground or grass near the Hives, but you must tread on them, and that when their water is just by.

Too much fair weather is destructive to the increase of Bees, for going forth every day to gather, they are there with wearied, and neglect breeding, and so though they leave fat stalls, yet in a short time few Hives, and therefore Columella adviseth toColum. lib. 9. stop them in, every third day, that they may attend to breeding.

The Bees breed best, saith Aristotle, when they gatherAristor. de hist. Animal. l. 5. c. 19. most honey, but herein hee was deceived, for they gather most honey, according to his own position when the honey dews fall, which saith hee, is not ante vergiliarum ortum. But wee have often swarms, a first, and a second also out of the same Hive before that time: And generally all good Hives are well furnished with young before that time of the year. In­deed hony is not the ordinary food for the Nymphs, but Bee­bread, which from Mid-March, and in some temperate Springs from Mid-February, they plentifully gather.

CHAP. XI. Of the Hives, and ordering them.

NOw having at last, though not without trouble and travel delivered our Bees, and brought them into the world, it is high time to provide them a house, and a sitting station, which when I have done, with as much brevity as may bee: I will en­tertain the Reader for his pains, and patience with a collation of sweet meats.

They have Hives of several shapes and matter, in several, and divers Countries, some of Ozier, some of Barks, some ofPetrus Cres­c [...]. lib. 9. c. 105. Trees hollowed (and this sort the American [...] about Mexico use) some of square boards, three foot high, and a foot broad; [Page 58] so in scarcity of Hives, I have known some use Butter-firking [...] ▪ Some of earth, which they daub with Cow-dung within, and without, because the smoothness is offensive, and the heat and cold also otherwise would bee too extream.

Pliny saith, The best Hives are made of barks of trees; aPlin. hist. [...]. [...]. c. 14. second son of Rods, and a third sort of Wickers.

Each Country almost hath his several fashion, as well for the matter whereof they are made, as also for the manner and form of their making. In our Country, the Hives principally in use, are either made of wickers, or of straw.

The wicker Hives, if they bee not often repaired, will bee at a fault, and lye open unto Wasps, Robbers, Mise; any of these if shee findes but a crack, or crany, will dig her way in. And the Mouse, unless the twigs bee close wrought, although shee finde none.

The straw Hives when they are old and loaded, do usually sinke on the one side (especially if they take wet) and so break the combs, and let out the hony. Yet I have divers which have been continually used above twenty years together, and never lost spoonful of honey out of them. Hives made of the fashion of a Bell, which they use in Northfolke, are not so subject to sinking, but being generally large, they are not fit for single castlings; and besides they are colder than the globous Hives.

All things considered, the straw Hives are the best; and the Bees do best defend themselves from cold when they hang round together in manner of a Sphear or Globe, and therefore the nearer the Hives come to the fashion thereof, the warmer and safer they bee; but of necessity the bottome must bee broad, for the upright and sure standing of the Hive, and for the better taking out of the combs▪ and the top must rise three or four inches higher than the just form of a globe, whether they bee covered with hackles or not, because they delight to hang in a cone, and work from a point; but chiefly to prevent sinking when they are full of honey, or young Bees, to which the broad crowned Hives are generally subject.

So then that Hive hath the best shape that is likest to an egg, with one end cut off, as wee usually order it when wee eat it. It may consist of twelve strawn wreaths or rowls, [Page 59] or more, according to the bigness of the Hive.

Let the three first rowls bee of one magnitude, and com­pass, and about a foot or somewhat more in the Diameter, the four next above them more large, bellying out a little each be­yond his fellow that the combes may bee more firmly fastened: Let the other five by little and little bee narrowed to the center at the top that it may bee pyramidal.

And after this proportion, if the Hive consists of more wreaths or rowls, for this is the shape of a small Hive. I have some consisting of seventeen or eighteen wreaths.

Hives are to bee made of any size between a bushel and half a bushel, saith Mr. Butler. I have many Hives containing five pecks which swarm yearly, and last (by succession) longer than those that are hived in small Hives: And although a half bushel Hive will contain a competent stock, yet the swarms for the most part are small, and the castlings of themselves worth nothing; and the Bees that are ordinarily left when they have cast twice are so few, that they quickly miscarry.

However let your Hives bee rather too little, than too great, for such are hurtful to the increase and prosperity of Bees. If the Hives bee too great, the Bees will bee more lazy, working un­comfortably, because they despair ever to finish and furnish their house; but yet if there bee a competent number of Bees, they will work industriously (though the vacuity bee large) and compleat as much with combes as shall bee sufficient for them. But an over large Hive is prejudicial to their swarm­ing.

When you have provided your Hive, clip off, and cut away all the staring straws in the inside, and make it as smooth as you can. The best and readiest way to perform it, is this: First wet the skirts of you Hive, then hold it a turn or two over a blaze of straw, and then take it off, do it a second time, and if need bee a third; and after rub it with a peece of a rubbing stone, such as Mowers use to whet their sithes withall. And so shall you much ease the Bees, they will do it themselves in time, but not without much pains and labour, which might bee more profitably imployed. Howsoever when you have [...]mmed it as well as you can, yet shall you hear them if you listen in an evening harping like Mise (as if Mise were gnawing on [Page 60] every side) and that for divers nights together.

And if it bee an old Hive, though it were musty, yet hold­ing it over a fire several times, will sweeten it. And the Bees will better like in such a Hive so ordered, than in a new one, not purged with the fire.

Mr. Southern, and others after him advise, that if Bees findeMr. Southern. fault with a Hive, and will not continue in it, to pull out the spleats, and put into it a little quantity of Barly, Pease, or Moult, and let a Hog, eat it out of the Hive, turning the Hive with your hand as hee eats, that the slaver or froth hee makes may remain in the Hive, and then wipe it lightly with a cloath, and having put in your spleats again, hive your Bees in it, and they will undoubtedly tarry. I never had occasion to experiment it, because that I never had swarm that I could not make to ta [...]ty in one Hive, or other.

Many rub their Hives before they use them with fennel, or other sweet herbs, and sprinkle them also with Honey and Beer mingled together, Sweet-wort, Milk, or some other sweet li­quor, but I seldome use it, but onely as I said before, purifie and sweeten them with fire; and perhaps set them, before they bee used, open in the aire a few dayes out of the danger of rain.

I have scarce (in forty swarms, and more that I have had in a year) hived one twice, or had any return after that they have been hived, except when the Queen Bee hath been want­ing.

Having prepared and dressed your Hives, the next thing that you are to do is to stick them. And various are the fashions that are observed, some doing it one way, some another, Mr.Mr. Levit or­dering of Bees. Levit prescribes this course. Take a stick of Sallow, or Hasel, about the bigness of a mans thumb, let it bee a foot long, or somewhat more, then cleave it cross-wise from one end till you come within a handfull of the other end, and no further, then bend each quarter a several way, cutting off the sharp edges in the midst of every one of them, then may you put the end that is not cleft into the crown of the Hive, and bending every of them a several way, stick them into the side of the Hive, that they may force the upper uncleft end hard to the crown of the Hive; but if the Hive have a little hole in the crown (as many [Page 61] straw Hives have) then cut the upper end of your said crown tree where it is not cleft small enough to go through a little way, leaving a shoulder on the inside to stay it: And this is to keep the crown of the Hive from sagging down-wards as they wil do (except your Hives bee exceeding good) when they are heavy laden with hony.

Lastly, Take a small stick and cleave it clean through in the midst, cutting both the parts flat and smooth, and put them cross-wise into the Hive within four fingers of the board they shall stand upon.

But this inconvenience I finde in this manner of sticking, that they cannot bee taken out, but altogether, and therefore the combes will bee much broken, and the honey run out when you take a Hive.

This course I observe; I take a willow stick, about nine, or ten inches long, and (according to the greatness) cleave it into several thin peeces, each spleat I shave till it will bow, then sharpning both the ends; I stick three such spleats in the center of the crown of the Hive, and bow the three other ends to the sides of the Hive (that they stand like so many bows) and there enter them in a triangle. And then after put a strong spleat quite through the middle of the Hive within four inches of the bot­tome. If it bee a large Hive, I put another cross that (other­wise not) about an inch lower.

That the Hives should have holes quite through them to prevent Spiders webs, or by the wind passing through to blow away any offensive matter, is an idle fancy, yet prescribed byFlorentinus. Florentinus.

CHAP. XII. Of Sea [...]s for the Hives, and the Bee-garden.

LEt your Bees bee seated not far from your house out of theColumell [...] danger of an eccho; not too hot in Summer, nor in too shady a place in Winter. This counsel may bee profitable to some, but it is of little worth to us where the hottest Sun in Summer if they bee well defended with covers, or a Penthouse [Page 62] hurts them nothing, and the greatest frost in Winter (supposing them covered above, and also well stopt below) damnifies them nothing. Nay, I have found experimentally that in a row of Hives standing on the North side of a long Barn, whose height hath intercepted the Suns beams all the Winter, less provision (almost by half) hath served those Hives than would have ser­ved others standing alwayes open to the Sun, for coming seldome forth they did eat little, and yet in the Spring were as forward to work, and to swarm, as those that had twice as much hony (otherwise alike) in the Autumn before.

Some Bees will bee late at their work after Sun-set, and if when they return they finde it dark about the hive, they must lye abroad, if not altogether perish. Let the door therefore bee somewhat to the West.

Let your Bee-garden bee well fenced from Cattel, and as well as may bee defended from winds, especially let them be secured from the West and South-west winds, which are with us most constant in the Summer. The time of Bees labouring, Virgil thus prescribes,

First for your Hives a fitting station find
Virgil Georg. lib. 4.
Sheltred from winds rough violence, for wind hinders their carriage—

Mr. Butler would have them defended from the rising Sun, because it invites them to work when the aire is chilly and cold. Suppose there were such an inconvenience, which yet I never found, yet where there were many hives, a fense on the East side could not defend many if any at all. And if they stand on benches with backs or walls behinde them, and a Penthouse over them, they will bee at work in a fair day two or three hours before the Sun can shine upon them.

And for swarms, it is best to uncover them on the first shining of the Sun upon them the day after they are set up (till they know their station) that they may bee allured forth by the heat thereof, yet when the Sun shines hot at noon, let them bee sleightly covered.

Columella prescribes that the hives stand with their mouths somewhat to the East, that the Sun may shine on them in the [Page 63] morning, and make them more early to follow their work; but upon experience, I commend the setting of them somewhat to the West, that (being late often at their work) they may have more light (their eyes being weak) to enter their Hives, and also that they be not prejudiced with the Easterly winds, which are cold and hurtful.

Let their entrance be low (because of the Mouse) but lon­ger in Summer, and shorter in Winter, but in Autumn shor­test of all, not having passage for above a Bee or two at once, to prevent the danger of robbing both by Bees and Waspes.

Some prefer single stooles as not subject to diverse inconve­niences, which Bees standing on benches (as they imagine) are liable to, they are kept saith Mr. Levit by Penthouses from the raine, but neither from the heat of Summer, nor cold of Win­ter, for they stand naked, the heat or cold easily takes hold of them, especially any great and long frost.

Againe, the Wind many times makes a great noyse in the hollowness of those kind of houses, which sore annoyeth the Bees; Mr. Butler saith, that many stalles upon a bench in Sum­mer may cause the Bees to fight, as having easie access on foot to each other.

And againe, standing so near, they some time mistake the next Hive for their owne; and againe, in Winter the benches will bee alwayes wet, which looseth the cloome, rotteth the bottom of the Hive, and offendeth the Bees; and lastly, the Mouse at all times hath free passage from one to another without fear.

I have tried both wayes, and found none of these evils that are objected, in setting Bees under a penthouse, and whereas in the first place it is urged, That they are always subject to Heats, and Colds; I answer, that if any are much offended with either of these extreams, they are the Hives that stand on single stools where the Sun penetrates, sometimes through the hackle and the cold winds every way pierce them; and in the Spring, when they begin to work, will blow many of the Bees from their Hives when they would enter in.

And for the noyse that is occasioned by the Winds to Hives under a penthouse, it is less loud and violent than where it hath an open passage on all quarters; but they are more apt to fight on benches than on single stooles. In many years observation, [Page 64] having more Hives upon benches than ever I knew any to have on single stooles, I never had any robbed by his next neighbour, but most commonly (if at all) by some of another Bee-fold; and whereas it is objected, that in Winter the benches will bee always wet, I answer, that this objection is altogether frivo­lous, nay false, for the same cause shall wet the single stooles that will wet the benches under covers; nay, they are much more subject to it, for only a driving raine from the South can wet a little at most before the entrance, which the Sun or Wind wil quickly dry, when as they are liable to wet on every side; and for the Mouse, she will more securely visit them where she may unseen (getting under the hackle) eate her way into the Hive,Mr. Lawson new Orchard. Mr. Lawson therefore commends a penthouse.

But if any delight in single stooles, let them be of wood ra­ther than of stone, for they are too hot in Summer, and which is worse, too cold in Winter; be careful that they be well cove­red with hackles, which you must often take off, both to dry the Hives in a Sunny day, and also for fear of Mise and Spi­ders.

And whereas it is objected, that Bees standing on benches are apt to mistake their Hives, especially the young ones; and if a Swarme return home they will settle upon the next Hives, to their owne and others ruine, and thereby occasion a great loss of Bees; to prevent this, let them stand half a foot at the least between Hive and Hive (it were best a foot) and these mis­carriages would be avoyded, and to secure you from Mise, keep a Trap constantly on every Bee board.

Take notice of some advantages that this way you may en­joy, which you cannot so well when they stand on single stools; oftentimes a poor Hive standing by a full neighbour, if they lye ou [...], and the weather be not sitting to swarme, they w [...]ll (as it were) make a League of amity with them, and first growing familiar, will with their supernumerary Bees (all not being able to work in the full Hive) replenish their neighbour with bread and meat, whereby they will swarme almost as soon as the best, which otherwise would not have swarmed that year, or very late.

But besides (which is more considerable) you may have much pure Honey without any trouble, or loss; about midde [Page 65] April in a warme Spring, observe what Hives are full, and begin to lye out, and set a Hive with the Combes that the Bees dyed out of the Winter immediatly before, next to such a full Hive, and you shall have them work into it presently, and carry in abundance of Honey; of necessity many of them must have been idle in their owne Hive, there being no roome for half to work; they take this as a retiring house which they will work in, and stay in too, night and day, only keeping an intercourse with their owne, which will swarme never the later, and as soon as by the emission of a Colony there is roome made in their own Hive, they will goe againe to their Leader and leave their pro­vision; if some few stay when you take it, knock them out, and they will returne to their old habitation; I had this last year, one thousand six hundred fifty six, in four such By-hives thus gathered, in eight dayes before the end of April neere four gallons of Honey, and the Hives also swarmed in April▪ this Honey was pure Virgin Honey, as white almost as milk.

But if they stand a week in May and swarme not, then take the retiring Hive and carry it some distance from the stoole, and knock it on the crown and sides, and they will all goe out to their owne Hive. But if you dare not venter on this course▪ then drive them into an empty Hive, and the day following knock them out neer their owne Stock, and they will quickly return into it. By this, conjecture how much honey Bees gather in the Spring, but of this more afterwards, so that it is neither for want of roome, or stooles, or wit (as some imagine) to set Hives on benches under a penthouse.

Mr. Butler designes to set sixty three Hives of Bees in a plot of ground of fifty foot square (if any, saith he, be so happy to attaine this number, which I have much exceeded) but I would rather advise to set your Hives if you have many▪ at a larger di­stance, if you have roome, whether upon single stooles, or upon benches, namely, not above sixteen, or at most twenty in a row (still take notice to set them from East to West) and three or four rodds to the Southward, another row, and so according to your numbers, or at double that distance if you have roome e­nough, for it cannot otherwise but often fall out, that you shall have many swarmes rise together, or before you shall have Hived the first, especially in a plentiful year, to your no little disturbance, [Page 66] and prejudice: Whereas standing at that distance, you shall more frequently prevent it; and the more, if you have a row of trees planted thick to the Southwards of every row of hives, some two or three rods distant, where they will readily light and seek no further.

Another inconvenience of many hives standing upon single stools one before another is, that sometimes the swarms will settle on the hackles of the hives before them, and if you bee not present, and speedily hive them, hazzard the loss of the swarm, and perhaps the stock too, as I have found by ex­perience.

Let the ground before your stools or benches, for a rod or two at least, bee kept short with often mowing, for long grass and weeds, much more Beans and Pease are prejudicial: for the young weak Nymphs falling on those shady places (except the weather bee warm and dry) are in danger to bee chilled, before they can [...]se again.

Let it not bee a bare ground, for in Winter it will bee wet, and chill the Bees when they light on it, and in the Summer dusty, and falling on it if they rise not presently, but go a little, their feet being dew-clawed, and scabrous, will quickly sur, and they will bee so clogged, that they will not bee able to rise at all.

Let them not stand above a foot, or a foot and a half from the ground at the most, for if they stand higher (as most set them) they are more subject to the violence of the winds, for though they do well enough abroad in windy weather, yet when they return home, especially in the Spring, they will bee beaten down besides the hive (and the more if they stand upon stools than on benches) and if there bee a present shoure (the weather then i [...] variable) or the Sun suddenly over-cast, they will quickly chill, and perish.

That they infect one another with their smell if they stand too hear together (as Mr. Levit surmifeth) I never found, nor do I beleeve. And i [...] great noises offend them, the higher they stand, the more [...] they subject [...] them.

I have observed that Bees flye more frequently to their work East ward than any other way, though there bee as good gathering to the West▪

[Page 67]Smoak is very offensive to Bees, let them not stand therefore near a Brick-kilne, Lime-kilne, Brew-house, or where any long continuing smoak may beat down upon them.

Let your Bee garden, or the ground adjoynin to it, bee planted with all sorts of Plumbs, Cherries, Apples, Pears, Goos-berries, Rasps, Ribes, and beds between planted with all sorts of flowers that they delight in, I will give you a Catalogue of them in their proper place.

The humble Plains, or lowly Vallies are commended as theColumel. best place for a Bee-garden.

CHAP. XIII. Of the Bees work.

WHen the Earth begins to put on her new apparel, and the Sun runs a most even course between the night, and the day, then most commonly, sometimes before in warmer seasons, the industrious Bee hating idleness more than death, diligently visits every tree and flower that may afford her ma­terials for her livelihood. Hear how an ancient Poet expres­seth it.

When forget had the Earth his poor estate
Chaweer Pro­logue to the legend of good women.
Of Winter, that him naked made, and ma [...]e,
And with his sword of Cloud so sore grieved,
Now hath the attemp [...]e Sun all that rolieved,
That naked was, and clad it new again,
The busie Bees of the season fain, &c.

Pliny was deceived in the time of the Bees working, for hee saith, they lye quiet in the hive untill after the rising of the Vergiliae, which are the Plei [...]des, or seven stars in the neck of Taurus, about the third of May.

This incessant labour while the time permitteth, with the three singular effects thereof, working of wax, making of honey, and the feeding of their young. The Poet in few words hath elegantly expressed.

But when bright Sol hath banish'd Winter chas'd
Under the Earth, and Summer light hath grac'd
Virg. Geor. l. 4.
The skie again, over the fields and woods
They wander streight, lightly the brinks of fleods;
They sip and taste the purple flowers, from thence
(What sweetness ere it bee that stir their sense)
Care for their brood, and progeny they take,
Thence work their wax, and hony clammy make▪

Bees gather of all things which have flowers (as it were) in aArist. de hist. Animal. l. 5. c. 19. hose or socket, and of all other things which are sweet; but either assertion is too general, as wee will shew when wee particularise what they gather of. Scaliger commenting upon him, goes further, and saith, They gather also of bitter, and sharp things, as Raddish, and Mustard-seed, but hee mistook himself, for the flowers (which they onely gather of) are neither bitter nor sharp.

The fabrick of their combes is an inimitable excellency, without all rules or compasses do they make their hexangleAeli [...]n l. 5. c. 1. cells. As soon as they are furnished with a new house, they begin their work.

They gather not, whatsoever some groundlesly imagine of the Sallow, Elm, or other trees any gummy substance other thanArist. de hist. Animal. l. 9. c. 2 [...]. wax. Indeed the Horners, and Wasps suck the sap that leaks from some Oaks, Elms, and other trees, wherewith they tem­per the dry rossie dross, that they gnaw off from old decayed posts and pales, of which mixed together they frame their [...] combs.

Much adoe the Ancients make about the foundation of their work, which they conceit to bee framed of some tough and glu­ [...]inous matter other than wax, and they fancie a triple founda­tion, for the c [...]mbes, all of such tough, but pliant, and lim [...]er stuff, differing somewhat one from another, and all from pure waxe: The first foundation they call Commosis: A second, which they over-lay the former with Pissocera; and the third, wherewith they cover the two former Propolis.

But whatsoever they fancie, the foundation of the Combs is not any other than ordinary waxe: Take an old Hive wherein some remna [...]ts of the Combs have been left sticking to the [Page 69] sides, or if there bee none, fixe towards the crown of the hive in several places, little fragments of waxe, and hold the hive a little over a blaze of straw that the waxe may melt and diffuse about the sides of the hive, and such a hive will they more con­tentedly work in than any other, presently to that foundation of wax, fastening wax new gathered from the flowers (for in some Islands plentiful of Bees, there are no trees for some miles, as Fowlness, &c.)

They fasten the first wax near to the center of the hive, if they bee many, but if there bee few Bees then near the side, they make their combs perpendicular, beginning at the top, and so working down to the bottome; the heat of the Bee (that I say not of their breath) maketh the wax warm and pliable, that at the first gathering they can work, and turn it to their pur­pose.

They will not onely work artificially the wax they gather into thin hexangles, but blow and soften, and work a solid peece of wax into a comb, as I have often experimented, putting a peece of wax under a hive almost combed to the board.

The order of their work is thus: They fasten their first wax to the hive, and adding more still, make first the middle between the cells, and having wrought a little of the thin bottome, than on either side begin to raise the hexangle cells, and so still des­cending to the bottome, as some are fully finished, others are but half way, others new begun.

Their combes are placed otherwise than the Wasps, for the Wasps hang theirs one under another, and the Bees theirs one besides another, beginning still at the top, and at that distance that a Bee may reach from one to another. And usually sup­posing them to stand with the entrance into the hive South­wards, they fasten and order them so, that in the breadth they are from East to West, thereby better securing themselves from cold.

Their cells are made six quare, according to the number of their feet of that length and wideness that each of them may easily contain a young Bee. More particularly they make theirBasil He [...]em. Homil. 8. combes with such artificial prudence, that they seem to out goe Archimedes, for the wise Bee is not ignorant of Geometrical inventions, all her cells are hexangles, and have equal sides, [Page 70] not leaning by courses right forwards, that the lowest being joy­ned to the empty one, may not be pressed or prejudiced, but the angles of the lowest hexangles may be a basis and support for that that leanes upon them, that they may securely hold up, and bear the burdens put upon them, and the Hony may be contai­ned severally, and apart in every cell.

And againe, the Bees contrive their Hony-cels both wisely, and artificially, for distending the Wax into a thin membrane, they frame together many and numerous cells, that by the fre­quency of the binding or knitting of the small cells one among a­nother, there may be a stay or p [...]op for the whole work; for every cavity or cell takes fast [...]old of his fellow, being separated by a small division from it, and all joyned to it.

And lastly, these pipes, or cells, are twice or thrice arched, and framed together like the rafters of houses.

O [...] they thus make their hexangle cels, which with a diversNice [...]s com­ment. in Greg. Nazian. orat. 43. [...]. 1. and opposite order answer one another, for some are placed at a right line, others are instead of foundations to them that lye up­on them, and staies for the hony, both for the elegancy, and also the security of the work; so wisely and skilfully doth she fabricate her Store-house, for drawing out the Wax into a thin skin, or membrane, she makes thick and continued cavities, so as that thick composition of small things among themselves doe sustaine and underprop the whole work, for every cell doth joyn or hang to his fellow, being divided by a small partition, and also (as before) conjoyned together.

In a word, the cells are so framed that they have two or three floores or rafters, for she is affraid to make but one through the whole cavity, left the hony pressed down with the weight, should sink to the external part.

Now all the cells in every Combe are hexangle▪ and equilate­ral, not leaning straight forth one to another, left the lowest parts joyned to the empty ones should be too much burthened, but the angles of the lower hexangles are instead of a basis, or prop to the superiour. After this fashion the Bee frames her work, va­ryingElias G [...]etens. Antist. com. [...] Greg. Nazian. orat. [...]. de theol. right lines with angles.

And thus saith another, where had the Bees such studious industry and workmanship, that they should after such diverse manners knit together their Combes by hexangle Pipes turned [Page 71] one against another, which connexions made wisely, and with much cunning, doe hold together by hexangle pipes, which pipes are the long and concave Store-houses for the Hony; now these are opposite to, and turned one against another, for some are placed straight, others on the contrary are obliquely stretched forth on the bottomes of them which are drawn forth right, which doe afford their sides for the pipes that hang over, in­stead of a foundation, and as it were a shore, whereon the hony may rest.

Now what Euclid busied in representing lines which are no where, and anxiously labouring in demonstrations can imitate them? The frame and manner is most curious, with holes on both sides of the Combes, many hundreds, and yet they are none of them just one against another, but placed triangular one among three, and that most neatly and artificially, which argu­eth their feeling to be good, for they doe all in the dark.

Each hexagonical bottome of one side, answereth to threeMr. But. Fen [...] mon. c. 6. third parts of the hexagonical basis of three contiguous cells on the other side, meeting all in one angle right in the center of the opposite bottome, as in this forme;


which is so artifi­cial, as well for strength and beauty, that no Schadon though the thin bottome of his cell should faile, can break thorow into a cell of the other side. He that seeth this, seeth he not a wonder?

How much Wax they bring at once doth appear by the new Swarme, whose first weeks work is spent chiefly in building Comb [...], wherein they are so earnest, that it falleth out with them, as it is in the Proverb, The more baste the worse speed; for part of many of their burdens doe fall from them before they can fa­sten them to the combes.

You may see great store upon the stoole by the skirts of the Hive, like unto the white scales which fall from young Birds feathers (but whiter and brighter) and therefore some have ima­gined that they also are soales, which the young Bees doe like­wise shed from their wings; but put you some of these parcels together, and you shall quickly be resolved of that doubt.

The Swarme when it begins to work falls low towards the bottome of the Hive (in appearance filling it) that there may be a vacuity and hollowness above, that those that work (for a [...] [Page 72] first all cannot) may neither be crowded, nor disturbed, but as the Combes descend, so doe the Bees ascend, and after a week or ten dayes will be all above.

Now to say something of their gathering of Hony, which they fetch in little or much nine moneths in the year; this is of two sorts, the one pure and liquid, called therefore by some Nectar, as the other which is gross and more solid Ambrosia, and both of them are the Bees food, but in several seasons.

The gross hony Sandaracha, or Bee-bread, is gathered by their tongues, with the assistance of their fangs, from whence it is conveyed by their fore-leggs to the thighs of their hind-leggs, and that so nimbly, that unless you have a quick eye you cannot perceive it. In the Spring, when the air is colder, and the Bees duller at their work, it is more visible: namely when they gather off the Aglets, or Catkins, of the Hazel, or the Willow a little after.

Many out of curiosity have supposed, that they might be a­ble to observe the Bees work if they had a transparent Hor [...]-hive, as a certaine Consul in Rome had, or a clear Glass-hive; but theGullel, de Conchis. vanity of this opinion will quickly appear to any intelligent and rational man; for imagine the Hives were more transparent than Chrystal, unless the Bees also, and all their work too were transparent as well as the Hives, this cannot be; put an opacous body into the hollow of it, your sight is dulled and darkned, but more when they once begin to frame their Combes, the foun­dation of their work, which they frequently compass round a­bout; and howsoever such Hives would not be profitable, for they are subject to violent heats and colds, and therefore earthen Hives were justly condemned by the ancients.

But if any be desirous to satisfie himself, as much as is possible, I will direct him in a more certain way, often experimented by me, yet I say not, that I will altogether undeceive his expecta­tion.

Let the board or plank whereon the Bee-hive stands have a small hole, or cleft thorow the middle of it (bigge enough for a Bee to goe through) or let the Hive stand a little over the board or stoole, and when the Hive is full you shall ordinarily have them work Combes to the bottome of the board under the Hive; I have had under one hive six or seven Combes about a [Page 73] foot long a peice, wherein they bred their young, laid up their hony and Bee-bread as in the hive; and although they were in the open air, yet was I thereby little the wiser, only sometimes in a colder season I have observed them blowing, and working of the lower part of their Combe, but was not any thing at all enabled to understand the generation of their young, or other curiosities which were performed in the inmost combs; and with­in themselves (except the Bees and their work too, had been transparent) they still some of them encompassing their work; and therefore except you can with your eye penetrate a solid body, you will conceive thereby little of their work (only some­times on the edges of their Combs) and much less in a Glass­hive.

They unload into the empty cells the Bee-bread which they have gathered for food for themselves, when they cannot goe forth to work, and also to feed their young, but if it continue any long time uneaten, it wil grow dry, insipid, and sower, and there­by as tastless, so useless, and oft cause the Bees to forsake their Hives (as some suppose) but this is never the chief cause of their departure, but rather paucity and fewness of Bees, having over-swarmed, or else the loss of their commander. For, hive a swarm into old combs where is much stopping, yet shal you finde that they will thrive wel, for they wil draw it out of the cels with their fangs, and carry it forth. And let the combs be never so old, except they have taken wet, and so be rotten and crispie, they wil like well of them, only if they be very old, they will doe as Ma­sons doe with old stone buildings, take down the out-part and work it again with new materials, whereby it shall be as good as new, and they continue as long, and as well in them, as if they had been put into new combs.

Into old combs (after nine or ten years standing the Bees by casualty dying) I have hived little or late swarms, which have continued in some of them ten years more.

Sometimes my owne, sometimes my Neighbours Bees have trimmed up such Hives as they have found standing (the Bees being dead) and have gone of themselves into them, and thrived better than others hived into new hives, or new combs; so that blackness (as it is commonly thought) is not an infallible signe of a faulty hive, for the combs have successively sundry colours.

[Page 74]The first colour is white, which in a good Hive before the end of Summer will turn to a light yellow, and by the begin­ning of the next Spring▪ this light is changed into a sad colour, and so by degrees it becomes brown, and then black, but not in all parts of the Hive alike, for the combs will bee black before, and brown in the middle when they are yellow, if not white in the backward combs. And this alteration of colour, is caused by the heat of the Bees, who lying for the most part before, do soonest discolour them; but the blackest combs (tried or melt­ed) will turn again to yellow.

It is not amiss (especially if the Hives bee poor) to cleanse away in the Spring the dross and filth that the Bees have con­tracted all Winter when they could not go abroad▪ but for fu­ming of them, as some require, I never saw any cause, nor found any profit in many years that I have been conversant among them.

To seek (as Varro requires) if there bee divers rulers, be­cause divisions would make them laz [...]e, is a ridiculous, if not im­possible task: They kill after the last swarm all of the blood Royal, and in the Spring early breed new, that they may bee ready to go with the first swarm.

The Vulgar when they see the Bees go home laden with Bee-bread, suppose they carry way, and so they call it, but if you taste it, you will easily resolve your self.

Besides, if you would coagulate it together, with the heat of your fingers (as you may wax) you cannot, but shall finde it crumble, and not stick together like wax Put it into the fire, it will not melt like wax; besides, it is of divers colours according to the quality of the flowers, or plants whereof it is gathered, so that by the colour with a little observation, you may say of most of the Bees, when they return with it, where they have been gathering.

Taste it when it is new gathered, it is sweet, and not un­pleasant, but not so sweet as honey.

And that it is not wax, take notice of an old stock into which they carry plentifully of it, and yet at the end of the year there is no more wax (if so much) then there was in the beginning. Whereas a swarm will sometimes work down half their hive in a week, and yet you shall see them carry▪ little of it if any at all.

[Page 75]And the reason that the old stocks carry inso much, is, be­cause they have many young ones to feed, whereas a swarm for the first ten dayes, ordinarily have not hatched much spat, or young brood, and they feed for the most part abroad, and there­fore need little of it in the Hive.

The liquid honey the Bees suck or gather with their tongue, whence they let it down into their bottles, which are within them like bladders, each of them will hold a drop at once; you may see their bellies strut withall. Many think because they see nothing on their thighs, that they come home empty, but they are better, and more heavy laden than the other.

This sedulous diligence and indefatigable industry of the Bees is most evident and eminent in the Spring, after they have been long confined to their hives with the Winters frost and cold, but being set at liberty by the Suns warmer beams, they speedily scoure over hills and dales gathering of every blossome, and flower as greedily as the griping Usurer graspeth gold, which diligence of theirs, is notably expressed by a Modern Poet.

Quales vere novo siculeae sub collibus Hyblae
Aelius Julius Crota. Eidyl. 3.
Vallibus, aut riguis late fragrantis Hymeth
Exercentur apes, stabulis ubi pinguibus agmen
Prodit mane novum, & coelo bac [...]batur aperto.
Hae veris popul [...]ntur opes, Tymbraeque laborant:
Illa Apii lachrymam, & graveolen [...]is Centaureae
Narcissique legunt florem, Casiasque rubentes:
Caetera dum legio [...]ectis ascripta, tenaces
Suspendunt caeras, & mella liquentia fundunt.

Thus in the Spring the diligent Bee spreads forth her wings,Greg. Nazian. orat. 43. [...]. 2. yet stiffe as it were with the Winters cold, and with haste leaving the hive, flyes to the slowery Meads and pleasant Gardens.

But for your further delight, consider the Bees labour, in the words of one of our best English Poets, yet somewhat altered, because not intended by him for this purpose.

The Woods, the Rivets, and the Meadows green▪
Spensers Mi­nopotm [...]s.
With her air-cutting wings, she measureth wide,
[Page 76]Ne doth shee leave the mountains bare unseen,
Nor the rank grassie Fens delights untr [...]d;
But none of these how ever sweet they been,
Mete please her fancy, nor cause her [...]'abide
Her choiceful sense with every change doth flit,
No common things may please a wavering wit.
To the gay Gardens her unstaid desire
Sometimes her carrieth, to refresh her sprights,
There lavish nature in her best attire
Pours forth sweet odors, and alluring sights,
And art with her contending, doth aspire
T'excel the natural, with made delights.
And all that fair or pleasant may be found,
In riotous excess doth there abound.
There shee arriving, round about doth flye
From bed to bed, from one to other border,
And takes survey with curious busie eye,
Of every flowre and herb there set in order;
Now this, now that, she tasteth tenderly,
Yet none of them shee rudely doth disorder
Ne with her feet their silken leaves deface,
But pastures on the pleasures of each place.
And evermore with most variety,
And change of sweetness (for all change is sweet)
She casts her tasting sense to satisfie
Now sucking of the blooms of herbs most meet;
Or of the dew, which yet on them doth lye
Now in the same bathing her tender feet.
And then shee pearcheth on some branch thereby,
To weather her, and her meist wings to dry.
And then again shee turneth to her play,
To spoyl the pleasures of that Paradise;
The wholesome Sage and Lavender still gray,
Sweet Carrowayes, and Cummin good for eyes,
The Roses reigning in the pride of May,
Sharp Isop, good for green wounds, remedies;
[Page 77]Fair Marigolds, and Bees alluring Thyme,
Sweet Marjoram, and Daysies decking prime.
Cool Violets, and Burrage growing still,
Embathed balm, and chearful Galingale
Goodly Tulips, and breathful Camomile,
Dull Poppy, and drink quickning set wale,
Vein healing Ver [...]n, and Head-purging Dill,
Sound Savory, and Basil hearty hal [...].
Fat Cole-worts, and comfirting Strawberry,
Cold Le [...]ice, and refreshing Rosemary.
And what so else of vertue good or ill▪
Grew in the Garden, fetcht from far away,
Of every one shee takes and tastes at will,
And on their pleasures greedily doth prey, &c.

CHAP. XIV. Of the swarming, and hiving of Bees.

BEes breed in May, when there is plenty of honey dews▪ Dr. Harvey de partu. Wasps in Summer, when the fruits begin to ripon. It is true Bees breed in May, but their chief breeding is in March, and April. And although the Wasps appear not in great numbers untill the latter end of Summer, yet they begin to breed in the Spring.

The old stocks having bred in the Spring, and with a new supply replenished their hives, they presently prepare to send forth a Colony or two (if the weather prove seasonable) out of every good stall.

In extraordinary dry and windy times, many, though they bee full, yet they will not swarm at all. For having wa [...]ted long for an alteration of the weather in vain, and the year wearing away, and they by lying forth under; or about the sides of the hive▪ cooling themselves, and being well provided for, are loath so leave their labours to go anew to labour.

Sometimes it falls out▪ because they have no Commander [Page 78] ready. I once had a very good hive full, and multitudinous with Bees, and yet never swarmed in many years, I was resolved to let them alone, to try whether they would ever swarm; in the eighth year they swarmed twice, and also other years after, what might bee the cause of their long delay, I cannot certainly assign.

The swarm consists not of younger Bees, then the stock, for there go forth both old and young, and therefore Aristotle was deceived, who said that the swarm consisted of young Bees,Arist. de hist. Animal. l. 9. c. 64. and was not contradicted by Scaliger commenting upon him.

The swarm parts not into several companies, but when there are more Queens than one. Some Drones go along in every swarm, but not many, seldome a dozen: And therefore whereas some lay it down as an insallible rule, That those swarms that have not many Drones will not thrive, is not alwayes true.

Many times the weather proving stormy, and cold, the Drones will all bee starved, when as the Bees will supply them­selves by going sometimes (though seldome) abroad. Nay the Bees often in such seasons jealous of their own safety (and knowing them to bee great devoure [...]s) will kill them; and yet the weather proving seasonable, afterwards have thriven and prospered well that year, but perhaps they had a concept [...]ve power by a masculine vertue from the Drones before they swarmed.

It is impossible to determine the precise time of the year when Bees will swarm, but by the forwardness of the Spring, and warmness of the weather you may probably guess.

A warm, calm, and a showing Spring causeth many and early swarms; but it is to be supposed if stormy, cold, and close weather follow, not a great while together, immediately after. I once had many Hives (the beginning of the Spring being milde and warm) very forward, so that by the end of March they began to lye forth.

And although the weather within a week of April, did somewhat alter, yet (being full of brood withi [...] which came daily to perfection, they lay forth in abundance by Mid-April, but the Spring continuing tempestuous and cold untill a week in May, [...] of the very best wholly perished, having many [Page 79] mouthes and no meat, and not being able (because of the cold) to goe forth to gather any, in Ianuary before▪ I am confident the worst of them had not less than three quarts of hoay.

Now those that were poor and weak began not to breed so early, and though they were not so well supplied, yet had they few mouthes as they had a little meat, and endured the ex­tremity, and swarmed that year, but somewhat later than ordi­nary; the first sort lying forth without the Hive I could not se­curely feed them, which otherwise I would have done, when I perceived them to perish.

Sometimes also in regard of the uncertainty of the weather, early swarms are not the best; in the year one thousand six hun­dred fifty two, I had twenty swarms before mid May, and many more after, and of all, but one survived until the next year, for the year was so dry that by Midsummer there was scarse any flowers, and they yeelded little hony, except in the Wood­lands, where the Bees among the moyst and shady pla [...]s found better provision.

Many times May swarms prove not so well as those that are cast in the beginning of Iune, the Wind oft times continuing high and cold, and the season close, so that without a little re­freshing many swarms are like to perish.

If a swarme by bad weather be checked, and hindred in their work the first week, they will seldome work couragiously all the summer following.

Dry weather makes plenty of hoay, and moyst of swarms, so that when a d [...]y summer follows a moyst spring, the Bee-foldsArist. de Hist. animal. lib. 4. c. 22. Mr. Butler, Fem. Mon. are rich, but if the summer be also moyst, the increase of Be [...]s will be great, but because of the scarsity of hony, this increase will prove a decrease; the more swarms you have at the end of summer, the fewer stalls shall you have at the beginning of the next, for except some very early swarms, and some good stocks which cast betimes, or not at all they will all dye for hunger; and the reason is, that the weather keeping them much in, they can doe nothing but breed, and when they goe abroad, bring in no­thing but Bee-bread and water, wherewith they seed their young, but can finde nothing to lay up in store; so that moyst weather gives them two causes of swarming, plenty of Bees, and [Page 80] penury of Hony; the one makes them able, the other willing, and then neither Winds, nor Clouds, nor Rain can stay them, whereas in times of plenty it is otherwise.

Before they swarme some daies, they will by a peculiar andArist de Hist. Animal. lib. 9. c. [...]0 distinct voyce, make it known throughout all the Hive, as in the dislodging of an Army by the sound of Trumpets, proclaime, pack up, and be gone; so that as a presage of their swarming, there is a peculiar sound heard two or three days before.

—And then a voyce
Is heard, resembling Trumpets winding noyse.

Mr. Mouffet mistakes this place strangely, and applying it toMr. Muff. Theatrum In­sect. the Bees, saith, When the Bees for the Queens tyranny will forsake the Hive (which falls out at the Greek Calends) there is a peculiar and solitary voice, as of a Trumpet, heard two or three days before: when therefore they are ready for their slight, away they goe, and if the Tyrant whom they forsake follow them, they put her to death.

But this voyce is not at all, or but some few hours before they goe forth with their first Colony, it is true indeed always of the after swarms, but by the way, if they hear not at all, (which Aristotle elsewhere denies) to what purpose were this call, or proclamation to make ready to be gone?

The signes of the first swarms are somewhat uncertain, butVarro de re [...]ustic [...], lib. 3. lying out, about, or under the Hive, in the mornings and evenings only, is a very probable signe of swarming, whereas to lye out constantly, is a signe of not swarming.

When they will presently swarme you may sometimes know, by their gathering together without at the door of the Hive, and not only upon the Hive, but on the stoole also, where when you see them begin to hang one upon another in swarming time, and not before, and to grow into a cluster that covers the stoole in any place, then be sure they will presently [...]ise, if the weather hold; but commonly some few doe first fly forth to and f [...]o the Hive door, with a greater noyse than ordinary, and so allure out more company unto them, and when by this means they have got out a pretty many, the noyse made by them is more smart and vehement, when they begin to dance before the Hive, and making many circling mo [...]ns turning from, and yet againe re­turning to the Hive, with delightful melody singing a loath to [Page 81] depart, invite all their Sisters to hasten apace, and wait upon their Queen now on her coronation day.

Their murmuring small Trumpets sounden wide,
Spenser Faery, Q. lib. 2. can [...]. 9.
Whiles in the air their clustring army flies,
That as a cloud doth seeme to dim the skies.

When Bees lye continually forth of the Hive, they usually swarme late, sometimes not at all that year, the reason thereof is, because the Hives being ful of Bees, and therefore very hot, the Bees to refresh and coole themselves lye abroad under the Hive, or upon the sides thereof, whereby the Hive never seemes over full; and they having used a while to lye forth, finde no inconvenience from their multitudes, and are loath to forsake that plenty which they have painfully gathered.

If they begin a Combe under the board, it is a sure signe of not swarming; sweep them down that hang under, and imbit­ter the place, and gently drive them into the Hive with a brush of wet stinking weeds, or smoke them in, as you shall be more fully informed afterwards. But doe what you can, some Hives wil not swarme at all, or not a great while, perhaps they want a Leader.

Always choose a Hive answerable to the swarme, a forward swarme if great, may be put into a Hive that containes some­what more than three pecks, but if it be a prime swarme, in the beginning of Iune, into a Hive containing three pocks; if at Midsummer, into a Hive somewhat less, but I like no Hive that holds not somewhat above half a bushel.

By this time the swarme is setled, goe presently therefore to hive it (having Hives of all sorts alwayes prepared) for fear of rising again, or of others coming to it.

If it be in the heat of the day, and the Sun shine upon it, it will not stay long, if it be provided of a place (hive or tree) as some are before hand; presently after they are setled, and all their company gathered together, they wil uncluster, rise againe, and be gone, and fly forth right thither (not as at other times uncertainly) and wil not be staid by any course you can take. If they be not provided before-hand, as soon as they are gathered together, they designe, or empower some of their company to [Page 82] espy out one, and if they return with the news of it before swarming time bee past, for that day (and they yet unhived) they will presently uncluster, and away, otherwise they will hang untill the next day. They therefore deal indiscreetly, that let their swarms hang untill night, losing thereby many, and hindring them in their work; for as soon as they are hived, if it bee not late in the afternoon, they will presently ply their work, and sometimes make a comb a handfull long before night, and fill much of it with honey, as I have often found, when I have united them to another.

And besides by long hanging, they will bee wonted to the place, that for some dayes after, they will hanker thereabouts, and neglect their labours.

And where there are many Hives, there is great likelihood of others rising, and then if they bee within hearing, they will flye all together; bestir you therefore to hive them presently; and if you espy any other to arise before you have done, stop them up with a cloath (and when you have dispatched, let them out) but if you have finished before they come forth, or come towards you, cover the first with a sheet untill the last bee settled elsewhere. But if they flye about the covered Hive, seeking to enter there, set down a prepared empty Hive by it, and they will often go in of themselves.

But if two prime swarms rise together, then there is no pre­vention, but for the most part they will settle together: Hive half of them into one Hive as near as you can guess, and the remainder into another. And if the Queen Bees be divided, they will continue severally, otherwise, will go out of that Hive where is no Queen, into the other. When they are all entred into one, knock them down into a fan, or upon a very broad board, and set two Hives over them, having first laid sticks a­long in the fan to bear up the Hives a little from the bottome, that the Bees may on every side easily enter in, and with a wing or brush of weeds, sweep some to one, and some to another, as e­qually as you can. But if notwithstanding all your endeavours, they will go to one Hive, then fetch a weak castling, and knock­ing down near half upon the fan, carry the other away the distance of a rod, or more, and set the castling over those in the fan, and so shall you have two good Hives howsoever.

[Page 83]If your swarm light upon a bough, shake them in gently, and set them upon a board o [...] fan, underneath the place, having laid two sticks first (near an inch about) about half a foot asunder, to rear up the skirts of the Hive, that no Bees may bee crushed by the Hive, and the Bees may more readily enter. And if any rise as (usually some will) shake them down, and lay a handfull of May-weed, Wormwood, or other wet herbs in the place where they setled, and they will quickly remove, and goe to their fellows; but if they light very high, then carry up a cloath with you, and cover them that you have in the Hive, and bring it down with the mouth upwards, and set them below (on a fan as before) and fetch the remainder in another empty Hive covered, and when you are down, knock them out by the side of the former, sometime you must do it, a third, nay a fourth time before you have all.

If they light upon the body of a tree (they will bee trouble [...] some to hive) you cannot take half of them in at once, but sweep with a wing or brush of weeds, as many as you can, and set them underneath the place, and fetch the remainder, as be­fore.

Sometimes it will not bee amiss to saw down gently the bough (when you cannot otherwise well come at them) where they hang, fastening first a little line to it, and so softly let it down, or else bring it down in your hand. I have brought down many, and hived them with ease below. At other times when they have been very high in the middle or out-side of a tree, I have carried up a fan, and fastened it by the ears under­neath the swarm, and so hived them as easily as if they had been near the ground, setting them in the fan, laying sticks [...]st in it, as I prescribed before. And in the evening without any trouble, fetched them down, and set them in their place.

The manner of hiving is very various and manifold, by rea­son of the many and different circumstances of the lighting, or pitching, that it can hardly be taught by rules, but is rather to be learned by use, and experience, guided with reason and dis­cretion.

If they settle on a dead hedge, or on the ground, set the Hive over them, under-propping it if there bee cause, and with a handfull of wet weeds stir them softly underneath, and they will [Page 84] go up, and to allure them the sooner, anoint the edges of the Hive with a little honey, and sprinkle a little within it.

It will not be amiss to shred, and order here and there some boughs of the trees in, or near your Bee-garden, that they may hang out, as it were from the rest more opportunely to enter­tain the Bees when they swarm. Yet in places where are nei­ther trees, nor dead hedges, they will settle upon pales, nettles, mallows, they will refuse nothing they readily meet with; sometimes on the very grass: Thus in the Island of Fowl­ness.

To cause stocks that lye out more speedily to swarm, diversMr. Butler [...]em. [...]om. c▪ 5. rules are prescribed. To keep them cool by watering and sha­dowing of them, and inlarging▪ of the door, to give them aire (alwayes provided that there be no back-door in the Hive) I have with a contrary course occasioned their swarming, first rubbing the bottome of the stool against the door well with wormwood, or the juyce of Elder, and all the sides about the door, and [...]aying wormwood, or May-weed also, close to the mouth, and also before, above the door; which being done, I have in the heat of the day taken off their cover, so that not be­ing well able to continue in the Hive, nor yet to rest under it, nor on the sides of the Hive, they have presently swarmed.

A second way prescribed by Mr. Butler is, when they have lain out (although they have had fit weather two or three dayes) then the next calm and warm day a little before noon (when the Sun shineth, and you see no clouds coming to hide it) put in as many as you can with your brush (it is better to smoak them in) and sweep down the rest, not suffering any to cluster again: These rising in the calm heat of the Sun, will make such a noise, as if they were swarming, which their fel­lows hearing, will perhaps come out unto them, and begin to swarm. It is but a perhaps, for I have seldome seen this course successful.

When all hope of their swarming is past, in some evening while it is yet light (saith Mr. Butler) holding a Hive under those that lye out, cut them off with a tight thred held streight between two hands, and carry them to an over-swarmer that you would mend, knock them down on a table close before his Hive, into which, because they come without a Prince, they are [Page 85] quietly admitted, and quickly united under one Commander: Stay there, I have often tried this course, but without success al­wayes; for though they bee without any great contest admitted and continue there that night, yet the day following, they will return to their old Hive.

See here the difference between a voluntary emission, and a compulsive; when they go forth with a Leader, you may put them any where, for they have by a voluntary departure, ex­cluded themselves from their former society, and to return thither again, except it bee in a short space, is capital: They are reputed as enemies, forsaking their own Commander, and going away with another Leader; but if their Princess in a short space return with them, there is no question about their admission; but if by a wile they are taken from their own company without a Leader, they will return back again do what you can, except you carry them so far that they know not the way.

Mr. Butler for such Hives as have not swarmed before Mid­summer, directs this course, to double the stall, by turning the skirt of the Hive upward, putting the crown into the rim of an old Pale (or the like) well staked about, that it may stand fast, and setting an empty prepared Hive fast upon it, then dawb them (in the middle where they are joyned) round, onely lea­ving a passage even with that of the old stock, and they will ascend into this, and breed, and work as well as in the old. And in the end of August, you may drive them all into the new, and take the old for your labour.

This course seems plausible upon the first proposal, but upon frequent trial, I have found it to little purpose: For the Bees ha­ving many young ones in the old Hive, and much meat, will not ascend, but as they are necessitated for room, and then work their combs to the old, upwards, and not downwards from the top of the Hive, newly set over them; so that by parting of the combs which will not bee without trouble, you may take some little profit of the combs new wrought, but must continue the old Hive to stand still, except you mean to take all, I never found any to have wrought above half way upwards, so that ha­ving no foundation, but the old combs, it is impossible to set down the new Hive.

[Page 86]Bees will swarm any time of the day, between eight in the morning, and four in the afternoon, but the chief time of swarm­ing, is between eleven and one. Many stocks when they are disposed to swarm, will rise in a cloudy season often before the Sun shine upon them, I have had some by eight of the clock; but chiefly in a hot gleam, after that a showr, or a dark cloud hath sent them home, but in hot and dry weather it is not so. The swarming month [...] are April, May, June, and July; rarely, though sometimes in August.

To judge by the time of their swarming, which will thrive, is very uncertain, because of the variable weather that often fol­lows after, for being checked a little, and discouraged at the first, for a week together, they will scarce work kindly all the year after, so that many (though less, and coming a month after) not hindred at all by ill weather, will bee better than those at the end of the year. And another cause why forward swarmes thrive not after soul weather, is, because they are very ventrous abroad, and by the stormy winds, and unseasonable weather many are diminished, and thereby their increase exceedingly retarded.

Signes of after swarms are more manifest and certain, for a­bout ten dayes after the first swarm is cast, sometimes a little sooner, sometimes a day or two later, the next Princess will be­gin to tune in her treble voyce a mournful and begging note, as if shee did pray her Queen mother to give her leave to bee gone, unto which voyce if the Queen vouchsafe to reply, [...]u­ning her base to the young Princess treble, as commonly shee doth (though sometimes not intreated in a day or two) then shee consents, and the third day after expect a swarm. The first day after the grant, how fair soever the weather be, they will not go, and not ordinarily on the next day, except it bee very fair; but on the third day, though it bee somewhat close, and cloudy weather, yet sometimes the weather proving very cold and windy, I have known them stay five or six dayes after li­berty granted.

The evening before they swarm, the young Princess goes calling from one part of the Hive to another, sometimes shee is before, sometimes behinde, sometimes above, but still calls, and resting a while between, shee still renewes her calling. In the [Page 87] morning before, shee often descends to the bottome of the Hive, with shriller and thicker, longer, and more continued notes than at first, that none may plead ignorance, but all know, and acknow­ledge, there is a new Princess, and bee ready to attend her when shee takes possession of her Royalty, dealing herein (but that shee is her own officer, and it is no disparagement, for the Queen mother is her continual assistant) as Princes on earth that come newly to succeed in their Dominions, they make it known by sound of Trumpets, and Proclamations, in the most eminent parts of the Kingdome.

But take notice by the way, that sometimes the Commonalty (knowing best their numbers within, and the state of the wea­ther abroad) not thinking it good to make a division, will after leave obtained, kill the young Princess, and all the infants of the blood Royal, but this is not ordinary.

If the Queen mother after a long intreaty be silent, then there is no way but one, shee must dye, and all her Allies. As theMr. Butler. Queens voice is a grant, so her silence is a s [...]t denial: The Proverb here hath no place, Quitacet, consentire vide [...]ur, for without this concent, there is no consent▪

Sometimes a third, nay a fourth will arise after a second, if the prime swarm bee broken; but all (ordinarily) within a fortnight. I have known the last (but rarely, and in bad wea­ther) seventeen dayes after the fi [...]st.

When the swarm i [...] up and busie in their dance, it hath been an old and common p [...]ctice, for want of other musick, to play them a fit of Mirth, on a Bason, Warming-pan, or Kettle, to make them more speedily light, and keep them from slying a­way, but this (though ordinary) yet is needless in this respect, for they will settle of themselves, except they have chosen a place before-hand, which is very near. And then when their company is all out, they will flye directly thi [...]her, and your ringing and tinging, will prevail nothing to perswade their stay.

This benefit there is of ringing, that if you have neighbours near, you that keep Bees, you may give notice thereby to pre­vent wrangling, if some of theirs should rise at the same time.

Mr. Levi [...]s opinion is, That tinging is so far from pre­venting [Page 88] their flying away, that it is often a cause to return them back into their Hive, if not to drive them qu [...]te away, for they are amazed as it were, and confounded with the unwonted and clamorous noise.

Mr. Remnant dislikes ringing before the swarm bee quite out of their Hive; but if they be on the wing ready to flye away, then prescribes to make the greatest sound you can to prevent it, as also by throwing up dust, Hogs-dung, or Cows-dung to disturb, and trouble them.

Aristotle doubting whether Bees hear, therefore questions whether they take pleasure in the sound because they hear, or for fear, because of the reverberation, and tremor of the ai [...]e?

That the ringing of Bees anciently practised, was for theCl [...]udian de [...]x [...]. Consul. Honor [...]i. former reason, the Poet implies, saying, The Bee-master ringing on his Bason by the shrill sound, labours to recall the Bees when they are flying away; and Virgil before him, and before him Aristotle, Convocarieas in alveum aiunt, they did cause them to return.

They flye faster or slower, according to the ringing, if heeMr. Muffet Theat [...] Insector. strikes apace, they hasten away, but if hee beat leasurely, then they flye slowly.

But if they will not be stayed, but hastening on still, go beyond your bounds, the ancient law of Christendome permitteth you to pursue them whithersoever, but our common Law is more un­civil, and yeelds no such priviledge, for if your Bees bee out of your ground, your property is lost, if your neighbour bee not more courteous.

Many directions have been given, to arm them that hive the swarms to escape danger, but except they be about the body of a tree, or setled very high, you may without any cover, or de­fence securely hive them, otherwise get on a paire of Mi [...]tens or wollen Gloves on your hands, and a thin Cypress over your head and face, and then without any fear, you may safely venture a­mong them.

Second swarms after they are all forth of the Hive, will usu­ally flye about (before they light) longer than prime swarms, the reason is, the Bees knowing that multi [...]udes best thrive together, and they by the smalness of their murmuring sound, being privy [Page 89] to their paucity, do by a continued flying about, allure as many as they can to come forth to augment their numbers.

Sometimes swarms will settle in two or more clusters, a little distance one from the other (seldome prime swarms.) Now usually the cause is, because there bee divers Commanders, and each gets a company. Hive the greatest cluster first, and set it down towards the other, then into an unspleated Hive, shake down the other, and when they bee all in, knock them down close by the first, and they will go together.

Second swarms except they bee early, and out of large stocks, seldome thrive alone: Therefore unite two or three together, and so they will bee as good as a first swarm; you may do it thus, Having hived that swarm that you intend to put to ano­ther, as soon as it begins to bee dark, take a fan, and laying a couple of sticks on it, set your first hived swarm on them to­wards one end of the fan, and then fetch the other, and between your hands clap the Hive hard on the one side, holding it close to the other, most of the Bees will fall down at the first clap, but reiterate your knocking, and they will all fall down, and if they enter not presently, stir and guide them to the Hive, with a brush of weeds, and such as go any other way, sweep them to their fellows, and they will all quickly, and quietly ascend. Within an houre or two, you may (for the most part) set up the Hive again in his place. I have not lost forty Bees in uni [...]ing twenty swarms, besides the Commanders, which of necessity must perish.

Swarms after they bee well setled, seldome return home a­gain (if you let them not hang too long in the heat) and the chief cause of their returning▪ at any time, is the miscarriage of the Queen Bee, who cannot well use her wings, being (perhaps) neverforth of the Hive before, and assaying to flye, falls be­sides the stool, sometimes flyes further, but being quickly wea [...]y falls short of her company.

You may easily know if it bee thus, for as soon as you have hived the cluster, the first inquiry they make is for their Lea­der (whose coming while they hang, they did anxiously ex­pect) but now being hived, and missing her, they presently dis­cover it with a mournful murmuring, sometimes bewayling their condition, joyntly crying out together, and then are all suddenly [Page 90] whist and silent, and by and by again renewing their sad lamenta­tions, tumultuously likewise running before the Hive, and about the sides thereof, as if they were not onely discontented, but distracted: Others are flying (but pittifully complaining, as they flye) about the Garden with a busie Quest searching for her; and if they do not in a short space meet with her, will all comfortless return to the stock again, whence they came forth.

But if they finde her, or shee be brought unto them, they presently congratulate her return with continued shaking of their wings, and oral rejoycings, witnessing their present contentedness, complacency, and satisfaction, making even their joyfull con­tent in her, something more joyfull than before, as if the felt pleasure at her first return, were more delicious, and ra­vishing, by reason of the sudden change from that discontent, and distraction in their late loss to an excellency, if not extasie of delight and joy.

But if (not finding her) they return home, the next time they come forth, though in numbers a first swarm, yet not in the manner of their swarming; for the next Princess comes not forth at the will of the Commons (losing their Commander, they lose in this respect their liberty) but by petition must obtain leave of the Queen mother, as in second swarms.

Now when you perceive the Bees discontented carriage, pre­sently seek about (beginning at the stock, whence they rose, and going that way, the swarm took) and you shall un­doubtedly finde her, for shee is not alone, but encompassed with a guard which will never stir from her, though they starve in the place: Take her up therefore, removing the Bees that environed her (you may do it securely with a little stick) and carry her to the swarm. And you cannot but with wonder be­hold the sudden alteration, with what a rejoycing plaudite (their mourning being ceased) do they welcome, and entertaine her; and those that were seeking for her abroad (although some rods distant) are instantly sensible of their felicity (by their fel­lows rejoycing) and hastily return to express their content, and bear a part in the general gladness.

If a swarm light near the place where another was hived a day or two before, when you have hived it, set it ten foot di­stant from the place where the other stood, for some Bees of [Page 91] the first hived swarm, will for two or three dayes together hanker about the place, and if they finde a hive standing there, will boldly enter, supposing it their own company, and so mis­carry by the others, who take and deal with them as enemies coming to endamage them.

