A GOSPEL PLEA (Interwoven with a RATIONAL and LEGAL) FOR THE LAWFULNESS & CONTINUANCE Of the Antient Setled MAINTENANCE and TENTHS Of the Ministers of the Gospel: IN TWO PARTS. PROVING That there is a Just, Competent, Comfor­table Maintenance due to all Lawfull painfull Prea­chers & Ministers of the Gospel, by Divine Right, Institution, & express Texts, Precepts of the Gospel: That Glebes & Tithes are such a Maintenance, & due to Ministers by Divine Right, Law, Gos­pel: That if substracted or detained, they may lawfully be inforced by Coercive Laws and Penalties: That Tithes are no real Burden nor grievance to the people; The abolishing them, no ease or benefit to Farmers, Husbandmen, or poor people, but a Prejudice and Loss. That the present opposition against Tithes, proceeds not from any real grounds of Conscience, but base Covetousnesse, Carnal policy, hatred to, and a Jesuitical, Anabaptistical design, to subvert, ruine our Ministers, Church, Religion. With a Satisfactory Answer to all Cavils and Material Objections to the contrary. By WILLIAM PRYNNE of Swainswick, Esquire, a Bencher of Lincolns Inne.

Mal. 3.8, 9.
Will a man rob God? Yet ye have robbed me: But ye say, Wherein have we robbed thee? In Tithes and Offerings. Ye are cursed with a curse, for ye have robbed me, even this whole Nation.
Mat. 22.21.
Render therefore to Caesar the things that are Caesars, and unto God the things that are his.
AUG. serm. 219.
Si tu illam Decimam non dederis, dabis impio Militi, quod non vis dare Deo & Sacerdoti: Hoc tollit Fiscus, quod non accepit Christus.

London, Printed by T. Childe, and L. Parry, for Edward Thomas, and are to be sold at the Adam and Eve in Little Britain, 1660.

To my most High, Mighty, Great, Dreadfull, Omnipotent, Omnipresent, Omniscient, Righteous, True, Faithfull, All-gracious, All-sufficient, Everliving, Ever­lasting, Immutable, Covenant-keeping LORD GOD; the God of my Life, Health, Strength, Mercy, Preservation, Conso­lation, Supportation, Salvation, Deli­verance, Praise.

Isa. 45.15. & 46.9,O God THE SAVIOUR of Israel, (of Eng­land too, antiently stiled Mat. West. An. 1055. p. 422. Antiq. Eccles. Brit. p. 88, 89. Regnum Dei, Gods Kingdom) Thou art God a­lone, and there is none else. Psal. 73.25. Whom have I in Heaven but thee? and there is none upon earth, that I desire besides thee. Acts 17.28. In thee a­lone I live, move, and have my being. Psal. 73.26. Thou art the strength of my heart, and my portion for ever. My 1 Thess. 5.23. Rom. 11.36. Psal. 139.15, 16, 17. whole Spirit, Soul, Body, Parts, Endowments Natu­ral, Spiritual, are only of thee, through thee: O sanctifie them wholly for, and only to thee; to whom alone I desire intirely and eternally to devote them; as Psal. 100.1, 2, 3. 1 Cor. 6.19, 20. 2 Cor. 5.14, 15. Job 7.20. Gen. 48.16. due to none but thee, and that by right of Creation, Redemption, Resignation, Preservation, and that extraordinary Tribute of gratitude I stand most deeply engaged to render to thy most gracious Majesty, for those many and manifold WONDERS of Preservation, Supportation, Concomitation, Protection, Consolation, Absolution, Vindication and Restauration, thou hast (of thy free Grace) most miraculously extended [Page] to me, (the m [...]anest and unworthyest of all thy servants) in, under, from all my former and late injurious, illegal Suffer­ings, Oppressions, Imprisonments, inhumane close Re­straints, Exiles, in TEN SEVERAL PRISONS, CASTLES (some of them at remotest distance from all Acquaintance, Kindred, Friends and thy publick Ordinances, under some Rude, Barbarous armed Gardians and Men of blood, of pur­pose to destroy me, where thou wast present with me, as with Dan. 6.16. Daniel in the Lyons den, 2 Tim. 4.17. Paul in the Lyons mouth, the Dan. 3.19, 20, &c. three Children in the midst of the fiery Furnace, Jonah 1. & 2. Jonah in the Whales belly, to secure, comfort and supply me) for about ELEVEN YEARS SPACE; through the ma­lice and cruelty of mercilesse men: Yet (blessed be thy holy name) for no other cause or crime thy poor servants consci­ence is guilty of (his last close Imprisonments in three several Castles being without the least Examination, Hearing, Accu­sation, Charge of any particular offence against him, or yet declared to him) but only for his sincere cordial desire to dis­charge his bounden duty to glorifie thee in his generation, by apposing the In my Hi­striomastix, Healths sick­nesse, Love­locks, Cosens Cosening De­votions, Bre­viate, Quench­cole, Memen­to, Speech in Parliament, & other Books. dangerous wrath-provoking Errors and corruptions of the age in which he liveth; by con­tending earnestly for the faith which was once delivered unto the Saints, according Jude 3. Levit. 19.17. Tit. 1.13. to thy Commands, and for the setled fundamental Laws, Liberties, Rights, Govern­ment of his distracted Native Countrie, against all secret Underminers, open Oppugners or Subverters of them, to the uttermost of his Ability: By a consciencious inviolable obser­vation of all those solemn sacred Oaths, Protestations, Cove­nants and Obligations, (prescribed by those lawfull higher Powers thou commandedst him to Rom. 13.1, 2.submit to under pain of DAMNATION) wherewith he hath frequently bound his soul, not so much to men as to thee, who art a most Deut. 7.9. Neh 1.5: Psa. 89.2, 28, to 38. & 110.4. & 111.5. Jer. 33.20, 21, &c. Heb. 5.17, 18. Faithfull Promise-Oath-Covenant-keeping God, especially of those [Page] Oathes and Covenants wherewith thou vouchsafest to oblige thy self even to meer dust and ashes, both IMMUTABLE and INVIOLABLE, never violating, nor repenting of them in the least degree, and obliging men both by thine own example, and Gen. 50.5, 6 Levit. 19.12. Num. 30.2. Josh. 1.17. & 6.22. & 9.15, to 22. Psa. 15.4. Hos. 10.4. Zech. 5.4. Eccles. 8.2. Ezek. 17.16, 18, 19. Precepts to do the like, in all their publick or private Oathes, Vowes, Covenants to thee or men, under pain of temporal wrath here, and eternal exclusion from thy holy Hill: And for not daring to confederate or comply (against his Oathes, Covenants, manifold publick Engage­ments, Conscience, Judgement and thy sacred Prov. 24.21 22. Rom. 16.17. 2 Tim. 3.1, 2, 3. Inhibitions) WITH THOSE WHO ARE GIVEN TO CHANGE; many of whose Calamities and Ruines are sodainly risen and fallen upon them, by thy Divine justice (even from those they least suspected, and most relyed on for Protection) for the manifold changes they presumed to make against their Oaths, Vows, Trusts, Protestations, Covenants, and unrighteous oppres­sing of their dearest Christian Friends, Brethren, and thy suf­fering Servant among others. Now allRev. 19.1, 2. Glory, Honour, Power, Salvation and Praise be for ever rendred by me and all thy glorious Saints and Angles in heaven and earth, because true and righteous are thy Judgements: and because the deliverance of me thy oppressed Servant (with­out any wound to his Conscience, dishonour to thy name, or scandal to thy People) is exceeding Gracious and Glorious. Psalm 20.5, 6, 7, 8. Now know I, (again and again) that the Lord loveth his anointed; that he hath heard him (and others praying for him) from his holy Heaven; WITH THE SAVING STRENGTH OF HIS RIGHT HAND. Some (of his self-exalting Oppressors) trusted in Chariots, and some in Horses; but he remembred the Lord his God: they are brought down and fallen, but he is risen and stands upright: Who therefore ever will rejoyce greatly in THY SALVATION, and in the Name of his God will set up his [Page] Banners. Psal 107.16. For thou hast broken the gates of Brasse, and cut the bars of Iron in sunder: Thou hast sent thy holy Angel and knocked off the Chains from my long-fettered hands, and made the long-barred Iron Castle Gates (wherein I was close shut up) to open of their own accord (without any enforced long-expected Petition from me.) Thou hast rescued me from more then 4. Quaternions of Soul­diers, who most strictly garded me day and night, as they did thy imprisoned Apostle Acts 12.4, to 11. Peter, (and more narrowly than any formerly under the Prelates greatest Tyranny) and deli­vered him out of the hand of Herod, and from all the expect­ation of the People of the Jews; the Jesuits and Popish Priests, who marched freely abroad, not only preaching, but printing and dispersing no lesse then See the Bea­con fired: and Nicolas Cau­sins the Jesuit's holy Court; printed at London 1650. in folio. 19. grosse Popish Books in defence of their Religion, and condemning ours for Heresie, whiles I (their chief oppugner) was shut up so close in three remote Castles, that I could neither write against, nor discover their Plots to undermine our Church, State, Reli­gion, nor yet send Letters to my Imprisoners to demand my liberty, unless I would first give Copies of them to my Gardi­ans, and then trust them to send them when and by whom they pleased, nor have admission to thy publick Or­dinances for above two years space. In thankfull Commemo­ration of which my late and great deliverance from this Ae­gyptian Bondage, I do here presume, in all humility to pro­strate at thy feet, and Ded [...]cate to thee, the Great Psal. 146.7. GAOLE-DELIVERING, PRISONER-LOOSING GOD, (who Isa. 49.9 & 42.7. saiest to the Prisoners GOE FORTH, and to them that are in darknesse SHEVV YOUR SELVES) this mean and unworthy Gospel Plea, for the lawfulnesse and continu­ance of the Antient setled Maintenance and Tithes of thy Ministers of the Gospel, (reserved to and by thy self AS THY DEVOTED PORTION, DEBT, DUE) whereof many [Page] now by FRAUD and VIOLENCE, endeavour Sacrilegiously TO ROB BOTH THEE and THEM; as the first fruits of my enlargement, a 1 Sam. 7.12. Second EBENEZER, Hitherto hath the Lord HELPED ME, and a lasting Monument to Posterity of my gratitude and thankfulness to thee my God, for my late restitution to so much Liberty and Freedom, as to be able, thus once more publickly to plead thine own and thy Mini­sters cause, against Jesuits, Anabaptists, Quakers, and all other open Oppugners, Subverters of our Church, State, and secret Underminers of the true Preachers and Preaching of the Gospel, who now Psal. 83.4, 5, 6, 7, 8. like Gebal, Ammon, Amalek, Edom, Ismael, Moab, the Hagarens, Philistines, Inha­bitants of Tyre, and armed Assur of old, have consulted together with one consent, and are confederate against thee; and have said, Come and let us cut them off from being a Nation, that the name of Israel may be no more in remembrance. Beseeching thy Majesty most graciously to accept it, most powerfully to protect and so effectually to blesse, prosper it, and thy servant, against all these combined Confederates, that they may be no way able to Act. 6.10. resist thy Truth, Wisdom, Spirit, appearing, pleading in it, by it; but either like 1 Cor. 14.25. convicted Seducers or Seduced persons, fall down flat on their faces before it, worship thee and report, that God is in it (and in thy servant) of a truth. Or, in case of wilfull malicious obstinacy, against thee and thy faith­full Ministers, Houses of publick worship, Truth and Gospel, Psal. 83.9, 10, 11, &c. Do unto them as unto the Midianites, as to Sisera, and to Jabin at the brook of Kison, which perished at Endor and became as dung for the earth: Make their Nobles like Oreb and Zeeb, yea make all their Princes as Zebah, and as Salmunna; who said (as these do now) LET US TAKE TO OUR SELVES THE HOUSES OF GOD IN POSSESSION. O my God make them as [Page] a wheel, as the stubble before the wind: As the fire burn­eth the wood, and as the flame setteth the mountains on fire; so persecute them with thy tempest, and make them afraid of thy storm; fill their faces with shame, that they may seek thy name O Lord; let them be con­founded and troubled for ever, yea let them be put to shame and perish: That men (these men) may know, that thou whose name alone is JEHOVAH, art the most high over all the earth. Psal. 79.13. So we thy people and sheep of thy pasture will give thee thanks for ever; we will shew forth thy Praise to all generations. And thy servant Da­vids resolution, Psal 146.2. & 104.33. Whiles I live will I praise the Lord, I will sing praises unto my God, WHILE I HAVE A­NY BEING, shall through thy Grace be both the Resolution and Practice of

Thy unworthy, unprofitable, Redeemed, Preserved and fre­quently enlarged Servant and Vassal William Prynne.

To the unprejudiced Christian Reader.

KInd Reader, the 80. Psal. in my weak judge­ment, is both a lively Character of the deplorable condition of Gods Church of late years, and likewise a most excellent Morning and Evening Prayer for it, in publick or private. The Psalmist thus complains, That God (by the Jer. 46.16. & 50.16. give it this Title. OPPRESSING SWORD of combined enemies, as Psa. 83. imports) had broken down his Churches hedges, so that all they that passed by the way did pluck her, the Boar out of the forrest did waste it, and the wild beasts OF THE FIELD devour it. The antient Isa. 5.25. Ezek. 13.5. & 22.30. hedges of the Church here planted and spread in our Nation, to wit, Gods divine protection and Law; the Patronage, Rights, Franchises, Privileges, Immunities, granted, confirmed to our Churches, by the manifold Magna Carta of King Henry the 1. and K. John. Mat. Pa­ris Hist. Angl. p. 53.230, 246. & 9 H. 1. c. 1.29.37 times since confirm­ed in Parliam. great Charters, Lawes, Sta­tutes, of such bountifull devout Kings and Queens as God himself Isa. 49.23. & 60.9, 10. Psa. 72.10, 11. Rev. 21.24. predicted, should be NURSING FATHERS and NURSING MOTHERS UNTO HIS CHURCH under the Gospel, and bring their Glory and Honour to it; and Kings of Iles, amongst others; having been of late years very much broken down and almost levelled to the dust, by arbitrarie Committees, Sequestrations, and the op­pressing all-devouring Sword of War, (which God hath kept so long unsheathed, Jer. 47.6.7. without returning into the Scab­berd these many years, for the just punishment of our mani­fold sins and enormities) all they that go by the way (or in [Page] by-wayes) taking advantage thereof, have so plucked, and the wilde-boares out of the wood, and wilde-men, and wilde-beasts of the field, have so wasted, devoured the best and richest part of our Churches Patrimony, originally design­ed by the Parliament, by a A Collection of ordinances, &c p. 124, 125. special Bill tendered to the late King at Oxford, April 1643. (when Arch-bishops, Bishops, Deans and Chapters were first voted down, and Mat. 15.13. extirpated as none of our Heavenly fathers plants or planting) for the encrease of the Crown-Revenues, to ease the people in their future Taxes; and the Augmentation of our Ministers Maintenance and incompetent livings: that there is little or none of it now remaining undevoured by them, for either of these two publick ends: And many new highway men, wilde-boares and Beasts, as well as old, encouraged by former rich Church-plunders, in stead of imitating Gal. 3.9. faithfull Abraham, (whose heirs and children they professe themselves) who gave Gen. 14.20. Heb. 7.1, to 12. THE TENTH OF ALL HIS SPOYLS OF WARRE to Melchisedec Priest of the most high God, (a type of our Sa­viour Christ, if not Christ himself, as Dr. Griffith Williams in his Workes in folio p. 811. some probably assert) they most eagerly and violently attempt to spoyl, plunder all the Evangelical Priests and Ministers of God through­out the Nation at one blow (without any lawfull Tryal by their Peers, due processe of Law, or Contrary to Magna Carta c. 1.29.25 E. 1. c. 1, 2, 3.28 E. 1. c. 1.5 E. 3. c. 9.25 E. 3. c. 4.28 E. 3. c. 3.37 E. 3. c. 18.42 E. 3. c. 1, 3. 2 H. 4. c. 4.5 H. 4. c. 11.27 H. 8. c. 20, 21.32 H. 8. c. 7. 2 E. 6. c. 13. The Petition of Right 3 Caroli, and are Or­dinances for Tithes & Aug­mentations Legal conviction of any Capital crimes, which cannot forfeit their Churches inheritance, which is not so vested in them as either to forfeit or alien, by the Law of God or the Realm) of all their inconsiderable remaining Tithes, Glebes, and setled antient Maintenance, and of their very Ministry too, as JEWISH and ANTICHRISTIAN, as John Canne the old Anabaptist, in his new Voice from the ALE­HOUSE RATHER, than the TEMPLE (which cer­tainly is as Jewish and Antichristian as he would have [Page] Tithes to be) with sundry late The Kentish Petition and others. Petitions, Proceedings, proclaim to all the World, and strip them naked of all other coercive maintenance for the future, to starve them and their families bodies, and the peoples souls: that so a new generation of ambulatory Fryers Mendicants and Itinerary Predicants, fixed to no certain Parish or Parishes, selected out of those swarms of Jesuits, Seminary Priests and Po­pish Fryers, now in England under the disguises of Anabap­tists, Gifted Brethren, Dippers, Seekers, Quakers, New-lights, Mechanicks of all Trades, Gentlemen, Troopers and Souldiers too, (Ignatius Loyola Maffaeus Vegius & Ra­badenira (both Jesuits) in vita Ignatii Loy­olae, Heylins Microcosm, p. 197. their Father and founder of their Order, being a SOULDIER by his profession, as di­verse of his Disciples are now amongst us, as many wise men believe, and some on their own knowledge averre) may succeed them in their Ministry, to subvert our Church, Religion, and reduce us back to Rome; The Pope now li­ving, within these few years, affirmed to some This one of them affirmed lately to a friend of mine English Gentlemen of quality in Rome (who out of curiosity only went to see him, being Protestants) that he hoped before he died (though he were aged) to see England perfectly reduced to her former obedience to the See of Rome, having sent many Jesuits, Priests, Fryers from all parts into England, and par­ticularly into THE ARMY (as The false Jew, newly printed, p. 4, 5, 11, 12, 13. Ramsy the late detect­ed Jesuit at New-Castle, under the vizor of a converted Anabaptized Jew, confessed in his printed Examination there lately taken, and sent up with him to Whitehall.) A­gainst whom John Canne might have done well to have pressed those, to whom he dedicated his Voice from the Temple, to execute the Statute of 27 Eliz. c. 2. particu­larly made against them, as most dangerous insufferable Traytors, purposely sent over, TO WORKE THE RU­INE, DESOLATION, and DESTRUCTION OF THE WHOLE REALM, as well as of our Church and [Page] Religion, as that Statute resolves; and not to have most ignorantly and maliciously wrested it, (contrary both to the very letter and intention) against our godly Protestant Ministers only (their greatest opposites, eye-sores) to strip them of their Benefices, Livelihood and lives together (the whole scope of his Dan. 6.20. Lamentable Voice) without so much as uttering one word against these wilde boars and beasts of Rome, with whom he and his Companions the Ana­baptists, are apparent Confederates, both in their See Mr. Sel­dens History of Tithes c. 7. p. 166, 167, 170. prin­ciples and practices against our Ministers Maintenance, Tithes, Callings, Laws, and setled Government, to their eternal Infamy.

The sad consideration whereof hath engaged me, though no Impropriator (whose cause I plead not) nor o­ther Tithe-receiver, but a consciencious Tithe-payer (as my Ancestors were before me) without any retaining fee, or other Solicitation, to appear publickly in the defence of this common cause of God and all his faithfull Ministers Tithes and antient setled Maintenance, being through his mercy and their Prayers enlarged from my long close remote Imprisonments, as I did occasionally in private, whiles a close Prisoner in Pendennis Castle in Cornwall (in December and January last) against some Officers and Souldiers there, who publickly subscribed in the Castle by sound of Drum three several mornings, and promoted in the Country a Petition for abolishing all Tithes (though our Ministers own by all Divine and Humane Lawes, Rights; which neither our Souldiers nor any mortals now living gave to them, nor have any pretence of Law, Power or Authority from God or our Nation to take from them) and all other compulsory Maintenance in lieu of them for Ministers; sent to them (and to other Garisons, as they then informed me) by the General Councell of Of­ficers [Page] of the Army from St. James, both for their own sub­scriptions (though few or none of them or other sub­scribers of such Petitions, Tithe-payers) and such hands of Countrymen, as they could procure. Upon which occasion, I had some brief discourses with some of them concerning the lawfulness and antiquity of Tithes, Gen. 14.20. Heb. 7.4. First paid by Souldiers out of the very spoyls of Battel, taken in the very first War we read of, to the very first Priest of God we find recorded in the Scripture, and therefore admired that our Army-Officers, Souldiers in this age should so far degenerate, as to be the very ring-leaders and chief oppugners of them: drawing up some brief Notes of this subject out of Scripture (to help passe the time) in defence of Tithes, relating more particularly to Souldiers, to silence, satisfie, reclaim them from this Sa­crilegious design: which having since enlarged with Ar­guments and Answers to their chief Objections drawn from their own Military professions, for the better satis­faction, conviction of all Sword men and others, I hope, neither Officers nor Souldiers, nor any others truly fear­ing God (if they consider Levit. 19.17. Mat. 18.15, 16, 17. Prov. 19.25. & 10.17. & 12.1. & 13.18. & 15.10, 31, 32. & 17.10. & 25.12. Psal. 141.5. 1 Sam. 25.32, 33. 1 Tim. 5.20. Luke 3.14.) will or can be justly of­fended with me, no more for writing truth, than speaking it to their faces, as I did upon all occasions whiles among them; not to defame, but to inform and reform them, for their own and the publick good, in what I conceive not warrantable by, but repugnant to Gods word and their duties as Souldiers, as Christians, and to those known fundamental Laws, Liberties of the Nation they were A Collection of Ordinances, p. 539, 623, 878, 879. pur­posely raised, commissioned, waged, engaged by Protestations, Covenants, and their own voluntary June 5. & 14. 1647. printed Declarations, [Page] inviolably to protect, but not subvert; and that they will not repute it a capital crime in me, not to prove a flatter­er, dissembler, or not to act, or write wittingly against my Science and Conscience, when our Ministers Maintenance, Calling, Religion, Gods glory, Laws, Liberties, all we have, or hope for, are in danger of such a sad, sodain, destructive Convulsion, concussion (if not Subversion) as I long since by Authority of Parliament discovered in Romes Master-piece, (and since that in My Speech in Parliament and Memento, well worth perusal now) when so many known Jesuits under a new Provincial (which Hugh Peters himself re­ported, as I have been credibly informed) are now even in London it self, acting as busily, and sitting there in See Oliver Cromwells Speech 1654. Sept. 4. p. 16, 17. Coun­cil as duely, as when the reclaimed Author of that disco­very (purposely sent from Rome for the purposes therein discovered) was resident amongst them. O that these professed Enemies of our Church, Religion, Nation, and those Janizaries of Rome, may Mat 13.25, 26, 27. not sow their Tares of error, and seeds of ruine and desolation amongst us, whiles almost our whole Nation (for ought I can dis­cern) if not those who call themselves Watch-men, are in a dead sleep or Lethargy, and heaving at our most faithfull Ministers Maintenance and Callings too, in stead of enqui­ring after, discovering these Arch-traytots, and executing the good Laws against, and administring those necessary Oaths of Supremacy, Allegiance and Abjuration unto them, to prevent those treasonable practices, destructive designes, miseries, and that ruine to our Protestant Religion, Kings, Government, Governors, Laws, Parliaments, Church and Common-wealth, which the wise vigilant Protestant Par­liaments of 13 Eliz. c. 1. 23 Eliz. c. 1. 27 Eliz. c. 2. 35 Eliz. c. 2. 1 Jac. c. 4. 3 Jac. 1, 2, 4, 5. 7 Jac. c. 6. with some hundreds of Exact Col­lection, p. 3, to 20, 498, 617, 698, 664, 665, 681, 491, 492, 816, 826, 827, 571, 635, 636, 918, 666. A Collection, p. 218, 227, 214, &c. 267, 275, 883, 309, 313, 354, 360, 363, 371, 379, 412, 417, 424, 429, 452, 457, 470, 489, 706. and elsewhere. printed Declarations, Ordinan­ces, [Page] Remonstrances of the Lords and Commons the last Parliament (and the good new Laws, Oaths they provided against those Romish Vipers quite buried in Oblivion) have published, to allarm all drowsie, stupid, careless people; all lovers of God, their Religion, or Country against them, even at this very season, when they and their con­federates are (wittingly or ignorantly) over-turning, over-turning, over-turning, whatever is not yet totally subver­ted among us, and carrying on these their designs, to their full accomplishment. If these my impotent under­takings, with a sincere affection only to Gods glory, the real weal, safety, preservation of our Religion, Ministry, Laws, Native Country, and Exact Col­lection p. 666. A Collection p. 218, 254, 363, 424, 706. which I desire may be now seriously peru­sed, together with my Romes Master-piece. all Protestant Churches (now indangered by their mutual discords, wars and Jesu­itical Emissaries to soment their intestine differences) may so far open the eyes of all Degrees in our Nation really fearing God, as Luke 19.42▪ to know in this their day the things which belong unto their peace and settlement, and move them e­fectually to pursue them, before they be hid from their eyes; I have all the reward I do expect, and shall blesse God for the good successe. If any shall be offended with me, or it, and requite me only with envy, hatred, persecution, new Oppressions, Bonds, close Imprisonments, for well-doing and endeavouring any more publick good, for our tottering Church, Religion, Country; I shall 1 Pet. 2.23. commit my cause to God, which judgeth righteously, who hath so often Psa. 37.5, 6. brought forth my righteousness as the Light, and my judgement as the Noon day, to the shame and confusion of my causelesse enemies: and shall carry this comfortable cordial within my brest, to any Prison, Pillory, Gibbet, Grave, that the malice or power of poor vapouring Mor­tals (who know not how soon Psal. 7.16. their violent dealing may come down upon their own pates, as well as on my other po­tent [Page] adversaries) shall be able to hurry me to, and ascend triumphantly with it even to heaven it self; that I have discharged that duty which God, Conscience, Provi­dence, the publick danger of our Ministry, Religion, Nation, and my sacred Oaths, Protestation, Covenant, have engaged me unto. And Esth. 4.16. if I perish for it, I perish; and in perishing shall (by Gods assistance) depart with this Swan like, Saint-like Song of that eminent Eph. 3 1. & 4. 1. [...]hilem 9.23. 2 Tim. 1.8. Prisoner of Jesus Christ (who was in 2 Cor. 11.23. Prisons more frequent, in Pe­rils, Afflictions, Persecutions often, as I have been for the faithfull discharging of my duty) I have 2 Tim 4.7, 8. fought a good fight, I have finished my course, I have kept the faith: hence­forth is laid up for me a crown of righteousnesse, which God the righteous judge shall give me at that day; and not to me only, but to all them also which suffer for his truth, and love his appearing: which is the unshaken constant faith, hope, expectation of thine, our Churches, Religions, Ministers, Countries unmercenary faithfull Friend and Servant,

William Prynne.
A GOSPEL PLEA, FOR T …

A GOSPEL PLEA, FOR THE Lawfullness and Continuance of the Antient setled Maintenance and Tithes of the Ministers of the GOSPEL,

THE antient, necessary, competent maintenance of our Ministers of the Gospel setled on them by the Pietie, Bountie of our religious Christian Kings and Ancestors, See Spel­manni Concil. Tom. 1. p. 308, 348.350. almost from the very first preaching and embracing of the Gospel in this Iland, constantly enjoyed ever since, without any publick opposition, being in these times of a long-expected glorious reformation, and real propagation of the Gospel, more audaciously oppugned, more impiously decried, declaimed, petitioned publickly against, and more sacrilegiously invaded, detained, sub­stracted, than in the very worst, profanest of former ages; and that, not only by professed enemies of the Ministers and Ministery of the Gospel, but by such who pretend them­selves their friends, and the most precious Saints; who not yet satisfied with the late spoils, sales of all our Archbishops, Bishops, Cathedrals, Deanes, Chapters Lands and Revenues, [Page 2] (the fattest morsels of the English Clergie, tending rather to support their Lordly Power, Pride, Pomp, Luxurie, than their true Gospel Ministry) ingrossed into Sword-mens and Lay-mens hands; doe now industriously, yea violently endeavour speedily to deprive all our painfull, godly preaching Ministers, of all their remaining, inconside­rable, scarce competent Maintenance by Tithes, Glebes, Oblations and other duties, (formerly setled on them, by long prescrip­tion, by sundry successive Laws, Canons, and Acts of Parliaments, as well as late Ordinances, with sufficient warrant even from Gods Word, Gospel) and to leave them no other subsistence, encouragement, reward for all their labours in Gods harvest, but the meer arbitrarie uncoercive Benevolence of the people, (who being generally profane, covetous, vicious, Sectari­an, if not open enemies to all godly Ministers, will not volun­tarily contribute one farthing towards them, desiring ra­ther their room, ruine, than their companie or subsistence) and what they shall otherwise earn by their own labour, indus­trie in some other callings: It is high time for all sincere Pa­trons, Friends of the Ministers and Ministry of the Gospel (now dangerously assaulted) publickly to appear in their behalf, and openly to vindicate, secure as well the Divine as Civil right of their yet remaining ancient, necessarie, estab­lished maintenance, against the clamorous cavils, petitions, and false absurd Allegations of Sacrilegious, Covetous, Impious, Violent, 2 Thes. 3.2 Ʋnreasonable, Ezek. 21.31. Psal. 92 6. Psal. 94.8. Brutish men; to con­vince them of their errour and impietie herein; or else to shame, silence them for the future, and preserve our pre­sent Ministers, Ministry (and by consequence our very Re­ligion it self, now more endangered than in any age since its first establishment.) from impendent ruine. For which end, having not long since had some private discourses with Souldiers concerning the lawfullness of our Ministers Tithes and setled maintenance, during my late strict cause­less restraints under their armed Guards, and perusing some short Prison notes, notions, upon that occasion, of that sub­ject lying by me, I thought fit to enlarge and reduce them to these ensuing Propositions, (wherein the whole controver­sie, now publickly agitated touching our Ministers Tithes [Page 3] and Livelihood, is comprised) to make them publick, for the common good and satisfaction of those who shall peruse them, especially Sword-men, whom I finde most violent against Tithes and Ministers forced maintenance, trusting more (as I apprehend) to the length of their swords, than strength of their Arguments against them; which how weak they are, let all rational perusers hereof resolve.

The Propositions I shall here (through Gods assistance) make good, from the very Law, Word, and Gospel of God, with all possible brevitie, (I trust beyond all contradiction) are these,

1. That there is a just, competent, and comfortable Mainte­nance, due to all lawfull, painfull Preachers and Ministers of the Gospell from the people, even by Divine right, institution, and ex­press Texts, Precepts of the Gospel.

2. That the maintenance of the Ministers of the Gospell (and of Places, Houses for Gods publick worship) by Tithes, Glebes, Oblations (yea by spoils won in battel by Generals, Collonels, Cap­tains, Souldiers) is not only lawfull, expedient, but the most fit­ing, rational, convenient Maintenance of all others, warranted by direct Presidents, Precepts, both before, under the Law, and likewise by the Gospel, which doth no wayes abolish, condemn, but approve, confirm this way of Maintenance.

3. That if Tithes and other Maintenance, formerly setled on our Ministers, be either wilfully with-held, or substracted from them by the people, in part or in whole; the Civil Magistrates may, yea ought by coercive Laws and Penalties to enforce the pay­ment of them in due form and time, both by the Law of God, and Rules of Justice, without any injurie or oppression to the detainers.

4. That our Ministers Tithes are really no burthen, grievance, oppression to the people; but a charge, debt, dutie, as well as their Landlords Rents, or Merchants poundage. That the abolishing of them will be no real ease, gain, advantage to Farmers, L [...]ssees, and the poorer sort of people, as is falsely pretended, but only to rich Land-lords, and landed men; and a loss, detriment to all others.

5. That the present Opposition and endevoured Abolition of Tithes and all other coercive Maintenance for Ministers, proceeds not from any real grounds of Pietie, Conscience, or any conside­ble, real inconveniences, mischiefs arising from them, but meerly [Page 4] from base, covetous, carnal hearts, want of Christian love, chari­tie to, and professed enmitie, hatred against the Ministers of the Gospel; yea from a Jesuitical, Papistical, Anabaptistical design to subvert, ruine our Ministers, Church, Religion; the probable, if not necessary consequence of this infernal Project, if it should take effect; which would prove the eternal shame, infamie, ruine of our Nation, not its glory and benefit.

CHAP. I.

THe first of these Propositions being the foundation and corner-stone whereon all the rest depend, and into which it hath a prevailing influence; I shall be more copious in its Probation, and in the Refutation of the Objections which are, or may be raised against it.

Proposition 1. That there is See Huldrici Zuinglii Ex­planatio Ar­tic. 63. Ope­rū Tom. 1. f. 106. Bene­dicti Aretii Problemata, Locus 142. De Stipendiis Ministrorum. a just, competent and comfortable Maintenance due to all lawfull, painfull Preachers and Ministers of the Gospel, from the people, even by Divine right, institution, and express Texts, Precepts of the Gospel; is as clear as the noonday Sun, by these irrefragable Gospel Testimonies.

I. By Matth. 10.5, 6, 9, 10, 11. where when our Lord and Saviour Christ himself first sent forth, authorized, com­manded his 12. Apostles to preach the Gospel, he gave them these instructions among other: Provide neither gold, nor sil­ver, nor brass in your purses, nor scrip, (nor bread adds Mark 6.8.) for your journey, neither two coats, nor shooes, nor yet staves: (adding this as the reason thereof) For the La­bourer is worthy of his meat; or, his Reward, Hire, Wa­ges, Maintenance, as the Greek word will bear, and other following Scriptures render it.

II. By Luke 10.1, 6, 10. recording, that when our Sa­viour Christ (not long after his former Commission to the 12. Apostles) sent forth the 70. Disciples by two and two, to preach in every City and place, whither himself would come; he gave them almost the self-same instructions: Carry nei­ther purse, nor scrip, nor shoes; and into whatsoever house ye en­ter, first say, Peace be to this house, &c. And in the same house remain eating and drinking such things as they give: (subjoyn­ing [Page 5] this reason for it.) For the Labourer is worthy of his Hire: Go not from house to house (as Beggars use to doe for alms) And into what City you enter, and hey receive you, eat such things as are set before you, &c.

III. By John 6.35, 36, 37, 38. where our Lord Jesus Christ, (soon after the former Commissions) used these words to his Disciples; Behold, I say unto you, Lift up your eyes, and look on the fields, for they are white already to harvest, And He that reapeth receiveth Wages, and gathereth fruit unto eternal life, &c. I sent you to reap that whereon ye bestowed no labour, &c. Which may be aptly paralleld with, and in­terpreted by Matth. 9.37, 38. Then said he (our Saviour) unto his Disciples, The harvest truly is plenteous, but the Labo­rers are few; pray ye therefore the Lord of the harvest, that he would send forth Laborers into his harvest: Which when he did, he agreed with them all for a certain stipend by the day, and when the evening was come, he said unto his Steward, Call the Laborers, and give them their hire, beginning from the last unto the first, Mat. 20.1, to 15. as is there parabolically expressed.

From which Texts, words of our Lord and Saviour Christ himself, it is most apparent,

1. That the Apostles, Preachers, Ministers of the Gospel are and ought to be diligent, painfull Labourers in Christs spiritual harvest, not idle loiterers.

2. That they were not obliged, but expresly prohibited to provide gold, silver, brass, scrips, shoes, clothes, bread, meat; drink, lodging, and other necessaries at their own free cost, when they were commissioned and sent forth to preach the Gos­pel, (as some now would enforce them to) for this very reason, That being Labourers in the Lords own harvest, for the eternall salvation of mens soules, they were worthy to receive them, as hire, or wages, from those to whom they preached.

3. That our Saviour Christ himself at the very original institution and first mission of his 12. Apostles, and after of his 70 Disciples to preach the Gospel; thrice one after ano­ther, expresl;y resolves in positive terms; That they are worthy of their meat, hire, wages, for their Labour in the Gos­pel; and so by consequence, all other lawfull Labouring [Page 6] Ministers, who diligently preach the Gospel, are worthie of the like at this day; and neither of them obliged to preach the Gospell freely without any recompence, wages, reward, as some Seducers now pretend.

4. That meat, drink, clothes, lodging, and a competent maintenance, are as truely, justly due to the true Labour­ing Ministers of the Gospell from the people, and that of pure common, natural, yea Gospell right, justice, not as meer arbitrary Charity or Benevolence, but as merited HIRE, WAGES; as much, as well as deserved hire, wages are due to any other hired servant or labourer whatsoever, by common justice, and the law of God, Gen. 29. 15. Exod. 2.9. Levit. 19.13. Deut. 24.14, 15. Mat. 20.1, to 16. Joh. 4.36. Or as well as pay, wages are justly due to the best deserving Officers, soldiers, Luke 3.14. Ezek. 28.18, 19. and that by Christs own trebled resolution, recorded by the Evan­gelists for their greater evidence and conviction; who em­phatically by way of reason applies these words only to his Apostles and Ministers, For the Labourer is worthy of his meat, hire, wages; they being the most divine, excellent, usefull, necessary Labourers of all others, and that in matters of highest concernment in relation both to God and Men: Therefore of all other labourers they are most worthy of a honorable, comfortable, certain hire, salary, reward for their support and encouragement.

5. Hence it follows by necessary consequence, (and let those who are guilty consider it seriously in the fear of God with trembling and astonishment) that the opposing, oppressing, defrauding the Ministers of the Gospel in their deserved settled hire, wages; or the detaining all, or any part of their antient, just, established, Dues, Tithes, Reve­nues from them (especially out of covetousnesse, spite, obstinacy, or malice against their very callings) is as great, as crying, as damnable a sin, oppression, unrighteousness; and will bring down as grievous curses, plagues, judge­ments upon all those who are culpable thereof; as the defrauding, oppressing of the hired servant or labourer, of or in his hire, or detaining their wages from them, when due; as will undeniably appear by Deut. 24.14, 15. Levit. [Page 7] 19, 13. Gen. 31.7. Mal. 3.5. Jam. 4.1, to 5. compared with Mal. 3.8, 9.10, 11. Nehem. 13.10, 11. and is a sin against all these Scriptures; which all detainers of Ministers Dues, Tithes, may do well to read and ponder.

IV. The truth of this Proposition is ratifyed by the Apostle Pauls resolution, who thus prosecutes our Saviours forecited words, and seconds his argument in 1 Tim. 5.17, 18. Let the Elders that rule well be counted worthy of double ho­nour, especially those that labour in the word and Doctrine: For the Scripture saith (Deut. 25.4) Thou shalt not muzzle the Oxe that treadeth out the Corn. And, the Labourer is wor­thy of his hire: relating to Mat. 10.10. and Luke 10.7. forecited. In which words the Holy Ghost by the Apostle positively asserts,

1. That the Elders, Ministers who rule well, especially such of them who labour in the Word and Gospell, are really worthy of double honour from the people, which double honour Interpreters generally resolve to be, 1. Due reve­rence, love, countenance; 2. A competent liberal mainte­nance and reward: Or (as some conceive) a double salary and allowance to what others receive, as a just honourable re­ward for their labour, which is here intended by the words double honour; extending as well to an honourable salary, reward, as to due reverence and respect, as is clear by the two Texts here cited to prove it, by the 3, and 16 verses of this very Chapter, and Rom. 13.1, 6, 7. 1 Pet. 2.17. Prov. 3.9. compared together.

2. That the people ought to count them worthy of this dou­ble honour, and to render it unto them.

3. He proves and ratifies this, not only by his own Apo­stolical authoritie, but likewise by two other Texts of Scripture, the one taken out of the Old Testament, Deut. 25.4. (which proves, that the Texts, Precepts for the just dues, maintenance of the Priests in the Old Testament are still in force, and not abrogated, so farr as they are moral or judicial; and therefore may be still aptly urged for proof of our Ministers due maintenance under the Gos­pel;) The other out of the New, Testament, Mat. 10.10. Luke 10.7. From both which the force of the Apostles ar­gument [Page 8] stands thus, The Elders who labour in the Word and Gospel have as just, as natural, as moral, legal, equita­ble a right and meritorious due to a liberal maintenance, salarie, reward, or double honour (as he stiles it) as the Oxe that treadeth out the Corn hath, to eat of the Corn, straw he treads out; or, as any other hired labourer whatsoever hath to his hire; they being the best, eminentest of all o­ther labourers; (which the special application of Deut: 25.4. and of this very sentence here again to them, The labourer is worthy of his hire, imports:) Therefore for any people wittingly, wilfully to detain, or defraud them thereof, is as great an injustice, crueltie, sin, unrighteous­ness, as to muzzle the Ox mouth that treadeth out the Corn; to detain the Labourers wages, or defraud him thereof; yea a sin against the express commandements of God, Deut. 25.4. ch. 24.14, 15. Levit. 19.13. 1 Cor. 9.8, 9, 10. And so much the rather, because their hire, wages, are their right, and their own (not the meer alms, charitie of those who pay it) as Christ himself resolves, Mat. 20.4, 7, 8, 13, 14.

V. By Gal: 6.6. where the Apostle layes down this ge­ral Gospel percept for the maintenance of the Ministers of the Gospel, from which there can be no evasion: Let him that is taught in the Word Communicate unto him that tea­cheth in all good things. The word Communicate, signifi­eth a free, liberal, (not base, niggardly) allowance, as is evi­dent by 1 Tim. 6.18. Heb. 13.16. 2 Cor. 9.5, 6, 7, 8. Deut. 15.8, 11. and that to be rendred to them, not as to meer Strangers, but as to those who have a kinde of coparner­ship, and tenancie in common with them, not in one or two, but in all good things God hath blessed them with; as the primitive Christians had all things in common, and said not that any thing was their own, but the Apostles and Brethrens as much as theirs, Acts 4.32, 34, 35. whence the Contents of our Bibles and Commentators on this Text inferr and conclude; That every Christian ought chearfully to communi­cate a liberal share and portion of all the fruits of the Earth, blessings and good things he enjoyes, to his spiritual Pastor, Tea­cher, (and by consequence, Tithes of all tithable things) [Page 9] and that not as Alms, Charitie, or a free Benevolence, but as a See Dr. Carltons Tithes proved to be by Di­vine Right, & Dr. Burges, Calvin and others on this Text. just debt, dutie commanded by this sacred Canon.

VI. By Rom. 13.6, 7, 8. For, for this cause pay you tribute also, For they are Gods Ministers attending continually upon this very thing. Render therefore to all their due, Tri­bute to whom Tribute is due, Custom to whom Custom, Fear to whom Fear, Honour to whom Honour. Owe nothing to any man, but to love one another. Which Scripture though par­ticularly intended of the higher civil Powers, Rulers and Magistrates ordained by God; yet it equally extends to all Spiritual, Ecclesiastical Pastors and Rulers over us, as well as to them.

First, because they are Gods Ministers attending continual­ly upon this very thing, (to preach the Gospel, and discharge their Pastoral charge over their flocks) as well as civil Magistrates; and therefore by way of excellencie are more frequently styled Ministers, yea Ministers of God and Christ in the new Testament, than Magistrates, Rom. 15.8, 16. 1 Chr. 4.1. 2 Cor. 3.6. ch. 6.4. ch. 11.23. Ephes. 3.7. Col. 1.23, 25. ch. 4.7. 1 Thess. 3.2. 1 Tim. 4.6. whence their very work and calling is styled, The Ministry, Rom: 12.7. Ephes. 4.12. Col. 4.17. 2 Tim. 4.5. 1 Tim. 1.12.

Secondly, because the Precept subjoyned is universal; Render therefore to all their due: in the affirmative: There­fore to Ministers as well as Magistrates, with the like care and conscience. And then the Inhibition in the close as universal, Owe nothing to any man; Therefore not to Mi­nisters, no more than to Magistrates or other men.

Thirdly, because it expresly enjoyns all Christians to render honour to whom honour is due: now, not only honour, but double honour is due to Ministers that rule well and preach the Gospel diligently, 1 Tim. 5.17, 18. to wit, Re­verence, Obedience, Love, See Huldrici Zuinglii Ex­planatio Arti­culi 64. Maintenance; all here pre­scribed to be rendred in this Text to whom they are due. Therefore a liberal, honourable, comfortable Mainte­nance and reward is both in justice and conscience DUE, as well to the Ministers of the Gospel, as to the Magistrates and higher Powers; yea as duly, truly, justly to be rend­red unto, (not owed, denied, detained from) the Ministers, [Page 10] as to Kings, Parliaments, or any other civil Rulers, even by this Evangelical precept, (from which there is no eva­sion) and that for conscience sake; as well as for fear of wrath and punishment: vers. 5. So as none can plead, pre­tend the least colour of conscience, for detaining, or not ren­dring their Tithes and Duties to our Ministers of the Gos­pell, without giving the Holy Ghost himself, and this Gospel Text the Lie, and incurring Ananias and Saphiraes sin, Act. 5.3, 4, 7, 8, 9, 10. for which they may justly expect and receive their fatal exemplary punishment.

VII. The Apostle further clears this truth not only by way of Precept, but Reason and Demonstration, Rom. 15.26, 27. It hath pleased them of Macedonia and Achaia to make a certain contribution for the poor Saints which are at Jerusalem (Ministers and Apostles as well as other Saints that were poor.) It hath pleased them verily, and their Debtors they are: For if the Gentiles have been made partakers of their Spiri­tual things, their duty is also to Minister unto them in Carnal things. I confesse, the Text is not meant properly of Apostles, and Ministers of the Gospell, but of poor be­lieving Saints that were Jewes; but the reason, argument here urged, extendeth much more to Apostles and Mini­sters of the Gospell, than to poor believing Saints: and thus I argue from it. If the Christian believing Gentiles in Ma­cedonia and Achaia were strongly obliged, not only in charity, but of debt, duty (as the Apostle here argues, resolves) to make a certain contribution, for the poor Saints of God at Jerusalem who were Jews, and to minister to them in their carnal things when they were in want, upon this account, that God had made them par­takers of their Spiritual things (by the Apostles and other Ministers sent or repairing to them from Jerusalem) then much more are they and all other converted Gentiles then and now strongly obliged, not only in charity, but of just debt and duty to make a certain contribution, maintenance for, and liberally to minister in their carnal things, unto those faithfull Ministers of the Gospell, who actually preach the Gospell, to them, and of whose spiritual things, paines they are made partakers. But the ante­cedent and supposition is an unquestionable Gospell truth, by the Apostles resolution in this alleged Text, and is, [Page 11] may be further ratifyed by Act. 11.29, 30. Act. 4.32, 33, 34, 35, 36. Act. 5.1, 2, 3. 1 Cor. 16. 1, 2. 2 Cor. 8.1, to 16. and ch. 9.1, to 15. Gal. 2.10. Ephes. 4.28. 1 Joh. 3.17. Mat. 5.42. Deut. 15.7, to 12. Therefore the consequent must be granted, being the Apostles expresse argument in the very case of Ministers maintenance from the people, 1 Cor. 9.11. If we have sown unto you spiritual things, is it a great thing if we shall reap your carnal things? Now in this reasoning of the Apostle, and Gods Spirit in, by him, there is a double emphatical enforcement to prove Ministers maintenance, both a just debt and duty, which the people are bound to render to them, not as free givers, but as debtors.

1. By the grounds of Commutative Justice, They are (or at leastwise may be if they will themselves, the case on­ly of obstinate Separatists) partakers of the Ministers spiritual things and pains: therefore ought in justice, duty, to pay and render them some proportionable recompence for what they receive from them; even as all other Merchants, Tradesmen who barter or sell one commodity for another, or for ready money, use to doe.

2. From the nature, value of the things they receive from Ministers; and of those things they render back to them by way of exchange, which will hold no ballance nor equal value with what they first receive: For the things the people enjoy by Ministers, are spiritual, which concern their souls, spirits, everlasting salvation, eternal happiness, and are the most excellent, precious things of all other, farr ex­celling Gold, Silver, Tithes, and all earthly Treasures. Ephes. 3.8, 18, 19. 2 Pet. 1.4. 2 Cor. 3.8, 9, 10. ch. 4.7. Phil. 3.8. Rom. 2.18. Psal. 19.10. & 119.72, 127. Prov. 8.18, 19. But the things and recompence they return to Ministers for them, are only their carnal things, for the necessary support of their bodies and families, which are no way comparable in value, worth, benefit, use to what they receive from them, as the last recited Texts and others resolve. The people therefore receiving from their Ministers quid pro quo, and things of infinite more value, benefit, than what they render to them; the carnal things they receive for their spiritual, (though in a liberal proportion) must needs be a [Page 12] most just debt and duty; not meer arbitrary almes or charity; and can neither in justice nor conscience be detained from them, they being such infinite gainers by the bargain.

VIII. This Proposition is yet further professedly argu­ed, debated at full by the Apostle and Spirit of God a­gainst all sorts of callings and professions of men, that now oppose it, with the greatest evidence of reason, justice, equitie that may be, backed with Divine Authoritie; as if he had purposely foreseen the violent, impious, headie op­position, now made against Ministers Tithes and mainte­nance in these daies by souldiers, rusticks, tradesmen; and penned this Scripture purposely to refute them. 1 Cor. 9.4. to 16. Have we not power to eat and to drink? &c. Who go­eth a warfare any time at his own charges? Who planteth a vine­yard, and eateth not of the fruit thereof? Or, who feedeth a flock, and eateth not of the milk of the flock? Say I these things as a man? or saith not the Law the same also? For it is written in the Law of Moses, Deut. 25.4. Thou shalt not muzzle the mouth of the Oxe that treadeth out the corn. Doth God take care for Oxen? Or saith he it altogether for our sakes? For our sakes, no doubt, this is written, that he that ploweth should plow in hope, and he that thresheth in hope, should be partaker of his hope. If we have sowen unto you spiritual things, is it a great thing, if we shall reap your carnal things? If others be partakers of this power over you, are not we rather? Nevertheless, we have not used this power; but suffer all things, l [...]st we should hinder the Gospel of Christ. Doe ye not know, that they which minister about holy things, live (or feed) of the things of the Temple? and they which wait at the Altar are partakers with the Altar? Even so hath the Lord ordained, that they which preach the Gospel, should live of the Gospel. But I have used none of these things; nei­ther have I written these things that it should be so done unto me, &c.

In which Scripture the Apostle asserts the lawfulness and justness of Ministers maintenance under the Gospel by sun­dry instances, arguments, against all opponents. And be­cause, perchance some soldiers then, as now, were the chief opposers of Ministers maintenance, or rather, for that he foresaw (by a 1 Tim. 4.1, 2. 2 Tim. 3.1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9. Prophetical Spirit) that they should prove [Page 13] such in our daies, he first refutes, and stops theirs, others mouthes, with an argument drawn from the wars, and their own Militarie practice: Who goeth a warfare at any time at his own charge? In which short interrogative argu­ment, these particulars are both included and tacitly as­serted.

1. That Ministers of the Gospel are true spiritual Soul­diers under Christ their Heb. 2.10. Captain; and their Ministrie, a true spiritual warfare, against the world, flesh, Devil, sins and vices of men, exposing them to many hardships, dan­gers, and oft-times to losse of libertie, bloud, limbs, yea life it self, as he expresly resolves in other Texts, 2 Cor. 10.4. 1 Tim. 1.18. 2 Tim. 2.3, 4. & 4.7.

2. That being souldiers, it must needs bee most unjust, unreasonable, unconscionable, yea against the common rules of war, and practice of all souldiers, that they should goe a warfare ANY TIME at their own charge; since no other souldiers else will, or use to doe it, (nor any offi­cers, souldiers of the Armie now) who will follow the wars no longer, than they may do it at free cost, no not for a moment; and will fight no longer than they receive or expect full pay. And therefore should not now, nor at any time else, press Ministers to preach freely at their own cost, unless themselves first went a warfare on their own purses, to ease the impoverished oppressed Country of their long continued heavie Taxes.

3. That constant pay, wages are at all times as really and justly due to these spiritual Souldiers for their spiritual war­fare, as they are to any other souldiers, warriers or officers whatsoever imployed in actual service in other warres. Luke 3.14. Therefore those Military Officers who oppugn our Ministers pay and setled maintenance as unlawfull, an­tichristian, unevangelical, must first renounce their own pay, contributions as such, and warre without pay on their own charges for the future; (which many of them may well do, having gained so much by the wars already, being now most of them out of actual military service) or else henceforth permit our Ministers to enjoy their Tithes and setled maintenance without opposition, or substracti­on, [Page 14] as they do their pay: it being as great a robbery, injustice, fraud to deprive them of all or any part thereof, as to de­fraud any Souldiers, now in actual service by Land or Sea, of their lawfull pay, Mal. 3.8, 9, 10.

4. It hence necessarily follows, that as Souldiers pay and other Military expences, are not left to the arbitrary pleasures and free benevolence of the people, (who would contribute little or nothing at all towards them at this or any other season, if left to their own free wills) whence the present dissolution, destruction of the temporal Ar­my, and Militia would ensue; but are reduced to a cer­tainty by a setled establishment, and imposed, levyed on the people by coercive Laws, Ordinances, Forfeitures, Distresses, Imprisonments, strict penalties and illegal ar­med power, when willfully refused, detained or neglect­ed to be paid in whole or part at the times appointed: So the wages, stipends of these spiritual Souldiers the Mi­nisters, and of their necessary spiritual warfare are not to be wholly left in any setled Christian State, to the ar­bitrary wills and voluntary Benevolences of the people (which would soon necessitate them to disband, and fru­strate their soul-saving warfare) but reduced to some certainty by positive Laws, (as they have been time out of mind with us, and elsewhere) and in case of wilfull refusal, detention, substraction in whole or in part, when due, to be levyed by such coercive legal waies and means, as our monthly Taxes, Contributions, and other just Debts, Duties are, there being the self-same justice, reason, equity, necessity in both cases. Those Army-Officers and Souldi­ers then, who oppose, condemn our Ministers setled main­tenance, and the coercive laws, means to recover it when detained from them, as an intollerable oppressing yoke, grievance, must first renounce, suppresse all monthly Tax­es, Contributions, Excises, Customes, Impositions, and the many new severe coercive waies, means to levy them, as such; being far more grievous, burthensome, illegal, oppressive to the people, both in their value, frequency, novelty, illegality, new way of imposing, levying, than Ministers Tithes, Dues; and the saddest, heaviest pres­sures [Page 15] they now languish under; and live wholly upon the peoples free unconstrained Benevolences, taking only what they will freely give them of their own accords, without coercive Laws, Ordinances, Forfeitures, Penalties, Distres­ses; or else recant their former erronious opinion, practice, & approve of our Ministers setled coercive maintenance for the future, without opposition, being Souldiers as well, and having as just a right to a setled enforced salary as they, as the Apostle here argues and resolves.

2. The Apostle having thus routed, silenced our Cap­tains and Souldiers, the Ring-leaders against Ministers set­led coercive maintenance, encounters in the next place, all Husbandmen, Sheep-masters, Shepheards, Ploughmen, Reapers, Threshers, and other Rustical Oppugners of their Tithes and Livelyhood, Vers. 7, 9, 10. Wherein he asserts, that Ministers of the Gospel have as just, as equitable a Right to a competent maintenance from the people for preaching the Gospel to them, and to partake of their tem­poral things; as he that planteth a Ʋineyard hath to eat of the fruit thereof; as he that keepeth a Flock hath to eat of the milk thereof; as the Husbandman and Labourer who ploweth, reap­eth or thresheth corn, hath to eat of the corn he soweth, reapeth, ploweth: And that it is as great injustice and unreasonable a wrong to deprive Ministers who sow unto us spiritual things, of a competent share in our carnal things, as to debar one that plants a Vienyard, of right, liberty to eat of the fruits there­on; or one that feeds a Flock, to eat of the milk thereof; or those that sow, reap, and thresh Corn, to enjoy any share or portion in it: Which all Husbandmen, Farmers, Sheepmasters, Shepherds, Plowmen, Reapers, Threshers, and other Labourers, who de­ny or begrudge our Ministers their setled long-enjoyed Tithes, Dues, may do well advisedly to consider, to con­vince them of their error, and reform their practice.

3. Vers. 8, 9. To convict all brutish men in these daies, who are more uncharitable to their Ministers, than men are or ought to be unto their very beasts, in denying them so much as to eat of their Tithe Corn or straw; he argues the justice of their maintenance (and that by the Tithes of their Corn, Wine, &c. as the instances imply) from the [Page 16] very Law of God concerning beasts, Deut. 25.4. Thou shalt not muzzle the mouth of the Oxe that treadeth out the corn: which though literally meant of Oxen, to whom all righteous men are and ought to be just and mercifull, Prov. 12.10. Luke 13.15. & 14.5. Mat. 12.11. yet it is principally written and intended altogether in its genuine sense of the Priests of God under the Law, and Ministers under the Gospel, of whom God takes farr more care than he doth of Oxen (of whom yet he hath a general providential care, as well as of all other beasts and sparrowes: Psal. 104.25, 27. & 145.9, 15, 16. & 147.9. Luke 12.6, 7, 24. Mat. 6.26. & 10.28, 29.) and are of more value than many Oxen, Sparrowes, and yet not one of these sparrowes falleth to the ground without Gods special Providence, though two of them be sold for a farthing. The force of this argument stands thus; If God by a special Law takes so much care of the very Oxe that treadeth out the Corn, as to prohibit the muzzling of his mouth, that he may not eat thereof; then questionlesse he takes much more care of the Ministers of the Gospel, and much more inhibits the muz­zling their mouthes, that they shall not so much as eat, feed and live upon the Tithes, milk, wine, fruits of your vine­yards, straw, corn, and other carnal things; they being farr better than Oxen; and this Law purposely, yea altogether written for their sakes, not for Oxen. Therefore those who deny, deprive them of this their right, transgresse this very Law of God, (still in force under the Gospel, as is here resolved, being founded upon natural justice and equity) and are farr more unrighteous, cruel, unmercifull to their Ministers, than they are, yea ought of right to be to their very beasts and Oxen, to whom they allow both corn, straw, and suffi­cient Gen. 24.25.32. c. 42.27. c 43.24. Jud. 19.21. Isay 30.24. provender, for their very work. Verily our Ministers now were better to be many mens Oxen, Horses, Asses, than their spiritual Pastours, for then they would feed, keep them well, and allow them straw, hay, corn to live on, as they do to their beasts; whereas now they will pay them neither Tithe-corn, nor hay, nor straw. Such men, I fear, are worse and more Brutish than their Ps. 49.20. Prov. 30. [...] beasts that perish, regarding neither Law nor Gospel, here joyntly urged by the Apostle against their Tithe-detaining practice.

[Page 17]4. Vers. 11. He encounters all Artificers, Merchants, Tradesmen, and others who live by selling, buying, ex­changing; who deny or detain their Ministers Dues and Maintenance, by an argument drawn from their own pra­ctice, the rules of commutative Justice, the nature and value of what they receive from Ministers, and what they render, or should return them for it. If we have sowen unto you spiritual things (the most precious, excellent, usefull, necessary of all others) is it a great matter if we shall reap your carnal things? of far lesse value, worth, use, than what you receive from us for them. Surely none of these Traders, will give or sell away their wares without any money or recompence for them; and if they sell or exchange them for lesse money, or things of lesser value, moment than what they sell or exchange them for, they may in all justice, equity expect and receive mony or wares exchanged for them from those who have so gainfull a bargain, without the least shadow of covetousnesse, injury, or oppression. Let then such and all others consider their own daily pra­ctice, and the weight of this Apostolical Gospel argument for our Ministers maintenance, Tithes, Dues, against which there can be no exception, nor reply; and then it will convince, convert them, if they have not abjured all principles of common justice and commerce.

5. Vers. 12. He argues from others precedents and ex­amples. If others are partakers of this power over you (to reap your carnal things for spiritual) are not we rather? which may receive these various constructions agreeable to the gene­ral scope of the place.

1. If others who are true Apostles and Ministers of the Gospel, are partakers of this power, (amongst you or those to whom they preach) though they have not been such to you, and did not convert you, nor labour so much in sowing spiritual things to you; much more then I (and Barnabas) who have been the instruments of your conversion, and doubtless are Apostles unto you, you being the Seal of mine (and his) Apostle­ship in the Lord, Vers. 1, 2. 2 Cor. 12.11, 12. may likewise be partakers of this power.

2. If others, who are not true Apostles of Jesus Christ, but [Page 18] meer false Apostles, Seducers, slanderers of me and the truth of the Gospel, yea broachers of Heresies and Schisms, are parta­kers of such a power amongst you; then much more I and Barnabas, who are true Apostles and Ministers of the Gospel, preaching nothing but soul-saving Gospel truthes: which seems to be the genuine sense of the place, by comparing vers. 1, 2, 3. with 2 Cor. 11.1, to 16.

3. If your See 1 Cor. 8.1, 10. & 10.30, 21. Idolatrous Pagan Priests before or since your conversion, be partakers of such a power (as to receive a competent salary, maintenance out of your carnal things) even for their idolatrous superstitious rites and ministry; or if your Pagan Civil Magistrates receive a competent al­lowance from you for their care, pains in civil government, Rom. 13.6, 7▪ then much rather we who are true Ministers and Apostles may doe the like for the true spiritual things we sow among you, and have the spiritual rule over your souls, Hebr. 13.17. The argument holds strongly in each of these constructions, but specially in the two first, which are most suitable to the Text

6. Vers. 13. He argues the justice of Ministers mainte­nance under the Gospel, from the maintenance of the Priests by Gods appointment under the Law, both before and after the Temple built. Do ye not know that they which minister about holy things live of the things of the Temple, and they which wait at the Altar, are partakers with the Altar? Numb. 18.18, 19, to 31. Deut. 12.6, 11, 17, 18, 19. ch. 14.22. to the end of the chapter, ch. 18.1, 2. 2 Chron. 31.2, to 20. Nehem. 10.32, to the end. ch. 12.39, 47. & 13.5, to 15. (The Priests and Levites by Gods own institution then re­ceiving a liberal maintenance from the people, by First fruits, Tithes, Oblations, Sacrifices, and likewise Cities, Suburbs, Lands, Houses, Chambers for them, their Families, flocks of Cattell and Goods, Numb. 35.2, to 9. Josh. 21.2, to 43. 1 Chron. 6.6, throughout. 2 Chron. 11.13, 14. Neh. 10.37, 38, 39. & 13.10. Ezek. 45.1, 2, 3, 4, 5. ch. 48.9, to 15. Lev. 25.32, 33, 34. compared with the former Texts: and Lev. 37. throughout. Numb. 21.28, 29, 30, 37, 47, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54. Heb. 7.5.8. None of which might be alienated, sold or substracted from them without sin and sacrilege. Mal. 3. [Page 19] 8. Ezek: 49.14. Lev: 25.33, 34. Gen: 47.22, 26.) And then to stop, silence all future objections and calumnies, he thus concludes his argument with a Divine Ordinance and insti­tution of Christ himself under the Gospel for the like li­beral maintenance of the Ministers of the Gospel, (whose ministration is much more glorious than that of the Law, 2 Cor. 3.7, 8, 9, 10.) Vers: 14. Even so hath the Lord ordained that they which Preach the Gospel should live of the Gos­pel; to wit, as liberally, as plentifully, as comfortably in all respects, (& that by Tithes and Oblations) as the Priests and Levites under the Law, as the parallel, and the words Even so, import. Who ever therefore oppose, resist, cen­sure this their liberal setled maintenance, oppose, resist, cen­sure the very positive Ordinance of Christ himself under the Gospel; and therefore may and shall receive to themselves damnation, Rom. 13.2. in case they do not repent there­of.

Finally, the Apostle to prevent all cavils that either false Apostles or enemies to him and his Ministry, might then object against him for this Doctrine, as if he were a self-seeker, a covetous wretch, an oppressor, fleecer, spoi­ler of his flock, or a partial Judge in his own cause (as they now calumniate our Ministers pleading for their just setled maintenance and Tithes) because he thus strongly pleads, proves the lawfulness of the maintenance of the Mi­nisters of the Gospel; he concludes, v. 12, 15, 18, 19. Ne­vertheless we have not used this power: But I have used none of these things; neither have I written these things, that it should be so done unto me, &c. which he repeats and amplifies in 2 Cor. 11.7, 8, 9, 10. & 12, 13, 14, 15, 17. But he did it only in the behalf of the rest of the Ministers of the Gospel, to justifie their Gospel right to a liberal, just and fitting livelihood for preaching of the Gospel. Wherefore his Testimonie, resolution in this case is beyond all excep­tion, sufficient to convince, silence all gainsayers then and now.

IX. The veritie of this Proposition is thus demonstra­ted from 1 Tim. 3.2. Titus 1.8. 3 Joh: 9.10. which pre­scribe this as one special qualification of every Evangeli­cal [Page 20] Bishop and Minister of the Gospel, that he must be given to, and a lover of Hospitalitie, a receiver of the Brethren, and reliever of distressed Saints upon all occasions: And yet withall commands, requires, That he must give himself WHOLLY to reading, fasting, prayer, meditation, exhortation, doctrine, preaching the Word in season, out of season, giving attendance on these and other Pastoral duties, not intangling himself with the affairs of this life, being separated to the Gospel of Christ, Act. 6.4. 1 Tim. 4.13, 14, 15, 16. 2 Tim. 2.4, 15. & 4.2, 5. Rom. 1.1. Tit. 1.9. & 2.1. 1 Cor. 4.17. Acts 20.28. Now this they can­not possibly do, without a liberal, comfortable, constant, setled maintenance, unless they have good estates of their own, which few of them have, who yet deserve a convenient reward for the work of their Ministry from the people: ther­fore such a maintenance of right belongeth to them as Mi­nisters of the Gospel, to enable them to be hospitable, cha­ritable to their Christian brethren, and the poor who need relief.

X. Ministers of the Gospel, are to speak, exhort, and rebuke with all authority, and to let no man despise them, Tit. 2.15. 1 Tim. 4.11, 12. Mat. 7.29. Now this they can hardly do, if they be poor, beggerly, living upon meer almes, or benevolences of the giddy-headed people, and stript of a competent setled maintenance independent of the vulgars or Superiors meer wils and pleasures, which will render both their Persons, Words, Doctrine, Ministry contempti­ble, and less Authoritative to the people: For the Scri­pture informs us, That poor men are lightly esteemed, 1 Sam. 18.23. and therefore David couples these together, Ps. 119.141. I am poor (or small in estate) and despised. And Solomon informs us, That the Poor useth intreaties (speaks not with authority like the richer sort) but the rich answereth rough­ly, Prov. 18.23. That the poor is hated even of his own neigh­bour, separated from him, despised by him, and that all the brethren of the poor do hate him, how much more do his friends go far from him? though he pursue them with words, yet are they wanting to him. Prov. 14.20. & 19.4, 7. Yea he resolves Ecclesi. 9.15, 16. That a poor mans wisdome is despised, and his words are not heard; and that no man remembred or regarded [Page 21] that poor wise man, who by his wisdome delivered the small City that was besieged by a great King, because he was poor. Neither is this old Testament, but Gospel truth likewise. Jam 2.2, 3, 5, 6. If there come into your assembly a man with a gold ring, in goodly apparel, and there come in also a poor man in vile ray­ment; ye have respect to him that weareth the gay clothing, and say to him, sit thou here in a good place; and say to the poor, stand thou there, or sit here under my footstool. Hearken my beloved Brethren, hath not God chosen the poor of this world rich in faith, and heires of the Kingdom, which he hath promised to them that love him? But ye have despised the poor: a fault still com­mon in the world. Poor indigent Ministers, as well as Saints, though rich in faith, are alwayes generally con­temptible to the greatest part of men, and their very poverty makes not only their persons, but also their words, Doc­trine to be slighted, despised, as these Scriptures and expe­rience manifest. Wherefore a competent, setled mainte­nance and revenue, is not only just, but necessary, to add more reverence, esteem, authority to their Exhortations, rebukes, words, and preserve their persons, callings, Doc­trine from contempt, scorn in the eyes and ears of men: Who though they ought to know them which labour among them, and are over them in the Lord, and admonish them, and to esteem them very highly in love for their workes sake, 1 Thess. 5.12, 13. Yet by reason of their inbred pride and corruption, will be very averse to do it, if they be very poor, indigent, living like beggers upon almes and charity, as our new Reformadoes would now have them.

XI. Ministers of the Gospel must not seek to please men, but God; for if they yet pleased men, they should not be the servants of Christ. Gal. 1.10. Neither must they corrupt the Word (as many do; to humour the lusts, wils, or countenance, and carry on the unrighteous, covetous, ambitious, oppressive, bloudy, or treacherous designes of wicked men) fasting (yea preaching, praying) for strife and debate, and to smite with the fist of wick­edness [...], Esa. 58.4. But as of sincerity, but as of God in the sight of God, must they speak in Christ, 2. Cor. 2.17. Now a just, com­petent, setled maintenance, independent on the Govern­ours, Magistrates or peoples wils and pleasures, (such as [Page 22] was the Priests & Levits under the Law enjoyed by divine institution) is the best means and preservative, to keep Mi­nisters from being Men-pleasers, flatterers, time-servers, and corrupters of the word of God, to humour men; a great induce­ment to them to preach the word of God sincerely, and to rebuke, exhort with all authority. Whereas a poor, beggerly, mean, dependent Ministry, whose whole maintenance and subsistence must only rest upon the arbitrary wils of persons in highest present power (who may out, or strip them both of their Callings and Benefices, when and for what they please) or only upon the peoples voluntary contributions, will certainly be a men-pleasing, time-serving, flattering, unsincere, and word-corrupting Ministry, studying more to please, favour those by and from whom they have their Livelihood, than to please God; and fitting their preach­ing, praying, Doctrines, opinions, to their opinions, tem­pers, factions, parties, designe, holding alwayes with the prevailing strongest party, or those by whom they subsist, and wresting the Scriptures to support their very errors, vices, sins, power, yea most unrighteous, treacherous, perfidious, oppressing practices and bloudy usurpations, not daring to displease them, as See Nice­phorus, Zona­ras, and Grim­ston in the life of Phocas: Platina and Bale in the life of Pope Gre­gory the 7. Ecclesiastical Histories record, and our own experience can sufficiently testifie in these late whirling times and changes, as well as in King Fox Acts and Monu­ments▪ vol 3 Hist. De vita et obitu M. Buce [...]i. Edward the 6. Queen Maries and Queen Elizabeths reigns, when our Religion suffered so many publick alterations, and most Ministers, Scholars, and our whole Universities then changed their Opinions, Pro­fessions and Religion with the times. Hence the Scripture records this, as one of Jeroboams policies to keep the People and Kingdome from returning to the right heir, 1 Kings 12.28, 29, 31, &c. ch. 13.33, 34. That he made Priests of the lowest (or poorest) of the people, who were not of the Sonnes of Levi, and placed them in Bethel: who being poor, mean and depending on him for their Salaries, readily sacrificed to his golden Calves, offered upon the Altar which he had made in Bethel, and observed his new prescribed Feasts: which the Priests and Levites that were in all Israel, having Lands, Suburbs, and a setled mainte­nance, refused to do. Whereupon Jeroboam and his Sonnes cast them out from executing the Priests office unto the Lord, and sub­stituted [Page 23] these base stipendiary Idol-Priests for the Calves, 2 Chron. 11.13, 14, 15. Which became sinne unto the house of Jeroboam, even to cut it off, and to destroy it from the face of the earth. God deliver us of this Nation from the like Athe­istical Jeroboam-like policy and practice now, which will certainly prove the ruin of them and their house, who shall put it in execution, if not of our Religion and Nation, as it did of Jeroboam his house, and the 2 Kings 17.16, 17, 18. whole Kingdom of Israel.

XII. All Christians are commanded, Gal. 6.10. As they have opportunity, to do good to all men (by relieving their wants) especially to the houshold of faith. Therefore they are in an especial manner bound to do good to their Ministers who instruct them, in maintaining and communicating to them in all good things, as he resolves, v: 6. The rather, because we have this Precept thus seconded, Heb: 13.16 But to do good and communicate forget not; for with such sacrifice God is well pleased: (coupled with this injunction) Obey them that have the rule over you, and submit your selves, for they watch for your souls, as they that must give account, That they may do it with Joy, and not with Grief, for that is unprofitable for you. Wherein these 3 Conclusions are positively asserted.

1. That Christians must not only obey their Ministers, but likewise do good, and communicate to them in all good things they want.

2. That this is so farr from being unlawfull, that it is a sacrifice well pleasing unto God.

3. That Ministers deserve not only obedience but main­nance from the people.

1. Because they have the rule over them.

2. See Rom. 13.4, 5, 6, 7. backing these Reasons. Because they watch for their souls.

3. Because they must give an account to God for them.

4. Because it will be a great encouragement to them to dis­charge their dutie with joy, not with grief.

5. Because the not doing it, will both grieve the Mini­sters, and be unprofitable to the people in regard of their souls and spiritual estate, and also cause God to curse and blast them in their temporal estates, Mal: 3.8, 9, 10, 11, 12. where. as the doing thereof will be advantagious to them in both-Powerfull [Page 24] reasons, motives to convince all of the justice of our Ministers maintenance, and to induce them chearfully to render it unto them, though it were not due by humane Laws, as we know it is.

XIII. The very Gospel enjoyns all Christians, Rom. 12.20, 21. To distribute to the necessitie of the Saints, and to be hospitable (not only to those we know, but) even to strangers. Heb: 13.2. And if our enemie hunger, it commands us to feed him; if he thirst, to give him drink; and Not to be overcome with evil, but to overcome evil with good; seconded with Mat: 5.44, 45, 46, 47, 48. Luke 6.32, to 37. Prov. 25.22. whence thus I argue: If Christians must distribute to the necessities of, and be hospitable to Saints and others, who are meer strangers to them, yea give meat, drink to their very enemies, and overcome their evil with goodness; Then it necessarily followes, they must much more distri­bute to the necessities of, be hospitable, liberal, give meat, drink, maintenance to their own faithfull preaching Mini­sters, and recompence their good with good again, else they shall be worse than Publicans and sinners, who doe good to those that do good to and for them, Mat. 5.46, 47.

XIV. This is evident by the practice of the primitive Saints and Christians recorded in the Gospel for our imitation; who though they paid all civil Tributes, Cus­toms, Duties to the civil Magistrates, and likewise Tithes and other duties to the Jewish or Pagan Priests under whom they lived; yet they likewise freely and liberally ministred, contributed of their substance and temporal estates towards the maintenance of Christ and his Apostles, and the Ministers of the Gospel. Hence we read, Luke 8.2, 3. That Mary Magdalen, Joanna the wife of Cuza, Herods Steward, Susanna and MAN, others (of our Saviours au­ditors) ministred to him of their substance: put, it seems, in­to a common purse for the maintenance of Christ and his A­postles, which Judas kept; who provided bread, meat and other necessaries out of it; as is evident by John 4.8, 31. & 12.5, 6. & 13.29. & 6.5, 7. compared together. After our Saviours resurrection, when the multitude of believers at Jerusalem were much increased, it is expresly recorded, [Page 25] Acts 4.32, to the end, & 5.1, to 10. That they were all of one heart and of one soul (and oh that we were so again!) neither said any of them, that ought that he possessed was his own, but they had all things common; neither was there any amongst them (whether Apostle, Minister or Believer) that lacked; For as many as were possessors of Lands or Houses Sold them (not purchased them, much less Glebes, Tithes, or Church-lands, as many do now, who say they imitate the primitive Christians) and brought the prices of the things that were sold, and laid them down at the Apostles feet; and dis­tribution was made unto every Man (therefore to every Apo­stle and Minister of the Gospel, as well as others) accord­ding as they had need. Amongst others, Joses a Levite of Cy­prus, having Land sold it, and brought the money and laid it at the Apostles feet: The like did Ananias with Saphira his wife, but because they brought a certain part thereof, and laid it at the Apostles feet, and kept back part of the price of the Land, (which is less than to keep back Tithes, when due by sundrie Lawes and Ordinances,) and thereby lyed not un­to Men (only) but to God, they both fell down dead sodainly at the Apostles feet (in a miraculous manner) and were car­ried forth and buried: And great fear came upon all the Church, and as many as heard thereof. We finde in 2 Cor. 11.7, 8, 9. That though Paul preached the Gospel at Corinth freely, yet he took wages of other Churches (at the same time) to do them service. And when he was present with them, and wanted, that which was wanting unto him, the Brethren that came from Macedonia supplied; that in all things he might keep himself from being burdensome to the Corinthians; (for reasons ex­pressed by him) In which respect, of not ministring to him of their substance, he writes, they were inferiour to other Churches, 2 Cor. 12, 13. How bountifull the Church and Saints of Philippi were to Paul, not only whiles pre­sent with them and preaching among them, but also ab­sent from them, preaching the Gospell in other places, and how pleasing this their liberalitie was to God, he thus records; Phil: 4.10, to 21. But I rejoyced in the Lord great­ly, that at last your care of me is revived; wherein ye were also Carefull, but ye lacked opportunity: Not that I speak in re­spect [Page 26] of want, for I have learned in whatsoever estate I am, there­with to be content, &c. Notwithstanding ye have well done that ye did communicate with my affliction. Now ye Philippi­ans know also, that in the beginning of the Gospel, when I de­parted from Macedonia, no Churches communicated with me as concerning Giving and Receiving, but ye only: For even in Thessalonica Ye sent once and again to my necessity. Not because I desire a gift, but I desire fruit that may abound to your accompt. But I have received all, and abound and am full, having received of Epaphroditus the things sent from you; an odour of a sweet smell, a Sacrifice Acceptable, well-pleasing to God. But my God shall supply all your needs, accor­ding to his riches in glory by Jesus Christ; Now unto God and our Father, be glory for ever and ever Amen. And in 2. Tim. 1.16, 17, 18. He makes this memorable Testimony of and prayer for Onesiphorus: The Lord give mercy unto the house of Onesiphorus, for he often refreshed me, and was not ashamed of my chain: But when he was in Rome, he sought me out very dili­gently and found me: The Lord grant unto him, that he may find mercy of the Lord in that day: And in how many things he Ministred unto me at Ephesus thou knowest very well.

From all which precedents coupled together, these con­clusions naturally, and necessarily arise:

1. That it is not only the practice, but duty of the Saints and Christians under the Gospel, chearfully and liberally to contribute to the Apostles and Ministers of the Gospel; and that not only whiles they are actually preaching and resident amongst them, but whiles absent preaching, the Gospel in other places, or suffering for the Gospel in bonds and prisons, if their necessities so require.

2. That they ought not only barely to supply their ne­cessities, when they are in want; but in such a plentiful manner, that they may truly say, We abound and are full, blesse God for, rejoyce in their peoples liberality, and pray to God for a blessing upon them and theirs, with greater chearfulness and zeal.

3. That in cases of necessity, when the wants of the Apo­stles, Ministers and Saints of God require it, Christians are not only bound to pay them the Tithes of their Lands [Page 27] and other setled Dues, but even to sell their very Lands, Houses, Estates themselves and lay them down at the Apostles and Ministers feet for their common supply; as the primitive Chri­stians did; they being not real proprietors, but meer Stew­ards of their worldly estates; which as they all proceed from Gods hand, gift, blessing; so they are still, Gods own, not mans; and therefore in such cases, to be chearfully expended for the maintenance and supply of the necessities of his Ministers, servants, worship: 1 Chron. 29.11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 17. 1 Tim. 6.17, 18, 19.

4. That the maintenance of the Ministers of the Gospel, is not meer pure Almes, (as some have held) but wages; which though Paul (for some special reasons) received not from the Corinthians, yet he did from other Churches, under the name of wages.

5. That niggardlinesse, and not contributing towards the maintenance of painful Ministers, is a shame, infamy, dis­honour to a Church and people, making them inferiour to all other Churches.

6. That peoples liberal, bountifull contributing to the Apostles and Ministers of the Gospel, is a great joy, comfort, encouragement to them, yea a means to enlarge their hearts in prayers to God for spiritual and temporal blessings on them and their housholds.

7. That bountifull and chearfull contributions to the Apostles and Ministers of Christ, is not only a well doing, or good work, but an odour of a sweet smell, a sacrifice acceptable and well pleasing unto God, though it stinks in the nostrils of many covetous earth-wormes, sectaries and pretended godly Saints now adaies.

8. That Liberality to the Ministers of the Gospel, and paying them their just deserved Tithes, Dues, is so farr from impoverishing and hurting mens estates, that it re­dounds to their spiritual and temporal accompt too; causeth God to supply all their wants, and to blesse both them and their fami­lies with spiritual, temporal, eternal mercies and rewards; as the several forecited Scriptures, with Prov. 3.9, 10. Mal. 1.10, 11. Mat. 10.41, 42. Mar. 9.41. 2 Cor. 9.6, to 13. 2 Kings 4.8, to 38. 1 Kings 17.10, to 24. most abundantly prove.

[Page 28]9. That the willful detaining, withdrawing of any thing solemnly devoted to the necessary maintenance of the Apostles and Ministers of the Gospel, brings exemplary curses, judgements on those who are guilty thereof, as the ex­amples of Ananias and Saphira testifie, compared with Mal. 3.8, 9, 11. Hag. 1.9, 10, 11, & 2.16, 17, 18, 19. further illustrating it: which all sacrilegious invaders, plunderers, detainers, oppugners of our Ministers ancient established Maintenance, Tithes, Dues, may do well now seriously to ruminate upon, and then reform their practice, or else re­nounce their pretended Christianity and Saintship, so much swarving from the recited precedents of the first and purest Christians.

XV. This is further proved by Mat. 7.12. Luke 6.31. All things whatsoever ye would that men should do unto you, do even so to them, for this is the Law and the Prophets; yea and the Gospel too; thus twice enjoyning it, from Christs own mouth. Whence thus I argue. All Estates, Callings, Professions of men whatsoever; whether Kings, Princes, Rulers, Judges, Magistrates of all sorts, Lawyers, Physici­ans, Chirurgeons, Merchants, Artificers, Traders, Hus­bandmen, Labourers of all kinds, Sea-men; yea all Gene­rals, Commanders, Collonels, Captains, Governours of Forts, and common Souldiers whatsoever, with all sorts of civil Officers in their respective Offices, Imployments, do and justly may by the Law of God, Nature, Nations, expect and receive a just, certain comfortable salary, reward, hire, maintenance, subsistence for their respective pains, workes, imployments, exercises of their callings, talents from those that do imploy them, or for whose good they worke and serve. Therefore by the self-same Lawes, Rules of com­mon, natural, moral justice and equity, all Ministers and Preachers of the Gospel may justly expect and receive the like, from those to whom they preach; Else all others whatsoever must exercise their respective Offices, Callings, Trades, Imployments, Studies, Labours freely, without expecting or receiving any stipend, wages, reward or maintenance, as well as Ministers; which they will never do.

[Page 29]And great reason is there that the painfull, faithfull Mi­nisters of the Gospel should receive a liberal, comfortable, competent, setled maintenance and reward for their Mini­strie, as well as any other Callings, or Professions of men, or as any Officers or Soldiers in the Armie, between whom alone and Ministers I shall here only make the parallel, be­cause they most violently oppugne our Ministers mainte­nance (if not their Ministrie too) of all others I have yet conferred with.

First, all able, learned, judicious, pious Ministers, skil­full in the Original Tongues, and learned Languages, wherein the Scriptures were penned (very necessarie for them to understand) able soundly, judiciously, like work-men who need not be ashamed, to defend the truth of the Gos­pel, to stop the mouthes of Blasphemers, Hereticks, Seducers, that oppugne it; to divide and preach the, Word of God aright as they ought. (Else they hardly merit the name of able Ministers, 2 Cor. 3.6. 1 Tim. 1.7, 12. 2 Tim. 2.15. & 4.2, 3, 4, 5. Tit. 1.9, 10, 11. but rather of pratlers, wranglers, understanding neither what they say, nor whereof they affirm, wresting the scriptures to their own and others destruction through ignorance and want of learning, 2 Pet. 3.16. the case of many unlearned usurpers of the office of Teachers now) All such before they can be fit for the work of the Ministrie, spend sixteen or twentie years time, in hard studies day and night at their Books in Schools, Universities, double the yeares, studie, industrie, that most other Artists (except Lawyers and Physicians) spend in fitting themselves for, and in learning their mechanick Trades and Professions: where­as all common Souldiers, yea many Officers and Com­manders of late times, rush just like their horses, into their work, calling, without one years, weeks, dayes preparati­on, studie, practice in the Wars, learning their trade of Souldiers and Commanders, after they are listed, as such, by practice and experience only without studie.

2. Most Ministers, or their Parents, Friends are at very great expences for many years time in sitting them for the Ministry, both in Schools and in our Universities, before they enter into, or are able for it: whereas all our Soul­diers [Page 30] & Army-Officers were at no expence at all, receiving full pay, as such, from the first day of their listing, yea many of them advance money to boot, before any practice at all or study, judgement in their Art; learning their Military skill, not at their own, but only at the peoples great costs.

3. Learned Ministers both before and after their admis­sion into the Ministry, are at great charges, expences, to furnish themselves with Bookes, Libraries, necessary for their Calling: whereas our Army-Officers, Soldiers are and were furnished with all sorts of Armes, Ammunition fitting for their calling out of the publick Treasury only, which continually recruits them when lost in Service.

4. The calling of the Ministry requires men of far more able parts and eminency of gifts (whereby they might gain far more worldly wealth, riches, honours in many other callings, than they do or can do by the Ministry, by which they are commonly losers in respect of worldly gains and preferments, a thing very considerable) than the calling of an ordinary Souldier, or most warlike Officers doe; as experience manifests, and I think most Souldiers, Officers will acknowledge; and thereupon must admit them pro­portionable allowance to their parts, work in the Ministry it self, and what they might probably gain in other functions.

5. Ministers when once entred into their callings, are alwaies day and night upon constant duty, without inter­mission; their whole lives being so taken up with study, preaching, catechizing, praying, fasting, exhorting, admo­nishing, reproving, comforting, visiting the sick in body, troubled in mind, resolving doubts of conscience, and other Ministerial duties as well Act. 2.46. c. 20.20. 2 Tim. 4.1, 2. Rom. 15.19, 20. 1 Tim. 4.15, 16. in private from house to house as publickly in the Church, that they have most of them scarce one spare day or hour all the year to imploy in other af­faires, for their own advantage in worldly things. Where­as many of our Army-Officers and Souldiers lie idle in their Quarters many months (if not years of late together) without any actual service, yet receive their full constant pay; and those in actual service, Garisons, do that they call duty only by turns, once or twice a week; and that but [Page 31] or two or three hours in a day, being then successively relieved by others; having sufficient time every day and week, not only to follow their private Trades, if they please, which are necessarie, usefull, beneficial to them, but also to exercise Merchandise and other gainfull worldly imployments, Offices, to which they were never trained up; whereby most of them are grown richer than most of our Ministers in half the space they were fitting themselves for their Ministry before they received one penny profit by it. As for our Officers, they seldom doe any dutie; have all their men-servants listed under them, and paid by the people to do them service only, being exempt from du­ty; and how seldom they have been of late times at their Quarters upon their dutie as Souldiers, but sitting other-where in Counsel to advance their own power, estates, and pull down all above them, to intrude themselves into their places, we all see by many late sad experiences, contrary to the Apostles precept, 2 Tim: 2.4. No man that warreth intangleth himself with the affairs of this life, that he may please (not supplant, pull down) him who hath cho­sen him to be a Souldier: and to John the Baptists injunction to Souldiers, Luke 3.14. Do violence to no man, neither accuse any falsely, and be content with your wages. Which ungospel practices I wish they would first reform, by conforming themselves unto this Precept, before they reform our Mi­nisters, their Tithes, or setled wages, or our Laws, things be­yond, if not against their calling; for which they were ne­ver raised nor imployed.

