Humanam AMBROSII vere haec pictura PARAEI Effigiem sed Opus continet Ambrosiam.

THE WORKES of that famous Chirurgion Ambrose Parey Translated out of Latine and compared with the French. by Tho: Johnson.

Whereunto are added three Tractates out of Adrianus Spigelius of the Veines, Arteries, & Nerves, with large Figures.

Also a Table of the Bookes and Chapters.

London. Printed by E: C: and are to be sold by John Clarke at Mercers Chappell in Cheapeside neare ye great Conduit, 1665

To the Right Honourable EDWARD Lord Herbert of Cherbury and Castle Island, and one of his Majesties most Honourable Counsel of War.

My Lord,

IT is not the far fetcht pedegree of noble Ancestors, nor those Honours your Lord­ship deservedly possesses, that make me crave your Patronage to this my Labour; but it is that Heroick mind, enriched with the choice endowments of Nature and Art, and that earnest affection wherewith your Honour entertains all Sciences, Arts, and Artists, with that exqui­site Judgment which sees into the inner man, which em­bolden and incite me to sue for your Honours assistance, in protecting the fame of him, who by your many favours is made yours. I know the seeming and self-pleasing Wis­dom of our times, consists much in cavilling and unjustly carping at all things that see light, and that there are ma­ny who earnestly hunt after the publick fame of Learning and Judgement, by this easily trod, and despicable path, which notwithstanding they tread with as much confidence as folly; for that oft-times which they vainly and un­justly brand with opprobry, outlives their Fate, and flourishes when it is forgot that every any such as they had being.

I know your Lordships disposition to be far dissenting [Page] from these men, and that you rather endeavour to build up the fame of your Learning and Judgment upon a strong laid foundation of your own, than Herostratus like, by pulling down any howsoever fair built fabrick of another. I heartily wish that your Honour could propagate this good, and that all Detractors might be turned into Act­ors, and then I know it would much mitigate their rigour in censuring others, when as they themselves were also ex­posed unto the same Hazard.

I think it impertinent to acquaint your Honour with the nature of the Work, my pains in translating, or the Benefit that may ensue thereon, for that I know your Ho­nour ignorant of nothing in this kind; neither doubt I of your favourable acceptance of the good will of him, that thinks himself much honoured by being

Yours, Thomas Johnson.

To the Reader.

I Have here for the publike good taken pains to subject my self to common censure, the which I doubt not but to finde as various as the faces of the Censurers; but I expect no thanks, nor hunt after o­ther praise, than that I have laboured for my Countries good, if that deserve any. I fear not Calumniation (though sure to hear of it) and therefore I will not Apologize, but inform thee of some things concerning the Author, his work, and the reason that induced me to the translation thereof, with some few things besides. For the Au­thor, who was principal Surgeon to two or three Kings of France, he was a man well versed in the writings of the Antient and modern Physitians, and Sur­geons, as you may evidently find by sundry places alledged in his works. For his ex­perience, or practice (the chief help to attain the highest perfection in this Art) it was wonderful great, as you may collect by his voyages recorded in the last part of his work; as also by that which James Guilleman, Surgeon to the French King, a man both learned and judicious in his profession, avers, speaking of his own education and progresse in the Art of Surgery. I so laid (In his Epistle Prefixed before the Latin edi­tion of this Author. said he) the first foundation of this Art in the Ho­spital of Paris, being as it were, an ample Theater of wounds and diseases of all kindes, that for two whole years, during which time I was there conversant, nothing was con­sulted of, nothing performed, the Physitians and Surgeons being present, whereof I was not an Auditor or Actor. There flourished at these times, and yet doth, Ambrose Parey, principal Surgeon to the most Christian King, the Author of this great work, most re­nowned for the most gracious favour of Kings, Princes and Nobles towards him, for his Authority amongst his equals, for his Chirurgical operations amongst all men. There­fore I earnestly endeavoured to be received into his family, as unto another Machaon, or Podalirius: once admitted, I so by all dutifulness and due respect acquired his favour, that he, unless I were present and assisting, did nothing (such is his natural gentleness and curtesie to all such as are studious of the Art) at home or abroad, in the field, in the tents, or lastly in this famous City of Paris, about the bodies of Dukes, Noblemen, or Citizens, in whose cure, he by the ardent desire of them all, had still the prime place.

Now for this work, hear what this same man in the same place affirmeth further: I not content with these means, which may seem sufficient, and too much, as desirous to satisfie my long thirst, determined to try whether I could draw, or borrow any thing from stran­gers, which our men wanted, to the fuller knowledge of Surgery. To this purpose I travailed over Germany, and then for four years space I followed the Spanish Army in the Low-countries; whereas I did not only carefully cure the wounded Souldiers, but also heedfully and curiously observed what way of curing the renowned Italian, Germane, and Spanish Surgeons observed, who together with me were imployed in the Hospital, for the healing of the wounded and sick. I observed them all to take no other course than that which is here delivered by Parey. Such as did not understand French, got some pieces of this work for large rewards, turned into Latin, or such languages as they understood, which they kept charily, and made great store of; and they esteemed, and admired, and embraced this work alone, above all other works of Surgery, &c. Our author also himself, not out of a vain-glorious ostentation, but a mind conscious of the truth of his assertion, affirms thus much of this work. I have (saith he) so certainly toucht the mark whereat I aimed, that Antiquity may seem to have nothing wherein it may exceed us, besides the glory of invention, nor Posterity any thing left, but a certain small hope to add some things, as it is easie to add to former inventions. Thus much concerning our Author, and the excellency of his Work.

Now come I to the Translation, the which, as desiring more a publike good, than pri­vate praise, I have performed plainly and honestly, labouring to fit it to the capacity of the meanest Artist; for these are they to whom I chiefly comm [...]nd this work, and from whom I expect acceptation. I being by the earnest perswasions of some of this profession, chiefly and almost wholly perswaded and incited to take this pains, who knowing the disability of understanding this Author in Latin or French, in many of the weaker members of the large body of their profession, dispersed over this Kingdome, and the rest of his Majesties Dominions, whose good, and encrease in knowledge may be wisht, that so they may be the better enabled to do good to such as shall implore their aid in their profession.

There are some (I know) will blame me for Englishing this work, as laying open the mysteries of a worthy Art, to the unworthy view of the vulgar. To such I could answer asVide Aul. Gel. l. 2. c. 4. Aristotle did to Alexander: but for the present I will give them these reasons which I think may satisfie any but the purposely malicious: the first is drawn from the goodness of the thing, as intended for those that want such guides to direct them in their Art; for it is com­monly granted, that, Bonum quo communius eo melius. Secondly, it hath been the custom of most Writers in all ages and Countries thus to do: Hippocrates, Galen, and the other Greeks, writ in their mother tongue the mysteries of their Art: thus did Celsus, Serenus, and others in Latin: Mesue, Avicen, Serapio, and others, in Arabick; as also, to go no further, our author writ this work in his native French, and learned men have done the like in this, and all other Arts. And it is a great hinderance to us in these dayes, that we must be forced to learn to understand two or three tongues, before we can learn any sci­ence, whereas the Ancients learned and taught theirs in their mother tongue: so that they spent a great deal less time about words, and more upon the study of that Art or Science they intended to learn and follow. Thirdly I must tell you, that, Ex libris nemo evasit Ar­tifex, No man becomes a workman by books: so that unless they have had some insight in the Art, and be in some sort acquainted both with the terms of Art, as also with the knowledge and use of the instruments thereto belonging, if by reading this, or any other Book of the like nature they become Surgeons, I must needs liken them (as Galen doth a­nother sort of menGal. de simp. l. 6.) to Pilots by book only: to whose care, I think none of us would commit his safety at Sea; nor any if wise, will commit themselves to these at land, or Sea either, unless wholly destitute of other.

The other things whereof I must give you notice, are these. The figures in the A­natomy are not the same used by my Author (whose were according to those of Vesalius) but according to those of Bauhine, which were used in the work of Dr. Crook; and these indeed are the better and more compleat. Also pag. 519. I thought it better to give the true figure of the Helmet floured Aconite, mentioned out of Pliny, than to reserve the feig­ned picture of Matthiolus which in our Author was encreased with the further fiction of a Helmet. I have in some few places in the margent, which you shall find marked with a star, put short annotations, for the better illustration of that which is obscure, &c. I have also in the Text to the same purpose, here and there put two or three words, con­tained in these limits [], which I find here and there turned into a plain Parenthesis, espe­cially toward the latter end of the book; but the matter is not great. Further I must ac­quaint you that the Apology and Voyages, being the last part of this work, and not in the Latin, but French editions, were translated into English out of French by George Baker, a Surgeon of this City, since that time, as I hear, dead beyond the Seas.

This is all, Courteous Reader, that I have thought necessary to acquaint thee withall concerning this, which I would desire thee to take with the same mind that it is presented to thee, by him that wisheth thee all happiness,

Thomas Johnson.

THE AUTHORS EPISTLE DEDICATORIE To HENRY the third, the most Christian King of France and Poland.

EVen as (most Christian King) we see the members of mans bo­dy by a friendly consent are alwayes busied, and stand ready to perform those functions for which they are appointed by nature for the preservation of the whole, of which they are parts; so it is convenient that we, which are as it were Citizens of this earthly Common-wealth, should be diligent in the following of that calling which (by Gods appointment) we have once taken upon us: and content with our present estate, not carried away with rashness and envy, desire different and divers things whereof we have no knowledg. He which doth o­therwise, perverts and defiles with hated confusion the order and beauty, on which this Universe consists. Wherefore when I considered with my self, that I was a member of this great mundane body, and that not altogether unprofitable; I en­deavoured earnestly, that all men should be acquainted with my duty, and that it might be known how much I could profit every man For God is my witness, and all good men know that I have now laboured fifty years with all care and pains in the illustration and amplification of Chirurgery; and that I have so certainly touched the mark whereat I aimed, that Antiquity may seem to have nothing wherein it may exceed us, beside the glory of invention; nor posterity any thing left but a certain small hope to add some things, as it is easie to add to former inventions. In performance whereof, I have been so prodigal of my self, my watchings, faculties and means, that I spared neither time, labour, nor cost, whereby I might satisfie and accomplish my own desires, this my great work, and the desires of the studious. Neither may we doubt but their studies would at length wax cold, if they only furnished with the Theorick and precepts in Schools, and that with much labour, should see no manual operation, nor manifest way of performing the Art. For which cause I seeking the praise and profit of the French Nation, even with the hinderance of my particular estate, have endea­voured to illustrate and increase Chirurgery, hitherto obscure either by the infeli­city of the former ages, or the envy of the Professors; and not only with pre­cepts and rules, but being a lover of carved works, I beautified it with 300. forms, or graven figures, and apt delineations, in which whosoever shall attentively look shall finde five hundred anatomical or organical figures belonging to the Art, (if they be reckoned particularly). To every of these I have given their names and [Page] shewed their use, lest they should seem to have been put in vainly for ostentation or delight. But although there be few men of this profession which can bring so much authority to their writings either with reason, or experience, as I can; not­withstanding I have not been so arrogant, but intending to publish my work, I first communicated it with men the most excellent in the Art of Physick, who gave me greater encouragement to perfect and publish it, that it might be in common use: professing they wished nothing more, than that it might be turned in­to Latin, by which means it should be known to forain Nations, that there is no kind of Learning which is not delivered with great dexterity of wit in this Kingdom over which you rule. And thus much I dare boldly affirm, that there is scarce any, be he never so stately or supercilious, but that he may here find some thing which may delight him, and by which he may better his knowledg. There­fore I doubted not to consecrate this book unto your Majesty both as a Pattern and treasury of my labours, as well in respect of my duty, who am yours by nature and education, as that I might manifest to all, your Highness exceeding bounty towards me, in placing me (having heretofore enjoyed the office of principal Chi­rurgeon under three Kings your Majesties Predecessors) in the same dignity, and that of your own accord. And moreover I did conjecture that it would fall out, as now it doth, that this my Work carried through the world by the fame of your Majesties name, should neither fear the face nor view of any, supported by the favour and Majesty of a most invincible Monarch and most excellent and renow­ned Prince. Neither did King Charles the ninth of happy memory, incited by the relation of the most gracious Queen his Mother, refuse to read it, being he understood it proceeded from him, who having happily passed all his time in pri­vate and publick imployments, and conversed with all men of all sorts, was judg­ed most worthy to obtain this favour, as to have the front of this Work adorned and beautified with the splendor of his prefixed name. I encouraged by this hope, desired that my request should pass as by a certain continuation and succession from a most powerfull, to a most Invincible King; and do wholly consecrate these my labours taken for my Countries good unto your sacred Majesty. God grant that your Majesty may have happy success of all your enterprises abundantly ad­ded to Nestors years.

Your most Christian Majesties faithfull Servant, Ambrose Parey.

The Preface.

MOst men derive the Original of Physick from heaven; for those who hold the best opinion of the Creation of the world, affirm, the Elements being created and separated each from other, man being not as yet made; incontinently by the divine decree, all herbs and plants with infinite variety of the flowers, en­dued with various sents, tastes, colours, and forms, grew and sprung forth of the bowels of the Earth, enriched with so many and great vertues, that it may be thought a great offence to attribute to any other than the deity, the benefit of so great a blessing so necessary for so many uses. Neither could Mans capa­city ever have attained to the knowledg of these things without the guidance of the Divine power. For God the great Creator and fashioner of the World, when first he inspired Adam by the breath of his mouth into a living and breathing man, he taught him the nature, the pro­per operations, faculties and vertues of all things contained in the circuit of this universe. So that if there be any who would ascribe the glory of this invention to man, he is condemned of ingratitude even by the judgement of Pliny. But this knowledg was not buried in oblivion with Adam: but by the same gift of God was given to those whom he had chosen and ordained for Physick, to put their helping hands to others that stood in need thereof. Which opinion was not only received in the common manner and by the tacite consent of all Nations, but confirmed by Moses in the Scripture.Gen. 1. Eccles. 38. [...]. Which thing Jesus the son of Sirach the wisest amongst the Jews, hath confirmed saying; Honour the Physitian with the honour due unto him, for the most High hath created him because of necessity: and of the Lord cometh the gift of healing. The Lord hath created Medicines of the Earth, and he that is wise will not abhor them. Give place and honour to the Physitian, for God hath created him; let him not go from thee, for thou hast need of him. The Graecians who first seem more fully and with greater fame to have professed the Art of Physick, do in a manner consent with this opinion, in acknowledging Apollo to have been the Inventor thereof, neither did they it without a reasonable cause. For whether by Apollo they may understand the Sun who by its gentle and vital heat doth bring forth, temper and cherish all things; or else some Heros, who incited by an excellent and almost divine un­derstanding first taught and put in practice the Medicinall vertues of Herbs; in which sense Ovid brings him in speaking thus:

Herbes are of mine invention, and through all
The world, they me the first Physitian call.

The original of Physick arising from those beginnings shall alwayes be celebrated as celestiall, and was increased principally after this manner. After Apollo, Aesculapius his son instructed by his fa­ther reduced this Art being as yet rude and vulgar into a little better and more exquisite form, for which cause he was reputed worthy to be accounted as one of Gods. At the same time flourished Chiron the Centaure, who for that he excelled in knowledg of Plants, and taught Aesculapius (as many re­port) their faculties, is thought by Pliny and some others to have been the Inventor of Physick.Plin. I. 7. c. 2▪ Aescu­lapius had two sons, Podalirius and Machaon, who following their fathers steps, and professing Phy­sick, did principally beautifie and practise that part thereof which is called Chirurgery, and for that cause were accounted the Inventors thereof. After those Asclepiades left this Art much inlarged as hereditary to his posterity; by whose study and diligence, that part of the Art was Invented and annexed, which by a more curious skill searcheth and cureth those diseases which lye hid within the bo­dy. Hippocrates the Coan the son of Heraclidas, born of the noble race of Asclepiades, Prince of the Physitians that were before him, perfocted Physick, and reduced it into an Art, and wrote divers Books thereof in Greek. Galen succeeded him six hundred years after, who was a Man most famous not only for his knowledg in Physick, but also in all other sciences, who faithfully interpreting every thing that was obscure and difficult in the writings of Hippocrates, enlarged the science with many volumes. Thus therefore was the beginning, thus the increase and perfectiag the Art of Physick, as much as can be holped for from mans industry. Although indeed we cannot deny but that experience hath much profited this Art, as it hath and doth many other. For as men perceived that some things were profitable, some unprofitable for this or that disease, they set it down, and so by diligent observation and marking of singu­larities, they established universall and certain precepts and so brought it into an Art. For so we find it recorded in ancient Histories, before the invention of Physick, that the Babylonians and Assyrians had a custom amongst them to lay their sick and diseased persons in the porches and entries of their Houses, or to carry them into the streets or market places, that such as passed by and saw them, might [Page] give them counsel to take those things to cure their diseases, which they had formerly found profitable in themselves or any other in the like affects, neither might any pass by a sick man in silence. Also Strabo writes that it was a custom in Greece that those which were sick should resort to Aescu­lapius his Temple in Epidaurum, that there as they slept, by their dreams they might be admonish­ed by the God what means they should use to be cured; and when they were freed from their diseases, they writ the manner of their infirmities and the means by which they were cured, in Tables and fastned them to the pillars of the Temple, not only for the glory of the God, but also for the profit of such, as should afterwards be affected with the like Maladies. All which tables as (fame reports) Hippocrates transcribed, and so from those drew the Art of Physick. Beasts also have added much to his Art. For one Man was not only instructed by another, but learned also much from brute beasts; for they by the only instinct of nature have found out divers herbs, and remedies, by which they freed and preserved themselves from infirmities, which might presently be transferred to mans use. Where­for considering that such and so many have concurred to bring this Art to perfection, who hereafter dare call in question the excellency thereof? chiefly if he respected the subject thereof, Mans body, a thing more noble than all other Mundane things, and for which the rest were created. Which thing moved Herophilus in times past to call Physitians The hands of the Gods. For as we by putting forth our hand, do help any man out of the water or mud into which he is fallen: even so we do sustain those that are thrown down from the top of health to the gates of death by violence of diseases, with happy medicines, and as it were by some special and divine gift deliv [...]r them out of the jaws of death. Homer the Prince of Greek Poets affirms, that one Physitian is far more worthy then many other men. All Antiquity gave Physitians such honour, that they worshipped them with great veneration as Gods, or the sons of their Gods. For who is it which is not much delighted with the divine force of healthful medicines, with which (we see by daily experience) Physitians, as armed with Mercu­ries rod, do bring back those languishing souls which are even entring the gates of Death? Hence it cometh to pass that the divine Poets of ancient times, as Orpheus, and Musaeus, and He­siod, and the most renowned Philosophers, Pythagoras, Plato, Aristotle, Theophrastus, Chrysippus, Cato Censorius, and Varro, esteemed nothing more excellent than to excell in the knowledg of Medicines, and to testifie the same by written monuments to Posterity. For what can be more noble and worthy of a generous disposition than to attain to that by the benefit of Physick, that adorned with the ornaments of dignity thou mayest have power over other men, and favoured of Princes, Kings, and Emperors, mayest appoint and prescribe to them those things which are profitable to preserve health, and cure their diseases? But if thou look for benefit by Sciences; then known that the professors hereof have beside sufficient gain, acquired much honour and many friends. Hippocrates coming to Abdera to cure Democritus of his madness, not only the men of the City, but also the Women Children,In what esteem Physitians have formerly been. and people of every age, sex and rank, went forth to meet him, giving him with a common consent and loud voice the title of a Tutelary Deity and father of their Countrey. But the Atheni­ans, for freeing their Countrey from the Plague, with triumphant pompe celebrated playes to his honour, and bountifully set upon his head as if he had been a King, a Crown of Gold weighing a 1000. pieces of their Golden coin, and erected his statute, for a perpetual monument of his piety and learning. Era­sistratus the Nephew of Aristotle by his daughter, received, freely given him by Ptolomy King of Egypt, for the cure of his son, 100. Talents of gold. The Emperor Augustus honoured Anto­nius Musa with a golden statue. Quintus Stertinius yearly received out of the Emperors Treasury 12500. pieces of gold. In the time of our Grandfathers Petrus Aponensis called Concili­ator was so famous through all Italy for his knowledg in Physick, that he could scarce be intreated to come to any man of fashion that was sick, unless he gave him 50. crowns, for every day he was ab­sent from home: but when he went to cure Heronius the Bishop of Rome, he received 400. crowns for every day he was absent. Our French Chronicles relate in what credit and estimation James Cotterius the Physitian was with Lewis the 11. King of France; for they report he gave him monthly out of his Treasury 10000. crowns. Physick in times past hath been in such esteem with many famous and noble personages, that divers Kings and Princes delighted with the study thereof, and desirous to attain glory and credit thereby, called sundry herbs after their own names. For so Gentian took its name of Gentius King of Illyria; the herb Lysimachia of Lusima­chus, Names given to Plants. the King of Macedon, the Mithridatick herb or Scordium, of Mithridates the King of Pontus and Bithinay, Achilla of Achilles, Centory of Chiron the Centaure; Artemisia of Arte­misia the Queen of Carias Attalus King of Pergamus, Solomon of Judea. Evax of Arabia, and Juba the King of Mauritania, were not only inflamed with a desire of the knowledg of Plants; but either they have written books of it, or for the great commodity of posterity, invented by their skil many choice antidotes compounded of divers simples; neither the desire of learning this noble science is yet altogether extinct; as may appear by that Indian plant Tabacco, called by some the noble herb, Catherines herb and Medices herb, but commonly the Queens herb, because Catherine Medices the Mother of our Kings, by her singular study and industry made manifest the excellent vertue it hath in curing malign ulcers and wounds, which before was unknown to the French. For these worthy men understood that their glory, thus fastened and ingraffed into the deep, and as it were ever living roots of plants, would never decay; but should be propagated to all posterity in many succeeding ages, growing up with their sprouting and budding shouts, stalks, flowers and fruits. Neither did these famous men whilst they adorned this part of Physick suffer the other, which treats of the dissection of mans body, be buried in oblivion, and without their knowledg; as instructed with the precepts and learning of the wisest men, how artificial and unimitable by mortal hand this fabrick of our body is. Neither is it probable that Apis, Osiris [Page] and [...]tolomy King of Egypt, Solomon, Alexander the great, Mithridates, Attalus, seeing they de­ [...] themselv [...] wh [...]lly to the contemplation of natural things: negle [...]ted th [...] use of Anatomy, and [...] us to know themselves, to have been ignorant of the structure [...]f their own bodies being the [...]litations of th ir son's immortal and made to the Image of God: seeing they observed with cert [...]in judgment the different lights of the Sun, Moon and Stars; and passed ov [...]r so many Lands, so many Seas, so many Regions, so far remote one from another, by wayes so terrible by reason of cold, uncouthness, dark­ness, by rocks, by fire and sword, with great labour, charge and danger of life, only that they might satis­fi [...] their minds thirsting after the knowledg of things; and to have left untouched a thing truly noble, admirable, and most worthy of knowledg, easie to be attained by any, and to be acquired without any danger of life, or fortunes.

Seeing there be three parts of that Physick which at this time we profess Chirurgery; Physick is divi­ded into three parts. which by th [...] use of the hand, Diet which with the convenient manner of feeding and ordering the body, and Pharmacy that by medicines attempt to expel diseases, and preserve health; The prime Phy [...] [...] not with [...] reason contend which of these may be accounted the chief. Certainly Herophilus had Pharmacy in such est em, that he thought medicines were first mixed and administred to the sick by Apollo (whom A [...] ­quity thought a great diety.) And Pliny had so good an opinion of Diet, that he exclaims, The true [...]medies and Antidotes against diseases, are put into the pot and eaten every day by the poor people. Veri­ [...] all learned men confess that the manner of curing which is performed by diet, is much more f [...]cile and prosperous, than that which is done by m [...]dicines; as those things which sought with much la our and [...]st are taken with much loathing, and taken are scarce retained, but retained they oft work with much [...]our and pain: Which things long ago moved Asclepiades to exclude the use of medicines, as hurt­ful to the stomach. Yet if we will believe Celsus, neither of these parts merit the preheminence, but both of them give place to Chirurgery. For seeing that fortune is v [...]ry powerful in dis [...]se [...], and the same Meats and Medicines are often good and often vain, truly it is hard to say, whether the health is r co­vered by the benefit of Diet and Pharmacy, or by the strength of the body. Moreover in thos cases, in which we most prevail with medicines, although the profit be more manifest, yet it is evident that health is often sought in vain even by th [...]se things, and often recovered without them. As it may be perceived by some troubled with sore eyes, and others with quartain Fevers, who having been long troubled by Physiti­tians are som times healed without th [...]m. But the effect of Chirurgery as it is very necessary, so it is the most evident amongst all the parts of Physick. For who without Chirurgery can hope to cure broken, or luxated parts, who wounds and ulcers, who the falling of the Matrix, the stone in the bladder, a member infested with a gangrene or Sphacele? Besides, this part also is the most antient; for Podali­rius and Machaon following their General Agamennon to the Trojan wars, yielded no small comfort to their fellow Souldiers. Whom notwithsanding Homer affirms not to have given any help in th [...] Pe­stilence, nor in divers other diseases, but only were accustomed t [...] heal wounds by instruments and medi­cines. And if the difficulty of learning i [...] argue the excellency of the Art, who can dou [...]t but Chirur­gery must be the most excellent, seeing that none ought to be accounted a Chirurgeon,The excellency of Chirurgery. or which can per­form his duty, without the knowledg of Diet and Pharmacy▪ But both th [...] [...] can perform their parts without Chirurgery if we may believe Galen. But if we consider the matter more [...] a [...]cording to truth; we shall understand thos [...] three parts have a certain common bond and are very [...] of kind­ [...], so that the one implores the aid of the other; n [...]ither can the Physitian do any thing prais [...] why without the conspiracy and joint consent of these three; therefore in ancient times there was [...] one per­form [...]r and user of all the three parts. But the multitude of men daily increasing, and [...]n the contrary mans life d [...]creasing, so that it did not seem able to suffice for to learn and exercise all the [...], the w [...]rkmen divided themselves. Wherefore that which happens to any man either [...], or counsel, th [...] let him follow, maintain and only use, as mindful how short his lfe is, and how long the Art.

A Table of the Books and Chapters.

  • Chap. I. WHat Chirurgery is, Pag. 1
  • Chap. II. Of Chirurgical operations, ib.
  • Chap. III. Of things natural, ib.
  • Chap. IV. Of elements, Pag. 3
  • Chap. V. Of temperaments, Pag. 4
  • Chap. VI. Of humors, Pag. 7
  • Chap. VII. Of the practice of the aforesaid rules of tempera­ments, Pag. 12
  • Chap. VIII. Of the faculties, Pag. 14
  • Chap. IX. Of the actions, Pag. 15
  • Chap. X. Of the spirits, Pag. 17
  • Chap. XI. Of the a [...]juncts of things natural, Pag. 18
  • Chap. XII. Of things not natural, Pag. 19
  • Chap. XIII. Of the air, ib.
  • Chap. XIV. Of m at and drink, Pag. 20
  • Chap. XV. Of m [...]tion and rest, Pag. 23
  • Chap. XVI. Sleep and watching, Pag. 24
  • Chap. XVII. Repletion, i [...]anition or emptiness, Pag. 25
  • Chap. XVIII. Of the perturbations or passions of the mind, Pag. 26
  • Chap. XIX. Of things against nature, and first of the cause of a disease, Pag. 27
  • Chap. XX. Of a disease, Pag. 28
  • Chap. XXI. Of a symptome, ib
  • Chap. XXII. Of indications, ib
  • Chap. XXIII. Of certain wonderfull and extravagant wayes of curing diseases, Pag. 33
  • Chap. XXIV. Of certain juggling and deceitfull wayes of curing, Pag. 34

The second Bo [...]k, Of living creatures, and of the excellency of Man, from 36 to pag. 52.