Swarms will the day after they are hived busily follow their labour, but the removing of them from the place where they were hived, doth not a little discourage them; if therefore the weather bee not fair, they will not stir the first day, and except it bee more than indifferent, they will not stir the second day, and so as the foul weather lasteth, droop, and grow faint, and sometimes totally miscarry.

To prevent this, the day after they are set up, when the Sun shines upon them, or howsoever about noon (except it rain) put a little honey under the hive near the mouth of it, and some at the mouth, and before the entrance (less than a spoon­full will serve) which they will quickly smell, and come down to feed on, and flye forth, and thereby bee acquainted with their new standing, and fall to work upon the first fair wea­ther.

If the weather continue cold and cloudy a week together, without a little supply they will dye, therefore every day refesh them with a little honey. After they are acquainted with their standing, you may put it into the Hive upon a peece of an old comb in the evening. They can indure four or five dayes without meat, but if the foul weather continue longer, they will hanging by one anothers legs, fall down to the bottome of the Hive, and perish; but try them not too far, but quicken them daily with a little honey, and you shall keep them strong and lusty (such close and windy weather falls out often in May) you shall gain by this loss, for the weather altering, they will not onely subsist of themselves, but by their painful labours, recompence your cost and care.

If your stocks cast a second swarm after Midsummer, the best way is to return it home again. Hive it as you do other swarms, and about six of the clock knock them out on a table before their stock, and they will go in▪ and if they come forth again (as perhaps they will) do so the second time, and if there bee occasion, the third also, but look heedfully when you first [Page 92] knock them out for the Queen Bee, and take her away, and then shall you bee sure to prevent further and future trouble. And thus shall you keep your stocks full and lusty, which otherwise were in danger of miscarrying, and the swarms (most years) would bee worth nothing.

Set the poorest swarms upon a plank, and when they have done working, dawb them round, allowing air, only through two or three quills, and set them in a dry cold place of your house, or barn, and so being little sensible of the alteration of the air, they will sleep much, and eat little.

CHAP. XV. What Flowers the Bees gather of.

IT hath been almost generally received, that Bees gather from all sorts of flowers, good, and bad, sweet, and bitter; someP San [...]lorus Thes [...]u [...]. Arist l. 11. a little, and but a little straiten this vulgar position of all kindes of flowers, both of Herbs, and Trees (saith one) except Docks and Cheesrunnet.

Aristotle curtails this a little more, and tells us that theyArist de hist. Animal▪ l 5▪ c. 19. gather of all flowers that have cells or sockets. Mr. Mouffet straitens this also, saying, They refuse no flowers, that are fra­grant, contained in cells, or sockets; but this also must bee nar­rowed into shorter bounds, as yet being too large, for of many sorts of such flowers, they meddle not with at all.

  • First, Bees gather not of flowers which have deep sockets, as Batchelors-buttons, Cuckow-flowers, Cockscomb, Jasmin, Cumphilly, Dead-nettle, Wood-bettony, Wild-blew-teare, Teazil Red-hony suckle, rarely, and divers others, and yet these are more abundant with hony, than many that the Bees ga­ther of. And of these the Humble bees gather plentifully, na­ture furnishing them with larger fangs, and longer tongues than the Bees.
  • 2 Ordinarily they gather not of many little or small flowers, as Rubia, Pimpernel, Scorpioides, Hares-foot, Oliver, Vero­nica, &c.
  • 3 Not ordinarily of many physical Herbr, as Erisamon, [Page 93] Agrimony, Century, St. Johns-wort, Mugwort, Mother­wort, &c.
  • 4 Not of bitter Herbs, as Wormwood, Lavender-cotton, Southernwood, &c. yet sometimes of Ru [...], the flower whereof is scarcely bitter.
  • 5 Not of very dry flowers, as Docks, Sorrel, Mercury, Atriplex, Wheat, Rye, Oats, &c.
  • 6 Not of those that have a strong stinking smell, as Smal­ledge, Hemlock, Galopsia, Crown-empereal, Cheesrunnet, &c.
  • 7 Not of those that are sopo [...]iferous, and Narcotick as Mandrakes, Red-poppy, Night-shade, Black-briony, &c.
  • 8 Not of those that are very cold and unctuous, as Orpine, Housl [...]ek, Prick-madam &c. for all oylie and unctuous things are hurtful to them.
  • 9 Not of those that have a strong sweet smell, as Feve [...]few, Maudline, English Laurel, Myrrhe, &c.
  • 10 Of very few flowers that grow in Ponds, or Rivers.
  • 11 Not of those flowers, that (though they have great hol­low bodies) shut hard and close at the top or lips, as it were, as Toads-flax, Snap-dragon, Fox-gloves, which the Humble­bees will open (being stronger) and gather of.
  • 12 Not of very double flowers, as double Primrose, Wall­flowers, &c. except where the leaves are very fine, as the Dent­delion; nor of such as have deep sockets, and have no strings from the bottome to the top of the flower. Nor of such whose strings, or horns extend far out of the flower, as Avens, except there bee an excrescency, or cod in the middle of the flower, as Gillow-flowers have.

Bees sometimes gather of such flowers, as are pernicious andColumel. hurtful. The Teil-tree, and the Boxe are very pestilential, so is also the Yew tree.

If they taste of the flowers of a Corn [...]ile-tree, they dye of a scowring the blowings of Elmes are discommended, and wildePlin. l. 21. c. 12. Cowcumbers, as also Woad, which affords a foggy food that over-lades the Bees, and makes them miscarry in the fields; strow Salt under your Hives, and they will bee the stronger and lustier. Tulipas kill Bees for closing a little afternoon, the Bees that are in them are imprisoned, the sides being out-bowing, and [Page 94] smooth, they cannot get out, and will bee dead, before the next day when they open.

The Lentick tree from whence the Mastick is gathered, affords the best honey in the world, of which in the Island Sio Sands relat. lib. 1. (anciently Chios) is great plenty.

Bees gather of these flowers following, yet of some more plen­tifully than of others.

In March.

Hasel, Willow, Sallow, Enemony, Bunnikin, Daffadil, Vio­let, Gooseberry, Cornelian, Misselto, Crocus, Elme, Primrose, Pilewort, Dendelion, Spoonwort, Bears-foot, Black-thorn single Wall-flowers, &c.

In April.

Ale-hoof, Ribes, white, red, black Oak, Peach, March-mari­gold, Cole, Turnep, Sycomore, or great Maple, Ribwort, Stockgillowflower, Cow-weed, Furse, Strawberry, Broom, Beans, wilde white Enemony, Bears-ear, Ozier, Plumtree, Cherry, Pear, Apple, Crab, Barbery, Beech, Tear, Maple, Bi [...]ch, Apri­cock.

In May.

Water-cresses, Hull, Angelica, a tall rank grass Parsnep, Onion, Leek, Garlick-seeds, Dogs-tongue, white Valerian, Tamarisk, Thrift, Sage, S [...]orksbill, Mous-ear, Raspis, Charlock Marigold, small yellow Honysuckle, Poppy, Woodbind, Medlar, blew Valerian, Burnet, wilde Tansie, Archangel, both with the white and yellow flowers, called by the Tygurines, Been-sauge, or Bee-suck, Hawthorn, Elder, white Honysuckle, King-cup, Pease, double Gies.

In Iune.

Tre-trifoly with yellow knops, and another kinde of Tri­foly with long red blossomes, and a Trifoly with pale, yellow blossomes like a Lotus, but ranker, Dewbery, Blewbottle, Mothmulleine, Luteola▪ or Diers weed, white Briony, Savory, Origanum, Hysop, Pondweed with a flowre like Patience, Lang d [...]z beuf, common Thistle, Bugloss, sometimes, but sel­dome, Burrage, Parsly, Lotus, Lis [...]achia, Roses, red, Da­mask, Velvet, Henbane, Mustard-seed Sharewort, Canker­rose, Daneswort, Bindweed, Mallows, Melilot, Calamint, Cowcumber, Thyme, which onely yeeldeth Nectar. So Mr. [Page 95] Butler, who therefore findes fault with Virgil, for saying,Mr. But. fem. mon. c. 6. Crura thymo plena, but let any observe, and hee shall finde they gather as often Bee-bread as honey; and again hee saith, The Bees gather not of the Rose, the Primrose, the Clove-July­flower, the Pease, of all which they gather plentifully, but not of the Pease untill the blossome begins to wither, and the cod to put forth, and then they gather Sandaracha of it plentifully, especially in the morning.

In Iuly.

Tobacco, Love, Carduus-benedictus, Jacea, Lampsana, Penny-royal, Small Dentdelion, Sca [...]let Beans, Mayweed, Gourds, Clotbur, Live-long, Horse-mints, Skir [...]e [...]s, Yarrow, Germander, Nip, Sowthistle, single, and double July-flowers, Succory, Dill, Clematis Altera, Fenil, Filius Ante patrem, Holy-hock, French-marigold, Coriander, Lavender, Melon, Blackbery, Buck, Jacobea, Stechados.

In August.

Red Eye-bright, Knap-weed, Heath, Virga Aurea, Ivy.

In September.

You are to take notice that many of these flowers blow twice a year, as Rosemary, Archangel, Tamari [...]k, Bu [...]rage, Charlock also, although not the same roots. And some con­tinue longer than the month whereto they are ascribed, and some begin to blow a little before, but whensover they blow, the Bees gather of them, but less in Autumne than in the Spring.

Many flowers afford matter of gathering in the morning before the dew is quite exhaled, which in the heat of the day yeeld little, as the Pease, and a tall rank grass, having a stalk a foot, and a half long, with a large bushie ear.

Bees have this property, that whatsoever Flower they first be­gin with, when they goe to work, they meddle with no otherArist. de hist. Anim. l. 9 c. [...]0 that journey, but lade themselves with such meat alone as that kind yeeldeth; this is a common, but no catholique custome, for I have often observed the contrary.

It is true, if there be flowers enough near at hand, to make up their burden of that sort they begin withall, they will meddle with no other, but if they have begun to gather of a flower that likes them, and cannot finde enough to furnish them, then they wil make up their load of some other.

CHAP. XVI. Of the ordering of Bees.

IN February lift up your Hives on the one side nimbly, and with a wing wipe away all the sharings of combs, dross, dung, or whatsoever else lyes upon the stoole, which although the Bees in time would performe, yet hereby shal you save them a great deal of labour.

If your old Stocks have any crumbling, or crispie combs, take them out in the Spring, for they cannot work to them; lay the Hives on one side, having ready a fire of dried Cow-dung in a Chafingdish without a flame, the smoke wil drive the Bees in­ward, and you may securely performe it.

Some tell us of putrefaction in the combs, in regard of dead brood chilled, which combs they would have taken out; but I never met with more than the Bees could rid themselves of, ex­cept when the Bees are almost, if not altogether starved.

That they so love quiet, that they scarce endure the companyWeck [...]rus de secret, Lib 8. of men (is false) and therefore must have walls built about them with holes, to see what offends them, is ridiculous, yet commended by Florentinus.

Bees are much offended with long hair on head, or face, let such therefore as must be often among them wear short hair, or be wel covered, on peril of stinging.

If a Bee have stung you in hot weather, your wisest and safest way is to depart for a while, for there issues with the sting a strong poysonful savour, which you your self may smel, but how­soever, the Bees wil readily, and knowing thereby that some of their company are wronged, wil with eagerness seek to vindi­cate the injury on whomsoever they finde present in the place, and come about you thick and threefold; there is no way to ap­pease them but one, get away as fast as you can, and when the [...]roar is over, you may securely come again.

The best time to doe any thing about your Bees, is, in the mor­ning before they stirre, or when they are new gone abroad, or in the evening▪ when they are returned from their work.

Make the mouth narrow, least the Summers heat dissolve theVirgil.

Dissolve the hony, or cold Winter freeze,
For both extreams alike annoy the Bees.

Be very careful about the doore, or entrance into your Hives, for negligence herein occasions the loss of more Bees than any o­ther neglect, from the Dor-mouse, and Tit-mouse in Winter, and the Wasp, and robbing Bees in Autumn.

Let the doors be somewhat long, but very low, not much a­bove the height of a Bee, and let them be more or less open, according to the seasons; but rather offend in leaving too nar­row an entrance than too large; a thin board in Winter cut in notches like a grate, wel fastned to the Hive, with Cow-dung and Ashes tempered together; two notches open in Winter, is enough for a good Hive, one for a poorer; for thereby they are kept more warme in Winter, and more secure from ene­mies.

When they have wrought a week in the Spring, the better Hives may have three or four notches open, and by degrees more, until they be full, and then you may take away the grates altogether until Autumne; but be sure to set them early to the old Stocks that have over-swarmed, as also to the poore swarms, and in a dry year, sooner than in a moyst, for the Waspes wil be more numerous and early, and the robbing Bees finding little abroad to busie themselves about, will be seeking to plunder poor and weak Stocks betimes.

When you see the Waspes begin to be busie, and forsake eat­ing of dead Bees, before the stooles, venter into the Hives, set up your doors to the poorer Stocks, and narrow the passage of the better with a little Cow-dung (tempered as before) that it may not be above an inch long.

If you will bee at cost, it will be very beneficial to have a hurdle made of Oziers set before your Hives, even with your stools, or else boards shelving outwards at the bottome, for the Bees to rest on when they come home weary and laden.

Mr. Levit mislikes the keeping of Hives four or five years at the most, but his reasons are weak, because (saith hee) the combs will be black and unsavoury, and the old Bees are not so good for increase and breed, as the young, nor so strong and lusty for labour; but these reasons are without reason, for blackness of the combs is no fault, as wee shewed before, and [Page 98] of the age of Bees, wee shall treat by and by, onely in a word, note that they are an annual creature, and live not beyond a year with the vantage; on the same ground, therefore all the old stocks must be taken every year.

Many things are necessary for the preservation of Bees, first, A competency of food which they will labour for, and com­pass with their own industry, except the unseasonableness of the weather, the smalness of their numbers, the treachery of ene­mies, the power of robbers, or the covetousness, or simplicity of their owners by driving them too late, or after that by reiterated swarming, they have diminished their numbers, for the recruit­ing whereof, they were well enough furnished with brood (al­though then unfledge Nymphs, yet the hopes of continuance) of which being untimely bereaved by driving, as desperate, they either forsake their Hives; or if they continue and work, yet can they not sufficiently breed, and provide themselves be­fore Winter, and therefore must starve.

It hath been inquired by some, what quantity of hony wil serve a Hive of Bees all Winter: To which question no certain answer can be returned, because of the numbers which in some Hives are more, and therefore must have more meat; and also because the Spring in some years, is more forward than in ano­ther, so that quantity that will serve in one year, will not serve in another. But I would not willingly let any stock continue, that had not five pintes at the least of hony.

Sometimes it will bee convenient to hoist up such swarms that you fear will cast, especially if Midsummer bee past, for al­though they may live, yet ordinarily they will bee weak and poor, and the stock whence they came so impoverished, that if it continues, it will scarce swarm the year following.

Raise them up by putting four Brickbats at an equal distance under the skirts of the Hive, let them go no further inwards than the verges, then dawb them up well, leaving a fitting pas­sage for them to go out of the Hive.

I like Mr. Southerns judgement to set them down again afterwards, the best time is in Ianuary. This Mr. Levit laughs at as an impossibility, supposing that they having wrought down to the board, the combs would bee crushed to­gether, and many Bees killed; but laying the Hive on the side, [Page 99] and making a smoak (as before) in a cold morning, to drive the Bees up, with a long sharp knife cut the combes a little within the Hive (as I have often done) and there will be neither danger, nor damage▪

Mr. Butler adviseth to set them down in the end of August, Mr Butler Fem. Mon. c. 3. when by the death of the old Bees, and also of the Drones, there is more room made, lest their swarming bee hindred the next year, unless they bee swarms that have wrought down to the stool, which indeed most have, and then this advice is to little purpose.

The course in our Country which most take to get some pro­fit by their Bees, is driving, out of a foolish [...]i [...]y they will not burn them, but care not much to starve them, and that without any great profit to themselves, for they usually do it after they have cast a second swarm about Midsummer, or a week after. The Bees then (besides those in the brood, which would have been a suf­ficient supply to them) being then very few, and many of them old Bees, which in a month, or a little more, will all dye, and then they will bee by much fewer; as soon as they are driven therefore, despairing by their own industry to subsist, they will leave the Hive and flye into another, so skipping for the most part, out of the Frying-pan into the fire. If they work, as some will endeavour their own preservation, yet not one of three in ordi­nary years out-live the Winter, and they being weak, are often made a prey to robbers in the Spring, or having spent their little store, then flye away; but if they out-wrastle all these difficul­ties, yet they will scarce swarm that year.

Moreover little hony at that time of the year is ordinarily to bee had; a quart, perhaps a pottle, and this is a liberal portion. Whereas if they will drive them, let them do it early before their hony is consumed by successive broods, and let them ob­serve the condition of the Spring, for thereby they may have some likelihoods whether they will do well.

I have driven ten Hives in the beginning of May (not swarm­ing the year before) all which after swarmed the same Summer, and the prime swarms did very well: Or if you will drive, take this course, when your stock hath cast a second swarm, the night following drive the old stock into the swarm, and they may do well, except it be late in the year.

[Page 100]Old stocks before they have swarmed, and early swarmes driven, seldome miscarry; I have known them driven twice in three weeks, and full of hony the second time. Nay a foolish neighbour of mine drove a swarm the third time, and had a­bove a gallon of hony at either of the two first drivings, and above three quarts the third time, but it was so late that the Bees dyed that Winter.

If you have a stock that lay out the year before, and swarmed not, and doth so the year following, and Midsummer be past, drive it, and ten to one (if the year bee indifferent it will do well.)

Now to preserve your stocks, and yet to make some advantage of your Bees, take this course (except you know a better, but thus I do) About Bartholomew-tide, I survey my swarms, and all those that I finde not by the weight competently supplied, namely with five pintes of hony at the least, I take, and I ex­amine my old stocks, especially such as have swarmed twice, or oftner, and where I finde few Bees, which you shall know, if giving the Hive a little knock with your finger on the out-side of the Hive, if the murmur bee sudden and short, then it is a signe there bee but few Bees, but if it bee smart and long, descending from the top downwards, then it is a signe of plenty.

They that have but few Bees, though they bee never so well stored with hony, yet will not continue over the next Spring, but will bee a prey to robbers; therefore it is better to take them then to lose them, and their honey also; but yet if you desire to save any that are well supplied, then drive a swarm that you in­tend to take into them, and so shall you have a good stock; and thus with Gods blessing shall you increase your Bees, and have a sufficiency of hony and wax. If you have not, you may take as many of the best as you shall think convenient.

Some prescribe to take those that are too full of hony, as (thereby) disabled to breed, and prosper the year following, but this is but a groundless supposition for ought ever I could finde, having had as good as any other, the combes being generally filled with hony to the board, which I have let stand on purpose to try whether they would breed, and never found, but such were as full of Bees the year following, as any other; for [Page 101] after working time there is a long time of eating, and if they be numerous with Bees, they wil make roome enough by bree­ding time.

The manner in a word to take Hives in the latter part of the year is by burning, which briefly you may thus doe; take an old linnen cloath and cut it into long narrow peeces, about two handfuls long, and halfe an inch broad, and then having melted beaten Brimstone, dip them therein, and having digged a hole near the Hive that you intend to take, let it be somewhat more than a foot over, and half as deep; set in the bottome of it two or three crotched sticks, into which put three or four of your raggs smeared with Brimstone, and having kindled them set the Hive over, stopping the verges somewhat close, and your Bees with the smoak wil in a short space fall down st [...]sled and dead.

For the manner of driving, it is needless that I should speak much, being wel known almost to every one.

Have a prepared Hive as near as you can, of the breadth, in the skirt, of that Hive you will drive setting it on the ground, put sheet over it, and wel fasten it with a strong pack-threadround about the Hive within an inch of the skirts, then having a Trivet [...], Payl, or Firkin ready, set the empty Hive therein with the mouth upwards, and then lift the Hive you wil drive, nimbly from the stall, and set it upon them empty, and gather up quickly the sheet that hangs down to the crown, and fasten it wel likewise with a little line, about an inch from the skirt, and turn them thus tied together, that the empty Hive may stand upwards, and knock gently with the palmes of your hands on the sides, and on the crown, sometimes in one place, and then in another, and often pause, and make a little stop, that the Bees may ascend, and reiterate your clapping againe; in half an hour they will be all, or the most of them gone up, and then carry it to the place where the other stood; if you doe it in the evening, let it stand unmeddled with all night; if in the morning, let it be before Sun; and if there be any Bees behind, when you take out the combs, sweep them off with a wing, and they wil finde their fel­lows.

Many in the Bees necessity commend and applaud feeding, when by driving unseasonably, or not seasonably uniting (as the [Page 102] Proveth is) They have broken their heads, they would give them a plaister, but for the most part too narrow and scanty for the sore.

For feeding of weak Bees, many things by many are prescri­bed, I shal be brief in the particulars, because I altogether dis­like feeding, except in the beginning of the year, through the backwardness of the Spring, some Hives (otherwise sufficiently furnished) stand in need, or some early swarmes, the weather proving tempestuous, cold, or close, sometimes for above a week together: it wil be very convenient then to relieve them, until the weather alter, and they begin to work, when they wil need no longer your supply, and without a little supply would bee so poor and feeble, that they would untimely miscarry, and dye.

The ancients commend feeding of them with Raisins, bruised Figgs; Pliny bids set Hens flesh before them, although he ac­knowledgeth that they eate no kinde of flesh, and therefore in that respect preferres them before the Hornet, and the Waspe.

The Gentleman that wrote the first large Letter in Master Hartlibs Legacy, a wel-wisher to Bees, although little skilled,Mr. Hartlibs Legacy. (as it appears by his Projects) in the nature or ordering of them, taxeth a general deficiency in this Kingdome in this re­spect, as if we were more negligent, or ignorant than some of o­ther Countries; for the glory of our Nation let me plead (which he ignorantly traduceth)

The knowledge of Bees was never truly communicated to the World by any but by English men; Mr. Southerne brake the ice, then followed Master Levit, who wrote more than fifty years since: though he was published long after Mr, Butler: Mr. Levit, I say, not the Father of the publisher, but the Grand­father (perhaps his Grand-child knew not so much) and I que­stion not but Mr Butler was acquainted with his Book, for it was in divers mens hands though not printed.

After him Mr. Butler wrote singularly wel (although in some things defective, and no question but after Ages may adde more, but I wil not be too bitter, not doubting of the Gentle­mans good meaning, but advise him, and all others in this, or any other subject, not to urge Eutopian conceits, but such things [Page 103] as out of experience they have some probable grounds for, Ne sutor ultra crepidam, all Countries produce not an equal store of every commodity; that other Countries abound more with Ho­ny, is not because they abound in skil, Scandia is more plentiful, because after the great snowes that lye all Winter on the ground, and keep it warme, which once dissolved, the earth is presently embroidered with a garment of Flowers in greater plen­ty, variety, and continuance than most Countries afford; and the long dayes are another advantage, especially the weather not being so variable as with us, and a principal cause of their in­crease is the extreame cold in Winter, which holds them in a perpetual sleep, so that they eate little after they leave working, and the earth with the Winters Snow and Raine is thorowly moystned, that drought seldome proves injurious to them, as it is often with us.

But for his conceits of feeding Bees with sweet compositions of divers things besides Hony, because cheaper; we are to know, that although they wil eate of all kinds of sweet things, yet are they not so proper and natural as Hony, neither wil they when they stand in need of feeding extract Hony out of them, as hee supposeth, and replenish their Combs, no nor car [...]y at such times Hony which they feed on into their Combs; and when they can doe this, namely, when they are lusty, and the weather warme, they rather gather it abroad (and save your cost and charges) but suppose those compositions were beneficial, yet not to the old Stocks that are likely to miscarry, for they for the most part have already more meat than mouthes, but yet it might preserve the swarmes.

I have shewed a cheaper and safer way, by uniting, and for casual wants, in regard of the continuance of cold and bad wea­ther, Hony is more natural.

And whereas Mr. Southerne objects against old Hony, that it wil make them scou [...]e, this is but a fancy, I yearly upon occasi­ons experiment it, but never found that inconvenience.

He objects further, If they be fed, they wil fall to robbing of others, but herein also he was mistaken; Bees that stand in need of feeding are seldome so lusty, never so vent [...]ous to plunder o­thers, but rather in continual danger to be robbed by others of that little they have, which feeding, not duly performed, readily exposeth them unto.

[Page 104]The Gentleman in Mr. Hartlibs Legacy, desireth to save the poor swarmes by feeding, and with the least charges that might be, whereas not one of six (never so carefully fed) that are desperately poor, can be preserved, and if they doe live and e­scape the robbers, and not forsake their Hives, which most of them wil doe, finding their numbers small, yet will they not swarme if they live out the Summer, so that the charges besides the trouble will double the profit.

When you have occasion to feed, if you have not reserved Combs on purpose when you took your Bees, spread Hony upon a dry combe, and put it under the Hive in the evening, but re­member to take it away in the morning, if any be left, or shut them up until they have eaten all, least the robbing Bees finde it, and not contented therewith, carry away also that little they have in the combes, I would have feeding begun (where it is necessary) before an absolute want, least they bee so poor and weak that they cannot come down; if any happen so to be, then turne up the mouth of the Hive in the heat of the Sun, or near a Fire, and drop a little liquid hony among them.

I have recovered swarmes shut in by long cold weather, where not a Bee hath been able to stirre, and continuing it after with a little hony put under the Hive until the charge of the weather, they have done very wel that year.

Bees wil sometimes suck the sweetness of rotten Pears, some­times full ripe Grapes, but yet a very few among a great many with us.

In Sicilia there be Grapes of which they make Muskatell▪ Fache [...]lus de reb. Siculis, l. 1. prior decad. which are therefore called the Bee-grape, because the Bees gree­dily feed upon them, as also Flies.

Mr. Butler counsels, that you cut asunder such Stocks as you intend to preserve (almost even with the Bees) if they have not wrought within a handful of the stoole, and then to set them down, making them a new door, that thus they may be warmer in the winter.

This is a course both wastful and useless, for I never had any stock, if it were supplied with meat, that miscarried, although the Bees had not wrought half way down. And to prevent it, in ordinary years sit your Hives according to the greatness or smal­ness of your swarms; This way, if otherwise profitable, cannot [Page 97] be performed without destruction of your Hives, and the loss and trouble of your Bees, and the Stock wil be so small, that except you adde another, and raise it, the swarme wil be worth nothing.

To prevent the cold, daub up the skirts round, and let the entrance be very small.

A watering place near your Bee-garden is very necessary, they cannot subsist without it.

—But near pure Chrystal Springs,
Green mossie Fountaines still your Bee-hives place,
And streams that glide along the verdant grasse.

Without it some say, they can neither make their Combes,Columel de re rust. 9 l. c. 5. nor yet their Hony; but the use is not so generall, but when they feed on Bee-bread (which is hot and dry) they cannot bee without it, and they love not to goe farre for it.

Into your running or standing water many prescribe to cast in stones, somewhat elevated above the water:

Into the Poole, whether it stand or flow,
Great stones a crosse, and Willow branches throw,
As Bridges for the Bees to stand upon,
And spread their wings against the Summers Sun.

But peeces of Wood, or Boards, entred into the water, and set shelving, or leaning towards the North are much better, the stones being too cold in the spring; but if you can bare the banks of the North-side of your Pond of all bushes, and grasse shelving towards the water, where they may drink under the Wind, and in the heat of the Sun, and suck it out of the earth above the water, which they rather desire, than to suck the pure water it self.

But if you have neither Pond, nor River within twenty rodds of your Bee-garden, set water in wooden troughs in your Gar­den, and have light thin moveable boards, or corks within your troughs, that may rise and fall with the water, let them have small clefts, or many little holes bored through them, that the Bees may stand on the boards and drink; keep Hens and Chick­ens, [Page 106] especially Ducklings from these troughs, for they will de­stroy your Bees.

Mr. Butler enumerating the several actions of Bees in warme dayes in Winter, among others saith, they drink, but he was de­ceived, for although sometimes in Ianuary they gather a little Bee-bread, yet until they plentifully feed of it, they drink not, for while they feed on Nectar which is hot and moyster than Bee-bread, they need it not, but the other being more hot and dry, makes them exceeding thirsty.

Bees will be very much about sinkes, and where greasie water is thrown, nay they rather delight to drink out of Sawpits and holes where the water is thick and troubled, than out of Ponds, though nearer them; and when they water out of Ponds, they delight (as I said) to extract the water from the moystned earth near the Ponds, or Rivers brinkes, than to suck or drink of the purer water it self, which yet some will.

Mr. Remnant supposeth, that they suck out of sinkes, or old di [...]ches, and places that incline to Salt-peter, for want of salt water, wherewith saith he they season their Hony, which I be­leeve not, but rather that they may be more vigorous and lusty, and therefore salt is prescribed to be laid under weak Stocks; hee saith, it is in the defect of Salt water, but where they are near the Salt they use it.

And he further saith, they season their Hony with salt water, and in the want of it, with brackish water thus extracted, there­fore he commends the setting of salt water or brine near them; but they neither use salt water about their Hony, nor yet fresh, (as Columella) but for the reason before mentioned,

In Summer they wil drink securely upon the Duck-sheard, and other thick weedes in the middle of Ponds; the best time to remove Bees, if you are to carry them farre is in the end of Ianuary, although if you be necessitated, you may do it well e­nough presently after Mi [...]aelmas.

A little before you take them from their standing, lift up a little the skirts of the Hive, and put three or four Tile-sheards under the Verges, that (the Hives standing somewhat above the board) all the Bees may ascend, otherwise some wil be left on the bottome of the stoole, which will be lost; then spread a sheet upon the ground before it, and nimbly take it off, and set it [Page 107] upon the middle of the sheet, and gathering it up round, tye it close above the crown with a noose, tye it also about the middle with a Pack-thred, then put a Cool staffe through the noose (bee sure it bee well tyed) it must hang perpendicular, not swaying one way, or other. Let it bee carried between two to the place whither you intend it, when you come there, set it down, but open it not presently, for the Bees will bee somewhat disturbed with the motion, and ready to flye forth; it is best to set it up in the heat of the day, that if any suddenly flye forth, they may not bee chilled with the cold, but after a little flying about, they may return to it again; but if the weather bee close and still, then set it up in the evening, and stop it up close (leaving breathing holes) untill a faire day, and then open the door.

CHAP. XVII. Of Bees breathing.

AFter a long condescension to the capacities of the Vulgar, to whom almost peculiarly this large practical Discourse appertains: I will now endeavour to set an edge upon, if not, to satisfie the appetites of the more Judicious, though not with a banquet of Rarities, yet with a dish or two of Sweet-meats (according to promise) as soon as I can provide them.

There is a necessity of refrigeration from without, by aireArist. de par­tibus Animal. l. 3. c. 6. Arist. de Spirat. or water. Now the grand inquity is, How Insects (in particular Bees) are refrigerated. The Philosophers before Aristotle, held that all creatures breathed, as Democritus, Diogenes, An [...]xa­g [...]ras.

Pliny professeth that hee accords not with Aristotle inPlin Nat. hist. l. 9. c. 7. this particular, that Fishes breathed not, because they did hear and smell.

I will speak one word to this (although out of my sphere) and but a word, lest I conjure up learned Scalagers ghost to op­pose mee, That Fishes breath is evident to sense, I have seen them often come up to the top of the water, and a little eleva­ting their heads above, draw it in with the water, and with [Page 100] many bubbles return it again, some at the Gills, but the greater part at the mouth.

And that they cannot live without aire, thus, In great Frosts they cannot long continue though they have water, except the Ice bee broken, and then they will presently come to the hole for aire, so that sometimes you may take them out with your hands. And if it be some dayes delayed, they will turn up their bellies in the holes as quite spent, yet by the benefit of the aire, many of them recover, but if it bee altogether neglected, in a great Frost most Pond-fish will dye.

Rondele [...]ius holds, That not onely Fishes, but Insects alsoRondel. de pisc bus l. 4. breath (although without lungs) in particular Bees, because of the sound, and murmure that they make, and because they smell.

Cardan affirms, That all living creatures breath either openlyCardan. de subtil. l. 12. or secretly, manifestly such as have lungs, more hiddenly which have gills; and that is must obscure by palpitation, and there­fore whereas Aristotle denies such creatures that have no lungs to breathe, hee understands thereby a perfect breathing, and therefore saith, The sound of Bees is caused by the aire, which they receive and draw in; why not the same instrument that draws it in return it? But this opinion, although Aristotle's Scaliger labours to undermine, but to little purpose. Hee sup­poseth it to bee caused by the shaking of their wings. This both Aristotle, and H [...]lychius before him propounded, but did not conclude of; Mr. Muffet saith, It is a secret not to bee de­termined of. The L. Verulam supposeth the humming sound of Bees (which is an un qual buzzing) to bee from the motion ofI. Verul▪ silva­si. var. cent. 1. 175. their wings, because it is not heard, but when they stir, I deny not but the sound [...]s more shrill and audible thereby, but not onely caused therewith.

First, because in a Hiv [...] full of Pees, where they lye crowded up thick together in the Winter between the combs, without room to dilate their wings, not at all to shake them, you shall have a sudden smart sound in an instant from the place touched, descending to the bottome from all the Bees, as it were com­plaining.

Secondly, by the incouragement of the Queen Bee, when two swarms are united, and so mingled together, that either of [Page 101] them being encompassed with their whole troop, and having no room to stir, and shake their wings (being each of them in the center of their regiment) but as they are in the conflict moved with the whole body; yet may they bee heard audibly some­times a rod from the Hive a great while together, without inter­mission, each encouraging her army to stand to her, and for her.

Thirdly, If their sound were caused by the agitation of their wings only, it could not bee various and changed, but onely smaller, or greater, but both Aristotle and Scaliger acknow­ledge, that they change their voyce; and if they did not, yetArist de hist. l. 9. c. 40. is it so evident to sense, that but coming among them, by their different voyces, it may bee known whether they mourn or re­joyce, work or sight.

Fourthly, If their sound were caused by the agitation of their wings, then according to the largeness of their wings should bee the greatness of their sound, but this is not so; the Queen Bees wings are no bigger than a common Bees, but her sound is more than ten times lowder and greater.

I might adde that Crickets sing, and their voyces are heard very far, and yet have no wings to shake; nay they move not their bodies when they sing, as I have often observed, and as soon as they stir, they give over singing.

In a word, as to a Musitian that playes on a Flute, or such like Wind-instrument, there is required skilfulness in the outward touch of his instrument, and also wind to bee inspired, without which hee cannot possibly strike the ear, or please the sense with any melodious noise, so do I conceive in some respects the hum­ming noise of the Bees, is caused both by the outward motion of their wings, and also by an inward motion, that I say, not inspiration.

Aristotle was very wavering what to determine concerning their sound, sometimes hee saith, they make a noise; sometimes, hee grants they have a voice, and hee hath no sooner granted it, but would fain bite it in again if hee could, as overthrowing thisArist. de hist. l. 9, c. 40. position, that they breathe not; Hear what hee saith, they change their voyce, when they swarm they have a proper and peculiar voyce, but whether they have a voyce or not, is not yet through­ly understood in regard of the difficulty.

[Page 110]Thus is this grand Philosopher unresolved, it is a difficulty, hee cannot tell what to determine; but hee hath taken up ano­ther opinion, and although hee bee somewhat convinced of the vanity of it, yet hee is loath to retract, hee will rather set his wit upon the Ten [...]ers, and seign some new distinction, sometimes they make a sound, sometimes they have a voyce.

Small and blood-less creatures are externally cooled by theArist de Spir [...]t. ambientaire, or water, neither is it necessary that the air should penetrate them, because of the weakness of their natural heat; but the coldest creatures need refrigeration, for they have a heart, as the Snail, which is visible to all men upon dissection, and much more hot creatures, as Bees are, which have also a heart, although it bee not easily discerned by prejudicate eyes.

Winged creatures when they move themselves by the attri­tionArist. de Som­no & Vigil. Arist. de hist. l. 4 c. 7. of the aire sliding into their belly, make a noise.

And again, Insects have no voyce, but make a sound onely by the admission of the aire, not emission, and Bees, and all other Insects lift themselves up with their wings, and presently con­tract themselves when there is made a sound by the attrition of the aire taken in, but not constant to himself, hee saith in another place, There is an innate implanted aire in the transverse inclo­sure,Arist. de Spirat. which being lifted up, and contracted, causeth thereby a smiting on the little membrane, and hence saith hee is their sound.

Scaliger saith, It is from a membrane including the aire, andScalig. com. in Arist. de hist. l. 4 c. 7. Magirus Phy­siol. L. Ve [...]ul. Silva Sil. cent. 2. 133 the motion of the external members.

Magirus saith, Their noise is not made by a return of the aire, but by an agitation of an inward not outward aire.

Another supposeth sounds, and therefore voyces may bee made without aire. It is certain, saith hee, howsoever it cross the received opinion, that sounds bee created without aire, though aire bee the most favourable deferent of sounds. Take a vessel of water, and knap a pair of tongs some depth within the water, and you shall hear the sound of the tongs well enough, and not much diminist [...]ed, and yet there is no aire at all present. What if I should say there is aire in the water, be­cause there is in it a sound made?

Hot creatures as Bees, desire a greater refrigeration: BeesArist. de Spirat. [Page 111] like to those creatures that breathe, do make a sound (spiritu) with the aire or spirit, for when the native, which is (as before) implanted in the transverse enclosure, is lifted up and contracted, then is caused an attrition of the membrane; For they do not otherwise move this part, then other Animals draw aire with their lungs from without, and Fishes by the agitation of their Gills.

Scaliger is for transpiration; and so Basil, hee saith, ThatBasil Hexain. Hon [...]ll. 8. Insects breathe not, being without lungs, bu [...] were nourished by aire in the external parts, and his reason is, if they bee dipt or smeared with oyl, they presently dye, the passages or pores being stopt, but yet saith hee, If they bee presently washedAlexand. Aphrodis. l. 1. Problem. 6 2. with water (others say Vinegar) the passages being opened, they will live; and with him accord divers others.

To this I answer, That it is granted that oyl kills Bees, and almost all other Insects being naturally mortal to them, and wash them after with what you will they will, neither revive, not recover, but almost as suddenly dye (though but a part of their body bee smeared with oyl) as if they were cast on hot embers. And that it is not, because of the stopping of the passages of the aire, appears thus: Let Bees bee drowned in honey, which is more viscous and clammy than oyl, yet if they bee timely taken out, they will dry themselves, or bee suckt dry by their fellows, and recover.

Now at last you cannot but take notice how various they are in their opinions, that deny breathing to Bees, [...]r so to make a noise, they cannot but acknowledge a necessity of refrige­ration.

Aristotle sometimes by the admission, not emission of aires sometimes by a native implanted aire.

Scaliger from a membrane including the aire, and the motion of the external members.

Magirus by an agitation of an inward aire onely, but whether native, or adventitious, hee expresseth not.

L. Verulam sometimes, that a sound may bee made without aire, sometimes by the motion of their wings.

Basil that they are cooled by transpiration, and therefore by an aire so admitted, must make their noise. Thus wilfully de­viating from, and denying a truth, they are quickly be-wildred in a th [...]cket of errors.

[Page 104]Now let us hear their arguments why they suppose them not to breath, Aldrovandus saith, Insects, neither breathe, norAldrovand. proleg [...]m▪ in lib. de in­ [...]ectis. need breathing, because a breathing faculty is bestowed on crea­tures which have lungs, but Insects being blood-less are cold, and therefore want not refrigeration, but are sufficiently cooled by a native aire, or externally by transpiration; I answer many of them (if any) are not blood-less, for they have a heart which the Philosopher accounts the original of blood. And if they have a heart (Aldrovand▪ acknowledgeth) they have lungs also, and stand in need of great refrigeration. And that Bees are hot creatures, Aristotle affirms.Arist. de Spir.

Secondly, If they breathed, as they drew in breath, they must also return it, which could not bee done but by some inward in­strument; but all Insects are without bowels (according to Aristotle) but this is manifestly untrue; dissect a large Gras­hopper, the bowels are visible to him that hath but half an eye; and so also in Humble-bees, and in many other Insects.

In some that are very small, they are not distinctly visible; but it follows not therefore that they are without them, no more than because they want the visible organs of hearing and smel­ling, that therefore they neither hear, nor smell; both which senses almost all natures secretaries acknowledge to bee in them. And yet who is able to point out the instruments. Aldrovand. hath some other reason, but all built on the former foundation, which miscarrying, they must needs go to the ground.

Scaliger his main argument that they breathe not, is, becauseSeal. de subtil. exercitat. 173. they need not a refrigeration of their heat having no heart; but this being manifest to sense, as learned Dr. Harvey avers, the ar­gument falls to the ground.

Others deny that Insects breathe, and their reason is, because there is no breathing knot, or turning in the inward intrall, that is to say a membrane like to the lungs, whereby the aire is drawn in, and therefore some hold that they live as plants; but there is a great difference whether any thing breathes or lives. Others convinced of the vanity of this conceit, hold that they have some­thing analogous, namely by transpiration.

Aristotle saith Bees breathe not, because they continue longArist. de Spir. in the water. But not long under the water; so long as by beating with their wings, they keep their heads out, they pre­serve [Page 105] themselves; but their wings being once thorough wet, they quickly drown.

And that they receive water into their bodies, appears, be­cause when they dye suffocated in the water, they are greater than when they are alive, whereas if they dye otherwise, they shrink up, and are less.

Aristotle, and also Scaliger, adde another reason, they will,Idem de Spi­rat. covered with ashes revive, perhaps if they have not been long drowned, with heat they will recover, as they will if they bee chilled near twenty hours, but ashes are so far from reviving of them, that if they bee alive and lusty, they would rather kill them; for dust (much more ashes) will, if they go a little upon it, so fur their dew-clawed feet, that it will indispose them to flye.

Breathing, saith Scaliger is seen by motion, or perceived byScalig. de sub­til. exercitat. 173. touch, by the pulse, or understood by the voyce, and all there wayes more or less, may it appear that Bees breathe.

But it may bee objected, that they have no nostrils to re­ceive breath by.

I answer, They breathe by their mouth, Aristotle saith, theArist. de par­tibus Animal. l. 3. c. 1. Arist de Spir. mouth i [...] for many uses, for divers creatures do breathe with it. For breathing is not a proper work of the nostrils, but creatures breathe, partly by the nostrils, partly by the mouth.

But it is further objected, wee see no lungs: I answer, in fowls the lungs are small, and but like a membrane; surely then in such small flying creatures as Bees, they are not visible.

But to conclude they have no lungs, because wee see none,Arist de parti­bu [...] Animal. l. 4. c 6. were but a weak arguing. In some creatures denied to breathe, we see them, and perhaps with a good multiplying glass, might see in these; by the same reason wee might deny they hear or smell, because wee see no organs (as before) whereby they perform it, and yet nothing is more certain.

That Bees breathe, Mr. Butler affirms, but it was a questionButler Fem. Mo [...]. c. 7. hee disputed not, but relating how after they have been dead a whole day (being chilled wi [...]h cold) although, saith hee, they be quite dead, without sense, motion, and breath, you may, if you bee disposed, revive them with the warmth of your hand (but look to your selves, for many when they begin to revive, will ingratefully sting.) And this their reviving cannot▪ but al­most [Page 106] seem a miracle unto you, for presently their spirits return­ing, you shall see them begin to pant and breathe, and anon they will flye away as lusty as the best.

But to come to arguments, That Bees breathe is evident by their panting and palpitation; I mean not when they are in the condition of prisoners, and violently held or detained, for with Scaliger I acknowledge, that Bees or flyts captivated, pal­pitation is not breathing, but a striving to escape.

Bees when they return from their work are often so weary (as men out of breath) that they are necessitated to rest them­selves near the Hive, untill they have recollected their spirits, and gotten, by a little rest, new strength, at first panting more quick and short, but by and by fetching as it were a longer breath, untill at last they pant little, if at all.

Secondly, It appears by their swearing at the Hive-door, a moist vapour is visible at the door of a good Hive in the morn­ing, sometimes in drops of water. As Bears in Russia, while they sleep in Winter, yet are found by the Hunters, by the dis­solved snow turned into isycles on the boughs of the trees under which they lye, caused by their continued breath­ing.

Thirdly, because if a full Hive bee close shut up that no aire enters, they will quickly bee suffocated and dye; whereas indeed is [...] there be but few Bees, they will continue the longer enclosed, a circum-ambient aire in the mean time refrigerating, and cool­ing them.

Fourthly, if you stop their throats, Aristotle acknowledgethArist de Spirat. they will bee strangled.

Fifthly, when they are chilled with cold, lay them in the warm Sun, or near a fire, or if you dare venture, hold them in your hand, and you shall see them begin first a little to stir, then to pant, and the longer more strongly, untill they remit it by de­grees as they recover life.

But I trifle out the time to prove by arguments to the ear, a thing to visible to the eye. Hold your hand near to the mouth of a full Hive, and that in the night when they are supposed to sleep, and not to stir, and you shall feel a cool aire come from them. Nay hold a feather, and you shall see it fly to and fro, as if it would be blown away.

[Page 107]Some affirm, that insects have no blood, because they have to heart nor liver, Pliny was of opinion, that though they had no blood, ye [...] somewhat analogous or equivalent, for whatso­ever is the vital humor is its blood. Learned Doctor Har [...]y in hisDr H [...]r. exer­citat. anatom. anatomical lectures, openly affirmed, that Bees have a heart, (I heard him) which also hee hath since published, although Dr. Primrose will scarce acknowledge it, pretending his weak eye-sight, but this being asserted and confirmed by such unde­niable experience, I readily subscribe they have a heart, andArist. de gene. idem de patt [...]b­ani l. 3. c. 4. therefore a liver, and therefore blood, for the heart is the foun­tain of blood, and hath first blood, and Creatures which have blood have a l [...]ver.

Aldrovandus citing Aristotle saith, all creatures have both aAldrov. [...] proleg [...]m. in lib. de insecti [...]. heart and also a liver, one for the Original of heat, and the o­ther for the concocting of their meat, And again citing Aristo­tle de partibus animalium lib. 3. hee hath these words, corde ca­vens nu [...]um animal unquam or [...]um est. No Creature was ever produced without a heart: and there is good reason for this assertion, seeing the heart in Aristotles judgement is the Ori­ginal of life, heat, blood, sense, and motion, and nature doth suppeditate breathing or refrigeration for the benefit or cool­ing of the heat in the heart.

All Creatures which have blood have a heart, and why not, all Creatures which have a heart have blood? but in little crea­turesArist. de hist. animal. lib. 3 c. 10. the blood is so obscure, that it cannot bee seen as in greater, but onely in the heart (not alwaies there) because of the thinnesse of the blood and the veins, are so little and small, that they can scarce if at all bee perceived, but the heart is the beginning of the veins, and the Original, and fountain ofArist. de somn [...] et Vigil. blood, and (as hee saith) the beginning of sense, for living crea­tures have the beginning of sense, where they have the beginning of motion.

But yet notwithstanding all this, the liver and the heart is soDe Har. de gener [...]t. ani­mal, [...]. farre from being the author and fountain of blood (which yet A­ristitle, and all Physitians affirm) th [...]r the contrary plainly ap­pears in the fabrick of the Chicken in the egg, namely, that the blood is the mother of the heart and the liver, which Paystrians seem to confesse unawares, when they determine the Parenchy­ma of the Liver to bee a certain flowing of blood, as [...]f nothing [Page 108] else were there but coagulated blood, and that the heart (saithIdem in eod. lib. exerc [...]tat. 19 hee) is not the author of blood, appears, because his substance or parenchyma is produced, sometimes after the blood, and is super added to the beating vesicles.

Now seeing it is so apparent that Bees have a heart; then it must follow necessarily, that they must have lungs also (which Aldrovandus grants) that these receiving and returning aire may refrigerate the heart, now the lungs receive the Original of their motion from the heart, and with his fulnesse and emptiness as it is contracted and enlarged, makes way for the egresse or ingresse of air, when it is lifted up, the air comes in, and when it is contracted it goeth forth.

That some insects have lungs, Aristotle doth implicitelyArist. de Spi­rat. grant, for hee saith, pulmones habent quae in lucem fae [...]um jam conceptum profe [...]unt; such creatures have lungs which bring forth a living creature conceived in them. Now that some insect [...] do so, is undeniable. Scaliger affirms it of a certain sort of flie, of which wee spake before, and it shall bee further confirmed by aScalig. de sub­til. exerc [...]tat. 191 discourse of the claw-tailed humble Bee, when wee speak of Humble Bees.

CHAP. XVIII. Of Bees temperature, Sleep, Age.

ARistotle affirms most insects to bee of a cold temper, his reason is, because they breathe not, and to this N. Leoni­cus Nicol [...]us Leonicus in quaestion. na­tural. 43 subscribes, and saith all insects need little food; because they have small bodies, and therefore are satisfied with little, or ra­ther saith hee, because they are cold and bloodlesse, now crea­tures which are hot, desire much refreshing, and quickly digestAldrovan. prol [...]m in lib. de insectit. what they ea [...]. So Aldrovand. Insects are sufflced with little meat, not so much for their smalnesse as their coldnesse. That this may bee true of some I will not deny, but not of Bees,Aristo. de Spi­rat. they are hot creatures, and desire much refreshing, and quickly digest what they eat. Indeed they are very liberal feeders; who­soever shall observe the abundance of Bee-bread that is daily brought into a good hive, which they spend almost as fast as [Page 109] they get (besides honey) and also considers, how much they eat abroad when they gather, cannot but acknowledge that they are great eaters. And Aldrovandus upon experience affirms, that many insects are hot, and Bees in particular, and his reason is, be­cause they grieve and violently pain those that they sting. In­sectsL. Verul. Silv [...]. Si [...] cont. 7. 697. have been noted by the Ancients to feed little, but this hath not been diligently observed, for Grashoppers eat up the green of whole Countries; and silk-worms devour leafs swife­ly, and Bees eat in great quantity according to their bodies; which is evident to any that shall observe, what store they carry daily into their Hives, and what little increase there is some­times, after three months laborious constant working.

It is true, that creatures that sleep and rest much, eate little in those times, as Bats, Dormice, and Bees, But saith Cardan Card. de Sub­til. lib. 9. it is necessary, that Creatures that sleep much, feed much, and by the vertue of the meat formerly eaten in abundance, subsist when they sleep.

All creatures almost, more or less sleep, yea insects sleep somns tamen breviutuntur, but they sleep but a little saith A­ristotle, Arist de Som­no et Vigil. surely if at all a great deal, the brain is chiefly the cause of sleep, and such creatures as have not a brain, sleep not. Bees sleep saith Aristitle, and hee proves it because they are quiet, as hee saith, all night and make no noise, and they cease notArist. de som­no. Idem in eodem. Plin. nat, hist. l. 11 c 3 [...]. Arist de Hist [...]. l. 4. c▪ 10 from motion, because they are weak sighted and not able to move, bring a light they stir not, saith hee, but this is false, for they will flye after and into a Candle, or light, like a moth, and burn themselves, but suppose they did not stirre with a light, yet were the argument of no force, they stir not at a light, and therefore sleep, for wee know that many fowls are taken in the night with a light, at which they stir not, although they bee a­wake, because they see nothing beyond or beside the light.

That they sleep from the beginning of winter to the rising of of Arcturus sixty daies together, and eat nothing at all as Pl [...]ny affirms, is not true with us, perhaps in Northern Countries, where the cold is more intense, they feed little, and sleep for a longer space, which is a principall reason of their so great plenty of Hony. The more temperate winters with us, occasion if there be not the larger provision, a great decay of Bees. For every [Page 110] warm and sun-shine day, they will flye abroad, and play, and empty themselves, and thereby getting good stomacks return home and feed: whereas gloomy cold and close weather, shuts them in and saves stover, and therefore a smaller propor­tion will sufficiently supply them untill the gathering sea­son.

That they sleep when they are abroad out of their Hives (on their backs) is a ridiculous fable, least the dew should wet or prejudice their wings, and hinder their flight when they awake, as Aldrovandus, and other deliver from the Ancients.Aldrov. de in­sect. lib. 1 And suppose that they should observe this course, yet could they not accomplish their purpose, for from the vepour arising from the earth their wings would bee as much if not more wet, then if they should rest on their feet: howsoever their wings be­ing slimy and (as it were) unctuous, the wet would not much stay upon them.

Concerning the age of Bees, diverse have been the opinions, some giving them a longer, some a shorter life, Aristotle saith,Arist. de hist. anim. l. 5. c. 12 Plin l. 9. c. 3. Cardan. de variet. rerum. c. 18. Moufet. thea [...]. insect. l. [...]. c. 3 they live six or seven years at the most. Pliny, that they never exceed ten, no not by succession. Columell [...] also saith the same, Carda [...]e saith; strong Bees may continue twelve years. Mr. Remnant saith, if they continue in health three yeare, they may stand twenty, Mouffes supposeth, that if they be well [...]a [...]ed for, and cured of their distempers, they may live thirty years, and tells us that at Hanworth, hee knew a stock continued in the seeling of the house of the Dutchesse of Sommerse [...]: more than three decads of years, and swarmed four times almost every year and therefore doubts with Alberius whether they ever dye of age.

The truth is, notwithstanding these mens opinions, that Bees live but a year and a quarter at the most, for those Bees that seem in May lusty, full, brown, smooth, well winged, will by the end of Iuly following begin to wither, become lesse, look gray, and have their wings [...]ottered and torn, and bee all dead before the end of August. And although their life seem short, yet is it more then double to the Droans, but by succession they may continue many years.

Now what is to bee said concerning the life of the Queen Bee, it is a que [...]e never propounded by any (for ought I know) for [Page 111] most men concluding that the Bees live many years, have sup­posed the Queen Bee to continue as long, and her life to bee of an equal extent and date with theirs. Mr. Butler that first published the Bees to bee birds of a years continuance, and somewhat more, yet started not this scruple.

It is well known, that some Hives continue tea, nay twenty years, and more, what shall we suppose of the Queen Bee, doth shee survive ten, nay twenty generations; or how comes there a succession of Rulers? I have propounded a question, wherein I shall scarce satisfie my self, it is not strange therefore, if I leave others unreso'ved.

It is manifest that the Hony Bees are but yearly creatures, and the reason of their short life is their unwearied labours, by daily flying abroad, incessant working, and ponderous burdens, they waste themselves, and wear their wings, which could they renew as the Eagle her bill, they might for ought I know live many years. Now the Queen Bee not working at all, seldome flying abroad, and then not far, not so much in a year, as a Hony Bee in an hour, never tears her wing [...], wastes her strength, nor makes her self old with labour, so that it is more than probable, that she may live many years.

Otherwise you must suppose her miscarriage ordinarily to be, when her Infants are in their prime, and not departed from her, the elder being able, and ready to succeed her, for if she should miscarry a [...] other times before their birth, or after their [...]hery, the whole stock must needs miscarry.

CHAP. XIX. Of Bees fighting and rebbing.

BEes when they are abroad at their work, or remote fromArist de hist. lib. 9. c. 40. their Hives and common treasure, are very gentle and peaceable, so that in their private wrongs, how ever you use them, they will not resist, if by any means they can get away, sometimes at their waterings they will contest one with ano­ther, but are quickly quieted, and parted, whereas at their Hives they are fierce and surious, they will neither give, nor take quarter.

[Page 112]Upon the union of two swarms, sometimes (but it is rare) there is at first, especially if the companies bee somewhat equal, a violent charging each of other, and the Leaders (for other ex­traordinary Trumpeters have they none) with a shrill and loud noise animate and encourage their several companies boldly to stand to it, and not without cause, for it is their safety, or de­struction that all the conflict is for, and as soon as they conclude who shall govern, which for the most part is determined in few hours, then they will all cheerfully as one body, live and love together.

Aristotle writes of certain Serpents in Mes [...]potamia which do great mischief to strangers, but do no hurt at all to the inhabitants: And Mr. Herber [...] tells us, Cashan in Par [...]hia, is much insested with Scorpions, but a finger long, but of great terror in theMr. Herbert. sting, inflaming, such they prick with their invenomed arrow so highly, that some dye, none avoid madness a whole day, but which is remarkable, they never hurt a stranger; but Bees irri­tated near their Hives, are at equal enmity with strangers, and domesticks; such as are daily conversant with them, if they bee but a little provoked, shall finde no favour, so that no creature isAvicen. so violent and revengefull; but although their spight and malice in their rage is as much to men and beasts, as to their own kinde, yet seldome do they work an equal hurt and mischief; and in­deed the opposition is bitterest between those that are nearest, for there is a special implacable hatred.

When two swarms settle together, and eagerly bid defiance each to other (this falls out seldome, yet sometimes) alwayes expect a martial and deadly skirmish.

When a company with their Leader forsake their own Hive, and enter into another, their difference is irreconcileable, their hostility unappeaseable, but by the death of one of the Com­manders; for things that are in their nature contrary, can never be reconciled, as two Commanders in a Hive.

And grapling so in clusters [...]ead-long fall
H [...]ll from the Winters sky falls not so fast,
Vir [...]il.
Nor shaken Oaks so thick d [...]shed their mast.

I had once two large swarms, that rose almost immediately [Page 113] one after the other, and before the first were fully setled, the last came and se led with them; and began presently to kill each other most desperately. As soon as I had notice of it, I caused them to bee hived that were yet alive, half being slain in little more then a quarter of an hour; but the remainder being hived, yet ceased not their quarrel (although I threw strong drink upon them, and did what I could to appease them) yet they still conti­nued the battel, that before night there was not above a pin [...]e left.

But although two companies upon their congress and coming together with equal forces bee thus desperately cruel; yet when they rob, and plunder, they shew less rage and serity, but are not less mischievous and hurtful.

Bees are the most dangerous enemies to Bees, they have ma­ny other, but none so hurtfull.

Some are too favourable in their censures, and clear themAris [...]. de hist. Animal. l 9. c 64. Scalig. com. in loc. from robbery. Bees, saith Aristotle, hunt after nothing, but labouring painfully, gather all they possess. And Scaliger gives a reason for it, because they feed not on flesh, nor hunt a­broad to plunder other, and therefore expect a reciprocal car­riage from others; but by his leave, no greater robbers of Bees, than Bees, so that though hee return an Ignoramus to this bill of robbery put up against them, yet upon better evidence I must finde it.

The greatest danger that befalls the Bees, comes where it should least come, from the Bees themselves. Bees are loving and sociable creatures, and therefore wee might think should converse one with another in love and peace; but instead of support and protection, they do finde ruine and destruction from their own kinde.

Pliny saith, when their provision fails, they invade their neighbours and rob them; they fight not then for their right, but to get a booty, and under colour of warring, make a trade of [...]ilii Greg. Gyrald. [...]. 1. robbing. And another saith, When they want meat, they forcibly rob their neighbours: but the matter, is quite other­wise, for usually the lustiest, and the best stored, that need no­thing, will bee first prying into their poor neighbours weak­ness. They set not upon an empty Hive, seldome upon an ill furnished Hive, but upon some well provided stock, where the fatness of the booty is a fitness to their desires.

[Page 114]Remisse opposition provokes fiercer attempts, they are im­pudent when they meet not with bold resistance, only resolution can make them give back, give over, they will make many tedious and f [...]intlesse onsets, as if the strongest foit were not a­ble long to hold out.

They first come with a few and make an assault, and by the opposition conclude the issue, but still renew their numbers, and although they lo [...]se many in the conflict, yet will they per­sist, and not prevailing that day, will the next morning before the true Bees bee stirring, venture in, and if the opposition be not the more resolutely maintained, they will come so nume­rously, as waters at a breach, that resistance is to no purpose, and then they do fall to plundering, going and returning untill it bee dark, if they have not carried away all before; and so con­tinue till they leave not a drop of honey; to whom often the true Bees (seeing their condition otherwise desperate) will joyn themselves, and accompany them to their Hives, and help to carry away their own goods.

As long as the opposition lasts, they are very fierce, and un­till they have overcome, mercilesse, but having once made a forci­ble entry, they quickly give over killing, and fall to plunder­ing.

Sometimes many stocks will bee up in arms together, and then it is no easy matter to compose and quiet them.