6. The calling of Ministers, as it is every way farr more laborious, yea as perillous and full of hardship as that of Souldiers, 2 Cor: 11.23, to 33. & 4.8, 9, 10, 11. 2 Tim. 2, 3, 9, 10, 12. & 3.10, 11, 12. & 4.5, 6, 7. So question­less it is far more honourable, necessarie, usefull, benefici­al to others, than that of Souldiers and Commanders; for they are the very Embassadors of God himself, and Jesus Christ (the 1 Tim. 6.15▪ 16. Rev. 1.5. & 17.14 & 1 [...].16. Ps. 9.10. King and Lord of glory, the King of Kings, and Lord of Lords, the Prince of the Kings of the earth, and on­ly Potentate, to whom all other Powers and knees must bow) beseeching men in Christs stead to be reconciled to God, 2 Cor. 5:20. [Page 32] The Ministers, servants, messengers of Jesus Christ, workers together with him, Stewards of the mysteries of God and the glo­ry of Christ, 1 Cor: 4.1, 2. 2 Cor: 6.1. & 8.23. 2 Tim: 2.24. imployed to preach to sinfull men, the unsearchable rich­es of Christ, to turn them from darkness unto light, and from the power of Satan unto God, Eph: 3.8. Acts 26.18. to rescue their souls from the slavery and power of sin, Satan, hell, death, everlasting damnation; and make them the sons of God, heirs and coheirs with Christ of everlasting glory and felicity in Gods heavenly Kingdom, through the power of Gods Grace and Spirit working in, with, by and through their Ministry on their hearts. Now the calling of a Souldier though it be honourable, and in Grotius de jure Belli, l. 1. c. 2, 3, 4, 5. l. 2. c. 1, 2. Gratian Causa 23. qu. 1. some cases lawfull and necessary, if rightly managed; yet it is for the most part sinfull, hurtfull, per­nicious, dangerous, unbeseeming the Gospel, in respect of the cause, managing, abuses thereof; Grotius de jure Belli, l. 2. c. 23. sect. 10. p. 388. and elsewhere. Nulla fides, Pietasque vi­ris qui castra sequuntur. Lu­can. Hen. Huntindon. Hist. l. 8. p. 390. it being accompanied with mur­ther, violence, rapine, treachery, perjury, sacrilege, cruelty, in­humanity, profaneness, blasphemy, contempt of God, of all sacred, civil Laws and Ordinances; ambition, treason, and the worst of sins; tending usually (like an overflowing Deluge) to the sub­version, desolation, ruine of whole Families, Cities, Countries, Kingdoms, Churches; yea, Mankinde it self, Religion, Lawes, Liberties, Properties; turning whole famous Cities into ashes, and Kingdoms into Golgothaes, Acheldamaes, (fields of bloud and dead mens sculs) yea very wildernesses, as the Isa. 64.10, 11. Jer. 49.13, to 39. ch. 50. & 51 through­out. Ezek ch. 35. Joel 2.3. Isa. 1.7, 8. & 9.12, 20, 21, & 19.1, to 15. Scripture, Histories and experience manifest. Hence God styles great Warriers and Armies; The rod of his anger, the Battel-Axe with which he breaketh in pieces the Nations, destroyeth King­doms, and treadeth them down like the mire in the streets; and then at last destroyes them in his wrath, when they have execu­ted his judgements, for their rapines, violence and bloudy cruelty, Isa. 10.5, &c. Jer. 50.1, to 48. c. 51.20, &c. They being really carried on from one war to another, out of vainglo­ry, ambition, covetousness, a mad humour of false great­ness; & nullus supra caeteros eminendi modus; in sua fata pa­riter, ac publica; to their own and the publick ruine; yet still under a pretext of publick good and safety; as Seneca excellently writes in his 94 Epistle (a piece worth the rea­ding) of Alexander the great, Caesar, Pompey, Marius, qui cum [Page 33] omnia concuterent, concutiebantur; & cum multis fuerunt Au­thores mali, pestiferam illam vim, qua plerosque nocuerunt, ipsi quoque sentiunt. Indeed the Profession of a Souldier even in the best of men and warres, is so full of danger, pollution, that it leaves some scarrs of sin, and tincture of pollution on them, however they demean themselves. Whence we read, that though David were 1 Sam 13.14. Acts 13.22. a man after Gods own heart, and 1 Sam. 18.17. & 25.28. fought the battels of the Lord against his profes­sed enemies by his special command, with constant success; yet God would by no means permit him to build an house and Temple to him, for this very reason, Because he had been a man of Warr, and made great Battels, and shed much Blood up­on the Earth in his sight; And the 12000. Israelites, who by Gods special command went up to war against the Midianites, and slew them, returning with victory and great spoils, without the loss of one man, though treble their number, when as they came back from the war, were all of them, whosoever had killed any per­son, or touched any slain, enjoyned by God and Moses, to remain without the Camp seven dayes, and to purifie themselves on the third and seventh day, as unclean and polluted persons, Numb. 31.1, 17, 19, 20. and all the Officers, and Captains of hundreds and thousands in the host brought an oblation, what every man had gotten of Jewels, of Gold, Chaines, Bracelets, Rings, Ear­rings and Tablets, to make an Oblation for their souls be­fore the Lord, v. 48, 49, 50. Such a stain and guilt was there adhering to their War-like calling, in this best of Warrs against Gods professed idolatrous enemies. And may not all Officers, Souldiers whatsoever then justly fear, finde a deeper guilt of sin and stain of blood, than was in David, or those Officers and Souldiers adhering to their persons, profession in our unnatural, uncivil Wars, even with, and against their very Christian, nearest, dearest Kings, Brethren, Friends, Kindred, Neighbours of the self-same reformed Protestant Religion, and thereupon make the like or a far richer oblation than they did, out of their spoils and gains by Warr, as an attonement for their Souls, in stead of pro­voking God and encreasing their guilt, by seeking to spoil his faithfull Ministers of their long enjoyed maintenance? In all these 6. particulars wherein the calling of Ministers [Page 34] excells in merit that of common Souldiers, Captains and Officers of War; both in respect of time, studie, costs, labour, diligence, parts, danger, honour, excellencie, use, profit, and necessitie; (to which I might add, that the Mi­nisters frequent tears, prayers in times of War, and Judge­ments, are far 2 Chron. 13.9, 10, 11, 15. & 32.20, 21. & 20.20, 21, 22, 23, 24. Jam. 1.16, 17, 18. Joel 2.17.18. more prevalent, beneficial, victorious than the Souldiers Arms; besides their constant use and benefit in daies of peace, when Souldiers are needless, useless:) I re­ferr it to the unprejudiced judgements, consciences of all rational Christian men and Souldiers themselves; whether our faithfull preaching Ministers be not worthie of as large, as liberal, as constant, setled, honourable, coercive a main­tenance from the people, as any Souldiers, Officers, Cap­tains, Collonels, Majors or Major Generals whatsoever, if not a better, larger salarie and reward than they enjoy, for the premised reasons; when as yet some ordinarie Soldiers, Troopers receive as much or more pay by the year, as many of our godly Ministers; and every Ancient, Serjeant, Lieu­tenant, as much as the most and best beneficed Ministers; and most Captains, Collonels, Majors, five or six times more than our ablest, best deserving Ministers; and some general Army-Officers have received, gained more monie, lands, wealth, in few moneths or years space at least, than hundreds of our most meritorious Ministers put together can gain in all their lives by their Ministry. How then can they tax them as covetous, oppressive, yea as caterpillars of the people by their Tithes and Duties, for receiving on­ly 30, 40, 50, 80, 100, 200, or 300 l. a year (and very few of them more, or so much) from the people, by an antient right paid once a year, when as they receive ten times more from the impoverished people, and at least the tenth part or more of all our poor Ministers livings by month­ly enforced contributions, and yet will neither give them the Tenthes of their pay and spoyles of Warr (as Abraham and others did, Gen: 14.10. Heb: 7.4, 6. 1 Chr. 26.26, 27, 28.) nor (many of them) pay their own per­sonal or predial Tithes, and endevour to hinder others, though willing, from paying them any Tithes or Dues, to which they have a juster right than they have to their [Page 35] Souldiers pay and enforced contributions, against all Magna Carta c. 29, 30. 25 E. 1. c. 5, 6. 28 E. 1. c. 5, 6. 34 E. 3. c. 1. 14 E 3. c. 21. 11 R. 2. c. 2. 23 H. 6. c. 18. 1 R. 3. c. 4. The peti­tion of Right 3 Caroli. an­tient Lawes and Statutes as now imposed, levied, especially on the Clergie, who were never Taxed, Charged either by See Rastals Abridgement Tenths and Taxes, and Statutes at large, Acts for the Clergies subsidies. Lords or Commons in former ages, but only by them­selves, by their own free Grants in Parliament and Convocation by special Acts, as our Records and Printed Statutes manifest? Or with what face, reason, conscience they can seek to de­prive them of all their Tithes, Glebes, and other legal set­led coercive Stipends, amounting to so small a value, as now they do; when as themselves receive far more setled constant pay, levied with the greatest rigour and extremitie on the exhausted people every Month or Quarter; and some of them have many Militarie, besides civil gainfull Offices, imployments, and that in several Kingdomes, amounting to thousands, and tenne thousands by the year, when sew Ministers now enjoy one or two hundred pounds a year de claro, and most not sixtie, all Taxes deducted; and must hardly be suffered to hold two adjoyning petty Benefices, to make up 80. or 100. l. a year, without much clamour, censure and danger of deprivation: when as they can hold so many gainful, incompetible Pluralities in these necessi­tous times; and when as Popish, Pagan, Mahometan and Aegyptian Priests enjoy far more than our best deserving Clergy at this day, without their Officers, Souldiers Cla­mours or opposition?

Having thus made good the proposition by these Scrip­tures and Reasons, to which I could never yet hear the least colourable Answer given; I now proceed to answer such Objections,The Objecti­ons answered. as have been, or may be made against it.

The first Objection is from Mat. 10.8.Object. 1. Where when Christ sent out his 12 Apostles to preach, he saith unto them, Heal the sicke, cleanse the Lepers, raise the Dead, cast out Devils; freely ye have received, freely give. Whence some inferre, that Ministers and Apostles of Christ, are here enjoyned by him, to preach the Gospel freely, without re­ceiving any wages, reward or recompence for it, because they freely received their power and commission to preach the Gospel, without giving money or price for it.

To which I answer.

[Page 36] Answ.1. That this clause of Freely ye have received, freely give, relates not to their preaching of the Gospel, but is an­nexed only to the precedent words; Heal the sick, cleanse the Lepers, raise the dead, cast out Devils; which they are commanded to do freely without any wages, hire or re­ward; having freely received this miraculous power of heal­ing the sick, &c. from Christ, who did it freely; and that to gain credit to the truth of the Gospel, which was confirmed, credited, propagated by these free miraculous workes. Marke 16.17, 18, 20. Act. 31.1, to 12. & 9.38, to 43. & 5.14, 15, 16, 17, 18. & 13.11, 12. which power of working miracles when Simon Magus would have bought for money of Peter; he said unto him, Thy money perish with thee, because thou hast thought, that the gift of God may be purchased with money. Thou hast neither part nor lot in this matter, for thy heart is not right in the sight of God: Repent therefore of this thy wickednesse, &c. Acts 8.18, to 25.

2. He is so far from enjoyning them to preach the Gospel freely without recompence, that he allowes them to take a recompence for it, closing it up with a contrary clause, For the Labourer is worthy of his Meat and Hire, ver. 10. reci­ted Luke 10.7. where the objected words are omited, as likewise Marke 3.

3. Our new Mechanick Predicants to separate Conventi­cles, who urge this Text against Ministers maintenance, should receive no money, gift or recompence for their speaking, prating from their Disciples, no more than our Mi­nisters for preaching, who yet gain far more from deluded blind followers of the blind, than many of our Ministers get by their Ministry; yea more than ever they earned by their Trades before, which makes them wholly to desert them and turn Tub-preachers

4. This sentence can no waies be truely applyed now to Ministers; For though they receive their Ministry and Or­ders freely without purchase (which some bought for mo­ney heretofore) yet their preparation for the Ministry costs them many years study, pains, themselves or their Friends, Parents many a pound, as I formerly proved; whereas the Apostles received the miraculous gift of healing, preach­ing [Page 37] immediately by divine inspiration, without study or cost.

5. If those who receive any Office, Commission, place freely, must discharge it freely without any Reward, Pay, as some Army-Officers, Souldiers and others hence con­clude against our Ministers; then all our Soldiers, and other Militarie Officers by Land and Sea, must henceforth at least (and should have done heretofore) by the self-same Text, reason, serve their Country freely without receiving any pay, reward; Contributions from the people; since (I con­ceive) few or none of them ever actually bought their Offi­ces, Places, Commissions, or paid any monie for their listing; yea then all other publike Officers (real or pretended) must serve their Countrie gratis, unlesse they purchased their Offices from those in late or present power; and then they are ipso facto void by the Statute of 5 E. 6. c. 16. against buying or selling of Offices. Now upon this condition, that all Souldi­ers, all Militarie and Civil Officers will henceforth serve their Countrie freely, without pay or recompence, for the op­pressed peoples future freedome from long unsupportable monethly Taxes, Impositions, Excises; I dare presume all or most of our Ministers will be content to preach the Gos­pel freely to the people likewise, without Tithes or other Dues, for so long a time, as the Souldiers and other Officers shall freely serve our Nation; and I suppose all Ministers in Scotland, Ireland, will do the like; if the Officers, Soul­diers there will first really begin the Precedent. Which if they here and there refuse, they must give Ministers leave to enjoy their antient Tithes, Dues, Stipends for preaching the Gospel, so long as they demand their former pay and salaries; and renounce the objected Text, as fatal to their own wages, as the Ministers, unlesse they dearly bought their Offices, Commands, and did not freely receive them; which if true (as I presume it false) very few of them would publickly acknowledge.

The second Objection (most urged to me by some Pen­dennis Souldiers, Object. 2. whiles there a prisoner under their Gards) is the Example of the Apostle Paul, who staying and preaching at Corinth a year and six monthes, because he would not be bur­densom, [Page 38] but preach the Gospel freely to them without charge or reward; wrought with his own hands, and got his living by ma­king tents; as is recorded, Acts 18.1, 2, 3, &c. & 20.34. 1 Cor. 4.12. & 9.12, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19. 2 Cor. 11.8, 9. & 12.13, 16, 17, 18. The like he did among the Thessa­lonians, labouring night and day, because he would not be charge­able to any of them, when he preached unto them the Gospel of God, 1 Thess. 2.8, 9. 2 Thess. 3.8. From whence they conclude, that all other Ministers ought to preach the Gospel freely, and to labour with their hands day and night in some other calling to supply their necessities and maintain themselves and families, that they may not be chargeable to the people.

To which grand argument (requiring the fullest reply) I answer,Answ. that this general inference from Pauls particular practice in these two Churches, is very lame and unsound; For,

1. Paul expresly resolves, that all Apostles and Mini­sters of the Gospel have a just right, power to receive a competent maintenance as wages from the people, and most strongly proves it to be an ordinance of Christ him­self, in some of the objected Texts, as I have at large de­monstrated.

2. He likewise declares (with a salvo jure, as Lawyers speak) that himself had such a just right, power to receive wages and maintenance from the very Corinthians and Thes­salonians themselves, as well as others, though he made no use of his power: witness, 1 Cor. 9.4, 11, 12. where thus he expostulates, Have we not power to eat and to drink, and to reap your carnal things, for sowing unto you spiritual things? If others be partakers of this power over you, Are not we ra­ther? Nevertheless we have not used this power. And 2 Thess: 3.8, 9. Neither did we eat any mens bread for nought, but wrought with labour and travel night and day, that we might not be chargeable to any of you; Not because we have not Power, but to make our selves an example for you to follow us, &c. We have much talk and crying up of late, Have we not Power, Power, and present Power? in most Gran­dees mouthes and publick Papers (especially Souldiers [Page 39] who carrie it by their sides) instead of our old Language, Have we not Law, Liberty, Right, Fréedom? the things they say they fought for on the peoples behalf, who pay them: which words, things, the greater cry of Have we not Power, &c. hath made us not to have and quite swal­lowed up amongst us. I wish all such Officers, Souldiers, Grandees who press these Texts against Ministers Tithes, and most use these words Have we not Power, (if derived from God, or the Apostle who thrice mentions it in these Texts) would only use and speak them in the Apostles sense, language, (in not assuming, usurping, but utterly disclaiming the real practice and abuses of their power in his self-denying words, worthie to be written in Capitals, that all persons of, or in Power may now read and practise it) Nevertheless we have not used this power, but wrought with labour and travel Night and Day, that we might not be chargeable to any of you, to make our selves an ensample for you (Ministers) to follow us: Then we should be no longer over-charged with endless Taxes, Excises, &c. by, for, or from any who have power, nor grieved with any fresh changes of Laws, Civil or Church-Government, or Ministers setled maintenance, but be a Free State and Na­tion indeed, as some have long promised to make us, but still the quite contrarie way in direct opposition to the Apostles Nevertheless we have used and will still use this armed, Army, ty­rannical, arbitrary power, that we might be chargeable (yea very chargeable) to every of you: Therefore no wonder our Ministers (in their objected sense) do the like by their ex­ample, in exacting their Tithes, Dues, (which they may justly do) till they disclame the use of their Iron Power, in imposing, levying New Taxes, Excises, on Ministers as well as people, in strange untrodden waies, to pay their own and Souldiers salaries to support their self-created lawless Power in the highest strain of Exercisse, which they condemn in Ministers in a far more inferiour degree; who questionless may as lawfully make use of it, as Paul him­self might have justly done, as he resolves, though he suspended its actual exercise for a time.

3. Paul records 4. special reasons why he made no use of [Page 40] this his Evangelical power amongst the Corinthians, but la­boured with his hands.

1. That he might not hinder the Gospel of Christ among the Corinthians, 1 Cor. 9.12. they being then most of them Pagans, the rest but newly converted to the Gospel by his preaching, and all of them very worldly, covetous, as he insinuates, 2 Cor. 4.12, 13, 14. ch. 7.30, 31, 32, c. 11.7, 8, 9. 2 Cor. 12.10, to 21.

2. That he might not seem to abuse his power in the Gospel in the opinion of these covetous worldlings, 1 Cor. 9.18.

3. That he might adde to his glory, in undergoing necessi­ties for Christ, wherein he gloried; and adde to his future re­ward, 1 Cor. 9.15, to 27. 2 Cor. 12.10, to 13.

4. And principally, To cut off occasion of slander and re­proach from some false Apostles, and deceitfull workers and Mi­nisters of Satan, transforming themselves into Angels of Light, (who sought occasion to slander him) accounting his prea­ching very contemptible, and him to be none of Christs, but a very reprobate, 2 Cor. 10.7, 10, 12. c. 13.6, 7. (as some now esteem our Ministers) seeking a proof of Christ spea­king in him, c. 13.3. (as they doe now in our Ministers) glo­rying (as some of the same Tribe do now) that they preach­ed the Gospel freely, and wrought with their own hands; where­upon he addeth, that wherein they gloried, they might be found even as he, 2 Cor. 11.12, 13, 14. Which false Apostles and dissembling Hypocrites for all their braggs, did yet en­slave, take of them, fleece and abuse them, more than any faithfull Ministers, and yet they patiently endured it; as he there affirms, and insinuates, v. 20. For ye suffer if a man bring you into Bondage, if a man devour you, if a man take of you, if a man exalt himself, if a Man smite you on the Face; taxing their wisdom and pusillanimitie for this their Asinine sottish stupiditie; when as neither Paul himself, nor Titus, nor any other of those Ministers he sent unto them, did either burden, or catch them with guile, or make a gain of them, as these false Apostles, domineering Hypocrites, and Ministers of Satan did; 2 Cor. 12.16, 17, 18. These were the rea­sons expressed by him, why he took no wages of the Corin­thians, [Page 41] and supported himself with his own labour, But this is not our Ministers case, after our so long enjoyment of the Gospel, and their enjoying of a setled maintenance by Tithes and Glebes Spelman. above 800 years space, so long since set­led on them by our devout Saxon Kings, and continued ever since. When our Ministers have the self-same reasons as Paul had amongst the Corinthians, to move them to pursue his objected practice; I doubt not but they will chear­fully imitate it, for the advancement of the Gospel, and winning souls to Christ.

4ly. The reason why Paul exercised not this power a­mong the Thessalonians, labouring amongst them night and day to support himself, was much different from the former; thus recorded by him; 2 Thess. 3.7, to 15. When he was a­mong them he heard, that there were some who walked disor­derly, Working not at all, but were busie-bodies, (just such as our new preaching Weavers, Ginger-bread makers, Smiths, Soldiers, Citizens, and other Jesuitical disguised Mechanicks are, who give over their Trades, work, to bu­sie themselves only in gathering new Conventicles, in new moulding our Church, State, in Preaching openly and in corners every where to carry on their own worldly and Jesuitical designs: Whereupon he then commanded them That if any (such busie-bodies) would not work (but forsake his calling) neither should he eat: (A very good Gospel-law, if duly executed, to quell all such busie-bo­dies) and upon this occasion, not because he had not power, but to make himself an Example for them to follow, (and encourage these busie-bodies, with all other loiterers to labour) he refused to eat any mans bread freely, but wrought with labour and travel night & day, that he might not be charge­able to any of them. Yet because this his example did not reform all whiles he was present, but some such idle busie-bodies still continued their practice notwithstanding; he gives them this new Precept in and by this Epistle, vers. 14. Now them that are such We Command, and exhort by our Lord Jesus Christ (and O that our prating busie-bodies who step out of their own callings into other mens and into the Ministers too, would hearken and obey him!) [Page 42] that they with quietnesse work, (or, do their own work, as some Translators render it, not other mens) and eat their own bread: (not live upon other mens trenchers, sweat, la­bours, as many thousands doe now) And, if any obey not our word, signifie (or note) that man by an Epistle, and have no company with him (then he will be a Separatist in good ear­nest) that he may be ashamed; yet count him not as an enemie, but admonish him as a Brother. If our Ministers working with their own hands at our preaching Mechanicks Trades, would reduce them to follow their Trades, and give over busying themselves in Ministers and other mens publick callings and State-affairs, I presume many of them would fall a working for a time for such a good end: But since Pauls own example in this kinde did not reclame such busie-bodies then; whereupon he prescribed another more effectual remedie, if duely put in execution by Ecclesiastical and Civil Magistrates: Our Ministers (who have lesser hopes to reclame them now by such a practice, which would give scandal unto many, and make them neg­lect their proper function) have neither reason, nor pre­cept to follow this his singular voluntarie Precedent upon this ground of his, which is no waies binding to them.

5. Though Paul himself then laboured among the Co­rinthians and took no wages from them; yet he received wages from other Churches at the same time, to supply their lack of Service unto him: 2 Cor. 11.8, 9. Which by way of Sarcasme (to upbraide their covetousnesse, tenacity and ingratitude towards him) he calls, Robbing of other Churches; because it was to do them service, not those Churches: Not that it was rob­bery indeed (as some ignorant asses judge it, who understand not Rhetorick and Eloquence) for in the next verse he stiles it, A supply; and Phil. 4.10, 15, 18. a Communicating to his Necessities; a well-doing, a fruit abounding to their account, as well as to his rejoycing, an odour of a sweet smell, a sacrifice ac­ceptable and well-pleasing unto God; and wages in the self-same Text; Therefore no unlawful robbery.

6. Though the niggardly Corinthians saved their purses by Pauls labour and free preaching, yet they gained no ho­nour, [Page 43] but disgrace and sharp censures from him for it: wit­nesse 1 Cor. 4.11, 12, 14. Even unto this present hour we both hunger and thirst, and are naked, and are buffeted, and have no certain dwelling place; and labour working with our own hands, &c. I write not these things to shame you but, as my beloved sonnes I admonish you: (of your harsh, ingrate, despitefull carriage towards me, which makes my condition so un­comfortable:) which he thus seconds, 2 Cor. 11.7, 8. Have I committed an offence in abasing my self, that you might be exal­ted, because I have preached the Gospel of God freely? I robbed other Churches, taking wages of them to do you service. And ch. 12.12, 13 14, 15. Truly the signes of an Apostle were wrought among you in all patience, in signes and wonders, and mighty deeds; For what was it wherein ye were inferior to other Churches, except it be, that I my self was not burdensome to you? forgive me this wrong: Behold, the third time I am ready to come to you, and I will not be burdensome to you, for I seek not yours but you, &c. And I will very gladly spend and be spent for you, though the more aboundantly I love you, the lesse I be Loved. Whence all may learn, that it is a great disparagement, stain, and certain signe of want of love both to the Ministers and Ministry of the Gospel, for any Church, people to suffer or enforce their Minister to hunger, thirst, be naked, to have no certain dwelling place, and to labour working with his own hands, that he may preach the Gospel freely to them: and such kind of ungratefull, ungodly people, who cause Ministers thus to spend and be spent for them, will be so far from loving or respecting them for it, that the more they love them in this kind, the lesse they will probably love them again, as the Corinthi­ans did Paul: who traduced, slandered him, as no true Apos­tle, a weake contemptible Preacher, and a very Reprobate, in stead of commending him for his extraordinary paines and cost, in preaching freely to them, 2 Cor. 10.10. & 12.11, 12. & 13.6, 7, 9. Who then would hearken to, or gratifie such perverse Beasts, and such unthankfull Hypocrites, though appearing in the shapes of Saints, and notion of the godly party, (or ra­ther ungodly faction) against our Ministers and their mainte­nance?

7. Though Paul thus laboured night and day with his [Page 44] own hands to maintain himself and preach the Gospel free­ly, yet it followes not hence, that all other Ministers now should do it.

1. Because he being an inspired Apostle, able to preach by immediate inspiration and revelation from God with­out study or premeditation (as is probable,) his labour in this kind, was no hindrance to his diligent, constant, po­werfull preaching. But no Ministers now, (being thus im­mediately inspired) they must study, meditate day and night for what they preach, and examine their Doctrines seriously by Gods word before they vent them: whence Paul enjoynes even Timothy himself, 2 Tim. 3.13, 15, 16. To give attendance to reading, to exhortation, to doctrine, to meditate upon these things, and give himself wholly to them, that his profiting might appeare to all men: and to take heed unto his doctrine: which he could not do, if he should labour night and day with his hands as Paul did, to support himself and preach gratis: wherefore he tells him, 2 Tim. 2.4. That no man that warreth (a spiritual warfare as he and other Ministers do) intangleth himself with the affaires of this life; that he may please or serve him who hath chosen him to be a Souldier. A direct in­hibition to Ministers to follow Pauls Precedent; who can­not serve and please God in their Ministry, if they labour day and night in Mechanick trades for their living. And upon this ground (which is very observable) the very Apostles themselves, Act. 6.3, 4, 5, 6. Calling the multitude to them, said, it is not reason (pray marke it) that we should leave the Word of God and serve Tables (much lesse work day and night at a Mechanick Trade:) wherefore brethren looke ye out seven men of honest report, full of the holy Ghost & wisdom, whom ye may appoint over this businesse: but we will give our selves conti­nually to Prayer, and to the Ministry of the word: And the saying pleased the whole multitude. From which Texts it is clear,

1. That the Apostles themselves resolve, that they could not exercise the very antient office of a Deacon in serving Tables, attending on Widowes and other poor, aged, im­potent Saints, without neglecting, or giving over preaching of the Word: much lesse then can Ministers labour day and [Page 45] night with their hands at some Trade or other, to maintain themselves and their Families, without neglecting and de­sisting from the Ministry.

2. That Apostles and Ministers of the Gospel, ought to give themselves wholly and continually to prayer, preaching, medita­tion, reading, and other Ministerial duties; and therefore must not undertake or intermeddle with secular Imployments and Callings.

3. That the Apostles themselves have punctually resolv­ed, and that all the primitive Christians unanimously assen­ted to it; that it is not reason, that they should leave preach­ing the word of God, so much as to wait upon Widdowes and poor people at their tables: whereupon they elected seven Deacons to discharge that office. Therefore it is far lesse reason, (and they are most wicked and unreasonable men with­out faith or charity, from which the Apostle prayes God deliver him and all his Ministers, 2 Thess. 3.2. who now urge it) to enforce all our Ministers to neglect, forsake their Ministry, Preaching, Studies now, to follow handicraft Trades to get their livelihood, that so they might preach freely to the people without any recompence, or reward at all.

2. All godly Ministers, people in all ages, and the very Objectors themselves of late years have extremely con­demned, censured our Bishops and Prelatical Clergy, toge­ther with Popes, Popish Prelates and Clergy men, for inter­medling with, and executing civil Offices, Imployments and worldly affairs, which necessitated them to neglect the preaching of the Gospel, and their Ministerial duties; whereupon not only many antient and late Councils, Sy­nods, but Acts of Parliament, have specially prohibited them, to be Privy Counsellers of State, Judges, Justices of the Peace, Lord Chancellors, Treasurers, Keepers of the Privy Seal, Stewards of Courts, Commissioners; and our very 17 Car. c. 11. last Parliament by several late Acts disabled all Bishops from sitting as Peers in Parliament, and them with all other Clergy men, to execute any temporal Offices, or Commissi­ons, as See An­tiqu. Ecclesiae Brit. p. 138, to 142. Hove­den Annal. pars posterior. p 767, 768, 769. incompatible with their spiritual Function and an impediment to their Ministry: according to the old prover­bial verse, [Page 46]Pluribus intentus minor est ad singula sensus.’ Which I have proved at large by testimonies in all ages, in my Breviate of the Prelates intolerable Ʋsurpation; printed Anno. 1637. My Ʋnbishoping of Timothy and Titus; and Anti­pathy of the English Prelacy to Monarchy and Ʋnity, Anno 1641. Therefore to force our Ministers to become Mecha­nicks, and give themselves wholly to worldly callings, imployments incompatible with their professions, must needs be an irrational, unchristian Project, unworthy the profession or professors of the Gospel, not justifiable from Pauls example in them that would enforce it.

3. If this Precedent of Paul be a sufficient argument to prove, that our Ministers ought to work for their living, and to preach the Gospel freely without any reward or coercive Maintenance; I shall then by the self-same reason prove, that all Officers and Souldiers of the Army who make this Objection, and all our publick civil Officers ap­proving it, ought likewise to fight and discharge their Offi­ces without pay or salary, and to work with their own hands to get their livings, without oppressing the people with any Contributions of Excises to maintain them.

1. Because Ministers and they are both of one profession in several senses, to wit, Souldiers, 2 Tim. 2.3, 4. as I have formerly proved: Therefore to fare both a like in respect of pay or hire.

2. Because God records in Scripture, Ezech. 29.18. That Nebuchadnezzar King of Babylon (even by Gods ap­pointment) caused his Army to serve a great service against Tyrus; every head was made bald, and every shoulder was [...]eeled. Yet had he no wages nor his Army for Tyrus for the s [...]rvice that he served against it. If Nebuchadnezzer and his Army served God freely against Tyre without wages many years; Should not our present Army and Officers much more serve God and their Country freely without wages? True it is, God gave them (after their service fully ended) not any Taxes or Contributions from their own Country-men or Nation, but the Land and spoyle of Egypt for their wages, because [Page 47] they wrought for him, verses 19, 20. And if our Officers and Souldiers will have such wages, it must only be the Lands and spoyles of forein Aegyptian enemies, not our Churches, or Crown-Lands, or Revenues (formerly easing the peoples Taxes, and defraying all Garrisons, and ordinary publick expences) which they now claim and enjoy for Arrears of pay.

3. Nehemiah, both a godly Souldier, General and Go­vernour of his people, records this for his own honour, and others imitation, Neh. 5.14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19. Moreo­ver from the time that I was appointed to be their Governour in the Land of Judah from the 20. even to the 32. year of Artaxerxes the King, Even twelve years, I and my Brethren have not eaten the bread of the Governor. But the former Gover­nours that had been before me were Chargeable and had taken of them Bread and Wine, besides forty Shekels of Silver; yea even their Servants bare rule over the people; but so did not I (marke the reason) because of the fear of God. Yea, also I continued in the work of this wall, neither bought we any Land (as many Officers and Souldiers do now) and all my servants were gathered thither unto the work. Moreover there were at my Table an 150 of the Jewes and Rulers, besides those that came unto us from among the heathen that were about us. Now that which was prepared for me daily was an Oxe, and six choyce sheep; also Fowles were prepared for me, and once in ten daies store of all sorts of Wine; yea for all this required not I the breed (that is, the allowance, salary, revenue) of the Governor, (observe the ground) because the Bondage was Heavy on this people (and hath it not been for 17. years space, or more, and still is as Heavy or Heavier upon us?) Think upon me my God for good according to all I have done for this people. Here was a worthy Governour, General, Magis­trate, Souldier, really fearing God, and tendering the ease, liberty, welfare of the people, in good earnest, who with all his Officers and Souldiers for 12. years space together, though he and they laboured constantly in building the wall of Jerusalem, and he was at so great expence each day for his own Table, as Governour, yet took no Free-quarter, Bread, Wine, Money, Wages or Salary from the people, as [Page 48] other Governours, Officers before them had done; and that because of the fear of God, because the bondage was great upon the people; expecting only a reward from God. I may sa­fer argue from this Scripture Precedent; Ergo, all our Governours, Generals, Officers, Souldiers fearing God, during all our 17 years Wars, and as long as they and our bondage shall yet continue, are bound to serve their Coun­trey freely, without taking Free-quarter, Corn, Wine, Mo­ney, wages, contributions or Excises from the people; and ought not to purchase any Lands; and by consequence are thereupon obliged in conscience to make restitution of all the Free-quarter, Pay, Lands, Woods, Rents, Rewards and publick Revenues they have received for their pay, arrears, or rewards of service, expecting their reward only from God hereafter: Than they can from Pauls example con­clude, that Ministers ought to preach the Gospel freely without wages. And so much the rather, because See a vin­dication of Sir Will. Lewes. A justi­fication of the XI impeached Members, and their answer to their Charge, printed 647. Sir William Lewes, Mr. Denzill Holles, and Col. Walter Long, 3. of the XI. Members falsly impeached by the Officers and Army, An: 1647. for engrossing much of the publike Treasure, and giving no accompt of what they had received; were so ge­nerous and truly Noble, as in their accompts (long before passed and allowed by the Commons house) to demand no pay at all; the first, as Governour of Portsmouth; the other as Collonels in the Army under the Earl of Essex; Mr. Holles re­fusing to accept of the thousands voted him out of the Kings revenue for recompence of his former wrongfull imprisonment by the King for his Countries good service in Parliament. Whose Precedents their accusers (at least) are as far bound to imi­tate in this kind, as our Ministers are St. Pauls. Upon which considerations, I now refer the verity, solidity of this argu­ment from Pauls example to the judgements, consciences of all Officers, Souldiers and others formerly triumphing in it, who upon second thoughts must needs disclaime their own Pay, and Salaries for the future, or else renounce this grand objection as ridiculous and irrational.

The third Objection is from the 3 Epistle of John vers. 5, 6, 7.Object. 3. Where John writes to Gaius; Beloved, thou dost faithfully whatsoever thou dost, both to the Brethren and to strangers: [Page 49] which have born witnesse of thy Charity (or Liberalitie) before the Church, whom if thou bring on forward on their journey thou shalt do well, because that for his name sake they went forth, taking nothing of the Gentiles. Whence some may inferr, (though I hear not this Text urged by any) That Mini­sters ought now to preach the Gospel freely to the people, and to take nothing of them; because John mentions some such that in his time preached to the Gentiles taking no­thing of them. To which I Answer,

1. That this Text questionless was meant of Paul (the Apostle of the Gentiles, and his companions Timothy and Titus, Answ: who took nothing of the Corinthians, 2 Cor. 12.14, 15, 16, 17, 18.) seeing Gaius was not only St. Pauls companion some­times, being converted, baptized by him, Act. 19.29. & 20.4. 1 Cor. 1.14. but expresly stiled by him, Rom. 16.23. Gaius mine Host, and of all the Churches; living then at Co­rinth, where Paul preached freely; to whose Precedent I have given a full satisfactory answer already.

2. It is evident, that this Gaius (for some time at least) lodged Paul and other Brethren; being not only faithfull, but charitable and liberal towards them, though the other Corinthians were not so.

3. St. John addes, vers. 8. We therefore ought to re­ceive such, that we might be fellow helpers to the truth: wherein he concludes it to be a dutie incumbent upon all Christians, to receive, encourage, accompany, be charita­ble and liberal to the Apostles and Ministers of the Gospel, thereby to be fellow-helpers to the truth, which otherwise they shall much hinder. So as this Scripture fully warrants my Proposition, not oppugnes it.

The fourth Objection,Object. 4. is the opinion of our famous English Apostle, John Wickliff, who held Tithes and Mini­sters maintenance to be meer alms, See Mr. Sel­dens History of Tithes, c. 7. sect. 4. whose opinion is largely defended by eminent John Hus, in Mr. Fox his Acts and Mo­numents; Edit. 1640. vol. 1. fol. 602, to 605. Therefore not due to Ministers, but detainable or payable only at the meer wills of the people, as meer alms to beggars are, which are arbitrary. Whereto I Answer,

1. That Tithes and Ministers maintenance,Answ: are not pure [Page 50] alms, nor so styled by Wickliff, Hus, Augustine or Chrysostom (whom Hus citeth) as if Ministers had no right unto them for their pains, as a just debt, hire, wages; or, as if men might detain them at their pleasure; since we are expresly not only exhorted, but commanded, both in the Law and Gospel, to give alms to those that want them, and that as Debters to them so far as our Abilities and their Necessities require, Rom. 12.10, 13, 20. & 15.27. 1 Cor. 16.1, 2. 2 Cor. 8. & 9. throughout, Heb. 13.16. 1 Tim. 6.17, 18, 19. Ephes. 4.28. Luke 18.22, 23. & 19.8. Gal. 2.10. compared with Deut. 15.4, to 12. Exod. 23.11. Levit. 19. Deut. 24.19 Prov. 19.19. & 22.9. & 28.27. & 31.20. Eccles. 11.1. Dan. 4.27. Yea the Lawes and Statutes of our Land, expresly en­force and compell men to contribute to the Poor as they shall be [...]ss [...]ssed; as well as to pay Tithes or Taxes; as you may read in Rastals Abridgement, and Daltons Justice of Peace; Title Poor. But they are styled by them Pure Alms in three other respects.

1. Because they were originally given by people to the Ministers that were needie, out of charitie and compassion, for Gods sake [...], as well as for their work sake.

2. Because Ministers after their own wants supplied, did use to distribute part of them to the poor and needy, as alms, and are ob­liged still to do it; (as See Mr. Sel­dens History of Tithes, ch. 5.7.10.11. & Littleton, Tit. Frank-almoign. Abbots, Bishops and others did, to whom lands were given in pure and perpetual Frank-al­moign.)

3. Because they are pure alms in respect of God, as all other goods of fortune are; which we both begg and re­ceive from God; And in this respect they write, every man as well Kings and Emperours, as Ministers, Priests people, are beggars of God.

2. As they stiled Tithes Alms in these respects: so they likewise granted Alms to poor people, and Tithes to be See Rastals Abridgement, Tit. Poor, & Tithes. a Debt; for every man duly giving alms, doth as he ought to do; and so he that giveth Tithes. They are their expresse words.

3. Whereas they allege, That neither doth debt utterly ex­clude the purity of Alms before God: and that it is no argument, that if the Curate doe perform his corporal Ministry, that hee ought therefore to challenge Tithes by any civil title: Because [Page 51] that as well on the behalf of him that giveth the Tithes, as also in the behalf of the Curate, every such Ministry ought freely to be given, and not by any civil exchange. I conceive it both a fal­lacy and errour in them, being a just debt which may be de­manded by a Divine and Civil right too, when and where setled by a civil law, though freely to be given to the Mini­ster, without coercion or sute of Law both in point of con­science, and by way of civil exchange too, out of a civil compact or contract.

4. This opinion, that Tithes were pure almes, and not due To Ministers by a divine right JƲRE JƲSTITIAE; was first introduced by the Friers MENDICANTS, to gain them to themselves, and to exempt themselves and their Lands from payment of them; as History of Tithes ch. 7. p. 166, 167. Mr. Selden proves. Therefore to be rejected as Antichristian.

And thus much in confirmation of the first Proposition, and refutation of all Arguments I yet know made a­gainst it.

CHAP. II.

I Now proceed to the proof of the 2. Proposition, where­in the Hinge and Marrow of the Controversie concerning Tithes is included.

That the maintenance of the Ministers of the Gospel (and of Places, Houses for Gods publick worship) by Tithes, Glebes, Oblations, Proposition 2. (yea by spoyls won in battel by Generals, Collonels, Captains, Soldi­ers,) is not only lawfull, expedient, but the most fitting, rational, convenient Maintenance of all other, warranted by direct Pre­cepts, Precedents, both before and under the Law, which doth no waies abolish, condemn, but approve and confirm this way of Main­tenance.

Before ever the Levitical or Ceremonial Law was insti­tuted; as the godly Patriarchs built Altars and Houses for publick worship unto God, Gen. 4.3, 4. c. 8.20. c. 12.7, 8. c. 13.4, 18. c. 22.9: c. 26.25. c. 28.20, 21, 22. c. 33.20: & 35.1, 3, 7. So they likewise gave Tithes to the Priests of God. The very law of Nature, Rom. 2.14, 15. engraven in their hearts, before any [Page 52] written Moral or Ceremonial law, dictating thus much to them, That, as there was a God who created them, in whom they lived, moved, and had their being; so likewise this God was to be solemnly worshipped by them, as well in publick as private; by way of homage, gratitude, and bounden dutie, Psal. 95.1, to 8. Ps: 100.1, 2, 3, 4. Isa. 17.7, 8. Acts 17.26, 27, 28. Which worship of his (especially when men multiplied into great and many Families, Villages, Cities, Kingdoms, Repub­licks) could not be decently, orderly, constantly perform­ed in publick, without appointing some certain Times and Places of worship; Heb. 5.1. some certain holy persons and Priests to discharge the publick duties, solemnities of their worship; and some convenient certain portion out of their Estates for the maintenance, encouragement of those Priests in the execution of their Office, on which they were to give at­tendance. Upon which grounds, as the Patriarchs before the Law from the very Creation; (as Dr. Bound, Dr. Twisse, Mr. Sprint, Mr. Bernard, Mr. Palmer, Mr. Caudry & others of the Sabbath. Mr. Dod, Cle­ver, and others on the 4 Com­mandement. many Divines infer from Gen: 2.2, 3. Exod: 16.22, to 27. & 20.11. & 31.17. Deut. 5.14. Heb. 4.4.) dedicated every seventh day to Gods peculiar worship, by his example and prescription; so they likewise offered a certain portion of the fruits of their ground, Fields, Flocks to God in Sacrifice, as a Tribute due to him, by and from whom they received, enjoyed all the rest they had. Whence the Scripure expresly records of Cain and Abel (the two first-born of the world) Gen: 4.2, 3, 4, 5. That Cain being a tiller of the ground, brought of the fruits of the ground an offering to God; and that Abel being a fee­der of sheep, he also brought of the firstlings of his flock, and the fat thereof for an Offering to the Lord; as most conceive their father Adam did before them: by whose precept and exam­ple they did it: After them we read, that Noah built an Al­tar unto the Lord, and took of every clean beast, and of every clean fowl, and offered burnt-offerings on the Altar, when he went out of the Ark, Gen. 8.20. (which he and his ancestors from the Creation in all probability usually practised, though not specially recorded by Moses, no more than many other me­morable accidents, actions, for brevity sake.) Now these clean Beasts and Fowls which he sacrificed entring into the Ark by sevens: that is, seven of every sort: Gen: 7.2, 3. he offe­red [Page 53] one of each kind at least (and so one of seven) unto God, who consecrated, reserved one day of seven from the Creation to himself. What proportion of their goods, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob offered on their erected altars in sacrifice to God, is not expressed, though probably it was such as God after­wards prescribed the Israelites, their posterity, not long af­ter by his written law in Moses time, augmented upon any extraordinary emergent occasion, though never diminished from its usual rate. And for the Priests encouragement (directed by the very dictate of Nature, Reason informing them, That every Labourer was worthy of some competent hire, as Christ resolves Mat. 10.10. Luke 10.17.) they pitched upon Gen. 14.20. & 28.21, 22. Heb. 7.2, 4. the tenth of their encrease and gains of every kinde, as a competent fitting allowance, guided therein by divine in­spiration (as is most probable, if not infallible) it being the self-same proportion God himself afterwards prescri­bed, ratified by his own written Law in the Old Testament, and approved in the New, as I shall manifest by these ensu­ing Scriptures.

1. That Tithes were paid and vowed to God by the re­ligious Patriarchs before the Aaronical Priesthood institu­ted, or Levitical Law given, is undeniable by two Scrip­ture instances: the first of them is thus recorded, Gen: 14.17, 18, 19, 20. That Abraham returning victoriously from the slaughter of Chederlaomer and the Kings that were with him; Melchisedec King of Salem met him, and brought forth bread and wine, and he was The Priest of the most High God: and he blessed him and said, Blessed be Abraham of the most high God, poss [...]ssor of heaven and earth; and bl [...]ssed be the most high God, which hath delivered thy Enemies into thy hand. And he gave him Tenths of all. This History is thus recited and amplified in the New Testament, Heb. 6.20. & 7.1, &c. Jesus, made an high Priest for ever after the order of Melchise­dec King of Salem, Priest of the most High God, who met Abraham returning from the slaughter of the Kings and blessed him: to whom Abraham gave a Tenth part of all; first being by interpretation, King of righteousness, and after that also King of Salem, which is King of peace: without Father, without Mother, without descent, having neither beginning of dayes, nor [Page 54] end of life, but made like unto the Son of God, abideth a Priest continually. Now consider how great this man was, unto whom even the Patriarch Abraham gave the tenth of the spoils. And verily, they that are of the Sons of Levi, who receive the office of the Priesthood, have a Commandement to take Tithes of the People, according to the Law, that is, of their bre­thren, though they come out of the loyns of Abraham: But he whose descent is not counted from them, received Tithes of Abraham, and blessed him that had the Promises. And without all contra­diction the lisse is blessed of the better. And here Men that die receive Tithes, but there he [received them] of whom it is wit­nessed that he liveth. And, as I may so say, Levi also who receiveth Tithes paid Tithes in Abraham. For he was yet in the loynes of his Father, when Melchisedec met him. If therefore perfection were by the Levitical Priesthood, (for under it the people received the Law) what further need was there, that another Priesthood should rise after the order of Melchise­dec, and not be called after the order of Aaron? For the Priest­hood being changed, there is of necessity a change also of Law, &c.

I shall draw my Observations, Arguments concerning Tithes from both these Scriptures here recited, and then answer the main (if not sole) Scripture objected against Tithes, drawn from the cloze of the Apostles words.

1. It is undeniable from these Texts, that Abraham the Father of the Faithfull, is the first person we precisely read of who gave and paid Tithes, recorded both in the Old Testa­ment and New, for his greater honour, and the imitation of all the faithfull under both Testaments.

2. That he gave and paid Tithes to Melchisedec, the first Priest of the most high God, mentioned in sacred writ. Who this Melchisedec should be, there is great controversie a­mong the Learned; some affirming him, to be See Mr. Sel­dens Review of his History, ch. 1. Sixtus Senensis Bibl. Sanctae, l. 5. Annot. 90, 91. Sem; o­thers a Canaanitish King and Priest of that Name, and Dr. Griffith Williams of the Incarnation of Christ, in his works in fol. p. 807, to 813. Petrus Cunaeus de Repub. Jud. l. 3. c: 3. Dr. Griffith Williams very probably and strongly ar­guing him to be CHRIST himself then appearing to Abra­ham in his humane shape: As Petrus Cunaeus held before him. [Page 55] I shall not decide the Controversie: certain it is, he was either Christ himself, or a real Type of Christs and his eternal Priest-hood; as the Apostle oft resolves.

3. That he was a Priest of a far antienter, better and more excellent order, than the Levitical Priest-hood; and that this payment of Tithes was long before the Law given by Moses for payment of Tithes to the Levitical Priests; and before their order instituted. Therefore Tithes are not meerly nor originally in their own nature Jewish or Levitical, (as some rashly now a verr) nor eternally abolished as such by Christs incarnation, and Priesthood, they being originally paid and given, not to the Levitical Priests, but to M [...]lchisedec, who was either Christ himself, or a Type of him and his Priest­hood, not of Aarons.

4. That this Melchisedec, as he had neither beginning of daies, so he had no end of life, but was made like the Son of God, and abideth a Priest continually (in See He­mingiu [...] on the place. respect of the truth he typified) as Christ himself doth, of whom he was a Type, who hath an endless life; and because he continueth ever, hath an unchangeable Priest-hood; and is by the very oath of God, made a Priest for ever after the order of Melchisedec, Heb. 6.20. & 7.3, 8, 13, 15, 16, 17, 21, 24, 25. Psal. 110.4. Therefore Tithes being first paid to such an everliving, everlasting, unchangeable Priest and Priest-hood, for the execution thereof; may and ought to continue and abide for ever, as long as the Priest and Priest-hood last: and if so, then Tithes are still due, payable to the Ministers of Christ under the Gospel by all the Rom. 4.4, 16, 17. & 9.8. Gal. 4.7, 8, 9.29, Spiritual seed of faithfull Abraham, as well as they were by all his Sonnes after the flesh to the Levitical or Aaronical Priest-hood whiles in being, and that in the right of Christ; they being Ambassa­dors representing his person, beseeching men in Christs stead to be reconciled to God, 2 Cor. 5.20, 21. Forgiving men in tho person of Christ, 2 Cor. 2.10. and in whose persons Christ him­self still speaks unto men, 2 Cor. 13.3. Whence Christ himself a verres, Verily, verily I say unto you, he that receiveth whosoever I send, receiveth me; and he that receiveth me, receiveth him that sent me: He that heareth you, heareth me; and he that de­spiseth you, despiseth me; and he that despiseth me, despiseth him [Page 56] that sent me, Mat. 10.40. Luke 10.16. John 13.20. That whatever is given or paid to them for their Ministry is given and paid to himself, Mat. 10.42. & 25.35, to 41. and is a Sacrifice acceptable, well-pleasing unto God, Philip. 4.18.

5. That Abraham gave Tithes to Melchisedec for the execu­tion of his Priestly office; and that not in offring any carnal or Levitical Sacrifices to God for him upon an Altar, but only for blessing him, and rendring thanks and blessing to the most high God for his victory; which being one chief part of the Ministers of the Gospels duty still continuing, even to blesse the people, to praise and blesse God for them, and their successes in spiritual and temporal things, Rom. 1.7, 8, 9. & 10.24. 1 Cor. 1.3, 4, 5. & 16.23. 2 Cor. 1.1, 2, 3. & 9.10, 11. & 13.14. Gal. 1.2. & 6.18. Ephes. 1.1, 2, 3, 16, 17, 18. & 3.14. to the end, & 6.23, 24. Phil. 1.2, 3, 4. & 4.20, 23. Col. 1.2, 3, 9, to 14. & 4.18. 1 Thess. 1.1, 2, 3. & 2.13. & 5:23, 28.2 Thess. 1.2, 3, 11, 12. & 2.13, 16, 17. & 3.18. 1 Tim. 2.1, 2. Heb. 13.25. 1 Pet. 1.2, 3, 4. & 5.14. 2 Pet. 1.2. Revel. 5.12, 13. as likewise to blesse the Sacramental bread and wine for their use, 1 Cor. 10.16. Mat. 26.26. typifyed, as most hold, by the bread and wine Melchisedec brought forth to Abraham: is a convincing Argument to me, that Tithes are no way Leviti­cal or Jewish in their primitive institution, or intrinsecal nature, but rather Evangelical; and are as justly due and payable by all believing sons and children of faithfull Abra­ham, to the Ministers of the Gospel for blessing them, and pray­ing, blessing, praysing God for them, and other Ministerial du­ties, as they were by Abraham to Melchisedec, for performing the self-same Priestly duties towards him.

6. That the scope of the Apostle in the Hebrews, being to prove the Honour, Dignity, Excellency of the order of Mel­chisedecs (and by consequence of our Saviours) Priest-hood above Aarons; he useth this as one demonstration thereof:

1. That he received Tithes of the Patriarch Abraham himself, Heb. 7.2, 4, to 11. whereas the Levitical Priests received Tithes only of their Brethren, that came out of the loynes of Abraham.

2. That even Levi himself who received Tithes of his Brethren, paid Tithes in Abraham, (being then in his Fathers loynes) to [Page 57] Melchisedec, as his superior, yea even as the Levits under the Law paid the tenth of their Tithes to the Priests, as their supe­riours, Numb: 18.26, 27, 28. And this payment of Tithes to Melchisedec, he recites in the Gospel no lesse than five several times one after another, insisting longer on it then on any other Argument, to prove the preeminency of Melchisedecs Priesthood above Aarons. Whence it un­deniably follows,

1. That Tithes are not originally Jewish and Levi­tical.

2. That the receiving of Tithes by faithfull Ministers now, is no disparagement, but an honour to their Ministry and function, as well as to Melchisedecs heretofore.

3. That Ministers receiving Tithes now, doth no more prove their Ministry to be Judaical or Levitical, than it proved Melchisedecs Priesthood to be such, which is put in contradistinction to it, and exalted above it by the Apo­stle, even by the very receiving of Tithes from Abraham. Therefore those Jesuitical and Anabaptistical furies against Tithes, who rail against our Ministers and their Ministry as Jewish and Aaronical because they receive Tithes, and urge this as a disparagement to their Persons, Ministry, rejecting Tith-receiving Ministers, as Jewish, Antichristian, unlawfull, doe herein argue point-blank against the Apostle, and there­by conclude Melchisedecs (and by consequence our Saviours own Priesthood after the order of Melchise dec) to be Jewish, Antichristian, dishonourable and unlawfull, (because Mel­chisedec himself received Tithes,) which to do is the highest blasphemy.

7. That the Apostle informs us, that God had never but two orders of Priests in the world.

The first, after the order of M [...]lchisedec, in Abrahams dayes; discontinued under the Law for a time, but revived again in our Saviour Christ, and continuing now and for ever in him; compared here to Melchisedec, especially in his Na­ture, the seat of his Kingdom, the perpetuity of his life, his Sacerdotal blessing, and IN THE RIGHT OF RECEIV­ING TITHES (as Hemingius on the place observes.)

The second, after the order of Levi and Aaron, abolished [Page 58] and changed by Christ; that Tithes were paid and belonged of right to both these orders of Priests, for the exercise of their function by Gods own approbation and appointment; as a just, fitting, righteous maintenance and reward; which since they cannot now be paid to Christ himself in person, being ascended into heaven, and there sitting at Gods right hand, a great high Priest for ever after the order of Melchisedec; there is great Justice, Reason, they should be still paid to, and re­ceived by his Ministers, whom we have alwaies with us (as well as the poor) who are his Ʋicegerents and 1 Cor. 4.1, 2. Tit. 1.7. Stewards, with whom he hath promised to be alwayes present to the end of the World, Mat: 28.20. and that as the properest, justest, best, fittest maintenance of all other, appointed, prescribed by God, paid by Abraham and all the faithfull by Gods di­rection and approbation, both before and under the Law, and is recited, justified, allowed, but no wayes condemned or abrogated by the Apostle and Gods Spirit under the Gos­pel. Wherefore those who inconsiderately revile and de­claim against Tithes as See the late Petitions a­gainst Tithes. heavy Yokes, Jewish Burdens, an unequal, unrighteous, wrangling, troublesom maintenance, &c. do herein blasphemously traduce, censure the very wis­dom, justice, discretion not only of Abraham, and all the faithfull servants of God, approving and paying Tithes in former ages, but of God himself who prescribed them, and of the Apostle pleading for them, as appertaining to both these orders of Gods Priests for their perpetual maintenance.

8. Here is one notable observation for all the Officers and Souldiers of the Army seriously to consider (and O that God would fix it effectually on their Spirits!) That Abraham the Father of the faithfull (as the Gospel styles him, Rom: 4.16.) returning victoriously from the first Warrs we read of in the world, gave the See Mr. John Seldens Histo­ry of Tithes, c. 1, 3. & his Review, c. 1. with the Au­thors there cited. TENTH OF THE SPOYLES taken from the Enemy in the warrs, to Mel­chisedec, the first Priest of the most high God we finde in the Word or World, and an express type of Christ, our only high Priest, if not Christ himself, as some affirm: To teach all Generals, Officers, Souldiers, who professe themselves the Sons or Children of Abraham after the faith, to do the like: [Page 59] And (which is very considerable) though this victorious General and Souldier was urged by the King of Sodom, to take all the Spoyl and goods he had taken and rescued from the Enemy to himself, and to give him only the persons rescued; which he magnanimously refused; saying, I have lift up my hand unto the Lord, the most high God, possessor of heaven and earth, that I will not take from a thread even to a shoe-latchet, and that I will not take any thing that was thine, lest thou shouldest say, I have made Abraham rich, Gen: 14.21, 22, 23. (And O that all Commanders, Souldiers now, were as conscionable and just in performing their Oathes, Covenants, Vowes, made with hands lifted up unto the Lord, as faithfull Abraham was!) yet he would not renounce, nor give away Gods and the Priests portion upon any condition; but GAVE THE TENTH OF ALL THE SPOYL TO THEM, restoring only the Surplusage. And should not our Generals, Offi­cers, Souldiers, in these dayes (who professe and style themselves, the Eminentest, most precious Saints, and spiritual seed of faithfull Abraham) more really prove themselves such indeed, to God, the World, and their own Consci­ences, by giving the Tenth of all their spoils and gains of Warres to God and his faithfull Ministers (which I never heard one of them yet did) and making good all their solemn Oathes and Covenants to God, (whereof this was one clause; The words of the solemn League and Covenant. That they shall sincerely, really, and constantly endeavour in their several places and callings, the preservation of the reform­ed Religion, from utter ruine and destruction, against all the trea­cheries and bloudy Plots, Conspiracies, Attempts and practices of the Enemies thereof; whereof this in present agitation to deprive our Ministers of all Tithes and setled maintenance, is one of the principal, which will ruine our Ministers, Mi­nistry and Religion with them) as faithfull Abraham really did; rather than by endevouring what they can (as too many of them do) TO SPOYL THEM OF ALL THEIR TITHES, both predial, mixt and personal, which they have so long enjoyed, not only by a just, civil right and title, confirmed by Prescription, the great Charter, all sorts of Lawes, Statutes, Ordinances in antient and late times, but likewise by a divine Warrant, from this Pre­cedent [Page 60] of Abraham, instead of giving them THE TENTH OF THEIR SPOYLS? Which practice, if pursued, as it will insallibly demonstrate them to be no real Saints. or Children of faithfull Abraham (our Saviour resolving, Joh. 8.39. If ye were Abrahams children, ye would do the works of Abraham, in paying Tithes as he did) so it will probably exclude both them, and others guilty of it, out of Abrahams bosome, Luke 16.22. who will never own nor receive those as his friends or children into his bosome, who are such vi­rulent Enemies to his most commendable Practice, of paying Tithes even of the very spoyls he took in Warr. With this Ar­gument I have so routed some Officers and Souldiers, that they blushed for shame; had not one word to reply, and gave over further rayling discourses against Tithes, as men quite confounded, and I hope it will have the self-same ef­fect in all others, when they have well advised on it.

That they may have no Evasion from the dint thereof, I shall answer all Cavils I know of to elude it.

Object. 1.The 1. Evasion is this, That this Precedent of Abraham in giving the tenth of the spoyls of Warr is singular and vo­luntary, not obliging other Souldiers to doe the like, or to devote any of their spoyls to God and his service.

To this I answer,

Answ.1. That this practice and Precedent of Abraham, so tran­scendently eminent for his faith in the old and new Testa­ment, in both which it is recorded; was undoubtedly writ­ten for our imitation and instruction, to do the like, as may be evidenced from Job. 8.39. 1 Cor. 10.11. Rom. 15.4. 2 Thess. 3.7, 9. Heb. 13.7. 1 Thess. 2.14. the rather, because the Apostle Heb. 6.12. commands us, To be followers of those who through faith and patience inherit the promises; and then pre­sently after instanceth in Abraham, and fals upon his practice of paying Tithes of the spoyl to Melchisedec. Therefore all Christian, Generals, Officers, Souldiers must follow him in paying Tithes of all their spoyls, as well as in faith and pati­ence; his Precedent, having been the original impulsive ground of all Tithes vowed or paid to Gods Priests or Mini­sters ever since, and of Gods subsequent commands to Abra­hams posterity, to pay Tithes to the Priests and Levites under [Page 61] the Law, as the Apostle insinuates, Heb. 7.4, 5, 6, 8. compa­red together; and of all Laws, Canons since enacted by Christian Kings and Councils for due payment of Tithes to Ministers of the Gospel in Christian Realms and Re­publicks.

2. I answer, That this practice of his was frequently pur­sued by Generals, Officers and Souldiers, in succeeding ages, of which we have very memorable Precedents in Scripture, wherewith I have shamed and confounded Souldiers in dis­courses with them about Tithes. It is specially recorded Num. 31. that when the 12000. Officers and Souldiers of the Israelites under the conduct of Phinehas, returned from the slaughter of the Midianites with an extraordinary great booty of all sorts; God gave a special charge, to levy a Tribute unto the Lord of the men of Warr that went out to Battel, and to give it to Eleazar the Priest for an heave-offering of the Lord (which kind of offerings was Aarons and his Sonnes for ever, from the children of Israel, as a due wages for their service, Exod. 29.27, 28. Levit. 7.32, 33, 34. Numb. 18.24, 27, 29. Deut. 12.11. and is coupled with Tithes as being of the same Nature, in the two last of these Scriptures) which tribute was accordingly levyed: And because the prey was first equally divided between them who took the Warr upon them, and went out to Battel; and between all the Congregation, which had the other moity of it; God out of the Soul­diers moity (the prey being very great) reserved onely one of five hundred out of the Captives, Beeves, Asses and Sheep, for the Priests, which were but few; and one of every fifty for the Le­vites, of the peoples moity; the Priests share amounting to 675. Sheep, 78. Oxen, 64. Asses, 32. Captives; and the Levites share to tenne times so many. After which tribute levyed, v. 48, 49. the Officers which were over thousands of the Host, the Captaines of Thousands and Captaines of Hundreds brought an oblation, to the Lord, what every man had gotten of Iewels of Gold, Chaines and Bracelets, Kings, Ear-Rings and Tablets to make an atonement for their souls before the Lord, amounting to sixteen thousand seven hundred and fifty shekels, (every Purchas pilgrimage p. 132 Gerun­densis and Godwins Jew­ish Antiquities shekel weighing half an ounce) Which Eleazer the Priest took of the Captains of thousands, and of hun­dreds, and brought it into the Tabernacle of the Congregation for [Page 62] a Memorial of the children of Israel before the Lord, Numb. 31.48, to the end. Here were self-denying saint-like Officers, Colonels and Captains indeed, after all the former deducti­ons and tributes out of their spoyl, to bring to the Priest, and offer up to God all their Jewels of Gold, Chains, Bracelets, Rings, Ear-Rings, Tablets and richest plunder they had gotten in the Warrs, for the maintenance of his wor­ship; when our Officers, Colonels, Captains, Souldiers shall do the like, and pay a tribute of the best of their spoyls to our Ministers, as these by Gods command did to the Priests and Levites, not purchasing Church-Lands and Revenues with them, See the ordinances for Augmentati­ons devoted to the augmentation of our Ministers small Stipends; we shall cry them up for self-denying Saints and Souldiers indeed; and say, they are no self-seekers. If this Scripture Precedent be not enough, behold a whole cloud of Precedents, imitating them and faithfull Abraham, recorded, united in one memorable Text seldome read or taken notice of, 1 Chron. 26.26, 27, 28. Which Shelomith and his Brethren, were over all the Treasures of the dedica­ted things, which David the King, and the chief Fathers, the Captains over Thousands and Hundreds, and the Captains of the Host, had dedicated: out of the Spoyls won in Bat­tels did they dedicate to maintain the House of the Lord (mark and imitate it O ye Army-Officers, Captains, Soul­diers!) And all that SAMUEL the seer, and SAUL the Son of Kish, and ABNER the Son of Ner, and JOAB the Son of Zerviah had dedicated, was under the hand of Shelomith and his Brethren. Here we have examples of all sorts and sizes for our Army-Officers and Souldiers imitation.

1. We have David, a victorious Warrier, General, King, and Act. 13.21. Neh. 12.24. man of God, after Gods own heart, dedicating the Treasures & Spoyls he took from his enemies in Battels, to the House and service of God; thus more specially recorded for his honour and others practice; 2 Sam. 8.11, 12. And Tol sent Joram his Son to King David to salute him, and to blesse him, because he had fought against Hadadezer and smitten him, and brought with him vessels of Gold, and vessels of Silver, and vessels of Brasse, which also King David did dedicate to the Lord, with the Silver and Gold that he had dedicate of all Nations which [Page 63] he subdued: Of Syria, and of Moab, and of the children of Ammon, and of the Philistines, and of Amalek, and OF THE SPOYLS OF HADADEZER Son of Rehob King of Zobah. Recorded again in 1 Chron. 18.2, to 12. with this additi­on. And David took the shields of gold which were on the Ser­vants of Hadadezer, and brought them to Jerusalem. Likewise from Tibhath and from Chun Cities of Hadadezer brought Da­vid very much brass, wherewith Solomon made the Brazen sea, and the pillars of the vessels of Brasse. What the value of the spoyls which he dedicated to God and his service amount­ed to, himself records, 1 Chron: 22.14. Now behold in my trouble I have prepared for the house of the Lord an hundred thousand Talents of Gold, and a thousand Ta­lents of Silver, and of Brasse and Iron in aboundance without weight: Besides what he dedicated out of his own proper estate, registred in 1 Chron. 29.13, 14.

2. We have Joab 2 Sam 8.16. 1 Chron. 11.6. Davids Captain General, the Captains over Thousands and Hundreds, and the Captains of the Army, dedicating out of the spoyls won in Battels to the service of the House of the Lord: (and that in a liberal proportion) even five thousand Talents of gold, and ten thousand drams; and of silver ten thousand Talents, and of brasse 18000 Talents, and one hundred thousand Talents of Iron, besides precious stones, all which they offered willingly with a perfect heart unto the Lord, rejoycing with great joy they had done it, 1 Chron. 29.6, 7, 8, 9. When our Generals, Officers, Collonels, Captains and Souldiers of the Army shall imitate King David and his Generals, Co­lonels, Captains, Officers, Souldiers in such a liberal con­tribution of the Jewels, Gold, Silver, Brasse, Iron and Spoyls they have won in Battels, at home and from other Nations, to repair or build houses for Gods publick wor­ship, and maintain the Ministers of the Gospel, in stead of seeking to demolish and spoyl those stately Edifices which our pious Ancestors have erected for that purpose, and breaking down the Carved work thereof with axes and hammers; of which David much complaineth, Psal. 74.3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9. and in lieu of endevouring to devest our Ministers of their remaining Lands, Tithes, Glebes not yet devoured; all the World will proclaim them, Men after Gods own heart, and [Page 64] Men of God in truth, like David, and give over censuring them for Sacrilegious Harpyes, as yet more like to Zeba and Zalmunna, who said, Let us take to our selves the Houses of God in possession, (as David himself objects against them, Psal. 83.11, 12.) than to David, or his Officers, Captains, Soul­diers.

3. Here is Samuel the seer, doing the like, out of his spoyls won in Battel: A precedent for all those Souldiers who will be Seers, Speakers, and New-lights, to imitate.

4. If these good mens examples be neglected, yet let the Precedents of bad men annexed to them shame and excite others to this duty: Here is Saul the son of Kish, much talked of and reviled now by many for a Tyrant, the very first King given to Gods people in anger, and taken from them in wrath, as these object, from Hos. 13.11. (which I conceive rather to be meant of Jeroboam the Idolatrous usurper, who made Israel to sin; as judicious Interpreters prove, by the 2 Chron. 13.20. compared with 2 Kings 17.10, to 24. and the context likewise, which makes mention of the Israelites Idolatry in kissing the Calves erected by Jeroboam; and speaks only of the Kingdom of Israel, as divided from that of Juhah after Sauls, Davids, and Solomons death) yet he as bad as they make him, together with Abner 1 Sam. 14.50. his chief Captain (none of the best of men, as 1 Sam. 3.7, 8. discovers) had so much Piety, Zeal, Religion in them, as likewise to dedicate part of their richest spoyls of Warr to the maintenance of Gods house and worship. And will it not be a great dishonour to those Ge­nerals, Officers, Colonels, Captains, who now pretend themselves the holiest, justest, zealousest Saints, not to be as bountifull towards the maintenance of Gods house and worship, out of their spoyls, as Saul, or Abner, whom they brand for Tyrants and ungodly wicked men? If these Pre­cedents be ineffectual to work upon any Covetous or Sacri­legious Sword-men, let them reflect upon others, who were Idolaters, how near they came, in their way, to imitate Abraham, David and these forecited Warriers. When Nebu­chadnezzar King of Babylon had taken Jerusalem, ransacked and burnt the glorious Temple there, towards which David and his Captains contributed so largely out of their spoyls, [Page 65] he had so much Piety and natural Religion in him; as to dedicate all the Vessels of Silver and Gold, which he took out of the house of God, to the honour and service of his Idol-gods, and put them in the Temple at Babylon, in the House of his GODS, not converting them to his private or publick Treasury, 2 Chron. 36.7, 18. 2 King. 24.13. Ezra. 1.7. Which Vessels afterwards being brought forth thence, and profanely carous­ed in by Belshazzar and his Princes, at his great feast, wherein he praysed the gods of Gold, and Silver, of Brasse, of Iron, of Wood, and of Stone; you may read what fatal judgement pre­sently befell him, to the losse of his life and Kingdome, Dan. 5. These Vessels though a just and lawfull spoyl won by wars, Cyrus King of Persia brought forth out of the house of his Gods, where Nebuchadnezzar had put them, by the hand of Mithre­dah his Treasurer, and numbred them unto Sheshbazzar the Prince of Judah, when he proclaimed liberty, and gave order to the Israelites to rebuild the house of the Lord God of Israel in Jerusalem; and this is the number of them, thirty Chargers of Gold, a thousand Chargers of Silver, nine and twenty Knives, thirty Basons of Gold, Silver Basons of a second sort four hundred and ten, and other Vessels a thousand: all the Vessels of Gold and Silver were five thousand and four hundred: all these did Sheshbazzar bring with him from Babylon to Jerusalem for the use and service of God in the Temple there: all these did Cyrus a Heathen King freely and chearfully restore, dedicate to God and his Temple by a Decree, Ezra 1.4. to the end. O when will our Army-Saints part with so many Gold and Silver Vessels to Gods house out of their spoyls and plun­ders? This Decree was afterwards confirmed by King Da­rius and Artaxerxes his successors, Ezra 1.4. ch 7.15, 16, 17. & 8.24, to 31. these Kings with their Princes and chief Officers also, freely offered, dedicated Silver and Gold, besides these Vessels, amounting to a great value, towards the re-edifying of the Temple, and maintenance of the worship, Priests of God therein. Moreover, King Artaxerxes made this Decree con­cerning these Vessels; The Vessels also that are given thee for the service of the house of thy God, those deliver thou before the God of Jerusalem; and whatsoever more shall be needfull for the house of thy God bestow it out of the Kings Treasure-house: [Page 66] Adding this further Decree; To all the Treasurers beyond the river; Whatsoever Ezra the Priest shall require of you, let it be done speedily; unto an hundred Talents of Silver, and to an hun­dred measures of Wheat, and to an hundred bathes of Wine, and to an hundred bathes of Oyl, Salt without prescribing measure: Whatsoever is commanded by the God of heaven, let it be dili­gently done for the house of the God of heaven; for why should there be wrath against the Realme of the King and his Sons? Also we certifie you, that touching any of the Priests and Levites, Singers, Porters, Nethinims or Ministers of this house of God it shall not be lawfull to impose Toll, Tribute or custom upon them: and whosoever will not do the Law of God and the Law of the King, let judgement be executed speedily upon him, whether it be unto death, or unto banishment, or to confiscation of goods, or to imprisonment; Ezra 7.11, to 27. The Decree of Cyrus and Darius, concerning the building of the Temple, and restitution of these Vessels, is very remarkable, and thus recorded, Ezra 6.3, to 13. Let the house be builded, the place where they offered Sacrifices, and let the foundation there­of be strongly laid, the height thereof threescore Cubits, and the breadth thereof threescore Cubits; with three rows of great stones, and a row of new Tamber; and let the expences be given out of the Kings house And also, let the Golden and Silver Vessels of the house of God, which Nebuchadnezzar took forth out of the Temple which is at Jerusalem, and brought unto Babylon, he restored and brought again into the Temple which is at Jerusalem, every one to his place, and place them in the house of God. Now therefore Tatnai governour beyond the river, Shetharboznai and your companions the Apharsachites which are beyond the river, be ye far from thence: Let the work of the house of God alone, let the Governours and the Elders of the Jewes, build the house of God in his place. Moreover, I make a Decree, what ye shall do to the Elders of these Jewes, for the building of this house of God; that of the Kings goods even of the tribute beyond the river, forthwith expences be given unto these men, that they be not hindred. And that which they shall have need of both young Bullocks, and Rams, and Lambs, for the burnt offerings of the God of heaven, Wheat, Salt, Wine, Oyl, accord­ing to the appointment of the Priests which are at Jerusalem, [Page 67] let it be given from day to day without fail; that they may offer Sacrifices of sweet savour unto the God of heaven, and pray for the life of the King and his Sons. Also I have made a Decree, that whosoever shall alter this word, let timber be pulled down from his house, and being set up, let him be hanged thereon, and let his house be made a dunghill for this. And the God that hath caused his name to dwell there, destroy all Kings and people that shall put to their Hand to alter and destroy the house of God, which is at Jerusalem: I Darius have made a Decree, let it be done with speed. If these three Heathen Kings and Conquerors were so zealous to restore all the Vessels of Gold and Silver, taken by their predecessors in their wars, amounting to so great a number, value, to the House of God at Jerusalem; to contribute so liberally towards the re-edifying of it out of their own Tributes, Treasures, Re­venues won by War and Conquest; to allow them Bul­locks, Rams, Lambs, Wheat, Wine, Oyl, Salt, and all other necessaries for daily Sacrifices; to furnish the Priests and Levites with all Necessaries; yea particularly to ex­empt them and all the Officers of the Temple from paying any Toll, Tribute, Tax or Custom, which it was not lawfull for any Officer to lay upon them, under the severest penalties, and to enact such severe Lawes, to passe such bitter imprecations against all such as should oppose or hinder the work, or seek to destroy or deface the Temple of God: Oh how should this inflame all our Generals, Officers, Souldiers, who professe themselves the choysest Christians, and emi­nentest Saints, to imitate and equal them in all these par­ticulars now? Elsehow will they shame, confound and rise up in judgement at last against all such of them and all o­ther Plunderers who in stead of restoring all the Gold, Sil­ver Vessels, Lead, Iron, Timber, Stones, they have taken from the Temples of God, of repairing those Churches they have demolished, defaced, of providing necessaries for Gods worship, and exempting his Ministers from Toll, Tribute, Taxes, Custom, endevour to make a prey and spoyl of all our Churches, Chapels, Church-Vessels, Or­naments, Glebes, yet remaining, and oppresse our Ministers with endlesse Taxes, Tributes imposed on them without [Page 68] their consents against all former Lawes, and Precedents to their utter ruine; and in stead of paying them the tenths of their own Lands and spoyls of War, endevour to spoyl them of those Tithes which all others owe or pay them? Of whom Hemingius thus complains in his Commentary on Gal. 6.6. p. 375. Quid dicemus de illis, qui Ministros Evangelii ne­cessario victu spoliant? Quid de illis qui Immoderatis Eracti­onibus tantum non eos interficiunt, ut multi honesti mariti cum si is uxoribus et liberis cogantur quodammodo mendicare? Horam sane factum nihil differre arbitror a Sacrilegio & Latrocinio, cujus poenas olim cluent Architecti et fabri hujus mali.

To these Scripture Precedents of Heathen Warriers, I might adde the practice of many Idolatrous Pagan Nati­ons (as the Romans, Graecians, Crotonians, Phocians, Atheni­ans, Carthaginians) who by the very Law, dictate of Nature, and example of Abraham, gave the tenth of their warlike spoils to their Idol-Gods and Priests; which because Mr. Selden re­cites at large in his History of Tithes, ch. 1.3. & Review, c. 1. 3. & Alexander ab Alexandro Gen Dierum, l. 3. c. 22. where all may peruse them, I shall only give you the summ of them in learned Grotius his words, in his Book De jure Belli & Pacis, l. 3. c. 4. sect: 1. p. 454. By this Law of Nature Abraham, out of the spoyls which he had taken from the five Kings, gave a Tenth to God, as the Divine Author to the He­brews, c. 7.4. explains the History extant in Gen. 14. By which custom the Grecians also, with the Carthaginians and Ro­mans, Diis suis Decimam de Praeda sacraverunt, consecra­ted a Tenth of the prey, or spoyl, to their Gods, as to A­pollo, Hercules, Iove. And should not Christian Gene­rals, Officers, Captains, Souldiers then much more doe it now, to God and his Ministers, from this Precedent of Father Abraham, instead of robbing them of their Tithes? If any should object, that these were old Testament, and Heathen Practices; Let them remember, that Abrahams is more particularly related and frequently mentioned in the new Testament than old; the old relating in general, that he gave Tithes of all; (which relates to all his substance, as well as spoyls) and the new Testament applying this ge­neral to the TENTH OF THE SPOYLS, Heb. 7.4. as [Page 69] History of Tithes, & Sur­vey thereof, ch. 1.3. Mr. Selden, Grotius, and others observe. But to hedge up this starting-hole so as none may creep out of it; we have one memorable Precedent in the new Testament, coming very near to this of Abraham, Luke 7.2, to 11. Where we read of a certain Centurion (or Collonel) a man of no small authority, who had Souldiers under him; and said unto one Goe, and he goeth; and to another, Come, and he cometh; and to his servant, Do this, and he doth it: This Centurions servant, who was dear unto him, being sick and ready to die, when he heard of the fame of Jesus, he sent unto him the Elders of the Jews, beseeching him that he would come and heal his Servant: and when they came to Jesus they besought him instantly, saying, That he was worthy for whom he should do this: (And why so?) For he loveth our Nation, and hath built us a Synagogue: Whereupon Jesus went with them, and healed his servant; marvelling at the Centurions words, and turning about, and saying unto the people that fol­lowed him, I have not found so great Faith, no not in Israel. This great Centurion and Commander was no Jew, but a Gentile, one who but newly heard of Christs name and same; yet he had so much Piety and Bounty, as out of his very Spoyls and Gains of Warre (for we read of no other Lands or Gains he had) to build a Synagogue for Gods wor­ship; which the Elders of the Jews, and Christ too, appro­ved as a worthy act, and a sufficient inducement for our Sa­viour to go with him and cure his servant. O that all our Centurions who have Souldiers under them, and exceed or equal him in command, would imitate and equal this Gospel Centurion, in his pious munificence in building, in stead of contriving how to deface Temples, Churches, Synagogues, to abolish Tithes, ingrosse Church Lands and Livings into their own hands; then should they receive as large Encomiums of the reality and transcendency of their Faith, Piety, Charity from men, as he did from our Saviour, and the Elders of the Jews, for building this new Synagogue.

I shall only adde, for our Souldiers, Officers better In­formation; that from this example of Abraham, appro­ved in the new Testament, both Divines, Councils, Ca­nonists, [Page 70] and Casuists, have unanimously resolved, That Souldiers ought to pay personal Tithes to Ministers out of their very Militia, pay, and spoyls of Warr. This was De Tempore Serm. 219. Tom. 9 St. Au­gustines Doctrine, DE MILITIA, de negotio, de artificio red­de Decimas: recited, practised, and long prescribed here in England, in the excerptions of Egbert Archbishop of Yorke Spelman. Concil. p. 268. about the year of our Lord, 750. repeated, confirmed by Gratian in his Decrees, Causa 16. qu. 1. f. 381, 382; By all the Canonists, Glossers on his Text: by Angelus de Cla­vasio, in his Summa Angelica, Tit. Decima: by Hostiensis, Summa Rosella, and other Summists, Casuists, in their Titles of Tithes, and ratifyed by the Synod of Lingon, An. 1404. apud Bochellum, Decret: Ecclesiae Gallicanae, lib. 6. Tit. 8. c. 31. p. 967. This many excellent Christian Commanders, Offi­cers, Souldiers have in several ages performed, as Histo­ries record. I shall (for brevity) instance but in one do­mestick example, and that a memorable one, King William the first (whom we usually style the Conqueror, though he never claimed the Crown by Conquest, but Ingulphi Hist. p. 899, 900, 901. Will. Malmsb. de Gestis Re­gum Angl. l. 2. p. 93. Hen. Huntindon Hist. l. 8 p. 307 Hoveden An­nal. pars prior. p. 448, 449. & pars posterior, p. 608, 609, 610. Verste­gan Restitutiō of decayed Antiquities, accord here­in, and Mat. Westm. Ann. 1059. p. 426. only by the last Will, Testament and Donation of King Edward the Confessor in his life-time, with the assent of his Nobles (who was educated with, preserved by him, during his exile and seclusion from the Crown by the Danish usurpers) and as COUSIN and HEIR to Edward the Confessor, as he stiled himself in the very Spelman. Concil p. 619. Title of his Laws: He having vanquished and slain the perjured Ʋsurper Harold (who set the Crown upon his own head, and made himself King without any Title or due E­lection, against his solemn Oath to Duke William, made to him in Normandy, which he pretended to be forced;) in Mr. Camb­dens Britan­nia, p. 317. Mr. Seldens notes to Ead­merus, p. 165. where the Charter is re­corded: and most of our Historians in the life of K. William. Speeds Histo­ry, p. 451. thank­fulnesse to God for this his victory, whereby he gained possession of the Crown; out of the Spoyls and Gains of his Warr, erect­ed a Magnificent Church and Abbey, to the glory of God and St. Martin (which he called de Bello, or Battel Abbey) in that very place where Harold was slain, and this battel fought; which likewise he endowed with large possessions, Tithes and most ample Privileges by his Charter, and therein offered up to God HIS SWORD, and the royal robe which he ware the day of his Coronation, there reserved as a Mo­nument as well of his Piety as Victory.

[Page 71]After which this pretended Conqueror Hoveden Annalium pars posterior p. 601.608. Mr Selden ad E­admerum No­tae, p. 171, 172, 173. Spelman. Concil. Tom. 1. p. 619. In­gulphi Hist. p. 914. in the fourth year of his reign by the Counsel of his Barons, through all the Counties of England caused 12. men of the most Noble, wise and skilfullest in the Law, to be summoned out of every shire, that he might learn their Laws and Customs from them; and gave them this Oath, That proceeding in a right path, without declining to the right hand or the left, to the best of their power, they should make known to him the Customs and Sanctions of their Lawes, pretermitting nothing, adding nothing, and altering nothing in them by prevarication: which they accordingly performing; and King William intending to alter the Law only in one par­ticular according to the Lawes of Norway, from whence he and his Normans descended; all the Barons and Grand English En­quest who presented him their Laws on Oath, being much grieved at it, unanimously besought him, that he would permit them to enjoy their proper Laws and antient Customs under which their Fathers lived, and themselves had been born and educated, be­cause they deemed it very hard for them to receive unknown Lawes, and to judge of those things they knew not, importunately beseeching him for the soul of K. Edward (WHO HAD GRAN­TED TO HIM THE CROWN and KINGDOM AFTER HIS DEATH, and whose Lawes they were) that hee would not compell them to persevere under the Lawes of any Foreiners, but their own Country Laws alone. Wherefore the King taking advice, consented to the request of his Barons, confirming all their Lawes and Customs in Parliament without any alteration or diminution, as they presented them. Whereof this is the very first Law concerning the preservation of the Churches rights, and Scholars from rapine.

Hoveden, ib. p. 601 Seldeni ad Eadmerum Notae, p. 173. Every Clergy-man, and likewise all Scholars, and all their Goods and Possessions, wheresoever they are, shall enjoy the Peace of God and of holy Church, free from all forfeiture, and seisure; and if any shall lay hands on that which Mother Church shall require, LET HIM RESTORE THAT WHICH HEE SHALL TAKE AWAY, and likewise one hundred shillings in the name of a forfeiture, if it be from an Abbey, or Church of Religion; and twenty shillings if it be from a Mother Parish Church; and ten shillings if it be from a Chapel. After Hoveden ib. p. 601, 602. Spelman Con­cil. p. 619, 620. Lambardi Ar­chaion. which follow 6. other Lawes concerning the Churches [Page 72] peace and privileges; and then these two Laws concerning TITHES.

Of the TITHES of the Church.

Of all Corn the tenth Sheaf is given to God, and therefore to be paid. If any shall have a herd of Mares, let him pay the tenth colt; he who shall have only one or two, let him pay a penny for every colt. Likewise he who shall have many Kine, let him pay the tenth calf; he who shall have but one or two, let him pay a penny for every calf: and he who shall make cheese, let him give the tenth to God, and if he shall make none, the milk every tenth day: Likewise the tenth Lamb, the tenth Fleece, the tenth Butter, the tenth Pig.

Of BEES and all lesser TITHES.

In like manner also of Bees, the tenth of the profit, and also of Wood, of Meadows, Waters and Mills, and Ponds, and Fishings, and Copses, and Orchards, and Gardens, and Negotiations; (wherein Souldiery and all other Professions are inclu­ded) and all things which the Lord shall give the Tenth part is to be tendred to him who giveth the Nine parts toge­ther with the Tenth: And he who shall detain it shall be compelled to render it by the Iustice of the Bishop, and of the King if néed be: For these things St. Augustine hath preached and taught, and these things are granted by the Kings and Barons and People. But afterward (let our Tith-oppugners, and detainers mark who is their original Tutor) By the instinct of the Devil, many have detained Tithes; and rich negligent Priests do not care to prosecute them, because they had sufficient necessaries for their life; for in many places now there are three or four Churches, where at that time was only one, and so they began to be diminished.

[Page 73]This is that William the Conquerour, whom our Offi­cers, Souldiers (with the Levellers and Anabaptists) most virulently reproach and rail against in their Discourses, and silly ignorant scurrilous Royal Ty­ranny disco­vered: A defi­ance against Arbitrary usur­pation. Eng­lands Birth­right; and many late Pamphlets else. Pamphlets, for an Invader, Ʋsurper, ROBBER, TYRANT and subverter of our native Lawes and Liberties, &c. when as he claimed the Crown onely by Gist and Title, confirmed all our antient Lawes, Liberties, Civil and Ecclesiastical, without any alteration or di­minution; put never a Noble man but one, or other person to death who rebelled or took up Armes against him all his reign, but such who were actually slain in Battel; was the gallantest Souldier, and best Justiciary of any in his age (as someWill. Mal­mesbury De Gestis Regum Angl. l. 2. p. 93. &c. and Naucl. Speeds History p. 451. Daniel in his Life.Histo­rians then living attest) and not only much devoted to Religion, daily frequenting the Church both morning and evening, but like­wise very industrious and bountiful to promote it; honouring and richly endowing the Clergy that lived according to their rule and profession, but being very rough and hard-hearted to the licentious and scandalous, degrading his own Ʋnkle Malgerius Archbishop of Rhoan, and many English Bishops for their dissolute lives; founding no lesse then three Churches and Abbies of chief note (whereof that of Battel. was one) endowing them with large Poss [...]ssions and Privileges (according to the piety of those times) out of his Conquests, and confirming all the Clergies Tithes, Rights, Privileges by the recited Lawes. If those Officers, Souldiers, who now pretend themselves Conquerors, and us a Conquered (or rather cousened) Nation, will really imitate his Justice, Piety, Bounty, in these reci­ted particulars; no man will thenceforth bestow on them such reproachfull termes, of Invaders, Ʋsurpers, Robbers, Tyrants, Subverters of our Lawes, Liberties, &c. as they do usu­ally on this first Norman King; but repute them real Saints, Patrons of Religion, Ministers and the Church, yea Sons of faithfull Abraham, who gave the tenth of the spoyls of war to God; whose example, with all the rest here recited, in jus­tice, conscience rather oblige them to imitate his and their footsteps (as the premises; evidence) than to spoyl our Mini­sters, Churches of their Tithes and Materials. And so much in Answer of the first Evasion, respecting our Army-Officers and Souldiers only.

[Page 74] Object.The second Evasion of Abrahams Precedent, is made by Country Farmers, Tradesmen, and their Advocates: who allege, That Abraham gave the tenth only of his spoyls gained in War to M [...]lchisedec, but not of his Corn, Wine, Cattel and other Goods; therefore this example bindes only Souldiers to pay personal, but not them or any others to pay any such predial, mixt or personal Tithes, as now they do by coercive Lawes and Ordinances, against Law and Gospel, as they pretend.