The third Bo [...]k, Treating of the Anatomy of Mans Body, 53
  • Chap. I. The [...]ivision o [...] partition of mans body, Pag. 56
  • Chap. II. O the containing parts of the Epigastrium, and the preparation to anotomical administration, Pag. 59
  • Chap. III. Of the outmost [...]kin or cuticle, Pag. 60
  • Chap. IV. Of the [...]ru [...] skin, ib.
  • Chap. V Of the fleshy panicle, Pag. 61
  • Chap. VI. Of the fat, ib.
  • Chap. VII Of the common coat of the muscles, Pag. 62
  • Chap. VIII. What a muscle is, and how many differences there be thereof, Pag. 63
  • Chap. IX. Of the parts of a muscle, Pag. 65
  • Chap. X. A more particular inquisition into each part of a muscle, ib.
  • Chap. XI.
    • Of the muscles of the Epigastrium; or lower belly, Pag. 66
    • Of the white line, and Peritonaeum, or rim of the belly, Pag. 69
  • Chap. XII. Of the Epiploon, Omemum, or Zirbus, that is, the kall, Pag. 69
  • Chap. XIII. Of the ventricle or stomach, Pag. 70
  • Chap. XIV. Of the guts, Pag. 72
  • Chap. XV. Of the mesentery, Pag. 74
  • Chap. XVI. Of the glandules in general, and of the Pancreas, or sweet-bread, Pag. 75
  • Chap. XVII. Of the liver, ib.
  • Chap. XVIII. Of the bladder of the gall, Pag. 76
  • Chap. XIX. Of the spleene or milt, Pag. 77
  • Chap. XX. Of the Vena Porta, and gate-vein, and the distri­bution thereof, ib.
  • Chap. XXI. Of the original of the artery, and the division of the branch descending to the natural parts, Pag. 62
  • Chap. XXII. Of the distribution of the nerves to the natural parts, Pag. 79
  • Chap. XXIII. The manner of taking out the guts, Pag. 80
  • Chap. XXIV. The original and distribution of the descendent hollow vein, ib.
  • Chap. XXV. Of the kidneys or reins, Pag. 81
  • Chap. XXVI. Of the spermatick vessels, Pag. 82
  • Chap. XXVII. Of the testicles or stones, Pag. 83
  • Chap. XXVIII. Of the various bodies or parastats, and of the ejaculatorie vessels, and the glandulous or prostates, ib
  • Chap. XXIX. Of the ureters, Pag. 85
  • Chap. XXX. Of the bladder, Pag. 86
  • Chap. XXXI. Of the yard, Pag. 87
  • Chap. XXXII. Of the spermatick vessels and testicles in wo­men, ib·
  • Chap. XXXIII. Of the womb, Pag. 89
  • Chap. XXXIV. Of the coats containing the infant in the womb, an [...] of the navil, Pag. 92
  • Chap. XXXV. Of the navil, Pag. 93
The fourth book, Treating of the vitall parts con­tained in the Chest.
  • Chap. I. What the Thorax or the chest is, into what parts it may be divided, and the nature of these parts, Pag. 94
  • Chap. II. Of the containing and contained parts of the chest, Pag. 95
  • Chap. III. Of the breasts or dugs, ib.
  • Chap. IV. Of the clavicles, or collar-bones and ribs, Pag. 96
  • Chap. V. The anatomical administration of the sternon, Pag. 97
  • Chap. VI. Of the Pleura, or coat investing of the ribs, ib
  • Chap. VII. Of the Mediastinum, Pag. 98.
  • Chap. VIII. Of the Diaphragma, or midriffe, ib.
  • Chap. IX. Of the lungs, Pag. 99 Of the Pericardium or purse of the heart, Pag. 111
  • Chap. X. Of the h [...]a t, Pag. 100
  • Chap. XI. Of the orifices and valves of the heart, ib.
  • Chap. XII. Of the distribution of the Vena Arteriosa, and the Arteria Venosa, Pag. 102
  • Chap. XIII. Of the distribution of the hollow-vein, Pag. 103
  • Chap. XIV. Of the distribution of the nerves or sinews of the sixth conjugation, Pag. 106
  • Chap. XV. The division of the arteries, Pag. 107
  • Chap. XVI. Of the Thumus, Pag. 109
  • Chap. XVII. Of the Aspera artery or weazon, ib
  • Chap. XVIII. Of the gullet, Pag. 110
The fifth book, Of the animal parts contained in the head.
  • Chap. I. A general description of the head, Pag. 111
  • Chap. II. Of the musculous skin of the head, (commonly called the hairy scalp) and of the Pericranium, ib.
  • Chap. III. Of the sutures, Pag. 112
  • Chap. IV. Of the Cranium or skull, Pag. 113
  • Chap. V. Of the Meninges, that is, the two membranes called Dura Mater and Pia Mater, Pag. 114
  • Chap. VI. Of the brain, Pag. 115
  • Chap. VII. Of the ventricles and mamillary processes of the brain, Pag. 116
  • Chap. VIII. Of the seven conjugations of the nerves of the brain, so called, because they alwayes shew the nerve conjugated and doubled, that is, on each side one, Pag. 119
  • Chap. IX. Of the Rete Mirabile, or wonderful net, and of the wedg-bone, Pag. 120
  • Chap. X. Of the holes of the inner basis of the skull, Pag. 122
  • Chap. XI. Of the perforations of the external basis of the brain ib.
  • Chap. XII. Of the spinal marrow, or pith of the back, ib.
The sixth Book, treating of the muscles, and bones, and the other extream parts of the body.
  • Chap. I. Of the bones of the face, Pag. 124
  • [Page] Chap. II. Of the teeth, Pag. 125
  • Chap. III. Of the broad muscle, Pag. 126
  • Chap. IV. Of the eye-lids and eye-brows, Pag. 127
  • Chap. V. Of the eyes, ib.
  • Chap. VI. Of the muscles, coats, and humors of the eye, ib.
  • Chap. VII. Of the nose, Pag. 130
  • Chap. VIII. Of the muscles of the face, Pag. 131
  • Chap. IX. Of the m [...]scles of the lower jaw, ib
  • Chap. X. Of the ears and Parotides, o [...] k rnels of the ears, Pag. 132
  • Chap. XI. Of the bone Hyoides, and the muscles thereof, Pag. 134
  • Chap. XII. Of the tongue, ib.
  • Chap. XIII. Of the mouth, Pag. 135
  • Chap. XIV. Of the Garga [...]eo [...], or Uvula, Pag. 136
  • Chap. XV Of the Larinx, or throtle, ib.
  • Chap. XVI. Of the neck and parts thereof, Pag. 137
  • Chap. XVII. Of the muscles of the neck, Pag. 139
  • Chap. XVIII. Of the muscles of the chest and loins, Pag. 145
  • Chap. XIX. Of the muscles of the shoulder blade, Pag. 147
  • Chap. XX. The description of the hand taken in general, ib.
  • Chap. XXI. The description of the subclavian vein, and first of the Cephalica or Humeraria, Pag. 148
  • Chap. XXII. The description of the Axillary vein, Pag. 149
  • Chap. XXIII. The distribution of the axillary artery, ib
  • Chap. XXIV. Of the nerves of the neck, back, and arm, Pag. 150
  • Chap. XXV. The description of the bone of the arm, and the muscles which move it, Pag. 151
  • Chap. XXVI. A description of the bones of the cubit, and the m [...]scles moving them, Pag. 153
  • Chap. XXVII. A description of the bones of the wrist, after-wrist and fingers, Pag. 155
  • Chap. XXVIII. Of the muscles which seated in the cubit move the wand, and with it the hand, Pag. 156
  • Chap. XXIX. Of the muscles of the inside of the hand, Pag. 157
  • Chap. XXX. A description of the leg taken in general, Pag. 158
  • Chap. XXXI. A description of the crural vein, Pag. 159
  • Chap. XXXII. A description of the crural artery, ib.
  • Chap. XXXIII. Of the nerves of the loins, holy-bone and thigh, Pag. 160
  • Chap. XXXIV. Of the proper parts of the thigh, Pag. 161
  • Chap. XXXV. Of the muscles moving the thigh, Pag. 163
  • Chap. XXXVI. Of the bones of the leg or shank, Pag. 164
  • Chap. XXXVII. Of the muscles of the legs, ib
  • Chap. XXXVIII. Of the bones of the foot, Pag. 165
  • Chap. XXXIX. Of the muscles moving the foot, Pag. 168
  • Chap. XL. Of the muscles moving the toes of the feet, Pag. 169
  • Chap. XLI. An epitome or brief recital of the bones in mans body, ib.
  • Chap. XLII. A epitome of the names and kinds of composure of the bones, Pag. 172
The seventh Book, Of tumors against nature in generall.
  • Chap. I. What a tumor against nature, vulgarly called an Im­postume, is, and what be the differences thereof, Pag. 177
  • Chap. II. Of the genral causes of tumors, ib.
  • Chap. III. The signs of impostumes or tumors in general, Pag. 178
  • Chap. IV. Of the prognosticks in impostumes, Pag. 179
  • Chap. V. Of the general cure of tumors against nature, ib.
  • Chap. VI. Of the four principal and general tumors, and of other impostumes, which may be reduced to them, Pag. 180
  • Chap. VII. Of a Phlegmon, ib.
  • Chap. VIII. Of the causes and signs of a phlegmon, Pag. 181
  • Chap. IX. Of the cure of a true Phlegmon, Pag. 182
  • Chap. X. Of the cure of an ulcerated Phlegmon, Pag. 183
  • Chap. XI. Of feavers, and the cure of the feavers which accom­pany a Phlegmon, Pag. 185
  • Chap. XII. Of an Erysipelas, or inflammation, Pag. 187
  • Chap. XIII. Of the cure of an Erysipelas, ib.
  • Chap. XIV. Of the Herpes; that is, tetters, or ringworms, or such like, Pag. 188
  • Chap. XV. Of feavers, which happen upon erysipelous tumors, Pag. 189
  • Chap. XVI. Of an Oedema or cold phlegmatick tumor, Pag. 190
  • Chap. XVII. Of the cure of flatulent and waterish tumors, Pag. 191
  • Chap. XVIII. Of the cure of a flatulent and waterish tumor, Pag. 192
  • Chap. XIX. Of an Atheroma, Steatomae, and Meliceris, Pag. 193
  • Chap. XX. Of the cure of Lupiae, that is, wens, or ganglions, ib.
  • Chap. XXI. Of a Ganglion more particularly so called, Pag. 195
  • Chap. XXII. Of the Strumae or Scrophulae, that is, the Kings evil, ib.
  • Chap. XXIII. Of the feaver which happens upon an oedema­tous tumor, Pag. 196
  • Chap. XXIV. Of Scirrbus or an hard tumor proceeding of me­lancholy, Pag. 197
  • Chap. XXV. Of the cure of a Schirrhus, Pag. 198
  • Chap. XXVII. Of the causes, kinds, and prognosticks of a can­cer. Pag. 199
  • Chap. XXVIII. Of the cure of a cancer beginning and not yet ulcerated, ib.
  • Chap. XXIX. Of the cure of an ulcerated cancer, Pag. 200
  • Chap. XXX. Of the topick medicines to be applyed to an ul­cerated, and not ulcerated cancer, ib.
  • Chap. XXXI. Of the fever which happeneth in Scirrhous tu­mors, Pag. 202
  • Chap. XXXII. Of an Aneurisma, that is, the dilation or spring­ing of an artery, vein or sinew, Pag. 203
The eighth Book, Of the particular tumors against Nature.
  • Chap. I, Of an Hydrocephalos, or watery tumor which common­ly affects the heads of infants, Pag. 205
  • Chap. II. Of a Polypus being an eating disease in the nose, Pag. 206
  • Chap. III. Of the Parotides, that is, certain swellings about the ears, ib.
  • Chap. IV. Of the Epulis, or overgrowing of the flesh of the Gums, Pag. 207
  • Chap. V. Of the Ravula, ib.
  • Chap. VI. Of the swelling of the glandules, or almonds of the throat, Pag. 208
  • Chap. VII. Of the inflammation and relaxation in the Uvula or Columella, Pag. 209
  • Chap. VIII. Of the Angina or squinzy, Pag. 240
  • Chap. IX. Of the Bronchocele, or rupture of the throat, Pag. 212
  • Chap. X. Of the Plurisie, ib.
  • Chap. XI. Of the Dropsie, Pag. 213
  • Chap. XII. Of the cure of the dropsie, Pag. 214
  • Chap. XIII. Of the tumor and relaxation of the navil, Pag. 216
  • Chap. XIV. Of the tumors of the groins and cods called Her­mae, that is, Ruptures, ib.
  • Chap. XV Of the cure of ruptures, Pag. 217
  • Chap. XVI. Of the golden ligature or the Punctus Aureus, as they call it, Pag. 219
  • Chap. XVII. Of the cure of other kindes of ruptures, Pag. 221
  • Chap. XVIII. Of the falling down of the fundament, Pag. 223
  • Chap. XIX. Of the Paronychiae, ib.
  • Chap. XX. Of the swelling of the knees, Pag. 224
  • Chap. XXI. Of the Dracunculus, ib.
The ninth Book; Of wounds in general.
  • Chap. I. What a wound is, what the kindes and differences thereof are, and from whence they may be drawn, or de­rived, Pag. 227
  • Chap. II. Of the causes of wounds, Pag. 228
  • Chap. III. Of the signs of wounds, Pag. 229
  • Chap. IV. Of prognosticks to be made in wounds, ib.
  • Chap. V. Of the cure of wounds in general, Pag. 230
  • Chap. VI. Of sutures, Pag. 231
  • Chap. VII. O [...] the Flux of blood, which usually happens in wounds, Pag. 232
  • Chap. VIII. Of the pain which happens upon wounds, Pag. 233
  • Chap. IX. Of convulsion by reason of a wound, ib.
  • Chap. X. The cure of a convulsion, Pag. 234
  • Chap. XI. Of the cure of a convulsion, by sympathy and pain, Pag. 235
  • Chap. XII. Of the Palsie, Pag. 236
  • Chap. XIII. Of the cure of the Palsie, ib.
  • Chap. XIV. Of swouning, Pag. 237
  • Chap. XV. Of Delirium (i.) raving, talking idly, or doting, ib.
The tenth Book, Of the green and bloody wounds of each part.
  • Chap. I. Of the kindes and differences of a broken skull, Pag. 238
  • Chap. II. Of the causes and signs of a broken skull, Pag. 240
  • Chap. III. Of the signs of a broken skull, which are manifest to our sense, Pag. 241
  • [Page] Chap. IV. Of a fissure being the first kinde of a broken skull, ib.
  • Chap. V. Of a concusion which is the second part of a fra­cture, Pag. 243
  • Chap. VI. Of an effracture, depression of the bone, being the third kinde of a fracture. Pag. 245
  • Chap. VII. Of a seat, being the fourth kinde of a broken skull. Pag. 247
  • Chap. VIII. Of a Resonitus, or counterfissure, being the fifrh kinde of fracture, ib.
  • Chap. IX. Of the moving or concussion of the brain, Pag. 248
  • Chap. X. Of prognosticks to be made in fractures of the skull, Pag. 250
  • Chap. XI. Why when the brain is hurt by a wound of the head, there may follow a convulsion of the opposite part, Pag. 251
  • Chap. XII. A convulsion of the deadly signs in the wounds of the head, Pag. 252
  • Chap. XIII. Of salutary signs in wounds of the head, Pag. 253
  • Chap. XIV. Of the general cure of a broken skull, and of the sym [...]toms usually happening thereupon, ib.
  • Chap. XV. Of the particular cure of wounds of the head, and of the musculous skin, Pag. 555
  • Chap. XVI. Of the particular cure of a fracture or broken sukll, Pag. 257
  • Chap. XVII. Why we use trepaning in the fractures of the skull, Pag. 258
  • Chap. XVIII. A description of trepans, Pag. 259
  • Chap. XIX Of the places of the skull, whereto you may not apply a trepan, Pag. 262
  • Chap. XX. Of the corruption and Ca ies, or rottenness of the bones of the head, Pag. 263
  • Chap. XXI. Of the discommodities which happen to the Crassa meninx, by fractures of he skull, Pag. 264
  • Chap. XXII. Of the cure of the brain being shaken or moved, Pag. 266
  • Chap. XXIII. Of the wounds of the face, Pag. 267
  • Chap. XXIV. Of the wounds of the eyes, Pag. 268
  • Chap. XXV. Of the wounds of the cheeks, Pag. 270
  • Chap. XXVI, Of the wounds of the nose, Pag. 272
  • Chap. XXVII. Of the wounds of the tongue, ib.
  • Chap. XXVIII. Of the wounds of the ears, Pag. 273
  • Chap. XXIX. Of the wounds of the neck and throat, ib.
  • Chap. XXX. Of the wounds of the chest, Pag. 274
  • Chap. XXXI. Of the cure of the wounds of the che chest, Pag. 279
  • Chap. XXXII. Of differences, causes, signs, and cure of an Hectick fever, Pag. 277
  • Chap. XXXIII. Of the wounds of the Epigastrium, and of the whole lower belly, Pag. 280
  • Chap. XXXIV. Of the cure of wounds of the lower belly, Pag. 281
  • Chap. XXXV. Of the wounds of the groins, yard and testicles, ib.
  • Chap. XXXVI. Of the wounds of the thigh and legs, Pag. 282
  • Chap. XXXVII. Of the wounds of the nerves, and nervous parts, ib.
  • Chap. XXXVIII. Of the cure of the wounds of the nervous parts, ib.
  • Chap. XXXIX. Of the wounds of the joints, Pag. 284
  • Chap. XL. Of the wounds of the Ligaments, Pag. 286
Of wounds made by Gunshot, other fiery Engines, and of all sorts of weapons; the eleventh book.
  • The Preface. The first discourse wherein wounds made by Gunshot, are freed from being burnt, or cauterized according to Vigoes method, Pag. 309 Another discourse of these things, which King Charles the ninth, returning from the Expedition, and taking of Roven, inquired of me concerning wounds made by Gunshot, Pag. 311
  • Chap. I. A division of wounds drawn from the variety of the wounded parts and the bullets which wound, Pag. 294
  • Chap. II. Of the signs of wounds made by gunshot, Pag. 295
  • Chap. III. How these wounds must be ordered at the first dres­sing, ib.
  • Chap. IV. A description of fit instruments to draw forth bullets, and other strange bodies, Pag. 296
  • Chap. V. What dressing must first be used, after the strange bodies are pluckt or drawn out of the wound, Pag. 298
  • Chap. VI. How you shall order it at the second dressing, Pag. 299
  • Chap. VII. By what means strange bodies left in at the first dressing, may be drawn forth, Pag. 300
  • Chap. VIII. Of indications to be observed in this kinde of wounds, ib.
  • Chap. IX. What remains for the Chirurgeon to do in this kind of wounds, Pag. 302
  • Chap. X. Of bullets which remain in the body, for a long time after the wound is healed up, ib.
  • Chap. XI. How to correct the constitutions of the air, so that the noble parts may be strengthened, and the whole bo­dy beside, Pag. 303
  • Chap. XII. Certain memorable histories, ib.
  • Chap. XIII. An apology concerning wounds made by gunshot, Pag. 305
  • Chap. XIV. Another apology, against those who have labour­ed with new reasons, to prove that wounds made by gun­shot are poysoned, Pag. 307
  • Chap. XV. How wounds made by arrows differ from those made by gunshot, Pag. 306
  • Chap. XVI. Of the diversity of arrows and darts, Pag. 309
  • Chap. XVII. Of the difference of the wounded parts, ibid.
  • Chap. XVIII. Of drawing forth arrows, ib.
  • Chap. XIX. How arrows broken in a wound may be drawn forth Pag. 310
  • Chap. XX What to be done, when an arrow is left fastened or sticking in a bone, Pag. 311
  • Chap. XXI. Of poysonous wounds, ib.
Of Contusions and Gangrenes, the twelfth Book.
  • Chap. I Of a contusion, ib.
  • Chap. II. Of the general cure of great and enormous contusions, Pag. 312
  • Chap. III How we must handle contusions when they are joined with a wound, Pag. 313
  • Chap. IV. Of those contusions which are without a wound, ib.
  • Chap. V. By what means the contused part may be freed from the fear, and imminent danger of a gangrene, ib.
  • Chap. VI. Of that strange kinde of symptome which happens upon contusions of the ribs, Pag. 314
  • Chap. VII. A discourse of Mummia, or mummy, ib.
  • Chap. VIII. Of combustions and their differences, Pag. 315
  • Chap. IX. Of hot and attractive medicines to be applyed to burns, Pag. 316
  • Chap. X. Of a gangrene and mortification. Pag. 317
  • Chap. XI. Of the general & particular causes of a gangrene, Pag. 318
  • Chap. XII. Of the antecedent causes of a gangrene, ib.
  • Chap. XIII. Of the signs of a gangrene, Pag. 319
  • Chap. XIV. Of the prognosticks in gangrenes, ib.
  • Chap. XV. Of the general cure of a gangrene, Pag. 320
  • Chap. XVI. Of the particular cure of a gangrene, ib.
  • Chap. XVII. The signs of a perfect necrosis, or mortification, Pag. 321
  • Chap. XVIII. Where amputation must be made, ib.
  • Chap. XIX. How the section or amputation must be perfor­med, Pag. 322
  • Chap. XX. How to stanch the bleeding when the member is taken off, Pag. 323
  • Chap. XXI. How after the blood is stanched, you must dresse the wounded member, ibid.
  • Chap. XXII. How you must stop the bleeding, if any of the bound up vessels chance to get loos [...], ibid.
  • Chap. XXIII. How to perform the residue of the cure of the am­putated member, Pag. 324
  • Chap. XXIV. What just occasion moved the Author to devise this new form of remedy, to stanch the blood after the amputation of a member, and to forsake the common way used almost by all Chirurgeons; which is by ap­plication of actual cauteries, Pag. 325
  • Chap. XXV. The practice of the former precepts is declared to­gether with a memorable history of a certain souldier, whose arm was taken off at the elbow. ib.
Of ulcers, fistulas, and haenroids, the thirteenth book.
  • Chap. I. Of the nature, causes and differences of ulcers, Pag. 327
  • Chap. II. Of the signs of ulcers, Pag. 328
  • Chap. III. Of the Prognosticks of ulcers, Pag. 329
  • Chap. IV. Of the general cure of ulcers, Pag. 330
  • Chap. V. Of a distempered ulcer, ib.
  • Chap. VI. Of an ulcer of pain, Pag. 331
  • Chap. VII. Of ulcers, with overgrowing or proudness of flesh, ib.
  • Chap. VIII Of an ulcer putrid and breeding worms, Pag. 332
  • Chap. IX. Of a sordid ulcer, ib.
  • Chap. X. Of a a virulent and malign ulcer, which is termed Ca­coethes, and of a Chironian ulcer, Pag. 333
  • [Page] Chap. XI. An advertisement to the young Chirurgeon touching the distance of times wherein malign ulcers are to be dressed, ib.
  • Chap. XII. How to binde up ulcers, Pag. 334
  • Chap. XIII. Of th c [...]re of particular [...]lcers, and first of those of the eyes, ib.
  • Chap. XIV. Of the Oz [...]a and ulcers of the nose, Pag. 335
  • Chap. XV. Of the ul [...]s [...] the mouth, ib.
  • Chap. XVI. Of the u [...]cers o [...] the ears, Pag. 336
  • Chap. XVII. Of the ulcers of the windpipe, weazon, stomach and [...]u [...]s, Pag. 337
  • Chap. XVIII. Of the ulcers of the kidnies and bladder, ib.
  • Chap. XIX Of the ulcers of the womb, Pag. 338
  • Chap. XX. Of the varices, and their cure by cutting, ib
  • Chap. XXI. Of fistulas, ib.
  • Chap. XXII. Of the cure of fistulas, Pag. 4 0
  • Chap. XXIII. Of the fistulas in the fundament, Pag. 341
  • Chap. XXIV. Of haemorroides, Pag. 342
Of Bandages or Ligatures, the fourteenth Book.
  • Chap. I. Of the differences of bandages, Pag. 343
  • Chap. II. Sheweth the in [...]aions and general precepts of fit­ting of bandages and ligatures, ib.
  • Chap. III. Of the three kinds of bondages necessary in fractures, Pag. 344
  • Chap. IV. Of the binding up of fractures associated with a wound, Pag. 345
  • Chap. V. Certain common precepts of the binding up of fra­ctures and luxations, Pag. 346
  • Chap. VI. Of the uses for which ligatures serve, ib.
  • Chap. VII. Of bolsters or compresses, Pag. 347
  • Chap. VIII. Of the use of splints, Junks, and cases, ib.
Of Fractures, the fifteenth Book.
  • Chap. I. What a Fracture is, and what the differences thereof are, Pag. 348
  • Chap. II. Of the signs of a fracture, ib.
  • Chap. III. Prognosticks to be made in fractures, Pag. 349
  • Chap. IV. The general cure of broken and dislocated bones, Pag. 350
  • Chap. V. By what means you may perform the third intenti­on in curing fractures and dislocations, which is the hindering and correction of accidents and symptoms, Pag. 351
  • Chap. VI. Of the fracture of the nose, Pag. 352
  • Chap. VII. Of the fracture of the lower jaw, ib.
  • Chap. VIII. Of the fracture of the clavicle, or collar bone, Pag. 353
  • Chap. IX. Of the fracture of the shoulder blade, Pag. 354
  • Chap. X. Of the fracture and depression of the Sternon, or breast bone, ib.
  • Chap. XI. Of the fracture of the ribs, Pag. 356
  • Chap. XII. Of certain preternatural affects which ensue upon broken ribs, Pag. 355
  • Chap. XIII. Of the fracture of the Vertebrae, or rack bones of the back, and their processes, ib.
  • Chap. XIV. Of the fracture of the holy bone, Pag. 357
  • Chap. XV. Of the fracture of the rump, ib.
  • Chap. XVI. Of the fracture of the hip, or os ileum, ib
  • Chap. XVII. Of a fracture of the shoulder, or arm bone, ib.
  • Chap. XVIII. Of the fracture of the cubit, or ell and wand, Pag. 358
  • Chap. XIX. Of the fracture of a hand, Pag. 359
  • Chap. XX. Of the fracture of a thigh, ib.
  • Chap. XXI. Of the fracture of the thigh nigh to the joint, or the upper or lower head of the bone, Pag. 361
  • Chap. XXII. Of the Fracture of the Patella, or whirle-bone of the knee, Pag. 362
  • Chap. XXIII. Of a broken leg, ib.
  • Chap. XXIV. Of something to be observed in ligation, when a Fracture is associated with a wound, Pag. 363
  • Chap. XXV. What was used to the Authors leg after the first dressing, Pag. 364
  • Chap. XXVI. What may be the cause of the convulsion twitch­ngs of broken members, Pag. 365
  • Chap. XXVII. Certain documents concerning the parts where­on the Patient must necessarily rest, whilst he lyes in his bed, ib.
  • Chap. XXVIII. By what means we may know the Callus is a breeding, Pag. 366
  • Chap. XXIX. Of those things that may hinder the geeration of a Callus, and how to correct the fault thereof, if it be ill formed, Pag. 367
  • Chap. XXX. Of fomentations which be used in broken bones, Pag. 368
  • Chap. XXXI. Of the Fractures of the bones in the feet, ib.
Of Dislocations or Luxations, the sixteenth Book.
  • Chap. I. Of the kinds and manners of dislocations. Pag. 369
  • Chap. II. Of the differences of dislocations. ib.
  • Chap. III. Of the causes of dislocations, ib.
  • Chap. IV. The signs of dislocations, Pag. 370
  • Chap. V. Of prognosticks to be made upon luxations, ib,
  • Chap. VI. Of the general cure of dislocations, Pag. 371
  • Chap. VII. The description of certain engins, serving for the restoring o [...] dislocations, Pag. 372
  • Chap. VIII. Of the dislocation of the jaw bone, Pag. 373
  • Chap. IX. How to set the jaw dislocated forwards on both sides, Pag. 374
  • Chap. X. Of restoring the jaw dislocated forwards but on one side, ib.
  • Chap. XI. Of the luxation of the collar bone, Pag. 375
  • Chap. XII. Of the luxation of the spine, or back-bone, ib.
  • Chap. XIII. Of the dislocation of theead, Pag. 376
  • Chap. XIV. Of the dislocation of the vertebrae, or rack bones of the neck, ib.
  • Chap. XV. Of the dislocated vertebrae of the back, ib.
  • Chap. XVI. How to restore the spine outwardly dislocated, Pag. 377
  • Chap. XVII. A more particular inquiry of the dislocation of the vertebrae, proceeding from an internal cause, ib.
  • Chap. XVIII. Prognosticks of the dislocated vertebr [...] of the back, Pag. 378
  • Chap. XIX. Of the dislocation of the rump, ib.
  • Chap. XX. Of the luxation of the ribs, Pag. 379
  • Chap. XXI. O [...] a dislocated shoulder, ib.
  • Chap. XXII. Of the first manner of setting a shoulder, which is with ones fist, Pag. 380
  • Chap. XXIII. Of the second manner of restoring a shoulder, that is, with the heel; when as the Patient by reason of pain can neither sit, nor stand, Pag. 381
  • Chap. XXIV. Of the third manner of restoring a shoulder, ib.
  • Chap. XXV. Of the fourth manner of restoring a dislocated shoulder, Pag. 382
  • Chap. XXVI. Of the fifth manner of putting the shoulder in­to joint, which is performed by a Ladder, ib.
  • Chap. XXVII. The sixth manner of restoring a shoulder luxa­ted into the arm-pit, Pag. 383
  • Chap. XXVIII. How to restore a shoulder dislocated forwards, Pag. 385
  • Chap. XXIX. Of the shoulder luxated outwardly, ib.
  • Chap. XXX. Of the shoulder dislocated upwards, Pag. 386
  • Chap. XXXI. Of the dislocation of the elbow, ib.
  • Chap. XXXII. How to restore the elbow, dislocated outward­ly, Pag. 387
  • Chap. XXXIII. Of the dislocation of the elbow to the inside, and of a compleat and uncompleat luxation, ib.
  • Chap. XXXIV. Of the dislocation of the Styliformis or bodkin-like processe of the cubit or ell, Pag. 388
  • Chap. XXXV. Of the dislocation of the wrist, Pag. 398
  • Chap. XXXVI. Of the dislocated bones of the wrist, ib.
  • Chap. XXXVII. Of the dislocated bones of the after-wrist, Pag. 389
  • Chap. XXXVIII. Of the dislocated finger, ib.
  • Chap. XXXIX. Of a dislocated thigh or hip, ib.
  • Chap. XL. Prognosticks belonging to a dislocated hip, Pag. 390
  • Chap. XLI. Of the signs of the hip dislocated outwardly, or inwardly, ib.
  • Chap. XLII. Of the thigh bone dislocated forwards, ib.
  • Chap. XLIII. Of the thigh bone dislocated backwards, ib.
  • Chap. XLIV. Of restoring the thigh bone dislocated inwards, Pag. 392
  • Chap. XLV. Of restoring the thigh dislocated outwardly, Pag. 393
  • Chap. XLVI. Of restoring the thigh dislocated forwards, Pag. 394
  • Chap. XLVII. Of restoring the thigh dislocated backwards, ib.
  • Chap. XLVIII. Of the dislocation of the whirl bone of the knee, ib
  • Chap. XLIX. Of the dislocated knee, Pag. 395
  • [Page] Chap. L. Of a knee dislocated forwards, Pag. 395
  • Chap. LI Of the separation of the greater and lesser focile, ib.
  • Chap. LII. Of the leg-bone or greater focile dislocated, and di­vided from the pasternbone, ib.
  • Chap. LIII. Of the dislocatien of the heel, ib.
  • Chap. LIV. Of the symptoms which follow upon the contusion of the heel, ib.
  • Chap. LV. Of the dislocated pastern, or ancle bone, ib.
  • Chap. LVI. Of the dislocation of the Instep and back of the foot ib
  • Chap. LVII. Of the dislocation of the toes, ib.
  • Chap. LVIII. Of the symptoms and accidents which may be­fall a broken or disl [...]cated member, Pag. 398
Of divers other preternatural affects whose cure is common­ly performed by Surgery, The seventeenth Book.
  • Chap. I. Of an Alopecia, or the falling away of the hairs of the head, Pag. 399
  • Chap. II. Of the tiena or scald head, ib.
  • Chap. III. Of the vertigo or giddiness, Pag. 401
  • Chap. IV. Of the hemicrania or megrim, ib.
  • Chap. V. Of certain affects of the eyes, and first of staying up the upper eye-lid when it is too lax, Pag. 402
  • Chap. VI. Of lagopthalmus, or the hare-eye, ib
  • Chap. VII. Of the Chalazion, or hail stone, and the Hordeolum or barly corn of the eye-lids, Pag. 403
  • Chap. VIII. Of the Hydatis, or fatn [...]ss of the eye-lids, ib.
  • Chap. IX. O the eye-lids fastned or glewed together, ib.
  • Chap. X. Of the itching of the eye lids, Pag. 404
  • Chap. XI. Of lippitudo, or blear-eyes, ib.
  • Chap. XII. Of the Opthalmia, or inflammation of the eyes, Pag. 405
  • Chap. XIII. Of the proptosis, that is, the falling or the starting forth of the eye, and of the pthisis and camosis of the same, ib.
  • Chap. XIV. Of the ungula or web, Pag. 406
  • Chap. XV. Of the aegilops, fistula lacrymosa, or weeping fistula of the eye, Pag. 407
  • Chap. XVI. Of the flaphyloma or grape like swelling, Pag. 408
  • Chap. XVII. Of the hypoyon, that is, the suppurate or putrid eye, ib.
  • Chap. XVIII. Of the mydriasis, or dilation of the pupil of the eye, ib.
  • Chap. XIX. Of a cataract, Pag. 409
  • Chap. XX. Of the Physical cure of a beginning cataract, ib.
  • Chap. XXI. By what signs ripe and curable cataracts, may be discovered from unripe and uncurable ones, Pag. 410
  • Chap. XXII. Of the couching a cataract, ib.
  • Chap. XXIII. Of the stopping of the passage of the ears, and of the falling of things thereinto, Pag. 412
  • Chap. XXIV. Of getting little bones and such like things out of the jaws and throat, Pag. 413
  • Chap. XXV. Of the tooth ach, ib.
  • Chap. XXVI. Of other affects of the teeth, Pag. 414
  • Chap. XXVII. Of drawing of teeth, Pag. 415
  • Chap. XXVIII. Of cleansing of teeth, Pag. 417
  • Chap. XXIX. Of the impediment and contraction of the tongue, ib.
  • Chap. XXX. Of superfluous fingers, and such as stick together, ib.
  • Chap. XXXI. Of the too short a prepuce, and of such as have been circumcised, Pag. 118
  • Chap. XXXII. Of Phimosis, and paraphimosis, that is so great a constriction of the prepuce about the glans or nut that i [...] cannot be bared or uncovered at pleasure, ib.
  • Chap. XXXIII. Of those whose glans is not rightly perforated, and of the too short or too strait ligament, bridle, or cord of the yard, Pag. 419
  • Chap. XXXIV. Of the causes of the stone, ib.
  • Chap. XXXV. Of the signs of the stone in the kidneys and bladder, Pag. 420
  • Chap. XXXVI. Prognosticks in the stone, Pag. 421
  • Chap. XXXVII. What cure is to be used when we fear the stone, Pag. 422
  • Chap. XXXVIII. What is to be done when the stone falleth out of the kidney into the ureter, Pag. 423
  • Chap. XXXIX. What must be done, the stone being fallen into the neck of the bladder, Pag. 424
  • Chap. XL. What course must be taken, if the stone sticking in the ureter, or urinary passage, cannot be gotten out by the forementioned art, Pag. 425
  • Chap. XLI. What maneer of section is to be made, when a stone is in a boyes bladder, Pag. 426
  • Chap. XLII. How to cut men, for the taking out of the stone in the bladder, Pag. 427
  • Chap. XLIII. What cure must be used to the wound when the stone is taken forth, Pag. 431
  • Chap. XLIV. How to lay the patient after the stone is taken a­way, Pag. 432
  • Chap. XLV. How to cure the wound made by the incision, ib.
  • Chap. XLVI. What cure is to be used to ulcers, when as the urine flows through them, long after the stone is drawn out, Pag. 433
  • Chap. XLVII. How to take stones out of womens bladders, Pag. 433
  • Chap. XLVIII. Of the suppression of the urine by internal causes. Pag. 434
  • Chap. XLIX. A digression concerning the purging of such as are unprofitable in the whole body by the urine, Pag. 435
  • Chap. L. By what external causes the urine is supprest, and prognosticks concerning the suppression thereof, ib.
  • Chap. LI. Of bloody urine, Pag. 436
  • Chap. LII. Of the signs of the ulcerated Kidneys, ib.
  • Chap. LIII. Of the signs of the ulcerated bladder, Pag. 437
  • Chap. LIV. Prognosticks of the ulcerated reins and bladder, ib.
  • Chap. LV. What cure must be used in the suppression of the urine, ib.
  • Chap. LVI. Of the diabete, or inability to hold the urine, Pag. 438
  • Chap. LVII. Of the strangury, ib.
  • Chap. LVIII. Of the colick, Pag. 439
  • Chap. LIX. Of phlebotomy or blood-letting, Pag. 441
  • Chap. LX. How to open a vein or draw blood from thence Pag. 442
  • Chap. LXI. Of cupping-glasses or ventoses, ib.
  • Chap. LXII. Of leeches and their use, Pag. 444
Of the Gout; the eighteenth Book.
  • Chap. I. Of the description of the gout, ib.
  • Chap. II. Of the occult causes of the gout, ib.
  • Chap. III. Of the manifest causes of the gout, Pag. 446
  • Chap. IV. Out of what part the matter of the gout may flow down opon the joints, Pag. 447
  • Chap. V. The signs of the Arthritick humor flowing from the brain, ib.
  • Chap. VI. The signs of a gouty humor, proceeding from the liver, ib.
  • Chap. VII. By what signs we may understand this or that hu­mor, to accompany the gout in malignity, ib.
  • Chap. VIII. Prognosticks in the gout, Pag. 448
  • Chap. IX. The general method of preventing and curing the gout, Pag. 449
  • Chap. X. Of vomiting, Pag. 450
  • Chap. XI. The other general remedies for the gout, ib.
  • Chap. XII. What diet is convenient for such as have the gout, Pag. 151
  • Chap. XIII. How to strengthen the joints, Pag. 452
  • Chap. XIV. Of the palliative cure of the gout, and the materi­al causes thereof, ib.
  • Chap. XV. Of local medicines that may be used to a cold gout, Pag. 453
  • Chap. XVI. Of local medicines to be applyed to a hot or san­guine gout, Pag. 455
  • Chap. XVII. Of local medicines for a cholerick gout, Pag. 4 [...]6
  • Chap. XVIII. What remedies must be used in pains of the joints proceeding of a distemper only, without matter, Pag. 457
  • Chap. XIX. What is to be done after the fit of the gout is over, Pag. 458
  • Chap. XX. Of the tophi, or knots which grow at the joints of such as are troubled with the gout, ib.
  • Chap. XXI. Of the flatulencies contained in the joints, and counterfeiting true gouts, and of the remedies to be used thereto, Pag. 459
  • Chap. XXII. Of the Ischias, hip gout, or Sciatica, ib.
  • Chap. XXIII. The cure of the Sciatica, Pag. 460
  • Chap. XXI. Of the flatulent convulsion, or convulsive con­traction, which is commonly called by the French Gout cramp, and by the English the cramp, Pag. 461
The nineteenth Book
  • Chap. I. Of the Lues Venerea, and those symptoms which hap­pen by the means thereof, Pag. 462
  • Chap. II. Of the causes of the Lues Venerea, ib.
  • Chap. III. In what humor the malignity of the Lues Venerea resides, Pag. 463
  • Chap. IV. Of the signs of the Lues Venerea, Pag. 464
  • Chap. V. Of prognosticks, ib.
  • Chap. VI. How many and by what means there are to oppugn this disease, Pag. 465
  • Chap. VII. How to make choice of the wood Guaicum, ib.
  • Chap. VIII. Of the preparation of the decoction of Guaicum, ib.
  • Chap. IX. Of the s [...]cond manner of curing the Lues Venerea, which is performed by friction or unction, Pag. 467
  • Chap. X. Of the choice preparation and mixing of Hydrargy­rum, ib.
  • Chap. XI. How to use the unction, Pag. 468
  • Chap. XII. What cautions to be used in rubbing, or anointing the Patient, ib.
  • Chap. XIII. Of the third manner of cure, which is performed by cerates and emplaisters, as substitutes of unctions, Pag. 469
  • Chap. XIV. Of the fourth manner of curing the Lues Venerea, Pag. 471
  • Chap. XV. Of the cure of the symptoms, or symptomatique affects of the Lues Venerea, and first of the ulcers of the yard, ib.
  • Chap. XVI. How a Gonorrhoea differeth from a virulent stran­gury, Pag. 472
  • Chap. XVII. Of the causes and difference of the scalding, or sharpeness of the urine, ib.
  • Chap. XVIII. Prognosticks in a virulent strangury, Pag. 473
  • Chap. XIX. The [...]hief heads of curing a Gonorrhoea, ib.
  • Chap. XX. The general cure both of the scalding of the wa­ter, and the virulent strangury, Pag. 474
  • Chap. XXI Of the proper cure of a virulent strangury, ib.
  • Chap. XXII. Of caruncles, of fleshy excrescences which some­times happen to grow in the urethea by the heat or scalding of the urine, Pag. 475
  • Chap. XXIII. What of the remedies shall be used to caruncles occasioned by the Lues Venerea, Pag. 476
  • Chap. XXIV. of Venereal Buboes, or swellings in the groins, Pag. 478
  • Chap. XXV. Of the exostosis, bunches, or knots growing upon the bones, by reason of the Lues Venerea, ib.
  • Chap. XXVI. Why the bones become rotten, and by what means it may be perceived, ib.
  • Chap. XXVII. Of actual and potential cauteries, Pag. 480
  • Chap. XXVIII. Of the vulnerary potion, Pag. 482
  • Chap. XXIX. Of tetters, ring-worms, or chops, occasioned by the Lues Venerea, Pag. 483
  • Chap. XXX. Of curing the Lues Venerea in infants and little children, Pag. 484

The twentieth Book, Of the small pox and meazles; as also of worms and the leprosie, from pag. 485. to pag. 497.