Wouldst thou this sight and furious heat allay;
A little dust thrown up will part the fray

Yet this often avails little, it is better by prevention to avoid it, by narrowing their doors when once mid- Iuly is past, that but a Bee or two may enter at once (understand it of the poorer stocks) but if this hath been neglected, and they bee together by the ears, then make a smoak of much and wet straw, and throw water about the Hive door where the greater conflict is, straitning the passages of those that are robbed sometimes (if the [...]kirmish bee violent) stopping them up close, and throw water upon those that eagerly seek to enter, and in less than an hour find [...]ng no entrance, and trouble without, they will re­turn home. After sunset open them, and all the robbers that [Page 115] are alive will go to their own Hives. Examine their state after the robbers depar [...]ure, and i [...] you finde but a few Bees, it will not bee worth your labour to trouble your self for their preser­vation, for at one time or other they will bee robbed, if not, they will never thrive.

But if there bee a considerable quantity of honey stil left, and also of Bees, then stop them up again close, allowing them aire through a quil; but bee sure you stop them up very well, for in the day time they will bee gnawing and mineing to make a hole out, and the robbing Bees will bee ever and anon visiting the door, to see if it bee open, which if they [...]inde (if you do not presently stop them in again) the last danger will be worse then the first. After sun-set allow them a passage to go forth, to take the air and empty themselves; take this course seven or eight daies, and when you give them a free passage in the day, let it not bee untill nine of the clock, and the first and seco [...]d day that you open them, stop up their enemies, that they may not trouble them who are not lusty, as at the first by shutting in, and in eight days their enemies will forget them,

Some prescribe to cast [...]lour on the Bees that you let out, that so you may know the plundering Hives, which you may easily otherwise, but if you do not, take this course, and ob­serve whither they go, when you once know the robbing stock, with a long pen-knife, through the Hive, cut the combs towards the top, that so they may find work at home to stop up what you have broken.

Although they will not admit of strange Bees in their Hives, yet diverse stocks will conspire together, and agree well to undo their neighbours: and usually like the fox they prey furthest from home, seldome robbing their next neighbours.

The chief times of robbing are Autumn and the Spring: u­sually about the end of August, but in dry years, about a fort­night before, when the honey gathering is almost over, then do the lustiest (being most numerous in Bees) practise it on the old stocks, such chiefly that have overswarmed, and have but a few Bees left: on such also as have lost their Leaders, who are carelesse to resi [...]t, and will quickly go along with them, and help to carry their own goods. There is no way to save such, but as I prescribed formerly.

[Page 116]Another time of robbing is in the spring, and then those poor old stocks that escaped in Autumn must bee carefully watched, poor swarms also shall now bee tried, until the year grows up, and the flowers bee plentiful.

Let all such have (as I ordered before) very narrow doors; swarms are more difficultly prevailed against then old stocks; for though perhaps they have not wrought down to the board, and so the entrance be more easy, yet being usually more mul­titudinous, they will hold out longer: whereas old stocks al­though they have more provision, yet have fewer souldiers, and therefore are quickly overcome and plundered, and more easily in the spring then before.

Once, if you perceive, that waspes in multitudes, or robbing Bees have made a breach into an old stock, delay no longer, but take them, for although by your circumspect care in stopping them up, and narrowing their entrance, you may prevent their present destruction, yet will they not escape in the spring: but if it bee a swarm, there is some hope, that by your care, you may prevent their present and future destruction.

CHAP. XX. Of Bees, Enemies and Sicknesses.

ALl Common-wealths are infested with enemies, and the Common-wealth of Bees as much as any other. Wee have already spoken of the worst, namely Bee [...].

In the next place let us treat of Mice, which are also very hurtful and destructive. Sometimes they get in at the door, when it is left too l [...]rge and open, sometimes they make their way through the Hive, most commonly near the crown of it, and they are no sooner in, but they presently share down the Combs, and eat the honey; and if they be let alone, will often make their nests among the Combs. To prevent them, bee carefull of the door; of [...]en, especially in the winter, view your Hives. If you see any crumbles of wax at the door, bee sure there is something amis [...], look therefore wa [...]ly, and keep traps baited about your stalls.

[Page 117]Waspes in Harvest do great mischief, sometimes destroy whole stalls. At first when they are new come, they content themselves with dead Bees; but after a while they grow bolder, and venture into the Hives, and most of all in the cool mornings when the Bees stir not. And after they have found the way they will never give over, but invite their fellows, nay, they are often the robbing Bees harbingers, who make an end usually where they beginne. And although there bee an antypathy between them and Bees, yet will they readily joyn together to plunder the poor Hives. They are naturally hardier and strong­er than Bees, one waspe will often violently break away from two or three Bees, yet many of them come short home, being slain in the Hives by them.

In the spring at your watering troughs, or other places where your Bees drink, and on the south-side of your pales, you may see the mother Waspes, drinking or gathering kill them if you can, and know that you destroy as many nests as waspes, for every mother Waspe makes a nest. After when they have bred let their nests bee sought ou [...], and destroyed, burn them or scald them; or (which is sooner done) in the evening with an iron spade (having before observed which way they go) seek for their nest by putting it into the ground, and you shall know when you meet with it by the hollownesse, then loosen the earth round and stamp it in. Set glasses with strong worte, sweetned water, or sweet fruit: or rather pots covered with a paper, with a hole in the middle, and that is the best way, for in the o­ther the Bees will be o [...]ten drowned.

The Hornet is as hardly censured as the waspe, but shee is nothing so dangerous; shee now and then ea [...]s a Bee, but the waspes destroy whole Hives, her manner is to flye about the Hive, and when shee seeth a Bee [...]esting her self upon the stool, shee presently seizeth upon her, and carries her away in her feet, as the Hawk doth a bird. Destroy their nests if you can without danger, if it be no large hole, in the evening having made a woodden plugge, suddenly knock it in, and you are sure of them, or set lime twiggs before their holes, and thereby you will much diminish their numbers.

The Titmouse is more hurtful then the Hornet, I mean the great Titmouse called a Colmouse, with a black head, for shee [Page 118] will eate ten or twelve Bees at a time, and by and by be rea­dy for more; she seeds her young ones also with them. She eates not the whole Bee, but divldes it in the middle, and pulls out the bagge of hony with the entral, letting drop the skinny outside.

When she comes to the hive and findes none, she knocks with her bill at the door, and as soon as the Bees come out to enquire the cause, she catcheth first one, and then ano­ther, until her belly be full; in the Spring she watcheth for them in the Willow and Sallow Trees, and takes them when they are at their work. Destroy their Nests in bree­ding time, and shoot them in Winter.

The Spider is a great devourer of Bees, if the Hives bee empty, or have but a few Bees, shee will make her webs within: but for the most part if it bee a penthouse, shee lies between the boards where they [...]old one over another in the day. And in the night shee weaves her nets right before the Hive, wherein the Bees are quickly ensnar­ed.

About the door her net-like cobwebs lose
The Pallas ha [...]ed Spider Spins.

Kill the Spiders if you can come at them, and in the morn­ings beat down their nets. Many also spread them in the flowers, and among the brambles in the hedges, and they lye in ambush in the cod or center of them out of sight, and no sooner doth a Bee or flye strike them, but they are upon them and kill them. They will grow quickly grea­ter then large Pease by eating of Bees.

The Woodpecker is by many indited, I think not much guilty, yet I will not discharge her.

The Swallow hath un ill-name, but I could never ob­serve any great hurt done by them.

The Swallow murdresse of the Bees small,
Chaucerass [...]m­bly of Fowles.
That maken [...]ony of flowers fresh of [...]ue.

[Page 119]The Moth with her mealinesse somewhat offends the Bees, but except the Hive hath very few Bees, or be altoge­ther empty, she doth no great hurt; yet then she will lay her blots in the Combs, which will spoil and consume them all. Ordinarily shee breeds her young by the heat of the Bees under the skirts of the Hive, and the daw [...]ing [...]ails will sometimes creep into the Hives, and much trouble the Bees with their coldnesse and sliminesse.

The Toad is thought to bee dangerous, though shee doth but lye under the stool, and sometimes to destroy them, as the Frog when they drink, but I never observed it.

The P [...]s-mires are often very hurtful, troubling the Bees, and devouring their hony, scald them in their nests, andAlbert. de mi­ [...]ab. mund [...] tarr the places where they use to ascend. Albert. saith, moun­tain Origanum dried and beaten to powder, if it be strowed on their rests, makes them to forsake them.

If the Ants holes be stop [...] with Heliotropium; they wilMizald a [...]c [...] ­norum l. 1. certainly dye.

Bears in some Countries do greatly endamage the Bees, and Bats, those that breed in trees, seldome are injuri­ous to those in Hives.

Sparrows feed on Drones, but meddle not with the Bees, At first I was suspicious that they destroyed the Bees; taking notice therefore of their often flying to the Hives, and from thence to their nests; I caused the young to bee taken, and found their crops full only of Dro [...]ns.Arist. de hist. lib. 9 c. 9. Scal. com. in lo [...].

Ferrets delight in honey, and therefore spoil Bees, but this Scaliger denies, for hee saith, that he hath offered them [...]oney, but they refused to taste it.

In Guinea are many Bees, but all wild, breeding in trees,Pur. Pilg. 2 part l. 8 c. 2. and receive much hurt from a kinde of great black Ant, which make holes in the earth like [...]eld Mice, and much damnify the Bee [...] by eating both hony and wax.

In the Countrey of Sof [...]la, there is a bird called by theJ [...]vo [...]d [...] San­to, live [...]o pin. d [...] Ethiop. ori­ental c 24. Cufers Sazu. It is of the bignesse of a Linnet, and almost of the same colour, with a long Bill. The chief food of these Birds is wax. They seek about the woods for stocks of Bees▪ And when they have found one that hath honey, [Page 120] they come into the waies to seek for Passengers to shew it them; which they do by crying before them, and beating their wings from bough to bough untill they come to the Bees. The naturals who are acquainted with their man­ners, presently follow them, to get the honey. And the advantage that these birds get is to eat the wax they leave, and the dead Bees. They will come into Churches at the windows, and if they find wax candles, eat them.

The Hirara is like the Civet-c [...]t (though some say it isPurchas Pilg. fourth part, l. 7. c. 1 not) they are of many colours, viz. gray, black, and white, They eat nothing but honey. And in this they are so terri­ble, that let the hole of the Bee-hive bee never so little, they make it so big that they may get in, and when they finde the honey, they never eat it, until they have called their yong ones. And then the old one going in doth nothing but bring out the hony, and give it to the young ones. A thing of great admiration, and an example of great cha­rity.

In the Island of Barbadoes, and the adjacent Islands, are certain birds bigger than Sparrows, with a very great head, called by the English Logerheads and Counsellors, they live naturally on all sorts of Flies, and are great de­stroyers of Bees, for they have made a total destruction of all that have been carried thither.

Crabs burned are hurtful to Bees, and also the smell ofPalladius de re [...]ust. l [...] Columel. I [...]dorus His­palen lib. 12 Etymol. c. [...] dung, and places subject to Eccho's, for Eccho's and great noyse much exasperate them.

There is no such creature called Clerus (as some) bred by Bees, Moth [...] are bred in the combs where are few or no Bees, in lusty hives they are bred under the verges or ski [...] of the hive, but generated of Moths, not of Bees, as Colu­mella, and from him Aldrovandus.

The Martins in Russia live for the most part on the tops of1. Miletius re­ligio Bo [...]uss [...]. Huldrichus Schimdel. Trees, and greedily devour the Bees.

The Crocodile is much delighted with, and desirous of hony, Saffron is their antidore or preservative (which it seems he cannot endure) to safe-guard the Bees.

The dung of Poultry is supposed to be very offensive to Bees, but I have not taken notice of any such effect, al­though [Page 121] I have observed in several places, that for shelter the Hens would repair to the Hives (such as stand under Penthou­ses) and dung among them, howsoever (if you can) keep them away, and be sure to let no Hens sit under the Bee-boards, for the Bees wil sometimes come to them, which the Hens wil catch in their bills and kil; which other Bees smelling wil seek to revenge, but with their owne destruction; I have knowne above a quart of Bees killed thus by a Hen in a little space.

Lightning, especially Thunder affrights, and much disturbesMouffet the [...] ­ [...]tum insector, lib. 1▪ them, saith Mr. Mouffet, and to confirme this tells us, that in the moneth of August, one thousand five hundred sixty six, being with the Dutchess of Somerset, desperately diseased, suddenly, (on occasion of a stroke of Thunder) under the next Bed-stead, he and others heard a murmuring and shril noyse, but at first knew not that Bees were housed in the seeling of the roome, un­derneath where they had inhabited thirty years.

And the day following (for want of sleep, as he supposed) flew up and down trembling, and making more than ordinary noyse, and in a distracted manner struck themselves against the windows, were extreamly provoked against the Family more than at other times, so that they are impatient of fear, do he con­cludes; as also of disturbance by night, when he saith they all sleep, and not at all by day; when indeed they sleep not all, for some watch, and make a constant buzzing (in full Hives) all hours of the night, until Autumnes cold forceth them up within the Hive, and makes them to lye close compact together among the uppermost combes; yet then (if they be asleep) they are presently awakened, not only with the least touch on the Hive, but of the ground near it. Nay, if you breath before the Hive, though at a yard distance, they wil presently come forth with a great noyse to examine the cause.

Snow is very hurtful when it dissolves with the heat of the Sun, for the Bees with the heat wil be tolled out of the Hives and they are no sooner forth, but they are dazled, and blinded, and cannot finde the way in again, but flying a while up and down be­ing wea [...]y, think to rest themselves on the Snow, which they no sooner touch but they are killed; be sure therefore at such times to shut them in.

[Page 122]Sharp frosts, nipping blests, chilling air [...], drisling s [...]eet, boisterous and cold winds, in the Spring, are very prejudiciall for the Bees, coming home weary and laden, are beaten down after [...] mukitudes, and (unless the Sun shine out presently, or the wl [...]ds calm) never recover the Hives. Let your Bee-garden be well defended (take head of a [...] eddy wind from some house or building) and let them stand low▪ I have observed, that out of six Hives, standing two foot high, and in the eddy of the wind. I have lost more Bees (being beaten down, and miscarrying on the cold ground, then out of sixty Hives, standing not much a­bove a foot from the ground.

Bees are sick in dry yeare, and in such times when the flow­ersA [...]ist. de [...]ist, Animal. l. 8. c. 32. are blasted Concerning Bees sicknesses, hear [...] V [...]gil saith.

But if their bodies be [...] diseased (as Bees
By life are subject to our maladies)
Which may by signes infallible be [...] known▪
The [...]k streight lose their▪ colour, and are grown
Deform'd with l [...]rness▪ they in [...]ful wise
Be [...] f [...]th their dead with solomn [...]bsequies,
Or [...]l [...]ist [...]r'd else within their houses they
Sa [...] contain themselves, or li [...]gring stay
About the [...]r [...] in [...]l [...]sters taking [...]l [...],
[...]mis [...]'d, and se [...] and feeble by the cold.

The murrain among Bees is very r [...]e: other diseases theyCol [...]mel. l. 9. are subject too, especially to a scowring, by gathering, or feed­ing on Tithymal, and the blowings of the El [...] ▪ and therefore in those parts of Italy where there are many Elms, there are but a few Bees. I deny not but the gathering of the Elms may bee dan­gerous in Italy; but I am sure in our parts, which are plentifully stored with Elms, they are no way prejudicial: Indeed they seldome gather of them.

Much ad [...] is made by many Authors concerning Bees sick­nesses, and the remedies. They tell us that they are subject especially to a C [...]coc [...]ymi [...], Bl [...]gania, M [...]smus and Di [...]rr [...]. Whereas in all my long observation, I have found no proper sickness; accidentally indeed, when they are necessitated for pro­vision, [Page 123] or not well defended from winds and wet, they have an ill digestion, because they have little to eat, and they lose their brood, because they have not wherewith all to feed them; and their natural heat is wasted for want of meat to maintain na­ture; and they have sometimes a scowring not having meat proper and good for them, they then will sometimes gather of purging flowers, which doth not strengthen them, but make them more faint and weak.

And yet to all these various effects proceeding from one and the same cause, have the Ancients given sundry and divers names,Varro dere [...]ust: l. 9. as if the causes had been as diverse. Varro therefore giving di­rections what a man should observe that buyes Bees; mindes him to take notice, if they bee numerous, if they bee shining, and full; whereas if the combs bee not set in an even posture, if the Bees be hairy and thin bodied, they are to be refused, all which are but effects of hunger.

In a word, if you desire to have your Bees thrive, and prosper, keep them well from winds and wee, heat and cold, destroy their enemies, and let them enjoy a sufficiency of food gotten by their own industry; and if there be a want in some, timely supply them, and doubt not of, by Gods blessing on your endeavours, the increase and prosperity of your Bees.

CHAP. XXI. Of the Hony-dew.

THe Hebrew word for Hony-dew is [...] je [...]aken, which comes from [...] j [...]rak, and signifies spuere, euspuere, hu­morem [...]vacuare, as if it were saliva sider [...] (as Pliny) an excre­mentitious moisture, which the stars spit down on the fruits of the earth. By this word also is signified the Kings-evil.Bux [...]orf. lex.

In Latine R [...]big [...] is a Hony-dew, as well as rust, a name from the effect, shewing how that by a hurtful touch, it stops theJ. Rowlandson Gods blessing in blasting. growth of some fruits that are obnoxious to it, making them to rust, eating out their state and substance, at a ca [...]er or rust [Page 124] fre [...]teth iron; so that what is a disease of mettal is figurativelyR [...]ber [...] com. in Amos c. 4. transferred to corn, and such like things▪ because it destroyes and consumes them, for with too much moisture the stalks wax pale, and the corn is turned to dust; but hee was much mista­ken, not distinguishing between smutty and mildewed corn, for corn affected with the mildew is not turned into dust, but shrunk up, and prevented of its radical moisture, so that though it come to maturation (for it will ripen, and is best for seed) yet not to a full bigness and dimension.

Of the cause of smutty corn, I will speak briefly after­wards.

Some conceive shrinking of corn by the Hony-dew to bee thus occasioned. In fields less previous to clear and strong winds (as in lower grounds, and narrow places between woods and hills) there falls often sultry and foggy mists, and those co­vering too close the fruits of the ground under them, as under thick mantles do cast that corn or kinde of grain which is sub­ject to this malady, as it were into an unkindly sweat, at such times as the ears thereof are not yet sufficiently filled from the root, by which faint sweat is vented that sweetness that should feed the ear. Now this sweetness once exhausted or drawn out at the stalk, or straw, sticks close unto it being burnt, or made adust by the extraordinary heat of the Sun, as it hap­peneth especially in the Canicular dayes, which (as it may seem) made the Romans sacrifice a Whelp or Puppy to Mildew.Ovid de fast. l. 4. Hier. Ro­mano de la Repub. gen. l. 2. c. 7. And this they did to prevent it, or to drive it away, if it had seized on their corn, That this prejudice is chiefly caused in narrow and close grounds wee grant, and seldome comes on hills, or large champion grounds. But yet it brings not dam­age to the corn this way, but rather thus, The corn in close places when the Hony-dew descends, not being ventilated and shaken with winds, the Hony-dew as it dries, becomes viscuous and clammy, and sticks close to the straw, and by the heat is hardened and congealed, and thereby stops the radical moistures from ascending, and so the ears being no longer sed, shrink and wither. As hard binding or tying of a mans arm, causeth (if continued too long) by stopping the circular motion of the blood, a mortification or gangreen. It comes not from any malignancy as some, nor because that the oily viscuous quality, that is in [Page 125] it stops the pores of the husk wherein the corn lyes, and de­privesFirst large letter in Mr. Hartlibs Le­gacy. it from the aire, and consequently from nourishment, this is not the cause, but what was delivered before. But hee concludes it is, and therefore commends bearded Wheat, be­cause the beard shoots off the dew, that it doth not so easily in­s [...]uate it self into the ear, and likewise causeth the ear to shake, by the least breath. Credat Iudeus Apella. Howsoever had hee been acquainted with the inconvenience of bearded Wheat, he would rather have stood to the hazzard of a Hony-dew.

For cure Mr. Remnant prescribes, when you perceive by your Bees that a Hony-dew is fallen, to draw a cord over your Wheat as fast as may bee, before it bee dried on by the wind or Sun. One in one furrow, and another in another, two or three furrows distant as they can well reach. One at one end, and the other at the other end of the cord, for the least mot on will shake it off, it is so exceeding thin when it newfalls. I dare not say (as some) that this can bee done with good profit, for ma­teriam superat opus, the charge will exceed the benefit. Such as sow sixty or eighty Acres of Wheat must of necessity imploy many men, and perhaps many dayes together, for Hony-dews in a dry season fall frequently, and sometimes twice a day, and therefore it must be oft reiterated.

And the loss by it, is seldome great, it is rare to have one Acre in an hundred prejudiced by it, and yet we consist of in­closures, and much wood-land.

Pliny affirmed the Hony-dew to bee either the sweat of thePlin. Nat. hist. l. 11. c. 12. heaven▪ or the slaver or spittle of the stars, or the moisture of the aire purging it self.

Gualter saith, It is caused by the inconstant change of theGualter in Amo▪ Hom. 11. aire, when immoderate heat cause raines, and cold raines expel heat.

Dr. Lake saith, That too much moisture is the causeDr Lake in 1 King 8. 37. of it.

Mr. Butler judgeth the Hony-dew to bee the quintessence of all the sweetness of the earth, meaning as hee explains himself, the quintessence of flowers, because when the year is backward in his fruits, the Hony-dews are alwayes backward, coming only at such times, as the flowers have the most solid and best juice.

[Page 126]Secondly, because in more hot and southerly clymates, where the fruits are more forward, the Hony-dews are more timely▪ in Italy not untill May bee entred, but hee saith not usually with us untill a month after, whereas if the season bee warm and dry, often by the beginning of May, and sometimes a little before, alwayes in May, there are with us many swarms.

Thirdly, because the Countries that have store of the best and sweetest flowers, have ever the best Hony. It is true, that Hony is [...]iner or courser, recording to the flowers that the Bees gather of, but this rather concludes (against him) that the Bees gathering is not chiefly, no not very much from the Hony-dews; for it cannot (almost) but be supposed that the exhala­tion must remain sometimes in the a [...]e, before it bee concocted and fall, in which space either ascending, or descending by the motion of a gentle breath, it will be cattled some miles from the place where it was first exhaled, so that grant it extracted from the flowers, yet that which was exhaled from good and fragrant flowers, may fall in woody and heathy places, and that which was exhaled from heathy ground according to the mo­tion of the air [...], may fall on good land, h [...] rule the [...] cannot bee constant. And some years, when there are few or no flowers, yet are there many Hony-dews, as 165 [...]. so that the matter of them could not bee extracted chiefly from flowers, and in ex­traordinary wet years, as himself instanceth in the year, 1613. the Hony-dews fell not untill the end of August, when most flowers had done blowing, and those that were, had a very weak and faint juice, and therefore it is not probable, that there should bee a competent matter for their production chiefly out of flowers.

It is agreed by all, as far as I can search, that the Hony-dew consists of vapours raised up into the third region of the aire, ex­haled from all lower bodies (not onely flowers) both earth and water, which vapours▪ being purged from the [...]thier and drossier matter, and throughly digested by the heat of the Sun, and after a sort made fatter by the cold of the following night, are thickned, and so condensated, fall down on the earth, trees, and flowers.Arist. de bist. l. 5. c. 22.

Bees make Hony of the Hony-dew, saith Aristotle.

[Page 127] Butler saith, The greatest part of the purest Hony comes from above.

Seneca saith, It is not yet evident whether the moisture thatS [...] [...]4. Epist. Bees gather out of flowers be presently hony, or whether by a mixture or propriety of their own, they change it into hony.

Aristotle before the rising of the Vergilia, denies that Bees gather any hony, but this is an apparent errour, They ga­ther much hony, when there are Hony-dews, but yet more be­fore any fall, if you respect the shortness of time they gather it in. Bees gather hony more or less all Summer, but least in Au­tumne, because the great dews and frequent showers, corrupt the native hony which is bred in the flowers; and yet Aristotle ac­knowledgeth where there is plenty of Ivy which flowreth in the end of Autumn, the Bees gather much hony, but wee finde it not.

That great plenty of Hony comes from above, is acknow­ledged, and that the Oak among trees is principally instrumen­tal to retain and keep the same on his smooth and solid leaves: yet I affirm, that there is a greater proportion collected from flowers, than from the Oak, and all other sorts of trees, I un­derstand from the leaves.

This indeed is altogether gain-said by Aristotle: He delivers, thatArist. de hist. l. 5. c. 19. Bees gather not hony of flowers, but chiefly of the Hony-dew; and his argument is, because in a day or two, when the Hony-dews fall, some combs will be full, and in the end of Autumn there be flowers, but no hony, if any Hive bee taken, driven, or gelded, hee saith they would gather hony, if any were to bee found.

Wee are to know, That as great store of hony falls from a­bove, so there is a native sweetness, or hony, in flowers, the Spring and Summer chiefly, which is not to bee found so plenti­fully towards the end of Autumn, because the flowers at that time of the year are weak and spent, and afford little, and that little, is usually exhaled with immoderate heat, or spoyled with frequent raines, or great dews; so that there is little, or no ad­vantage at all from them, in respect of hony. Some Sandara­cha indeed the Bees gather then, but that will not last long, therefore of necessity when Bees are late taken, for want of food, they cannot live long.

[Page 128]If Bees gathered hony chiefly of the Oak, which almost a­lone is retentive of the hony-dew (from flowers he denied they gathered any hony) how comes it to pass that hony-dews falling late in the year, as in the years one thousand six hundred and thir­teen, and one thousand six hundred forty eight, almost two months after the usual time, namely, in the latter end of August, when there fell divers hony-dews, but the Bees were little the better for them, except only in the Heath Country, when the Heath­flower was in his prime, and there those late hony-dews made their fat stalls, but in other places the Bees generally mis­carried.

If they did principally gather of the Oak, the leaves thereof were then as retentive of it, as at Midsummer, but rather hereby it appears, that the hony-dew is received into the hollow sockets of Flowers, and there long contained, until by the Bees it be ex­tracted.

Hony-dews therefore falling late when most Flowers have done blowing, not having any proper place to contain them, are, either quickly washed away with the raine, or exhaled with the Sun.

Further, that Bees gather hony of flowers is manifest, in ma­ny Islands where grow no Oakes, nor yet other Trees, nor yet are near them by some miles (as the Island of Fowlness) yet Bees thrive very well, and yeeld ordinarily a greater increase of hony than in other places.

Pliny saith, the Bees gather the hony-dew from the Elme, Teile-tree, and Sallow; but our Elmes are not retentive of the hony-dew, no [...] yet our Sallows often, sometimes a little; more plentifully is the Hop, and would be very beneficial to the Bees, were it not for the bitterness of the leaf corrupting the hony; Che­ry-trees (especially the wild Cherry-tree) are retentive of the hony dew, and thereupon curle up the leaves, and so contain it longer, but to their owne prejudice, for the radical sap or moysture is thereby checked, and ascends no more, and of [...] ­times their tops wither and dye, but the Oak of all others most plentifully affords it; the great Maple also (vulgarly called the Sycamore tree) the leaves of other Trees are more spongie andL. Verul. Silva sil▪ cent. 5 496. porous, and drink it in as fast as it falls.

The L. Verulam makes a doubt whether any cause be from [Page 129] the Oaken leaf it self, to concoct; or whether it be only that the leaf is close and smooth (and therefore drinketh not in the dew, but preserveth it)

That which in Scripture is called Manna, by the wisest of theCaelius Rhod. Lect Antiq. l. [...]1. c. 3 Idem. lib. 25. c. 25 Greeks was called [...], a hony-dew; and Celsus in his Physick saith, by the Syrian dew is understood that which by a strange or forrein name is called Manna.

The present Manna, and that wherewith the Children of Is­rael were fed forty years in the Wilderness, differ not much from the hony-dew.

First, That Manna of the Israelites, and the manna used by Physitians differ not much, Fr. Valesius, and also Io. Fr. Picus Fr. Vales▪ de sacra, Philo­soph c. 57 Levin. Leminus Herb. bib. explicat. Earl of Mirandula attests the same in certaine learned Verses, and Lemnius agree; hereto, saying, the Manna now in use by Physitians is not much unlike the Manna that the Israelites fed of.

The Hony-dew and Manna doe not substantially differ, the Dew is not Hony except it be gathered by the Bees, concocted in their bodies, and condensated (by their heat) in the combes; for when it is thickned of it self, it is called dry manna; but if it be not coagulated it is called liquid manna, as a congealed dew, viscuous, and very pleasant to the taste, of which sort is thatHippocrat. lib. de vulneribus, Pet Bellonius, lib. 2. observat. c 25 which is called Cedria, mentioned by Hippocrates, and it is the same which the Hebrews call Manna; it is plentifully gathe­red of the greater Cedars on Mount Libanus, and Mount Sinai.

The Characters of the present Manna agree to the JewsExod. 16. 14 Manna;

First, it fell on the ground like a hoare Frost, in the night.

Secondly, the taste thereof was like Wafers made with hony, which agrees with the manna now in use.

Thirdly, it was gathered in the morning, before the Sun waxed hot, for the heat thereof did dissolve it, and make it to evaporate and vanish away.

Fourthly, if it were kept, it bred Worms; I was informed from a learned Gentleman, that the Hony-dew hath bred Worms before night, of which he was an eye-witness in our Country.

Some gather the excrements of Bees (of a yellow colour, and [Page 130] hony taste) which they finde near the Hives, and some igno­rantlyLevin. Lem­nius. Herb. bib exp [...]lcat. suppose to be thickned by an aerial concretion; but this cannot be, for the excrements of Bees are always liquid, and fluid, and if there be any reality in this report, It must bee the Bee-bread, whereof much is yellow, and all of a hony taste; it is gathered in little round parcels as bigge as small pins heads, but they are brittle, and broken, will not ea­sily coagulate, for they are not clammy; and the Bees let many fall at the Hive doors, if the entrance be small: but they must be very fools that will take this for Manna, much more they that wil be cozened with the excrements.

It hath been questioned, whether Manna was knowne to the ancient Grecians, some deny it, because the name is not found; others affirme it, as Guido P [...]nnyrollus, that Manna was known to them, but not under the name of Manna (which word the A­rabs borrowed from the Iews.

Galen speaking of the same, acknowledgeth that in his time inGalen lib. 3. de al [...]ment. facult. Amiretus de As [...]ae ponderi­bus J. Langius [...]. 1. Epist. Medic 64 Asi [...], this kind of hony was found so plentifully on the leaves of Trees, that the inhabitants said, Iupiter rained hony; and long before Galens time, Amirelus hath exactly described it under the name of aery hony, as Io. Longius [...]ffirms; and the reason of this name is evident, because hony like a dew fall [...] from Hea­ven, or the Air before day-light; for when the exhalations are elevated from the earth, and the waters by the heat of the Sun, and then being perfectly attenuated and concocted, are thickned, and congealed by the cold of the night into hony, graines, or sand, they stick upon herbs and leaves of Trees (sometimes on stones, and the ground) The inhabitants therefore spread Hides on the ground, and beat the Trees, and that which falls (like hony) they gather, and put into earthen vessels, where in a short time it hardens, and becomes as it were like sand.

It is like a kind of Gum, as Fuchsius delivers, and Matthiolus Matthiol. com. in lib. 1. Dio­scorid. c. [...]3 Mesue lib. 1. de simpl. c. 8 confirms the same, and Mesus also saith, the Arabian hony is a dew salling on Plants (and Stones) whose matter is an eleva­ted vapour, which hath its digestion and maturation in the air, when it is equal and propitious, with fortunate aspects, but it is diversified according to the diversity of things on which is falls,Galen. lib. 3. de al [...]m. f [...]c. salling on plants it participates of the nature of Plants, so that the best hony is usually where the most temperate Plants grow.

[Page 131]Now if Galens description of his Ai [...]y hony be compared with this, it accords in every thing; and Galen in the same place saith, that this Hony-dew, or Manna, is so like to that hony that the Bees gather of, that they have one and the same matter, namely dew,

Valerius Cordus endeavours by many (but not invincible)Valerius Cor­dus A [...]notat. in Dio cor. lib. [...]. c 104. Guido Panny­rollus Nova re­pe [...]t [...], l. 2. tit. 6. Arguments, to prove that they differ; with whom Hen. Sal­mouth, and Guido Panyrollus concur, and accord.

First, the Bees hony, saith Cordus is found at all times of the Spring, and Summer, but the Hony-dew (and also Manna) but sometimes and seldome.

I answer, that there is a native sweetness in some flowers at most times of the year, and plentifully in a mild and forward Spring, but yet notwithstanding the Bees gather much hony, when the hony-dews fall.

Secondly, the Bees hony is found both night and day in the Flowers, but the hony-dew only in the morning.

I answer, It is true, that the Bees gather hony out of the flowers a great part of the day, but there is (besides the native hony) an addition of hony from the hony-dew in the cells of the flowers, where it is preserved longer than on the Oaken leaves, being there obvious to every drying blast, and exhaling raine.

And so saith the L. Verulam, Flowers that have deep sockets,L. Veru [...]. Sil­va silv. cent. 7. 669. doe gather in the bottome a kind of hony, as Hony-suckles (both the Woodbinds and the Trefoile) Lillies, and the like, and in them certainly the flower beareth part with the dew, andSands relat. lib. 4 therefore places abounding in Manna, doe also yeeld plenty of hony; Thus Cep [...]alenea. Moreover, the hony dew doth not only fall in the morning early, but in hot gloomy seasons, often in the after noon.

Thirdly, the Bees hony most abounds in flowers about noon, but the hony-dew as soon as the Sun waxeth hot, perisheth; I answer, it perisheth where it is open, and exposed to the Sun and Wind, but where it is well defended from either (as in the small sockets of flowers) it endures much longer.

And I affirme further, that Bees gather most hony in the fore-noon, except the hony-dew falls in the after-noon, and nei­ther raine washeth it a way, nor the Suns hot rayes exhale it.

Fourthly, the Bees hony while it is contained in the flowers, [Page 132] is liquid, but the hony-dew, namely Manna is compacted toge­ther, and congealed; Answer, Although the hony be liquid in the combes when it is newly gathered, yet thereupon it follows not that it was so liquid in the flower, being by a transcendent Chimical skill extracted forth of a more grossie substance, and after rare [...]ied, and defecated in the limbeck of their bladder, moreover, as we shewed before, in many parts of Asia, the man­na falls more liquid, but hardens after it is gathered.

And againe, it is true in some parts of the World there falls, or rather is gathered this concrete, or coagulated hony (theSands relat. l. 4 right manna) Manna in Calabria is gathered from the leaves of the Mulberry-trees that grow higher in the mountaines, it falls like a dew in the night time, like a dew, and therefore liquid; it is gathered from the leaf of the Mulberry-trees, but not of such as grow in the Vallies, and it falleth upon the leaves by night.

It should seeme that before these dews come upon Trees inL. Verul. Sil­va sil. cent. 8. 7 [...]1 the Vallies they dissipate, and cannot hold out; it should seeme also the Mulberry leaf it self hath some coagulating vertue, which conspiss [...]teth the dew, for it is not found upon other trees.

And it is more than probable that that Manna that is gathered coagulated, hath its c [...]ndensation from the vertue of the tree, or plant from whence it is taken.

In Persia they call Manna X [...]rquest, Xir in Persian is Milk, andPedro, Teixei­ra de los. Rayes de Per­s [...] l [...]. c 7 Quest is the name of the Tree which produceth it, or rather whereof it is gathered; the best comes from Hiez, from whence it is c [...]rried in great quantity to Ormuz, and from thence throughout all the East; it is white, soft, sweet, and in Graines like Incense o [...] M [...]stick.

They have another sort called Toraniabin, gathered on cer­taineIdem lib. 1. c. 22 plants like wild thistles; there is a D [...]ng or kind of Manna brought from [...]ad, not farre from the River Sind in the East Indies; the Naturals call it Geukar, of Karsal [...], and Geu fat, for of the dew which falls and congeales in the lowen fields (mark, it falls liquid) it is gathered and called by us Salgen, and more corruptly Salgenia.

I must a little digress to reforme a Geographical errour, the River Sind which was mentioned before, is the principal of five, of which the River is compounded, first Behat, which ariseth [Page 133] near Kobul towards the coast of Persia. The second is called C [...]anab, which comes from the Province Quexmir fifteen dayes journey distant from Labor. A third is called Ru [...]y spring­ing near Labor. A fourth, Via; And a fifth Sind, whichMr. Herberts Travels into Africa and Asia, l. 1. giveth name to the Land and Kingdome, commonly cal­led by the Portugals Sinde. And therefore Mr. Herbert was deceived, who supposed the River Indus to be called Sind. To return again.A [...]t. de Herrera decad. 7. l. 1. c. 7

In the vallies of Chile in their season fall great dews (which collect and harden) like bread tempered with Sugar or March­pane (Mark, they fall liquid dews) which i [...] as wholesome as that which they call Manna: By all which instances, it appears that Manna is first a liquid dew, and after inspissated by a vertue of the tree, or plant on which it falls, and falling on other plants or trees, it never condensates.

From the City of Bal [...]ora scitua [...]e in the end of the Red-seap. Teixeira relation de lo [...] Rey [...] de Per­sia, l. 1. c. 7. on the banks of the Rivers Tigris and Euphrates, is brought a kinde of Manna in bottles like thick hony, so that some Manna, is never coagulated.

Fifthly, Hony-dew is contained in flowers, but the Hony-dew falls on leaves of trees. Answer [...] only on leaves of trees? Nothing less, on flowers also, and a great part, as I shewed before of the hony in flowers, is not natural but adventitious.

Sixthly, The Bees hony doth not onely last longer, but con­serves other things, and that many years; but the Hony-dew, or Manna will not keep uncorrupted one year, nor yet preserve other things from putrefaction; and in the Northern Regions there is plenty of hony, but rarely any Hony-dews.

So Magirus Hony-dews are very rare in our Countries, inJo. Magirus Phisiolog l. 4. c. 6. regard of our cloudy aire, but frequent in the Eastern Coun­tries, Answer, That the lasting of hony longer than Manna may bee from a further concoct [...]on which it hath in the Bees bodies, as also from the continued great heat of the Bees after it is repos [...]ed in the combs, whereby it comes to further matu [...]a­tion and perfection Vide Cap [...] of the B [...]asil [...]an Bee called Zelloh.. And whereas hee saith, Hony-dews are rare in the Northern Regions, wee often by wofull experience finde the contrary, receiving by the frequency of them, great prejudice in our hops and corn.

Seventhly, If the Hony-dew bee the matter of hony, how [Page 134] comes it to pass that it falls onely on flowers, and not on the plants and leaves of trees? Answer, It falls not only on flowers, but on leaves of trees and plants also, though some plants and leaves, are not so tenacious, and retentive of it, as the great Maple, and the Oaken leaf, but being more porous and spungy, suck it up, and consume it.

Lastly, When the Hony-dew falls, the Bees gather it, and flock to it, but onely for their present repast and food. Answer, There is no rustick conversant among Bees, but knows the con­trary, and by experience can say, that they then gather more hony in two or three dayes, than in two or three weeks after they cease.

Ribera, as you may remember, attributes smuttiness of Wheat to the Hony-dew; and Helmont seems to be of the same opinion,Helmont▪ tu­mulus pest [...]. calling it Triticum roratum sive mol [...]itum, and so do some others also. Now in a word to undeceive them. The cause of smutty Wheat, is not at al from the Hony-dew, nor yet from any of those causes, that the author of the first letter in Mr. Har [...]libs Legacy delivers. No [...] yet is it a deficiency onely in the vege­tative faculty, for it grows and produceth a blade, and an ear, but then it wants power to quicken and give life, as it were, by blowing to that corn that is put out in the ear; so that not being enlivened, it proves abortive, and turns into a stinking black powder (Corruptio optimi pessima) smelling like a red Her [...]ing, or Carrion.

Now this falls out for want of a nitrous, and thereby a nu­tritive quality in the grain, for it is most certain, that salt is the seat of life, and vegetation, and so the subject of nutrition.

This by the way, take notice of, that they are most under ears that are subject to that malady, not therefore subject to it, because they are lower than others, but therefore lower, because of a deficiency and weakness in the vegetative faculty. And usually if one stalk hath the ear smutty, all that arise from the same [...]oot are infected, yet it falls out (though ra [...]ely) that some­times one side of the ear is good corn, and the other bags, for one side blows, and the other doth not, and whatsoever blows not, will be smutty.

Many years together I suffered much damage by it, but knew not how to remedy my self, but after the projection of [Page 135] divers experiments, at last successfully, I fell upon this course, I caused a Hogs-head of salt water to be fetched, and put into the water near a bushel of Bay-salt not at once, no [...] yet into the Hogs-head, but pouring half of it at a time into a Tub, I after put in half the salt, wherein when it was melted, I imb [...]bed my Seed-wheat thus: Filling a close well-wrought Ozier­basket (that would admit the water, and hold near a bushel) with Wheat, and then put it into the Tub, holding it by the ears, and when it was all well moistened, took it out, letting the water drain as it stood on the Tubs side, into the Tub again. And when it began to leave dropping, poured it on a floor, and strewed upon it as it was turned over, near a shovel full of slaked lime, not that lime addes any thing to the vegetation (perhaps it accelerates the growth) nor yet secures it from vermine (as some conceive) but onely dryes it (being done over-night) that it is more nimble and better to sow the next day. Lime without steeping your corn, doth not prevent smuttiness, but corn thus imbibed, and then sown without lime, will not smut.

Thus adventitious Salt supplies the defect of that nitrous quality which some grain are defective of, and are hereby quickned, refreshed, and as it were impowred to perfect vege­tation to maturation.

Such as are remote from the sea, must make a brine which will bee every way equivalent, onely more chargeable, I have many years made trial of this course, and without any great curiosity, for my seed have had constantly bright wheat, and so also my neighbours, to whom I readily divu [...]ged what I found good for the publike; but in my publick Discourse, I forget too much my private Design.

CHAP. XXII. Of Hony.

CArdan affirms, That neither Hony nor Waxe is made byCardan lib. 9 [...] de subtil. any creature but a Bee, which is a truth, if wee take it [Page 136] conjunctively, otherwise not. There is no other creature that makes both hony and waxe.

And that which Scaliger saith, Pliny observes out of Ari­stotle Scaliger de subtil. exercit. 191. (which I remember not) that Waspes make wax, is false whosoever affirms it. Combs they make, as some other Insects, but they are not wax, but drossie collections of old pales, and other old wood, tempered with a gummy liquor flowing from the Oak, or (felled) Elmes whereby they become tough and ca­pable to contain their young. Try to melt them, and you shall quickly resolve your self.

And whereas Scaliger saith, There is in the Mol [...]a Islands hony made by Flies less than Ants (the truth is questionable, for it is onely reported by Pigafetta) I suppose hee called them Flies, onely for their smalness. The earth-Bee, with us a kinde of wilde Bee, is smaller, and yet gathers Bee-bread abundantly, and hony also for ought I know.

And most of the American Bees are not bigger than Flies, but yet are Bees, not Flies.

And for his instances of the solidity of some hony (admit­ting of the Histories) they do not at all enervate this position that Bees onely make honey.

Among the Troglodites in a Country called Balgada, there is hony found whiter than snow, and as hard as a stone; And in the Country about Calicut the hony is so hard that they carry it in baskets, what then, was it not made by Bees? I have seen as white, and as hard made by my own Bees. Indeed besides the domestick Bee, the humble Bee makes hony, but little in quantity, and no­thing so pleasant in taste for quality.

In China there is not onely plenty of Bees wax, but there is another sort which is not onely whiter, but also better, for it isM [...]th. Ric [...]i de Christiana ex­pedi [...] apud Si­nas l [...]b. [...]. less glutinous, and being lighted, burns brighter: It is made of certain worms which they breed up in trees for this purpose. They make a third sort of a fruit of a certain tree which is not less white than the former, but burnes nothing so brightly.

Thus have wee found hony and wax too, made by other creatures besides the Hony-Bees, but both by no one crea­ture.

Libanius saith, Hony and Wax may be gathered without the [Page 137] Bees labour, there is in the flowers, saith he, and leaves ofAndreas Li­banius, lib. 2. Alchym. tract. 1. c. 45 plants, both hony and wax, which by sublimation may be easily segregated, but as a fruitless and needless speculation, I wil not insist upon it.

Gorrbeus saith, hony is a sweet juyce, hot and dry, it seemesMat. Ma [...]tinil l [...]x Philolog. to have its original from the Hebrew [...] which is delight, and thence the Germane Honig, which wee contracting call hony.

By hony Metaphorically is understood every pleasant, dainty,Diction [...]r E­tymolog▪ tri­lingue, [...]. Fun­geris, Cael. Rhod. lect. an­tiq. l. 6. c. 2 Barradas itine­rarium filio­rum Israel ex Aegypto lib. 6. c. 5 and savoury meat.

Hony is the Symbol of Death, as Gall [...]s of Life, wherefore the Ancients offered hony in Sacrifice to the infernal Deities, for be­cause of pleasure, death creeps on us.

Hony signifieth Marriage, saith one, and is taken Figurative­ly for carnal pleasure, and signifies a worldly life, not abhor­ring delight, for marriage is honourable; nor is a Christian to be blamed that lawfully useth it. But as in the old Law, al­though hony might be received for gifts, and first fruits, yet it was forbidden in Sacrifice: so in the Church (only the Roman Church) the hony of Marriage is honourable in Lay-men, yet are married persons prohibited the Altar, for it is not lawful for a Priest to be married.

There are many sorts or kinds of hony; Aerial, Manna, Reed­hony, Sugar, and that which is gathered by Bees; the best hony is that which is so pure that it glisters yellow (Aristotle com­mends the white) having a good smell, not too hard, nor too thin, sweet to the taste, and hanging together, once being boy­led yeelds little scum.

Another saith, that is the best hony which is in a mean be­tweenScolia Guil. Plantii in Fer­nel, method▪ medendi, lib. 7 thick and thin, sweet in taste, and yet sharp, pricking the tongue; for colour either pale, or pellucid, and shining like Gold, odoriferous and new, and which taken up, hangs so to­gether that it wil not be easily separated; in a word, the best is at the bottome.

A measure that containes fifteen ounces of hony, wil hold butFe [...]nel▪ me­thod medendi, l. 4. c. 6 We [...]ker▪ de secret. lib. 8 ten ounces of wine, and nine of oyle.

Diopha [...]es prescribes to know adulterate hony thus; if it will not burne purely, but rather thus; melt a little in a porringer, [Page 138] and if it be adulterated with flower, or any thing else, you shall perceive it by the [...]cum; if it be pure, it will be as clear as rock water.

New hony is better than old, the Sicilian was with the Anci­entsPorcacc [...]i de­scrit del isole di Sicilia. in highest estimation, so that by a Proverb, the Hyblean was notorious, Bau [...]inus commends the Attick before all other.

Some imagine that the chief labour, or rather skill of the Bee [...]. Verul. sil. [...]l. cent. 7. Arist. de b [...]st. lib. 5. c. [...] is about the Wax, and that the Bee (according to Aristotle) gathereth hony only from the hony dew; but this wee made clear before, that she maketh, that is, extracteth more from the flowers, than she gathereth from the trees.

Cardane fondly supposeth, that they neither make, nor ga­ther properly, but convert what they gather into hony, by ver­tue of a little bagge or bladder sweet as hony; and like saith he, is made of like.

Various are the opinions of the Ancients concerning those that first found out hony, with the nature of Bees; some say by Eu [...]eme [...]us in the Island Cea; others, by H [...]ro [...]ius, in the dayes of Ericht [...]nius on Mount Hym [...]tte, a Country of A [...]ic [...], Nicander saith in Cre [...]t, in the time of Sa [...]unne.

Aristodemus the Philosopher studied many years to find outAugust Ser. 15 ad s [...]at. in [...]re­mo. the nature of Bees, and could not; Aristomachus saith Cicer [...] did nothing else for sixty two years; and Pliny saith of him, that he first taught and found out the encreasing of Bees, and was so earnestly affected to them, that he studied day and night how hee might best order, and intreat them according to their kind.

Others ascribe this invention to one Thaffias, who deserved great commendation for his skill among Bees, Diodorus saith,Diod. Siculus lib. 6 Macrob. Sa­ [...]l. l. 1. Iustin lib. 13 the Cure [...]es, a people of Cre [...]a first found out hony, Macrobius ascribes, Diodorus, and Pliny, and Columella, to Aristem in Thes­salie, to whom Iustine agrees, although in his forty fourth Book he ascribes it to Gargoris, but only [...] conceive for Spaine; fabu­lous Berosus cites him by the name of M [...]licola, P [...]lid [...]re to thePolyd [...]r, Vir­gl [...]de invent. rerum lib. 3. c. 3 Iews; I hold it ancienter, for Iacob sent a present of hony to the Governour of Aegypt.

In no part of the world is more hony than in Aethiopia, theGodignus de Abissino [...] [...] rebus, lib. 1. c. 10 cause whereof is the plenty of Flowers which grow there (lot [Page 139] such take [...]otice of it that deny Bees gather hony of Flowers, and the many Rivers, Lakes, and Waters.

Ilensagaghen a Town of Hea in Africa abounds greatly withI. Leo. lib 2 hony, which serveth the inhabitants both for food (consisting of two hundred Families, having neither Gardens nor Fruit-trees, but only Barley and Oyl, the inhabitants being sloathful) and for Merchandise to sell in the neighbour Countries, they cast a­way their wax.

The Mountaines in Africa are most plentiful of hony, whoseI. Leo. lib. [...] & lib. 3. tops are always covered with Snow, as Nififa, Sensana, Tag [...] ­dost; Thagia, Beni-fenescare, but white hony is there a ra­ [...]ity; yet in the Kingdome of Morocho they have very muchCael [...] August. Curio [...]s, Ma­rochensis regni descript▪ Mory­ [...] [...]tin. part 3 lib 2. c. 4. Col. Rhod. hony, some for whiteness like to Milk, other clear and yellow like gold.

Poland abounds with hony, which they finde in hollow trees, and Caves of the earth, besides the Husband-mens Hives.

In Mycono there are no Bees, and if they be brought thither they dye.

Mycono is one of the Cyclad Islands.Ortelli Thes [...] I. de la H [...]ye thresor de [...] ch [...]rte [...].

In Ireland are many Bees, as well in Hives at home, as in hol­low Trees abroad, and Caves of the earth, contrary to S [...]li [...] and Isidore, and it is as good as in other Countries, and more store would be there, but that there grow some Trees that are venemous, but what those Trees be he names not.

Aldrovand saith, there be no Bees in New Spaine, and Isidore relates the same of Scotland, and saith, that stones and dust brought thence and laid in the Hives, makes the slees forsakePolyd. Virg. lib. 13. hist. angl. Sand. relat. lib. 4 Po [...]ca [...]hi de­scrit del Isoldi Ma [...]t [...]. Martil [...]u [...] Fici­nus▪ lib. 2. de diet. c. 18 them, but false, as Polidore acknowledgeth.

Malta is hotter by much, than any other Country which is seated in the same parallel without Rivers, but hath sundry fountaines, and hony in abundance.

And the plenty and goodness of the flowers in Malta is the cause that it affords excellent hony, therefore saith a learned Phisitian, that Hony is Flos storum, the flower or quintessence of flowers, nourishing not a little with his sweetness, and preser­ving things from putrefaction.

Sicilia likewise though hot, yet is stored with Rivers and Fountaines; the Winter most temperate, no day so tempestu­ous, as affordeth not some Sun-shine, and about Enn [...] the [Page 140] flowers are so numerous, and fragrant that the Dogs cannot hunt.

In Pod [...]lia, and indeed all Sarmatia (understand Sarmatia in Europ [...], for there is Sarmatia in Asia) now it contains Polonia, Hier. Gi [...]ava de Cosmo­graph. Russia, P [...]ssia, Lituania, Livonia, Podoli [...], and Moschovia: whereto is added Alba, Russia, and Vandalia.

In a word the people were anciently known by the name ofDictionar. Ety­m [...]. tri lingue [...]ungeri. Clao Mag. hist. delle cose S [...]pten. l. 2 [...]. Scyt [...]ians. Here is more hony then in all the world besides, for they fill sometimes great dry pits with combs, that the Bears coming to eat the hony, accidentally falling into them, have been suffocated with the abundance.

Nature denies them the vine, but the God of nature hath more than sufficiently recompenced that defect with an incre­dibleGio. Boterole relationi uni­vers. s [...]li 2 part l 1. Me [...]dosa, Trea [...]e of the Kingdom of China G. Fletcher Russe Com­monwealth. quantity of hony, which they use (besides to several other purposes) to make mead with.

There is great abundance in China, for they wonderfully de­light in keeping of Bees, there is also very much wax, you may lade Ships, nay Fleets therewith.

Hony is more plentiful in Russia than in any part of the world, thereof they spend great quantity in their ordinary drink (which is Meade of all sorts) and many other uses, and yet good quantity is carried out of the Country, which may better appear if wee take notice that there hath been shipped fiftyLettere d'Ab. C [...]mpense in­te n [...]le cose di [...]os. & P. Jovio delle co­se d [...]l. Mos. apud Rhamus [...] ▪ 2. Volum. thousand Pood yearly of wax, every Pood containing forty pound, which amounts to a thousand Tun, and yet the great men use but little Tallow, but much wax for their lights.

Muffet perstringeth Iovius for applauding the Russian hony, for saith hee, There is not a Bee in the whole Country, and hee justifies himself from the relation of Sebastian Baro, how truly from the premises you may easily determine.

About the River Occa, distant about thirty Leagues from Mosco, is the greatest store in all the land of Russia. Purchas pilg. 3. part. l. 2. c. 1. Incourage­ment of setling a Planta [...]. at [...]d [...]gas. J. Leo l. 8.

There is a report that a greater quantity than that menti­oned before is brought yearly to India, from the Coast of Malindia near adjoyning to Madagascar, namely fifteen hun­dred Tuns.

There is little hony throughout all Egypt, and that little is not very good, for it is alwayes moist and thin like water, the reason whereof is said to bee, because the flowers are over [Page 141] moist by the overflowing of Nilus, but in America, where theAlex. Aphedis. Prob. 74. lands are not overflown, but exceeding dry, yet the hony is al­wayes liquid, so that it comes from some other cause.

Corsica yeelds many venemous trees, from which if theEstates of the world translat. by Ed. Grims [...]. Bees suck any thing, they make the hony very bitter; It seems these trees were but in some places, for Atheneus reports, that the Corsi [...]ans were long lived with the daily use of hony, which is very plentiful with them; some parts were infamous for theirServius com. in 4. l. Georg. bad hony, occasioned through their plenty of Yew trees, which Servius confirms, saying, The Corsican hony is bitter, and Martial mentions it.

Some vainly conceit, all hony at first to bee sharp and bitter,Martial 9. [...]pi. Nicetas com. in Greg. Naz. t. 2. [...]at. 43. but in process of time being concocted, it returns to its proper sweetness.

In the City of Trapezun [...] in Pontu [...], the hony gathered of the Yew trees smells filt [...]ly, and makes them that are well in theirArist. de Mi­ [...]abil. Auscult▪ wits, mad, and but cures those that are distracted.

In some parts of Spain the hony is poyson: Also at Hera­clea in Pontus some years, they have an herb called Aegolethron, hurtful to Goats, the flowers whereof, especially in a wet Spring have a poysonous quality. Signs of it, it never thickens, the co­lour is more red than other hony, a strong kinde of smell, pre­sently it causeth sneezing, they which eat of it throw them­selves on the ground seeking to cool themselves, for they are all on a sweat. And if dogs eat their excrements that are affected with it, they have the disease.

Likewise in Pontus among the Sanni, there is a hony whichPlin. Nat. his [...]. l. 2 [...]. c. 13 causeth madness, which is supposed to bee gathered from the Rhododendron, whereof the Woods are full. In some parts also of Persia, and in Getulia, a Province of Mauritania.

Galen saith, his father had hony so bitter with age, as if itGallen, l. 1. de Antidot. c. 2 had been gathered in Pontus. And therefore Servius on those words of Virgil, Dul [...]ia mella premes, saith, It is not a super­stuous Epithite, because there is bitter hony. So is there sharpIdem l. 3. de compos. medic, secund. Gen. S [...]abo l. 11. Dioscorid. l. 6 c 8. hony also which comes by age.

The hony is bitter near Phasis, and about Hereclea a City of Pontus, from the plenty of Monks-hood, or Wolfes-bane, saith Dioscordes.

Pet. Bellonius saith, These Countries of Pontus abound with [Page 142] an herb called Black▪ [...]meleon, the root whereof hath an excre­scency called I [...]i [...], which is a deadly poyson, and kills presently those that drink it. Now, saith he, if the Pees gather the sub­stance of the hony from the Chameleon-flower, there is no doubt but the hony is very dangerous, but saith hee, wee are not ignorant, that the Bees gather not the matter of their hony from the flowers, but onely of the leaves when they are covered with the Hony-dew. But this great observer, for want of ob­servation failed, trusting too much to Aristotle, and others, that the Bees did not make, but onely gather hony.

The Sanni of whom wee spake before, paid a tribute of Waxe to the Romans, but the hony, as dangerous, was not vend [...]ble.

Strabo writes, that the people called Hep [...]acomete [...] beyondStrabo l. 12. C [...]lch [...]s, slew three cohor [...]s of Pompie [...] souldiers when they pas­sed through the mountain Country, for they mingled a kinde of poysonous hony with their drink, and easily m [...]ssacred them when they were besides themselves.

Diodorus reports, That the Grecian [...] returning from Babylon Diod. Siculus, l. 14. in the Country of Col [...]os, found abundance of Bees, and did liberally feed of the hony, but as soon as they had eaten it, they became mad, and presently threw themselves on the ground, and lay like dead men; but the day after, the same hour they were taken, they recovered their wits again.

In Sardinia is no venemous creature, yet the hony is poyson.Dioscor. l. [...]. c. 75. Dioscorides saith, It is very bitter, and that they gather it of wormwood, and that it is excellent to cure blemishes andG [...]n▪ lib. [...] de simp. [...]l. Med. spots of the face. Galen mentions it, saying, If any hony bee bitter as the S [...]rdi [...]i [...], it is of a mixt faculty, as if some of our hony were tempered with wormwood. Virgil saith, It is gathered of the Yew tree, Sic tua Cyrne [...]s [...]ugi [...]t, examina Diod. Sicul. l. [...]. [...]axus. Diodorus from the Box tree.

In Candia there is a mountain called Carnia, nine milesPlin. Nat. hist. l. [...]1. c. 14. in compass, in which space, no Flies are ever seen, and they never touch hony that is made there, and brought from thence.

In T [...]r [...]o [...]a the hony is not only solid, but sandy, such as is ga­thered in the Heath-country of Hampshire, very course, and red, full of little clo [...]s or knots, like sand, but much greater: [Page 143] Pliny dislikes it on good grounds, as the worst hony.

All hony hardened, keeps the same solidity, diverse from wa­ter and other liquids, for all other liquid things once compacted, dry, and are attenuated, but hony doth not.

That hony works as wine in the comb untill the twentieth day (asserted by some) is a fable, and that the cover that stops it up is the f [...]ces from the working, which they that maintain the former deliver, is as ridiculous; make trial, and you shall finde it wax as the combes.

Some combes in plentiful years, are shut up the first day.

Hony in the comb is all pure, but after it is expressed, some [...]ecule [...]t and dreggy matter, partly from the combes, partly from the Bee-bread and spat, somewhat corrupts the purity, all which it purgeth up to the top, contrary to all other liquids where the sediment is at the bottome.

The use of hony was prohibited in the old Law, because it is a symbole of pleasure and delights, in regard of the sweetnessFr. Valesius de sacro Philoso. c▪ 16. Arist▪ Ethic. l. 2. c. 3 thereof. Now pleasures are displeasing to God, no lovers of them can offer a gratefull sacrifice unto him. Therefore the Philosopher said, Because of pleasure, wee doe wicked things.

Another saith, By prohibiting hony in the Law, wee are toCaelius Rhod▪ lect. Antiq. l▪ 28. c. 27. understand Philosophical ostentation, and pleasant allure­ments of humane eloquence, very sweet in sound, but not in substance.