To which I answer,

Answ.1. That the expresse words of Moses, Gen. 14.20. are: And he gave him Tithes OF ALL. Which being universal, not confined by him to the spoyls taken in war, must be ta­ken and intended in the See Calvin and others on the place. largest sense, that is, of all his Substance, or Encrease, as well as of the spoyls then won: as the Syriack and Arabick translations, Solomon Jarchi and others interpret it.

2. The Apostle reciting the History Heb. 7.2. useth the self-same general expression: To whom also Abraham gave a tenth part OF ALL, without restraining it to the Spoyls of War: which must be intended in the best and liberalest sense, for Tithes of all his Substance and gain, being menti­oned both to expresse his Piety and Bounty. True it is, the Apostle in the 4. verse useth this expression, Ʋnto whom the Patriarch Abraham gave the tenth of the spoyls; which Mr. Seldens History of Tithes and Survey, ch. 1. some oppugners of Tithes, would have to be the Interpretation of the two former universal phrases; Tithes of all: But the Spoyls being not Abrahams all, nor in truth any part there­of, he refusing so much as to take a thred or shoe-latchet thereof to his own use, Gen. 14.23, 24. and the word all, being not so much as once used in the latter clause, which recites, he gave the tenth of the (not all the) Spoyls; and the two first general expressions, necessarily including in them the tenth of the spoyls; I conceive the latter expression is rather a particular specification of one memorable thing he paid Tithes of in a new case not formerly happening, even of the Spoyls taken in this first Battel he ever waged, or any other that we read of (included in the general) rather than a full comprehensive exposition of all that is or was intended, [Page 75] by the Tenth, or Tithes of all, in the two precedent Texts.

3. It is most probable, that Abraham paid Tithes of all his own substance to Melchisedec, as well as of the spoyls; there being the self-same, if not a stronger ground, for him to pay Tithes of all his other goods, encrease, as of these casual spoyls, out of which no constant maintenance could be raised for any Pastor, or Minister, as there might be out of the Tithes of his Cattel and Substance encreasing every year. Now Tithes being intended for the Priests and Ministers constant maintenance by God and Man, and this Precedent of Abraham, recorded for that end; we can­not without an absurdity, restrain his paying Tithes of all, only to the spoyls then, and then only unexpectedly gain­ed from the enemy by Abraham, and restored by him to the right owners, the tenths of them only excepted; but, of the Tithes of all his Substance principally, whence a con­stant livelihood for the Priest could only arise, and of the spoyls of Warr only by reason of his occasional meeting of Abraham then returning from the Warrs, and blessing him at that time.

4. This president of his, was in all probability, the ground of Gods appointing Tithes, by a special Law, for all the Priests and Levites MAINTENANCE amongst the Israelites, Abra­hams Posterity, and the Apostle intimates as much, Heb. 7.4, 5, 6, 7, 8, &c. that they receive Tithes of their Brethren in the same manner by the Law, as Melchisedec did of their Father Abraham. Now they received Tithes of Corn, Wine, Oyl, Cattel, all sorts of herbs and fruits, for their standing main­tenance and Inheritance too; Num. 18.20, to the end, Le­vit. 27.30, 31, 32, 33, 34. Deut. 14.22, 28. Therefore it is most probable, if not infallible, that Abraham paid Tithes to Melchisedec of all those things which the Levites and Priests afterward received from their brethren, not of the spoyls alone, out of which no certain Maintenance could be raised, not specified therefore in those general precepts concerning Tithes.

5. The Apostle arguing the natural justice of Ministers maintenance, Rom. 15.27. and 1 Cor. 9.11. useth this ex­pression. If we have sowen unto you spiritual things (in the plu­ral [Page 76] number) is it a great matter if we shall reap your CARNAL THINGS, in the plural number too; and such things as seem commonly to grow and multiply; as the word reap imports. And Gal. 6.6. he useth this general precept, Let him that is taught in the word, communicate to him that teach­eth IN ALL GOOD THINGS: Therefore to restrain A­brahams giving Tithes of all, only to the spoyls, and not to all his carnal and good things, is a very improper exposition, dissonant from the scope and sense of these parallel Texts, which seem aptly to interpret it.

6. The very Pharisee in the Gospel, boasting of his Justice and Piety, used this expression, parallel with that of Abra­ham, Luke 18.12. I GIVE TITHES OF ALL THAT I POSSESSE; and to confine Abrahams giving Tithes of all, to the Tithes only of the spoils, and not to extend it, with the Pharisee, to all that he poss [...]ssed besides, is to make this Father of the Faithful, less righteous, liberal, devout than this hypocritical Pharisie.

7. That which seems to put all our of question, is the parallel Text of Gen. 28.20, 21, 22. Where Jacob after his travelling vision, makes this vow to God, even before the Le­vitical Law for Tithes; If God will be with me, so that I come again to my Fathers house in peace; Then shall the Lord be my God, and this stone which I have set up for a pillar, shall be Gods house: and of all that thou shalt give me, I will surely (without diminution, substraction, or failing) give the Tenth unto thée: Whence should godly Jacob take his pattern of surely giving the Tenth of all (not of spoils alone) that God should give him, unto God, but from the practice of his Grand-father Abraham, who gave M [...]lchisedec the Tenth of all God gave him, as well as of the Spoils? Honouring God with all his Substance and increase: according to that pre­cept of Solomon (having relation to his practice and this Vow of Jacobs) Prov. 3.9. Honour the Lord with thy Sub­stance, and with the first fruits of all thy increase. And so much in refutation of this second Evasion, which some ar­med men much urge.

The third Objection,Object: 3. which some would make fatal to all Tithes under the Gospel, is from the close of the A­postles [Page 77] forecited words: Heb. 7.12. For the Priesthood being changed, there is also a necessity of a change of the Law, &c. From whence William Thorp, (one of our Martyrs) thus reasoned against Tithes, and others now, Fox Acts & Monuments vol. 1. p. 700. Saint Paul saith, That Tithes were given in the old Law to Levites and to Priests, that came of the linage of Levi; but our Priests come not of the linage of Levi, but of Juda, to which Juda no Tithes were promised to be given: And therefore Paul saith, since the Priesthood is chan­ged from the generation of Levi to Juda, its necessary that chang­ing also be made of the Law: So that Priests must live now with­out Tithes and other Dues that they claim, following Christ and his Apostles in wilfull poverty, as they have given them exam­ple.

I Answer 1.Answer. That the Apostle in this, and the three fol­lowing Chapters, concludes and proves by sundry Argu­ments, That the Levitical Priesthood and the Ceremoni­al Law, given the people under Moses (the see Hemin­gius & others on this place. Covenant of this Priesthood) were both changed and abolished by Christ, and his everlasting Priesthood, shadowed to us by them; and by consequence the maintenance of the Levitical Priests by Sacrifices offered by them at the Altar, by first fruits and Tithes themselves, so far as they were Ceremo­nial, prescribed by the Ceremonial Law, for the mainte­nance only of these abolished Levitical Priests and Levites; which is all this Scripture proves, when pressed to the ut­termost. But can any rational man hence conclude, The Levitical Priesthood, the Ceremonial law, and all the tithes, maintenance due to the Jewish Priests and Levites by this Law are abolished by Christ, a Priest for ever after after the order of Melchisedec, to whom Tithes were due and paid by Abraham, before this law and Priesthood instituted: Therefore all Tithes, maintenance due and paid to Mel­chisedec, (and in him to Christ, and the Ministers of the Gos­pel under him) are eternally abolished as Jewish and Le­vitical? Surely this is a mad inference, both besides and against this Text; from which all Orthodox Protestant Commentators, as well as Papist and Jesuites, conclude the quite contrary, and learned Nicholas Hemingius in his Commentary on it, p. 805. thus determines, It is subjoyned, [Page 78] that Melchisedec received Tithes from Abraham, which Tithes Abraham verily gave of his own accord, following without doubt the custome of Conquerors (Let our Conquering Officers, Souldiers observe and do the like) who were wont to con­secrate the tenths of their Spoyls to their Gods, or to give them to their Priests. But this collation of Tithes, See Walafri­di Strabi de Rebus Eccles. c. 27. multo meliori Jure Christo Sacerdoti debetur; is due by much better Right to Christ our Priest; who as he gives all things to us out of méer bounty; ita vicissim illi non solum Decimas, verum etiam omnia nostra debemus; so we owe to him again, not only Tithes▪ but likewise all we have. Whether the Objectors or Hemingius speak most Gospel Divinity and Reason from this Text, let every Christians conscience judge.

2. The Apostles words concerning the change and abro­gation of the Ceremonial Law, have no coherence with or relation to the precedent discourse, concerning payment of Tithes to Melchisedec and the Levites; recited only to prove the dignity and excellency of Melchisedecs Priesthood above Aarons; and of the Levitical Priests and Levites above their Brethren, from whom they received Tithes. The force of the Argument, reduced into a Logical form, being thus. He who receives Tithes for the execution of his Priestly Office, is better and greater tha [...] he who payes Tithes; But the Patriarch Abraham himself, the very Father of the Faithfull, and Prince of the Fathers, paid Tithes to Melchisedec; and like­wise the Levitical Priests (then in his loyns) in and by him; who yet receive Tithe of their Brethren, but not of their Father Abra­ham or Melchisedec: Therefore Melchisedec is better and greater than Abraham and them, and they than their Brethren who paid them Tithes. And by consequence, Christ being a Priest for ever after the order of Melchisedec, who was but a type of him, must be better and greater than Abraham, (Joh. 8.55, 56.) or the Levitical Priests, or than Melchisdec himself, who did but typifie him. This excellency and precedency of Christs Priesthood before Aarons, he proves by other Ar­guments drawn from Melchisedec, not pertinent to our pre­sent businesse; after which he largely argues the change and abolition of the Levitical Law and Priesthood by [Page 79] Christ, (a theam of a different nature from the former) to which the objected words refer; therefore the total and final abolishing of all Tithes, to which these words have no relation, can never be inforced from them; being ratifyed by the former clause, as appurtenances to Christs everlast­ing Priesthood, as well as to Melchisedecs; Therefore as due to his Ministers under the Gospel, as to any Priests and Levites under the Law, which were likewise Types of Christ, the true high Priest, expiring at and by his death.

3. The Priests and Levites under the Law had Cities, Glebes, Houses setled on them for their habitation, families, Cattel, as well as Tithes, by the Ceremonial Law, for their better maintenance, accommodation; and that in a large proporti­on, Lev. 25.32, 33, 34. Num. 35.1, to 12. Josh. 21.1, to 43. 1 Chr. 6.54, to the end, ch. 9.10, to 35. 2 Chr. 11.13, 14. Ezra 2.70. Neh. 11.26. ch. 13.10. Ezec. 45.1, to 6. ch. 4.8, 9, to 15. If then this Text proves the Total Abolition of all our Ministers Tithes, root and branch, as Jewish and Antichristian; as some impudent Scriblers and Petitioners against them, now affirm: It likewise proves the abolition of all their Rectories, Glebes, Houses likewise, as well as of their Tithes, as Jewish and Antichristian: And so Ministers of the Gospel now shall neither have Tithes nor Glebes to support and feed them, their families and Cattel; nor yet so much as an House wherein to lodge and put their heads; and be inforced to complain as our Saviour once did of his for­lorn condition, Mat. 8.20. and Luke 9.58. the Foxes have holes, and the Birds of the air have Nests, but the Son of Man hath not where to lay his head. A condition to which some Je­suitical, Anabaptistical, Athiestical, uncharitable beasts of Prey, worse than any Foxes or Harpies, would now gladly reduce all our faithful Ministers and their Families, whiles some of them Lord it, and lodge themselves in our Kings, Princes, Bishops, Deans and Chapters new acquired royal Palaces, and not content therewith, would spoyl all our Ministers of their more contemptible Glebes, Rectories, Tithes, to enrich themselves and their Posterities, and make our Ministers like our Saviour in his voluntary Po­verty, both Houseless and Harborless. They may with as much [Page 80] Justice (like the hard-hearted bloudy Jews, Souldiers) evenMat. 27.35. Luke 23.32, to 46. Joh. 19.18. crucifie them on crosses, between such thieves as them­selves, to make them like our Saviour, even in his volunta­ry sufferings; as part their Glebes, Lands, Rectories, Tithes among them, and cast Lots upon their vestures, even before their death, when as the Souldiers who crucified our Saviour, did not part his raiment amongst them, nor cast Lots on his vest­ure till after his crucifixion by them, John 19.23, 24. Mat. 27.35, 36. there being as much Authority, Conscience, Law, Justice, Reason for the one, as other: seeing none by any Laws can lose or forfeit their Lands, Livelihood, but such who first forfeit their Lives to publick Justice.

4. The Israelites were enjoyned by the Levitical Law, Deut. 12.17, 18, 19. ch. 14.26, 27, 28, 29. to harbour, enter­tain the Priests, and Levites within their gates, and not to forsake them so long as they should live upon the earth, but freely to permit and invite them to come, eat, drink, feast, rejoyce, and be satisfied with them and their Families before the Lord; as well as to pay them Tithes. But this Law (as they argue) is now abo­lished by Christ with the Priesthood; Therefore when our Ministers are stript of all their Tithes, Glebes, Rectories, Houses, maintenance by our new Reformadoes; it must be Jewish and Antichristian for them or any others so much as to lodge, entertain, or give them any thing to eat or drink within their gates, or so much as to admit, invite them to a Feast, or meal within their Houses; and then they, with all theirs and other poor widows and orphans, must all pre­sently starve, perish by See his voyce from the Tem­ple p. 2. John Cannes and these uncharitable mens new Gospel Light and Charity, because Hospitality and Alms to such, are Levitical and Jewish, abolished with the Levitical Law and Priesthood; which abrogated all Charity and Humanity out of the world, as well as out of these Tithe-Oppugners hearts, if this their Objection be Orthodox Gospel truth.

5. Meer Freewill Offerings and voluntary unconstrained Con­tributions were prescribed by the Levitical and Judicial law, both for and towards the maintenance of Gods Priests, and wor­ship; for the building, and repairing of the Tabernacle, and of the Temple afterwards, towards which the godly Kings, Princes, [Page 81] Generals, Captains, Officers, Souldiers, and all the pious people of God contributed most joyfully, liberally, and in such abundance upon all occasions, that they gave far more than was sufficient; and thereupon were prohibited by special Proclamation to give or bring any more (as in the case of Materials of all sorts, for the building and furniture of the Tabernacle of the congregation) and of the Temple, towards which many Heathen Kings, and their Officers contributed freely, and the very captive Jews, Exod. 35.20, to 30. chap. 36.2, to 9. Levit. 22.18, 21, 23. chap. 23.38. Num. 15.3. chap. 29.39. chap. 31.48, to the end, 1 Chron. 26.26, 27, 28. chap. 22.1, to 17. chap. 29.1, to 17. 2 Chron. 24.4, to 15. chap. 27.3. chap. 29.3, to 20.31. chap. 34.8, to 15. Ezra 1. throughout, chap. 3.5. chap. 7.16. chap. 8.28, 29. Therefore Ministers under the Gos­pel must not be maintained, nor Churches, Houses for pub­lick Assemblies built or repaired by Free-will offerings, and voluntary contributions, being Levitical, Jewish, and so abandoned; and if not by Tithes nor forced Rates as they allege, then the Ministers must utterly starve, and all our Churches fall to sudden ruine, as many now do. And is this Gospel Saintship and Christianity?

6. The Priests and Levites by the Levitical Law, were prescribed what wives they should marry, and what not, Levit. 21.7, to the 14. will it therefore follow (as the Papist Votaries conclude) Therefore Ministers of the Gospel must not marry? and must all now be divorced from their wives, as well as from their Tithes and Benefices, because the Le­vitical law is abolished, and Priests wives Jewish, as well as their Tithes? Our beastly Ranters then may seize upon Mi­nisters wives, as well as the brutish Anabaptists, Quakers, Swordmen on their Tithes and Glebes.

7. The seventh day Sabbath it self, though prescribed by a Exod. 20.8, 9, 10. Deut. 5.19. Moral law, was in some sense ceremonial, and enjoyn­ed by Exod. 31.14, 15, 16. c. 35.2, 3. Lev. 24.8. Num. 28.9, 10. Deut 5.14, 15. Levit. 23.3. Ceremonial laws too; therefore (as Dr. Bound, Dr. Twisse, Dr. White, and others, of the Sabbath. Bishop An­drews, Mr. Downham Mr. Cleaver, Mr. Dod on the fourth Commande­ment, and all other Com­mentators on it. most af­firm) abrogated by Christs death as Jewish, as to the precise seventh day from the Creation, and the Jewish rigidities, Sacrifices on it; will it therefore follow, that it is Jewish and unlawfull for Christians under the Gospel, to observe the Lords day every week, and render unto God the same [Page 82] weekly proportion of time for publike worship, as the Jews did, or to keep any publike Fasts, or Feasts to God at all, as the Jews by the Levitical law were bound to doe? If so, then farewell all Lords-dayes, Fasts, Feasts, publike Assemblies for Gods worship, all Ministers, Churches, (and God himself together with them) as well as Tithes; let Gain, Money be the only Deities henceforth adored among us, as the Motto stamped upon our new State-coyn, God with us, and most mens practices sadly proclaim, to Gods dishonour, and Religions intolerable defamation. These Answers, I pre­sume, will for ever satisfie or silence these Objectors, with His second voice from the Temple. John Canne, their new Champion, who may now discern their grosse mistake; and learn this for a general certain truth: That whatever is not in its own nature and Origi­nal, meerly Jewish and ceremonial, but hath a kind of natu­ral justice, equity, conveniency, morality or necessity in it, and had a divine original, institution before the ceremonial Law given, or the Levitical Priesthood instituted; That thing, though afterwards given, limited, prescribed to the Levitical Priests or Israelites by a general or special Levi­tical Law abrogated by Christ, doth neither cease its being, nor become unlawfull in its primitive, or proper use unto Christian Ministers or Believers under the Gospel, by the abolishing of the Levitical Law and Priesthood; but may, and must necessarily be continued, practised, perpetuated among them without the least sin, scandal, or Judaism, according to its own primitive institution, or natural, ne­cessary, divine, moral or civil use; else Bread, meat, drink, wives, clothes, religious Sabbaths, Fasts, Feasts, Edifices and Assemblies for Gods publick worship, Houses for Hos­pitality, Charity to Ministers, to poor distressed Saints, People, (yea reading, prayer, preaching of the word of God, Magistracy and Government it self) should be utterly unlawfull unto Christian Ministers and People, as well as Tithes; because given, prescribed to be used by the Levi­tical Priests and Jews, by the Levitical Law. Therefore seeing meat, drink, food, raiment, Lands, Houses, and a competent proportion of all worldly necessaries, are as sim­ply needfull for the preservation, subsistence of the Ministers [Page 83] of the Gospel and their Families now under the Gospel, as for the Priests, Levites before and under the Law, or all other sorts of men in the world, who cannot live without them: And seeing Tithes, Lands, Houses, both before and under the Law, were originally given to and setled by God and Men upon Priests and Levites first, and Ministers since, not as meer Types, Shadows, Ceremonies, but as a just, fitting, convenient recompence of their Labour, necessary maintenance, Livelihood, habitation, residence for them and their Families, to provide them meat, drink, Books, clothes, and other necessaries to live by: Why our Mini­sters under the Gospel should not still enjoy them in this kind and Nature, without the least shadow of Judaism, as well as Melchisedec before the Law, or the Jewish Priests and Levites under it, or their Predecessors before them, even from the first settlement of the Gospel amongst us, or as well as any other Men, or the Objectors do enjoy their Lands, Goods, Houses, and the other nine parts of their Tithes encrease, for their Livelihood and subsistence, as well as the Jews without any sin or Judaism, transcends my ca­pacity to apprehend, and the ability of all armed or un­armed Enemies of Tithes or Glebes to demonstrate from Scripture, Law, Reason, or the objected abused Text, over-long insisted on, to clear it from all ignorant or wilfull wrestings. And so much for the payment of Tithes by Decimas Deo & sacer­dotibus Dei dandas, Abra­ham factis, Jacob promis­sis insinuat; deinde Lex Statuit, & Omnes Docto­res sancti commemorant walafridi Strabi De Re­bus Ecclesias­ticus. c. 27. A­braham, and vowing them by Jacob, before the Law, to jus­tifie the lawfulnesse and continuance of them under the Gospel, against all cavilling Exceptions.

Secondly, I shall make good the Proposition from the Maintenance of the Priests and Levites by Glebes, Tithes, and Oblations under the Law, urged as the strongest, if not only Reason against them: and thus form my Ar­gument.

That which God himself, who is infinitely and only wife, just, holy, did by his special Laws, Edicts institute, prescribe, as the most expedient, equal, fit, just, rational, convenient maintenance of all other for his own Priests and Levites to receive and take from his own People (when once setled in the promised Land) for the execu­tion [Page 84] of their function; must questionlesse be, not only a lawfull, but the most expedient, equal, fit, just, ratio­nal, convenient maintenance of all other for his Ministers of the Gospel to receive, and take from all believing Christians in any setled Christian Kingdome, State, Church under the Gospel; especially, if he hath neither positively prohibited this kind and way of maintenance, nor specially prescribed any other way or kind of setled maintenance for them in and by the Gospel.

But God himself, who is infinitely and Rom. 16.27. Psal. 147.5. Isa. 45.21. Zeph. 3.5. Acts 3.14. Josh. 24.19. Isa. 6.3. Rom. 4.3. chap. 15.4. only wise, just, holy, did by his special Laws, Edicts institute, prescribe Houses, Lands, Glebes, T [...]thes, and Oblations, as the most expedient, equal, fitting, just, rational, convenient maintenance of all other for his own Priests and Levites to receive and take from his own people, when once setled in the promised Land, for the execution of their Functions; and hath neither positively prohibited this kind or way of maintenance, nor specially prescribed any other way or kind of set­led maintenance for them in and by the Gospel.

Ergo, It must questionlesse be, not only a lawfull, but the most expedient, equal, fit, just, rational, convenient maintenance of all other for his Ministers of the Gospel from all believing Christians in any setled Kingdome, State, Church under the Gospel.

The Major, I suppose no rational Christian can or will deny, except he thinks himself (as King Alphonso, the proud Atheistical self-conceited Astronomer did) more wise, just, holy than God himself; and abler to carve out a more ex­pedient, equal, just, fitting, rational, convenient mainte­nance for Gods Priests, Levites, Ministers, than God himself hath done; and dare bid defiance to this Gospel precept, Eph. 5.1. Be ye therefore followers of God as dear children: The Minor I shall thus confirm in order.

1. That God did by special Laws, Edicts institute and prescribe Cities, Suburbs, Lands, Houses, Glebes, for the Priests and Levites habitation, and the better maintenance of them and their Cattel, and that in a liberal proportion, is apparent by Num. 35. from v. 1, to 12. where we find re­corded; [Page 85] That the Lord spake unto Moses in the plain of Moab, by Jordan near Jericho, saying; command the Children of Israel that they give unto the Levites of the Inheritances of their possession, Cities to Dwell in; and ye shall give also unto the Levites Suburbs for their Cities round about them. And the Cities they shall have to Dwell in, and the suburbs of them, shall be for their Cattel, and for their Goods, and for all their Beasts. And the suburbs of the Cities which ye shall give unto the Levites, shall reach from the wall of the City and outward, a thousand Cubits round about. And ye shall mea­sure from without the City on the East side two thousand Cubits, and on the South side two thousand Cubits, and on the West side two thousand Cubits, and on the North side two thousand Cubits, and the City shall be in the midst; this shall be to them the suburbs of the Cities. And among the Cities which ye shall give unto the Levites, there shall be six Cities for refuge, which ye shall appoint for the Manslayer, that he may fly thither; and to them ye shall adde forty and two Cities. So all the Cities which ye shall give to the Levites shall be forty and eight Cities, them shall ye give with their Suburbs. And the Cities which ye shall give shall be of the poss [...]ssion of the Children of Israel: from them that have many, ye shall give many; and from them that have few, ye shall give few: Everyone shall give of his Cities, according to his inheri­tance which he inheriteth. This positive just command of God was given before the Israelites entrance into, and conquest of the land of Canaan: And this further positive law then likewise made against the sale and alienation of these Glebes and Possessions. Levit. 25.32, 33, 34. Notwithstanding the Cities of the Levites, and the Houses of the Cities of their possession, may the Levites redeem at any time, which others could not doe, v. 30, 31. And if a man purchase of the Levites, then the House that was sold and the City of his posses­sion shall go out in the year of Jubile; for the houses of the Le­vites are their possession among the children of Israel: but the field of the Suburbs of their City may not be sold, for it is their perpe­tual Possession. After this, when the land of Canaan was fully conquered by the Israelites and divided amongst the Tribes by bounds and limits, we read, Josh. 21.1, to 43. Then came near the heads of the Fathers of the Levites unto Ele­azer [Page 86] the Priest, and unto Joshua the son of Nun, and unto the heads of the tribes of the Children of Israel; and they spake unto them at Shilo in the land of Canaan, saying, The Lord com­manded by the hand of Moses (in the text forecited) To give us Cities to dwell in with the Suburbs thereof for our cattel. And the children of Israel gave unto the Levites, at the command­ment of the Lord (mark it all enemies of our Ministers, Rec­tories, Lands, Glebes, Maintenance) these Cities and their Suburbs. Then follow the Names and Places of the Cities allotted to the Levites proportionably out of every tribe, and how they were divided by lot amongst them: which you may read in the text it self, over large to transcribe. Af­ter which ensues this cloze of the story, v. 8.41, 42. And the children of Israel gave by lot unto the Levites these Cities and their Suburbs, as the Lord commanded by the hand of Mo­ses, all the Cities of the Levites within the possession of the chil­dren of Israel, were forty and eight Cities, with their Sub­urbs: These Cities were every one with their Suburbs round a­bout them: Thus were all the Cities. In 1 Chron: 6: We have a recital of the Sons and Families of Levi, and the Office of the Priests and Levites, with the names of all the Cities and Suburbs alloted to them out of every Tribe, agreeing with this of Joshua, where those who please may read them at their leisure. These fourty eight Cities and their Suburbs (as some conceive) amounted to the tenth, or at least twelfth Part of the Cities and Land of Canaan; the Priests and Levites ac­cording to their number, enjoying in proportion as large a share of the promised Land, as any of the other Tribes, for their Habitation and Glebes: besides their Tithes, first-Fruits, Offerings and other Dues.

All which (as In his Ser­mon, April 17, 1608. in de­fence of the Honourable Function of Bishops. Dr. George Downham, and In his Pilgri­mage, l. 2. c. 7. p. 133. the first Edition. Mr. Samu­el Purchas observe) amounted to a far greater proportion for the maintenance of that small Tribe, than all the Bishopricks, Deane­ries, Benefices, Cathedral and College lands, Revenues, Glebes, Tithes, and whatsoever Ecclesiastical Profits, endowments of the Clergy, and Scholars in our whole Kingdom and Nation. After this, when the Temple of Jerusalem was built, where the Priests and Levites were to wait in their several Courses succes­sively, by Davids appointment (1 Chron. chap. 23, to chap. [Page 78] 27. 2 Chron. 8.14, 15. chap. 23.8. and ch. 13 10, 11. ch. 29.4. chap. 31.2. chap. 35. 2. Levit. 1.5, 8, 9.) they had Houses, Chambers, lodgings provided for them at Jerusalem, near the Temple, (where some of them constantly dwelt and at­tended,) and likewise for the Tithes, first-fruits and oblations brought thither to them, 1 Chron. 9.10, to 35. chap. 23.28. chap. 28.11, 12, 13. 2 Chron. 2, to 13. Ezra 8.29. Neh. 10.37, 38, 39. chap. 12.44, 45, 47. chap. 13.4, to 15. Ezech: 40.4, to 45. chap. 42.1, to 19. chap. 44.19. chap. 46.19. These Cities, Suburbs, Habitations, Chambers, the Priests and Levits constantly enjoyed without interruption til the revolt of the ten tribes from Rehoboam: when Jeroboam the usurper erected two Golden Calves in Dan and Bethel, to keep the people from going up to Jerusalem to worship God there, out of carnal fear and suspition; saying in his heart, Now shall the Kingdom return to the house of David, if the people go up to Jerusalem to do Sacrifice in the House of the Lord there, then shall the heart of this people turn back again to their Lord, even unto Rehoboam King of Judah, and they shall kill me, and go again to Rehoboam King of Iudah, 1 Kings 12.26, to 33. and then we read 2 Chron. 11.13, 14, 15, 16. The Priests and the Levites that were in all Israel resorted to Rehobo­am out of all their Coasts; For the Levites left their Suburbs and their Possessions, and came to Judah and Jerusalem; for Jeroboam and his sons had cast them out from executing the Priests Office unto the Lord; and he ordained him Priests for the High Places, 1 Kings 13:33. 2 Kings 17.32. of the lowest of the People, and for the Devils, and the Calves which he had made: which King Abijah warring with him after his Fathers death, (when he claimed the right of his usurped Crown,) thus objected against him, and the revolted Tribes, 2 Chr: 13.4, to 14. Hear me thou Jeroboam and all Israel: Ought ye not to know that the Lord God of Israel gave the Kingdom over Israel to David for ever, even to him and to his Sons by a Covenant of Salt? Yet Jeroboam the son of Nebat, the servant of Solomon, the Son of David, is risen up, and hath rebelled against his Lord. And there are gathered unto him vain men, the children of Be­lial, and have strengthened themselves against Rehoboam the Son of Solomon, when Rehoboam was young and tender-heart­ed, [Page 88] and could not withstand him. And now ye think to with­stand the Kingdom of the Lord, in the hand of the sons of David, and ye be a great multitude, and there be with you Golden Calves, which Jeroboam made you for Gods. Have ye not cast out the Priests of the Lord, the sons of Aaron, and the Levites, and have made you Priests after the manner of the Nations of other lands; so that whosoever cometh to Consecrate himself, with a young Bullock and seven Rams, the same may be a Priest of them that are no Gods? But as for us the Lord is our God, and we have not forsaken him; and the Priests which minister unto the Lord are the Sons of Aaron, and the Levites wait upon their business: &c. For we keep the Charge of the Lord our God; but ye have forsaken him: And behold God himself is with us for our Captain, and his Priests with sounding Trumpets, to cry allarum against you. The issue of this Atheistical State-po­licy, and Sacrilegious deprivation, spoliation of Gods Priests and Levites of their Suburbs, Possessions, Ministry by Jeroboam and his Sons, is very remarkable.

1 It brought ruine upon his whole Army, though dou­ble the number of Abijah his host, of whom they had a great advantage by an ambushment; God himself smiting him and his host, so that they fled before Judah; and Abijah and his people sl [...]w them with a great slaughter, so that there fell down slain of Israel five hundred thousand chosen men, 2 Chron. 13.13, to 20. The greatest slaughter in one battel, that e­ver we read of in Sacred or prophane Stories before or since.

2. It brought Captivity on his Adherents and people, who were brought under at that time, pursued, and had their Cities taken and plundered, v. 18, 19.

3. It drew down this misery and fatal Judgement on him­self, v. 20. Neither did Jeroboam recover strength again in the dayes of Abijah; and the Lord strook him and he died.

4. It became sin to the house of Jeroboam, even to cut it off, and to destroy it from the face of the earth, 1 Kings 13.33, 34.

5. It made all the succeeding Kings of Israel professed Ido­laters, and most of them bloudy Murtherers, Ʋsurpers, Perse­cutors, and produced perpetual successive civil warrs between Judah and Israel, 1 Kings 14.30. chap. 15.6, 7, 16, 32. 2 Chron. 28.4, to 12.

[Page 89]6. It brought final captivity, ruine and desolation in con­clusion to the whole kingdom of Israel, and the ten revolt­ing Tribes, 2 Kings 17.20, 21, 22, 23. where this sad sto­ry is recorded. And the Lord rejected all the seed of Israel, and afflicted them, and delivered them into the hand of spoilers, until he had cast them out of his sight. For he rent Israel from the house of David. And they made Jeroboam the Son of Nebat King, (of which God thus complains, Hos. 8.4. They have set up Kings, but not by me, they have made Princes and I knew it not) and Jeroboam drave Israel from following the Lord, and made them sin a great sin: for the children of Israel walked in all the sins of Jeroboam which he did, they departed not from them, untill the Lord removed Israel out of his sight, as he had said by all his servants the Prophets: So was Israel carried away out of their own Land to Assyria, till this Day; when as the Kingdom of Judah Dr. Usher. annales Eccles. veteris Testa­menti. p. 132. continued above 134. years after in Davids royal posterity, enjoying Gods Priests, Levites, Prophets and Ordinances, till their captivity for their sins, in mocking, abusing his Messengers, Prophets, and despising his words, 2 Chron. 36.16, 17. And then See the Books of Ezra and Nehemiah. after 70. years cap­tivity, they were restored again to their Country, re-edified Jeru­salem and the Temple; and with them, the Priests, and Le­vites returning from bondage, were restored likewise to their Cities and Glebes (of which the Kings of Judah never depri­ved them, as Jeroboam and his Sons, and the Kings of Israel, who were all Idolaters did) whence thus we read Ezra. 2.70. So the Priests and the Levites, and the Singers, and the Por­ters, the Nethinims dwelt in their Cities, and all Israel in their Cities; Thus seconded, Neh. 11.18, 20. All the Levites in the holy City were 284. and the residue of Israel, of the Priests and Levites, were in all the Cities of Judah, every Man in his Inheritance; and Neh. 13.10. The Levites and Singers that did the work, were fled every one to his field. In the Prophecie of Ezechiel (written during the Jews Captivity, in the Land of the Chaldeans, Ezech. 1.1, 2, 3.) prophesying of the re-edi­fiing of the Temple, the dimensions and whole fabrick there­of, ch. 40.1, to 45. we find frequent mention of holy Cham­bers therein, provided for the Priests, and their vestments. And ch. 45.1, to 5. God enjoyns the Israelites by this Prophet [Page 90] upon their restitution to their own Land, when they should divide it by Lot for an Inheritance; That they should offer an holy portion of the Land, an oblation unto the Lord: the length thereof twenty five thousand reeds; and the breadth ten thousand; This shall be holy in all the borders thereof round about. Of this there shall be for the Sanctuary 500 reeds in length, with 500 in breadth square round about; and fifty Cubits round about for the Suburbs thereof. Then he addes: The holy Portion of the land shall be for the Priests, the Ministers of the sanctuary; which shall come neer to minister unto the Lord, and it shall be a place for their Houses, and an holy place for the Sanctuary. And the 25000. of length, and 10000. of breadth, Shall also the Levites, the Ministers of the House have for themselves, for a possession for twenty Chambers. In the 47. Chapter verse 13. to the end of the Prophecy, he writes of the bounds and division of the land of Canaan (after their restitution) according to their several tribes, in relation to and imitation of the bounds and division of it formerly made and recited by Joshua: out of which there was a special portion reserved for the Priests and Levites, as there was in Joshua's division fore­cited: Thus expressed, Ezeck. 48.8, to 15. And by the bor­der of Judah, from the East side unto the West side, shall be the offering, which they shall offer of 25000. reeds in breadth, and in length as one of the other parts, from the East side unto the West side; and the sanctuary shall be in the midst of it: The oblation ye shall offer unto the Lord, shall be of 25000. in length, and 10000 in breadth: And for them, even for the Priests shall be this holy Oblation; toward the North 25000. in length, and toward the West 10000. in breadth; and toward the East 10000 in breadth, and toward the South 25000 in length, and the sanctuary of the Lord shall be in the midst thereof. It shall be for the Priests, that are sanctified, of the sons of Zadock, which have kept my charge, which went not astray, when the children of Israel went astray (after Jeroboam and his calves) as the Levites went astray. And this oblation of the land that is offered, shall be unto them a thing most holy by the border of the Le­vites. And over against the border of the Priests, the Levites shall have 25000. in length, and 10000. in breadth: all the length shall be 25000, and the breadth 10000. reeds. And they [Page 91] shall not sell of it, neither exchange, nor alienate the first fruits of the land, for it is holy unto the Lord.

From all these Scriptures (here recited at large for the Readers fuller satisfaction, conviction, and ease in turning to them) these conclusions undeniably arise,

1. That the Priests and Levits had by Gods special com­mand, precept (oft repeated) both Cities, Houses, Sub­urbs, Lands, Glebes designed to & setled on them by their brethren out of all the other tribes of Israel, for their ha­bitation, and the keeping, feeding of their Cattel, Goods, Beasts, and that in a very large and bountifull proportion. And likewise necessary, convenient houses, chambers, lodg­ings neer the Temple, when first built, and when re-edified afterwards; which refutes the common errour of those ig­norant Simpletons and illiterate New-lights, who from Numb. 18.20. Deut. 10.9. chap. 18.1, 2. The Priests, the Levites, and all the tribe of Levi shall have no part nor inheritance with Israel: they shall eat the offerings of the Lord made by fire, and his inheritance: Therefore shall they have no inheritance a­mong their brethren, the Lord is their inheritance, as he hath said unto them; Conclude: That the Priests and Levites amongst the Israelites, had no Cities, houses, lands, suburbs or possessions of their own belonging to their Office, and were expresly forbidden by God to receive or enjoy any among their brethren: And hence inferr; That Ministers of the Gospel ought not to enjoy any Rectories, Houses, Lands or Glebes: Whereas all the forecited Scriptures di­rectly record the contrary; and the meaning of these see­ming repugnant texts, is only this; Heylins Cos­mography, p. 564. That they should have no inheritance amongst their Brethren in such sort and manner as they had; set out altogether in one parcel by Joshua and the rest who divided the land amongst the tribes by lot (which would have hindred them from their duties) but only a subsequent assignment of certain Cities, houses and suburbs seat­tered and divided one from another, in and out of every tribes inheritance; that so they might perform their offices with more ease, and be alwayes ready at hand in every tribe, to teach and instruct the people upon all occasions.

2. That the inheritance of the Cities, houses and suburbs, [Page 92] which they enjoyed, were not reputed their own proper inheritance, though they enjoyed the possession and pro­fits thereof, but Gods inheritance, as a thing devoted and dedicated unto God himself; and therefore stiled by Ezekiel, an Oblation unto God, and an holy portion; as See Spelman. Concil Ingul­phi Historia: Mat. Westm. Antiq. Eccles. Brit. M. Sel­dens History of Tithes, ch. 1. and our Kings and o­thers antient Charters of Donations to Abbies and Churches. Histories, Di­vines, Common, Civil and Canon Lawyers stile all our Rec­tories, Church-lands, and Glebes, with the Charters that first setled them, being given and consecrated, Deo et Ec­clesiae, an oblation unto God, and the Church.

3. That these endowments and Glebes of theirs, were called, reputed Gods own Portion and Inheritance.

1. Because given by his special command and appoint­ment by all the tribes.

2. Because originally consecrated, devoted to God and to his Priests and Ministers onely in Gods right, for his sake.

3. Because given to promote Gods worship, service, glory, and for an habitation, support to Gods own Priests and Levites, imployed wholly in his immediate service.

4. That they were expresly prohibited to be sold, exchan­ged, or alienated by the Priests, Levites, or any others; because they were reserved by and given unto God himself, as an holy Portion and Oblation, and to the Priests and Levites for a perpe­tual poss [...]ssion, in regard of the perception of the profits, the inhe­ritance of them residing only in God himself: Therfore not pos­sible to be justly and lawfully sold, exchanged, or alienated by, the Priests, Levites, or any other mortal Powers what­soever, who could claim no power, right, property, or disposing interest in or over them against Gods own Sove­raign and sacred title.

5. That these Cities, Suburbs, Glebes, were ratably set out in and by every tribe in an equal proportion, accor­ding to the multitude or paucity of their Cities, as a Tenth of their Cities and lands, to which their 48 Cities and Sub­urbs amounted as some probably conceive. And yet be­sides these 48 Cities, there were Houses and Schools of Pro­phets, and Prophets children (in nature of our Universities) in Bethel and in Jericho, 2 Kings 2.3, 4, 5, 7, to 24. chap. 6.1, 2, 3, 4. which were none of these 48 Cities.

[Page 93]6. That none of the Kings and Princes of Judah, (though many of them were Idolatrous, wicked, and put to great extremities to raise monies to pay their Armies, and Tri­butes to forein Invaders and Conquerors) did yet ever at­tempt to sell or alienate the Cities, Suburbs, or revenues of the Priests and Levites to maintain their warrs, or pay publike Debts or tributes, though King Asa, Jehoash, He­zekiah (by way of loan) made bold with the Silver and Gold in the treasure of the Lords house, in cases of publike ex­tremity (which might be, and was afterwards re-paid,) 1 Kings 15.18. cap. 18.15. 2 Chron. 16.2. Yea, the Scrip­ture expresly records, that in the great famine in Aegypt, when all others sold their lands, to buy bread, to King Pharaoh, only the Lands of the Priests bought he not: For the Priests had a Portion assigned them of Pharaoh, and did eat their por­tion which Pharaoh gave them; wherefore they sold not their Lands Gen. 47.20, to 27.

7. That the Idolatrous usurper Jeroboam, out of a carnal fear and policy to keep the people from returning to their rightfull Soveraign, and establish the crown on himself and his Posterity, was the first man we read of, and his Idola­trous sons and successors after him, who cast out Gods Priests and Levites out of their offices, and then, out of their Cities, Sub­urbs and Possessions, which he enforced them to desert, (though we read not, that they sold them to maintain their Warrs or pay Soldiers arrears;) who thereupon repaired to Jerusa­lem, to Rehoboam the right heir, and after them out of all the tribes of Israel, such as set their hearts to seek the Lord God of Israel, came to Jerusalem to enjoy Gods Ordinances, & strength­ned Rehoboam and his kingdom, against this persecuting usur­per, 2 Chron. 11.13, to 18.

8. That this his casting out of the Priests and Levites from their Offices and P [...]ss [...]ssions, making Priests of the lowest of the People, and suffering every one that would to consecrate himself a Priest without a lawfull call, is objected against Jeroboam by Abijah as a very high crime, and provocation against God; and the maintaining, encouraging of Gods lawfull Priests and Levites in their Offices and setled possessions, alleged by him as a certain argument of Gods presence [Page 94] with him, and so with any other King and people, and of victory, successe in conclusion, against sacrilegious Usur­pers.

9. That when Gods lawfull Priests and Levites are depri­ved of their Glebes and Possessions, we must presently ex­pect, a base, contemptible, time-serving, Idolatrous, igno­rant Priestood, Jeroboams Golden Calves, with their new Feasts and Sacrifices, and a universal inundation of Idola­try, wickedness, prophanness to ensue, with all the fore­mentioned calamities, which befell Ieroboams Army, adhe­rents, subjects, Person, Family, Kingdom: which the Lord now set home on all our hearts, that we may never be guil­ty of such a sacrilegious, ruinating, God-provoking, Realm-destroying, Church-subverting practice in the least degree, as some would now perswade us to, in stripping our Mini­sters of all their Glebes, Rectories, Tithes and setled main­tenance at one blow, (which even Pharaoh himself, and godly Joseph refused to do towards the very Idolatrous Priests of Ae­gypt, allowing them an extraordinary daily portion to preserve their lands from sale in time of famine, Gen. 47.22, 26.) where­to they have as lawfull, as just, as Divine a right, as these Priests and Levites had to their Cities, Suburbs, Houses and Possessions, as I shall prove anon.

2. That God only wise did by special Laws and Edicts institute and prescribe Tithes, as the most expedient, equi­table, fitting, just, rational, convenient Maintenance and Reward of all other for his own Priests and Levites, is un­deniably proved by Levit: 27.30, 31, 32. Deut: 12.17, 18, 19, 31. ch. 14.22. to the end, ch. 26.7, 12, 13, 14, 15. Num: 18.21, to 32. Neh: 10.37, 38, 39. ch. 12.44. ch. 13.5, 11, 12, 13, 14 Prov: 3.9. 2 Chron: 31.3, to 15. Mal: 3.8, 9, 10. Luke 18.12. Heb: 7.5, 8, 9. which Texts all may read at leisure, and are needlesse to transcribe at large, this truth being confessed by all Opposites to Tithes, who hence condemn them as Iewish and Ceremonial Rites now abolished. That which I shall observe from them, is briefly this.

1. That the payment of Tithes to the Priests and Levites, was positively prescribed by Gods special Precepts and Commands, frequently recited, inculcated.

[Page 95]2. That Gods own People were specially commanded by him to pay Walafridi Strabi De Re­bus Eccles. ch, 27. Tithes of the seed and increase of all their Land; of all Corn, Wine, Oyl, Fruits, yea, of Garden-Herbs, Seeds, Matth. 23.3. Luke 11.42. and likewise of the increase of all their Cattel, Herds, Flocks.

3. That God gave these Tithes, and all the tenth in Israel, to the Priests and Levites for an Inheritance, as a due Reward for their Service which they serve, even the Service of the Taber­nacle of the Congregation; which all Israelites else were pro­hibited to come into, or do Service in; Lest they bear their Sin and dye; And this was to be a Statute for ever throughout their Generations. Nam. 18.21, 22, 23, 26, 31. Heb. 7.5.

4. That All the Tithes of the Land, Seed, Fruit, Herbs, Flocks, and of whatsoever Annually increased, or passed under the Rod, are expressely said to be the Lords, to be holy unto the Lord, consecrated unto the Lord, and an Heave-offering unto the Lord, which he gave unto the Priests and Levites, for an inheritance, Levit. 27.28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33. Num. 18.24. 2 Chron. 31.6.

5. That God enjoyned all the Israelites, Truly to tithe all the Tithes of their Increase, and not to eat or embesle, detain or exchange any of it, especially for the worse, Deut. 14.21. ch. 12.17. Levit. 27.33. Mal. 3.8. And if any man would redeem his Tithes, he was to give the full price, and adde a fifth part over to it. Levit. 27.31.

6. That all these Tithes were to be brought by the people to the places and Treasuries appointed for them, (the Corn ready threshed, winnowed, and the Wine, Oyl, Fruits in Vessels) at the peoples own costs, without any trouble to the Priests or Levites; and if the place, whither they were to be brought, was too far off, then, that they called the second Tithe, ought to be turned into money by the Owner, and the money paid to the Priests and Levites in lieu thereof. Deut. 12.17, 18, 19. ch. 14.22, to 28. ch. 26.12, 13, 14. 2 Chron. 31.6, 12, 13, 14. Neh. 10.38, 39. ch. 12.44. ch. 13.5, to 12. Amos 4.4. Mal. 3.10.

7. That the detaining of these Tithes from the Priests and Levites, was a great sin and Sacrilegious robbing of God himself, accompanied with his Curse, and punished with [Page 96] Si non dederis mihi deci­mam, auferam novem, Wala­fridi Strabi De Rebus Eccles. c. 27. See Cal­vin in Mal. 3. Augustin de Tempore Ser­mo 219. Bo­chellus Decret. Ecclesiae Gal. l. 7. Tit. 8. c. 28, 31. scarcity, barrenness, devouring locusts, blasting of the fruits of the earth, &c. Mal. 3.8, 9, 10. (a place worthy the saddest consideration of all Tithe-Oppugners and Substracters) Will a man rob God, yet ye have robbed me: But ye say, Wherein have we robbed thee? In Tithes and Offerings: (Here is the Sacri­legious Sin; pray mark the just deserved punishment:) Ye are cursed with a Curse: For ye have robbed me, even this whole Nation (what this Curse was, follows) THE DEVOURER, (that is, devouring Creatures, as Locusts, Caterpillars, Palmer-worms, Canker-worms, and the like) did destroy the fruits of their Ground, their Vines did cast their Fruit before their Times in the Field; And God blasted and destroyed all their Corn and fruits with blasting and Mildew, and Hail; Amos 4.9. Joel 1.4. yea, They sowed much and brought in little; they did eat, but had not enough; they did drink, but yet were not satisfied with drink: they did cloth themselves, but there was no warmth: and he that earneth wages, earneth it to put it into a bag with holes. They looked for much, and lo it came to little, and when they brought it home, God did blow upon it; yea, the heaven over them was stayed from Dew, and the earth was stayed from her fruits, and God called for a drought upon the Land, and upon the Mountains, and upon the Corn, and upon the new Wine, and upon the Oyl, and upon that the ground brought forth, and upon Men and Cattel, and upon all the labour of their hands: when one came to an heap of 20. measures, there were but ten; when one came to the Presse-fat for to draw out fifty Vessels, there were but twenty; and the Wine, and the figs, and Pomegranate tree, and the Olive tree, did not bring forth, Hag. 1.6, 9, to 11. ch. 2.16, 17, 19. O that all hard-hearted, covetous, hypocri­tical, atheistical detainers of, and Declaimers against Tithes, and Ministers Just setled Maintenance, would lay these Judgements and curses of God close unto their hearts, that so they might therby be reclaimed from their robbery and Sacrilege against God, and prevent, divert these Judge­ments, Curses from themselves, and our whole Nation, which they have cause to fear, and will doubtlesse feell them to their smart and losse, if they rob God and our Ministers of their Tithes, and maintenance in such sort as many now strenuously endeavour!

[Page 97]8. That God himself annexed many gracious Aug, Serm. 219. Walafri­di Strabi de Rebus Eccles. c. 27. Synodus Lingon. 1404. Bochellus De­cret. Eccles. Gall. l. 6. Tit. 8. c. 31. Promises of giving abundance of all earthly and spiritual blessings, to the chearfull, conscientious due payment of Tithes to his Priests and Levites for their Maintenance; which I shall recite, to excite men chearfully to this practice now, Deut. 14.22, 23, 28, 29. Thou shalt Truly Tithe all the increase of thy seed, corn, wine, oyl, herds, flocks; that thou mayest learn to fear the Lord thy God alwayes; And that the Lord thy God may bless thee in all the work of thy Hand, which thou doest, Deut. 26.12, 13, 14, 15. When thou hast made an end of tithing all the Tithes of thine increase, the third year, which is the year of Tithing, and hast given it unto the Levite, &c. Then thou shalt say before the Lord thy God, I have brought away the Hallowed things out of mine House, and also have given them unto the Le­vite, &c. According to all thy Commandements which thou hast commanded me, I have not transgressed thy Comman­dements, neither have I forgotten them. I have not eaten thereof in my mourning, neither have I taken away ought there­of for my Ʋnclean Ʋse, nor given ought thereof for the dead, but I have hearkened to the Voice of the Lord my God, And have done according to all that thou hast commmanded me: Look down from thy Holy Habitation from Heaven, And bless thy peo­ple Israel, and the Land which thou hast given us, a Land that floweth with milk and honey. Such a conscientious true pay­ment of Tithes as this, according to all Gods Comman­dements, without the least Substraction or embezlement, emboldens, enables every particular man to make such a Prayer to God, as this, not only for himself, but for the whole Land; brings a blessing upon himself and all the Realm, yea makes it a Land flowing with milk and honey, and abundance of all rich blessings. Besides, we read in 2 Chr. 31.1, to 15. That when godly King Hezekiah had destroyed Idolatry, and appointed the Courses of the Priests, and Levites after their Courses, every man according to his service, he brought [...]urings, and Peace-offerings, to minister and to give thanks, and to praise in all the Gates of the Tents of the Lord: He appointed also the Kings portion of his Substance for the burnt-offe­rings, for the morning and evening; for the Sabbaths, the new Moons, and set Feasts; moreover he commanded the people that [Page 98] dwelt in Jerusalem, To give the Portion of the Priests and the Levites, that they might be encouraged in the Law of the Lord. And as soon as the Commandement came abroad, the children of Israel brought in abundance, the first Fruits of Corn, Wine, Oyl and Honey, and of all the encrease of the field, and the Tithes of all things brought they in abundance. And concerning the children of Israel and Judah, that dwelt in the Cities of Judah, They also brought in the Tithes of Ox­en, and Sheep, and the Tithe of holy things, which were dedicated unto the Lord their God, and laid them by heaps. In the third moneth they began to lay the foundation of the heaps, and finished them in the seventh moneth, and when Hezekiah and the Princes came and saw the heaps, they blessed the Lord and his People Israel. Then Hezekiah questioned with the Priests and Levites concerning the heaps; And Azariah the chief Priest of the House of Zadok, answered him, and said; Since the People began to bring the Offerings into the house of the Lord; We have had enough to eat, and have left Plenty: (But did the people grow poor thereby? no, but much richer than before) for the Lord hath blessed his people, and that which is left, is this great store. Then Hezekiah command­ed to prepare Chambers (or store-houses) in the house of the Lord, and they prepared them, and brought in the Offerings and the Tithes, and the dedicate things faithfully; over which Cononiah the Levite was Ruler. How different was this prac­tice of all the people and godly Saints in those daies, in a chearfull bringing in their Tithes and Oblations to the Priests and Levites in abundance for their encouragement; which caused King Hezekiah, his Princes, the Priests, Levites, and God himself to bless them; from the sacrilegious practice of Tith-detaining Hypocritical Saints, Anabaptists, Quakers, Sectaries and Christians in our daies: who shall never re­ceive such a blessing as this from God or good men, but their curses? If these Texts and Presidents will not move such hard-hearted men, let them consider both this [...] ­cept and promise of God, Prov. 3.9, 10. Honour the Lord with thy Substance, and with the first fruits of thine encrease: So shall thy Barns be filled with Plenty, and thy Press shall burst out with new Wine: And Mal: 3.7, 10, 11, 12. [Page 99] Return unto me, and I will return unto you, saith the Lord of hosts, but ye said Wherein shall we return? Bring ye all the Tithes into the Store-house, that there may be meat in mine house, and prove me now herewith, saith the Lord of Hosts, If I will not o­pen you the windows of heaven, and Si dederis mihi Decimas. multiplicabo novem: Ideo ergo dandae sunt Decimae, ut hac devoti­one Deus pla­catus, largius praestet quae necessaria sunt Walafridi Strabi de Re­bus Eccles. c. 27. Augustin. Sermo. 219. powr you out a blessing, that there shall not be room enough to receive it; And I will rebuke the devourer for your sakes, and he shall not destroy the fruits of your ground, neither shall your Vine cast her fruit, before her time in the field, saith the Lord of Hosts: And all nations shall call you blessed, for ye shall be a delight some land, saith the Lord of Hosts. What Christians heart (though never so covetous and worldly) should not these sacred promises of God, (the last of them recorded in the last of all the Books and Prophets in the Old Testament, they being not meerly Levitical and Judaical, but of eternal verity, use, and evangelical too) excite and engage, most cheerfully to pay and bring in all their Tithes and Dues to Gods Mini­sters now, as well as to the Priests and Levites heretofore; Christ himself having made like parallel promises of blessings and rewards for relieving and maintaining his Ministers in the Gospel, Mat. 10.40, 41, 42. Mark 9.41. Phil. 4.18, 19?

9. That the due payment of Tithes to Gods Priests and Levites, was a great encouragement to them in the law of the Lord, and in the diligent execution of their duties, 2 Chron. 31.3, 4, 5, 10. And on the contrary, The with-holding of them from them, a great discouragement, necessitating them to desert their duties and functions: witnesse that memo­rable Text, Neh. 13.10, 11, 12. And I perceived that the portions of the Levites had not been given them (mark the conse­quence) For the Levites and the Singers, that did the work were fled every one to his field. Then contended I with the Rulers, and said; Why is the house of God forsaken? and I gathered them together, and set them in their place. Then brought all Ju­dah the Tithes of the Corn, and the new Wine, and the Oyl unto their treasuries; And I made treasurers over the trea­suries, Shelemiah the Priest, and Zadock the Scribe, and of the Levites Pedajah, &c. for they were counted faithfull; and their office was to distribute unto their Brethren. Which reason still continuing under the Gospel in relation to the Ministers [Page 100] and Preachers thereof (Heb: 13.16, 17. Phil. 4.10, to 21.) is a strong argument to engage all true Christians desiring the propagation of the Gospel, and a painfull able Ministry duly to pay their tithes and portions to them.

10. That it was the bounden duty, care of See Guliel­mus Stuckius Antiqu. con­vivalium l. 1. c. 19. Religious Kings and Governours amongst Gods own people, when the people were backwards to pay and bring their Tithes and duties to the Priests and Levites, to command, and enforce them to do it by special Covenants and Oaths, sealed, subscribed by the Princes and people (Neh. 9.38. cap. 10.1, to the end) and likewise by positive Ordinances, Injunctions, and to be earnest and zealous in it, as the two last recited examples of King Hezekiah and Nehemiah evidence; And this was so far from being an unjust, oppressive action and grievance to the people, as some now term it; that it is recorded by God himself for their Honour, and others imitation, yea so well-pleasing unto God, that Nehemiah clozeth up the history of his acting in this kind, with this memorable addresse and prayer to God himself, Neh. 13.14 Remember me, O my God, concerning this, and wipe not out the good déeds that I have done for the House of my God, and for the Offices thereof. And will not God re­member their ill Deeds in wrath and vengeance, who shall do the contrary to what he and King Hezekiah acted, in robbing God and his Ministers of their Tithes and set­led dues?

Hieron Su­per Ezech. Jo­sephus Scaliger Diatriba de Decimis. Dru­sius Pro. ad Mat. 13. Pur­chas Pilgri­mage, l, 2. c. 7. M. Seldens Hi­story of Tithes Gulielmus Stuckius An­tiqu. Conviva­lium l. 1. c. 19. St. Hierom with others affirm: That the Israelites had four sorts of Tithes.

1. That which the people paid to the Levites, being the Tenth of every thing that was food for man, not so much as Herbs excepted, and whatever received increase from the earth.

2. That which the Levites paid to the Priests, being the full tenth of their Tithes.

3. That which they received for expences in their so­lemn feasts, when they went to the Tabernacle or Temple, whereof the Owner and his family were to eat in those Feasts as well as the Levite, Deut. 4.26, 27. ch. 12.17, 18.

4. The third years Tithes, which were then laid up for [Page 101] the Levites, and likewise for the stranger, the fatherlesse, the poor widdow within their gates, in the Husbandmans own Barns and Store-houses, and not then carried to Jerusalem, as the other Tithes were. Deut. 14.28, 29. ch. 26.12, 13. Their first and second Tithes every year (as they affirm) amounted to 19. in the hundred; So as the Husbandmans clear Lay-Chattel, the Tithes first deducted, came but to eighty one bushels of Corn, or eighty one Pipes or Tuns of Wine, or Oyl, in every hundred; which considering the costs the Husbandman was at in threshing and fanning the Corn, bar­relling up the Wine and Oyl, and carrying them to Jeru­salem, and the Priests treasuries at their own costs, amount­ed to double the Tithes we pay now and more; besides the first fruits paid out of them in kind before the Tithes; their Free-will Offerings, Sacrifices, Oblations and other charges of Gods worship prescribed by the Levitical law, together with half a shekel every poll for the service of the Tabernacle, Exod. 30.12, 13, 14. yet the Israelites were obliged by God to pay all these Tithes, which all the godly amongst them chearfully did without murmuring, not­withstanding every seventh year amongst them was Sabbati­cal, and free from tillage, and the voluntary fruits of the earth then growing were to be for the poor, and the beasts of the field were to eat the rest, Exod. 23.10, 11. Lev. 25.3, &c. What would our Anabaptists, Quakers and tithe-oppug­ners have said and done, had they been born Israelites, un­der the law, and clogged with so many Tithes and expences, who now grumble at and refuse to pay half so much Tithes as they constantly did, though they pay no first-fruits, Sa­crifices, and other costly Oblations of several sorts to God, as the Israelites did, besides all these Tithes? I fear their covetous, Sacrilegious hard hearts would have induced them to cast off, not only Gods Priests and Levites (as now many of them do our Ministers) as superfluous creatures, but even all Gods chargeable Ordinances and Levitical forms of worship, as intollerable grievances, oppressions, yea renounced God himself to save their purses, and turn­ed Atheists out-right: Let them therefore reform this their Sacrilegious tithe-detaining practices and opinions, [Page 102] lest whiles they pretend to avoid Judaism, they prove worse than the very Jews themselves; yea worse than the very Jewish Pharisees, (the worst of Jewes) who paid tithes even of Rue, Annis, Mint, Cumin, all other Herbs, and of all they had. Mat. 23.23. Luke 11.42. cap. 18.12. Whose righteousness all Christians righteousness must exceed by Christs own verdict, else they shall never enter into the kingdom of hea­ven, Mat. 5.20. Nay worse than the very Idolatrous Jewes under Jeroboam and his successors, who paid their Tithes duely even to the base Idolatrous Priests at Bethel and Gil­gal, who waited on the Service of the golden Calves, and brought all the Oblations to their very Calves, which God reserved to his Priests, Levites, and himself, as is evi­dent by Amos 4.4, 5. Come ye to Bethel and transgresse, at Gilgal multiply transgression; and bring your Sacrifices every morning and your Tithes after thrée years, and offer a Sa­crifice of thanksgiving with leaven, and proclaim and publish the free offerings, for this liketh you, O ye children of Israel, saith the Lord of Hosts. Let those Pharisees, idolatrous Jews and Israelites practice then shame all our Anabaptists, Quakers, Soldiers, Sectaries, and other Tith-oppugners now, lest they rise up in judgement and condemn them, at the last day.

These forementioned Cities, Suburbs, Houses, Glebes, Tithes, thus setled on the Priests and Levites for their Ha­bitation, maintenance and reward of their Ministerial Fun­ction, had nothing properly typical or Ceremonial in them; and being assigned to them by God himself only, for their necessary Habitation and competent Livelihood, may and ought to be continued, and imitated in a fitting proporti­on under the Gospel, for the Habitation, maintenance, livelihood, reward of the Preachers of the Gospel, who are to live by the Gospel, as well as they did by the Temple and Altar, 1 Cor. 9.13, 14.

3. There was another supplemental maintenance, besides these Glebes and Tithes, prescribed by God in the Leviti­cal law for the Priests, which was properly Ceremonial, Le­vitical, and quite abolished with that Priesthood by Christs death; and that was the Priests share out of every meat-Offering, [Page 103] made of fine flower, oyl and frankincense, unto the Lord by the people; a small part whereof the Priests were to offer up to God upon the Altar, and the remnant which was left, was to be Aarons and his sons, with the breast and right shoulder of eve­ry Peace-Offering, offered by the people, called the Wave-breast, and the heave-shoulder, given by God to the Priest, who offered the bloud and fat of the Peace-offering at the Altar, together with the skin of every burnt-offering, Levit: 2.3, 10. chap. 7.6, to 11. and 28, to 38. Exod: 29.26, 27, 28. chap. 9.21. Numb. 6.19, 20. And from them that offered a Sacrifice, whe­ther it were Ox or Sheep, this was the Priests DƲE likewise from the people; they were to give unto the Priest the shoulder and the two cheeks and the maw, by Gods special appoint­ment, Deut: 18.3. Ezech: 44.29, 30. which Fee Eli the high Priests Sons exceeding, and exacting more than was due by violence, it exceedingly provoked God, made men to abhor the Sacrifice, of the Lord, and proved the ruine of Eli and his Fa­mily, 1 Sam: 2.12, to the end. These Dues and Fees of the Priests serving onely at the Altar, had no affinity with the forementioned Glebes and Tenths, belonging as well to the Levites as Priests, and therefore are distinctly prescri­bed by themselves. Now for any to argue that Tithes and Glebes, which were no wayes properly Ceremonial, Levi­tical or Typical, are quite abolished by Christ, and incom­patible with the Gospel, because those meat-offerings, Peace-offerings and Sacrifices, (which were meerly Cere­monial and Typical, and by consequence the Fees due un­to Priests out of them) are quite abolished by Christ, the onely true Hebr. c 9. & 10. through­out. Eph. 2.14, 15. 1 Cor. 5.7. meat-offering, peace-offering and Sacrifice for us unto God; is a meer Non sequitur, they being things of a dif­ferent nature; the one eternally abolished by Christ, as the whole Epistle to the Hebrews testifies, but the other not, as the said very Epistle attests, Hebrews 7.1, to 9. compared with 1 Cor: 9.4, to 16. 1 Tim: 5.17, 18. Gal: 6.6. And here I shall beat our Sword-men and other Tithe-oppugners with their own weapon. They tell us for an unquestiona­ble Gospel-Truth; That Ministers of the Gospel ought to have no certain or coercive Maintenance, but only voluntary Free-will-Offerings, such as the people shall willingly give them with­out [Page 104] any Law or constraint (though their own unordained Chaplains in the Army and Garrisons have constant pay each month out of the peoples Purses, to whom they do not speak, and are not maintained by the Souldiers free, but the peoples enforced Monthly Contributions; which practice they should first reform, if repugnant to the Gos­pel:) Now such Maintenance as this, is more properly and purely Levitical and Ceremonial than Tithes; since all Meat-Offerings, Peace-Offerings and Sacrifices, out of which the Levitical Priests were to have their Share and Mainte­nance, were only Frée-Will-Offerings voluntarily offered to God, without any coercion, when they pleased, Levit. 2.1. ch. 3.1. ch. 22.81, 19, 22, 23. Numb. 19.3. ch. 29.39. Deut. 12.6, 17. ch. 16.10. ch. 23.23. Psal. 54.6. Ezra 3.5. ch. 7.16. 2 Chron. 31.14. If then Tithes, Glebes, and all coercive, setled Maintenance for Ministers be abolished and unlawfull under the Gospel, though not primarily, and purely Levi­tical, but of divine, Moral, and natural Right, by the Dictate of natural reason; as Tyndarus, Rebuffus, and many others affirm in their Treatises of Tithes; then much more must their maintenance by Levitical Free-will-Offerings, Oblations, and Sacrifices be such; being more purely Levitical and Cere­monial that Tithes, as these Instances manifest, and 1 Cor. 9.13. Heb. 7.12, 13. And if Ministers of the Gospel must have neither a setled nor inforced Maintenance, by Glebes, Tithes or otherwise, as some now plead, nor yet an uncer­tain one by voluntary Free-will-Offerings and Contributions, they shall have no maintenance at all allowed them under the Gospel; whereas the Priests of God under the Law had both a certain setled Maintenance, reward by Glebes and Tithes; and likewise an arbitrary and uncertain, by their Fees, Dues out of the peoples Free-will-Offerings, and Sacri­fices; And why Ministers of the Gospel may not have a like setled, coercive Maintenance, both by Glebes and Tithes, and likewise an honorary super-additional reward accord­ing to their pains and merits, by the voluntary benevolences, and Free-will-Offerings of the People, as well as the Priests under the Law, or as well as Servants and all publick Offi­cers, Military or Civil; Let their Opposites render me a [Page 105] reason, when they are able; the Apostle resolving thus of Ministers of the Gospel in opposition to the Preists under the Law, Heb. 13.10. We have an Altar, whereof they have no right to eat which serve the Tabernacle; which text com­pared with 1 Cor: 9.13, 14. Do ye not know, that they which minister about holy things, live of the things of the Temple; and they which wait at the Altar, are partakers with the Altar? Even so hath the Lord ordained, that they which preach the Gospel should live of the Gospel; and with Phil. 4.18. But I have all, and abound, and am full, having received from Epaphrodi­tus the things (or voluntary Contribution) sent from you, an o­dour of a most swéet smell, a Sacrifice acceptable well pleasing to God: will warrant this Conclusion; that as the Gospel in these Texts retains the old legal Terms of Altar and Sacrifice, in a real Evangelical sense, in relation both to the Office and Maintenance of the Ministers of the Gospel; So Christians under the Gospel in the self same sense, may and ought to allow them the like setled Main­tenance by Glebes, Tithes, and likewise an Additional Re­ward by voluntary Evangelical Sacrifices and Oblations for attending on the new Gospel-Altar, Jesus Christ, and preach­ing of his Gospel, administring his sacraments to them, as the Priests under the Law received from the people, by Gods own institution.

4. There was another Additional way of Maintenance for the Priests under the Law, both certain and considera­ble by Gods special appointment; even the first-born of Man and unclean beasts, which were to be redeemed, at a set value given by God to the Priests; the firstlings of all their herds, beasts, flocks that were clean, payable in kind; the first-fruits al­so of their Ground, Corn, Wine, Oyl, of all manner of Trees, fruits, and likewise of their dough: which God peculiarly reserving and consecrating to himself as his own, and holy to himself; did yet transferre them to his Priests, and enjoyns the People to give and bring unto the Priests, That they may cause the Blessing of God to rest in the Peoples Houses; as you may read at leisure, Exod. 13.12, 13. ch. 22.29, 30. ch. 23.16, 19. ch. 34.19, 20, 22, 26. Levit. 2.12, 14. ch. 23.10, 20. ch. 27.26, 27, 28. N [...]m. 28.26. Deut. 12.6. ch. 14.23. ch. 15.19. ch. 26.2, 16. com­pared [Page 106] with Num. 18.11, to 20, 2 Kings 4.22. 2 Chron. 31.5. and Neh. 10.35, 36. ch. 12.44. ch. 13.12. Prov. 3.9. Ezech. 20.40. ch. 44.30. ch. 48.14. These first-fruits most hold to be meerly Ceremonial and Types of Christ, the first-born of God, Heb. 1.6. Psal. 89.27. The first-fruits from the dead, 1 Cor. 15.20, 23. and Types of Christians under the Gospel, who are called a kind of first-fruits of his creatures, Jam. 1.18. yea the first-fruits unto God, and to the Lamb, Rev. 14.4. Therfore abolished by Christ as Ceremonial and Levitical. But yet notwithstanding, seeing all true Christians are and ought still to be even Spiritual first-fruits unto God under the Gospel; To present themselves, their souls and bodies a li­ving Sacrifice, and Oblation, holy, acceptable unto God through Jesus Christ; in the first place, Rom. 12.1. 2 Cor. 8.2, 3, 4, 5. To seek first the Kingdom of God, Mat. 6.33. and then after­wards to be ready to consecrate not only themselves but all their Goods and Estates to God and his Service, so far forth as there is occasion or necessity, Acts 4.32, 33, 34, 35. I cannot yet discern, but that all Christians by a proportionable kind of Gospel and natural Equity, are still obliged to render a kind of first-fruits out of their Estates, besides their Tithes, for the maintenance and propagation of the Gospel when and where there is occasion; there being far more Equity and Gospel-justice for it, than that our Ministers, out of their small, scarce competent, and many very incompetent livings, should pay the first-fruits and first years profits of their livings to the King or State (as formerly they did unto the Pope through Papal Ʋsurpation onely) by the Statutes of 26 H. 8. c. 3.27 H. 8. c. 8.1. & 1 Eliz. c. 4. and almost or a­bove the tenth of all their livings to the Souldiers (amount­ing to treble their Tenths to the King or Pope) without any Grant at all by them or their Proxies in the usual, legal, just, Parliamental way, Cl. 9. E. 2. m. 17. Exact Abridgement p. 18, 189. A Brief Register, Kalendar, and Survey of Par­liamentary Writs. p. 3, 4, 7, 8, 34, 35, 40, 54, 61, 70, 72, 73, 120, 154. Rastals Taxes, and Tenths. against all their Rights, Privileges and our Laws: The Jewish Priests and Levites under the Law being never burthened with such first-fruits or taxes, by their Soveraigns, and exempted from them even by a heathen Con­queror, Ezra 7.24. Which those, who now endeavour to de­prive them of their Tithes, Glebes, and yet exact both first-fruits, Tenths and Contributions from them, may do well to consider.

[Page 107]Having thus related at large, what a liberal, various, full, and competent maintenance God setled on his Priests and Levites under the law, by Glebes, Tithes, Oblations, Sacri­fices, Poll-money, first-fruits, besides the Tenth and Tri­bute out of the very spoyls of war formerly insisted on, I shall now apply it home to the Ministers of, and Christians under the Gospel, in these short Aphorisms.

1. Ministers and Preachers of the Gospel inwardly qua­lified with sufficient Gifts, Graces, and lawfully called, or­dained, are Gods and Christs own institution, and Ministers, as well as Priests and Levites under the Law. Mat. 10.5, 6, 7. ch. 28.19, 20. Luke 10.1, 2, &c. ch. 24.47, 49, 53. Mark 6.7, 8, &c. ch. 16.15, 20. Acts 11.2, 3, 4, &c. ch. 14.23. ch. 19.1, 6, 7. ch. 26.17, 18, 28. Rom. 12.6, 7, 8. 1 Cor. 12.4, 8, 9, 28, 29, 30. ch. 14.29, 30, 31, 32, 40. Ephes. 4.8, to 17. Col. 4.17. 1 Tim. 3.1, 2. ch. 4.14, 15, 16. ch. 5.21, 22. Tit. 1.5, 6, 7. Heb. 13.17. Jam. 5.14, 15. 1 Thes. 5.13. 1 Cor. 4.1. 2 Cor. 3.6. ch. 11.23.

2. That their Ministry and Calling is far more Honorable, Glorious, necessary, beneficial to mens souls, than that of the Priests and Levites, under the Law. 2 Cor. 3.6, to 12. Heb. 7.1, to 14.

3. That it is far more painfull, laborious, than the Mi­nistery of the Priests and Levites under the Law. Acts 8.4. 2 Cor. 11.23, to 30. 1 Tim. 4.13, 14, 15. 2 Tim. 4.1. 1 Thes. 5.2. 2 Pet. 1.12. Rom. 15.19, 20. ch. 12.7, 8.

4. That therefore there is as just, as competent, as full, as honorable and setled a maintenance, and as much honour, reverence, obedience, love, as great recompence due unto them, for their very work and calling sake from all Christi­ans under the Gospel, as there was from Gods people to the Priests and Levites under the Law; as I have already proved in the first Proposition; and that by divine institu­tion, 1 Cor. 9.13, 14. 1 Tim. 5.17, 18, 21. From whence Comment. in 1 Thess. 5.13. p. 547. Hemingius (with most Orthodox Protestant Divines, I have seen besides, as well as Papists and Jesuites) concludes thus. Admoniantur igitur Pii, quod Iure Divino Ecclesiae Ministris debeant Stipendia; That all the godly are to be ad­monished, that by Divine Right they owe wages to the Mini­sters of the Gospel. And if so, then

[Page 108]5. It follows inevitably, that there being no other setled way of maintenance particularly prescribed for them in or by the Gospel; and convenient Houses, Glebes for them, their families, and necessary Cattel; with Tithes of the in­crease of the fruits of the earth, and Cattel of all sorts, be­ing as necessary, as requisite for the habitation, food, cloth­ing, support of them, their families, Ministry, and supply of all their necessaries with as little charge, trouble,Walafridi Strabi De Re­bus Eccles. ch. 27. diversion from their studies, functions as may be, as for the Priests and Levites under the Law: that Godly Christians, Kings, States, Parliaments, cannot pitch upon any equaller, fitter, juster, better, wiser, rationaller, convenienter, diviner way of maintenance for them, than that of necessary Houses, Rectories, Glebes in every Parish and Tithes and Oblati­ons of all things needfull for food, raiment, hospitality, it being the constant standing setled maintenance which the most wise, just, and holy God himself invented, prescribed for his own Priests and Levites maintenance amongst his own people, when setled by him in the land of Promise, and that which all setled Christian Empires, Kingdoms, States, Churches generally through the Christian world have in all ages pitched upon, as most agreeable to Gods will and word, under the Gospel, which no ways repeals nor contradicts his own former prescriptions of this kinde in the old Testament.

6. That the Glebes, Tithes of the Priests and Levites under the Law, were reserved by God himself (the Supreme Land-lord of all Kingdoms, Countries, Nations, Churches, People in the world, and the special God, Lord, King, Fa­ther, Saviour, Preserver of his own people) as Augustin. de Temp. Serm. 210. Walafri­di Strabi de Rebus Eccles. c. 27. Bochel­lus Decreta Eccles. Gal. l. 6. Tit. 8. c. 4.31. a Sacred, Holy Tribute, Rent, Portion, and Homage due unto Himself from poor Creatures, Servants, Vassals (who are no true Pro­prietors, but only Stewards and Tenants at will of all the lands, goods, earthly blessings and poss [...]ssions they enjoy; The earth being the Lords, and the fulnesse thereof, and the Corn, Wine, Cattel, fruits and earthly creatures we possess, not really ours, but Gods own, 1 Chr: 29.11, to 17. Psal. 24.1. Psal. 97.5. Psal. 50.9, 10, 11, 12. Ezech: 16.18, 19, 20. Hos. 2.8, 9. Dan. 4.32, [Page 109] 35. Mat: 6.10, 11.) The use and possession of which tribute, He allotted to the Priests and Levites under the Law for their main­tenance, salary and reward of their labour in his service, for the advancement of his worship, glory, honour, and his peoples spiri­tual good: reserving the inheritance and right thereof alwayes to himself; as the premises sufficiently evidence: Now God himself to whom alone Tithes and Glebes were originally impropriated; (not to the Levitical Priesthood) being un­changeable, without any variableness or shadow of turning, Jam: 1.17. Psal: 102.26, 27. Mal: 3.6. and Jesus Christ (to whom Tithes were first paid by Abraham in the person of Melchi­sedeck) having an unchangeable Priest-hood, and being a Priest for ever after the order of Melchisedeck, the same yesterday and to day and for ever, Heb: 7.8, 16, 11, 24. c. 13.8. And all Christians whatsoever under the Gospel, being as much his absolute Creatures, Vassals, Servants, Stewards and Te­nants at will, as the Israelites under the Law; and all their Lands, Goods, Earthly blessings, Corn, Wine, Cattel, wealth, imployments, his in right, and not their own, as well as theirs too; why they should not all render to him the self-same sacred Tribute, holy Portion, Rent, Homage of Glebes and Tithes of all they have, as well as they (though the Levitical Priesthood be abolished) they being so spe­cially reserved and consecrated to him [...]elf, for the support, maintenance, reward, encouragement of his faithfull Mi­nisters under the Gospel, imployed in his Service for his honour, glory, and their everlasting salvation; Let John Canne, and all presumptuous peremptory Tith-oppug­ners, answer me; yea, this their Soveraign Land-lord and Creator, if they can; who will one day call them to a st [...]ict accompt, for detaining this due Rent, Tribute, Homage from him, and may justly dispossesse and strip them naked of all they have for this their ingrate, contemptuous car­riage towards him, as he hath done many of late, by fearful fires, blasts, droughts, and other judgments, as well as heretofore, Mal. 3.8, 9, 11.

7. That as the Gospel it self succeeded the Levitical law, Baptism and the Lords Supper, Circumcision and the Passe­over: So the Bochellus Decret. Eccles. Gal. l. 6. Tis. 8. c. 42. Apostles and Ministers of the Gospel, suc­ceed [Page 110] the Priests and Levites under the Law in their Ministe­rial function in the Church of Christ, by Gods appointment: their Ministry and Office being both the same in substance (even to worship, praise, serve, honour God according to his revealed word, will, and instruct, exhort, direct, guide his people in the way of salvation, and bring them to eter­nal glory) though differing in some circumstances of lesser moment, abolished by Christs death. It is therefore most reasonable, just, equitable, convenient, they shall receive, enjoy the like setled maintenance by Glebes, Tithes, Ob­lations as their predecessors did, God having prescribed none other kinde of reward or subsistence for them in the Gospel that any can shew me. It is usual in all Kingdoms, States, Nations, where there are any publick setled offices and Officers, for any persons who succeed others in those Offices, to enjoy the self-same Salaries, Houses, Lands, Fees, Revenues as their predecessors lawfully received, unlesse there be some special Laws to alter their Sti­pends: This we see verified in all Civil, Military and Ec­clesiastical Officers; yea, in the times of greatest publick changes, revolutions that ever befell the Nation, those whom most yet call Judges, Sheriffs, Majors, Generals, Co­lonels, Captains, Governors of Forts, Registers, &c. though their Commissions be altered in some things, and them­selves in more, do yet receive the self-same Salaries, pays, Fees, maintenance annexed to their Offices, as their law­full Predecessors did; yea, to come closer home, All our Protestant Ministers, since the reformation of Reli­gion, have generally enjoyed the Glebes and Tithes (as the Parishioners enjoy, frequent the Churches, possesse the Houses, Inheritances,) which their Popish predeces­sors did before them; though the one of them (just like the Levitical abolished Priests) made it their chiefest businesse and part of their calling to say Masse, and offer an unbloody Sacrifice (as they falsly termed it) on their Altars both for the quick and dead; and the other, who suc­ceed them, make it their principal work to preach the Gospel, and administer the Sacrament according to Christs institution. Since then the Ministers of the Gos­pel [Page 111] succeed the Levitical, as well as the popish Priests, as the Gospel doth the Law, and the Christian Sacra­ments the Jewish; and we, with all converted Gentiles engraffed into Jesus Christ and the Church of God, suc­ceed the Jews, who were broken off from their own Olive Tree, that we might be ingraffed in their places, who now par­take of the root and fatnesse of their Olive Tree; as the Apostle resolves, Rom. 11.16, to 25. Why the Ministers of the Gospel should not likewise succeed the Levitical Priests (as well as the popish) in the enjoyment of their setled Maintenance by Glebes, Tithes, (being not meerly ce­remonial, as I have proved, nor yet so papal as Bishops, Deans, and Churches Lands, in which our Anabaptists, Army-Officers, and Tithe-oppugners will yet succeed them without any scruple) and all believing Gentiles, who succeed the believing Israelites in Gods Church, succeed them likewise in the due and just maintenance of their Ministers by Tithes and Glebes, reserved to and pre­scribed by that true, holy, just and righteous God, who is not only the God of the Jews, but of the Gentiles also, Rom. 3.19. Let any rational Christian now resolve his own Conscience and mine, from grounds of Scripture, Reason or Equi­ty, if he can; God having given us a Land flowing with milk and honey, as fit, as able to render Glebes and Tithes of all things in kinde to his Ministers, as he did unto the Jews. It is a received maxim in our Law, Quod venit in loco alterius est de natura Prioris. If this be Gospel, as it hath been ever held both Law and reason under the Gospel; I need adde no more to this Aphorism, to prove the lawfullnesse and equity of our Ministers Glebes and Tithes (and their continuance as well for the future as heretofore) by a divine Right.

8. That all Christian Churches, and pious Christians generally throughout the world, from the Apostles dayes till now, have unanimously resolved, both in point of Piety, Justice, Conscience, and right Reason, that they are bound to consecrate and Render unto God the self-same weekly portion of time for his publick worship, as the Israelites and Jews under the Law were obliged to do; to wit, one [Page 112] day in seven: though they differ in the circumstance on­ly of the day, they observing the seventh day from the Creation every week (in memory of the Creation, and Gods rest thereon) for their Sabbath, prescribed by spe­cial Laws; and we the first day of every week in memorial of our Saviours Resurection thereon, by the General, Moral Equity of these Laws warranted by Apostolical practice only, without any special Gospel-precept. Let then the whole Army of Tithe-Oppugners render me one dram of Reason, or shadow of answer, if they Canne, why all Christian Realms, Churches, Nations in the world, may not, should not by the self-same rule of Piety, Justice, Equi­ty, proportion continue and render the like proportion of Glebes, Tithes to God and his Ministers under the Gospel, as the Jews did to him, his Priests, and Levites under the Law; as well as they render to him the self-same Propor­tion of time for his Weekly, publick Service, and why pay­ment of Tithes, Oblations under the Gospel to God, (who gives us both them and the residue of our Estates, and en­crease out of his own meer free grace) for the maintenance of the Ministers of the Gospel, and support of his publick Worship on the Lords Day, should be more Judaical, Ʋn­christian, Antichristian, Superstitious (as Canne and others stile it) than the dedicating, appropriating of the Lords Day to Gods publick Worship, and Honour, who hath given and allowed us the other six for our imployments; when as he might have justly reserved the nine parts of our Lands and goods to himself, had he pleased, instead onely of the Tenth, as well as the six daies in lieu of the seventh, wherewith he is content; which Dr. Bound, Mr. Dod, Clea­ver, Dr. Twisse, Downham, Practice of Pi­ety and others Divines usually urge to induce men to the more chearfull Sanctification of the Lords Day, and some Scriblers against Tithes as well as others.

See Gratian. Cans. 16. qu. 1. Walafridi Strabi de Re­bus Eccles. c. 27. St. Augustin in his 229. Sermon de Tempors, thus en­forceth this very argument; and let Canne, and all his con­federates, reply to it if they can. Hear O indevout mortality: know, that all things thou possessest, receivest, are Gods, and wilt thou not render to the Creator of all things, that which is his own? The Lord God doth not want; he requires not a reward, but ho­nour, he exacts not any thing of thine, which thou shouldest re­serve [Page 113] fund: He vouchsafes to demand, only the First-fruits, and Tithe of things: (which are his) and doest thou, O covetous wretch, deny him? What wouldest thou doe, if reserving the Nine parts to himself, he had left only the Tenth to thee? This he hath al­ready done, when as thy harvest for want of rain, mildew, and thy vintage through hayl or frost is diminished into a Ninth part: O covetous Varlet, how dost thou reckon? The Nine parts are withdrawn from thee, because thou wouldest not give the Tenth. It is most apparent, that thou hast not given them; but yet God hath exacted them. For this is the most just custom of the Lord, that if thou wilt not give the Tenth to him, he will recall the Nine, and leave only a Tenth part to thee. What if God should say unto thee: Man is mine whom I have made; the earth is mine which thou tillest; the seeds are mine which thou sowest; the cattel are mine which thou weariest; the showrs, and the rain, and the gales of wind are mine; the heat of the Sun is also mine. And seeing all the Elements by which the seed, fruits do live and grow are mine, and thou only lendest thy hand, thou deservest only a Tenth. But because Almighty God feeds, deals most liberally with us, he hath given a most ample gift and reward to him that laboureth, challenging the Tenth only to him­self, and pardoning all the rest to us. And wilt thou then un­gratefully and perfideously deprive him of it, when the year is ended, and the crop reaped? If any shall presume to doe so, let them read what followes in that Sermon, and then sleep quietly if they can.

9. That all Christians under the Gospel are bound in Justice, Equity, Con [...]cience to give their hired Servants and Labourers their due and deserved Wages, and not to detain it from them, even under the Gospel, and that by vertue of Gods command recorded in the Levitical and Judicial Law: Levit: 19.13. Deut. 14.14, 15. approved in the Gospel, Col. 4.1. and to allow their Beasts, Oxen that plow and tread out their Corn, Straw and Provender, without muzling up their mouthes, by vertue of a like precept recorded, Deut: 25.4. (twice repeated and urged by the Apostle in the New Testament, to prove the lawfullnesse of Ministers maintenance under the Gospel: 1 Cor: 9.8, 9, 10. 1 Tim: 5.18.) and that without the least suspition of Judaism or [Page 114] Antichristianism; Therefore they may, and are also bound in Justice, Equity, Conscience, not only to settle Glebes upon, but likewise to pay Tithes to the Ministers of the Gospel, as a due Wages, Hire, Reward for their Labour in the Ministry, as well as the Jews did to their Priests and Levite [...], without the least tincture of Judaism or Antichri­stianism: since Christ himself in the Gospel expresly resolvs, Mat. 10.10. Luke 10.7. and 1 Tim. 5.18. That Ministers being Labourers are worthy of their M [...]at, Hire, and a com­petent Maintenance suitable to their pains and function; as well as any other hired Servants or Labourers in the fields, or as our labouring Oxen or Horses are of Straw and Pro­vender.