The one and twentieth Book, Of poysons, and of the biting, and stinging of a mad dog, and the bitings and stingingo of other venemous creatures, from pag. 497. to pag. 525.

The two and twentieth Book. of the Plague.
  • Chap. I. The description of the Plague, Pag. 525
  • Chap. II. Of the natural causes of an extraordinary plague, Pag. 526
  • Chap. III. Of the natural causes of the Plague, ib
  • Chap. IV. Of the p [...]eparation of humors to putrefaction, and adm ssion of pestiferous impressions, Pag. 527
  • Chap. V. What signes in the air and earth prognosticate a plague, Pag. 528
  • Chap. VI. By using what cautions in air and diet, one may pre­vent the plague, Pag. 529
  • Chap. VII. Of the cordial remedies by which we may pre­serve our bodies in fear of the plague, and cure those already infected therewith, Pag. 530
  • Chap. VIII. Of local medicines to be applyed outwardly, Pag. 532
  • Chap. IX. Of other things to be observed for prevention, in fear of the Plague, Pag. 533
  • Chap. X. Of the office of Magistrates in time of the Plague, Pag. 534
  • Chap. XI. What caution must be used in choosing Physicians, Apothecaries, and Surgeons, who may have care of such as are taken with the Plague, Pag. 55
  • Chap. XII. How such as undertake the cure of the Plague ought to arm themselves, ib.
  • Chap. XIII. Of the signs of such as are infected with the Plague, Pag. 536
  • Chap. XIV. What signs in the Plague are mortal, Pag. 537
  • Chap. XV. Signs of the Plague coming by contagion of the air without any fault of the humors, ib.
  • Chap. XVI. Signs of the Plague drawn into the body by the fault and putrefaction of humors, ib.
  • Chap. XVII. Of the prognostication that is to be instituted in the Plague, Pag. 538
  • Chap. XVIII. How a pestilent fever comes to be bred in us, Pag. 539
  • Chap. XIX. Into what place the Patient ougth to betake him­self so soon as he finds himself infected, Pag. 540
  • Chap. XX. What diet ought to be observed, and first of the choice of meat, Pag. 541
  • Chap. XXI. What drink the Patient infected ought to use, Pag. 542
  • Chap. XXII. Of antidotes to be used in the Plague, Pag. 543
  • Chap. XXIII. Of Epithems to be used for the strengthening of the principal parts, Pag. 545
  • Chap. XXIV. Whether purging and blood-letting be nec [...]ssa­ry in the beginning of pestilent diseases, ib.
  • Chap. XXV. Of purging medicines in a pestilent disease, Pag. 547
  • Chap. XXVI. Of many symptoms which happen together with the Plague, and first or the pain of the head, Pag. 548
  • Chap. XXVII. Of the heat of the kidnies, Pag. 549
  • Chap. XXVIII. Of the eruptions and spots, which commonly are called by the name of purples, and tokens, ib.
  • Chap. XXIX. Of the cure of eruptions and spots, Pag. 550
  • Chap. XXX. Of a pestilent Bubo or plague sore, Pag. 551
  • Chap. XXXI. Of the cure of Buboes or plague sores, ib.
  • Chap. XXXII. Of the nature, causes, and signs of a pestilent carbuncle, Pag. 553
  • Chap. XXXIII. What prognosticks may be made in pestilent Buboes and Carbuncles, Pag. 554
  • Chap. XXXIV. Of the cure of a pestilent carbuncle, Pag. 555
  • Chap. XXXV. Of the itching and inflammation happening in pestilent ulcers, and how to cicatrize them, Pag. 556
  • Chap. XXXVI. Of sundry kinds of evacuations, and first of sweat [...]ng and vomiting, Pag. 557
  • Chap. XXXVII. Of spitting, salivation, sneezing, belching, hicketting and making water, ib.
  • Chap. XXXVIII. Of the menstrual and haemorrhoidal purga­tion, Pag. 558
  • Chap. XXXIX. Of procuring evacuation by stool, or a flux of the belly, Pag. 559
  • Chap. XL. Of stopping the flux of the belly, ib.
  • Chap. XLI. Of evacuation by in ensible transpiration, Pag. 560
  • Chap. XLII. How to cure infants and children taken with the Plague, Pag. 561
The three and twentieth Book, Of the meanes and man­ner to repair or supply the defects of mans Body.
  • Chap. I How the losse of the natural or true eye may be co­vered, hidden, or shadowed, Pag. 562
  • Chap. II. By what means a part of the nose that is cut off, may be restored; or how in stead of the nose that is cut off, another counterfeit nose may be fastned, or pla­ced In the stead, Pag. 563
  • Chap. III. Of the placing of teeth artificlally made in stead of those that are lost or wanting, Pag. 564
  • Chap. IV. Of filling the hollowness of the palat, Pag. 565
  • Chap. V. How to help such as cannot sp [...]ak by reason of the lo [...]se of some part of the tongue, Pag. 566
  • Chap. VI. Of covering and repairing certain def [...]cts or defaults in the face, ibid.
  • Chap. VII. Of the defects of the ears, Pag. 567
  • Chap. VIII. Of amending the deformity of such as are crook-backt, ib.
  • [Page] Chap. IX. How to relieve such as have their urine flow from them against their wils, and such as want their yards Pag. 568
  • Chap. X. By what means the perished function or action of a thump or finger may be corrected and amended, Pag. 569
  • Chap. XI. Of the helping those that are vari and valgi, crook-legged, or crook-footed, inwards, or outwards, Pag. 576
  • Chap. XII. By what means arms, legs, and hands may be made by art, and p [...]aced in the stead of natural arms, legs or hands, that are cut off, and lost, Pag. 585
  • Chap. XIII. Of amending or helping lameness or halting, Pag. 575
Of the generation of Man, the four and twentieth Book.
  • Chap. I. Why the generative parts are endued with great plea­sure, Pag. 576
  • Chap. II. of what quality the seed is, whereof the male, and whereof the female is engendered, Pag. 591
  • Chap. III. What is the cause why females of all brute beasts, being great with young, do neither desire nor admit the males, until they have brought forth their young, Pag. 592
  • Chap. IV. What things ought to be observed, as necessary unto generation in the time of copulation.
  • Chap. V. By what signs it may be known, whether the woman have conceived or not, Pag. 593
  • Chap. VI. That the womb so soon as it hath received the seed, is presently contracted or drawn together, ib.
  • Chap. VII. Of the generation of the navell, Pag. 594
  • Chap. VIII. Of the umbilical vessels, or the vessels belonging to the navell, ib.
  • Chap. IX. Of the ebullition or swelling of the seed in the womb, and of the concretion of the bubbles or blad­ders, or the three principal entrals, Pag. 595
  • Chap. X. Of the third bubble or bladder, wherein the head and the brain is formed, ib.
  • Chap. XI. Of the life o [...] soul, Pag. 596
  • Chap. XII. Of the natural excrements in general, and spe­cially of those that the child o [...] infant being in the womb excludeth, Pag. 598
  • Chap. XIII. With what travel the childe is brought into the world, and of the cause of this travel, Pag. 599
  • Chap. XIV Of the situation of the infant in the womb, Pag. 600
  • Chap. XV. Which is the legitimate and natural, and which the illegitimate or unnatural time of childebirth, Pag. 601
  • Chap. XVI. Signs of the birth at hand, ib.
  • Chap. XVII. What is to be done presently after the childe is borne, Pag. 602
  • Chap. XVIII. How to pull away the secundine or after-birth Pag. 604
  • Chap. XIX. What things must be given to the infant by the mouth, before he be permitted to suck the teat or dug, Pag. 605
  • Chap. XX. That mothers ought to give suck to their owne chil­dren, ib.
  • Chap. XXI. Of the choise of nurses, ib.
  • Chap. XXII. What diet the nurse ought to use, and in what situation she ought to place the infant in the cradle, Pag. 607
  • Chap. XXIII. How to make pap for children, Pag. 608
  • Chap. XXIV. Of the weaning of children, Pag. 609
  • Chap. XXV. By what signs it may be known whether the child in the womb be dead or alive, ib.
  • Chap. XXVI. Of the Chirurgical extractions of the childe from the womb either dead or alive, Pag. 610
  • Chap. XXVII. What must be done unto the woman in travel, presently after her deliverance, Pag. 612
  • Chap. XXVIII. What care must be used to the dugs and teats of of those that are brought to bed, Pag. 613
  • Chap. XXIX. What the causes of difficult and painful travel in childbirth are, Pag. 614
  • Chap. XXX. The cause of abortion or untimely birth, Pag. 615
  • Chap. XXXI. How to preserve the infant in the womb when the mother is dead, Pag. 616
  • Chap. XXXII. Of superfetation, Pag. 617
  • Chap. XXXIII. Of the tumor called Mola, or a mole grow­ing in the womb of women, Pag. 618
  • Chap. XXXIV. How to discern true conception from a false conception or mola, ib.
  • Chap. XXXV. What cure must be used to the Mola, Pag. 620
  • Chap. XXXVI. Of tumors or swellings happening to the pancreas or sweet-bread, and the whole mesentery, Pag. 621
  • Chap. XXXVII. Of the cause of barrenn ss in women, Pag. 622
  • Chap. XXXVIII. Of the barrenness or unfruitfulness of wo­men, Pag. 623
  • Chap. XXXIX. The signs of a distempered womb, ib.
  • Chap. XL. Of the failing down, or preversion, or turning of the womb, Pag. 624
  • Chap. XLI. The cure of the falling down of the womb, Pag. 625
  • Chap. XLII. Of the tunicle or membrane called hymen, Pag. 626
  • Chap. XLIII. A memorable history of the membrane called hymen, Pag. 627
  • Chap. XLIV. Of the strangulation of the womb, Pag. 628
  • Chap. XLV. The signs of imminent strangulation of the womb, Pag. 629,
  • Chap. XLVI. How to know whether the woman be dead in the strangulation of the womb, or not, ib.
  • Chap. XLVII. How to know whether the strangulation of the womb comes of the suppression of the flowers, or the corruption of the s [...]ed, Pag. 630
  • Chap. XLVIII. Of the cure of the strangulation of the womb, ib.
  • Chap. XLIX. Of womens monthly flux or courses, Pag. 632
  • Chap. L. The causes of womens monthly flux or courses, ib.
  • Chap. LI. The causes of the suppression of the courses or men­strual flux, Pag. 633
  • Chap. LII. What accidents follow the suppression or stopping of the monthly flux and flowers, ib.
  • Chap. LIII. Of provoking the flowers or courses, Pag. 634
  • Chap. LIV. Of the signes of the approaching of the menstrual flux, Pag. 635
  • Chap. LV. Accidents follow immoderate fluxes of the flowers or courses, ib.
  • Chap. LVI. Of stopping the immoderate flowing of the flowers and courses, Pag. 636
  • Chap. LVII. Of local medicines to be used against the im­moderate flowing of the courses, ib.
  • Chap. LVIII. Of womens fluxes or the whites, ib.
  • Chap. LIX. Of the causes of the whites, Pag. 637
  • Chap. LX. The cure of the whites, ib.
  • Chap. LXI. Of the haemorrhoides and warts of the neck of the womb, Pag. 638
  • Chap. LXII. Of the cure of the warts that are in the neck of the womb, ib.
  • Chap. LXIII. Of chaps, and those wri [...]kled and hard excre­scences, which the Greeks call condylomata, Pag. 640
  • Chap. LXIV. Of the itching of the womb, ib.
  • Chap. LXV. Of the relaxation of the great gut, or intestine, which happeneth to women, ib.
  • Chap. LXVI. Of the relaxation of the navel in children, Pag. 641
  • Chap. LXVII. Of the pain that children have in breeding of teeth, Pag. 642

Of Monsters and Prodigies, the five and twentieth Book, from pag, 642. to pag. 688.

Of the faculties of simple medicines as also of their com­position and use, the six and twentieth Book.
  • Chap. I. What a medcine is, and how it differeth from nou­rishment, Pag. 688
  • Chap. II. The differences of medicines in their matter and sub­stance, ib.
  • Chap. III. The difference of simples in their qualities and effects, Pag. 689
  • Chap. IV. Of the second faculties of medicines, Pag. 690
  • Chap. V. Of the third faculties of medicines, Pag. 691
  • Chap. VI. Of the fourth faculty of medicines, ib.
  • Chap. VII. Of tastes, ib.
  • Chap. VIII. Of the preparation of medicines, Pag. 693
  • Chap. IX. Of repelling, or repercussive medicines, Pag. 694
  • Chap. X Of attractive medicines, Pag. 695
  • Chap. XI. Of resolving medicines, ib.
  • Chap. XII. Of suppuratives, Pag. 696
  • Chap. XIII. Of mollifying things, ib.
  • Chap. XIV. Of detersitives, or mundificatives, Pag. 697
  • Chap. XV. Of sarcoticks, Pag. 698
  • Chap. XVI. Of epuloticks, or skinning medicines, Pag. 699
  • Chap. XVII. Of agglutinatives. ib.
  • [Page] Chap. XVIII. Of puroticks, or caustick medicines, Pag. 700
  • Chap. X X. Of anodynes, or such as mitigate or asswage pain, ib.
  • Chap. XX Of the composition and use of medicines, Pag. 701
  • Chap. XXI. Of the weight and measures, and the notes of both of them, Pag. 702
  • Chap. XXII. Of Clvsters, ib
  • Chap. XXIII. Of suppositories, nodules, and pessari [...]s, Pag. 704
  • Chap. XXIV. Of oils, Pag. 705
  • Chap. XXV. Of liniments, ib
  • Chap. XXVI. Of ointments, Pag. 706
  • Chap. XXVII. Of cerats and emplasters, Pag. 708
  • Chap. XXVIII. Of cataplasms and pultises, Pag. 710
  • Chap. XXIX. Of fomentations, Pag. 711
  • Chap. XXX Of embrocations, ib.
  • Chap. XXXI. Of epithemes, ib.
  • Chap. XXXII. Of potential cauteries. Pag. 712
  • Chap. XXXIII. Of vesicatories, Pag. 713
  • Chap. XXXIV. Of Collyria, Pag. 714
  • Chap. XXXV. Of e [...]rhines, and sternutatories, ib.
  • Chap. XXXVI. Of apophlegmatisms, or masticatories, Pag. 715
  • Chap. XXXVII. Of gargarisms, Pag. 716
  • Chap. XXXVIII. Of dentrifices, ib.
  • Chap. XXXIX. O [...] baggs or quilts, Pag. 717
  • Chap. XL. Of fumigations, ib
  • Chap. XLI. Of a particular, or halfe bath, Pag. 718
  • Chap. XLII. Of baths, ib.
  • Chap. XLIII Of stoves, or hot-houses, Pag. 721
  • Chap. XLIV. Of Fuci, that is, washes, and such things for the smoothing and beautifying of the skin, ib.
  • Chap. XLV. Of the gutta [...]osacea, or a fiery face, Pag. 723
  • Chap. XLVI. To black or colour the hair, Pag. 724
  • Chap. XLVII. Of Psilotbra, or depilatories, and also of sweet waters, ib.
Of Distillation, the seven and twentieth Book.
  • Chap. I. What distillation is, and how many kindes thereof there be, Pag. 725
  • Chap. II. Of the matter and form of tornaces, ib.
  • Chap. III. Of vessels fit for distillation, Pag. 726
  • Chap. IV. What things are to be considered in distillation, ib.
  • Chap. V. Of what fashion the vessels for the distilling of wa­ters, ought to be, Pag. 727
  • Chap. VI. How the materials must be prepared before distilla­tion, Pag. 728
  • Chap. VII. Of the art of distilling of waters, Pag. 729
  • Chap. VIII. How to distill aqua vitae, or the spirits of wine, Pag. 730
  • Chap. IX. Of the manner of rectifying, that is, how to increase the strength of waters, that have been once distilled, ib.
  • Chap. X. Of distillation by filtring, Pag. 731
  • Chap. XI. What and how many wayes there are to make oils, ib.
  • Chap. XII. Of extracting of oils of vegetables by distillation Pag. 732
  • Chap. XIII. Another manner how to draw the essence and spi­rits of herbs, flowers, seeds, and spices, as also of [...]u­barb, agarick, turbith, hermodactyls, and other pur­gers, Pag. 733
  • Chap. XIV. How to extract oil out of gums, condensed juices, and rosins, as also out of some woods, ib.
  • Chap. XV. Of extracting of oils out of the harder sorts of gums, as myrrh, mastick, frankincense, and the like, Pag. 734
  • Chap. XVI. The making of oil of vitriol, Pag. 735
  • Chap. XVII. A table or catalogue of medicines and instru­ments serving for the cure of diseases, Pag. 736

How to make reports, and to enbalm the dead, the eight and twentieth Book.

The nine and twentieth Book, A Treatise containing divers voyages.

A Table of the Chapters of the three Tracts.

  • Chap. I. REckons up the branches or propagations of the ve­na portae, or the gate-vein, and explains an apho­rism of Hippocrates, that makes very much to the purpose, Pag. 1
  • Chap. II. Treats of the superior, or ascendent trunk of the vena cava, or hollow vein, and the b [...]anches which it scatters through the head, Pag. 5
  • Chap. III. Shews how the axillary vein is distributed through the arm, Pag. 9
  • Chap. IV. Explaines the lower, or descendent trunk of the hollow vein, Pag. 11
  • Chap. V. Reckons up the propagations, and branches of the outer iliacal branch disseminated through the crus, or great foot, that reaches from the lower part of the buttock to the end of the toes, Pag. 14
  • An explanation of the Table of the Veins, Pag. 17
The second Treatise conserning the Arteries.
  • Chap. I. Shews the upper or ascendent trunk of the great Artery, with its propagations that are distributed through the head, Pag. 21
  • Chap. II. Declares the history of the axillary artery being di­stributed through the arm, Pag. 23
  • Chap. III. Shews the inferior or descendent trunk of the great Artery, and the propagation thereof through the middle and lowest bellies, ib.
  • Chap. IV. The propagations of the outer iliacal branches which are distributed through the crus, or great foot, con­taining the thigh, leg, and foot, Pag. 30
  • An explanation of the Table of the Arteries, Pag. 31
The third Treatise concerning the Nerevs.
  • Chap. I. Of the nerv s of the brain, Pag. 35
  • Chap. II. Concerning the nerves of the spinal marrow properly so called, and first of those of the rack bones of the neck, Pag. 40
  • Chap. III. Concerning the nerves of the marrow of the rack bones of the chest, Pag. 42
  • Chap. IV. Concerning the marrow of the rack bones of the loins, Pag. 43
  • Chap. V. Concerning the nerves of the marrow of Os sacrum or the great bone, Pag. 44
  • Chap. VI. Concerning the nerves which are distributed through the arms, Pag. 45
  • Chap. VII. Of the nerves that are distributed through the crura, or thighs, legs, and feet, Pag. 47
  • An explanation of the twoo Tables of the Nerves, Pag. 49 and 50

The First Book AN Introduction, or Compendious Way TO CHIRURGERY.

CHAP. I. What Chirurgery is.

CHIRURGERY is an Art, which teacheth the way by reason,The definition of Khirurgery. how by the operation of the hand we may cure, prevent, and mitigate diseases, which accidentally happen unto us. Others have thought good to describe it otherwise; as that, It is that part of Physick which undertaketh the cure of Diseases by the sole industry of the Hand: as, by cutting, burning, sawing off, uniting fractures, restoring dislocations, and performing other works, of which we shall hereafter treat. Chirurgery also is thus defined by the Author of the Medicinal Definitions; The quick motion of an intre­pid hand joyned with experience; or, An artificial action by the hand used in Physick,What necessary for a Chirur­geon. for some convenient intent. Yet none must think to attain to any great perfection in this Art, without the help of the other two parts of Physick; I say, of Dyet and Pharmacie, and the divers applica­tions, of proper Medicines, respecting the condition of the Causes, Diseases, Symptoms, and the like Circumstances, which comprehended under the names of things natural, not natural, and beside nature, (as they commonly call them) we intend to describe in their proper place. But if any reply, that there be many which do the works of Chirurgery, without any knowledg of such like things, who notwithstanding have cured desperate Diseases with happy success: Let them take this for an answer, That such things happen rather by chance, than by the in­dustry of the Art; and that they are not provident that commit themselves to such. Because that for some one happy chance, a thousand dangerous errors happen afterwards, as Galen (in divers places of his Method) speaks against the Empericks. Wherefore seeing we have set down Chirurgery to be, A diligent operation of the hands, strengthened by the assistance of Diet and Pharmacy, we will now shew what, and of what nature the operations of it are.

CHAP. II. Of Chirurgical Operations.

FIve things are proper to the duty of a Chirurgeon; To take away that which is superfluous;The nature of a Chirurgeon. to restore to their places such things as are displaced; to separate those things which are joyned together; to joyn those that are separated; and to supply the defects of nature.Experience more necessary for a Chirur­geon, than art. Thou shalt far more easily and happily attain to the knowledg of these things by long use and much exercise, than by much reading of Books, or daily hearing of Teachers. For speech, how per­sp [...]cuous and elegant soever it be, cannot so vively express any thing, as that which is subjected to the faithful eyes and hands.

We have examples of taking away that which abounds,Examples of taking away that which i [...] superfluous [...] in the Amputation or cutting off a fin­ger, if any have six on one hand, or any other monstrous member that may grow out; in the lop­ping off a putrefied part inwardly corrupted; in the extraction of a dead child, the secondine, mole, or such like bodies out of a womans womb: In taking down of all Tumors, as Wens, Warts, Polypus, Cancers, and fleshy excrescences of the like nature; in the pulling forth of bullets, of pieces of mail, of darts, arrows, shells, splinters, and of all kind of weapons in what part of the body soever they be. And he taketh away that which redounds, which plucks away the hairs of the eye-lids which trouble the eye by their turning in towards it: who cuts away the web, pos­sessing all theTwo tunicles of the eyes. Alaska, and the part of theTwo tunicles of the eyes. Corn [...]a: who letteth forth suppurated matter: who taketh out stones in what part soever of the body they grow; who puls out a rotten or otherwise hurtful tooth; or cuts a nail that runs into the flesh; who cuts away part of the Uvula, or hairs that grow on the ey-lids: who taketh off a Cataract; who cuts the navil or foreskin of a child newly born; or the skinny caruncles of womens Privities.

Examples of placing those things which are out of their natural site, are manifest in restoring [Page 2] dislocated bones;Examples of replacing. in re-placing of the guts and gall fallen into the cods, or out of the navil or belly by a wound; or of the falling down of the womb, fundament, or great gut, or the eye hang­ing out of its circle or proper place.

Example of separating things joyned together.But we may take examples of disjoyning those things which are continued; from the fingers growing together, either by some chance, as burning; or by the imbecillity of the forming facul­ty; by the disjunction of the membrane called Hymen, or any other troubling the neck of the womb; by dissection of the ligament of the tongue, which hinders children from sucking and speaking, and of that which hinders the Glans from being uncovered of the foreskin; by the divi­sion of a various vein, or of a half cut nerve or tendon, causing Convulsion, by the division of the membrance stopping the auditory passage, the nose, mouth, or fundament, or the stub­born sticking together of the hairs of the ey-lids. Refer to this place all the works done by Causticks, the Saw, Trepan, Lancet, Cupping-glasses, Incision-knife, Leeches, either for evacu­ation, derivation, or revulsion sake.

Examples of uniting things disjoyned.The Chirurgeon draws together things separated, which healeth wounds by stitching them, by bolstring, binding, giving rest to, and fit placing the part: which repairs fractures; restoring luxated parts; who by binding the vessel, stayeth the violent effusion of blood: who cicatriceth cloven lips, commonly called Hare-lips: who reduceth to equality the cavities of Ulcers and Fistula's.

Examples of supplying de­fects.But he repairs those things which are defective either from the infancy, or afterwards by acci­dent, as much as Art and Nature will suffer; who set on an ear, an ey, a nose, one or more teeth; who fills the hollowness of the palat eaten by the Pox, with a thin plate of gold or silver, or such like; who supplies the defect of the tongue in part cut off, by some new addition: who fastens to a hand, an arm, or leg with fit ligaments, workman-like: who fits a doublet bumbasted, or made with iron plates, to make the body straight; who fils a shoo too big with cork, or fastens a stockin or sock to a lame mans girdle to help his gate. We will treat more fully of all these in our follow­ing Work. But in performing those things with the hands, we cannot but cause pain: (for who can without pain cut off an arm, or leg, divide and tear asunder the neck of the bladder, restore bones put out of their places, open Ulcers, bind up wounds, and apply cauteries, and do such like?) notwithstanding the matter often comes to that pass, that unless we use a judicious hand, we must either die, or lead the remnant of our lives in perpetual misery. Who therefore can justly abhor a Chirurgeon for this, or accuse him of cruelty? or desire they may be served, as in ancient times the Romans served Archagatus, Archagatus the Chirurgeon. who at the first made him free of the City; but presently af­ter, because he did somewhat too cruelly burn, cut, and perform the other works of a good Chi­rurgeon, they drew him from his house into the Campus Martius, and there stoned him to death, as we read it recorded by Sextus Cheronaeus, Plutarch's nephew by his Daughter. Truly, it was an inhumane kind of ingratitude, so cruelly to murder a man intent to the works of so necessary an Art. But the Senate could not approve the act: wherefore to expiate the crime as well as then they could, they made his Statue in Gold, placed it in Aesculapius his Temple, and dedicated it to his perpetual memory. For my part, I very well like that saying of Celsus: A Chirurgeon must have a strong,In praefat. lib. 7. The properties of a good Chi­rurgeon. stable, and intrepid hand, and a mind resolute and merciless; so that to heal him he taketh in hand, he be not moved to make more haste than the thing requires; or to cut less than is need­ful; but which doth all things as if he were nothing affected with their cries; not giving heed to the judgment of the vain common people, who speak il of Chirurgeons because of their ignorance.

CHAP. III. Of things Natural.

THat the Chirurgeon may rightly; and according to Art perform the foresaid works, he must set before is eys certain Indications of working: Otherwise, he is like to become an Em­perick; whom no Art, no certain reason, but only a blind temerity of fortune moves to boldness and action.From whence we must draw Indications. These Indications of actions are drawn from things (as they call them) natural, not-natural, and besides-nature, and their adjuncts, as it is singularly delivered of the Ancients, being men of an excellent understanding. Wherefore we will prosecute according to that order, all the speculations of this Art of ours. First therefore, things Natural are so termed, because they con­stitute and contain the nature of mans body,What things are called na­tural. which wholly depends of the mixture and tempera­ment of the four first bodies, as it is shewed by Hippocrates in his Book de Natura humana: where­fore the consideration thereof belongs to that part of Physick, which is named Physiologia; as the examination of things not natural to Diaetetice, To what part of physick things not na­curaly pertain. or Diet, because by the use of such things it ende­vours to retain and keep health: but Therapeutice, or the part which cures the Diseases, and all the affects besides nature, challenges the contemplation of those things which are not agreeable to nature.To what, things besides nature. But the things which are called Natural, may be reduced to seven heads: besides which, there comes into their fellowship, those which we term, Annexed.

The seven principal heads of things Natural; are

  • Elements
  • Temperaments
  • Humors
  • Parts or members
  • Faculties
  • Actions
  • Spirits.

To these are an­nexed, as some­what near;

  • Age
  • Sex
  • Colour
  • Cmpoosure
  • Time or season
  • Region
  • Vocation of life.

CHAP. IV. Of Elements.

AN Element (by the definition which is commonly received amongst Physitians) is the least and most simple portion of that thing which it composeth: or,What an Ele­ment is. that my speech may be the more plain, The four first and simple bodies are called Elements; Fire, Air, Water, and Earth; which accommodate and subject themselves as matter to the promiscuous generation of all things which the Heavens engirt, whether you understand things perfectly, or unperfectly mixed. Such Elements are only to be conceived in your mind,Elements are understood by reason, not by sense. being it is not granted to any external sense to handle them in their pure and absolute nature. Which was the cause that Hippocrates expressed them not by the names of substances, but of proper qualities, saying, Hot, Cold, Moist, Dry; because some one of these qualities is inherent in every Element, as his proper and essen­tial form, not only according to the excess of latitude, but also of the active faculty;Why Hipp. ex­pressed the Elements by these names of Qualities. to which is adjoined another simple quality, and by that reason principal, but which notwithstanding attains not to the highest degree of his kind, as you may understand by Galen in his first Book of Elements. So, for example sake, in the Air we observe two qualities, Heat, and Moisture, both principal, and not remitted by the commixture of any contrary quality,Two principal qualities are in each Element. for otherwise they were not simple. Therefore thou maist say, What hinders that the principal effects of heat shew not themselves as well in the Air, as in the Fire? Because, as we said before, although the Air have as great a heat according to his nature, extent, and degree, no otherwise than Fire hath, yet it is not so great in its active quality.Why the Air heats not so vehemently, as the Fire. The reason is because that the calfactory force in the Air is hindered, and dulled by society of his companion and adjoined quality, that is, Humidity which abateth the force of heat, as, on the contrary, driness quickneth it. The Elements therefore are endewed with qualities.

Names of the substances

  • Fire
  • Air
  • Water
  • Earth

is

  • Hot and dry
  • Moist and hot
  • Cold and moist
  • Cold and dry.

Names of the qualities.

These four Elements in the composition of natural bodies,How the Ele­ments may be understood to be mixed in compound bo­dies. retain the qualities they formerly had, but that by their mixture and meeting together of contraries, they are somewhat tempered and abated. But the Elements are so mutually mixed one with another, and all with all, that no simple part may be found; no more then in a mass of the Emplaister Diacalcitheos you can shew any Axungia oil, or Litharge by it self; all things are so confused and united by the power of heat, mixing the smallest particulars with the smallest, and the whole with the whole, in all parts. You may know and perceive this concretion of the four Elementary substances in one compound body, by the power of mixture, in their dissolution by burning a pile or heap of green wood: For the flame expresses the Fire; the smoak, the Air; the moisture that sweats out at the ends,Why of the first qualities two are active and two pas­sive. the Water; and the ashes, the Earth: You may easily perceive by this example so familiar and obvious to the senses, what dissolution is, which is succeeded by the decay of the compound body; on the contrary, you may know that the coagmentation, or uniting and joyning into one of the first mixed bodies is such, that there is no part sincere or without mixture. For if the heat which is predominant in the fire, should remain in the mixture in its perfect vigor, it would consume the rest by its pernicious neighbourhood; the like may be said of Coldness, Moisture, and Driness; although of these qualities, two have the title of Active, that is, Heat and Cold­ness, because they are the more powerful; the other two Passive, because they may seem more dull and slow, being compared to the former. The temperaments of all sublunary bodies arise from the commixture of these substances and elementary qualities, which hath been the principal cause that moved me to treat of the Elements. But I leave the force and effects of the Elemen­tary qualities to some higher contemplation, content to have noted this, that of these first qua­lities, (so called, because they are primarily and naturally in the four first bodies) others arise and proceed, which are therefore called the second qualities: as of many, these, Heaviness,Why the first qualities are so called. Lightness, variously distributed by the four Elements, as the Heat, or Coldness, Moistness or Driness have more power over them. For of the Elements, two are called light, because they naturally affect to move upwards: the other two heavie,What the second qualities are. by reason they are carryed downward by their own weight. So we think the fire the lightest, because it holds the highest place of this lower world; the Air, which is next to it in site, we account light; for the water which lies next to the Air, we judg heavie;What Ele­ments light, what heavy. and the earth the center of the rest we judg to be the heaviest of them all. Hereupon it is, that light bodies, and the light parts in bodies, have most of the ligh­ter Elements; as on the contrary heavie bodies have more of the heavier. This is a brief descrip­ion of the Elements of this frail world, which are only to be discerned by the understanding, to which I think good to adjoin another description of other Elements, as it were arising or flow­ing from the commixture of the first: For besides these, there are said to be Elements of gene­ration, and Elements of mans body. Which as they are more corporal, so also are they more ma­nifest to the sense. By which reason Hippocrates being moved, in his Book de Natura humana, after he had described the Nature of Hot, Cold, Moist, and Dry,What the Ele­ments of gene­ration are. he comes to take notice of these by the order of composition. Wherefore the Elements of our generation, as also of all creatures [Page 4] which have blood,What the Ele­ments of m [...]xt bodies. are seed and menstruous blood. But the Elements of our bodies, are the solid and similar parts, arising from those Elements of generation. Of this kind are bones, membranes, ligaments, veins, arter es, and many others manifest to the eys, which we will describe at large in our Treatise of Anatomie.

CPAP. V. Of Temperaments.