Another, Hony was not offered in sacrifice, nor yet wax, wherein hony is deposited, but oyl for the Lamps in GodsHieron. Epist▪ [...]. [...]d Gaudent. t. [...]. & Epist. 19. ad Eustochium▪ [...]. 1. Tho. Aquin. 12. q. 102. 3. 14▪ m. Temple, which was expressed from the bitterness of the Olive, for vices are sweet, and therefore the Harlots lips drop as an Hony-comb.

Aquinas saith, Hony was not offered in sacrifice, because it was ordinarily offered in sacrifice to Idols, and also to prohibit, and avoid all carnal sweetness and pleasure from those, who in­tended to offer sacrifices to God.

The heathens used hony in their sacrifices, especially theStuckius S [...]r. sacrifi [...] ▪ descrip. Plut. quest 5. S [...]p. Hier▪ Romano▪ l. 2. [...] 3. Athenians, and that to several of their Deities, and yet Plu­tarch propounds a question why they did not use it. But it is certain they offered no wine to their gods, but water sweetned with hony.

[Page 144]The Romano had divers names sot their Religious places▪ Good win Ant q. l. 1. c▪ 2▪ & Alex▪ ab Alex. genial dier. l. 5. c. 26 one was called S [...]r [...]i [...]lu [...] which was a furrow, or pit, con­taining an Altar in it, into which they powred the blood of the slain beast, together with hony, and other things when they sa­crificed to an infernal Deity.

The Romans sacrificed to Pluto three times in the year, theHier. Romano l. 2. c. 8 beasts for sacrifice were black, old, and barren, and they made ready in this sacrifice a drink of wine and milk, mixed with hony and blood.Guil-Moses unvailed

One gives this as a natural reason, because being burnt, it had no good smell▪

In the Feast of Bacchus, all the Priests being crowned withIdem. l. 2. c 9 garlands of Ivy▪ offered sacrifices made of fine flower, and hony fried with oyl, and sometimes with hony, because Bac­chus, as they supposed first found them out. Horace saith, They sacrificed hony taken out of the Combs to him.Horat. 2. c [...]m.

Bacchus by some was called Bryseus, from an old word, [...] to flow, because he first taught the use of hony: AndOvid. l. 3. Fast. Ovid saith, That hee was not onely the inventor of hony▪ but that hony was offered in sacrifice to him.

The Egyptians when they celebrated the feast of Mercury, Plutarch de I [...]. & O [...]r. did eat hony and figs.

Among many other things which the Romans offered in sa­crificeHier: Romano l. 2. cap 11 to Ceres, they used to present hony and wine. And be­cause Ceres sought her daughter Proserpina ravished by Pluto with torches, or candles, which shee lighted in the Vul [...]ane [...]n mount F [...], therefore a day of burning lamps and candles, was dedicated to her by the heathen, and from hence came theGood win An▪ l. 2. c. 13. Alex. ab Alex. genial dier. [...] 6. c. 8. feast of Candlemass among the Christians.

In the sacrifices to Bona dea, or the earth, they used wine, but called it not by the name of Wine, but Milk or Hony, and the vessel wherein it was put, the Hony-vessel.

The ancient Greeks quieted or appeased their dead withEurip. hony, Iphigenia in Euripedes vowing sacrifices to her brother, promiseth to sprinkle the blood of a Mountain-calf, the liquor of Ba [...]ohus, and the labours of yellow Bees.

Chaucer relating the burning of A [...]site, tells what they usedChaucer in the Knight tale. to cast into the Funeral flames.

With vessels in her hand of gold full fine,
All full of Hony, Milk, Blood, and Wine.

They gave the deceased a Wa [...]er tempered with hony to ap­peaseAdr. Turneb. l. 28. c. 45. Hier. Romano lib. 2. cap. 1. Cerberut withall.

In Peloponesus they began their sacrifices to the goddess Melissa which was adored among them, because shee taught them the use of hony.

This Goropius denies, for hee saith, Noah first after the de­lugeGorop. Becan. Hierogliph. l. 13. sacrificed to God, and God smelled a sweet favour. This was the first banquet after the stood, wherewith Noah feasted Iupiter, for which, because it was sweet, hee was called Melissus, namely for offering hony to Iupiter, and because this Hony-service or sacrifice came from him willingly, hee was said to have a daughter at home called Melissa, namely the hony goodness of his minde, whereby hee made a feast to God.

And then because with this sweetness, or Melissa, hee pre­sently obtained that favour from God, by which hee was abun­dantly supplied with all necessaries; for this, hee was said to have another daughter, which was called Amalthea. So that having Melissa good will, and Amalthea a large plenty of all things; and by these his two daughters daily to feast Iupiter, posterity fained that Iupiter being an Infant was nourished by the daugh­ters of Melissus.

In ancient times, Junkets prepared with hony, were properPineda derebus Solom. l. 5. c. 12 to marriage solemnities, of which cates, or honied cakes, the Bridegroome first tasted, and then the Bride, and after the Guests.

Curtius speaks of it in Alexanders marriage with Roxane. Q. Curtiu, l. 8. Cant. [...]. 1. And Pineda saith the same of Solomons marriage with Pharaohs daughter to bee obscurely implied, I have eaten my hony-combe with my hony, I have drunk my wine with my milke; Eat O friends, drinke, yea, drinke abundantly, O beloved. Which is an invitation of the Spouse to the tasting of it: Where the Septu­agint Reads, I have eaten my bread with my hony. Moreover it signifies any extraordinary sweetness, as also milk, or any more pleasant dainty. And truly hony and wine seem to bee proper to Nuptial seasts, which is more clear, E [...]k. 16▪ 13▪ For where­as [Page 146] all the rest that went before concerned marriage; this was a wedding Ceremony to eat bread made of fine Flowre, Hony, and Oyl, by the communion whereof the Bride was taken into the Partnership of the Kings bed and Kingdome.

In Fez after the Espousals and Marriage ceremonies performed,Jo. Leo l. 3. diverse Guests are invited to a Banquet, where for great dainties is first brought a kinde of bread fried and tempered with hony.

Among many other Nuptial ceremonies which the Borussians J. Miletius Religio. Borussorum. use, after they have washed the Brides feet, and with that water sprinkled the Marriage-bed, and all the utensils of the house, and the Guests also, then they anoint her mouth with hony, and covering her eyes with a vail, lead her to all the doors of the house, which they bid her strike with the right foot.

The Russians use many strange Marriage-solem [...]ies. TheReligio Russo­rum ad Dom. Chy [...]r [...]um. Priest having a book open before him, sings with a loud voyce one of Davids Psalmes. And then taking hold with his hand on one of the Bridegrooms curled locks, speaks to him after this sort. Tell mee, O Bridegroom, brother, friend, Wilt thou bee this young womans husband, Wilt thou sometimes beat and cudgel her, &c.

Here the Bridegroom solemnly protests to do the office of a good man. And then turning his speech to the Bride, he asketh her, if shee be sufficient for a husband (for their Maids of ten, and eleven years old marry) Will shee have a care of the hous­hold affairs &c. which shee affirms. Then the Priest puts on either of their heads a Garland made of Boughs, in the circum­ference whereof is written in Russe letters, Increase and multiply. While he doth this, many wax candles are lighted, and a bowl full of Mead is then given to the Priest which [...]ee drinks all off to the new coupled at one draught, and they cheerfully pledge him and then return him the cup again.

After many preceding ceremonies, the Bridegroom takingG Fletcher Russe Com­monwealth [...]. 22. the Bride by the hand t [...]ey go on together with their friends after them towards the Church-porch, where hee is met by s [...]me with pots and cups in their hands full of Mead (the Russe proper wine) whereof the Bridegroom taketh first a Cha [...]k or little cup full in his hand and drinketh to the B [...]de, who opening her hood or vail below, putteth the cup to her mouth under­neath [Page 147] it (for being seen of the Bridegroom) pledgeth him again.

The Romans in the Nuptial supper, gave the new marriedOvid. l. 4. Fa­storum. Ad. Tu [...]ne [...]. advers. l. 28. c 45 Fulvius Ur­ [...]nu [...]. couple the juyce of Poppy tempered with milk and hony.

The Ancients did use hony in all their Sweet-meats, as wee do Sugar, indeed they knew not what Sugar was.

The Romans used hony in their first service at their feasts, as also in their second. And indeed formerly no kindes of meat, but were with the use of hony made more acceptable.

Pithagoras usually fed on hony, and Hony-combes, becauseLilii Greg. Sy [...]ald. Symb, [...] 2. Calvin in Esaiam c. 9. Aristot. de Mi­rabilibus au­scultat. they were prepared without mans labour, and were a kinde of heavenly food.

To this day the Iews give Infants a taste of butter and hony before they suck.

Among the Illirians was first of all the use of Mead, which in Aristotles time the Greeks were scarce acquainted with.

CHAP. XXIII. Of Tree-bony.

THere was anciently, and is still Tree-hony, as well as Bee­hony. And this Tree-hony is of two sorts, either a plenti­full hony-dew, which might bee gathered; or else sweet saps or juices drawn out, or concocted from several sorts of trees and fruits, to the consistence, taste, and likeness of hony.

Of the first sort it is reported that near the Cospian sea, thereMr. Anton. Co [...]ci [...] Sabel▪ lici E [...]n. 4. l. 5. are plenty of trees with leaves like Oaks, yeelding much hony, but it must bee gathered before the rising of the Sun, for the rayes thereof quickly consume, and waste it.

In Arabia Naba [...]bea, they gather hony plentifully of theDiodo. Sic. Bib▪ lioth. l. 19.▪ Trees, which they call Wild hony, of which, mixt with water, they use to drink.

There is a Tree called Occhus in the vallies of Hireania thatL. Ve [...]ul. cent. 7. c. 612. distilleth hony in the mornings.

In Lidia there is plenty of hony gathered of the Trees ofArist. de Mira­bil▪ [...]uscul. which the inhabitants make loaves, or lumps of such hard­ness, [Page 156] that without many blows, they cannot bee broken.

The inhabitants of Mount Libanus spread hides under theMouffet Thea­trum Insect. [...]. 1. c. 5. trees, and then shake and beat them, and after gather up the hony, which they reserve in earthen pots.

The Maguey is a Tree of wonders, it yeelds Hony, Water,J. Acosta na­tural and mo­ral hist. of the Indies l. 4. c. 23. Wine, Oyl, Vinegar, Syrrup, Thred, Needles, and a thousand other things. It is a tree which the Indians esteem much in new Spain, and have commonly in their dwellings some one of them for the maintenance of life: It grows in the fields, and hath great and large leaves, at the ends whereof is a strong and sharp point which serves to fasten little pins, or to sow as a needle. And they draw out of this leaf as it were a kinde of thred which they use. This liquor being sodden, turns like Wine, which grows to Vinegar, suffering it to sowre, and boyling it more, it becomes as hony, and boyling it half, it serves as Syr [...]up.

Below by the root of the Magueis Tree, the Indians make aHackluits Voyages first part Iob. Hort. hole, whereat they take out twice a day a certain kinde of liquor which they seethe in a great kettle, untill the third part bee consumed, and then it waxeth thick, it is as sweet as anyHen. Hawke ibid. hony. It is not so sweet as the hony (saith another) of Bee [...], but it is better to be eaten with bread.

In and about the City of Themisti [...]an, besides the hony ofFernand. Cort. t [...]sela. 2. relati­on apud Rh [...] ­m [...]s. 3. volum. He [...]eradecad. 8. l. 5. c. 1. Bees, is hony of the Canes of Maiz, which Canes yeeld very much hony, and as sweet as the juyce of the Sugar-cane.

In Sancta Cruse, and the Country about it, which is in the Pro­vince of Tucuman grow sweet Canes, of which they make very good hony.

The fruit of the Palm-trees growing about Iericho, being [...]rod­denGeor. Cedreus hist. compend. Bedade sanct. loc [...] c. 14. and pressed out, yeeld great quantity of hony.

There grow trees in Palestina with broad and round leaves of a milky-colour, and a hony taste, very brittle by nature, which they eat, rubbing them in their hands. This a certain Bishop,Baron. A [...]nal. Eccles. [...]. 10. called Archulphus, who had visited the Holy-land, supposeth to be the wild-hony that Iohn Baptist lived of in the wilderness. But others say, It was a mountain-hony made by wilde Bees,Is [...]dor▪ Pelusiot 132. l. 5. Theophil [...]in Evang. Ma [...]a [...] 3. bitter, and unpleasant to the pallat. Theophilact wilde hony was made by wilde Bees in trees and rocks.

They get the Palm-wine after this sort in Cong [...], they bore a [Page 157] hole near the top of the tree, whence flows a liquor which theyIa [...]tic. Thes [...] ▪ indicu [...]. receive into pots fastened underneath, at first it is in taste and co­lour like milk, it quickly [...]oureth.

In Crangan [...] they make hony of it after this manner, withinNovus orbis. Iosophu [...] Indi­cus. three dayes (for after of its own nature, it proves vinegar) they boyl it in Caldrons, or Kettles untill two parts bee wasted, and then it is very sweet hony. Of this hony mixed with water, and purged twenty dayes together, they make an excellent sweet wine. I might speak of the Indian Palm, or Coco-tree, which likewise yeelds hony, but I will adde no more.


WAx is either natural or artificial, the natural Wax is the gross part of the combs, containing the hony and Bee-bread, sometimes the Seminaries for generation. And this is either Virgin-wax, or of a courser fo [...]t: the Virgin-wax is thatHelle [...]iu [...] l. 6. Institut Chy­rurg. c. 1. which is made by a swarm, or a stock new driven, not that only which is made by the younger Bees, as Hellerius, for they work altogether.

This is called by some Propolis, as Aldrovand. observes outActuar▪ de compos med [...] of Actuaries. And Scrib [...]nius Largus, It might bee expected, that I should speak somewhat of Propolis, Commosis, Mity, and Pissocera, used anciently in Physick, and supposed to bee made by the Bees. But I can finde no agreement among Philosophers, nor yet Physitians what they are, and am certain that they are not what Aristotle, Pliny, and others determine them to be, and therefore I will leave the discussion to others. Only in a word, Mity saith Aristotle, is the black dross of wax of a sharpArist. de hist. anim. l. 9. c 64▪ Scalig. com. in loc. smell, I suppose he means the feces of the wax when it is melt­ed and strained; Propolis seems, saith Scaliger a translative sir­name of Mity.

Caza translates it Commosis, but Pliny, make a diffe­rencePlin, lib. 11. [...] 7 between Commosis, and Propolis, wherefore Scaliger was of opinion, that Commosis and Mity were different things.

Scribonius takes Virgin-wax (as before) for Propolis▪ Silva­ticus▪ [Page 150] [...]kes it for the dreggs of the combes, but amiss, saith Mouf­fet, and yet he would have it to be Hive dros [...], but whether of a Swarme or a Stock he declares not; between which is a great difference; Andreas Bellunensis, the filth or dross of the sides of the Hive; I subscribe to Sylva [...]icus; Propolis is as much as sub­urbe dross, with which the Bees fasten the skirts of the Hive to the board; it is not saith Mouffet now to be found.

Waxe is thus made by the Bees; they creeping upon the Flowers with their sangs and tongue, as Aristotle and others say, extract a gummy and viscu [...]us matter, which they receive with their fore-feet, and rubbing them on the thighes of their hind­ [...]ee [...], there fasten it, very little at a time, and scarcely visible.

Mouffet saith, the burden is of the bigness of a le [...]til on either thigh, and that it is of divers colours, according to the nature of the Flowers, yellow, pale, red, Saffron colour, white, black, &c. but hee and many others were mistaken, taking Bee-bread for Waxe.

The best Waxe is somewhat yellow, fat, pure, odoriferous,Dioscor. l. [...]. [...]. [...]. Plin. lib. [...]. c. 14 and expressing in some sort a scent of honie; Dioscorides com­mends the Pontick or Cretan, Pliny commends the Punick, and it is called Punick, saith Iacobus Dalechampius, because it is the whitest.

Artificial Wax is that whereto the perfection of it the skill and industry of man is required, and this is variously perfor­med;Johannes Ang­licus in ro [...]a anglica, lib. 5. c. 1 two waies are set down by Anglicus, First, that the Wax should be often melted, every time taking new water un­til it be white. Another way is thus, that when it is dissolved in the water by the fire, to dip into it a Glass vial, or vessel clean rinsed, and that which sticks to it let it be dried in the Sun, and Moon; and this so long continued until you have ga­thered up all the Wax, and then set it abroad in the open air, for it grows white by the force of the Sun (that I say nothing of water) because so the hony is taken out of it, and those parts ex­pire by whose thinness the colour is made.

Waxe as it is newer, so it is better, for it is more odoriferous, pu [...]rer, and apt to take impressions, Waxe is worst at the bottom, best at the top, so that it be not frothy.

The Bees gather Waxe all the year, from the blowing of theMr. Remnant. Willow to the I [...]i [...].

[Page 151]In old Waxe saith Aristotle, there is bred small white Crea­tures, the least of creatures, called Acari, in regard of the small­ness, not devisible, I suppose he means Mites, which are bred al­so in many other things.

The Kingdome of Cha [...]dec [...], watered with the river Ganges, Fran [...]is. Fer­nandus is plentifully stored with Waxe, which in abundance the people finde in the Woods, and therewith supply Bengala, and a great part of India.

The Li [...]nia [...] knew not the use of Waxe, and thereforeAloysius Cado­mustus. pressing out the hony threw it away; Cadomustus reports the like ignorance of the Africans in M [...]uritania.

From the Coast of M [...]li [...]dio, near adjoyning to Madagascar, there is brought one thousand five hundred T [...] of Waxe yearly to Indi [...]. Io. Leo, lib. [...]

Tecule [...] a Town of Hea sendeth Waxe into Portingale; and to Temfethne resort ships from Portingale for Waxe.

In F [...] on Mahome [...]s Birth-day the Schollars of every School,Idem, lib. 3. which are two hundred, celebrate a Feast, when the Fathers are bound to send each man a Torch unto the School, whereupon every Boy carrieth a Torch in his hand, some of which weigh thirty pound; these Torches are most curiously made, being adorned round about with divers fruites, of Waxe, which being lighted betimes in the morning doe burne till Sun rising, when the solemnity ceaseth. This day useth to be very gainful unto the School-masters, for they sell the remnant of the Waxe up­on the Torches for above a hundred Duckets.

The Persians in old time, and also the Africans had a cu­stomeFunerall [...] ­tich [...]d [...] Tho▪ [...]. [...] ▪ Goodwin, Rom. antiquit. lib. [...]. c. 7. stome to wrap up in Waxe their dead, that so they might pre­serve them for a long time.

The Romans in the B [...]rial of a Senator or chief Officer, had certaine waxen Images of all his Predecessors carried before him on long Speares.

Wax was much used anciently, to make the Images of emi­nent persons deceased, as also in our daies, which by many cir­cumstances (as appears) were borrowed of the Romans; who when the deceased Emperour was to be consecrated, the whole City gave over all exercises, as if it had been a Festival day; First, they burned the dead Body with sumptuous exequies, and then they made an Image of Waxe as like as was possible to the [Page 160] deceased, and set it in the porch of the Pallace upon a great bed of Ivory, placed aloft, and covered all over with cloth of gold; this Image lay pale on the Bed as if it had been a Sick Person, about the bed sate a great part of the day all the Sena­tors cloathed in black, and on the left side the Ladies, that in re­gard of their Husbands, or Fathers, were most illustrious, and none of them did wear any gold, or any other ornament about their necks, but were all cloathed in pure white garments, and by their countenance seemed very sorrowful, and they continued thus in this guise seven dayes; but every day the Phisitians came to the body, and made shew of feeling the sick Parties pulse, and alwaies reported that he grew worse and worse, until in the end they said he was dead.

As soon as they had declared him dead, the most noble and proper young men of the Order of the Senators and Cavaleers li [...]ted the bed on their shoulders, and carried it by the Sacred way into the ancient Market, where the Romane Magistrates were accustomed to lay by, and renounce their command and authority.

In this place was erected a Tribunal of Wood, which see­med to be of stone, on which was framed a certaine edifice, sustained on every side with Pillars, and variously garnished with Ivory and Gold, on which was laid another Bed with ornaments of Purple and Gold woven together, and about it, were the heads of divers Sea and Land creatures; now in this Bed they placed this Image of Waxe triumphantly adorned, which they had brought from the Pallace, and there stood a very fair youth with a fan of Peacocks Feathers to scare away the Flies, as if the Emperour slept.

In the meane time while the Image lay there, the living Em­perour, the Senate, and their Wives drew near to the Bed, until they were all met together, there the Ladies [...]ate under the Porch, but the Senators open; on both sides of the Market were set up Scaffolds to ascend on, which on one side were a Quite of noble youths, all pa [...]ricians, and on the side a Quite of illustri­ous Women, which sung Hymns and other Songs in honour of the dead, with sad and mournful voyces. But I must play the Procrustes with this Discourse, and referre them that desire to know further, to Dion, or Herodian Greek Historians.

CHAP. XXV. Observations and Discourses Historical, and Fabulous.

BEfore the battel of Phasilon Bees lighted on the Altar, and alsoRosir [...]s Ro­man. Antiq. l. 3. c. 9. Dion Rom▪ histol. 41. Appian l. [...]. Iulius Capito­linus. on the ships, pres [...]ging Pomp [...]es overthrow; and therefore when in the Army of Bru [...]us, there setled a swarm of Bees, the South-sayers bad him to shift his Camp, le [...]t hee should re­ceive loss and damage in that place.

All the Statues of Antoninus Pius in Hetruria were fil­led with swarms of Bees, which were ominous presages of his Empire.

It was ever esteemed as an ill omen for swarms of Bees toCornel. Taci­tus l. [...]. light in places where they were not accustomed, and therefore reported as a presage of the death of Cloudius, that a swarm of Bees setled on the Capitol.

One speaking of the prodigies that did precede the battel ofSilius Italicus. Canna, saith, that swarms of Bees lighted on their Ensignes.

Nec densae trepidis apumse involvere [...]b [...]s
Cessarum Aquilis.

Among the many Prodigies ominating Brutu [...]'s destruction,Appian de be [...] ­lo civili l. 4. Plin. swarms of Bees lighted in his Camp. Swarms of Bees settled in the Camp of Diusus when hee fought prosperously at Arbala.

Ambrose sleeping in his swadling cloaths having his mouthBaronius Annal. Eccles. [...]. 10. Cicero divina. [...]. Val Max. l. [...]. c 6. [...] Sa [...]isher. de nugis cu [...]l l. [...]. c 13. Iustin l. [...]3. [...] [...] ▪ s [...] de n [...]gis curi [...]l. l. [...]. c▪ 13. open, a swarm of Bees came and setled on his mouth, which the father and mother walking by, forbad the Maid that tended him to brush off, where a while continuing, at last they flew up into the air, untill they could bee seen no more.

Pla [...] sleeping in his swadling cloaths, the Bees brought hony to his lips, foretelling the singular sweetness of his elo­quence.

Hiero sometimes chief Magistrate of Sicilia the son of Hier [...]cli [...]u [...], a Noble-man, who drew his original from Celus, an ancient Tyrant of Sicily, but his mothers stock was mean [Page 162] and contemptible, for hee was born of a Maid-servant, and therefore as a disparagement to his fathers race, was cast forth, whom the Bees (wanting all humane help) sed with hony, which being known, the father by the A [...]gurs counsell received again, and brought up as the Heir of the Kingdome.

Aelian citing Anten [...]r, reports that the inhabitants of a cer­tainAelian l. 2. c. 53 City in Cr [...]ta were forced to forsake their dwellings by certain Bees called Chosichoides, which did miserably molest, and sting them.

The Citizens of Marra, two dayes journey from Antlich, Willer▪ Tyr▪ archiep [...] [...]i [...]t▪ lib. [...]9. & R [...]imun [...] ▪ de Agiles Hist Franc [...] [...]um Appi [...]n de bello Mith [...]y­dat. Bonfin. l. 4. de­ [...]ad. 3. being besieged by Go [...]frey Duke of Bullen, among other things which they threw over the walls to drive away their enemies, cast over Hives full of Bees.

Lucul [...]us Army besieging Themis [...]yra scituate on the banks of the River Thermod [...]o [...], and by Mines seeking to overthrow the w [...]lls, the inhabitants opened them above, and threw in Hives of Bees among them to their great trouble and vexation.

When Amu [...]ah the Great Turk besieged Alba Greca, the Inhabitants, besides other things, cast Hives of Bees among the Turks, whereby they were greatly annoyed.

A Captain of the Emperours being besieged by Giselbert Vitichindus l. 1 gest. Sax. the King of Lorrain, restrained the enemies when they entred the place, by casting hives of Bees; for the horses being en­raged with their st [...]n [...]s, overthrew their Riders, or were alto­ther unserviceable.

Lupus Barriga warring with the M [...]ors in Mauritania, andO orius de [...]e [...] bus Em [...]n. l. 8. besieging a Town called Torn [...]t, the Inhabitants being at the last cast, threw over the walls abundance of hives of Bees, set on fire, wherewith the P [...]r [...]ng [...]ls were so burnt, and stung, that they were forced to give over, with the wounding of their Ge­neral, and many others.

Cozenours and Cheaters were thus anciently punished, theySuida [...]. divested the guilty person of his cloaths, and then anointed him with hony all over his body, and set him in the Sun with his hands and feet fast bound, that by many reiterated stingings, and the Suns heat, they might receive a death, worthy of their life.Georgius Brawn l. 4. u [...]bium pre [...] [...]ar.

In Sivil a City of Spain; if a woman bears her husband▪ shee is carried on an Ass through the City naked from the g [...]dle-sted [Page 163] upwards, and being first anointed with hony, besides other des­pights, and injuries, suffers not a little misery from the Bees, Waspes, and Flies that molest and sting her.

Marcus an old man in the reign of Constantine, overthrewTheo [...]dore. l. 3. c. 7. an Idol Temple at Arethusa, and was taken under Iulian the Apostate, and first scourged on his naked body, and after other punishments, in the last place put in a basket, being all over anointed with hony, and so set abroad, whom the Bees (thinking hee had robbed them) stung therefore to death.

Hermonay the son of Amymer, and Lysodic [...] being a childe, and coming to the Hives to rob the Bees, was killed with their stings.

Onesilus the brother of Gorgus King of Salami [...] in the IsleHerodot. Hall­ear. Terpsicho­re. l. 5. of Cyprus, fighting against Artybius a Persian General, was slain, and his head cut off, and hanged over the gates of Ama­thusium, a City in the same Island, which hee had sometimes be­fore besieged; into which when it was empty, a swarm of Bees entred, and filled it with combs, this is reported at a Prodigy (and doth not prejudice the cleanliness of Bees) for con­sulting the Oracle, they advised to take down the head and bury it.

Livonia is replenished with stately Woods, and those fur­nishedPurchas Pil­grims 3. part. l. 3. c 20. with industrious Bees, which sometimes being nume­rous, are put to hard shifts for habitations. Mr. Barkley an English Merchant, did in one of these Woods eat hony out of a mans skull, wherein a swarm of Bees were, and bred as it hanged.

It is reprorted that in the Sepulchre of Hippocrates, the Prince of Physitians, for a long time a swarm of Bees lived, and wrought hony in it, and that this happened extraordinarily, is concluded, because that Nurses anointing childrens mouths near the grave, with the hony easily cured them.

D [...]onisius the son of Hermocrates swimming over a RiverAelian. var. hist. l. 12. c. 40. upon his horse, his horse was mired, and could not bee pulled out by any means, hee leaped off his back, and go [...] safely to the ba [...]k, and so forsook the horse as no longer his: But the horse followed after, and neighed, whereupon he returned, and when h [...]old on his Ma [...]o mount up, a swarm of Bees encom­pass [...]d his hand, which hung on his Man [...] a presage of his future command and Empire.

[Page 164]The Tr [...]ph [...]nion Oracle was thus found out: When as aP [...]usanias in Beoticis. year or two together, there was no rain, some were sent from every City to Delphos to implore help. To whom desiring a remedy for the drought, Apoll [...] commanded them to go to Labadea, and seek a remedy for their evill of Trophonius. Go­ing therefore to Labadea, but not able to finde the Oracle. S [...]on one of the Ambassadors an old man, when he had espied a swarm of Bees, resolved to follow them withersoever they went. When therefore hee saw them flying to a Cave, hee en­tred in, and understood that place was the Oracle which they sought for.

Comates feeding the flock of his rich Master in Sicily; wasTheocritus l 1. [...]rat. Eidyl. 7. sometimes accustomed to offer somewhat of his flock to the Muses; which when his Master knew, hee reproved him very sharply, whom Comates intreats not to bee angry, for by the Muses help there should be a large remuneration. Go to, saith his Master, let us make trial whether the Muses will feed thee, and inclosed him in a hollow tree, and there left him to perish with famine. And at the years end returning, found his servant alive, and well, and many Hony-combs about him, for the Bees by a hole had entred into the tree, and maintained him.

The Bee master being absent, one came and stole the combesAesop. Fab. 85. out of the Hive, who afterwards returning found his Bees plun­dered, and while he stood still a while to examine and corsider concerning the author of i [...]: The Bees came home from work and finding their house robbed, and him standing by, did fal upon him, and cruelly sting him. To whom hee thus spake, Oh you wicked creatures, you let go unhurt him that robbed you, and punish mee [...]t a [...]am careful of your safety.

Melissa one of the Oread Nymphs finding Hony-combes inNatal. Com. Mythyolog. l. 5. c. 11. Pelopenesus, invited her follows to taste thereof, with the sweet­ness whereof they were so ravished that the Grecians called the Bees by the name of that Nymph.

Iacobus Sanno [...]arius that excellent Poet, hath his figure cutSands relat. l. 4. to the life in Mergelli [...]a (near Naples where he lived) from whose mouth the Bees do seem as it were to suck hony.

Livy doth relate that there was found two Coffins of lead inTet [...]inius. a tomb, whereof one contained the body of King N [...]ma; be­ing some four hundred years after his death; and the other his [Page 165] books of sacred Rites and Ceremonies. And that in the Coffin that had the body, there was nothing at all to bee seen, but a little light cinders about the sides, but in the Coffin that had the books, they were found as fresh as if they had been but newly written, covered over with watch candles of wax, three or fourfold.

Agesipolis a King of the Lacedemonian [...] dying of a FeaverXenophon de rebus gestis Grecorum, l. 5. near the City of Clynthia was preserved in hony, and so carried to Sparta, where hee had a royal Funeral.

Claudius Caesar had a Hippocentaure, a Monster, part horse,Cael. Rhod. lect. ant. l. 6. c. [...] par bull, brought out of Egyp in hony, which Pli [...]y saith he saw.

A [...]s [...]ith the widow of King Edgar, sometimes Monarch of this Island, traiterously slue King Edward his son, that her sonRob. Gleces­trensis. Ethelred his brother in law might (as hee did) succeed him. Some ten years of age was hee when his brother Edward was slain, and hee out of childish affection wept for him bitterly; which his mother extreamly disliking, being author of the murther, onely for his sake, most cruelly, beat him her self, with a handfull of Wax-candles. So that hee would never endureVit. S. Ed apud Ranulph. Cestren. l. 6. Wax-candles. But another Writer saith that Ethelred would never endure any Wax-candles, because hee had seen his mother unmercifully with them, whip his brother in Law, King Edward, either report may bee true.

Now the Sword and Scepter is taken from the Iews, insteadPurchas Pil­grimage l. 2. c. 19. ex Bux­torf. of other penalties they inflict sharp penances according to the nature of the crime. Thus the Adulterer satisfieth for his hot lust in cold water, wherein hee is enjoyned to sit some Winter dayes; and if the water bee frozen, the Ice is cut out, and hee set therein up to his chin, as long as an egge is roasting. In Summer time hee is set naked in an ant-hill his nose, and ears stopped, and after washeth himself in cold water. If the penance seem lighter, they enjoyn him further to run through a swarm of Bees, and when the swelling of his body through their stinging is abated, he must do it again, and again, accord­ing to the measure of his offence. If hee hath often that way offended, hee is bound to indure that penance many years.

Hunding the 23. King of Sweadland, upon a false report ofKrantzius. his brother in Law Hadings death, King of Denmark, invited all his Nobility to a sumptuous feast, to conclude which, hee [Page 166] had provided a very large vessel of Mead, of which hee drew out himself to them untill they were all drunk, and then in token of love to his supposed dead friend, plunged himself into the vessel, and so was willingly drowned (but ridiculously andI. Magnus hist. Suconum. foolishly) some applaud and prefer him therefore, before many heroical Greeks and Romans.

Hostilia is a Town in Italy, watered by the River P [...], thePlin. Nat. hist. l. 21. c. 12. inhabitants whereof (when meat for Bees grows scarce about them) carry their Hives into Boats, and by night convey them up five miles against the stream. In the morning the Bees go forth to their work, and so do they shift places, ascending up the River, till by the sinking of the Boat, they know their Hives to bee full of hony, and then return they home, and take it.

What is the reason why among the Sarma [...]ians there isAmbros. Leo Problem. 180. plenty of hony, and in Africa small store of Bees? And hee renders this as a reason, the plenty of trees, and variety of flowers, which in a few dayes after the snow is dissolved, em­broider all the fields, and the many Fountains and Rivers where­with they are much delighted.

Whereas in Africa, the fruits and the flowers by the violent heat are quickly withered, and the waters are scarce, so that of necessity those things being wanting wherein Bees delight, there must needs bee few, or in some places none at all. His reason is not worth an answer, had hee been read in history, hee might have learned the contrary. Io. Leo, Ioa [...]n dos santos would have (besides many other credible Authors) convinced him of the plenty of Bees in Africa. But no wonder if hee were a stranger abroad that was ignorant of Countries near home.

Hee affirms that in Germany, France, Britain, Italy, there are none, or few Bees, because (if you will beleeve him) there are few trees, fruits, waters.

In Angola they have great store of hony, which they thusAndrew B [...]tel in Purchas Pilgrims se­cond part 17. c. 3. procure, they hang in the top of the Eliconde tree a hollow peece of wood, or chest, which the wilde Bees being there nu­merous, quickly finde, and laboriously fill once in a year with hony and wax; which the Negroes then take with smoke, re­warding the industrious creatures with robbery, exile, death.

It will not bee altogether impertinent to give you a descripti­on [Page 167] of this tree, with which the Bees are more delighted than any other. The Eliconde-tree is very tall, and exceeding great, some as big as twelve men can fathome; spreading like an Oak, some of them are hollow, and from the liberal skies, receive such plenty of water, that they are hospitable entertainers of thousands in that thirsty Region. Once have I known three or four thousand remain at one of those trees, and thence receiving all their warry provision. The Negroes climb up with pegs of hard wood (which that softer easily receiveth, the smoothness, not admitting other climbing) and I think that some one tree holds forty run of water. This tree affords no less bountiful hos­pitality to the back, than belly, yeelding (as her belly to their bel­lies) her back to their backs, excepting that this is better from the younger trees, whose tenderer backs being more seasonable for discipline, are soundly beaten for mans fault; whence came the first nakedness, whereby one fat home cut from the tree, is extended into twenty, and is presently fit for wearing, though not so fine as the the Iuzanda tree yeelds, which▪ yeelds excel­lent cloath from the inner bark.

This tree is alwayes green, of a strange form, especially in theLinschoten [...]. Book. branches that grow very high, and cast down very small threds, which touching the earth do bring forth roots, from whence other plants o [...] trees do spring forth most abundantly in great numbers. By like beating of their Palm, they make Velvets, Sattins, Taffeties, &c. But I deviate too far from my sub­ject.Beat Rhenan. annot. in 1. lib. Tertul. advers. Marcion. And Thevet. Gosmograph [...] de Levant. c. 7.

The burning of Waxen-candles on Candlemass-day had its original from the Roman Sacrifices called Pebruals.

Bears are much tormented in their eyes, which is a principal cause why they so much desire to eat hony out of the Hives, that being prickt, and stung with the Bees, their throat, especi­ally receives a phlebotomy, or blood-letting, for they have no better remedy to ease their brain and eyes burdened, and over­charged with humo [...]s.

In the Island of S [...]ylan are certain barbarous people calledTexeira l. 1. c. 35. Pa [...]bus, they live naked in the woods and thickets, their principal food is Dears flesh, whereof there is great abundance, which they shoot and kill with their arrows, and cutting them in peeces, filling the trunks of old hollow trees with hony, whereof they [Page 168] have plenty, then they put the flesh therein, and let it remain there till times of necessity, and then eat it, conserving it onely in the hony, without any corruption.

In the Country of Benin on the coast of Africa, is such plen­tyHackluit [...] Voyages, 2. part of the 2 Volume. of hony, that the Natives bring to the English trading there, earthen pots of the quantity of two gallons full of hony, and hony-combs for a hundred shells.

About Sofala, and generally in the Oriental Ethiopia, breedJoaon. dos Santos liuro primeiro da Ethiop. Orient c. 23. Zangaons (if I be not not mistaken, Bees) after this manner. They make a ball of clay, and stick it in the walls or tiles of their houses, with many holes after the fashion of a Bees, or Waspes-comb, and in every hole they put a Worm or Maggot, like those that breed in Cabbages, some green, others black, others white, others gray; so that they are not all of one kinde, or cast; but whatsoever they finde, they take and carry it unto the comb that they have made of clay, and in every hole they put a worm, and stop it up with fresh clay, and so inclose all the worms in their several cells, and there within they generate other Zangaons, (or Bees) (understand by generation of others, onely their transmutation, whereby they are others from what they were, and the following words import as much) with legs and wings, which when they are perfected, eat through the clay, and come forth, and slye, and after they are grown great, they make a like brood. So that of strange children of divers casts or kindes, they make proper children. A thing, saith the Author which much amazed mee. But whether these make hony, or are any wayes beneficial to them, the Relator is silent; but being a general practice, it is more than probable that they are some way profitable.

Great is the profit of Bees in some places, Varro reports ofVarro. two brethren in Spain, who had left them by their father a little Farm house, and about an Acre of ground which they reple­nished with Bees, and seldome made less of their hony, then ten thousand Ses [...]ertia yearly, a prodigious, and I think un­parelleld increase.

Menna a Hermite in the Province of the Samnites, had for his subsistence, only a few Hives of Bees, which when a Lo [...]gobard thief had stoln, he was possest of the Devil, till Menna by his prayers freed him.

[Page 169] Heraclius the Emperour having Warre with the Persia [...]s, Baron. annal. Eccles. [...]. 8 and wanting mony (the people being before impoverished by him, sent one Nicotas to Alexander the Patriarch to borrow of him the Treasures of that Church (as he did of others) who notwithstanding his refusal, carried away all he could finde but only one hundred pound of Gold; but while they were going a­way with it, there were certaine men that brought, as a Present, several Pots of Hony (which by a Miracle) to supply the Pa­triarks necessities, when they opened them they found all turned into Gold.

I subscribe not to some Papists, who pretend there is aValfridus, Strabus, lib. 2. in vita S. Galli. great Majesty in their Holies (whole-lyes) from the burning of Waxen Candles, and that waxe candles for that purpose used, cannot without great Sacriledge be taken away.

A certaine Country-man stole a waxe candle from the Altar, and found it turned into a stony hardness, whereby melting, he acknowledged his guilt before many that stood by, and the waxe candle recovered his former softness. I might be large in such Legendary relations, but these are enough, if not too many.

CHAP. XXVI. Observations Physical and [...]hyrurgical.

THe use of Hony with Bread to old folks makes them live long for it keeps and preserves all the senses sound and entire. It is reported that Pollio being asked by what means men might live long and healthy, answered, by anoynting their outward parts with Oyle, their inward parts with Hony. The fruit therefore of the Bees, saith Ambrose, is desired of all, and is equally sweet to Kings and Beggers; and it is not only pleasing to Princes, but also profitable and healthful, it sweetens their mouthes, cures their wounds, and convaies remedies to inward Ulcers.

Democritus continued his life with the frequent eating of Hony; and bread with Hony was the Pythagorians meat. [Page 170] Aristoxenu [...] said, they might live long without Diseases whoAtheneus dipnosophist. l. 2. c. 3 Gorop. Becant Nilostop. lib. 3 always sed of it at dinner.

Goropius commends the hony gathered of the Heath, before the Spanish hony gathered of Ladanum, and divers kindes of Costus, and that because it is sweeter, and not so hot as the hony gathered of Stechados and Thyme; it opens obstructions, at­tenuates gross and thick, cuts and cleanseth viscuous humours, and is especially profitable for those that are troubled with the spleen.

Pliny most of all commends that hony which the Bees gather in the Dogg-dayes, almost thirty dayes after the Solstice, for saith he, after the rising of every Starre, especially the greater ones, or the Raine-bow, if showers follow not, and there be a warme dew with the rayes of the Sun, Medicines, not hony are produced, heavenly gifts for the eyes, ulcers, and bowels, which if it be preserved, the Dogge-star being risen, and if by chance it fall out in the same day there be a rising of Venus, or Iupiter, or Mercury, there is no such sweetness nor vertue in the suppo­sed heavenly Nectar, to keep Mortals from Diseases, though otherwise deadly; but we have little of this in our Country, where the Hony-gathering is then almost finished, but that which is found in the lower parts of the combes, and some little that is not shut up with waxen covers.

Hony is hot and dry in the second degree, wherefore Galen forbids it such as were Hectical, have a Feaver, or the Jaun­dies, and young men; but commends it very much in cold ef­fects, and prescribes it to such as had moyst stomacks, for mo­derately eating of it, it wonderfully nourisheth, and causeth both a good colour and constitution.

Hony with age or long boyling becomes bitter; it gives life to Wine when it is flat, Flowers, Fruites, and all simple and com­pound Medicines by mixture of it are preserved from putre­faction.

Hony corrupts by crumbes of Bread, and therefore they that sell hony, are careful lest children passing by dip their bread in it, and so it is transmuted into Ants, or little Creatures like them, if we beleeve Paracelsus. Paracelsus. Hippocrat.

Hony mixt with other things nourisheth, and makes a good colour, but eaten alone attenuates rather than refresheth, for it [Page 171] provoketh urine, and purgeth too much.

Hony warmes and cleares Wounds and Ulcers, attenuatesGalen & Avicen. and discusseth excrescencies in any part of the body.

It is very effectual to produce hair in baldness, for QuotidianGalen. Agues, especially oyle of hony distilled.

Distilled water of hony makes a smooth skin, provokes urine, diminisheth heat in Feavers, easeth the obstructions of the bowels, quencheth thirst.

The salt of hony of all Corrosives is least painful, and most energetical, and therefore in the flesh of the yard by Chymicks, and expert Chyrurgians especially commended.

The Epicures who chiefly studied health and pleasure, did eat continually Ambrosia, which consisted of a tenth part ofTzeizes. honie, as Tzetzes reports, concluding that the daily use there­of would prevent griefs, and keep them free from Dis­eases.

Hony infused warme by it self wonderfully helps, exulceratedGalenus. ears, especially if they cast forth ill favours, as also their singings and inflammations.

Hony, Butter, and Oyle of Roses, of each a like quantityMarcellus Empyricu [...]. warme, helps the paine of the ears; he also commends Hony, and infants dung brayed together in the dulness of the sight, and for white spots in the eyes.

The rheume or droppings of the eyes in men or horses areVigetius: hereby helped, I have cured a Horse stone blinde with Hony and Salt, and a little crock of a pot mixed, in less than three daies, it hath eaten off a tough filme, and the Horse never com­plained after.

Hony wherein Bees are drowned, or Ashes of the heads ofMarcellus Empyrious. Bees, with hony, clear the eyes; A [...]tick hony, with the first dung of a young infant, and the milk of the Nurse mingled toge­ther, and annoynt the eyes that are dull upon what occasion so­ever, but first binde the party, for such is the violence of the Medicine that he cannot otherwise patiently endure it, and the benefit is so forcible, that in the third day it wil make a clear sight.

Nothing is better for infants that breed Teeth, or in the Ulcers of the mouth than butter and hony; Galen prescribes only the gums to be rub'd with it, for it conduceth wonderfully to the [Page 172] generation, conservation, and whiteness of teeth: for difficulty of breathing, and to cause spitting, hony alone or mixed, is veryHippocrat. availeable.

Hony boyled with Bees, or new Cheese, stayeth a looseness,Galenus & Celsus. Abynzoar. helps the Bloudy-flux and Chollick. But before hony be used it is necessary to clarifie it; Thus, take of hony and fountaine wa­ter of each two pound, continually scum it as it ariseth, to the consumption of the water, afterwards clarifie it with the whites of twelve eggs.

Hony nourisheth not only because it is a kinde of nourishment,Valleriola in locis com. lib. 3 but also because mixed with other things, it is a cause that they are more easily carried through the body; and he counsels old men to use it much, if they would have a care of their health, and live long without Diseases, and he asserts it by the examples of Antiochus the Phisitian, and Telephus the Grammarian, who were old men, and did eate Attick hony and bread; and Galen Galen lib. 3. de sanitat [...]uend. c. 4. &c. 8 testifieth the same, with often eating hony boyled, seldome raw, and yet Galen forbids long, or too much boyling, because it will make it bitter.

Celsus reckons up boyled hony among such things as stop aCornelius Celcus, lib. [...]. c. 3 Lask, the reason is, because the acrimony by boyling is taken a­way, which is wont to move the belly, and to diminish the ver­tue of the food.

The bodies of Bees taken newly from the Hives, and pow­dered, and drunk with Diuretick wine, powerfully cures the Dropsie, and breaks the Stone, opens the fountaines of urine, and heals and helps the stoppages in the bladder.

Bees drowned in hony, and so killed, stay vomitings, and are profitable for deafness.

Bees powdered cure the Wind-collick, mollifie hard ulcers in the lips, and also the Bloudy-flux.

Hony mixed with powdered Bees and so taken, is helpful forHoller [...]u [...]. the crudities of the stomack, it is also good for the stomach.

Pound Bees dead and dry in the combes, mingle them withGalen in Eu­poristis. hony, and annoynt bald places of the head, and the hairs wil spring afresh.

The ashes of Bees ground with oyle, make hair white. [...]rotis, c. 6. de mo [...]bis mu­lieb [...].

Take twelve or fourteen Bees powdered, in any thing every morning, and it helps such whose retentive faculty is weak, so that they cannot hold their water.

[Page 173]Oxymel is made of water, vinegar, and hony, now water isMesue. mingled with it, that by long boyling that may be resolved or loo­sened which the windiness raiseth up, and that it may be more readily skimmed. In a word, that the working of the Medicine, by the mixing of water might be weaker, and more easily dis­persed into the body, and hony is added to resist the [...]legme.

One ounce of hony and vinegar mixed together ariseth a certain third faculty which was in neither of them before, which is most powerful and certaine to attenuate, cut, resolve thick and tough excrements, which have been bred a long time in the Stomack and Liver, and those that settle on the joynts, and cause lasting Agues.

It is made thus, take of vinegar one part, two parts hony, and twice as much water as hony; first, let the hony and water be boyled, and when they have been well skimmed put in the vinegar, and boyle them still, continually skimming them, let them boyle till there be an unity of qualities, and the vinegar beGalen. lib. 4, de sanitat. t [...] ­end. not raw, or crude, it is given from one ounce to three; Galen saith, if you will make it the stronger, adde as much vinegar as hony; it drives out thick and gross humours, and is profitable for the Sciatica, Falling-sickness, and the Gout; good also to gargarize with, in a Squinancy.

Water distilled of hony four times by a Limbick, so that the hony were first boyled, makes beautiful hair, kills Lice and Nits; the hair wet there with doth not only become yellow, but softer, and increaseth likewise, especially if it bee done in the Sun; it heals swollen or bloud-shotten eyes, and helps the hurt corners of the eyes, it is excellent for burnt places, most of all for such as are soft and tender, so that no scar will be left.

It must be distilled in a Glass Still, but first mixe with it pure and well washed Sand, and make a soft fire. The first water is cast away, the second is preserved, which hath a gol­den colour, and red at the last; the red purgeth out corruption in putrid wounds if they be washed with it, and a linnen cloth moystened in it, be laid upon them, and when it hath purged them, it produceth flesh.

Hony when it is distilling is wont to swell, and flow over when it grows hot, this is prevented when the distillation is performed by a woodden Sieve (made with hair) being [Page 174] placed within the cover, so that it toucheth the hony.

Reubeus distilleth it otherwise, and adds other cautions: heHieron. Ru­beus, sect. 2. c. 8 saith, the water is with difficulty drawne out of the hony, be­cause it readily as the fire grows hot, ascends to the top; wherefore some mingle glass with it, others sand, the most doe annoynt the Still within with oyle; but it is best distilled espe­cially where they purpose to use the dregg [...], by wetting linnen cloathes in water continually, and spreading them on the head and sides of the Still, and a soft fire below, by which the swel­ling thereof is resisted, and leaving much vacu [...]ty and empti­ness in the Still, so that it be filled a fifth, or at the most a fourth part; but because sometimes a larger fire is necessary, the cucurbite must be well crusted with clay. It is excellent for a Catarrh, Cough, Spleen, &c.

Oyle also is distilled out of hony, let hony in the combes beeAndernacus dial. 7. com. 2 put into an earthen vessel, and well macerated in warme Horse­dung, until the waxe being separated from the hony, swims a­lost, which being taken off, let some Flint stones be mi [...]gled with the hony, and little peeces of glass; the first water when it is distilled is very sharp, and then comes the oyle. It is singu­lar for the Gout, and for the cure of all Wounds.

Oyle of Waxe is thus made, let two pound of new odorise­rousAldr. lib. [...] ▪ de Insect. waxe be melted in a Frying-pan, and then poured out into a vessel filled with Muskadine, or other generous Wine, and let it continue there until it be cold, after taken out and squeezed well with your hands, and againe melted and poured into the Wine as before, and let it be seven times reiterated; and then let it be melted againe, and three handfuls of beaten Bricks put into it, let them be well mixed together, and being all cold, let them be put into a Glass Limbeck well stopt with clay, and the joynts well lined therewith, that there be no expiration; then let a little fire be made underneath until the Cytron phlegme ceaseth to run, and then let another vessel be set under, and the fire a little increased, until the drops be first thick, and then of a Cytron colour; and lastly, drop true oyle of waxe, and let this be received in a proper vessel, mixed with the thick droppings, and let it be made thick, and like butter congealed. And now the fire must be enlarged until thick drops dot againe distill, which as soon as you see let the vessel that receiveth the [Page 175] oyle bee removed, and another placed to receive the re­mainder.

Oyle of wax heals the cracks and chaps of the lips or paps,Mizaldus ap­pendix ad cen­tutias. and hinder not the childe from sucking, and take off all super­fluous excrescences by drying, and are especially good in cold griefes. It is good for them that are troubled with the stone, provokes urine, helps the Palsie, Sciatica, contracted nerves by anointing or drinking of it; kills worms of all sorts, helps the pain of the back, cures a distempered spleen, a drop injected into the nostrils opens their obstruction. It conserves the memory, confirms the brain, asswageth the Toothach, brings forth the dead or living childe, opens the veynes, frees the lungs from thick superfluities, with sirrup of Violets, helps the Astmatick, cures running eyes, &c.

Wax, saith Galen, after a sort, holds a middle of things thatGalen lib. 7. de simpl. heat, cool, moisten, and dry, and hath some kinde of thick and stopping parts, and therefore it may seem not onely to dry, but by accident also perhaps to moisten, hindring perspirations; and therefore is the matter both of heating, and also cooling medicines, and although forbidden to bee taken inwardly, yet some make Pills of wax, and others mix it with other costives, and give it for a violent loosness.

Dioscorides prescribes it in broth for ulcers of the bowels, forDioscorid. l. 2▪ c. 75. all wax saith hee, mollifies heats, moderately fills the bodies (which as Dalechampius expounds, produceth flesh) in hol­lowDalechamp. l. 22. c. 24. ulcers, and Pliny confirms the same.

New wax, and soft, saith Galen, is better than old, for medicines; yellow wax for the aery nature, doth mollifie, more loosen, and resolve the malady. And therefore new wax is often prescribed, for being often melted, it loseth the aery nature, is more earthly, and answers white wax: And white wax is most refrigerating, is most profitable for inflamed rains where the matter is to bee repelled, which yet, saith Aldrovandus, is neglected by practitioners in Physick.

There may bee admirable baths made of hony, which areMr. Remnant. excellent for Aches, and strong Itches, Mr. Remnant saith, that a friend of his had such a foul itch, that hee was like a Leper, whom hee thus cured:

Hee took an empty Wine cask, called a Pipe, and took out [Page 176] one head, and made a liquor of water and hony, making it pretty strong with the hony, and heat it as hot as hee could en­dure to stand in it, and put it into the Pipe, and caused him to stand in it up to his neck a pretty while, and this hee did three dayes one after another, and hee was recovered as clear as ever. The like experience hee made for Aches. If they bee renewed with a little hony every day it will bee better.

In the Northern Regions are few Physicians, but the health­fullOlao Magno hist. delle cose sep [...]entrion, l. 22. c. 16. aire, wholesome food, and especially their Mead are instead of the best physick.

Mead, the elder it is, being well boyled, some say, ten, or twelve years old, is most sovereign, and a present remedy for many diseases.

Mead, or Hydromel is of two sorts, the weaker, and theButler Fem. Mon. part, 2. stronger, Mead, and Metheglin.

For the making of Mead, if the Must, when it is altogether, bee not strong enough to bear an egg, the breadth of two pence above it, then put so much of your course hony into it, as will give it that strength, which is sufficient for ordinary Mead. And afterwards untill night, ever now and then stir it well about the tub: According to the quantity that you will make, so must you add a proportionable measure of hony and water, namely six of water for one. The learned Physitian Lobel, requireth thisMathi [...]s de Lobel. proportion of six to one to bee boyled to four. His receit of Spices is Cinamon, Ginger, Pepper, Grains, Cloves, ana two drams. The second morning put to the Must the scum of the hony, stir all together, and stop the tub a little back­ward. When it hath setled an hour or two, draw it out to bee boyled. And when you see the grounds begin to come, stay and let the rest (save the very thick grounds, which cast to your Bees) run into some vessell by it self, which when it is settled, pour out into the boyling vessel through the clean sieve, and east out these grounds also into you garden.

This Must being set over a gentle fire, when you see the scum gathered thick all over, and the bubbles at the side, begin to break it, having slacked the fire, to cease the boyling, skim it clean. Then presently make a fresh fire to it: And when you see the second scum ready, having slacked the fire again, take it quickly away; then make to it the third fire, and let it boyl to [Page 177] the wasting of a fourth part, if it bee made of the washing of combs; and to the wasting of one fifth or sixth part, if it be made of clean hony; not ceasing in the mean space to take off the scum as clean as you can. One hours boyling may suffice; but if the Mead bee of clean hony, it may as well bee done in half the time. Instead of twice slacking the fire, you may twice cool the boyling Must with cold Must reserved; or else bee sure that it do boyl all the while onely at one side, and not all over. After all this put in the Spices, viz. to a dozen gallons of the skimmed Must, Ginger one ounce, Cynamon half an ounce, Cloves, and Mace ana two drams, Pepper, and Grains, ana one dram, all gross beaten, the one half of each being sowed in a bag, the other loose, and so let it boyl a quarter of an hour more.

The end of boyling is throughly to incorporate the boorn and the hony, and to purge out the dross, which being once done, any longer boyling is unprofitable, as diminishing more the quantity than increasing the strength and goodness of the Hydromel.

As soon as it is boyled enough, take it from the fire, and set it a cooling; the next day when it is setled, pour it through a hair sieve, or linnen bag into the tub (reserving still the Lees for the Bees) and there let it stand covered three or four dayes till it work, and let it work two daies. Then draw it through the tapwaze, and run it into a barrel scalded with Bay-leaves, ma­king the Spice-bag fast at the tap. If there remain much grounds, you may purifie them by boyling and skimming, as be­fore; but this will never bee so good as the first, and therefore you may put it by it self, or with some remainder of the best, into a small vessel to spend first before it be soure. If the Mead bee not much, you may run it the next day, and let it work in the barrel. Being tunned it will in time bee covered with a mother; which if by jogging the vessel, or by other means it bee broken, the Mead will turn sowre. But so will it make excellent vinegar, and the sooner, if it bee set in the Sun, which the longer you keep, the better it will bee.

Metheglin is the more generous or stronger Hydromel, for it bear­eth an egg the breadth of a groat or sixpence, and is usually made of finer hony, with a less proportion of water namely four measures [Page 178] for one; receiying also in the composition as well certain sweet, and wholesome herbs, as also a larger quantity of Spices, namely to every half barrel, or sixteen gallons of the skimmed Must, Eglantine, Marjerom, Rosemary, Time, Winter-savoury, ana half an ounce; and Ginger two ounces, Cynamon one ounce, Cloves, and Mace ana half an ounce, Pepper, Graines, ana two drams, the one half of each being bagged, the other boyled loose. So that whereas the ordinary Mead will searce last half a year; good Metheglin the longer it is kept, the more de­licate, and wholesome it will bee; and withall▪ the clearer and brighter.

One excellent receit, I will here recite, and it is that which our renowned Queen of happy memory did so well like, that she would every year have a vessel of it.

First, Gather a bushel of Sweet-briar leaves, and a bushel of Time, half a bushel of Rosemary, and a peck of Bay-leaves; See the al these, being well washed, in a furnace of fair water; let them boyl the space of half an hour, or better; and then poure out all the water and herbs into a fat, and let it stand till it bee but milk-warm, than strain the water from the herbs, and take to every six gallons of water, one gallon of the finest hony, and put it into the boorn, and labour it together half an hour, then let it stand two dayes, stirring it well twice or thrice each day. Then take the liquor and boyl it a new; and when it doth see the, skim it as long as there remaineth any dross. When it is clear, put it into the fat, as before, and there let it bee cooled. You must then have in readiness a tub of new Ale, or Beer, which as soon as you have emptied, suddenly whel [...] it upside down, and set it up again, and presently put in the Metheglin, and let it stand three dayes a working, and then tun it up in barrels, tying at every tap hole by a Pack-thred, a little bag of Cloves and Mace, to the value of an an ounce. It must stand half a year be­fore it bee drunk.

If you marvel that so great a quantity of water is required, it is partly because of the goodness of the hony, which being pure and fine, goeth further than ordinary; and partly that it may have the longer time in boyling before i [...] come to its strength, and therefore some will have eight parts of water to one of hony, but then they boil it so much the longer. The third part at least being wasted.

CHAP. XXVII. Of diver [...] kinds of Wild-Bee [...].

THere is one kind not half so bigge, as a Hony-Bee, with a bright shining green head and fore-part; she hath longer horns than a Hive-bee, she hath four wings, her neather part is of a light shining Carnation on the out-side, the belly of a greenish shining glistring colour, almost as bright as the shining of a Glo-worm, with a very large long sting (not forked) or some­what like to a sting▪ I could not force it to enter it into my hand, whether it wil sting I know not; that which is equivalent to the skin is as it were continued without ringles; this Bee is very strong, gathers as the Hive-Bee sandaracha; and breeds in holes of old posts, divers near one another, we may call her the gli­string Bee.

There is another sort of Wild-Bee which is very laborious, she is not so great as a Hive-Bee by a third part, but in shape and making altogether like her, the mouth opens side-ways, where­with she holds very fast, like pinchers, her hinder leggs are of a tawny colour, the ringles of her hinder part gray, the rest of a blewish black, her fore-part is partly black, and partly gray, she useth to abide (if my memory deceive me not) in Brick-walls, in holes in the morter between the Bricks, many neat one ano­ther; we may call her the Mortar-Bee.

There is another sort not half so great as the former, but grayer, she diggs or mines perpendicularly into stiffe clay ground in High-ways, or Foot-path sides, the earth that she works out, lyes round about her hole like the casting of a Worme, but much siner; after she hath entred three inches right down, she makes traverse holes one under another, sometimes two, some­times three in breadth, as several cels, or chambers where she breeds her young, which are not Worms at first, but have a perfect shape of a Bee, herein concurring with the Queen-bee, and though she be laborious, and gathers much Bee-bread, yet could I never finde any thing provided before-hand, or laid up in any cell, but all is consumed by the young, of which I have found neer forty belonging to one down-right hole (not come to [Page 180] maturity, and maintained by one) all in several cels or Partiti­ons one above another, the transverse holes being open to the down-right, that so they may be visited and fed by the bree­ding or Mother-Bee, which confirmes my former assertion of the old Bees feeding the young. This sort of Bee is very Politi­cal, living by hundreds, nay thousands near one another, but each in a distinct mansion, we call them the Earth-Bee.