10. We read it recorded, 1 Sam. 8.11, 15, 17. That this would be the manner of the King that should reign over the J [...]ws, that amongst other things, He will take the Tenth of your Seed, and of your Ʋineyards; and the Tenth of your Sheep, and give them to his Officers and Servants; In imitation whereof, the Kings of England in antient Parliaments, and of late times have usually demanded and received by Grant in Parliament, a D [...]cime or Tenth of the Goods and Estates of their Subjects for their Supplies, and likewise a Tenth of their Merchandise exported and imported for Tonnage and Poundage, as our Parliament Records, Histo­ries, and Rastal in his Abridgement of Statutes, Tithes, Taxes and Tenths, attest. If then our lawfull Kings, Princes and Governours under the Gospel, may justly demand and re­ceive by Grant in Parliament, the Tenth of all our Goods, Corn, Wooll, Sheep, Estates, Merchandise, for their ne­cessary supplies, and the defence of the Kingdom; and some who are no Kings, and have engaged against Kingship as Tyrannical, do the like, without a Parliament, taking (beyond the presidents of the worst of all our Kings) not only a Tenth of all our Estates, but a double or treble Tenth of all mens yearly Revenues, Estates, & of Ministers Tithes besides, for the Maintenance of themselves and the Army, without the guilt of Iudaism, Antichristian Tyranny, Op­pression▪ or Superstition; Why our faithfull Ministers may not likewise demand, receive, enjoy their Glebes and [Page 115] Tithes, not only granted, but confirmed to them by our Ancestors in successive Parliaments, from the first planting of the Gospel in this Nation till the Reformation, by all our Protestant Parliaments since the Reformation, and by sundry Ordinances in the very last Parliament, (to which some now in highest Power gave their cordial Votes) for the Preaching, propagating of the Gospel, and saving of mens Souls, without the like Brand of Judaism and Anti-christianism, let In his se­cond Voice from the Temple to the Higher Powers, p. 1, 2, 7, 11. and elswhere. John Canne resolve me when he can; who most falsly, scandalously, unchristianly brands both the last and all Protestant Parliaments confirming Tithes, for Popish, Idolatrous Parliaments, acting against the Lord Jesus, and our Ministry, for an Antichristian Ministry; Who certainly was in his Cannes or Cups, when he writ and published such palpable, scandalous untruths, to the dishonour of our Church, Parliaments, Nation, Religion: But such Cre­tians are alwayes Lyars, Evil Beasts, Slow Bellies: wherefore they need a sharp rebuke, that they may be sound in the saith, Tit: 1.12, 13. He might have done better to excite those to whom he dedicates his Pamphlet against those Popish Priest, Monks, Friars, Jesuits, sent from the Pope and Rome into England of late, to root out our Mi­nistry, and their Maintenance, as most opposite to Anti­christianism, his Papal Soveraignty and Errors, under the Notion of Anabaptists, dipped Jews, Gifted Brethren, New Lights, Seekers. But against these he hath not one word; and why so? Because the Dominican and Franciscan Freers, (as ch 7. p. 166, 167, 170, 171, 172, 173. Mr. Selden relates in his History of Tithes) were the first, who made it a gainfull doctrine to teach Laymen, that they were not bound to pay their Tithes to their Ministers, as to whom by any Law of God that portion belong­ed, teaching them to be due only as Alms, or as what ex debi­to charitatis, not ex debito justitiae was to be dispensed; By this doctrine The Mendicams especially often got them to themselves (like the old Vide Zonar. in Concil. Gangr. Can. 7.Eustathians) as Alms to be ar­bitrarily disposed of to such as took any spiritual Labour, as also made their own detaining of them in lands, out of which they were parochially due, to séem lesse wrongfull. They possessing the people with an opinion; (to gain them from the [Page 116] Secular Priests to themselves) That the Command of Tithes was not Moral but Ceremonial, and not to be performed by constraint of Conscience, to the Minister: and that out of whatsoever (Lands) at least was given to any of the four Orders of Fréers Mendicants (as now to Anabap­tists and Quakers their disciples) no Tithe was in consci­ence to be deduced for the Minister; as he proves out of the Clement in Tit. de Deci­mis, c. 1. Re­ligiosi. Council of Vienna held An. 1340. Ad Extrav. Tit. de Paroch. c. ult. signifi­cavit. Pope Innocent the 4th, and Richard Archbishop of Armagh in Defens. Cura­torum: Alex. l. 4. Consil. 60. and William R [...]ssel a Franciscan Freer his Doctrine condemned in the Convocation of the Clergie Anno 5 H. 6. as Haeretical, and publikely recanted by him at Pauls Cross as such; That Tithes (especially personal) fall not under divine precept, at least that they should be paid to the Parochial Curate as a due unto him of right, unlesse there were a Custom to the contrary; but that every one might law­fully give them to pious uses at their pleasure; Whereupon these N [...]w Masters and Preaching Freers, preaching and tea­ching thus against the Old and N [...]w Testament; were enjoy­ned by Bochellus Decret Eccles. Gall. l. 6. Tit. 8. c. 7, 8, 12, 14, 19, 30. several Councils and Synods in their Sermons to ex­hort, inform, and instruct the people without any fraud, to pay their Tithes faithfully to their Ministers, as DƲE by the Lawes of God and the Church, under pain of being deprived of the power of absolving the people from their sins. Therefore John Cannes, with his confederate Anabaptists and Quakers new Doctrines, Invectives, Petitions against our Ministers Tithes, derived from these old and new Franciscan Mendi­cant Freers now swarming amongst them, is far more tru­ly, really Antichristian, than our Ministers and their Tithes, of which more in its due place.

11. That God in the Levitical and Judicial Law pre­scribed Laws for Warr, and Souldiers in the Wars, Deut. 20. throughout, and amongst others, v. 2, 3, 4. It shall be, when ye come nigh unto the Battel, that the Priest shall approach and speak unto the people, and shall say unto them (for their encouragement) Hear O Israel, you approach this day unto battel against your enemies; let not your hearts faint, fear not, and do not tremble, neither be ye terrified because of them, for the Lord your God is he that goeth with you against your Enemies to [Page 117] save you. After which, v. 8. &c. The Officers are command­ed to make Proclamation, that every man, who was fearfull and faint-hearted should go and return to his house, lest they should discourage their brethren; that they should proclaim Peace to e­very City they came nigh, before they besieged or stormed it; and if they won it by force, the Souldiers should take the spoil thereof unto themselves, and eat the spoil of their enemies, which the Lord their God had given them. And by another Levitical Law the Priests were thus enjoyned by God, to pray for, and bless his people, Num: 6.23, 24. &c. On this wise ye shall blesse the children of Israel, saying to them; the Lord bless thee and keep thee; the Lord make his face shine upon thee, and be gracious unto thee; the Lord lift up his Countenance upon thee, and give thee Peace: and they shall put my name upon the Chil­dren of Israel, and I will bless them. If then it be neither Jew­ish nor Antichristian, nor superstitious, nor unlawfull for Mi­nisters of the Gospel to encourage Christian Souldiers go­ing to battel in the self same manner and form, or to bless them and the people in these very Levitical words, as Chaplain to Sir Arthur Haslerigs Re­giment and Garison here­tofore. Iohn Canne, and all Anabaptistical, Independent Chaplains of the Army (and Mr. Peters especially) will grant, who have frequently used the self same or like encouragements and exhortations to the Army, receiving good, constant pay for their pains. And if it be neither Jewish nor Anti­christian, nor unchristian for our Saintlike Officers and Sol­diers under the Gospel, to make like Proclamation to cowardly persons, or to proclaim peace to Cities, and garisons, ere they besiege or storm them, and if obstinat and won by force to take the Spoil and Plunder of such Cities, Enemies to themselves, and eat therof, which I am certain all our Officers, Soldiers, and their Anabaptistical Tithe-oppugning Chaplains will grant and subscribe to, though thus prescribed by the Levitical law, abolished (as they say) by Jesus Christ: Then questionless our Ministers of the Gospel may still receive and enjoy their Glebes, Tithes, Oblations, by like reason, without the least guilt or re­proach of Judaism or Antichristianism, though prescribed to the Levitical Priests and Levites, by the Levitical law; else John Canne and others of his fraternity (professing [Page 118] themselves the only Ministers of the Gospel, and rejecting all others as Antichristian) must give over their Chap­lains places in the Army, Navy, Garrisons, and no more en­courage nor accompany any Soldiers in the wars, or bless the people as aforesaid; because it was a part of the Levi­tical Priests Office (who were also to blow the Trumpets in the wars, Num. 6.1, to 10. Josh. 6.4. &c.) prescribed by an abolished Levitical law.

12. That all Israelites, Jews, both Priests and people, were by the Levitical law frequently commanded inviola­bly to perform, keep, pay, execute the solemn Oaths, Vows, Co­venants they made to God or men, and no wayes to infringe them, or prevaricate in them, Levit. 19.12. Num. 21.2, 3. cap. 30.2, to 16. Deut. 12.11 cap. 23.21, 22, 23. Josh. 2.11, 12, 13. cap. 6.22, to 26. cap. 9.15, to the end. And among other things, we finde their Tithes (vowed to God by Jacob, Gen. 28.20, 21, 22.) coupled with their Vows, as things devoted by them to God by See Mr. Sel­dens History of Tithes, and Review, ch. 3. Vow, as well as reserved by Law: Deut. 12.11. Yea, all the Jews were obliged by a Solemn Covenant to bring, pay their first fruits and Tithes to God, his Priests and L [...]vites, Nen. 10.31, to 39. Will or dare John Canne then, or any other Tithe-leniers averr, that it is both J [...]wish, Antichristian, unlawfull for Ministers and Christians under the Gospel, in [...]iolably to observe and perform all those just, lawfull Oathes, Vows, Covenants they have solemnly made to God and men, with hands listed up to heaven (as some of their persidious horrid violations of them without blush or check of late seems to proclaim before God and all the world) and to pay those Tithes, Dues to our Ministers, which our Ancestors and we by Solemn Vows and Covenants too, have dedicated un­to God and his Ministers, and never intended by our Co­venant to abolish or diminish in the least degree, (as Canne perjuriously and absurdly asserts) but to establish and per­petuate, as the late Ordinances for Tithes and A [...]gmentations made by the very Prescribers and Subscribers of the late So­lemn League and Covenant (which it seems John Canne never took, though he presseth it on others, as his words Many have sworn, who I hope will now observe it, import) both [Page 119] at the time, and since the making, taking of the Solemn League and Covenant, with the Assemblies Exhortation for the better taking thereof, authorized by the late Parlia­ment, infallibly evidence? If so; John Canne with his per­fidious Oath-Vow-Covenant-breaking, Tithe-abjuring dis­ciples must renounce that true and only God, they say they worship in greatest truth and sincerity; as a Jewish, unchristian, antichristian God likewise (I speak it with re­verence and horrour too, for their fuller conviction) be­cause he alwayes hath been, now is, and will be, a most true, faithfull, Oath-observing, Covenant-keeping, Vow-performing God, who reputes his Oathes, Vows, Covenants, Heb. 5.17, 18. Im­mutable things, and will never violate, falsifie, forget, or neg­lect them in the least degree, though made to sinfull, treacherous and perfidious men, Psal. 89.3, 4, 28, to 38. Psal. 120.4. Neh. 1.5. cap. 9.32. Psal. 111.5, 9. Isa. 54.10. cap. 55.3. Jer. 33.20, 21. Luke 1.72, 73. and 2 Chron. 21.6, 7. (a memo­rable Text) 2 Cor. 1.18. whom all those, who own or challenge him to be their God, are peremptorily obliged to imitate herein, else they shall never enter into his holy hill, or dwell with him in his Tabernacle, Ps. 15.1, 2, 14. Psal. 24.3, 4. Rom. 1.31, 32. 1 Tim. 1.10. Rev. 22.15. and that in this very case of Tithes. If not, then why should not Tithes, Glebes, Oblations which our ancestors and wee have vowed and devoted to God, continue and still be paid under the Gospel without superstition, sin, antichri­stianism or Judaism, as well as other Vows, Oaths, and the religious observation of them?

Upon these Considerations all or most Christian King­doms, States, Churches upon the very fi [...]st preaching and embracing of the Gospel amongst them, not only edified Churches, Chapels for Gods worship and publike Assem­blies, but likewise endowed the Ministers thereof with convenient Glebes, Tithes, Oblations, as E [...]sebius, Socra­tes, Scholasticus, Theodoret, Nicephorus, Calistus, the C [...]ntury Writers, Baronius, Spondanus, with other Ecclesiastical Hi­storians, and Hospinian De Origine Templorum, prove at large for forein Parts; and our own antientest Annalists, with Antiqu. Ecclesiae Britanicae, Sir Henry Spelman Concilio­rum [Page 120] Angl. Tom. 1. and learned Dr. Ʋsher, in his Britanica­rum Ecclesiarum Antiquitates, manifest for our own Nations and Realms.

Now because John Canne, out of his learned ignorance, hath newly published in his Page 13, 14. Second Voice from the Temple (or Ale-house rather, for which Cannes are more proper) That Pope Gregory the tenth was the first that ordained Tithes to be paid to Priests, in the year 1214. and that the Customs for paying Tithes at this day, were setled upon the Kingdom by the Popes Legates in Provincial and Synodal Constitutions about the time of Henry the third, and Henry the fifth; Vouching Thorp and Ridley the Civilian to prove it; I shall give you a brief touch concerning the Original of Churches, Glebes, Tithes in this our Iland.

About the year of our Lord 48. (as our Joan. Cap­grave in vita Josephi: Chr. Glastoniens. Vincentius Spec. Hist. lib. 23. c. 147. with sundry others, cited by Dr. Usher Britan. Ecclesiarum Antiquitates. c. 2. p. 973, 974 Spelman Con­cil. p. 12, &c. with the Au­thors quoted by them. Historians record) Joseph of Arimathea, who interred our Saviour, with XI. more Disciples, were sent into Britain to preach the Gospel by Philip the Apostle, in the raign of Arviragus; who arriving here were courteously entertained by this Pagan King, and preached the Gospel to him, and his people; he per­ceiving the purity of their Doctrine, and the holin [...]ss [...] of their Conversation, gave them twelve Hides of land in the Isle of Avalon (since called Glastenbury) for to build a Church and to support them, (till this day called and known by the name of the twelve Hides of Glastenbury) where they built the first Church, erected for Gods worship in this Isl [...], made of Wattle and Reed, and there continued together preaching the Gos­pel, living upon this their Glebe (now of great value) which was afterwards confirmed to them, and the Ministers of the Gospel the [...]e succeeding them, both by King Marius and Coilus, next successors to Arviragus, whom they instruc­ted in the Christian Religion, to which they w [...]re well aff [...]cted, albeit neither of them, nor Arviragus himself proceeded so far as to be baptized, for fear of displeasing their Pagan subjects; though Harding in his Chronicle, chapter 48. (a­gainst the stream of our other Historians) writes, that King Arviragus himself was Baptized by Joseph of Arimathea. Af­ter this Dr. Vsher Brit. Eccles. Antiq. Spel­manni Concil. p. 12. &c. with the Authors quoted by them. Lucius King of Britain being converted to the Christian faith and Baptized with his Subjects and many o­ther [Page 121] petty British Kings by his Example about the year of our Lord 176. by Faganus and Damianus, sent to him at his earnest request by Elutherius then Bishop of Rome (long before Pope or Popery were there erected, or known in the world) he upon the reception of the faith built and en­dowed Churches throughout his Dominions with Glebes and Tithes, to support the Ministry, whence our antient Poets thus write of him,

Lucius in Christum credit, Christoque dicatas
Ecclesias dotat, distinctas ordinat Vrbes.

Many of our antient Historians adde, that in his time there were 28 Flamins, and 3 Arch-Flamins in Britain endowed with great Revenues for the service of their Idol gods, to whom they had erected so many fair Temples; and that Lucius after his conversion, Turned these into 28 Bishopricks, and three Arch-Bishopricks, and purging these polluted Temples from their Idols and heathenish poll [...]tions, dedicated them to the service of the true God; which Sir Henry Spelman, Bp. Ʋsher, Godwin, and the most judicious of our later Antiquaries, justly reject as fabulous. After Lucius, Churches were here and in other places endowed with Glebes, and Bishops with rich Lordly possessions by Constantine the great: And about the year of Christ 312. the Christians being here and elswhere restored to peace, and freed from persecution by Constantine, Gildas, Ep. Vsher, Brit. Eccles. Antiq. p. 193. Spel­manni Concil. p. 36.45. began to build and repair those Churches which Dioclesian and other persecutors had rased to the ground, and to endow them with maintenance for the Ministry. In succeeding times, the Eng­lish Saxons, who at their first arival (being bloudy Pagans) cruelly wasted the British Churches, and butchered their Ministers, Scholars, Saints, being converted to the Christian Faith by Augustine, sent hither for that purpose by Pope Gregory the first, (who disclaimed that Papal Supremacy his Successors since challenged) Aethelbert King of Kent, and his Saxons being baptised by Augustine about the year of Christ 603. thereupon they began to repair the old ruina­ted Churches, and to build new throughout his Dominions; this Spelman. ib. p. 112, 113. de antiquitatibus Eccles. Brit. Dr. Vsher. King turning his Royal Palace at Canterbury, into the Church of Christ, and that City, the seat of his Kingdom into a [Page 122] Bishops See, and bestowing them on Augustine who converted him and his subjects to Christianity, whom he made Archbishop of Canterbury, and endowed wiih large Possessions: Not long af­ter divers other Saxon Kings and their subjects being converted and baptized, built and endowed sundry other Churches, both with Glebes and Possessions of good value, and likewise with Tithes. And in Anno 854. Malmsbury de Gestis Re­gum Angl. l. 2. c. 2. Mat. West. Anno 854. Florent. Wi­gorniensis, An. 855. Spelmanni Concil. p. 348, 353. Aethelwolf King of the West-Saxons, considering the perillous times then fallen upon him and his Realm, by reason of the burnings of the Wars, the Plunders of the Goods, the devastations of the Territories of his Kingdom by the most cruel depredations of barbarous Enemies, and Pagan Nations, and the manifold Tribulations afflicting him and his people, even to their destruction; he thereupon summoning a General Council or Parliament at Winchester, in which him­self, Beorredus King of Mercia, and Edmund King of East-Angles, with all the Prelates and Nobles of England, were present, did by their wholesom Counsel, for redress of these evils, by his Charter (ratified in and by this Council) give the Tenth part of all his own Lands in perpetuitie to God and his Servants, free and exempt from all Secular services, and also from all Royal Tributes, and Taxes, Great and Small, and from all Military Expedition, Building of Bridges, and guar­ding of Castles; that so they might the more diligently powr forth their prayers unto God for him without ceasing, who had in some part thus eased them of their servitude: from which Grant of his, Sir Henry Spelman conceives, the Parsonage-House, Rectory and Glebes in every Parish of his Realm, had their Original, though afterwards increased by the munificence of the Patrons. And this shall suffice touch­ing the true Original and progresse of our Churches, Rec­tories and Glebes, in the beginning of Christianity, both amongst the Britains and Saxons of this Realm.

The first Law I find yet extant amongst us, for the due payment of all kind of Tithes (in use and being as the Law imports, before its promulgation) was made in the Spelmanni Concil. p. 292.293, 298, to 302. Cent. Magd. 7. cap. 9. Na­tional Council, (or Parliament) at Calchuth in the year of our Lord 785. in the Reigns of King Oswald and King Offa, who by the unanimous consent of all their Princes, Nobles, and Senators, (as well as Prelates,) present therein, made this [Page 123] memorable Decree, touching the payment of Tithes, as a Right and Duty, which they were bound to render to God himself, by his own Sacred Law, originally given to the Israelites, which they deemed Obligatory likewise un­to them: Cap. 17. ut Decimae justè solvantur, usura, iniqua Pondera & Mensurae prohibeantur: Thou shalt bring the Tenth part of all thy Corn (or increase) into the House of the Lord thy God, as it is written in the Law, (viz. Levit. 27.30. Numb. 12.17, 18, &c. Deut. 12.17, 18. chap. 14.22, 23. Neh. 10.38. not in the Popish Canons.) Again by the PROPHET (not Pope) (Mal. 3.10. &c.) Bring, saith he, all the Tithes into the storehouse, that there may be meat in my House, and prove me now therewith, if I will not open the Doors of Heaven, and powr you out a Blessing, that there shall not be room enough to receive it. And I will rebuke the Devourer for you, which eats and corrupts the fruit of your grounds, and the Vine shall be no more barren in the field, saith the Lord. As the Wiseman saith in the Book of Wisdom, (not the Pope) No man can give any just Alms of those things which he possesseth, unlesse he shall first separate to the Lord that which from the beginning himself hath appointed to be rendred to him. And by this for the most part it happens, See Augu­stin de Temp. Serm. 219. that he who payes not Tithes is reduced (by Gods Justice) to the Tenth part of his former Estate; whereupon (not by any Command from the Pope, or by his Authority) We Command, even with an Obtestation, that all be studious to give Tithes of all things they poss [...]sse, quia speciale Domini Dei est, Because it is the peculiar portion of the LORD GOD: and let him live himself, and give Alms, of the Nine parts; and we perswade him rather to doe it in secret, because it is written, When thou givest Alms do not blow a Trumpet before thee, Matt. 6.2. After which follow Laws against Usury, False Weights and Measures; for the faithfull performance of Vows; and abolishing the very Reliques of all Pagan Rites; warranted by the very words and Presidents of the sacred Scripture. Which Decrees being recited in a publick Council before these Kings, and all their Prelates, Dukes, Senators, and the People of the Land: Illi, cum omni devotione mentis, juxta possibilitatem virium suarum, adjuvante superna clementia, se [Page 124] in omnibus custodire devoverunt: they with all Devoti­on of mind, according to the uttermost of their power, by the assistance of Gods Grace, vowed that they would ob­serve them in all things; which they all did with an unanimous Ʋoyce, a chearfull minde, and most ready Will, ratifying this Council with the Subscriptions of their Names, and the Sign of the Cr [...]ss [...] (the usual form of those times, before Seals were in use.) This is the first Law I finde (extant in our Realm,) for the due payment of Tithes, grounded only on Divine precepts, cited in it, not on the Popes Decree [...]. True it is, that Gregory Bishop of Ostia, Legat to Pope A­drian, an Englishman born, was President in this Council, and had a chiefhand in making these Laws, by this Popes direction, to whom he returned them: but are they therefore Popish and Antichristian Laws, which ought to be now abolished (to gratifie the present Pope & his Emissaries the Jesuits) as made against Jesus Christ, as In his second Voice from the Temple. John Canne most Magisterially determines? if so, then these and our other Laws then made against Vsury, false Weights, Measures (which too many cheating Anabaptists use) Heathenish, Pagan Cus­stoms, must be Popish & Antichristian too, with the Law for performing our Vows, Covenants to God and men, with the very Scriptures cited in them, wheron they are grounded, which Impudency and Atheism it self dares not affirm: If he say they are Jewish Laws, then the Scriptures cited in them must be Jewish too; yea, the very Title, and eve­ry page of hi [...] new Pamphlet, must be rejected as Jewish, as well as Jesuitish; being Intituled, and Superscribed in every page, A S [...]cond Voice from the Temple: The Temple being Jewish, and abolished as well as Tithes, 1 Cor. 9.13. John 4.20, 21. Which I wonder this blind Zealot against Judaism and Tithes, had not Eyes to see, or Brains to con­sider. Now these our Predecessors, and many others since, obliging themselves both by Vows, Laws, and Cove­nants, to pay Tithes of all to God and his Ministers, as Gods pe­culiar Right, and God himself not only enjoyning men in the Old Testament, not to remove the antient Land-marks their Fathers have (duly) set, Prov. 22.8. and to make good their Ancestors Oaths and Vows, (which oblige their Po­sterity, [Page 125] as Gen. 50.24, 25. Exod. 13.19. Josh. 24.32. ch. 2.12, to 22. chap. 6.21, to 26. chap. 9.15, to 27. chap. 10.1, to 12. 2 Sam. 21.1, to 15. 1 Sam. 20.14, 15, 16, 17, 23, 42. chap. 23.8. chap. 24.21. 2 Chron. 16.3. compa­red together resolve) but likewise informing them in the new, as a Gospel-Truth, Gal. 3.15. That if it be but a mans Covenant, if it be confirmed (by many successive Laws, Sta­tutes, Curses, Excommunications denounced against the infringers thereof in all succeeding ages, as this of Tithes, and the Churches Rights and Liberties have been) no man disannulleth it: By what Authority, Right, Law, Reason, Justice, Conscience or power from God or Men, any presuming Mortals, at the sollicitations of Anabaptists, Iesuits, Quakers, or Atheistical wretches, can sacrilegiously attempt to rob God himself, and plunder his faithfull Ministers of this their ancient, just, hereditary, sacred, set­led Maintenance (to which our Ministers have a far anci­enter, better Right, Title, by all Laws of God and Man, than they have to their new acquired Purchases and Pow­ers,) established, setled on them by particular Donors and Benefactors out of their own private Inheritances and E­states, not the Republicks, which neither the Patrons themselves, nor any others, nor yet the Ministers them­selves can alienate from the Church, (as their own consci­ences, judgements must acknowledge, unlesse strangely cauterized:) Let them and Canne answer to that Gen. 18.25. Sove­raign Judge of all the Earth; who will probably judge them here, and shall certainly judge them eternally hereafter for all such detestable Robberies, and violent Rapines, if wilfully perpetrated and persevered in without repent­ance after timely admonition, who can quickly strip both them and theirs naked of all their temporal Powers, Ho­nours, Possessions, Enjoyments, as he did Jeroboam and his Sonnes for their turning the Priests and Levites out of their Possessions; and King Ahab with his Family for sei­sing upon Naboths Vineyard, in a violent and unrighteous manner, though coloured over, to delude the people, with an hypocritical Fast, and feigned, legal proceedings, 1 Kings 21. We read it recorded of our Saviour, Luke 12.13, [Page 126] 14. that when one of the company said unto him; Master, speak to my brother that he divide the Inheritance with me: He returned him this answer, Man, who made me a Iudge or Divider over you? Let every person now sollicited by croaking Anabaptists, Jesuits, Quakers, Souldiers, or others, not only to judge and divide, but utterly to abolish and take away our Ministers necessary Maintenance, (not un­necessary Abbots, or Prelates, Lordly superfluities long since dissipated) by Glebes and Tithes, return them the self-same answer; lest Christ himself at the last day con­demn them for over-bold intruders into such a Supream Jurisdiction over his, and his Ministers, Rights and Cal­lings too, as neither God nor Man ever yet conferred on them. God himself prohibiting the sale, alienation, sub­straction of his Priests and Levites necessary Glebes, Tithes, and by consequence of our Ministers (as I have formerly observed) and further informing all his, that it is a snare to a man to devour holy things, and after Vows to make enquiry, Prov. 20.25. But of this second Argument enough, the Negative part whereof I shall prove more fully hereafter by way of answer to an Objection.

13. I shall make good the Proposition by arguments drawn from the New Testament it self, which no wayes contradicts, but confirms the lawfullness of Tithes. This I have already proved from Heb. 7.1, to 12. to which I shall refer the Reader, and proceed to other Texts. I shall begin with Mat. 23.23, 24. & Luke 11.42. Woe unto you Scribes and Pharisees Hypocrites, for ye pay Tithes of Mint, and Annise, and Cummin, and all manner of Herbs, and have omitted the weightier things of the Law, Judgement, Mercy, and Faith, and the love of God: These ought ye to have done, and not to leave the other undone: Ye blind Guides, which strain at a Gnat, and swallow a Camel. In which words our Saviour himself, though he denounceth a Woe against the Hypocritical Pharisees, in beeing just and carefull in pay­ing Tithes, even of Herbs and Seeds of all sorts, of meanest value, and yet in the mean time neglecting works of Righteousness in matters of greater worth, of Charity to­wards man, and of Faith and Love toward God himself, [Page 127] straining at a Gnat, and swallowing a Camel: yet he posi­tively resolves, that they ought not to omit the due and consci­entious payment even of these lesser Tithes of smallest value, much lesse then of their Corn, Wine, Oyl, Flocks, Herds, which were of greater worth. And if the Scribes and Pharisees were no Saints, but Hypocrites for omitting these weightier duties, though they paid these smallest Tithes; what are these Anabaptistical and other Sectarian Scribes and Pha­risees, who, not only against all Rules of Justice and Cha­rity towards men, but of Faith and Love to God (which they even renounce) rob God and his Ministers, not onely of all their own Tithes, small as well as great, but of those Tithes which others would willingly pay them, and en­devour totally to deprive them of those small Rectories, Glebes they yet enjoy, and of their Ministry too; and when they have John Canne, His Second Voice from the Temple, p. 2. stript them stark naked of all they have, would eat their very flesh, and burn them with fire? Certainly such are worser and greater Hypocrites, than the Scribes and Phari­ses, pretending Conscience it self, for their most unconsciona­ble dealing in this kinde. Such mens throats are so wide, that they can swallow not only Camels, but whole Rectories, Churches, Steeples, with their Lead, Timber, Bells, Stone, (to say no more) for a Breakfast; all Tithes in two or three Parishes and throughout the Land for a Dinner, and the publick Lands, Revenues of the Crown (which should defray all ordinary publick charges for the peoples ease) for a Supper, that they may be Supreme, and every one of them like our Saviour Christ himself, both a Priest, Prophet, and a King, executing a Plurality of these three and other Of­fices, and their Callings too all at once, to enrich them­selves faster than all other men. This Text was much in­sisted on by Fox Acts & Monuments Vol. 1. f. 602, 603, 604. John Hus to prove Tithes under the Gospel to be pure Alms, coupling it with the former verse, Luke 11.41. But rather give Alms of such things as you have, and behold all things are clean unto you; But certainly the Text it self proves, that this referrs only to the washing mentio­ned in the precedent verses; not to this subsequent clause concerning their payment of Tithes, never stiled Almes in any Text; and recorded by Matthew, as a distinct Woe, and [Page 128] Sentence of it self; without any mention of Almes, in the Antecedent or Subsequent verses: and John Hus himself, together with Augustine, Chrysostom, Hierom, and Aquinas, (there cited by him) from hence conclude; That Tithes are lawfull under the Gospel, as well as alms, forsomuch as the Gift thereof unto the Priest, did not cease in the time of Christ: and Saint Augustine in his 219 Sermon, of Paying Tithes, presseth the payment of them under the Gospel, as a Duty, by many enforcing arguments, before any Popes Decretals for payment of them, or that we now call Popery, was known in the world. Saint Ambrose before him doing the like, In Serm [...]ne Quadragesimae, cited by Gratian, Causa 16. qu. 7. and St. Cyprian before them both. Which had John Canne either known or considered, he would not, with so much mistaken Ignorance and Impudence, have damned Tithes as POPISH, &c. And the pleading for them, as a pleading for Babylon, and for BAAL: in his New Second Voice from the Temple of Babylon, or Baal, which he pleaseth, not of Old or New Jerusalem.

The next Gospel Text, I shall cite, is that of Gal. 6.6. Let him that is taught in the word, communicate to him that tea­cheth him in all good things; To which I shall subjoyn, 1 Cor. 9.11. If we have sowed unto you spiritual things, is it a great matter, if we shall reap your carnal things? Rom. 15.25. And their Debtors they are: for if the Gentiles have been made partakers of their spiritual things, their duty is al­so to minister unto them in carnal things. All these three Gospel Texts resolve, That Ministers of the Gospel, have a just due and right to a competent, comfortable share in all the goods things, Temporal blessings and necessaries for the support of this life, which the people instructed by them, and receiving spiritual things from them, enjoy. And that the people are bound both by expresse precepts in the Gospel, and by the rules of common, moral equity and justice, chearfully to communicate and minister such a fit­ting share of all their good things, and temporal blessings, as a debt and due, unto them, for their ministring to them in spiritual things: which I fully proved in the first Pro­position; and Impudency it self cannot deny. The sole [Page 129] question then is, what this share or portion ought to be, and who shall determine it in point of difference? I confesse the Apostle doth not decide either of these in terminis, these Texts being general, all in the plural number; All good things; your carnal things; comprising all such things out of which Tithes, predial, mixt or personal (as See Augus­tin de Temp. Ser. 219. Gra­tian Caus. 16. qu. 1. Canonists and Lawyers distinguish them) are or may be paid: Where­fore every faithfull Christian, every spiritual son of God, and of faithfull Abraham, (whose footsteps, presidents they are to follow, in all doubtful cases, admit this one) to satisfie his conscience and judgement in this case, must and will resort to the presidents of the Eminentest Saints in former ages, and Gods own prescripts in other expresse Texts; Where finding the very Father of the faithfull, Abraham himself giving, his Grandson Jacob vowing, and God himself specially reserving, prescribing the payment of a Tenth of all good things from and by his own people, for the maintenance of his Priests and Levites, under the Law; which they cheerfully rendred until and in Christs own time; that the very Pharisees and Scribes (though Hypocrites) were so just, as to pay Tithes of all; that Christ resolved they ought to do it, and not leave it undone; and that none before the Apostles dayes ever gave lesse than a Tenth part: (as the premises largely evidence) he must and will necessarily conclude from all these sacred Directories, pre­cepts, presidents; that the ordinary constant standing por­tion and proportion of all his goods and carnal things here prescribed, and intended by Gods Spirit, is the tenth part: and in extraordinary cases more, when Gods glory, the Ministers necessities, the Defence or Propagation of the Gospel require it: And when he shall further read in the Gospel it self, that speech of Zacheus, the converted Pub­lican, Luke 19.8. Behold, Lord, the Half of my Goods I give to the poor: And how the first converted Christians and Jews in the Apostles dayes, sold their Lands, Houses, and brought and laid the money at the Apostles feet, Acts 4.5. His conscience (which must not guide the Word and Spirit of God, as most mens consciences do now, but the Word and Spirit it and him too) will and must from thence conclude, [Page 130] that he must not give his faithful Minister lesse than a Tenth part of all; and in cases of extraordinary necessity, share e­ven half his goods, yea, the price of all his Lands and Houses, between the Ministers and poor Saints of God, specially in times of persecution, when as he ought to hide, and feed them too, as godly Obadiah did an hundred of the Lords Pro­phets in the dayes of Jezebel, at his own charge, with the ha­zard of hi [...] Office and Life, 1 Kings 18.4.13. If any mans conscience in a setled Christian Realm, State, be so obsti­nate or froward, as not to submit to the lowest proporti­on of a Tenth, which all ages, and most, or all setled Chri­stian Realms have unanimously agreed upon, and confirm­ed by publike Edicts, as well Civil as Ecclesiastical, where­of there are neer thousands in print; the Christian Kings and Magistrates are to determine all controversies of this nature, and state the just proportion of this Debt and Du­ty between the Minister and people, where it is not pub­likely decided, and may justly enforce the due payment of it (when and where it is determined by positive publick Laws) as a just Debt, as they do in all other civil Debts, Duties, Accompts in controversie before them, (as I shall prove in due place) even by these very Texts, though John Canne denies it, in his VOX praeterea NIHIL, p. 14.

To these I shall subjoyn that noted Text in the 1 Cor. 9.13, 14. (which John Canne cites by piece-meal, as the De­vil did Scripture, leaving out the principal branch, Mat. 4.6.) Do ye not know, that they which minister about holy things, live of the things of the Temple, and they that wait at the altar, are partakers with the altar? Even so hath the Lord ordai­ned (this Canne omits) that they which preach the Gospel, should live of the Gospel. I have urged this Text before for proof of the first; I shall here apply it only to the second Propositions confirmation, as to Tithes.

1. Then we have here A Divine Gospel Ordinance made by the Lord of Hosts himself, (not repealable by a­ny Army or Powers on Earth) as well as Parliamentary Ordinances, for the Maintenance of the Preachers of the Gos­pel: and let Canne (the poorest Preacher of the Gospel I ever yet knew in England, (except one of his fraternity,) [Page 131] who heard him once preach an Assize and Fast Sermon too at Chard) deny our Ministers to be able Preachers of the Gospel, at the peril of his Soul, though he denies them to be lawful Ministers of Christ, and censures them as Antichri­stian and Popish: But why so? Because (forsooth) they had their Ordination from Rome; and by consequence are TRAYTORS and FELONS too, by the Statute of 27 Eliz. c. 2. for which they might be legally executed for Treason and Felony, if the State were not pleased to interpret the Statute contrary, as he conceives, to the Letter and form of it: (the words whereof he both curtals and misrecites, just as he did this Text) p. 5. To doe him and his best friends a kindness, vindicate the lawfulness of our Ministers calling against this ordinary slander, and convince him of his grosse mistake, I shall truly recite the Statute, Thus inti­tuled: JESUITES and PRIESTS, in England shall de­part, and NONE SHALL COME INTO THIS REALM. If so, then many Dippers, Speakers, Administrators, Members in Anabaptistical Congregations; many New-lights and Gifted-brethren in separate Congregations; many Shakers, Quakers, Ranters, Broachers of new Notions, Errours, Blasphemies, throughout the Realm; many new Politicians, Levellers, A­gitators, Soldiers in the Army, if not some Officers; all the late converted pretended See the false Jew discove­red at New­castle for a cheat & Jesuit p. 4, 5, 10, 11, 12, 13. dipped by M. Tillam at Hexam, a like Priest, now Admini­strator of the Anabaptists there. And Eliazer Bar Israel, his Vindication of the Messiah, a pretended converted Jew, but sprinkled and baptized by the Jesuits, dipped by our Anabaptists, and a Jesuit in truth. Jews, dipped in Anabaptistical Congregations (discovered and known to be disguised Ie­suites, purposely sent from Rome, and the greatest sticklers against our Ministers Tithes and Calling) must presently depart, and none of them return into the Kingdom (as many have lately done) or else be executed for Traytors; But why so? what is their crime, work, imployment here; and by what marks or fruits shall we know, discover both them and their confederates? Let the words of the Sta­tute (compared with all our late troubles, changes) re­solve the ignorant and incredulous, that there are many such amongst us, and of Iohn Cannes fraternity. Whereas divers persons called or professed JESUITES (these Canne wit­tingly conceals, though the first in the Bead-roll, and ther­fore is a Felon by the law) Seminary Priests and other Priests, which have been, and from time to time are made in [Page 132] parts beyond the Sea; by, or according to the Or­der and Rites of the Church of ROME, (and when Canne can prove that all or any of our Ministers were thus made, as he hath confidently averred in print to those, he calls, the Higher Powers and Supream Authority of the Nation, Let them be hanged for Traitors and Anti­christian Ministers in good earnest, else let him be hanged in their stead, for this his impudent slander of them all, as well Independents as Presbyterians:) Have of late years come and been sent into this Realm of England (and were any of our Ministers such, and not rather Canne himself, coming hither from Amsterdam for the purposes follow­ing) and other the Queens Dominions OF PURPOSE (AS IT HATH APPEARED, as well by some of their own exami­nations (now out of date) as by divers other Manifest means and proofs (more visible of late years than ever) not only to withdraw her Highness subjects from their due obedience to her Majesty, but also to stir up and move Sedition, R [...]bellion, and open Hostility within the same her Highness Realms and Dominions, to the great endangering of the safety of her most Royal Person, and to the utter ruine, desolation and overthrow of the whole Realm (now effected as a Realm) if the same be not the sooner (and now pray God it be not over­late) by some good means foreseen and prevented. For refor­mation whereof, be it ordained, &c. That All Priests and Jesuits (Canne cannot spy such good friends within the Act, but deletes them out of it) Seminary Priests, and other Priests whatsoever, made and ordained out of the Realm of England, &c. shall depart the Realm under the penalties there­in mentioned. Had Canne pressed this Statute to those he dedicates his Pamphlet, for the speedy execution of it against those many Jesuits and Seminary Priests now in Eng­land, for their traiterous Practices and Designes therein mentioned, of late, and now driven on and almost com­pleated by them, it had been a commendable zeal; but not to write one word or syllable against these Romish Vermine, Arch-Engineers and Janizaries of the Romish See, now swarming among us, to ruine our Protestant Kings, Kingdoms, Parliaments, Laws, Liberties, Church, [Page 133] Ministers, Ministry, Religion, and foreign Protestant King­doms, States, Churches now engaged by them in bloody Warres, both by Land and Sea; and to omit the very name of the Jesuits (the first Popish Agents mentioned and chiefly intended in this Act) and presse it only against our Ministers Calling, Ministry, Tithes, Maintenance, of purpose to ruine them and theirs, and by consequence our Church and Religion (the Designe and scope of his whole Pamphlet) is such a malicious, unchristian, Anti­christian Practice, as proclaimes him to all the world, either a new converted Jesuit, or Romish Factor, under the Garb of an old Anabaptist, or an over-grown cankered Anabaptist, void of Piety, Honesty, inspired by the very John 8.44. Father of Lyes. For not one of our English Ministers I know or hear of (except two or three Jesuits, and Popish Priests crept into livings in Staffordshire and elsewhere very lately, I know not by whose favour or negligence) was ever or­dained by any such Jurisdiction or authority, as is here mentioned; which all our Ministers (and their Ordainers too, whether Prelates or Presbyters) particularly and publickly abjured, both at the time of their respective Ordinations and admissions to their Benefices, and likewise when they took any Degree of learning in our Ʋniversities, by the two known famous Oathes of Supremacy and Alle­giance, purposly made and ratified by 1 Eliz. c. 2. 5 Eliz. c 1. 3 Jac. c. 4, 5. 7 Jac. c. 6. 17 Car. The Act for Trien­nial Parlia­ments. sundry, zealous, Protestant Parliaments against the usurped Papal Jurisdiction and authority of the See of Rome, and the Popes, Jesuits, Pa­pists practices, to blow up, destroy our Protestant Kings, Parlia­ments, Laws, Liberties, Religion, and subvert our Kingly Go­vernment, whole State and Commonwealth, and for the better discovering of them; yet lately suspended, abrogated, as dangerous unlawful Oathes, by some of Cannes good friends, who would be reputed Zealots against the Popes Iurisdiction and his Creatures too: Now how those Ministers of our Church, who thus abjure the Iurisdiction of Rome, at the time of their very Ordination, (and their Ordainers too, before them) and since have done the like in their Solemn League and Covenant, can without the highest slander be said to derive their Ministry from it; (and that by Canne and [Page 134] his Iesuitical, Anabaptistical Fraternity, who never took one of these Oathes, or the Covenant; and revile, repeal them as unlawful out of love to the Popes Jurisdiction, Jesuits, Priests, their Jesuitical, Treasonable Conspiracies, Treasons, Practices, or for want of zeal against them,) Let the world and this slanderers own Conscience (if he have any left) now determine. Besides, who knows not (but this Ignoramus) that the Rites and Ceremonies of Ordina­tion in the Church of Rome, recorded at large in Ceremo­niale, & Pontificiale Pontificum Romanorum, and the ends of Ordination likewise (viz. to say Masse, create their Creator, offer up Christ in Sacrifice at the altar to his Father, Invocate Saints, adore Images, yield Canonical obedience to the Pope and his Supremacy, &c.) are far different from the form and ends of our Ministers Ordination in the Church of England, prescribed by the Parl. of 5. & 6. Ed. 6. c. 1. ratified by the Statutes of 1 Eliz. c. 1, 2. 5 Eliz. c. 1. 8 Eliz. c. 1. and 39 Eliz. c. 8. (made only by Protestant Parliaments) which as they particularly condemn, renounce the Popes Power and Jurisdiction; so they declare and resolve, our Mini­sters Ordination to be lawfull; and them 8 Eliz. c. 1: and Book of Ordination. in very deed to be Ministers, and rightly made, ordained and consecrated, accord­ing to Gods word, without any derivative power or Ordi­nation from the Church of Rome? Therefore for this New old pander for the Whore of Rome to averre, they receive their Ministry and ordination thence, is a Notorious Ly. Yea, but saith he, Francis Mason of Consecration, and Mr. Yates in his Modell of Divinity prove and confesse, That the Ministry of the Church of England (established by the Law of the Land) is derived from the Pope and Rome. True, but in what sense? onely by way of Succession, as his own Ministry and Faith (if he hath any) were derived from John of Leyden: or just as our Bibles, Religion, Baptism, Churches were derived thence, and all now living with Canne himself, derived from Popish Ancestors, (many even from Popes, Popish Priests, Prelates, Friars,) by natural generation, as their surnames discover. God used the See Antiqu. Eccles. Brit. Spelmanni Concil. Bp. Usher Eccles. Brit. Antiqu. c. 1, 2, 3. &c. Beda Eccles. Hist. Popes of Rome and their Instruments to convert the Britains and Saxons from their Paganism to the Christian (not Papal or Roman) [Page 135] Faith; which through Gods mercy hath continued a­mongst us ever since; yet mixed of later times with ma­nifold Popish Errors and Superstitions. These Errors, Su­perstitions, our godly Martyrs, and by them our Kings and Parliaments discovering, did thereupon by special Acts of Parliament abolish, as derived from the Church of Rome, together with the See Rastals Abridgment, Tit. Provision, Premunire, Rome, Crown, Ser­vice and Sa­craments, Mr. Fox Acts and Monu­ments. Bishop Jewels Apo­logy. Popes usurped power, and Gain, which they served only to support; retaining only the Scriptures, Sacraments, Soul-saving Doctrines, thence derived by suc­cession onely (but authoritatively, originally from God and Christ himself) with such Godly, Orthodox Bishops and Ministers, who though first ordained in the Church of England when Popish, did yet renounce all her Popish Er­rors, Corruptions, with the Popes Supremacy, and all Po­pish additional Rites to the form of their Ordination and Baptism: (which made neither of them void in Substance, no more than their annexing of the Apocrypha to the Cano­nical Scriptures, made them uncanonical.) These after­wards ordained other Bishops, Ministers without any Po­pish Rites, in such manner as the Gospel prescribes: which Mr. Mason, Mr. Yates and others prove against the Papists, to be a lawful Ordination, though not made by the Popes Au­thority, nor according to former Popish Ceremonies. In this Sense onely, they write the bare Succession, not the Office and Calling of our Ministers (as this woodden Canne mistakes) was derived from the Church of Rome; but their Ministry it self from Christs own Institution. And if this makes them Popish and Antichristian, then all our Protestant Kings, Par­liaments, Magistrates, Judges, Officers of all sorts must be Popish too, if not Paganish, because their Predecessors were such: and all Officers, Souldiers of the Army, and Anabaptistical Saints too, who have purchased any Lands, Rents, Revenues of Abbies, Priories, Archbishops, Bishops, Deans, Chapters, Archdeacons, must likewise be both Anti­christian and Popish; because their Predecessors, who first enjoyed, and from whom they do derive them, were such, at least in their and Cannes repute. I hope therefore, they will all now renounce these their Purchases to avoid the Guilt and high scandal of Popery and Antichristianism; or [Page 136] disclaim this Second, Loud-lying Voice against our Ministers and their Ministry, as a Voice only from a prophane empty Canne; not from a Sacred Temple, or Gods holy Spirit.

But to return from this necessary digression, touching the Lawfulness of our Ministers Calling, unto their Tithes; We have secondly in this Text, 1 Cor. 9.13, 14. a Gospel Ordinance for their very Tithes, confirmed by the old Levi­tical Law, and grounded on its Equity. But how doth this appear? By these emphatical words; Even so hath the Lord Ordained (in the Preterperfect Tense) That they which preach the Gospel, should live of the Gospel; But where hath the Lord ordained this? The Apostle thrice resolves expresly, that he hath done it in the Levitical Law, v. 9. For it is written in the Laws of Moses (Deut. 25.4.) Thou shalt not muzzle the mouth of the Ox that treadeth out the Corn; doth God take care for Oxen? Or saith he it altogether for our sakes? For our sakes no doubt this is written: that he that ploweth should plow in hope, and he that thresheth in hope, should be partaker of his hope; Which he again re­cites, 1 Tim. 5.18. If this Precept concerning the meat and maintenance of Oxen only in the Letter, though part of the Levitical Law, was doubtless written for, and really intended of the Ministers of the Gospels food and mainte­nance, and in full force under the Gospel, as the Apostle clearly resolves; then a fortiori, the Precepts of the Law concerning the food and livelihood of Gods Priests, and Levites under the Law, by Glebes and Tithes, not pure­ly Ceremonial (as I have already proved) must doubtlesse be intended of them, and be in full force likewise in their natural, equitable Sence and Proportion, in relation to their Livelihood for preaching of the Gospel; there be­ing a greater Analogy, Proportion between them and Preachers of the Gospel, than betwixt them and Oxen. To put it out of doubt, he subjoyns; Do not ye know, that they which minister about holy things, live of the things of the Temple? and they which wait at the Altar, are partakers with the Altar? To wit, by Gods expresse Ordinance in the Levitical Law, which ye know, and therefore I need not particularly cite the words, as I did the other, of not [Page 137] muzzling the Ox, &c. which were more obscure, and need­ed my former Paraphrase on them; but thus mind you of them in the general: And then he inferrs and subjoyns: Even so hath the Lord ordained (to wit, by the very natural, moral Equity of the Lawes, Ordinances he made for the Priests and Levites Maintenance by Tithes, Glebes, and Free-will-offerings, for officiating in the Temple, and at the Altar under the Law) that the Preachers of the Gospel (who now succeed, and supply their places, though in different services in the Churches of Christ under the Gos­pel) should live of the Gospel; even so fully, comfortably, and in such sort, as they did under the Law: Or at least by this Gospel text, superadded to them by Gods Spirit. To make this out more fully, and clear it from the censure of Judaism, take notice of these four particulars.

1. That in the Holy Ghosts Gospel phrase and language, there is a Temple among and for Christians under the Gos­pel, as well as among and for the Jews under the Law, (else Cannes Voice from the Temple, if there be no such place, must be thus amended in his next Edition: A Voice from the Canne or Alehouse) and that this Temple is nothing else, but the Church and Saints of Christ, 2 Cor. 6.16. 1 Cor. 3.16, 17. chap. 6.19. Ephes. 2.21. 2 Thess. 2.4. Rev. 3 12. chap. 7.15. chap. 11.1, 2, 19. chap. 14, 15. chap. 15.5, 6, 8. chap. 16.1, 17. compared together.

2. That Christians under the Gospel, have likewise an Altar as well as the Jews, though different from theirs, Heb. 13.14. We have an Altar whereof they have no right to eat which serve the Tabernacle; oft mentioned, Rev. 6.9. chap. 8.3, 5. chap. 9.13. ch. 14.18. yea coupled with the Temple, Rev. 11.1. Rise, measure the Temple of God and the Altar.

3. We have Sacrifices to be offered in this Temple on the Altar, as well as the Jews in theirs. 1. The Sacrifice of Prayer, Rev. 8.3, 4, 5. 2. The Sacrifice of Praise, Heb. 13.15. 3. The Sacrifice of Charity, alms and good works, Heb. 13.16. 4. Our own bodies, which we must present as a living Sacrifice, holy, acceptable unto God, by serving him according to his word, as rational men, not beasts, that were both slain [Page 138] and sacrificed under the Law, Rom. 12.1.

4. We have Priests likewise to offer up these spiritual Sacri­fices, 1 Pet. 2.9. Rev. 1.6. chap. 5.10. chap. 20.6. And these are three. 1. Every sanctified Christian, who must offer up the Sacrifices of Prayer, Praise, alms, and his own bo­dy to God, in his private Closet and Family. 2. The Mini­sters of the Gospel, who must continually offer up these Sacrifices in the peoples behalf, in publick here on earth, in the Temple, for which we are to render them, not only Tithes and Glebes, but a Free-will-offering of bounty and charity besides, a sacrifice acceptable and well-pleasing to God, Phil. 4.16.3. Christ Jesus himself, our Altar and High Priest too, now sitting in heaven, Heb. 13.15. cap. 2.17. c. 4.14, 15. c. 5.10. c. 6.20. c. 7.17, 20, 21, 22, 27, 28. c. 8.1. c. 10.21. And if Christians have thus even under the Gos­pel a Temple, an Altar, spiritual Sacrifices, Priests to officiate in, at them, and offer up these Sacrifices to God in publike, as well as the Jews; Why the Priests, who minister about ho­ly things in this Evangelical Temple, wait continually at this spiritual Altar, offer these spiritual sacrifices publike­ly unto God thereon, administer the Sacraments, blesse the people, and preach the Gospel likewise to them (as the Jewish Priests and Levites did teach, instruct and bless the peo­ple in the Law, and kill the Passeover, 2 Chron. 27.7, 8, 9. c. 30.15, 16, 17. cap. 35.2, 3. cap. 15.3. Ezra 7.25. Neh. 8.5, to 12. Numb. 6.23, 24, 25.) should not receive both Glebes, Tithes, and voluntary Oblations from the people, as well as the Priests and Levites did under the Law, by vertue of the self-same Levitical law of God, by which they claimed them (they being both the Priests of the self-same God, and both executing the self-same Priestly office in a different manner, and that by the Apostles own Argu­ment, intention, and positive resolution in this Gospel text) let Canne and all other oppugners of their Tithes resolve me and others, from as clear Gospel texts as these I have here alleged, and others formerly insisted on in the first Proposition, or else yeeld their cause for ever lost.

I shall cloze up all with two other Gospel texts, most ur­ged and abused by those now in power in their own cases, who most of all forgot, transgressed, oppugned them here­tofore [Page 139] in other mens. The first is, 1 Pet. 2.13, 14. Submit your selves to every Ordinance of man for the Lords sake, whether it be to the King as Supreme, or unto Gover­nours, &c.

The Second, Rom. 13.1, 2. Let every soul be subject unto the Higher powers, for there is no Power but of God: The powers that are, are ordained of God; whosoever therefore re­sisteth the power, resisteth the Ordinance of God; and they that resist shall receive to themselves Damnation. That these two Scriptures extend only to lawful hereditary, or elective Kings, Governours, Higher powers, and that in their lawfull com­mands, alone; not to Usurpers, Tyrants, Invaders of the peoples Rights, Laws, Liberties, Properties, Lives, (who may and ought to be resisted, as well as any other Theeves, Robbers, Invaders, Murtherers whatsoever) I have largely proved in My Second Part of my Soveraign Power of Parlia­ments and Kingdoms (Authorized by the Commons House of Parliament) p. 102, to 131. to which I shall referr the Rea­der for satisfaction, not being the point in issue, to which alone I shall apply them. In the former Text last insisted on, we had an Ordinance of God himself for the Maintenance and Tithes of the Preachers of the Gospel: here we have, two Gospel commandements to submit to every Ordinance of our lawfull Governours, and Higher Powers (agreeable to Gods Ordinances, or not repugnant to them) for the Lords sake, & not to resist them: for though the Ordinances them­selves be made but by men, and in that sence stiled, every ordinance of man; yet the Powers that make them, are or­dained of God; therefore those who resist them in their hu­mane ordinances, though but in humane things, do there­in resist the very Ordinance of God, especially in things divine, commanded by and approved in Gods own sacred Word. Now the Maintenance of Gods Ministers by Tithes, is an expresse Ordinance of God himself, both before and during the law, and under the Gospel too, prescribed, warranted by all the forecited Texts: And there are in­finite See Mr. Sel­dens History of Tithes, c. 5, 6, 7, 8, 10. Bo­chellus Decr. Eccles. Gal. l .6. Tit. 8. de Decimis. Laws, Statutes, Decrees, Canons, Ordinances of just and lawfull Christian Emperours, Kings, Governours, Par­liaments, States, Councils, Synods, and all higher Powers, [Page 140] as well Civil as Ecclesiastical, in all Christian Kingdoms, States, Churches, especially in our own, for the establish­ment and due payment of them to the Ministers and Prea­chers of the Gospel: Therefore they are duely, constant­ly, chearfully to be paid unto them by all Christians and Professors of the very Gospel, and cannot, may not be oppugned, detained, substracted, resisted by John Canne or any of his Confederates, nor abrogated by any pre­tending to Power Ordained by God, without resisting the Or­dinance of God himself, yea fighting against him; as these Texts and Acts 5.39. resolve. For which they shall receive to themselves damnation, though they dream (as many now do) they should merit heaven and salvation too, by substrac­ting, subverting both Tithes and Ministers, even by open armed violence, if they cannot accomplish it by Jesuitical Po­licy, and pious frauds. And thus much for the confirmation of the Second Proposition by Scripture Texts and Presidents.

For humane Authorities, that Tithes are lawfull and due to Ministers by a Divine Right even under the Gospel, I could cite very many, were I This was penned at Swainswick in the long Va­cation 1653. near my Library and Books as heretofore, but being far distant from them, I shall trou­ble you onely with a Catalogue of such as I have by me, or remember: See Dr. Til­lessee his Ani­madversions on Mr. Sel­dens History of Tithes, where most of the Fathers & antients are cited at large. Fathers of this Judgment and opinion you may peruse Origen Homil. in Numeros, c. 18. St. Ambrose in Sermone Quadragesimae, cited by Gratian Cau­sa 16. qu. 7. St. Hierome on Mal. 3. and St. Augustine De Tempore Serm. 219. De Reddendis Decimis Tom. 9. both cited by Gratian Causa 16. qu. 1. For Councils, you may peruse Concilium Rothomagense & Magotiense in Gratian Cau­sa 16. qu. 7. Concilium Matisconense 2. Anno 588. Concilium apud Solemanum Anno 1266. Synodus Rothingue Anno 1581. Concilium Trecense Anno 1427. (which resolves, Decimae fuerunt à DEO primitus Institutae; & Praecipiuntur solvi tam de veteri, quam de Novo Testamento) Synodus Lin­gonensis Anno 1404. Synodus Turonensis Anno 1588. Concilium Tridentinum & Tholosanum, Anno 1591. which decree, That the payment of Tithes, Divino jure cautum est, sacris­que utriusque Testamenti libris confirmatum. All these Col­lected together by Bochellus Decreto Ecclesiae Galicanae l. 6. [Page 141] Tit. 8. De Decimis, Concilium Tridentinum, sessio. 25. c. 12. The Council of Orenth An. 1549. with many more record­ed in Binius, Surius, Crab, Caranza, Merlin, Syrmond, and other Collectors of the Decrees of Councils, resolve, Tithes to be due to the Ministers of the Gospel by Divine Right, ratified both by the Old and New Testament. For forein popish Bochellus Decret. Eccles. Gal. 6. Tit. 8. c. 8. p. 904. Au­thors, Aimericus Bishop of Poitiers in France in a Synod there held, Anno 1367. Enjoyned all Chaplains on Lords-dayes and Holy-dayes diligently to declare to the people in time of Masse, and likewise in their Sermons under pain of Excomunication, Qualiter Ex praecepto Divinae Legis, quilibet Catholicus te­netur solvere Ecclesiae decimas de omnibus licitè acquisitis: Gra­tian the Canonist Causa 16. qu. 1. & 7. with John Thiery, and other Glossers on his Text; The Clergie of the Diocesse of Edicts & Or­denances, Tom. 4. p. 493. Paris & Troyes in France, mentioned in an Edict of H. the 2. of France, An. 1542. & of the Clergy of Poissy, recited in an Edict of Charls the 9. An. 1562. for payment of Tithes, as in­troduced & instituted by divine right. Hostiensis in his Summa Aurea, Angelus de Clavasio in his Summa Angelica: Baptista Tuvomala, in his Summa Rossella, Tit. Decimae; Innocentius, Res. de Decimis, Albertus Pius Carpensis, Rebuffus de Decimis, Tyndarus in his special Tract de Decimis, printed at Colen Anno 1590. and generally all other Canonists. Alexander Alensis Summa Theol. parte 4. qu. 2, 3, 4. Richardus de Media villa in lib. 4. Sentent. Distinct. 17. and most other Thomas Waldensis Doctr [...]nalis Fidei l. 2. Ar­tic. 3. c. 64, 65. School­men on that place. Aquinas 2.2. quaest. 87. with most Com­mentators on him, there assert, That Tithes are even at this day due to Ministers, Iure Divino, in quantum sunt à jure Naturali & Morali, but not as they were Ceremonial. Popish old and New Expositors, Commentators on Gen. 14. & 28. Levit. 27. 2 Chron. 31. Neh. 10. & 13. Mal. 3. Mat. 10. Luke 10. Rom. 16. 1 Cor. 9. Gal. 6.6. 1 Thes. 5. Heb. 7. 1 Tim. 5. are all of the same opinion, and most Protestant Expositors likewise. Yea St. Briget in her Revelationes Extravagantes, cap. 83, 84. will resolve our female Quakers (who now pretend to immediate Extravagant Revelations as well as she) That those do spoil Christ himself of his Right, who do not pay Tithes to him and his Ministers; and that by a revelation from Christs own mouth. Therefore the Jesuits, popish Priests, Papists activity, business now in declaiming against [Page 142] English Protestant Ministers Tithes as popish and antichristian, against the Decrees, Resolutions of all their own Councils, Canonists, Casuists, Schoolmen, Expositors, Popes, can proceed from no other ground but a malicious design to subvert, starve, ruine our Protestant Ministers for want of mainte­nance, and thereby to extirpate our Religion to advance their own in its place, and then they will cry and set up Tithes again as much as ever. The judgement of Forein Protestant Divines concerning the Divine right of Ministers maintenance, and that by Tithes where setled, and the Sa­crilegious impiety of those, who would rob them of it, you may read in their Commentaries and Expositions on the Texts forecited. Let learned Nicholas Hemingius speak for them all in his words already cited; and in his Exposi­tion on Gal. 6.6. p. 175. Dicit Scriptura, Bovi trituranti non obligabis os. Et dignus est Operarius mercede sua: Indignissi­mus igitur Christiano nomine censendus est, qui Ministros Evangelii totius Ecclesiae curam gerentes negligit. Bestia qua­vis immanior est (Let Canne and his Confederates re­member it) qui eos odio prosequitur & proscindit, quorum Mi­nisterio ad salutem, & immortalitatem invitatur. Sed proh do­lor! bona pars mundi (and never so much as now) huc incum­bit, ut potius aliquid adimat Ministerio, quam addat, tan­ta est ingratitudo & perversitas, etiam illorum, qui sacrilege audeat gloriari de Christiano nomine. Horum sanè factum, nihil differre arbitror à sacrilegio & latrocinio, cujus poe­nas olim luent architecti et fabri hujus mali. Non est quod quisquam quaerat subterfugia, quibus se excuset, cur minus sit Li­beralis erga Ministros Evangelii: Oculos quidem hominum fallere potest; sed Deus non fallitur, in cujus contemptum alia atque alia praetexunt ingrati. Hic tres Loci observantur: Primus, Quod victus et alia Officia debeantur oeconomis mysteriorum Dei, seu Catechesis. Secundus, Quod perniciosus error fit, non prudentia, defraudare ministros sua debita mercede. Tertius, Quod Spiritus Sanctus in Paulo interpretetur, Derisio­nem Majestatis divinae esse negare victum et alia officia ver­bi doctoribus.

I shall subjoyn to him these memorable seasonable Passa­ges of Operum Tom. 1. Tigu­ri. 1581. f. 273. Huldricus Zuinglius, in his Brevis Pastorum Isagoge; where he resolves thus. Quotquot ergo hac tempestate nostra [Page 143] divini verbi patrocinio, et falso praetextu confisi debitos Census et Decimas, et alia hujusmodi quae justis Legibus solvere juben­tur, negare instituunt, omnes hi hujus praecepti sententia dam­nantur, quo monemur, Ne quis furtum faciat: quin hoc ipso Re­liquis furibus pejores sunt, quod furto suo praetextum quen­dam et patrocinium ex Christi doctrina adducere conan­tur. Quod si eo res redigatur, ut debita singulis impune negare liceat, et nulla legitimi Magistratus cura sit et ratio, nullus deni­que honestarum legum respectus, quis non videt quanto tutius fuerit cum immanissima Turcarum Gente, quam cum hu­jusmodi Hominibus omnis aequitatis et justitiae negligen­tibus conversari? Nec enim ulla potest in Deum dici Blas­phemia atrocior, nulla enim re magis ipsius nomen infamari, quam si hujusmodi Fraudes et Imposturas nequissimas, nominis illius praetextu, et Religionis Titulo Defendere co­nemur. Let our Anabaptists, Quakers, Tith-detainers, con­sider and tremble at it. In his Book Operum Tom. 1. f. 319. b. De Duplici Justitia, Divina & Humana: treating of Tithes and their diverse kinds, he concludes thus. ‘De istis vero Decimis, quae Spiritualium vel Clericorum (ut vocant) sunt, vel il­lorum aere redemptae, constanter affirmo, eas omnino reddendas esse, quamdiu Magistratus has solvere jubet. Quin et illud Magistratui licere dicimus, ut si inobedi­entes, et has solvere nolint, justo Imperio ad harum so­lutionem cogat. Decimarum enim translatio communi Magistratuum consensu instituta est, et juxta Decimam aestimationem omnes fundi, agri et praedia vel vilius vel carius quoque divendita et empta sunt. Quisquis vero contra communem illum legitimi Magistratus consensum ex proprio animi sui arbitrio et consilio privato Deci­mas negaverit, Magistratui resistit quisquis talis est, qui vero Magistratui sese inobedientem exhibet, Deo quoque resistit, ut superius abunde satis demonstratum est. He concludes thus, Singulorum Officium est decimas jux­ta Magistratus Sententiam et Decretum exolvere; nec enim quisquam hominum privato et violento consilio quicquam hic tentabit nisi furum et raptorum Iudicium subire cupiat.

Learned Gulielmus Stuckius, Antiquitatum Convivalium [Page 144] l. 1. c. 19. De Decimis, Stipendiis, atque Salariis eorum qui Ec­clesiis praesunt; proves from the example of Abraham and vow of Jacob, ‘Consuetudinem Decimas dandi etiam ante legem fuisse usitatam. Veresimile etiam est Ethni­cos ab illis commemoratis exemplis tritum illud suum et usitatum praedae, spoliarum, et quicquid ab hostibus captum est, Decimam Jovi caeterisque Diis vovendi sol­vendique morem traxisse, cujus multa sane illustria ex­empla extant apud Alexand. ab Alex. l. 3. Genial. c. 22.’ Then he shews how God prescribed them to the Levites and Priests, that the payment of them continued in Christs time, and was revived by Christian Emperors and Magi­strates, as Constantine, Charles the Great. Concluding thus. ‘Ut ergo impie agunt illi Magistratus, qui bona Ecclesiae dicata ad se rapiunt, vel ad alios usus transferunt: ita Impii et Sacrilegi sunt privati Homines, qui non mo­do nihil pro suis facultatibus conferunt ad Ministri Ec­clesiastici et Scholarum conservationem, sed Decimas et Census devitos, jam antea Ecclesiae dicatos, vel omni­no non solvunt, vel non ea, qua par est fide, &c. Itaque mirum non est multa quotidie cum privata, tum publi­ca mala, annonae praesertim caritatem ingruere, Cum Decime ali [...]que Census ad Ecclesiarum Scholarumque conservationem pertinentes, vel negantur, vel maligne persolvantur.’

For our own Domestick Councils, Parliaments and Wri­ters Judgements herein; Spelman. Conc tom. 1. p. 259, 268, 396, 347, 402, 418, 554, 620. Gulielmi Lam­bardi Archal­on. Egbert Archbishop of York in his Excerptions about the year of Christ, An: 750. c. 4.99, 100. The National Council of Calchuth under King Oswald and Offa, ann. 787. c. 17. forecited. The famous Council of Grateley, under King Athelstan, ann. 928. cap. 1. De Decimis sollicite reddendis. Odo Archbishop of Canterbury in his Con­stitutions, ann. 943. c. 10. De Decimis reddendis. The Ca­nons under King Edgar, about the year 967. Can. 54. The Ecclesiastical laws of King Aethelred, ann. 1012. cap. 4. The Ecclesiastical laws of Edward the Confessor, c. 8. confirmed by William the Conqueror. The Popish Schoolmen, Cano­nists, and Commentators on the Texts forecited, (whose names I pretermit) the Seldens History of Tithes c. 7. p. 171 Convocation of England, an. 5 H. 6. [Page 145] and the Petition of the English Clergy in Parliament, 50 E. 3. rot. Parl. n. 199. resolve in positive terms, That Tithes are due to God and his Ministers under the Gospel, by Divine Right. The same is asserted by divers of our Protestant Divines, particularly by Dr. George Carleton, in his Treatise intituled, Tithes proved to be due by a Divine Right, printed at Lon­don 1606. By Dr. William Sclater his Ministers Portion. By Richard Eburne his Maintenance of the Ministry, London 1609. By Richard Mountague, in his Diatribe on the first part of the History of Tithes, London 1628. by Robert Tileslee his Animadversions on Mr. Seldens History of Tithes, London 1619. Mr. Samuel Purchas in his Pilgrimage, l. 2. c. 7. with sundry others. And though one or two English Writers are of a different opinion, yet they all accord, that being setled by our laws, they are duely to be paid, even in point of justice and conscience; that they are not simply unlawfull; but a just and fitting maintenance under the Gospel, which Mr. Selden in his History of Tithes & Review thereof doth affirm, and no wayes oppose: Seeing then all these, with the laws of sundry other Kings, Nations, and Authorities of all sorts, conclude them to be of Divine Right, and conclude it both a grievous Sinne and Sacrilege against God to substract or abolish them; and those who oppugn their Divine Right under the Gospel, do affirm, it is no sin, but a bounden Debt and Duty to pay them, as settled by humane Grants, Donations, Vows, Laws, Canons, Constitutions, Prescriptions time out of minde; how any bearing the name of Christians, can or dare with open face oppugn, detain, or attempt their total abrogation now, as Jewish or Antichristian, I referre it to their own consciences, and others resolutions to de­termine.

I shall answer one grand Objection against Ministers Tithes under the Gospel; and so cloze up this Chapter.Object. Neither Jesus Christ himself, nor his Apostles, nor the Ministers of the Primitive Church for two or three hundred years after them, received Tithes for preaching the Gospel, but lived onely upon the peoples alms and voluntary contributions. Therefore the Ministers of the Gospel likewise after them ought to receive no Tithes of the people for preaching the Gospel, but to live upon Alms [Page 146] and voluntary contributions, as they did. This was William Thorps chief Argument against Tithes, Fox Acts and Monu­ments, vol. 1. p. 699, 700. who addes, That those Priests, who will challenge or take Tithes, deny that Christ is come in the flesh, and do the Priests Office of the Old Law, for whom Tithes were granted, for else Priests take now Tithes wrongfully; citing this, not as his own, but a Doctors opinion, whose name he remem­bred not, but thought it was St. Jerome; (or rather St. Canne) in his New Voyce, p. 13, 14, 15. who delivers this for Orthodox Doctrine; which St. See Gratian Caus. 16. qu. 1. Jerome directly con­tradicts, with all other antient Doctors I have read.

Answ. Answ. To this I reply, 1. That Christ and his Apostles lived amongst the Jews, who at that time were obliged by Gods own Law to pay their Tithes only to such Priests and Le­vites as were of the Tribe of Levi, of which Tribe Christ and his Apostles were not; therefore they challenged not Tithes from them, Heb. 7.5. to 15.

2. They then paid their Tithes duly to their Priests and Le­vites (mentioned John 1.19.) for which Christ commended them, resolving they ought not to omit it, Mat. 23.23. Luke 11.42. ch. 18.12. Therefore it was no reason they should pay them over again to Christ or his Apostles (no more than Papists, who pay Tithes in kind against their wills unto our Ministers, though not to their own Priests, but only voluntary Contributions) whiles their Priest­hood stood in force, which they generally submitted to.

3. The total abrogation of the Levitical Priesthood and Ceremonies by the death of Christ, was not certainly known to, nor resolved by the Apostles and believing Jews or Gentiles, till some years space after our Saviours Ascension, as is evident by Acts 15. in the great case of Circumcision, about which there was a Synod assembled; by Pauls circumcising Timothy af­ter this, because of the Jews, Acts 16.3. his purifying himself, and shaving his head after the Jewish manner, many years after­ward, Acts 21.20, to 28. which he being a Jew, was obliged even then to observe to avoid scandal, but not the Gentiles. Therefore Tithes amongst the Jewes upon this account, were then still paid to their Levitical Priests, not to the Apostles.

[Page 147]4. Though Christ whiles on earth, received no Tithes from the Jewes, yet he had a just Right, Title to Tithes from Abraham and all his Posterity, yea from the Levitical Priests themselves (especially after their abolition) as he was a Priest for ever after the order of Melchisedeck, to whom Abraham himself and the Levites then in his loins paid Tithes of all, Heb. 7.1, to 15. (of which at large before:) Therefore he had a just Right to receive Tithes from them, both before the institution, and after the abolition of the Levitical Priesthood, which he might have lawful­ly claimed, exercised, and his Apostles likewise in his Right, though they did it not. We read that Christ had a just Right, Title by Inheritance, and lineal descent from his Father King David, to the Temporal Crown and Kingdome of Judah; being therefore said by the Wise men, Mat. 2.2. to be born King of the Iews (an unanswerable Argument for the lawfullnesse, Excellency of Hereditary Titles to Crowns and Kingdomes, before that of Election only, wherewith I frequently silenced vapouring Souldiers a­gainst Hereditary Kingship, being the very Title of Christ himself, both to his Luke 1.32, 33. Rev. 22.16. Isa. 9.6, 7. Jer. 25.5. c. 30.9. c. 33.17, 21, 26. Ezech. 37.24, 26. Spiritual and Temporal Kingdome, and that which Gen. 49.10. Deut. 17.20. 2 Sam. 7.12, to 24. 1 Kings 2.4. c 8.20. c. 9.5. c. 15.3, 4. Ps. 89.3, 4, 28, to 39. Ps. 132.11, 12, 13. 2 Chro. 6.10, 16, 17. c. 2.11. c. 13.5. c. 7.18. c. 21.7. c. 23.3. Jer. 17.24, 25, 26. c. 22.3, 4. c. 33.17, 22. God instituted amongst his Church, peo­ple, as the best, surest of all other, 2 Sam. 10.1. 1 Chro. 19.1. 2 Kings 3.26, 27. c. 13.24. c. 14.37. Isa. 19.11. c. 37.38. taken up by most Heathen Nations;) Now though Christ neither claimed nor exercised this his Temporal Right, but avoided it, when the people would have made him King by force, John 6.15. who yet after cryed him up for the King of Israel, John 12.13, 15. which even Pilate himself acknowledged, when he said unto the Jews Behold your King: demanded of them, Shall I crucifie your King? and wrote, fixed this Title on his Crosse, Iesus of Nazareth King of the Iews, John 19.14, 15, 19. will, or can John Canne, or any other of his anti­monarchical confederates, hence justly infer; that it was unlawfull for Christ himself, Right Heir by Descent to his Hereditary Temporal Kingdome, kept and thrust out there­of by usurping Herod (who murthered all the infants in Beth­lehem, and the Coasts thereof that were two years old and un­der, and would have murthered our Saviour himself to secure his own usurped Power, Mat. 2.13, 16. such is the bloody [Page 148] cruelty, Jealousie of Usurpers,) to have claimed or exer­cised this his just, Hereditary Right to the Crown? or unlawfull for the people to have thrust out this bloody Intruder Herod, by force from his usurped Authority, and made Christ King as they intended? or because Christ did then voluntarily forbear, relinquish his Temporal Right to Herod, will it thence necessarily follow, that it is there­fore unlawfull, for any other Hereditary Christian King, or Right Heir to a Crown, kept from, or thrust out of his Throne, Kingdome by armed violence, against the gene­rality of his peoples desires, by any aspiring, usurping Herod, to lay claim to his Crown, Kingdome, or for the faithfull, natural born Subjects, according to their duty, Oathes, Allegiance, to endeavour by all lawfull means, and open force to expell, dethrone such Herods, and Crown, set up their lawfull Soveraign on the Throne of the King­dome? Doubtlesse they cannot be so absurdly stupid, to affirm it; seeing Jehoiadah the high Priest, the Captains of Hundreds, Levites, Souldiers and people too, thrust out and slew with the sword Athaliah (the bloody Usurper of the Kingdome and Throne of Judah) in the second year of her Usurpation, crowned Joash the Kings Son, King, as the Lord had said of the Sons of David, and set him upon the Throne of the Kingdome: whereupon all the people of the Land rejoyced, and the City was quiet: as is re­corded at large to their eternal Honour by God himself, and for others imitation in the like case, 2 Chron. 23. and 2 Kings 11. The rather, because all other men by our Laws may justly lay claim to, and repossesse themselves of such Lands, Houses, Goods, as others forcibly detain or take from them against all Law, Right, notwithstanding Christs Non-claim to his Rightful Crown: Therefore by the self-same Reason our Ministers of the Gospel now may lawfully challenge and take Tithes from the people, though Christ and his Apostles did it not, albeit they had a just Right and Title to them, which they might have ex­ercised had they pleased without Sin, or Judaism, as our Ministers do now, as Paul resolves in 1 Cor. 9.4, 5, 6, 15, 18. To clear which Right from Judaism and all other cavils [Page 149] beyond all contradiction, I shall cite only two Prophecies, relating joyntly to Christs Kingdom, and Ministers under the Gospel. The first is Jer. 33.15. to the end. ‘In those dayes and at that time will I cause the Branch of Righte­ousness to grow up unto David, and he shall execute Righteousnesse and Judgement in the Land. In those days shall Judah be saved, and Jerusalem shall dwell safely, and this is the name wherewith he shall be called, The Lord our Righteousness. For thus saith the Lord, David shall never want a man to sit upon the Throne of the house of Israel: Neither shall the Priests, the Levites, want a man before me to offer Burnt-Offerings, and to kindle Meat-Offerings, and to do Sacrifices continually. Thus saith the Lord, if you can break my Covenant of the day, and my Covenant of the night, so that there should not be day and night in their season: then may also my Cove­nant be broken with David my Servant, that he should not have a Son to reign upon his Throne,’(therefore our Covenants, Oaths to our Kings, their Heirs and Successors, should be as stable, as inviolable, and strictly observed, as Gods to David and his Posterity, Ps. 89.3, 4, 34. Ps. 132.11, 12. Hebr. 6.17, 18. Ps. 15.4. Eccles. 8.2. Gal. 3.15, 17.)and with the Levites the Priests my Ministers. As the host of heaven cannot be numbred, neither the sand of the Sea measured, so will I multiply the seed of David my Servant, and the Levites that minister unto me, &c. The second is Isa. 66.18, to 20. ‘I will gather all nations and tongues, and they shall come and see my Glory, and I will set a Sign among them, and I will send those that e­scape of them unto the Nations, and to Tarshish, &c. and to the Isles afar off (whereof England is chief and prin­cipally intended) And they shall bring all your Brethren for an See Rom. 12.1. Offering unto the Lord out of all Nations, upon Horses and in Chariots, and in Litters, and upon Mules, and upon swift Beasts, to my holy Mountain in Jerusa­lem, saith the Lord, as the Children of Israel bring an Offering in a clean Vessel unto the House of the Lord, And I will also take of them for Priests and for Levits, saith the Lord:’ From which Texts I shall observe;

[Page 150]1. That as Christs Title to his everlasting Spiritual Kingdom under the Gospel, over all the converted Gentiles as well as Jews, is expresly set forth to be neither elective, nor by conquest, but by DESCENT, HEIRSHIP and lineal succession after the flesh from King David; Whence he is stiled Heir of all things, Heb. 1.12. And the Lord shall give unto him THE THRONE OF HIS FATHER DAVID, and HE shall reign over the House of Jacob for ever, &c. Luke 1.32, 33. Ezech: 27.22, 24. Jer: 23.4, 5. c. 33.14, 15, 16. even as all the regenerated Sons of God are by their Right of Son-ship, and new-birth, in like sort intituled to the Kingdom of heaven (whence they are stiled HEIRS and IN­HERITORS OF THE KINGDOM, Jam: 2.5. Gal: 3.27. Rom: 8.17. Titus 3.17. Heb: 1.14. chap: 6.17. 1 Pet: 3.7. Mat: 25.34. and this Kingdom THE INHERITANCE OF THE SAINTS, Col: 1.12. Ephes. 1.11, 14, 18. 1 Pet: 1.4. Acts 20.32. an unanswerable argument, that Heirship and Birthright is the Best, Surest, Justest, Honorablest, Law­fullest Title of all other to Crowns, Kingdoms, and Possessions on earth, being the very Title of Christ himself to his ever­lasting Kingship, Kingdom, and of the Saints in and by Christ, to the Kingdom of heaven it self, and Crown of Glory;) so the Seat, Throne of this his Kingdom, is said to be in Zi­on and Jerusalem: (most emphatically expressed, Isa: 24.23. The Lord of Hosts shall reign in Mount Zion, and in Jerusalem, before his Ancients gloriously) A type of the Church of God under the Gospel, first planted in Jerusalem, and propagated from thence throughout the world, according to the Prophe­cies, Isa. 2.3. Micah 4.2. Whence the Church under the Gospel is called the New Jerusalem, &c. Rev. 3.12. chap. 21.2, 10. Gal: 4.26. Heb: 12.22.

2. That the Ministers of, and under the Gospel, are ex­presly stiled in these Prophecies Priests and Levites, several times.

3. That their Office under the Gospel in a mystical sense, is to offer Burnt-offerings, to bake or kindle Meat-Offerings, to do Sacrifices continually, and to Minister unto God.

4. That these Priests and Levites, should be taken out of the converted Gentiles, and Isles afar off, whereof our Isle was chief.

[Page 151]5. That these Priests and Levites should never fail, cease, nor want a man under the Gospel, and that God would multi­ply them as the Host of Heaven, as well as the Seed of David.

6. That they should convert and bring their brethren for an offering out of all Nations, and the Isles afar off, to Gods Mountain and House in Jerusalem, as the children of Israel used to bring their offerings thither. Since therefore the Ministers of the Gospel in these prophecies are thus expresly stiled Priests and Levites, and are to offer Burnt-Offerings, Meat-Offerings, Sacrifices and Oblations to God in his Mountain and House at Jerusalem, &c. under David their King, in an Evangelical sence, without any Judaism or denying of Christs coming in the flesh; they may undoubtedly in the self-same sence and Right, receive all Glebes, Tithes, Oblations, and other dues from Christians, and converted Jews under the Gospel, which the Priests and Levites did at Jerusalem under King David and his Successors; seeing they succeed them in their Of­fice in an Evangelical sence, according to these prophecies, which as strongly confirm the Maintenance of their Priestly Function, and their Tithes, as their Evangelical Priesthood.

7. Although Christ, his Apostles, and the Ministers of the Gospel in the Primitive times, whiles the Church was in the Rev. 12.14, 15. Wilderness under grievous, bloudy, Antichristian Kings, Magistrates, Persecutors, by reason of the present persecu­tion, neither did nor could receive Tithes and Glebes for their Maintenances from the persecuted Christians, and therefore were necessitated to live by private Contribution, and extraordinary wages in that case of extremity; yet it no way follows, that therefore all Ministers of the Gospel afterwards shall and must do so in setled Kingdoms, States, Nations converted to the faith; where Kings, Magistrates, People do all generally embrace, professe the Gospel, where Churches are established, and Ministers Glebes, Tithes are or may be confirmed by setled Laws: which I shall ir­refragably prove by these instances.

1 The Priests and Levites under the Law, had no Glebes nor Tithes at all, whiles the Israelites wandred 40 years to­gether in the wildernesse, though they had then Levit. 27.30, 31, 32. Numb. 35.2, 3, 4. a Law, and right to receive them. Will the Objectors thence in­ferre, [Page 152] Therefore they ought to have no Tithes nor Glebes when the Israelites were possessors of and setled in the land of Canaan in peace; when they enjoyed both without dis­pute?

2. The Priests and Levites had no Tithes nor Glebes in the Realm of Israel under the Ʋsurper Jeroboam, and his Ido­latrous successors, who deprived them of their possessions, Cities, Suburbs, Tithes and Priests Office too, 2 Chron. 11.13, 14. c. 13.9. Therefore the Priests and Levites in the Kingdom of Iudah, might not lawfully claim nor enjoy any Glebes or Tithes, nor Ministers under the Gospel, nor yet those in Is­rael, under David and Solomon, who were no Persecutors but Patrons of them.

3. When both these Kingdoms with their Priests and Levites were carried away captives into Assyria and Baby­lon, the Priests and Levites during the 70 years capivity en­joyed neither Glebes nor Tithes: Will it thence follow, Therefore they might lawfully enjoy neither, after their re­stitution to their Country, and execution of their Priestly Function, and the re-edifying of the Temple? as we read they did, Neh: 10.38. c. 12.44. c. 13.1, to 13. Whence the people were charged with robbing of God, when they neglected to pay Tithes and Oblations to them, Mal. 3.7, 8, 9, 10.

4. Christ himself, so soon as born, was forced to fly out of his Country into Aegypt, by bloudy Herod, and to remain there till after his death, Mat: 2.13, 14, 15. After which he com­plained, That Foxes had holes, and Birds of the ayr nests; yet he had not where to lay his head, Mat: 8.20. Luke 9.58. And at last, he was apprehended, mocked, reviled, crowned with thorns, crucified by the malicious Iews and SOLDIERS, who parted his Garments among them, and cast Lots upon his Vesture: The Evangelists closing up the Tragedy of his Passion with this perpetual brand upon the Domineering cruel soldiers, These things therefore the Soldiers did, Iohn 19.24. For which, and for reporting a Lye to smother the truth of Christs Resurrection, the High Priest Gave large money to the Soldiers, Matt. 28.12, 15. Will Canne therefore hence conclude; Therefore our Soldiers now must force our Ministers to fly into Aegypt till Herods death; leave [Page] them neither Rectory, Personage house, nor Vicarige, nor yet so much as a Bed, Bolster, Tithe-Hay or Straw, where­on to lay their heads; then nail them to the Crosse, peirce their sides with their spears-points, revile, deride them, and at last part not only all their Glebes, Tithes, Goods, but their very Garments and Gowns between them? to make them like our Saviour. Surely if they must and shall do so; let them beware of another perpetual memento, like the former. These things therefore, the Souldiers did: So the Souldiers took the money, and did as they were taught, by Canne and Popish Priests and Jesuites.

5. The Apostles who succeeded our Saviour in those dayes of persecution, were thus handled, by Pauls own re­lation, 1 Cor. 4.9, &c. We are made a spectacle unto the world, unto Angles and to men: we are fools for Christs sake, we are weak, we are despised: even to this present hour, we are hun­gry and thirst, and are naked, and are buffeted, and have no certain dwelling place, we are reviled, persecuted, defamed; we are as the filth of the world, and the off-scouring of all things unto this day. If all Ministers in times of peace and settle­ment must be like the Apostles, in not receiving Tithes; then they must be like them too even in setled Christian Kingdoms, States, Churches, in all these their particular sufferings; and have no certain dwelling place, &c. And if so; Let Canne and his new Ministers of the Gospel (as they stile themselves) begin the president; of whom our Mi­nisters may now say, as Paul did of the Corinthians in the precedent verse of this chapter, v. 8. Now ye are full, now ye are rich, ye have reigned as Kings, without us: (when as most of them were very poor, and far enough from reigning as Kings, or so much as Petty Constables before these unhappy Wars, and in dayes of former persecution, when Canne himself durst not shew his face in England for fear of a Bi­shops power, or High commission Pursuivant; nor durst re­proach our Orthodox protestant pious Ministers, and Par­liaments as Antichristian, Popish; and compare their Laws for Ministers Tithes, with the very Idolatrous Statutes of Omri and Ahab, as he doth now p. 3.) for which he might have taken a turn at Tyburn, in steed of walking freely in West­minster [Page] Hall, without being questioned for this his impu­dent high Slanders both of our Laws and Parliaments, as well as Ministry.

6. If the Ministers of the Gospel be bound to imitate the Apostles in all things; then they must not have Gold nor Silver, nor Brasse in their purses, neither Scrip, nor two Coats, nor yet Shoes, nor so much as two Staves, but Sandals only on their feet, Mat. 10.9, 10. Mark 6.8, 9. as the Capu­chin-Fryars Mendicants hence conclude: this being a posi­tive Precept, the objected examples of the Apostles, &c. only a President. And if so, not only all our Ministers, but Canne and all his Administrators, must turn Fryars Mendi­cants too in good earnest (who ground their Vow of Vo­luntary poverty on this Text; and the objected Presidents of Christ and his Apostles) and so become no Ministers of Christ, but Antichrist, and as truly Antichristian as these Fryars are, the See My Quakers Un­masked, and New Discove­ry of Romish Emissaries Heads, Ringleaders of our last sect of Quakers.