What a Tem­perament is.A Temperament is defined, a proportionable mixture of hot, cold, moist, and dry; or, It is a concord of the first disagreeing faculties. That harmony springs from the mixture of the four first bodies of the world. This whether Temperament or Concord is given to Plants and brute Beasts for the beginning of their life, and so consequently for their life and form. But as Plants are inferiour in order and dignity to beasts, so theirAnima. What the life performs in Plants. life is more base and infirm, for they have only a growing faculty, by which they may draw an Alimentary juyce from the earth, as from their Mothers breasts, to preserve them and their life, by which they may grow to a certain bigness; and lastly, by which they may bring forth their like for the perpetual continu­ance of their kind. But theAnima, What in beasts. Mans soul comes from a­bove. life of beasts, have to the three former, the gift of sense annexed: by benefit whereof, as by a certain inward knowledge they shun those things that are hurtful, and follow those which profit them; and by the power of their will, they move themselves whi­ther they please. But the soul of man far more perfect and noble than the rest, ariseth not from that earthly mixture and temper of the Elements, but acknowledgeth and hath a far more divine off-spring; as we shall teach hereafter.

The manifold division of a Temperament.They divide a Temperament at the first division, into two kinds; as, one a temperate, another an untemperate. The untemperate is of two sorts: The one wholly vicious, which hath altoge­ther exceeded the bounds of mediocrity: The other, which hath somwhat strayed from the me­diocrity of temper,A Tempera­ment, ad Pon­dus. but notwithstanding is yet contained within the limits of health: as that which brings no such evident harm to the actions, but that it somewhat hinders them, so that they cannot so well and perfectly perform their duties. But the vicious Temperament doth three manner of wayes corrupt the functions, either by weakning, depraving, or abolishing them. For so, Stupor, or astonishment, diminisheth and sloweth the quickness of motion; Convulsion depraves it;Ad pondus, vel ad justitiam. the Palsie abolisheth it, and taketh it away. The temperate Temperament is also divided into two kinds; which is either to equality of weight or justice. It is called a Tempe­rature to weight which ariseth from the equal force of exactly concurring qualities, and, as pla­ced in a perfect ballance, draws down neither to this nor that part. They think the example of this Temperament to appear in the inner skin of the fingers ends of a man tempered to Justice. For seeing the most exquisite touch resides there, they ought to be free from all excess of con­trariety; for otherwise being corrupted by too much heat or cold, moisture, or driness, they could give no certain judgment of the tangible qualities. For which thing Nature hath excellent­ly provided in the fabrick and coagmentation of the parts, of which the skin consists. For it is composed of hot and moist flesh, and therefore soft, and of a tendon and nerve cold and dry, and therefore hard; which are not only equally fitted and conjoyned, but wholly confused and mixed together, by which it comes, that removed from all extreames of opposition, it is placed in the midst, as a rule to judg of all the excesses that happen to the touch. So it was fit, the eye, which was to be the instrument of sight, should be tinctured with no certain colour, that it might be the less deceived in the judgment of colours. So it was convenient the Hearing should not be troubled with any distinct sound, whereby it might more certainly judg of equal and unequal sounds, not distinguished by a ratable proportion; neither was it fit the tongue should have any certain taste, lest the access of that taste should deceive it in knowing and judging of so many different tastes.A Tempera­ment ad justi­tiam. The temperature tempered to justice, is that, which although it is a little absent from the exact and severe parility of mixed qualities, yet hath that equality which doth fully and abundantly suffice for to perform all the functions fitly and perfectly, which nature doth require; wherefore we can judg no otherwise of it than by the integrity of the Actions. For hence it took its name; for as distributive Justice equally gives to every one rewards, or punish­ment according to their deserts; so Nature, having regard to all the parts of the body, gives them all that temper which may suffice to perform those duties, for which they are ordained. Let us for an example consider a Bone; no man doubts, but that, like as the other similar parts of the body,The Tempera­ment of a bone. proceeds from the mixture of the four Elements: but nevertheless nature weigh­ing the use of it, and ordaining it to support the rest of the body, would have more of the ter­rene and dry Element infused into it, that it might be the stronger and firmer to sustein weight. But a Ligament, seeing it was made for other uses, hath less of that earthly driness than the bone, but more than the flesh, altogether fitted to its nature. So it hath seemed good to nature to endue all the parts of the body; not only with an equal portion, but also proportion of Ele­ments and qualities; we call that a Temperament to justice: and we say, that it is in Plants, brute Beasts, and all natural bodies, which enjoy that temper and mediocrity, which may be agreeable to their nature. Hereupon by comparison arise eight kinds of intemperate tempers: As

  • [Page 5]Four simple
    • Hot temperate in Driness and Moisture.
      The kindes of untemperate tempers.
    • Cold temperate in Driness and Moisture.
    • Moist temperate in Heat and Cold.
    • Dry temperate in Heat and Cold.
  • Four compounds
    • Hot and Moist
    • Hot and Dry
    • Cold and Moist
    • Cold and Dry.

But these Temperaments are either of the whole Body, or of some part thereof;

And that either

  • Principal, as
    • the Brain
    • the Heart
    • the Liver
    • the Stones. Or
  • Of the rest of the parts composed of other which have no prin­cipality in the body.

Again, such Temperaments are either healthful, which suffice perfectly to perform their acti­ons; or unhealthful, which manifestly hurt them, the signes whereof may be read described by Galen. And you must observe that when we say the body, or any part of it, is hot;Lib 2. de Tem­per. &, in Arte medica. we understand more hot than is fit for one of that kind which is tempered to justice; as when we say a man hath a hot liver, we mean his liver is hotter, than a man justly tempered should have; for all other tempers, whether of the whole body, or any of the parts thereof, are to be referred to this; and in the cure of diseases we must look upon it, as the mark, and labour to preserve it by the use of convenient things, as much as lies in our power. Wherefore, because it is very necessary to know the distinction of Temperaments, I have thought good in this place, briefly to handle the Tem­peraments of the parts of the Body, Ages, Seasons of the year, Humors, and Medicines. Therefore the temperaments of the parts of our body are of this nature, not only by the judgment of the touch of a mans hand, which is justly tempered, (who is often deceived by flowing heat, which,What the tem­peraments of mans body are. spread from the heart into all the body, imparts a certain kind of heat, to all the parts) but also by the rule of their reason, composure, and substance, as

  • A Bone is the most dry and cold.
  • A Grisle less than it.
  • A Ligament less then a Grisle.

A Tendon is so much dryer and colder than the membrane, by how much it, in the same temper, exceeds a Vein and Artery. Then follow the harder Veins: for the softer are in a middle temper of dryness and moisture, like as the Skin; although all, both soft and hard are of a cold temper. Wherefore all these parts of their own nature are cold and without blood: although the Veins and Arteries wax hot, by reason of the heat of the blood they con­tain, which notwithstanding also borroweth that heat from the heart, as a part most hot, and softer than the skin; the Liver next followeth the heart, in the order of the hotter parts, which is farre softer than the skin it self: for if, according to Galens opinion,Ad finem, lib. de Temper. the heart is somewhat less hard then the skin, and that is far harder than the liver, as appears by touching them, it must necessarily follow that the liver much exceeds the skin in softness; I understand the skin, simple and separated from the flesh lying under it, to which it firmly cleaves. The flesh is more moist and hot than the skin, by reason of the blood dispersed in it. The spinal marrow is colder and moister than the skin; but the brain so much exceeds it in moisture, as it is exceeded by the fat. The lungs are not so moist as the fat; and the spleen, and kidneys are of the like nature, and ne­vertheless they are all moisture than the skin.

According to the diversities of ages, the temperaments both of the whole body,The tempera­ments of ages. and all its parts, undergo great mutations; for the bones are far harder in old men than in children, be­cause, our life is, as it were, a certain progress to dryness; which when it comes to the height, consequently causeth death.What an age is. Wherefore in this place we must speak of the Temperaments of Ages, when first we shall have defined what an Age is. Therefore an Age is defined, A space of life in which the constitution of the body of its self and own accord, undergoeth manifest chan­ges. The whole course of life hath four such Ages. The first is Childhood, which extends from the birth to the eighteenth year of age, and hath a hot and moist temper, because it is next to the hot and moist beginnings of life, seed, and blood. Youth followeth this, which is prolonged from the eighteenth to the twenty fifth year, and is temperate, and in the midst of all excesses. Mans estate succeedeth Youth, which they deny to extend beyond the thirty fifth year of age; in its proper temper it is hot and dry; whereby it commeth to pass that then the heat is felt more acide and biting, which in childhood seemed milde; because the progress of the life to dryness,Old-age divi­ded into two parts. hath much wasted the native humidity.

Then succeeds Old-age, ever divided into two parts; the first whereof extends from the thir­ty fifth, to the forty ninth year; those of this age are called Old-men, (but we commonly call them midd [...]e ag'd men.) The latter is, as it were, divided by Galen into threeThree de­grees of the second part of Old-age. degrees; the first where­of are those, who having their strength sound and firm, undergo civill affairs and businesses: [Page 6] which things those which are in the second degree of Old-age cannot do, because of the debi­lity of their now decaying strength: but those which are in the last degree, are afflicted with most extream weakness and misery, and are as much deprived of their senses and understanding, as of the strength of their bodies; whereof arose this Proverb, Old men, twice Children. Those Old men of the first rank are pleasant and curteous: and those we say, are beginning to grow Old, or in their green Old-age; those of the second sort delight in nothing but the boord and bed; but old decrepit men of the last order, think of nothing else, than their graves and monu­ments.Old men have their solid parts dry. Their firm and solid parts are of a cold and dry temperature, by reason of the decay of the radical moisture, which the inbred heat causeth in the continuance of so many years. Which thing may happen in a short space, by the vehement flame of the same natural heat, turned by fevers into a fiery heat. But if any to prove Old men moist, will object, That they cough oft, and spit much, I will answer him, as an old Doctor once said; That a pitcher filled with water, may pour forth much moisture; yet no man will deny but that such a vessel of its own terrene nature and matter is most dry; so old men may plainly be affirmed to be moist, by reason of their defect of heat, and abundance of excrements. But this description of ages is not to be taken so strictly as alwayes to be measured by the spaces and distances of years; for there are many which by their own misdemeanour seem elder at forty, than others do at fifty.

A comparison of the four ages to the four sea­sons of the yearLastly, the famous Philosopher Pythagoras divided mans life into four ages, and by a certain proportion compared the whole course thereof to the four seasons of the year; as Childhood to the Spring, in which all things grow and sprout out, by reason of plenty and abundance of moi­sture. And Youth to the Summer, because of the vigor and strength which men enjoy at that age. And mans estate, or constant age, to Autumn; for that then after all the dangers of the fore-pas­sed life, the gifts of discretion and wit acquire a seasonableness or ripeness, like as the fruits of the earth enjoy at that season. And lastly, he compares Old-age to the sterile and fruitless Win­ter, which can ease and consolate its tediousness by no other means, than the use of fruits ga­thered and stored up before, which then are of a cold and troublesome condition. But for ex­treme Old-age, which extends to eighty or a hundred years, it is so cold and dry, that those which arrive at that decrepit age are troublesome, harsh, touchy, froward, crabby, and often complaining, untill at the length, deprived of all their senses, tongue, feet, and understanding, they doting return again to childishness, as from the staff to the start. And thus much of the Tem­peraments of ages.

The tempers of the seasons of the year.But now in like manner we will explain the Temperatures of the seasons of the year, which are four; the Spring, Summer, Autumn, Winter. The Spring continues almost from the twelfth or thirteenth day of March to the midst of May; Hippocrates seemeth to make it hot and moist; which opinion seemeth not to have sprung from the thing it self, but from an inveterate error of the ancient Philosophers, who would fit the Temperaments of the four seasons of the year, as an­swering in proportion to the temperatures of the four ages.How the spring is temperate. For if the matter come to a just try­al, all men will say, the Spring is temperate, as that which is in the midst of the excess of heat, cold, moisture, and dryness: not only by comparison, because it is hotter than Winter, and colder than Summer; but because it hath that quality of its own proper nature. Wherefore it is said of Hippocrates, Apho [...]. 9 [...]ct 3 The Spring is most wholesome, and least deadly; if so be that it keep its na­tive temper, from which if it decline, or succeed a former untemperate season, as Autumn or Winter,Aphor. 20. sect. 3. it will give occasion to many diseases described by Hippocrates; not that it breeds them but because it brings them to sight, which before lay hid in the body. Summer is comprehended in the space almost four months; it is of a hot and dry temper, a breeder of such diseases as pro­ceed from choler, because that humour at this time is heaped up in many bodies by adustion of blood bred in the Spring; but all such diseases do speedily run their course. The beginning of Autumn,Autumn une­qual. is from the time the Sun enters into Libra, and endures the like space of time as the Spring. But when it is dry, it hath great inequality of heat and cold, for the morning, and eve­nings being very cold, the noondays on the contrary are exceeding hot. Wherefore many disea­ses are in Autumn, and them long and deadly, especially if they incline towards Winter; because all daily and soddain changes to heat and cold are dangerous. The Winter possesses the remnant of the year, and is cold and moist, it increases natural heat, stirs up the appetite, and augments Phlegm.How Winter encreases the native heat. It encreases heat by Antiperistasis, or contrariety of the encompassing air, which being then cold, prohibits the breathing out of heat: whereby it happens that the heat being driven in and hindered from dissipation, is strengthened by co-uniting its forces. But it augments Phlegm, for that men are more greedy, the Appetite being encreased by the strengthened heat: from whence proceeds much crudity, and a large store of diseases, especially Chronick or Long, which spread and encrease rather in this Winter-season than in any other part of the year. To this discourse of the temper of the seasons of the years, is to be revoked the variety of tempers which happens every day; which certainly is not to be neglected, that there may be place of ele­ction,Aphor 4. sect 3. especially if nothing urge. For hither belongs that saying of Hippocrates; When in the same day it is one while hot, another cold, Autumnal diseases are to be expected. Therefore an Indication taken from hence is of great consequence to the judgment of diseases; for if it agree with the disease, the disease is made more contumacious, and difficult to cure. Whereupon the Patient and Physitian will have much trouble; but if on the contrary it reclaim and dissent, the health of the Patient is sooner to be expected. Neither is it a thing of less consequence to know the customs and habits of the Places and Countreys in which we live; as also the inclination of [Page 7] the Heavens, and temperature of the Air. But let us leave these things to be considered by Na­tural Philosophers, that we may deliver our judgment of the temperaments of Humors. Blood,The tempera­ments of Hu­mors. as that which answers to the Air in proportion, is of a hot and moist nature, or rather temperate, as Galen testifies; for, saith he, it is certain and sure, that the Blood is neither hot nor moist, but temperate, as in its first composure none of the four first Qualities exceeds other by any mani­fest excess, as he repeats it upon the 39th Sentence. Phlegm, as that which is of a waterish nature,Lib. de natura humana, ad Sent. 36. sect. 1. is cold and moist; no otherwise than Choler being of a fiery temper, is hot and dry. But Me­lancholy assimilated to earth, is cold and dry.The tempera­ture of the Blood. This which we have spoken in general of Phlegm and Melancholy, is not alwayes true in every kind of the said Humors. For salt Phlegm is of a hot and dry temperature; as also all kinds of Melancholy which have arose or sprung by adusti­on from the native and alimentary, as we will teach in the following Chapter.Fpom whence we judg of the temperature of Medicines. Now the tempe­raments of Medicines have not the same form of judgment, as those things which we have before spoken of; as, not from the Elementary quality, which conquering in the contention and mix­ture, obtains the dominion; but plainly from the effects, which taken or applyed, they imprint in a temperate body. For so we pronounce those things, hot, cold, moist, or dry, which produce the ef­fects of Heat, Coldness, Moisture, or Dryness. But we will defer the larger explication of these things to that place, where we have peculiarly appointed to treat of Medicines; where we will not simply enquire whether they be hot or cold, but what degree of heat and cold, or the like other quality: In which same place we will touch the temperature and all the nature of Tastes, because the certainest judgment of Medicines is drawn from their tastes. Hitherto of Temperaments; now we must speak of Humors, whose use in Physical speculation is no less than that of Temperaments.

CHAP. VI. Of Humors.

TO know the nature of Humors, is a thing not only necessary for Physitians,The knowledg of the Humor is necessary. but also for Chi­rurgeons, because there is no disease with matter which ariseth not from some one, or the mixture of more Humors. Which thing Hippocrates understanding, writ, every Creature to be either sick or well according to the condition of the Humors in the body.Lib. De Natura Humana. And certainly all putrid fea­vers proceed from the putrefaction of Humors. Neither do any acknowledg any other original or distinction of the differences of Abscesses or Tumors: neither do ulcerated, broken, or other­wise wounded members hope for the restauration of continuity, from other than from the sweet falling down of Humors to the wounded part. Which is the cause that often in the cure of these affects, the Physitians are necessarily busied in tempering the blood, that is, bringing to a medio­crity the four Humors composing the mass of blood, if they at any time offend in quantity, or qua­lity. For whether if any thing abound or digress from the wonted temper in any excess of heat, cold, viscosity, grosness, thinness, or any such like quality, none of the accustomed functions will be well performed.The helps of Health. For which cause those chief helps to preserve and restore health have been di­vinely invented; Phlebotomie, or blood-letting, which amends the quantity of too much bloud; and Purging, which corrects and draws away the vicious quality. But now let us begin to speak of the Humors, taking our beginning from the Definition.

An Humor is called (by Physitians) what thing soeuer is liquid and flowing in the body of li­ving Creatures endued with Blood: and that is either natural, or against nature.What an Hu­mor is. The natural is so called because it is fit to defend, preserve, and sustain the life of a Creature.The manifold division of Hu­mors. Quite different is the nature and reason of that which is against nature. Again, the former is either Alimentary or Excrementitious: The Alimentary which is fit to nourish the body, is that Humor which is con­tained in the veins and arteries of a man which is temperate and perfectly well; and which is un­derstood by the general name of blood, which is let out at the opening of a vein. For Blood other­wise taken, is an Humor of a certain kind, distinguished by heat and warmness from the other Hu­mors comprehended together with it, in the whole mass of the blood. Which thing, that it may the better be understood, I have thought good in this place to declare the generation of Blood by the efficient and material causes. All things which we eat or drink, are the materials of Blood;The material and efficient causes of blood. which things drawn into the bottom of the Ventricle by its attractive force, and there detained, are turned by the force of concoction implanted in it, into a substance like to Almond-butter. Which thing, although it appear one and like it self, yet it consists of parts of a different nature, which not only the variety of meats, but one and the same meats yields of it self. We term this Chylus, What the Chy­lus is. (when it is perfectly concocted in the stomach.) But theVena porta. Gate-vein receives it driven from thence into the small Guts, and sucked in by the Meseraick-veins, and now having gotten a little rudiment of change in the way, carries it to the Liver, where by the Blood-making faculty, which is proper and natural to this part, it acquires the absolute and perfect form of Blood. But with that Blood,Where the Blood is per­fected. at one and the same time and action all the Humors are made, whether alimentary or excremen­titious. Therefore the Blood, that it may perform its Office, that is, the faculty of nutrition, must necessarily be purged and cleansed from the two excrementitious Humors: of which the blad­der of Gall draws one, which we call yellow Choler; and the Spleen the other, which we term Melancholy. These two Humors are natural but not alimentary or nourishing, but of another use in the body, as afterwards we will shew more at large. The Blood freed from these two kinds of Excrements, is sent by the veins and arteries into all parts of the body for their nourishment. [Page 8] Which although then it seem to be of one simple nature,The receptacles of Choler and Melancholy. Four unlike Humors in the Blood. yet notwithstanding it is truly such, that four different and unlike substances may be observed in it, as, Blood, properly so named; Phlegm, Choler, and Melancholy, not only distinct in colour, but also in taste, effects, and qualities. For, as Galen notes in his Book de Natura humana, Melancholy is acide or sour, Choler bitter, Blood sweet, Phlegm unsavoury. But you may know the variety of their effects, both by the different temper of the nourished parts, as also by the various condition of the diseases springing from thence. For therefore such substances ought to be tempered and mixed amongst themselves in a certain proportion; which remaining, health remains; but violated, diseases follow. For all ac­knowledg,A comparison of Blood and new Wine. that an Oedema is caused by Phlegmatick; a Scirrhus, by Melancholick; an Erysipelas, by Cholerick; and a Phlegmone, by pure and laudable blood. Galen teaches by a familiar example of new wine presently taken from the Press, that these four substances are contained in that one mass and mixture of the blood. In which every one observes four distinct Essences; for the flower of the wine working up, swims at the top, the dregs fall down to the bottom, but the crude and watery moisture, mixed together with the sweet and vinous liquor, is every where diffused through the body of the wine: the flower of the wine, represents Choler, which bubbling up on the superficies of blood, as it concretes and grows cold, shineth with a golden colour; the dregs, Melancholy, which by reason of its heaviness ever sinketh downward, as it were, the mud of the blood; the crude and watery portion, Phlegm: for as that crude humor, except it be rebellious in quantity,Phlegm is Blood half concocted. or stubborn by its quality, there is hope it may be changed into Wine, by the natural heat of the Wine; so Phlegm, which is blood half concocted, may by the force of native heat be changed into good and laudable blood. Which is the cause that nature decreed or ordained no peculiar place,Why it hath no proper re­ceptacle. as to the other two humors, whereby it might be severed from the blood: But the true and perfect liquor of the wine represents the pure blood, which is the more laudable and per­fect portion of both humors of the confused mass. It may easily appear by the following Scheme, of what kind they all are, and also what the distinction of these four Humors may be.

 NATURE.CONSISTENCE.COLOUR.TASTE.USE.
Blood isOf Nature airy, hot and moist, or rather tem­perate.Of indifferent con­sistence, neither too thick nor too thin.Of Colour, red rosie or crim­son.Of Taste sweet.Of such use, that it chiefly serves for the nourishment of the fleshy parts, and carryed by the vessels im­parts heat to the whole body.
Phlegm isOf Nature wa­tery, cold and moist.Of Consistence, liquid.Of Colour, white.Of Taste, sweet, or rather un­savory; for we com­mend that water which is unsavory.Fit to nourish the brain, and all the other cold and moist parts, to temper the heat of the blood, and by its slipperiness to help the mo­tion of the joynts.
Choler isOf Nature fiery, hot and dry.Of Consistence, thin.Of Colour yel­low or pale.Of Taste, bitter.It provoketh the expulsive faculty of the guts, atte­nuates the Phlegm clea­ving to them, but the Alimentary is fit to nou­rish the parts of like tem­per with it.
Melan­choly isOf Nature earthly, cold, and dry.Of Consistence, gross and muddy.Of Colour, blackish.Of Taste, acide, sour or biting.Stirs up the Appetite, nou­rishes the Spleen, and all the parts of like temper to it, as the bones.

Blood hath its nearest matter from the better portion of the Chylus: and being begun to be la­boured in the veins, at length gets form and perfection in the Liver; but it hath its remote matter from meats of good digestion and quality, seasonably eaten after moderate exercise; but for that, one age is better than another, and one time of the year more convenient than another. For blood is made more copiously in the Spring, because that season of the year comes nearest to the temper of the bloud, by reason of which the blood is rather to be thought temperate, than hot or moist; for that Galen makes the Spring temperate, and besides, at that time blood-letting is performed with the best success:Lib. 1. de temp. Youth is an age very fit for the generation of blood; or, by Galens opinion, ra­ther that part of life that continues from the 25, to the 35 year of our age. Those in whom this Humor hath the dominion, are beautified with a fresh and rosie colour, gentle, and wel-natured, pleasant, merry, and facetious. The generation of Phlegm is not by the imbecillity of heat, as some of the Ancients thought; who were perswaded that Choler was caused by a raging, Blood by a moderate, and Phlegm and Melancholy by a remiss heat. But that opinion is full of manifest [Page 9] error: for if it be true, that the Chylus is laboured and made into blood in the same part,One and the same Heat is the efficient cause of all humors at the same time. and by the same fire, that is, the Liver; from whence in the same moment of time should proceed that strong and weak heat, seeing the whole mass of the blood, different in its four essential parts, is perfected and made at the same time, and by the same equal temper of the same part, action, and blood-making faculty; therefore from whence have we this variety of Humors? From hence; for that those meats by which we are nourished, enjoy the like condition that our bodies do, from the four Elements, and the four first Qualities: for it is certain, and we may often observe, In what kind soever they be united or joyned together, they retain a certain hot portion imitating the fire; another cold, the water; another dry, the earth; and lastly, another moist like to the air. Neither can you name any kind of nourishment; how cold soever it be, not Lettuce it self, in which there is not some fiery force of heat. Therefore it is no marvail, if one and the same heat working upon the same matter of Chylus, varying with so great dissimilitude of substances; do by its power produce so unlike humors, as from the hot, Choler; from the cold, Phlegm; and of the others, such as their affinity of temper will permit.

There is no cause that any one should think that variety of humors to be caused in us,The heat of the Sun alone doth melt was and harden clay. rather by the diversity of the active heat, than wax and a flint placed at the same time, and in the same situ­ation of climat and soil, this to melt by the heat of the Sun, and that scarse to wax warm. There­fore that diversity of effects is not to be attributed to the force of the efficient cause, that is, of Heat, which is one, and of one kind in all of us; but rather to the material cause, seeing it is com­posed of the conflux, or meeting together of various substances, gives the heat leave to work, as it were out of its store, which may make and produce from the hotter part thereof Choler; and of the colder and more rebellious, Phlegm. Yet I will not deny, but that more Phlegm, or Choler may be bred in one and the same body, according to the quicker; or slower provocation of the heat; yet nevertheless it is not consequent, that the Original of Choler should be from a more acide, and of Phlegm from a more dull heat in the same man. Every one of us naturally have a simple heat, and of one kind, which is the worker of divers operations, not of it self, seeing it is always the same, and like it self, but by the different fitness, pliableness, or resistance of the mat­ter on which it works. Wherefore Phlegm is generated in the same moment of time,The divers condition of the matter a­lone, is the cause of va­riety. in the fire of the same part, by the efficiency of the same heat, with the rest of the blood, of the more cold, liquid, crude, and watery portion of the Chylus. Whereby it comes to pass, that it shews an express figure of a certain rude or unperfect blood, for which occasion nature hath made it no peculiar receptacle, but would have it to run friendly with the blood in the same passages of the veins, that any necessity hapning by famin, or indigency, and in defect of better nourishment, it may by a perfecter elaboration quickly assume the form of blood: Cold and rude nourishment make this humor to abound principally in Winter, and in those which incline to old-age, by rea­son of the similitude which Phlegm hath with that season and age. It makes a man drowsie, dul, fat,The effect of Phlegm. swollen up, and hastneth gray-hairs. Choler is as it were, a certain heat and fury of humors, which generated in the Liver, together with the blood, is caryed by the veins and arteries through the whole body. That of it which abounds, is sent, partly into the guts, and partly into the bladder of the gall, or is consumed by transpiration, or sweats; It is somewhat probable that the arterial blood is made more thin, hot, quick, and pallid, than the blood of the Veins, by the commixture of this Alimentary Choler. This Humor is chiefly bred and expel'd in youth, and acid and bit­ter meats give matter to it: but great labours of body and mind give the occasion. It maketh a man nimble, quick, ready for all performance, lean, and quick to anger, and also to concoct meats.The effects of Choler. The melancholick humor, or Melancholy, being the grosser portion of the blood, is partly sent from the Liver to the Spleen to nourish it, and partly carryed by the vessels into the rest of the body, and spent in the nourishment of the parts endued with an earthly dryness; it is made of meats of gross juyce, and by the perturbations of the mind, turned to fear and sadness.The effects of Melancholy. It is aug­mented in Autumn, and in the first and crude Old-age; it makes men sad, harsh, constant, froward, envious and fearful. All men ought to think, that such Humors are wont to move at set hours of the day, as by a certain peculiar motion or tide, Therefore the blood flows from the ninth hour of the night, to the third hour of the day; then Choler to the ninth of the day;What motions are in each quarter of the body. then Melancho­ly to the third of the night; the rest of the night that remains, is under the dominion of Phlegm. Manifest examples hereof appears in the French-Pox. From the elaborate and absolute mass of the blood, (as we said before) two kind of Humors, as excrements of the second concoction, are commonly and naturally separated, the one more gross, the other more thin. This is called either absolutely Choler, or with an adjunct, yellow Choler. That is called Melancholy, which drawn by the Spleen in a thinner portion, and elaborate by the heat of the Arteries, which in that part are both many and large, becomes nourishment to the part; the remnant thereof is carryed by the veiny Vessel into the orifice of the ventricle, whereby it may not cause but whet the appetite, and by its astriction strengthen the actions thereof. But yellow Choler drawn into the bladder of the gall, remains there so long, till being troublesome; either in quantity or quality,The Melan­choly Humor doth not cause, but whet the appetite. it is ex­cluded into the guts, whereby it may cast forth the excrements residing in them; the expulsive faculty being provoked by its acrimony, and by its bitterness kills the worms that are bred there. This same Humor is accustomed to die the urine of a yellow colour. There is another serous Hu­mor, which is not fit to nourish but profitable for many other things, which is not an excrement of the second, but of the first concoction. Therefore, nature would that mixed with the Chylus, A serous or wheyish hu­mor. it should come to the Liver, and not be voided with the excrements, whereby it might allay the [Page 10] grosness of the blood, and serve it for a vehicle; for otherwise the blood could scarse pass through the capillary veins of the Liver, and passing the simous and gibbous parts thereof, come to the hollow vein. Part of this serous humour, separated together with the blood which serves for the nourishment of the Reins, and straight carried into the bladder, is turned into that urine which we daily make; the other part thereof, carried through all the body together with the blood, performing the like duty of transportation, is excluded by sweats into which it degenerates. Besides the forenamed, the Arabians have mentioned four other humors, which they term Ali­mentary and secondary,Secundary Humors. as being the next matter of nourishment, as those four the blood con­tains, the remote. They have given no name to the first kind, but imagin it to be that humour, which hangs ready to fall like to little drops in the utmost orifices of the veins. They call the second kind, [...]os. Dew; being that humour, which, entred already into the substance of the part, doth moisten it. The third they call by a barbarous name, Cambium, which, already put to the part to be nourished, is there fastned. The fourth named Gluten, or Glew, is only the proper and substance-making humidity of the similar parts, not their substance. The distinction of the degrees of nutrition recited by Galen in his books of Natural faculties, answer in proportion to this distinction of humours. The first is, that the blood flow to the part that requires nou­rishment; then that being there arrived, it may be agglutinated; then lastly, that having lost its former form of nourishment, it may be assimilated.

Humors a­gainst nature.Those humours are against nature, which being corrupted, infect the body and the parts in which they are contained by the contagion of their corruption, retaining the names and titles of the humours, from whose perfection and nature they have revolted, they all grow hot by pu­trefaction, although they were formerly by their own nature cold. And they are corrupted, either in the veins only, or within and without the veins; In the veins Blood and Melancholy; but,Into what Hu­mors the blood when it cor­rupts, doth degenerate. both without and within the veins, Choler and Phlegm. When blood is corrupted in its thin­ner portion, it turns into Choler, when in its thicker, into Melancholy; for the Blood becomes faulty two manner of wayes, either by the corruption of its proper substance by putrefaction, or by admixtion of another substance by infection. The Melancholy humor which is corrupted in the veins,The Melan­choly Humor corrupted, is of three kinds. is of three sorts: The first is of a Melancholy juice putrefying, and by the force of a strange heat, turned, as it were, into ashes, by which it becomes adust, acid and biting. The other ariseth from that Choler which resembles the yolks of eggs, which by adustion becomes leek-coloured, then aeruginous, or of a blewish green, then red, and lastly black, which is the very worst kind of Melancholy, hot, malign, eating, and exulcerating, and which is never seen or voided with safety. The third comes from Phlegm putrefying in the veins, which first dege­nerates into salt Phlegm, but straight by the strength of extraneous heat degenerates into Me­lancholy.

Phlegm not naturall is bred, either

  • In the Veins, and is either
    • Acide and very crude, as which hath had none or very little impression of heat, but that which it first had in the stomach.
    • Salt, which is bred by the sweet, putrefying and adust, or mixture of adust and salt particles.
  • Or without the Veins, & is of four sorts; either
    • Waterish, as is that thin moisture which distils from the the brain by the nostrils.
    • Mucous, as when that waterish is thickned into filth by the help of some accidental or small heat.
    • Glassie, or
      Albumine [...].
      Albuminous, resembling molten glass, or rather the white of an egg, and is most cold.
    • Gypsea, or Plaister-like, which is concrete into the hardness and form of chalk, as you may see in the joints of the fingers in a knotty gout, or in inveterate distilla­tions upon the Lungs.

Choler not naturall is bred; either

  • In the Veins, as the
    Vitellin [...].
    Vitelline (like in consistence to the yolk of a raw egg) which the acrimony of strange heat breeds of yellow Choler, which same, in diseases altogether deadly, degenerates into green, aeruginous, & lastly into a blue, or colour like that which is dried by woad.
  • Or in the ca­pacity of the upper belly, as the ven­tricle, and this is of five kinds:
    • The first is called Porracea, or leek-coloured, resem­bling the juice of a leek in greenness.
    • The second aeruginosa, or aeruginous, like in colour to verdigrease.
    • The third blewish, or woad-coloured, like the colour died by woad.
    • The fourth red, differing in this from blood, whose colour it imitates, that it never commeth into knots, or clods like blood.
    • The fifth very red, generated by the excess of the for­mer, which causeth burning feavers.

The Kinds of such Choler, are often cast forth by vomit in diseases, the strength of the disease being past; being troublesome to the parts through which they are evacuated, by their bitter­ness, acrimony, and biting.

The signes of a Sanguine Person.

I Think it manifest, because the matter and generation of flesh is principally from blood, that a man of a fleshy, dense, and solid habit of body, and full of a sweet and vaporous juice, is of a Sanguine complexion. And the same party hath a flourishing and rosie colour in his face, tem­pered with an equal mixture of white and red; of white, by reason of the skin lying utmost;Such as the humor is, such is the colour. of red, because of the blood spread underneath the skin: for always such as the humor is, such is the colour in the face. In manners, he is curious, gentle, easie to be spoken to, not altogether estranged from the love of women, of a lovely countenance and smooth forehead, seldom angry,The manners and diseases of Sanguine per­sons. but taking all things in good part; for as the inclination of humors is, so also is the disposition of manners. But blood is thought the mildest of all humors; but the strong heat of the inward parts maketh him to eat and drink freely. Their dreams are pleasant, they are troubled with di­seases arising from blood, as frequent Phlegmons, and many sanguine pustles breaking through the skin, much bleeding, and menstruous fluxes. Wherefore they can well endure blod-letting, and delight in the moderate use of cold and dry things; and lastly, are offended by hot and moist things. They have a great and strong Pulse, and much urine in quantity, but milde of quality, of an indifferent colour and substance.