There is another s [...]r: about the length of a Hive-Bee, but broader and greater made, like a small Humble-Bee, but diffe­ring in colour, she hath a round head, broad face, with long horns on the head, a ring of yellow turning upwards, above the mouth the chaps are indented, and hold like Pincers, the back and head are of a dark [...]usset, six dew-clawed feet of a light browne, she hath four wings, her neather part is of a dark black, with five yellow spots on either side of the edges of every ringle, she hath a broad tayl; this kinde copulates often openly, while she is at work all the Summer; she pur [...]es, or darts too and fro as she gathers, without a Sting, makes a louder and clearer sound than the Hive-Bee.

There is also a smaller sort of this kind, in nothing differing but in the magnitude, these breed in clay-walls of houses and b [...]rns, in holes in the clay which they make many together, like several inhabitants to make a Town, but each hath her peculiar house, or hole.

There is another sort of wild Bee, altogether as long as a Horne [...], but the neather part not above half so great; it hath eight ringles, the three next the incision of a shining black, the four next towards the tayl, which grow all less one then the o­ther downwards, of a light Orange, and the tayl of a bright brown, the fore-part and wings (which are but two) and belly are of an Orange colour, the head not very round, the mouth piked, or like a Birds bill, but the lower chap longer than the upper, which opens not sidewaies as other Bees, but one over the other, two short horns on the head, but two wings orange coloured, somewhat shorter than the body, six dew-clawed feet of an Orange colour likewise, she buzzeth not so loud and smart as the Scarabee, she lives by foot-path sides, and bare pla­ces of fields, of a quick sight, and not easily taken, without a sting, copulates frequently, feeds on Flies and Grashoppers, [Page 181] and this observe as a general rule, that few of those sorts that have but two wings gather Bee-bread; I might describe divers others, but not being able to recite any particulars of them, I will not trouble the Reader any longer.

CHAP. XXVIII. Of the Waspe.

A Waspe is a flying oblong Insect with four wings, of a bright Ash-colour, the two inmost neither half so long, nor so large as the out-most, six yellow dew-clawed feet mixed with Chesnut-colour towards the extremities, two black move­able horns on the head, growing on either side as high as the top of the eyes, the head is black and hairy, the fore-head divided into three yellow spots, with a black stroke down the middle, the jaws yellow without, black at the mouth, the jaws hath not the solidity of a bone, but is like a strong gristle, indented like a Saw, the back is for the most part of a shining black, and the belly also, the neather part is a bright yellow in the scales, but black bars, in the opening of the upper scale, the black in largeth it self towards the middle of the scale; and lastly, she hath a ve­nemous spear where with she wil prick often (contrary to the Bee) for it is not barbed.

The Waspes Nest is begun of one, not many mother Waspes or breeders as some imagine; the mother Waspes goe not a­broad after they have b [...]ed many young, but are maintained by their posterity at home; whether the old breeders continue lon­ger than a year Aristotle questions, and Scaliger likewise, but determine not, it being a secret not then known; but it is ap­parent they continue no longer, for their wings are worn, and thereby are they disabled for flight, much more for bree­ding.

The mother Waspes have stings, and use them, and the rea­sonArist▪ de hist. [...]nim. lib. 9▪ c▪ 65. of their abode at home, is not because they are great and heavie bodied (as some) for their wings are proportionable to their bodies, but with their much working in the Spring, making their Nests alone, breeding and feeding their young they wear [Page 182] their wings, and therefore after a while stirre not abroad, but order all at home.

The Waspes Nest is made for the most part in the ground, (sometimes in the thatch of a house) in a hole begun by a Mouse, or Mole, not very deep, about a foot and a half, some­times two foot from the entrance, for the manner of their work, making of their combes, breeding and feeding, they doe almost wholly agree with the Hornet and the Bee, for Bees, Hornets,Scalig. com­ment. in Arist, de hist, lib. 5. c. 19. and Waspes are alike in all, as an Asse, Horse, and Oxe, and how Hornets breed. See Cap. 10. pag. 89.

The Waspes Nest is made Oval, some consist of eight combes or stories one beneath another, fastned strongly by many peggs, or pins one to another, about three quarters of an inch distance between combe and combe, the middle combes are a­bout nine inches in the Diameter, all round, and the whole in­volved with a five or six doubled folding, or watered cover, yet all wrought into one intire peece, consisting of the same matter with their combes, being greenish, russet▪ and g [...]ay, whereas the combes are of a dark russet, with only one hole through the middle of the cover, bigge enough for one Waspe to enter at once; the cover is fastned with some pins to the ground, or rootes in the earth.

The middle of each combe is somewhat Piramidall, bending upwards, and hollower in the inside than the outward part of the combe, and the center hath a very strong pin to fasten it to the next combe, which [...]uns like the axeltree or maine post through them all, and in less space than every inch in the whole breadth, are rows of pins, or pillasters, which fasten each combe very firmely to the next, so that they wil not easily be separated. And here in they see me to have been exempla [...]s of Architecture rather than Bees, fashioning all their combes orderly, strongly, u [...]efully▪ and comely; the pins or props are framed broader, & big­ger, both at the top and bottome, than in the middle, with two or three butteresles both above and below, where by they hold more strongly, and being small in the middle, less hinder their passage about the combes.

The Waspes combes are plaine on the upper part, but filled and furnished with hexangle cells downwards, the cells are not so deep, nor yet so long as the Bees, and they are not made [Page 183] straight but asloop, that the young may not so readily fall out as they would if they were directly downwards.

The seed is at first almost as small as a Mustard-seed, of aArist. de hist. Animal. l. 5. c. 19. darkish white, not spherical, but oval, and they fasten it not to the bottome of the cell (sed ad cella latus apum more, saith Aristotle) but to a corner or angle a pretty distance above the bottome, and observe (for the most part) an exact order in disposing of their seed, that they keep the same angles in every cell, not one in an angle of the South-side of a cell, and another in an angle of the North, or the East, but all in the South, so that the seed lyes or­derly in rows: But if one layes her seed in the con [...]mry angle (as sometimes, though seldome) then the next takes it for a rule, and it is punctually observed perhaps through a whole range of cells.

This seed being hatched (for the manner how, see the tenth Chapter) grows a little while by vertue of the seminal power, it sticks at one end, bending towards the middle of the cell, but somewhat erected (or rather dejected, for the head is down­ward) that it may receive food, and when it fills the breadth of the cell, it grows loose, and falls (or to speak properly ascend [...]) to the bottome of the cell, for the mouth of the cell is down­wards raising it self; and now the mouth of the worm begins to bee visible, and it is daily fed, as wee noted of the Bees (for they are Insects of the same nature) but some what degenerating;Georglus Pis­catorius. and Pliny saith, in fae [...]u, eadem prope natura quae apibus, and grows to the full dimension of the cell: when as wee noted in the Hornet, it grow [...] dull and torpid, and refusing meat is shut up by a cover wrought over the head: But to return back a little.

At first, after the seed is hatched, it is oval towards the head, near to the tail there is a blackish spot; It will contract it self almost round, sometimes as a Caterpiller, when it moves, as if it would go, for indeed the worm makes no progressive mo­tion.

If you break the worm, in the body is a thick watteish hu­mour, with a harder substance, like a black list in the middle of it, and that from end to end.

The transmutation begins to bee first visible in the superior part, and the eyes are first discerned, and the incision between [Page 184] the head and the shoulders, which yet as it grows more perfect, becomes smaller, the middle incision is scarcely visible, when the eyes may bee seen, then the legs, and the horns begin to bee framed, and the wings are last finished. When they are per­fect, they thrust up the covers over their heads which hang at their backs until they come forth.

They excern an excrement while they feed, which is contained under them in the bottome of the cells, but assoon as the young cut their way forth, the older Waspes carry it out of the neast.

The young Waspes (though the combes bee taken out of their nensts) that are shut up (not the other, for they must bee fed, or they will dye in three or four dayes) will come to life, and perfection, although slowly, because of the small heat; but for above three weeks I have had them in a chamber successive­ly come to perfection.

They gather no hony, that is, make it, rob they do, but thenScaliger com. in Arist. de hist. l. 5 c. 19. Arist. in loc. pred. they spend it as fast as they get it, yet Scaliger saith mellificant, they begin to breed in the latter end of the Spring, contrary to Aristotle, who saith, they breed not in the Spring, but Autumn, whereas they miscarry by the end of Autumn.

They breed first their own kinde, and by the end of August, ordinarily have fledge Drones, which are about the greatness of an old working Wasp, but somewhat longer, whose covers they heighten above the combs when they shut them up, but in cells no greater than the Waspes.

The Drones have no sting, they have two testicles, which on crushing are easily discovered, and they are coated with a hard black tunicle, joyned together like a pair of breeches, sharper towards the point, but broader upwards, and at the upper end not coated, but full of a whitish liquor; the testicles are some­what like, but that they are united together to the young coated Grashoppers whilst they are in the dams belly.

The Drones are not of so bright a yellow as the Waspes, and their moveable horns are a great deal longer, yea longer than the mother Wasps horns, which they spread very wide like a fork, but not right forth, widening them by degrees, and towards the tops, bending them side-wayes.

Presently after they begin to breed Drones, they breed also mother Waspes, which are twice, nay almost thrice as great as [Page 185] the Drones, these begin to forsake the neast about a week in September, and so daily as they come to perfection, being first made prolifical by the Drones with whom they couple. The Drones continue in the neast, as long as the working Wasps, namely untill the wet, and cold in October puts a period to their lives. Whereas the mother Wasps, as soon as they have en­gendered, with the Drones flye forth, and shrowd themselves in hollow trees, thatch, or such like places, where they lye in a dead sleep without feeding till March, when the first warm weather revivies them, and causeth them to flye abroad, and then they feed, but if after they have been a while abroad, the Spring bee very cold and wet, they then for the most part, mis­carry, and dy.

For the mother Wasps, they make larger hexangle cells in the lowest combs than for ordinary Wasps, and also inlarge the covers above the combs near a quarter of an inch higher than the comb, the covers and highings are very white like fine white paper.

The young Wasps are somewhat gray at first, and after turn to a bright yellow, and the Bees are more white at first, and after turn to a bright brown.

Aristotle doubted whether the Wasps lost their stings inArist. de hist. Animal. l. 9. c. 65. Winter; while they are in a deep, or dead sleep, they exercise them not, but revive them by a fire, or in your warm hand, and you may experimentally affirm the contrary. That they did co­pulate, Aristotle; acknowledgeth, but whether the male and female, both had stings, hee professeth that hee was igno­rant.

Waspes are a kinde of Canibals, for they rob from all, and eat not the Bees provision only, but the Bees themselves, nay they will eat the young Wasps of another neast.

Once, Waspes are very strong, and daring creatures, especi­ally near their neast, not fearing to anger, nay to injury the most mighty. The Poet elegantly thus expresseth it.Spencers visi­ons of the worlds vanity.

A mighty Lion, Lord of all the wood,
Having his hunger throughly satisfi'd
With prey of beasts, and spoyl of living blood
Safe in his dreadless den him thought to hide?
[Page 186]His sternness was his praise, his strength his pride,
And all his glory in his cruel claws:
I saw a Wasp▪ that fiercely him defide,
And bad him battel oven to his jaws.
Sore hee him stung, that it the blood forth draws,
And his proud heart is filled with fretting ire,
In vain hee threats, his teeth, his tail, his paws,
And from his bloody eyes doth sparkle fire.
That dead himself hee wisheth for despig [...]t,
So weakest may annoy the most of might.

CHAP. XXIX. Of the Hornet.

A Hornet is a flying Insect, more than twice as great as a common Wasp, with four wings, the inmost smaller, and not so long as the utmost by a third part. For shape shee is like a Wasp, but differs in colour: All the back wings, and belly, legs, and horns are of a bright Chesnut colour, and some part also below the division in the middle, and then yellow scales, and Chesnut-coloured openings, or bars with spots on either side of every yellow scale, on the upper-side but more Chesnut­coloured on the under-side▪ Her fore-head is of an iron colour, in the middle of her for-head is a yellow spot like a heart, on either side whereof grows her moveable horns, on the out-side are her eyes oblong, and a little prominent, her face is a yellow square like a plate, her cheeks or jaws are yellow without, and black in the mouth; her jaws are a very bone indented like a saw, more thick toothed, and siner than a Grashoppers, contrary to Ari­stotle, and Pliny also, who affirm of all Insects, that they haveArist de hist. animal. l. 4. c. 1. no boniness in any part, whereas a Hornets jaw, and also a great Grashopper [...], are a sold bone without, and within of an equal hardness.

Hornets have no fangs, their tongue is divided into small fibers: Their breathing is visible, cut off one of their heads, and you shall see (a while) on expulsion out of the neck of a whitish moisture, and then drawn in again, at first very strongly, [Page 187] and then with more weakness, and at last ceasing, yet life con­tinuing in either part of the divided body above an hour.

A Hornets intrals is contracted in the body, but extended, is as long as the body, they have a very large cavitie in the end of the tail, out of the middle of it, the sting is extended and drawn in also as they please, it is not hollow (as some think) that I could discern; near to the tail I found in dissecting a Hornet (and never but once) a white egg as great as a lentill, and just such a one as I have seen in the combs, but never dissecting divers Bees, and Wasps could I finde any, nor yet in Hornets (excepting one) perhaps they are very small (if at all) and quickly grown, and suddenly ejected.

Some suppose them to bee bred of a horse: Cardan of deadCornel. Agrip­pal. de occult. Philos. Arist. de hist. Animal. l 9. c. 66. Mules: Virgil of Asses: Plutarch of a rotten horse; and so also some conceit Waspes are bred, but with us they are bred for the most part by generation: Of their copulation Aristotle was ignorant, they breed most commonly in hollow trees, in thatch, or in houses, in empty Bee-hives, rarely (but sometimes) in the ground: For the manner of their breeding, see the tenth Chapter, and the former Chapter of Waspes, with whom for the making of their combs, hatching and feeding their young, they do altogether agree, they are not so prolifical as the Wasps, for their combs are never larger, and the cells being much grea­ter of necessity, they must breed fewer: Their stinging is very dangerous, but otherwise they are not so mischievous as the Wasps, for though they sometimes kill a Bee, yet they rob not the Hives, they feed on flesh and fruits, and most of all of ashen trees, feeding of the bark, making the boughs whiter, and in Autumn gather plentifully of the Ivy, contrary to Aristotle, and others, who assert, they gather of no flowers, and herein to differ both from Bees and Waspes.

They sting dangerously, some creatures deadly, Dr. Penny reports, that being at Peterborough in a publick street of thePenni [...]s apud Muffetum de Insect. l. 1. c. 9. City, hee saw a Hornet pursue a Sparrow, whom at last shee struck with her sting, and therewith presently killed her, and filled her self with the dead Sparrows blood, to the astonishment and wonder of many beholders.

It is reported by Aristotle, as a strange and almost incredible thing, of certain Mice in Persia, which being dissected, great [Page 188] with young, those young not yet kindled, have been gra­vid, whereas in Hornets and Wasps there is a greater mar­vel, for the breeders coupling in Autumn, continue to bee prolifical in the Spring, and the young bred of them, not onely in the first, but in the third and fourth generation have a procreative power from their great Grand-mothers copulation.

The water of distilled Hornets, or Waspes, or whereinBil. ca [...]t. 7. 17. they have been boyled, if it do but touch the skin, the place will swell so, that there will bee the symptomes of a dropfie, or poyson, or some great distemper; but Treacle drunk or annointed on the place, is a cure without any pain; with this Harlots and Beggars deceive the most cir­cumspect and wary, as if they were with childe.

One thing more which I had almost forgot: If the hole in the tree wherein they breed bee large, when they bee nu­merous, they will work it up (all but a small passage for entrance) with the same matter whereof they make their comb [...].

CHAP. XXX. Of the Humble-Bee.

THe Humble-Bee is of various magnitudes and co­lours, some greater, but shorter than a Hornet; others as little, but rounder and shorter than a Bee. All of them are very hairy, they have two horns, very strong indented jawes, wherewith they hold or bite very hard. Some have their heads cole-black, the upper part of the back yellow, the lower part black, they have four wings, the belly all black. In the nether part first a division or ringle of shi­ning black without hair, then a ringle of pale yellow hairy, then a ringle of black, and so black to the taile, but thick and full of light gray hairs, that it seemeth gray, shee hath six legs with scabrous feet. They carry their Bee­bread on their legs, as the Hony-Bee, but no wax, as Scaliger, Plin. Nat. hist. lib. 11. cap. 22. Pliny and others, whether they carry the matter of their [Page 189] combs on their thighs, I am not certain, but beleeve it, for they gather onely on flowers, but the Hornet and Waspe carry it in their mouth.

They breed saith Aristotle, on the ground among stones,Arist. de hist. Animal. l. 9. c. 67. and have two or three entrances to their neast, but it is not so; but they breed either upon the ground, in the long grass, most commonly in Meadows, and spared layes, or else in a hole in the ground, much deeper than the Wasps: all their neast is covered; nay environed with moss.

Aristotle and Pliny are very brief in the history of them, and therefore very obscure; some imagine the reason here­of was because their nature was well known, but I rather conclude, because they knew little, or nothing of them.Sc [...]liger Com­ment. in Arist. de hist. l. 9. c. 66. And it is very evident because they confound the Silk­worms, and the Humble-Bees under the name Bombyx, and Scaliger also as it appears knew little of them.

The nethermost ringles of the black Humble-Bee, are as black as jeat, clear and shining; nay more transparent, for it will reflect an image, but the many long hairs, except it bee near at hand, nay in your hand, do somewhat ob­scure it.

It seems they are very rare, and scarce known in Italy, for Aldrovandus glories in a [...]east of Humble-Bees that was found by his Apothecary gathering simples, andAldrovand▪ de▪ Insectis, l. 1. c. 4. brought to him (as hee saith) not onely to delight him with a novelty, but to communicate as a secret of nature to posterity.

Hee supposeth them a kinde of wilde Bee, and pro­pounds it as a Q [...]ery, whether Iohn Baptist in the wilderness lived not with their hony?

Aldrovand. supposeth wax may bee had out of their combs; but this hee borowed from Aristotle, who saith,Arist. de hist. Animal. l. 5. c. 19. they make wax, but paler than Bees, but melt the combs, if you can.

Their combs are oblong cells as big as Acorns, but not altogether so long, clustering together (one somewhat higher than another, somewhat like a bunch of grapes in­verted, sixteen or eighteen joyning together (and then another like comb lying close, but not fastened to it, and [Page 190] so another) of a dark yellow, which (if after they have bred their young) they fill with Bee-bread, and some with hony; their hony is of a bright yellow, very sweet, but not so pleasant as the Bees, having a rank taste (occasionally) from the ground, their combes are not wax (as before) though gathered of the flowers, they are as tough brown paper, but not of so dark a colour, broken, they shew like Iapan paper made of Cotton, woolley.

They ingender with thei [...] ayls opposite one to another, in the meane time resting on some plant, or the stump of a tree, they continue long in venery, and while they copulate, often clap their wings, and make a shrill noyse; their mates they chuse in the Nest, and are carried away by them. These as other Insects before described, after they have done breeding of Females, a­bout the end of August, breed Drones for the propagation of their kind.

It is remarkable, that though the cels or pipes wherein they breed are of a like magnitude, yet the Humble-Bees in the same Nest are of various magnitudes, some more than twice as great as others, herein differing from Bees and Waspes, which continued in the same dimensions that they were first Metamor­phosed into, only when they are strong and lusty, seeme some­what fuller and plumper, but when they grow old, then they grow lank and wither; whereas the Humble-bees, many of them double their first magnitude.

They are very laborious and hardy Creatures, working in such weather when the Bees dare not, and continuing it many weeks, after Hornets and Waspes are laid up, or mis­carried.

There is another kind of great Humble-Bee, in the fore-part exactly agreeing with the former description, but the neather part is altogether of a shining black, and not so hairy as the for­mer, it is sharp pointed at the tayl, and hath but one cavity, out of the which cometh a sting, which groweth out of the under part of the tayl, and is forked like a Snakes tongue, having two points forth-right, not barbed like a Bees, so that it stinges more than once; there are two covers on either side of the sting to keep it close and safe, and these are as long as the sting, but bigger, rougher, and spreading on the top, I conceive to hold [Page 191] the sting in, in the act of generation; there are six partitions or ringles on the neither part, and on the outsides, especially of the fourth and fifth golden coloured hairs.

The Humble-Bee first described, astords some special rari­ties not observed by any, and therefore I must return to her a­gain. In the tayl being opened, is a double cavity or hole, the one (if I mistake not) for generation and partur [...]tion, and the other for the evacuation of excrements; in the neather part (dissecting it) I found as in a Hive Bee, a bladder to which ad­joyns the entral, not so white as in a honie-Bee, then you shall have (as I have often found) their young (but one visible at once) which are not excluded, torpid, and liveless eggs, but live and grow in the dammes belly; I have found some as large as great Tares (like the Worms in the combes) so that all the parts of the Worme are very visible, and these have lived after I have cut them out some houres, and would continually con­tract and gather themselves into a [...]ound, and then again extend themselves, but were not able to make any progressive motion▪ being without feet.

In the breast I perceived a little thing to pant, and beat a great while after I severed it from the lower part at the incision, when I after, opened the breast, I found four several parts like several members, but I was not able (my sight being weak) to distin­guish one member from another, but concluded there was a heart, liver, and lungs, all were reddish, but some parts were more red than others.

Under the horny tunicle of the eye is a white moysture, and something white likewise, like brains in the middle of the head; her tongue is drawn so close, partly under her neck, and partly into her mouth, that it is scarcely visible, but when she works; being dead, I found it much longer than a Bees, as long as a Barley corn; she hath two fangs, on either side one, the tongue at the root is as great as a small pin, underneath of a black co­lour to the middle, where it is divided into three parts, two shorter on either side, and a longer in the middle, so that it hath a triple tongue; this sort that breed their young within them, are without a sting; on their bellies near the roots of their leggs, are little round reddish creatures, with very long horns, with six leggs, which run very quick and swift, which (I be­leeve) [Page 192] are a kinde of Lice proper to them; their taile stretched out, is very like their mouth, being as it were a complement of clawes meeting in a round, and this is proper to this kinde with­out a sting, which I therefore call the Claw-tailed Humble-Bee.

Those which breed a living creature within them, after a sort produce it egg-fashion, for it is covered with a thin membraneArist. de ge­nerat. Animal. l. 3. c. 9. like the shell of an egg, but I discerned no such membrane en­circling the worm in this Humble-Bee.

This grey Humble-Bee in the taile is somewhat broad, and hath two circular horny claws, or pincers not visible, till they bee drawn out, and within them two other shorter but not cir­cular.

Some creatures saith Bodinus, conceive eggs within them,Bodinus Thea­trum naturae l. 3. and there hatch, and bring forth a living creature as the Viper, and all kinde of Whales, but neither hee, no [...] any other men­tions this Humble-Bee.

Whatsoever saith Aristotle, bringeth forth a living creature andArist. de hist. l. 2. c. 6. not first an egge, hath breasts, and all that have breasts, have paps or nepples except the Dolphin, which hath two pipes, on either side one, which the young ones suck: The Philosopher, and Scaliger his Commentator, except not the Viper, no [...] the Slow-worm, because they perhaps concluded, that they hatched the young of analogical eggs within the dams belly; I am sure they ought to have excepted this kinde of Humble Bee as also that Flye that wee spake of before out of Scaliger.

How they order their young after they bee excluded, I can­not yet determine, for I have not found any of their neasts, since I observed this particular.

The Cells or Pipes wherein the young are bred, are not flat at the top as the Bees and Waspes, but oval, and are all of one matter and colour, whereas the covers of the Wasps and Hor­nets are, though of the same substance, yet whiter and fiuer.

CHAP. XXXI. Of the Grashopper.

IN the production of no creatures is nature more serious, or rather more wanton than in Grashoppers, who is able to des­cribe their various colours? or the divers forms of their bo­dies, or can exactly report their walking, leaping, flying? With us some are green, some tawney, some russet, in Ethiopia red and yellow, in Africa white.

One hath written a Tractate of seven kinde of Locusts orFran. St [...] ­ca [...]. de sc [...] ­tem generibus locust▪ Grashoppers according to the Scriptures, and Rabbins; and yet mentions, not those four kindes enumerated among clean creatures, and allowed the Iews for food, namely Arbeth a most prolifical kinde of Grashopper, which therefore had thisLevit. 11, 22. name according to Kimchi and Broughton. The second kinde is Solaam by the Seventy, [...], Hieron calls it a Scarabee, but not rightly, for it is a swift creature, going on the four fore­feet, and leaping with the two hindmost which are longer than the others. The third sort is Chargol, which in our Bible is translated a Beetle, but there is a great difference between Beetles and Grashoppers, the Greeks, translate it [...], for it fights with a Serpent, and strangles it, as both Aristotle and Pliny record; and Maiolus in his Colloquies tells us, That his Gardener returning from work, saw one of these Grashop­pers conflicting with a Serpent, which at last it killed. And therefore Niphus was too bold to translate it a Scolopendra, or Aspe, when as the Philosopher calls it a Grashopper, and theArist. de hist. Animal. l. 9. c. 6. Seventy translate it a Locust. The fourth kinde is called Chagol, the Greeks call it [...]. It is a cruel devourer, not onely consuming the fruits, but stalks, nay barks of trees.

In the Scripture wee finde five other kindes, Gaza from sha­ving▪ Iel [...]k from licking, Chasil from destroying, Thela [...]sal from rust, which it occasions to the fruits, and Chenamal from stay­ing,Rhodulph Medius in Levit. because it never willingly forsakes its place. Modius on Ioel, and Levit▪ reckons up various kindes of the first sort cal­led Ar [...]eth.

Moreover in the month of May, out of a [...]spittle that hangs [Page 194] upon herbs is produced a green winged creature, in shape very like the little Grashopper, it leaps, and after flyes. Wee use to call the frothy matter wherein they are bred Wood-se [...]r, that is the corruption of the woods; I know not the reason of the name; others call it Cuckow-spittle.

In Norw [...]y it often rain [...]s a little four footed beast, as great [...] a Rat, of various coloured hair, which feeds of all green thingsScaliger de Sub [...]. exerci­ [...]at. 1 [...]2. like Grashoppers. When their food fails they dye, and the aire being corrupted with their stenth, causeth to the inhabitants Meg [...]ms, and the Kings-evill. They call it Lemmer; this though not properly a Grashopper, yet like them very de­structive.

Of what form was the [...] of Suidas, the [...] of C [...]lius, the [...] of Ni [...]ander, [...] of Hes [...]cbius, [...] of Aristophanes, [...] of Eusta [...]bius, [...] and [...], of Phavorinus, Lud [...]loc [...]r [...], of Fsid [...]r [...], and many many others mentioned by authors differing one from another, but yet not fully described, much less their natures, so that wee need an Oedipus to reveal, and discover them.

A Grashopper hath two very moveable horns, as long as the whole body, on either side [...]f the jawes two short ones; It hath two broad lips shutting flat on the other, and two lesser that shut side-wayes, all which together close the mouth, and the head, with the lips closed, somewhat resembles a horses head. It hath two round prominent eyes; Nigidius denied that they saw at all, as Pliny records, when as they have clear and glassie eyes, yet covered with a horny tunicle (the eyes are not moveable)Plin. Nat. hi [...], [...]. [...]1. c. 37. there is a visible Pupilla, six feet, the hindmost as great, and as long again as the formost to leap withall, and raise it self up, with two joynts in every one, near their setting on to the breast, these two are very near one to the other. They have also a joynt in the middle, the upper part as the thigh greater at the top, and smaller downwards, and smoothe. The lower parts (which are their legges) rough and scabrous, and several pliable joynts in the feet, and as it were visible toes, which are rough and dew­clawed. A long smooth taile more than half the length of the body, sharp-pointed, and two short little tants, or pricks grow­ing near the end of the tail, pointing towards the extremity of it.

[Page 195]When you hold it by the wings, though it neither stirs, no [...] strives, yet shall you both see and feel the whole body beat and pant, [...]s also when it creeps, or stands still, although not so much, lest of all when it is in motion. It hath four large wings, but the under wings lye folded or doubled, which deceived Willichius, who unwarily beholding them, took them to beeJodocas Willi­chius in suo de Locustis dia [...] lo [...]o, several, and therefore published that they have six wings; the under wings being open, they are very fine and membranous, near an inch broad, spreading like a sail; the upper wings are crusty or shelly.

It hath as it were, a scaly Gorget, from the head to the inci­sion or back. The back is more hard and shelly than the belly, and hath several semicircular equidistant strakes down to the belly. The belly is very soft and white on either side, all along to the tail, and green in the middle.

On the breast are sharp pricks six in number according to the legs, against each leg one. When the head is severed from the body, the jawes, the lips, the horns, all move, but the head dyes sooner than the rest of the body. The body will leap a great while after the head is off. In the stomach is a thick ju [...]cy moisture. The breast being opened, first appears the heart, and then other large members, one like the liver of a reddish co­lour, another less and grayer, which I suppose to bee the lungs. In the belly I have not found fewer than eighty young ones, in some one hundred. They grow quickly as great as Ant-eggs, and as long, they are first yellow and soft, full of a yellowish moisture, then ruby, then of a tawny colour, when after a cer­tain space this softer tunicle hardens into a shining black coat, or shell, long and flattish, and these alterations are all in the same Grashopper, for in some you shall finde all without coats, in others, some with coats, and some with none at the same time.

They have three black teeth in either jaw, the teeth and jaw are one peece, and of a bony substance. In the head is a manifest brain, or at least somewhat equivalent.

Some Grashoppers have not the long prick at the taile, but two tants above and two shorter underneath, and some have stumps in­stead of wings, but howsoever they variously differ in their exter­nals, yet in all that I have dissected are alike, the vitals indeed, and [Page 196] other particulars, are not so visible in the smaller, as in the greater.

Grashoppers copulate after the manner of other Insects, the less ascending the greater; for the male is the lesser. They dis­closeArist. de hist. Animal. [...]. c, [...]8. their eggs on the earth, fastening a pipe which they have at their tail to it. The males have none: All lay their eggs to­gether in one place, so that they make a kinde of combe, but not on the superficies of the earth, but a little underneath, then the form of them as they were first produced, being changed out of that earthy cover, appear little and black Grashoppers, and after the skin being broken on every side, they become greater, they bring forth their eggs in Autumn, and presently being de­livered of them perish, for there breed certain worms about their necks which strangles them saith Pliny, which eat through them, saith Scaliger, and the males also dye; they are quickned, and come from under the earth in the Spring.

Grashoppers b eed not much on mountainous, or squallid moist lands, but in Champion grounds which are apt to chap, for they lay their eggs in the chaps and cranies, out of which, Winter being past, in the beginning of the Summer follow­ing, of such eggs as are alive, come the Locusts or Gras­hoppers.

They copulate thus, the male ascending the female, puts in [...]r. V [...]l [...]riola. those two tants or pricks that are eminent in the end of the back, by turning back of the tail into the females womb, and they are very long and closely joyned together, that they can scarce bee severed, neither yet by leaping or motion, no nor yet without difficulty with your hands.

The female in her venery, moves her belly earnestly, and clo­seth in the lower part to the male, and holds him very long, sometimes with the opening of her womb, sometimes with a strait shutting of it, making her dalliance more delightful; for while her womb opens, the male more deeply insinuates himself to the bottome of i [...], and when it is contracted, is more de­lighted with the pleasure of it.

There are seen two passages in the females privity severed each from other, and covered with a thick coat, it is black on the out-side, and hard and cart [...]laginou [...] ▪ but within seems somewhat rough and scabrous, with certain wrinkles. At the [Page 197] bottome of this covering, the womb growing white, is like a womans privy parts. The male after copulation dyes; For by a long continued use of venery, they spend all their radical moy­sture and spirits also. The females after they have brought forth either by the violence of the pain, or multitude of their young, whereby their strength is consumed, perish likewise; or as Aristotle by little Lice which breed in their necks, and as Pliny saith, strangle them, as Scaliger, eat into them and kill them.

They flye over large Seas, continuing divers dayes together in their flight, and make such a noise with their wings, that they seem to bee Fowls, and shadow the very Sun.

They infest Italy oftentimes out of Africa, consuming all with their bitings, and with their black, sharp, and burning excre­ments, and with a sharp slaver, which they in eating let fall out of their mouths, yet are they not poyson, for both the Par [...]hians and Ethiopians feed of them.

Willichius assigns them a King, and a Monarchy, but Solomon Proverb. 30▪ 27 denies it, saying, That they have no King, yet go they forth all by bands, but though they bee sine rege & lege, yet have they a conspiring agreement to do mischief.

When they wasted Gaul 852. they marched in the aire twenty miles a day in an ordered battel, and formed squadrons, and when they fell on the earth they had their camp; the Com­manders with a few went before the Army a dayes journy, as it were to finde out fit places to quarter in, and the very same hour that the fore-runners or harbingers came the day before, the whole Troups came the day after; before the rising of the Sun they stirred not from the place where they settled, but the Sun being risen, they marched, or flew away in their orderly Regiments.

Cuspinian observes the same, in the same Country, in the yearCuspinianus. 874. but with this difference, that they marched then but four or five miles a day.

Of Locusts there are sometimes seen such monstrous swarmsI. Leo hist. of Africa l. 9. in Africa, that in flying they intercept the Sun beams like a thick cloud. They devoure trees, leaves, fruits, and all green things growing out of the earth.

At their departure they leave eggs behinde them, whereof [Page 198] other young Locusts are bred, which in the places where they are left, will eat, and consume all things, even to the very bark of trees.

Their coming is known by the discolouring of the fields longScaliger exer­citat, 192. before, for they shine by reflexion.

Before the birth of Christ, about a 170. years, the PasturesJulius Obse­quens. of Italy, were covered as it were with clouds of Grashoppers, and about Cap [...]a a hundred years together.

In the Consulship of Marcus Pla [...]tius Hypsaeus, and Marcus Fulvius Flaccus, Africa scarce breathing from bloodyPaulus Or [...]sius contra pag [...]. nos, l. 5▪ c. 11. wars, an horrible and extraordinary destruction ensued. For whereas now throughout all Africa, infinite multitudes of Lo­custs were gathered together, and had not onely quite devoured the corn on the ground, and consumed the herbs with part of their roots, and the leaves, and tender boughs of the trees, but had gnawn also the bitter bark, and dry wood, being with a violent and sudden winde hoisted aloft in mighty swarms, and carried along time in the aire, they were at length drowned in the Afri­can Ocean. Whose loathsome and pu [...]rified carkasses being by the waves of the Sea cast up in huge heaps far and wide along the shore, bred an incredible stinking and infectious smell: whereupon followed so general a pestilence of all living creatures that the corrupt bodies of fowls, cattel, and wilde beasts dis­solved by the contagion of the aire, augmented the fury of the plague. But how great and extraordinary a death of men there was, I cannot but tremble to report: For in Numidia where Micipsa was then King, dyed fourscore thousand persons (in the Kingdom of M [...]ssinissa according to Eutropius, if I mistake not, eight hundred thousand.) And upon the Sea▪coast next adjoyning to Carthage and Utica, above two hundred thou­sand are said to have perished. Yea in the City of Utica it self were by this means swept from the face of the earth thirty thou­sand brave souldiers, which were appointed to bee the Gar­rison for all Africa. And the destruction was so sudden and violent, that out of one gate of Utica, in one and the same day, were carried above fifteeen hundred dead corpses, of those lusty young gallants.

In the Reign of Basilius the Emperor, the Eastern parts wereGeorgius Ce­d [...]enus hist. Compend. consumed by Grashoppers, that the inhabitants were forced [Page 199] to sell their children, and at last to pass into Thrace. But after­wards a vehement winde carried them into the H [...]llesp [...]nt, where they were drowned and cast up on the sands which they covered, and prodigiously lived again of themselves, and wasted all the Countries adjoyning, and Thrace, especially three years to­gether.

In May 1350. an innumerable multitude of Grashop­persF [...]zellus do [...]ebu [...] siculis. of an unwonted greatness, and uncertain original, appeared in the Province of Catana in Sicllia, which consumed Corn, Vineyards, Woods, Gardens, and Trees, both domestick and wilde, and consumed their barks to the very roots every where in one day, and then by a sudden wind were carried into the Ionian Sea, and there drowned; but being after cast upon the Si [...]lian shore, caused by their stink a cruell plague in Iuly fol­lowing.

Swarms of Grashoppers came out of Africa into Italy, and also into France 1353. and also 1374. causing such a famine and plague, that the third part of the people perished, and theyO [...]h [...] [...]risin­gensis. had most of them six wings, and at last were hurried with a violent winde into the Brit [...]ish Ocean.

About Misnia, 1543. there were so many GrashoppersIacobus Ek­celius. that they covered the ground about a cubit thick.

In all the Dominions of Prete Ianni is a very great andF [...]an. Al [...]r [...] ▪ Ethiop. Hist. [...] cap. 32. & 33▪ horrible Plague, which is an innumerable company of Locusts, which eate and consume all the Corn and Trees, and the num­ber of these Creatures is so great, as it is incredible, and with their multitude they cover the earth, and fill the air in such wise that it is a hard matter to be able to see the Sun; and if the damage which they doe were general through all the Provinces of Prete Ianni, they would perish with Famine, and it were im­possible to inhabite the same, but one year they destroy one Province; sometimes in two or three of these Provinces, and wheresoever they go, the Country remaineth more ruinate and destroyed, than if it had been set on fire.

These Vermine are as great as a great Grashopper, and have yellow wings, we know of their coming a day before, not be­cause we see them, but we know it by the Sun, which shew­eth his beams of a yellow colour, which is a signe that they draw near the Country, and the ground becoming yellow, [Page 200] through the light which reverberateth from their wings, where­upon the people become suddenly as dead men, saying, we are undone, for the Locusts come.

During our abode in the Towne of Baru [...], we saw the signe of the Sun, and the shadow of the earth, which was all yellow, whereat the people were half dead for sorrow; the next day, the number of these Vermine which came was incredible, cover­ing four and twenty miles in compass.

At another time we travelled five daies journey, through pla­ces wholly wast and destroyed, wherein M [...]llet had been sowne, which had stalks as great as those which we set in our Vine­yards, and we saw them all broken and beaten downe, as if a Tempest had been there, and this the Locusts did; the trees were without leaves, and the barks of them were all devoured, and no grass was there to bee seen, for they had eaten up all things, and if we had not carried Victuals with us, we and our cattel had perished.

This Country was all covered with Locusts without wings, and they told us, that those were the seed of them which had eaten up all, and that as soon as their wings were growne, they would seek after the old ones, and the number of them was infinite.

While we abode in a place called Aquate, at another time came such an infinite swaime of Locusts, as it is incredible to de­clare, they began to come about three of the clock in the after­noon, and ceased not till night, and as they came they lighted, and the next day in the morning they began to depart, so that by nine of the clock there was not one of them left, and the trees remained without leaves.

The same day and hour there came another squadron of them, and these left neither bough nor tree unpilled, and so they continu­ed for the space of five daies, and they said they were young ones which went to seek the old ones, and they did the like, where wee saw them that were without wings, and the compass which these Locusts took, was nine miles, wherein was neither leaves, nor barks on the trees.

This Country seemed not to bee burnt up, but rather to bee covered with snow, by reason of the whiteness of the trees, which were all pilled, so that all the Country remained bare.

At such times the people depart from their own Country, so [Page 201] that wee have found all the wayes full of men and women, tra­velling on foot with their children in their arms, and upon their heads, going into other Countries, where they might finde food, which was a pitiful thing to behold.

Once, Eutyopius makes mention of great Locusts, whichEutropius l. 4 were seen not far from the Roman Territory, so formidable, and such devourers, that the inhabitants were frighted with the be­holding of them, so that wee must conclude that these small crea­tures have a chief place among Gods Troops and Armies. If Pharaoh ask, Who is the Lord? Not Angels, not Men, nor yet fierce Lions, and Tygers, but devouring Grashoppers shall bee his challengers and conquerors, and ask, Who is Pharoah?

They are all females if wee beleeve Vincentius, and Albertus, Vincentius as the Scarabees all males. Great droughts produce them, at least cause a prodigious increase of them, 1553. after five years drought, were great Armies of them; And Paulus Draco­ [...]us reports that in the tenth year of Mauritius the Emperour after a great drought from Ianuary to September, there were in­finite multitudes of Locusts, which two years caused a great fa­mine in Italy, by consuming corn and fruits, and 1542. an innu­merable multitude of Locusts over-spread a great part of Eu­rope, at first they wanted wings (being it seems produced by the drought) after they had two, and then four, and having wasted one place, went unto another, leaving a terrible stink afterCornelius Gea [...]a. them wheresoever they had been, but at last with Autumns cold were destroyed.

Their extraordinary appearance is (accounted by some) aHieron. Mer­curi [...]lis. Georgius Tu­ [...]onensi [...]. sign of an approaching plague, sometimes of war, for it is re­ported, that two Armies passing by Clermont into the Roma­naick Territory (a place in France) there fought together, where many of of them were killed; when Clo [...]a [...]ius was about to fight with his son Chrannus, whom overcoming, hee caused to be burnt with his wife and children.

These eaters are usually eaten by the inhabitants of Arabia deserta, and of Lybia, who esteem their coming as a fortunateJo. I. [...]o lib. 9. boading, for seething and drying them in the Sun, they bruise them to powder, and so eat them.

And they were the food of Iohn Baptist in the Desart, yet there have been some, as Theop [...]ylact testifies, who understood [Page 202] by [...], the bud [...] o [...] tops of certain herbs, o [...] some kindeTheophilact. of wilde fruits, in which number was Hermolaus Barbarus, who saith Chrysostome, and A [...]ha [...]osius before him, were of the same judgement; but Chrysostome denies it, and saith a Locust is aHom. [...] in Marc. small creature, between a flying, and [...] creeping; of which in the De [...]ar [...]s of Iud [...]a were great store, they were wont to boyle them in oyle, and they were the food of the poorer sort.

Augustine confirms it also, that Iohn fed of Locusts. AndAugust in Epist. ad Rom. Theophilact witnesseth the same, who doth also interpret the eating of Locusts allegorically, as also Orig [...]n.

Diodorus saith that the Acrid [...]agi, or the Ethiopians bor­deringA [...]aman [...] ▪ Origines, Diodorus, Siculus. lib. 3. c. 3. Strabo. Geopra [...]. l. 16. Solinus poly hist. c. 43. on the Desart that feed on Grashoppers, are of lower stature than other men, l [...]an, and exceeding black; So also. Str [...]b [...], and adds they are of a very short life, seldome exceed­ing forty.

And Solinus also takes notice that the borderers on M [...]urhania in a certain season (the Spring) gather great quan­tities of Locusts which they salt, and live hereof all the year, but none out-live forty years.

The Parthians of old fed of them, as Pliny▪ reports. AndScaliger exer­ [...]itat. 9. [...]. Scaliger saith, the Sirians and Persians eat them before they have wings, namely the young ones.

It is to bee observed, that all Grashopper-eaters are of aHieron. Mer­curialis lib. 2. v [...]. lect. 20. short life: A learned Physitian enquiring what was the cause the people about the Red-sea are troubled with boyls on their legs and armes, demands if it bee from the aire, or the region, or their food, concludes peremptorily it was from their food. And Diodorus affirms that certain people with frequent eating ofDiodorus l. 3. cap. 3. Locusts, were not onely short lived, but much anguished, and at last consumed, not onely with boyls (mentioned before) but withAgatharsis. a cruel kinde of winged lice, of which one gives a full relation. At the Vernal equin [...]x when the South-west-winds blow from an uncertain place, an incredible number of great Locusts are brought, which in flying differ little from birds, but much in the shape of their bodies. With these Locusts salted and otherwayes prepared, the people live, they are excellent for footma [...]ship, but feeding of so dry nourishment, they live not beyond the fortieth year, for then they dye, if not before, a miserable death, for a certain kinde of winged lice is bred in their bodies, like unto. [Page 203] Dog-flyes, but somewhat less. They begin at the breast and belly, and in a short space eat off all the skin of the face. Some of them are like Lepers, and gievously scratch themselves, and the disease still continuing, and these vermine increasing, their humors are spent, and they extreamly tormented, till at length they bee killed and consumed by them.

CHAP. XXXII. Of American Bees.

IN the West-Indies the Bees are small, about the bigness ofGonc [...]lo Fer­nandes de O [...]edo natu­ral [...]y general [...]storia de la Indias. c. [...]o. Flies, or somewhat greater, and the points of their wings cut overthwart, and have through the middle of the wing, one white line across. They have no sting.

They make great Hony-combs, and the holes in them are four times greater than the cells of our European Bees, although they bee much smaller, their hony is good and wholesome, but it is very dark, like wine being boyled.

In the Island of Coz [...]mel, which is near the coast of Iuea [...]an, Rhamusco vo [...]erzo delle Indie l. 17. c. 1. there are many Hives of Bees like those of Spain, but less, and much hony, and wax, the hony is like the Spanish hony, but somewhat sharper.

In the Island of Hispaniola are no Bees, that ever I saw orGoncalo Fern. de Oviedo [...]e [...] ­la generale & naturale histo­ria della India l. 15 c. 3. [...] Rhamul. 3 vol. P [...]rch [...] [...]g. 3 part l. 5 c 3. Jo. [...]coll. l. 4. c. 34. heard of. In the firm land are very many, and of many kindes, as well as in the form and shape of the creature, as also in the va­riety of the taste and colour of the hony, and difference of the wax.

But though Oviedo neither saw nor heard of any, yet are there [...]es in Hispaniola, but as small as Flies, which sting not; their hives are four times as great as ours, their hony is white.

In the Indies are few swarms of Bees (hee understands do­mestick Bees, which then were rare, but now in many places common.

Their Hony-combes are found in trees, or under the ground, and not in Hives as in Castile. The Hony-combes, which I have seen in the Province of Char [...]s, which they call Chiguanas are of a gray colour, and have little juice, and are more like unto [Page 204] sweet straw, then to Hony-combes. The Bees are little like, un­to Flyes, the hony is sharp and black, yet in some places there is better, and the combs better fashioned, as in the Province of Tucuman in Chille, and in Carthagene.

In Peru, especially about the City C [...]rtage, are many Bees,Cronica del Peru per Pedro de Ci [...]ca, c. 25 which breed in hollow Trees, and make as good Hony as the Bees in Spaine; there is one sort of Bees not much greater than Gnats, these stop up the hole, or passage into the cavity of the tree, and by a pipe of waxe as great as the middle finger, goe in and out to their labours, their Hony is thin and somewhat sharp, they get usually about a quart of hony out of a tree.

There is another sort of Bees which are somewhat greater, and black (for the former are white) the entrance into the tree where they work is made up (except a passage for them) with waxe, and some other mixture, whereby it is harder than a stone, their hony is without comparison better than the for­mer, and a Tree will afford usually a gallon, and sometimes more.

There is another sort of Bees which are greater than the Spa­nish Bees, but none of them stings but when they finde that any goe about to plunder them, they will charge upon him that [...]nts the tree, and hang about his hair and beard; these greater Bees yeeld usually three gallons out of a tree, and it is [...]a [...]ie better ho­ny than any of the former.

In the Province of Guayaquil, which is not farre from Quito, An [...] D'Her­rera Historia general de los hechos, &c. decad. 5. lib. 10. c. 10. they breed in Trees, and are not much greater than Flies, the Waxe and the Hony which they gather is red, and although it hath a good taste, yet is it not like to the Hony of Castile.

Near the Rivers of Vasses and Plate, the Bees are not like ours, being not greater than the small Flies where with wee a [...] Maximil. Transilvanus in Epist. ad Episcop. salis­burg. troubled in Summer; they work in Trees, and make larger combes than ours, the extremities of their wings are blunt, as if they were cut (Oviedo and T [...]evet confirm it) or bitten off, and have in the middle of them a cross spot drawing towards white, without stings, their wax is as black as pitch. The hony generally of the Bees, of the new world, candies not, but is alwayes liquid like oyl.

The Country of Mackasies 372. Germane miles from theHuldrichus Smidel. City of Assumption in the River of Pla [...]e (near Pern) is so [Page 205] abundant in Bees, that you shall scarce open any tree with a hatchet, where will not run out five or six measures of pure hony; the Bees that make it are very little, and without stings.

Aldrovandus citing Hispanus saith, that in the Isle of Cu­mana, Petrus Hispa­nus. the swarms hang on the Trees, and slow down with hony.

In Ty [...]ona, not far from Quito, the Indians make many con­servesA. d'Hertera de las Indi [...]s occid decad. 6. l. 3. c. 1 [...]. Lin [...]coten. l. 3. of hony, which is somewhat plentifull with them, and send them to sell to the Countries round about them.

The Indians of Cumana, although their Country bee well replenished, with good bread, corn, fruits, and all kinde of fish in great abundance, yet eat Bees, Lice, Spiders, &c.

The Brasilian Bees are very unlike to ours, and dister notHist. Navigat. in Brasil. Leti­us. much from the little black flesh Flye, which annoy us in Sum­mer, and make their combs usually in hollow trees; they call the hony Y [...]a, which they eat as wee do, their wax is as black as pitch, which they call Ye [...]i [...], they use it not for candles, as wee do, but to stop their great Canes, wherein they keep their fea­thers that they bee not eaten by a kinde of Butter-flye, which they call Arovers. They come in multitudes to the fire, like Crickets, where they eat whatsoever they finde, especially they gnaw the upper part of leathern doublets, and shooes. If wee negligently reserved hens, or other food, in the morning, wee, should have onely bones.

Several sorts of Bees in Brasile: Yeatee is the smallest ofMr. Joh. Stan [...]s▪ my friend, and neighbour who lived many years in Brasil. all the Bees that ever I have seen in the Country, and is in ma­king much like a gnat, but of a yellowish colour, and hath com­monly her hony in the hollow of a tree, either at the root, or not above three or four foot from it; it stingeth not, and where they enter, they make a pipe of yellowish wax about four inches long, with the mouth of it, like to the mouth of a Trumpet, the combs are joyned together like clusters of Nuts, and their hony is an excellent ba [...]some, for I have had experience of it my self for the curing of very dangerous green wounds.

Zellab, and Zellobson are the two chief sorts of Bees, and sting not at all; the lesser is so like our Bees here in England, that I think I should not know one from the other, the other is bigger, but yet much of the same colour; they have honey in abundance, and the further up into the Country the more plenty; I have [Page 206] seen more taken out of a tree at a time than a Firkin will hold, as clear as running water, but if drunken, it is exceeding-strong, and causeth thirst, it must bee taken very moderately. They build most commonly in some hollow bough of the tree, or else in the body of a tree, called by the Indians Kerauvab, they have their hony in clusters of balls, much like our Humble-Bees, and their young ones in combes which lye compassed with the balls of hony, and in the balls you shall find some hony as it is new brought in, very thick and dry, but taste it, it is very soure, and so some more near ripe, but not fit to eat, untill it come to be clear as water; you may see in the balls or clusters, the colour of the blossome from whence it was gathered.

There are two other sorts of Bees that are but small, and of a black colour, one sort stingeth not, but the other doth; they are very like each to other, and build about the middle of the tree, the hony of them both is much alike, but not so good as the former, being of a darker colour, and their combes are in manner with the former, and they are called E [...]ete.

There are other sorts of black Bees called Erepnoh and Erep­nohuson, they both sting, and intangle much in a mans hair, the one buildeth in the hollow of a tree, and the other in the bran­ches, that which buildeth in the hollow of a tree, will not suffer any man to come within two or three rods of the tree where they are.

I never saw any of their hony, but the natives have told me, that they have indifferent store, but it is very laxative, and breedeth diseases in the eater, as bloody flixes, &c. the other buildeth in the branches, and make their house of dirt, bigger than one of our large Bee-hives, and enter at the middle of it, their young▪ are as it were, in little cells or chambers, and from thence between several layings of dirt, they have their hony, which is not very much, but is binding.

There is another small sort of Bees, and they either build in fields, where there are but small store of trees, and they low ones; they are of an ashy colour, and build in the branches like Erepnohs but their nest is like a film, or skin, and of the colour of the Bee, they have not much hony, and have a thin flat combe, or else they build among the Tobacoes, and from thence they take their name, being called Tobac [...]v [...].

[Page 207]I Hispaniola their Wasps are greater than ours, and stingPurch [...] Pilg. 3. part. l. 5. c. 3. Oviedo l. 15. c. 3. more dangerously. There are many of them, and they very poy­sonfull, they cause great pain when they sting, they are like those of Castil [...], but somewhat greater, and under their wings above the yellow towards the end, have a little Lion-like colour. MoreOviedo. Suma [...] [...]o de la na­turaly gene­ral istoria de las Indias c. 49. fully in another place, hee saith, There are many Wasps in the West-Indies. They are very hurtfull and venemous, and their stinging is without comparison, more painfull than the stinging of Spanish Wasps, they are almost of the same colour, but grea­ter, and the yellow of them is more red, and their wings are spotted with a black colour, and the points of them reddish of a burnt colour.

They make very great nests, and the clusters of their combs are as large as the combs that the Bees make in Spain, but they are dry and white inclining to russet, they have nothing in them but their young: They breed in trees, and also in the roofs and timbers of houses.

There are many Hornets in Hispaniola, and their stinging more torments, than the stinging of their Wasps.Rhamusio l. 15. c. 3. torzo V [...]l [...] Mr. John. Stanes. [...]

There are two sorts of Hornets in Brasile, which the Indians call Moribundas, the one black, and the other much of the colour of them wee have here in England, but the black is bigger and longer, and stingeth violently. They make their house like a Canopy, or much like to the top of a Bee-hive, and they are fastened to a bough of a very high tree; so that they seldome offend any man, unless they first offend them; but your herdsmen are sometimes much vexed with them, in driving their cattel, they are unruly many times, they run among some Sippoes or▪ Withes that run into the tree, whereby they disturb them, and then they come down to the terror of men and beasts. Their house is open below, so that you may stand un­der them, and see them go into a comb that lye [...]ll flat at the bottome, much like to our Hony-comb.


Books lately Printed for Thomas Parkhurst, at the Sign of the Three Crowns, over against the Great Conduit, at the lower end of Cheapside.

A Learned Commentary, or Exposition upon the first Chapter of the second Epistle to the Corinthians, by Dr. Richard Sibbs, published for publick good by Thomas Manton, Folio.

There is newly come forth Mr. William Fenner his Continua­tion of Christs Alarm to Drowsie Saints, with a Treatise of Effectual Calling: The Killing Power of the Law: The Spiritual Watch: New Birth: A Christians ingrafting into Christ: A Treatise on the Sabbath, which were never before printed, bound in one Volume, Fol. and may bee had alone of them that have his other Works, as well as bound with all his former Works, which are now newly Printed in the same Vo­lume with this.

Truth brought to light, and discovered by time, or an Historical Narration of the first fourteen years of King Iames, in 4o.

The Journal or Diary of a thankful Christian, wherein is con­tained Directions, for the right method of keeping and using, according to the Rules of Practise; a Day-book of National and publick, personal and private passages of Gods Providence, to help Christians to thankfulness, and experience. By Iohn Beudle, Minister of the Gospel at Barstone in Essex, large 8o.

Mr. Robinsons Christians Armor in large 8o.

Book of Emblems, with Latine and English verses made up­on (Lights) by Robert Farly, small 8o.

Grace to the Humble, as preparation to the Sacrament in five Sermons by Dr. Iohn Preston.

Picturae Louven [...]es, or Pictures drawn forth into Characters, 12o.

A most Excellent Treatise containing the way to seek [Page] Heavens Glory, to flye Earths vanity, to seat Hells horror, with godly Prayers, and the Bell-mans summons, 12o.

Iohnsons Essayes expressed in sundry Exquisite Fancies.

The one thing necessary; By Mr. Thomas Watson, Minister of Stephens Walbrook, 8o.

Sion in the House of Mourning, because of Sin and Suffer­ing, being an Exposition on the fifth Chapter of the Lamen­tations, by D. S. Pastor of Uping [...]am, in the County of Rut­land.

Groans of the Spirit, or the Trial of the Truth of Prayer.

A Handkerchef for Parents Wet-eyes, upon the death of their children or friends.

The Dead Saint speaking to Saints and Sinners living, in se­veral Treatises, viz. On 2▪ S [...]m. 24. 10. On Cant. 4. 9▪ On Iohn [...]. 15. On Iohn 1. 50. On I [...]a. 58. 2. On Exod. 15. 11. Never published before. By Samuel B [...]lton, D. D. la [...]e Master of Christs Colledge in Cambridge.

Four profitable Treatises very usefull for Christian practice, viz. The Killing Power of the Law: The Spiritual Watch: The New Birth: Of the Sabbath. By the Reverend William Fenner, late Minister of R [...]chford in Essex.

Peoples Need of a Living Pastor, at the Funeral of Mr. Iohn Frost, M. [...]. by Mr. Za [...]h. Crof [...]on.

A Treatise against the Toleration of all Religions. By Mr. Thomas Edwards.

Chatechizing Gods Ordinance in sundry Sermons, by Mr. Zachary Crof [...]on, Minister of Buttolp [...]s Aldgate London, the second Edition corrected and augmented.

A Coppy-Book methodized and ingraven, by Thomas Crosse, wherein fair Writing is exprest, by which one may learn to write of himself, that can but read▪

Dr. Stoughtons thirteen Sermons containing the form of Sound words, and some other Treatises.

The Godly Mans Ark, or City of Refuge, in the day of his Distress, discovered in divers Sermons, the first of which was preached at the Funeral of Mrs. Elizabeth Moore. Where­unto is annexed Mrs. Elizabeth Moores Evidences for Hea­ven, composed and collected by her in the timeof her health, [Page] for her comfort in the time of sickness; By Ed. Calamy, B. D. and Pastor of the Church at Aldermanbury.

Enchi [...]idion Iudicum, or Iehosaphat [...] Charge to his Judges, opened in a Sermon before the Right Honourable the Judges, and the Right Worshipful, the Sheriffe of the County Palatine of Lancaster.

Together with Catastrophe Magnatum, or King David [...] La­mentation, at Prince Abners Incineration. In a Sermon medita­ted on the Fall, and preached at the Funeral of the Right Wor­shipful Iohn Atherton of Atherton, Esq High-Sheriffe of the County Palatine of Lancaster. By Iohn Livesey Minister of the Gospel at Atherton.

There are going to the Press some new Peeces of Mr. William Fenners, late of R [...]tchford in Essex, never yet printed, preserved by a special Providence, one of which is a Second Part of his Wilful Impenitency; being five Sermons more that he preached upon the 18. of Ezekiel, and the 32, verse,


Mr. Purchas His Theatre of Politicall Flying-Insects.

THE Second Part. BEI …

THE Second Part. BEING Meditations and Observations, Theologicall, and Morall, Upon the Nature OF BEES.

By Samuell Purchas Master of Arts, and Pastour of Sutton in Essex.

LONDON; Printed by M. S. for Thomas Parkhurst, and are to be sould at his Shop, at the signe of the three Crownes, over against the Great Conduit at the lower end of Cheap-side. 1657.

THE SECOND PART▪ Meditations and Observations, Theologicall and Morall, in three Cen­tries, upon the nature of Bees.

The first Centry.

THere is no creature but may teach a good soule one step towards his Crea­tor. Wee ought therefore to make a spirituall use of things naturall, and the things of this present life, by them rai­sing up our mindes to heavenly medi­tations, and in an holy alchimie (as one saith) draw gold out of lead, heaven out of earth, grace out of nature. The world is a glasse where­in we may contemplate the eternall power and majestie of God; For the invisible things of him from the creation of theRom. 1. 20. world are clearely scene, being understood by the things that are made, even his eternall power and God▪ head. It is that great booke of so large a character, that a man may run and read it, yea even the simplest man that cannot read, may yet spell out of this booke that there is a God. Every shepheard hath this Calender, and every ploughman this A, B, C. What the French Poet divinely sung is thus as sweetly Englished.I. Silveste [...].

The worlds a schoole wherein a generall story,
God alwayes reads dumb lectures of his glory.

A shame therefore for us to have earthly hearts voyd of spi­rituall [Page 258] meditation, when every creature every where yeelds us matter enough. All of us can use the creatures carnally, and so can beasts; the spirituall use is rare.