7. If our Ministers must all now be like those of the Primitive times, whiles under persecuting Heathen Em­perours, Kings, Magistrates, then all Saints and Christians too in our daies, times, must imitate and be like the Saints, Christians in those dayes: They must sell all their old and new purchased Lands, Houses, Lordships, Palaces, lay all the mony down at the Ministers feet, and have all things in common like the real Saints and Christians in the Apostles times, Acts 4.34. to the end; and instead of Lording, feasting it in their new acquired Royal, Episcopal Palaces, and Mannor Houses, they must wander about in Sheep-skins, and Goat-skins, in D [...]sarts, Mountains, Dens and Caves of the earth, being d [...]stitute and afflicted, like the Saints of old; yea, and like them they must be tortured, tormented, not accept­ing deliverance, have trials of cruel mockings, scourgings, bonds and imprisonments, be stoned, sawn asunder, slain with the Sword, instead of slaying, plundering, imprisoning and saw­ing others asunder with the Sword, Heb. 11.35, to 39. And when our Army-Saints, Officers, Souldiers, Anabap­tists, Quakers, with other Tithe-Oppugners, who presse this Objection against Ministers Tithes, shall lay down all [Page 147] their Arms, Commands, Power, Lands, and sell all they have, to become like to all these Primitive Saints and Martyrs of Christ in their sufferings, in times of Persecu­tion, I doubt not, but our Ministers will joyfully part both with their Glebes, Rectories, Tithes, and setled Mainte­nance to sympathize with them in their Persecutions, Suf­ferings. But till such hard times of Persecutions come, and they begin to follow this President of the self-denying Primitive Saints, I hope they will not make all our Mini­sters present Martyrs in their Tithes and setled Maintenance, nor enjoyn them alone (but not themselves) to follow the Primitive Ministers of the Gospel in those times of persecution; and prove greater persecutors to them in these pretended times of Christian Liberty, Law, Justice, than the late Oppressing Prelates and High Commissio­ners, who suffered many of them (though Non-Confor­mists) to enjoy their Tithes, Glebes, Offrings, and not eject, disinherit them and their Successors for ever, of their an­tient Glebes, Tithes, and other setled Maintenance, without any Legal Trial by their Peers, or Conviction of any Trea­sonable crimes against our known Laws, for which they deserve to forfeit them; and all under the false petence, that Tithes are Jewish and Antichristian under the Gospel; Which I hope I have sufficiently refuted (being established on them by Christian Kings, States, Parliaments, immedi­ately after the Primitive persecutions, generally through­out Christendome, as the fittest Maintenance of all other, and particularly in our Realm) when as the abolishing of them will be really such in the Judgement of all Godly Protestants, Patrons of Religion, both at home and throughout the World.

FINIS.

ERRATA.

PAge 68. l. 11. r. luent, p. 141. l. 31. Solemanum, r. Sal­murum, Rothingue, r. Rothomag. p. 142. l. 20. Trovo­mala.

The REMAINDER, or SE …

The REMAINDER, or SECOND PART of A GOSPEL PLEA (Interwoven with a RATIONAL and LEGAL) FOR THE LAWFULNESS & CONTINUANCE Of the Antient Setled MAINTENANCE and TITHES Of the Ministers of the Gospel: WHEREIN The DIVINE RIGHT OF OUR MINISTERS TITHES is further asserted: The Magistrates Inforcement of the DUE PAYMENT OF THEM BY COERCIVE PENAL LAWS, when substracted or detained, vindicated: That they are no REAL BURDEN, or GRIEVANCE to the People; the abolishing them no Ease, Benefit to Farmers, Tenants or Poor-People; but a Prejudice ra­ther; and a gain to None but Rich Land-Lords, cleared: That the present Opposition against them, proceeds not from any true Grounds of Conscience, or Real Inconveniences in Tithes themselves, but only from base Covetousness, carnal Policy, want of Christian Love, Charity to, and professed Enmity against the Ministers of the Gospel; Yea, from a JESUITICAL and ANABAPTISTICAL DESIGN to subvert, ru­ine our Church, Ministry, Religion; and bring a Perpetual Infamie on our Nation, and the Reformed Religion here professed. By William Prynne of Swainswick Esq a Bencher of Lincolns Inne.

1 Cor. 9 14.
Even so hath THE LORD ORDAINED, that those who preach the Gospel, should live of the Gospel.
Cyprian, de unitate Ecclesiae.
Domos tunc & Fundos venundabant, the­sauros sibi in Coelo reponentes: at nunc de Patrimonio nec Decimas damus; & cum Vendere jubeat Dominus, Emimus pötius & augemus.
Petrus Blesensis, Epist: 82.
Per Prophetam praecepit Dominus Decimas in­ferri in horreum suum; vos ab ejus horreo jubetis auferri, &c. Quid interest Equos rapiatis an Decimas? Nisi quia Decima res spiritualis est, & ideo enor­mius SACRILEGIƲM in Decimis committitur quam in Equis. Cum Domi­nus praecipit Decimas solvi, quis contra ejus praeceptum potuit dispensare?

London Printed by T. Childe and L. Parry for Edward Thomas, and are to be sold at the Adam and Eve in Little Britain, 1659.

THE REMAINDER OR SECOND PART OF A GOSPEL PLEA, FOR THE Lawfullness and Continuance of the antient setled Maintenance and TITHES of the Ministers of the GOSPEL.

KIng David a holy Zealot Acts 13.22 after Gods own heart, who fulfilled all his will, records this to Posterity in sacred Writ, as the most tran­splendent Character of his own real Saintship, in a Divine Appeal to God himself, Psal. 69.9. The zeal of THINE HOUSE hath eaten me up. And when our Saviour Christ, Matth. 1.6. c. 9.27. c. 15.22. c. 22.42, 43, 45. Rom. 1.3. Rev 22.16. the Son of David according to the flesh, out of an enflamed zeal against the Sacrilegious Prophanation of Gods Temple in Jerusalem, made a scourge of small Cords, wherewith he drove all that sold Sheep and Oxen, with their Cattel, out of the Temple; powred out the Changers Mony, overthrew their Tables, and said unto those that sold Doves, Take these things hence, Make not my Fathers House an House of Merchandize: His Disciples upon this oc­casion remembred and applyed this very Scripture to him, The zeal. of thine House hath eaten me up, John 2.15, 16, 17. [Page 2] But the preposterous zeal of many Iesuited Anabaptistical qua­king pretended Saints, Souldiers, Zealots in our degenerated dayes, is diametrically contrary to this of David, and our Saviour Christ, even to devour and eat up Gods House it self, with all his faithfull Ministers remaining Tithes, Recto­ries, Glebes, Maintenance at one meal, which of late years, and now again they have prosecuted with such eager Appe­tites and hungry Stomacks, that they make it their very prime, main, only Businesse, endeavouring to effect it, with such See Iohn Cannes Epi­stle, before his second voyce (nor) from (but against) the Temple, and many late Petitions a­gainst Tithes, from Kent, Somersetshire, Wiltshite, and other places. Post-hast, as might anticipate all new printed Pleas for their just defence, and fore-judge most Ministers, Patrons, Peoples Rights, throughout our Nation, (even out of Term in a long Vacation, as in August 1653. and now again) without any Legal Summons, Process, Tryal by their Peers before com­petent lawfull Judges, meet to decide such a universal Right, Title, publike Interest, which more or lesse con­cerns every particular County, City, Parish, Minister, Pa­tron, Person throughout the Realm; and therefore ought not to be drawn into Question, much lesse Decision, without their General consent, desire, petition, and a full deliberate hearing of all Parties interessed before a full Legal Parliamen­tary Tribunal, duly elected, entrusted by all the People, accor­ding to 3 E. 1. c. 5. (See Cook ibidem) 7 H. 4. c. 14. 1 H. 5. c. 1. 1 H. 6. c. 7.10 H. 6. c. 2.23 H. 6. c. 11.32 H. 6. c. 15.9 H. 8. c. 16.27 H 8. c. 26.35 H. 8. c. 11. Cook 4 Instit. c. 1. our Laws; This being an undoubted principle of Nature, Law, Equity, common Justice, and Reason, 2 Sam. 16.18, c. 19. cl. 33 E. 1. m. 4. dors. 43. Brook Parliament, 101, Customs 6. & 32. Gro­tius De Jure Belli, & Pacis, l. 2. c. 15. sect. 3. c. 6 sect. 1 to 7. c. 13. sect. 14. 33 H. 8. c. 17. Quod tangit omnes, ab omnibus debet approbari: Et Populi minor pars, Populum non obligit. This their preproperous speed, and pre­posterous proceeding, necessitated my Stationer (at the im­portunity of some Ministers in September 1653.) to thrust out and publish to the World, an imperfect Piece, and be­ginning only of my Gospel-Plea, for the Lawfulnesse and Continuance of the Antient setled Maintenance and Tithes of the Ministers of the Gospel, without this Remaining part, (then sent up together with it) or any Errata to it, or Notice given to the Reader if its incompleatnesse, some few dayes before the great Debate of our New Legifers (Septemb. 1653.) concerning the future standing or down-fall of Tithes; which would have been finished, and quite past before the whole could possibly be printed; and so have rendered the entire Plea lesse seasonable, serviceable, beneficial to our Church [Page 3] and Ministers, than the publishing of a Fragment of it in that nick of time proved to them, through Gods blessing on it. This unexpected sodain publication thereof upon that inevitable occasion, as it caused an Omission of some part of the second Chapter in confirmation of the second Proposition, touching the Divine Right of Ministers Tithes, and of the 3. ensuing Chapters: So it hath necessitated me to publish this Subsequent Appendix to that Chapter by way of Supplement, as a necessary Introduction to the Remaining Part, here printed with it, for the Readers better satisfaction in this publique Controversy, and stopping the clamorous Mouthes of all Gain-sayers. Which had been published, soon after the former, in the year 1653. had not my former Stationers long Infirmity, Sicknesse, Death, retarded its progresse at the Presse, and enforced me to seek out another Midwife to bring it into the world, at this instant time, I hope not as an Abortive, out of Season, the former Opposites to our Mi­nisters and their Tithes, being ever since and now again as Malicious against them as ever, waiting only for a fresh opor­tunity to suppress them, ever since their then sodain defeat in this their Impious Sacrilegious Designe, when almost ripe­ned to accomplishment in their Hopes and Ʋotes, unexpect­edly dashed in a moment. There being since this their dis­appointment, a new disguised Antichristian sect of Quakers (introduced by Jesuits and Franciscan friers, as I have In my Qua­kers Unmask­ed, 1655. and New dscove­ry of Romish-Emissaries 1656. els­where evidenced) sprung up amongst us, more virulently opposite to our Ministers and their Maintenance by TITHES, than any other, which they not only decry in all their Pam­phlets, but totally substract and detain from them with such wilfull obstinacy, that many of them chuse rather to lye in prison, upon mean Processe, or Executions, than set out or pay their TITHES, or appear to Actions brought for their re­covery; and now combine with the Anabaptists, and other sectaries in fresh Petitions and Prosecutions both against TITHES, and Ministers, endeavoring their total and final Extirpation, by the power of their Confederates, in the Ar­my and Westminster Juncto, sodainly called in again, and owned by them as a Parliament (after their former six years seclusion) to See my true and perfect Narrative, p. 14.20.41.49.60, 61, 62, 63· accomplish this their design, and root out Law [Page 4] and Gospel, Lawyers and Ministers together, as their fresh From So­mersetshire Wilshire and other places. Petitions, Addresses to them for that purpose clearly demon­strate, beyond contradiction. Which occasioned this pub­lication, after so long a suspension thereof.

An Appendix to the Second Chapter, further clearing the Divine Right of Ministers Tithes.

THe Divine Right of Ministers Maintenance by TITHES, asserted in the former Printed Part of my Gospel-Plea, &c. for the Lawfulnesse and continuance of the antient setled Maintenance and TITHES of the Ministers of the Gospel, may be thus further evinced, demonstrated, confirmed.

1. It is the Opinion of Learned De Re­publica He­braeorum l. 3. c. 3. Petrus Cunaeus, and Of the In­carnation of the Word. Part. 1. Branch. 2. ch. 1. in his Workes in folio. London. 1636. p. 807. to 817. Dr. Griffith Williams (his transcriber) That Melchisedec, Priest of the most high God, to whom Abraham (the father of the Faithful) GAVE TITHES OF ALL, Gen. 14.20. Hebr. 7.1. to 15. was in truth none other, but Jesus Christ, the Sonne of God, then personally meeting him in the form of a man, which he then assumed; though not that very body or flesh begotten and born of the Ʋirgin Mary, which he long after took upon him when he was incarnate and conversed upon Earth. That Abraham then gave him TITHES OF ALL, as perceiving under that vi­sible form an invisible Deity and everlasting Priesthood to subsist, to whom Tithes (originally) are only due & eternal­ly due; because he is and continues for ever an everlasting Priest. That our Saviours own words, John. 8.58. Abra­ham rejoyced to see my day, and he saw it, (as well with the eyes of his body, by this special apparition of Christ then meeting and blessing him, as a Priest of the most high God, at that time, as with the eye of his faith) and was glad: do warrant this their opinion, That Melchisedec was no other than Jesus Christ himself: which they fortify with 7. strong, unanswerable Ar­guments in the opinions of many; from whence (if granted) it will inevitably follow; That TITHES are more truly and properly Evangelical, than Ceremonial or Judaical, be­cause thus originally given and paid to Christ himself, [Page 5] (the Ephes. 1.22, 23. c. 4.6.15, 16. c. 5.23. Col. 1.18. c. 2.10.19. Hebr. 7.1. to 15. Psal. 110.1.4. Isa. 9.6, 7. Rev. 1.5, 6. everlasting Head, King, High Priest of the Church) by Abraham Rom. 4.1. to 24. Mat. 3.9. Luke. 16.22, 24, 30. Acts. 7.1. Rom. 9.7, 8. Gal. 3.6. to the end. the Common Head and Father of all the Faithfull (as well Gentiles as Jewes) out of the prevision of his Incar­nation, in reference to his Everlasting Priesthood, as an hono­rary Portion, Tribute, Salary, See Dr. Solaters Mini­sters Portions p. 18. to 40. of right belonging and annex­ed to his Priesthood: Hebr. 7.1. to 15. Gen. 14.18, 19, 20. which Priestly office was See Hebr. c. 5. to c. 11. 1 John 2.1, 2. Ps. 110.4. Dr. Jones, and o­thers on the Hebrewes; Dr. Reynolds on Psal. 110.4. principally to be executed, com­pleated upon Earth, and in Heaven, by Christs subsequent In­carnation, Passion, Sacrifice of himself upon the Crosse, Resurrec­tion, Ascension into Heaven, and perpetual Intercession at Gods right hand for all his elect, both as God and Man; especially in relation to the Gentiles, Acts 9.15. c. 11.1 to 19. c. 13.46, 47, 48. c. 15.7. to 20 c. 21.19. c. 28· 28. Rom. 1.13. c. 11.11, 12, 13.25. c. 15.9. to 19. c. 16.4. Eph. 3.5, 6, 7, 8. Col. 1.27. 2 Tim. 4.17; compared with Mat. 10 4. Luke. 2.31. Isay. 54.3. c. 60.3. to 17. c. 61.6.9. c. 62.2. c. 66.12.19, &c. Ephes. 4.11, 12, 13. not generally called, converted to the faith, till after his Incarnation and Ascension. Therefore by necessary consequence, all Christians and believing Gen­tiles under the Gospel, have altogether, if not farre greater, yet at leastwise as great, as strong a reason, ground, obliga­tion, enforcement, chearfully, thankfully, conscientiously, to render TITHES of all they have to Christ (for the use of his Ministers instruction, edification of his Church, and compleating of his body) since his Incarnation and investi­ture in his everlasting Priesthood for their eternall welfare; as Abraham or the Israelites had, to render him (or the Levi­tical Priests who typified him and attended on his service) so long before his Incarnation, and Priesthood fully com­pleated in all its parts and Offices: Jesus Christ being THE SAME YESTERDAY AND TO DAY, AND FOR EVER; Hebr. 13.8. and as much (if not farre more in some re­spects) a Priest of the most high God, to all believing Gentiles, Christians since his Incarnation, Passion, Ascension, as he was to Abraham and the Jews before them; God since his Resur­rection, sending him to blesse us in turning every of us from our Iniquities, as well as them. Acts. 3.25, 26. compared with Acts 10.42, 45, 47. ch. 11.1. to 20. Wherefore those in­grate, avaritious, unconscionable Christians of this dege­nerous age, who obstinately, or maliciously refuse to render unto Christ their only High-Priest (1 Cor. 5.17. Eph. 5.2. Hebr. 5. to ch. 11. 1 John 2.1, 2.1, 2. who sacrificed him­self to God, and shed his most precious blood for them on the Crosse [Page 6] to redeem their Soules from everlasting Damnation, and purchase an eternal Crown of glory for them in Heaven, where he continu­ally makes intercession for them, executing his Priestly Office for their Salvation) the tithes of all their increase, as a just Appurtenance to his everlasting Priesthood; condemning them as The Kentish Petition, John Cannes Voice, Mt. Speed and many late Quakers ray­ling Pamph­lets. Jewish, Antichristian, unfit, or too much for him as the High Priest and Prophet of his Church to enjoy, or for the faithfull Ministers of the Gospel in his Name or Right to receive, who 2 Cor. 12.15. Acts 6.3, to 7. 1 Tim. 4.13, 15, 16. Heb. 13, 17. 1 Cor. 1.23. c. 2.2. Gal. 3.1. spend all their studies, labours, lives in Christs service, in the Declaration, Publication, Applicati­on, of the benefits of Christs Priesthood, Passion, Gospell to them, and others, for the eternal salvation of their souls, are certainly none of the spiritual Sons or seed of faithfull A­braham, who gave him Tithes of all; and do either repute Christs everlasting Priesthood, a mere Fable; or set a far lower rate upon it, the Ministry of the Gospel and their own most precious Souls, than they do upon their detained Tithes: and so can expect little benefit from Christs Per­son or Priesthood, which they so much undervalue, and sacrilegiously defraud of so antient a duty.

2ly. There is one Notable considerable circumstance of time in Abrahams payment of Tithes of all to Christ, the true Melchisedec, not formerly observed or pressed by any I have seen; which (in my opinion) unanswera­bly proves, that this President of his most principally re­spected, related to the believing Gentiles and Christians, under the Gospel, and as strongly obligeth them (his true spiritual seed) to the due payment of Tithes to Christ and his Ministers, now, as ever it did the Jews, his natural Posterity, to pay Tithes to their Priests and Le­vites under the Law, if not more firmly: Namely, that he thus paid Tithes to Christ, some good space before Cir­cumcision instituted, whiles he was yet uncircumcised; as is most evident by comparing, Gen. 14.18, 19, 20. with Gen. 17.1, 10, to 15. Now as the Apostle thus firmly and Evange­lically argues from this very circumstance of time, in the point of Abrahams justification by Faith, whiles he was yet un­circumcised, as presidential, exemplary, obligatory to all believing Gentiles, and spiritual Sons of Abraham under [Page 7] the Gospel, who are not circumcised, as well as to the na­tural believing children of Abraham under the Law, who were circumcised. Rom. 4.9, to 13. ‘Commeth this blessednesse then, upon the Circumcision only, or upon the Uncircumcision also? for we say, that Faith was reckoned to Abraham for Righteousnes. How was it then reckoned, when he was in Circumcision, or in Vn­circumcision? Not in Circumcision, but in Vncircum­cision. And he received Circumcision, a Seal of the Righ­teousnes of Faith, which he had yet being Vncircumcised, that he might be the Father of them that believe (under the Gospel) though they be not Circumcised, that Righ­teousnes might be imputed unto them also. And the Fa­ther of Circumcision, to them who are not of the Circum­cision only, but also walk in the steps of the Faith of our Father Abraham, which he had yet being uncircumcised. So I, by parity of Reason, from this very Text, com­pared with the same Apostles relation, of Abrahams pay­ing Tithes of all to Melchisedec, Hebr. 7.1, to 15. and the in­ferences thence formerly insisted on, may as firmly, as con­vincingly conclude, That his payment of Tithes to Christ the true Melchisedec, not after his Circumcision, but whiles yet uncircumcised, and before Circumcision institu­ted; and that, as the Common-Father, Head of all the justi­fied, faithfull, believing uncircumcised Gentiles before the Law, and under the Gospel, (as well as of the circumcised believing Jews) walking in the steps of his Faith, which he had yet being uncircumcised; doth as strongly oblige all be­lieving Gentiles & Christians, though uncircumcised, to pay Tithes of all to Christ and his Ministers under the Gospel, as it did his believing circumcised Posterity to render thē to Christ himself originally, and his Priests and Levites secondarily under the Law; if not much more; since Abraham paid them to Christ before he was circumcised, Gen. 14.17, 18, 19. John 8.58. Heb. 7.1, to 15. compared with John 8.39, 40. as a fruit and evidence of his Faith, which then he had during his uncircumcision, and a standing President for all Believers to imitate.

3ly. From this famous President of Abrahams paying Tithes of all to Melchisedec, Saint Ambrose, Sermo 34. In feria [Page 8] post primam Dominicam Quadragesimae. Gregorie Nazi­anzen, Oratio 5. Contra Judaeos. Chrysostom, Hom. 35. in Genes. Isiodor Hispalensis, in Glossa ordinaria Super Gen. 16. Rabanus Maurus, l. 2. c. 16. in Genesin. Anastatius Ab­bas, contra Judaeos. Elias Cretensis, in Orat. 5 Walafridus Strabo, De Rebus Ecclesiasticis, c. 27. Stephanus Tornacen­sis, Epist. 171. with other Antients, conclude, Tithes to be due to Ministers of the Gospel by Divine Right: whom the See Gratian Caus. 16. qu. 7. & Surius, Bini­us, Crab, Mer­lin, in their Council [...]. Councils of Mentz, Anno 813, 846, 887. Concilium A­quense, Anno 837. cap. 18. with the Council of London, un­der Arch-Bishop Hubert, Anno Dom. 1200. (recorded by Roger de Hoveden) Annalium pars posterior, p. 806, 808. thus second. Decimas DEO & Sacerdotibus Dei Dandas, Abraham factis, Jacobus promissis insinuat; deinde Lex Sta­tuit, et omnes Doctores sancti commemorant: et aucto­ritas veteris et novi Testamenti, necnon & sanctorum Patrum Statuta declarant. Decreeing thereupon, Deci­mas de omnibus quae per annum renovantur, &c. Praestare Deo om­nino non negligatur, Quas Deus sibi dari constituit: quia timendum est, ut quisquis Deo debitum suum abstrahit, ne forte Deus per peccatum suum auferat ei necessaria sua, &c. From his example, seconded with Divine Precepts, Hermoldus Hist, Slaro­rum, l. 1. c 92. Edit. Franc. 1581. p. 76. Ge­rold Bishop of Oldenburg, about An. Dom. 1100. writ thus to the Holzati and Inhabitants of the Deserts of Wagira, (then newly converted to the Christian Faith, and begin­ning to build Churches, for Gods publick worship) that they should likewise pay Tithes to their Ministers, without which all the rest of their Devotion would be nothing worth. Dei enim Praeceptum est, Decimas ex omnibus dabis mihi, ut bene sit ti­bi, & longo vivas tempore: cui obedierunt Patriarchae, Abra­ham scilicet Isaac & Iacob, & omnes qui secundum fidem facti sunt filii Abrahae, per quod laudem etiam, & praemia ae­terna consecuti sunt. Apostoli quoque et Apostolici viri ex ore Dei hoc ipsum mandaverunt. & sub Anathematis vin­culo posteris servandum tradiderunt. Cum ergo Dei omnipoten­tis proculdubio hoc constat esse Praeceptum, & sanctorum Patrum sit Auctoritate firmatum, nobis id incumbit negotii, ut quod vestrae saluti deest, nostro in vobis opere per Dei gratiam supplea­tur. Monemus ergo & obsecramus omnes vos in domino, &c. ut [Page 9] decimas, prout Deus instituit, & Apostolica banno firma­vit autoritas, ad ampliandum dei cultum Ecclesiae detis: Ne si Deo quae ipsi debentur substraxeritis, & substantiam simul & animam in interitum mittatis aeternam; Valete. Upon reading which Letter the rude people cryed out and ra­ged, just as the Anabaptists do now. His auditis tumultu­osa gens infremuit, dixeruntque se huic conditioni servili nun­quam collum submissuros, per quam omne pene Christicolarum genus Pontificum pressurae subjaceat, &c. whereupon Henry the first Duke of Holzatia commanding them, as they would obtain his favour, ‘Ut solverent Episcopo Deci­mas cum omni integritate, sicut faciunt in terra Polabo­rum & Obotritorum: Ad hoc Praeceptum Holzati obstina­tis animis dixerunt, Nunquam se daturos Decimas, quas patres sui non dedissent; malle se potius succenfis aedibus propriis egredi terram, quam tantae servitutis jugum subire; Praeterea Pontificem cum Comite & omni advena­rum genere quod Decimarum solvit legitima, interfice­re cogitabant, & terra inflammata, transfugere in ter­ram Danorum. Neither obeying the Presidents of Abra­ham and the Patriarchs, nor the Laws of God, the Apo­stles, or their Prince, in paying their Tithes to their Bi­shop and Pastor, as they ought; whose practice our Ana­baptists and Quakers now obstinately pursue. What strong convincing Arguments, to prove the divine, moral, perpe­tual right of Tithes to the Ministers of the Gospel, learned Protestant Divines (to omit Papists) have deduced from this Original direct President of Abrahams Tith-paying, those who desire further satisfaction herein, may read at leasure, in Mr. Calvin, Junius, Hemingius, and others on Hebr. 7. Zepperus, Legum Mosaicarum Explanatio, l. 4. c. 40. Dr. George Carlton his Tithes due by a Divine Right, Richard Montague his Diatribae on the first part of Mr. Seldens Histo­ry of Tithes, cap. 1. Stephen Nettles his Answer to the first part of the History of Tithes, Dr. Robert Tillesley his Ani­madversions on Mr. Seldens History of Tithes, Dr. Edward Reynolds his explication on Psalm 110.2, 4. Mr Francis Ro­berts his Revenue of the Gospel is Tithes, &c. Cambridge 1619. Richard Eburn his Maintenance of the Ministery, [Page 10] London, 1603. The truth of Tithes discovered by R. G. London 1618. Dr. John Prideaux Oratio 5. de Decimis, Anno 1620. p. 90. Sir James Semple his Sacrilege sacredly handled, London 1619. John Swan his Redde Debitum, Lon­don 1640. p. 181, to 240. Tithes are due Jure Divino, and Dr. William Sclater his Question of Tithes revived, or Ministers Portion, London 1623. (an acute piece) wherein all eva­sions and cavils to elude the force of this example, are suf­ficiently answered.

4ly. From this example of Abrahams, seconded with the Israelites practice, History of Tithes, p. 34. Mr. Selden conjectures, or rather from the Law of Nature written by God himself in mens hearts (as Hugo de Sancto victore, de Sacramentis, l. 2. parte 9. c. 10. & l. 1. parte 12. c. 4. Mr. Mountague in his Diatribae, ch. 3. Dr. Tillesly in his Animadversions, p. 34, 35. and others determine;) the old Heathen Grecians, Romans, Cartha­ginians, Arabians, with other Pagan Nations, [as the See Purchas Pilgrimage, Edit. 2. p. 304, 616, 621, 630. Joan. Leo A­fricae descript. l. 3. Ma­hometan, Turks, Moors, and other Infidels since] by an antient constant custome and usual practice, generally received amongst them, dedicated and paid Tithes to their Idol-Gods and Priests, of the encrease of all their substance, merchandize, gains; and more particularly of all their spoyles and plunders gained in the Wars; wherein they were very carefull and devout. Which Mr. Selden in his History of Tithes, ch. 3. and Review thereof, and Richard Mountague, in his Diatribae, ch. 3. evince at large, by many Presidents, Testimonies, Passages out of Herodotus, Demosthenes, Xenophon, Thucidides, Dionysius Hal­licarnasseus, Plutarch, Pausanias, Aristotle, Aristophanes, Sui­das, Callimachus, Cassius, Trogus, Macrobius, Plautus, Festus, Justin, Pliny, Servius, Cicero, Tertullian, Arnobius, Jac. Grute­rus, with others; and that they paid no other determinate part else we read of, but a Tenth only, to their Gods and Priests. Now from whence (write Hugo, Tillesly, and Mountague) should this custome and practice proceed, but only from the Law of Nature? Ad quam non docti, sed facti, non instituti fuerunt, sed imbuti, and that by God himself.

Amongst these Presidents of Pagans, there are 7. of spe­cial note, which I shall here remember, to shame the Tith-Oppugners of our Age, who would be reputed the most pre­cious [Page 11] Christians, though their Actions prove them worse than Infidels.

The first is, that of the old Pagan Romans, Arnobius adversus Gen­tes, l. 7. Cato de Re Rusti­ca, c. 152. Mr. Seldens History of Tithes, p. 457, 458. Moun­tagues Diatri­bae, ch. 3. who estee­med all their Corn and Wine (sent them annually by the boun­ty of God) so sacred, that (by a constant custome and law used amongst them) they might not lawfully eat, drink, sell, meddle with, or dispose of any part thereof after their harvest and vin­tage, till they had first sacrificed and tythed the first fruits and tenths thereof to their Gods; who (as they suppo­sed) gave them the whole crop; such was their Piety and Gratitude.

The second is, that of the antient Pliny Nat. Hist. l. 12. c. 15. Seldens Histo­ry of Tithes, p. 33, 34. Mountagues Diatribae, p. 551, 552. Heathen Arabians, who by the Law and Custome of their Country, were bound to carry all their Frankincense (the chief commodity of their Country) every year to Sabota, (the chief City of Arabia Felix) and there to offer the Tenth thereof to their God SABIS, which his Priests received. Neither might they make sale of any part thereof, till the Owner there paid the Tenthes by Measure, not by weight. These very Pagans holding all to be Gods, (the supream Land-lord who gave it them) till by paying him the Tenth for a quoti­ent, they redeemed the rest for their own common use.

The third is that of the Dionysius Hallicarn: An­tiqu. Rom. l. 1. Seldens Review, p. 459. Pelasgi in Vmbria, who being oppressed with a great dearth and scarcity of all things, conceived it proceeded from their neglect of paying Tithes to their Gods. Whereupon they vowed the Tithe of all their in­crease to Iupiter, Apollo, and the Cabiri. After which Vow they receiving a plentifull crop of all things, paid the tenth of all their increase to their Idol-Gods. And being ad­monished by Apolloes Oracle, that their Vow was not performed, till they had sacrificed the Tenth of their Children, as well as of all their other increase, they thereupon sacrificed the Tenth of them to the Idols likewise. Such conscience made they of all their Vows and Tithes.

The fourth is that of the Carthaginians (thus recorded by Bibliotheca Hist. l. 5. Ju­stin. l. 18. Mountagues Diatribae, p. 448, 449. Diodorus Siculus, a Pagan Historian) very remark­able. The Carthaginians being descended from Tyrus, were accustomed in former times to send unto Tyrus the Tenth of all their Revenues & increase any ways renuing, issuing, or [Page 12] growing, for Hercules (the Idol-God there worshipped:) But in processe of time becomming very wealthy, and ha­ving exceeding great incomes, they sent very seldome their Tithe unto Tyrus, and that but small and refuse, in neg­lect and dis-regard of the Deity. Hereupon many disa­sters in war, crosses in Affairs of State, with great los­ses and streights befell them; especially by Agathocles the Sicilian. Upon which, comming home to themselves, and repenting of their irreligion, they betook themselves to all manner of Supplication and Devotion, conceiving these losses and disasters were sent unto them of God. And for so much as they supposed Hercules especially to be angry with them, who was chiefly worshipped at Tyrus, from whence they were originally extracted, they sent exceeding great gifts and rich presents thither to him, and all the Gods that were wor­shipped at Tyrus, and brought unto them the tenth of all their increase, as formerly they accustomed.

The fifth is that of See his Ora­tions against them: and Mountagues Diatribae, p. 576, 577. Demosthenes (that eminent Pagan Greek Orator) who is very bitter against Androsion and Timocrates, for bearing with some sacrilegious Desrauders of the Gods in their Dues; and much more for defrauding of them­selves, and sacrilegiously robbing Minerva of her Tenths, and the other Gods of their Fifteenths. And he specially observes, (let our Souldiers remember it) That those who purloyned and robbed the Gods of their Tenths and chiefest of their spoyles of War, came to nought, being destroyed by themselves at last and undone.

The sixth is that of Xenophon (that Noble Heathen Phi­losopher and General) and his Soldiers, thus recorded at large to Posterity by his own pen, worthy our observation. Xenophon de expedit. Cyri, lib. 5. p. 349.350, 351. Ri­chard Moun­tague his Dia­tribae, c. 3. p. 500, 501. Xenophon, after his memorable retreat with ten thou­sand men out of upper Asia, where they had gained great spoyles from the Enemy, arriving safely at Cerasunt, mu­stred 8600 men, the rest being lost, partly by the incursions of the enemies, partly by the snows, and partly by sickness, here they divided the mony they had gained from the ene­mies: [...], &c. Atque etiam Decumam, quam Apolloni & Ephesiae Dianae exemerant, ita Duces distribuunt, ut quilibet ipsorum bisce diis aliquam partem ejus adservaret; [Page 13] One part of this Tenth separated to these two Deities was delivered to Neon. That part which Xenophon collected for Apollo, he laid up as consecrated in the Treasury of the Athenians at Delphos. But that which was dedicated to Diana he left with Megabyzus the Churchwarden of Diana, upon this condition (being about to fight with Agesilaus at Coronea,) That if he escaped safe out of the Battel, he should restore the sacred mony to him: but if he received any dis­aster therein, that then Megabyzus himself should dedicate it to Diana, confecto donario, quod Deae gratissimūfore arbitrare­tur. Afterwards Xenophon being in exile at Scilunte, built for Olympia, Megab. comming thither to behold Olympia, restor'd the mony to Xenophon: who receiving it, bought therewith a field (having woods & Mountains in it, stored with trees, swine, goats, sheep, wildbeasts, and Horses,) for the Goddess in that place, which was shewed unto him by the Oracle of Apollo; he likewise built a Temple, & an Altar, out of that sacred money: Ac post id temporis, semper consecratis fructuum agri decumis, Sacrum Deae faciebat. And after that time he sacrificed to the Goddess, for ever consecrating the Tenths of the field to her service. Near the Temple there was a garden set with all sorts of Fruit-trees good to eat. Before the Temple were pillars erected with this Inscripti­on on them, Fundus Dianae Sacer. Hoc qui poss [...]ssor frui­tur, quotannis Consecrato Decumam; de reliquo Fanum sartum tectum conservato. Si quis non fecerit, Dèa vindex esto. In which memorable Historie we have six things considera­ble: 1. Tithes of spoyls consecrated by the Heathen Grae­cian Generals, Captains and Souldiers, to Apollo and Diana, as Xenophon, Hist. Grae [...] ▪ l. 3. p. 493. Agis after the end of the wars between the Elei and the Lacedemonians, going to Delphos offered a TENTH (of the spoils) to Apollo. And Agesilaus took the fruits of his Ene­mies fields, ut intra biennium Decumam Delphico Deo consecraret C. Talentis ampliorem: as the same Oratio de Ag [...]silao Re­ge. p. 657. Xeno­phon records. 2ly. Lands purchased with the spoils, and appropriated, consecrated for ever to the worship and ser­vice of Diana. 3ly. A Temple, and Altar built with part of the spoils, for her worship and honour. 4ly. Tithes annually consecrated and to be paid for ever to this Tem­ple, [Page 14] by Xenophon and the possessors of these lands, out of the profits, venison and game thereof, for the maintenance of her worship and Feastivals; as the former words, and this passage farther evidenceth: Earum feriarum, & municipes, & finitimi, tam viri, quàm faeminae participes erant: & sum­ministrat eis Dea, qui agitant convivia, farinas cum panibus, vino, pecunia, bellariis. 5ly. Repairs of this Temple from time to time, out of the residue of the profits of these Lands. 6ly. An imprecation of divine revenge, upon the Neglecters, or refusers of the due payment of these an­nual Tithes to Diana, and of the residue of the profits, to­wards the reparation of her Temple.

The seventh is the memorable domestick President of Cedwalla, one of our West-Saxon Kings; who though a Pagan and great Plunderer, even before he became a Christi­an, or was baptised, was so pious, that he gave the Tenth of all his Spoyles of War and Plunders unto God, about the year of our Lord, 686. Which De Gestis Re­gum Anglo­rum, l. 1. c. 2. p. 14. William of Malmesbury thus records. Arduum memoratu est, quantum etiam ante Baptismum inserviret; ut omnes manubias, quas jure prae­datorio in usus suos transcripserat, Deo decimaret. In quo etsi approbamus affectum (in paying Tithes) improbamus ex­emplum, in regard of his plundering. Yea, our Ecclesiast. Hist. Gentis Angiorum, l. 4. c. 16. vene­rable Beda records; that such was his transcendent liberali­ty and bounty to Gods Church and Ministers, that after his Conquest of the Isle of Weight, he gave to Walfred and his Clerks for the Lords use, the fourth part of the Island (to wit, 300 Plowlands of 1200.) and the fourth part of the Spoyl thereof, in performance of his Vow made before his rege­neration in Christ, that if he conquered the Isle, Quartam ejus partem fimul et praedae Deo daret.

Let Iohn Canne, with all the several irreligious Sects, and Sacrilegious Regiments of our present Tith-Oppug­ners, Detainers, Substracters, seriously consider these Pagan Presidents, to inform their Judgments, & reform their pra­ctices, lest they rise up in judgement against them here to their temporal, and hereafter to their eternal condemna­tion. And if after due meditation on them, their Con­sciences shall not secretly check, censure, condemn them, [Page 15] for substracting their Tithes from God himself, and his faithfull Ministers, as well as some of these Pagans Con­sciences did them, for detaining their Tithes from their Idol-Gods and Priests, against the Law of Natures dictate engraven in their hearts; but still pretend Conscience a­gainst the due payment of them, and that out of their Gains or Spoyles of War, as well as their other increase; they have just cause to fear, and others to suspect, that their Con­sciences are most desperately cauterized, and the Law of Nature more dangerously obliterated out of their hearts, than out of these Idolatrous Pagans.

5ly. Agobardus, who flourished Anno 830. lib. de Dispen­satione, &c. Rei Ecclesiasticae contra Sacrilegos, p. 266. Hugo de Sancto victore Erud. Theol. de Sacramentis, l. 1. parte 12. c. 4. lib. 2. part. 9. c. 10. part. 10. c. 5. and Annot. Eluc. in Genes c. 4. Petrus Commestor, Hist. Scholast. in Ge­nes. c. 26 Petrus Blesensis, Epist. 82. Gerold, Bishop of Oldenburge, in his Epistle to the Inhabitants of Wagria; Hel­moldus, Hist. Solavorum, p. 92. positively affirm; and since them Sir James Semple, in his Sacriledge sacredly handled, Stephen Nettles, in his Answer to the Jewish part of Mr. Sel­den, and Mr. Richard Mountague in his Diatribae, p. 211. to 250. largely argue and assert; ‘That from the be­ginning of Mankind, Tithes were instituted and appoin- to be paid, by God, who instructed Adam himself; and he his two Sons Kain and Abel; and they their Posteri­ty, to pay Tithes and First-fruits to God, of all their Increase. That the First-fruits Abel offered unto God, were no other but his Tithes, or the Tenth of his Flocks increase. That the sin of Cain, causing God to reject his Offering, was this, That he offered to God the worst, and lesse than the Tenth of the Fruits of the Ground; giving him not the full proportion of the TENTH and best of his Increase, as Abel did:’ which they ground on, Gen. 4.7. (thus translated by the Septuagint, whom Philo the Jew, and the Greek Fathers generally follow:) If thou offer Rightly, and DIVIDE NOT UPRIGHTLY (in giving me my TENTH) thou hast sinned; hold thy peace; and on Hebr. 11.4. by Faith Abel offered unto God [...] (which the Vulgar Latin renders, Plurimam Ho­stiam; [Page 16] other Translators, Ʋberius Sacrificium; and the En­glish, A better or more excellent Sacrifice; (and that for quantity, as well as quality,) than Kain: This I thought fit to mention, as a probable conjecture, not an infallible verity. To back this opinion, Robert Grosted our learned Bishop of Lincoln, in his Book, De Cessatione Legalium, (written a­bout the year 1240.) p. 95, 96. determines, Lex naturalis exigit, ut Benefactori, de Bonis quae gratis dederit, gratis repen­datur honor & veneratio, unde & Decimarum oblatio de Lege est naturali: quia de bonis acceptis cum debeatur lege natura­li repensio honoris, minus quàm pars minima, id est Decima, (quia ultra Denarium numerus non est) rependi non potest. Master Mountague, in his Diatribae, Chapter 3. page 245, 246, 247, &c. Doctor Sclater, Dr. Tillesty, and others observe, That God only wise, being 1 Cor. 14.33, 40. a God of Order, not of Confusion, doing all things in order, number, and due propor­tion, hath amongst all other Numbers, specially fixed upon a TENTH. And thereupon the Antients heretofore, both Natural, Legal, Pagan, and Christian, (led by a natural and divine instinct thereunto) have ever principally insisted on a TENTH in all their divine sacred Rites, Mysteries, Dues, reser­ved by, or rendered of them to their Gods; and in all their publick ci­vil Taxes, Tributes, Customes, Duties, imposed by, or paid to their Emperors, Kings, Princes, and Supreme Magistrates. Hence God saith expresly, All Tithes are the Lords, Levit. 27.30, &c. And how his? Not by Cou [...]tesie or Tolleration, not by Purchase or Stipulation, not by Compensation or Annexation, not by Benevolence or mens free Donation; but by original Right of Creation, in producing every thing in its kind; and of absolute Soveraign Dominion (expressed in the word Psal. 24.1. Psal. 89.11. Psal. 97.5. 1 Chron. 29.11, 12, 15, 16. LORDS) as a universal Rent service or acknowledge­ment, reserved by God himself, the Supreme Land-lord of all the Earth, from Adam and all his Posterity to the end of the world, Psalm 115.16 Gen. 2.15, 16, 17. c. 3.17. when he gave them the Earth to inhabit and manure, as mere Tenants at will under him. He that is Exod. 3.14. I AM himself: Qui ce­pit nunquam, desinet numquam: b [...]ing vitae & essentiae intermina­bilis, tota simul & perfecta possessio, in aeterno suo consummato, EVER POSSESSED TITHES (as well as the seventh day, which he saith, is, Exod. 20.10. Levit. 23 8. HIS SABBATH) SINCE THEY HAD BEING, which are indeed his ab aeterno suo inchoato. [Page 17] In this Tithes were Gods, not only at the time when he first chal­lenged them by an expresse written Law and Reservation, Levit. 27.30, 31, 32, &c. but long before; even when Abraham paid them: and before that, ever since the time of the Creation, that God made any thing tithable to increase out of the earth for the use of man. The time never was that Tithes were not Gods, nor shall ever be that they shall cease to be his, and his Priests and Ministers in and by him, by his special Donation and Institution (not mans) for the constant support of his continual publick worship; and that by a Divine Right; God in those things which are direct points of Piety and necessary appurtenances for his solemn worship, (such as are Tithes for his Priests and Ministers competent stand­ing maintenance in all Ages, places, and weekly times for his worship) never leaving men free to their own wills, inventions, or ar­bitrary pleasures (no more than Land-lords their Tenants, or Kings their Subjects) but confining them to a certainty himself by his word, as well as he doth it in all parts and duties of his worship. ‘That Abraham knew this Divine Right of God to Tithes, when he paid Tithes of all to Melchisedec, not arbitrari­ly, but of due right, by vertue of some Divine Precept, (else See Doctor Sclaters Mini­sters Portion, p. 23, &c. Melchisedec had been inferiour to Levi who received Tithes from his Brethren, by a Divine Law and Command, Hebr. 7.4, 5, 6, &c.) he receiving this Precept of paying Tithes by Tradition from Heber, who learned it of Sem, who was so taught of his Father Noah: he by succession RECEIVING IT FROM ADAM; who as he was wrought and fashioned by God, so was he herein taught and instructed by God. And therefore not only amongst the Sons of God, such as called rightly upon the name of the Lord, but even amongst the Giants of the Daughters of Men, worshipping invented Gods by them­selves, and dedicating their TITHES unto them (as the Premises evidence) THERE NEVER WAS NUMBER THAT DID INTRUDE UPON THE TENTH, MUCH LESSE SHOULDER IT OUT OF DOORS. This Number of TEN (writes Philo the learned Jew) that most sacred Writer Moses hath not a little commend­ed, because the best Duties of Man are by him couched under that number, as God: TEN COMMANDEMENTS, Vows, Prayers, First-Fruits, perpetual Offerings, pardoning [Page 18] Debts, and reducing all things unto their First estate, every Fiftieth year of Jubilee, (made up of Tenths) the Fur­ niture of the Tabernacle, with a thousand such like in the old Testament (besides other things of like nature ex­pressed under this Number of TEN in the Luk. 17.12, 17. c. 19.13, 16, 17. Mat. 25.1, 2. Rev. 2.10. c 5.11. c 13.1. c. 17.3, 1 [...], 16. Mat. 18.24. 1 Cor. 4.15. Heb. 7.3, 4. New) by which we may know, that TEN IS THE NƲMBER OF PERFECTION (as [...]ivers style it) and hath near affi­nity with God in sacred things. That from Gods own Original Reservation of TENTHS to himself and his Ministers, this number became sacred and universal after­wards in all publick civil Taxes, Dues, reserved to Kings and Supream Magistrates. For the First-born and chief of the Family, from Adam, till the Levitical Priesthood institu­ted, being for the most part King as well as Priest thereof, (as Melchisedec who received Tithes of Abraham was, Gen. 14.18. Heb. 7.1, 2.) when these two Offices came af­terwards to be centred and settled in two distinct persons, thereupon the antient TENTHS (reserved by God, and assigned to his Priests and Ministers in perpetuity, for their subsistence and maintenance of his publick worship, from the Creation to the end of the world, by a Divine Law, which no humane powers could repeal) both amongst Gods own people, and most Heathens Nations; were appropriated to, and received only by the Priests and Ministers, though divested of the Royal dignity; and a NEW TENTH, by way of Tribute, Tax, Custome, or Subsidy (amounting commonly to the Tenth part of the peoples tithed increase and estates, in all King­domes and Republiks) was by Common consent imposed on and reserved, received by Emperors, Kings Princes, and Su­preme Magistrates from the people, for their support, defraying the charges of the Government, and their peoples necessary de­fence upon all occasions. Hence Tributes, Taxes, Customes and publick impositions, were usually called TENTHS (as well as Ministers Tithes) both amongst Gods own people, 1 Sam. 8.15, 17. (amounting To the tenth of their estates and increase; as also amongst the antient Romans, Grecians, and most other Pagan Nations of old, (as Mr. Mountague proves at large in his Diatribae, c. 3. by sundry Authors) as they were anciently and at this day [Page 19] so stiled, both Purchas Pilgrimage, p. 304.616.621.630. The wri­ters of these several Nati­ons, Realms and Repub­likes, printed in 16. amongst the Turks, Moors, Spaniards, Germans, Italians, French, Danes, Swedes, Poles, Scots, Irish, and most other Pagan and Christian Nations at this day; especially in England, as you may read at large in Rastals Abridgments of Statutes, Title Taxes and Tenthes; Brooks Abridgement, and Ashes Tables, Title Quinzime, Disme, Tax and Tallage, and our Parliament Records. And from this number of Ten their Officers as well of State as Religion, were usually stiled, Decemviri, Decuriones, Decu­mani, Decani, Decadarchae, Decatutae, Decatologi, Decatorii, and the like; our Names of Offices of Deans, Tithingmen, Collectors of Tenths, &c. proceeding from the self-same Number; Sacred every way even amongst Pagan Nations, both in their Duties of Piety and Policy, by constant tra­dition, they knew not why nor wherefore, and likewise amongst Gods people, upon the premised grounds.’ Hence Doctor Tillesley thus concludes in his Epistle to King James, before his Animadversions on Mr. Seldens History. Surely the Number Tenth or Tithe is Sacred and very Mystical, and communicated only to consecrated or Sacred persons That are Gods Vicars upon earth; that is, Kings and Priests: Decima Regis et Decima Sacerdotis; who both stand in Gods place, and receive this Portion as Gods upon earth. From all which premises, Mr. Mountague, Dr. Carlton, Dr. Tillesley, Dr. Sclater and others conclude (and let our Army Officers, New Legifers, and all Tithe-oppugners con­sider it) That the Ministers of the Gospel now, as well as Gods Priests heretofore, have an eternal Right to Ecclesiastical Tithes, by Gods own unalterable Institution; and none else any Right at all unto them but they; From which Right no man, nor all men can de­prive or debar them; by any pretended Right, Prescription, Modus Decimandi, Custome, Ʋsage, Law, Statute or appointment of any other maintenance in lieu thereof, as more just, equal and convenient.

6. Tithes being originally due and paid to Jesus Christ himself, Rom. 9. [...] God over all blessed for ever; yea specially, reser­ved by, appropriated, consecrated to our Lord God, as his peculiar Holy Portion, Tribute, Rent, Right, Inheritance, Homage, from the sonnes of men, for the constant maintenance of his publick Wor­ship, and support of his Priests and Ministers attending thereon, [Page 20] to the end of the world. Lev. 27.30, 32. Numb. 18.24, 26, 28, 29. Mal 3.8, 9. Heb 7 2, to 10. 1 Cor. 9.4, to 15. and thereupon being usually stiled, both by Origen, Hom in Num. c 18. Ambrose, Serm. 5. Fer. 2 & Augustin, Serm. 219. Je­rom, in Mal. 3. Fathers, Matiscon: 2. Can. 5. Mo­guntiense. An. 813. & 846. & 847. Concil. Lateran. c. 54. Ticmense sub Leone 4. Lon­dinense: 2. Joan: in Gra­tian. Surius, Hoveden. Coun­cils, Extravag. de Decimis. c. 13, 14, 15, 16. Popes Decretals, See Mr. Seldens Histo­ry of Tithes, c. 5, 6, 7, 8. Bo­chellus, De­cret. Eccles. Gall. l. 6. Tit. 8. Dr. Tilles­leys Animad­versions, p. 4. to 30. Princes Edicts, and Christi­an Writers in all Ages, Dominica substantia, Res Domi­nicae, Dei census, Dei debitum, &c. Non ab hominibus, sed ab ipso Deo institutae: quas Deus in Signum universa­lis Dominii Sibi reddi praecepit, suas esse Decimas asseverans, &c. The constant payment of them to Mini­sters under the Gospel, is not only warranted, command­ed by the equity and words of the 1, 2, 4, 5, & 8. Commande­ments of the Decalogue, (therefore far from being a Sin against the 2d. Commandement, as In his voyce. John Canne most absurdly and impudently asserts; as if Gods Precepts were repugnant to each other:) but likewise expressely, positively, eternally, prescribed by our Saviour Christ himself, in this peremptory Gospel-Precept, recorded by three Evangelists, Matth. 22. 21. Mar. 12.17. Luke 20.25. RENDER therefore to CAE­SAR the things that are CAESARS; and UNTO GOD THE THINGS THAT ARE GODS. Thus seconded by the Apostle Paul, Rom. 13.7, 8. RENDER THERE­FORE TO ALL THEIR DUES, &c. Tithes (as the pre­mises evidence beyond contradiction) have Gods own Image, Impresse, Superscription, as visibly, as legibly engraven on them by himself, as any Tribute-money then shew [...]d our Sa­viour, had Caesars, by the Mint-Masters▪ yea, they were Gods own antient, standing, constant, known Tribute, at that very season when Christ uttered this precept, and some thousands of years before, specially reserved by, and du­ly rendered unto God and his Priests, by all Gods faithfull people, many hundred years before we read of any Tribute­mony paid to Caesar, or any other King or Prince. Upon which ground, as they were then, (by this direct Gospel-Commandement of Christ himself) enjoyned to be as con­stantly, duly, truly paid to God and his Ministers, as any Tribute, Tax or Customes are unto Caesar, or other Higher-Powers whatsoever: So they have since our Saviours daies (except only in times of greatest persecution under Pagan Emperors, during which some Tithes were rende­red [Page 21] to Gods Ministers in some places, or things of greater value, as I shall prove anon) been still continued and uni­versally paid to God in his Ministers, in all or most Chri­stian Churches, Realms, Republicks, from the first publick imbracement of the Gospel amongst them, to this present, and more especially in this our Realm, as Mr. John Selden in his History of Tithes, Doctor Tillesley, Tyndarus, Rebuffus, with others prove at large; and the Author of Respublica, sive Status Regni Poloniae (Lugduni Bat. 1627. p. 177.) thus attest, for the Church and Clergy of Poland, Ha­bent etiam Decimam omnium segitum, Publico Prin­cipum ac totius Poloniae consensu Iam inde ab initio susceptae Religionis Christianae attributas, & aliis quibusdam Pen­sionibus cumulatas. Habent & luculentos fundos, Praedia, Pa­gos, Oppida, arces, & territoria; partim priscorum ibidem Princi­pum & Regum; partim privatorum munificentia adjectas (as they likewise had in See spel­manni Concil: Antiqu. Eccles. Brit. Dr. Ush­er De Rerum Britanicarum Primordiis. ours, and other Christian Realms) yet he afterwards subjoynes and complains, as we may justly do, Nunc passim in alienas Donationes ac Decimas inva­ditur, longe majore avariciae rapacitatisque infamia, quam egestatis relevatione. Therefore Gods and our Ministers Tithes, being by our Lord Jesus Christs own Gospel pre­cept thus positively commanded to be constantly and duly rendered unto them, as well as tribute unto Caesar; no consciencious Loyal Christians, but professed Atheists, Antiscripturists, Rebels unto God and Christ, can justly, or by any pretext of Conscience, refuse the due, constant payment of them, no more than of lawfull Tributes and Taxes legally imposed on them by common consent See 25 E. 1. c. 5.34 E. 1. c. 1. Cooks 2. Instit. p. 529, 532, 533, &c. & the Petition of Right 3. Car. in free and lawfull Parliaments; nor any Caesars, Kings, Princes, Magistrates, or Supreme Powers, denie, defraud or deprive them of their Tithes and Dues, upon any pretext, without impairing, impeaching, subverting their own Rights and Titles to those civil Tenths, Tributes, which they chal­lenge and receive from the people as their due, by this very Precept of our Saviour, which couples Gods Dues and his Ministers together with their own; the inviolable preserva­tion whereof, is the best and readiest means to secure their own Tenths and civil Dues. Whereas these Princes, Poten­tates, [Page 22] Powers, Grandees, Legifers, who are so sacrilegious­lie injurious as to invade, impair, diminish, substract or abolish, Gods and his Ministers Tithes, Duties, or di­vert them to pay their Souldiers, or any other publike or private use, will thereby but undermine their own inte­rests, and teach the people how to defraud, substract, deny their own antient Civil Tenths, Customes, Duties, Taxes, Rents, and New Impositions, Excises of all sorts, by way of retaliation; most of the Anabaptistical and levelling present Petitioners against Tithes and Glebes, petitioning, declaim­ing likewise against all Customes, Imposts, Taxes old or new, as See Lucas Osiander, En­chirid. Contr. cum Anabap­tistis. Harmo­ny of Confes­sions, Sect. 19. of the Civil Magistrate. My Swo [...]d of Christian Ma­gistracy sup­ported. intollerable Grievances and hinderances to free Trade; and many of them asserting, all civil Supreme Powers and Magi­strates whatsoever, as antichristian and unlawfall, as Tithes and Ministers are in their false account.

Lastly, all Opposites to our Ministers Tithes do, and must of necessity acknowledge (from the Scriptures insisted on in the first Proposition, and Reasons there alleged) That some competent Maintenance, Salary, Recompence, Reward, or other (arbitrary as they hold, certain and setled as we assert) belongs to the Ministers of the Gospel by a divine, moral, natural Right, Justice, and Equity; as all grant a Sabbath (and Go­vernment) in general to be of divine Authority, Institution, and morally due to God. Now the whole Church of God from the creatiō to this present, (though under various dispensations in the times of the Patriarchs, Law and Gospel) being but John 10.16. c. 11.51, 52. Eph. 1.22, 23. c. 2.13. to the end, c. 4.4 to 17. c. 5.23, to 33. Iohn. 17.20. to 25. Cant. 6.9. Ezech. 37.16, to 24. Rom. 12.4, 5. Eph. 1.10. 1 Cor. 10.17. c. 12.12, 13. Col. 3.15. Hebr. 12.22, 23. Isay 66.18, to 24. one intire Corporation or spiritual Body-Politique, wherof Jesus Christ himself is the only head, King, Lord, Law-giver, High-Priest, Chief Pastor, Minister, Advocate, Saviour, Foundation, Corner-Stone; and the successive Priests, Ministers and Members thereof from the beginning to the end of the World, serving, worshipping, adoring, only one and the self-same true, Mal. 3.6. Iam. 1.17. Hebr. 7.24. c. 13.8. 1 Tim. 5.15, 16. Psal. 22.26, 27. immutable, invisible, eternal Lord God, according to his prescribed will and word: and Jesus Christ himself (the only High priest of this Church for ever) receiving, and God his Father prescribing Tithes for the Maintenance of his Priests and Levites, both before and under the Law; and no wayes abolishing, but ratifying them in and by the Gospel, as I have already proved. There neither is, nor can [Page 23] be any other particular kind of competent, fitting, standing, setled Maintenance, Reward or Recompence for all the Ministers of the Gospel evinced, demonstrated out of Gods word, which may be truly reputed moral, natural, divine, universal, perpetual and unarbitrary; nor any other duly rendered from all Christians in all Ages, places, Rom. 14.23. in Faith, Conscience, and sincere obedience towards God, as such a mainte­nance, but this of Tithes alone, independent on the lusts & wills of men: It being that which the Patriarchs, (no doubt by Gods prescription being paid in Faith) both vowed and paid to God before the Law; which God himself after­wards specially reserved, prescribed, and all his people du­ly rendered under the Law; annexing many promised bles­sings to the true payment, denouncing many threats, cur­ses to the sacrilegious Substraction or detaining of them; that which Christ himself and his Apostles most specially pointed at, commended, ratified in the Gospel; that which all Christian Kings, States, Magistrates, Churches, Christi­ans under the Gospel in all Ages, places have generally fixed upon, approved, asserted, prescribed, ratified, as not only sacred and divine, but as such a most j [...]t, wise, equal, ex­cellent, incomparable way of maintenance (invented by the most wise God) which cannot be matched, much lesse amended, exceeded by all the policy, wit, or wisedom of men: being a most certain, standing, unvariable, conve­nient Allowance in all Ages, places, seasons, alterations, how ever things rise or fall, continuing unalterable like the we [...]kly Sabbath) as to the porportion or quota pars, in all vicissitudes of warre, peace, plenty, scarcity, famine; and causing all Ministers to sympathize, fare, share alike with their people everie where, be the times and seasons good or bad, wet or dry, plentifull or barren; and giving them a competent share in Gal. 6.6. Gen. 14.12. Hebr. 7.2. all their Temporal Blessings, with­out such toyl or labour as might interrupt them in their Ministry, Studyes, and furnishing them with a tenth part of every tythable Thing their respective Parishes yield for the food, cloathing, support of themselves, Families, Cattel, or vendibles of some kind or other, sufficient to buy what else they want. This way of Maintenance therefore [Page 24] so sacred, divine, antient, moral, universal, convenient, equal; unalterable, and so long continuance in Gods Church in all Revolutions, may not, must not, cannot be either totally abrogated, substracted, detained, diminished, nor changed into any other new-fangled pretended more e­qual, just, certain, convenient, lesse troublesome Stipendia­ry, Salary, by any pragmatical, Jesuitical, Anabaptistical, Athei­stical Politicians, Statists, Powers or Legislators whatsoever, with­out the highest Antichristian Pride, Presumption, Insolency, and 2 Thess. 2.3, 4. Exaltation of themselves above and against God himself, whose special sacred Institution, portion, rent, inheritance, right, and due they are; particularly (both by name and kind) reserved, prescribed by, appropriated, devoted to him­self, by his own command; which all Emperors, Kings, Princes, Potentates, Powers, Generals, Armies, Nations in the world have no Power or Jurisdiction to repeal, diso­bey, change, alter; no more than Tenants their Land­lords antient Quitrents, Services, Tenures, or Subjects, Ser­vants, their Kings or Masters Laws, Orders, Mandates, yea no more than they can change Gods weekly Sabbath into ano­ther different proportion of time, or any other sacred Insti­tution, into a new superstitious humane Invention, as learn­ed Keckerman, in his System. Polit. l. 1. c. 21. Polanus in E­zech. 48. v. 14. Dr. Carlton, and Dr. Scalter, in their Trea­tises of Tithes, assert and prove at large.

This divine Right of Tithes even under the Gospel, which I have pleaded for, hath been constantly asserted in all A­ges, since the Apostles times till now, by Fathers, Councils, the Laws, Edicts of Christian Emperors, Kings, Parlia­ments, Canonists, Casuists, Schoolmen, Historians, Lawyers, Po­pish, Protestant Divines of all sorts and Nations. Dr. Ri­chard Tillesly in his Animadversions upon Mr. Seldens Histo­ry of Tithes, printed London 1619. p. 3, to 30, hath colect­ed a Catalogue of no lesse than 72. such Authorities (in a Chronological method) before the year of our Lord 1215. as have asserted their Ius Divinum, in all Ages before that; whereof Irenaeus (flourishing in the year of Christ 180.) is the first, and the Constitutions of Fredericus the second, the last, where those who please may peruse them. Mr. Seldens [Page 25] laborious History of Tithes, and Review, especially ch. 5.6, 7, 8, 9. supplies us with many more Authorities of this kind, in suceeding times, especially with our own Do­mestique Laws and Councils, to whom I refer the impartial Reader, and to Dr. Tillesly, Dr. Sclater, Mr. Mounta­gue, Mr. Nettles, and Sir James Semple their Animadversi­ons on and Answers to his History: If any desire further satisfaction in this point, let them peruse Andr. Hispanus, De Decimis Tractatus. Petrus Rebuffus, and Tyndarus De Decimis, printed Colo. 1590. Gaspar Boetius, De De­ciman Tutori Hispanico JURE praestanda: Grav. 1565. Ig­natius Laserte & Molina, De Decimis Venditionis, & Per­mutationis. Ioan. Giffordus, Moderata Dissertatio de Ra­tione alendi Ministros Evangelicos: Hanov. 1619. Guliel­mus Redoanus, De Rebus Ecclesiae non aliendis: Ven. 1589. & De Spoliis Ecclesiae Romae. 1585. Alexander Stiaticus, Re­pet. in Extrav. Ambitiosae: De Rebus Ecclesiae non aliendis. Alph. Villagus, De Rebus Ecclesiae non ritè alienatis, recu­perandis: Bon. 1606. (a Treatise of hard digestion in these sacrilegious times:) Sir Henry Spelman, De non temeran­dis Ecclesiis: Dr. John Prideaux, Orat. 5. De Decimis: Dr. Edward Reynolds, Explanation on Psal. 110. v. 4. Gul. Zep­perus, Legum Mosaicarum Explanatio, l. 4. c. 40. And learn­ed Hugo Grotius, who thus concludes in his Book De jure Belli & Pacis, l. 1. c. 1. [...]ect. 17. p. 9. (deservedly magnified by all Scholars, Lawyers, Politicians, Souldiers, and there­fore I close with it, to stop all their mouths at once.) Lex vetus de Sabbato, & altera De Decimis, monstrant Christi­anos obligari, nec minus Septima temporis parte ad culium divinum; Nec minus fructuum Decima in alimentum eorum qui in sacris Rebus occupantur, aut similes pios usus seponant. Resolving the tenth part of mens increase at least, and no smaller proportion, to beSee Sclaters Ministers Por­portion, p. 214, 225, 226, where he proves this by their paral­lel. as justly, morally, perpetually due to God and his Ministers under the Gospel from all Christians, as the weekly Sabbath, and seventh part of their time, and no lesse, is due still by them to God and his pub­like worship.

Thus much for the divine Right of our Ministers to their Tithes, omitted in the former part, but here supplyed, for [Page 26] the Readers fuller satisfaction in these Sacrilegious times, which so violently and impiously decry it without Scrip­ture, Reason, Antiquity, Authority, out of malice and design. The succeeding Chapters more concern their Le­gal, Rational Right and Equity depending on their Divine.

CHAPT. III.

HAving dispatched the two principal Propositions of greatest concernment, (wherein I have been larger than I at first intended) to satisfie all mens Consciences, and stop the mouths of all Gain-sayers, I now proceed to the third Proposition.

That if Tithes and other maintenance by Glebes, Oblations, Pensi­ons, formerly setled on our Ministers, be either wilfully withheld, or substracted from them by the people, in part or in whole, the Civil Ma­gistrates may and ought by coercive Laws, Penalties to inforce the payment of them in due form and time, both by the Law of God, and Rules of Iustice, without any Injury or Oppression to the people.

This Proposition necessarily follows from the former two: for if there be a just, competent, comfortable Main­tenance due to all lawfull painfull Preachers, and Mini­sters of the Gospel, even by divine Right, institution, ex­presse Precepts, both of the Gospel and Law of God; and that as a just Debt, hire, wages, salary, right, not as a mere voluntary Gift, Alms, Benevolence; and the setled main­tenance of our Ministers by Tithes, Glebes, Oblations, Pen­sions, and other Duties, be such; as I have already de­monstrated: then the Civil Magistrates may and ought by coercive Laws and Penalties to enforce the payment of them in due form and time (as our very Officers by such means enforce their Souldiers, Parents their Children and Servants, Schoolmasters their Scholars, yea our Troopers their very Horses, held in with Bits and Bridles when unru­ly, and quickned with Spurs when lazy: and Shepheards their very Sheep, with their Dogs and hooks, when there is cause, to do their duties, and reform their Errors) with­out [Page 27] the least guilt or colour of Injury or Oppression to the wilfull, obstinate, or negligent detainers of them; and that by the self-same Laws, rules of Justice, Reason, Consci­ence, as all Tith-Opponents yet grant, they may enforce obstinate or negligent Tenants, Creditors, Masters, Publick or private Accomptants, Trespassers, Disseisors, and the like, to pay their just Rents and Services to their Land­lords, their due Debts to their Creditors, their contract­ed wages to their hired Labourers or menial Servants, their audited Arrears to the publick Treasury, or others to whom they are indebted upon Account, their ascertained damma­ges to such as they have injured, and to restore the Goods or Lands unjustly taken or detained, to those they have plun­dered or disseised of them, yea as justly as they may by any coercive Laws and means enforce and constrain any obsti­nate Persons or Merchants, to pay all Tenths, Fifteens, Sub­sidies, Ayd, Cu [...]toms, Tonnage, Poundage, for defence of the Realm [...]y [...]and or sea when publickly and legally grant­ed in and by a full, free, and lawfull Parliament, duly sum­moned and elected by the people, according to the 3 R. 1. c. 1. [...] R. 2. Stat. 2. c. 4. 12 R. 2 c. 12. 7 H 4. c. 14. 11 H. 4. c. 1. 1 H. 5 c. 1. 6 H. 6. c. 4. 8 H. 6. c. 7. 10 H. 6. c. 2. 23 H 6. c. 11. 32 H. 6. c. 15. 9 H. 8. c. 10. 27 H. 8. c. 26. 35 H 8. c. 11. 17 Car. The Act for Triennial Par­liaments, Cooks 2 In­stit. p. 168, 169. & 4 In­stit. p. 1. 45, 46, 47, 48, 49. mani­fold Laws and Statutes enacted for that purpose: the want of which indubital Ingredients only, how fatal they have been to Parliaments in former Ages, to make them and all their Acts, Iudgements, Orders, Ordinances, mere Nullities, and what a pre­judice they have been to the People and Republick too, those who please may read at leasure in the Statutes of 39 H. 6. c. 1. & Rot. parl. n. 3.17. c. 7. And the Act for repealing the Parliament of 21 R. 2. in the Parliament of 1 H. 4. c. 3. The reason of which Repeal, is thus recorded by Mr. Oliver Saint Iohn in his Declaration in Parliament against the Shipmony Iudges, Anno 1640. (printed by the Commons command) p. 33. That Parliament of 21 R. 2. of Revocation, was held by force, as is declared in the Parliament Roll of 1 H. 4. n. 21, 22. That it was held Viris armatis, et Sagitariis immensis. The Knights of Parliaments were not elected by the Commons Prout mos exegit, Sed per Regiam volunta­tem: And so the Lords Rex omnes Dominos Sibi adhaerentes summonare fecit. Whereupon Nu. 48. These judgements of Revocation (and that of the whole Parliaments proceedings [Page 28] too) are declared to be Erronea, Iniqua, et omni juri et rationi repugnantia, Erroneous, wicked, and contrary to all Right and Reason: So Mr: Saint John, Numb. 37. This was one grand Article of Impeachment of King Richard the 2 l. for which he was then deposed from his Government by a forced Resignation. Heu licet quod eo Statuto & Consuetudine Regni sui, in Convocatione cujuslibet Parliamenti sui, populus su­us in singulis Comitatilus Regni DEBEAT ESSE LIBER ad eligend: & deputa [...]d: Milites pro hujusm [...]di Comitatibus, ad interessend. Parliamento, & ad exponend. eorum gravamina, & ad prosequend. pro remediis superinde, preu [...] eis videbatur expedire; Tamen praefatus Rex ut in Parlia­mentis suis ut liberius consequi valeat suae temerariae vo­luntatis effectare direxit mandata sua frequentius Vicecomitibas suis ut certas Personas per ipsum Regem nominatas ut Milites Comitatus venire faciat ad Parliamenta sua: Quos quidem Milites eidem Regi faventes indulgere pote­rat prout frequenter fecit quandoque per minas varias et terrores, quandoque per munera ad consentiend. illis quae Regno praejudicialia fuerant et Populo quamplu­mum onerosa, et specialiter ad concedendum eidem Regi Subsidium ad certos Annos suum Populum nimium op­primendo. Which I leave to John Canne to English for those who understand not Latin, or our Laws, and would strip our learned Ministers of their Tithes and setled main­tenance by colour of an extraordinary call (as he terms it) to such an extraordinary Sacrilegious work as this.

Quest. But what ground is there in Scripture (may some de­mand) for compelling People to pay their Tithes and other Duties to their Ministers?

Answ I answer 1. We have the President, Law, and Com­mandement of Godly Hezekiah, recorded in the 2 Chron. 31.4, 5, 6, 7, 8. with the good effect it wrought, already reci­ted. 2ly. The Examples of zealous Nehemiah, and the Re­ligious Nobles and People under him; who entred into a solemn Covenant, curse, oath, and made Ordinances to charge themselves yearly with the third part of a Shekle for the service of the House of God: and that they would bring in all their First-fruits and Offerings, and the Tithes of their ground unto the Levites, that the same Levites [Page 29] might have their Tithes in all the Cities of their Tillage, Neh. 9.38 c. 10.1. throughout, specially v. 29, 32, 37, 38, 39. ch. 12.44, 45. which when afterwards neglected, by the people, Nehemiah contended with the Rulers (for their negli­gence in not enforcing the people to pay them) whereupon this effect ensued, Then brought all Judah the Tithes of the Corn, and the new Wine, and the Oyle unto the Treasurers, &c. And Nehemiah was so far from deeming this Injustice or Oppression, as some now malitiously term it; that he prayes, Remember me, O my God, concerning this, and wipe not out my good Deeds, that I have done for the House of my God, and for the offices thereof, Neh. 13.10, to 15. From which President Nicholas Hemingius (a far better Divine and Scholar than John Canne and all his Associates against Tithes) thus resolves in his Commentary on 1 Thess. 5.12, 13. Therefore the Godly are to be admonished. That by Divine Right they owe Stipends unto the Ministers of the Church. But that nothing may be here neglected to the dammage of the Mini­stry, This care belongs to the Superious. For if Kings be nursing Fathers to the Church (as Isaiah admonisheth) Pos­sunt et debent jure divino ministris Ecclesiae stipendia ordinare, they may and ought by Divine Right (or Gods Law) to ordain Stipends to the Ministers of the Church, by the example of the most godly King Hezechiah, 2 Chron. 31. That they may wholly addict themselves to the Law of God. And if the people detain these Salaries, and setled Dues from them, they may enforce them by Fines, penalties, and Actions to pay them.

3ly. If these Examples prevail not, we have the Presi­dent of a zealous Heathen Prince (who shall rise up in judge­ment against many pretended Magistrates, refusing to assist complaining Ministers to recover their just Tith [...]s and Dues from their refractory ingrate people) to wit, King At­taxerxes, who making a Decree for furnishing Ezra the Priest with whatsoever he should require for the maintenance of Gods worship and House, Ezra 7.11, &c. concludes it thus; v. 26. And whosoever will not do the Law of thy God, and the Law of the King (which confirm our Ministers Tithes and Dues) Let Iudgement be executed speedily upon him, whether it be unto Death, or unto Banishment, or to Confiscation [Page 30] of Goods, or to Imprisonment. And lest any should deem this a Tyrannical, Oppressing Edict; Ezra himself sub­joyns in the very next words, v. 27. Blessed be the Lord of our Fathers, who hath put such a thing as this is in the Kings heart. Which Law if now put into due execution, would send Canne and most of his Confederates here packing back again to Amsterdam, or some Gibbet, or Prison, and strip them of the Goods they have got by the warres and troubles of the time.

4ly. We have King Darius his Decree for repairing Gods House, and furnishing the Priests there with all necessaries they re­quired, which thus concludes with a most severe penaltie a­gainst the wilfull Disobeyers of it, Ezra 6.11. Also I have made a D [...]cree. That whosoever shall alter this word, [...]et Tim­ber be pulled down from his House, and being set up, Let him be hanged thereon, and his House be made a Dunghill for this. H [...]w many now Gi [...]be [...]s should we now have through­out England, and how many new-purchased Houses by those who had no [...]e of l [...]te, would be made Dungheaps, if this ri­gid Law were now put in are? Which may stop the cla­morous mouths of such who cry out against Laws and Ordinances for Tithes, prescribing more moderate pe­nalties.

Object. But all this is but Old Testament will many now ob­ject: what can you allege for your Propositions p [...]f out of the Go­spel?

Answ. To stop their mouths, I answer,

1. That the Gospel expresly commands all living under it, To render to all their Dues: Therefore to Ministers (to whom I have proved Tithes and other setled mainte­nance to be a just Due and Debt) to owe nothing to any Man, Rom. 13.7, 8. Therefore not to Ministers. But what if bold, atheistical, obstinate or covetous Wretches will not pay these Dues to their Ministers, doth the Gospel allow Magistrates and higher Powers to compel them to it? Yes, in the very antecedent words, v. 4, 5. If thou do that which is evil, (as the defrauding, denying, detaining of the Mini­sters, as well as the Magistrates, or any others Due Debts and Salaries, is a doing of evil, prohibited by the forecited [Page 31] words, and many other Texts elsewhere insisted on) be a­fraid, for he beareth not the Sword in vain; (as he should do, might he compell none by it to their duties) For he is the Minister of God, even a revenger to execute wrath upon him that doth evil: Wherefore ye must needs be subject (in yielding to their commanding Laws and Ordinances for Tithes and Ministers Dues, as well as others, edged with coercive Pe­nalties) not only for wrath (that is, for fear of the Penal­ties which else fall upon you for your disobedience, exaspe­rate the Higher Powers and Civil Magistrate to execute wrath upon you) but even for conscience sake; which should more prevail with men than wrath and Penalties; though our Tithe-detainers now are grown so atheistically im­pudent, as to alledge conscience for not rendring them, and robbing God himself of them, Mal. 3.8. as well as his Ministers.

2ly. The Holy Ghost by the Apostle Peter thus seconds his former precept, by Paul, 1 Pet. 2.13, 14. Submit your selves to every Ordinance of man for the Lords sake, whether to the King, as Supream, or unto Governours: who have made many Lawes and Ordinances for payment of our Ministers Tithes and Duties. Yea, but say our sturdy armed, and unarmed Tithe-detainers now; What if we will not do it, as we are resol­ved, notwithstanding all such Laws and Ordinances? What? Are you resolved to disobey and contemn Gods Gospel, Laws and Ordinances as well as Mans? Where is your Religion, your Saintship you so much boast of? Will you 1 Cor. 10.12. provoke the Lord himself to wrath, are you stronger than he? I presume, not: Therefore the Apostle subjoins, That these Kings and Governours are sent by him for the Punishment of Evil doers: And such are all those who detain the Mi­nisters established Dues, who are not only Theeves and Rob­bers of God in the Old Testaments language, Mal. 3 8. but committers of Sacrilege, Rom. 2.20. Thou that abhorrest Idols (as many Tithe-oppugners pretend they do) Dost thou commit Sacrilege and Church Robberie? Acts 19.37. in the New Testaments and meer Heathens Dialect; who fall under the just punishment of Kings and Governours, whom God will bear out in the just punishment of such [Page 32] evil doers, or else punish them himself in a more severe man­ner, if the Armed sonnes of 2 Sam. 3.39. Zerviah be too hard for David, and Heb. 10.31. It is a fearful thing to fall into the hands of the living God, who even under the Gospel is a consuming fire, Heb. 12.29. and hath proved so to many Tithe-oppugners very lately, both in consuming their Houses and personal Estate, as well by real fire, as by inflicting Spiritual judgements on their souls.

3ly. Our Saviours own words recorded in the Gospel, are direct in point. Luke 12.57, 58, 59. Mat. 5.25. And why, even of your selves judge ye not what is right? (in paying your just Dues and Debts to all you owe them without sute or coercion, as the next words literally import:) When thou goest with thine adversary to the Magistrate, as thou art in the way give diligence that thou mayest be delivered from him, lest he hale thee to the judge, and the Iudge deliver thee to the Of­ficer, and the Officer cast thee into prison Verily I say unto thee, thou shalt by no means come out thence, till thou hast paid the uttermost farthing; or very last mite. Here is a Gospel resolution of our Saviour in two Evange­lists, ratified with a verily I say unto thee; That all those who will not pay their Ministers Tithes and Dues, as well as other mens Debts, may be lawfully brought and haled perforce before the Magistrate, and by the Magistrate and Judge, condemned in double Dammages, cast into Prison, and not suffered to come out thence, till he have paid the ut­most farthing, not only of his detained Tithes and Dues, but of his sine, forfeiture, and costs of sute, prescribed by our Laws. And let all our Swordmen and other oppugners of our coercive Laws against detainers of Ministers Tithes and Dues, give our Saviour himself the Title of a Tyrant, and Oppressor, a Lyar, if they dare, and that such proceedings are not sufferable under the Gospel.

4ly. There is nothing so free and voluntary in the world, that I know, as Almes and Charity to poor distressed Saints and Christians; Yet the Gospel accompts this a due Debt; and all able to give them, Debtors, Rom. 15.27. And if any refuse to render them, out of their Hard-heartedness, and want of Charity; the Christian Magistrates under the Gospel may, not only rate and assesse them according to [Page 33] their Estates towards the Poors relief; (as they do in all Christian Republicks and Realms) but by Distresses, sale of Goods and other coercive wayes compel them to render them; and that both by the Common law of England, and the Sta­tutes of 22 H. 8. c. 12. 27 H. 8. c. 25. 1 Edw. 6. c. 3. 5 E. 6 c 2. 7 E. 6. c. 11.1 Phil. & Mar. c. 6.5 Eliz. c. 3.14 Eliz. c. 3.18 Eliz c. 3.22 Eliz. c. 11.23 Eliz. c. 3.31 Eliz. c. 10.35 Eliz. c. 7. 43 Eliz. c. 2. as Dalton and other Justices of Peace, Tit. Poor, Maimed Souldiers. Therefore admit Tithes mere Alms (as some would have them) yet when and where detained, they may be as justly levyed and recovered by coercive Laws and Statutes as Alms to the Poor, and those who condemn coercive Laws for Tithes as unbeseeming the Gospel, must Tax and Repeal all Laws for the Poor, and for Maimed Soul­diers too, as such; which I presume they will not do.

5ly. I suppose neither Canne himself (who receives pay as a Chaplain to the Army out of publick Contributions from the people, not from voluntary contributions of the Soul­diers) and all other Officers and Swordmen oppugning the coercive Maintenance of our Ministers by Tither or other­wise, will maintain even unto death; that the People (even against their wills and Consciences too) may be enforced to pay Monthly Taxes and Excises (amounting to twenty times more each year than all the Ministers Tithes in Eng­land) by coercive Orders and Ordinances, (though not made in a full, free, or old English Parliament, nor warranted by so many indisputable Acts of Parliament as Ministers Tithes and Dues) and levyed by Imprisonments, Distresses, Forfei­tures, armed violence, and free quartering of Souldiers on the people, (though adjudged High Treason in Straffords Case in full Parliament, for which he lost his Head;) our Mini­sters therefore being real Spiritual Souldiers of Jesus Christ, even by the Gospels Resolution; and not to go a warfare at any time on their own free cost, but upon the Peoples pay & wages, as due to them, as any Souldiers (which I have formerly pro­ved) they must by the self same reason acknowledge the le­vying & enforcing of the payment of their less Burdensom, and more legal, necessarie Tithes for the defence and preser­vation of the very Gospel, Religion, Gods Glory and Mans Salvation once a year, by penalties, forfeitures, imprison­ments, [Page 34] or distresses when obstinately detained: or else dis­claim their own coercive Contributions first, to maintain un­christian bloodie wars between Christians of the same Reli­gion, in firm unity, and amity with us, which are not so necessarie, or commendable amongst Christians, who should Rom. 12.18. live peaceably with all men (not make a last Trade of war) Cor. 13.11. 2 Gal. 5.13. Ephes. 4.2. 1 Pet. 3.2. Love as Brethren, 1 John 3.16. Lay down their Lives one for another, Yea Matth. 5.44. Rom. 12.20. love and pray for their Enemies (not murder or destroy them) and Isay 2.4. Micha. 4.3. beat all their Swords into Plowshares and their spears into Pruning Hooks, not lifting up Sword Nation against Nation (as now they do to the peril of the Gospel, reproach and slaunder) and learn war no more) as is the Spi­ritual warfare of our Ministers against the World, Flesh, Sin, Devil, and all Errors, Blasphemies, Corruptions, for the eternal Salvation (not Destruction) of mens Souls and Bodies too.

6ly. We find it long since prophecied in the Old Testa­ment, in relation to the calling to the Gentiles by and under the Gospel, Isay 49.23. That the KINGS of the Gen­tiles should become Nursing-Fathers, and their Queens Nursing-Mothers to the Church, Isay 60.9, 10. Surely the Isles shall wait for me, and the Ships of Tarshish first, to bring my Sons from far, their Silver and their Gold with them: And the Sons of Strangers shall build up the walls, and their Kings shall minister unto thee, Psal. 72.10, 11. The Kings of Tarsh­ish and of the Isles shall bring Presents, the Kings of She­ba and Seba shall offer Gifts, yea all Kings shall down before him (and then) all Nations shall serve him. Thus se­conded in the New Testament, Rev 21.24. where it is pro­phecied of the Heavenly Jerusalem (the Church of Christ) the Kings of the Earth do bring their Glory unto it. Which Prophecies concerning Kings, and likewise Kings of Isles in particular (and no other sorts of Governors, which is observable) have been most eminently verified of the Kings and Queens of this Isle and Realm of Britain, beyond all the Kings, Queens, Regions, Isles and Kingdoms in the world besides, to the eternal Honour of that late rejected, abjured form of Kingly Government (derived from Gods own form ofPsal 47.2, 6, 7. 1 Tim. 1.17. Kingly Government over the whole world, [Page 35] and of Psal. 2.6. Ps. 48.2. Rev. 15. 3. Iohn 1.44. Zech. 9.9. Christs Royal Government over his Church both Militant and Triumphant) and of this our Isle: where God blessed our Church and Kingdom, 1. with three such worthy Heathen Kings in Succession, (Capgrave in vita Iosephi, Will. Malmes­bury De An­tiqu. Glastoni­ensis Ecclesiae, Spelman. Concil. Epist. Dedicatoria, & p. 1. to 12. Dr. Vsher Ec­clesiae Brit. Antiquitates: c. 1. Godwin, Mathew Par­ker, Speed, and sundry others. Arviragus, Marius, and Coy­lus) who though they embraced not the Christian Faith here preached soon after our Saviours Ascension by James the Son of Zebedee, Simon Zelotes, Peter, Paul, Aristobulus, and Philips twelve Disciples, wherof Joseph of Aramathaea (who honourably interred our Saviour) was chief, Yet they cour­teously entertained them, permitted them freely to preach the Go­spel to their people, gave publick entertainment to the persecuted Christians resorting hither as to a safe and peaceable Sanctuary, when they were forcibly expelled out of all other Kingdoms and Countries throughout the world, and Roman Empire, by bloody Persecutors, bestowed Lands and a comfortable Maintenance on the Preachers of the Gospel at Glastonbury, where they built the first Christian Church in the world; and were the first Kings and Kingdoms in the world who gave publique Reception, Protection, Countenance, Maintenance to the Preachers and Professors of the Gospel; as not only our own Historians, but two forein Wri­ters, namely Polydore Virgil: Hist. Angl. l. 2. and Cardinal Baronius himself. Annal. Tom. 1. An. 95. n. 5. with Spon­danus in his Epitome of him, records. 2ly. With the first Christian King we read of, publickly baptised, professing and establishing the Christian Faith, builded, endowed Chur­ches and Ministers with Glebes and other Maintenance; to wit our famous King Lucius, who about the year 187. (as Antiqu. Ec­clesiae, Brit. Fox Acts and Monuments, Spelman. Concil. p. 12. &c. Dr. Vsher Eccles. Brit. Antiqu. c. 4, 5, 6. Mat­thew Paris, Matthew Westminster, the History of Rochester and others record) Possessiones et Territoria Ecclesiis et viris Ecclesiasticis abundanter conferens Chartis & Munimentis omnia communivit:Ad An. 187. Roger Wen­dever ad An. 184. Dr. Usher Eccles Brit. Antiqu. p 125, 126, 1078. Galfridus Monmunien­sis, l. 5. c. 1. Edit. Hidel­berg. Ecclesias vero cum suis Coemi­teriis ita constituit esse Liberas, ut quicunque Malefactor ad illa confugeret, illaesus ab omnibus remaneret: (a good Policy at that time to draw Pagans to frequent the Church, and hear the word, to convert them both from their Paganism and evil Lives;) He not only giving all the Lands and Possessions belonging to the Pagan Temples and Priests to the Churches and Ministers of the Christians; Sed quia majorem honorem illis im­pendere debuerat, augmentavit illas amplioribus agris et [Page 36] mansis, omnique libertate sublimavit, as Galfridus Mon­muniensis, and Gervasius Tilburiensis affirm: Here was a true Nursing Father indeed to Gods Church and Ministers.

3ly. With the first Christian Queen we read of in all the world, to wit, Queen Helena, Matth. Westm. Gras­ton [...] Holin­shed, Fox and Speed. Daughter and Heir to King Coel, and Mother to Constantine the Great, who was a carefull Nursing Mother, and Bountifull Benefactor to the Church and Ministers of Christ, as Eusebius in the life of Constantine, Ambrose Oratio in Obitum Theodosii, Baronius in his Annals, and Speed in his History of Great Britain, p. 156. record. Whence she was stiled in antient Inscriptions, Ʋenerabilis ET PI­ISSIMA AUGUSTA; both for her extraordinary Piety, and her converting of Constantius her Husband to the love and pro­tection of the Christian Religion, and the Professors of it, who by her means creeping out of the Dens and Caves wherein they were hid, began to exercise their Devotions publickly, and TO RE-EDIFIE THE OLD RUINATE CHURCHES (which Dioclesian the persecuting Emperour had levelled to the very ground in all places,) and TO ERECT NEW; Matth. Westm. An. 307. Dr. Vsh­er Eccles. Brit. Antiqu. c. 8. Speeds Histo­ry p. 156, &c. Baronius, An. 306. n. 16. She herself at her own cost, erecting a Stately Church over our Saviours Sepulchre at Jerusalem, famous till this very day.

4ly. With the first Christian Emperor in the world, even that famous Constantine the Great, born and elected Emperour in this Island, educated in the Christian Faith by his pious Mother, the best, the Greatest Nursing Father the Church of God ever yet enjoyed in the world.

Eusebius, Eutropius, Zo­naras, Grim­ston, Speed, and others in his Life, Fox Acts and Mo­numents, vol. 1. For first, He destroyed the two Grand Persecutors of the Christian Religion, Maxentius and Licinius, with their Adherents, and demolished all the Idol-Gods and Mo­numents of Idolatry throughout his Dominions.

2ly. He reduced all the exiled Christians driven out of their Countries into desolate Islands, Caves, Dens, De­sarts, restored them their lost Possessions, established Chri­stian Magistrates throughout his Empire, encouraged, pro­tected the Christians in all places, in the publick Profession of their Religion, and suppressed the Heresies and Schismes that sprung up amongst them, by Councils and publick Edicts.