The signes of a Cholerick Person.

CHolerick men are of a pale or yellowish colour, of a lean, slender and rough habit of body,Cholerick are not commonly fat. with fair veins and large Arteries, and a strong and quick pulse: their skin being touched, feels hot, dry, hard, rough and harsh, with a pricking and acid exhalation which breaths forth of their whole body. They cast forth much choler by stool, vomit, and urine.The manners and diseases of Cholerick per­sons. They are of a quick and nimble wit, stout, hardy and sharp vindicators of received injuries, liberal even to pro­digality, and somewhat too desirous of glory. Their sleep is light, and from which they are quickly waked: their dreams are fiery, burning, quick, and full of fury; they are delighted with meats and drinks which are somewhat more cold and moist, and are subject to Tertian and burning feavers, the Phrensie, Jaundise, Inflammations, and other Cholerick pustles, the Lask, Bloody flux, and bitterness of the mouth.

The signes of a Phlegmatick Person.

THose in whom Phlegm hath the dominion, are of a whitish coloured face,The manners and diseases of phlegmatick persons. and somtimes li­vid and swollen, with their body fat, soft, and cold to touch.

They are molested with Phlegmatick diseases, as Oedematous tumours, the Dropsie, Quoti­dian feavers, falling away of the hairs, and Catarrhs falling down upon the Lungs, and the Aspe­ra Arteria, or Weason: they are of a slow capacity, dull, slothful, drowsie; they do dream of rains, snows, floods, swimming, and such like, that they often imagine themselves overwhelmed with waters; they vomit up much watery and Phlegmatick matter, or otherwise spit and evacu­ate it, and have a soft and moist tongue.

And they are troubled with a dog-like hunger, if at any time it should happen that their insi­pid Phlegm become acide; and they are slow of digestion, by reason of which they have great store of cold and Phlegmatick humors; which if they be carried down into the windings of the Colick-gut, they cause murmuring and noise, and sometimes the Colick.

For much wind is easily caused of such like Phlegmatick excrements wrought upon by a small and weak heat, such as Phlegmatick persons have,From whence noise or rum­bling in the belly proceeds. which by its natural lightness is diversly car­ried through the turnings of the guts, and distends and swells them up, and whiles it strives for passage out, it causeth murmurings and noises in the belly, like wind breaking through narrow passages.

Signes of a Melancholick Person.

THe face of Melancholy persons is swart, their countenance cloudy and often cruel,Diseases fami­liar to Melan­choly persons. their as­spect is sad and froward; frequent Scirrhus, or hard swellings, tumors of the Spleen, Hae­morroids, Varices (or swollen Veins) Quartain feavers, whether continual or intermitting; Quin­tain, Sextain, and Septimane feavers: and, to conclude, all such wandering feavers or agues set upon them. But when it happens, the Melancholy humour is sharpened, either by adustion, or commixture of Choler, then Tetters, the black Morphew, the Cancer simple and ulcerated, the Leprous and filthy scab, sending forth certain scaly and branlike excrescences, (being vulgar­ly called Saint Manis his evil;) and the Leprosie it self invades them; They have small veins and arteries, because coldness hath dominion over them; whose property is to straiten, as the quality of heat is to dilate. But if at any time their Veins seem big, that largeness is not by rea­son of the laudable blood contained in them, but from much windiness;From, or by what their Veins are swollen. by occasion whereof it is somewhat difficult to let them blood; not only, because that when the Vein is opened, the blood flows slowly forth, by reason of the cold slowness of the humors; but much the rather, for that the vein doth nor receive the impression of the Lancet, sliding this way and that way, by reason of the windiness contained in it, and because that the harsh driness of the upper skin, resists the edge of the instrument. Their bodies seem cold and hard to the touch, and they are troubled with terrible dreams, for they are observed to seem to see in the night Devils, Serpents, dark dens and caves, sepulchres, dead corpses, and many other such things ful of horror,Their dream [...] by reason of a black [Page 12] vapor, diversly moving and disturbing the brain, which also we see happens to those, whoHydrophob. Their man­ners. fear the water, by reason of the biting of a mad Dog. You shall find them froward, fraudulent, par­simonious, and covetous even to baseness, slow speakers, fearful, sad, complainers, careful, inge­nious, lovers of solitariness, man-haters, obstinate maintainers of opinions once conceived, slow to anger, but angred not to be pacified. But when Melancholy hath exceeded natures and its own bounds, then by reason of putrefaction and inflammation all things appear full of extreme fury and madness, so that they often cast themselves headlong down from some high place, or are otherwise guilty of their own death, with fear of which notwithstanding they are terrified.

From wh [...]nce the change of the native temper.But we must note that changes of the native temperament, do often happen in the course of a mans life, so that he which awhile agone was Sanguine, may now be Cholerick, Melancholick, or Phlegmatick; not truly, by the changing of the blood into such Humors, but by the mutation of Diet, and the course or vocation of life. For none of a Sanguine complexion but will prove Cho­lerick if he eat hot and dry meats,How one may become Cho­lerick. (as all like things are cherished and preserved by the use of their like, and contraries are destroyed by their contraries) and weary his body by violent ex­ercises, and continual labors; and if there be a suppression of Cholerick excrements, which be­fore did freely flow, either by nature or art. But whosoever feeds upon Meats generating gross blood,How Melan­cholick. as Beef, Venison, Hare, old Cheese, and all salt Meats, he without all doubt sliding from his nature, will fall into a Melancholy temper; especially, if to that manner of diet, he shall have a vocation full of cares, turmoils, miseries, strong and much study, careful thoughts and fears; & al­so if he sit much, wanting exercise, for so the inward heat, as it were, defrauded of its nourishment, faints, and grows dull, whereupon gross and drossie humors abound in the body. To this also the cold and dry condition of the place in which we live, doth conduce, and the suppression of the Melancholy humor accustomed to be evacuated by the Haemorrhoides, courses, and stools.

How Phleg­matick.But he acquires a Phlegmatick temper, whosoever useth cold and moist nourishment, much feeding, who before the former meat is gone out of the belly, shall stuff his paunch with more, who presently after meat runs into violent exercises, who inhabit cold and moist places, who lead their life at ease in all idleness; and lastly, who suffer a suppression of the Phlegmatick humor ac­customly evacuated by vomit, cough, or blowing the nose, or any other way, either by nature or art. Certainly it is very convenient to know these things, that we may discern if any at the pre­sent be Phlegmatick, Melancholick, or of any other temper; whether he be such by nature, or necessity. Having declared those things which concern the nature of Temperaments, and defer­red the description of the parts of the body to our Anatomy, we will begin to speak of the Facul­ties governing this our life, when first we shall have shewn, by a practical demonstration of ex­amples, the use and certainty of the aforesaid rules of Temperaments.

CHAP. VII. Of the Practice of the aforesaid Rules of Temperaments.

Four bounds or Regio [...] of the the world.THat we may draw the Theorick of the Temperaments into practice, it hath seemed good for avoiding of confusion which might make this our Introduction seem obscure, if we would prosecute the differences of the Tempers of all men of all Nations, to take those limits which Na­ture hath placed in the world; as South, North, East, and West, and, as it were, the Center of those bounds, that the described variety of Tempers, in colour, hab [...]t, manners, studies, actions, and form of life o [...] men that inhabit those Regions situated so far distant one from another, may be as a sure rule, by which we may certainly judg of every mans temperature in particular, as he shall appear to be nearer or further off from this or that Region.The forces of temperatures in particulars. Those which inhabit the South, as the Africans, Aethiopians, Arabians, and Egyptians, are for the most part deformed, lean, duskie coloured, and pale, with black eyes and great lips, curled hair, and a small and shrill voyce. Those which inhabit the Northern parts,The tempera­ture of the Southern peo­ple. as the Scythians, Muscovites, Polonians, and Germans, have their faces of colour white, mixed with a convenient quantity of blood, their skin soft and delicate, their hair long, hanging down and spreading abroad, and of a yellowish, or reddish colour; of stature they are commonly tall, and of a well proportioned, fat, and compact habit of body, their eyes gray,Of the Nor­thern. their voice strong, loud, and big. But those who are situated between these two for­mer, as the Italians and French, have their faces somewhat swart, are well favoured, nimble, strong, hairy, slender, well in flesh, with their eyes resembling the colour of Goats-eye, and of­ten hollow eyed, having a cleer, shrill, and pleasing voyce.

The Southern people prevail in wit, the Northern in strength.The Southern people are exceeded so much by the Northern in strength and ability of body, as they surpass them in wit and faculties of the mind. Hence is it you may read in Histories, that the Scythians, Goths and Vandals vexed Africk and Spain with infinite incursions, and most large & famous Empires have been founded from the North to South; but few or none from the South to the North. Therefore the Northern people thinking all right and law to consist in Arms, did by Duel only determine all causes and controversies arising amongst the Inhabitants, as we may gather by the ancient laws, and customs of the Lumbards, English, Burgonians, Danes, and Germans; and we may see in Saxo the Grammarian that such a law was once made by Fronto King of Den­mark. The which custom at this day is every where in force amongst the Muscovites. But the Southern people have alwayes much abhorred that fashion, and have thought it more agreeable to Beasts than Men. Wherefore we never heard of any such thing used by the Assyrians, Aegyp­tians, [Page 13] Persians or Jews. But moved by the goodness of their wit, they erected Kingdomes and Empires by the only help of Learning and hidden Sciences. For seeing by nature they are Me­lancholick, by reason of the dryness of their temperature, they willingly addict themselves to so­litariness and contemplation, being endued with a singular sharpness of wit. Wherefore the Aethiopians, Egyptians, Africans, Jews, Phoenicians, Persians, Assyrians, and Indians, The Southern people learned and religious. have invented many curious Sciences, revealed the Mysteries and secrets of Nature, digested the Mathema­tiques into order, observed the motions of the Heavens, and first brought in the worship and reli­gious sacrifices of the gods: Even so far that the Arabians who live only by stealth, and have only a Waggon for their house, do boast that they have many things diligently and accurately observed in Astrology by their Ancestors, which every day made more accurate and copious, they as by an hereditary right, commend to posterity, as it is recorded by Leo the African. The Northern famous Warri­ers, and Arti­ficers. But the Northern people, as the Germans, by reason of the aboundance of humors and blood, by which the mind is as it were opprest, apply themselves to works obvious to the senses, and which may be done by the hand. For, their minds opprest with the earthly mass of their bodies, are easily drawn from heaven and the contemplation of coelestial things, to these inferior things, as to find out Mines by digging, to buy and cast metalls, to draw and hammer out works of Iron, steel and brass. In which things they have proved so excellent, that the glory of the Invention of Guns and Printing belongs to them.

The people who inhabit the middle regions between these,The endow­ments of such as inhabit be­tween them. are neither naturally fit for the more abstruse sciences, as the Southern people are; nor for Mechanick works, as the Northern; but intermeddle with civil affairs, commerce, and Merchandizing. But are endued with such strength of body as may suffice to avoid and delude the crafts and arts of the Southern Inhabi­tants; and with such wisdom as may be sufficient to restrain the fury and violence of the Nor­thern. How true this is, any one may understand by the example of the Carthaginians and Afri­cans, who when they had held Italy for some years by their subtle counsels, crafty sleights, and devices; yet could not escape, but at the length their Arts being deluded, and they spoiled of all their fortunes, were borught in subjection to the Romans. The Goths, Hunns, and other Nor­thern people have spoiled and overrun the Roman Empire by many incursions and inroads,The Northern know how to overcome, but not how to use the victory. but destitute of counsel and providence, they could not keep those things which they had gotten by Arms and valour. Therefore the opinion of all Historians is agreeing in this, that good laws, and form of governing a Common-wealth, all politick ordinances, the Arts of disputing and speaking, have had their beginnings from the Greeks, Romans, and French. The aboun­dance of coun­sellors and Lawyers from France and I­taly. And from hence in times past and at this day a greater number of Writers, Lawyers and Counsellors of State have sprung up, than in all the whole world besides. Therefore that we may attribute their gifts to each Region, we affirm that, The Southern people are born and fit for the Studies of learning, the Northern for warres, and those which be between them both for Empire and rule. The Italian is naturally wise, the Spaniard grave and constant, the French quick and diligent; for you would say hee runs when goes, being compared to the slow and womanish pace of the Spaniard, which is the cause that Spaniards are delighted with French servants for their quick agility in dispatching business. The Eastern people are specially indued with a good, firm and well tem­pered wit, not keeping their counsels secret and hid. For haste is of the nature of the Sun,The manners of the Eastern people. and that part of the day which is next to the rising of the Sun is counted the right side and stronger; and verily in all things living, the right side is always the more strong and vigorous. But the Western people are more tender and effeminate, and more close in their carriage and mind, not easily making any one partaker of their secrets. For the West is as it were subject to the Moon, because at the change it always inclines to the West, whereby it happens, that it is reputed as nocturnal, sinister and opposite to the East; and the West is less temperate and wholesome. Therefore of the winds none is more wholesome than the East wind which blows from the West with a most fresh and healthful gale; yet it seldome blows, and but only at Sun-set.The East wind healthful.

The Northern people are good eaters, but much better drinkers,The Northern people great eaters and drinkers. witty when they are a little moistned with Wine, and talkers of things both to be spoken and concealed, not very constant in their promises and agreements, but principal keepers and preservers of shamefastness and chastity, far different from the inhabitants of the South, who are wonderful sparing, sober, secret, and subtle, and much addicted to all sorts of wicked Lust. Aristotle in his Problems saith,Who are to be counted Bar­barouss▪ The Northern and Southern have each their Cruelties. that those Nations are barbarous and cruel, both which are burnt with immoderate heat, and which are opprest with excessive cold, because a soft temper of the Heavens, softens the manners and the mind. Wherefore both, as well the Northern, as Scythians and Germans; and the Southern, as Africans are cruel; but these have this of a certain natural stoutness, and souldier-like bold­ness, and rather of anger then a wilful desire of revenge; because they cannot restrain by the power of reason the first violent motions of their anger by reason of the heat of their blood. But those of a certain inbred and inhumane pravity of manners, wilfully and willingly premeditating they perform the works of cruelty, because they are of a sad and melancholly nature. You may have an example of the Northern cruelty from the Transylvanians against their seditious Captain George, whom they gave to be torn in pieces alive and devoured by his Souldiers, (being kept fasting for three days before for that purpose) who was then unbowelled, and rosted, and so by them eaten up. The cruelty of Hannibal the Captain of the Carthaginians may suffice for an in­stance of the Southern cruelty.Valex. Max. lib. 9. cap. 2. He left the Roman Captives wearied with burdens and the length of the way, with the soles of their feet cut off; But those he brought into his tents, joy­ning [Page 14] brethren and kinsmen together he caused to fight, neither was satisfied with blood before he brought all the victors to one man. Also we may see the cruel nature of the Southern Ameri­cans, who dip their children in the blood of their slain enemies, then suck their blood, and ban­quet with their broken and squeased Limbs.

The diseases of the Southern people.And as the Inhabitants of the South are free from divers Plethorick diseases, which are caused by abundance of blood (to which the Northern people are subject) as Feavers, Defluxions, Tu­mors, Madness with laughter which causeth those which have it to leap and dance, (the people commonly term it S. Vittus his evil) which admits of no remedy but Musick: so they are often molested with the Frensie, invading with madness and fury; by the heat whereof they are often so ravished and carried beside themselves, that they foretel things to come; they are terrified with horrible dreams, and in their fits they speak in strange and forrein tongues; but they are so subject to the scurf and all kind of scabs and to the Leprosie as their homebred disease, that no houses are so frequently met withal by such as travel through either of the Mauritania's, as Ho­spitals provided for the Lodging of Leapers.Mountainers. Those who inhabit rough and Mountainous places, are more brutish, tough, and able to endure labour. but such as dwell in Plains, especially if they be moorish, or fennish, are of a tender body, and sweat much with a little labour; the truth of which is confirmed by the Hollanders and Frizlanders. But if the Plain be such as is scorched by the heat of the Sun, & blown upon by much contrariety of winds, it breeds men who are turbulent, not to be tamed, desirous of sedition and novelty, stubborn, impatient of servitude, as may be perceiv­ed by the sole example of the Inhabitants of Narbon, a Province of France. Those who dwell in poor and barren places are commonly more witty and diligent & most patient of labors; the truth of which the famous wits of the Athenians, Ligurians, and Romans, and the plain country of the Boe­otians in Greece, of the Campanians in Italy, and of the rest of the Inhabiters adjoyning to the Li­gurian Sea, approves.

CHAP. VIII. Of the Faculties.

What a faculty is.A Faculty is a certain power, and efficient cause, proceeding from the temperament of the part, and the performer of some actions, of the body. There are three principal Faculties governing man's body,3. Faculties. as long as it enjoys its integrity; the Animal, Vital, and Natural. The Ani­mal is seated in the proper temperament of the Brain, from whence it is distributed by the Nerves into all parts of the body which have sense and motion. This is of three kinds; for one is Mo­ving, another sensitive, the third principal. The sensitive consists in five external senses, sight, hearing, taste, smell and touch. The moving principally remains in the Muscles and Nerves as the fit instruments of voluntary motion. The Principal comprehends the Reasoning Faculty, the Memory, and Fantasie. Galen would have the common or inward Sense to be comprehended within the compass of the Fantasie, although Aristotle distinguish between them.

The Vital, abides in the heart, from whence heat and life is distributed by the Arteries to the whole body: this is principally hindred in the diseases of the Breast; as the Principal is, when any disease assails the Brain;The triple use of the Pulse. the prime Action of the vital faculty is Pulsation, and that continu­ed agitation of the Heart and Arteries, which is of threefold use to the body: for by the dilata­tion of the Heart and Arteries, the vital Spirit is cherished by the benefit of the Air which is drawn in; by the contraction thereof, the vapours of it are purged and sent forth, and the native heat of the whole body is tempered by them both.

The natural faculty is threefold.The last is the Natural faculty which hath chosen its principal seat in the Liver, it spreads or carries the nourishment over the whole body; but it is distinguished into three other faculties; The Generative, which serves for the generation and forming of the Issue in the womb; the Growing or Increasing faculty, which flourisheth from the time the Issue is formed, until the perfect growth of the solid parts into their full dimensions of length, heighth and bredth. The nourishing faculty, which, as servant to both the other, repairs and repays the continual efflux and waste of the threefold substance;What Nutriti­on is. for Nutrition is nothing else but a replenishing, or repair­ing whatsoever is wasted or emptied. This nourishing-faculty endures from that time the Infant is formed in the womb until the end of life. It is a matter of great consequence in Physick, to know the four other faculties,Four other faculties at­tend upon the nourishing faculty. which as servants attend upon the nourishing faculty; which are the Attractive, Retentive, Digestive, and Expulsive faculty. The Attractive draws that juyce which is fit to nourish the body; that, I say, which by application may be assimilated to the part. This is that faculty, which in such as are hungry draws down the meat scarce chewed, and the drink scarce tasted, into the gnawing and empty stomach. The Retentive faculty is that which re­tains the nourishment once attracted until it be fully laboured and perfectly concocted; And by that means it yields no small assistance to the Digestive faculty.The necessity of the retentive faculty. For the natural heat cannot per­form the office of concoction, unless the meat be embraced by the part, and make some stay there­in. For otherwise the meat, carried into the stomach, never acquires the form of Chylus, un­less it stay detained in the wrinkles thereof, as in a rough passage, until the time of Chilifica­tion. The Digestive faculty assimilates the nourishment, being attracted and detained, in­to the substance of that part whose faculty it is, by the force of the inbred heat and proper disposition or temper of the part. So the stomach plainly changes all things which are eat and drunk into Chylus, and the Liver turns the Chylus into blood. But the Bones and Nerves convert the red and liquid blood which is brought down unto them by the capillary or small veins, into a white and solid substance. Such concoction is far more laborious in a Bone and Nerve, than in the Musculous flesh. For the blood being not much different from [Page 15] its nature, by a light change and concretion, turns into flesh. But this Concoction will never sa­tisfie the desire of Nature and the parts, unless the nourishment, purged from its excrements, put away the filth and dross, which must never enter into the substance of the part.Two excre­ments of every concoction. Wherefore there do not only two sorts of excrements remain of the first and second Concoction, the one thick, the other thin, as we have said before; but also from the third Concoction which is performed in every part. The one of which we conceive only by reason, being that which vanisheth into Air by insensible transpiration. The other is known sometimes by sweats, sometimes by a thick fatty substance staining the shirt; sometimes by the generation of hairs and nails, whose matter is from fuliginous and earthly excrements of the third Concoction.The work of the expulsive faculty. Wherefore the fourth fa­culty was necessary which might yield no small help to nourishment; it is called the Expulsive, appointed to expel those superfluous excrements which by no action of heat, can obtain the form of the part. Such faculties serving for nutrition are in some parts two-fold; as some common, the benefit of which redounds to the whole body, as in the ventricle, liver, and veins; Others only attending the service of those parts in which they remain, and in some parts all these four, aswell common as proper, are abiding and residing as in those parts we now mentioned: some, with the four proper have only two common, as the Gall, Spleen, Kidnies and Bladder. Others are content only with the proper, as the Similar and Musculous parts, who if they want any of these four fa­culties, their health is decayed either by want of nourishment, and ulcer, or otherwise.By what de­grees the nou­rishment is assimilated. The like unnatural affects happen by the deficiency of just and laudable nourishment. But if it happen those faculties do rightly perform their duty, the nourishment is changed into the proper part, and is truly assimilated as by these degrees. First it must flow to the part, then be joyned to it, then agglutinated, and lastly, as we have said, assimilated. Now we must speak of the Actions which arise from the faculties.

CHAP. IX. Of the Actions.

AN Action or Function is an active motion proceeding from a faculty; for,What an Acti­on is. as the faculty de­pends on the Temperament, so the Action on the faculty, and the Act or work depends upon the Action by a certain order of consequence. But although that the words, Action, and Act or work, are often confounded; yet there is this difference between them, as that the Action sig­nifies the Motion used in the performance of any thing; but the Act or work,An action and an Act are different. the thing already done and performed: for example, Nutrition and the Generating of flesh are natural Actions; but the parts nourished, and a hollow ulcer filled with flesh are the works of that motion, or action. Wherefore the Act ariseth from the Action, as the Action ariseth from the Faculty, the integrity or perfection of the instruments concurring in both. For as, if the Faculty be either de­fective, or hurt, no Action will be well performed: so, unless the Instruments keep their native and due conformity (which is their perfect health, the operator of the Action proper to the instru­ment) none of those things, which ought to be, will be well performed. Therefore for the per­formance of blameless and perfect actions, it is fit a due conformity of the instrument concur with the faculty. But Actions are two fold; for they are either Natural, or Voluntary.Natural acti­ons. They are tearmed Natural, because they are performed not by our will, but by their own accord and a­gainst our will: As are, that continual motion of the Heart, the beating of the Arteries, the ex­pulsion of the Excrements, and such other like, which are done in us by the Law of Nature whe­ther we will, or no. These Actions flow either from the Liver and Veins, or from the Heart and Arteries. Wherefore we may comprehend them under the names of Natural and Vital Actions. For we must attribute his Action to each faculty, lest we seem to constitute an idle faculty, and no way profitable for use. The unvoluntary vital actions, are the dilatation and contraction of the Heart and Arteries, the which we comprehend under the sole name of the Pulse: by that they draw in, and by this they expel or drive forth. The unvoluntary vital actions be,

  • Generation
  • Growth and
  • Nutrition

which proceed from the

  • Generative
  • Growing, and
  • Nourishing

faculty.

Generation is nothing else then a certain producing or acquiring of matter,What Genera­tion is. and an introducing of a substantial form into that matter: this is performed by the assistance of two faculties; of the altering, which doth diversly prepare and dispose the seed and menstruous blood to put on the form of a Bone, Nerve, Spleen, flesh and such like: of the Forming faculty, which adorns with fi­gure, site, and composition, the matter ordered by so various a preparation.

Growth is an inlarging of the solid parts into all the dimensions,What Growth is. the pristine and ancient form remaing safe and sound in figure and solidity. For the perfection of every growth is judged only by the solid parts; for if the body swell into a mass of flesh, or fat, it shall not therefore be said to be grown: but then only when the solid parts do in like manner increase, especially the bones, because the growth of the whole body follows their increase, even although at the same time it wax lean and pine away.

Nutrition is a perfect assimilation of that nourishment which is digested,What Nutri­tion is. into the nature of the part which digests. It is performed by the assistance of four subsidiary or helping actions, Attra­ctive, Retentive, Digestive, and Expulsive.

Action volun­tary.The voluntary actions which we willingly perform, are so called, because we can at our plea­sure hinder, stir up, slow or quicken them. They are three in general, the sensative, moving, and principal Action. The sensitiveAnìma sen [...]t­ens. Soul comprehends all things in five senses, in Sight, Hearing, Smell, Taste, and Touch. Three things must necessarily concur to the performance of them, the Organ, the Medium or mean, and the Object. The principal Organ, or Instrument, is the Animal spirit diffused by the Nerves into each several part of the body, by which such actions are per­formed. Wherefore for the present we will use the parts themselves for their Organs. The Mean is a Body, which carries the Object to the Instrument. The Object is a certain external quality, which hath power by a fit Medium or Mean to stir up and alter the Organ. This will be more manifest by relating the particular functions of the senses by the necessary concurring of these three.

How sight is performed.Sight, is an action of the seeing faculty, which is done by the Eye, fitly composed of its coats and humors, and so consequently the Organical body of this Action. The Object is a visible qua­lity brought to the Eye. But such an Object is two-fold; for either it is absolutely visible of its self, and by its own Nature, as the Sun, the Fire, the Moon, and Stars; or desires, as it were, the help of another that it may be actually such; for so by the coming of the light colours, which were visible in power only, being brought to the Eye, they do seem and appear such as they actu­ally are. But such Objects cannot arrive at the Eye, but through a clear and illuminate Medium, as the Air, Water, Glass, and all sorts of Crystal.

How hearing.The Hearing hath for its Organ the Ear and Auditory passage, which goes to the stony-bone furnished with a Membrane investing it, an Auditory Nerve, and a certain inward spirit there contained. The Object is every sound arising from the smitten or broken Air, and the Collision of two bodies meeting together. The Medium is the encompassing Air which carries the sound to the Ear.

How smelling.Smelling (according to Galen's opinion) is performed in the Mamillary processes produced from the proper substance of the brain, and seated in the upper part of the nose: although others had rather smelling should be made in the very fore-most ventricles of the brain. This Action is weak in man, in comparison of other Creatures: the Object thereof is every smell, or fumid ex­halation breathing out of bodies. The Medium by which the Object is carried to the noses of Men,How the taste. Beasts; and Birds, is the Air; but to Fishes the Water it self. The Action, of taste, is per­formed by the tongue being tempered well and according to nature, and furnished with a Nerve spred over its upper part from the third and fourth Conjugation of the brain. The Object isSap [...]r.Taste, of whose nature and kinds we will treat more at large in our Antidotary. The Medium by the which the Object is so carried to the Organ, that it may affect it, is either external or in­ternal: The external is that spattle which doth, as it were, anoint and supple the tongue; the in­ternal is the spongy flesh of the tongue it self, which affected with the quality of the Object, doth presently so possess the nerve that is implanted in it, that the kind and quality thereof, by the force of the spirit,How touching. may be carryed into the common sense. All parts endued with a nerve, enjoy the sense of touching, which is chiefly done, when a tractable quality doth penetrate even to the true and nervous skin, which lyeth under the Cuticle, or scarf-skin; we have formerly noted, that it is most exquisite in the skin which invests the ends of the fingers. The Object is every tractable quality, whether it be of the first rank of qualities, as Heat, Cold, Moisture, Dryness; or of the second, as Roughness, Smoothness, Heaviness, Lightness, Hardness, Softness, Rarity, Density, Friability, Unctuosity, Grosness, Thinness. The Medium by whose procurement the in­strument is affected, is either the skin or the flesh interwoven with many Nerves.

Of motion.The next Action, is that Motion which by a peculiar name we call Voluntary; this is performed and accomplished by a Muscle, being the proper Instrument of voluntary Motion. Furthermore, every motion of a member possessing a Muscle, is made either by bending and contraction, or by extention: Although generally there be so many differences of voluntary motion, as there are kinds of site in place; therefore Motion is said to be made upward, downward, to the right hand, to the left, forward and backward; Hither are referred the many kinds of motions, which the in­finite variety of Muscles produce in the body.How respirati­on may be a voluntary mo­tion. Into this rank of Voluntary Actions, comes Re­spiration, or breathing, because it is done by the help of the Muscles, although it be chiefly to temper the heat of the Heart. For we can make it more quick, or slow as we please, which are the conditions of a voluntary Motion.

Lastly, that we may have somewhat in which we may safely rest and defend our selves against the many questions which are commonly moved concerning this thing, we must hold, that Respi­ration is undergone and performed by the Animal faculty, but chiefly instituted for the vital.

The third principal Acti­on.The principal Action and prime amongst the Voluntary, is absolutely divided in three, Imagi­nation, Reasoning, and Memory.

Imagination is a certain expressing, and apprehension which discerns and distinguisheth between the forms and shapes of things sensible, or which are known by the senses.

Reasoning is a certain judicial estimation of conceived or apprehended forms or figures, by a mutual collating or comparing them together.

Memory is the sure storer of all things, and as it were the Treasury which the mind often un­folds and opens, the other faculties of the mind being idle and not imployed. But because all the fore-mentioned Actions, whether they be Natural, or Animal and Voluntary, are done and per­formed by the help and assistance of the Spirits; therefore now we must speak of the Spirits.

CHAP. X. Of the Spirits.

THe Spirit is a subtile and airy substance,What a Spirit is. raised from the purer blood that it might be a ve­hicle for the faculties (by whose power the whole body is governed) to all the parts, and the prime instrument for the performance of their office. For they, being destitute of its sweet approach, do presently cease from action, and as dead do rest from their accustomed labours. From hence it is that making a variety of Spirits according to the number of the faculties, they have divided them into three; as one Animal, another Vital,Spirits three­fold. another Na­tural.

The Animal hath taken his seat in the Brain; for there it is prepared and made, that,The Animal Spirit. from thence conveyed by the Nerves, it may impart the power of sense and motion to all the rest of the members. An argument hereof is, that in the great cold of Winter, whether by the inter­cepting them in their way, or by the concretion, or, as it were, freezing of those spirits the joynts grow stiff, the hands numb, and all the other parts are dull,Why so called. destitute of their accustomed agility of motion, and quickness of sense. It is called Animal, not because it is theAnima. Life, but the chief and prime instrument thereof: wherefore it hath a more subtil and airy substance; and enjoys divers names, according to the various condition of the Sensories or seats of the senses, into which it enters; for that which causeth the sight, is named the Visive: you may see this by night, rub­bing your eys, as sparkling like fire. That which is conveyed to the Auditory passage, is called the Auditive or Hearing: That which is carried to the instruments of Touching, is termed the Tactive; and so of the rest.

This Animal spirit is made and laboured in the windings and foldings of the Veins and Arte­ries of the brain, of an exquisit subtil portion of the vital brought thither by the Carotidae Arteriae, How it is made. or sleepy Arteries; and sometimes also of the pure air, or sweet vapour drawn in by the Nose in breathing. Hence it is, that with Ligatures we stop the passage of this spirit, from the parts we intend to cut off. An Humor which obstructs or stops its passage, doth the like in Apoplexies and Palsies, whereby it happens that the members situate under that place do languish and seem dead, sometimes destitute of motion, sometimes wanting both sense and motion.

The Vital spirit is next to it in dignity and excellency,The Vital Spirit. which hath its chief mansion in the left ventricle of the Heart, from whence, through the Channels of the Arteries, it flows into the whole body, to nourish the heat which resides fixed in the substance of each part, which would perish in short time, unless it should be refreshed by heat flowing thither together with the spirit. And because it is the most subtil next to the Animal, Nature (lest it should vanish away) would have it contained in the Nervous coat of an Artery, which is five times more thick than the coat of the Veins; as Galen, out of Herophilus, hath recorded.

It is furnished with matter from the subtil exhalation of the blood,What the matter of it is. and that air which we draw in breathing. Wherefore, as it doth easily and quickly perish by immoderate dissipations of the spi­rituous substance, and great evacuations; so it is easily corrupted by the putrefaction of Humors, or breathing in of pestilent air and filthy vapours; which thing is the cause of the so suddain death of those which are infected with the Plague. This Spirit is often hindred from entring into some part, by reason of obstruction, fulness, or great inflammations; whereby it follows, that in a short space, by reason of the decay of the fixed and inbred heat, the parts do easily fall into a Gangrene, and become mortified.

The Natural spirit (if such there be any) hath its station in the Liver and Veins.There is some doubt of the Natural Spi­rit. It is more gross and dull than the other, and inferior to them in the dignity of the Action, and the excellency of the use. The use thereof is to help the concoction both of the whole body, as also of each se­veral part, and to carry blood and heat to them.

Besides those already mentioned,Fixed Spirits. there are other Spirits fixed and implanted in the similar and prime parts of the body, which also are natural, and Natives of the same place in which they are seated and placed. And because they are also of an airy and fiery nature, they are so joyned or rather united to the Native heat, that they can no more be sepatated from it than flame from heat; wherefore they with these that flow to them, are the principal instruments of the Actions which are performed in each several part;The radical Moisture. And these fixed Spirits have their nourishment and maintenance from the radical and first-bred moisture, which is of an airy and oily substance, and is, as it were, the foundation of these Spirits, and the inbred heat. Therefore without this moi­sture, no man can live a moment. But also the chief Instruments of life are these Spirits, toge­ther with the Native heat. Wherefore this radical Moisture being dissipated and wasted, (which is the seat, fodder, and nourishment of the Spirits and heat) how can they any longer subsist and remain? Therefore the consumption of the natural heat, followeth the decay of this sweet and substance-making moisture, and consequently death,Natural death. which happens by the dissipating and re­solving of natural heat.