God humbles us with ignorance in many things, not only divine but naturall and in common use, as in the Loadstones drawing of iron. In that little fish the Remora, the stay-ship that will arrest a ship when it is going full saile In the nature of Bees how blind are we? notwithstanding all our observation and labour. In the production and continuance of the QueeneDr. Dike Evangel. histories. Bee, in the generation of other Bees, and generally in the formes of all things. A just punishment of our pride, in affecting and aspiring to knowledge too high for us. And if there be in na­ture such secrets, what then in grace? Let us not be too curi­ous in prying into Gods arke, least we smart like the flie flutter­ing about the candle, for God is a consuming fire to those that will be sporting themselves in the quirks of their wit about his sacred mysteries. Let us waite till the life to come, and the veile shall be taken from our eyes, in the meane time humble ignorance is better then proud curiositie.


Many have troubled themselves and others to discover the severall kinds of working Bees, whereas of working Bees in these parts of the world, there is but one sort. And all Bees a­gree, if not in a just magnitude, colour, and proportion, yet cer­tainly, in their operations, naturall dispositions and inclinati­ons; So that our Bees and Bees in Spaine and other parts make all their combes with like hexangle cels, and are all industrious to gather honey, although in some parts according to the Cli­mate they are more retarded from working then in others.

And all the Saints that are dispersed throughout the whole world, have the same nature in them (although there be exter­nall differences) they have the same spirit in them, though they be never so remote one from another, & never saw one anothers face, yet may they know one anothers mindes, for one mind [Page 259] dwels in them. And when one mind dwels in diverse, they be of the same disposition, one nature is common to them all.


Waspes labour not as the Bees to furnish themselves with provision for the future, but for the most part live on spoyle and rapine; and about this are as indefatigably diligent and earnest early and late, as the painfull Bees in their profitable la­bours. So it is with many in the State, who in unlawfull cal­lings, and in the maintenance of their unlawfull trades doe take as much paines, nay more then some in lawfull. Demetrius his example shewes it, Act. 19 and the Proverb is, The belly hath no eares.


Many creatures have retireing places; the Bees when win­ter, night or stormes approach, they have their hives or dwel­lings in trees, they have their hideing places. Onely a wickedDr. Sibbs, The poore mans riches. carelesse man that hath not acquainted himselfe with God, when troubles come he hath no hideing place, nor no abiding place, but lies open to the storme of Gods displeasure▪ there­fore he is surprized with feares and cares, and pulled in pieces with distractions: he is a Meteor that hangs in the clouds, he cannot tell which way to fall.


Bees are laborious and industrious in their youth, and yet dis­pense not with themselves to be idle in their age, but as their skill is increased by dayly practise, so doe they with incessant diligence follow their businesse▪ and that in the most difficult and laborious taskes, being more early at their worke then the younger; and in chilling ayers when they dare not venture forth, will they be abroad▪ nay when they are weake, and have over-spent bodies and ragged winges▪ yet will they be abroad, although they miscarry in their labours. How different is the practice of the men of the world? where a new broome sweepes [Page 260] cleane. Their first beginnings are goodly and glorious, but theDr. Dike, Evangel. Histories. end is not answerable. Many are hot professors and zealous in their younger yeares, but grow key-cold in their elder yeares; therefore Eccles. 7. The end is better then the beginning. This deceitfulnesse of men is also in their speciall callings. Many good Magistrates at the first, as Saul; and Ministers, as Iudas; but they are best at first, like N [...]buchadnezzar: image, a golden head, and iron and clayie feete.


If a man did finde an all-sufficiency in God, he would neverDr. Preston, Gods All suf­ficiency. turne from him, nor seeke to the creature; Even as the Bee, if it did finde honey enough in one flower, would not hasten to another; but because it doth not, it goes from flower to flower. And so is the nature of man, as Solomon expresseth it, saying, that he hastened to outward things, that is, when he fell upon one, he found not enough in it, he made hast to another, and to ano­ther. So the nature of man if it did find sweetnesse and comfort and contentment enough in God, it would not turne from him to the creature, but because in his sense the object is too narrow, there is somewhat he would have more, he lookes over the Pale as it were, he seeth something he desireth, and that causeth him to step out.


Bees will endure Waspes abroad, or in other hives, but never willingly in their owne; for antipathie is a perpetuall enmitie. If the force of antipathie prevaile so farre to make an irrecon­cileable hatred, as great should be our hatred against sinners and Gods dishonour. It is fearefull when we can easily com­port with the wicked and digest their company and societie.


Bees when they are weary of the drones, having no further use of them; and fearing prejudice and future want by their gourmandizing; at first shew their dislike by molesting and [Page 261] troubling of them, but when this will not cause them to depart, nor yet give over their wonted courses, then with courage and confidence doe they set upon them, confront, kill, and slay them. Teaching Christians according to their places, that it is not enough to dislike the doings and practises of the wicked, but they must, having reproved them, confront & oppose them, nay strive, contend, and warre with them. Many faintly and coldly shew their dislike against wicked men, as Eli against his wicked sonnes: But this is (to use S [...]phocles his comparison) as if in a festered wound or sore, the Chirurgion should only blow upon it with his mouth, whereas there must be cutting, lancing, searching, burning, and the greatest violence that can be. Asa was herein famous for not enduring his owne mother in her Idolatry. 2 Chro. 15. 16.


If the Queene Bee in a swarme, following after the company (but because of the weaknesse of her wings, or tendernesse of her constitution, being never abroad before, and so not able at first to endure the cooler ayre) fall downe; they that be her present attendants, and saw her fall, stoop with her, encircle her, (and if she rise not and retrne to the hive, or goe to the maine body of the swarme, (fetled perhaps a little distance with long­ing and trembling expectation of her presence) stay with her and starve with her rather then forsake her, contenting them­selves with the condition of their Leader. And shall afflictions be the way that the Master enters into glory, and the members find fault with them? shall the head be crowned with thornes, and the members wrapped in softnesse? this is an unhandsome indecency, and a disunion too neare an antipathie; who ever will be Christs Disciple, must take up his crosse, deny himselfe, his owne fonder appetites, and trace his Masters foot-steps, though marked out with blood that he shed for our redempti­on; for he that will save his life shall loose it, and he that will loose it shall save it to eterniti [...].


Put a drop of honey into a bottle of Vinegar, it is as sharpe [Page 262] as before: so drop in the sweet word of God into such an heartDr. T. Tailor, Parable of the Sower. as i [...] sowred with the world, the tast is not changed, the word is not over-mastered.


Bees for the most part feed on honey, which over-liberally eaten turnes to choller, no wonder then if they be fiery furious and chollerick creatures: There is a power in meates to assimi­lateMr. Cotton ex­pos▪ on the first Epist of Ioh. c. 2. v. 17. those that eate them, what we feed on we are oft like unto: feed on grosse meates, your spirits will be more grosse and dull, feed on light meates, your spirits will be more quicke and agill: so if a man feedes on the world, he can rellish nothing but the world, his spirit is made carnall and stupid and worldly, and can rise no higher, therefore when Solomon gave himselfe to seekeEccles. 2. 3. pleasures, to try what was in them, though he did not neglect wisdome, as Eccles. 1. 8. yet he found by experience, deale as wisely as he could, in the end they did so stupifie him, that he was led away by them to Idolatry. Then is a man become stu­pid1 Kings 11. 4. when he is serious about trifles, and trifling about serious things: by pursuit of these his judgement was quicke in earthly matters, but in matters of religion▪ he began to grow very weak and ignorant; how much more then they that wholly give themselves to the lusts and pleasures of the world?


Bees in violent frosts are torpid and stirre not, especially in the Northerne regions, where they are almost all winter, if not in a dead▪ yet a very deep sleepe, but the mighty power of God in the returne of the spring revives and quickens them. And it is not a lesse almighty power that keepes the life of grace in the greatest falls and temptations of the Saints; that keepes life in David and Peter, that it should quicken and revive againe when the Sun of righteousnesse with comforting beames refresheth and warmeth them.


Bees are patient and harmlesse creatures, and seldome un­provoked [Page 263] pro [...] injurious; but he that shall often stand before the hives in the heate of the day, when they returne home with their labours, may too late repent his temeritie and fool-hardi­nesse. Lawfull libertie used to the full is exceeding dangerous, he that will take all the libertie he may, will sometimes take that he may not. It is not life at all times to goe into the high Priests hall. We are oft mistaken in our judgments concern­ingDr. I▪ Taylor, The great Exemplar. the lawfullnesse or unlawfullnesse of actions; He that will doe all that he thinkes he may lawfully doe, if he increase in gi­ving himselfe libertie, will quickly arrive at doeing things un­lawfull. He that because a man may be innocently angry, will never refraine his passion, in a little time will be intemperate in his anger, and mistake both his object and the degree. Thus facetiousnesse and urbanitie intertained with an open hand, will turne into jestings that are uncomely. If you will be secure, remove your tent, dwell further off, God hath given us more libertie then we may safely use.


Let Bees be kept close and imprisoned in their hives, though they have ease and ayre in abundance, yet they will not be con­tented, but still complaine and murmer, gnawing and eating away the stopping and impediments, that they may apply them­selves to their naturall and delightfull labours: so a river let it be dammed and stopt up, yet if the course of it be naturall to goe downwards, at length it will over-beare the damme and run over. Let water that is sweete be made brackish, by the o­verflowing of salt water, yet because naturally it is sweete, it will in time worke out the saltnesse. Here we have a picture of every mans nature, looke what the constant streame of his disposition is, that which is naturall to him, though he may be p [...]nt up and hindred from the practice of it for a time, yet will he breake through all impediments that he may be at it, though some temptations may forcibly breake in and b [...]r [...]e and stop up for a time his walking heaven-ward, yet will he never be at rest, untill he hath removed them, and got into his former course againe; whereas if a wicked man step into a good course by some tryall, or good education, &c. yet long he will [...]ot [Page 264] hold in it, he will breake through the impedim [...] because his naturall disposition, the streame of his heart runs another way.


Bees will not be without a Leader, for in all they act they receive directions from the Queene Bee. As the governour of a ship, he hath his hand (sometimes) to the sterrage, and his eye to the Pole-starre to be directed by that; so is the life of aDr. Sibbs. Christian, he must alwayes be doing that, that God prescribes him, and he must have his eye to the starre to be guided in his course by Gods direction: he that doth not this knowes not what it is to trust in God.


As the Beare dares hardly intermeddle with his desired ho­ney, for feare of the stinging of the Bees; so some men dare not commit sinne, for feare either of the lawes of men, or in slavish feare of hell, or the prologue to it, terror of conscience, yet hugges it in his heart, embraceth it in the armes of his affection, suffers it to reigne in his heart, and to take up his thoughts as by a Commission, continually contemplating thereon.


The Drones labour not, but altogether intend their passe-time and recreation, and then returne into the hive, and fill themselves with the purest honey, whereby they quickly grow foggie, and either cannot when they goe forth returne into the hive, and so perish abroad, or after a while are ejected or slaine by the Bees. And such sporting Drones the world is full of,Mr. Bolton, Direct. for walking with God. who plunge themselves over head and eares in courses of plea­sure, wherein they unworthily wast the fat and marrow of deare and precious time, the flower of their age, the strength of their bodies, emasculate and melt the vigor of their spirits into effe­minate sensualitie and lust, drowne the faire and goodly hopes of their education, the improvement of their parts in froth and folly, as though they were placed upon earth, as Leviathan in [Page 265] the Sea, only to take their sport and passe-time therein. Lovers they are of pleasure, and having their fooles paradise here, must therefore in the equity of a just and holy proportion, with the rich man looke for their payment and torment hereafter.


Bees will not continue well nor long without a Leader, nor will they endure diverse or more then one. Therefore in the union of swarmes, and in castlings, where sometimes many goe forth, yet will the Bees dethrone and destroy all but one, and untill it be effected are in a discontented tumult and hurly bur­ly, yea often in a civill warre, and if it fall out the parts to be somewhat equall, thereby is occasioned (sometimes) a totall ruine and destruction. For looke how farre any thing goes from unitie, so neare it comes to perishing, and any where the more peace and unitie, the more safety and security. And if in the little compasse of a hive, there is such need of a governour and unitie, much more in the great hive of the world. And this go­vernour must needs be God, for by men or Angells it cannot be governed. The preservation of every thing is in the unitie of it; and therefore you see any thing that is divided, that divisi­on is the dissolution of it, as when the soule is divided from the body, and when the body is divided from it selfe; so likewise in a family or Common wealth, much more in the world. If there were not one fountaine, there would be different streames, and if there were diverse principles of things, there would be a swarving and division in the nature and order of things, and so not an unitie, and so by consequence it would be the destruction of the whole. Of necessitie therefore there must be a gover­nour, and this governour must be one, and that one is God, who guides every creature under the Sunne, even the smallest of the creatures, and orders and directs them to their severall ends and businesses, to which he hath appointed them.


Bees being little and light creatures, are much agitated and disturbed with tempestuous and stormy winds, which because [Page 266] they cannot altogether prevent, they by a naturall sagacitie and providence doe arme and enable themselves against them. The Bees of Candie (as it is reported) poise themselves with smal­lerPlatarch. De solertia animal. pibbles which they carry in their feete, but our Bees to helpe themselves flie very low neare to the surface of the earth, and for the most part under the Lee-side of a hedge, whereby the violence of the wind is much checkt and broken. For as a Ship that is well furnished with tackle and failes, that may give the motion and advance the swiftnesse of it; yet if it hath not ballast in it, or weight in it to make it goe steddy, or a Lee-shore, where (by the height of the bankes) the violence of the wind is somewhat broken, it is up and downe tossed alwayes, and the more failes the more danger and hazzard. So Christi­ans in their voyage to the new Ierusalem, must not only have the wings of love, but the ballast of feare descending in a low flight to make them goe steddy. We must not have love only but feare, (whereby we flie low) least otherwise we move but want only, skipping and danceing by fits and by spurts in good wayes, and keepe not any constant course in our holy voyage. The eminency and excellency, the security and safety of a Chri­stian conversation ariseth from a mixture of feare and love; for as the purest white and fairest red mixed together, make theDr. S [...]ugh [...]n▪ R [...]ghteous [...]n [...] plea to t [...]e happi­nesse. beautie of the face in the body: so the mixture of feare and love make the beautie of the affection in the soule, feare mixed with love, for it must not goe alone. Feare though it be apt to make us carefull and cautious, carefull how to please God; and cau­tious, fearefull to offend him, yet if it be alone will precipitate us into despaire, or into the forlorne hope It must be tempered therefore with love▪ that we looke not only upon the great­nesse, but on the goodnesse and sweetnesse of God, that as we are affected with the prospect of the one, viz. his greatnesse, with an affection of holy humble feare, and lowly awe and re­verence of him, so that that may not beate us downe and over­throw us by despaire, we must keep up (advanced by the wings of love) looking upon his sweetnesse and his goodnesse. If we thinke on nothing but love, six our eyes on nothing but good­nesse and sweetnesse in God, we shall be ready to charge our sinnes on his backe in our presumption of his goodnesse, build­ing on his mercy inordinatly, and so presume to doe any thing. [Page 267] I say, love alone would be too want on except it be poised and ballanced with a holy feare and awe and reverence of God.


If a swarme be checked and stunted with bad weather pre­sently after it is hived, or if it be small, or very late in the yeare, the Bees will be carelesly desperate, and gather nothing to pur­pose, for they are out of hope to get enough for their winters provision and maintenance, and as good never a whit as never the better. Good is the Loadstone of all endeavours, a man willMr. Ho [...]ker, Soules prepa­ration for Christ. not labour for nothing, therefore despaire killes a mans labours, and plucks up the roote of all his endeavours; if there be any good present, hope makes us labour to increase it; if there be any good to come, hope labours to attaine it: but good there must be at least in hope and expectation, or else all endeavours will flag and wither away to nothing.


The feild wherein Bees feed, is no whit the barer for theirMr. F [...]ers Med. biting, when they have tooke their full repast of flowers or grasse, the Oxe may feede, the sheepe fat on their reversions. The reason is because those little Chymists distill only the resi­ned part of the flower, leaving the grosser substance thereof. So ejaculations bind not men to any bodily observance, only busie the spirituall halfe, which maketh consistent with the prosecution of any other employment.


Many observing the Bees flying into their hive, suppose them best furnished, that they see goe home laden on their thighs, and thinke the other idle that they see carry nothing; whereas though the former be well busied, yet oft times the other are better who are more deeply more richly laden, being full fraigh­ted with honey. Gods servants in this life are more in substance then in shew, when they fast, they anoynt not their faces; and when they give almes let not their right hand know, what their [Page 268] left hand doth. Good actions are not alwayes rewarded here, and therefore in vaine doe men muster and set them out upon beadroles in this life: labour to get the approbation of God, and so doe good that thy conscience may be well stored in Gods sight, who seing thee in secret may reward thee openly, and make thy light shine cleare as the perfect day. The wise Vir­ginsMr. Iohnston, Parable of the Virgins. have their oyle in their vessels, that is, have their holi­nesse and beautie hidden, and their actions only to be taken no­tice of by God.


Bees, if they be not disturbed or provoked, are seldome trou­blesome or offensive, especially in a remote distance from their hives, but molest or disquiet them at home, then they will furi­ously invade you, and admit of no termes of peace, but die or prevaile in the ruine of that man or creature that offends them. There are many men in the world, that seeme of excellent na­tures, quiet spirits, while they are not stirred or moved, but if they be once provoked, the latent embers be uncovered, then they are implacably mischievous.


Bees if they fall into the water and be drowned, or be chil­led and dead with cold (if it be lesse then the space of a day) if you lay them in the warme Sunne, or bring them neare a fire, they will recover life and revive againe, and doe well. The af­fections of Gods children are apt to grow dull and languish, ifDr. S [...]gh­ [...]on, Righteous mans plea to true happi­nesse. not to be chilled by earthly objects; for our hearts are ponde­rous, Multum tra [...]it de terra, de carne multum, it weighs down­ward, as the weights of a clocke move downward continually, and if they be once at the ground, the clock is silent, they must pull it up againe every twelve houres, or in such a certaine com­passe they must wind them up. And so in this case, there must be courses of winding up holy affections: if the fire be gone, the fire be out revive it, kindle it againe from heaven, reinforce, chase and warme your selves by the fire of prayer and other holy duties. When the fire on the Altar was extinguished, it [Page 269] was unlawfull to have it kindled but only by the meanes of hea­ven. It must be the fire of heaven, not any other fire that must revive us. We must oft be renewing of our holy affections to keepe them vigorous and lively. We must frequently excite and stirre up our selves, when we begin to faynt we must rub and chase our affections, and especially spread our chilled spi­rits before the Sunne of righteousnesse, that he may with theM [...]l. 4. 2. heate and healing of his wings revive and quicken us.


The little worme or potentiall Bee, after a short life of a few weekes, stirres no more, feeds no more, but lies dead and en­tombed, in the cell wherein it was bred: but waite with pati­ence a score of dayes, and you shall see it revive, and appeare a farre more noble creature then it was before. What is this, but an embleme of the resurrection? Aarons rod which was a drie and withered stick, in a night buds and blossomes, and brings forth ripe Almonds. For to every thing there is a season, and a time to every purpose under heaven. A time to die, and a timeEccles. 3. 1. to rise againe.


Bees can with ease and facility dart in their stings, but they have no power to extract or draw them out againe; hurt they can, helpe or ease they cannot. We are all naturally wise to doe evill, but to doe good we have no understanding. We are all as spring-locks, shut we can of our selves, but not open, for our naturall powers (as the Schooles speake) are become natura­les A [...]nin. impotentiae. And howsoever the sword of the Lord, and the sword of Gideon may goe together, yet the hand of Gideon, or the sword in his hand, or the edge on his sword, is not able to pierce, unlesse God give power, non enim tam agimus quam a deo agimur, saith Zanchie; for man is not so properly said toZanch. doe good, as to be compelled to doe it by the good Spirit of God.


Robbing Bees will desperately adventure to spoyle and plunder their neighbours. But if they find centinels before the ports to question them, and a strong guard at the gates to op­pose them, and when they have with danger and difficultie pas­sed through these, numerous forses within stoutly charging the first assailants with their ruine and destruction. The survivors will be weary and wary, doubtfull and fearfull further to pro­secute their treacherous designes. For even naturally all brute creatures avoyd that place where they are sensible by a token that their fellowes have miscarried. But how great the neglect of Gods judgements among men is appeares: perhaps at first they are deeply affected with them, but yet as a pang it is quick­ly overpast, and as newes it soone growes out of date. Pharaoh was no sooner quitted from one plague, but presently his heart was hardened to draw on another. The Israelites that were so affected, flighted and frighted at the horrible end of Corah and his complices, even the morrow after fall on Moses and Aaron, and upbraid them for the losse of the people of God. ManyDr. Prideaux, Higg [...]ion and S [...]loh. looke on others judgements, as furnished with a supersedeas from all arrests, and argue from their punishment how they have deserved, without the least reflex upon their owne muta­ble condition.


As Bees are industrious to gather, so what they diligently get, they doe not carelesly and at randome disperse about the hive, but discreetly and orderly, beginning at the top and so downwards, dispose it in their waxen cabinets, and as soone as they be full of honey close them fast with a waxen lock, both to prevent robbers, and also to necessitate themselves to further labour as long as the season of gathering continues. Many heare, but the word heard profits them not, because they are carelesse to treasure up the truths delivered, they quickly for­get; such are like unto a man who beholds his naturall face inJames 1▪ 23. a glasse, and goeth his way, and forgetteth what manner of man [Page 271] he was. But would we thrive under the meanes, we must when we have heard and marked and understood the truth of duties delivered, lay them up, locke them closely and safely in our hearts, as in a safe repositary, we must commit good instructi­ons to memory: had we rich treasures we would not lay them up negligently, but keepe them under locks and keyes, barres and bolts, why then should we let holy instructions slip out of our memories, whereby all former labours, as of the speaker, so, of the hearer is utterly frustrate.


If the Bee lights upon a flower where there is no honey (being wasted or gathered before) she quickly gets off and flies away to another, that will furnish her. Let us not loose our selves, and forget our errand; our father Adam lost our happinesse, and we are sent to seeke it; seeke it where it is, andMr. Harris, Way to true happinesse. goe handsomely to worke; say, I am not made for riches, they are made for me; I am not made for creatures, they are made for me, and I am their Master: Therefore these cannot make me happie. I am made for eternitie, for everlasting life and happinesse. Therefore let me study that, mind that, see that end beyond inferiour ends; Why doe men seeke wealth, but to be happie? why pleasures, why honours, but because they would be happie? If these cannot blesse and enhappie me, why should I burne day-light? why should I not off them, as the Bee gets off the plants that yeild her no honey, and once at last see where my businesse lies, in pursuing happinesse, and where my happinesse lies, in Gods wayes; the first step where­of is povertie of spirit.


When the wax is mollified and wrought warme, then set the seale on it, for it will receive the impression. And when God hath any wayes mollified our hearts, and made them in a mourning case, close with him; when we finde our selves any whit softened, take the hint, improve that opportunitie.


Bees are naturally harmlesse and patient creatures, each in and for her owne particular will ordinarily receive any preju­dice, hurt, or molestation, and when they suffer are wondrous calme, but neare the hive, where the cause seemes to be pub­lique and their common wealth to be endangered, then they are marvelous hot and furious, and notwithstanding the feircest opposition, will resolutely charge all that stand in their way, in the defence of the publique, although they die in the con­flict. But how farre short are many Christians in their practi­ses? in any publique cause where the glory of God is concer­ned, or the common good interested, you shall have them beare all quietly: Oh, saith he, you must have patience, and beare with small matters: but in a cause that toucheth his owne par­ticular (say himselfe be concerned in his penny, in his peace, in his reputation, or the like) then none are so fiery, none so furious, he is all upon a flame, then no penaltie is thought too great, no disgrace too heavie for such a person that hath done him displeasure. Whereas a meeke Christian in his owne cause will be meeke and silent, but in Gods cause zealous and ear­nest. See it in Moses when he was censured, disparaged reviled, he beares it quietly, pockets it up without distemper: but at another time when the cause was publique, when it concerned the glory of God, and the good of the Church, then none so zealous, none so fiery as Moses, he cannot brooke nor beare.


Bees in Iuly extract honey out of many and various flowers, but yet by little and little and in a small proportion; but if a honey-dew then falls, in a short space are they largely reple­nished, and have a triplication of their sweetes, and a full re­fection with their Nectar. Holy prayers, meditations and in­tercourses with God, private readings, soule-soliloquies and spi­rituall discourses are intertainers and satisfiers of the Saints re­cessities,Dr. I. Taylor, The great Exempla [...]. but in publique solemnities, God opens his treasures, powers out his graces more abundantly; private devotions and [Page 273] secret offices of religion are like refreshings of a garden with the distilling and pettie drops of a watering pot: but addresses to the Temple, and serving God in the publique communion of Saints, is like raine from heaven, where the offices are de­scribed by a publique spirit, hightened by the greater portion of assistance, and receives advantages by the adunations and symbols of charity, and increment by their distinct title to pro­mises appropriate even to their assembling, and mutuall sup­port, by the piety of example, by the communication of coun­sels, by the awfulnesse of publique observation, and the engage­ments of holy customes.


Drones to the eye are goodly creatures, fairer and larger then the working Bees, they make a great noise and lowd buz­zing, flie often forth in the heate of the day, as if they were bu­sie to advance the publique good: but they are all emptie and vain glorious shewes, for they contribute nothing to the pub­lique store, but when after a few wanton vagaries, they have emptied themselves and whetted their stomacks, they returne into the hive and liberally feede of the Bees labours. So one writes of young Marius, that by reason of the stoutnesse of his talke and gesture, he obtained to be called the sonne of Mars, but when he came to proofe, he gained a new name, and was called the sonne of Venus. Thus many in their words appeare gracious, but by their actions are basely effeminate and sickle, wanton and idle.


Some hives will lie out two or three yeares together and not swarme▪ or if they doe, very late, and then ten to one but they miscarrie and die, both the old stock and the swarme too. Now the best way to preserve such a stock, is timely to drive it into an emptie hive, and the Bees being many, will provide themselves sufficiently against winter, and swarme seasonably another yeare, so that in some cases driveing is not an undoing and destruction, but a preservation of the stock. Thus the gar­diner [Page 274] cuts off a graft or siens to plant it into a new stock, not toMr. Heoke [...], Soules prepa­ration for Christ. burne it. So the Lord sometimes cuts off a sinner from his ab­hominations, but he will not cast him into hell, and the Lord melts the heart of a poore sinner, but consumes him not; but as the Goldsmith melts his gold, not to consume it all away, but to make it a better vessell; so the Lord melts a poore sinner, to make him a vessell of glory. The Lord will fire this proud heart of yours, and clip off those knotty lusts, but if you belong to him, he will leave a little remainder of hope, that you shall be formed and fashioned anew, not consumed.


The Queene Bee is a very amiable creature, and of a brigh­ter colour, and more transparent hue then other Bees, she is somewhat yellow under the belly, and on her legges, enclining to a golden colour, and this colour intimates her princely na­ture, her royall blood, and soveraigne dignitie. Some Heralds tell us, that none ought to beare gold-yellow colour in armes but Emperours and Kings, and such as be of the blood royall. Oh that none would beare the glittering shew of professionMr. R. Abbot, Davids de­sires. and holinesse, but those that are of the race of Jesus Christ the King of Kings, then should we not be as the Priests, Prince, and people of Israel, a snare in Mispah to the simple, and a net spread on mount Tabor to catch them that know us not, with an opinion of good men and good women, faithfull Christians and true beleevers, when we are nothing lesse.


The Bees worke is admirable, orderly, and geometrically proportionable, all full of wonder; whereas the Waspes and Hornets combes for substance are unprofitable drosse, although they be hexangle cels, and somewhat orderly framed down­wards, yet upwards have no beautie, are nothing so polite and accurate. But the Humble Bees combes are but rude lumpes, a little hollowed for their owne end and use. To these three sorts may we compare the obedience of most men professing Religion; there is the obedience of the common Protestant, [Page 275] perhaps somewhat more then a Pagane performes, yet a rude and indigested devotion, heaped up together by law and cu­stome. Then there is the obedience of the hypocrite, in many things resembling true devotion, super-fine carriages, but yet on one side only, to man-ward somewhat exact and formall, but to God-ward rudely, carelesse, and negligent. Whatsoever is done is not done with respect to God and conscience of his commandments. Lastly, there is the obedience of the true be­leever, arising from a grounded knowledge of the will of God and faith, and from a holy feare and love of God, conscienti­ously and respectively to approve himselfe to God in the dis­charge of his duties, and it is exactly modelized and squared according to the rule of Gods word.


It is an observation that a man cannot draw (even in natu­rallDr. S [...]oughun. things) a long straight line perfectly exact, except he draw it by some rule; It is not the steddiest hand that can doe it ex­actly, but there will be some crookes. And therefore men use to take a rule to draw a line by. Certainly it must be so in spiri­tuall obedience, a man must have an eye to the word of God, and make that his card and compasse to saile by, make that the rule and warrant of his actions or else though he hit (as it were) hab nab at some circumstances, it is not formall obedi­ence. Now though a man may (hand over head, as they say) make some hasty and tumultuous doings, patch up a great deale of mud together, to make a wall, not caring for a square to make it perpendicular (as the Humble Bees rudely compose their combes▪ hand over head without any great care or art) yet if a man would build a Temple or stately Pallace, he must doe it perpendicular, it must be evenly and orderly built according to an exact line both within and without also (and thus geome­trically and regularly build the Bees as it were by square and plummet) or else one part will over-top another, and all tum­ble downe. It is so in this cause, whatsoever is not squared by the rule of Gods word, what ever materiality it may have, it hath little or no formality of obedience.


How many small things annoy the greatest? even a mouseDr Hall, Occasionall Meditat. troubles an Elephant, a Gnat a Lion, a very flea may disquiet a Giant. What weapon can be nearer to nothing then the sting of a Bee? yet what a painefull wound hath it given? that scarce visible point how it invenomes and rankles, and swels up the flesh? the tendernesse of the part, addes much to the griefe. And if I be thus vexed with the touch of an angry flie, Lord, how shall I be able to endure the sting of a tormenting consci­ence? as that part is both most active and most sensible, so that wound which it receives from it selfe, is most intolerably grie­vous There were more ease in a nest of Hornets, then under this one torture: O God, howsoever I speed abroad, give me peace at home, and what ever my flesh suffers, keepe my soule free. Thus pained, wherein doe I find ease, but in laying honey to the part affected? that medicine only abates the anguish. How neare hath nature placed the remedie to the offence? whensoever my heart is stung with the remorse of sin, only thy sweete and precious merits, O blessed Saviour, can mitigate, and heale the wound; they have vertue to cure me, give me grace to apply them; that soveraigne receite shall make my paine happie; I shall thus applaud my griefe, it is good for me that I was thus afflicted.


Bees (as many other creatures) have wit enough to find out remedies for the cure of their maladies: to preserve them strong and vigorous, and to recover themselves being weake; they (if they be neare the Sea) delightfully gather of flowers that grow on the salt marshes, as Thrift, Hogs scurvy-grasse, &c. and where they are remote from it, they water in st [...]kes and saw pits, and extract a nitrous saltnesse with their water. But man only being wounded by sin, hath not by the light of na­ture any wit to seeke for remedie, yea only man is carelesse of his eternall salvation. Every one is wise enough to doe evill,Ier. 4. 22. but to doe well they have no understanding: and no marvaile, [Page 277] for as the clearest eye beholdeth not the brightest object, ex­ceptDr. Ienisen, Earths vani­tie. the Sun-beames doe come betweene to enlighten it, so the sharpest wits are not able to conceive the heavenly mysteries of our redemption, regeneration and eternall salvation, without the bright beames of Gods Spirit shining into them to enligh­ten them.


Those hives are in best case where the Bees make most noise; but those Common-wealths are in best state where least noiso and tumult is.


As a man may eate too much honey, so pleasure it selfeDr. Hakewill, King Davids Vow. growes loathsome and distastfull by immoderate use, Nempe voluptatem commendat rarior usus; moderation is the mother of duration. It is like the steddy burning of a tape [...], or the fire upon the Altar, which never went out, whereas headstrong vio­lence, like a squib or flash of lightning dazels the eyes for a mo­ment, but is instantly extinct.


It is not good to provoke Waspes and Hornets, but it isMr. Randall, St. Pauls tri­umph. much worse to provoke Devils. Some rude people will dare the Devill, and challenge and bid the wicked fiend to come if he dare, and to doe his worst, &c. Silly wretches, the Devill laughs at them, to see how foole-hardy they are against him▪ that hath them in his clutches already.


Bees out of their unwearied and restlesse nature are inces­santly active for their future preservation, and therefore when they cannot worke (Harvest being warme but drie, and not af­fording many flowers) they will steale and plunder. And for that purpose send forth sundry Emissaries, which search and [Page 278] examine every hive in their walke. At first these espialls make faint essayes, but finding little opposition or contradiction, they then (yet doubtfull) enter, and finding the accesse easie, fetch presently a new supplie, and still recruite their forces, so that after a little while, it will be difficult, if not impossible to withstand them: whereas a guard before the doore, a stout re­sistance or peremptory repulse at the first, would have not on­ly weakened, but frustrated all their designes. Wouldst thou get the mastery over thy sin (whatsoever it be) give it altogether peremptory denialls, suffer it not to delight thee in the least tickling conceite and pleasing speculation. It will be easie to abstaine from it when the deniall is resolute and peremptory; barre up the doores, give ust no audience, get as much strength to resist, as the lust hatl power to attempt. If we cannot putDr. Prest [...], Doctrine of Mortificat. out a sparke, how shall we put out a flame? if we get not the Mastry over the first motion to sinne, much lesse shall we be able to overcome when it is brought to maturity in action. Sin is like the water, give it the least way, and we cannot stay it, run it will in despight of us. And a streame ri [...]eth by little and little, one showre increasing it, and another making it somewhat bigger, so sin riseth by degrees.


Bees when they are pleased and contented make an uniforme and delightfull harmonie, but being illegally acting as in rob­bery, or discontented in the losse or absence of their Leader, they are distracted as it were, in their flights (nay frights) and uncertaine motions, and displeasing and harsh in their buzzing [...]lan [...]ors▪ for as when the string of an instrument is out of tune, then the Musick doth ja [...]re: so when discontents predominate, all is in a confused m [...]dley, atapie, and disorder. Discontents produce not greater mischiefe in the hive of the Bees, or of the Common wealth then evill concupiscence doth in the soule of a man, it ma [...]res all his good actions: to mingle water with wine, it makes the wine the worse; to mingle drosse with silver, it makes the silver the more impure: so evill concupiscence being in the soule of a man, doth staine disorder, and blemish his good actions, in that he performes them either with vaine-glory, or selfe-respect.


Princes promise any thing to discover a treason, but they ne­verPet Mathew, Continuat. of the generall hist. of France, in he life of Hen. the 4th. trust the Traitors, and if happily they favour them for a time, the hatred which followes after is more violent and irre­coverable: for they use them as Country-men doe their Bees, when they have drawn out the honey and wax, they chase them away with fire and smoake.


Many hate not sin, neither flie it because it is sinne, but asM Stock, ex­pos. on Mal. c. 2. v. 16. children doe Bees, not because they are Bees, but because they have a sting; so doe they sinne, because it is hurtfull.


When Bees are most angry in their swarming or sighting,Dr. Fea [...]ly, judges Charge. cast but a little earth upon them, and they are presently quiet, and give over their humming noise and contention. So though nothing else can asswage the tumor of the proud, or quench the burning desire of honour in the ambitious, of wealth in the co­vetous, of pleasure in the volupt [...]ous; yet the consideration of the grave can. He that seriously thinketh with himselfe, these goodly roabes of mine, cloath nothing but dung, all my dainty fare feedes but wormes. I who (perhaps) have power over othe [...] mens lives, have no power of my owne life, no not for a moment. Even whilst I sit upon prisoners▪ and condemne guilty persons, I am arraigned in my conscience, and plead guilty be­fore God: he that keeps downe his heart with these thoughts, can no more be overthrowne with pride, then a ship which is well ballasted be blowne away with a storme.


There are no straines in Musick so delightfull, as those in which discords are artificially bound in with concords; nor dishes so dainty as those in which sweet-things are seasonably [Page 280] mingled with sowre; nor pictures so beautifull as those, in which bright colours with darke shadowes are curiously tem­pered. Nor would the sweetnesse of honey be so much com­mended, if there were not difficulty and danger in the compas­sing of it. Did we not feare the sting in the Bees taile, we would not so much value the honey in her mouth? but what with pe­rill, if not paine, is procured, is better prized, more praised.


Bees as they are alwayes laboriously painfull, so especially when they have been long shut up and confined by unseasona­ble weather; then upon the first approach of a calme Sun-shi­nie day, doe they roufe themselves up from their (now loa­thed) rest; or on the fall of a honey▪dew in a warme and mild season doe they eagerly pursue their delightfull labours. Shall irrationall creatures take the hints of opportunitie, and shall we trifle them away: Let us be jealous and cautious, of these cree­pings and turnings, these serpentine tricks of the flesh, and the world, that would slay us: Lay hold when thou hast an oppor­tunitie to heare, to read, to pray, Post ist [...]ccasia calva, make use, take the occasion, when God hath led thee to privacy, thou art there where thou maist freely have communion with thy God, slight it not negligently, let it not slip, it is Gods call, doth the Spirit of God whisper us, saying, this is a dutie thou must doe, and thy conscience doth witnesse with thy spirit, that it is so, and thy owne affections (if thou hast any heaven-wardDr. Stough­ton, Righteous mans plea to true happi­nesse. duty-ward) doe stirre thee also, let not this wind blow in vaine over thee▪ extinguish not the Spirit by neglect, when God of­fereth thee a hint by his Spirit take it, take that hint, I say, a man may doe more in an houre of prayer, when he hath the motions and the power of the Spirit, when the fore-runner of it is some sweet motion cast into the heart of a man, some sweete touch of meditation puts him upon duty, o [...] then if a man would make use of the sailes of that hint, by that wind he might dispatch a great voyage of prayer, and returne richly laden.


The first life of a Bee is scarce worthy to be called a life, [Page 281] vita est; non vitali [...]. She is included in a little narrow cell, without any locomotive power; she hath neither eye to see, nor organ to heare; Is not sensible of danger, much lesse able to prevent it; Is only capable of that meate, which is put into the mouth, whereby it growes but unprofitably, like a plant ra­ther then a brute: for it can neither helpe nor hurt, but after it is transmuted by death, it appeares in a more excellent and glo­rious condition: It is agill and industrious, beneficiall to it selfe, to others. In a word, the first life is but a sparke raked up in ashes, the other is a sparke blowne up into a flame; the first is the sap in the roote, the latter like the sap that fills the bran­ches with leaves and mature fruite Wherefore is it that the Saints desire death, not that they might be deprived of the comforts of life; they would not put off their cloathes, but to be better apparelled. They desire death to attaine a life, that might swallow up the weaknesses, sicknesses, troubles of this: not as a gulfe swallowes up that which is cast into it, or as the fire swallowes up the wood by consuming it; but as perfecti­on swallowes up imperfection, or as manhood swallowes up childhood, not extinguishing it, but drowning it that it is not seene.


By nature the Bees expell the Drones, because they affectMr. Sym▪ Lifes preser­vative. only ease and content themselves to doe nothing, caring only to avoyd labour which attends upon active and industrious im­ployment. And why was Meroz cursed? because they cameJudg. 5. 23. not out to the helpe of the Lord against the mighty; and idle and floathfull spending of a mans life is every where in Scrip­ture condemned. Will [...]ull defects a domissions of doing good bring damnation, he that wanted his wedding garment wasMat. 22. 13. thrust out of doores and cast into utter darknesse.


Soft wax admits any stampe, and simple persons are easily corrupted by themselves, or deceived by others.


The world is troublesome, it's gall is more then it's honey,Mr. T. Ia­combe, E [...]k [...] walke. it is not only vanitie but vexation; have all, it is but a vanitie, want but a little 'tis vexation. Ahab is sick, because he hath not poore Naboths vineyard; Haman wants but a knee from Mor­decai, and this imbitters all.


All the wayes of worldly pleasure, are strawed with needlesMr. Bolton, Directions for walking with God. and nettles, which ever and anon prick and sting her darlings, as they pluck her fading flowers: so that at best, they are but like Beares robbing a Bee-hive, who ravenously rifle the combes, and with much adoe suck out a little honey, but in the meane time are soundly stung, and swollen about their heads for their painfull pleasure.


Honey over liberally eaten causeth vomiting, the stomack cannot hold it: such are ill gotten goods to the heart, as the Canaanites were to the good land, the land groaned till it had spewed them out, the conscience travells till it be delivered of these. They are to the soule as Ionah to the Whale, the Whale had devoured him, but could not rest, till he was restored; so it is with the conscience, if men play the whales, and make fish of all that comes to net, the conscience will be as weary of such a burden, as the whale of the Prophets bones.


Many lay the whole strength of their affections, upon theMr. [...], [...] su [...]e [...]all▪ things they fancie (or as the Creeple layes his full weight upon his crutches) and therefore when they are taken from them (as Pharaohs chariot wheeles) they are drawne upon all foure, and stick in the mud: yea they set on their affections as the Bee her sting with all their might and strength, they convey [Page 283] into others their very bowels and hearts, and therefore when they are gone they are heartlesse.


He that is pained with the Bees stinging, must for cure spee­dilyGeminianus de exemplis. lib. [...]. pluck out the sting, and then apply juice of mallowes mixed with oyle, or honey to the wound. And the best remedy for a wounded conscience, is first to pluck forth the sting of sin, and then to wash in Christs blood, and for the future keepe the heart above all keepings; for as the eye is subject to infinite distempers, so is the conscience.


Bees solitary and alone (especially in the night or winter season) are quickly benummed with cold, and die; but many united together are agill and livel; nay one chilled with cold, put to the many, recovers, and hath a new returne of life. So that I doe not improperly speake, if I say, they live as much by heate as by meate. And therefore if there be many in a hive, though there be but a tollerable supply of food, they will doe well, but if they have never so much meate, and be not many and numerous, they will miscarry and come to nothing. The communion of Saints puts life into those that have it not, and increaseth it in those in whom it is. The health of the body doth not communicate it selfe to others; it is otherwise in the life of the soule, the life of it makes others to live more, as iron sharpens iron, so one holy man doth another: when two lie to­gether they keepe one another warme, there is action and re­daction, this is a powerfull meanes to get and increase this life.


Bees in the Spring when the weather is faire will worke chearefully, but if the Sunne withdraw his beames, the wind blow hollow, the chilling showers descend, then they are pre­sently dull and livelesse, scarce appeare, if at all not farre from [Page 284] the hive; it is an uncomfortable time, the spirits of the Bees lower, are heavy and sad: we see it also in the body, that the animall spirits in the braine, which are the causes of motion and sense, if they be obstructed, there followes an Apoplexie and death. So it is, between Christ and the soule, he is theDr. Sibbs, Bowells o­pened. Sunne of righteousnesse, by whose beames we are all comfor­ted and cheared, but when they are withheld, then our spirits decay and are discouraged. Summer and Winter arise from the presence and absence of the Sunne, the presence of the Sunne when it comes neare causeth the earth to be cloathed with a rich embroiderie of fruits and flowers. And what makes the Summer and Winter in the soule, but the absence or presence of Christ? what makes some so vigorous beyond others, but the presence of the Spirit? As it is in nature so it is here, the presence of Christ is the cause of all spirituall life and vigour, but if he withdrawes his presence a little, the soule failes.


Bees when they assault a man strike fiercely at the face, the beauty of man; and principally in the face aime at the eye, the beautie of the face. Thus Satan though he be malicious against all mankind, yet chiefly against those who by Christ are con­quered out of his hand, and having their garments washed in the blood of the Lambe are most beautifull. For as the Pan­ther rageing on the picture of a man, bewrayes the hatred he beares unto him. So the Devill to testifie how much he hates God himselfe, spends the greatest of his fury on them that beare the image of God. Thus doe Satans instruments incarnate De­vils, though they care not usually whom they wrong▪ opprosse, injure, hate, yet most of all the holy ones in earth are the ob­ject of their hatred, they are the drunkards songs, and a sport to the foolish. What muttering, what whispering, what cen­suring, what sinister construction is set upon every action of theirs? what discovering, what blazeing of infirmities? what so high, but they will reach it; what so deepe, but they will be sounding the bottome of it? but a day will come when they will cry out with Cicero, O me nunquam sapientem, et aliquan­do id quod non eram falso existimatum. Aye me, that indeed [Page 285] was never wise, but falsely thought to be what I was not. And with those in the booke of Wisdome; We fooles thought his life Wisd 5. v. 4, 5. madnesse, and his end without honour: how is he accounted among the children of God, and his portion among the Saints? But the in­nocent heart shall then lift up a chearfull countenance, as know­ing that though here it were despised, yet there it shall be justi­fied and rewarded with a crowne of glorie.


Waspes gather not as Bees yet some seeing them running on the tops of flowers, and sucking in the cels are notably deluded, supposing that they gather as well as the Bees: Whereas they only suck to satisfie a wanton fancie, but carry away nothing for a future supply of themselves or Common-wealth. Hypo­crites in many out-side duties may comply with beleevers, and have their conversation in such actions, that they are usu­ally practicall in, and so deceive many, who are easily beguiled with similitudes. All deceite is from similitude. False wares ha­ving the same die that the true have, deceive the buyers; so fal­ling starres are like other starres. When we see men that pro­fesse religion false hearted, many are apt to thinke that all are so; wherefore the Apostle prayes that they might abound in allPhil. 1. 10. knowledge and judgement to discerne of things that differ: this proximitie makes many deceived.


A lamp or candle by the brightnesse of it intiseth the Bee (as many other flies) to embrace it, but by that meanes she is eyther drowned in the oyle, or burned in the flame. So the shewes of sinne and the pleasures of the world, entice the mindes of men that their hearts are drowned in many feares and sorrowes, and when they suppose that they have catcht all, they themselves are caught. Finally, corruption and destructi­on (the naturall ends of all things under heaven) layeth hold upon them, Qui lachrimarum causas tripudiantes peragunt, Greg: Moral. lib. 20. c. d. et ridentes mortis negotium exequuntur. Who goe dancing through the causes of their mourning, and with laughter act the tragedie of their owne death.


The Titmouse is a great destroyer of Bees, and more easily and certainly to obtaine his pray, will in the winter watch at the doores of their hives (their Castles of security) and as soone as any come forth seizeth upon them, and eateth them; If none appeare he knocks with his bill, and they feeling the mo­tion come forth to know the cause, and are presently devoured by him. In the Spring time he resorts to the willow trees, (whither the Bees come to gather) and there invade [...] them, so that they are no where secure. And thus, and more active is the great Apollion the Devill to destroy men [...] bodies and soules, sometimes [...]itting temptations to mens tempers and constitutions (for he cannot by force without our owne con­sent prevaile over us) As a bait of promotion for Absolon, be­cause he is ambitious; of pleasure for Sampson, for he is volup­ruous; every man will not be drawne to sin by every object; an earth-worme esteemeth not pleasure, and a man by temper voluptuous, esteemeth not profit much, no [...] [...]n ambitious man either; and therefore the Devill who is wise (as Isid [...]re saith) hath his [...], Ephes. 6. 11. and his [...] [...] ▪ Rev. 2. 24. his ar­tificiallly [...]r. lib 1. de [...]umm [...] b [...]no. wayes and deepe reaches, and presenteth men with su­table objects, for the love of which he thinkes they will be con­tentMr. H [...]d, Soules misery. to straine their consciences, and breake Gods lawes; and presenteth them at sit times and places, for every tune is not a season all places are not opportunities, there is the houre and power of darknesse. And there is the time of pleasure and pro­speritie,Luk. 22. 53. when men are apt to be regardlesse of themselves, and the high Priests hall to worke upon Peter, the times of our weaknesse when we are wholly deprived of such a friend or go­vernour, as might by their watchfull observation of our cour­ses restraine us from sinne, or by their counsell uphold us, by their rebukes and corrections recover us if we fall.


If the Queene Bee miscarrie in the hive, or flying out of it for recreation or evacuation (for otherwise ordinarily she stir­reth [Page 287] not forth) come to some mischance. All her subjects are presently in a sad mourning posture; now there is nothing but confused discursions, a wofull complaining, a cessation from worke, and quickly a miscarriage and death of all. And if Chri­stians sad and grieve the holy Spirit of God, and cause him by their sinnes to goe away from them, they cannot (if they be sensible of their condition) but be in a sad and mournfull e­state; for as the ayre is darke and chill, the earth cold and wet, and the face of the sublunary world uncomfortable▪ when the Sunne, which is the light and life of it, hath withdrawne his light; so must the face and state of the soule needs be very gloo­my, when the Spirit, who is the comforter, hath withdrawne his presence.


When a man crops a flower from the earth, he can get no­thingDr. D [...] Doomesday. out of it, but the sweetnesse of the smell, or the delight­fulnesse of the colour: but when the diligent Bee comes, she will make more of it, she will extract that which is (as it were) the very spittle of the starres. So when simple carnall minded men, read the Poets and the Philosophers, they gather nothing but delight and pleasure; but when the diligent Bee comes, a wise man, a serious considerate man, he drawes honey out of them.


There is left in the Church, a power and authority, which must be used when there is occasion, to draw the sword against contumacious rebells which will not be reclaimed by other meanes. As St. Ambrose saith, The Preacher of the word must be like unto the Bee, he must have both a sting and honey.


Bees when they have filled themselves with water, they can­not gather honey, untill they have vomited it up. And he that will thrive by the food of the word, must empty and unburden [Page 288] the stomack of his soule of all things that will hinder the puri­ty and power of it from taking possession of his heart: he must bring a heart and a head like two emptie buckets to draw with geedinesse and joy the waters of life out of the wells of salvati­on: even the honey combe, the sweetest thing in the world is loathsome to a full stomack.


Many creatures (in particular Bees) by antipathie and in­stinct of nature shunne that which is contrary or obnoxious to their safetie; and men by their intellectuall parts doe foresee and diseerne what is hurtfull and dangerous to them or their lives, and decline and oppose things that have a tendency thereunto.


As Sampson met the Lion as an enemie when he was alive,Mr. Renolds, explicat. of the 110 Psal. but after he was slaine, he went unto him as unto a table; there was only terror while he lived, but honey when he was dead. So doubtless many men to whom the bodily presence of Christ, and the mighty power and penetration of his heavenly preach­ing, whereby he smote sinners unto the ground, and spake with such authoritie as never man spake, would have been unsuffera­bly irkesome and full of terror (as it was unto the Scribes and Pharisees) can yet now that he is out of their sight, and doth not in person, but only by those who are his witnesses torment the inhabitants of the earth, pretend much admiration and thankfull remembrance of that death of his which was so full of honey for all that come unto him.


Bees are diligent and painfull in their worke, but frugall and temperate in their feeding. Their sood consists of two kindes, or rather one diversified, wet and drie, honey and Bee-bread, so that you may draw a bill of their fare, and a catalogue of their provision in setting downe bread and water: and having [Page 289] these they have enough, for they want nothing. But many men lay out on a meale a yeares allowance, and wast as much pro­vision in a few houres as were sufficient to releive the famine of an armie. Quickly doe many men devoure all that all other members (the Caters and P [...]rveyors) can bring in, yea what­soever art can devise, luxurie, and all the obsequious servant of the idoll Belly invent; So that Iudas his purchase, Acelde­ma, is no way comparable, that indeed a greedy grave, employ­ed to funerall uses, able in eight and fortie houres, as it is re­ported,Sandys, page 187 and o­ther travel­lers. to consume the flesh of any carkasse therein buried: but this in foure and twentie houres consumes many carkasses of fishes and fowles, and generally twice a day all the flesh therein interred.


What is a Bee to a Beare, or a Mouse to an Elephant? and yet if a Bee fasten his sting in the nose of a Beare, or a mouse creepe up and gn [...]w the trunke of an Elephant, how easily doe so little creatures, upon such an advantage, torment the grea­test? certainly the proudest of men have some tender part into which a sting may enter, the conscience is as sensible of Gods displeasure, as obnoxious to his wrath, as subject to his word in a Prince as in a beggar. If the word like Davids stone find that open, and get into it, it is able to smite the greatest Goliah.


The Drones are a lazie and carelesse generation, delighting themselves in sportfull recreations, and delicious dainties: never providing nor forecasting for themselves how it shall be with them afterwards, but thinke to fare tomorrow as they have done to day, and so succeeding dayes, as they have dayes; but the provident prudent Bee, finding a likely decay of the gather­ing season, and observing that the Drones are only spenders and riotous wasters, doe at last violently expell them their hives; which they are unwilling to leave, having provided no­thing for themselves, and therefore readily returne againe; but because they will take no warning, they then slay them [Page 290] without pittie or compassion. And as dangerously doe many men pretending for wisdome play the fooles, delaying the pra­ctise of repentance, procrastinating to take the offer of grace, and thus deceiving themselves. They thinke to doe it perhaps tomorrow or afterwards, and so oft cozening themselves, theDr. Preston, New Cove­nant. time they prefixed sliding away, and then another is determi­ned, which likewise goeth away but nothing is done, and so another, till at last time be no more. Take heed you be not de­ceived in this, I will doe it now and now, bu [...] modo et modo non habet modum. The Chariot wheeles when they runne, the se­cond runs neare the first all the day long, but never overtakes it. As in a clock the second minute followes the first, but it ne­ver overtakes it; so it is with us, this doing of it now and now and to morrow and to morrow, these little distances deceive us and delude us. We thinke to doe it in a short time, and by rea­son of the nearenesse and vicinity of the time, we thinke we shall doe it easily, but we are deceived with it. As Grashoppers deceive children, when they thinke to lay their hand upon them, they hop a little su ther and a little further, that in the conclu­sion they take them not at all. So it is with us, we cozen our selves in that manner, we lose our life▪ we lose our opportuni­tie of taking grace, because we thinke it to be so neare: we thinke we can take it the next weeke, or the next moneth▪ and out of this we are confident it is in our power, and so our time flies a­way, and we have never part in it.


The Bees labour diligently to get food for the supply of their young, they bring it home to the hive, and lay it up in the combes, but (alas) they are yet never the better for it, for they are fixt in their cels, they cannot stirre forth to take it: there­fore they doe more, they bring them food, and put it into their mouths, as oft as they need. The reason why mens hearts are not wrought upon in the Ministery of the word, is because ma­ny Ministers labour not the right way to shew men their sinnes, and to convince their consciences, they insist only in generalls, whereas a particular application brings every man his part and portion, and not only sets the dish before him, but cuts him meate and carves it for him.


If any shall demand why Bees of all creatures are so indefa­tigably diligent, and with unwearied paines follow their sweet labours, flying sometimes abroad in stormy seasons, whereby (oft prevented of a returne) they miscarry in the field. Nay when they are old and gray, feeble and faint, they will venture forth, though they lose themselves, for most of them die at their worke—vitam sub fasce reponunt. May I not answer, first be­cause they hope in winter delightfully in rest and quiet to enjoy their plenty. Secondly, some say for feare of punishment, those that are idle being enforced, but a feare of starving (the worst of punishments) prompts them forth; for if they be not timely furnished, with a competent provision, they must inevitably pe­rish. Thirdly, because it is incompatible to their nature to be idle. They have a naturall propensitie and inclination to their honey-gathering labours. Tantus amor [...]lorum et generandi gloria mellis. And this delight, as a watch wound up, carries them sweetly on through all difficulties and dangers. Three goodly threds which twisted all together have strength enough to draw the most sleepie sluggard out of his bed of sloath and idlenesse. And if it should be questioned, why the people of God are so constant, so faithfull in such fruitlesse services (as the world accounts them) and not dashed out of countenance, nor danted by afflictions, but hold on their practice and dili­gence in a course of obedience, maugre the malice and mischiefes the oppositions and contradictions of men and Devills. First, from the hope of a blessed reward, which makes them withHeb. 11. 25. Moses choose rather to suffer afflictions with the people of God, then to enjoy the pleasure of sin for a season. Secondly, from the feare of a just punishment and a curse if they should decline and balke the service of God. For we must all appeare 2 Cor. 5. 10, 11. before the Iudgement-sea [...]e of Christ, that every one may receive according to that he hath done. And though here were weight enough (as a late learned Divine observed) to set the most rustie wheeles a going; yet because these two may worke inDr. S [...]ough [...]on, The preachers dignitie and dutie. base mindes, and are in themselves but sinister ends, which many that seeme to goe straight may looke a squint upon; feare in [Page 292] the fore-ward, and hope and reward in the rere-ward, marshall all their forces, and love in the maine battell, or rather tota in toto et tota in qualibet parte, animates every one to valour and victory: punishment is servile, and hope of reward is mercena­ry. There is a third motive which is the peculiar character of a Christian minde, and that is love. And this winds up a Christi­ans affections to that intention of zeale and fervency. Reward hath an attractive, and punishment an impulsive, but love hath a compulsive facultie: reward drawes him, punishment drives him, but love hales him forward to the discharge of his duty; hope like a tender mother enticeth him with a reward, feare like a severe Master incites him with a punishment, but love like a soveraigne Lord commands him. Hope hales before him, and feare blowes behind him, and both on each side rowe him, but love within like the very soule of obedience, teacheth him a naturall motion.


Bees are neate and cleanly creatures, and carefull to carrie forth all drosse, soile, and filth, least their hives should be de­filed; yet sometimes because of long violent colds, many ene­mies, weaknesses, because of some distempers, it is requisite for the Bee master to helpe in the purging of them. The Church of God after a long time of peace is apt to gather and contract corruption, as water doth by standing, as the ayre it selfe will,Dr. Sibb [...], The Churches visitation. if it have not the wind to purge it. And as it is in the bodies of men, if they be not curiously looked unto (after a certain time) they will gather such a burden of humours, as will rise to a di­stemper, so that they must be let blood or purged, &c. Such is the infirmitie of mens nature, and the malice of Satan, that ene­my to mankind, that the best of Gods people will quickly ga­ther some distemper or other, and stand in need of purging. And we are as much beholding to Gods corrections as to his comforts in this world, without which we should quickly settle upon our dregs.


Bees in the honey-season bestirre themselves; the winter is [Page 293] long, and their enemies many, and therefore much paines must be taken before-hand, or else they will miscarry. And if they be late swarmes, notwithstanding all their diligence, except there be an additionall supply by timely feeding, want cannot be prevented. Were the winter short, robbers few or none, ill weather but a few weekes, as in Sicilia, Ethiopia, and some Southerne Climates, small preparation might serve the turne; but in our colder regions the greatest paines are seldome too much, sometimes not enough. Whosoever enters upon the pro­fession of religion with vaine hopes of ease and pleasure, doth but delude his owne soule; fore-cast therefore what will fall, and get provision of grace before-hand to susteine. As if a man were to goe a dangerous journey, he provides himselfe of wea­pons and cordialls, and all the encouragements he can, least he should faint in the way. Whereas he that walkes for his plea­sure, provides nothing, he cares not for his weapons, or his cloake, because if a storme comes, he can quickly run under shel­ter. He that makes religion a recreation, can walke a turne orDr. Sibb [...], Difficulty of salvation. two for his pleasure, and when any difficulty ariseth, can retire and draw in his hornes againe; but a true Christian that makes it the maine act of his life to please God, armes himselfe for the worst that can befall him; he is resolved not to retire for any trouble or perfecution whatsoever that stands between him and happinesse.


Man swerving from the end for which he was created, andMr. [...]l [...]s, The world­lings looking­glasse. serving the Devill, the world, and his fleshly lusts, degenerates from his nature, and becomes worse then the very beasts, for they stand firme in their places enjoyned them by God in their creation. The Bee is carefull to doe Gods worke, having no tutor nor remembrancer, but man is senselesse and carelesse to obey his Maker.


As the Bee sucks honey out of every flower, and a good sto­mackMr. T. Goodwin The vanitie of thoughts. sucks▪ out some sweet and wholsome nourisliment out of [Page 294] what it takes unto it's selfe: So doth a holy heart, so farre as sanctified, convert and digest all into spirituall and usefull thoughts.