3ly. He caused all the Churches in this Isle and else­where, [Page 37] which by the Decrees of Dioclesian were levelled in all places to the very ground (which some Atheistial Anabaptists, Eusebius de vita Constan­tini, Gildas, Matth. Westm. An. 318, to 351. Speeds Histo­ry, p. 159, 161. Spelman. Concil. p. 45. Dr. usher Ec­cles. Brit. An­tiqu. c. 8. throughout, and Jesuitical Incendiaries even in these pretended glorious times of Piety and Reformation endeavour to do again) to be re-edified, and new ones to be founded throughout his Domini­ons; himself erecting most Magnificent Temples to Gods honour, (as King David did out of holy zeal, and love to God, not Po­pish superstition, as some now censure it, 2 Chron. 22 5. c. 29.1, 2, 3.) both in Rome it self, Ierusalem, Hostia, Neapolis, Hi­rapolis, Constantinople, and other Cities, endowing them with ample possessions, and all other Churches with convenient Glebes, Mansions and Revenues.

4ly. He encouraged, protected, advanced Godly Mini­sters, Learning and Religion, by setling a competent main­tenance on them, both for their livelihood and encourage­ment, most preferring, esteeming, rewarding the best deser­ving of them. And by this means so laid the foundation of the Christians security, and the Churches maintenance, that the same hath stood under the Protection of Christian Kings and Princes ever since. And albeit many Caesars his Successors, have often attemp­ted to shake it by their Authorities, and the sharp Instruments of Heretiques have dangerously undermined it, yet hath it born out the storms of all their boisterous assayes, and stood in the strength that this Emperor first laid it, (as Speed and others ob­serve.) And for these blessed fruits of this prime Nursing Father of Gods Church, he had then, and ever after, these most Glorious Titles conferred on him by the Christians, and Eccle­siastical Writers, Most Blessed Emperour, most Pious, Sacred, Divine; Most happy Redeemer and Restorer of Romes City, and the whole World from Paganism, Tyranny, Persecu­tion, and founder of the Churches Peace. Which those shall ne­ver enjoy, who labour to demolish and extirpate what he thus founded and established.

5ly. God hath blessed our Church and Isle (as Io. Capgrave in his Prologue, Sir Hen. Spelman in his Epist. Dedicatory to his Councils, and the Author of Fasciculus Temporum record) with more Kings & Queens, who for their extraordinary Piety, incredible Zeal, liberal Alms, manifold works of Mercy, incomparable Humili­ty and contempt of the World, their munificent, magnificent and ad­mirable [Page 38] Bounty to the Ministers and Saints of God, and in building, adorning, endowing Churches with Tithes and Glebes, and some of them for suffering Martyrdome for defence of Religion by Pagan Invaders, were justly Reputed and Kalendred in the Church of God, for Saints (though infected with some superstiti­tions of those blinder times, which the age wherein they lived may excuse, and their other vertues over-ballance and delete,) than any other Isle, Region or Kingdom throughout the world, how Great or Populous soeber. There being no less than Twelve of our antient Saxon Kings Crowned with Martyrdom by Infidels; and Ten of them Canonized for Saints for their transcendent Holiness; and no less than thirty Kings and Queens within 200 years space, who laying down the Height of their worldly Power, Crowns and Glory, that they might gain heaven by force, betook themselves to a devout, retired religious Life, (accor­ding to the devotion of those times) in some private Mona­steries (for the most part builded and endowed by them­selves) or else went as Pilgrims to Rome, then reputed famous for Her Piety. Besides multitudes of the Royal Progeny who followed their examples both in their Piety, Charity and Bounty to the Church. And amongst others of our antient Kings, King Ethelwolfe gave not only the Tenth out of all his goods and Chat­tels, but likewise of all the Lands and Houses of his whole Realm to the Church. His Sonne, incomparable Asser and o­thers in his life. Spelman in his Epistle Ded. to his Councils. King Alfred (founder, or at least Cambd [...]ns Britannia, Oxfordshire. Restorer and Enlarger of our fa­mous Ʋniversity of Oxford) though he was for the most part taken up with Warres and Military affairs by reason of the Danes invasions, fighting no lesse than 52. set battels with them (for the most part with glorious success) yet out of an Ardent zeal to God, in emulation of Zacheus, he gave no lesse than half of his annual Rents (and spoils of war besides) in pious uses; to wit, for relieving the poor both at home and abroad, for maintaining, rewarding Scholars, Ministers, building schools of Learning, maintaining professors of divers Arts and Sciences in them, especially in Oxford, and devoted no lesse than the third part of his time (to wit, eight hours every natural day) to his sacred studies and devotions; Besides the time he spent in his Military imployments, Civil Government, and enacting [Page 39] Laws of most excellent use by advise of the wisest men, which have continued ever since. So as Asser Menevensis, (in Egerci­tuesse) in his life, Spelman and others give this Brief Cha­racter and Encomium of his Excellencies, ‘O Stuporem omnium aetatum Aluredum! cujus dum Religionem intu­emur, nunquam exiisse videatur Monasterio: Dum Bella & Militiam, nullibi versatus fuisse unquam nisi in Castris: dum Scripta ejus & Lucubrationes, vitam transiisse in Aca­demia: & dum Regni Populique sui administrationem, ni­hilo unquam studuisse, nisi in Foro & Senatu, Justitiae pro­movendae, Legibusque bonis Sanciendis.’ Of which good Laws of his (extracted out of the Old and New Testament for most part) Spelmanni Concil. p 360. this for the due payment of Tithes and Oblations to Ministers was one, cap. 38. DECIMAS Primigenia & adulta tua DEO DATO. O that all those Militarie victorious Commanders who boast of like victo­ries as he obtained, would imitate him in these his Vertues, Bounty, Liberalitie, both to our Universities, Scholars, Mi­nisters, and promulging Edicts for the due payment of their detained Tithes and Dues! and then they should be Chro­nicled for SAINTS INDEED, as well as the forenamed Kings, of which there was not one in three in former A­ges (as Sir Henry Spelman observes) WHO DID NOT A­DORN, AUGMENT & ENRICH THE CHURCH IN SOME THINGS, even during their very wars, instead of making a mere prey and spoyl of her (as some late SAINTS have done) to maintain the warres and enrich themselves. In which Sacrilegious Rapines, if any shall persevere to the utter ruine of the remaining Glebes, Tithes, Maintenance of all our Ministers and Churches too (the prime Honour of our Nation, Cambdens Brit. & Hey­lins Micro­cosm, p. 458. ECCLESIA, Faemina, Lana) as some have designed, and would engage them to do, to render our Religion, Nation, and those who shall give their Votes thereto for ever execrable; Let them take heed, that instead of inducing the Ministers and godly people really fearing God, throughout our three Nations, to forget Mo­narchy, and be in love with their New Military Government, they do not necessitate them, and most others too thereby, (by comparing their Irreligious Church-Robberies, and Sacri­legious [Page 40] Rapines against the very Laws even of War and Conquest it self in an Enemies Country, and detestable to very Hea­thens, as de Jure Bel­li, l. 3. c. 12. Sect. 5, 6, 7. & Annotata. Grotius proves at large) to love and honour Kings and Monarchs more than ever, as the only Nursing-Fathers to Gods Ministers, Church, People, under the Gospel; and to esteem others not comming in by the Door into the Sheep-fold, but climbing up by Storm some other way, to be but Theeves and Robbers; who come not but to Steal, Kill, and to Destroy, whatever the Bounty, Piety, and Munificence of these and other our Kings, have built and setled on the Clergy for Gods Honour, and maintenance of his worship, and thereby engage them so to act, speak, and peremptorily resolve, as all the Israelites and Godly Levites, Priests, People, twice did in a like case, 2 Chron. 11.13, 14, 15, 16, 17. & 1 Sam. 8.3, 5, 19, 20.

If any here object, these Kings and Queens were more Popish, Superstitious, than really Religious: Admit they were in some things, (as too much doting upon Monkery, not Monarchy, or worldly wealth or Power, which some condemn in others, when most guilty of and applauding it in themselves) yet their very Bounty and profuse munificent Building Monasteries and Nunneries, (whereof Capgrave in Prologo ad vi­tas Sanctorum, Spelmanni Concil. in E­pist. Ded. & p. 433. King Edgar alone built no less than 47. endowed them with large Revenues, and intended to make them up 50. had he lived,) be­sides what they bestowed in building, adorning, endow­ing, maintaining all Cathedral and Parish Churches and Cha­pels, for the support and honour of their superstitious Religion, should eternally shame all those pretended Saints, who will be at no cost at all to maintain and propagate what they now call the True Religion and the faithfull Ministers of the Gospel, but instead thereof, will by mere Force and Rapine against all Rules of Law, Justice, Piety, Equity, and war it self, plunder (if they can) the remaining Materials and Fabricks of our Churches, which those Kings or their Suc­cessors, and other antient Benefactors built for Gods Ho­nour, and the small surviving Lands, Rectories, Glebes, Tithes, Pensions, Dues, which our Ministers yet enjoy, by their sole Bounty, Piety, Gift, Laws, without any real charge, injurie, oppression, or obligation to any Mortals [Page 41] now surviving them. But to take off the stain of Popery wholly from our Kings, which was no disparagement to their commendable Charity and Bounty; Consider in the sixth place, that God hath honoured us with the first Chri­stian King in the Universe Antiqu. Ec­cles. Brit. in the life of Cranmer, Fox, Speed, Hall, Grimston in H 8. & Statut. Rastal Manas­senas, Rome. Henry the 8th. who durst not on­ly question, but by Publick Laws and Statutes abolish and renounce the Popish usurped Antichristian Power, and with it all Popish Shavelings, Abbots, Priors, Monks, Nunnes, and many Popish Doctrines, Ceremonies; and restored the People to the use of the Holy Scriptures in their own Native Language: Whose example encouraged other Kings, Princes, Churches to do the like. Who though he seised upon Abby Lands, as given to mere Superstitious Persons, Orders, Ʋses, repugnant to Gods word, and the Popes mere Creatures, and Supporters; yet he con­tinued the Lands, Glebes, Mr. Camb­dens Britania, spelman and others. Tithes, and Maintenance of the Bishops and other Ministers, and augmented it and our Ʋniver­sities Revenues also out of the Abbies Spoyles, which yet could not exempt him from the publick censure of some Protestants, for selling or rteaining most of their Lands and Impropriations for his own use, which (say they) he should have rather converted to other lawfull sacred uses, according to the will of the first Donors: And Mr. Pilgrimage, l. 1. c. 7. p. 133. Purchas writes, ‘That the Monks unrighteous coveting, and the Popes appropria­ting of the Tithes of some Thousands of our best Benefi­ces unto Abbies and Monasteries, and robbing the Ministers of them to whom only they were given by God himself, and the first Donors for their Maintenance, to the great prejudice both of the Ministers and People, was one prin­cipal cause, that by a Divine Judgement and Providence (beyond all mens expectation) the Pope and they were both suppressed together on a suddain, even by him who not long before had justified his usurped Supremacy a­gainst Luther, and for which he had received this ominous Title from the Pope DEFENDER OF THE FAITH:’ God grant our New Defenders of the Faith, do not as ill re­quite those Persons, Powers, who first commissioned them, with their Arms to defend our Faith, Church, Religion, against Iesuites, Papists, and their Confederates in the Field, as King Henry did the Pope after this new Motto. 7ly. That our [Page 42] God blessed, honoured us with the first Fox Acts & Monuments, and others in his Life, and the Statutes in his Reign. incomparable Protestant King in the world, (no Papist, but a REAL SAINT, beyond any of his years in this or former A­ge [...]) even young KING EDWARD THE SIXT: the first King I read of, who by publick Laws and Statutes sup­pressed, banished all Popish Pictures, Ceremonies, Superstitious Mo­numents, Practices, Abuses throughout his Dominions, and esta­blished the true worship, Service, Sacraments, Ministers and Ministry, and Gospel of Christ throughout his Dominions: for which all Ages shall call him blessed: no waies embesselling, or diminishing the Churches Glebes, Tithes or Revenues, and enacting a New excellent Law 2 E. 6. c. 13. for Tithes recovery when detained. But God taking him suddenly from hence to a bet­ter Kingdom, and his Successor Queen Mary, defacing, defor­ming his blessed Reformation, and restoring both the Pope and Popery again, almost to its former height, except in point of Monkery, which the defacing of the Monasteries pre­vented, 8ly. God then blessed our Church and Kingdom with an unparallel'd Protestant Princesse, Queen Speed, How, Baker, Camb­den in her life, and the printed Sta­tutes in her reign: Antiqu. Eccles. Brit. in the life of Mathew Par­ker, Godwins Catalogue of Bishops in her time. Elizabeth, a Nursing Mother to the Church, who demolished the whole Body of Popery, with the Popes revived usurpations again by publick Acts; established the reformed Religion again in greater beauty and purity than at first; banishing all Jesuites and Seminary Priests as Traytors, restored the exiled Ministers of the Gospel suffering for Religion, rewarding them with the richest Bisho­pricks and Church-Preferments, and planting a faithfull, painfull, preaching Ministry by degrees in most dark corners of her Dominions, endowed them with a setled competent maintenance, which our subse­quent Protestant Kings continued to them and their Successors with­out diminution. All which considered, we of this Isle may with much thankfulnesse to God, and honour to our Princes, without flattery averr before all the world, That the fore­cited Prophecies of Kings being Nursing-Fathers, and Queens Nursing-Mothers to the Church (and specially Kings and Queens of this Isle) have been more really accomplished in the Kings and Queens of this our Island, than in the Kings and Queens of any other Isle, Kingdom, or Nation whatsoe­ver throughout the world, and God grant that those who [Page] shall succeed them in any other New-modelled-form of Go­vernment may not prove such Step-Fathers and Step-Mothers to our Churches and Ministers, as to demolish the one, and strip the other quite naked of all that former Livelihood, and remaining small Revenues, which they yet enjoy by our Princes Grants, Gifts, Charters, Laws and Favours on­ly; and thereby give all Godly Ministers, and people too in our Nation, just cause to cry out with wringed hands, weeping eyes, and bleeding hearts, in the Prophets words, Hosea 10.3, 4. For now they shall say, We have no King, because we feared not the Lord, What then should a King do to us? (or amongst us,) They have spoken words, Swear­ing falsely in making a Covenant: Thus Iudgement springeth up as Hemlock (one of the deadliest Poysons to destroy men) in the fields. Or else to speak in Solomons language, to the same effect, Prov. 28.2. For the transgression of a Land many are the Princes thereof (as our Land had never so many Transgressions and Princes too as now,) But by a Man of Vnderstanding and Knowledge (and where is such a one to be found, to Ezech. 22, 30. stand up in a Gap?) the state there­of shall be prolonged: Now the Lord raise up such a Man, or Men; lest God say to our Nation and all Grandees in Power, as he did once to the prophane wicked Prince of Israel, whose day was come, Ezech. 21.25, 26, 27. Remove the Diadem, and take off the Crown; this shall not be the same: Exalt him that is Low, and abase him that is High: I will overturn, overturn, overturn, (Church, State, Laws,) and it shall be no more, untill he come whose Right it is, and I will give it him.

To prevent these treble, fatal over-turnings, with the wiping and turning of our Jerusalem UPSIDE DOWN like a Dish (a certain Fore-runner of a Churches, Nations ruine, 2 Kings 21.13. Psal. 146.9.)

I shall now in the last place present the whole Nation with a brief Catalogue of those manifold Laws, Statutes, which our Kings have successively made in their Great Coun­cils and Parliaments, almost from the very first establishment of Religion in our Island, for the due payment of Mini­sters Tithes by coercive Means, Forfeitures, Penalties, in case of [Page 44] willfull detaining, or neglect in paying all or any part of them at the times appointed; which those who please, may Mr. Seldens History of Tithes, ch. 8. peruse in Chronicon Johannis Brompton, Mr. Lambards Archaion, Sir Henry Spelmans Councils, Mr. Fox his Acts and Monuments, John Bridges his Defence of the Government of the Church of England, Book 16. p. 1350. Our Statutes at large, and Mr. Rastals Abridgement of Statutes, Title Tithes; which Laws being well known to most learned men, are therefore needlesse fully to transcribe. The first of them is the forecited Law, Decree of the Council of Calcuth, under King Oswald and Offa, An. 787. of famous King Alfred, Anno 887. of King Alfred and Gutburn the Dane, cap. 9. De Deci­mis Deo Debitis, about the year 890. of King Edward the elder and Guthurn: Anno 905. (or 906. as some) Cap. 6. (in some c. 9.) DE DECIMIS ET CENSU ECCLE­SIAE RETENTIS: of King Aethelstan; made in the famous Council of Gratelean: An. 928. cap. 1. DE DECIMIS REDDENDIS, tam ex Animalibus quam de fructibus terrae; which this King himself duly paid, and then enjoyned all his great Offi­cers and People duly to render: of King Edmond: An. 944. c. 2. concluding, Qui non solverit, ANATHEMA ESTO. Of famous King Edgar, Anno 967. c. 3. DE DECIMIS, & Canon 54. of the Kings and Presbyters of Northumberland, made a little after that time: Lex 51. of King Aethelred, An. 1012. c. 1, & 4. of King Knute the Dane, An. 1032. c. 8. (but 15. in some Copies) De Decimis reddendis, &c. 11, & 17. and a Statute law against obstinate Detainers of Tithes, there stiled JURA ET DEBITIONES DIVINAE: of King Edward the Confessor, about the year 1060, confirmed verbatim by William the Conquerour, in the fourth year of his Reign, c. 8, 9. (forecited) To which may be added the Great Charters of King Henry the first, and King John recorded in Hist. Angliae Tiguri, 1589. p. 52, 53, 246, 247, &c. Matthew Paris, ratified by King Henry the 3d. in his Magna Charta, c. 11. made in the 9th. year of his Reign, See Sir Ed­ward Cooks Preface to his 2. Instit. on Magna Charta. confirmed by above 37 Acts of Parliament since, in many successive Parliaments. That the Church of England shall be free (now in greater Bondage than ever) and shall have all her whole Rights and Liberties inviolable, (never so much violated, diminished as now, notwithstanding all [Page 45] Laws, Covenants, Declarations, Protestations lately, and all See Matth. Paris, Hist. Angl. p 421, 505, 506, 621, 624.838, 839. The Sta­tutes at large, An. 25 E. 1. after Confir­matio Chart [...] ­rum. antient Solemn Curses and Excommunications annually made against the Infringers thereof, 13 E. 1. 17 E. 3. & 14. 2 H. 4. c. 4. Enacting the Cistertian Monks to pay Tithes to Ministers and Evangelists notwithstanding any Buls of Exemption from the Pope, which the King and Parliament declared to be void, and that the Promovers or Executors of any such Buls shall be attainted in a Prae­munire. It appears by the Parliament Roll of 2 H. 4. nu. 40. This Act was made upon the Petition of all the Com­mons; which, because not extant in print, pertinent to the present business of Tithes, and unknown to most, I shall here transcribe at large.

‘May it please our most gracious Lord the King, to consider, That whereas time out of wind the Religious men of the Order of the Cistercians, of your Realm of England, have paid all manner of Tithes of their lands, tenements, possessions, let to farm, or manured and occupied by other persons besides themselves, and of manner of things tithable being and growing upon the same lands, tenements and possessions, in the same manner as your o­ther Lieges of the said Realm; Yet so it is, that of late the said Religious have purchased a Bull from our Holy Fa­ther the Pope, by the which our said Holy Father hath granted to the said Religious, That they shall pay no Tithes of their Lands, Tenements, Possessions, Woods, Cattel, or any thing whatsoever, although they are or shall be leased or farmed, notwithstanding any Title of Prescription or Right acquired, or which hereaf­ter may be had or acquired to the contrary. The which Pursute and Grant is apparently against the Laws and Customs of your Realm, by reason that divers Com­positions real, and Indentures are made between many of the said Religious, and others your Lieges of the prise of such Tithes, and also by reason that in divers Parishes, the Tithes demanded by the said Religious by colour of the said Bull, exceed the fourth part of the value of the Benefices, within whose limits and bounds they are; and so if the said Bull should be executed (much more the late Peti­ons against all Tithes and coercive Maintenance for Ministers con­descended [Page 46] to) as well your dreadfull Majesty, as your Liege [...] Patrons of the said Benefices, shall receive great losses in their Advowsons of the said Benefices, and the Co­nusance which in this behalf appertains, and in all times hath belonged to your Regality, shall be discussed in Court Christian, against the said Laws and Customes: besides (pray mark the prevailing reason) the Troubles and Commotions which may arise among your people by the motion and execution of such Novelties within your Realm. N. B. That hereupon by assent of the Lords and Commons in this present Parliament, you would be plea­sed to ordain, that if the said religious, or any other, put or shall put the said Bull in execution, shall be put out of your Protection, by due Process made in this behalf; and their goods forfeited to You, lost, and that as a work of Charity. Which Petition being read and considered, was answered in the words following. It is accorded by the King and Lords in Parliament, That the Order of the Cistertians shall be in the state they were before the time of the Bull purchased, comprised in this Petition, and that as well those of the said Order, as all others Religious and Secular of what estate or condition soever they be, who shall put the said Bull in execution, or shall hereafter take advantage in any manner of any such Bulls already purchased, or to be purchased, shall have Process made a­gainst them and either of them by sommoning them within a moneth by a Writ of Premunire Facias. And if they make default or shall be attainted, that they shallbe put out of the Kings Protection, and incur the peines and forfei­tures comprised in the Statute of Provisors, made in the 13. year of King Richard. And moreover, for to eschue many probable mischiefs, likely to arise in time to come, that our said Lord the King shall send to our Holy Fa­ther the Pope, for to repeal and annul the said Bulls pur­chased, and to abstain to make any such Grant hereafter. To which Answer the Commons well agreed, and that it should be made into a Statute.

From which memorable Record, I shall desire Iohn Canne, and all his ignorant deluded Disciples, who cry out a­gainst [Page 47] Tithes, and the payment of them as Popish, to ob­serve,

1. That all the Commons of England in this Parliament, even in times of Popery, together with the King and Lords, resolve the quite contrary: That the exemption of any or­der of men from payment of their due and accustomed Tithes is Popish, and that the Pope was the first and only man, who presumed by his Bulls to exempt men from pay­ment of due and accustomed Tithes to their Ministers.

2ly. That Popish Friers of the Cistercian Order (not Godly Saints abhorring Monkerie and Poperie) were the first men who sued for, procured and executed such Ex­emptions from the Pope; (and that merely out of Covetous­ness, against the express word and Law of God, as our John Salisbury de Nugis Curialium, l. 7. c. 21. and our Arch-deacon of Bathe Epist. 82. & Bochellus De­cret. Eccles. Gal. p. 966. Bibl. Patrum, Tom. 12. Pars. 2. p. 7667, 67. Petrus Blesensis observe, who tax them for it.) And therefore the petitioning, writing, endeavouring to procure a like exemption from the payment of antient and accustomed Tithes to our Ministers, must be Popish and Monkish likewise, infused into our New-lighted Saints by some Popish Monks and Jesuits disguised under the notion of New-lights, Seekers, Anabaptists, &c.

3ly. That they declare this Bull, though granted by their Holy-Father the Pope (whose Authority and esteem was then very great) to be against the Laws and Customs of the Realm; and thereupon repeal, null it for the present, and provide against the grant of any such Bulls for Non-payment of Tithes for the future, and make the Procurers and Executi­oners of them subject to a Praemunire: Such a transcendent Crime and Grievance did they then adjudge it, to seek or procure the least exemption from payment of Tithes from any earthly Powers, yea from their very Holy Father the Pope himself, then in his highest Power.

4ly. That they resolve, the exemption from Tithes though amounting but to a fourth part in every Parish, would prove a great prejudice to the King and all other Patrons in their Advowsons; to the Lessors and Farmers of Tithes, to the incumbents and people; and that the moving of such Novelties might occasion great Troubles [Page 48] and Commotions within the Realm. And will not then the abolishing of all Tithes in every Parish, to the prejudice of the Patrons, Ministers, (yea and people too, as I shall prove anon) the scandal of most godly men, undoing of thousands of families, and confounding all Parishes, and order in them, now much more do it, in these dangerous generally discontented times, instead of setling Unity, Ami­ty, Peace, and propagating the Gospel, as some pretend? Let those whom it most concerns consider it at their leisure, lest they repent too late.

The next printed Statute for the payment of Tithes, is 27 H. 8. c. 20. which in the preface gives this true Character of, and fixeth this brand of infamy upon Tithe-detainers, Forasmuch as many evil disposed Persons, (such are they justly branded for by this Act of Parliament) have attempted to withhold their Tenths, as well predial, as personal, and have also contemned and disobeyed the Decrees of Ecclesiastical Courts of this Realm, &c. Therefore it enacts, the Civil Magistrate and Justices shall imprison such till they pay their Tithes. After which followes a special Statute for payment of Tithes in London, 27 H. 8. c. 21. confirmed, enlarged by a Statute and Decree too, 37 H. 8 c. 7. thus prefaced, as if purposely pen­ned for these times; Whereas divers and many persons inha­biting in sundry Counties, and Places of this Realm, and other the Kings Dominions, not regarding their duties to Almighty God, or to the King our Soveraign Lord, but in some years past more contemptuously and commonly Presuming to infringe the good and wholsome Lawes of this Realm and Gracious Commandments of our said Soveraign Lord, than in times past have been seen or known: have not let­ted to substract and with-draw the lawfull and accustomed Tithes of Corn, Hay, Pasturage and other sort of Tithes and Oblations commonly due, &c. After which it provides a remedy by coercive means against the detainers, refusers of Ministers Tithes.

The last and fullest Statute for payment of Tithes of all sorts, and setting out Predial Tithes, truly, justly, and with­out fraud or guile, as hath of right been yielded and paid, made not by Papists, but our most religious first Protestant [Page 49] Parliament, and King upon the beginning of Reformation, and when Popery was ejected, is, 2 E. 6. c. 13. intituled, AN ACT FOR THE TRUE PAYMENT OF TITHES, under pain of forfeiting the treble value, &c. recoverable by an ACTION OF DEBT, &c. at the Common law. What judgements have been given upon these Statutes in our Kings Courts from time to time, you may read in Brook, Fitzherbert, and the Year-books in Ashes Tables, Title DISMES; and in Sir Edward Cooks 2 Institutes, p. 639, to 662. To these I might subjoyn the late Ordinances of the last Parliament of 17 Caroli, concerning Tithes and Aug­mentations of Ministers Livings, like to end not only in the Diminution, but total Annihilation and Substraction both of their Augmentations, antient Glebes, Tithes, Dues. The Con­stitutions of our Clergy in their Convocations under our Kings, recorded in Lindwood, John de Aton, Willielmus de Burgo, and others, prescribing the due payment of Tithes under pain of Excommunication, and other Ecclesiastical censures; as like­wise the Resolution of our Judges concerning the Right of Tithes, and Cooks 2 Re­port. The Bi­shop of Win­chesters case. that no Lay-man by our Laws can prescribe to be exempted from payment of Tithes, or lay any original claim unto them: with the Laws of forein Kingdoms, as well Civil as Ecclesiastical, for the due payment of Tithes; whereof you may find store in Fredericus Lindebrogus: Codex Legum An­tiquarum, p. 674, 675, 703, &c. Capitularia Caroli Magni & Ludovici; in Brochellus, Decret. Ecclesiae Gallicanae, l. 6. tit. 8. De Decimis: in Binius, Surius, and others in their Col­lections of Councils: But for brevity sake I shall cite only the Constitution of the Emperour Frederick for the payment of Tithes in the Kingdom of Sicilia, which is short and very pertinent,Fredericus Lindebrogus Codex Legum Antiqu. p. 703. Constitutionum Sicularum, l. 1. tit. 7. Lex 1. which runs thus,

Quantò caeteris terrae Principibus munifica dextra Salvatoris in Temporalibus Nos praefecit, tantò saltem Iuris naturalis in­stinctu ad antedicta strictius obligamur; cum etiam veritate dicente, cui amplius creditur, amplius exigatur. Quod in nostrae mentis intrinseca meditatione solicita revolventes, & illud etiam at­tendentes,☞ Quod divino Decimarum, quarum Debitum ex utriusque Testamenti Tabulis confirmatur, (Let all [Page 50] Tith-Oppugners observe it,) tanti in Ecclesia Dei petidatior redditur, quaniò Decimalis obligatio de bonis hominum, A DAM­NO REPUTATUR: Officialibus nostris universis & singu­lis praesentis Legis, auctoritate Mandamus, ut DECIMAS IN­TEGRAS, prout Regis Gulielmi tempore, praedecessoris nostri, vel ab Antecessoribus Officialibus & Bavilis exolutae fuerint, loco­rum Praelatis exolvere, absque omni difficultate procurent. Nos enim, qui favente Domino inter homines sumus in praeminen­ti culmine constituti, quantum sine injuria Regalium possumus tol­lerare ECCLESIARUM JURA, & praesertim earum quae in Regno consistum, Quas sub Protectione nostra accepimus, et habemus, in nullo diminuere volumus, sed augere. Sub­jectis etiam nostris indicimus ut Decimas quas de bladis et donis suis Antecessores eorum praedicti Regis Gulielmi tempore praestituerunt, venerabilibus locis, Quibus Decimae istae deben­tur cum integritate persolvant.

To which I shall only adde, That Rerum Vn­garicatum Scriptores Bonfinius, & Nicholas Ist­huansis in vita sancti Stepha­ni. Sancti Stepha­ni Regis De­cretum secun­dum, c. 52. Status Regni Hungariae, p. 190. Stephen King of Hungaria, under whom that Kingdom was first totally converted to the Christian Faith, as he built and endowed many magnificent Churches for Gods worship at his own cost, so he enacted this good Law for the payment of Tithes, That he who refused to pay his Tithes should forfeit the 9. parts to the Minister, and he who should steal the Tithes should be reputed a Thief. Si cui Deus Decem dederit in Anno, DECIMAM DEO DET. Et si quis Decimam suam abscondit NOVEM SOLVAT. Et si quis DECIMATIONEM Episcopo separatam furatus fuerit, DIJU­DICETUR UT FUR; ac hujusmodi compositio tota pertineat ad Episcopum. And. c. 1. De Statu Ecclesiastico, & veneratione Domus Dei: He enacted this good Law against the Invasion and Alienation of the Churches possessions (about the year of Christ 1000.) Quisquis fastu superbiae elatus, Domum Dei du­cit contemptibilem, & possessiones Deo consecratas, atque ad hono­rem Dei sub Regia immunitatis defensione constitutas, inhoneste tractarit, vel infringere praesumpserit, Quast invasor et viola­tor Domus Dei excommunicetur. Decet enim, ut indignationem ipsius Dom. Regis sentiat, cujus benevolentiae contemptor, & constitu­tionis praevaricator existit: Nihilominus tamen Rex suae concessionis immunitatem, ab hominibus ditioni suae subjectis illaesam conservari [Page 51] praecipiat, assensum vero non praebeat improvide affirmantibus, non [...]ebere esse res Dominicas, id est, Domino Dominantium traditas; Itaque sub defensione Regis sit, et sicuti suae propriae haereditati, ma­gisque advertat. Quia quaniò Deus excellentior est hominibus, tanto praestantior est Divina causa mortalium possessione. Quocirca deci­pitur, quisquis plus in propriis quam in Dominicis rebus gloriatur: Quarum Defensor et Custos divinitatis Constitutiones diligenti cura non solum eas servare, sed etiam multiplicare debet. Si quis igitur insanus importunitate illa quae diximus praestantiora quàm sua defendere oportet & augmentare. Si quis igitur insanus importunitate improbitateque sua, Regem a recto proposito perver­tere tentaverit, nullisque remediis mitigari posse visus fuerit, licet obsequiis aliquibus & transitoriis sit necessarius, abscindendus ab eo projiciendusque est, juxta illud Evangelium, Si pes, manus aut occulus tuus scandili [...]at [...]te, erue eum & projice abs te.

Since then Christian Emperors, Kings, Princes in Fo­rein parts, and our own Kings and Parliaments in and by all the forecited Laws and Statutes yet in force, have esta­blished Tithes and other Duties on our Clergy and Mini­sters of the Gospel, and thus publickly branded the negli­gent or wilfull detainer [...], sustractors of this just Debt and Duty (prescribed by our Laws, with Warrant from the Old and New Testament) for evil disposed persons, not regarding their duty to Almighty God (which therefore none who claim their Power from, or for God, should now regard or coun­tenance in the least degree) enforcing them by actions at Law, Imprisonment, payment of treble Dammages, excom­munications, and the like coercive wayes to render to them Tithes at last to their loss; Why Christian Magistrates should not still enforce the obstinate detainers of Ministers Tithes, and defrauders of them in their just Dues, and me­rited rewards for their Ministery, as hath been formerly practised in all ages and places too; Let all Anti-tithers (who would be Lawless, as well as Titheless and Godless) re­solve me when they can: and if they deem themselves above all humane Laws and Penalties (so long as they wear their swords by their sides) for defrauding our Ministers of their lawfull Tithes and Dues, let them then chew the cudd upon this Evangelical Precept, backed with the strongest coercive [Page 52] power both in Heaven and Earth, 1 Thes. 4.6. Let no man go beyond, or defraud his brother (much less then his Minister) in any thing (therefore not in Tithes due by Divine and humane Right) mark the reason: Because that the Lord is the avenger of all such things, as we have forewarned and testified. And what vengeance God will take of such who defraud their Brethen and Ministers of their debts, and necessitate them to sue them at the Law, to recover their Rights: he resolves, in the 1 Cor. 6, 7, to 11. Now there­fore there is utterly a fault among you, because you go to Law (to wit before Heathen Judges, or without just cause) one with a­nother, (the greatest if not only fault being in the Defrauder and Detainer) why do ye not rather take wrong? why do ye not rather suffer your selves to be defrauded? Nay why do you wrong and defraud, 1 Cor. 6.8. and that your Brethren? and which is more, rob your Ministers; yea, but what harm or punishment will follow on it? Mark it, O all ye Saint-seeming Hypocrites, who are guilty of it! Know ye not, That the unrighteous (who thus wrong and defraud their Brethren and Ministers, which is worse) shall not inherit the Kingdom of God? Be not deceived: neither Theeves, nor covetous (and such are all those who rob and defraud their Ministers of their Tithes and Duties) shall not inherit the Kingdom of God: no more than Fornicators, Idolaters, &c. with whom they are here coupled. Let all those then who are guilty of this damning sin, which disinherits them of Gods Kingdom, now seriously repent and reform it, with all such, who have abetted or confederated with them herein, that so I may adde with the Apostle in the next words, And such were some (nay all) of you; but ye are washed, but ye are sancti­fied, but ye are justified in the name of our Lord Jesus, and by the Spi­rit of our God.

And now to cloze up this Chapter, I shall desire all Anti-Tithers who have already in their heady Resolutions, resolved to abolish, not only all our Ministers Tithes, and antient Dues established by the Lord himself in the Old and New Testament, with all the forecited Laws, Statutes, Ordinances for the true and due payment of them, but all other coercive maintenance for their future subsi­stence, [Page 53] if not their very Rectories, Glebes, and Fabricks of our Churches (devoted for a prey by divers) sadly and se­riously to consider these ensuing particulars.

1. That herein, they shall shew themselves, not only worse by thousands of Degrees than our forementioned Kings and Queens, who built and endowed our Churches with Glebes, Tithes, and a liberal Maintenance; and worse than the most of all their Ancestors, Protestants or Pa­pists, who have hitherto continued, confirmed, established them by successive Laws; but even worse than the worst of Turks and Infidels; who alwaies heretofore, and at this very day, have and do allow their Mahometan and Pagan Idolatrous Priests in all places, a liberal, competent setled Salarie, and erect magnificent Temples to Mahomet and their Idols, ex­ceeding most of our fairest Christian Churches both for beauty and number, as you may read at large inSee page 56, 58, 59, 65, 68, 75, 79, 83, 84, 85, 89, 90, 241, 243, 268, 297, 298, 584. Pulchas Pilgrimage, A­lexander ab Alexandro, Hospinian De Origine Templorum, and others. And to give you one instance for all, There are no lesse than 700 Moschees or Saracinical Temples in Fesse, (a Mahometan City in Barbary) the chief whereof is Carven, being a full mile and an half in compasse. It hath 31 Gates, great and high: the Roof is 150 yards long, and 80 broad: the Steeple very high: the Ornaments rich and stately: Round about it are divers Porches, containing 40 yards in length, and 30. in breadth: About the Walls are Pulpits of divers sorts, wherein the Masters and Priests of their Law, read to the People such things as they think pertain to their Salvation: The Revenue of this Tem­ple alone, Anno 1526. was no lesse than 200. Duckets a day, of old rents. The chief Church in Morocco is bigger, though not altogether so fair as that of Fesse, and hath a Tower so high, that the Hills of Az [...]fi being 120. miles distance may be seen from thence, (as Ioan. Leo. Geographical Description of Africa, l. 3. Leo Pilgrimage, l. 6. c. 10. p. 614. Purchas, and Microcosm, p. 710, 711, 712. Heylin write) These Temples and others are adorned with marble Pil­lars, and curious Mosaicks, carved works of all sorts: Their Priests and Readers of the Law have a liberal Stipend, with Books and lands likewise allowed them, and are had in very high estima­tion and Reverence, both with their Kings, Magistrates, People; the Califfs there receiving likewise the tenth Measure of Corn yearly from the People: Besides which Tenths they have [Page 54] many Colleges and Schools of Learning very Majestically built and richly endowed. Those therefore who pretend themselves Saints of the highest New-form, and yet would deface the beautifull Churches our pious Ancestors erected for Gods worship, & strip our Ministers naked of all Glebes, Tithes, set­led Maintenance, so as they shall not be able to live comfor­tably, and provide for their Families have in truth denyed the Faith, and are worse than these Turks and Infidels, 1 Tim. 5.8.

2ly. That hereby they shall make both our Religion and Nation to stink in the Nostrils of all forein Protestant Churches, Papists, Turks, Infidels; who by the very light of Nature have condemned Sacrilege and Church Robbers: Acts 19.37. Give extraordinary advantage to Jesuites, Papists and other Atheistical Seducers, to reduce the People either to Popery or mere Atheism: Give all the Enemies of God and our Religion occasion both to rejoyce and blaspheme; and extraordinarily scandalize and grieve the hearts of all true Godly Ministers, and Protestants really affected to our Reli­gion, throughout our three Nations.

3ly. That they will herein exceed all our late suppressed Prelates and their High Commission Courts in Tyranny, Cru­elty, Injustice, by undoing all or most of our Godly Mini­sters and their Families at one fatal blow; instead of relie­ving them in their present Necessities under which many of them sadly groan, by depriving them of their Livelihood, without any legal Conviction of the least crime, but only that they are Ministers of the Gospel, and receive Tithes; and thereby draw upon their Heads, not only the cryes and cla­mours of these oppressed ones here, with all the formention­ed Curses and judgements denounced against Tith-Detainers, but also that sad irrevocable sentence of Condemnation be­fore Christs Tribunal at the last day, Matth. 25.41. Depart from me ye cursed into everlasting fire prepared for the Devil and his Angels; for I was hungry and ye gave me no Meat, I was thirsty and ye gave me no Drink, I was (not) a Stranger, (but your Minister) and ye took me not in, (but cast me and mine out of those Rectories and Bene­fices your Ancestors gave and setled on me,) naked, and ye cloathed me not, nay stripped me naked of all my cloathing [Page 55] and Livelihood, and would neither relieve, nor maintain me your selves, nor permit others to do it, in an antient le­gal way; And then what can you answer, or to whom can you resort for protection, from this inevitable just Charge and Doom of Damnation for all eternity?

4ly. Consider seriously the exemplarie punishment execu­ted upon Ananias and Saphyra, Acts 5.1, &c. with that fear­full judgement of retaliation denounced against all plunde­ring Enemies of the Church of Christ, Isay 33.1. Wo unto thee that spoylest, and thou wast not spoyled; and dealest trea­cherously, and they dealt not treacherously with thee; when thou ceasest to spoyl, thou shalt be spoyled; and when thou shalt make an end to deal treacherously, they shall deal treacherously with thee: Seconded by Obadiah 15. As thou hast done it shall be done un­to thee, thy reward shall return upon thine own head. And if any fondly conceit, (as many do) that the Swords and Power of an Army shall bear them out against the Lord of Hosts himself: let them consider that of Psal. 33.16. There is no King saved by the multitude of an Host, (themselves have seen it by late experience) neither is any mighty man delivered by great strength. Jeroboam the Idolatrous Usurper had an Ar­my of no lesse than eight hundred thousand chosen men, to make good his usurped Title against Abijah Davids right Heir, yet when he had cast out the Priests of the Lord from their Suburbs and Possessions, and made him Priests for his Calves of the lowest of the people; he was vanquished by a far smaller Army, and no lesse than five hundred thousand of his forces slain in one dayes battel, and the Lord soon after smote him that be dyed, 2 Chron. 13 Oreb, Zeba, and Salmunna the Princes and Generals of the Midianites, when they entred into the Land of Israel to de­stroy it, had an Army like unto Grashoppers for multitude, and they and their Camels were without number, Judges 6.5, 6. Yet when they said, ‘Let us take to our selves the Houses of God in possession, they were totally routed by Gideon, and his 300. men having only Trumpets and Lamps; and perished at Endor, and became as dung for the earth, Judg. 7. & 8. Psal. 83.9, 10, 11, 12. Senacherib invaded Judah with a victo­rious and numerous Army, above treble the Number to any Ar­my in our daies; Yet when he trusted to the strength of his [Page 56] Army, and bid defiance to the God of Heaven (as those do now who oppugn and spoil his Ministers of their in­heritance) God sent his avenging Angell, which cut off all the mighty men of valour, and the Leaders, and the Captains and one hundred fourscore and five thousand of his souldiers in one night, and when they arose early in the morning, behold they were all dead corps: so he returned with shame of face into his own land, and when he was come into the house of his God, his own Sonnes that came out of his own bowels, slew him there with the sword. 2 Kings 19.35, 36, 37. 2 Chron. 32.21. The two proud surly Captains with the fifty armed troopers at their heels, who came in a violent manner but to fetch down Eli­jah the man of God from an hill to King Ahaziah, were destroyed with fire from Heaven, and the third Captain only saved, who fell on his knees before him, and be­sought him for his own and his fifties lives, and used him like a man of God, without any rudeness or plunder, 2 Kings 1.9, 10, &c.’ To lesson all souldiers and Captains now, to reverence Gods Ministers, and Ps. 105.14, 15. do his Prophets no harm in their Persons, Callings or Estates: Else he who rebuked Kings, and miraculously slew those Captains and their Troopers for their sakes, will avenge their quarel now as well as in former ages. And if former victories and suc­cesses have and do puff them so far up with pride or secu­rity, as to think they may now reduce our Ministers like Conquered vassals to such poverty, as to enforce and make them eat the very crumbs under their Tables, insteed of feeding at their own; let them remember that one memorable President (wherewith I have quelled many usurping soul­diers) of the greatest Conqueror and Abuser of Kings, I ever yet read off in the world, and Gods retaliation upon him for his Tyranny and inhumanity after the Conquest of no less then 70. Kings (and who now living hath conquered the tenth part of that number?) thus recorded to all Poste­rity, Judg. 1.5, 6, 7. And Iudah fought against Adonibezeck, in Bezeck, and they slew the Canaanites and Perazites. And Ado­nibezeck fled, and they pursued after him, and caught him, and cut off his Thumbs and great Toes. And Adonibezeck said, three­score [Page 57] and ten Kings, having their thumbs and great toes cut off, have gathered their meat under my Table: As I have done, so God hath requited me; and they brought him to Ierusalem and there he died. It is very dangerous for any Conquerers to make ill Presidents of Tyranny or Rapine, because they have power in their hands to do it. Mark what a Wo and judge­ment God denounceth against such, Mich. 2.1, 2, 3, 4 Wo to them that devise iniquity upon their beds, when the morning is come they practise it, Because it is in the power of their hand. And they covet fields, and they take them by violence, and houses, and take them away: So they oppress a man and his house, even a man and his heritage (Nay Ministers now and their Heritage, as well as other mens) But mark what follows immediately. Therefore thus saith the Lord, Be­hold, against this family do I devise an evil, from whence they shall not remove their necks, neither shall they be hauty, for this time is evil. In that day shall one take up a Parable against you, and lament with a dolefull lamentation, and say, we be utter­ly spoiled; He hath changed the portion of my people (as some now would change our Ministers) How hath he removed it from me? turning away He hath divided our fields, therefore he shall have none that shall cast by lot in the Congrega­tion of the Lord. It is most perilous for any by meer Arbi­trary Votes, will and violence to seiz on, change, divide any other mens lands, houses, inheritances, especially Gods Ministers; it will prove as bad as a cup of poison to them, they shall vomit them up again with a vengeance; And though their excellency mount up to the Heavens and their Head unto the Clouds; yet their triumphing shall be but short, and their joy but for a moment: They shall perish for ever as their own dung: They which have seen them shall say, Where are they? They shall fly away as a dream and shall not be found: The eyes which saw them shall see them no more, neither thall their place any more behold them, (mark the reason) because they have oppressed and violently taken away an House which they builded not. Job 20.4. to 20. How much more the Houses, Glebes, Tithes of God and his Ministers? Let this sad con­sideration then, perswade all turbulent, greedy, sacrilegious spirits to follow Dr. Gamaliels advice, (which many of [Page 58] them have much pressed for a publick Toleration of all Re­ligions, though now they would As appears by their late Petitions, and Iohn Cannes Voyce. extirpate all Ministers and their Tithes root and branch) recorded Acts 5.48, 49. Re­frain from these Men (and their Tithes too) and let them alone; for if they (and their tithes) be o [...] God (as I have proved them) ye cannot overthrow them, lest haply ye be found to be fighters against God.

5ly. Let every of the chiefest now in Power, remember those many reiterated solemn Declarations, Protestations, Votes and Ordinances they have formerly made for the due pay­ment and preservation of our Ministers Tithes and Augmentation of their incompetent Livings out of the Bishops and Delinquents Impropriations, and Deans and Chapters Lands; (for the most part other waies disposed notwithstanding) And what an high violation of publick Faith, Trust, Promises, Solemn Engagements, and an eternal Infamy and Dishonour it will procure to their Persons, Memories (in after Annals) and Posterities, if all these should now conclude in a general armed Depre­dation, Abolition, Dissolution or Substraction of all their old Rectories, Glebes, Tithes, Dues, instead of new settled Aug­mentations out of other dissipated Church Revenues formerly Voted for them.

6ly. Let all Changers and Innovators of our Funda­mental Lawes and Ministers Maintenance, consider what prohibitions, Comminations and Judgements God hath proclaimed against, and inflicted upon such innovators and changers in his Word. Eccles. 10.5, 6, 7, 8, 9. There is an evil which I have seen under the Sun, As an error which pro­ceedeth from the Ruler: folly is set in great Dignity, and the Rich in low Place; I have seen Servants upon Horses, and Princes walking as Servants on the earth (but mark the issue) He that diggeth a pit shall fall into it: and who so breaketh an bedge, a Serpent shall bite him: who so removeth st [...]nes shall be hurt thereby, and he that cleaveth Wood shall be endangered thereby. The meaning of which Parabolical expressions is thus more clearly explained, Prov. 24.21, 22. My Son, fear thou the Lord and the King, and meddle not with those who are gi­ven to change, for their calamity shall rise suddenly, and who knoweth the ruine of them both? That is, of the Changers & their Adherents joyning with them, by the revenging Justice [Page 59] both of God and the King. My deceased Brother Burtons Sermons on this Text, Nov. 5. 1636. are worth all our Innovators reading. For which Sermone he and I joyntly suffered in the Star-chamber through our Innovating all-ruling Prelates malice, for discovering, oppugning those several Changes and Innovations they had made in the Ceremonies, Do­ctrine of our Church, and High-Commission arbitrary pro­ceedings, contrary to our Laws. Little did those Prelates think in that time of their domineering Power and Great­nesse, that these changes of theirs, and unrighteous cen­sures upon us for discovering and opposing them, would have so soon proved the very causes of their unexpected sudden calamity and ruine, according to this Text and cen­sured Sermons; and of their High-Commission and Starcham­ber Court too, wherein they prosecuted us; yet they really found they did so. What proved the calamity, and ruine of Strafford, Canterbury, and the old Council Table, but their unrighteous exorbitant Innovations and New Projects against our Laws, and old forms of Parliamentary Proceedings? What brought sudden unexpected calamity and ruine on the late King and Parliament too, (even by those who were raised, commissioned, engaged by Oaths, Protestations, and Solemn Covenants to defend and preserve them) but Gods Justice for some exorbitant Changes, and Fundamental, violent, illegal Innovations, whereof both were guilty? especially in the Militia; whereof the Houses endeavouring totally to di­vest the King, without admitting him any share therein (which Exact Col­lection, p. 59. &c. bred the first fresh quarrel between them) as their only security and the Kings too: And now God hath made that very Mili­tia the ruine of them both, and to assume both the Regal and Parliamental, Military and Civil Supreme Authority and Go­vernment of the Nation and united Kingdoms too, wholly to themselves, and to dash in pieces that new minted Mock Parlia­ment Power and Government themselves at first created; for those many notorious injurious Changes, Oppressions, Innovations of all sorts whereof they were deeply guil­ty: And what other fatal Changes God may yet sud­denly effect to the Calamity and Ruine of those who have been chief Instruments in all these Changes, if [Page 60] they ring THE CHANGES still, till they Isay 29.16. have turned all things upside down, as the Potter doth his clay, and our very Ministers setled maintenance, with all Fundamental laws for the establishment of their and all others just Rights and Liberties, I leave to their own saddest Meditations, these Gospel Texts of Rom. 2.1, 2, 3. and c. 12.20, 21. (which I hope neither will nor can offend any Professors of the Gos­pel) Therefore thou art inexcusable O man whosoever thou art that judgest, for wherein thou judgest another, thou condemnest thy self, for thou that judgest doest the same things. But we know that the judgement of God is according to truth against them who commit such things: And thinkest thou this O man, that judgest them who do such things, and doest the same, that thou shalt escape the Iudgement of God? Be not High-minded but fear: For if God spared not the Natural Branches take heed lest he also spare not thee, being a Wilde Olive Tree. And when they have meditated on these Texts, I shall fur­ther importune all such of them who like the little Horn in Daniel 7.24, 25, 26. that should be divers from the FIRST, and subdue THREE KINGS; and being elevated with that successe, should speak great words against the most High, and wear out his Saints, and think to change Times and Laws, advisedly to consider what there next follows. That though the Laws and Times should be given into his hand, yet it will be untill a time and times and the dividing of times. And the Judgement shall sit, and they shall take away his Dominion to consume and destroy it unto the end. And then our Ministers need not fear their Ministry, Tithes, Glebes, nor the People their Iust Rights and Liberties, which otherwise are like to be lost, subverted, destroyed in the long, bloody, costly Contests and Wars for their De­fence and Preservation.

Now lest any should pretend matter of Conscience or Rea­son against the Christian Magistrates enforcing of Tithes true payment, by coercive Means and Laws, in these Tith-detaining sacrilegious times; or for the speedy Repeal of all our fore-specified Laws and Ordinances yet in force to compel all De­tainers of them to pay them duly under the several penalties therin prescribed; I shall endeavour to give a full satisfactory [Page 61] Answer to all Arguments and Cavils of moment usually made against them, which are reducible to these four Heads.

Object. First, That there is no expresse Precept in the Gospel, nor any such penal Laws, enforcing the payment of Tithes to be found in the Primitive and purest times for 500. years after Christ; Therefore they are unlawfull, oppressive, un-evangelical, tyranni­cal, antichristian; as Canne terms them, in his thundering empty voyce.

Answ. To this I answer, first, That there is no expresse Precept or President in the New Testament, for any strange High Courts of Justice, Martial, or other Courts of that Nature, for any Articles of War or penal Laws to put Souldiers or any others to death, or inflict punishments for any New High-Treasons, or Offences whatsoever. No Precept nor Presi­dent that John Canne (a late Excise-man as divers report) can produce for the imposing or levying of any Excise, Imposi­tions, Taxes, Customes, Crown-Rents, Tonnage, Poundage, Contributions, by any Distresses, Forfeitures, Imprisonments, sale of Goods, billetting of Souldiers on the People, and ar­med violence now used by Souldiers, Excisemen, Collectors and other Publicans sitting at the Receipt of Custom, (where­of I hear Iohn Canne is one, perhaps to Excise the Alehouses and Cannes there used for names-sake) all puny to and less warrantable by Gods Law and Gospel, than our Ministers Tithes. The Objectors therefore must find express Gos­pel-Texts for all and every of these publick Duties, and the present wayes of levying and enforcing them, or else dis­claim them, or their Objection against Tithes.

2ly. I have produced expresse Gospel-Texts warranting in the general coercive Laws, Sutes, Actions to recover Mini­sters Tithes, as well as any other just, legal, publick or pri­vate Dues, Debts, Rents, Lands, Possessions whatsoever. There­fore the Objectors must either disclaim their Objection, or renounce all penal Laws, Sutes, and coercive Means whatso­ever to levy or recover any other civil Rights, Debts or Du­ties whatsoever, and introduce a lawless Anarchy and Confusion amongst us, for every one to cheat, defraud, rob, oppresse, disseise, spoyl, defame, wound, murder one a­nother, without any penalty or redresse, except only [Page 62] by Club-law, instead of a peaceable, just and righteous Government.

3ly. The reason why there were no coercive Laws for the payment of Tithes or Ministers dues in the Primitive Church for above 500 years was this, because Christians then were so zealous, ready, forwards to render them with an overplus, and to sell their very Houses, Lands, Possessions, E­states, and lay them down at the Apostles and Ministers feet to maintain them, and relieve their poor Christian Brethren, witness Acts 2.44, 45. c 4.34, 35, 37. c. 5.1, 2. 2 Cor. 11.9. Phil. 4.15, 16, 17, 18. Rom. 15.26. and that memorable place, 2 Cor. 8.1, to 5. where Paul records of the first Churches and Converts in Macedonia, how that in a great Tryal of Afflicti­on (in times of heavy persecution) their deep Poverty a­bounded to the riches of their Liberality, for to their pow­er (I bear them record) yea and beyond their power they were willing of themselves, praying us with much in­treaty, that we would receive the Gift, and take upon us the Fellowship of the Ministring to the Saints, &c. The Matth. 22.23, 24. Luke 11.42. c. 18.12. New Te­stament records, the exceeding readiness of the Pharisees to pay Tithes of all they did possesse, and of the smallest Seeds and Garden-Herbs of all kinds, to their Priests or Levites; which Christ himself approved, commended, with a these things ought ye not to have left undone; And [...]. Mr. Seldens Review, p. 453. Philo a learned Jew, who lived under Claudius, in the Apostles daies, re­cords as an Eye-witness on his own knowledge, That the Jews were so forward in paying their First-fruits and other Dues to their Priests, That they prevented the Officers demanding them, paid them before they were due by Law, as if they had rather received a benefit, than rendered any, both Sexes of their own readiness, bringing them in with such courtesie and thanksgiving, as is beyond all expression (they are his very words:) And were they then lesse forwards think you, to render due Maintenance, (if not Tithes and First-fruits,) to the Apostles when they turned Christians? Surely no, for the forecited Texts in the Acts declare, they were far more bountifull than before, both to the Apostles and poor Saints, selling all they had to support them. The like zeal (even in the heat of persecution, under bloody Pagan Persecutors) [Page 63] continued in all the Primitive Christians next after the A­postles, who though persecuted, driven into Corners, impri­soned, banished, and spoyled of their Goods, Lands, by plundering Officers, Sequestrators, Souldiers, as Eccles. Hist. l. 4. c. 26. l. 6. c. 41, 42. l. 7. c. 12. Fox Acts and Mo­numents. vol. 1. Eusebius, and others re­cord, yet every one of them out of his deep Poverty contributed eve­ry Month, or when he would or could some small stipend for the main­tenance of the Ministers and Poor (when they had no Lands to pay Tithes out of) of his own accord without any coercion: wit­nesse (Apologet. c. 39. Tertullian (who flourished but 200. years after Christ) Modicum unusquisque stipem Menstrua die, vel cum velit, et si modo volit, & si modo possit apponit, nam nemo compellitur, (there was no need when they were so free of their own ac­cord) sed sponte consert. Haec quasi deposita pietatis sunt. And though their Monthly stipends in regard of their great Poverty were thus termed small comparatively to what they were before the Persecution, yet indeed they were very large, considered in themselves, as by the same Authors following words in this Apology, c. 42. appears, Plus nostra mise­ricordia insumit vicatim, quam vestra Religio templatim: they bestowing more in a Liberal free way of Christian Chari­ty in every Village towards their Ministers and Poor, than the wealthy Pagan Romans did in their Temples and Sacrifices for the Maintenance of their Paganism. In the 9th. general Persecution of the Christians about 273 years after Christ, or before, The Ambrose Offic. l. 1. c. 41. Fox Acts and Monuments, vol. 1. p. 92, 93. Governour of Rome told Saint Lawrence the Martyr (Arch-Deacon to Pope Xistus the 2d. and Trea­surer of the Christians Oblations for the Ministers Maintenance and Poors relief) that the common Report then was, bow the Christians did frequently sell their Lands, and disinherit their Children (like those in the Acts) to enrich the Mi­nisters, and relieve the Poor, bringing thousands of Sestertii at a time to St. Lawrence, out of the sale of their Lands, so as their Treasury was so great that he thought to seise on it for a prey: Which their bountiful Liberality Pr. Steph. Hym. 2. Prudentius thus poeti­cally expresseth,

Offerre fundis venditis
Sistertiorum Millia,
Addicta Avorum praedia
Faedis sub auctionibus,
Successor exhaeres gemit
Sanctis egens Parentibus,
Et summa pietasli credi­tur
Nudare dulces heros.

[Page 64] What need then any Law to compel the Christians to pay Tithes or Ministers dues, when in the heat of Persecution, they were so bountifull to them and the Poor as thus vo­luntarily to contribute their whole Estates for their sup­port? Whose President if the Cavillers against our present penal Laws, Ordinances for Tithes would imitate, no Minister nor other voluntary Tith-payers would oppose their repeal. And though in these Primitive times of Persecution, the Christians being spoyled of their Lands and Possessions, could not pay Tithes in kind in most places, but were neces­sitated to such voluntary Contributions as these, yet without all peradventure they held the payment of Tithes to Ministers in kind, a Divine Moral Duty, and in some places, and at some times (when and where they could) did voluntarily pay Tithes as a Duty for their Maintenance without any coercive Laws or Canons, upon the bare demand or exhor­tation of their Ministers, by vertue of Gods own Divine Laws, as is undeniable by Irenaeus, l. 4. c. 34. who records, That the Christians in his time (being but 180. years after Christ) did not give lesse to their Ministers than the Jews did to their Priests by the Law of Moses, who received the conse­crated TITHES of their people, but more, Designing omnia quae sunt ipsorum, all they had to the Lords use, Hilariter ac liberaliter ea quae non sunt minera: Giving chearfully and freely those things which were not lesse than Tithes, as having greater hope than they. And further confirmed by Origen, Homil. 11 in Numeros: Saint Cyprian, lib. 1. Epist. 9. De unitate Ecclesiae, the words of Saint Augustine, Hom. 48. Majores nostri ideo copiis abundabant, quia Deo Deci­mas dabant; And the second Council of Mascin, An. 586. Can. 5. Leges Divinae Consulentes Sacerdotibus ac Ministris Ecclesiarum, pro Haereditaria portione omni populo prae­ceperunt, Decimas fructuum suorum locis sacris praestare, ut nullo labore impediti per res illegitimas possint vacare Ministeriis, Quas leges Christianorum Congeries legis temporibus custodivit iutemerata. Which prove a long continued Custom and Practice of paying Tithes to Mini­sters as a Divine Right and Duty, used amongst Christi­ans long before St. Augustins dayes and this antient Coun­cel. [Page 65] And no sooner were the times of Persecution past, but the Divine Right of Tithes was asserted, pressed, and the due payment of them inculcated by St. Hilary, Nazianzen, Ambrose, Hierom, Chrysostom, Augustine, Eusebius, Cassian, Cyril of Jerusalem, Isiodore Pelusiota, and Caesarius Arelatensis, all flourishing within 500. years after Christ, as Dr. Tillesly proves at large; And the people during that space paying their Tithes freely, without any compulsion in all places, there needed neither Laws nor Canons to enforce their pay­ment: whenceOperum, p. 278. Agobardus writes thus (about the year of our Lord 820. when Laws and Canons began to be made for their payment) of the precedent times: Nulla compulit necessitas fer­vente ubique religiosa devotione, & amore illustrandi Ecclesiae ul­tro aestuante. That there was no need of Canons or Laws to compel the payment of Tithes, whiles fervent religious Devotion, and love of illustrating Churches every where abounded. But in succeeding degenerating times, when (according to Christs prediction) the Matth. 24.12. love and zeal of many Christians to God, Religion, and Ministers began to grow lukewarm, and colder than before, so as they began to detain their Tithes and Ministers dues, then presently Christian Kings and Bishops in Ecclesiastical and Temporal Synods and Councils, began generally in all places, to make Laws and Canons for the due payment of them; declaring in them only the Divine Right, Laws and Precepts of God to the People both in the Old and New Testament, as a sufficient obligation (seconded by their bare Canons and Edicts) without any coercion or penalty to oblige them to their due payment. The first unquestionable Canon for the payment of Tithes I find extant, is that of the second Council of Mascin forecited, An. 586. cap. 5. The first Law extant made by any General Council or Parliament for the pay­ment of Tithes, is that of the Council of Calcuth in Eng­land, under Offa and Alfred, An. 786: declaring their Divine Right, and enjoyning their payment without any Penalty; After which Charles the Emperour, about the year of our Lord 813. by Canons made in sundry Councils, and in his Capitulars or Laws, enjoyned the payment of Tithes, under pain of being enforced to render them by distresse, upon complaint, and some small [Page 66] penalties. Since which time many Laws and Canons were made in our own and forein Realms till our present times, for the due payment of Tithes under sundry penalties, which because collected by Sir Henry Spelman in his Councils, Mr. Selden in his History of Tithes, Bochellus Decret. Eccles. Gal. l. 6. Tit. 8. De Decimis, Fridericus Lindebrogus Codex Le­gum Antiquarum, Surius, Binius, Crab, Lindwood in their Collections of Councils, and sundry others; I have there­fore only given the Reader a brief Catalogue of the principal Civil laws both at home and abroad, for the due payment of them; reciting more at large but what others for the most part have omitted, and are not vulgarly known, gi­ving only brief hints upon some of the rest in my third Chapter. Whither I refer the Reader for further satisfacti­on in this Objection; and shall conclude of penal Laws as Seneca doth of Fates: Fata volentes ducunt, Nolentes trahunt: those who will not willingly pay their Tiths must and ought to be compelled thereunto by penal Statutes:

The second Objection is,Object. 2. That the payment of Tithes is a­gainst many mens Judgements and Consciences: Therefore it is both Ʋnchristian, Tyrannical, and Ʋnjust, to enforce them thereunto.

I answer,Answ. 1. That the payment of Tithes being not only warranted but commanded in and by the Old and New Te­stament, and the constant practice of Christians in all Ages, Churches, there neither is, nor can be the least pretence of Conscience, for the non-payment of them. Therefore this pretext of Conscience is in truth nought else, but most despe­rate Ʋnconscionableness, Malice, Obstinacy, Peevishness, Covetous­ness, Impiety, or secret Atheism, worthy to be reformed by the severest Laws and penalties.

2ly. All that Conscience can pretend against their pay­ment as Tithes, is only this Anabaptistical Devise, and loud Lye of Canne and others; That the payment of a precise Tenth part of mens increase to their Ministers is Jewish or Antichristian, and so unlawfull: both which I have unanswerably refelled. Therefore this can be no ground or Conscience for any to detain them. But if any scrupulous Consciences be not sa­tisfied in this point, let them either pay their Ministers the Moitie or 9. parts, or the 5, 6, 7, 8, or 9. part of their [Page 97] annual encrease, neither of which is Jewish or Antichristian; or else let them sell all their old or new purchased Lands, Hou­ses, Possessions, Goods they have, and bestow them on the Mi­nisters and Poor, as the forecited Primitive Christians did, whom they pretend to imitate, and then they may satisfie both their Consciences and Ministers too, without the least difference, coercion, sute or penalty of our Laws.

3ly. Many of these very Objectors, pretending Consci­ence, as Souldiers or Sequestrators, have made no Consci­ence to enforce thousands of Parishioners of late years throughout the Nation to pay their Ministers Tithes to themselves for pretended Arrears or sequestred Goods, and exacted Monthly contributions out of Ministers Tithes to pay the Army, without any scruple of Conscience, levying them by distress and armed violence, when detained. If then they can enforce others thus to pay Tithes to themselves, and those to whom they were never due by any known Law of God or Man: With what Conscience can they detain them from our Ministers, to whom they are due by all di­vine and human laws, or condemn the enforced payment of them from themselves, who have so violently extorted them from others?

4ly. If any Ministers or others plead the payment of our late heavy monthly Taxes, Excises, Impositions, Ship-mony, far exceeding the old, to be against their Consci­ence, as being imposed by no lawfull Parliamental Autho­rity, repugnant to all our Laws, Statutes, Liberties, Privi­leges, Protestations, Covenants, Records, Votes of Parlia­ment, imployed to shed Seas of innocent precious Christian blood, to maintain unchristian bloody wars against our late Protestant Brethren in Covenant and Amity, they know not upon what lawfull Quarrel, to support an arbitrary Ar­my Government, Power to domineer over them, to sub­vert our old Fundamental laws, Parliaments, Governours, Liberties, Peace, Elections, Trials, the Great Charters of England, foment Heresies, Sects, Schisms, and carry on the Plots of the Pope, Jesuites, Spaniard, French, to ruine our Realms, Church, Religion, and pay many disguised Jesuites and Popish Priests secretly lurking in all places un­der [Page 68] the Mask of listed Souldiers (as most wise men conceive) to perpetuate our warrs, destroy our Ministers and Nation by endless wars and Taxes. All these, with other such weighty grounds of Conscience, Law, Prudence, (which See my Le­gal Vindicati­on against illegal Taxes, and Humble Remonstrance against Ship-mony. some have insisted on and pleaded) can no waies exempt them from violent Distresses, Quarterings, Penalties, Forfeitures, Levies, by armed Souldiers, who regard these Pleas of Consci­ence no more than Common High-way-men who take mens Purses by force, and deem all publick Enemies, who dare plead Law or Conscience in this case; though the Plea be true and undeniable even in their own Judgements and Consciences, as some of them will acknowledge to those they thus oppress. Why then should they or any others esteem this mere pre­tence of Conscience only against Penal Laws for Tithes, en­forced in a lesse rigorous manner, which they may with as much reason and Justice allege against the payment of their just Debts, Land Lords Rents, and all other dues from them to God or Men?

The 3d. Objection is,Object. 3. That Tithes are pure Alms; There­fore not to be enforced by any Law. For which the Opi­nions of John Wickliff, Husse, Thorp, are produced by the Anabaptists, and Erasmus urged by some, but without suffi­cient ground.

Answ.I have answered this Objection elsewhere, and shall here only declare, whence, I conceive, this Error (that Tithes are mere Alms) originally proceeded, to rectifie mistakes of the meaning of some antient Authors, and clear two Texts of Scripture which some Scholars and ignorant People misap­prehend.

First, I conceive this Error sprang originally from the misunderstanding of that Text of Deutr. 14.28, 29. At the end of three years thou shalt bring forth all the Tith of thine encrease THE SAME YEAR, and shalt lay it up within thy Gates. And the Levite (because he hath no place, no Inheritance with thee) and the Stranger, and the Fatherlesse and the Widow, which are within thy Gates shall come, and shall eat (thereof) and be satisfied; That the Lord may bless thee in all the work of thine hands which thou doest; compared with Deutr. 26.12, 13, 14. When thou hast made an end of tithing all the Tithes [Page 69] of thine Encrease, the third year, which is the year of Ti­thing, and hast given unto the Levite, the Stranger, the Fatherless and Widow, that they may eat within thy Gates, and be filled; Then thou shalt say before the Lord thy God, I have brought away the hallowed Thing out of mine House, and also have given them unto the Levite, and unto the Stranger, to the Fatherless and to the Widow; according to all thy Comman­dements which thou hast commanded me; I have not trans­gressed thy Commandements, neither have I forgotten them; I have not eaten thereof in my mourning, neither have I taken a­way ought thereof for any uncleaness, nor given ought there­of for the Dead, but have hearkned unto the voyce of the Lord my God, and done according all thou hast comman­ded me: To which that of Amos may be referred. From which Texts some have conceived, That the Israelites paid Tithes only every third year. 2ly. That they paid them then not to the Levites only, but to the Stranger, Fa­therless, Widows and Poor amongst them, who had a right and share in them as well as the Levites. 3ly. That these Texts use the phrase not of paying Tithes, as a Debt or Duty, but of GIVING them as an Alms; and seeing they are gi­ven thus to the Stranger, Fatherless, Widow as Alms; there­fore to the Levites likewise, here coupled with them. This doubtless was the true ground that Tithes were reputed mere Alms by some, and not a Divine Right peculiar to Mi­nisters.

To disperse these Mists of Error. First take notice, That neither these, nor any other Texts in Scripture stile Tithes Almes, much lesse pure Almes, which men may give or retain at their pleasures. 2ly. That they expressely resolve the contrarie that they are no Alms at all in the objected sense, but a most certain positive commanded Debt and Dutie, no waies arbitrarie in the least degree. For 1. By express positive Laws and Command­ments of God oft repeated, all the particulars of this Dutie are defined. 1. The Quota pars or quantitie: All the Tithe of thine Encrease the same year. 2ly. The time of it: every third year, which is the year of Tithing, at the end of three years. 3ly. The place of Stowage: Thou shalt lay it up with­in [Page 70] thy gates. 4ly. The persons who must receive it: The Levite, Stranger, Fatherless, Widow. 5ly. The place of their receiving it: Within thy gates. 6ly. The manner of recei­ing it: They shall come and eat thereof and be filled. Secondly, which is most considerable, the Owners and Tithe-payers had no disposing power over it for their own uses upon any occasion or necessitie. For, 1. They must bring all of it out of their Houses as an hallowed thing. 2ly. They must make a solemn Protestation before the Lord, that they had given it all to the Levite, Stranger, Fatherless, Widow, and that not of their own free voluntarie bountie, but as a bounden debt and dutie, according to all Gods Commandments which he had commanded them. 2ly. That they had neither wilfully trans­gressed, nor negligentlie forgotten his Commandments herein. 3. That they had neither eaten thereof in their mourning (in times of want and distress) neither had they taken away ought thereof for any unclean use, &c. but have hearkened to the voice of the Lord their God, and done according to all that he commanded them: The reason of which Protestation was, because God committed the custodie and dispencing of these three years Tithes to the Owners themselves, who might be apt to purloin and pervert part of them to their own private uses. I appeal now to all mens consciences, whether these very Texts do not unanswerably prove Tithes to be no Alms or arbitrary Benevolence at all, but a most precise, positive, certain Debt and Duty, most punctually limitted in each particular? and whether that we now usually call Alms to the Poor, be not a Debt and Duty, as Rom. 15.27. with other Texts resolve it, not a meer Freewill Gift, which we may neglect or dispence with as we please.

Having cleared the Text as to Alms, I shall next vindi­cate them from the other mistakes concerning the time of Tithing, and Persons receiving Tithes. For which end we must know, that the Jews had four sorts of Tithes, as the Scriptures and Hierom. su­per Ezech. l. 14. ad cap. 44. Josephus An­tiqu. Jud. l. 4. c. 8. Chrysostom Hom. 4. in Ephes. Serm. 103. Sir James Semple sacriledge sacredly handled. Joseph Scaliger Diatr. de Decimis. Mr. Seldens History of Tithes, and Review, c. 2. Purchas Pil­grimage, l. 2. c. 7. Richard Mountague Diatribae on Mr. Seldens History of Tithes, c. 2. & Dr. Tillesley and Mr. Nettles Ibidem. Dr. Solaters Ministers portion, p. 17. Marglnal Authors prove, besides their [Page 71] First fruits, amounting to any proportion from the 40th. to the 60th. part amongst the Pharisees who exceeded others in bounty,

1. Such Tithes as every of the Laity in every Tribe of Israel, who had any comings in, or increase at all, paid un­to the Levites, out of their Annual increase that was eat­able or usefull for them, as a sacred inheritance, possession and reward for their service at the Tabernacle; being the full Tenth part of their increase, after the first fruits deducted: which Tithes they received in kinde at their respective Ci­ties and places of abode: and if any Tithe-payer would re­deem or compound for them, he was to adde a fifth part more than they were valued at; because the Levites should not be cheated by any undervalues, and those who redeem­ed them did it only for their own advantage for the most part, not the Levites; and then they should pay for it. These are the Tithes prescribed Levit. 27.30, 31, 32, 33. Numb. 18.20, to 32. Which the Levites and their House­holds were to eat in every place, where they resided, as their peculiar Portion and Inheritance; Wherein the Stranger, Fa­therless and Widow had no share, neither were they brought up to Jerusalem, nor put into any common Treasurie; and paid constantly every year. And these are the Tithes which our Ministers now challenge and receive by a Divine Right, as their standing inheritance, and the Churches Patrimo­nie: and the Tithes intended Heb. 7.2, 5, 8, 9.

2ly. Such Tithes as the Levites paid to all the Priests, as most affirm: Or to the High Priest only (as Lyra, Tosta­tus, and some other Popish Authors assert, to justifie the Popes Right to Tenths, which he challengeth and receiveth for the rest of the Popish Clergie in all places) for their better maintenance and support besides their First-fruits, fees of Sacrifices, Oblations and other Duties, being the full tenth part of the Tithes they receive from the people (due to the whole body of the Tribe of Levi) Numb. 18.20. to 31.

3ly. A second Tenth, which the Lay Israelites were obli­ged by God, to pay every year out of their nine parts re­maining after separation of the first Tenth here mentioned; and this was likewise of all their annual increase of [Page 72] Corn, Wine, Oil, Cattel, Sheep, Honey, and things eat­able; This Tithe was by Gods special appointment to be carried up to the place which God should chuse, and to Jerusalem in kinde, by the places that were near; and the full value thereof in money by places more remote. Which Tithes and money were de­signed for the maintenance of their publick solemn standing Feasts every year, wherein the Owners, Priests, Levites and all the people feasted together before the Lord. The residue was laid up in Storehouses, Treasuries and Chambers together with the First-fruits and Offerings for the maintenance of the Priests and Levites dwelling in Jerusalem, having no abiding elsewhere in the Countrey, and for those who came up thither in their Courses and served in and about the Tem­ple; of which some selected Priests and Levites who were faithfull had the Oversight and Distribution; not any Lay Treasurers, Officers or Sequestrators who would be singer­ing all our Ministers Tithes now, and reduce them to a publick Treasurie, to fill their private purses with them. These are the Tithes commanded, specified, and principal­ly intended: Deut. 12.6, 7, 8, 11, 12, 17, 18, 19. c. 14.22, to 28. 2 Chron. 31.6, to 16. Neh. 10.37, 38, 39. c. 12.44. c. 13.9, to 14. Mal. 3.10. Which Tithes were abolished with the Jewish Feasts and Temple: Yet the shadow and footsteps of them continued many years after in the primi­tive Christians Love-Feasts, as Mr. Mountague proves at large.

4ly. The fourth sort of Tithes which the lay Israelites paid, was that for the Levite, Stranger, Fatherless and Wi­dow, payable only every third year out of all that years in­crease; after the separation of the forementioned Tithes for the Levites, Priests and Annual feasts; which the Own­ers kept in their own barns, and were to be eaten by the Levite, Stranger, Fatherless, and Widow, within their gates and houses, Deut. 14.28, 29. c. 26.11, to 17.

Now in allusion to the last kinde of Tithes, St. Ambrose Sermone in die Ascentionis, St. Jerome in Mal. 3. St. Au­gustine, Sermo: 219. De Tempore, & ad Fratres in Eremo, Serm. 64. Caesarius Arelatensis, De Eleemosyna, Hom. 2. Eutropius in the Life of St. Steven, c. 17, 18. The Exhortation written about An. 700. Beda Eccles. Hist. l. 4. c. 10. Agilar­dus [Page 73] Contra insulsam vulgi opinionem de Grandine, &c. p. 155. Ivo Carnotensis, Epist. 102. The Synod of York under Hubert, An. 1194. and some others, press the payment of Tithes to Ministers, and giving Alms, or some part of their goods to the poor, jointly together; and some few of them stile Tithes, Tributa refectorium Animarum: The Tribute (not Alms) of the poor souls; and tell us of Tithes which God himself hath commanded to be given to the poor. But this they intend not, of the first sort of Tithes due to the Ministers of God; but of a Tenth of their remaining Annual increase after the Ministers Tithes first paid; as most of them ex­presly declare. viz. Hierom. on Mal. Saltem Judaeorum imite­mur exordia, ut pauperibus partem demus ex toto: & Sacerdoti­bus & Levitis Honorem debitum et decimas referamus, De sua particula (not the Ministers) Pauperibus ministrare; And the English Synod of Calchuth, An. 786. with Capitula­ria Caroli Magni, l. 6. c. 29. most distinctly; Decimas ex omnibus fructibus & pecoribus terrae annis singulis ad Eccle­sias reddant Et De novem partibus que remanserint ele­emosynas facient. So as there is nothing in Scripture or Antiquity rightly understood to prove Tithes to be pure Alms, as some have erroniously fancied.

The second ground of this Opinion, that Tithes were Free and pure Alms, was the frequent Grants, Donations and Con­secrations of Tithes and Portions of Tithes by several Lords of Mannors and Lands by special Charters yet extant, recited in Mr. P. 299, 304, 306, 312, 314, 315, 316, 317, 331, 333, 336, 337, 341, 345, 346, 371. and elsewhere. Dr. Tillesley his Animadversi­ons on Mr. Selden, c. 11, 12, 13. Little­ton, chap. 6. F [...]ankalmoign and Cooks Institutes thereon: Petrus Damianus, l. 2. Epist. 14. Vt copiosiora in paupere [...] ali­menta perficiant, dantur in Monasteriis & Eremitis DECIMAE Quorumcumque proventuum, &c. Seldens History of Tithes between the year of our Lord 1060. and 1250. (in the darkest times of Popish Su­perstition) to Abbies, Monks, Friers, Nunnes, and Religious Houses in eleemosynam pauperum; in liberam puram et perpetuam eleemosynam; to be distributed by these Monks, or their Almoners to the use of the Poor Pilgrims, Strangers, Widows, and Orphans, in general, at their discretion, or particularly of such and such Parishes; and they supposing the Monks to be most charitable to distribute them to the Poor; most of which Grants or all were made by the consents of the Bishops of the Diocess and con­firmed [Page 74] by them, and many of them with the Assents of the Patrons and Encumbents of the Churches. And sometimes whole Churches with their Tithes were thus granted and impropriated to Monasteries and Monks, In jure perpetual Frankalmoigne, to the star­ving of the peoples Souls, to pray for their Patrons when de­ceased, and seed the Bodies of the Poor without their Souls; whence all or most of our Appropriations and Impropriations really sprang, to the great prejudice of Ministers maintenance, and Parishioners Souls. Upon this ground See Mr. Sel­dens History of Tithes, c. 7. sect. 4. p. 165, 166, &c, many Monks and Mendicant Fryers who were no part of the ordained Mini­stry, (just like our vagrant Anabaptistical and unordained Sectarian Predicants now) to rob the Ministers and most Priests of all their Tithes, engross them into their own hands and disposal to enrich themselves and their Monaste­ries, everie where cryed up tithes to be Pure Almes, which e­verie man might bestow where he pleased, and that them­selves (having renounced the world, and vowed Povertie) were fitter to receive and dispence them than the Secular Parish-Priests; and made this Doctrine a very gainfull Trade, whereby they got most of the best Benefices of England, and a Innocent 3. Epist. Decret. l. 1. p. 203. l. 2. p. 410. Ex­trav. Tit. De Decimis, c. 3. Ex multis. great part of the Tithes into their own Possession, to the great prejudice of the Church. And not content herewith, the Premonstratenses and other Orders procured a Bull from Pope Innocent the 3d. about the year 1210. to exempt all their Lands which themselves manured, and all their Meadows, Woods, Fish-ponds, from paying any Tithes at all to Parish-Priests or others; That they might bestow them in Alms, or on the poor of their Monaste­ries, as they had requested them from the Pope; as the words of the Bull attest: After which they invented other Bulls (con­demned in our Parliament by a special Act) to exempt their Tenants likewise from paying Tithes, under the same pretext. And this is the true ground and original of that Monkish opinion, That Tithes were pure Alms, and that men might give them to whom they pleased: Which grant of tithes to Mona­steries, Monks, and exemptions of their Lands from paying them, upon pretext of giving them in Alms, to the great prejudice of the Ministers (perdenda Basilica sine plebibus, Plebes sine Sacerdotibus, Sacerdotes sine reverentia, & sine Chri­sto denique Christiani, Bernard Epist. 240.) was severely [Page 75] censured and sharply declaimed against by St. Bernard and Hugo Partimacensis, Epist. ad Abbatum & Conventum Nan­tire Monasterii after Ivo. his Epistles, p. 245. (a most excel­lent Epistle against this practice) The Council of Vienna, An. 1340. Joannis Sarisburiencis, De Nugis Curialium, l. 7. c. 21. Petrus Blesensis, Epist. 82. Petrus Clamianensis, Epist. l. 1. Epist. 33. And the Monkish Assertors of this Doctrine, that Tithes were pure Alms, and disposable to whom the people would; were by Ad Extr. Ti [...]. de Parach. c. ult. Mr. Sel­dens History of Tithes, p. 166, 168. Pope Innocent the 4th. stiled and cen­sured in these terms, Isti Novi Magistrique dicent & praedi­cant contra Novum et Vetus Testamentum: yea Richard Archbishop of Armaugh complained much against these greedy unconscionable Monks in his Defensorium Curatorum, for possessing the people with this opinion, That the command of Tithes was not moral, but only ceremonial, and not to be performed by constraint of Consciences to the Ministers and Curates, and that what Lands or Goods soever were given by any of the four orders of Mendicants ought to be exempted from paying Tithes to Mini­sters in point of Conscience; which he refutes; from these Monks John Wickliff, Walter Brute, and William Thorp (living in that blind Age) took up their opinion: That Tithes were pure Alms, and that the people might give them to whom they please, if they were Godly Preachers; and their Parish Priest, lazy, proud, and wicked, which opinion of Wickliff was refuted by Doctrinal. Fidei Tom. 1. l. 2. Artic. 3. c. 64, 65. Tho­mas Waldensis as erronious, and condemned in the Council of Constance. This I have the longer insisted on, to shew how Canne and the rest of our Anabaptistical Tithe-Oppugners, revive only these old greedy Monks, Friers Tenents and pra­ctices for their own private ends and lucre; to wrest our Mi­nisters Tithes from them into their own hands or dispo­sing, and exempt their own Lands and Estates from paying Tithes, that so we may have Churches without people, People without Ministers, Ministers without due reverence, and finally Christians without Christ; asEpist. 240. Bernard writes they then had by this Monkish Sacrilegious Doctrine and practice.

The fourth Objection (much insisted on as I hear) against our coercive Laws and Ordinances for Ministers Tithes,Object 4. is this common Mistake, That the payment of Tithes to Mini­sters as a Parochial Right and Due, was first setled by the Popish [Page 76] Council of Lateran, under Pope Innocent the 3d. An. 1215. before which every man might freely give his Tithes, to what Persons or Churches he pleased; Therefore it is most unjust, unreasonable to deprive men of this liberty, and enforce them to pay Tithes to their Ministers now by [...]uch Laws and Ordi­nances.

I answer, That this is a most gross Mistake of some igno­rant 7 E. 3. f. 5. 44 E. 3. f. 5. 10 H. 7. f. 18.7. 6 Dyer 84.8. Cook 2 Re­port, f. 44. b. Lawyers, and John Voyce, p. 13. Canne; For in the Canons of this Council, there is not one syllable tending to this purpose, as I noted above 20 years since out of Binius and Surius in the Margin of Sir Edward Cooks 2. Reports, fol. 446. where it is asserted; which error he expresly retracts in his 2d. In­stitutes on Magna Charta, Surius Con­cil. Tom. 3. p. 751. f. 641. The words of the Council, Can. 56. Plerique (scut excipimus Regulares, & Clerici Secu­lares interdum) dum Domos locant vel Feuda concedum in Preju­dicium Parochialium Ecclesiarum, pactum adjiciunt; ut Conductores & Feudatorii Decimas eis solvant, & apud eos­dem elegant Supremam: Cum autem id ex avaritie radice pro­cedat, pactum hujusmodi penitus reprobamus: Statuentes, ut quicquid fuerit ratione hujusmodi pacti praeceptum, Eccle­siae Parochiali reddatur.

By which Constitution it is apparent, First, that Pa­rish Priests and Churches, had a just Parochial Right to the Parishioners Tithes within their Precincts before this Coun­cil, else they would not have awarded restitution to them of the Tithes received; and that they had so ordered and de­creed it by sundry Councils and Civil laws some hundreds of years before, is apparant by the 2. Council of Cavai­lon under Charles the Great, An. 813. Can. 19. Synodus Tici­mensis under Lewis the 2d. An. 855. The Council of Mentz under the Emperour Arnulph, An. 894. Can. 3. The Council of Fliburg, An. 895. Can. 14. The Decree of Pope Leo the 4th. (attributed to Gelasius by some) about the year 850. The Council of Wormes and Mentz (about that time or before) cited by Gratian, Caus. 16. qu. 1. The Council of Claremont under Pope Ʋrban, An. 1095. (these abroad) and at home in England, The Ecclesiastical Laws of King Edgar, An. 967. c. 1, 2. The Council of Eauham under King Edgar, An. 1010. and his Laws near that time, c. 14. and the Coun­cil [Page 77] of London under Archbishop Hubert, An. 1200. (15 years before this of Lateran.) All which enjoyn the people to pay their Tithes to their own Mother-Churches where they heard divine Service, and received the Sacraments, and not to other Churches or Chapels at their pleasures, unless by consent of the Mo­ther-Churches. Hence Petrus Blesensis Archdeacon of Bath, about the year 1170. (45. years before the Council of La­teran) in his 62. Epistle writes thus to the Praemonstratica­tian Monks, who procured an Exemption from paying Tithes out of their Lands, That their Lands were obnoxious to Tithes, before they became theirs, and were paid hitherto, not with respect of Persons, sed ratione Territorii: but by reason of the Territory and Parish Precincts. And Pope Innocent the 3d. his Decree dated from Lateran, An. 1200. (mistaken for the Council of Lateran) cited in Cooks 2 Instit. p. 641. was but in confirmation of these precedent Authorities.

2ly. The abuses complained against and reformed by this Council, was not the lay Parishioners giving away of their Tithes from their own Ministers and Parish-Churches at their pleasures (not a word of this) but a New minted practice of most covetous Monks, Religious Houses, and some secular Clerks, to rob the Parish-Churches and Ministers of all the Tithes of the lands held of them, by compelling their Tenants and Lessees by special covenants in their Leases and Bonds, to pay their Tithes arising out of their Lands, only to them­selves and their Monasteries: not to their Parish Churches as for­merly; which the Pope and this great General Council resolve, to proceed merely from the root of Covetousness, (let Canne and his Comrades observe it, who pretend Conscience to be the ground) whereupon they condemn, reform, this practice, null the Covenants, Bonds, Deformations, and decreed Restitution of all profits by these Frauds to the Parish-Churches. And was not this a just, righteous and conscionable Decree, rather than an Antichristian and Papal, as Canne Magisterially censures it?