But since then these kinds of Spirits with the natural heat, is contained in the substance of each similar part of our body, (for otherwise it could not persist) it must necessarily follow, that there be as many kinds of fixed Spirits, as of similar parts. For because each part hath its proper temper and encrease, it hath also its proper Spirit, and also its own proper fixed and implanted heat, which here hath its abode, as well as its Original. Wherefore the Spirit and heat which is [Page 18] seated in the bone, is different from that which is impact into the substance of a Nerve, Vein, or such other similar part; because the temper of these parts is different, as also the mixture of the Elements from which they first arose and sprung up. Neither is this contemplation of Spirits of small account, for in these consist all the force and efficacy of our Nature.

The use and necessity of the Spirits.These being by any chance dissipated or wasted, we languish; neither is health to be hoped for, the flour of life withering and decaying by little and little. Which thing ought to make us more diligent, to defend them against the continual efflux of the threefold substance. For if they be decayed, there is left no proper indication of curing the disease; so that we are often constrained,What the re­medy for the dissipation of the Spirits. all other care laid aside, to betake our selves to the restoring and repairing the de­cayed powers. Which is done by meats of good juyce, easie to be concocted and distributed; good Wines, and fragrant smels.

What the re­medy for op­pression of the Spirits, is.But sometimes these Spirits are not dissipated, but driven in and returned to their fountains, and so both oppress and are opprest; whereupon it happens we are often forced to dilate and spread them abroad by binding and rubbing the parts. Hitherto we have spoke of those things which are called Natural, because we naturally consist of them; it remains that we now say somewhat of their Adjuncts and Associates by familiarity of Condition.

The Adjuncts and Associates to things Natural: are,

  • Age: of which, by reason of the similitude of the Argument, we were constrained to speak, when we handled the Temperatures.
  • Sex.
  • Colour: of which we have already spoken.
  • The conformation of the Instrumental parts.
  • Time: whose force we have also considered.
  • Region.
  • Order of Diet, and condition of Life.

CHAP. XI. Of the Adjuncts of things Natural.

What sex is. SEX is no other thing than the distinction of Male and Female; in which this is most observa­ble, that for the parts of the body, and the site of these parts, there is little difference be­tween them;The nature of women. but the Female is colder than the Male. Wherefore their spermatical parts are more cold, soft, and moist; and all their natural actions less vigorous and more depraved.

Of Eunuchs.The Nature of Eunuchs is to be referred to that of women, as who may seem to have degene­rated into a womanish nature, by deficiency of heat; their smooth body, and soft and shrill voyce do very much assimilate women. Notwithstanding you must consider, that there be some Manly wo­men, which their manly voice, and chin covered with a little hairiness, do argue: and on the contra­ry, there are some womanizing, or womanish men, which therefore we term dainty and effeminate.

Of Herma­phodites.The Hermaphrodite is of a doubtful nature, and in the middle of both sexes seems to partici­pate of both Male and Female.

Colour the bewrayer of the Temperament.The Colour which is predominant in the habit and superficies of the body, and lies next under the skin, shews the Temperament of what kind soever it be; for, as Galen notes in Comment. ad Aphor. 2. sect. 1. Such a colour appears in us, as the contained Humor hath. Wherefore if a ro­sie hew colour the cheeks, it is a sign the body abounds with blood, and that it is carryed abroad by the plenty of Spirits. But if the skin be dyed with a yellow colour, it argues Choler is predo­minant; if with a whitish and pallid hue, Phlegm; with a sable and duskie, Melancholy. So the colour of the Excrements which are according to Nature, is not of the least consideration. For thus, if an Ulcer being broken send forth white matter, it argues the soundness of the part from whence it flows; but if sanious or bloody, green, blackish, or of divers colours, it shews the weakness of the solid part, which could not assimilate by concoction the colour of the excremen­titious humor. The like reason is of unnatural Tumors: For, as the colour, so the dominion of the Humor causing or accompanying the Swelling commonly is.

The perfection of the organi­cal parts, con­sists in four things.The conformity and integrity of the Organical parts is considered by their figure, greatness, number, situation, and mutual connexion. We consider the figure, when we say, almost all the external parts of the body are naturally round, not only for shew, but for necessity, that being smooth and no way cornered, they should be less obnoxious to external injuries. We speak of Greatness, when we say, some are large and thick, some lank and lean. But we consider their Number, when we observe some parts to abound, some to want, or nothing to be defective or wanting. We insinuate Site and Connexion, when we search, whether every thing be in its pro­per place, and whether they be decently fitted, and well joined together.

We have handled the varieties of the four seasons of the Year, when we treated of Tempera­ments. But the consideration of Region (because it hath the same judgment that the Air) shall be referred to that disquisition or enquiry which we intend to make of the Air, amongst the things Not-natural.

Diet.The manner of life, and order of Diet, are to be diligently observed by us, because they have great power either to alter, or preserve the Temperament. But because they are of almost infinite variety, therefore they scarce seem possible to fall into Art, which may prosecute all the diffe­rences [Page 19] of Diet and Vocations of life. Wherefore if the Calling of Life be laborious, as that of Husbandmen, Mariners, and other such trades, it strengthens and dries the parts of the body. Although those which labour much about Waters, are most commonly troubled with cold and moist diseases, although they almost kill themselves with labour.

Again, those which deal with Metals, as all sorts of Smiths, and those which cast and work brass, are more troubled with hot diseases, as Feavers. But if their Calling be such, as they sit much, and work all the day long sitting at home, as shoomakers; it makes the body tender, the flesh effeminate, and causeth great quantity of excrements. A life as well idle and negligent in body, as quiet in mind, in all riotousness and excesses of Diet, doth the same. For from hence the body is made subject to the Stone, Gravel, and Gout.

That calling of life which is performed with moderate labour, clothing, and diet,The commo­dities of an indifferent Diet. seems very fit and convenient to preserve the natural temper of the body. The ingenious Chirurgion may frame more of himself that may more particularly conduce to the examination of these things. Therefore the things natural, and those which are near or neighbouring to them being thus brief­ly declared; the Order seems to require, that we make enquiry of things Not-natural.

CHAP. XII. Of things Not-natural.

THe things which we must now treat of,Why they are called things Not-natural. have by the later Physitians been termed Not-natu­ral; because they are not of the number of those which enter into the constitution or com­posure of mans body; as the Elements, Humors, and all such things which we formerly compre­hended under the name of Natural: although they be such as are necessary to preserve and de­fend the body already made and composed. Wherefore they were called by Galen Preservers; because by the due use of them the body is preserved in health. Also, they may be called Doubtful, and Neuters; for that rightly and fitly used, they keep the body healthful, but inconsideratly, they cause diseases. Whereby it comes to pass, that they may be thought to pertain to that part of Physick which is of preserving health; not because some of these things should be absolutely and of their own nature wholsom, and others unwholsom; but only by this, that they are, or prove so by their convenient, or preposterous use. Therefore we consider the use of such like things from four conditions, Quantity, Quality, Occasion, and Manner of using: If thou shalt observe these, thou shalt attain and effect this,Galen 1. ad Glauconem. That those things which of them­selves, are, as it were, doubtful, shall bring certain and undoubted health. For these four Cir­cumstances do so far extend, that in them, as in the perfection of Art, the Rules which may be prescribed to preserve health, are contained. But Galen in another place, hath in four words comprehended these things Not-natural; as, things Taken, Applyed, Expelled, and to be Done. Things Taken, are those which are put into the body, either by the mouth, or any other way;Lib. de Sanitat. tuenda. as the air, meat and drink. Things applyed, are those which must touch the body, as the Air now mentioned, affecting the body with a diverse touch of its qualities of heat, cold, moisture, or dri­ness. Expelled, are what things soever being unprofitable are generated in the body, and require to be expelled. To be Done, are labour, rest, sleep, watching, and the like. We may more di­stinctly, and by expression of proper Names, revoke all these things to six:

Which are

  • Air.
  • Meat and Drink.
  • Labour and Rest.
  • Sleep and Watching.
  • Repletion and Inanition; or things to be expelled, or retained and kept.
  • Perturbations of the Mind.

CHAP. XIII. Of the Air.

AIR is so necessary to life, that we cannot live a moment without it; if so be that breathing,How necessary for Life the Air is. and much more transpiration, be not to be separated from life. Wherefore it much con­duceth to know, what Air is wholsom, what unwholsom, and which by contrariety of qualities fights for the Patient against the disease; or on the contrary by a similitude of qualities shall nourish the disease, that if it may seem to burden the Patient by increasing or adding to the disease, we may correct it by Art. So in curing the wounds of the head, especially in winter, we la­bour by all the means we may to make the air warm. For cold is hurtful to the Brain, Bones, and the wounds of these parts; and heat is comfortable and friendly. But also the Air being drawn into the body by breathing when it is hotter than ordinary, doth with a new warmth over-heat the heart, lungs, and spirits, and weaken the strength by the dissipation of the Spirits too much attenuated; so being too cold, in like manner the strength of the faculties faints and grows dull, either by suppression of the vapors, or by the inspissation or thickning of the Spirits.

Therefore to conclude, That Air is to be esteemed healthful, which is clear, subtil and pure,What Air is hurtful. [Page 20] free and open on every side, and which is far remote from all carion-like smels of dead carka­ses, or the stench of any putrefying thing whatsoever: the which is far distant from standing pools, and fens, and caves, sending forth strong and ill vapors; neither too cloudy nor moist by the nearness of some river.

Such an Air, I say, if it have a vernal temper, is good against all diseases. That Air which is contrary to this, is altogether unhealthful; as that which is putrid, shut up, and prest by the straitness of neighbouring Mountains, infected with some noisom vapor. And because I cannot prosecute all the conditions of Airs, fit for the expelling of all diseases, as which are almost infi­nite; it shall suffice here to have set down, what we must understand by this word Air.

Three things are understood by the name of the Air.Physitians commonly use to understand three things by the name of Air; The present state of the Air; the Region in which we live; and the season of the Year. We spoke of this last, when we treated of Temperaments. Wherefore we will now speak of the two former. The present state of the Air, one while for some small time, is like the Spring, that is temperate; otherwhiles like the Summer,Aphor. 4. sect. 2. The force of the Winds. that is, hot and dry; otherwhiles like the Winter, that is, cold and moist; and sometimes like the Autumn, which is unequal; and this last constitution of the Air is the cause of many diseases. When upon the same day, it is one while hot, another cold, we must expect Autumnal diseases. These tempers and varieties of constitutions of the Air, are chiefly and prin­cipally stirred up by the winds; as which being diffused over all the Air, shew no small force by their sudden change. Wherefore we will briefly touch their natures: That which blows from the East, is the East-wind, and is of a hot and dry nature, and therefore healthful. But the Western wind is cold and moist, and therefore sickly. The South-wind is hot and moist, the Author of putrefaction and putrid diseases. The North-wind is cold and dry, therefore healthy: wherefore it is thought, if it happen to blow in the Dog-days, that it makes the whole year healthful, and purges, and takes away the seeds of putrefaction, if any chance to be in the Air. But this de­scription of the four Winds, is then only thought to be true, if we consider the Winds in their own proper nature, which they borrow from those Regions from which they first proceed. For, otherwise they affect the Air quite contrary,How the winds acquire other [...]ies, than they naturally have. according to the disposition of the places over which they came; as Snowie places, Sea, Lakes, Rivers, Woods, or sandy Plains, from whence they may borrow new qualities, with which they may afterwards possess the Air, and so con­sequently our bodies.

The Westwind o [...] it self un­wholsome.Hence it is we have noted the Western-wind unwholsom, and breeding diseases, by reason of the proper condition of the Region from whence it came; and such that is cold and moist; the Gasc [...]ins find it truly to their so great harm, that it seldom blows with them, but it brings some manifest and great harm,What force stars have up­on the Air. either to their bodies, or fruits of the earth. And yet the Greeks and Latins are wont to commend it for healthfulness, more than the rest. But also the rising and set­ting of some more eminent Stars, do often cause such cold winds, that the whole Air is cooled, or infected with some other malign quality. For vapors and exhalations are often raised by the force of the Stars, from whence winds, clouds, storms, whirlwinds, lightnings, thunders, hail, snow, rain, earthquakes, inundations, and violent raging of the sea, have their original. The exact con­templation of which things, although it be proper to Astronomers, Cosmographers, and Geo­graphers, yet Hippocrates could not omit it, but that he must speak something in his book De Aere & Aquis; where he touches, by the way, the description of the neighbouring Regions, and such as he knew.

From this force of the Air, either hurtful, or helping in diseases, came that famous observation of Guido of Cau [...]ias; That, wounds of the head are more difficult to cure at Paris, than at Avig­nion, and the plain contrary of wounds of the legs;How the air of Paris comes to be ill for wounds of the head, and good for those of the leggs. for the air of Paris, compared to that of A­vignion is cold and moist, wherefore hurtful and offensive to the wounds of the head. On the contrary, the same air, because it obscures the spirits, incrassates the blood, condensates the hu­mors, and makes them less fit for defluxions, makes the wounds of the legs more easie to be heal­ed, by reason it hinders the course of humors, by whose defluxion the cure is hindred. But it is manifest, that hot and dry places make a greater dissipation of the natural heat, from whence the weakness of the powers; by which same reason the Inhabitants of such places do not so well endure blood-letting; but more easily suffer purgations, though vehement, by reason of the contumacy of the humor,By what means the air changes our bodies. caused by driness. To conclude, the Air changes the constitutions of our bodies, either by its qualities, as if it be hotter, colder, moister, or drier; or by its matter, as if it be grosser, or more subtil than is fit, or corrupted by exhalations from the earth, or by a sudden and unaccustomed alterat [...]on, which any man may prove, who makes a sudden change out of a quiet air into a stormy, and troubled with many winds. But because, next to the Air, no­thing is so necessary to nourish mans body, as Meat and Drink, I will now begin to speak of them both.

CHAP. XIV. Of Meat and Drink.

THat this our Treatise of Meat and Drink may be more brief and plain, I have thought good to part it into these heads, as to consider the goodness and illness of both of them, their quantity, quality, custom, delight, order, time; and to accommodate them all to the ages and [Page 21] seasons of the year. We judge of the goodness and pravity of meats and drinks,The goodness of nourish­ments. from the conditi­on of the good or vicious humours, or juyce which they beget in us. For evil juyce causeth many diseases. As on the contrary, good juyce drives away all diseases from the body, except the fault happen from some other occasion, as from quantity, or too much excess. Wherefore it is princi­pally necessary, that those who will preserve their present health, and hinder the access of diseases, feed upon things of good nourishment and digestion, as are good wine, the yolks of eggs, good milk, wheaten bread well baked, the flesh of Capons, Partridge, Thrushes, Larks, Veal, Mutton, Kid, and such like other, which you may find mentioned in the Books which Ga­len writ, De Aliment [...]rum facultatibus; where also he examins those which are of evil juyce by their manifest qualities, as acrimony, bitterness, saltness, acidity, harshness, and such like.

But unless we use a convenient quantity and measure in our meats, howsover laudable they be,Their quantity we shall never reap these fruits of health we hoped for. For they yield matter of diseases, by the only excess of their quantity; but we may by this know the force of quantity on both parts, be­cause often the poisonous quality of meats of ill nourishment doth not hurt, by reason they were not taken into the body into a great quantity. That measure of quantity is chiefly to be regarded in diseases; for as Hippocrates saith, If any give meat to one sick of a Feaver,The quantity of meats must be esteemed according to the nature of the disease, and strength of the Patient. he gives strength to the well, and increases the disease to the sick, especially if he do not use a mean. Wherefore it is a thing of no small consequence, to know what diseases require a slender, and what a large diet; of which thing there is large relation made in the 1 Sect. of the Aphorisms of Hippocrates; where he teacheth, the sick must feed more largely in the beginning of long diseases, whereby they may be enabled to endure the length of the disease, and last to the state thereof. But in sharp and violent diseases, which presently come to their height, we must use a slender diet; but most slen­der, when the disease is in the height; and besides, all our consultations in this kind, must be re­ferred to the strength of the Patients. But those who enjoy their perfect health, must use a quantity of meat, agreeable to their evacuation and transpiration; for men, by reason of the strength of their heat, and the more copious dissipation of the triple substance, have greater ap­petite than women; altogether by the same reason, that young people, and such as grow, need more frequent and plentiful nourishment, than old men; and also amongst young men of the like age, some do rightly require more copious nourishment, than othersome, that is, according to the quantity of their evacuations and custom. Certainly for gluttony, it is such as may be extended to all; but we all should take so much meat and drink, that our powers may be refreshed and not oppressed; for by the decree of Hippocrates, these be the two compendiary ways of preserving health; not to be over-filled with meat, and to be quick to work; and thus much of the quantity of meats. Neither must those who are either sound or sick,The qualities of meat. have less regard to the qualities of their Meats; and those are either the first, as heating, cooling, moistening, drying; or the second, attenuating, incrassating, obstructing, opening, or some other-like, working according to the condition of their nature. The manner of our diet is not only to be framed according to these, but also to be varied; for the present state of such as be in health, requires to be preserved by the use of like things. As hot and moist nourishment is to be prescribed to children, as to those which are hot and moist: and cold and dry to old men, as to those who are cold and dry; if so be that vulgar saying be true, that, Health delights in the use of like things. Old-age is a disease. Yet because Old-age how green and new-begun howsoever it be, is of it self, as it were, a disease, it seems to be more con­venient, both to truth, and for health, that old people should eat meats contrary to their nature, that is, hot and moist; that so we may defer, as much as we can, the causes of death, cold and dri­ness, which hasten the destruction of that age. For we must resist diseases by the use of their con­traries, as those things which are contrary to nature. For otherwise, as much meat as you give to the sick, you add so much strength to the disease.Aphor. 16. sect. 1. And the same is the cause why Hipp [...]crates said, that a moist diet is convenient for all such as are sick of Feavers, because a Feaver is a dry distemperature. Therefore we must diligently pry into the nature of the disease, that knowing it, we may endeavour to abate its fury by the use of contraries.

But if Custom (as they say) be another nature, the Physitian must have a great care of it,The force of Custom. both in sound and sick. For this sometimes by little & little, and insensibly, changes our natural tempera­ment, & instead thereof gives us a borrowed temper. Wherefore if any would presently or sudden­ly change a Custom which is sometimes ill, into a better, truly he will bring more harm than good; because all sudden changes (according to the opinion of Hippocrates) are dangerous.Aphor. 91. sect 2. Wherefore if necessity require that we should withdraw any thing from our Custom, we must do it by little and little, that so nature may by degrees be accustomed to contraries without violence, or the di­sturbance of its usual government. For that meat and drink which is somewhat worse, but more pleasant and familiar by custom, is to be preferred (in Hippocrates opinion) before better,Aphor. 38. sect. 2. but less pleasant and accustomed. Hence is it, that Country-men do very well digest Beef and Bacon, which commonly they use; but will turn into nidorulent vapors, Partridg, Capons, and other meat of good nourishment, sooner than change them into good and laudable Chylus. The cause of which thing is not only to be attributed unto the property of their stronger, and as it were, burning heat, but much more to Custom; which by a certain kind of familiarity,Accustomed meats are more grateful, and so, by that means, more nourishing. causeth that meats of hard di­gestion, are easily turnrd into laudable blood. For the force of Custom is so great, that accusto­med Meats are more acceptable; whereby it comes to pass, that while the stomach delights in them, it more straitly embraces them, and happily digests them, without any trouble of loathing, vomiting, or heaviness. All the contrary, meet and happen in the use of Meats, which are un­pleasant [Page 22] to the taste and stomach. For the ventricle abhorring those things, makes manifest how it is troubled by its acide and nidorulent belchings, loathing, nauseousness, vomit, heaviness, pain of the head, and trouble of the whole body.

Wherefore we must diligently enquire, what Meats the Patient chiefly delighted in, that by offering them, his appetite languishing by reason of some great evacuation, vomit, or the like, may be stirred up. For it will be better and more readily restored by things acceptable, though they be somewhat worse, as we noted a little before out of Hippocrates. By which words he plainly taught, that it is the part of a good and prudent Physitian to subscribe to, and please, the palat of his Patient.

The order of eating our meats.But seeing that Order is most beautiful in all things, it is truly very necessary in eating our Meat: for how laudable soever the Meats be in their quantity and quality, howsoever familiar by use, and grateful by custom; yet unless they be eaten in due order, they will either trouble or molest the stomach, or be ill, or slowly and difficultly concocted; wherefore we must diligently observe, what Meats must be eaten at the first, and what at the second course; for those Meats which be hard to concoct, are not to be eaten before those which are easie of digestion; neither dry and astringent things, before moistening and loosing.

We must begin our meals with moist or liquid meat.But on the contrary, all slippery, fat, and liquid things, and which are quickly changed, ought to go before, that so the belly may be moistned; and then astringent things must follow, that the stomach, by their help, being shut and drawn together, may more straitly comprehend the Meat on every side, and better perform the Chylification by its proper heat united and joined together.

For this cause Hippocrates, Lib. de victu in acutis, commands those things to be always eaten in the morning, which are fit to loosen the belly, and in the evenings such as nourish the body. Yet notwithstanding drink ought not to precede or go before meat, but on the contrary meat must precede drink, by the order prescribed by him.

The time of eating.Neither ought we in our eating to have less care of the time, than we have of the order; for the time of eating of such as are healthful, ought to be certain and fixt; for at the accustomed hour, and when hunger presses, any sound man, and which is at his own disposure may eat, but exercise and accustomed labours ought to go before;The profit of labour before meat. for it is fit, according to the precept of Hippocrates, that labour precede meat, whereby the excrements of the third concoction may be evacuated; the native heat increased, and the solid parts confirmed and strengthened, which are three commodities of exercise very necessary to the convenient taking of meat. But in sick per­sons we can scarce attend and give heed to these circumstances of time, and accustomed hour of feeding; for, that Indication of giving meat to the sick, is the best of all, which is drawn from the motion of the disease,We must not give meat in a fit of a Feaver. and the declining of the fit: for if you give meat in feavers, specially the fit then taking the Patient, you nourish not him, but the disease. For the meat then eaten, is corrupted in the stomach, and yields fit matter for the disease: For meat (as we noted before out of Hippocrates) is strength to the sound, and a disease to the sick, unless it be eaten at convenient time, and diligent care be had of the strength of the Patient, and greatness of the disease.

Variety of meats.But neither is it convenient that the meat should be simple, and of one kind, but of many sorts, and of divers dishes dressed after different forms, lest nature by the continual and hateful feeding upon the same meat, may at the length loath it, and so neither straitly contain it, nor well di­gest it; or the stomach accustomed to one meat, taking any loathing thereat, may abhor all other; and as there is no desire of that we do not know, so the dejected appetite cannot be delighted and stirred up with the pleasure of any meat which can be offered. For we must not credit th [...]se superstitious or too nice Physitians, who think the digestion is hindred by the much variety of meats.

Why variety of meats is good.The matter is far otherwise, for by the pleasure of what things soever the stomach allured doth require, it embraces them more straitly, and concocts them more perfectly. And our na­ture is desirous of variety.

Moreover, seeing our body is composed of a solid, moist, and airy substance; and it may happen, that by so many labours, which we are compelled to undergo and sustain in this life, one of these may suffer a greater dissipation and loss than another; therefore the stomach is necessarily com­pelled to seek more variety,Indications of feeding, taken from the age. lest any thing should be wanting to repair that which is wasted. But also the age and season of the year, yield Indications of feeding; for some things are conveni­ent for a young man, some for an old; some in summer, some in winter. Wherefore we ought to know what befits each age and season. Children need hot, moist, and much nourishment, which may not only suffice to nourish, but increase the body. Wherefore they worst endure fasting, and of them, especially those who are the most lively and spiritful. With old men it is otherwise; for because their heat is small, they need little nourishment, and are extinguished by much. Where­fore old men easily endure to fast; they ought to be nourished with hot and moist meats, by which their solid parts now growing cold and dry, may be heated and moistned, as by the sweet nourishment of such like meats. Middle-ag'd men delight in the moderate use of contraries, to temper the excess of their too acrid heat. Young people as temperate, are to be preserved by the use of like things.

Indication from the time of the year.The manner of Diet in Winter must be hot, and inclining to driness. Wherefore, then, we may more plentifully use rost-meats, strong wines, and spices; because in the Winter-season we are troubled with the cold and moist air, and at the same time, have much heat inwardly; [Page 23] for the inner parts, according to Hippocrates, are naturally most hot in the Winter and the Spring, but feaverish in Summer; so the heat of Summer is to be tempered by the use of cold and moist things, and much drink. In the temperate Spring all things must be moderate; but in Autumn, by little and little, we must pass from our Summer to our Winter diet.

CHAP. XV. Of Motion and Rest.

HEre Physitians admonish us, that by the name of Motion,What Motion signifies. we must understand all sorts of Exercises, as walking, leaping, running, riding, playing at tennis, carrying a burden, and the like. Friction or rubbing is of this kind, which in times past was in great use and esteem, neither at this day is it altogether neglected by the Physitians. They mention many kinds of it,Three kinds of Frictions. but they may be all reduced to three; as, one gentle, another hard, a third indifferent; and that of the whole body, or only of some part thereof. That Friction is called hard,Hard. which is made by the rough, or strong pressure of the hands, spunges, or a course and new linnen cloth: it draws to­gether, condensates, binds and hardens the flesh, yet if it be often and long used, at length it ra­rifies, dissolves, attenuates, and diminishes the flesh, and any other substance of the body; and also it causeth revulsion, and draws the defluxion of humors from one part to another.Gentle. The gen­tle Friction, which is performed by the light rubbing of the hand, and such like, doth the con­trary; as, softens, relaxes, and makes the skin smooth and unwrinckled; yet unless it be long continued, it doth none of these worthy to be spoken of. The indifferent kinds,Indifferent. consisting in the mean betwixt the other two, increaseth the flesh, swels or puffs up the habit of the body, because it retains the blood and spirits which it draws, and suffers them not to be dissipated.

The benefit of Exercise is great,The use of exercises. for it increases natural heat, whereby better digestion fol­lows, and by that means nourishment, and the expulsion of the excrements; and lastly, a quicker motion of the spirits, to perform their office in the body, all the ways and passages being cleansed. Besides, it strengthens the respiration, and the other actions of the body, confirms the habit, and all the limbs of the body, by the mutual attrition of the one with the other; whereby it comes to pass they are not so quickly wearied with labour. Hence we see, that Country-people are not to be tired with labour.

If any will reap these benefits by Exercise,What the fit­test time for exercise. it is necessary that he take opportunity to begin his exercise, and that he seasonably desist from it, not exercising himself violently and without dis­cretion; but at certain times according to reason.

Wherefore the best time for exercise will be before meat (that the appetite may be increased by augmenting the natural heat) all the excrements being evacuated, lest nature being hungry and empty, do draw and infuse the ill humors contained in the guts and other parts of the body, into the whole habit, the Liver, and other noble parts, Neither is it fit presently, after meat, to run into exercise, lest the crude humors and meats not well concocted, be carried into the veins. The measure and bounds of exercise must be, when the body appears more full, the face looks red, sweat begins to break forth, we breath more strongly and quick, and begin to grow weary; if any continue exercise longer, stiffness and weariness assails his joints, and the body flowing with sweat suffers a loss of the spirituous and humid substance, which is not easily repaired; by which it becomes more cold, and lean even to deformity.

The quality of exercise which we require, is in the midst of exercise;The quality of exercise. so that the exercise must be neither too slow and idle, neirher too strong nor too weak, neither too hasty nor remiss, but which may move all the members alike. Such exercise is very fit for sound bodies. But if they be distempered, that sort of exercise is to be made choice of, which by the quality of its excess, may correct the distemper of the body, and reduce it to a certain mediocrity.For whom strong Ex [...] ­cises are convenient. Wherefore such men as are stuffed with cold, gross, and viscous humors, shall hold that kind of exercise most fit for them, which is more laborious, vehement, strong, and longer continued. Yet so, that they do not enter into it before the first and second concoction, which they may know by the yellowness of their urin. But let such as abound with thin and cholerick humors, chuse gentle exercises, and such as are free from contention, not expecting the finishing of the second concoction, for the more acride heat of the solid parts delights in such half concocted juices, which otherwise it would so burn up all the glutinous substance thereof being wasted, that they could not be ad­joyned or fastned to the parts. For the repeating or renewing of exercise, the body should be so often exercised, as there is a desire to eat. For exercise stirs up and revives the heat which lies bu­ried and hid in the body: for digestion cannot be well performed by a sluggish heat; neither have we any benefit by the meat we eat, unless we use exercise before.

The last part of exercise begun and performed according to reason, is named, [...] The ordering of the body, which is performed by an indifferent rubbing and drying of members; that so the sweat breaking forth, the filth of the body, and such excrements lying under the skin, may be allured and drawn out; and also that the members may be freed from stiffness and weariness. At this time it is commonly used by such as play at Tennis.

But, as many and great commodities arise from exercise conveniently begun and performed,What [...] mo [...] [...] ceed [...] dleness so great harm proceeds from idleness; for gross and vicious juyces heaped up in the body common­ly produce crudities, obstructions, stones both in the reins and bladder, the Gout, Apoplexie, and a thousand other diseases.

CHAP. XVI. Of Sleep and Watching.

THat this our speech of Sleep and Watching, which we now intend, may be more plain, we will briefly declare, what commodity or discommodity they bring; what time and what hour is convenient for both; what the manner of lying must be, and the choice thereof; what the dreams in sleeping; and what, pains or heaviness and chearfulness after sleep, may portend.

What sleep is.Sleep is nothing else than the rest of the whole body, and the cessation of the Animal faculty from sense and motion. Sleep is caused, when the substance of the brain is possessed, and after some sort over-come and dulled by a certain vaporous, sweet, and delightsome humidity; or when the spirits, almost exhaust by performance of some labour, cannot any longer sustain the weight of the body, but cause rest by a necessary consequence; by which means, nature may produce other, from the meat by concoction turned into blood.

The use of sleep.Sleep fitly taken much helps the digestion of the parts, because in the time of rest, the heat be­ing the worker of all concoction, is carryed back to them, together with the spirits. Neither doth sleep only give ease to the wearyed members, but also lessens our cares, and makes us to forget our labors.

Fit time for sleep, and the nature of the night.The night is a fit time to sleep and to take our rest in, as inviting sleep by its moisture, silence, and darkness. For the heat and Spirits, in the thick obscurity of night, are driven in and retained in the center of the body; as on the contrary by the daily, and as it were, friendly and familiar light of the Sun, they are allured and drawn forth into the superficies, and outward part of the body;Sleep on the day-time. from whence they leave sleeping, and begin to wake. Besides also, which makes not a lit­tle to that opportunity and benefit which we look for from sleep, the night season suffices for the work of just and perfect concoction. Which is one reason amongst many that sleep on the day time may be hurtful. For we are wakened from our sleep by the heat and spirits, called forth to the skin either by the light, or noise on the day time, before that the concoction which was be­gun be finished. But, that sleep cannot but be light which comes without necessity of sleeping. Wherefore the concoction being attempted, but not perfected, the stomach is filled with crudi­ties, distended with acid or four belchings, and the brain troubled with gross vapors and excre­mentitious humidities.There ought to be a moderati­on of our nights sleep. From whence proceed pain and heaviness of the head, and store of cold diseases. But although sleep on the night time be wholsome, yet it is fit, that it be restrained within the limits of an indifferent time. For that which exceeds, hinders the evacuation of excrements both upwards and downwards: but in the mean time the heat which is never idle, draws from them some portion or vapor into the veins, principal parts and habit of the body, to become mat­ter for some disease. We must measure this time, not by the space of hours, but by the finishing the work of concoction, which is performed in some sooner than in other some. Yet that which is longest is perfected and done in seven or eight hours.How to be known. The ventricle subsiding and falling into its self and its proper coats, and the urine tinctured yellow, gives perfect judgment thereof. For on the contrary the extension of the stomach, acide belching, pain of the head, and heaviness of the whole body, shew that the concoction is unperfect.

What the form and site of our body ought to be while we sleep.In sleeping we must have special care of our lying down; for first we must lye on our right side, that so the meat may fall into the bottom of our stomach, which being fleshy, and less mem­branous, is the hotter, and more powerful to assimilate. Then a little after we must turn upon our left side, that so the Liver with its Lobes, as with hands may on every side embrace the ventricle, and as fire put under a kettle, hasten the concoction. Lastly, towards morning it will not be unpro­fitable to turn again upon our right side, that by this situation the mouth of the stomach being open­ed, the vapors which arise from the elixation of the Chylus have freer passage.The harm of lying on our backs. Lying upon the back is wholly to be avoided; for from hence the Reins are inflamed, the Stone is bred, Palsies, Convulsion, and all the diseases which have their original from the defluxion into the spinal mar­row, and to the Nerves taking beginning from thence.Upon our bel­lies. To lye upon the belly is not unprofitable for such as have used to lye so, if they be not troubled with defluxions into the eys; for so the hu­mor will more easily flow into the part affected. But thus the work of concoction is not a little furthered, because by that form of lying, not only the inward heat is contained and gathered about the Ventricle, but the encompassing warmness of the soft feathers of the bed aids and as­sists it.

The considera­tion of dreams.Neither are the Dreams which we have in our sleep to be neglected, for by the diligent consi­deration of these, the affections and superfluous Humors which have chief power in the body are marvailously known. For those who have raging choler running up and down their bodies while they sleep, all things to them appear bright, shining, fiery, burning, full of noise and contention. Those who abound with Phlegm, dream of floods, snows, showers, and inundations and falling from high places. Those who are Melancholy dream of gapings and gulphs in the earth, thick and obscure darkness, smoaks, caves, and all black and dismal things. But those whose bodies abound in blood, dream of marriages, dances, embraces of women, feasts, jests, laughter, of or­chards and gardens; and to conclude, of all things pleasant and splendent.

Also we must observe how the Patient doth after sleep, whether more lively and chearful, or more heavie: for, by the opinion of Hippocrates,

[Page 25]
Cum labor à somno est, laethalem collige morbum:
Sin prosit somnus, nihil hinc laethale timendum est.
Aphor. 1. sect 2
Pain sleep ensuing, an ill disease doth show:
But if sleep profit bring, no harm from thence will flow.