There is no vice in a man, whereof there is not some ana­logieDr. Hall, Occasionall Meditat. in the brute creatures: As among us men there are theives by land, and Pirats by sea, that live by spoile and blood; so is there in every kind among them variety of naturall sharkers: the Hawke in the ayre the Pike in the river, the Whale in the sea, the Lion and Tyger in the desert, the Waspe in the hive, the Spider before the hive, sometimes among the flowers in the Bees walke. And see how cunningly this little Arabian spreads out his tent for a prey, how heedfully he watcheth for a passen­ger? so soone as ever he heares the noyse of a Bee (or a flie) a farre off, how he hastens to his den; and if that silly heedlesse traveller, doe but touch upon the verge of that unsuspected walke, how suddenly doth he seize upon that miserable bootie? and after some strife binding him fast with those subtle cords, drags the helplesse captive after him into his cave. What is this but an Embleme of those spirituall freebooters that lye in waite for our soules; They are the Spiders, we the Bees, they have spread their nets of sinne, if we be once caught, they bind us fast, and hale us into hell. Oh Lord, deliver thou my soule from their craftie ambushes: their poyson is greater, their webs both more strong, and more insensibly woven: Either teach me to avoyd temptation, or make me to breake through it by repentance; oh let me not be a prey to those fiends that lye in waite for my destruction.


The Bee gives honey, but sometimes she stings: prosperitieMr. Watson, Art of divine contentment. hath it's sweetnesse, and also it's sting. Sunshine is pleasant, but sometime it scorcheth.


Bees love their Queene, and therefore will fight couragi­ously [Page 295] in her defence, is she present with them, and excites them with her voyce (like a trumpet) they will even to the last gaspe venture their lives▪ they are in the eye of their Leader, and that makes them bold and daring. And shall a Christian pretend love to his God, and not be couragious in the presence of his great Lord and Master, who is ever present with him, about him, and in him; undoubtedly, he that hath seene God once in the face of Christ dares looke the grimmest creature in the face, yea death it selfe under any shape. The feare of all things flies before such a soule [...] only a Christian is not ashamed of his con­fidence. Why then should he not be as bold for his God, as others are for the base gods they make for themselves?


Bees long shut up in their hives in winter with extremitie of cold, upon a faire calme day when the Sun hath warmed and cheared them with his quickning beames, will shew their thank­fullnesse (as it were) in a pleasing murmur, and dance Lavol­ta's in many circumgiring motions and circling vagaries in the ayre, and then returning into their hive will make there a lowd congratulatory humming, whereas before they were in a dull and silent posture. And it is as naturall for the new creatureDr. Sibb [...], com. in a E­pist. ad Co­rinth. c. 1. v. 2. (when it feeles the Sunne of righteousnesse warming the soule, when it tasts of God in Christ) to shew forth it selfe in thank­fullnesse and praise: and it can no more be kept from it then fire can keepe from burning, or water from cooleing. It is the na­ture of the new creature so to doe.


Bees when they got forth in a swarme, will sometimes be provided of a habitation before hand, some hollow tree or hive not farre remote where the Bees dyed in the precedeing win­ter; but when they come to it (if not before) they will pre­pare and purge it of all dead Bees, stinking Sandaracha, rotten combes▪ and where the out-side▪ of the combes are drie and crisple▪ they will [...]ate and pare off the rotten waxe▪ as Masons in building [...] pare off the crumbling out-sides of the weather­beaten▪ [Page 296] stones, (and then make a rew front) that they may not after build upon a rotten noughty or weake foundation, their art is not to pull downe edifices, but to build them up, but they doe that which belongs not to them properly, that they may doe that which belongs to them; for they will not build upon an unsourd and crumbling foundation. God to make his chil­dren trust in him, casts them cut of themselves, he will not build on a rotten foundation, he will not build on carnall trust, pride, and covetousnesse, but he will demolish that rotten foundation with afflictions and crosses. He will use such meares that we shall have small joy to trust in sinne; he will force us by crosses and afflictions to goe from our sinnes, he will demo­lish that rotten foundation that he may raise up an excellent edifice and frame of the new creature, that shall endure to ever­lasting. The worke of a Physitian is to cure nature, not to weaken it, but if the body be distempered, it must be weakened before it be strengthened, to make that sound he must give them strong purgations, that shall afflict them and affect them as much as the disease for a while, but all is to make them strong afterwards: So God afflicts us to drive us out of our selves, that we may come at last to trust in him, in whom is all our good and happinesse.


Bees live like Souldiers in a Camp, and therefore as besieged Cities or Armies that feare an approaching enemy, never dare give themselves wholly over to securitie, but alwayes night and day have their scouts, centiness, corp. du guard, to keepe watch and ward, least some of their many enemies should by a sudden Camisado surprize or beate up their quarters. We have a hel­lish enemy the Devill, a roaring Lion, who waiteth for a time of drowsie securitie, wherein he may suddenly seize on us, and teare us in peices. Therefore when the [...]e seemes to be most se­curitie and cessation of spirituall armes, let us conceive the most danger to be at hand, and prepare and arme our selves against the day of battell. For Hierom saith truly, Tun [...] maxime ex­pugnaris, Ad Hesied. lib. 2. c. 6. cum te expugnari nos [...]is, thou br [...] most assaulted when thou feel [...]st no assault. When our adversary seemes to sleepe, [Page 297] he watcheth but an opportunitie to run upon us, and destroy us.Mr. Fo [...]ke, Conflict be­tween man and the De­vill. If wee were assured that some fearefull enemy was upon his march and approaching towards us with fire and sword; the trumpets sounding, the drummes thundering, the horses neigh­ing, and the Cannons roaring; what watch and ward would we keepe? how would every one bestirre him, and who would not thrust himselfe into the danger, and be ready to stand in the gap to save his Countrey, his life, his friends, his libertie, his goods? But Satan our Arch-enemy, who seeketh to destroy that which is farre more precious unto us then all these things, yea then all the world (For what shall it profit a man if he shall August Soli [...]. 16. Ini [...] i [...]us ut [...] sem­per v [...]gilat fire so [...]nn [...], et nos ut [...] st [...] amus [...] erigi­la [...]e e s [...]mno. gaine the whole world, and lose his owne soule) is not only ap­proaching, but also encamped against us with all his forces, and shall we now sleepe in sinne, and be senselesse in grosse securitie.


Bee Masters tell us, that they are the best hives which make the greatest noyse; so that is the best conscience which makes the greatest noyse with daily reasonings before it's owne barre.Mr. R. Abb [...]t, The assize at home. If we never goe to bed before we have parlied it out throughly with our hearts, then we shall find of our selves as Alexander said of Antipater, That he did weare white garments without, and was purple within; so we will give no rest till we find some comfortable testimony of our amendment.


It is observable that the creatures nearest the earth, are most greedy to accumulate, what creature stores up so much provi­sion as the Bee? But the birds of the ayre that flie next heaven, neither sow nor reape, nor carry into the barne, saith our Savi­our.Mat 6 26. We are next to heaven in profession, let us hate to be fur­thest off in conversation.


Bees are small creatures, but have great and dareing spirits, [Page 298] (and almost deadly poyson) though industry and diligence can worke much to tame other creatures, yet little on this; by a continued converse and frequent presence, their rage and fury may be palliated, but once provoked neare the hive, they acknowledge no respect to any, For the most part those beasts have least immanitie, that have most strength, Oxen, Horses,Mr. Adams, Poli [...]ck hunting. and Elephants are tame and serviceable; but Bees and Waspes have stings: So wisely hath the Creator disposed, that there might not be a conjunction et potentiae et malevolentiae, that malice and might may not meete; so they are suffered to have will to hurt and not power, or power and not will.


Religion is the greatest enemy to religion, the false to the true, favos etiam vespae faciunt, Waspes also make combes,Tertul. though instead of honey we find gun-powder.


The grub or worme in it's first state or life is a rude creature, not much delighting in it selfe, lesse delighting others, but when it is shut up to be transmuted, then it is for a time a formelesse lump, without any beauty or comelinesse: but waite a few dayes and the parts will appeare, life will move in these yet imperfect members which are at length perfectly formed, and then itMr. Conen, Expos. in E­pist. I [...]hn. c. 3. v. 2. comes forth an agill usefull creature. And as God doth not make the whole fabrick of the world at once, though it wa [...] not impossible to him being a God almighty, but in the space of six dayes, so doth God deale with his children: when God creates in his children a new heart, he suffers first their hearts to be as a rude and massie lumpe, full of darknesse, and then sends his holy Spirit into their hearts, which illuminates them, and drives away those black clouds of darknesse and ignorance, and then he breathes into them the sweete ayre of his Spirit; And thus out of Tohu and B [...]hu is the new creature formed.


We should doe as the Bee when she hath sucked sweetnesse [Page 299] from the flower, she better concocts and refires it in her owneMr. Wetson, Christians Charter. bodie, and so it becomes pure honey. Thus when we have suck­ed any precious truth, we should by holy meditation concoct it in our hearts, and then it would become pure profitable honey.


The young Bees as soone as they have past their second birth, and transmuted their shape and qualities, and are winged and strengthened to flie abroad, presently fall to their worke, and imitate the elder Bees. And so doth the beleeving soule, as soone as it is borne againe, strengthened and winged with grace from God, makes after him in workes of obedience, holinesse and praises, imitates the examples of the Prophets and Apostles, as they have followed Christ. Let disadvantages be what will be, you cannot keepe young Bees in the hive when once transmu­ted and winged, no more can you keepe the regenerate soule from working the workes of God, and with holy praises ascend­ing to heaven, when they are once under the line of Christs e­verlasting love and feele it shine mighty hot in them with full face, with perpendicular rayes, but with a present rapture make holinesse their worke and Hallelujahs all their language.


Honey is gathered with much art from great variety of trees and flowers; and joy is a honey, a fragrancy made from above with much picking, choosing, and composing.


Bees are neate sweete and cleanly creatures, naturally ab­horring stinking places and strong senting herbes. It is true they gather of the flowers of some weeds which are bitter and offensive, but yet the flowers are not (as Broome, Henbane, Mayweed) as your tast and smell may informe you. But where the flowers participate of the ill sent of the herbes they meddle not at all (as Gallopsia, Cheesrunnet). And Christ puts [...]io [Page 300] toades in his bosome (saith one) nor beleevers wicked men in­toM. L [...]ie [...], Usefull in­struct [...]ons. the intimacy of their affections, puritie will bosome puritie, corruption cannot delight in uncorruption, Heterogeneals will not incorporate, light and darknesse are inconsistent, gracious and ungodly men cannot live and linke together. A good heart cannot with more pleasure rest it selfe then in Gods resting place, in Christs societie, in the way of the Spirit, in the Mini­stery of Angels, and fellowship of the Saints.


In the Common wealth of Bees all are employed, none are idle; The Commander directs and orders, the Drones are use­full for procreation, and by their heate very instrumentall for the hatching of the young Cure, every one contributes some­what to the publique good. And in the Bee-hive of the Church, there is no pretence for any man to be idle in the profession of religion. Thou hast not riches, thou canst not give; thou hast not place▪ thou canst not shew countenance to others▪ but if thou beest a child of God, thou hast the Spirit of prayer, the Spirit of adoption, the Spirit of a sonne in thee, which enables thee to pray for thy selfe and others, there is no Christian but he may doe this.


Bees though they freely act in all their undertakings, yet doe they all with reference to the publique, and in subordination to the Queene, whom they not only love, but after a sort live in; for without her they will live no longer in their old habitation; not at all, except they get under the regiment of another. And this their Queene they delightfully serve and observe, her (si­lent) directions doe they readily comply withall; once, their carriage in and out of the hive is regulated and squared by a love of and awe unto this their Commandresse. And it should be with beleevers after this manner, wheresoever we are, or whatsoever we doe in the world, our conversation here must be directed by a higher aspect. The ship while it is tossed in the Sea i [...] ruled by the Pole starre, that must guide it: So in our [Page 301] conversation in the world, the staffe of our conversation may be the businesse we have in the world, but the rule the regiment of all must be from heaven, with an eye to God.


A little honey is sweet, much [...]ulsome: such is pleasure, whoseDr. Hall, De­ [...]d. [...] epist. [...]. insinuations are so cunning, that you shall not perceive your excesse, till you be sick of a surfet.


Revenge commonly hurts both the offerer and sufferer, as we see in the foolish Bee (though in all other things commen­dable, [...]em Med and Vowes, 1. cent. yet herein the patter [...]e of fond spightfulnesse) which in her anger invenometh the flesh, and loseth her sting, and so lives a Drone ever after (indeed lives not long after) I account it the only valour, to remit a wrong, and will applaud it to my selfe as right noble and Christian, that I might hurt and will not.


Hast thou found honey, that is, hast thou found the sweet­nesse [...] [...] in Pro­ve [...]b. 15. 1 [...]. of a mans familiarity or conversation, eate that which is sufficient for thee, that is, use his friendship or familiaritie to sobrietie; not altogether withdrawing thy selfe, least he for­get thee; not yet too frequently visiting, least he loath thee; for it is better by seldome comming to make thy presence de­sireable, then by frequent visits to make him weary of thee. Whereupon the son of Sirach saith, Be not unsatiable in any Eccles. [...]. 29. daintie thing, nor too greedie upon meates: but the words which follow make it cleare, Withdraw thy foote from thy neighbours house, least he be weary of thee, and so hate thee.


Although Bees have small strength, yet have they great an­gerCalvin C [...] ­mem. in Psal▪ 118. and insatiable wrath, and when they violently pursue any, [Page 302] doe not a little terrifie and affright them. Such is the pertina­cious and implacable rage of the enemies of Gods people, that if God did not wonderfully stand by, interpose and support them, they would unavoydably perish: but they are quenched as the fire of thornes, which although it makes a great crack­ling noise in the beginning, and a greater flame then solid wood, yet is suddenly extinct and consumed, so that in a word, though wicked men tumultuously set upon Gods people, their violence in a moment shall come to nothing.



TEmporall occasions open the mines to digge out spirituall instruction: For Christians may clime by the staires of these inferiour creatures, to contemplate the glorious power of the Creator. A good Christian like the Bee works honey from every flow­er; suffers no action, demonstration, event to step by him without a question. All objects to a meditating Solomon are like wings to reare and mount up his thoughts toMr. Adams, Sinners pas­sing bell. heaven. As the old Romans when they saw the blew stones thought of Olympus▪ so let every object, though low in it selfe, elevate our mindes to mount Sion. A meane scaffold may serve to raise up a goodly building; it was once said, Faelix qui potuit rerum cognoscere causas; now better, Faelix qui potuit rerum cognoscere casus. It is good to know the casuall beginnings of things▪ it is better to know their casuall ends It is good to be a naturall Philosopher, but better to be a supernaturall, a Chri­stian Philosopher, that whiles we intentively observe the crea­ture, we may attentively serve the Creator.


Some use flowers only for the beauty or the smell▪ the Phy­sitiansMellif [...]ium similem Ioach. Nisai. for health, but the Bees for honey. So doe wise and p [...]u­dent persons apply their studies for the enriching and feeding of their mindes.


As a Spiders web is not therefore better because it is woven [Page 304] out of her bowels; so neither is the labour of the learned [...]ipsius in [...]tis in lib. 1. P [...] ­l [...]. c. 1. more contemptible, because as Bees, they gather much from others.


Consider a Bee (out of a hive) as a solitary Insect, and it is the most helplesse and shiftlesse creature that is; If she workes, alone she cannot frame repositaries to lay up food; would she breed, she cannot both hatch the young and gather meate. Is she assaulted with enemies, alone she hath no defence nor power: Finally, she cannot secure her selfe from any, much lesse from the many evills and enemies whereto she is obnoxious. And what is a man out of Christ? as a man in a storme that hath no cloathes to hide his nakednesse, to cover him from the violence of the tempest. As a man in a Huricane, that is out of a house to shelter him, as a stone out of the foundation that is scattered here and there as neglected, as a branch out of the vine, without sap and influence, ready to be cast into the fire. A man out of Christ that is not cloathed with him, that is not built on him, that is not grafted into him, is a destitute fore­lorne and neglected wretch.


The weakest creatures have the strongest shelters. Bees have hives and hollow trees to secure them; thus weaknesse occa­sionally is a helpe, for conscience of weaknesse makes all crea­tures seeke for supply out of themselves. So the Conies (as A­gur saith) hide themselves in the rock, they flie to their bur­roughs; and the Bees to their hives. Man is a weake creature in himselfe, weake in judgement, weake in affection, but the consciousnesse of our weaknesse should make us seeke for strength out of our selves, goe to God in Christ, and then he is a kinde of almightie man. I can doe all things (saith the Apo­stle) in Christ that strengthens me. A Christian is omnipotent if he depend upon the promise, and commit his wayes to God, but he is impotent and weake in himselfe, it is God therefore that must establish us.


Gnats in numerous multitudes (like clouds) doe nothingD [...]. Hall, Occasionall Meditat. but play up and downe in the warme Sunne and sing; and when they have done sit downe and sting the next hand or face they can seize upon; see here a perfect Embleme of idle­nesse and detraction: how many doe thus miserably spend their good houres? who after they have wasted the succeeding dayes, in vaine and meerely unprofitable passe time, sit downe and backbite their neighbours. The Bee sings too sometimes, but she workes also; and her worke is not more admirable then usefull; but those foolish flies doe nothing but play and sing to no purpose: Even the busiest and most active spirits must re­create, but to make a trade of sport is for none but lasie wan­tons. The Bee stings too, but when she is provoked, these draw blood unoffended, and sting for their owne pleasure. I would be glad of some recreation, but to enable and sweeten my work▪ I would not but sting sometimes, where is just cause of offence; but God blesse me from those men, which will ever be doing nothing or ill.


The Commandresse of the Bees is a Queene, a royall crea­ture, and therefore she workes not, it is beneath her dignitie to drudge and toile as the meaner subject, she flies seldome abroad, communicates little with the world; state procures respect and honour to eminent persons. Though she hath a sting, yet ra­ther as an Ensigne of power, then an instrument of revenge, for she never useth it. It is the property of a base and dunghillyDr. Sibbs, co [...]. in a E­pist. ad Co­rinth. c. 1. v. 2 [...]. spirit to be vindicative. If I be a Christian, I am a King, shall I debase my selfe in sinfull practiles? shall I cast my crowne in the di [...]t? God hath raised me, and made me an heire of hea­ven, shall I abase my selfe to sin, and to base lusts? (the De­vills drudgery) so that I cannot role my owne members, and yet professe my selfe to be a King? When we are tempted to sinne, and to base courses let us say as good Nehemiah, when he was moved to flie, What shall such a man as I flie? so should [Page 306] we say to any temptation, to base courses of life, what shall such a man as I doe this? For a Christian that is a King, that hath a guard of Angells about him, that is the most excellent creature in the world, for him to abase himselfe to the world. He that is bred from heaven, for him to have no higher thoughts then the things below, to have an earthly minde or revengefull thoughts, is a shrewd presumption, that he is only a titular Christian, and hath not received the inward and spirituall a­noynting.


All is one to God to make an Angel or a Bee, to create the brightest Cherub, or t [...] most contemptible flie; for in every creation, no lesse then an omnipotency must be the efficient, and no more then nothing is ever the object.


If the Queene Bee be slaine, or any wayes miscarry, the whole hive is overthrowne: but if she safe, though they have weaknings, meete with injuries, suffer from enemies, yet they will recover themselves and out▪ grow other dangers. A mans darling sin is Satans strongest hold, whither, when by the power of the word he is dislodged out of other parts of the soule, he retires as to his most impregnable Castle; but if in this he be over powred by the blessing of God on the word of his Go­spell, then is his dominion shaken, and the man driven to a deepe detestation of himselfe, throwne downe to the lowest step of a penitent dejection, he is inegered with thirsty greedi­nesse for pardon and grace, and at length forced out of his na­turall estate.


Bees in their private quarrells are patient and regardlesse, they neglect an [...] slight personall injuries; but if their hives be assaulted, their Common wealth beleagered or endangered with Waspes, robbing Bees, or other enemies, they lustily be­stirre [Page 307] themselves, fight it out to the death: whereas the Drones as they watch against no danger, so they resist none, but love to sleepe in a whole skinne, letting all goe at six and seven (as they say:) like lazie passengers in a dangerous leake, will not lay hands to the Pumpe, and yet must miscarry with the ships destruction. And are not most men in the world Drones not Bees? affected perhaps with their owne troubles or reproaches, but silent and sloathfull in Gods cause and truth, then they are loath to stirre fearing hatred, trouble, obloquie among men. If their owne reputation be called in question, it will not a little startle them, but if Gods name be blasphemed, his word tradu­ced, his ordinances violated, the course of the Gospell be stop­ped, in the freedome and libertie whereof is the Churches hap­pinesse and glory and the sailing of it the destruction of a peo­ple. Yet they are little affected, it goeth not to their hearts, they keepe silence as if this of all other things did least concerne them. When Iehu approached neare unto Iezabel, and espiedDr. Sclater, Com▪ on Mal. c. [...]. v. 16. 2 King. 9. 32. her in her window, after the fashion of harlots; he cryes out to them with her, Who is on my side, who? and the Eunuches threw her downe. The Lord seemes sometimes thus to say to us in the extremities of the Churches affliction, and he seemes to cry to us, who is on my side? If then thou be silent, that which our Saviour hath, will be here applied, who is not for him is sure a­gainstMat. 12. 30. him, and so shall be accepted in the day of accounts.


Waspes and Hornets are very noysome creatures, and there­fore we seek their destruction, Nay burne up nests and young, and that before they have injuried us or ours, only because we know, what they would doe, if they be suffered to live and flie abroad. And shall poore Mortals thinke it much, if God who knowes our thoughts a farre off and the principle, within us, and what men would doe if occasion be offered, which for the present they know not of themselves, as Hazaels answer to E­lisha imports, Thinkest thou, &c. No wonder if the Lord [...]ut▪ off [...] King 8. 13. many in their youth and infancy, because he knowes their na­ture, that they would doe this and this Such passages of hisDr. Preston, G [...]ds immen­sitie. providence there may be, as to cut off children and young men [Page 308] out of the foresight of the evill that they would doe to his Church, because he knowes their thought a farre off.


The Drones are alwayes idle, observe them as often as you will and you shall never find them carefully endeavouring their present or future good. Bees, though laborious creatures, yet if you come to the hive in winter, especially in extreame frosts and colds, are shut up, none appeare, or if in a warme day they flie a little abroad, yet they bring nothing home, contribute no­thing to the publique treasury, they then seeme to be as care­lesse and as thriftlesse as the Drones. But the Drones are con­stantly idle, and therefore at all times you find them alike care­lesse; come this day and you see them to gather nothing, and come another time and you find them gathering nothing. But the Bees though they be sometimes hindred for want of the ex­ternall favour of the heavens that they cannot gather, as in the winter time. Yet when the Sunne returnes in the Spring, and the plants and trees begin to put on their Summer roabes, and the heavens are cleare and smile upon them, then they diligent­ly follow their delightfull labours. Vigorous and spiritfull actions are not alwayes infallible characters of life; a man may be a living man and yet in a swoone, no action left in him: a man may be a living Christian, and yet be in some deficiency of spirit, and in some swoone, his spirits bound up and not in case for action alwayes in any kind; so that actions are not sure characters of being in the right way to true happinesse. For a godly man may be like a tree which may have life in it, when it hath neither fruit nor leaves upon it, as in the winter time;Dr. Stoughton, Righteous mans plea to true happi nesse. but in another season, they are more or lesse fruitfull, for the Bias of their soule is set to God-ward, and to heaven-ward, and though it may by a rub be put out of it's course, yet because the qualification of their soules are heavenly, their affections are changed and turned, they will be exercising themselves in spirituall duties: whereas wicked men in whom is no change of hear [...] are never heaven-bound; they may pretend it sometimes and make faire shewes and promises, as the Drones in a faire day flie abroad with many a circling motion, and a great hum­ming [Page 309] noise; but observe them, it it not to add to the publique store, but that they may with better stomacks devoure the Bees labours. Thus the Pharisees performed many duties, made long prayers, but to devoure widowes houses.


Every drop of honey is honey, and has the nature and defi­nition of the whole, it is throughout like to it selfe; so our fe­licitie above is homogeneall, heaven is all heaven, every corner of heaven, is a heaven; every thing that is tasted a heaven; every thing that is smelt a heaven; every thing that is lookt upon or meddled with, a heaven, a full felicitie to the soule.


Bees are temperate feeders, but when they are violently rob­bed of their honey, or forced from their hives, they will then eagerly and glutton-like fill themselves, and scarce give over without smoaking or much disturbance: Now they are like to lose all which they had painfully laboured for, and charily shut up with waxen covers, as under lock and key, till a time of scar­citie; And they resolve therefore to have a share before all be gone. And thus many wicked men, having had by legall ter­rours a fore-tast of hell fire before their time after their delive­rance, grow a great deale worse, and knowing their time to be but short, fall on earthly delights more furiously, and graspe the pleasures of the world with more greedinesse and insatiable importunitie.


A Bees sting easily enters in, and when the Bee is flowne away, yet the sting remaines and workes it selfe with more vio­lence deeper, diffusing thereby the venome more strongly, and causing greater dolour and paine; and the longer it continues, with more difficulty is it at last extracted: so that no man that knows the danger, except he have the perfection of a mad man, would run the hazzard of the anguish by delaying to pull it out. [Page 310] And such is sinne, it easily pierceth the soule, and when the tempter is gone, yet once intertained, it easily winds it selfe fur­ther in; And having the plea of continuance and custome will not be easily shaken off: shall a Blackmore change his skinne, or a Leopard his spots in three or foure dayes, which they have contracted in twenty or thirtie yeares. Oh no, but (as a lateMr. Bolton, Instruct. for comf. afflict. consc. learned and holy Divine observeth) the longer thou puts it off and deferrest, the more unfit thou shalt be to repent; thy custome in sinning will exercise more tyrannie over thee, the curse of God for going on still in thy trespasses will be more heavy on thee; The corruption that lurked in thy owne bo­some will be more strong against thee; Thy understanding will be more darkened with hellish mists of ignorance; Thy judge­ment more perverted; Thy will more subborne; Thy memory more stuft with sensuall motions; Thy affections more rebelli­ous; Thy thoughts more earthly; Thy heart more hardened; Thy conscience more seared, and thy selfe more sould to sinne, And every day thou conti [...]s estate of darknesse, thou art much more the child [...]an then thou wast before.


Bees have many enemies, the Mouse, the Waspe, the Spider, besides robbing Bees their worst enemies; it is no wonder then if they keepe a continuall guard, least they should be surprized, and examine every one that goes in and out, and are presently in alarmes upon the least motion or disturbance; their safety and well-being lies at stake. A beleevers condition is obnoxious to dangers, very liable to temptations, and shall we not walke circumspectly, and stand alwayes upon our defence? We are naturally subject to so many b [...]tteries and breaches, by the as­saults of Originall sinne, and other implacable enemies to our soules, that there is extreame need of perpetuall watch and ward, of repenting and repairing dayly, least the new man be too much opprest, and be often surprized with the many and cunning encounters of the old Adam. The consideration of this should prevaile much with us, to set a dayly guard about our soules. David was very watchfull, yet he was surprized una­wares by the sudden rebellion of his heart. We should there­fore [Page 311] observe our hearts, as Governours doe rebells and muti­nous persons. We see to what an excesse sin growes in those that denie themselves nothing, nor will be denied in any thing, who if they may doe what they will, turne all libertie into li­cense, and making all their abilities contributaries to the com­mands of over-ruling and over-ruly lusts.


What a pitie it is to see these profitable industrious creaturesDr. Hall, Occasionall Meditat. fall so furiously upon each other? and thus stinging and biting kill each other in the very mouth of the hive. I could like well to see the Bees doe this execution upon Waspes, enemies to their common stock, this favours but of justice; but to see them fall foule upon those of their owne wing, it cannot but trouble their owner, who must needs be an equall loser by the victory of either. There is no more perfect resemblance of a Common­wealth, whether civill or sacred, then in an hive: the Bees are painfull and honest compatriots, labouring to bring waxe and honey to the maintenance of the publique state; the Waspes are unprofitable and harmfull hang-bies, which live upon the spoyle of others labour, whether as common Barrettours, or strong theeves, or bold Parasites, they doe nothing but rob their neighbours. It is an happie sight when these feele the dint of justice, and are cut off from doing further mischiefe, but to see well affected and beneficiall subjects undoe themselves with duells, whether of law or sword; to see good Christians of the same profession shedding each others blood upon quarrels of religion▪ is no other then a sad and hatefull spectacle, and so much the more, by how much we have more meanes of reason and grace to compose our differences and correct our offensive contentiousnesse. Oh God, who art at once the Lord of Hostes and Prince of peace give us warre with spirituall wickednesses, and peace with our brethren.


Creatures have their instincts, there is a naturall instinct in every creature to that feeds it; Bees goe naturally to the flow­ers▪ [Page 312] by an instinct; so the spirituall soule that hath the lise of Christ, runnes to whatsoever may feede and maintaine that life. All the creatures as soone as they are borne, runne, they know whither to goe to suck, because that is ordained by nature for their preservation; so there is an instinct in the soule to carry it, to that that feedes and maintaines it.


Let a swarme be hived never so orderly, and the hive before­hand rub'd and prepared carefully, let it be covered and sha­dowed from the Sunne, and in a word, in the best manner ac­commodated, yet if the Queene-Bee be wanting, there is no­thing but discontent, confusion, and hurly-burly, and after a hopelesse search, a finall departure. Whereas a meane habita­tion with her presence will give full content and satisfaction. Had we a Magazine of comforts, were we possest of heaven itDr. Sibbs, St. Pauls s [...]aite. selfe, with all it's glory without Christ, yet heaven without him would not be heaven. It is better therefore to be in any place with Christ, then to be in heaven it selfe without him; all delicacies without Christ are but as a funerall banquet when the Master of the feast is away, there is nothing but solemnesse: what is all without Christ? I say the joyes of heaven are not the joyes of heaven without Christ, he is the very heaven of heaven.


Bees by a naturall sagacity can foretell a storme, yet some­times are they overtaken with unseasonable and rainie wea­ther, but then doe they hie themselves a pace homeward get­ting under the Lee side of a hedge, and at last secure themselves in their hives: but as soone as the tempest is over, and the Sunne breakes out they are abroad againe, forgetting their former danger. Many men in their outward crosses and afflictions, while the storme and tempest of Gods wrath beates sore upon them, run to God as their rock, and enquire early after him, but when once a hot gleame of former health and prosperitie shines upon them againe, they hie as fast out of Gods blessing [Page 313] into the warme Sunne (as they say) from sorrow, to sin, to de­light in sensuality, from seeking God to security in their old wayes.


He that goes about to cure the wound of his conscience for sinne, with sensuall delight; doth as one that is stung with a Waspe, and rubbes with a nettle the smarting place.


As Bees when they are once up in a swarme, are ready to light upon every bough, so rebels being risen up by the com­motion of ambitious leaders, are apt to follow every Sheba. It is unsafe for any State that the multitude should know the way to an insurrection, the least tract in this kinde is easily made a path.


As Ionathans honey was sweet in the mouth, but bitter in theDr. Hall, Contemplat. lib. 12. soule; for behold his honey was turned into gall. And if the eyes of his body were enlightened, the light of Gods counte­nance was clouded by the act: So is it with every sin, for though stollen waters be sweete, yet he knoweth not that the dead are there.


It is observable in the old Law, that God hated the very re­semblance of the sinne of pride, he would have no honey min­gled in their offerings; Ye shall burne no leaven, nor any honey in Levit. 2. 11. [...] any offering of the Lord made by fire. Indeed Leaven is sowre,Mr. Watson, Christians Charter. but what is there in honey that should offend? why no honey? because honey when it is mingled with meale or flower, maketh it to rise and swell; Therefore the people of Israel must mingle no honey in their offerings: this was to let us see how God hateth the resemblance of the sinne of pride.


Some Bee-Masters will be over-diligent to kill the Drones, because sometimes when they are supernumerary, they will not only pester but prejudice the hive; and at other times deceive the expectation of so large a tribute as they looke for from them: and yet in the meane time are negligent, or not sufficient­ly carefull to prevent the devouring Waspes or robbing Bees, which in a few dayes will consume more then the Drones in a whole Summer. Bee-Masters ought to be carefull about the former, but most of all of these, because of that ruine and deso­lation that is quickly occasioned by them. As a ShepheardM [...] [...], [...] Ioh, [...]9. [...]. should watch his lambes from flies, but most of all from Wolves and Foxes: Sure he is but a sorrie Shepheard, to kill the mag­gots in his sheepe, and let the former worry at pleasure. And surely (saith one) he is a sorry Magistrate, that stocketh and whippeth and hangeth poore snakes when they offend (though that is to be done too) but letteth the greater theeves doe what they l [...]st, and dareth not or careth not to meddle with them. Like Saul, who when commanded to destroy all the Amale­kites, both man and beast, slew indeed the Rascality of both, but spared the greatest of the men and fattest of the cattell, and slew them not.


Mothes are supposed to be offensive to the Bees; sure I am, if the Bees be few they will breed their blots in their combes, and quite spoyle them, and thereby force those few to desert the hive; for remedy whereof it is prescribed by some to smoke the combes, and so to expell and chase them away. Which pra­ctice mystically informes Magistrates that if they would be rid of those Mothes and Gnats that swarme about the Courts of Justice, and will be offering to buzze at their eares false reports of their brethren, they should cashiere and smoke them away. Magistrates should doe well therefore to begin reformation at home, and if any of them have a servant that heareth not well deservedly, to put him away out of hand, and to get an hone­ster in his Roome.


Bees, though chilled and dead with cold, or drowned in wa­ter, if in a convenient season they be laid neare the fire, or in a hot Sun-shine, will revive after a while, and recover as if they had never miscarried. For there is some hidden though undis­cerned life, and by the ayde of that little remainder of vivifying power (which was more strong originally, and is not yet to­tally extinct) now further called forth and wrought upon by adventitious heate, there is a new quickning and life. So by the awaking of the North wind and coming of the South, I meane the blessed Spirits breathing upon a regenerate heart, sti [...]led dangerously with some pestilent lust, by stirring up and refresh­ing the retired and radicall power of grace, that immortall seed of God never to be lost, will sweetly and graciously bring it againe to it's former spirituall comfortable temper and consti­tution. Dr. [...]llan [...] Divinitie pro­fessor in Ox­ford. Modera­ting in this question hol­den negative­ly, An justi fi­des potest ad tempus ami [...]i, aut fina [...]iter de­s [...]. e [...]e. The Lords chosen may fall from their outward pre­rogatives, and from the fruits: but that divine nature still abi­deth in them: and it is only with their grace, as it is with the mind in distempers of Melanchollie and Phrensie; with the Sunne in Ecclipses; with the tree, when leaves and fruit faile it; with the naturall life, when it moveth not, nor yet breatheth sensibly, which in diseases of the Mother is often discerned.


The ancients prescribed (as for other causes so for this also) to stop up the hives every third day; that the Bees might when they were set at libertie, with greater earnestnesse and delight­full diligence ply their labours. And we find by experience, when they have been a while shut up and imprisoned by unsea­sonable weather, they follow their worke more eagerly, on the first opportunitie (as a streame stopt for a little while, will breake out with greater violence after) they will now lose no time, but be at their labours both more early and late, then when they were not kept in; Nay in such weather when (had they not been restrained before) they would have laine still asleepe in the bed of ease in their hives. Sometimes the Lord [Page 316] may for a time retire the light of his countenance, and sense ofMr. B [...]lton▪ Instruct. for c [...]. afflict. conse. his graces from his children, for triall, quickning, and exercise of spirituall graces, that they may put forth themselves with more power, improvement, and illustriousnesse: the cold com­fort of a disertion in this case, being unto them as water cast upon the Smithes forge, to make some of them especially to burne inwardly as it were in the meane time with new intenti­on and heate, to brea [...] out and flame more gloriously: there are many gracious dispositions and indowments in the Christi­ans heart, which would never see the light, at least with such eminency, were it not for this darknesse: the brightnesse of lampes languish in the light but they burne cleare in the darke: the splendor and beauty of the Saints, would never appeare were there no night.


Bees troubled a while at the hive will be very angry, and by and by very numerous, and so unresistible, for their fury and their numbers increase together; perhaps but a few at first as­sault you, but being much opposed, they call out many parta­kers, and in a little time a few will prove a multitude: as rivers grow greater and greater, the further they are off from their springs, the more they enlarge their channels untill they emptie themselves into the Ocean. Stormes we know arise out of lit­tle gusts. The first risings of sin are to be look't unto, because there is most danger in them, and we have least care over them: corruption till it be over-powred by grace, swelleth bigger and bigger, so that like rust it will by little and little eate out all theDr. Sibbi, The Soules conflict. grace of the soule. There is no staying when we are once downe the hill, untill we come to the bottome. When the heart be­gins once to be kindled, it is easie to smoother the smoke of passion, which otherwise will fume up into the head, and ga­ther into so thick a cloud, as we shall lose the sight of our selves, and what is best to be done. C [...]ush therefore the first insur­rections before they come to breake into open rebellions; lit­tle risings neglected cover the soule, before we are aware, stifle them in their birth, stop the beginning, and so soone as they be­gin to rise, let us begin to examine who raised them, and whi­ther they are about to carry us.


The Bee never stings, but payes the price of it with her life.Chrysest▪ com. in Epist▪ [...]ri­m [...]m a [...] The [...]s▪ c. 5. By this God instructs us, that we should not wrong our neigh­bours, for we our selves shall if not first yet wo [...]st suffer, and they perhaps receive little or no prejudice, but we shall be as sure as the Bees to dye for it. And yet the sonne of Syrach praiseth that creature, saying▪ The Bee is small among fowles, and her fruit hath the beginning of sweetnesse. But this gives her no security to escape death, if she sting [...] the must p [...]rish; And if her many excellencies will not exempt or free her from de­struction if she doth ill, much lesse shall we. We are most sa­vage beasts, we first wrong our neighbours, who never injuri­ed us; Nay we are farre worse in this respect then Bees; For if you suffer them to live in their hives, and by molesting and vex­ing of them put them not upon a necessitie of defence, they will never hurt, never injure, never sting, but goe their wayes and follow their businesse. But thou who art a reasonable man, dignified with so much honour and gl [...]y imitates the beasts, and that towards those that are of the same ranke with thee; wrongest, hurtest, devourest thy brother; what saith Paul, 1 Cor▪ 6. 7. Why doe ye not rather take wrong? why doe you not suffer your selves to be defrauded, nay you doe wrong and defraud, and that your brethren. You see then you wrong your selves, when you wrong others, and that you receive a courtesie when you are injuried.


Bees will not continue in a stinking or impure hive, and there­foreEjusdem. com. in Epist Pa [...]li ad Ephes c. 4. 1. 4. they that delight in them prepa [...]e the stooles where they set them with perfumes, sweet smelling [...]oughs, and fragrant flowers, and other delightfull things, whereon the Bees when they goe forth of the hive may light, least ill favours should force them to forsake their stations. And thus deales the holy Spirit, our soule is the hive, accommodated and fu [...]nished with sweet spirituall gifts and graces, but if there be bitternesse and anger and wrath, he will forsake such hives. And therefore the [Page 318] blessed and wise husbandman (namely, St. Paul) doth endea­vour to trimme and prepare our hives (our soules) and that without knife or any other iron instrument; And calls us a spi­rituall Bee-fold, which yet he first purgeth with prayers, withEphes. 4. 30, 31. labours and all other things necessary hereunto.


Bees with their swift and nimble wings fly from flower toEju [...]dem Com. in Psal. 115. 1. 1 [...]. flower, and draw out the latent native sweetnesse with a harm­lesse unprejudiciall robbery, that therewith at length they may provide and afford sweet honey for the sonnes of men: So the Ministers of the Gospell are sollicitously carefull with the light wings of meditation, to light on the pleasant and delightfull gardens of the Scriptures, that they may pleasingly instill and drop in the sweet honey of faith into the hearts of their hear­ers.


Bees prepare their food in Summer, they borrow not, they beg not, but exercising their naturall endowments, are diligent in labour, and that without force or compulsion, and never give over while the weather and season serveth. And although they be weake and small creatures, yet with their nimble wings flie through the vallies, and over the mountaines, the woods and forrests, though some miles remote and distant from their habi­tations, gathering of every profitable tree and flower, and not only the elder but the younger also. And are images herein of and patternes to thristie housholders, who diligently labour themselves and excite and encourage all theirs from their youth to provide for future; secondly, their great prudence appeares in understanding the seasons for their gathering, providing in the Summer against winter, for if weather would give leave, they should in vaine seeke for honey in the winter; thirdly, so great is their sedulity and diligence, that they are not altogether idle in the night, but then trimme their hives by biting off the staring and offensive strawes, eating downe their rotten combes where there be any, pulling forth their dead spet which they [Page 319] carry forth in the day, hatching their young, and probably feed­ing of them: fourthly, their justice, they rob not those that are laden, but each gathers for her selfe and all the rest, for they are politicall: fifthly, their astrologie in foreseeing change of wea­ther, when they will not venture farre from their hives: sixth­ly, this is also praise-worthy and imitable, that they carry forth their de [...]d to buriall, and not only the Pismire as Franzius Franzius ▪ ani [...]l tract. 4. c. 14. [...]firmes.


Waspes are bold and sawcie, whatsoever fruits, flesh, plummes sweet meates you have, they will impudently intrude, and if they [...]e not prevented carry away a portion. And such are trouble­some and vaine thoughts, crowding into our best and most re­ligious services. Abraham must drive away the birds from theGen. 1 [...]. 11. sacrifices, and we must continually watch against vaine and evill thoughts, which will alwayes come before they be sent for, but let them find entertainment accordingly.


If nature te [...]ch Bees, not only to gather honey out of sweet flowers, but out of supposed bitter; shall not grace teach us to draw even out of the bitterest condition something to better our soules.


Bees are affected with a deep degree of love to their Leader, with whom (having nothing) they esteeme themselves happie; but without her (in the greatest plenty and fullnesse) are full of perplexitie and trouble. If she goeth forth of the [...]ive, they (leaving house, children, goods) follow after, and stay where she abides; If she being weary and faint fall by the way, they will encompasse her, stay with her (and returning no more to their forsaken full-stored hives) starve with her, rather then leave and desert her. This ardent love and affection planted in them by nature, eates up and devoures all other desires, and [Page 320] over-eager delights in any contentments as worthless and emp­tie. So that the Sun-flower doth not more naturally turne to­wards the Sunne, and the iron to the Load-stone, and the Load­stone to the Pole starre, then the domestick honey▪Bees em­brace and affect the Queene▪Bee. And a beleeving soule is as much nay more deeply and dearely enamoured of her beloved, advancing Jesus Christ highest in his thoughts, and prizing him farre above the pleasures and profits and glories of the whole world; he so sets his eye and longing upon him, as to hold him­selfe for ever lost without his love, and for the gaining of it if need were would he passe through a peece of hell. Thus are the current of his best affections and all the powers of his humbled soule bent and directed towards him. He vowes and gives up the flower and prime of all his abilities, loves, joyes, endeavours, performances in any kind to his highest Majestie. He consecrates all the powers and possibilities of body and soule to doe him the best and utmost service he can any wayes devise, and still grieves and walkes more humbly, because he can doe no better service.


Bees worke all in common, feed in common, breed up their young in common: Each provides for his fellow as for her selfe, every one is affected and sympathizeth in a common danger, as if it were her owne alone. In a word, each doth fight with undanted resolution, in the defence and preservation of her fel­low as if it were her own particular injurie. How many bastard-Christians are there that sympathize not with their brethren, whose hearts are neither enlarged with lightsomnesse, nor yet ecclipsed with griefe, as they heare of the prosperitie or oppres­sionMr. B [...]n, Instruct for comf. afflict. consci. of Gods people. Pitilesse and hard-hearted Canniballs, who all this while so many noble limmes of that blessed body of the reformed Churches have laine in teares and blood, did never take to heart, to any purpose, or trouble themselves at all with their grievous troubles, but have sottishly and securely laine at ease in Sion, not helping the people of God so much as with a hearty fellow-feeling, wrastling with God in prayer, set dayes to seeke the returne of Gods face and favour, men [Page 321] they are of the world which have their portion in this life, who feele nothing but worldly losses, know nothing but earthly sor­rowes, relish nothing but things of sense. If they be stung with a deare yeare, they howle and take on immoderatly: but let Io­seph be afflicted, Gods people in disgrace, the daughter of Sion weep bitterly, and have none to comfort her, these mercilesse men are no whit moved, they have not a teare, a groane or sigh to spend in such a wofull case.


Waspes are very dangerous enemies to Bees, being bold and strong, they will first prey on dead Bees, which they divide and carry by halves to their nests; but they quickly proceed further and venture into the hives, and rob the combes, and will after come with such numbers that they will destroy the whole stock, unlesse they be timely prevented, which must be done not so much by observing and killing them neare their hives, but find­ing out their nests, and destroying them altogether. For the subduing of our selves it is good to follow sin to the first hold and Castle, which is corrupt nature, the streames will lead us to the spring-head: indeed the most apparant discovery of sin is in the outward carriage, we shall see it in the fruit before in the roote; as we see grace in the expression before in the affection, but yet we shall never hate nor subdue sin throughly, till we consider and fight against it in the poysoned root from whence it ariseth. It is a good way upon any particular breach of our outward peace, presently to have recourse to that which breedsDr. Sibbs, The Soules conflict. and foments all our disquiet: Lord, what doe I complaine of this my unruly passion, I carry a nature about me subject to breake out continually on any occasion. Lord strike at the roote, and dry up the fountaine in me, for otherwise, though the streames were stopt, and the branches cut off, and the spar­kles quenched, yet there would be a perpetuall supply, as long as the poyson-full roote remaines.


Many Bees (especially when the gathering season is over, [Page 322] and the state of flowers decayed, about August will be curi­ously prying into their fellowes hives: at first a few give the on­set, and if they be let alone unresisted, or weakly opposed, then they double and treble their forces, fetching at their re­turne more of their companie, and violently make a prey of all. But if these scouts and ring leaders, as they presse in be beaten out, roughly intertained and st [...]utly opposed and fought with­all, they will then by degrees desist, and at last quite give over. Vaine and wicked thoughts, if men give way unto them with­out checking the motions of them, will p [...]esse (as busily as flies in Summer) into the heart, but a good heart will not owne them, nor allow himselfe in them, but stands at staves end with them, casts them off as hot water doth the scumme, or as the stomack doth that which is noysome unto it. They find not in it that intertainment which they have in carnall hearts, where the scumme seeths in, which are stewes of uncleane thoughts, shambles of cruell and bloody thoughts, exchanges and shops of vaine thoughts, a very forge and min [...] of false politick and undermining thoughts, yea often a little hell of confused and black imaginations.


See you that narrow mouthed glasse which is set neare to theDr. Hall, Occasionall M [...]di [...]a [...]. hive, marke how busily the waspes and flies resort to it, being drawne thither by the smell of that sweet liquor wherewith it is baited; see how eagerly they creepe into the mouth of it; and fall downe suddenly from that slippery steepinesse into that watry trap from which they never rise; there, after some la­bour and wearinesse they drowne and die; you doe not see ma­ny of the labouring Bees looke that way; they passe directly to their hives, without any great notice taken of such a pleasing baite. Idle and ill disposed persons▪ are drawne away with eve­ry temptation, they have both leasure and will to entertaine every sweet allurement to sin; and wantonly prosecute their owne wicked lusts, till they fall into irrecoverable damnation: whereas the diligent and laborious Christian, that followes hard and conscionably the workes of an honest calling, is free from the danger of these deadly enticements, and layes up honey of [Page 323] comfort against the winter of evill: happie is that man who can see and enjoy the successe of his labour, but how ever, this we are sure, if our labour cannot purchase the good we would, it shall prevent the evill we would avoyde.


A Bee stinging a dead body takes no hurt, but stinging a liveDr. Physe [...] The meane in mourning. body loseth both sting and life together. In like manner, death so long as it stung mortall men only, which were dead in sinne was never a white the worse, but when it stung Christ once who is life it selfe▪ by and by it lost both sting and strength. There­fore as the Brazen Serpent was so farre from hurting the Israe­lites, that contrariwise it healed them; after the same sort death is so farre from hurting any true Israelite, that on the other side, if affliction as a fiery Serpent sting us, or any thing else hurt us, it is helped and redressed by death.


That honey is sweete, it is not a conceit only, but the natu­rall qualitie of it is so; yet out of a tast of the sweetnesse, to thinke we cannot take too much of it is a misconceit paid home with loathsome bitternesse; though our fancy be readie to con­ceive a greater blessing in outward good things then indeed there is, yet we must not deny them to be blessings.


Bees when they are abroad at their worke, if the clouds o­vercast, the ayre grow darke, there be any prelude of a storme which they are very sensible and apprehensive of, speedily and in hast, thick and threesold repaire to their hives for shelter and security. And beleevers never pray so heartily, deny themselves so throughly cling so fast to God, as when a storme is towards, or when they are overtaken by a tempest of persecution.


Bees are not querulous complaining or discontented crea­tures, [Page 324] for when they have with many a sore dayes labour and heavie burden filled their hive, and thereby furnished them­selves against a winters want: yet if they be driven and robbed of all, have left neither meate nor materialls to put in any, yet will, if the weather serve, speedily and chearefully renew their labours, and with double diligence seeke out for a future supply. And shall beleevers thinke much to suffer the spoyling of their goods, all that they have travelled and sweat for, and when they have by many a deare dayes labour got a little som­what together, then to be spoyled of all in a moment, seeing they know they have in heaven a better and more endureingHeb. 10. 34. substance.


When the worme dyes, which is a more imperfect creature, then it revives againe, but is quite another from what it was before in every part and member: before it was unable to act for it's owne preservation, or the good of others, could not move out of it's place; in a word, doe nothing but eate what was brought unto it; but after a transformation and renovati­on, it is agill and active, laborious and profitable. And in the new birth, si licet parvis componere magna, there must be a mor­tification of the old man, and then an universall change and alteration in the whole man. For a new Spirit is universall, itMr. Harris, Treatise of the new Co­venant. goes through the whole man, leavens the whole lumpe, the new nature is common to all the powers, not like a little spring that takes beginning in some peece of ground, and ends in the same, but like the great Ocean that encompasseth the whole world. And as it is universall, so it is alterative too, it amends not the out-side only, but the inward man also. It gives a man a new temper, it makes him that was fearfull and timerous, become bold and couragious, him that was peevish and passionate, to be of a meeke and quiet spirit, him that was dull and cold, to be zealous and fervent; it makes him with Onesimus profitable to himselfe and others.


Bees have a naturall and in-bred love to their Queene, which [Page 325] makes them in her absence long after her, nay unweariedly seeke for her without any other content or satisfaction, but her presence and company, and finding her they will not be severed nor sundered, pull them away as oft as you will from her, yet still they will draw neare and cling to her. Carry her whither you will, if they be sensible of it, you have their company also. How doth this condemne the want of love and affection of many subjects to their Governours, of many people to their God? whom a little pleasure or profit shall easily divide. ButDr. Prest [...]n, New Cove­nant. though it be thus with the most, yet there is a disposition in the Saints to long after the Lord, and it is not an emptie choice that consists only in affection, or in the nak [...]d resolution of the mind, but it is such a choice as hath strong affections running together with it, a strong inclination carrying the soule to him; so that though he be hindred many times, and often in his life unruly lusts come, and make a separation between the Lord and him, yet he cannot abide to be long from him. It is the Lord that he loves, he cannot for his heart choose another Ma­ster, but it is he with whom he will dwell, live, and die. And if some have quite lost their naturall affections to their God, no wonder then, if they are weake in their affections to their Go­vernours, and bandy them as Tennis-balls of State, and smite them into every hazzard. I beleeve it not to be the practise of knowing people or Christian Nations, among whom we looke not to heare of a king killing position, except from the upstartCommentari [...]s Reales por G [...] [...]ilass [...] de la Ve­ga lib. 1. de ca. 2. parte. c. 33. broode of perverted statising Loyalist [...]. To passe therefore out of the old world, we will instance in the new, where among much affection and singular love and loyaltie to their Princes, it is yet strange to heare of one dissembling Zimri and politick Iehu, I meane Atahuallpa, who ambitiously opposed, and at last by his agents overthrew and flew his Soveraigne Huasear.


No worldly pleasure hath any absolute delight in it, but asDr. Hall, Medita [...] ▪ and Vowes. 2 cent▪ a Bee, having honey in the mouth, hath a sting in the taile. Why am I so foolish to rest my heart upon any of them? and not rather labour to aspire to that absolute God, in whom is nothing savouring of griefe, nothing wanting to perfect hap­pinesse.


The godly man lives hardly, and like the Bee toiles here du­ring the Summer of his yeare, holding himselfe short of his pleasures, as looking to provide for a hard winter, which when it comes he is able to weare out comfortably, whereas a wick­ed man doth prodigally lash out all his joyes in the time of his prosperitie and (like the Grashopper) singing merrily all Sum­mer is starved in winter. I will so enjoy the present that I will lay up more for hereafter.


It is not good to eate much honey, because it is flatuous andH [...]er Ca [...] ▪ p [...]l [...] in Pro verb 25. 17. windy, so he which is a searcher of Majestie shall be opprest with glory; for as too much light dulls and dazels the sight, so too great enquirie into the Majestie and secrets of God blinds the understanding; therefore saith Paul, Let no man Rom. 11. 3. more highly thinke then he ought to thinke, but to thinke soberly, and seeke not out the things that are too hard for thee, neither search the things that are above thy strength. And as honey isEccles. 3. 23. sweet while it is tasted, but if it be taken too much, it swelles and kills, so the inquisition of the divine Majestie, and of hea­venly secrets is delightfull, but if it be too much it killes with er­ror, or swells with pride. Knowledge pusses up, but charitie 1 Cor 8. edifies.


Bees are molested with many evills and enemies, some en­danger them at or neare their hives others assault and often surprize them in the fields, as the Hornet, Titmouse, Spider, but many mo [...]e mis [...]arry by frosts and snowes in winter, by cold stormes chilling and tempestuous winds in the Spring, so that they are never secure (though they helpe themselves in their troubles, by the Lee-side of a hedge, encompassing a hill, and especially with the nimblenesse of their wings) but in their hive, nor alwayes there, except their keeper be more carefull. [Page 327] How many are the miseries of the sonnes of men, Ben Adam, Ben En [...]sh, if the sonne of Adam, presently the subject of sor­row. A wicked man sometimes in lesser distresses may finde shelter in earthly comforts, but if the storme grow black and raging, these will prove an Egyptian ree [...], which not only de­ceives but wounds us with the splinters; a deceitfull brooke then failes the thirstie passenger, when there is most need of refresh­ing; I [...]bs miserable comforters And he will be beaten out of all helpe from them, and be as a naked man in a storme, as an unarmed man in the feild, or as a ship tossed on the Sea with­out an anchor, which presently dasheth upon rocks, or falle [...]h upon quicksands. But a beleever when he is driven out of all comforts below, nay when God seemes to be angry with him, can appeale from God angry to God appeased, he can wrastle and strive with God by Gods owne strength, plead with God by his owne arguments. Finally, when he is beaten out of allDr. Sibbs, The soules conflict. comfort, he hath (a hive) a God to run to; and therefore can with David in his greatest exigencies comfort and encourage himselfe in the Lord his God. In this he takes Sanctuary, that he is is in covenant with him, who sits at the sterne and rules all, and hath committed the government of all things to his Sonne, our brother, our Ioseph, the second person in heaven. We may be sure no hurt shall be fall us, that he can hinder, and what cannot he hinder that hath the keyes of hell and of death? unto whom we are so neare, that be carries our names in his breast, and on his shoulder, as the high Priests did those of the twelve Tribes: though his Church seeme a widow neglected, yet he will make the world know that she hath a husband will right her in his good time, for when men know us least, God will know us most, he knowes our soules in adversitie, and knowes them so as to support and comfort them, and that from the Spring-head of comfort, whereby the sweetest comforts are fercht.


There is nothing more dangerous then honey mixt with poi­son;T. S [...]t, Ser, on Mat 10. 1 [...]. and there is no man more perilous then a flattering faire tongued man, that speaketh out of a hollow heart.


As Bees of diverse (supposed) noysome flowers, make oneDr. Iames, on 1 Cor 1 [...]. [...]. sweet honey; so nature the best Schoolmistres of many con­traries hath made one the most sweet and pleasant mixture in the body, and that therefore least there should be any division in the body.


We must be diligent in our calling, not like the sluggard, orMr. Holbr [...]ke, on Gen. 4. [...]2. the Drone in the hive, but like the labouring Bee, taking the time while time is, whilst the Sunne shineth making hay: which condemneth such, that though they will not be altoge­ther without a calling, nay more then that will sanctifie it by the word and prayer evening and morning, yet will be negli­gent in it, either too late at it, lying in their beds, turning them with the sluggard (like the doore on the hinges) folding their hands, and crying yet a little more sleepe, or else tatlers in their businesse (omitting many dayes) with a shew of walking in their calling, but in truth nothing lesse.


There is in the regiment of Bees an intrusive and trouble­someMr. Milles, on Deut. 1. 16, 17. Drone, which eateth up the sweet honey, for which the poore painfull creatures have laboured long before. And in the curious Bee-hive of this Common-wealth, there are foure sorts of idle Drones, much like the foure sects of Philosophers which sometimes flourished in Athens; The Academick, Epicure, Pe­ripatetick, and the Stoick. The first, were greatly given to stu­die and contemplation, and these are the idle gamsters who are all night in speculation, devising new tricks, and inventing strange conveyances by Cards and Dice, which next day they put in practice; God saith▪ in the sweate of thy face, thou shalt Gen. 3. 19. eate thy bread, and these idle Drones live by the sweat of other mens browes, only by playing. David with one smooth stone out of his bag discomfited the whole host of the Philistines; [Page 329] and this idle Gamster with a blind bone out of his jugling box, with the activity of a polypragmaticall [...]inger, can in one houre undoe many an hopefull heire. The second Philosopher is an Epicure, who daily gluts himselfe till the surfetting reversions of fat trenchers are cast under the table to dogs. This was Bal­tazars sin, who at his riotous banquet in excesse of wine among his Princes, wives and Concubines, forgat the Lord so farre, as Gods anger chalked his folly on the walls. In this fullnesse sinned churlish Nabal, in forgetfulnesse of poore David, and his tried followers. And in this fulnesse perished the gluttonous belly-god in the Gospel, who would rather cho [...]ke with the crust, then hunger-bitten Lazarus should have the crummes. These were those beasts with whom the Apostle encountered at Ephesus after the manner of men. Their chiefe School-point was this; Let us eate and drinke, for tomorrow we shall die. Against these gourmandizeing Epicures God grieveth and de­nounceth a woe; Woe to them that eate the lambs of the slack, and calves out of the stall, drinke wine in bowles, and anoynt them­selves very costly, but no man saith he is sorry for the affliction of Ioseph.

The third is the Peripatetick, who used to dispute walking, and in this order are Cunnycatchers, who like the Devill are alwayes compassing the earth, and still goeing up and downe seeking whom they may devoure. These cunning Philosophers walke from Inne to Inne, from East to West, and with Satan can turne themselves into an Angel of light, full of good words, and with Iudas embrace a man with a courtly boone-congee, and at parting cut a mans throat, and empoverish many a plaine dealing Countrey ghest, with cosenage in copartner­ship.

The fourth idle Drone or sect of Philosophers, is the Stoick, who used to keepe their acts and disputations standing, and these I call your Minicall Comedians and Apish Actors, who with Thraso thunder out sesquipedalia verba, a heape of inke­horne termes, to the terror of a poore Collier, and with a ri­diculous tu quoque, move many a foole to laugh at their owne follies.


Drones have larger bodies then Bees, seeme fairer creatures, fly oft in and out of the hives, with a great noise and humming sound, but yet [...]il dignum tanto sonitu, they labour not, gather nothing, are all in appearance, nothing in worke or worth. And many hypocrites by common gifts planted in their wills and affections, by excellent morall vertues of justice, tempe­rance and patience, may many times exceed the godly in out­ward appearance; as dead bodies are greater and longer then living bodies, then the same bodies living, but yet want a soule to actuate and quicken them.