3ly. Admit the Parochial Right of Tithes first setled in and by this Council (which is false) yet being a right e­stablished at 438. years since, confirmed by constant use, Cu­stom, Practice ever since allowed by the Common law of Eng­land, [Page 78] ratified by the Great Charter of England, ch. 1. with sundry other See Rastals Abridgement, Title Tithes, and the Ordi­nances for Tithes. Lind­wood, pro­vinc. Constit. l. 3. Tit. De Decimis. Mr. Seldens Hi­story of Tithes, ch. 8. S [...]atutes, Acts of Parliament, Canons of our Coun­cils and Convocations; and approved by all our Parliaments e­ver since, as most just, expedient, necessary: Yea setled on our Parish Churches by See Mr. Sel­dens History of Tithes, p. 320, 322, 338, 346, 350. original Grants of our Ancestors for them, their Heirs and Assigns for ever, with general warranties a­gainst all men, with special Execrations and Anathemaes denoun­ced against all such who should detain or substract them from God and the Church, to whom they consecrated them for ever; and that as sacred Tribute reserved, commanded by God himself, in the Old and New Testament as a badge of his Vni­versal Dominion over them and their Possessions, held of him as Supream Landlord; as theHoveden Annal. pars posterior, p. 828. Lind­wood, Pro­vinc. Constit. l. 3. Tit. De Decimis. Council of London under Arch­bishop Hubert, in the 2d. year of King John, with another Council under Archbishop Replain, 3 E. 3. The Council un­der Archbishop Stratford with others resolve. There nei­ther is nor can be the least pretext of Iustice, Reason, Pru­dence, Law or Conscience for any Grandets in present Power, by force or fraud, to Null, Repeal, Alter this Antient Right and unquestionable Title of our Ministers to them now; and set every man loose to pay no Tithes at all, or to dispose of them how and to whom they will at their pleasure, to de­stroy our Churches, Ministers, Parishes, and breed nothing but Quarrels and Confusions in every place and Parish at this present, when all had now need to 1 Thess. 4.11. study to be quiet, and to do their own Business; and not to disturb all our Ministers and others Rights without any lawfull call from God or the Nation. Which unparalleld incroachment on our Ministers and Parish-Churches Rights, if once admitted, countenanced, all the people in the Nation by better right and reason may pull down all the Fences and Inclosures of Fields, Forests, or Commons made since this Council; deny, substract all Customs, Impositions, Duties, Rents, Payments publick or private imposed on, or reserved from them since that time by publick Laws, or special Contracts, and pay all their Rents, Customs, and Tenure-Services, to whom and when they please; which our Grandy late Army-Purchasors of Kings, Queens, Princes, Bishops, Deans and Chapters Lands, with other Opposers of Tithes may do well to consider for [Page 79] their own Advantage and Security, their Titles to them be­ing very puny, crazy, disputable, in comparison of our Ministers to their Tithes.

Now whereas Hist. Angl. p. 4. Thomas Walsingham, Randal Higden a Monk of Chester in his Polichronicon, and Henry Abbot of Ley­cester write; that the general Council of Lyons (in France) under Pope Gregory the tenth, An. 1274. Decreed; (what others ignorantly attribute to the Council of Lateran afore­said, An, 1215.) Ʋt nulli homini deinceps liceat decimas suas ad libitum, ut antea, liceat assignare, sed matrici ecclesiae omnes decimas persolverent: Which seems to imply, that before this Council every man might give his Tithes from the Mother Church to whom he pleased, notwithstanding the Council of Lateran and Innocents Decrees.

I answer, 1. That there was no such Canon made in this Council, as these ignorant Monks mistake, which is un­deniable by the Acts and Canons of this Council, printed at large in Binius, Surius, and other Collectors of Councils; but only one Canon, against Clergy-mens alienation of the Re­venues of the Church; and another against the Ʋsurpation of the Churches Revenues by Patrons in time of their vacancy: which have no affinity with that they mention; which if true, then that which Canne and others object, that the Council of Lateran made this Inhibition, and took away this Liberty of disposing Tithes at pleasure from the Parishio­ners, is false, as I have proved it.

Secondly, That from this mistake of these Monks it was (as Mr. History of Tithes, ch. 7. p. 147, 148. Selden probably conjectures) that William Thorp ignorantly affirmed, that one Pope Gregory the tenth first ordained new Tithes first to be given to Priests now in the new Law. John Canne to manifest his great Ignorance both in History and Chronologie, in his Second Voice from the Temple, p. 13, 14. Writes thus. ‘Before the Council of Late­ran, which was under Innocent the third, any man might have paid his Tithes to any Ecclesiastical person he pleased; but by that Council it was decreed, That Tithes should be paid to the Paro­chial Priest: (which I have proved a grosse Forgerie) and then he addes, William Thorp saith, That Pope Gre­gory the tenth, was the first, that ordained Tithes to be paid to [Page 80] Priests, in the year 1211. Fox, p. 494.’ Wherein, 1. He mis-recites Thorps words, who speaks not of Tithes in ge­neral, but only of New Tithes: not antiently paid by the Jews, nor prescribed to them by God. And is this square dealing? 2ly. He subjoyns the time (which Thorp and Master Fox do not,) referring this Decree of Gregory the tenth, to the year 1211. which was four years before the Council of Lateran, by his own Confession and falls within the Popedom of Innocent the third, and is no less than 63. years before the Council of Lyons under Grego­ry the Xth. and his Papacy; there being no less than seven Popes intervening between this Innocent and Gregory, as Pla­tina, Onuphrius, in their Histories of Popes lives, and Bini­us, Spondanus, Oxenetius, Matthew Westminster, the Centu­ries of Magdenburg, Mr. Fox himself and Heylin affirm. And most certain it is, that neither this Pope Gregory, nor the Council of Lyons under him, nor of Lateran under Innocent, made any such Decrees concerning Tithes, as Canne here boldly asserts; and with these two Forgeries, he most impudently concludes, The payment of Tithes is Popish, nothing more certain, (when as nothing is more false or fabulous) and so within the 2d. Article of the Covenant of the two Nations (no­thing more untrue, both in the intentions and explanati­ons of the Makers and Takers of that Covenant, as their seve­ral Ordinances for Tithes both before and after it demon­strate) which many have sworn (not he nor his Consederates, or else perjured with a Witness, if they have done it, in every clause thereof) to endeavour the extirpation of Superstiti­on and all kind of Popery, (therefore of all Monkish, Popish Sub­stractions of, and exemptions from payment of Tithes to their Parochial Ministers fore-recited, invented, granted by Popes, and real Popery) And therefore as it is a case of Consci­ence (for those who have taken the Covenant to pay Tithes, not for any man whatsoever, especially Covenanters to retain them) so men ought to be carefull either how they press it, or practise it. So this Father of Lyes and Forgeries concludes against all Truth and Conscience, and dares aver to those he stiles, (let himself determine QUO JURE) The Su­pream Authority of the Nation, The Parliament of the Common­wealth [Page 81] wealth of England, to engage them sacrilegiously to rob all our Ministers both of their Rectories, Tithes, Ministry at once; to starve and famish (they are his own uncharitable Anabap­tistical words, p. 1, 2.) These Antichristian Idols, which if they neglect speedily to do, he more than intimates (in his E­pistle to them, and let them and all others observe it) the Lord (you may guess whom he means) shall lay them aside, as despised broken Idols and Vessels in whom his Soul hath no pleasure: like those who sate there before them: just John of Leydens Doctrine and practice.

It is storied of Sacrilegious Philip of Macedon (by Hist. l. 16, 17. Dr. Usher Annales Ec­cles. Veteris Testam p. 516, 525. Po­lybius and others) In aras et templa saeviit, ipsos etiam Lapides infringens, ne destructas aedes posthac restitui possint, and that to raise monies to pay his all-devouring Army; and of Dicaearchus (his Atheistical General, as impious as his Soveraign) that re­turning victoriously from Sea, he built two Altars, one to Impiety, the other to Iniquity, and sacrificed to them as to Gods. Certainly Voyce from the Temple, Epist. Ded. & p. 23. If they were razed to the Ground IT WOVLD DO WELL. John Canne, who would have all our Churches razed to the ground, and not a stone of them left upon a stone unthrown down, that they might never be built again, (the true Voyce of a Son of Edom and Psal. 137.7, 8. Babylon) and all our Ministers Rectories, Tithes, Food and Maintenance, whereby they are fed and kept alive, taken away by the Magistrates, (and that to maintain the Army and Souldiers, as some design) would be a very fit Chaplain for such a Sacrilegious King and General; and a fit Priest or Minister for these two infernal Dei­ties of Impiety and Iniquity, the only Gods, which too many pretended Saints and Anabaptists really serve, worship in their practice. But let Canne with all his impious, unrigh­teous, seduced Disciples, Patrons, remember that Blessing which dying Moses, that man of God, (a better President, Ge­neral for Christians to follow, than these Pagan Atheists) bestowed on the tribe of Levi (As is evident by compa [...]ing it with Isay 56.6, 7, 8. c. 61.1, to 11. c. 66.18, to 24. Jer. 33.15, to the end. extending to all true Ministers of the Gospel now) with his bitter imprecation against all who invaded their Substance, Function, or rise up a­gainst their Office, recorded thus for their shame and terror, Deuter. 33.1, 8, 9, 10, 11. ‘This is the Blessing where­with Moses the MAN OF GOD blessed the Children of Israel before his death. And of Levi he said, Let thy [Page 82] Ʋrim and thy Thummim be with thy holy one: for they have observed thy word, and kept thy Covenant. They shall (or let them) teach Jacob thy Judgements, and Israel thy Law: They shall put Incense before thee, and whole burnt Sacrifice upon thine Altar. Blesse O Lord his Substance, and accept the Work of his hands: Smite through the Loyns of them that rise up against him, and of them that hate him, that they rise not again. Which I shall recommend to John Canne for his next Text, when he preacheth before his Fraternity of Anabaptistical Tithe-Oppugners, and Church-Robbers; to all injurious Sub­stracters of their Ministers Tithes, and professed Enemies to their Calling. And so much for the third Proposition.

CHAP. IV.

I Now march to the 4th. Proposition,Proposition 4. That our Mini­sters Tithes are really no Burthen, Grievance or Oppression to the People; but a just antient charge, debt, annuity or duty, as well as their Landlords rents, or Merchants poundage. That the abolishing of them, will be no real Ease, Gain, or advantage to Farmers, Lessees, and the poorer sort of People (as is falsely pretended) but only to rich Landlords and Landed-men, and a loss and detriment to all others.

There have been divers clamorous Petitions of late against Tithes, subscribed by many poor People, Labourers, Ser­vants, Apprentises, who never were capable in their Estates to pay any (not by the Nobility, Gentry, and Freeholders of the Nation, or the generality of those whose Estates are most charged with them, who repute them no Burden nor Grievance, and desire their continuance) as if they were the very Bonds of Wickednesse, the heavy Burdens and Yoak, which God himself The Kentish Petition a­gainst Tithes, John Canne, Voyce from the Temple, and others. by an extraordinary Call, hath called forth some in present Power speedily to loose, undo and break, Isay 58.6, 7. to which they allude, and much insist on, when as it is most clear, That this perverted Text was never once intended of Tithes, which God himself imposed on his people, as a just reserved Rent and Tribute due unto himself and his Ministers, and adjudgeth it plain Mal. 3.8, 9. ROB­BING [Page 83] OF GOD to substract, much more then to abolish, and those who press the abolishing of Tithes from this Text, may with much more colour urge it against all Landlords Rents, Annuities, Tonnage, Poundage, the antient Cu­stoms of Wool, Woolfels, Leather, Tinne, Lead, which they and their Ancestors by their Tenures and our known Laws have paid time out of mind: and presse those in power to expunge these Texts out of the very Gospel, as Apochryphal and burdensom, Mat. 22.21. Render to Caesar the things that are Caesars; and unto God the things that are Gods (a clear Gospel-Text for the payment of Tithes, which are Gods own Tribute and Portion, Levit. 27.30, 32. Mal. 3.8, 9.) and Rom. 13.7 Render therefore to all their Dues, Tribute to whom Tribute is due, Custom to whom Custom, &c. against both which they directly Petition, as the premises demonstrate. This calumny and wresting of Scripture being removed, I shall thus make good the first Branch of the Proposition.

I have already manifested by undeniable Antiquities, Laws, Records, That Tithes were freely given to and set­led on our Church and Ministers, by our pious Kings Munificence, Charters, Laws, with the general applause and consent of all the Nobility and People, upon the very first setlement of Religion in this Island, many hundred years before we read of any publick Taxes for Defence of the Realm, or maintenance of the Warres by Land or Sea, the first whereof was Matthew Westm. & Flo­rentius Wi­gorniensis. An. 983. See my Humble Remonstrance against ship­money p. 19, 20, 21. Dane-gelt (first imposed by common consent of the Lords in Parliament, An. 983.) or before the antientest yet continued Custome on Wool Woolfels and Skins ex­ported, first granted by Parliament in 3 E. 1. Anno Dom. 1276. at least 500. years after the first extant grant, Law and setlement of Tithes in perpetuity, as a Divine Duty, Rent and Service for the necessary maintenance of Gods Ministers and publick Worship. This most antient, annual Rent, Charge or Tribute unto God, hath inviolably continued in all pub­lick Changes and Revolutions of Church and State; Bri­tons, Saxons, Danes, Normans, English, Papists, Protestants, Conquerors, Invadors, Right Heirs, and Lawfull Pur­chasers, Intruders, Disseisers, Lessees of all sorts, whether [Page 84] Publick Persons or Private, maintaining, confirming, ren­dring their Tithes successively, as a Divine and Sacred Quit-Rent due to God, wherewith they came charged in­to the world, till they departed out of it; laying down this for a Principle of Divinity, Law, Equity; Spelman. Concil. 610. That God alone hath given to every Man the Lands and all he holds and possesseth, whereby he gains his food and living; and therefore out of the Land and Trade, whereby every one gets necessary supply for his body, he ought to contribute a Tenth and Tribute towards the Service of God, and Salvation of his Soul, much better than his Body; as Augustine in his 229. Sermon. Tom. 10. and the Antient Saxon Canons of an uncertain time and Author resolve. There was no Purchaser, Heir, Inheritor, Farmer, Tenant, or Lessee of Lands in our whole Nation, that paid Tithes out of it, since Tithes first setled in this Kingdome; but he inherited, purchased, took and held his Lands char­ged with Tithes; Whence our Cooks 2d. Report, The Bishop of Winchesters case. Summa Angelica. Tit. Decima. Law-books resolve, That no Lay-man can by the very Common Law of England, allege any Custome or Prescription, for not paying Tithes; but only a Modus Decimandi in recompence of his Tithes; which he may in some cases plead, because grounded on some antient Contract and a valuable consideration in Lieu of Tithes. Moreover, as all Men took their Purchases, Farmes, Leases or Inheritances, by Descent thus charged; so this charge was universally known to all Purchasers, Lesees, and the full annual value of the Predial Tithes they pay out of their Lands, or Leases, abated them in their Purchases, Rents, Fines, by the Ven­ders and Lessers, of purpose to defray the publick necessary annual Charge; which if the Lands had been Tithe-Free, had been proportionably raised, to the common value of the Tithes, in the Purchase-Moneys, Fines, or Rents; and will be so by every Seller of Lands, and Land-lord, when ever Tithes be suppressed. This being a clear undeniable Truth, which every rational man must subscribe to; it is certain, no person this day living, complaining or not complaining against Tithes, can in Verity, Equity, Justice, Reason, repute or call them, either an unjust or oppressing Yoak, Bond, Burden (as many Ignoramusses do, without sense or reason) nor any burden or charge at all to him, [Page 85] since he had, or rather hath the full annual value of them allowed him in his Purchase, Fine, or Rent, by him that sold or leased his Lands unto him. And although it be true, that in such Tithes as the Earth doth not naturally pro­duce without labour (as it doth Grasse, Wood, Fruits,) viz. Corn, Hops, Saffron, Woad, and the like, the Mini­ster enjoyes the Tenth of the Husbandmans increase, seed, labour and costs in tillage and improvement (the great Objection against Tithes as an Heavy Burthen, and Op­pression) yet all this pretended great cost and charge (ex­cept only in Cases of Improvements) was altogether, or for the most part allowed and defalked in the Purchase, Rent, or Fine; which if Tithe-free would have For which there is suffi­ent Allowance given in case of mere Heath and Baren grounds by the Stat. or 2 E. 6. c. 13. been, (and when made Tithe-free, will be) raised to the full value of the Tithes, even one years purchase more in ten sales, and 28. Rent more in every pound each year upon Leaser, as all understanding men knowing what belongs to Purcha­ses, Sales of Lands or Leases must acknowledge. And that Farmer, Purchaser, or Improver of Lands, who deems not his faithfull Ministers Prayers, Preaching, Pains, and Gods blessing on his Seed, Crop, Estate, Soul, Family, See Augu­stine, Serm. 219. Mal. 3.8, 9, 10, 11. promised and entayled to the true payment of Tithes, and are only procured by his Ministers prayers, without which his seed, crop, and all his estate would be blasted with a Curse, & amount not to a tenth part, of what he now enjoys by Gods promise and blessing by paying Tithes, and his Ministers prayers; deserves not the name of a rational man, much lesse of a Christian; and can expect nothing but Gods curse up­on all he sowes, plants, enjoyes, instead of a blessed Crop or Harvest. All which considered, I appeal to any Christian, or rational mans Conscience, whether Tithes be any such heavy, oppressing, intollerable, discouraging Yoak, Bond­age, Burden, Oppression as some now declaim them, which Gods chiefest Saints before the Law voluntarily rendred without murmuring, and chearfully vowed, paid unto God without a Law, and his antient people rendred without murmuring (though double to our Tithes now) by an ex­press Law, during all the Levitical Priesthood, and all our own Ancestors, as well Protestants as Papists, have for so [Page 86] many hundred of years chearfully rendred without dispute, and all now living came charged with into the world, and were thus allowed the value of them in their Purchases, Fines, and Leases. And whether all Tithe payers have not far more cause to Petition against all Old and New Rent-Services, Rent Charges, Annuities, Quit-Rents, Statutes, Debts, wherewith they were charged by their An­cestors Grants or Contracts, and of all the antient Cu­stoms for Merchandize for defence of the Seas or Realm, as intollerable oppressing Burdens, Yoaks, Grievances (as the Levellers and Anabaptists in some late printed papers stile all Customs, Tonnage, Poundage, Impositions whatsoever, as well as Tithes, our Excises, or monthly Taxes, of new illegal for­mation, as well as Imposition) than thus to murmur, complain, Petition against their predial Tithes, our Mini­sters chiefest Livelihood, except in Cities which have no Tillage, Woods, or Meadows? And so much brieflly for proof, That Tithes are no real Grievance, Burden, Oppression, to Gods people; especially since orignally granted and com­manded by God himself, whose Commandements are not grievous, 1 John 5.3. and whose heaviest Yoak is easie, and Burden light, Matth. 11.30. And those New-Saints, who shall think otherwise of this Divine Com­mandement, Yoak, and Burden of Tithes, under the Gos­pel, give the Gospel it self and Christ the lye herein.

For the 2d. Branch, That the abolishing of Tithes will be no real Ease, Gain, or Advantage to Farmors, Lessees, and the poorer sort of People, lyable to pay Tithes (other poor being not concerned in the Controversy, whose poverty it self ex-exempts them from this surmised Grievance) but a Gain and Benefit, only to rich Landlords and Landed-men, is apparent by the premises. For no sooner shall Tithes be abrogated, but every Landlord will raise the full annual value of them in his annual Rents, or Fines, and exact more for them from his poor Tenants, Farmers, Lessees, than they might have compounded for with their Ministers: and where then is their expected Gain, or Ease, wherewith they are delu­ded by Impostors? As for the rich Landlords, they complain not of Tithes as a Burden, and need no exemption from [Page 87] them: and as all predial Tithes now really issue out of their Inheritances charged with them in perpetuity, who there­fore abate, allow the full value of them to their Farmers and Tenants in their Fees and Rents, by way of Defalcati­on, they being in truth the greatest and most considerable Tithe-payers, not the poor Farmers, or under Tenants: So their Inheritances only will be much improved, augmen­ted by Tithes abolishing at least one part in ten; whiles the poor Ministers and Families shall be starved, and the Te­nants then more racked by the Landlords than by the Mini­sters now. And this is the Godly goodly Ease this Saint-like Project will effect, if put into execution, by which none will be real Gainers, in their Temporal Estate, but those who have Inheritances; and all losers in their Spiritual Estate, by the losse or great discouragements of their Mini­sters, Hebr. 13.17. This will appear by the practice of some greedy Land-lords of old, thus recited, condemned in this Decree of the Council of Lateran under Pope Innocent the 3d Anno 1215. In aliquibus Regionibus, &c. (I will English it, that our Country Farmers may the better understand it,) In some Countries there are a stupid (or mungrel) sort of people who living according to their Custom, although they have the name of Christians (I doubt Canne will say they were Anabaptists, and his godly Predecessors) some Lords of Farms (or Lands) let them out to these men to ma­nure (ut Decimis defraudentes Ecclesias, majores inde redditus as­sequantur) That by defrauding the Church of Tithes, they may gain the greater Rents from their Tenants (equivalent no doubt to their Tithes, where then is the tenants gain by any hoped exemptions from Tithes?) Being willing therefore to provide remedy for these prejudices, for the Indemnity of Churches, we ordain that the Landlords themselves shall commit their Farms to be leased to and tilled by such Per­sons, and in such sort, That without contradiction they may pay Tithes to Churches with Integrity (or their intire Tithes without any Deduction:) and if there shall be need, let them be thereto compelled by Ecclesiastical censure, for these Tithes are necessarily to be paid, which are due by Divine law, or approved by the Custom of the place (though not within [Page 88] the Letter of the Divine law, is the Councils meaning, not any Modus decimandi of ought within Gods law, against which no Custom can or must prescribe) Let all Country­men learn from hence, what they will get by abolishing Tithes, if voted quite down. Nay let them consider well, whether the real designs now on foot, prosecuted by some Army-Officers and Souldiers, be not to vote down Tithes, just as they did the Crown lands (formerly Cottoni [...]osthuma, p. 174, 179. The Acts of Re­sumption, 6 H. 3.5, 9.10 E. 2.1. 2 R. 2.6. 6 H. 4 1.2 H. 5.28, 29. 33 H. 6.2.1 H. 7.4, 5.12 E. 4. reputed sacred, and incapable of any sale, because the common standing Inheri­tance of the whole Realm to defray all ordinary publick expences in times of peace and war, to case them of all Subsidies and Tax­es whatsoever, except one in three or four years upon ex­traordinary occasions, granted in full Parliament for their safety) even to vote them only from the Ministers, and get them into their own hands, to help pay themselves and the Army, under pretext to ease the People in their Taxes; and yet conti­nue their Taxes still upon them in the same extream (or an higher) proportion as heretofore, though they take their Tithes to boot, without easing them one farthing in their Contributions, as in case of the Kings, Princes, Bishops, Deans and Chaptets lands. Surely these Officers and Soul­diers who pretend so much liberty and ease to the people in words, and still so oppress them in deeds, as not to ease them one penny in their former unsupportable Taxes, Exci­ses (which their Ancestors never knew nor paid) under which they have for some years groaned, though all Ireland be now reduced, England in peace within it self, and Scotland under Contribution, and take upon them to impose such illegal Taxes now without any Parliament by their own Su­per-Regal Authority, transcending all Presidents of our Kings and their Councils out of Parliament, can never be presumed, to tender their Ease and Gain so much, as to permit them or their Land-lords, to put up into their own private Purses so great and constant an Annual Revenue as their Tithes a­mount to, unto which they have neither legal Right nor Title, but will appropriate it to themselves (as they have done Church-Land and Crown-Land too) for their future pay, or past A [...]rears; and some of them have confessed so much. And which then think you will prove the better Tithe Lords, Ministers or Souldiers?

[Page 89]For the third Branch: That the abolishing of Tithes, will be a loss and detriment to all others, excepting Land-Lords, and Landed men; I shall thus demonstrate. 1. It will be so to all our Ministers and their families, Tithes being their principal livelihood. 2ly. To all such Colleges, Hospi­tals, Corporations, Schools, all or part of whose Reve­nues depend on appropriated Tithes and Rectories, and to all their Farmers and Families. 3ly. To all impropria­tors and their Lessees, which are very many; there being by Britan. p. 161, 162. Pur­chas Pilgri­mage, p. 133. Mr. Cambdens and others Computation, 9284. Parishes in England, whereof 3845. (of the best value, for the most part) are impropriated or appropriated. And the abrogation of Tithes without giving competent recompence to all Impropriators, as well body Politicks as natural and their Lessees, (which how it can be done now Bishops, Deans and Chapters Lands devoted and voted once for their sa­tisfaction, are sold to pay the Souldiers, I cannot yet di­scern) will ruine many Colleges, Hospitals, Schools, with other Corporations, and thousands of families de­pending on them. 4ly. All Tenants and Farmers will be losers by it, in their estates, as well as souls; For then the Land-lords will raise the full improved value of their abolished Tithes in their Fines and Rents; and if they have a godly able Minister to instruct them for their Salvation, and spiritual Weal, they must hire and pay him out of their own private purses only, while their Land-lords or others purse up their Tithes whereon now their Ministers live without further charge unto them; and which is more chargable, they must pay their Ministers share of Taxes and other publick Payments to boot out of their own purses and estates, which now are defrayed wholly by Ministers themselves: And so instead of hoped Ease, by Abolishing Tithes, they shall but draw a causless perpetual Charge on themselves and their Posterities, as our New Projectors have done, by the sale of all the Crown Lands and Reve­nues to themselves, and their Friends and Souldiers at easie rates, to enrich themselves, which should have defrayed all publick Ordinary Charges as they ever have done, which now must be raised out of the peoples private purses only, [Page 90] whiles these New Statesmen and Souldiers purse up and en­joy the publick Revenues which should defray them; and Tax the impoverished Nation at what extraordinary un­cessant Rates they please, and then dispose of them at their pleasures, when levyed to themselves and their Crea­tures; the only way to make our Taxes both Easeless and Endless, to the peoples utter ruin, and their own extraor­dinary enriching by their spoils. 5ly. The poor people in every Parish will lose the charitable relief they receive from their Ministers, who in many places were and still are a grest relief to the poor and impotent by their liberal Charity and 1 Tim. 3.2. Hospitality; now much decayed by heavy and endless Taxes, and unconscionable Substractions of their Tithes, by Sectaries, Souldiers and lawless Covetous Earth-wormes. 6ly. I must truly inform and tell all such Far­mers, Tenants and other deluded Countreymen, who think to gain much ease and profit, by the abolishing of Tithes for the future, they shall soon repent of, and be doubly burthened hereafter to the uttermost improved va­lue of them in the augmentation of their Taxes to the Souldiers, who will be harder new Iron Land-lords, Tithe-lords to them, than their Ministers now are. This was St. Sermo. 219. Tom. 10. Augustines observation long ago, recorded by Causa 16. qu. 7. Gratian, Decret. Ec­cles. Gall. l. 6. T [...] 3. c. 19.3 [...] Bochellus with many others, and made good by many practical Experiments in former and latter ages: His words are these. Our Ancestors did therefore abound with plenty of all things, Because they gave Tithes to God, and rendred Tribute to Caesar. Modo autem quia decesserit Devotio Dei, accessit Indictio Fisci. Nolumus partire cum Deo Decimas, modo tollitur totum. Hoc tollit fiscus quod non accepit Christus. That is, But now because our devotion to God (in paying Tithes) is departed, the Sequestration of the Exche­quer is come, (both on Tithes and Lands) We would not pay our Tithes unto God, now the whole is taken away (in Taxes and Sequestrations) The Exchequer sweeps away that which Christ doth not receive. And how many have found this true in our dayes, by Sequestrators and Swordmen, who have se­questr [...]d all the Profits of their Lands, as well as their Tithes, and the Ministers Tithes and Glebes to boot? He [Page 91] addes. This is a most just Custome, that if thou wilt not give God his Tenth, thou shalt be reduced to a Tenth of thy Estate, Et dabis impio militi, quod non vis dare Deo et sacerdoti; and thou shalt be forced to give that to a wicked Souldier, which thou wilt not give to God and thy Pious Mini­ster. This the whole Synod. of Lingon in France, Anno 1404. declared for, and observed as a truth in those daies. And Angelus de Clavasio in his Summa Angelica Tit. Decima sect. 20. in his time. Petrus Blesensis, Arch-Deacon of Bath (who flourished about the year of our Lord 1160.) writes thus to the Cistertian Monks, who had then procured from the Pope, a Bull of Exemption from paying Tithes out of the Lands and Possessions of their Order, Epist. 82. ad Cister­cienses. You know that Covetousness is the root of all Evil: yet it is said, and we relate it with tears, that this Mother of Transgres­sion, this Mistris of Ambition, this Captain (or Ringleader) of Iniquity, this Wagoner of Mischief, this Cutthroat of Ʋer­tues, this Original of Sedition, this Sink of Scandals, hath da­red to break in even to your Congregation; the Ʋotes and Tongues of all men would be loosened into the commendation of your Sanctity, if you did not forcibly snatch away that which is anothers; If you did not take away Tithes from Clergy-men. This is a Convectio (or Rapine) little enough, but that which doth not a little dishonest your life. By the Testimony of the Scriptures, they are the Tributes of needy Souls. And what is this injurious Immunity that you should be ex­empted from the payment of Tithes to which the Lands were subject, before they were yours, and which are hi­therto rendered to Churches, not out of respect of Persons, but by consent of the Territory (mark now the just punishment upon them, for this their Covetousness and exemption from Tithe-paying) Milites Galliarum sibi jus Decimarum usur­pant, &c. The Souldiers of France usurp to themselves the Right of Tithes, and have no regard of your Privile­ges: Eas a vobis potenter extorquent: They extort them from you by the Power of the Sword. Adversus eos debetis insur­gere, non adversus Clericos, aut Ecclesiasticos Clericos. You ought to rise up against them, but not against Clergy-men, Or the Churches of Clergy-men. Laurentius Bochellus re­cites [Page 92] & inserts it into his Decret. Eccles. Gall. l 6. Tit. 8. c. 19. p. 966. printed An. 1609. From which Authorities, I must tel all Country Farmers and others, now busling to exempt themselves by the power of the Souldiers from paying their antient due setled Tithes to their Ministers, that they shall at last but only change the hand, and be enforced to pay Tithes with a Witness to the Souldiers, even by obtaining their de­sires. Whiles I was a late close Prisoner in Pendennys Castle in Cornwall under Souldiers (I never yet knew why) I heard some Officers there (who had purchased Crown-lands in Cornwall, not for Mony, but Arrears of pay) amongst o­ther their New Projects oft times peremptorily saying, We will have all Tithes put down; Whereupon I told them, they should have done well to have added Saint James his advise to their peremptory words and wills; which he much censures; by saying, as they ought to do: If the Lord will, we will do this or that, James 4.13, 14, 15, 16. Which I thought they durst or could not subjoyn to their former words, because it was both against the will and command of God, that Ministers Tithes should be put down, espe­cially by Souldiers, who received far above the tenth part of them in Monthly Taxes for their pay; and from whose practice of receiving constant pay for their Military service, the Apostle proves the law­fulness of Ministers Tithes and Salaries under the Gospel, 1 Cor. 9.7. After which discoursing merrily with them, I told them, I con­ceived the true reason, why they and other Officers formerly for Tithes and Ministers, were now so eager against both, was, because most of them had lately purchased so much Crown, Bishops, Deans, and Chapters Lands charged with Tithes, that now out of mere covetousness they would pull down Tithes, to hook them into their own Purses from the Ministers, and though they were never purchased by them in their particulars to improve their over cheap Purchases, to the highest Advantage; and because others should not blame them for it, they turned Preachers themselves, that they might claim some seeming Right to their own and others Tithes, and save the charges of a Minister. At which they gave a silent blushing Smile, without a Reply. Not long after, about the beginning of January last there came a Petition ready drawn to the Castle, from the General Council of the Army-Officers, sitting at St. James's (as the Souldiers themselves informed me) directed [Page 93] to those, who then were stiled, The Parliament of the Com­mon-wealth of England, and Supream Authority of the Nation: though those who sent it knew the contrary, the Supream Power lay in others hands; The effect of which Petiti­on was, For the total Abolition of Tithes of all sorts, as a Jewish and Antichristian Bondage and Burden on the Estates and Consci­ences of the Godly; and that for the future they and the People might not be insnared or oppressed with Tithes, or any forced Maintenance to the Ministers, or any thing like it in the stead thereof. This Peti­tion all the Officers and Souldiers in the Garrison by beat of Drum, upon the change of the Gards, were summoned three several Mornings, (just before my Chamber window) to subscribe, together with a Printed Letter sent from the said Council of Officers, to all the Garrisons and Souldiers in Eng­land. Scotland, and Ireland, concerning the heads of their Intentions and Designs then on foot (and since executed) desiring their opinions of, and concurrence with them there­in by their Subscriptions. This Letter with the Petition a­gainst Tithes, were both read together to the Souldiers three several mornings, who at the close every morning, gave two or three great shouts; and afterwards subscribed both the Letter and Petition. One Ensign and two common Souldiers (who had formerly read the Worcester Petition for Tithes, which this was to countermine) though they readily subscribed the Letter, yet refused to sign the Petition; because they thought it very unreasonable to take away Ministers Tithes altogether, and provide no other maintenance in lieu of them; for which they were threatned to be turned out of the Garrison and cashiered ere long (as I was informed by other Souldiers) all the rest subscribed it, and divers of them a­gainst their Consciences (as they confessed to me) because they durst not displease their Officers, nor those who sent it to them. Some Officers and Souldiers of the Castle (who were most a­gainst all publick Ordinances and Ministers, never resorting e­ven to their own meetings, and unordained speaking Chaplains in the Castle) were sent and imployed into the Country to get Country-mens Subscriptions to the Petition against Tithes, in the name of the Well-affected Godly people in the County of Corn­wall; as if it proceeded from the Country-men, not the Of­ficers [Page 94] and Souldiers. In which service, these active stirring Spirits were very industrious in all parts to procure hands to this Petition, seducing divers to subscribe it, by mis­informing them, That it was only against Impropriators Tithes; which some honest Religious Gentlemen, substantial Free­holders, and Grand Jury-men of the Country being infor­med of, drew up a Petition (in the name of the Gentry, Free­holders, and others of the County, for the continuance of Tithes and Ministers setled Maintenance, subscribed with many hands, and presented by the grand Jury men to the Justices at their Ge­neral Quarter Sessions, to send up to those then in power, as the desire of the Gentlemen, Freeholders, and the Generality of the County) which Petition (as I have been informed) was presented accordingly by one of the Justices, by Order from the Bench, though one of his Companions when it was de­livered by the Grand Jury to him to present to the Bench, had the impudence to tear the Petition in pieces in open Court, before he acquainted his Associates with it; for which he received a publick check. After the Souldiers Subscription of the foresaid Petition against Tithes in the Castle, the like whereunto (as some Souldiers acquainted me) was sent to most other Garri­sons and Counties to subscribe, (by which we see whence such and other Petitions originally spring) I demanding the rea­son (of two or three Souldiers who were ingenuous) why they were so eager against Ministers Tithes, since they were (Spiritual) Souldiers as well as they, and themselves received above the Tithes of their Tithes in Taxes for their pay? Who returned me this blunt clamorous Answer, That they conceived the true reason of it was, that their Officers intended to have the Tithes them­selves, or at least the full value of them IN TAXES for their pay; that so the people much impoverished and complaining of their heavy Taxes, might be able to hold out the longer to pay them, being seemingly eased by the Souldiers in their Tithes, though they took them all out again in their increased Monthly Contributions; and that this was the private talk and opinion they had of this Petition amongst themselves, but they must not speak of it in publick to any. I am not apt to be suspicious of any mens Actions or Designs, unlesse I see some probable grounds of Inducement; but if this be one principal Design of the Officers and Souldiers [Page 95] present stickling against Ministers Tithes, to get them into their own hands in kind, (as they have done much of the Bi­shops, Deans, Chapters and Crown-lands, & the rest in monies in their Sales for their Arrears & pay) or at least to fetch them out of the Peoples Purses in doubled or augmented Taxes, equivalent to their Tithes in value, or exceeding them, (as the premises perswade me to incline to) the Ease and Gain either promised to, or ex­pected by the People upon the abolishing of Tithes, wil prove but a mere Delusion and Cheat at last; and instead of easing them, will only double, treble and augment their heavy in­tollerable Taxes (now imposed and disposed too by the Souldi­ers themselves alone, beyond all Presidents of former Ages, or Kings of the worst edition) and continue them the longer on their broken Estates and drained Purses. Which will be but a most just, deserved Divine punishment on them, for de­taining their Ministers Tithes, as the forecited Authors re­solve. Whereas if these Saint-seeming Officers and Souldiers, so much pretending the peoples ease and weal, would cast off the veil of Dissimulati [...]n, and really ease the people in good earnest out of Conscience and Justice, they should do it, as I told them, by disbanding all unnecessary Garrisons (mere useless Toyes to secure the Country either from an inva­ding or pillaging Enemy by Sea or Land, as I have made many Garrison-Souldiers acknowledge by unanswerable Demonstrations) disband their long-continued Army and Forces, kept up on the peoples drained Purses to their undoing (for what ends the very blindest men now see) put the peoples necessary defence when there is occasion into their own hands and elected Militia, and abolish all these heavy incessant Monthly Contributions, Taxes, Excises so long continued on them, to maintain the Army and in­rich the Officers; being the Peoples sorest Grievance (not Mi­nisters Tithes, which few count a Burden, and then upon mere Mistakes) which late created Monsters, (unknown to our Fore-Fathers, who knew none but Tenths, Fifteenths, and Subsidies duly granted, one or two in several years) will in short time eat out not only our Ministers and Peoples Tithes, but the remaining Nine parts too, and leave them most miserable Beggers in conclusion, without any Food or Pro­vision [Page 96] for their Souls or Bodies: and no other Magistracy, Ministry, Government, Laws, Liberties, Privileges, but what the Army-Officers and Souldiers, (their late pretended humble Servants, but now their Supream Lords and Masters) shall out of their mere Grace and Favour allow them, as their conquered Ʋassals, as many of them are not ashamed even pub­lickly in my hearing, as well as others, for to stile our own enslaved Nation, as well as Scots and Irish. And then they shall all lament their folly when too late, in concur­ring with these Swordmen to abolish their Ministers Tithes, in the old Poets Elegie, in a like ease as ours,

Impius haec tam culta novalia Miles habebit?
Barbarus has Segetes? En quò discordia Cives
Perdurit miseros! En queis consevimus Agros!

Suidas in Leone. Suidas records of Leo the Emperour, that when on a time he commanded Eulogius a learned Philosopher should have a Libe­ral Princely Reward bestowed on him▪ A great Officer and Cour­tier standing by said, That mony would be better bestowed for the maintenance of Souldiers. To which the Emperor replyed, Nay, I would rather it might be brought to pass in my time, That the Riches now bestowed upon Souldiers, might be given to maintain Philosophers. And I suppose all rational wise men now will be of the same mind concerning Ministers, and rather they should enjoy their Tithes and Glebes, than Souldiers and Buff-Preachers. All which out of true Affe­ction to our Ministry and my Native Country, without any private design to scandalize the Souldiers, I submit to all prudent mens consideration, who by this will be able to judge of the truth of this Proposition, without further proof.

In the A thing for­merly propo­sed by them in their Agree­ment of the People, pre­sented to the Commons House, Jan. 20. 1649. p. 24. Officers printed Proposals, August 13. 1652. to those they then stiled, the Supream Power of the Nation; I found the first of all to be, The abolishing of all Tithes, as an unequal, troublesom and contentious way of Maintenance, respect being had therein to others Rights, but not to the Ministers: who have the only true, proper, legal Right un­to them; and this to propagate the preaching of the Gospel. I [Page 97] profess when I read it in the Diurnal, I told some Souldiers who brought it me to read in Pendennys, 1. I could not pos­sibly conceive, that the putting down of Ministers Tithes, should be a means to propagate the preaching of the Gospel, but rather to suppress it, the very Scripture resolving the con­trary, Neh. 13.10, 11, 12. and 2 Chron. 31.3, &c. and the Heathen Poet concluding, Quis enim virtutem amplectitur ipsam, Praemia si tollas? 2ly. That I wondred men pro­fessing Conscience, Justice and Religion, should have more regard to Impropriators and others Rights to Tithes, who had no original right at all unto them, but only by Popes Bulls and Dispensations, and did no service for them, without any special regard to Ministers Rights, who had only a due and true Divine and human Right to them, and received them as due wages for their Ministry: I doubted, the only cause was, because they or some of their Friends were own­ers of Lessees of some Impropriations, which they were loath to part with for the Peoples ease, or give in to the Church, without a considerable Recompence. 3ly. That the sug­gestion of the unequal, troublesom and contentious way of Tithes, was a very strange and daring Objection against the very wisedom and Justice of God, who instituted and prescribed them to his own chosen people: against the wisdom, justice, prudence of our own, and all other Christian Kings, States, Parliaments, Churches, that have at first pitched up­on, and so long continued, established by successive Laws and Edicts this way of Maintenance as most equal; rich and poor paying a Tenth alike according to the greatness or smallness of their Estates, and the poor Farmer and Tenant paying them out of his Landlords Estate, as allowed in his Rent or Fine, not out of his own private purse alone, being more equal than any Taxes or Excises for the Armies pay. As least troublesom to the Ministers at least, who were only at the cost and trouble to carry in their Tithes at Harvest, when cut and severed from the Crop to their hands, to pre­vent the trouble of plowing, sowing, weeding, mowing, reaping, gathering, which might divert them from their Stu­dies and Ministry: And as little troublesom, or not over­troublesom at least, it is to the Husbandman, who sows, [Page 98] cuts and makes it up together with his own, and then only severs it out, and is not now bound to carry it into his Ministers Barn, much less to thresh, cleanse and sever his Corn, Wine or Oyl, and other Tithes, and carry it to Hie­rusalem [...], and the Treasuries of the Priests and Levites at his own cost; as the Deut. 12.17, 18. Neh. 13.12, 19. 2 Chro. 31.5, 6, 7, 8, 9. Purchase Pil­grimage. l. 2. c. 7. p. 130, 131. Israelites were obliged by God to do: which these Officers (had they lived amongst them, and payed a second Tenth, as well as a first, and first-fruits besides) would have petitioned God himself to abolish, as a troublesome way of Maintenance, which they could not brook, though the godly Israelites and Jews repined not against it, but chearfully brought up their Tithes to the Priests Treasuries as they were enjoyned. And as no waies contentious or litigious in it self, were people as just and con­scionable to pay their Tithes, there being many Parishes in England, (and that wherein I live one) wherein I never heard of any sute or quarrel betwixt the Ministers and Parishioners for Tithes, there being farre more sutes and contentions for just Rents, Annuities and Debts throughout the Nation than for Tithes (at least ten for one in proportion) before these late contentious Lawless times, when many unconscionable, unrighteous Wretches (pre­tending Religion, to cover their fraud, covetousness and oppression) will pretend Conscience for not paying their very Rents, and Debts, as well as Tithes: And such who have so little grace or fear of God as to contend with their Ministers for their just Tithes, will be altogether Litigious towards them, for any other Annuity, or setled way of Maintenance that can be devised in lieu of Tithes, seeing no­thing will content such perverse and contentious Wret­ches, but a Liberty to pay their Ministers only what they please, and that in conclusion shall be just nothing, as their subsequent Petitions and present Practices now manifest to God, Angels and men. And I doubt the Change of this antient, known, long approved certain Maintenance by Tithes, to any other certain or uncertain way, will create more sutes and troubles among people, than ever our Tithes did since their first institution. This was my subi­tan opinion of their Proposition, when I first read it; and [Page 99] shall serve for a publick answer to it now, if any insist upon it to prove Tithes inconvenient and burdensom to the Peo­ple, and therefore sit to be totally abolished.

The main Objection,Object. I ever yet This Obje­ction I finde recited in the Council of Lingon Anno 1404. & there Answered. Bochellus De­cret. Eccles. Gall. p. 963. read or heard against Tithes, is this, That Tithes are a great discouragement and hindrance to Husbandmens industry and improvements; since Mi­nisters must have not only the Tenths of their Lands, as they found them, but likewise of their Crop, Labour, Industry and Improve­ments, which is now (writes Canne and others more largely) one of the sorest Burthens and greatest Oppressions and Tyranny that lies upon them, and discourages many from improving the Lands to the publick prejudice.

I answer,Answ. 1. That this Objection no waies concerns Soldiers, Weavers, Tailors, Tradesmen, Townsmen and other Mechanicks, who are the most and greatest Sticklers and Petitioners against Tithes; but only Husbandmen and Countrey Gentlemen and Farmers living upon Tillage, very few of which (not one of a thousand) ever yet petitioned against Tithes, as such a grievous Oppression (at leastwise as a Farmer) for the burdensomness of Tithes, but only as an Anabaptist, or other Sectary, out of hatred and opposition to our Ministers Callings or Persons. And till the Generality or Major part of the Gentry, Yeoman­ry and Country Farmers in each County Petition and de­clare against their Predial Tithes as such an intollerable Grievance, no Officers, Soldiers, Citizens, Anabaptisti­cal Mechanicks, and busie-bodies in other mens Callings and Grievances which concern them not, are no waies to be heard, countenanced or credited in this particular, by any Powers whatsoever in point of Justice or Prudence. 2ly. The payment of Tithes, never yet discouraged any Person, either in the Land of Canaan, England, or other Countreys, (at least not any considerable number of men, or any that had either true Wisdome, grace, honesty, or love to God and the Ministrey) from any sort of Tillage or improvement whatsoever out of which Tithes are paid, the gain by the good husbandry and improvement being abun­dantly recompenced in the nine Parts, over and above the Tithes. And therefore till the Objectors can make good [Page 100] their allegation, by presidents of considerable number of wise, godly men and others, discouraged from Tillage and Improvements meerly by the payment of Predial Tithes out of them, in all former ages, or of late years, to the real preju­dice of the Publick, (which they can never do) this grand Objection against Tithes must be decried, both as Fabulous and Ridiculous, yea as Scandalous: The late Petition of the Cornish Gentlemen, Farmers and Yeomen (where such improve­ments are most made to their great Charge) for the conti­nuance of Tithes, being a sufficient Evidence to prove it such. 3ly. It is observable, that the Petitioners against Tithes upon this ground, are as eager See the Le­velers New Printed paper intituled, Englands Fundamentall Laws and Li­berties claim­ed, &c. and many Petiti­ons of late. Writers and Petitioners against all antient Customs, Tonnage, Poundage, and usual mode­rate Impositions upon Merchandize imported or exported, for the necessary defence of the Sea and Trading (amounting to as much upon every pound of Merchandize, as Tithes do upon Hus­bandmens Tillage and Improvements, the charges of the Fraight, Transportation and Customs in forein parts con­sidered, and to far more and that as a very great discourage­ment to Merchandize and Trading. Which as all wise men know to be a mere fabulous untruth, contrary to the experience of all States, Kingdoms, Republicks in the World, and of Holland it self, subsisting by Merchandize, where they pay as high Customs or higher, than See all Acts for Tonnage Poundage and Impositions, Mr. Hackwels argument a­gainst Imposi­tions, Cooks 2. Instit. p. 58, 59, to 64. our antient Legal Merchants Du­ties to the State amount to, which never made any Merchants to give over trading; (So if, when, and where rightly im­posed, managed, they are the greatest encouragements of Trade and Merchandize, by Guarding the Seas, and securing Traders a­gainst Enemies and Pirates, the only encouragement to Merchant-Adventurers; who must and will all give over trading, when they cannot safely put to Sea without apparent losse of all they trade for, by Enemies or Pirates. And therefore this clamourous Objection against Tithes should have no more weight with Wisemen to suppress them; than their idle clamour against all old Legal Customs, Rates and Duties for the necessary defence of the Sea and Trade, to abrogate them al­together, to the ruine both of our Traffique, Navy, and Merchants too that pay them. 4ly. This Objection is di­rectly made against the providence, wisdom, and policy of [Page 101] God himself, who prescribed Tithes amongst his own people out of all their Tillage and Improvements; and knew it would be no impediment to them, his Mal. 3.5, 10, 11, 12. See Augustine Ser­mo. 219. Blessing promised to their pay­ment of Tithes, being a greater improvement to them in their Crops, than all their extraordinary cost and pains amount­ed to: Wherefore it can be no impediment or discourage­ment to any real Saints good Husbandry or Improvement now; who deserves to reap no benefit by his Labour or Im­provements, if God himself shall have no share or portion out of them for the maintenance of his publick worship and Ministers. 5ly. If there were any truth or strength in this Ob­jection, yet it extends not unto all tithes, but only to such as are paid out of extraordinary chargeable Improvements; as to make mere barren Heath, Ling and Sands, out of which no former profits naturally grew, manurable for Corn or Pasture, Tillage and Meadows, Woods, out of which most predial Tithes arise; So there is a sufficient remedy against this pretended Mischief already provided in the best and strictest Statute made by the best of our Protestant Kings, for the true payment of Tithes, at the beginning our Reformation, when Popery was banished in the Parliament of 2 E. 6. c. 13. which provides, That all such barren Heath, or waste Grounds, which before that time have lyen barren, and paid no Tithes by reason of the said barronness, and now be, or hereafter shall be improved or converted into arable Ground or Meadow, shall from henceforth af­ter the term and end of seven years, next after such Improvement fully ended and determined, pay Tithe of the Corn and Hay growing on the same, and be discharged in the interim, as the words im­port, and our Judges have expounded it. All which consi­dered, this Objection must be henceforth exploded and LEVELLED to the ground.

Now because I find a clear Design and Endeavour in sun­dry Anabaptists, Officers, Souldiers, if they cannot prevail to put down Tithes upon other pretexts, yet to rob the Mi­nisters of them at present, if not in perpetuity, upon this pre­tence, to sequester and convert them to the use of the Army, for the pretended ease of the people in their future taxes. I shal for the cloze of this Proposition, and prevention of this detestable impious Sacrilegious plot against our Ministers and Religion too, [Page 102] propound and answer all such specious Arguments, Preten­ces, as may be produced by them to delude the people, veil over the execrable Impiety, and take off the odium of this prodigious Villany.

First, they may and will suggest, that they have some an­cient punctual Presidents to warrant, countenance, justifie this their Project. As namely, the practical example of Charles Martel King of France, who (about the year of our Lord, 730. as the Marginal Gul. Malmes­buriensis, De Gestis Regum Angl. l. 1. c. 4. Juocus Chron. in Carolo Simplici. Cent. Magd. 8. c. 7. & 9. Dr. Til­lesly in his A­nimadversions on Mr. Sel­dens History of Tithes, p. 64, to 69. Authors report) having per­petual wars, and seldom or never peace in his Kingdom, Ideo res Ecclesiarum suis Militibus in stipendium contulit maxima ex parte; did thereupon bestow the Lands, Revenues, Rents, and Tithes too (as the Act of Restitution with others prove) of Parish-Churches, Monasteries, Bishops, Deans and Chapters upon his Souldiers for their Pay and Arrears; for the greatest part: And surely upon a very Godly and just reason (as John Canne, and some Army-Officers will swear) thus expressed in his Decree recorded inTom. 3. p. 648. Goldastus and Mr.Review, p. 466. Selden: ut sub­veniatur necessitatibus Publicis, et Salariis Militum, pro Dei Ecclesiae & bono statu Reipublicae, & uniuscujusque propria pace pugnantium: That he might relieve the Publick Necessities, and pay and reward the Souldiers fighting for the Church of God, and the good of the State of the Common-wealth, and the proper peace of every one: as our Officers and Souldiers now say they do. And is it not then most just they should have all the Lands, Glebes, and Tithes of the Church, King, Com­mon-wealth, and of every particular Person too, who have fought all this while for them and their defence? To this they may chance to adde, the President of the Extravag. De Decimis, c. 10. Joannes Sarisbur. De Nugis Curia­lium, l. 7. c. 21. Mr. Sel­dens History of Tithes, c. 6. p. 120, 121. Templers and Hospi­talers, who being no part of the Clergy, but Religious Souldiers, imployed only to fight in the defence of the Church, were by special Bulls and Grants of several Popes exempted from paying any Tithes at all to any Ministers out of the Lands belonging to their several Orders, Because they fought for the Church against her Enemies, as Turks, Saracens, and other Infidels. Therefore there is great reason, equity all our Officers and Souldiers who have lately fought, or are now or hereafter fighting for the Church against her Enemies and Malignants, should be totally and finally discharged from paying any [Page 103] Tithes at all out of their Old or New Purchased Lands, Leases, Cattel, Estates, Spoyls, Pay or other increase. Be­sides, most of our Army-Officers, and very many of the Souldiers, are extraordinarily gifted, inspired from Heaven, and constant Speakers or Preachers Cannes 2d. voyce from the Temple, p. 24, &c. transcending all Black-coated Ministers, yea the undoubted new Ministers and Priests of Jesus Christ, as many deem them; So as they may be truly stiled 1 Pet. 2.5, 9. a chosen Generation, a Roy [...] Priesthood, yea Army of Priests, being Rev. 1.5. made Kings and Priests by Christ himself to God the Father: as John Canne hath pub­lished in his Voyce, p. 24, 27, 28, 29. Therefore they may not only enter into our Ministers Churches, Pulpits, and dispossess them of them (as he there asserts and presseth them to put in execution;) but be capable in right, equity, justice, to receive all their Tithes to their own use: Nay one step more, John Canne in his Ʋoyce, p. 27. thus peremptorily concludes, ‘I will affirm, and abide by it; since it hath pleased the Lord to draw out the hearts of some Souldiers and others, (who were never brought up at Universities to learning) pub­lickly to preach, (which is not above 10, or 12. years) the People of this Common-wealth have had more true Light and glorious Discoveries of Christ and his Kingdom, than all the Nations Ministers ever before made known to them, since first they took their calling from the Sea of Rome, till this Day. On the contrary, the greatest Heresies and Blasphemies which have been in the world have been broached by Ministers (and Scholars) whereas Lay-men at the same time have been sound in the Faith, and zealously earnest against such abominable Doctrines.’ Therefore there is just ground that both our Ʋniversities, and all Colleges for Advancement of Learning, should be suppressed as the very poyson, bane, sub­version of Religion, Church and Common-wealths, (as some Souldiers and the Anabaptists generally deem them) and their Lands (as well as Bishops, Deans, Chapters, and Ministers Glebes and Tithes) sold or conferred on the Officers and Souldiers, of the Army for their better encouragement, reward and supportation, to propagate defend Religion and the Com­mon wealth: A design now eagerly prosecuted by some.

To which let them receive this Answer before hand, since [Page 104] I intend not any future Treatise of this nature, 1. That I never read of any pious Generals, Armies, Officers, or Soul­diers in Scripture (the Gal. 6.16. 1 Cor. 15.1, 2, 3. rule of Faith and Manners) that spoyled the Church or Ministers of their Lands and Tithes to maintain their wars, or enrich, reward themselves; but we find it expresly recorded of Gen. 14.20. Hebr. 7.2, 4, &c. Abraham, the Father of all the Faithfull, that he paid Tithes even of the Spoyls of the first Wars, to the first P [...]st we find in Scripture, unto Christ himself, both in the Old and New Testament, for other Christian Souldi­ers imitation. The like we read of 1 Chron. 26.26, 27, 28. David, and all his Officers, Captains of the Army, with sundry others fore-cited; whose Presidents are more obliging and commendable than Charles Martels. 2ly. That it was the Custom, use and pious practice of many Pagan Warlike Nations, as the Romans, Graecians, Carthaginians, Tyrians, Saxons to do the like, who consecrated the Tenths of all their Spoyls to their Idol-Gods and Priests, as we may read at large in Mr. Seldens History of Tithes and Review, c. 3. and in Mr. Richard Mountague his Diatribe thereon, ch. 3. Therefore they are worse than Pa­gans who neglect not only to pay their Ministers the Tenth of their Spoyls, but will even spoyl them of their Glebes and Tithes besides. 3ly. It is very observable (and let our Souldiers and Officers consider it in good earnest) That God himself specially consecrated and devoted the future Spoyls, a Sacrifice for and to himself, and all the Spoyls, Ci­ty of Jericho (the very first City taken by the Israelites in the Land of Canaan) as a sacred First-fruits and kind of Tenth for the use of his Sanctuary and Priests, in these memorable words, Josh. 6.17, 18, 19. And the City shall be devoted, even it and all that is therein (except Rahab and her Family and House) to the Lord, and you in any wise keep your selves from the devoted thing, lest you make your selves accur­sed, when ye take of the devoted thing, and make the Camp of Israel a curse and trouble it. But all the Sil­ver and Gold and Vessels of Brass and Iron are conse­crated unto the Lord, they shall come into the Treasury of the House of the Lord. Whereupon when the City was taken, they burnt it and all that was in it (as a Sacrifice to the Lord) But the Silver and Gold and the Vessels of Brass [Page 105] and of Iron, they put into the Treasury of the House of the Lord, v. 24. But Acban (a covetous plundring Souldi­er) seeing among the rich Spoyls of the City a goodly Babylonish Garment, and two hundred Shekels of Silver, and a wedge of Gold, coveted, took and hid them in the midst of his Tent; which so much kindled the Anger of God against the Children of Israel for this his Trespass in these devoted things; That they were presently smitten before their Enemies of Ai, and fled before them. Whereupon Joshua their General and chief Governour humbling himself before God, and requiring the cause of this ill success; God returned him this Answer, Israel hath sinned, and they also have transgressed my Covenant which I commanded them; for they have taken of the devoted thing, and have also stollen and dissembled also, and they have also put it among their own stuff. Therefore the children of Israel could not stand before their Enemies, but turned their backs before Enemies, Because they were accursed, neither will I go with you any more. O Israel thou canst not stand before thine Enemies, untill thou hast taken away the accursed devoted thing from among you. Whereupon this Sacrilegious Robbery of Achan being discovered by Lot and his own Confession; and hid stoln Plunder devoted to God taken forth of his Tent, and powred out before the Lord in the presence of Joshua, and all the Children of Israel: Joshua passed this Judgement against him for his Sacrilege, Why hast thou troubled Is­rael? the Lord shall trouble thee this day: and all Isra­el stoned him with Stones, and they burned them with fire (as a devoted Sacrifice to God) after they had stoned him with stones. And they raised over him a great heap of stones unto this day. So the Lord turned from the fiercenesse of his Anger. Where­fore the place is called the Ʋalley of Achor (that is Trouble) to this day. And when Hiel, many hundred years after in Ido­latrous Ahabs daies, would needs seize upon the devoted Spoyl of Jericho, and build it again for his own habitation; he laid the Foundation thereof in his first-born Abiram, and set up the Gates thereof in his youngest Son Segub, (that is, God destroyed, and cut off all his Posterity before the Gates were set up, and the Building finished) according to the word of the Lord, which he spake by Joshua the Son of Nun; as we read at large, Josh. 7. [Page 106] throughout, 1 Kings 16.34. and Josh. 6.16. I read of Herodotus, l. 5. c. 25. Vale­rius Maximus, l. 5. c. 3. Dio­dorus, An. 4. Olymp. 98. Dr. Vsher An­nales Veteris Testamenti, p. 260. Ataxerxes, that (in imitation of Cambyses before him) he caused some Judges (betraying their Trusts, like See Holin­shed, Speed, and others. 10, & 11 R. 2. Mr. St. Johns Speech against the Shipmony-Judges. Tresy­lian of old, and too many of late) to be excoriated alive, and their Skins to be hanged up round about the Tribunals, that the o­ther Judges sitting upon them might have an example hanging before their eyes, what punishment the pravity of Iudges did demerit. I desire all Souldiers, Officers, and Sacrilegious Anabaptists, would hang up these Skins and Examples of Achan and Hiel before their eyes, recorded in sacred Writ: and then make this use and application to themselves of them. If Achan for stealing away only a Babylonish Garment and a few Shekles of Silver and Gold of the very Spoyls of Iericho devoted to the service or Treasury of the House of the Lord, brought so much wrath, misery upon the whole Nation, and Camps of Israel, and such a fatal death and exemplary punishment upon him­self; and Hiel only for building upon the ruines of the Soyl of this devoted City drew down sudden Death and Destruction upon all his Sons and Posterity; O what strange exemplary wrath, vengeance, and judgements shall we then draw upon the whole Nation, Army, our Souls, Bodies and Posterities to their utter extirpation, if instead of ren­dring unto God and his Ministers the Tenth of our warlike Spoyls belonging of right unto them; we shall sacrilegious­ly rob them not only of these Tenthes, and all other issuing out of our Lands and Estates, but even of all their other Glebes, Rectories, Tithes, Revenues; demolish the very Churches, Houses, dedicated to Gods worship, or turn them into Houses for us and our Posterities to inhabit: and obsti­nately, yea atheistically refuse to take warning by their, and other sacrilegious Persons tragical examples? 4ly. Let those who will imitate Charles Martels President, remember 1. his punishment: Gul. Mal­mesburi. De Gestis Regum, l. 1. c. 4. Vita Eucherii apud Surium, Tom. 1.10. F. Gratian, Caus. 16. qu. 1. Edit. Gregoriana. Flodourdus Rhem. Hist. l. 2. c. 12. Juonis Chron. Mr. Seldens History of Tithes, p. 51.465. Dr. Tillesley, p. 67. Historians record, That for this his Sa­crilege, he was smitten with a long and terrible Convulsion of all his Members whereof he died in great anguish: that Eucherius Bishop. [Page 107] of Orleans in a Ʋision SAW HIM DAMNED FOR IT; and that upon search made in his Tomb (by an Angels Admonition) it was also confirmed for truth, no relique of his Corps being found therein, but only a dreadfull Serpent. Mat. [...] Flores [...] An. 853. [...]. 306. Apud Frances Carolus Mar­tellus insignis vir fortitudinis, exactis vitae sue diebus in Ecclesia beati Dionysii legitur esse Sepultus, sed quia Patrimonia cum Decimis omnium fere Ecclesiarum Galliae, pro stipendio commilitonum suorum mutilaverat, miserabiliter à malig­nis Spiritibus de Sepulchro corporaliter avulsus, usque in hodier­num diem nusquam comparuit; as Matthew Westminster stories of him. 2ly. The censure passed against him for this Sacri­legious Robbery, by the Marginal Authors and others: e­specially by Agobardus Bishop of Lions, An. 828. in his Book Bibliotheca Patrum, Tom. 9. pars 1. p. 600, 601. De Dispensatione, & Rei Ecclesiasticae contra Sacrilegos, wor­thy the reading, who thus complains, p. 269. Nunc non solum possessiones Ecclesiasticae, sed ipsae etiam Ecclesiae cum posses­sionibus venundantur, &c. Which he condemns as detestable Sacrilege execrable to God and men: By Petrus Damianus, Anno 1060. l. 1. Epist. 11. where he gives this censure of his practice, and others: Inter omnia vero hic mala, Illud ex­cedit, et Diabolicam fere modum videtur aequare nequitt­am. Quia pradiis in Militem profligatis, &c. Moreover among all wicked Acts, this exceedeth, and seems almost to equal the very wickednesse of the Devil, That all the Farms and Pos­sessions of the Church being prodigally spent upon Souldiers, insuper etiam et Decimae & plebes adduntur in Beneficium Secu­laribus: Moreover Tithes and people are likewise added and conferred on (these) Secular men for a reward: which in his lib. 4. Epist. 12. & lib. 5. Epist. 9. he stiles a great Sin, Sacrilege, and Prophanation of holy things; concluding, What is it to turn Tithes to the use of Souldiers and Secular men, nisi mortiferum iis virus, quo pereant, exhibere? but to give them deadly Poyson whereby they may perith? Petrus Blesensis Arch-deacon of Bath: Epist. 82. & Joannis de Belith De Divi­norum Officiorum Explicatione, c. 5. write much to the same ef­fect; making it a greater Robbery and Sacrilege to take away Mi­nisters Tithes, though it be by the Popes own Bulls, than violently to take away and plunder Mens Horses as they are riding or cart­ing in the High way, and convert them to their proper use; as [Page 108] Souldiers use to do. 3ly. Let them remember, That Charles Martels immediate Successors so much detested both his practice and Sacrilege, that byAventinus, Annal. Boy­orum, l. 3. p. 179. Centur. Magd. 8. c. 7, & 9. Golda­stus Constit. Imp. Tom. 1. p. 15. Dr. Til­lesley Ani­madversions on Mr. Selden, p. 64, to 75.publick Edicts they decreed in these terms, That the Tithes and Ecclesiastical Lands and Goods seised upon by prophane Persons, (so they sti­led the Souldiers possessing them) should be all restored: and so they were accordingly, and those Harpyes robbed of their Sacrilegious prey. Let the late Purchasers of such Tithes and Lands remember it, and think of a possible, if not probable Act of Resumption, in case they make no volun­tary restitution.

4ly. Let them consider the large Revenues the Popish Clergy at this day enjoy in France, amounting to above 12. Millions of Annual Rents, at a moderate value, besides mony and oblations; as Bodine, Thuanus, Hist. l. 28. Ioannes de Laety Descriptio Galliae, c. 17, 18. record. To which I might adde the extraordinary great Revenues of the Popish Clergy in Spain, recorded by Lucius Marineus, Siculus, Ioannes de Laet, in his Hispaniae Descriptis, cap. 20. & Jo. Boterus in his Hist. Universalis, and of the Popish Clergy in the King­dom of Naples in Italy, registred by Thomas Segethus, De Principibus Italiae, p. 121. Which they still enjoy, not­withstanding their manifold Wars, without sale or Diminu­tion for their Soldiers pay. And will it not be an intollerable Impiety, Sacrilege, dishonor for Protestant Souldiers, and our new Republick, not to allow our Ministers so much as their inconsiderable remaining Rectories, Glebes, Tithes, to sup­port our Religion, and instruct and save the Peoples Souls?

5ly. The reason rendred by Martel and others, That the Of­ficers and Souldiers deserve the Lands and Tithes of the Church and Ministers, because they fight for the defence of the Church, is very strange, and just the self-seeking Plea and Practice of sundry of our Officers and Souldiers at this day, scarce to be parallel'd in any Age, 1. They were raised for the Exact Col­lection. p. 340, 342, 376, 572, 631, 632, 641, 743. A Colle­ction, p. 428, 8, 13, 41, 43, 44, 49, 51, 61, 64, 96, 99, 623, 696, 879. Ap­pendix p. 15. and else­where. Defence and Preservation of the late Kings Person, Posterity, and just Rights of his Crown: Ergo in discharge of this Trust they have most justly sentenced, beheaded the King; outed, dis-inheri­ted his Posterity; and seized upon all the Crown-Lands and Revenues in his three Kingdoms for their own use, pay, sup­port, [Page 109] reward and inheritance. 2ly. They were raised and fought for the preservatirn and defence of the Kingdom, Parlia­ment, and Members Privileges, and Laws and Liberties of Eng­land: Therefore they have justly by armed violence in­vaded, subverted them all, disposed of all the Common wealth and Revenue of the Nation to themselves and their Instruments to support themselves and their usurped Arbi­trary Power and Government over us; and may null and pull down not only our Old, but their own New-created Parli­aments, and State-Councils (as they stile them) and change both Government & Governors at their pleasure. 3ly. They fought for the particular Defence, Peace, Safety of every mans Person and Estate in our three Kingdoms: Therefore they may seize upon and dispose of all their Persons, Lands, E­states at their pleasures, and impose what Taxes, Excises, Imposts they list, and exercise a legislative absolute Arbitrary and Tyrannical Power over them, without a lawfull Par­liament, to eat them quite out of all, Lastly, They fought for our Church, Ministers, Religion: Ergo they may subvert them all, and seise upon all Church-Lands, Revenues, Re­ctories, Glebes, Tithes, yea Churches and Church-yards too, for to reward, support and pay the Army; and possess themselves of what ever our Ancestors setled on the Church and Ministers to instruct and save the Peoples Souls, as a just Salary for killing their Christian Brethrens Bodies, and destroying the peoples Souls and Bodies too. Certainly the worst Enemies they fought against, would not, could not have done worse than this, nor yet so bad. This cer­tainly is a Devastation, Destruction, not a Defence or Preserva­tion, of what they were raysed and payed to protect, an In­vasion and Depredation, not a Patronage and Protection: a Re­medy more destructive than the worst Disease, War, Enemy, who could but have stript us of no more had they conquered us, than these our new armed Defenders of the Faith, Church, King, Parliament, Laws and Liberties have done or intend to do, as many fear. It was John Baptists Evangelical Pre­cept to all Souldiers whatsoever, Luke 3.14. Do violence to none, (in Person, Lands, or Estate; much lesse to Ministers privile­ged by the Law of War from Violence:) and to be content [Page 110] with their Wages: without seising, sequestring, invading the Lands, Estates, Glebes, Tithes, Persons of Ministers, King and Members or any others they fought for, who never raised, nor waged Souldiers to deprive them of their Pa­trimonies, Estates, Callings, Rights, Laws, Liberties, Pri­vileges of Parliament, Government, Governours, but only to secure them in the full possession of them all. This new Martial law and practice then, is both irrational and une­vangelical, fitter for professed Theeves, Turks, and Pyrates, than Christian Souldiers; and far different from the foresaid Christian Souldiers practice in former Ages; who as they would by no means be engaged by their Ambros. Orat. in Julia­num, & Gro­tius de Jure Belli, p. 35, 88. Pagan Empe­rors or Generals commands to fight against any of their Christian Brethren, choosing rather to obey God their Supream Emperour than Men: So the famous Grotius de Jure Belli, l. 1. c. 2. sect. 3. p. 35, 36, 88. Crantzius Sax­onitorum, l. 7. c. 16. Thebean Legion of Christian Souldiers and their Officers under Julian the Apostate, when he commanded them to bring forth their Arms against the Christians, returned him this most Heroick Answer, worthy to be written in Golden Letters, briefly, fully and elegantly ex­pressing the Duty of every true Christian Souldier in all A­ges and Cases; Offerimus nostras in quemlibet hostem manus, quas sanguine innocentium cruentare nefas ducimus. Dexterae ipsae pugnare adversus Impios & Inimicos sciunt, lani­are, pios et Cives nesciunt. Meminerimus nos (and O that our Army-Officers and Souldiers would remember it likewise) Pro Civibus potius quam adversus Cives arma sumpsisse. Pugnabimus semper pro Iustitia, pro pie­tate pro innocentium salute (not for Kings, Bishops, Deans, Chapters, Ministers Lands, Revenues, Tithes, Estates, the things now fought for:) Haec fuerunt hactenus pretia pericu­lorum. Pugnavimus pro fide, quam quo pacto conservemus tibi (Imperatori) Si hanc Deo nostro non exhibemus? O that this Resolution were now engraven in every Army-Officers and Souldiers heart! our Ministers then needed not to fear the losse of their Tithes, Rectories, Churches, nor our Universities, Colleges, Corporations, or any other the disinheris on of their Lands, Laws, Liberties, Powers, by Mi­litary Rapines, violences, and usurpations.

6ly. The Exemptions of the Hospitalers and Templers [Page 111] Lands from paying of Tithes, was a Exttavag. De Decimis, c. 10 Mr. Seldens History p. 120, 121. meer Papal Innovati­on and Devise, which Canne, who pleads so much against Tithes upon this mistake that they are Popish, and all his Confederates should be ashamed to own and imitate: The Is­raelites Gods own people during their possession of Canaan, had many forein and Civil wars in most of their Judges, See the Book of Judges, Kings, Chron. Maccabes, Jo­sephus, Paul Eber and o­thers. Kings and High Priests successive Reigns, and Roman Go­vernours over them: yet we never read, that any of their Ge­nerals, Officers or Souldiers, fighting for their Churches, Priests and Religions Defence against forein or Domestique idola­trous Enemies, pretended the least Exemption of their Lands or Estates from paying all their antient forementioned ac­customed Tithes to the Levites, Priests and Poor: nor any Christian Souldiers else but the Popish Templers and Hospi­talers for the Lands conferred on their Orders, not for their private Inhabitances. And if Souldiers be obliged to pay Tithes of all their Spoyls and Gains of war (as I have abun­dantly proved) much more then of their real and personal Estates, as well as any others not in armes: especially where they are well paid and war not on their own expences, but other mens purses: Amongst the Jewes we never read of any Taxes, Tributes or Contributions imposed on the Cities, Houses, Lands or Tithes of the People and Levites for the main­tenance of wars, or pay of Souldiers, from which even Artax­erxes (a heathen Conqueror) exempted them by an express De­cree, Ezra 7.24. Yet they received Tithes of all their Kings, Generals, Captains, Souldiers, as well as Peoples Lands and increase both in times of war and peace. But our Army-Officers and Souldiers now receive above the Tithes of all our Ministers Tithes, Glebes in Monthly Taxes and Contri­butions by arbitrary, illegal Impositions without their or Consents in Parliament, contrary to their Antiqu. Ec­clesiae Brit. p. 209, to 220, 282, 284, 299, 300. Thomas Walsingham. Hist Angl p. 348. See the Acts for the Clergies Sub­sidies in all our Kings reigns, granted only by them­selves in Con­vocation. antient Privi­leges, all former Presidents and our Laws. Therefore there is all Equity and Justice they should receive the Tenths both of their Lands, Goods and Gains of war too, and that no Offi­cers or Souldiers should be exempted from Tithes as the Tem­plers and Hospitalers were, who had no other Pay or Salaries but their Lands, and received no constant Contributions from the Clergy. Xenophon Helien l. 4. Mountague Diatriba p. 500, 501. Xenophon, that famous learned Greek [Page 112] Heathen Commander, having made the most Noble retreat we ever read of in Story, out of the upper part of Asia with ten thousand men through mountains, frost and snow, in memorie of his thankfull­ness to the Gods for this safe return, separated the Tenth of all the Spoyls that his Army had gained in the wars, and by general consent, commited them to the Captains to be dedicated to Apollo and Diana; That for Apollo, was layd up at Delphos in the Athenean Treasury; but with that other Tenth Dianas share, Xenophon himself purchased a Peece of Land, and built thereon a Temple and an Altar to Diana, and appointed the Tenth of the yearly increase forever unto it. This Pagan Commander and his Captains and Souldiers were so far from exempting their Lands from Tithes to their Idol- Deities, that they Tithed the very Spoyls of their wars to them, and built and endowed a Temple to Diana with Lands, and Tithes out of their own Lands and Estates for ever. Which shall for ever silence and shame those Christian Army-Officers, Souldiers, Templers and Hospitalers, who would exempt not only their Spoyls, but their Lands and Estates from all Tithes to God and his Ministers because they are Souldiers, and pretend to fight for their Defence.

7ly. This Reason, that they should enjoy not only their own but our Ministers Tithes, because they are an Army of Preachers and Priests, and more Officers, Souldiers in the pre­sent Army Preachers or Speakers (as they phrase them) than ever in any Army in the world before, hath frequently mind­ed me of that saying of Lib. 4. Epist. 38. Pope Gregory the first (which fam­ous In his Expo­sition on 2 Thess. 2. p. 116. Bishop Jewel much insisted on) concerning Antichrist. The King of Pride (Antichrist) is at hand, and which is an horrible Thing to be spoken, Sacerdotum est praeparatus Ex­ercitus, an Army of Priests is prepared to gard and usher him in. Certainly I never heard nor read of such an Army of Priests (as our Army now is, before; wherein there are not only some hundreds of disguised Popish Antichristian Priests and Jesu­ites (as most wisemen conceive) under the disguise of Soul­diers) preaching, venting, many notorious Errors, Blasphemies and Antichristian Tenents, to infect the Army and Nation too, but many preaching Colonels, Captains, Officers, Souldiers of all sorts, not a preaching General (as some say) too; And a­mong [Page 113] others, one of these Army-Preachers not long since pub­lished a Book with this Title: Antichrist with us; by John Spittle-house, a member of the Army: printed at London, 1648. which intimated to me at first sight, that Antichrist was in the Army: and truly if they proceed (as Canne would have them) to usurp our Ministers Office, Rectories, Glebes, Tithes, Churches to themselves, and Suppresse our Ministers, Churches, Parishes, as Antichristian; I shall then justly suspect, and others will confidently conclude, they are the very Army of Priests prophecied of by Pope Gregory, who shall forcibly usher and bring in Antichrist the King of Pride (who 2 Thess. 2.4 exalteth himself above all that is called God or Worshipped, that is, above Kings, Lords, Parliaments, and all Civil and Ecclesiastical Powers whatsoever, as See Dr. Ab­bot, Dr. Beard, Dr. Squire of Antichrist, and Dr. Sclater on that place. Expositors resolve) into our Church, and re-establish him in his Throne.

8ly. I never read in the Old Testament or New, that Christ Authorized, Commissioned or sent out any Captains, or Souldiers to preach the Gospel, or made choyce of such to be his Apostles and Ministers of the Gospel: Surely had this been a part of their duty as Christian Officers and Souldiers, John Baptist Christs forerunner would have instructed those Luke 3.14. Souldiers who came purposely to and demanded of him: what shall we do? in another manner than he did; and said unto them; Go and preach the Gospel, and instruct the ignorant Souldiers and people publickly where ever you quarter: in the first place; and then, Do violence to no man, and accuse no man falsly, and be content with your wages: The only precepts he gave them; Which our Army-Officers and Souldiers since they turned Preachers have much forgotten and neglected: I read of 2. devout Centurions in the New Testament eminent for their faith, piety, Charity, and of one devout Souldier; yet neither of them a publick Preacher: The first of these Colonels or Centurions Luke 7.2, to 11. built a Synagogue for the Jews and others to meet and preach in who were Priests and Ministers; but I read not he ever preached in it publickly himself. The latter (Centu­rion) is thus characterized, Acts 10.1, 2. That he was a devout man, and one that feared God with all his House, which gave much Alms to the people, and prayed to God continually: but doubt­lesse he never preached, for then it would have been there [Page 114] recorded, that he preached continually as well as prayed: Yea, he was so far from this, that when the Angel of God came to him in a vision; he sayd, Thy Pr [...]yers and thine Alms (not thy preaching, therefore he preached not at all, or if he did God accepted it not, but disliked it as against his word and will) are come into remembrance before God: And now send men to Joppa and call for Simon Peter, he shall tell thee what thou oughtest to do. ‘Whereupon he presently sent two of his Servants, and a devout Souldier continually waiting on him (but not on preaching) for the Apostle Peter to preach to him, his Friends and Family; who repairing to him, Cornelius goeth forth to meet him, falls down at his feet, worship­peth him, talks with him, brings him into his House, where many were come together; relates his vision to Peter (mentioning again his Prayers and Alms, but not his preaching) concluding thus: Now therefore are we all here present before God TO HEAR (not preach) all things that are COMMANDED THEE of God;’Whereas some Centurions, Colonels, Captains and Souldiers of this Age, if Peter himself should come to their Assemblies or Quarters, would be readier to teach and preach to him, than to hear him, and apter to be his Teachers than Auditors, as these only were: After which Peter preached to him and his company; I find another sort of Captains and Souldiers in the New Testament Matth. c. 26, & 27, & 28. Mar. 14, & 15. Luk. 22, 22. John 18, & 19. ‘Who went out and apprehended our Sa­viour Jesus Christ, mocked him, derided, crowned his Head with Thorns, stripped him of his Rayment, put him on a purple Robe, bowed their Knees before him in scorn, saying, Hayl King of the Iews, blind folded, and then strook him with their hands, and bade him prophe­cy who smote him: guarded him to his Tryal, carried and nayled him to his Crosse, crucified him between two Theeves, pierced his side with a Spear, gave him Gall and Vinegar to drink, parted his Garments amongst them, cast lots upon his Vesture, and would have broke his Legs but that he was dead. After which they watched and guarded his Sepulchre; took large Mony of the Priests to smother the truth of Christs Resurrection by reporting a Lye, that his Disciples came and stole him away whiles [Page 115] they were asleep; who TOOK the mony and did as they were taught;’ and are branded for ever with this Epi­phomena, These things therefore the Souldiers did. ‘After which some of this rank of Officers and Souldiers by Acts 12.1, to 12. Herods command killed James the Brother of John with the Sword, apprehended, imprisoned, chained, and most strictly garded the Apostle Peter, in order to put him to death the next day; but that the Angel of God miracu­lously delivered him. Others of them Acts 21.31, 32, 33, &c. c. 22.24, &c. c. 23.23, &c. to 35. c. 27, & 28. apprehended, bound, and would have scourged Paul; garded and car­ried him from prison to prison; and when he was sent Prisoner to Rome; when the ship was wracked, and their lives saved only for Pauls sake, they gave the Centurion coun­sel to kill Paul, and all the other Prisoners, lest they should escape from them by that wrack.’ These Souldi­ers no doubt were truly Antichristian; and if the Matth. 12.33. Luk. 6 43, 44. Tree may be judged and known by its Fruits, and Souldiers by their Actions and Intentions, I doubt there are far more of this later sort than of the first in this Age, and if John Cannes Voyce from the Temple be imbraced for Gospel in every point by the whole Army, no doubt they will then be all of this later rank, not the Ministers and2 Tim. 2.3. Soldiers of Jesus Christ, but of Antichrist alone; and theHebr. 6.6. Crucifiers of Christ again in his faithfull Ministers and Members; which I desire them all sadly to consider.

9ly. Admit them to be made Kings and Priests to God the Father by Christ, in a spiritual sence, as Rev. 1.5. 1 Pet. 2.5, 9. all the Elect Saints of God are; will it thereupon follow, that they may all lawfully preach in publick, administer Sacraments, and ex­ercise the proper Function of Priests and Ministers? If so, then by the self-same reason, they may all lawfully exercise the office and power of Kings, as well as of Priests (as some of them do in the highest degree beyond all Presidents of any our Kings before them) and so under pretext of sup­pressing our Monarchy, and one sole King as dangerous and pernicious; we shall have now no less than an whole Army of Kings to rule and reign over us, and to engross not only all the old Kings Lands and Revenues, but the greatest part of the Peoples far surmounting of a Million or two each year [Page 116] in Contributions and Excise to support their new Royal State and Dignity; as well as an Army of Priests, who have and would swallow up our whole Churches Revenues, Glebes, Tithes, Patrimony, and our Ministry too, for to support their new Evangelical Priesthood; that so they may resemble both Christ and Melchisedec in their Kingly and Priestly Offices uni­ted in one Person; though not in the Title of their King­dom as the Apostle interprets it, Hebr. 7.2. being by Inter­pretation KING OF RIGHTEOUSNESSE, and after that also, King of SALEM, which is KING OF PEACE; which Souldiers who make a gainfull Trade of War and Rapine delight not in.

10ly. I do affirm, and will abide by it, that since the time some disguised Popish Priests, Jesuits, Sectaries, Hereticks, Ana­baptists and other Seducers (rather than the Lord) drew out the heart of some Souldiers and other Mechanicks (in truth or disguise) publickly to preach, the People of this Com­mon-wealth, have had more abominable, false, damnable, atheistical, Antichristian Heresies, Errors, Blasphemies, New Opinions, and old exploded Heterodox Heresies and Tenents of all sorts whatsoever against the very Essence, Nature, Attri­butes of God himself, the three sacred Persons in the Trinity, the Old and New Testament, Law, Gospel, all the fundamental Articles of Faith and Salvation, the Sacraments, Ministers, Ordinances of God; and practical publick, private Duties of Piety and Christianity, under the Names and specious Titles of New Lights, and glorious Discoveries of Christs Kingdom, broach­ed by Souldiers and Lay-Preachers, than in all the times since the Gospel was first preached in this Island, and more than ever any one Age, Church, Nation, or all our Ministers put together since the Creation till now were guilty of, and these publickly averred both in Presse and Pulpit, and the Authors of them exempted from any corporal or pecuniary punish­ments, by the Civil Magistrates, by the avowed See Col. Prides Beacon quenched. printed Positions and Proposals of the General Council of Army-Of­ficers and Souldiers in sundry Papers. For full and infallible proof whereof, I shall remit the Reader to Mr. Edwards Gangrenaes, the Catalogues of the Heresies, Blasphemies, Errors, collected by the London and Devonshire Ministers, the Statio­ners Beacon fired, and New Law, p. 78, 97. Which stiles Heaven, [Page 117] Hell, the resurrection of the Flesh, a Dream of our Preachers; The History of the Scripture an Idol, &c. And all this by the ma­lice of Satan, the underhand practices of Jesuites and our Popish Adversaries to defame, ruine our Church, Ministers, Religion, seduce thee to Popery, Atheism, and reduce us back to the Antichristian Tyranny of the Sea of Rome, as I have large­ly manifested in the fifth Chapter. Whereas Canne cannot charge our Parochial Ministers and Presbyterians with any such Blasphemies, Heresies, Errors, as those he pleads for are guilty of in the highest degree, nor with those Jesuitical, treacherous, perfidious, sacrilegious, unclean, beastly ranting, unrighteous, prophane, atheistical Innovations, Practices, Rapines, Usurpations, as they have plunged themselves in­to over head and ears without any Conscience or dread of God or Man.

11ly. ‘What, that more true Light and glorious Disco­veries of Christ and his Kingdom made known to the people of this Common-wealth within these 10, or 12. years by the publick preaching of some Souldiers and Laymen, exceeding all the Nations Ministers ever made known unto them before,’ are, is concealed by Canne, and unknown to me or others, unless it be the flat atheistical de­nyal of God, of Christ and all his Offices, of the Holy Ghost, Scriptures, Sacraments, all publick Ordinances in the Church, of all Kings, Princes, Parliaments, lawfull Magi­strates, Laws, Oaths, Vows, Covenants, Protestations, En­gagements, by many of them in their words, writings, and most of them in Titus, 1.16. their works, with their Jesuitical posi­tions, plots, practices, recited in the fifth Chapter. And if these be not true 2 Pet. 2.1, 2. Acts 26.13. infernal Darknesse, and clear inglori­ous Discoveries of 2 Thess. 2. Antichrist and his Kingdom in the highest Degree, that ever yet appeared amongst the people of this Common-wealth, let the fifth Chapter, with the positions and practices themselves, compared with the Old and New Te­stament, determine.

12ly. The decrying of our Ʋniversities, Colleges, Schools of human Learning, Innes of Court, and some mens endeavouring to seise upon their Lands and Revenues for the Armies use, is no doubt a Jesuitical Papal plot, to extinguish the light of [Page 118] our Knowledge both Divine and humane, by puting out the Eyes of our Nation, that so Jesuitical Popish darkness might over-spread our Church and State; and so the Mat. 15.14. blind leading the blind in both, they must fall into the Pit of Destruction in a moment. It is storied of Eutropius, Grimston in his Life, The­odoret, Nice­phorus, l. 10. c. 3, 4, 5, 24, 25, 32, 33. Mr. Fox, Ba­ronius, Spon­danus, and o­thers. Centur. Magd. 4. c. 3, 14. Col. 114, to 120, 1438, 1439. Nazian­zen Orat. 2. in Julianum, Am­bros. Epist. l. 5. Ep. 29. zo­zomen l. 5. c. 22. Rusha­mus, l. 1. c. 28. Julian (that blasphemous Apostate, and professed Enemie of Christ and Christian Religion) ‘That he suppressed all the Schools of Christi­ans, prohibiting by general Laws and Decrees, that any should profess, practice or study any Arts or Sciences in any Schools, that so they might become and remain Ide­ots, without learning, and so be insufficient and unable to preach the Christian Faith, oppose or refute any Pa­gan or other Errors, Blasphemies against the true God and his worship, devising by all means possible (whereof this was one of the Principal) TO MAKE WAR AGAINST JESUS CHRIST, and extirpate Christiani­ty, without shedding any Christian blood; finding by experience, that the Christian Faith and Christians were greatly increased by the torments and blood of the Mar­tyrs: So that bloody Apostate from and Persecutor of the Christian Faith Eusebius, Eccles. Hist. l. 8. c. 13. l. 10. c. 8. Eutropi­us, and Grim­ston in his Life. Fox Acts and Mo­numents, vol. 1. p. 113. Bi­shop Jewels Sermons, p. Lucius the Emperour, as he rui­ned the Churches, Temples he commanded to be built for Christ, cast out of his House, Service and all Offices and place of Command whatsoever he that was a Christian, commanded all those Christians to be slain who would not adore his Idols, prohibited all Assemblies of Christi­ans either for worship or consultation; so he was such an Enemy to Learning, that he named the same (as some do now) A Poyson and common Pestilence and the Overthrow of Common-wealths; and especially the knowledge of the Laws: And thought no vice worse became a Prince than Learning, because he himself was unlearned; and thereupon prohibited Schools and Meet­ings for Instruction: Whereas on the contrary See Eusebius in vita Con­stantini: Ba­cons Ad­vancement of Learning: Mr. Edward Wa­terhouse his Apology for Learning and Learned men. Constan­tine the Great, and all other Godly prudent Christian Emperors, Kings and Princes, founded Schools of Learn­ing and Universities in all places, encouraged and ad­vanced learned men of all Arts and Professions, especi­ally Divines, Lawyers, and Philosophers;’well knowing [Page 119] that Learning was the principle means to promote Religi­on, and the glory, honour, wealth and greatness of any Nati­on, more necessary than any Arms or Souldiers, and the chief means to preserve them from Idolatry, Superstition, Confusi­on, ruine. We may therfore clearly discern whence the present Outcries against our Ʋniversities, Inns of Court, Schools of Lear­ning, and all human learning proceed, even from desperate Apostates from true Religion and Gods Church, and those who would erect a New Babel of Confusion amongst us in Church, State, and thereby build up the demolished walls of the Romish Je­richo within all our Dominions: For proof whereof, I shall transcribe this notable passage of our famous learned Bishop Jewel in his Sermon on Joshua 6. in his works in Folio, p. 167, 168. which is very pithy, learned and satisfactory, o­mitting all others.