And as sleep, so watching, if it exceed measure, is hurtful; for it hurts the temperature of the brain, weakens the senses, wastes the spirits, breeds crudities, heaviness of the head, falling away of the flesh, and leanness over all the body; and, to conclude, it makes ulcers more dry, and so consequently rebellious, difficult to heal, and malign. There are many other things may be spo­ken of sleep and watching, but these may suffice a Chirurgeon.

CHAP. XVII. Of Repletion, and Inanition or Emptiness.

THere are, to be short, two sorts of Repletion, or of all excess; one is of a simple quality,The kinds of Repletions, or rather of Ex­cesses. without any defluxion, or society of any humor, as appears in distempers without matter: the other is of quantity and mass, the body being distended with too much meat, or too great quantity of humors; from whence proceed an infinite number of diseases. They call the Repletion of meats, satiety or fulness; and it is of two kinds; The one which is calledRe­pletio ad vasaad vi [...]es Repletion or Fulness to the vessels; the otherRe­pletio ad vasaad vi [...]es Repletion to the strength.

We judg of satiety to the vessels, by the distention and swelling of the veins, and entrails, as the stomach. We call satiety to the strength, when the body is loaded with more meats than it can well bear. But also there is a double Repletion of humors. For either it is of some one humor, or of all the humors; they call this by a peculiar name, Plethora. Gal Meth. 13. cap. 6. For Galen defines Plethora an e­qual excess of all the humors. For if at any time he define a Plethora to be an excess of blood only; then verily by the name of blood, he understands an equal comprehension of the four humors as it is taught in Physick Schools.

The Repletion which is caused by some one humor, is termed by Galen in the place before mentioned, Cacochymia, (that is, An evil juice) whether the Repletion proceed of a Cholerick,What Cacochy­miais. Melancholick, Phlegmatick, or serous Humor.

Now Inanition,The kinds of evacuation. or evacuation is no other thing than the expulsion or effusion of humors which are troublesome, either in quantity or quality. Of Evacuations, some are universal, which expel superfluous humors from the whole body; such are purging, vomiting, transpiration, sweats, Phle­botomy. Some particular, which are performed only to evacuate some part, as the brain by the nose, palat, eys, ears; the lungs by the weazon; the stomach by vomit and stool; the guts by stool; the liver and the spleen by urine and ordure. These evacuations are sometimes performed by nature, freeing it self of that which is troublesome to it; otherwhiles by the Art of the Physi­tian in imitation of nature.

And again, One of these is good and requisite, when only the humor which is hurtful either in quantity or quality, is evacuated; The other not requisite, or immoderate, when the profitable Humors, together with the unprofitable, are expelled.

But what evacuations soever these be, they are performed and done,The commodi­ties of mode­rate scratching. either by the scratching and rubbing of the skin, as when a Cholerick, Salt, or Serous Humor, or some windiness lying be­tween the skin and the flesh, cause itching. For by scratching the skin, it gets passage out; which is manifest by the efflux of a serous matter burning, or causing scabs and ulcers, if the humor be somewhat gross; but insensible and not so manifest, if it be windiness, the skin by that rubbing being rarified, and the gross flatulency attenuated. Wherefore they do ill who hinder their Patients from scratching, unless they scratch so cruelly and hard, that there may be danger (by reason of the great heat and pain thereby caused) of some defluxion or falling down of humors into the part.

Or these evacuations are performed by much matter evacuated from an opened Bile, or run­ning Ulcer, a Fistula, or such like sores. Or by sweats which are very good and healthful, especially in sharp diseases, if they proceed from the whole body, and happen on the critical days. By vomit,The force of vomits. wch often violently draws these humors from the whole body, even from the utmost joynts, which purging medicines could not evacuate, as we may see in the Palsie, and Sciatica, or Hip-gout. By spitting, as in all who are suppurated either in the sides or lungs. By Salivation,Salivation. or a Phlegmatick flux by the mouth, as in those who are troubled with the French-pox. By sneezing and blowing the nose; for by these, the brain opprest with moisture, disburdeneth its self, whether it be done without, or with the help of sternutatories and errhines; wherefore children, and such as have somewhat moist brains, purge themselves often this way. By hicket and belching;The whole body is also purged by u­rine. for by these the windiness contained in the stomach, is often expelled. By urine, for by this not only Feavers, but which is more to be admired, the French-pox hath often been terminated and cured.

For there have been some troubled with the Pox, in whom a flux of the vicious and venenate humor could not by Unctions of quicksilver be procured, either from the mouth or belly; yet have been wounderfully freed bv abundance of Urine, both from danger of death and their [Page 26] disease. By bleeding; for nature hath often found a way for grievous diseases, especially in young bodies, by bleeding at the nose, and by their courses in women. By a flux, or lask, pur­gation, sweats, insensible evacuation and transpiration; for so tumors, the matter being brought to suppuration, do sometimes vanish away and are dissolved, both of their own accord, as also by dissolving or discussing medicines. We do the same by exercise, diet, hot-houses, long sleep, waking, and shedding of tears. By sucking, as with Cupping-glasses, and Hors-leeches, in wounds made by venemous bitings.

We must ob­serve three things in every evacuation.In all such kinds of evacuations, we must consider three things, the quantity, quality, and man­ner of evacuation. As for an example, When an Empyema is opened, the matter which runs out, ought to be answerable in proportion to the purulent matter, which was contained in the capacity of the breasts; otherwise, unless all the matter be emptyed, there may happen a relapse; the matter should be white, soft, equal, and nothing stinking: Lastly, you must let it forth not all to­gether, and at one time, but by little and little, and at several times; otherwise, not a little quantity of the Spirits and heat doth flow out together with the unprofitable matter, and so con­sequently a dissolution of all the powers.

CHAP. XVIII. Of the Perturbations, or Passions of the Mind.

Why the Pas­sions of the mind are cal­led Accidents. Their force.THe Perturbations are commonly called the Accidents of the Mind, because as bodily acci­dents from the body, so may these, be present and absent from the Mind, without the cor­ruption of the subject. The knowledg of these must not be lightly passed over by the Chirurgeon; for they stir up great troubles in the bodies, and yield occasion of many and great diseases; of which things, joy, hope, and love, may give an apparent testimony. For by these motions the heat and spirits are sometimes gently, sometimes violently diffused over all the body, for the enjoying of the present, or hoped for good. For then the heart is dilated, as to embrace the thing beloved, and the face is dyed with a rosie and lively colour. For it is likely, that the facul­ty it self is stirred by the object, by whose power the Heart it self is moved.

From whence they have their force.For it is first necessary, before we be moved by any Passions, that the senses in their proper seats, in which they are seldom deceived, apprehend the objects; and straight, as messengers, car­ry them to the common sense, which sends their conceived forms to all the faculties. And then, that each faculty, as a Judge, may afresh examin the whole matter, how it is, and conceive in the presented objects some shew of good, or ill, to be desired, or shunned. For, What man that was well in his wits, did ever fall into laughter, unless he formerly knew, or saw somewhat said or done,The reason of Joy. which might yield occasion of laughter? Therefore Joy proceeds from the heart, for the thing causing mirth or joy, being conceived, the faculty moves the heart, which shaken and mo­ved by the faculty which hath dominion over it, is dilated and opened, as ready to embrace the exhilarating object. But in the mean time by the force of that dilatation, it sends forth much heat, and spirits together with the bloud into all the body. A great part of which comming to the face, dilates it, the fore-head is smooth and plain, the eyes look bright, the cheeks become red, as died with Vermilion, the lips and mouth are drawn together, and made plain and smooth; some have their cheeks dented with two little pits (which from the effects are called laughing cheeks) be­cause of the contraction or curling, which the muscle suffer by reason of their fulness of bloud and spirits;The effects of Joy. all which, to be brief, is nothing but to laugh.

Joy recreates and quickens all the faculties, stirs up the spirits, helps concoction, makes the body to be better liking, and fattens it, the heat, bloud, and spirits flowing thither, and the nou­rishing dew or moisture, watering and refreshing all the members; from whence it is, that of all the passions of the mind, this only is profitable, so that it exceed not measure; for immoderate and unaccustomed joy carries so violently the bloud and spirits from the heart, into the habit of the body, that sodain and unlookt for death ensues, by a speedy decay of the strength, the lasting fountain of the vital humor being exhausted. Which thing principally happens to those who are less hearty, as women and old men.

Anger.Anger causeth the same effusion of heat in us, but far speedier than joy; therefore the spirits and humors are so enflamed by it, that it often causes putrid Feavers, especially if the body a­bound with any ill humour.

Sorrow.Sorrow, or grief, dries the body by a way quite contrary to that of Anger, because by this the heart is so straitned, the heat being almost extinct, that the accustomed generation of spirits can­not be performed; and if any be generated, they cannot freely pass into the members with the bloud; wherefore the vital faculty is weakned, the lively colour of the face withers and decays, and the body wastes away with a lingring Consumption.

Fear.Fear in like sort draws in and calls back the spirits, and not by little and little, as in sorrow, but sodainly and violently; hereupon the face grows sodainly pale, the extreme parts cold, all the bo­dy trembles or shakes, the belly in some is loosed, the voyce as it were stays in the jaws, the heart beats with a violent pulsation, because it is almost opprest by the heat, strangled by the plenty of blood, and spirits aboundantly rushing thither; The hair also stands upright, because the heat and bloud are retired to the inner parts,Hi [...]pach. lib. 4. [...]. Mi [...]. and the utmost parts are more cold and drie than a stone; by reason whereof the utmost skin and the pores, in which the roots of the hairs are fastned, are drawn together.

Shame is a certain affection mixed, as it were, of Anger and Fear; therefore,Shame. if in that conflict of, as it were, contending passions, Fear prevail over Anger, the face waxeth pale, (the blood fly­ing back to the heart;) and these or these Symptoms rise, according to the vehemency of the contracted and abated heat. But if on the contrary, Anger get the dominion over Fear, the blood runs violently to the face, the eyes look red and sometimes they even fome at the mouth.

There is another kind of shame, which the Latins call Verecundia, (we,Shamefastness. Shamefastness) in which there is a certain flux, and reflux of the heat, and blood, first recoiling to the heart, then present­ly rebounding from thence again. But that motion is so gentle, that the heart thereby suffers no oppression, nor defect of spirits; wherefore no accidents, worthy to be spoken of, arise from hence: this affect is familiar to young maids and boys, who if they blush for a fault committed un­awares, or through carelesness, it is thought an argument of a vertuous and good disposition.

But an agony, which is a mixt passion of a strong fear, and vehement anger,An agony. involves the heart in the danger of both motions; wherefore by this passion, the vital faculty is brought into very great danger. To these six Passions of the mind, all other may be revoked, as Hatred and Discord, to Anger: Mirth and Boasting, to Joy; Terrors, Frights and Swoundings, to Fear: Envy, Despair and Mourning, to Sorrow.

By these it is evident, how much the Passions of the mind can prevail, to alter and overthrow the state of the body; and that by no other means, than that by the compression and dilatation of the heart, they diffuse and contract the spirits, blood, and heat; from whence happens the dissipation, or oppression, of the spirits.

The signs of these Symptoms quickly shew themselves in the face; the heart,Why the first signs of passi­ons of the mind appear in the face. by reason of the thinness of the skin in that part, as it were painting forth the notes of its affections. And certainly the face is a part so fit to disclose all the affections of the inward parts, that by it you may manifest­ly know an old man from a young, a woman from a man, a temperate person from an untemperate, an Ethiopian from an Indian, a Frenchman from a Spaniard, a sad man from a merry, a sound from a sick, a living from a dead. Wherefore many affirm that the manners, and those things which we keep secret and hid in our hearts, may be understood by the face and countenance.

Now we have declared what commodity and discommodity may redound to the man from these fore-mentioned passions, and have shewed that anger is profitable to none,The use of pas­sions of the mind. unless by chance to some dull by reason of idleness, or opprest with some cold, clammy, and phlegmatick humor; and Fear convenient for none, unless peradventure for such as are brought into manifest and ex­tream danger of their life by some extraordinary sweat, immoderate bleeding, or the like unbride­led evacuat [...]on: Wherefore it behoves a wise Chirurgeon to have a care, lest he inconsiderately put any Patient committed to his charge into any of these passions, unless there be some necessity thereof, by reason of any of the fore-mentioned occasions.

CHAP. XIX. Of things against Nature, and first of the Cause of a Disease.

HAving intreated of things natural, and not-natural,What things against nature are. What, and how many the cau­ses of diseases be. The Primitive cause. Internal ante­cedent. now it remains we speak of things (which are called) against nature, because they are such as are apt to weaken and corrupt the state of our body. And they be three in number; The Cause of a Disease, a Disease, and a Symptome. The cause of a disease is an affect against nature, which causes the disease. Which is divided in­to Internal and External. The External, Original, or Primitive comes from some other place, and outwardly, into the body▪ such be meats of ill nourishment, and such weapons as hostilely wound the body.

The Internal have their essence and seat in the body, and are subdivided into antecedent and conjunct. That is called an antecedent cause, which as yet doth not actually make a disease, but goes near to cause one; so humors copiously flowing, or ready to flow into any part, are the an­tecedent cause of diseases; The conjunct is that which actually causes the disease,Internal con­junct. and is so im­mediately joyned in affinity to the disease, that the disease being present, it is present, and being absent, it is absent.

Again, of all such causes, some are born together with us, as the over-great quantity and ma­lign quality of both the seeds, and the menstruous blood from diseased Parents, are causes of many diseases, and specially of those which are called Hereditary.

Other happen to us after we be born, by our diet and manner of life, a stroke, fall, or such other like. Those which be bred with us, cannot be wholly avoided or amended, but some of the other may be avoided, as a stroke and fall; some not, as those which necessarily enter into our body, as Air, Meat, Drink, and the like.

But if any will reckon up amongst the internal, inherent, and inevitable causes, the dayly,The congenit, or inevitable cause of death. nay hourly dissipation of radical moisture, which the natural heat continually preys upon; I do not gainsay it, no more than that division of Causes celebrated and received of Philosophers, divided into Material, Formal, Efficient, and Final; for such a curious contemplation belongs not to a Chirurgeon, whom I only intend plainly to instruct. Wherefore that we have written may suf­fice him.

CHAP. XX. Of a Disease.

What a disease is, and how various. A Distempera­ture.A Disease is an affect against Nature; principally, and by it self, hurting and depraving the action of the part in which it resides. The division of a Disease is threefold; Distempera­ture, ill Conformation, and the Solution of Continuity.

Distemperature is a Disease of the similar parts dissenting, and changed from their proper and native temper. That digression from the native temper, happens two ways; either by a simple distemperature from the excess of one quality; and this is fourfold, Hot, Cold, Moist, and Dry; or by a compound distemperature, by the excess of two qualities, which also is fourfold, Hot and Moist; Hot and Dry; Cold and Moist; Cold and Dry. Again, every distemper is the fault of one simple and single quality, as an Inflammation; or hath some vicious humors joyned with it, as a Phlegmon: Again, a Distemperature is either equal, as in a Sphacele; or unequal, as in a Phlegmon, beginning or increasing.

Ill Confor­mation.Ill Conformity is a fault of the organical parts, whose composure is thereby depraved. This hath four kinds; the first is, when the figure of the part is faulty, either by nature or accident, or some cavity abolished; as if a part which nature would have hollow for some certain use, do grow or close up; Or lastly, if they be rough, or smooth otherwise than they should, as, if that part which should be rough, be smooth, or the contrary. Another is in the magnitude of the part increased, or diminished contrary to nature. The third is in the number of the parts increased or diminished; as, if a hand have but four, or else six, fingers. The fourth is in the site and mutual con­nexion of the parts; as, if the parts, which should be naturally united and continued, be pluckt a­sunder, as happens in Luxations; or the contrary. The third general kind of disease, is the so­lution of continuity,Solution of Continuity. a Disease common, both to the similar and organical parts, acquiring di­versity of names, according to the variety of the parts in which it resides.

CHAP. XXI. Of a Symptome.

What a Symp­tom is.WE do not in this place take the word Symptome in the most general acceptation, for every change, or accident, which happens to man besides his own nature; but more reservedly and specially, only for that change which the disease brings, and which follows the disease, as a shadow doth the body.

Three kinds thereof.There be three kinds, of a Symptome properly taken. The first is, when the action is hurt; I say hurt, because it is either abolished, weakned, or depraved; so blindness is a deprivation or a­bolish [...]ng of the action of seeing; dulness of sight, is a diminution or weakning thereof; and a suff [...]ion, such as happens at the beginning of a Cataract, when they think flies, hairs, and such like bodies, fly to and fro before their eyes, is a depravation of the sight.

The second is a simple affect of the body, and a full fault of the habit thereof being changed, happening by the mutation of some qualities: such is the changing of the native colour into a red by a Phlegmon, and into a livid and black by a Gangrene; such is the filthy stenc [...] the nose affected with a Polypus sends forth; the bitter taste, in such as have the Jaundise; and the rough and rugged skin in them which are Leprous.

The third is the fault of the overmuch retention of Excrements which should be expelled, and expulsion of such as should he retained; for the evacuation of a humor profitable both in quan­tity and quality, is against nature, as bleeding in a body not full of ill Humors, nor Plethorick; and also the retention of things hurtful in substance, quantity and quality, as the Courses in wo­men, the Urine, and the Stone in the Bladder.

CHAP. XXII. Of Indications.

What Indica­tion is.THe knowledg and exercise of Indications befits that Chirurgeon, whom no blind rashness of fortune, but reason; no chance, but counsel; directs in the undertaking and performing the works of his Art. For, an Indication is a certain safe and short way, which leads the Physitian, as by the hand, to the attainment of his purposed end, of preserving the sound, or curing the sick.

See Method. Cap. 7. Lib. de [...]pt. sect 1. Cap. 11.For Galen doth define an Indication to be a certain insinuation of what is to be done, or a quick and judicious apprehension of that which may profit or hurt. And as Fa [...]lconers, Mariners, Plow­men, Souldiers, and all manner of Artizans, have their peculiar terms and words, which are neither known, nor used by the vulgar; so, this word Indication is proper and peculiar to Physitians, and Chirurgeons, as a Term of Art not vulgar; by consideration of which, as by some sign, or secret token, they are admonished what is to be done to restore health, or repel an imminent danger.

The kinds of Indications.There are three prime and principal kinds of Indications, every of which is subdivided into many other. The first is from things natural. The second from those things which are termed Not-natural. [Page 29] The third from those things which are contrary to nature. Things natural sh [...]w they must be preserved by their like, and in the compass of these are contained all the Indications which are drawn from the nature of the Patient, that is, from his strength, temper, age, sex, ha­bit, custom, diet.

Things Not-natural may be doubted as uncertain; for one while they indicate the same things with things Natural, that is, they co-indicate with the strength, temper, and the rest; otherwhiles they consent with things against nature, that is, they co-indicate with the disease.Lib 9. Meth [...]a. cap. 9. Wherefore Galen when he saith, that Indications are drawn from three things; The disease, the nature of the Patient, and the encompassing air; by proposing the familiar example of the air, he would have us to understand the other things Not-natural; because we may shun or embrace them more or less, as we will our selves; but we must, whether we will or no, endure the present stare of the air. Therefore the air indicates something to us, or rather co-indicates; for if it nourish the disease, as conspiring with it, it will indicate the same that the disease, that is, that it must be pre­served in the same state.

Things contrary to nature indicate they must be taken away by their contraries;Indications drawn from things natural. therefore that we may more accurately and fully handle all the Indications drawn from things Natural, we must note, that some of these are concerning the strength of the Patient; by care to preserve which, we are often compelled for a time to forsake the cure of the proper disease: for so, a great shaking happening at the beginning of an Ague or Feaver, we are often forced to give sustenance to the Patient, to strengthen the powers shaken by the vehemency of the shakings, which thing notwith­standing lengthens both the general and particular fits of the Ague. Other pertain to the temper, other respect the habit, if the Patient be slender, if fat, if well flesht, if of a rare, or dense consti­tution of body. Other respect the condition of the part affected in substance, consistence, softness, hardness, quick or dull sense, form, figure, magnitude, site, connexion, principality, service, functi­on or use. From all these, as from notes, the skilful Chirurgeon will draw Indications according to the time and part affected: for the same things are not fit for sore eyes, which were conveni­ent for the ears; neither doth the phlegmon in the jaws and throat admit the same form of cure, as it doth in other parts of the body. For none can there outwardly apply repercussives, without present danger of suffocation.What the con­ditions of the parts affected do indicate. So there is no use of repercussives in defluxions of those parts which in site are neer the principal. Neither must thou cure a wounded Nerve and Muscle, after one manner. The temperature of a part, as Moisture, alwayes indicates its preservation, although the disease be moist, and give Indication of drying, as an ulcer. The principality of a part always insinu­ates an Indication of astringent things, although the disease require dissolving, as an Obstruction of the Liver; for otherwise, unless you mix astringent things with dissolving, you will so dissolve the strength of the part, that hereafter it cannot suffice for sanguification. If the texture of a part be rare, it shews it is less apt or prone to obstruction; if dense, it is more obnoxious to that dis­ease, hence it is that the Liver is oftner obstructed than the Spleen. If the part be situate more deep, or remote, it indicates the medicines must be more vigorous and liquid, that they may send their force so far. The sensibleness, or quick-sense of the part, gives Indication of milder medi­cines, than peradventure the signs, or notes of a great disease require.Indications from the ages. For the Physitian which applyes things equally sharp to the Horny tunicle of the eye being ulcerated, and to the leg, must needs be counted either cruel, or ignorant. Each Sex and Age hath its Indications, for some dis­eases are curable in youth, which we must not hope to cure in old age; for hoarsness and great distillations in very old men, admit no digestion, as Hippocrates saith;Aphor. 40. li. 2.

Nunquam decrepitus Bronchum coquit, atque Coryzam.
The feeble Sire, for age that hardly goes,
Ne're well digests the hurtful Rheume or pose.

Moreover, according to his decree, the diseases of the Reins,Aphor. 6. sect 6. and whatsoever pains molest the bladder, are difficultly healed in old men; and also reason perswades that a Quartain admits no cure in Winter, and scarce a Quotidian; and Ulcers, in like manner, are more hard to heal in Win­ter; that hence we may understand certain Indications to be drawn from time; and to increase the credit of the variety and certainty of Indications, some certain time, and seasons in those times command us to make choice of medicines; for, as Hippocrates testifies;Aphor. 5. sect. 4.

Ad Canis ardorem, facilis purgatio non est.
In Dog-dayes heat it is not good,
By purging for to cleanse the blood.

Neither shalt thou so well prescribe aslender diet in Winter, as in the Spring, for the air hath its Indications. For experience teaches us, that wounds of the head are far more difficultly and hardly cured, at Rome, Naples, and Rechel in Xantoigne. But the times of diseases yeeld the princi­pal Indications; for some Medicines are only to be used at the beginning and end of diseases, others at the increase and vigour of the disease.From our diet. We must not contemn those Indications which are drawn from the vocation of Life, and manner of Diet; for you must otherwise deal with the painful Husbandman (when he is your Patient) which leads his life sparingly and hardly, than with the Ci­tizen, who lives daintily and idlely. To this manner of life & diet may be referred a certain secret [Page 30] and occult property,Hatred arising from secret properties. by which many are not only ready to vomit at eating of some meats, but tremble over all their bodies when they hear them but spoken of. I knew a prime Nobleman of the French Nobility, who was so perplext at the serving in of an Eel to the Table, at the midst of dinner and amongst his friends, that he fell into a swound, all his powers failing him. Galen in his Book de Censuetudine tells, that Aerius the Peripatetick died sodainly, because, compelled by the advice of those Physitians he used, he drank a great draught of cold water in the intolerable heat of a Feaver. For no reason, saith Galen, than that because, he knowing he had naturally a cold stomach from his childhood, perpetually abstained from cold water.

Indications taken from things against nature.For as much as belongs to Indications taken from things against nature; the length and depth of a wound or ulcer indicates one way; the figure cornered, round, equal and smooth, unequal and rough, with a hollowness streight or winding, indicate otherwise; the site right, left, upper, lower in another manner; and otherwise the force and violence of antecedent and conjunct causes. For oftentimes the condition of the cause indicates contrary to the disease, as when abundance of cold and gross humors cause and nourish a Feaver. So also a Symptome often indicates contrary to the disease: in which contradiction, that Indication must be most esteemed, which doth most urge; as, for example sake, If swounding happen in a Feaver, the feaverish burning shall not hin­der us from giving wine to the Patient.

Wherefore these Indications are the principallest and most noble which lead us, as by the hand, to do these things which pertain to the cure, prevention, and mitigating of diseases. But if any ob­ject, that so curious a search of so many Indications is to no purpose; because there are many Chi­rurgeons, which setting only one before their eyes, which is drawn from the Essence of the dis­ease, have the report and fame of skilful Chirurgeons,We do not al­wayes follow the Indication which is from the disease. in the opinion of the vulgar; But let him know, that it doth not therefore follow, that this Indication is sufficient for the cure of all dis­eases; for we do not always follow that which the Essence of the disease doth indicate to be done. But chiefly then, where none of the fore-recited Indications doth resist or gain-say. You may understand this by the example of a Plethora, which by the Indication drawn from the Es­sence of the thing, requires Phlebotomy; yet who is it, that will draw blood from a child of three months old? Besides, such an Indication is not artificial but common to the Chirurgeon with the common people. For who is it that is ignorant, that contraries are the remedies of contraries? and that broken bones must be united by joyning them together? But how it must be performed and done, this is of Art and peculiar to a Chirurgeon, and not known to the vulgar. Which the Indications drawn from those fountains we pointed at before, aboundantly teaches; which, as by certain limits of circumstances, encompass the Indication which is taken from the Essence of the disease,In what parts we cannot hope for re­storing of so­lution of con­tinuity. lest any should think, we must trust to that only. For there is some great and principal matter in it, but not all. For so the meanest of the common people is not ignorant, that the so­lution of continuity is to be cured by repairing that which is lost. But in what parts we may hope for restitution of the lost substance, and in which not, is the part of a skilful Chirurgeon to know and pronounce. Wherefore he will not vainly bestow his labour to cure the nervous part of the Diaphragma, or Midriffe being wounded, or the Heart, or small Guts, Lungs, Liver, Stomach, Brain or Bladder; and that I may speak in a word, Empericks are not much more skilful than the common people, although they do so much extol themselves above others by the name of Ex­perience. For although experience be another instrument to find out things with reason,Experience without reason is like a blind man without a guide. yet without reason, it will never teach, what the substance of the part in which the disease lies, may be; or what the action, use, site, connexion, from whence special and proper Indications are drawn; With which the Chirurgeon being provided and instructed, shall not only know by what means to find out a remedy, but also, lest he may seem to mock any with vain promises, he shall discern what diseases are uncurable, and therefore not to be medled withal.

Indications in implicit dis­eases.But implicit or intricate diseases require each to be cured in their several order, except some one of them be desperate, or so urge and press that the Physitian think it necessary after a prepo­sterous order, to begin with it, although often he be forced to make some one of these diseases in­curable, or give occasion of causing some new one: into which straits we are necessarily compel­led to fall, when, (for example) we determine to pull, or take away some extraneous body; for the performance whereof we are compelled to inlarge the wound. So we are forced by necessary to o­pen the neck of the bladder, (that so we may draw forth the stone therein contained) with a wound which o [...]ten degenerates into an uncurable Fistula. For that disease which threatens danger of present death is of such moment, that to shun that it may be counted a small matter, and commodi­ous for the sick to bring in other diseases, though uncurable. For if a convulsion happen by prick­ing a Nerve, which we cannot heal by any remedies, then by cutting the Nerve asunder we end the convulsion, but deprive the part into which that Nerve did go, of the use of some voluntary motion. So if in any great joynt there happen a Luxation with a wound, because there is danger of convulsion by trying to restore and set right the luxated part, we are forc'd for shunning thereof, to attend the wound only, and in the mean time to let alone the Luxation. Otherwise, in implicit diseases if there be nothing which may urge, or call us from the ordinary cure, we must observe this order, that beginning with that affect, which hinders the cure of the principal disease, we prosecute the rest in the same & their proper order, until all the diseases being overcome, we shall restore the part affected to its integrity.An example of Indications in implicit dis­eases. Therefore let us take for an example, an ulcer in the Leg, a Varix (or big-swollen vein) and a Phlegmonous tumor round about it; and lastly, a body wholly plethorick and filled with ill humors; order and reason require this, that using the advice of some [Page 31] learned Physitian we prescribe a convenient dyet, and, by what means we may, bring him to an e­quality by purging and blood-letting, and then we will scarifie in divers places the part where it is most swollen, then presently apply Leeches, that so we may free it from the burden of the conjunct matter; then use Cauteries to help the corruption of the bone, and in the mean time change the circular figure of the ulcer into an oval, or triangular; then at the length we will un­dertake the cutting of the Varix, and cure the ulcer which remains according to Art, and so at the length cicatrize it. In all this whole time the Patient shall neither walk, nor stand, nor sit,What we must do when the temper of the part is diffe­rent from the temper of the whole body. but ly quietly, having his Leg orderly and decently rowled up. But if (as it often happens) the temper of the hurt part, be different from the temper of the whole body, the manner of curing must be so tempered, that we increase the do [...]s of hot or cold medicines, according to the ratable proporti­on of the indications requiring this or that, therefore imagine the part ulcerated to be such, as that it is two degrees dryer than the just temper; but the whole body to exceed the same temper in one degree of humidity: Reason and Art will require, that the medicine applyed to the ulcer be dryer by one degree than that which the part would otherwise require if it were temperate. But on the contrary let us suppose thus; the whole body to be one degree more moist then the temper requires, and the ulcerated part to be one degree dryer:An artificial conjecture is of much force in Indications. truly in this case the medicine that is applyed to the ulcer by reason of the part it self, shall not be increased in dryness, but whol­ly composed and tempered to the Indication of the ulcer, because the force of the moisture ex­ceeding in the like degree, doth counterpoise the superfluous degree of dryness. But it is more easie by an artificial conjecture to determine of all such things, than by any rules or precepts.

To these so many and various Indications, I think good to add two other; the one from simili­tude; the other of a certain crafty devise, and as the latter Physitians term it, a certain subtile stratagem. We draw Indication from similitude, in diseases which newly spring up and arise,Indications from simili­tude. as which cannot be cured by Indications drawn from their contraries, as long as their Essence is unknown and hid; wherefore they think it necessary to cure them by a way and Art like those diseases, with which they seem to have an agreeing similitude of Symptomes and Accidents; Our Ancestors did the same in curing the French-Pocks, at the first beginning thereof, as long as they assimilated the cure to that of the Leprosie, by reason of that affinity, which both the diseases seem to have. But we follow crafty devices and subtile counsels,Indication of a subtile device. when the Essence of the disease we meet with, is wholly secret and hid, either because it is altogether of a hidden and secret na­ture, and which cannot be unfolded by manifest qualities, or else resides in a subject which is not sufficiently known to us, nor of a physical contemplation, as the Mind. For then, we being desti­tute of Indications taken from the nature of the thing, are compelled to turn our cogitations to impostures and crafty counsels; and, they say, this Art and Craft is of chief use in Melancholy af­fects and fictions, which are often more monstrous and deformed than the Chimera so much menti­oned in the fables of the Ancients; to which purpose, I will not think much to recite two Ex­amples. A certain man troubled with a Melancholick disease, I know not by what errour of opi­nion,Examples. had strongly perswaded himself that he was without a head; the Physitians omitted nothing, by which they might hope to take this mad opinion out of his mind. But when they had in vain tryed all medicines, at length they devised this crafty, but profitable device: They fastned and put upon his head a most heavy helmet, that so by the pain and trouble of his head nodding and drawn down by that weight, he might be admonished of his error.

It is reported, another molested by the obscurity and darkness of the same disease, did verily believe, that he had horns upon his head; neither could he be drawn or diverted from that absurd and monstrous opinion, [...]t I that binding up his eyes, they miserably bruised and scratched his forehead with the bony roughness of the lower parts of an Oxes horns, that so he begun to be­lieve by the painful drawing of the blood that ran down his face, that those bloody horns were forcibly plucked from him. Ingenious Chirurgeons in imitation of these examples may in like cases do the like. For, that case requires a man of a quick apprehension and advice,A Physitian should be of a quick appre­hension. who may give manifest proof of his diligence and skill by medicinal stratagems, as who forthwith can politickly devise stratagems of divers sorts.

But, now coming to the end of this our tract of Indications, we must chiefly and principally ob­serve;Indications indicative. That of Indications some are Indicative; which absolutely and of themselves command this to be done; other co-indicative, which indicate the same with the Indicative,Co-indicative. and joyntly shew it to be done, but in some sort secondarily and not primitively. Some are repugnant,Repugnant. Correpugnant. which of themselves and their own nature perswade quite contrary to that the indicative primitively did perswade us; other correpugnant, which give their voice after the same form and manner with the repugnant against the indicative, as the co-indicative consent to and maintain them. Let this serve for an example of them all.

A Plethora, or plen [...]tude of humors, of its own nature, requires and indicates blood-letting, the Spring time perswades and co-indicates the same; but to this counsel is quite opposite and repug­nant, a weak faculty; and childhood is correpugnant.

Wherefore these four must be diligently weighed and considered when we deliberate what is to be done, and we must rather follow that which the indicative, or repugnant shew and declare, as what the diseases and strength of the Patient require, than that which the coindicative, or corre­pugnant shall perswade, because they have a weaker and but secundary power of indicating, and not essential and primitive. But because the kinds of Indications are so many and divers, there­fore that the knowledge of them may be more perspicuous and less confused, I have thought good to describe and distinguish them by this following Scheme.