Bees when they are new driven, or goe forth in a swarme, if they be not desperately few, or the season quite gone, labour more diligently and improve their time more carefully then other hives that are well provided for, and therefore will be more early and late at their worke then others; so by diligence redeeming the time. Thus doe these unreasonable creatures teach reasonable men, by their continued care and providence, and laborious paines-taking to encrease their little; for if the iron be blunt then he must put to the more strength, saith the Preacher, and Maximum medi [...]ris ingenij subsidium diligen­tia; Eccles. [...] 10 Sen. [...]n cent [...]. It is most incredible what industry and diligence and exer­cise, and holy emulation are able to effect for the bettering and increasing of our spirituall gifts. There is no usury so lawfull asMr. Sanders [...]n, on 1 Cor. 12. 19. of spirituall talents, nor doe I know any so profitable usury, or that multiplyeth so fast as this doth, your use upon use that doubleth the principall (almost) in seaven yeares is nothing to it. Oh then cast in thy talents into the banke, make thy returnes as speedy, and as many as thou canst, lose not a Market or a Tyde if it be possible, be instant in season and out of season, omit no opportunitie to take in and put off all thou canst, so though thy beginnings be but small, thy latter end shall won­derfully increase, by this meanes thou shalt not only profit thy selfe in the increase of thy gifts unto thy selfe, but (which no o­ther [Page 331] usury doth beside) thou shalt also profit others, by com­municating of thy gifts unto them, which is the proper end for which they were bestowed.


If the Pismire must be praised and imitated for her industry and diligence, in that she carefully provides her food in Sum­mer, and her meate in harvest, when as yet neither man nor beast (as farre as I know) is any whit the better, the fuller, the richer for all her labours: How much more worthy of praise and imitation is the industrious Bee, which in diligence is more abundant, in paines-taking more earnest, in profit above mea­sure? Let as many then as desire true praise and imitation, cast gifts into the common treasury of the Church, employ their good parts and spirituall graces, so as they be some way or o­ther profitable and serviceable to their brethren, and fellow-ser­vants in Church and Common-wealth.


Delayes in any thing that is good are ill, and in the best things worst. Waxe when it is chafed will take an impression, but if the seale be not speedily put to it, it returnes to it's for­mer hardnesse; and the best affections of the best men, if they be not taken in the heate, abate and lessen and die.


The Waspes after their aged mother is unable to flie abroad (having her wings worne with former labours) provide for her, and bring her food as long as they themselves subsist, really performing what is reported of the Storke: But how many worse then brutes are to be found in this last age without naturall affection? if at all relieving their parents, yet after such a niggardly and sparing manner, that a man shall never come where their parents are, but heare them cry out like Rebecca, that they are weary of their lives, or like Ionah, it is better for them to die then to live. Nay the world swarmes with some [Page 332] men (or Monsters rather) such as Ezekiel speakes of and re­proves,Ezek. 21. 7. as set light by father and mother, such as, as soone con­descend to relieve a vag [...]ant by the high way side, as their owne father or mother.


Sampson had not found his honey, if he had not turned asideDr. Ha [...]l. Con [...]empl. lib 10. to see his Lion▪ And we shall lose the comforts of Gods bene­fits, if we doe not renue our perills by meditation. The mer­cies of God are ill bestowed upon us, if we cannot step aside to view the monuments of his deliverance; dangers may be at once past and forgotten.


As the Bee Master on occasion of want will feed his Bees, but never the Drones; so true charitie relieves those poore men that will labour, but not at all, or rarely those laste beggars that will take no paines.


As Sampson eat the honey-comb out of a dead beast, and disdained not those sweets because he finds them uncleanly laid; so good may not be refused because the meanes are accidental­ly evill; honey is honey still though in a dead Lion. Those are lesse wise and more scrupulous then Sampson which abhorre the graces of God, because they find them in ill vessels. One cares not for the Preachers true doctrine, because his life is e­vill. Another will not take a good receit from the hand of a Physitian, because he is given to unlawfull studies. A third will not receive deserved contribution from the hands of an Usurer. It is a weake neglect, not to take the honey because we hate the Lion; Gods children have right to their fathers blessings where­soever they find them.


Ionathan out of the honey drew the danger of death, and [Page 333] we draw evill out of good, and turne the grace of God into wantonnesse; our wealth and honours make us proud; our fa­vours with great men to disdaine our betters; and our powers to oppresse the innocent; from the length of dayes we draw forth a multitude of sinnes; from beautie iust, and from the abundance of Gods mercie, presumptuous perseverance in sinne; but as the▪ Bee suckes honey out of the Henbane, and Sampson Dr. Willia [...]s▪ The best re­ligion, Ps. 2. out of the eater drew meate, and out of the strong drew sweet­nesse; so God which commanded the light to shine out of darknesse, did from the death of Christ bring eternall life, to as many as beleeve in him, for he gave his Sonne that whosoever beleeveth in him should not perish but have everlasting life.


Bees are the most harmlesse and laborious, the most orderly and profitable creatures that the world affords; and yet have more adversaries and enemies then (almost) any other crea­ture, as in the enumeration of them in the former booke hath been discovered: and herein are they Emblemes of beleevers, who though they hurt none, profit all; yet are opposed and per­secuted by many. Satan (first) like a roaring Lion seeking whom he may devoure, and his Emissaries are still compassing sea and land, endeavouring their destruction. If Israel will needs goe out of Egypt to serve his God, Pharaoh will be presently up in armes and pursue after him. This Serpent hath a brood of his owne bowells, that like the Mole can creepe under the earth, and transforme themselves into Angels of light, to per­forme deeds of darknesse; which made Esaiah cry out he was undone; David, woe is me; and why? for they dwelt among a people of polluted lives, and that abhorred peace, their throates were an open sepulcher, their tongues like razors hot as the coales of Juniper, the poyson of aspes under their lippes, and their mouth full of cursing and bitternesse. And beside these forraigne foes that seeme the further from us, there be home­bred and domesticall, and therefore more dangerous adversa­ries: First, corruption the old man, that daily sends forth whole swarmes of lusts to destroy the new. And secondly, death the last enemie that is to be destroyed.


It is a common but fabulous conceit, that Bees once losing their stings, lose their naturall diligence and industrie and be­come idle and lasie Drones. But it is really true of too many men, who sometimes with their faces to Sion-ward make pro­fession of holinesse and religion, but feare of the losse of fame, estate, honour, or life, makes them with Demas and Hymeneus embrace the world, and make shipwracke of saith and a good conscience.


Bees are acknowledged to be a Common-wealth, and mani­fest it, as in many particulars, so in th [...]e that they watch and worke, provide and labour, procreate and educate one for ano­ther; once, doe all for the benefit and advantage of the whole body. I would our Common-wealth were comparable to a hive of Bees even in these things, then we would be content to watch and labour one for another; all, for the safety of the whole body. In a Ship no mans safety is in single care for him­selfe,Dr. Page, Zebulons bles­sing. but in the common good of the company, so ought it to be in the Common-wealth also. Therefore no politick body can prosper or make a good Voyage where private respects make prize and Monopolies of publique projects, where the little finger will weare a Diamond, though the stomack which feedeth all, wanteth meate to sustaine the whole body. This St. Paul so earnestly diss [...]adeth, that he calleth the mutuall love of Christians, the band of love, tying us together.


The robbing Bee and the Waspe, (though there be between them, if not an antipathie, yet certainly a desperate hatred and enmitie) will without strife or difference concurre together to­gether to rob a hive of Bees, deserving ill of neither, but only through paucitie and weaknesse obnoxious to their insolence and rapine. Doe you wonder then if men wickedly disposed [Page 335] (though ill affected each to other) to compasse their particu­lar designes, with formalities of concord, comply and agree to­gether, as Herod and Pilate were made friends to crucifie Christ, to compasse the destruction of another, by whose ruine they may greaten and enrich themselves.


Bees in extremitie of winter lie still in a deepe (but not dead) sleepe, stirre not from their places, eate not, make no noise, but on the alteration of the weather, when the Sunne shineth chearely on them, then these sleepers awake and revive. Many men finding some change in themselves, because such lusts as have been formerly vigorous and lively are now dull and tor­pid, they thereupon comfort themselves, as if they were dead, whereas they are but covered and laid asleepe for a time, and will awake and rise againe. As Sampson when he was tyed withDr. Preston, The New Creature. cords rose againe, and was as strong as ever he was when the op­portunitie came, and it was told him the Philistines are upon thee Sampson. So lusts are oft laid asleepe till the opportunitie comes, when all the threds of good purposes breake, and they rise againe in their strength, therefore if there be not a new creature brought within thy soule, thy lusts are but asleepe, they will rise againe.


'Tis not the waxe but the impression of the seale that forti­fiesDr. H. King, Exp s. of the L. Prayer. a Conveyance, and makes the Deed. And temptation how­ever in it selfe, it be lesse then the fact, yet considered in the Author that invites sin by these opportunities doth farre out­goe it. The infirmitie of a sinner may sometimes find excuse or pitie, but what shadow of excuse can shelter his malice, that drew him to the act? Man is a thing easily perswaded to er­ror, Cereus in vitium fl [...]cti, like waxe wrought to a softnesseIuvenal▪ that will receive the figure of any vice. And yet we blame not his softnesse, but lament him whose credulity and easie temper betrayes him to every temptation. If we lay the occasion of mans fault aright, we must lay it on the tempter. At his allure­ments did Adams obedience relent, his perswasions heated him [Page 336] with the inordinate desire of knowledge; he chaft this waxe, mollifying it with such art that it received his authenticall seale of damnation, by which sinne was made currant in the world.


A man findes God in his word as he seekes him by prayer, and no otherwise; wax receives impression as it is prepared.


If Bees be once provoked they are fiery and furious, violent and virulent, though to their owne ruine and destruction, im­placable and unappeasable with opposition and resistance. And such is the impatient man, he hath his spirit set on fire ofMr. L [...]kier, Usefull in­struct. hell, he hath a short possession, he is a mad man for so many yeares, that will not stick at any thing that the Devill and de­praved nature bids him doe; he will flie in the face of servants, children, wife, Magistrate, God, any one; his heart brings forth sin by troopes.


Bees will not admit of strangers into their society, except they come with submission and resolution to live under their Leader, and assimilate themselves to their manners, without any after-commerce or fellowship with the hives from whence they departed. And God receives none under the tuition of his love and favour, but such as are wholly emaucipated from the world, and with full purpose of heart give up themselves to be guided by him, without having any further fellowship with their former workes and companions of darknesse: heaven is bestowed upon none but upon such who are thus both willing and capable; holinesse makes capacitie of happinesse.


Bees are contented with a simple food procured by their owne industrie, of which they feed sparingly, but worke labo­riously [Page 337] and diligently: Whereas the Drones work not at all, but liberally fill themselves, and that daily with the purest ho­ney, and to sharpen their stomacks take many a vagary in the heate of the day, with a loude buzzing, as if they were acting somewhat to purpose, but it is only to emptie their bodies, and quicken their appetite, whereby they often grow unweildy, and after a while (though the Bees let them alone) cannot re­turne back againe into the hive. And are not many reasonable men defective in their imitation of the unreasonable Bees? who frequently eate to furfeting and drink to drunkennesse, and ex­ceede the limits of temperance in the use of the creatures, deny­ing themselves no pleasing nor desireable thing, that so they might prevent such evills, as admitting these exorbitancies will bring inevitable mischiefe upon them: But Drone-like live idly and intemperately, not considering the Apostles exhortation; Be sober, be vigilant, saith he, for your adversary the Devill, as a Ephes. 5. 5. roaring Lion, goeth about seeking whom he may devoure. As if he should have said, you are all in a warfaring condition in theMr. H [...]ard, Soules mise­ry. field with an adversary, and he no simple one, but a Lion, a roaring Lion; a diligent adversary, who is alwayes going about seeking whom he may devoure, drawing into sin, for he hath no way to devoure men by, but that: therefore doe you as Souldiers in the field with an enemie would doe, they plie not their bellies, but use their meate and drinke and sleepe very sparingly, because though this be not enough to prevent the mischiefe that is intended them by their enemies, yet it is one very good meanes of their safety, for it preventeth a sudden sur­prizal, and enableth them to make resistance, and so would a moderate use of meate, drinke, pleasure, &c. keepe you wake­ing and give you libertie to prepare for all encounters with the Devill.


As the humming Bee having lost her sting in another, dothMr. R. Green­h [...]m, Comfort for afflict▪ consci▪ still notwithstanding make a fearfull and grievous noise by her often buzzing about us, but is nothing able to hurt us: so sin and death having lost their sting in Christ Jesus, doe not cease at all, even in the height of the parching heate of our consci­ences [Page 338] to make a murmuring and with furious stormes of temp­tations to terrifie us and our consciences, albeit they can never sting us.


A man by discourse can never possibly perswade another of the sweetnesse of honey so fully as if himselfe did tast it. And it cannot be told how sweet a thing grace is, doe but trie, andMr. Harris, Way to true happinesse. you shall soone perceive a difference between it and all out­ward comforts, therefore come and tast, saith the Prophet, how good the Lord is.


Bees though (many times) they have sufficiently stored and replenished their hives, yea sometimes to a superabundant re­dundancy; hindering for want of emptie cels the future gene­ration, and so suffer because of their plenty; yet will they not give over working; nay some, not leave robbing and that from the weaker and wanting hives. Have we not here a faire picture of a covetous man, who is never at rest, never satisfied and con­tented.


The Bee a nice and dainty creature, builds her cells sometimesDr. Hall, Contemplat. lib. 10. in an unfavoury carkasse, and the carkasse that promiseth no­thing but stench and annoyance, now offers comfort and re­freshing, and in a sort payes Sampson for the wrong offered. Oh the wonderfull goodnesse of our God, that can change ter­rors into pleasures, and can make the greatest evills beneficiall. Is any man under his humiliation, under the hand of God growne more faithfull and conscionable? there is honey out of the Lion. Is any man by his temptation or fall become more circumspect? there is honey also out of the Lion: There is no Sampson to whom every Lion doth not yeeld honey: Every Christian is the better for his evills, yea Satan himselfe in his ex­ercising of Gods children advantageth them.


If robbing Bees charge a neighbour-hive, and finde a reso­lute opposition, with the slaughter and destruction of the prime Leaders and forward invaders, the scattered residue and broken triarij will be timerous and fearefull to reattempt, or if at all but faintly, and quickly found a finall retreate. And he thatDr. Featly, The Check of Conscience. hath felt the sting of sin in his conscience, and been formerly confounded with the shame thereof, dreadeth and fleeth and seeketh by all meanes to shunne those sinnes which have left so sad a remembrance behind them, for the smart of the wound of conscience for sinne past, is a speciall meanes, through grace, to keepe us from sinne to come; for (as Lactantius writeth)Lactan. the ashes of a burnt Viper are a present remedy against the sting of the Viper, so the remaines of sinne in the conscience, viz. re­morse and shame are a present remedy against sinne; as we may see in David, I know mine owne iniquitie, and my sinne is ever Psal. 51. 3. before me.


Bees are very little creatures, and their sting is very small, not visible except it be very neare, and yet this sting affects with grievous smarting paine. And if the sting of a Bee swell and rankle, and smart so much, what will the teeth of the Adder, or the taile of the Scorpion? if those little sinnes that are so small that we can scarce discerne them to be sinnes, put the conscience to so much paine and anguish, what will great sinnes doe? If whosoever is angry with his brother without a cause, shall be in danger of the Iudgement; and whosoever shall say unto his brother, Racha, shall be in danger of the Counsel; And whoso­ever shall say, thou foole, shall be in danger of hell-fire: What pun­ishment is he like to endure, who beareth malice in his heart against his brother, envieth his prosperitie, undermineth his e­state, woundeth his good name, nay spilleth his blood, this is a crimson sinne, and mortall in a double sense; not only because it slayeth the soule, but also because it killeth the body.


Plutarch writeth that though Time be a most drie and bit­terPlatarch de animae [...]an [...]il. herbe, yet that not only the Apothecaries draw an whol­some oyle out of it, but also that the Bees extract from thence sweet honey. This drie and bitter herbe is affliction to the tast of most men: yet out of it men may draw both a wholesome oyle to cure a wounded conscience, and honey also to delight the spirituall tast. Oyle out of the nature of afflictions which are chastenings; and honey out of the cause Gods love: As Revel. [...] 19. many as I love I rebuke and chasten.


If you doe but take any peice of Gods word, and doe butD [...]. P [...]ed [...]n, New Cove­nant. stay upon it, as the Bee doth on the flower, and will not off till you have got somewhat out of it; if you be still digging in this mine, this will make you rich in knowledge, and if you be rich in knowledge, it will make you rich in grace.


The word of God, saith the Prophet, is good, yea and pleasant too, to every one that walketh uprightly, as sweet as honey, yea sweeter then the purest honey to such; as David professeth of himselfe But even honey it-selfe, though of it selfe good andMr. Ga [...]ker, on Psal 82. 6. pleasunt, and wholsome and medicinall, yet causeth paine and smart to an exulcerate part. And children therefore that at o­ther times much desire and cry for it, yet will not endure to have it come neare their lippes, when they have sore mouths. It is mans love of his owne corruption and impatience of cure, that maketh the word of God ha [...]sh and unpleasant unto any.


Looke upon the silly Bees the best Emblemes of obedient creatures, painfull in their labour, dutifull in their life, their [...]Garey, on [...]os 7. 5. king being sase, they are at unity: So long as their king is well, [Page 341] they follow their worke, but being dead, they leave and [...]ath their honey-combes. Behold how nature hath stamped obedi­ence by instinct to Bees to be subject to a superior in their kind; how much more should nature, reason, and grace, stamp obe­dience in the hearts of Christians, knowing that without a go­vernment, Kingdomes and States are thraldomes, Remota ju­stitia August. de ci­vi [...]a [...]. dei. lib 4. c. 6. quid sunt regna nisi [...]magna latr [...]cinia, take away [...]justice, and what are kingdomes but dens of theeves, take away obedi­ence to government, and that were miscere terris tartara, make earth and hell all one, but only in name.


Bees will not be forced to communion with others, except they voluntarily forsake their owne hives in a swarme; for take them at other times, as when they lie out and sweepe them into another hive, yet they will (at furthest) the day following all returne back to their owne and proper hive: it is with them as with a streame that hath made it selfe a channell wherein to run, it may indeed by a strong hand be turned out of it's course, but yet it will be still bending towards it's owne way, and never leave working and winding till it be where it was before: soMr. Harris. howsoever the upright person may be unsetled for a time and put besides his course, yet he strives and labours to be where he should be, and never finds himselfe well, till he be in his first path: like the Needle in the Compasse, though it be jog'd aside for a season, yet it makes toward the North againe, and is in a perpetuall trepidation, till it be where it should: So the chil­dren of God, though they be subject to manifold declensions, manifold desertions, manifold stops and stayes in their course to heaven, yet still set their faces thitherward, though the wind may sometimes violently oarry them besides the way, yet it doth not dismay them, nor doe they find any rest or content in their soules, till they be in their right course againe.


Bees of all politick creatures most unanimously comply and combine together, live and love together, mutually protect [Page 342] and provide for one another, alwayes agree among themselves, and act and worke all for the publique good and wellfare of the whole body: they (as it were) throw downe all enclosures, lay all in common, not selfish, looke not on their owne things, but on the things of others, tendering their well-doing as their owne; neither are they apt to give offence carelessely, nor to take it causelesly. And shall men, shall Christians be so unnatu­rall as to enveigh one against another, to entrap one another, to desame, disgrace, and devoure one another, tantaene animis coelestibus irae? as he said in another cause, this is all one as for one eye to pull out another, one hand to cut off another; know we not that perfection and safety depends in union? as on the other side, danger and destruction inevitably followes on di­straction. Union like the wise woman Solomon speakes, build­eth up the house, but division as the foolish woman pulleth it downe with her hands.


The Waspe loveth not the Apothecaries Gally-pot, but the sweets contained therein: If we love any for our pleasure, we love indeed our pleasure and not him, if we love him for our profit, we love our profit and not him, if we love him for any end of our owne, we love our selves not him: Thus the Iewes loved not Christ, but the loaves which he multiplyed by mi­racle.


Some Naturalists observe, that the thickest and best honey is that which is squeezed last out of the combe, so usually the daintiest dish is served in at the last course; and Musitians re­serve the sweetest straine for their close; the last speech of a dy­ing friend leaves a deepe impression in our hearts; and art imi­tating nature holds out the last note of the dying sound in the Organ or voice.


The Israelites comming into a wood, where they saw the ho­ney [Page 343] dropping, and found the meate as ready as their appetite,Dr. Hall, Contemplat. lib. 11. yet dare not touch the sustenance, and will rather endure fa­mine and fainting, then an indiscreet curse: So the truly righ­teous, though great temporall advantages present themselves with the breach of Gods Law, yet rather choose a contented poverty then riches with the appurtenances of everlasting sor­row.


As Sampsen tooke honey out of the carkasse of the Lion;Idem. The Imprese of God. so it becomes the Magistrates to pull the honey of the Church out of the jawes of all sacrilegious Lions. But if the cunning conveyances of sacriledge have made that impossible, since it lies not now intire in the combes, but is let downe and digested by these ravenours. Let him whose glory it is not to be pater patriae, but pater ecclesiae, provide that those few pots we have may still seeth, and that if nothing will be added, nothing can be recovered, yet that nothing may be purloyned from the Al­tars of God.


Thy lippes, my Spouse, drop as the honey-combe; honey andHug [...] Card. Postil. in Cant. c. 4. 11. milke are under thy tongue. He commends the Spouse for her lippes and her tongue: Now her lippes are the Preachers and Doctors, and other Teachers of the Church, who ought to be a honey-combe to their people with the sweetnesse of love, and distilling with gentlenesse and affability. The lippes of Moses Exod. 4. 10. were not an honey-combe, because they had more bitternesse then sweetnesse, I am not el [...]quent. Also the Law of Moses had bitternesse, for it required eye for eye, tooth for tooth. Againe,Exod. 21. 24. though the lippes of Moses were a honey-combe, yet not drop­ping, but dry and stony and mysterious, that is, in stony Tables, where in truth the secret of the divine Law was hidden, so that he made him to suck honey out of the Rock. But now theDeut 32. 13. lippes of the Church drop as a honey-combe: A honey-combe is honey in the waxe, that is, the divinitie in the humanitie. Or by honey-combe is understood the secret of divine wisdome, [Page 344] which is melted from the lippes of the Church, whence it fol­lowes, Honey and milke are under thy tongue; by tongue is to be understood the same with the lippes; by honey is signified the instruction of the perfect, but by milke the teaching of the simple. The Apostle had honey under his tongue when he said, As unto Babes in Christ I have fed you with milke. A honey­combe1 Cor. 3 2, 3. dropping, not dilated and spread abroad: For the words of Doctors or Preachers ought to drop according to the capa­citie of the hearer, not to be powred out all at once.


Bees are not only profitable for our bodies, but morall uses are by Divines made of them. The Queene-Bee only useth not her sting, hath a body greater then the rest, wings not answera­blePolani Syn [...]ag. lib. 5. c. 25. to her body, workes not, yet though throned in the top of the hive, makes a continued progresse or walke over it, after a sort over-seeing, directing, exhorting others in their severall stations and employments. So kings and great men ought toI Ia. G [...]yn pa [...]te. [...]. Theo [...]emat. et pr [...]b [...]emat. theo og. have innocent hands readily extended for the good of all, va­liantly defending, willfully hurting none, with counsell and au­thoritie presiding and profiting whensoever there is need and occasion.


The Bee, saith the sonne of Syrach, is little among winged creatures, she composeth her workes admirably, and observes a wonderfull politie and order in government: So some men that have little bodies, and lesse strength, yet have acute wittes and working braines.


Bees gather of many flowers, but hurt none: so ought the Governours among Gods people, have a care of all their sub­jects, but wrong and prejudice none.


Bees ordinarily delight not in dead carkasses, nor gather of [Page 345] dead flowers: so ought heroicall natures to abominate vices and vicious persons.


Bees gather not all things of every thing; but Bee-bread of some flowers, honey of others, water else-where: so ought the Governours of kingdomes to exact and expect some services from Divines, others from Lawyers▪ others from the Nobilitie, others from Citizens, and others from men of inferiour ranke and qualitie. Now it is a singular part of judgement and pru­dence to observe what beseemes each order, what every man can performe, and to draw all orders to a pleasing harmonie.


Bees are diligent in their labours whensoever faire weather invites them, and not only on some set times or dayes, taking libertie to be idle on others. So ought the Governours of king­domes alwayes attend and procure the good of the Common­wealth, and of each particular person in the same, but without hypocrisie a [...]d dissimulation. Friderick the third Emperour of Germanie not without cause when he saw his Counsellers enter into the Court at Vienna▪ was wont to wish, that every man of them before they entered in, would put off two plagues of the Common-wealth, simulation and dissimulation.


Bees as some other Insects will flie so long about a Candle till they burne their wings, and lose their lives. And a wandring mind growing wanton with curious care about the flame of hidden secrets, oft befooles, nay destroyes it selfe.


A wise soule in his thought-worke is as a Bee-hive, all theMr. S [...]r [...]he [...], Christian Ob­servations. powers are in labour, and continually going out and returning, no power idle, and none returne emptie, and all their observa­tions [Page 346] as honey said up for use: it gathereth and digesteth in it selfe a substance and masse of purified knowledge, and that for affection and action, and all of them for the obedience of God and union with him.


Bees are not only laborious when they are in want, and their provision small, but when they are largely supplyed, they are as earnestly bent on their gathering as if they had nothing. Beleevers are not to stint their endeavou [...]s, when they have at­tained to a competency of knowledge, but to goe on still for­ward and grow, for though they have enough to make them thankfull, yet never enough to make them remisse and negli­gent, they must still presse forwards, like runners in a race, and look not how much they have runne, but how much remaines: let it alwayes displease thee to continue as thou art, if thou meanest to arrive where thou art not.


Bees have a common house, a common ear [...] of posteritie, common labour, common food, common generation, a common use and fr [...]ition of all things, and therefore intirely and cordi­ally love one another, if one be wronged they will all, though with the losse of their owne lives, vindicate the injury and van­quish the adversary. And shall not professors of the same reli­gion who are in so neare a relation one to another▪ be tenderly affected one to another, and love one another? They have theMr▪ Elion, Expos. on Co­loss. c. [...]. v. 15. same God for their father, the same Church for their mother, Christ their elder brother, are begotten of the same immortall seed, nourished with the same milke of the word, eate the same bread of the Sacraments, and looke for the same blessed inheri­tance, and therefore must needs, by the teaching and worke of the Spirit, love one another heartily and mutually.



THere is something of God in every creature,Dr. Sibbs, Bowells ope­ned. Ser. 16. this makes the meditation of the creature to be usefull▪ There is none, even the meanest (much more the Bee) but it hath a being, and thereby in a sort sets out the goodnesse of God: God likens himselfe to many, to shew that there is something of him in these, and therefore to teach us to rise from them to him in whom all the excellencies that are scattered in them are united. In inno­cency we knew God, and in him we had knowledge of the crea­ture, but now we are fayne to helpe our selves from the know­ledge of the creature, to rise to the knowledge of God.


Our eyes should like a Bee upon infinite variety of flowers,Mr. Bolton▪ Saints soule exalt. humila. from every creature it lookes upon collect much sweet matter of heavenly meditation, for the magnifying of the Creator, his wisdome, power, &c.


Bees provoked neare the hive, will be very troublesome, and according to their power dangerous; striveing, striking, or con­tending further exasperates, but yeilding or giving place paci­fies them. And if we aime at peace with men in case of contro­versie with another, let us apply our selves to a coole language, speake softly, speake wisely, speake silently and in secret: this will coole the great heate of another, and disarme him of his [Page 348] excessive indignation; hard to hard will never yeild, but lay hard to soft, and you may breake even a slint upon a bed or cu­shion which cannot be done by laying one flint upon another; So let a mans heart be never so hard and obdurate if we use soft words to him, give him mild speeches, he cannot but be molli­fied and melted towards us; In so doing you shall heape coales of fire on his head, which shall melt and soften him.


Bees though the; be ingaged in a hot and mortall skirmish with other Insects, yet ordinarily use not their stings, but wre [...]k their spight with biting and breaking of their enemies legges, but when they are transported with rage, and blinded with pas­sion, then they sting, but alwayes with their owne certaine ruine and destruction: And not lesse prejudiciall is the fire or passion of zeale to professours and the Church of God, where it wants knowledge to direct it. What Iscorates spake some­times [...] ad [...]. of valour or strength, is as true of zeale, viz. that zeale and resolution with wisdome doth much good, but without it, it doth much mischiefe to our selves and others, like Granadoes and other fire-workes, which if they be not well looked to and ordered they break and doe more hurt to them that cast them, then to the enemie. No man can be ignorant of the direfull ef­fectsDr. Fea [...]y, The true Zealor. of blind zeale, when an unskilfull Phaeton takes upon him to drive the chariot of the Sunne, he sets the whole world in a combustion. What a metled horse is without a bridle, or a hot spurred rider without an eye, or a shippe in a high wind and swelling saile without a rudder, that is zeale without know­ledge, which is like the eye in the Rider to choose the way, or like the bridle in the hand to moderate the pace, or like the Rudder in the shippe to steere safely the course thereof. St Ber­nard Bernard in Cant. Ser. 22. hits full on this poynt, Discretion without zeale is slow­paced, and zeale without discretion is heady, let therefore zeale spurte on discretion, and discretion reigne in zeale.


Bee of the same hive live together with the greatest love and [Page 349] agreement that can be conceived, never contending, never quarrelling: whereas sheepe of the same fold when they are wanton will dash one against another, and almost breake one anothers heads; yea men that live in the same house, of the same familie, will jarre and jangle; yea children that tu [...]bled in the same bellie, for very trifles sometimes will fall out and sight one with another. Nay true Christians (with shame and griefe be it published) though they will not persecute the cause of religion, yet will molest and disquiet their fellowes, through passion, pride, selfe-love, and other corruptions drawing them thereunto.


Waxe must be chafed and tempered between your fingersMr. Harris, Treatise of the new Co­venant. if you meane to set an impression upon it, and if you continue not to temper it, it will be hard againe neverthelesse. And so it is with our hearts, therefore use the meanes of grace constantly, doe it day by day, estrange not your selves from God by inter­mission of holy duties.


Hardnesse is not intrinsecall to wax, but there is a naturall tendency to softnesse: Let it be hardened through cold, yet bring it to the fire, or let the Sunne smile a while upon it, with it's beames and warmth, and it will relent, and if the heate be strong returne to it's liquid nature. But now it is farre other­wise with a stone, for let the Sunne shine never so hot upon it, lay it by the fire it melts not, it yeilds not, nay it is rather made the harder. The wicked man hath the hardnesse of a stone, let him enjoy never so many mercies, he is not a whit moved the more to amend his life, let God speake to him, let him smile upon him, all's one to him; nay he growes every day under the best meanes more hard and impenitent. Contrarily, the faith­full Christian, how ever by sinne he may for a time contract hardn [...]sse, yet bring him to the Word and Ordinances a while, let God shine upon him with the light of his countenance, and he will resolve presently and recover his former tender­nesse.


Bees are frequently endangered by Spiders who weave their cobwebbs near the flowers where they use to gather, and also just over their passage out of their hives, and so at their going forth, but especially at their returne home laden and weary, make a prey of them. And earthly things prove snares to ma­ny, because of their dayly presence. In the way wherein I walk­ed, Psal. 141. Mr. Hoard, Soules mise­ry. have they privily laid a snare for me, saith the Psalmist, and in the way and places wherein we are dayly walking and tra­velling doe these baites lie, they are the things which we con­tinually look upon, heare of, handle, tast, feele, and therefore as those snares which are laid for a bird in the place where it is fre­quently hopping up and downe, doe much endanger it, so those necessary evills which therefore we live among, and make con­tinuall use of, because they are necessary, doe the more strong­ly allure us unto danger, because they are alwayes before us.


Whensoever any people did forget to leane upon GodsMr. E. Rey­nolds explicat. of the 110 Psalm. Word, and betooke themselves to humane confederacies, to correspondence with idolatrous people, to facilitie in supersliti­ous compliances, and the like fleshly counsells, they find them alwayes to be but very lies, like Waxe [...] feasts made specious of purpose to delude ignorant commers, things of so thinne and unsolide a consistence, as ever were broken with the waight of those that did leane upon them.


Lusts ever bring inconstancy with them, and make the souleIdem. like weary and distempered bodies, never well in any posture or condition; wicked men flie like Bees from one flower to another, from one vanitie to another, and can never find enough to satiate the endlesse intemperancy of unnaturall desires, only the Gospel being spiritual [...]y apprehended, hath treasures e­nough for the soule to rest on, and to seeke no further.


A Bee when she hath once stung can sting no more, yet will testifie an angry disposition by loude buzzings and frequent strikings at the face of the partie (stung before) sometimes to his trouble and perhaps to his feare, also being already sensible of his present smart, and suspecting further danger. So many froward men when they have to their utmost injuried others, and intended more; but when their causes are tryed and prove desper [...]te in right, they will yet still create perverse matters to molest their neighbours, and the more they sinke in the maine of their intendment, the more impetuously will they seeke to perplex and trouble them.


All relations and conditions have a mixture of some Worm­woodMr. Rey [...]er, Precepts so [...] Christian practise. wood or Gall with them, they are not all honey; but like Bees they have a sting of griefe and trouble. A man may have bit­ternesse with his sweetest comforts; so had Abraham with his good wife Sarah, she was twice taken from him.


There is a magneticall attractive force in the Queen Bee, so that what the Loadstone is to the iron, is she to the rest of the Bees, and therefore wheresoever she is will they be also. AndDr. Sibbs, Bowells ope­ned. no lesse attractive and powerfull is Christs love in us, our hearts are heavy and downwards of themselves, but his love drawes us upwards and makes us heavenly minded, it makes us desire fur­ther and further communion with him, still there is a mag [...]eti­call attractive force in Christs love wheresoever it is, it drawes the heart and affections after it.


Waspes and Hornets feed on flesh, car [...]ion, dead Bees, flies, almost any thing; but the Bee is a neate a [...]d curious feeder, [Page 352] she sucks and extracts the quintessence of flowers, which she chimically distills in the Limbeck of her belly; and thus prepa­red layes it up for future food. So the Christian soule in this re­spect is a Bee that will not feede on worldly carrion or sinfull pleasure, but on Christ and spirituall things. The soule of a carnall and naturall man useth to feede upon dust, carrion, earth, and earthly things, when the soule of a true Christian that hath the tast of grace, feedes neatly, it will not feede on that which is base and earthy, but upon heaven and spirituall things. The perpetuall everlasting intercourse between Christ and a Christian, is his maine happinesse here, and his eternall happinesse in heaven.


Temptations to sinne come about us like Bees (buzzing intoMr. Heard, Soules mise­ry. our mindes evill thoughts, and preparing to sting by drawing us into consent) but it is in the name and by the power of the Lord that we doe destroy them; and therefore the Apostle saith expressely; The God of peace shall tread downe Satan un­der Rom 16. 20. your feete. If he be trodden downe, it is God that doth it for us.


Whosoever dallies or playes with the Bees at the hives mouth, doth it with his owne perill, for although at first he be perhaps neglected or assaulted but with one or two, yet if he persists in his folly or fool-hardinesse, he shall quickly find more fists about his eares then his owne, and not escape scot-free. Would we not be overcome and foyled by temptations, con­jure them not up, daily not with them, but if they be risen, quickly lay them, stifle them in their birth and they will expose us to no further trouble or danger; Though flax (saith one) be never so catching, a sparke of fire may fall in, and yet not enflame if it be espied and taken out suddenly ere it have time to ins [...]uate its force into the combustible matter, and so evil motions if quenched at the first kinding, seldome breake out into a flame of rebellion. But if we neglect them, bid them [Page 353] welcome, or parlie with them, or please our selves in them (though with no intent to commit sinne) lust will incal [...]scere wax hot and conceive, and then the next thing we are like to heare of, will be the birth of some soule sinne or other.


There is a kinde of life in the Worme (the first but imper­fect birth of a Bee) but yet neither seeing nor heareing, nor locomotive faculty, though it stirres in it's cell and receives the food that is brought to it, yet can it doe nothing for it's benefit or defence, or others pleasure or profit. And as life is thus shut up in this imperfect creature, till by a further birth and transmu­tation it receives a new and better life; so is the light in a na­turall man shut up before regeneration, all the light they have doth but glowe in their breast, shewing it selfe there (as a late reverend Divine) and making it evident that they have suchDr. Preston, Saints quali­fication. knowledge, but it is not a candle that enlightens all the roome, that enlightens all the corners of the soule. Take the light of a Starre in a darke night, and compare it with the light of the Sunne, though never so little: Looke in what measure it ap­peares, it scatters the darknesse from East to West: So there is a light in the mindes of earnall men, which is but as a Starre in a darke night, which doth not take away the darknesse, but in the regenerate it is a sanctified light, like the light of the Sun, not shut within a narrow compasse, but spreading it selfe unto all the parts of the soule: Or as if a Candle be brought into a darke roome it lightens all the house, but if it be a sparke of fire, it showes it selfe, and glowes and does no more, it doth not en­lighten the house.


Many things in the nature of Bees when we have most studi­ously enquired after them, can we not find out and certainly resolve and determine of, as concerning their manner of gene­ration, the duration and continuance of the Queene-Bee, with their methods and orders in sending forth their first swarme, yet doe we where we are unable to find out certaine grounds [Page 354] conclude all to be done discreetly and orderly, wisely and won­derfully. And shall we not suspect and check our shallow con­ceite and judgement? when it carries us to question and reason about Gods providence, about diverse things below, and not scruple our wisdome, when we cannot see the causes of things, and Gods course in disposing of them, when he deales diversly, and not as we would thinke in our reason, yea and ceasing from our wisdome to search into thing, more then we can compre­hend. If in finite and small creatures we poore mortalls are of­ten nonplust and at a stand, let us not be too busie to know the reason of his counsells and doings, but ascribe all to his infinite wisdome.


God exhibits evident tokens of his goodnesse to all men,Dr. Challoner on Act. 14. 17. even then when they are afflicted with diverse and sundry cala­mities, that when others like Drones doe gather honey but from the hive; a true beleever should gather it even from thistles; and when weaker vessells beare saile only in a calme, a true ves­sell of Christ should saile best to his wished port in a storme.


Almost of the shadow, saith Pliny (rather then substance) of a very small living creature, nature hath made an incompara­ble thing. The Bees never lose a day from labour, if the ayreDr. I. King, Lectures on Io [...]. will give them leave to worke. And when the weather is lour­ing and troublesome, they cleanse their h [...]ves, and carry out the filth; They keepe watch and ward at the gates, as they doe in Campes; The Drones they give house-roome unto, but (be­cause they labour not) when they have no need of them they drive them from their dwellings. Goe to the Bees. O sluggard, consider their wayes, and be wise, they are but small among so [...]les, yet doth their fruit exceed in sweetness▪ (saith the sonne of Syr [...]ch) and their labour in greatnesse. And goe to the Bees you Magistrates of the earth, and l [...]arne from that little king­dome of theirs, to use the vigor and sharpnesse of Discipline against our unserviceable Drones, who like paralytick members [Page 355] in the body of man, loose and unbound in the joynts of obedi­ence, say to the head command us not, for we will not stirre at thine appointment.


Many courteous natures are as waxe, sooner able to receiveMr. Green [...]am, Grave Coun­sells. the impression of an admonition, but lesse able to retaine it. Againe, a more heroicall nature is as wax, not so soone admit­ting the print, but surely keeping the print being made. Many at the first receiving of an admonition most hardly, have after most profited by it; and others receiving an admonition very gently, have lost the fruits of it very negligently.


Experience may make us blush to see how the Bees natural­ly foresee stormes and tempefluous weather, and therefore ei­ther flie not abroad at all, or not farre from their hives; that they may presently on the first alteration of the weather re­paire home in safety: but man alone either unsensibly doth not foresee, or unadvisedly will not avoyd the perilous times to come. This folly of the Pharisees our Saviour reproved, saying, When it is evening yee say faire weather, for the skie is red; and Mat. 16. 2, 3. in the morning yee say, to day shall be a tempest, for the skie is red and louring. O hypocrites, yee can discerne the face of the skie, and can yee not discerne the face of the times?


God never suffereth evill, but for some great and secret good, as Moses saith, He caused him to suck honey out of the rock, and oyle out of the hardest stone. Oh the infinite wisdome andSt. Iohn Hay­ward, Davids teares. power of God! out of the drie and ragged rock of our sinnes, he draweth the sweet sap of humility from us, and of mercy from himselfe to the sweete safety and felicity of our soules.


Riches cannot make men happie by their owne nature, not [Page 356] only because they are unsatisfactory, deceitfull, and inconsi­stant, but because in the indisposition in our selves; they are like the eating of honey to asswage the boyling of a chollerick stomack, a little pleasing to the tast, but much increasing both the paine and danger of the disease.


When a Bee hath once lost her sting she may trouble a while with her buzzing and violent striking, but can doe no further hurt; so afflictions and troubles, whose sting is pulled out in theMr. Roberts on 130 Psalm. things that Christ suffered and was conquerour for the Elect. I say, the sting of harme is taken out of the crosses that God sendeth for the humbling of his Children or Church. And they are sent to feare them, not to destroy them, as the destructions that come on the ungodly with their sting in them.


Set your mind and thoughts on heavenly things, which areMr. Ha [...]is▪ Theorie and pract. of pray­er able to satisfie you; else like the Bee, you will flie from place to place, because earthly things doe not satisfie you.


Most men will commend the Bee when they feed of her ho­ney, and perhaps with some cost and trouble seek her preserva­tion, but if she once cause a little smart with her sting, then they are quickly out of patience, and exclaime as much against her, and will be at no further paines and cost for her safety: So many men will be content to serve God, as long as they may withall advantage themselves, but to serve him and deny themselves, is a worke which they have not learned. Ephraim loveth to tread [...]os. 10. 11. out the corne, saith the Prophet; you know the mouth of the Oxe was not to be musled that trod out the Corne, he had his worke and reward together.


When honey is expressed from the combes, if there be any [Page 357] corruption or drosse in it, that will quickly being lightest ascend upmost, but the purest honey will sinke (unseene) to the bot­tome. So when Satan disquiets the heart, that which is purest and should most comfort will sinke, and be out of sight, but our sinnes and corruptions will ever be before our faces.


The industrious Bee is diligent to gather honey, and when she hath filled her hive is chased out of it and her life oft times by fire and smoke, that the profit may be ours: so that the paines and labour are only hers, but the advantage and profit is ours. And the paines of Christs wounds were his, but the bene­fit ours, the holes in his hands and side were his, but the honey which issued out was ours: in one word, the price which he paidAugust. was his, but the inheritance which he purchased was ours, he a­lone without any demerit of his suffered our punishment, that we without merit of ours might obtaine his grace.


Bees diligently apply themselves to their worke early and late, neglecting no occasion, they are exceeding intent upon it, much taken with it, and almost over-whelmed in their eager and delightfull paines, and that all the time the season continu­eth, for stormes and rainy weather may come, and then they will be necessitated to lye still, or winter will come, and then there is nothing to be gotten, and if they have not sufficiently before-hand provided and furnished themselves, they must needes starve and dye. And shall not men doe good and get good, while they have libertie and opportunity, even give them­selves up unto it, and that with all their might. Many a Chri­stian is kept from doing good, by restraint, by sicknesse, by worldlinesse, by businesse, by an unwilling and hard heart, howsoever by death, when the winter, when night comes, there is no more working. How dolefull will the prison, sicknesse and death be, when conscience shall pinch us for our libertie, health, and life abused? We may therefore justly use the argu­ment of the Epicure; Whatsoever thy hand findeth to doe, doe it Eccles 9. [Page 358] with all speed, because there is no knowledge, wisdome, nor inven­tion in the grave whither thou goest: but here is that which ad­dethD. Dike, E­vang. hist. weight unto it, before we come unto the grave, we may come into this or that strait, that shall disable us almost as much as our grave. And therefore while we have any ability or op­portunitie in any kind to glorifie God, let us not be negligent, but say with the Psalmist; As long as I have any breath I will praise the Lord. And with that Valiant Captaine that defended his Ship with his left hand, when his right hand was cut off, and with his teeth when his left hand was gone. If we are disabled one way for doing good, let us try what we can doe another, if by our tongues, our pennes, our hands, our gestures.


Some young Queene-Bee in the departure of the last Colo­nie, will steale forth with her that is designed Leader, because in her present state (by staying behind) she is sure to perish; In her going forth there is roome for hope, and possibilitie of life, if she can attaine the throne. Beleevers that have been for­merly reduced unto extremities and impossibilities within them­selves, looking upon God as omnipotent, and so able to save; as mercifull, and in Christ reconcileable, and so likely to save if he be sought unto: resolve as the Lepers in the famine of Sa­maria, not to continue in the state they are in, nor yet to re­turne to the Citie, to his wonted hants and waye, where they shall be sure to perish, and in the latter is a possibilitie not to perish. Therefore take up a conclusive purpose to trust Christ, and if I must perish, yet he shall reject me, I will not reject my selfe, I will goe unto him.


When Bees rob other hives, a speciall way to divert them, and cause them to desist and give over, is by making them worke at home, by running a pen knife through the hive, and so (opening their combes) let out their honey, which they will seeke presently to stop up againe, and let their neighbours alone. Thus Hambal was wont to say, that the only way to [Page 359] fight against Rome was in Itake, and this Scipio happily experi­mented upon the Carthaginian [...].


If our lippes drop honey by the preaching of Gods Word,Dr. Wall, Ser. on Cant. c. 8. 6. and the sweetnesse of his Doctrine, it is good and commenda­ble; but if our hands drop Myrrhe by the crucifying of sinne, and the mortification of our earthly members to the obedience of Christ, and the perfect imitation of Christian holinesse, it is most comfortable and heavenly.


As the wittie Bees when they goe about to fill their combesR. Meredeth on Ioh. [...]6. [...]3. with sweet honey, suck first upon the sweetest flowers of the fields and gardens, and then carrie the sweete juice into their hives; so ought beleevers before they enter on their prayers to fixe their cogitations upon the two sweet flowers of power and love, which they find in the name of the Father, and then carry the pure juice of them, into the inward hives of their soules and consciences, and so shall they make a most precious honey combe of all spirituall devotion.


Honey and oyle are used by the Spirit of God for the two Emblemes of p [...]ce and plenty, as we may read in the song of Moses, saying He made him r [...]a [...]n the high places of the earth, Deut. 32. 13. that he might eate the increase of the field, and he made him to suck honey out of the Rock, and oyle out of the st [...]nty Rock.


I eate my honey-combe with my honey: hereby is understoodMr. Rollenson▪ Se [...]. on Cant. 5. that peace which ou [...] Saviour hath made betwixt our Saviour and us. The sinne of Adam and I [...]ve in Paradise made the breach between God and mankind, the death of Christ made the atonement and reconciliation; When we were enemies we [Page 360] were reconciled to God by the death of his Sonne. As then Samp­son in his Riddle said unto his companions; Out of the eater came meate, and out of the strong one came sweetnesse: which was meant of a dead Lion, in whose belly Bees had hived and made honey: so I may say of Christ, for he was the Lion of the tribe of Iudah, and from him being crucified for our sinnes, and slaine for our redemption, we receive our honey and our honey­combe, that is to say, peace with God the Father. But for the honey-combe, why should Christ eate it? Wolves are veryZeph. 3. 3. hungry that will not leave the bones till the morrow: and so is Christ, though he be not a Wolfe, yet he is a Lambe, that is both hungry and thirsty, till he have taken away the sinnes of the world: and therefore he eates his honey-combe with his honey: so greedy is he to cancell the hand-writing which was against us, so desirous of our peace and reconciliation.


Beleevers must not flie low and close to the ground, like Bees against a storme, but raise their flight to a high pitch, even as high as the most high; as did Moses when he saw him who is invisible; for mens quavis ave levior cum deus pennas aptarit, Chrysost. praetervolat montes, saith Chrysostome. The soule when God hath once furnished her with wings flies higher then any bird over the highest mountaines, and so (as the same father saithIdem. hom. 16. in Epist. ad Hebr. else-where) as God is said to be in heaven, and yet is also bere on earth, so we that are here on earth are yet also in heaven.


As honey is not truly honey when it hath lost its sweetnesse,Dr. Kilbie, Ser. o [...] 1 Cor. 15. 55. no more is the death of the righteous truly death, having lost it's bitternesse and fearfullnesse and terrors in the godly.


The Spider is never the more commendable, because heDr. Cleland on Iohn 4. 6. weaves his web out of his owne bowells: neither the Bee de­spised, because she gathereth her honey out of diverse flowers. [Page 361] The citing of humane Writs for illustrating points of Divini­tie, is not so common as commendable, if it be done without vanitie and ostentation, making choice of the best Authors, for better understanding of the Text, and more cleare declaration of the truth.


The Bee for her honey pleaseth many, but for the sting dis­pleaseth not a few; so mildnesse hath bent, where severitie could not breake.


As one will know more of the sweetnesse of honey by oneDr. Bal [...]an, Qual. on Psal. 26. 5. tast of it, then by a hundred disputations and discourses of it, so to speake of spirituall joyes to such as have not felt them is ridiculous, because they are knowne by apprehension not by discourse, and to them who have felt them, it is needlesse to discourse of them, for this doctrine is better knowne by one experience, then by a hundred rules.


Mors is Morsus, death is but a biting, not a consumingSen. and utter devouring, as he that biteth taketh some and leaveth some, so death getteth a morsell of flesh, as the Kite takethDr. King B. of London on Isai. 38. 1 [...]. garbadge from the dunghill, and the Dogs offall from the shambles, but the soule it meddleth not with. I cannot there­fore better compare the grave then to the honey-combe, where is both honey and waxe. The honey of the soule is taken out, the wax of the flesh remaineth behind, till the resurrection of just men.


The waxe that is affixed to Letters patents, howsoever for substance it be the very same, that which is to be found everyDr. U [...]her on 1 Cor. 10. 17. where, yet being applyed to this use, is of more worth to the [Page 362] Patentee, then all the waxe in the Countrey beside: so standeth it with the outward Elements in the matter of the Sacrament; The bread and wine are not changed in substance from being the same with that which is served at ordinary Tables, but in respect of the sacred use whereunto they are consecrated, such a change is made that now they differ as much from common bread and wine as heaven from earth.


As Waspes making musick about a gally-pot▪ shew plainly that they came only for the honey that is in it: So the rich manDr. Hall, Med. and Vowes, Cent. 3. hath many friends; although in truth riches have them, and not the man. As the Asse that carried the Egyptian goddesse had many bowed knees, yet not to the beast, but to the burden; For separate the riches from the person, and thou shalt see friendship leave the man, and follow that which was ever her object: while he may command and can either give or controll, he hath attendance and profer of love at all hands; but which of those da [...]es acknowledge him when he is going to prison for debt.


As they who temper bitter cups for children, first rub theMr. S [...]k, Com. on Mal. c. 3. v. 5. mouth with honey, that that heedlesse age when it shall per­ceive the sweetnesse, shall not feele and feare the bitternesse: so deale witches and wizards▪ using good words, lawfull meanesChrysost. ad pop. A [...]o. hom. 21. and prayer, but as Chrysost. for that cause hate and detest them the more, because they vi [...]ely abuse the name of God, profes­sing themselves Christians they doe the workes of Heathens; for so the Devills confesse the name of God, and yet were De­vills still.


Gods Law, saith David, is sweeter then boney and the honey­combe; Dr. L [...]ke, Expos. of fust Psal. the meaning whereof is, we must not be mercenary in his service, but the pleasure we take in it, must be the cause why [Page 363] we intertaine it, therefore it is not without cause that God re­quires the heart, yet he will have it seasoned with love. Thou Deut. 6. 5. 1 Tim. 1. 5. shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart: and love it the fulfilling of the Law.


He that will have a good conscience, that shall give in good evidence for him, and pronounce a comfortable sentence onAugust. in Psal. 31. him, must beleeve well and live well, faith doth purifie the heart, and a good life beareth the fruit that aboundeth to our reckoning, when we judge our owne soules. But a man must not looke to have this blessing of a good conscience suddenly, Vade ad formicam piger; some read it, Vade ad apem, Goe to the Bee, O sluggard, she gathereth her food in summer, whereof she maketh use in winter. Gods Bee, that is a man that will have such a good conscience, riseth early, hasteth to the Church, heares often, prayes often, meditates often, and so doth acquire this absolving conscience, Colligentem in aestate videre potes, August. comedentem in hieme videre non potes. The outward meanes which he useth are visible, but the inward which when time ser­veth he reapeth are invisible.


Bees are not like the Bramble that receive all good and yeild none to others, to their dependants: but are like the fig­tree, the vine, the olive, they that belong to them, that care for them, are all the better, for [...]ey are inriched by them. If the Bees have any excellency, the Bee-master shall communicate with them. A good patterne for Kings and Governours, who should herein imitate the Bees; when a man seeth an excellent worke, he guesseth that the workman was excellent, though he seeth him not: so the eminency of the Governour may be seene when he is not seene, it may be seene in the eminency of his people.


Bees sometimes sting, but ordinarily without any great or [Page 364] long prejudice. The danger is nothing in comparison of the biting of an Adder, which is even unto death, death speedie, death painfull and wofull, and that as naturally and as inevita­bly as Opium procureth sleepe, or Ellebore purgeth, or any poyson killeth. So though every sinne (unrepented) hath wrath and judgement following of it hard at the heeles, yet some sinnes are more pernicious, Woe and alas, sorrow and strife, shame, povertie, and diseases are enough as Solomon notes to make drunkennesse odious, but because (as he observed) drunkards are men past shame and grace, senslesse of blowes, and therefore much more of reasons and words, being bewit­ched and besotted with the love of wine, will easily over-see and over-leape these pettie woes, therefore Solomon sets before their eyes, the diresull end and fruit, the black and poyson-full tangle of this sinne; In the end it stingeth like a Serpent, it biteth Dr. S Ward, Se [...]. on Pro▪ [...] [...]. [...]9. like an Adder; if once a custome, ever a necessitie. Wine takes away the heart, and spoyles the braine, overthrowes the facul­ties and organs of repentance and resolution. And it is just with God, that he that will put out his naturall light, should have his spirituall extinguished, he that will deprive himselfe of rea­son, should lose also the guide and Pilot of reason, Gods Spirit and grace.


Bees (howsoever some conceipt to the contrary) are much advanced and advantaged by the winter: there is thereby not only a preparing of the earth for a vigorous production of flowers: but a long rest and sleepe doth strongly dispose and fit them both for breeding and also honey-gathering. Whereas we may observe, especially in dry seasons, though the weather be very faire, and there be some flowers, yet are they not very beneficiall. And it is needfull for Christians to find the presenceDr. Sibb [...], Bowells ope­ned. of Christ in the way of humiliation and debasement, causing us to afflict our owne soules, as to seele his presence, joy and com­fort. In this life we cannot be without this gracious dispensa­tion. We may therefore comfort our selves, that howsoever Christ leaves us, yet he will alwayes leave somewhat behind him, as he left Myrrhe after him upon the handle of the doore, [...]pt. 5. 6. [Page 365] some Myrrhe is left alwayes behind upon the soule, which keepes it in a frame and state of grace and sweetnesse. Myrrhe was one of the ingredients in the holy oyle, as it is; and so this leaving of Myrrhe behind him, signifies the oyle of grace left upon the soule; that inabled the Church to doe all those things which are spoken of Cant. 5. 6.


Mercy comes naturally from God like honey from the Bee;Mr. Swift, Ruine and re­paire of king­domes. but justice like the sting, only when she is provoked.


Bees in their first being (while wormes) are uncapable of any excellency, of any abilitie to profit themselves or others: yet they must for a time abide in it, and then they must dye that they may be changed, and so become agill, able, usefull crea­tures. As they which dye cloath doe not immediately change one contrary into another, but first turne a white into an azure, and that into a graine colour: And as those that work in wax, cannot frame any new impression in it, till the old be defaced: So the image of the Prince of this world the Devill must first be defaced, before the image of Christ can be formed in us, we must dye, before we can live.


The Bee being to flie home to her hive, and fearing least ifAmbros▪ do Virginita [...]. quoted by▪ Dr. Playsere in his path­way to per­fection. she should be taken by the way with a rough winde, she might perhaps be blowne about in the ayre, counterpoiseth her selfe with a little stone, and so flies straite home It is true only of the Candian Bees, if of any. How­soever the Morall is not amisse. Act. 9. 11, [...]. This teacheth us what we ought to doe, we must not be wavering and carried a­bout with every blast of doctrine, like a reed shaden in the wind, but as the Bee is ballanced with a little stone, so we must be built on the chiefe corner stone, and grounded upon a rock and established with grace, that howsoever the raine fall, or the floods arise, or the winds blow, or what times soever come, yet we may stand fast in the street which is called straight, al­wayes [Page 366] following Christ directly towards the marke.


Honey is very sweet and pleasant to the [...]ast, but eaten over­much is bitter in the stomack, and the maker of it the Bee hath a sting in her taile. Such are the delights and pleasures of the world; therefore saith Martiall an ancient Bishop, Quid ad Ma [...]ia [...]. Epist, [...]d Tolos. c. 18. nos delectatio mundi, what have we to doe with the delights of the world? you may call it as you will, pleasure, passe-time, mirth, joy, but in Gods Dictionary it hath no such name; but is there called Adams goodly Apple, which be [...]g eaten depri­ved them of Paradise: Esaus red pottage, which being supt up, bereaved him of his birth-right: Ionathans sweet honey which being but tasted, was like to cost him his life. It may delight thee for a while, but it shall torment thee for ever. As any so­lid body, though it have never so faire a colour as crimson, purple, azure, yet alwayes the shadow is black; so any earthly thing, though it have never so faire a shew, yet alwayes the shadow of it is black, and the delight thou takest in it, shall prove to be grievous in the end, there is bitternesse in this sweetnesse, a sting in this Bee. And therefore Philo calls thePhilo. world, A sweet bitter thing: let us then account worldly de­lights not Naomie but Mara, because it is nothing so much Naomie, sweet and pleasant at the first, as it is Mara and Ama­ra, bitter and loathsome at the last.


An heavenly mind turnes earth into heaven, like a Bee thatD [...] Dyke, Evang. hist. sucks honey out of (supposed) bitter herbes, and like unto fire that turnes into fire that which is cast into it. As the good sto­mack doth turne even grosser meats into good nourishment, whereas an ill stomack would turne the finest meates into bad juice.


Let a swarme remaine at the place where it was hived a day [Page 367] or two, and then be removed to another standing; yet for two or three dayes after will they either sullenly keepe in (except the weather be very faire) or if they flie abroad and gather, repaire with their labours to the first place, hankering and fly­ing about it most part of the day, some not at all returning back to the hive, but desperately dying there, and the rest for many dayes lingring about their first mansion. And are there not many in the world, who having stood in the way of sinners, and sat in the chaire of the scornfull, cannot be moved or per­swaded to alter their choice, but will doe well (to be angry) to be evill. And if feare of hazzard or hell, or love of benefit, a [...]ures and with-drawes them from the publique practise, yet shall they not from the inward liking and approbation, so that when he alters his standing gives over the practise of his sinnes, seemes to be divorced from them, because he hath a station, an abiding else-where, in his open carriage somewhat altered, yet he flies about his former standing, his thoughts and imagi­nations feed all day long upon his lusts, he relisheth speculative wickednesses, so that when he hath withdrawne himselfe from his sinne, and given it over, he may have a months mind after it, he may doe with it still as the husband of Mich [...]l did, when by a strong power, she was taken from him, it would have haz­za ded his life to have refused, yet saith the Text, he came weep­ing after her a farre off, he longed after her still, and loved her still. So a man may part with his sinne after such a manner, that still he goes weeping after it, he would have it againe, he would faire enjoy it, if it were not for some greater danger, or some greater trouble that he exposeth himselfe unto: as you see in Phal [...]iel, it was not for want of love to his wife, that he parted with her, but it was out of a desire he had to save him­selfe, to escape the danger of the Kings wrath, imprisonment, and death, that would have followed upon it.


Bees are creatures fitted with naturall instruments for the getting of honey; they have long tongues to draw it out of the sockets of the flowers, and they have nimble wings to carrie them from place to place, that so what is not in one field may [Page 368] be found in another, and they have quick sights to discerne, but most active is their smell. And they have a little bottle within them to containe the honey, when they have extracted it, and (which is more then all) delightfull willingnesse to employ all these abilities for the compassing of this end, and the thriveing in their labours by all the meanes and opportunities they have. But the foole hath a precious price in his hand,