‘Now to stay the restoring of Jericho, many good waies may be devised. The 1. maintenance of Schools and Learning. That Learning and Knowledge is able to hin­der the Building of Jericho is so plain that it needeth no speech. In the time of Moses Law, Aaron the great Bi­shop and High Priest had written in a Tablet before his Breast, Doctrin and Truth; not only Learning, but also Truth; whereby was meant, that neither ought to be with­out the other For, as Learning is dangerous and hurtfull (in some cases) without Religion: So is Religion unable to defend it self, & to convince the Gain-sayers without Learning. For this cause the Heathen when they erected Temples in honour of their Gods, they did also build Li­braries, that is, places to keep Books, that by such means their Priests might grow in Knowledge, and be better able to perswade others to their Religion. Strabo of the Sinprin­cians, that they built a Temple in honour of Homer, and joyned thereto a Library. Augustus the Emperor built a Temple, and also a Library in the honour of Apollo. Tra­janus in like manner built a Library, and called it Ʋlpia, after his own name. At Rome in the Capitol, where all the Gods had a Solemn place for to be worshipped in, there was also placed a Library. Athens was a famous Universi­tie, and had many Colleges and Schools of Learning, [Page 120] Academia, Stoa, Lycaeum, Canopus, Prytanneum, Tempe, Cy­nosura: in which places were divers Sects of Philosophers. Such were in Persia, the Wisemen, whom they called Magi: in Babylon the Chaldees, in India Brachmanes, in Aethiopia Gymnosophistae: in France and England Druides: and others in other Countries. In all times the Kings and Princes which did set forth Religion, were also Builders of Schools and Colleges, and Advancers of Learning. The people of Israel were never in better state, (as P. Pha­gius a learned man noteth out of their Story) than when they had in every Town and Village Bathe chenesioth, and Bathe medraschoth, that is, Synogogues wherein they assemb­led together, and places to preach in. The same Phagi­us, relateth of Hierusalem, that there were in it more than four hundred common Schools and Synagogues where­in the Law of God was taught. The Patriarch Jacob was called A Minister of the House of Learning, because he ap­plyed himself to the knowledge of the Law of God, and to Godliness. The Prophets of God had their Schools to breed up under them such as might after their death draw the people from Idolatry, and resist the false Pro­phets. They which were so taught by them were called the Sons of the Prophets. Samuel taught in such sort at Rama: Elias and Elizeus the Prophets, taught the Law of God besides Jericho. St. John the Evangelist taught at Ephe­sus, and Eusebius reporteth out of Philo, that St. Mark had at Alexandria sundry Scholars which gave themselves to reading, and reasoning and expounding of the Scriptures. Others did the like at Antioch, and at other places. Out of such Schools it pleased God to take many excellent men, and place them in his Church, as Origen, Tertullian, Cyprian, Lactantius, Arnobius, Basilius, Nazianzenus, Chryso­stomus, Hieronimus, Ambrosius, Augustinus, &c. who were brought up in all kind of Learning, and became shining Stars, and brought Lights in the House of God, notable Defenders of Religion, Over-throwers of Idols, and Confounders of Hereticks. Christian Princes herein have witnessed their Zeal in setting forth the Glory of God. After Charles the Great had, made his notable Con­quests [Page 121] (let our Conquerors remember it) he erected five famous Universities, one at Paris, another at To­louse, another at Papia, another at Padua, and another at Prague: (to which our King Asser Mene­vensis in his life, Camdens Britannia: Ox­ford Universi­tie and Cam­bridge. Alfred founder of out fa­mous Universitie of Oxford with the founders of all the Col­leges therein, and of the Universities of Cambridge, Dublin, and those in Scotland, to omit those Universities in Germany, Spain, Portugall, Poland, Denmarke, Sweden, Hungary, and o­ther Parts of Italy and France, mentioned by Heylen and o­thers, might be added:) Suidas in Leone. Suidas reporteth of Leo the Emperour, That when Leo on a time commanded Eulogius a Philosopher should have his Princely reward; a Noble man of the Court, sayd: (as some do now of our Universities and Colleges Lands and Revenues) that that money would be better imployed for the maintenance of Soul­diers. Nay, (saith he, and so all wise men now) I would ra­ther it might be brought to pass in my time, that the wages which are now bestowed upon Souldiers might be given to maintain Philosophers. Charion. Chron. l. 3. Alexander Severus. Alexander Severus, so high­ly esteemed that notable famous Lawyer, Vlpian, that when certain of his Soldiers ran feircely upon Ʋlpian to slay him, the Emperor stept forth, and set himself between the body of Ʋlpian, and the fury of his Souldiers, and covered him with his own Robes, that the Souldiers might know how carefull he was for the good estate of Ʋlpian:’ (Let our Souldiers who hate and study to suppress Philosophers, Scholars, Lawyers, consider these two last Stories:) ‘And also for the contrary; such as have prac­tised cruelty upon learned men, and have hated knowledge were worthily discommended in the Stories of all ages; He instanceth in the wicked Apostates, Julian and Licinius, forecited examples. The like is reported of Caligula, Cara­calla and Domitianus, that either they utterly hated all man­ner of Learning,Note or had some special malice against the writings of some one notable man, and therefore sought to destroy them. Such was the policy of Satan, so thought he to get the upper hand, and to restore again his wicked Jericho. And were these the Practices of Hea­then Princes only? may not we remember the like at­tempts [Page 122] wrought in our dayes? who will call to mind the time that is not far past, shall find that this ignorant Iericho had many friends: (and hath it not now as ma­ny and the same?) who by all means drew men from know­ledge; they gave Liberty rather to do any thing, than to seek understanding; and yet suffered rather the use and reading of fabulous and unclean writers than of the Holy Scripture, and Books which carried fruitfull instruction. Good Letters to increase knowledge are not to be neglect­ed. Such as presume of Gods Spirit over-boldly, that without endeavour to use the wholsome means which God hath left unto his Church, they shall and doe by special inspiration, understand his will, do tempt God. He adds much more.’

In brief, learning, knowledge in Arts, Tongues, Histories of all sorts, and in the Laws, Governments of former ages, are so absolutely necessary for the right understanding and interpretation of the Scriptures, and good Government of all Common-wealths and Kingdoms, that without them there neither will nor can be any true Religion, sound Know­ledge of God, his word, or works, nor orderly Government, Humanity, Civility, Navigation, or Commerce almost in the world; and men deprived of it will be little different from Beasts, as appears by the brutish Sottishnesse, Barbarous­nesse, Savagenesse, ignorance of the illiterate Indians in Ame­rica, and of some other African and Northern Nations, voyd both of Religion, Government and Humanity it self, because destitute of Learning, as Purchas his Pilgrimage, Mr. Hackluits voyages, Peter Martyrs Indian History, Mercator, and others record. Hereupon our antient Ancestors were so carefull of Learning, Religion, Ministers, Scholars, Lands, Estates, Tithes, that they placed them in the very front of all those antient Laws, Liberties, Customs which they claimed, enjoyed, and presented to William the (pretended) Conqueror upon Oath in the 4th. Year of his Reign, who ratified them in Parliament, without the least Alteration or Dimi­nution, to his eternal Honour, and the great contentment of the whole Nation, whose affections else he would have lost, to the endangering of his new acquired Royalty, [Page 123] as I have proved in the Hoveden, Annal. pars post. p. 601. Mr. Selde [...], ad Eadmerum Notae, p. 173. 2d. Chapter. Which our New pretended Conquerors, may do well to consider. And so I proceed to my concluding Assertion.

CHAP. V.

I Am now arived at the fifth and last Proposition, That the present opposition and endeavoured abolition of Tithes and all other coercive maintenance for Ministers, proceed not from any real grounds of Piety or Conscience, or any considerable real Inconveniences or Mischiefs arising from them, but merely from base, covetous, carnal Hearts, want of Christian Love and Charity to, and professed enmity and hatred against the Ministers and Ministry of the Gospel; and from a Jesuitical and Anabaptistical design to subvert and ruine our Ministers, Church and Religion; the probable, if not necessary consequence of this infernal Project, if it should take effect. Which would prove the See Peter Martyr, in lib. 2. Regum Commen [...]. c. 5. p. 240. eternal Shame, Infamy and Ruine of our Nation, not its Glory and Benefit.

The first part of the Proposition is sufficiently manifested by the premises, wherein I have answered all Objections from pretended Grounds of Piety, Conscience, and surmi­sed Inconveniences or Mischiefs made against Tithes, dis­covering them to be mere Impostures, and false Surmises, and the principal Objections against them are, that they are Jewish, Popish: And Iohn Canne in his Second Voyce from the Alehouse (for surely it came from thence, not from the Temple) to shew his skill in Divinity most impudently as­serts. That payment of Tithes is a Sin two waies against the second Commandement, 1. In it self, as being Iewish and Superstitious, giving honour to the wayes and devises of Anti­christ. This way of Maintenance by Tithes being a Popish Custom, imposed by the Popes Authority, &c. 2ly. As paid to an unlawfull and Antichristian Ministry, &c. Surely a Lyer ought to have a good Memory; He confesseth, p. 15. That Tithes were paid by Abraham, vowed by Iacob, and prescribed by God himself in the Ceremonial law. Therefore neither Jewish, nor Popish, nor Superstitions, nor a Sin against the 2d. Commandement: else Abraham in paying, Iacob in vowing, God in prescribing, [Page 124] the Israelites in paying them, should transgresse this Com­mandement, and commit a Sin against it, I would de­mand of this Canne, how he can reconcile these his palpable Lyes and Contradictions unbecomming him who professeth himself a true Minister of the Gospel. 1. How Tithes can be merely Jewish, since paid by Gods direction and appro­bation, by Abraham the Father of the Faithfull, and that to Christ himself, in the shape of Melchisedec, and prescribed by Gods own special Precept? 2ly. How any thing command­ed by God, even when the 2d. Commandement was given, re­corded in the same Canonical Books of Scripture with it, practised by Gods special command by all his true Saints under the Law, and generally in all Christian Churches under the Gospel, as I have proved; can possibly be, a Sin against the 2d. Commandement in it self? and whether it be not direct Blasphemy in him thus confidently to aver it, in making Gods very Commandements to fight one against another, and to command one thing as a Duty in some Texts, and condemn it as a Sin and damnable Superstition in another? 3ly. How Tithes if truly and orignally Iewish, can yet be truly and originally Antichristian, Popish, and the Popes device, many thousand years after Tithes first Institution and custo­mary payment? Till he can satisfactorily reconcile these ap­parent contradictory Assertions, or publickly recant them if he cannot, all the world must accompt him for an Anti­christian Minister and Lying Impostor, his Voyce, the Voyce of him that reproacheth and blasphemeth both God and Men, Psal. 44.16. and confess there is no ground at all in Piety or Conscience against Tithes, or their payment, but grounds both of Piety and Conscience for them, as I have proved; especially for our Godly Ministers and Preachers of the Gospel (for whom I only plead) whose Calling being of unquestionable Divine Institution, notwith­standing all Cannes Alehouse Arguments against them (not worth a Canne) and to continue in the world to the very end thereof, and the consummation of all things, by Christs own resoluti­on, Matth. 28.20 Ephes. 4.10, 11, 12, 13. they may and ought by Divine and Human Laws, to enjoy their Glebes and Tithes so long continued, maugre all the malice, power [Page 123] of their violent Oppugners, and will do so when they and their Posterities shall not have so much as a Name or Being upon Earth or in Heaven (unless they repent) notwith­standing they were justly taken from Popish Fryers, Abbots, Priors, Lordly Prelates, (of mere popish Antichristian Institu­tion, not Divine,) when their very Orders were suppres­sed, as mere Ʋsurpers, Encroachers of the Ministers Rights, Re­wards alone, for their pains in preaching, exercising their Ministerial Function in their respective Parishes, not in Ab­bies, Cathedrals, (no Parish-Churches for the people to resort unto) to which by the See Mr. Sel­dens History of Tithes. Popes Bulls, they were unjustly appro­priated heretofore.

To clear this Proposition more fully in all its branches, I have observed, that there are five sorts of persons of late, very busie, active both against our Ministers tiths and callings too.

The first are Souldiers: The 2d. Anabaptists, Dippers, Qua­kers, with other late blasphemous Sectaries and Hereticks: The 3d. prophane, covetous Earthworms, and Atheistical Wret­ches; who say in their Hearts, and sometimes boldly profess, not only by their Lives, but with their Tongues in this law­less Age, There is no GOD. The 4th. prophane, igno­rant, cheating Prognosticators and Astronomers: The 5th. Je­suites, popish Priests and Romish Emissaries, sent from all parts to ruine our Ministers and Religion.

For the first, they are either Officers and Common Soul­diers, and those, either such who have gained or purchased Lands since the Wars, lyable to Tithes; for such who have no Lands at all, and so not of present Ability, Capacity to pay Tithes. Those who have any purchased Lands lyable to Tithes, are now so fierce against them, (for ought I can discern) not out of any grounds of piety or Conscience; but, either out of an unworthy, covetous, degenerous, sordid disposition, to ease themselves and their Heirs from this just antient Debt, yea a charge of Tithes upon their New cheap Purchases, and gain them as an Over-plus into their Bargains, to improve their Purchases to an higher value; the case of such of them who approve of our Ministers, our publick Ordinances, and are no Speakers, Anabaptists, Sectaries. Or else a like avaritious Disposition, mixed with and heightned [Page 126] by a professed Enmity, Malignity against the very Persons, Calling of our Ministers, whom they usually revile by the names of Baals Priests, Black Coats, Antichristian Locusts, rotten, corrupt Clergy-men, Seditious, Factious Ʋarlets; and all other rayling Epithites, which Lilly in his late Almanacks and Scurrilous Pamphlets, hath furni­shed them with, which they much magnifie. This is the Case of such Sword men, who are above, or against all Ordinances, Duties publick or private: or Antiscripturists, Antitrinitarians, Anabaptists, Seekers, Quakers, Asserters of the Souls mortality, as rising from and dying with the body; of all their ordinary unordained Speakers, Preachers, infected with any other erronious, heretical, or blasphemous opinions; of all disguised Jesuites, Priests, Papists under the Profession and Name of Souldiers. Those who have no Lands liable to Tithes, petition and speak against them; either meerly to please their Superior Landed-Officers, See John Cannes Voyce p. 27. Mr. Edwards Gan­grenaes, and Lillyes Ephe­meris, 1650. for fear of being cashiered by them; or because they are infected with Anabaptism, Jesui­tism, Errors, Blasphemy, Schism, Arianism, Atheism, contempt of all publique Ordinances, Duties, and a bitter Emnity against our Ministers Persons, Callings, or Intruders into their Office (as well as into most other Professions) without any Lawfull call. These, in my Observation (and I appeal to every of their own Con­sciences in the presence of the Searcher of all hearts, for the truth of it) are the only true Grounds, Motives of any Officers or Souldiers present stickling opposition against Tithes and Ministers, arising from within them, as they are private per­sons. And these unchristian Grounds, seconded with the o­pen or under-hand sollicitations of their Anabaptistical, Heretical, Schismatical, Jesuitical, Astromatical Friends and acquaintance out of the Army; backed with a most im­pious, wretched, Sacrilegious Policy to please the simple oppressed, deluded Country people in discharging them at pre­sent from the payment of Tithes to their Ministers, that so they may augment their Taxes to the full value of their abolished Tithes, to support themselves and the Army the longer in a body, to uphold their Supream enchroached Powers, preserve, encrease their New Purchases, Estates, depending wholly upon the New Law and Title of the longest Sword, are in my apprehension the only [Page 127] true causes why the General Council of Officers of the Army, with the Souldiers under them, by their directions, as a New created All-swaying Military Corporation, have so oft appear­ed publickly against our Ministers Tithes to abolish them (and their Ministry by necessary consequence with them) which all other Opponents (being inconsiderable) were never able to effect, but by their armed power. These are all the real principles of Piety, Conscience (if they deserve the Title) I could ever yet find amongst them; engaging the Army-Officers and Souldiers against Tithes, which how incon­sistent they are with the real profession, or grounds of Chri­stianity, Piety, Conscience, Justice, Saintship, let their own Con­sciences and the world resolve; and what Censures, Exe­crations, Judgements they may in Justice expect from God, for such a Sacrilegious Rapine, as they intend upon these carnal, impious, atheistical grounds, policies, hypocritically gilded over with the paint of Conscience, Reformation, Religion, Propa­gation of the Gospel, &c. which makes the Design more dete­stable both to God and all good men.

The second sort of Tithe-Oppugners are professed Anabap­tists, Dippers, Seekers, Quakers, and other blasphemous Sectaries and Heretiques, lately sprung up amongst us, many of which have crept into the Army for their greater security, and the bet­ter accomplishment of their dangerous destructive Designs against our established Government, Magistrates, Laws, but especially against our Religion, Church, Ministers, Ministry, their Tithes and Glebes. Scarce one of a thousand of these poor Sneaks were of ability to pay any Tithes of late; and those of this prevailing Faction, who have crept into Sequestrati­ons, Offices, Imployments of late, and thereby gained any E­states, for the most part, have enriched themselves by seque­stred Tithes, Glebes, Bishops, Deans, Chapters Lands and Reve­nues, which these hungry Harpyes have most greedily preyed upon, not out of any real grounds of Piety or Conscience (as they pretend) which I could yet seldom or never find in any of them; but out of an unsatiable greedy Quid nor Mortalia pec­ [...]ora cogit AU­RI SACRA. FAMES.HOLY HUNG­ER OR THIRST (in the Poets sence) after Gold, Gain, Spoyl, the Revenues of our Church, and an implacable bitter En­mity against our Ministers Persons, Callings; whether Presby­terians [Page 128] (the chief Butt against whom their Malice is bent) or Independents of a more moderate strain; whose Ministry is the main Fort they level all their present power against, to raze it even to the very Foundation; now prosecuting the to­tal abolition, not only of their present Tithes, Glebes, but of all other future coercive maintenance in lieu of them, only to subvert their Ministry, and quite starve (if they cannot vio­lently storm) them out of it. This is most perspicuous, not only by their manifold former libellous Pamphlets against our Ministers Calling, and the late Ordinances for Tithes, which I have In my fresh Discovery of New lights. elsewhere collected, refuted, but by their fresh Peti­tions both against their Tithes and Ministry too, as Antichri­stian, Jewish, Popish, &c. especially by John Canne the old Am­sterdam Anabaptists Second Ʋoyce from the Temple (or Rev. 3.9. Sy­nagogue of Satan rather) newly dedicated to those he stiles The Supream Authority of the Nation, wherein he exhorts and stimulates them, by all the Art, Rhetorick, Motives, false Ar­guments he can muster up, to do execution, and take venge­ance upon Babylon (to wit, the National Ministry, Church-worship & Government of England, as he explains it, p. 2.) till it be wholy desolate, not a Stone left upon a Stone, till it be thrown down: To take a most effectual and certain course to Is this Chri­stian Gospel Charity consistent with Mat. 5.43, to 48. c. 10.9, 10. Rom. 12.9, 10, 13, 20, 21. c. 13.7, 8, 9, 10. Ephes. 5.2. 1 Cor. 13.1, 2, 3, &c. 1 John 3.10, to 20. c. 2.9.10, 11. c. 4.20, 21. starve and famish these Antichristian Idols, by ta­king away the Food and Maintenance whereby hitherto (as at this present they are nourished, fed and left alive) and more particularly their Tithes. To repeal all Laws and Sta­tutes formerly made, whereby the Whore hath lived deliciously and proudly, and keeps on to this Day her Whorish attire. To make the Whore desolate and naked by making no Act or Law to stand in force which doth yield any relief to her. To set them­selves in array against her (by the Armies power no doubt, which he alludes to) bend their Bow, fan and empty her. To set upon this work speedily, in good earnest (as it seems they do) whiles it is to day: And why so? Because the Lord himself hath by a Call more than ordinarie, called them to this more than ordinary Imployment, (if he could have proved it by Scripture or Law, it had been more worth than all his Pamphlet) put this fair (or rather foul) opportunity into their hands; hath command­ed his sanctified ones, and called his Mighty ones (the Army-Officers) [Page 129] to fulfill his pleasure upon this great Whore (the Church and Ministry of England) and SION is in travel and ready to bring forth (this Monster of Desolation and Con­fusion:) which if they neglect or delay, then mark how he briefly menaces them with the Fates of their late Predecessors, I would think you should never be sitting in that House, but be thinking still on those who sate there before you (and why not as well on Faux and the Gunpowder Trayto [...]s, as those, since there seems another Powder-plot in the Vault to blow them up, intended by Canne and his Confederates if they fail in accomplishing this their desired work?) whom the Lord hath lade aside as de­spised broken Idols and Vessels, wherein his Soul had no pleasure. And why? As they knew not their Generation-work (which he excites them to) neither were faithfull to the interest of Jesus Christ. God is no respecter of Persons, as men sow, so they shall reap. Ex ungue Leonem, ex cauda Draconem. You may see by these passages, and his whole Pamphlet pur­suing them, what these malicious, inhuman, barbarous, ir­religious, hypocritical Anabaptists aym at in their present vi­olent prosecutions against Tithes; even utterly to starve, famish, subvert, extirpate our Ministers, Ministry, Church, Wor­ship, Government, and make our Land a mere Spoyl, Desolati­on, as their Predecessors did Munster, and some parts of Germa­ny, whiles in their power. But let Canne and his Anabaptisti­cal Confederates remember what tragical Sleiden [...] Commenta­ries, l. 9, & 10. See my sword of Christian Magistracy supported, p. 46, 47, &c. ends their New King John, with all his Princes, Grandees, Officers, Prophets, Fol­lowers came to in conclusion in Germany: And what fatal ru­ine befell See Speeds History of Great Bri [...]ain, Stow, Holm­shed, and the Survey of London. Jack Cade, Iack Straw, Wat Tyler, Sharp and o­ther levelling Companions, who had the self-same Designs a­gainst our English Laws, Lawyers, Clergy, Tithes, Glebes, as He and they have now, animated thereto by the new-dipped Iesuites, and other Romish Emissaries lately crept into their Anabaptistcal Fraternity to further this their Infernal Gunpow­der-plot against our Church, Religion, Ministers, Magistrates, Government, Laws, and let them thereupon repent of, desist from, abominate this their Diabolical, wicked Design, lest they incur the self same punishments in conclusion, by stirring up God and all the whole Nation against them, as most accursed Rebels, Traytors, Instruments of Satan, yea that [Page 130] very Antichrist and Whore of Rome, they pretend they are blindly acting against, whose designs in truth they are but accomplishing in the highest degree.

I must here observe (and desire all others to take notice of) three things. First, that in Cannes Voyce, and in all o­ther late Pamphlets, Petitions of the Anabaptists, wherein they seem to vent their most passionate zeal against Antichrist, Ba­bylon, the Whore of Babylon, their chief Instruments and Suppor­ters, I cannot find so much as one Clause or Syllable against Iesuites, Popish Priests, Papists, Romish Emissaries; or exciting the execution of any Laws or Statutes formerly made against them; but the whole stream, bent of them all is only against the Godly Ministers, Ministry, worship of the Church of England, the Presbyterian Government, and our present Church-worship, the only Babylon, Whore, Antichrist, they intend and fight a­gainst, not the Pope and Church of Rome. 2ly. That they are so far from pleading against the Pope, Popish Priests, Ie­suites, and urging the execution of the good Oaths, Laws, made by late and former Protestant Parliaments [...]gainst them and their Treasonable practices, that they have frequently writ­ten, petitioned for their Repeal, Abolition, as bloody Tyrannical Laws, unlawfull Oaths, and procured their Repeal or Suspensi­on at least, in their favour from some late and present Powers. 3ly. That when some consciencious pious Stationers late in their Beacons fired, discovered to those then in Power, ‘The many sorts, multitudes of Jesuites, Popish Books prin­ted in England within 3. years last past, in defence of the Pope and Church of Rome, all Popish Doctrines, Cere­monies, and reviling our Church, Religion, as Heretical; desiring them to take it into their timely considerations, to suppress this growing Mischief, Design to corrupt the People, and reduce them back to Popery, ere they were aware:’ Kiffin with other Anabaptists in the Army, headed by Colonel Pride, taking an Alarum thereat, subscribed and printed a Book intituled, The Beacons quenched, (penned they know best by whom, not the Subscribers of it, not yet inspired with the gift of all the Tongues therein contained) pleading for a free Tolleration of such Popish Books printing, dispersing amongst us, of publick Disputes by those of that Religion, [Page 131] traducing, accusing the Presbyterians throughout that Pam­phlet, and those honest zealous Stationers in particular, of no lesse than a New Gunpowder-plot, Mine, Train, (then ready to be sprung) to blow up those, Colonel Pride and his Confederates first made, and then stiled, The Parliament of the Common­wealth of England, and the Army too; only for discovering thes [...] Popish Books and Trains to blow up our Religion: Which Scandal, as the Stationers then fully cleared by their satis­factory Reply to that impertinent Pamphlet, so the Subscri­bers of it their Fellow-Souldiers of the Army (better versed by far in Mines and Fireworks to blow up Parliaments, and nearer related to old Speeds Hi­story of Great Britain. The Arraignment of Traytors, 3 Jac. c. 1, 2, 3, 4. Guy Faux, a Low-Country Souldier, by reason of their Military profession, than these Stationers and Presbyterians, they thus falsly slandered) have since cleared before all the World, to be a malicious Calumny, of which themselves only are guilty, and given just cause of Jealousie, Fear, to all Presbyterians, old Protestants and P [...] ­ritans to apprehend, that they now really joyn their Forces and Heads together with those thus pleaded for, to ruine our Church, Religion, Ministry, under the Notion and Pro­ject of suppressing Tithes, and of all future compulsory Mainte­nance for the Ministers of England, whom they intend to starve and famish (such is their Charity) if they can but vote Tithes down, before they provide any other Mainte­nance; which Vote once passed, the next will be, to vote them both out of their Rectories, Glebes, Churches, Ministry too, as Cannes Voice, and the Kentish Petition against Tithes root and branch, sufficiently discover to all who are not wilfully blind: enough to make all men now to look about them.

That the Dominican, Franciscan, and other Popish Fryers, were the first Broachers of this Opinion, That Laymen were not bound to pay Tithes to their Ministers by any Divine law or right; on purpose to draw the Tithes of Ministers and Curates to themselves, and exempt whatever Lands or Things were given to them from payment of Tithes; I have elsewhere evidenced out of H [...]story of Tithes, p. 14, 166, 167, 170, to 175, 1 [...]7, 128. Mr. Selden and others; whe [...]eupon De Nugis Cu [...]ialium, l. 7. c. 21. Johannes Sarisburiensis Bishop of Chartres thus censured them, Miror ut fidelium pace loquar, quodnam sit ut Decimas & jura aliena usurpare non erubescunt. Inquient sortè Religiosi sumus. [Page 132] Planè Decimas solvere Religionis pars est. Adding, that their Exemptions from payment of Tithes did derogare constitu­tioni Divinae, derogate from Divine institution. And Petrus Blesensis, Archdeacon of Bath, in his 82. Epistle inveighs very much against the privileges of the Cistercian Monks exemp­tion from payment of Tithes, as injuriosa immunitas, con­tra Dei justiciam: seeing Justiciae Divinae manifestè resistit, qui Ministris Ecclesiae nititur jus Decimationis auserre: Which these Friers not only persisted in, by substracting their own Tithes from the Ministers by colour of these Exempti­ons, but likewise the Tithes of their other Parishio­ners, especially such who contemning and deserting their own Parish Priests and Churches, resorted to these Friers Chapels, and acknowledged them for their Ghostly Fathers and Confessors. This is most evident by the Petition of the Parish Priests and Rectors of London to the Archbishop of Canterbury and the rest of the Bishops in a Sy­node, (about the year of our Lord 1240.) against the Do­minicans and Franciscans, who much impaired their pro­fit; wherein they complained Ms. and Dr. Tillesley his Anmadversi­ons upon Mr. Seldens Pre­face. Animadv. 9. That their Parishioners who at leastwise on Lords daies and Festivals are bound to frequent their Parish Churches, and to receive Sacraments and Sacra­mentals in the same, and devoutly to hear Divine Service, as also to offer at Solemn Masses due and accustomed Oblations; did re­pair to the places and Houses of these Friers, and scorn and for­sake their Parish Churches, and so confer the due Rights of the Church wherewith the Churches were antiently endowed, upon the Friers. Also they who confess themselves to these Friers, who before were accustomed annually by the Canon-law to pay Tithes of their Tradings to their Parish Churches, from the time since they submitted themselves to the Confessions of these Friers, modo debito ac consueto ne­gociationes suas decimare non curant, Neglect to pay Tithes of their Tradings, after the due and accustomed manner. And is not this the very present Grievance, Complaint of most London and other Ministers throughout England, that since these disguised Romish Friers & Jesuits swarming in all places under the Masks and Titles of Anabaptists, Quakers, and other Sects, have in imitation of these their Prede­cessors, [Page 133] in their Writings, Preachments, and Conventicles declaimed against our Ministers Tithes, as not due unto them by any Divine Right, to rob our Ministers of, and draw the value of them to themselves; and since their Parishioners who are bound to resort to their Parish Churches on Lords daies and Feastivals to hear Divine Service, Sermons, and receive the Sacraments in a devout manner have resor­ted to the Conventicles and Meetings of these Friers and Jesuites, and submitted themselves to these new Ghostly Fathers and Confessors, they have quite contemned, deser­ted their own Parish Churches, neglected, refused to pay any personal or predial Tithes or Oblations to their Mini­sters after the due, and formerly accustomed manner, and bestowed the due Rights and ancient endowments of their parish Churches, (in value or substance at least, though not in kind) upon these Friers and Romish Loc [...]sts, whose very Doctrin, Practice in this particular of our Ministers Tithes and Oblations, and their substraction of them (yea in most other Tenents now broached by them for New light) are the very same in all particulars which these Friers in former ages both at home and abroad, as I have evidenced in my Quakers unmasked, my New Discovery of Romish Emis­saries; and our London, Lancashire, Newcastle and other Mi­nisters, have plentifully demonstrated in sundry publicati­ons, with Mr. Edwards in his Gangraenaes? We may then most clearly Discover these Romish Mat. [...].15, to 15. wolves now crept in amongst us in Sheeps-clothing, by these their Fruits, and practices; whose Pleas against our Ministers Tithes, re­solve into these Atheistical, unchristian Conclusions. 1. That the Tithes of Christians increase are too much for God himself who created them, and gives all to them. 2. Too much for Christ who redeemed them, who gave himself to death for them, and is a Priest for ever unto God the Father after the order of Melchisedec in their be­half. 3. Too much for the Ministers of Christ, whose lives, studies, spirits are wholy spent in ministerial incessant la­bours for their eternal welfare. 4. Too much to be layd out for the Instruction, Salvation, of their own immortal Souls; when as the other nine parts are consumed on their [Page 134] Bodies, Families, if not Sins and Lusts. 5. Too much for an Orthodox Protestant Minister; but not for a dis­guised, seducing Popish Jesuitical Priest or Frier. O bru­tish, foolish, bewitched, infatuated Englishmen, now at last consider this your desperate folly, delusion, before it be o­ver late, in following these disguised Seducers, to your own and our Religions ruine.

The 3d. sort of Tithe-Oppugners are prophane, cove­tous Earth-worms and Atheistical wretches, who care not for God or Religion, saying unto God and his faithfull Mini­sters, like those Atheists, Job 21.14, 15. Depart from us, for we desire not the knowledge of thy wayes; what is the Almighty, that we should serve him? and what profit should we have if we pray unto him? Yet because few of such are now active Stick­lers and Petitioners (as such) against Tithes, but only mere Substractors, Detainers of them at present, they are lesse blame-worthy, and not so culpable as the two former, and subsequent Ranks, the chief active Sticklers, Petitioners, Writers against them.

The 4th. Rank of Grand Opposites against our Ministers and their Tithes are Prophane, Ignorant, Cheating, Monthly Prognosticators and Astrologasters, as John Booker, Nich. Cul­pepper, and above all others William Lillie, a most bitter, rayling Rabshekeh, whose late Almanacks, ever Since the Army-Offi­cers in 1649. declared in print against Ministers Tithes; these Prognostica­tors guided by these All-ruling Martial earthly Pla­nets, not the heavenly stars, have predicted their Down­fall every year, but not before. since 1648. and other idle Prophetick Pamphlets, are so fraught with Scurrilous Invectives, Raylings, Predictions of our Mini­sters, Presbyterians Downfalls, and their Tithes, the Souldi­ers, Peoples general Opposition, Insurrection against them, &c. almost in every line, as if the Army-Officers, Souldiers, Ana­baptists, Priests, Jesuites, had purposely hired him, to carry on their Designs against our Ministers, their Tithes, Mainte­nance, to s [...]bvert our Religion; and the Jesuites, Anabaptists, furnished him out of all their rayling Pasquils, Satyrs, with reproachfull Terms, Invectives, Slanders against them, which have swelled up his frothy, filthy Papers to an extraordinary Bulk, beyond his Fellow-Prognosticators, and made them so much cryed up, read, studyed both by Of­ficers, Souldiers, Anabaptists, and other simple people, in­censing them against our Ministers and their Tithes, as things [Page 135] which the late Constellations, Ecclipses of the Moon and Sun have specially designed to speedy ruine. When I was close Pri­soner in Dunster Castle in the year 1650. the Officers and Soul­diers there, sent me Lilies For the year 1651. New Almanack to read, wherein I found, such a world of bitter, rayling, Jesuitical Epithites against our Ministers, and predictions of the sodain Downfall of their Minist [...]y, Tithes, Maintenance, from pretended Malig­nant Constellations, (which yet on the contrary at the same time did promise Acts of Grace and Favour to Popish Recusants, who in their Zeal and Loyalty to the New Republick exceeded most Presbyterians; and presoged some worthy Acti­ons, in creating New Cardinals, &c. to be done in Rome and Italy as he therein predicted) as made me suspect him to be more than half a Jesuite, or at least their Scholar, Confederate, Pensioner to promote their Designs against our Ministers; and to acquaint Mr. Bradshaw (my Committer) with others at Whitehall so mu [...]h in my Letters to them: But our Tithes and Ministers not falling down that year, as he falsely prog­nosticated, he still continued to predict their Downfalls in his lying Since that in 1653, and 1654. he con­tinues in the same strain. Prognostications, 1651, and 1652. much read and cryed up by the Officers and Souldiers at Pendennys Castle in Cornwall, who sent me them to read, wherein he retained his former malicious Raylings against our Ministers and their Tithes, to render them odious to the Souldiers, Army, Peo­ple, and all originally, because reverend Mr. Gataker, with the Assembly of Divines in their Annotations to the Bible, on Jer. 10.2, 3. and other Texts, and others of them of late, had ‘censured the Art of Judicial Astrology, Astronomy, and the principles of it (wherewith he and his Fellow-wizards cheat poor People of their mony, by calculating their Na­tivities, telling what Wives, Husbands, Fortunes they should have, whether they should recover their Sicknesses, what good or bad Voyages they should have, what was become of their lost or stollen Goods, or where they should find them, foretelling what Weather, Sicknesses, publick Alterations in State, Church-affairs, and Church­men too, should happen from the Malign or Benign As­pects, Conjunction of the Stars, Planets, or the Ecclipses of the Sun and Moon) as a mere cheating Imposture; a [Page 136] Heathenish, wicked, unchristian Practice, Delusion, con­trary to Scripture, Reason, Philosophy, Theological Doctrin, Ecclesiastical Disciplin; yea a meer impious Fraud and villany.’ The Sottishnesse, Falsity, Ground­lesnesse whereof (built upon meer ridiculous Figments, For­geries, Absurdities, Dreams, imaginary Signes, Houses built by them in the Heavens, and such Malignant Qualities as their fancies have ascribed, not God infused into the 7 Planets) those who have been deluded by such cheating Knaves and Pick­purses, the greatest Impostors of any (as learned Henry Bullinger in his Commentary on Jer. 10.2. Sixtus Senensis Bibl. l. 6. Annot. 10. and the subsequent Authors stile them) may for their satisfaction read at large in Bardesanis Syms (the best learned of all the Chaldean Astrologers) quoted by Eusebius De Praepar. Evangel. l. 6. c. 8. in Cicero De Divinatione, l. 2. in Picus Mirandula his 12. Books against Astrology, in Joseph Scaliger his Preface before Manilius, in Dr. Chambers Book against Judicial Astrology, London, 1601. in Sixtus ab Hemminga, Lib. Astrologiae Refutatae, Antw. 1583. in Jo. Francus Offucius, in Larvatam Astrologi­am, An. 1570. in Cornelius Scepperus, contra Astrologos, Col. 1548. in Georg. Trapezuntins, Libellus cur Astrologo­rum Judicia sint falsa. Alex. De Angelis, in Astrologos Con­jectores, Romae, 1615. in John Milton, his Astrologaster, 1620. in Hieron. Savanorola, adversus Divinatricem Astro­nomiam, Florentiae 1581. in Apologeticus Interpretis pro Trac­tatu Hieron, Savanorolae adversus Astrologos, Flor. 1581. in Mr. Samuel Purchas his Pilgrimage, l. 1. c. 2. p. 12, 13. &c. 12. p. 64. in Ludovicus Vives de Corrupt. Artium, l. 5. who cen­sures it as a Fraud, not Art, in Mr. Thomas Gataker his vin­dication of his Annotation on Jer. 2. against the Scurrilous Asper­sions of that grand Impostor, William Lilly; newly printed, 1653. and the Authors quoted by him, in Bochellus Decret. Eccles Gallicanae lib. 1. Tit. 14. where the Decrees of ma­ny French Councils are recited against this Diabolical cheating Profession, prohibiting Christians to buy, read, keep, or credit such Books, in which many unprofitable, Superstitious, false, yea impi­ous and sacrilegious things are contained, which Books ought to be suppressed, damned, and utterly abolished (yea burnt [Page 137] like those Acts 19.19. as the Council of Burdeaux, An 1582. and Johan. Charberius de Gersonio, in his Trilogio Astrologiae Theolo­gizaiae, proves at large. And those who will compare Culpep­pers & Lillies wild monstrous false Predictions concerning the several States, Kingdoms mentioned in their Almanacks, Progno­stications for this present year, and the great Plagues, Mortality which should be both the last and this Summer in London (though never freer from Pestilence than at these seasons) with their, and others usual false Predictions every Month con­cerning the Weather, their manifold Contradictions both to themselves and one another, will easily discern them to be meer Lyars, Impostors, and their Art a Cheat. Now let them all tell me at their leisure, by what warrant from Scripture, Philo­sophy, reason, art, sense, the Constellations of the Heavens, or Ec­clipses of the Sun & Moon these 2 last years only should cer­tainly predict, portend, excite Souldiers, Sectaries, or Country people by any Divine ordination, or real influence on their dis-affected Spirits, to pull down the Ministers of the Gospel, & their Tithes, being both of Divine institution and establishment to Matth. 28.20. continue to the Worlds end: When no other Constellations, Ecclipses of like nature in any former Ages of the World since the Creation, portended or effected the like? Or how the Stars in Heaven should thus professedly fight against, and pull down those Rev. 21.1. Iohn 10.28, 29. Stars (the Ministers of the Chur­ches) which Christ himself holds in his right hand (out of which none can pull them) and their Tithes too, being antient, perpe­tual appurtenant to Christs own eternal Priesthood, Heb. 7.1, to 15? More particularly, I shall desire this scurrilous Impostor Lilly to inform me, How it comes to passe, That the Cele­stial Stars, Planets, (and Good Angels which he oft couples together in his Merlius) who in the year 1647. (as he Epistle to the Reader, p. 4. and A­strological Discourse in it towards the end. prints in his Ephemeris for it) by their good influence stirred up by Gods providence the Parliament to take care, that preaching Ministers should be placed in every County of this King­dom, and a sufficient stipend allowed where formerly none was; For which We (writes he, including himself in the Number) must ever acknowledge our Thankfulness: And that the Figures he erects on the X. of March, 1647. A­strologically predicting the State of our English Affairs and Clergy, [Page 138] should by the Rules of Astrologie, and his own Iudgement there­on (then printed, Venus being then found in the ninth House) import, ‘That many of the Clergy should trot and trudge, or change their habitation out of one Coun­ty into another, nay shall willingly travel long Journies; By which I conceive (writes he) is meant, That our pre­sent Parliament shall this year place worthy men into warm Benefices, and distribute the deserving Clergy­men of England into several quarters of this Kingdom, as in their wisedoms they think convenient. Blessed be God, for his Creatures, the Stars, promise they may travel safe without prejudice, or at least, they indicate so much, &c. And shall obtain profit and good by their oft chan­gings, and remove of Habitations. And the Godly Mi­nisters so dispersed into several Counties, shall prevail with the People to amend their Lives, and live more so­berly, religiously, &c. As also, that most of those itine­rant Preachers, or Divines, shall leave behind them lesser Livings, and go to enjoy better. To which he addes by way of Jeer this passage against Mr. Geree for wri­ting against Astrology, ‘Now for that ASTROLOGO-MASTIX is a Master of Arts, and capable of Preferment, I humbly implore, he may be made Priest of Teuksbury, from which place (per varios casus) he once in haste trotted, &c. That but 3 years after this, the Heavenly Stars, Pla­nets, Angels in the year 1650. (as his In the Epi­stle, Astrolo­gical Predicti­ons, and Monthly Observations. Ephemeris then prognosticates, very frequently) should threaten ill and unwilling payment of Tithes, in many Counties to the Clergy: much heart-burning of the People towards them. That after a small season, or a very few years, no Tithes shall be paid them: For a plain people will arise, gifted by God with such spiritual Knowledge, as the generality of the People will decline their Sophistical School Do­ctrines, and wholly adhere unto those who preach God only, and Jesus Christ his Son:’ And that they should be so implacable, as to continue these and worse threat­nings against all Presbyterian Ministers, Presbytery, Rectories, TITHES, and the whole English Clergy, ever since this year, so far, as to portend or ascertain, not only their general [Page 139] Opposition by Swordmen, the generality of the Nation, and their Governours and people, but sodain downfall and extirpation: Of which all his Merlins and Prognostications surfet. Tantaene Ani­mis Caelestibus Irae? Doubtlesse, the heavenly Stars, Planets, and good Angels are not so contradictory to themselves, or maliciously, irreconcileably Malignant against our Ministers Persons, Callings, Tithes, Presbytery, as this Arch-Cheat, would make poor Simpletons believe. But it is only the Lan­guage and Malignity of his own malicious heart, tongue, Pen against them, because Enemies to his absurd, Diabo­lical, lying, cheating, Artlesse Art of Astrology, witnesse his own words; ‘I hate Presbytery (and hatred and affection as himself writes, cause often Errours and Mistakes in their Art and Predictions:) Art thou a Presbyterian? Thou art an enemy to Astrology, and weariest thy auditory with invectives against me. I desire thee to conform, lest a worse thing happen to thee (than Deans and Chapters Lands) For if thou labourest to root up or pull down this Fabrick, which God hath erected, then I say, in a small season, or very few years, no Tithes will be paid thee, &c.’with many such like Epistle to the Reader in his Ephe­meris, 1650, and 1649. Passages since, where­in he reviles, vilifies, Mr. Calvin, Perkins, Geree, Case, Ca­lamy, Farmer, Gataker, Owen, with sundry other Divines by name, and all of them in general, only because, ‘they have preached or writ against the vanity, falsity of his cheating Astrology, by which he gets his living; as much as he reviles, jeers his Companion, Wharton, (Naworth, Naw [...]rth,) for contradicting him in his own Science,’whom yet elsewhere himself and Culpepper too, extraor­dinarily applaud for his exact transcendent knowledge in Astrolo­gy, though all 3. of them diametrically contradict each other in their Predictions from the Stars, or different factions rather. This malice of theirs against our Ministers and their Tithes (wherein they have proved lying Diviners hitherto, and will do so to the Worlds end, if we credit Matth. 28.20. Ephes. 4.11, 12, 13) no doubt is elevated, augmented by Jesuites and Popish Spanish Agents, the chief Promoters of this Study of Astrology amongst us, and very intimate with these Lunatique, Star gazing Incendiaries and Time-servers; it be­ing [Page 140] the expresse advise and project of Thomas Campanella (a great Astrologer and Jesuited Italian Fryer, much magnified by Lilly in some of his Merlins,) in his Treatise De Monar­chia Hispaniae, wherein, as he shews the King of Spain the readiest means to make himself Monarch of the whole world, and particularly of Cap. 25, & 2 [...]. worthy our most se­tious perusal. England, Scotland, Ireland, Holland, ‘(by dividing them one from and against another by unnatural intestine Wars, turning our Monarchy into a Common-wealth; dividing our three Kingdoms one from and against another, by making them Republicks or elective Kingdoms, breaking our naval Forces by the Dutch Fleet and other Nothern Nations, fomenting per­petual Divisions and Schisms amongst us: thereby to de­stroy our civil Government, Forces, and become a prey to the Spaniards at last) so he prescribes this, as Ibid. p. 204, 185, 186, 234, 235, 236. which Art Lilly much promotes. See his Epheme­ris, 1649, 1650. the readiest way to undermine our Protestant Religion, and draw men from the Study, Love, Practice thereof, to promote the Art, Study of Astrology and Telesian Arts amongst us, to erect Schools of Astrology and Mathematicks, and encourage the Students of it with rewards.’ Which I wish all Lovers of our Religion, vigi­lant Statesmen, and Lilly (with other Astrologasters, the chief Promoters of this Design) to take special notice of, and thereupon to abandon, suppress this impious, atheal, sot­tish, cheating Art, grounded upon no Rules of Reason, Philosophy, Divinity, Experience, but mere imaginary Whimsies, Figments, Chymeraes, Signes, Houses in the Air, of Lunatick cheats and Impostors, as all rational, judicious Scho­lars who peruse their Scheams, Astrological Conjectures, Judgements, Predictions, Treatises, must acknowledge; and I by Gods assistance, may hereafter demonstrate to the world if there be occasion, being not so pertinent to my present Theam.

The fifth and last Squadron of professed Enemies against our Ministers Tithes, Glebes and setled Maintenance, are Jesuites and Jesuited Papists: and that not out of any Ma­lignity against Tithes themselves, which they all hold to be of Divine Right and Institution, according to the definition of their idolized Surius Con­cil. Tom. 4. p. 992. Council of Trent, Sess. 25. De Reforma­tione, [Page 141] c. 12. which thus determines against their present pra­ctice and design: ‘Non sunt ferendi qui variis artibus De­cimas Ecclesiis obvenientes, substrahere moliuntur, aut qui aliis solvendis temerè occupant, & in rem suam vertunt. Cum Decimarum solutio debila sit Deo. Et qui eas dare noluerit, aut dantes impediunt, res alienas inva­dunt. Praecepit ergo Sancta Synodus, omnibus cujus­cunque gradus aut conditionis sint, ad quas Decimarum solutio spectat, ut eas (ad quas de Iure tenentur) in posterum Cathedrali, aut quibuscunque aliis Ecclesiis vel Per­sonis quibus legitimè debentur, integrè persolvant: Qui vero eas aut substrahunt, aut impediunt excommunicen­tur; Nec ab hoc crimine nisi plena restitutione, secu­ta, absolvantur:’ But merely out of malice and de­sign against our Ministers and their Ministry, of purpose to starve and ruine them, thereby to set up Popery, and intrude themselves into their Rectories, yea into our Bishopricks and Deaneries too, and then they will not only cry up Tithes again, with the due payment of them to themselves from the People, according to the utmost ri­gour of this Trent-Canon, and other Laws, for their due pay­ment by Divine and Human Right, but likewise resume all Bishops, Deans, Chapters Lands, (if not Abby Lands too) into their hands, as sacrilegiously alienated from the Church without lawfull power and Right, as Robert Parsons the Jesuites Me­morial for Reformation, (written at A Manife­station of the folly and bad Spirit of cer­tain in Eng­land calling themselves Secular Priests, p. 56.) Sevil in Spain, Anno 1596.) William Watson in his Quodlibets, p. 93, 94, 144. with the Rastals Abridgement of Statutes, Tit. Durham. Statute of 1 Mariae, Parl. 2. c. 1. for reviving the Bishoprick of Durham, restoring all Ecclesiastical and Tempo­ral Jurisdictions, Lands, Hereditaments whatsoever thereunto here­tofore belonging, though dissolved, setled in the Crown and Town of Newcastle, by the Statutes of 7 E. 6. c. 10. and another Act not printed, will inform the world, and Alfonsus de Ʋargas de Stratag. Jesuitarum, p. 203.

Now that the Jesuites (many hundreds of which Socie­ty now lurk every where amongst us under the Disguise of Anabaptists, Souldiers, Tradesmen, Seekers, Dippers, con­verted Iews, Physicians, Gentlemen, Travellers, Merchants, and other like, to work our ruine) have a hand in this Design [Page 142] to deprive our Ministers of their Tithes and Rectories, to work their ruine, is most apparent. ‘First, by their former procedings even against their own Secular Priests in England, where they seeking to work their utter ru­ine, subversion, supplantation, to intrude themselves into their imployments, by their Machiavel, Atheal plots, about the year 1600, to 1605, did first by their scanda­lous Books, Libels, Slanders against the [...]e Priests, bring their Persons and Priesthood into scorn and contempt a­mongst the generality of the English Papists, preferring every Lay Brother of their Society before them, execu­ting their Priestly Function without a lawfull Call, or Ordination: and then endeavoured to substract all Main­tenance and Contributions from them; threatning to make them leap at a Crust, and to pine and starve them; debarring, interrupting all their Maintenance from Eng­lish Recusants, in such sort, that many of them pined away through grief of Mind, want of Food, and were so near perishing, that they were necessitated to petition Queen Elizabeth and her Council, for some Allowance in their prisons to keep them from starving. Yea they and their Jesuited Followers and Proselites derided their Seminarie Priests and Ghostly. Fathers in this manner, Ah, hah, hah; A Seminary, and old Queen Mary Priest, a Secular, &c. You shall see them all leap at a Crust ere it be long, &c. And having got Iudas his Office (to carry the Mony bagg) into their own and Substitutes hands, they disposed of the Wealth and Charitie of Catholicks (con­sisting of many thousand pounds) where, how, and to whom they pleased, for their own enriching and advance­ment: which made the Secular Priests write, that Eng­land was become wild, Priesthood and Sacraments had in contempt, Religion made but a matter of Atheal po­licy; and Priests through the Jesuites Falsehood, Calum­niations and untrue Suggestions to the Superiours and all Estates, brought into such high contempt, that their verie Ghostly Children, whom they had begotten, had forsa­saken, houted, shunned, despised them, as if they were none other but their Stepfathers, and shewed their Chari­ty [Page 143] so coldly to them, as many of them were in extream want, and few or none of them scarce able to live;’as we may read in Watsons Quodlibets against Parsons and his Fellow Jesuites, p. 16, 17, 18, 20, 21, 31, 37, 38, 42, 43, 45, 50, 51, 52, 62, 63, 70, 71, 80, 81, 92, 93. and else­where throughout that Book: in Joan. Bogermanus Cateche­sis Jesuit. l. 3. c. 28. Thuanus Hist. l. 126, Mercurius Jesuiti­cus, Tom. 1. p. 287. William Clark his Reply to Father Par­sons Libel, printed 1603. fol. 17, to 32, which being the very condition and complaint of our Godly Protestant Mi­nisters in most places throughout the Nation at this day, is no doubt a storm of these Jesuites raysing, a very Plot and Design of their hatching, fomenting to ruine our Ministers and their Ministry now, as they would have done their own Secular Priests then in England, to advance their own power, profit, 2ly. It is evident by See Watsons Quod [...]ibets, p. 93, 94, 281. Parsons his Manifestation, fol. 61. Wil­liam Watsons Reply to Par­sons Libel, fol. 74. Rob. Parsons and other Jesu­ites old Project for Reformation of England, when they should get power in it: ‘To take away all Lands, Manors, Benefices and setled Maintenance of the Church from the English Clergy and Universities, and make all Ministers, and Scholars mere Pensioners and Stipendiaries at their pleasure [...], set up Itinerary Preachers fixed to no particular Church,’(like our wandring Quakers, Anabaptists, Secta­ries of late)‘instead of Parochial Pastors, of which more anon. 3ly. Alfonsus de Vargas Toletanus: in his Relatio ad Reges & Principes Christianos, De Stratagematis Po­liticis Societatis Jesu, ad Monarchiam Orbis terrarum sibi conficiendam; printed 1641. cap. 40, to 51.’proves at large out of the Jesuites own printed Defence and other Writings; ‘That these new Doctors, of no Conscience, no Faith, no honesty or shame, have perswaded the Emperour and other Kings, against their Oaths, Trusts, Duties, Charters, the Law of Nations, and all Divine and Human Laws, that it was lawfull for them, upon a pretext of Necessity, for the ease of the people, and Maintenance of their Wars, Souldi­ers, to alienate the Lands, Revenues, Maintenance of Ab­bies, Religious men and of the Church, upon Souldiers, for the defence of their Bodies, and of the Church; that so themselves might gain a share of them for the advan­tage [Page 144] of their own Societies, contrary to the wills, in­tentions of the first Donors and Founders:’ Whereupon he thus justly jeers them, cap. 46. p. 222. ‘That the in­stitution of the Jesuites Society peculiarly tends to this, that their Colleges should be instituted and Society main­tained out of the ruines of the Church, and rapines of o­ther mens Goods, à quibus Societatis Institutor et Con­ditor Ignatius, cum etiamnum ad legionem bellator esset, mi­nime alienus fuisse, nec a solita Militum rapacitate quic­quam demutasse, sine ulla ejus contumelia creditur, etsi au­tem Militiam mutavit ac simul cum Sociorum ne dicam furum manipulo Christo Imperatori Sacramentum dixit, non propterea rapinam omnem ejerare necesse habuit, &c. he remaining a PLUNDERER still, after he became a SAINT: See­ing the Prophe [...] Isay seemeth thus to prophecy both of his Rapine and Wound in his halting Legg, cap. 33. Tunc dividentur Spolia multarum praedarum: Claudi diripient rapinam. Therefore no wonder this Spirit of Rapine continues in his Disciples: who doubtlesse have infused the self-same Spirit of Rapine into our Anabaptists and Souldiers, into whose Societies they have secretly insinuated them­selves; somenting and intending to lengthen out our wars so long, of purpose to make a prey of our remaining Church-Revenues, Rectories, Tithes, and College lands too at last, (as they have done of other Church-Revenues already dis­sipated) out of a pretext of Necessity, as is most transpa­rant to all Intelligent peoples eyes, thereby to destroy our Religion by devouring our Ministers, Churches Patrimonies, the probable, if not inevitable consequence of this Jesuiti­cal project, if effected, as is most apparent by this notable passage of Roderyck Mors formerly a Grey Fryer, in his Com­plaint and Supplication to the Parliament of England, about 37 H. 8. after the Dissolution of Monasteries, pertinent to my purpose, and as worthy consideration now as then, ‘Ye that be Lords and Burgesses of the Parliament House, (writes he) I require of you in the name of my poor Bre­thren that are Englishmen and Members of Christs Body, that ye consider well (as ye will answer before the face of Almighty God in the day of judgement) this abuse, and [Page 145] see it amended. When Antichrist of Rome durst openly without any visor walk up and down thorowout Eng­land, he had so great favour there, and his Children had such crafty wits (for the Children of this World are wi­ser in their Generation than the Children of Light) they had not only almost gotten all the best Lands of Eng­land into their hands, but also most part of the best Bene­fices both of Parsonages and Vicarages which were for the most part The Impro­priations held by them were much more than the 3d. part of all the Parish Chur­ches of Eng­land divided into 3 parts, and of greater value than the other 2 parts in Priests and Ministers hands. all improved to them. And when they had the gifts of any not improved, they gave them unto their Friends, of the which alwaies some were learned, for the Monks found of their Friends Children at School. And though they were not learned, yet they kept Hospitality and helped their poor Friends. And if the Parsonages were impropred, the Monks were bound to deal Almesse to the poor and to keep Hospitality, as the writings of the Gifts of such Parsonages and Lands do plainly declare in these words, In puram Eleemosynam. And as touching the Almesse that they dealt, and the Hospitality that they kept, every man knoweth, that many thousands were well re­lieved of them, and might have been better, if they had not had so many great Mens Horse to feed, and had not been over-charged with such idle Gentlemen, as were never out of the Abbies. And if they had any Vicarage in their hands, they set in some time some sufficient Vicar, (though it were but seldom) to preach and to teach. But now that all the Abbies, with their Lands, Goods and im­propred Parsonages be in temporal mens hands, I do not hear tell that one half peny worth of Alms, or any other profit cometh unto the people of those Parishes. Your pre­tence of putting down Abbies, was to amend that was a­miss in them. It was far amiss, that a great part of the Lands of the Abbies (which were given to bring up learn­ned men that might be Preachers, to keep Hospitality and give Alms to the poor) should be spent upon a few Super­stitious Monks, which gave not XL. pound in Alms, when they should have given CC. It was amiss, that the Monks should have Parsonages in their hands, and deal but the XX. part thereof to the poor, and preached but once in a [Page 146] year to them that paid the Tithes of Parsonages. It was amiss, that they scarcely among XX set not one sufficient Vicar to preach for the Tithes that they recei­ved. But see now, how it that was amiss, is amended, for all the Pretence. It is amended even as the Devil a­mended his Dams Leg (as it is in the Proverb) when he should have set it right, he brake it quite in pieces. The Monks gave too little Alms, and set unable Persons many times in their Benefices. But now where xx. pound was yearly given to the poor, in more than C. places in Eng­land is not one meals meat given. This is a fair Amend­ment. Where they had alwaies one or other Vicar, that either preached or hired some to preach, Now is there no Vicar at all: but the Farmor is Vicar and Parson alto­gether, and only an old cast away Monk or Frier which can scarcely say his Mattins, is hired for xx. or xxx. shil­lings Meat and Drink, yea in some places for Meat and Drink alone, without any wages. I know, and not I a­lone, but xx. M. mo, know more than D. (we may now adde 5000.) Vicarages and Parsonages thus well Gospel­ly served, (yea not served at all, but the Church Doors quite shut up) after the New Gospel of England.So he.

This doubtless will be the general sad condition of all England (as it is now in most part of Wales) if Tithes and Rectories be quite voted down, abolished, or disposed to the Souldiers, or brought into a common Treasury (which will hardly leave Ministers the Tenth of their Tithes, as our late Sequestrators left not the Tenth nor fifth part clear gains, and value, of all Sequestrations generally throughout England, to the State, as I found by examination of their Accompts upon Oath) which is now so violently prosecuted, endea­voured by many. And then we shall have a glorious blessed Reformation indeed, according to the Popes and Jesuites hearts desires, who like ravening Wolves will make a prey of all Flocks in the defect and absence of able Pastors, through want of Maintenance and poverty, as they have done in many places throughout the Realm, seduced by them to Jesuitism, Anabaptism, Atheism, through defect of able Mini­sters, [Page 147] and ejection of former Incumbent Pastors under pre­text of Scandal, Insufficiency, or Malignity, by Arbitrary or A­nabaptistical Committees, Sequestrators, Prosecutors, without any legal Tryal by their Peers, or any care at all to place better, abler, or any Minister at all in divers Parishes in their places: Whereupon these active Jesuites, with other Romish Emis­sacries under the Disguises of Anabaptists, Seekers, Dippers, inspired Brethren, Quakers, Ranters, Souldiers, New Illuminates of extraordinary Endowments, and Itinerary Predicants, who pretend to preach the Gospel freely, have seduced thousands, divided the people into sundry Sects, and almost ruined our Church and Religion in a short space, which they will soon accom­plish to their hearts content, can they now but vote down Tithes, Glebes, and set up New Committees in all places of their own and the Anabaptistical party, (concurring in De­sign and most principles with the Jesuites, as Page 26, to 31, 169, 186. Watson in his Quodlibets, and others prove at large) to eject our re­maining Ministers at their pleasure, under pretext they are Antichristian, Scandalous, and no Ministers of Jesus Christ (as John Canne and others have already prejudge [...] them) that they and their Agents may step into their places; and at last, when all their Designs against our State, Church, Governm. are produced to maturity, re-assume their Tithes, Rectories, with our Bishops, Deans, Chapters and Abby Lands too into their actual possession, according to the Jesuite Parsons and his Com­panions long prosecuted project, at large related by William Wat­son the Priest in his Quodlibets, p. 93, 94, 98, 288, [...]89, 332, 333. with other plots lately prosecuted ad unguem to subvert our Religion, Laws, Government, Monarchy, and enslave us to the Iesuits, Popes, Spaniards Tyranny and Vassalage in conclu­sion; first laid by Parsons and other pragmatical Jesuites, then seconded by Thomas Campanella, in his Treatise De Monarchia Hispanica c. 25.27. and elsewhere: prosecuted of late years by the Jesuites and Spanish Agents on the one hand; and Car­dinal Richilieu and his Instruments on the other hand; who at his death in the begining of our late Warrs (which he was very instrumental to rayse) recommended the prosecution of them to the French King and his Successor Cardinal Mazarin; as A Noble Italian Count, Conte Galliazzo Gualdo Priorato, in [Page 148] his Historia, part 3. printed at Venice in 4to. Anno 1648. (dedicated by him to the King of Poland, and written in Italian) p. 175, 176 records in these words, worthy all English Statesmens special notice: where Writing of the affairs of the year 1642. and the death of Cardinal Richelieu in parti­cular, he records, That amongst other things he caused some Pa­pers to be delivered before his death to the King of France, full of Policies and Maximes of State, directing him how to carry on his Business with all Forein States. His advice in relation to England was this. Che Sopra, &c. That above all other things the King of France should endeavour to keep the Government of Great Britain divided, by upholding the weakest party, that the other might not make it self too powerfull; Reducing the King­doms of England, Scotland, and Ireland to be divided (by one of these two means or both) either by nominating (new) Kings: or by reducting them to a Common-wealth. Yet with this Caution, that when they are reduced to a Com­mon-wealth, So to order it, that it may not be intirely one, but divided: For Republiques ever enemies to Potent Neighbours, and Iealous of their Liberties, ought to be Suspected by the State of France. How punctually this advice hath been pursued by the French (as well as Parsons and Campanellaes Plots of like nature by the Spaniards) those who please to peruse the Lord George Digbies Cabinet Letters (printed in the Collection of all the Publique Orders, Ordinances and Declarations of Parliament in folio, by the Commons Order) 1646. p. 849, 858, 862, 863, 866, 867. and my Speech in Parliament p. 118. & 106, to 114. may read at leisure, and every mans observing experience can sufficiently attest. The Lord now at last give us hearts to be deeply sensible of it, and grace, zeal, courage to make timely use of it for the Pre­servation of our Kingdoms, Nations, Churches, Ministers, Religion from impendent ruine.

Having given the world this brief Accompt of the princi­pal Promoters, Prosecutors of the present Grand Plot against our Ministers, their Tithes and Rectories, I cannot upon seri­ous consideration of it but foresee and divine, that if all or any of these Projectors (through Gods heavy Judgment on us for our sins, and detestable violations of all Oaths, Vows, [Page 149] Covenants, Trusts, Protestations, Promises, Declarations Divine and Human Laws) should by power, fraud, policy, or ar­med force so far prevail with our present Legifers or Swaying Grandees, as totally to take away and abolish the Rectories, Tithes and present setled Maintenance of our Ministry, for the Souldiers pay, or other ends; or else secretly to bring them all into a Common Treasury, and reduce all our Ministers to set arbitrary Stipends out of them, to dispossess them of the future actual possession of them, and make them wholy de­pendent on the arbitrary discretions of new intruding Land-Lords into their Churches, Patrimonies, Freeholds from whom they never received them at first; as it would inevitably produce a world of mischiefs and Inconvenien­ces both to all Patrons and Parishioners throughout the Nation, without the least Ease or Benefit to the People; so it would certainly either totally ruine our Ministers, ma­king them all poor Fryers Mendicants, neglecting their Cal­lings, Studies, to get their living by begging from door to door, and as In. 2 lib. Regum c. 5. f. 240. Peter Martyr observes, to be ventris potius quam Ecclesiae Ministros, ostiatim validè Mendicare, & non Men­dicantes, sed Manducantes appellari: and thereby subvert our Church and Religion with them in very few years space, o­pen such a wide door for the Pope and whole body of Popery to flow in upon us again with an impetuous irresistable De­luge, that we should no waies be able to resist their progress till they were re-estated in their former Supremacy and Pre­valency amongst us. And then rhose very Romish Factors who are now so violent against Tithes and Rectories, of pur­pose to starve our Ministers out of them, and their Ministry for the present, will not only forthwith resume (as they did in See 1. & 2. Phil. & Mar. c. 8. 1 Mar. Sess. 2. c. 3. Fox Acts and Mo­numents vol. 3. Queen Maries daies) their pristine abolished Pontifical Pow­er, and set up their Ecclesiastical Consistories, High Commissions, and bloudy Inquisitions amongst us, higher than ever they were in former ages, to the utter extirpation of our Protestant Mini­sters and Professors too, but likewise presently resume into their hands all those Rectories, Tithes and antient Dues, whereof they now endeavour to deprive our Ministers; with all our late Arch-Bishops, Bishops, Deans, Chapters, Cathedrals Lands and Revenues, as Sacrilegiously alienated from the Church, [Page 150] against the Lawes both of God and Man, as well as against their Popish Gratian Caus. 16. qu. 1, & 7. Canons, by those who had no right to dispose of them, if they proceed to resume all Abby Lands too in Protestant hands at least. And then all late or antient Purchasers of such Lands, now confederating with them out of Covetousness, Ambition, Rapine, or other respects, will repent too late of their in­considerable, unrighteous, unchristian complyance with them against our Ministers Glebes and Tithes, and have as ill a Bargain in conclusion, as divers old Projectors had in the pur­chase of our Crown Revenues, when resumed, or setled in the Crown again, by many special See 1 R. 2. rot. Parl. n. 148. 1 H. 4 n. 48, 100, 141. 6 H. 4. n, 14, 15. 8 H. 4. n. 52. 28 H. 6. n. 53. 33 H. 6. n. 47. [...] Edw. 4. [...]. n. 39.12 1.4. n. 6. 1 H. 5. c. 9. 31 H. 6. c. 7. with those Re­sumptions in former Ages, recorded in Daniels Hi­story and o­thers. Acts of Resumption, for the publick weal and ease of the people in their Taxes, as being the constant, standing Revenue of the whole Kingdom to defray its ordinary publick Ex­pences, which none can or ought to Alien or purchase from the Re­publick to enrich themselves by the publick Losse. Wherefore I shall now refer it to their saddest thoughts to consider, whether it will not be far safer for all such Army-Officers and others who have purchased Church Lands, to joyn toge­ther with all such zealous Protestants who desire the con­tinuance of our Ministers antient Tithes and Maintenance (more aimed at than Impropriators Tithes) against these Jesuites and Romish Emissaries now oppugning them; and to use their utmost endeavours to detect, apprehend, prosecute, execute all our former good Laws against them, to prevent their mischievous present and future Designs against our Ministry, Church, Religion, Nation; than ignorantly or wittingly to confederate with and assist them to accomplish their present Sacrilegious Projects, to ruine us (and them­selves with their Posterities) in conclusion; and thereby incur the self-same Crime, Charge of High Treason which themselves and the whole Parliament of England so lately pro­secuted against Canterbury in the 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13, & 14. See Canter­buries Doom, n. 26, 27, &c. Articles of his original Charge, for which he lost his head on Tower Hill.

To draw to a cloze of this Proposition, I shall desire all truly fearing God throughout the Nation and Army too, sadly to consider these particulars.

[Page 151]1. That those who are the chiefest Sticklers against Tithes and our Ministers setled coercive Maintenance (especially Jesuites and Anabaptists) are the greatest professed open Ad­versaries to our Ministery, Church, Religion of all others, desiring nothing but their utter ruine, as their late printed Pamphlets and Petitions manifest: Therefore to gratify them in their Designs herein, is to ruine all at once, for whose defence we have spent so much Christian Bloud, Treasure, pains of late years, against the Common Enemy and Jesui­ted Popish Party.

2. That many of those who in their printed Papers, have decryed our Ministers Tithes and coercive Maintenance as inconsistent with the Peoples Liberties, and a great Bondage to them, have as The Levell­ers late print­ed Funda­mental Lawes and Liberties. n. 15, 16, 25, 27. earnestly declaimed against all Inclosures, Coppy hold Tenures, Land-Lords old Rents, Services, antient Cus­tomes, Imposts ▪ which being not so antient, nor ratified by so many Statutes, Charters, Muniments of all sorts as Tithes are, will not be able to stand before their Opposition and Arguments against them, if our Tithes and Ministers Glebes should once fall before them

3. That if our besotted Nation shall be so stupid as to admit or permit any company of persons whatsoever a suf­ficient Legal Power or Jurisdiction without any pretend­ed Crime, Attainder, Legal Conviction, or Trial by their Peers, at their meer wills and arbitrary discretions, to de­prive all our godly Ministers throughout the Nation of their Rectories, Tithes and antient Dues, though ratified by the Law yea Gospel of God himself, by an uninterrupted Title, Prescription in their Predecessors from the very first planting of the Gospel in our Nation, and more hundreds of years, than the antientest Families in the Nation have en­joyed their Inheritances, by more Charters of our Kings, more particular Lawes, Statutes of our successive Parlia­ments in all ages, than all the Nobility, Gentry, Corpora­tions, Commons of the Realm are able to produce for the Rights, Titles, Defence of their particular Lands and Inhe­ritances, against the Rapines, Intrusions, Claims, Seisures, Confiscations, Sales, Alienations of any either claiming or usurping such a Power or Jurisdiction by the Sword or o­therwise: [Page 152] They will thereby both admit them and invest them in as sufficient a Legal Power and Jurisdiction, with­out the least pretended Crime, Attainder, Legal Convicti­on, or Trial by their Peers, at their meer arbitrary wills and Discretions, to deprive, strip all the Nobility, Gentry, Cor­porations, Commons of the Realm of all their Mannors, Lands, Inheritances, Estates, Chattels, Privileges, Fran­chises whatsoever; being not so well fenced by the Laws of God and Men against their Rapines and Depredations as Tithes are; and those who will make no conscience upon any grounds or pretences to invade the one, will make no Scruple to act the other, as the Histories ofSpeeds Hist. p. 733, &c. 836, 849, 850, 851. Sleidens Comment. l. 7. c. 10. Jack Cade and his Complices Practices, Designs at home, and the Anabaptists a­broad will sufficiently attest. Yea it will be but just with God to engage such Arbitrary Powers to act the later, to the ruine of them and their families, if they shall either assist, permit, encourage them by their silence or cowardice, to perpetrate the other, to the disinheriting of the Church, the ruine of their faithfull Ministers themselves, and that very Religion which they pretend to profess and practice.

4. That as Tithes are the fittest Maintenance for Mini­sters of all others, as invented, appointed by the very Wis­dom of God himself, and the best, the wisest of his Saints in all ages; holding the self-same proportion in relation to the Ministers and Parishioners in times of Plenty and Dearth, good years or bad, fair harvests or foul, rising or the falling of the prices of Corn, Lands, and other Commo­dities; affecting them both alike with the mercy and boun­ty of God in times of Plenty, and the Judgments of God in times of Scarcity, or unseasonable weather; more easily par­ted with by the Country-man in kind, by several small par­cels as they grow due, than in ready money in one or two intire sums, which they are most loth to render and part from of any thing, as that they 1 Tim. 6.10. Eccles. 5.10. most affect: yea farr lesse troublesom to, more convenient for our Ministers Persons, families and necessary Cattel, than bare stipends, which must enforce them to run to Markets to buy all their Corn and other provisions both for their Houshold, Horses, Cattel at the dearest rates. So if this Maintenance by Tithes be once [Page 153] abolished, either before any other competent Maintenance setled in its steed, lesse grievous and inconvenient than Tithes, (which all wise men in the world will never be able to invent, much lesse to establish as things now are setled;) or Ministers left wholy to an arbitrary, unconstrained Bene­volence without any limited Proportion, or means to reco­ver it if detained, as some now petition: This expected pro­posed unconstrained Maintenance would in verity and reali­ty, signify just Nothing, and be no Maintenance at all, in the Petitioners own sence and intention; as appears by John Cannes forecited passages, and the very words of their Petiti­ons; since they refuse to pay them their very Tithes yet due by Law, and never freely contributed one penny to them for their Ministry, which they revile, disclaim as Antichris­tian. Wherefore if any New-fangled Politicians resolve to settle such a new Maintenance only insteed of the old, for the peoples pretended Ease; let them first establish, settle an arbitrary Excise, Custome, uncoercive voluntary Impost, and monthly Contribution as this on the people for Main­tenance of the Army and Navy, (not so simply necessary as the Ministry for our real welfare) without any compulsory means to recover it if not freely rendred, till the next har­vest come, and see what a competent Maintenance that will be for the Souldiers and Seamen; and provide that all Te­nants for the year ensuing, shall render only what Rents they please to the State, their Landlords, & Lessees, who shall have no power to distrain, sue, or enter upon any of them in case they deny to pay their Rents: and trie what a certain Annual Revenue this whimsy will produce to the States and Land-Lords purses: Or else give over this Jesuitical Ana­baptistical devised new Maintenance for our Ministers, as a Stratagem only to starve their bodies, and their Peoples souls, without any more Debates concerning Tithes, to gratify such malicious Projectors, and offend all Godly people through the Nation, who deem this old way of Maintenance, of Gods own Prescription, farr better, lesse in­convenient in all respects than this arbitrary or any other new-fangled way of these or other mens invention.

5ly. That although God by his divine Providence is [Page 154] able to support the faithfull Ministers of the Gospel, though totally stripped naked of all their Glebes, Tithes, antient Maintenance, through the unrighteousnesse or malice of ungodly men, as he did the Apostles and his Ministers in all ages, in times of Persecution; yet let all such who have, or shall have a hand in such a Sacrilegious design consider,

1. That they shall be as bitter Enemies to and Persecu­tors of the Ministers of Christ amongst us in and by this very Project, as See Nice­phorus Eccles. Hist. l. 10. Gent. Magd. 4. c. 3.14. Julian the Apostate Christian was to Gods faithfull Ministers in the primitive Times, when he took away their Preferments, Glebes, and Church Revenues; as the High Com­missioners and Prelates were of late to all those godly Puritan Ministers whom they deprived of their Benefices for Non­conformity to their Ceremonies, and no real Crime deserving such an inhuman Censure, depriving them of their Lively­hoods.

2ly. That they shall hereby draw a great Scandal upon our very Religion it self, Church, Nation, render them odi­ous, Sacrilegious to all foreign Churches, Nations; gratify, rejoyce the hearts of the Pope, Jesuites, Papists and other professed Enemies of our Religion; accomplish their Designs against our Church and Ministers; exceedingly sad the hearts, and grieve the righteous souls of all Gods faithfull Saints amongst us, of all Protestant Churches in Foreign parts, and draw this just Censure on themselves. 2 Pet. 2.14, 15. An heart they have exercised with covetous practices, cursed Children, which have forsaken the right way, and are gon astray following the way of Balaam, the son of Bosor, who loved the wages of unrighteousnesse. These are wells without water, Clouds carried with a Tempest, to whom is reserved the mist of darknesse for ever.

3ly. That although God should miraculously preserve a faithfull able Ministry and his true Religion still amongst us through the bounty and charity of other well affected Christians, yet they have done their uttermost endeavours to destroy them, and the peoples souls with them, both for the present and succeeding ages.

4ly. That this unrighteous violent act will in all proba­bility bring in a world of Confusion, Atheism, Schisms, [Page 155] Heresies, Divisions, Contentions, Blasphemies, disorders amongst us, in all places; a Amos 8.11. famine of the sincere preaching of Gods word; a neglect and contempt of Learning and Pi­ety; a Ante haec s [...]c existimatum est, speciosa struere sapi­entum esse, & civilis vitae scientium; structa demo­lire, stultorum & vecordis a­nimi signa ad posteros trans­mittere, non erubescenti­am: Procopi­us Gothico [...]ii. l. 3. Grotius de Jure Belli. p. 522. dilapidation, Spoliation of all or most Parish Churches, Chapels; a confusion of the bounds of all Pa­rishes, and Parochial Congregations; and bring all those Calamities on our Nation, as it did upon the Israelites when Jeroboam thrust out the Priests and Levites from their Glebes, Suburbs, Ministry: thus registred 2 Chron. 15.3, 5, 6. Now for a long season Israel was without the true God, and without a teaching Priest, and without Law (as some would have us now) And in those days (mark the consequence) ‘there was no peace to him that went out, nor to him that came in, but great veration upon all the Inhabitants of the Country: And Nation was destroyed of Nation, and Citie of Citie, for God did vex them withall Adversity.In which condition they continued, ‘till King Asa and the people renued, repaired the decayed Altar, House and worship of the Lord, Gathered all the people to Jerusalem to worship God, and enter into a Solemn Covenant and Oath to serve the Lord God of their Fathers, with all their hearts, and with all their soul: And that whosoever would not seek the Lord God of Israel, should be put to death, whether small or great, man or woman: Offred Sacrifices to the Lord of the Spoyl they had taken from the Enemy, 700. Oxen and 7000. Shéep; and brought into the house of God, the things that his Father had dedicated,and himself had dedicated, Silver and Gold and Vessels (formerly taken thence) and then there was no more war in divers years. v. 8. to the end of the Chapter. And probably our Wars, Taxes, Vexations will never end, till we give over our late irreligious, Sacrilegious Rapines, Church Robberies, and do the like, as this pious King and his people here did.

5ly. That this discouraging, robbing, abusing, despising, mock­ing, misusing, of Gods Messengers, Prophets sent amongst us, and of all his and their words against our wicked Atheistical, Sacrilegious Rapines, is the High way to provoke the wrath of God to rise against us till there be no remedy, yea to bring in a pow­erfull [Page 156] Foreign Nation upon us to pillage, waste, destroy, enslave our whole Nation, extirpate us out of the Land of our Nativity, and carry us Captives to a Foreign Nation, as it did Gods own people heretofore. 2 Chron. 36.15, to 22. Sufficient mo­tives to deter us from such a dangerous practice.

6ly. I must inform our Army-Officers and Souldiers, that it is expresly against the very Laws and Rules of War even in a Foreign Enemies Country won by Conquest, to rob, destroy, pillage Churches, Temples, or things devoted for the Main­tenance of Gods publique Worship; which not only the best Christian Generals, and Souldiers, but many Heathen and Mahometan Gene­rals, Princes, Commanders made conscience not to plunder, deface, demolish or substract, as Grotius proves at large by many in­stances in his Book De Jure Belli. l. 3. c. 2, 12. sect. 6, 7, 8. Annotata on them. How much more then is it against the Law of War and Armes it self to make a prey, plunder of Churches, Rectories, Glebes, Tithes in their own native Country, against their own Consciences, Covenants, Com­missions to defend them? Yea such Generals, Souldiers and whole Armies who have made no Conscience to observe it, have been frequently destroyed for their Sacrilege, as many Heathen Historians observe, as well as Christian: Herodotus, in my Edition p. 7, 8, 44, 167, 168, 169, 170, 187, 349, 350, 460, 461, 568. Diodorus Siculus Bibl. Hist. p. 622, 781, 782. Dion Cassius Rom. Hist. p. 589. Justini Historia l. 8. p. 87. l. 24. p. 227, to 231, 269, 271, 308. Caelius Rhodiginus Ant. Lect. l. 18. c. 29 Eutropius Rer. Rom. Hist. p. 175, 228, 334. Paulus Diaconus p. 417. Nicetus Hist. p. 48, 50. Laurentius Begerlink. Chronogra: p. 137, 189, 263. record sundry examples of this kind, both among Pagans and Chri­stians, to deter others from this dangerous destructive sin: which if they neglect & scorn, I shall then desire them to re­member that saying of Euripedes an Heathen Poet in his Tro­adibus, that he shall receive the like exemplary punishment.

Homo quisquis urbes vastat, & Dis Manibus
Sedes Sacratas, Templaque, haud recte sapit,
Nam similis ipsum Pestis Excidii manet

7ly. It is the Resolution of De Benefi­ciis p. 121. Seneca the Philosopher. [Page 157] Quisquis id quod Deorum est, sustulerit & consumpsit, atqu [...] in usum suum vertit, sacrilegus est: and all Gratian Caus. 16. qu. 4. summa Ange­lica & Rosella, Tit. Sacrilegi­um. Canonists, Casuists, Schoolmen, Divines whatsoever accord; That it is Sacrilege for any Persons or Powers whatsoever to invade or take away any thing which our Ancestors or any others have solemnly vowed, dedi­cated for the necessary maintenance of Gods publique worship and Ministers under what specious pretext soever it be done. Therefore to take away or abolish our Ministers Tithes, Glebes, Rec­tories and other Dues conferred on them by our pious An­cestors, and make spoyl, havock of the Churches, Edifices erected by them for Gods publique worship, must question­lesse be Sacrilege; as God himself expresly defines, Mal. 3.8, 9. With all commentators thereon, old and new; and Gratian Caus. 16. qu. 1. This the famous Emperor, Souldier Charles the Great, and Ludovicus surnamed the Godly and most Christian, joyntly resolve, Capit. Caroli & Ludovici l. 6. cap. 285, 295, 296, 115, 305. & l. 7. c. 104. where they thus con­clude. Scimus res Ecclesiae Deo esse sacratas; Scimus eas esse vota Fidelium, & pretia peccatorum. Quapropter, si quis eas ab Eccle­siis quibus a Fidelibus collatae Deoque Sacratae sunt, aufert, proculdubio Sacrilegium committit. Caecus enim est qui ista non videt, &c. Si ergo amico quippiam rapere furtum est, Ecclesiae vero fraudari, vel abstrahi indubitanter Sacrilegium est Om­nes enim contra Legem facientes Resque Ecclesiae dirimentes, vel Ecclesias Sacerdotesque contra Divinas Sanctiones vexantes Sacrilegi vocantur, atque Indubitanter infames Sacrile­gique Habendi sunt, &c. What Penalties have been inflicted upon such who were guilty of this sin by Christian Princes in foreign parts: I shall briefly inform this Sacrilegious age. Fredericus Lindebrogus Codex Legū Antiquarum. p. 257, Theodoricus King of the Gothes in his Edict. c. 125. enact­ed: That if any man should violently take any thing from Churches, he should lose his head. And Alaricus the Gothish King, though an Arrian, when he took Rome by force of Armes, and his ‘Souldiers had taken the Sacred Vessels out of St. Peters Church there, and brought them to him; commanded them to carry them back again to the Church, with their own hands which took them thence, ut cupiditas quae depraedationis ambitu admiserat scelus, devotione lar­gissima deleret excessum:’ as Cassiodor relates, l. 12. Epist. [Page 158] 20. Among the Fredericus Lindebrogus Codex Legum Antiquarum p. 508, 702. Friseans Laws made by their wisemen, Tit. 12. De Honore Templorum; this is one; ‘He who shall break a Church, and take away the holy things thence, let him be carried to the Sea, and in the Sand which the Tide is wont to cover, let his cares be slit, and he be gelt, and then let him be sacrificed to the Gods whose Temples he hath violated. The Neopolitan Laws l. 1. Tit. 5. enact; That whosoever shall violently break open a Church, and take away any Gifts or consecrated Vessels thence, shall be punished as a Capital Off [...]nder, and lose his life.Fredericus Lindebrogus Ibid. p. 997, 998. Bochellus Decret. Ec­cles. Gal. l. 8. Tit. 61. p. 1308. Charles the Great and Lewes the Godly, enacted; That if any person violently took from any Church, Priest or Minister any thing belonging to them, and were convicted thereof, or confessed the same, he should have sentence of death given against him, as guilty of Sacri­lege, and that it should be not only lawfull, but commen­dable, to prosecute and avenge this Sacrilege and Injury done to the Church, Priests and Ministers, as a publique Crime, deserving punishment, and that if any did Sacri­legiously invade or molest the Possessions and Lands of the Church, he should be perpetually banished for it. Capit. Caroli & Ludovici l. 6. Tit. 113, 125. And Tit. 305. they thus determine. All things that are offered to the Lord, are without all doubt consecrated to the Lord, and not only the Sacrifices, which by the Priests are consecrated upon the Altar to the Lord, are called the Oblations of the faithfull, but what things soever are offred to him by the faithfull, whether in Sacrifices or in Fields, Vine­yards, Woods, Medowes, Waters, Water-streams, Arti­fices, Books, Utensils, Stones, Buildings, Vestments, Wools, Garments, Cattel, Parchments, Moveables and Immoveables, or whatsoever, which of these things are made to the praise of God, or the Supplement of the holy Church of God, and his Priests, and which may give or­nament unto them, whether they be freely offered by any one to the Lord and his Church, are undoubtedly conse­crated to the Lord, and belong to the Priests Right. And because we truly acknowledge the Lord and his Church to be one person; what ever things are the Churches are [Page 159] Christs; and whatsoever is offered to the Church, either in the aforesaid things, or in any other Kinds, or by pro­mises or pledges, or writings, or in corporal things are offered unto Christ, and what thin [...]s by any devise are alienated or taken from his Church, either by alienat­ing, or by wasting, or invading, or by diminishing, or by rapine, are taken from Christ. And if it be Robbery to take any thing from a friend, it is Sacrilege to take a­way, alienate, substract, or waste any thing especially from Christ, who is King of Kings and Lord of Lords. For all Robbers of the Church are most apparently Sacri­legious persons, and no Sacrilegious person, unlesse by pure, approved and publique Repentance, and by satisfac­tion to the Church, and by imposition of the Bishops hands, and reconciliation according to the Canonical Sanctions, shall Inherit the Kingdom of God; and shall not only be secluded the Kingdom of God, but likewise be shut out of the limits of the Church, especially of the Church he hath ruined, and shall be excommunicated thence, until the foresaid Satisfaction given. And the per­petrators of such wickednesses, ought to have no Com­munion at all, either with the living or dead, till after such Satisfaction given. Because who ever violently takes away his Neighbours money, commits Iniquity, but Sa­crilegious persons are not only Théeves, but likewise Wolves and Man-slayers and Murderers of the poor, and accursed, damned persons before God and his Saints.

And if so, as these two pious Emperors, by their Lawes, with many Sr. James Semple Sacri­lege sacred [...]y handled. Sir Henry Spel­man de non Temerandis Ecclesiis. Mr. Seldens Re­view. Dr. Sclaters Mini­sters Portion. Summa Ange­lica, Rosella & Tho. Zeru­la Tit. Sacrile­gium: with many more. Protestant Writers (as well as Papists) resolve; and all Sacrilegious Persons, taking any Vessel or Vtensil out of a Church, though of small value by our See We is Presidents, Indictments and Offences. Sect 196, 197. p. 127, 128. 1 E. 6. c. 12 own Lawes too, as well as theirs, be Sacrilegious Persons worthy to suffer pains of death, as Felons; those who shall openly Sacrilegiously Rob, or attempt to Rob and spoyl all the Godly painfull Ministers of our Nation of all their Tithes, Rectories, Glebes, Churches and Church-yards too at once, are doubtlesse Sacrilegious Persons in the highest degree, deserving to suffer a temporal infamous death and execution, (better [Page 160] than any High-way Theeves or Robbers) at Tiburn, or to be eternally banished the Nation, Articuli Cleri. 9 E. 2. c. 12. excommunicated all Christian Society, and had in perpetual execration, for this Sacrilegious Rapine, both by God himself and all good men, unlesse they repent and make full publique Restitution, Satisfaction for this their detestable Sacrilege.

Object.Lastly, If any Officers or Souldiers pretend, we are now a Conquered Nation; that Conquest makes all sacred things, prophane and common to the Conquerors; and that Churches may be justly spoyled of their Mat