A Table of Indications.
  • [Page 32]An Indication is a certain plain and com­pendious way which leads the Chirurgeon to a certain, deter­minate, and pro­sed end for the cure of the pre­sent diseases: of which there are three kinds.
    • The first, is drawn from things Natural which in­dicate their preservation by their like; of this kind are many other which are drawn, either
      • From the strength and faculties of the patient,
        • For whose preservation, oftentimes the proper cure of the disease must be neglected; for where these fa [...], it is impossible the Chirurgeon should perform what he desires and expects.
      • From the tempera­ment; as if the Pati­ent shall be
        • Sanguine,
        • Cholerick,
        • Flegmatick,
        • Melancholick,
        Of preservation of which the Chi­rurgeon must have care, and if they swerve from equality, to re­duce them to that which formerly they naturally were.
      • From the habit of the body, as the Pa­tient shall be
        • Dainty and delicate.
        • Slender and weak.
        • Low of stature.
        • Rare, or else dense and compact.
      • From the native condition of the hurt or affected part; in which we consider, either
        • The Substance thereof, as for as much as it is similar, we consider whether it be hot, cold, moist, dry; or as it is organical, and then whether it be a principal and noble part, or a subordinate and ignoble part.
        • Or the sense, whether quick or dull, by reason whereof the eye cannot endure such sharp and acid medicines, as simple flesh can.
        • Or the form, figure, magnitude, number, site, con­nexion, action, use.
      • From the Age; for each age yields his peculiar Indications: hence you may ob­serve most diseases to be incurable in old men, which are easily cured in young; others which in youth admit of no cure, unless by the change of age and the ensuing temperament.
      • From Sex; for medicines work upon women far more easily than upon men.
      • From the time of the year; for some meats and medicines are fit in Winter, some in Summer.
      • From the Region; for as there are diversities of situations and habits of pla­ces, so also there are motions of humors, and manners of diseases: hence it is that wounds on the head at Paris, and sore shins at Avignion, are more dif­ficult to be cured.
      • From the times of diseases, for some things in the beginning, others in the in­crease, state, and declining of the disease, are more convenient.
      • From the manner of diet; for this, as the proper temper, must be preserved. Wherefore such must be fed otherwise who live daintily than th [...]se who lead their lives sparingly and hardly; Hereunto add certain peculiar natures, which by a certain hidden property are offended at this, or that kind of meat. For there are some which not only cannot concoct Pt [...]isan, Apples, Soles, Partridge, Water, and such like, but can scarce behold them without nau­seousness.
    • The second, is drawn from things Not-natural, which one while in­dicate their preservation by their like, another while their change by their contrary; for so
      • If the Air, have as it were conspired with the disease by a certain simi­litude of qualities to the destruction of the Patient, it must be cor­rected by its contraries according to Art.
      • But if by the disagreement of qualities it resist the disease, it must be kept in the same temper.
    • The third, from things contrary to na­ture, which shew, they must be taken away by the use of their contraries, as
      • The di­sease, the Indicati­on being drawn from these,
        • The great­ness The com­plication or commix­tion with other; so
          • In [...]mplicit, or mixed di­seases we may draw Indica­tions from these three heads.
            • From that which is most urgent
            • From the cause
            • and From that, with­out which the disease can­not be taken a­way.
            such are
            • Bitterness of pain, a de­fluxion into a part, a Varix or big­swollen vein, a distempe­rature, if they be joyn­ed with a disease.
      • Cause of the disease which two, often indicate and require medicines contrary to the disease.
      • Symptom which two, often indicate and require medicines contrary to the disease.

CHAP. XXIII. Of certain wonderful and extravagant ways of curing Diseases.

AS Monsters happen sometimes in Nature, so also in Diseases,Monstrous diseases. and in the events and cures of diseases. I understand by Monsters certain marvellous successes in diseases, or certain ways of curing them, which swerve from Art, and happen besides reason, nature, and common use.

Alexander ab Alexandro, and Peter Gilius tell, that in Apulia, a part of Italy, The wonderful force of the bite of a cer­tain Spider. they have a certain kind of Spider very frequent; the Natives call it Tarantula; Petrus Rhodius calls it Phalangium; The Inhabitants find these Spiders in the first heat of Summer so venenate and deadly, that whom­soever they touch with their virulent biting, he presently, without he have speedy remedy, de­prived of all sense and motion falls down; or certainly, if he escape the danger of death, he leads the remnant of his life in madness.Musick the re­medy thereof. Experience hath found a remedy by Musick for this so speedy and deadly a disease: Wherefore, as soon as they can, they fetch Fidlers and Pipers of divers kinds, who by playing and piping may make musick; at the hearing whereof, he, which was fallen down by reason of the venemous bite, rises cheerfully, and dances so long to their measures and tunes, until by the painful and continued shaking and agitation of the whole body, all the malignity is dissipated by transpiration and sweats.

Alexander adds, that it happened once in his sight, that the Musicians, their wind and hands fail­ing them, ceased playing, and then the Dancer presently fell down as if he had been dead; but by and by the Musick beginning anew, he rose up again and continued his dancing till the perfect dissipation of the venom. And that it hath happened, besides, that one not so perfectly healed, certain reliques of the disease yet remaining, when a long time after he heard by chance a noise of Musicians, he presently fell a leaping and dancing, neither could he be made to leave before he was perfectly cured.

Some affirm according to the opinion of Asclepiades, Musick gives ease to pain. that such as are frantick are much helped with a sweet and musical harmony. Theophrastus and Aulus Gellius say, that the pain of the Gout and Sciatica are taken away by Musick. And the sacred Scripture testifies, that David was wont by the sweet sound of the Harp to refresh and ease King Saul when he was miserably tormented by his evil spirit. Herodotus in Clio tels, that Croesus the King of Lydia had a Son, which of a long time could not speak, and when he came to man's estate was accounted dumb: but when an ene­my with his drawn sword invaded his father (overcome in a great fight, and the City being taken in which he was) not knowing that he was the King,A strong per­turbation of the mind helps by moving the spirits. the young man opened his mouth endea­vouring to cry out, and with that striving and forcing of the Spirit, he broke the bonds and hin­derances of his tongue, and spoke plainly and articulately, crying out to the enemy that he should not kill King Croesus. So both the enemy with-held his sword, and the King had his life, and his son had his speech always after. Plutarch in his book, Of the benefit to be received from our enemies, tels, That a Thessalian called Pr [...]teus, had a certain inveterate and incurable Ulcer in a certain part of his body, which could not be healed, before he received a wound in a con­flict in the same place, and by that means the cure being began afresh, the wound and ulcer were both healed.

Quintus Fabius Maximus, as Livy writes, was long and very sick of a quartain Ague,Chance some­time exceeds Art. neither could have wished success from medicins administred according to Art, until skirmishing with the Ae [...]o [...]r [...]ges, he shaked off his old feaverish heat, by a new heat and ardent desire of fighting. It was credibly reported to me of late by a Gentleman of the Lord of Lansack's Chamber, that there was a French Gentleman in Polonia, who was grievously tormented with a quartain Fea­ver, who, on a time walking upon the bank of the river Wexel, to take away the irksomness of his fit, was thrust in jest into the River by a friend of his that met him by chance, by which (although he could swim, as he also knew that thrust him in) he conceived so great fear, that the Quartain never troubled him after. King Henry the second commanded me to go from the Camp at Ami­ens to the City Dorlan, that I m [...]ght cure those that were hurt in the conflict with the Spani­ards: the Captain S. Arbin, although at that time he had a fit of a Quartain Ague, yet would he be present at the fight, in which being shot through the side of the neck with a Bullet, he was strucken with such a terror of death, that the heat of the Feaver was asswaged by the cold fear, and he afterwards lived free from his Ague.

Franciscus Valeriola the famous Physitian of Arles, tels,Observ. lib. 2. That John Berlam his fellow-Citizen troubled with a Palsey of one side of his body for many years, his house taking fire, and the flame coming near the bed in which he lay, he strucken with a great fear, suddenly raised himself with all the force he had, and presently recovering the strength of his body, leaps out at the window from the top of the house, and was presently cured of his disease; sense and motion being restored to the part, so that afterward he went upright without any sense of pain, who lay unmovable for many years before. He tells the like in the same place of his cousen John Sobiratius; he was a long time lame at Avignion, by reason that the Nerves of his hams were shrunk and drawn up, so that he could not go; being moved with a vehement and sudden passion of anger against one of his servants whom he endeavoured to beat, he so stirred his body, that, forthwith the Nerves of his hams being distended, and his knees made pliant, he began to go and stand upright without any sense of pain, when he had been crooked about the space of six years before, and all his life­time after he remained sound.

Cap. ult. lib. de cur. rat. per sanguinis miss. Galen tels, he was once fetched to stanch the bleeding, for one who had an Artery cut neer his Anckle, and that by his means he was cured without any danger of an A [...]urisma (i. e.) a relaxation of a veinous vessel; and besides, by that accidental wound he was freed from a most grievous pain of his hip, with which he was tormented four years before: but although this easing of the pain of the Sciatica happened according to reason by the evacuation of the conjunct matter,Galen by a dream cures the Sciatica. by the artery the Anckle of the same side being opened; yet because it was not cut for this purpose, but hap­pened only by chance, I judged it was not much dissenting from this argument.

Pliny writes that there was one named Phalereus, which casting up blood at his mouth, and at the length, medicines nothing availing, being weary of his life, went unarmed in the front of the battel against the Enemy, and there receiving a wound in his breast, shed a great quantity of blood, which gave an end to his spitting of blood; the wound being healed, and the vein which could not contain the blood being condensate.

At Paris, Anno 1572. in July, a certain Gentleman being of a modest and curteous cariage fell into a continual Feaver, and by that means became Frantick, moved with the violence of which he cast himself headlong out of a window two stories high, and fell first upon the shoulder of Val­terra the Duke of Alenzons Physitian, and then upon the pavement; with which fall he cruelly bruised his ribs and hip, but was restored to his former judgment and reason. There were pre­sent with the Patient besides Valterra, witnesses of this accident these Physitians, Alexis, Magnus, Duretus, and Martinus. The same happened in the like disease, and by the like chance, to a certain Gascoyn lying at the house of Agrippa in the Paved street.

Othomannus Doctor of Physick of Monpelier, and the King's Professor, told me that a certain Carpenter at Broquer a village in Switzerland, being frantick, cast himself headlong out of an high window into a river, and being taken out of the water was presently restored to his understanding.

The cause of the last recited cures.But if we may convert casualties into counsel and Art, I would not cast the Patients headlong out of a window; But would rather cast them sodainly, and thinking of no such thing, into a great cistern filled with cold water, with their heads foremost, neither would I take them out until they had drunk a good quantity of water, that by that sodain fall and strong fear, the matter causing the Frenzy might be carryed from above downwards, from the noble parts to the ignoble; the possibility of which is manifest by the forecited examples, as also by the example of such as, bit by a mad Dog, fearing the water, are often ducked into it to cure them.

CHAP. XXIV. Of certain juggling and deceitful ways of Curing.

HEre I determin to treat of those Impostors, who taking upon them the person of a Chirur­geon, do by any means, either right or wrong, put themselves upon the works of the Art: but they principally boast themselves amongst the ignorant common sort, of setting bones which are out of joynt and broken,Sciences are not hereditary. affirming, as falsly as impudently, that they have knowledg of those things from their Ancestors, as by a certain hereditary right; which is a most ridiculous fiction: for our minds when we are born, is as a smooth table, upon which nothing is painted. Other­wise what need we take such labour and pains to acquire and exercise Sciences? God hath en­dued all brute beasts with an inbred knowledge of certain things necessary for to preserve their life, more than man.

But on the contrary, he hath enriched him with a wit furnished with incredible celerity and judgment, by whose diligent and laborious fatigation he subjects all things to his knowledg. For it is no more likely, that any man should have skill in Chirurgery, because his father was a Chi­rurgeon, than that one who never endured sweat, dust, nor Sun in the field, should know how to ride and govern a great Horse, and know how to carry away the credit in tilting, only because he was begot by a Gentleman, and one famous in the Art of War.

A most impu­dent sort of Impostors.There is another sort of Impostors far more pernicious and less sufferable, boldly and inso­lently promising to restore to their proper unity and seat, bones which are broken and out of joynt, by the only murmuring of some conceited charms, so that they may but have the Patients name and his girdle. In which thing I cannot sufficiently admire the idleness of our Countrey­men so easily crediting so great and pernicious an error; not observing the inviolable law of the ancient Physitians, and principally of Divine Hippocrates, by which it is determined, that three things are necessary to the setting of bones dislocated and out of joynt; to draw the bones asunder; to hold the bone receiving, firmly immoveable with a strong and steddy hand; to put the bone to be received into the cavity of the receiving. For which purpose the diligence of the Ancients hath invented so many Engines,Three things necessary for the cure of a Luxation. Glossocomies and Bands, lest that the hand should not be sufficient for that laborious work. What therefore is the madness of such Impostors to un­dertake to do that by words, which can scarse be done by the strong hands of so many Servants, and by many artificial Engines?

Of late years another kind of Imposture hath sprung up in Germany: they beat into fine powder a stone which in their mother tongue they call Bem [...]ruch, and give it in drink to any who have a bone broken, or dislocated, and affirm that it is sufficient to cure them. Through the same Germany there wander other Impostors who bid to bring to them the Weapon with which any is hurt; they lay it up in a secret place and free from noise, and put and apply medicines to it, as if they had [Page 35] the patient to dress, and in the mean time they suffer him to go about his business, and impudent­ly affirm that the wound heals by little and little, by reason of the medicine applyed to the wea­pon.

But it is not likely that a thing in animate which is destitute of all manner of sense, should feel the effect of any medicine; and less probable by much, that the wounded party should re­ceive any benefit from thence. Neither if any should let me see the truth of such juggling by the events themselves and my own eyes, would I therefore believe that it were done naturally, and by reason, but rather by Charms and Magick.

In the last assault of the Castle of His [...]in, the Lord of Martigues the elder was shot through the breast with a Musket bullet. I had him in cure together with the Physitians, and Chrirurgeons of the Emperour Charles the fifth, and Emanuel Phi [...]rt the Duke of Savoy, who because he en­tirely loved the wounded prisoner, caused an Assembly of Physitians and Chirurgeons to consult of the best means for his cure. They all were of one opinion, that the wound was deadly and in­curable, because it passed through the midst of his lungs, and besides had cast forth a great quan­titv of knotted blood into the hollowness of his breast.

There was found at that time a certain Spaniard, a notable Knave, and one of those Impostors, who would pawn his life, that he would make him sound; wherefore this Honourable Personage being in this desperate case, was committed unto his care. First of all, he bid they should give him the Patient's shirt, which he tore into shreds and pieces, which presently framing into a Cross, he laid upon the wounds, whispering some conceived or coined words, with a low mur­mur. For all other things he wished the Patient to rest content, and to use what diet he pleased; for he would do that for him, which truly he did. For he eat nothing but a few prunes, and drunk nothing but small Beer, yet for all this, the wounded Prince died within two days; the Spaniard slipt away, and so scaped hanging. And whilest I opened the body in the sight of the Phy­sitians and Chirurgeons to embalm him, the signs and accidents of the wound did evidently and plainly appear to be as we had pronounced before.

And there be also other Jugling companions of this Tribe,What wounds may be cured only by lint, or by tents and Water. who promise to cure all wounds with Lint, or Tents, either dry, or macerated in oyl or water, and bound to the wound, having murmured over some charm or other, who have had sometimes good success, as I can witness. But the wounds upon which tryal was made were simple ones, which only required union, or closing for to perfect the cure. So verily the bones of beasts when they be broke, grow together by the only benefit of nature. But when the affect shall be compound by diversity of Symptoms, as a wound with an ulcer, inflammation, contusion and fracture of a bone, you must hope for no other from Tents or Lints, nor Charms, than death. Therefore the common sort who commit them­selves to these Impostors to be cured, do not only injure themselves, but also hurt the Common­wealth, and the common profit of the Citizens; for whose good and justice sake a prudent Ma­gistrate ought to deprive Impostors of all freedom in a free and Christian Commonweal.

Witches, Conjurers, Diviners, Soothsayers, Magicians, and such like, boast of curing many diseases; but if they do or perform any thing in this kind, they do it all by sleights, subtilties, and forbidden Arts, as Charms, Conjurations, Witcheries, Characters, Knots, Magical Liga­tures, Rings, Images, Poysons, Laces tied across, and other damnable tricks, with which they pollute, pervert, and defame the prime and sacred Art of Physick, and that with the danger of mens lives. Who certainly are to be banished by the Laws of our Countrey, especially seeing it is decreed in Moses Law, Le [...] n [...]ne be found am [...]ng you that useth witchcraft, or a regarder of times,Deut. 18. or a marker of the flying of Fowls, or a Sorcerer, or a Charmer, or that counsulteth with Spi­rits, or a Soothsayer, or that asketh counsel at the dead; for all that do such things, are abomi­nation to the Lord, and because of these abominations the Lord thy God doth cast them out be­fore thee. But the Miracles of our Lord Jesus Christ the Son of God, and of his Saints and A­postles in curing diseases beyond nature and all Art, are of another kind, which we ought to be­lieve so firmly and constantly, that it should be counted an impiety for a Christian to doubt of them. All holy Writings are full of these; as to give sight to the blind, hearing to the deaf, power to go to those sick of the Palsie, to drive forth Devils, to cure the Leprosie, to give fruit­fulness to women, to raise the Dead, and perform by the holy Ghost other Miracles which exceed the condition and law of Na [...]re; whom here we earnestly intreat to free and protect us from unclean Devils, and the spirits of diabolical deceit, and to give us the mind that we may will and be able always to aspire to Heaven, and fasten the hope, safety, and anchor of all our fortunes in God alone. Amen.

The End of the first Book.

The Second BOOK. Of Living Creatures, and of the Excellency of Man.

The difference of brute beasts. BEfore I come to speak of the Anatomy of Man's body, I have thought fit to say a little of the nature of brute Beasts. There is between Beasts a great deal of dif­ference by nature; for of these, some are hardy and bold, others fearful; some wilde and savage, others tame; some walking in herds, others wandring alone; some covered and defended with shels and scales, as the Crocodile, the Tortois, and many kinds of fish; others have stings and pricles.

The Horse hath his hard and strong hoofs, his crest (as being a generous beast) beset with a thick and harsh mane. The defence of the magnanimous Lion, are his teeth, his crooked paws and tail. Buls are formidable by their horns. The Boar by his tusks standing out, as it were na­tural hunting-spears. The Hare being a timerous creature, is naked and unarmed; but in recom­pence thereof Nature hath made her nimble and swift of foot. For what the more noble and courageous Beasts have in arms, is supplyed in the fearful by nimbleness and celerity. Infinite are the other endowments of brute Beasts, and such as can hardly be imagined or described. For, if we diligently search into their nature,Some shadow of vertue in beasts. we shall observe the impressions and shadows of many vertues, as of magnanimity, prudence, fortitude, clemency, and docility: for they entirely love one another, follow those things that are good, shun those that are hurtful, and gather and lay up in store those things that are necessary for life and food. Lastly, they give undoubted presages of the weather and air. They have taught men many things, and are of a most exquisit and quick sense; of rare art in vocal musick, prudent and careful for their young, and faithful lovers of their native soil. They are religiously observant of the rights of friendship and chastity. They have their weapons whereby they are prepared, both to invade, and to defend themselves being invaded. They submit themselves to the discipline of man, practise and imitate his speech, and mutually prattle & chant one to another. They have a kind of weal-publick amongst themselves, and know how to preserve their present welfare, and to depel the contrary, being in this their own counsellors, and not tutored by man. Yea, man is beholden to them for the knowledge of many wholsom things. The consideration of which bred so great a doubt amongst the antient Philoso­phers, that it was a question amongst them, whether Beasts had use of reason, or no? Therefore also the wise Solomon sends us for examples of parsimony and diligence unto the Ant or Pismire; and Esaias in exprobration of the people of Israel for their ingratitude and rebellion against God, sends them to the Ox and Ass; for they do not only know, but reverence their Masters.

Li [...]. 8. cap. 27.But from whence is the knowledge of these Medicins, wherewith the Art of Physick is so rich­ly adorned, but from brute Beasts, as Pliny affirmeth? The infallible vertue of the herb Dictam­mus, in drawing darts out of the flesh, was taught us by the Hart, who wounded with the Hunts­man's darts or arrows, by means hereof draws out the weapons which remain sticking in her. Which is likewise practised by the Goats of Candy, as Aristotle writeth. The wonderful effect which Celandine hath upon the sight, was learnt by the practice of Swallows, who have been ob­served, with it to have besmeared, and so strengthened the eyes of their young. Serpents rub their eye-lids with fennel, and are thought by that means to quicken and restore the decaying sight of their eyes. The Tortois doth defend and strengthen her self against the biting of Vi­pers, by eating of savory. Bears, by eating of Pismires, expel that poison that they have contracted by their use of Mandrakes. And for correction of that drousiness and sloth which grows upon them by their long sleep in their dens,The craftiness of Bears. they eat the herb of Aron (i.) Cuckopint. But the Art they use in the enticing and catching of Pismires is very pretty: they go softly to the holes or hils of the Pismires, and there lay themselves all their length upon the ground, as if they were dead, hanging out their tongue wet with their foam, which they draw not again into their mouth, be­fore they feel them full of Pismires, which are enticed by the sweetness of the foam: And having taken this as a purging medicine, they expel by the guts, those ill humors wherewith they were offended. We see that Dogs give themselves a vomit, by eating a kind of grass, which is from thence called Dog-grass. Swine, when they find themselves sick, will hunt after smalt, or river-lobsters. Stockdoves, Blackbirds, and Partridges, purge themselves by Bay-leaves. Pigeons, Turtles, and all sort of Pullen, disburden themselves of gross humors, by taking of Pellitory of the wall.The bird Ibis the first inven­ter or shewer of Clysters. The invention of removing a Cataract. The invention of Phleboto­my. The Bird Ibis (being not much unlike the Stork) taught us the use of Clysters. For when he finds himself oppressed with a burden of hurtful humors, he fills his bill with salt-water, and so purgeth himself by that part, by which the belly is best discharged. The invention of the way of removing the Cataract of the eye, we must yield unto the Goat, who by striking by chance against the thorny bushes, pulls off the Cataract which hinders the sight, and covers the ball of the eye, and so recovers his sight. The benefit of Phlebotomy, we owe unto the Hippo­tamus or River-horse, being a kind of horse, and the Inhabitant of the River Nilus; who being a great devourer, when he finds himself surcharged with a great deal of blood, doth by rubbing his [Page 37] thigh against the sharp sands on the bankside, open a vein, whereby the superfluous bloud is dis­charged, which he stoppeth likewise when it is fit, by rowling himself in the thick mud. The Tortois having chanced to eat any of the flesh of a Serpent, doth make Origanum and Marjoram her Antidote. The Ancients found help from brute beasts,A preservative against thun­der. even against the dreadful and non-sparing force of lightning; for they were of opinion that the wings of an Eagle were never struck with lightning, and therefore they put about their heads little wreaths of these feathers. They were perswaded the same thing of the Seal, or Sea-calf, and therefore were wont to encompass their bodies with his skin, as a most certain safe-guard against lightening. It were a thing too long, and laborious, to speak of all those other muniments of life and health (observed here and there by Aristotle and Pliny) which we have learnt of brute beasts. I will therefore end this Chapter, after that I have first added this; That we are beholding to Beasts not only for the skill of curing diseases, and of preservation of health, but for our food, our rayment, and the orna­ment and beautifying of our bodies.

Of the Faculty of brute Beasts in presaging.

THe first knowledg and skill of Prognostication, and observation of weather by the Air, was first delivered unto us from Beasts of the land and water, and from Fowl.What the but­ting of Rams signifies. For we see in day­ly observation, that it is a sign of change of weather, when Lambs and Rams do butt at one ano­ther with their horns, and playing wantonly do kick, and keep up their heels. The same is thought to be presaged when the Ox licks himself against the hair, and on the sodain fils the Air with his lowing, and smels to the ground, and when he feeds more greedily than he used to do. But if the Pismires in great multitudes fetch their prey so hastily,Presages of rain. that they run and tumble one upon ano­ther in their narrow paths, it is thought a sign of rain; As is also the busie working of Moals, and the Cats rubbing and stroaking of her head and neck, and above her ears, with the bottom of her feet. Also when Fishes play and leap a little above the water, it is taken for a sign of rain. But if the Dolphins do the same in the Sea, and in great companies,The sign at Sea of a storm at hand. it is thought to presage a so­dain storm and tempest. Whereby the Mariners fore-warned, use all care possible for the safety of themselves and their ships, and, if they can, cast Anchor. And it is sufficiently known what the louder croaking of Frogs than ordinary portends.

But the faculty of Birds in this kind of presaging, is wonderful. If Cranes flie through the air without noise, it is a sign of fair weather; and of the contrary, if they make a great noise and flie straglingly. As also if, Sea-fowl flie far from the Sea, and light on the land. The cry or scrieching of Owls portends a change of the present weather, whether foul or fair. Plutarch saith, that the loud cawing of the Crow betokens winds and showers, as also when he slaps his side with his wings. Geese and Ducks, when they dive much, and order, and prune, and pick their feathers with their beaks, and cry to one another, fore-tel rain; and in like manner Swal­lows, when they flie so low about the water, that they wet themselves, and their wings. And the Wren, when he is observed to sing more sweetly than usual, and to hop up and down. And the Cock when he chants, or rather crows presently after the setting of the Sun. And Gnats, and Fleas, when they bite more then ordinary. If the Hern soar aloft into the air, it betokeneth fair weather; if, on the contrary, he flie close by the water, rain. If Pigeons come late home to the Dove-house, it is a sign of rain. If Bats fly in the evening, they fore-shew wet weather. And lastly, the Crocodile lays her egs in that place,The Crocodile by laying her egs, shews the bounds of the River Nilus. which must be the bounds of the over-flowing of the River Nilus; And therefore he that first meets with these Eggs, tels the rest of the Countrey-peo­ple, and shews how high the flood will rise, and what inundation it will make upon their grounds: A thing most worthy of admiration, that in this Monster there should be that strong faculty of presaging.

Of the industry of Fishes.

MAny Sea-fishes, when they feel a tempest coming, do gravel or balast themselves,How Fishes proviee for their safety a­gainst a storm. How they swim against the stream. to the end they may not be tossed up and down at the pleasure of the waves. Others, when the fu­ry of the Sea is at the height, hide themselves in the holes of Rocks. But in that they swim against the stream, they do it for this cause and reason, that the force of the stream and the flood may not take from them, and strike off their scales, and that their gills may not fill with water which would hinder their swimming, and intercept their respiration. As by the same advice Cranes fly against the wind; whereas if they should fly down the wind, their feathers would be displaced and bro­ken, and they would not be able to fly.

Of the industry of Birds in the buiding of their Nests.

THe industry of Birds in the building of their Nests is such,Of what things Birds build their nests. that it doth far exceed the art and skill of all Masons and Architects, From whence it is become a Proverb, That men know, and can do all things but make Birds-nests. They are built within with wool and feathers, and such kind of soft things, which are as a kind of a pallet for the young ones.In what shape. Swallows build their nests in a round form, that they may be the more firm, & less subject to be hurt by any things that shal strike against them, and likewise more capacious. They choose their matter out of dirt and chaff, (interlacing it with many straws) as it were, their plaister or lime. Those that build in trees, do make choice of the soundest boughs, as if they meant to have them as a sure foundation for the building which they should erect thereon. The Cock and the Hen do by turns sit over their Eggs, and like­wise fetch their meat, interchanging each others labour; neither do they ever forsake their young, before they are able to get their own living. I had at my house a great number of Sparrows nests in earthen pots; and when the young ones begun to wax pretty big, and to [Page 38] be covered with feathers,With what care Sparrows feed their young. I made the whole nest be taken down and set upon the ground, that I and my friends might delight our selves in beholding the care of the old ones in the feeding of their young; for they feed them every one in order, skipping none, neither will they (to the wrong of the rest) give one two parts, although he gape, and be importunate for it; dividing most justly to every one his own share, according to the exact rule of distribution. And oftentimes for experiment, I would make trial with a strange Sparrow of the same age, laid near, or put among the rest of the young ones, whether the old ones would feed the stranger, as if it were legitimate. But this as a stranger and a bastard they would suffer to starve, skipping it when it gaped after the meat. And in like manner Lambs and young Kidds do, in the fields, in the midst of a great flock, run every one to his own dam; who being most certainly able to distinguish between the legiti­mate and a bastard, will not suffer her self to be suckt, but by her own young.

Of the industry of Spiders.

How the Spi­ders weave.THe Spider spins her web with wonderful artifice, hanging and fastening it to every tack, or stay, that is nigh, drawing of his thread, and running upwards and downwards, and every way. And although the diligence of the Chamber-maid beats down and mars this pendulous and new-begun work, yet her seat and her hold, the Spider keeps still; neither doth she, nor will she desist from the work she hath begun, but in a very short time weaves a great deal more unto the ruins of her former work, than can be unweaved again with much labour. So that from hence, all Cloth and Linnen-Weavers, all Embroiderers and workers with the Needle (you will easily think) have learnt their Arts, if either you observe the exactness of the weaving, the fineness of the thread, or the continuation and indissoluble knitting together of the whole web; for, being abrupt, and troubled with no ends of threds at all, it resembles a thin membrane, anointed with a kind of glew, wherewith,How they catch their prey. when the prey is entangled, the Spider runs presently in, and, as it were, draws her nets, and infolds, and takes the captive after the manner of Huntsmen. If this were not daily seen with our eyes, it would be thought fabulous.

Of Bees.

Bees choose themselves a King.I Cannot pass in silence the great industry of Bees: For having established a kind of Weal-pub­lick, they make election of a King, who is such a one, as in procerity of body, and excellency of feature exceedeth all the rest. He is remarkable by his short wings, his streight legs, his grave gate; and in stead of a Diadem, or Regal Crown, either he hath no sting, or else doth not use it, which is the Artillery of the rest. He never goeth unattended out of the Hive, but alwayes invi­roned with a Princely retinue, the rest of his train following after, neither goes he at any time abroad, but upon urgent affairs which concerns the whole State. His progress is fore-warned by the voyce and sound of Trumpets, and as it were with singing, and they all draw nigh. Every one gets as near to his person as he can, and when he is weary with flying, they all bear him up with their own bodies.

Their pitching their tents. Their obse­quies for their dead King.On what place soever he alighteth, there they forthwith pitch their tents. If he chance to die, they go not abroad to feed, but stand all mourning round about the corpse; then carry him out of the Hive, and (as it were) follow his hearse and bury him: and lastly, having with solemnity performed all the several rites and obsequies, they choose themselves another King, for without a King they cannot live. He then taketh care of all things, having his eye every where, whilest that the rest intend the performance of the work. And supervising all, giveth them encourage­ment, and chastiseth negligence. For their time of going forth for food, they choose a clear and fair day;Their justice. for they have a natural faculty of presaging of the weather. They are such observers of justice and equity, that never, either with their sting, or by any other way, do they molest any creature, neither do they exercise and prepare their Spears against any, but for the safegard of themselves and their hives.

Of the care of Bees.

Their watch.THey manage and order their affairs in this manner; in the day-time they appoint before their gates a station of watch-men and guarders. In the night they rest from their labours, so long, till that one (who is appointed to this charge) by one or two hums, as by the sound of a Trumpet,Their divers employments. rowseth all the rest. Then come they together to observe what is the state of the weather, which if they foresee will be fair, then abroad go they into the fields and pastures. Some therefore bring into the Hive little fascicles of flowers on their thighs; others, water in their mouth; and others, a dewy moisture gathered on their bodies. These are met by others, who re­ceive their burdens, which they dispose in their due and proper places. Those that are sent out into the fields for food, are the youngest and the smallest; And therefore if the wind chance to rise any thing high, they expect until it cease, and that the force and violence thereof be over. But if it continue violent, then do they ballast themselves with a litle stone flying close by the ground, to prevent their being driven to and fro by the force of the wind. They are exceeding diligent in all their business, and do punish the sloth of the lazie oftentimes with death. Some of them are the builders, others polish the building, and the rest bring in their materials.

The building in their arched hives is with wonderful artifice, being made with two doors, one to come in, and the other to go out at. They have all things alike, lest that the inequality, either of their food or labour,They punish sloth with ba­n [...]shment. should give occasion of dissention. Their care is, that their houses may shew both state and handsomness. Idle Drones, born for nothing but to eat, and consume the fruits of their labours, thev chase from their Hives. Those that chance to lose [Page 39] their stings, are utterly disabled, and in a short time their guts come out that way, and they die. They bring to the owners wonderful increase of wax and honey.

Aristomachus the Philosopher doth boast, that for fifty eight years together,Aristomachus a diligent obser­ver of Bees. he had with great care been a nourisher of Bees, only that he might the better attain to the knowledg of their state and condition.

Of Pismires and Ants.

NEither truly is the industry, diligence, and experience of the Pismire less worthy of admira­tion, than that of the Bees. Insomuch, as that Solomon bids the sluggard to take an example of diligence from the Pismire. Truly, if experience did not witness it, it would seem incredible, that so small a creature should be able to store up such abundance of corn, to dispose and manage her affairs in that good order that we see she doth. Pliny saith,Lib. 11. & 30. that they have among them the form of a well-govern'd and well-order'd Common-weal. For how pretty a sight is it to see them, when they seise upon a grain they have a mind to carry away, how they set to it, and lift it with head and shoulders. And how, lest the corn which they carry to their Store-house,Wonderful care. should put forth and grow, they bite it at one end. If it be so bigg that they cannot carry it into their little hole, they divide it in the middle. If it be dampish, they lay it out to dry in the Sun and open Air. When the Moon is at the full, they follow their work in the night; when she doth not shine, they take their rest, whereby they shew themselves to have some knowledg of heavenly things. Pliny af­firmeth that they have their set Fairs and Markets, whither they come in great companies, and where they use to establish leagues of amity and friendship one with another. And when one marks them well, would he not think that they were in conference one with another, and that they did discourse among themselves of their business? Do we not see that the often trampling of their little feet, doth wear a path even upon hard flint stones?

From whence we may note, what in all kind of things is the affect of assiduity.There is no­thing but may be attained by diligence. They say also that they perform the rites of burial one unto another, after the manner of men. What words shall I use (saith Plutarch) to express sufficiently the diligence and industry of the Pismires? There is not among all the great things in nature, a sight of greater wonder than these: For in the Pis­mires are seen the marks of all vertues. Their great meetings argue that they maintain a kind of friendship.

Their alacrity in the undergoing of their labors, seem to shew their fortitude and magnanimi­ty;The forms of all vertues ex­prest in Pis­mires. and lastly, they are eminent examples of temperance, providence, and justice. Their mutual charity appeareth in this, that, if one of them that is not loaden meets another (in one of their narrow paths) that is, he will give him the way, that he may the better go on in his intended journey. They say, that the first entrance into their hole, is not streight, but full of many di­verticles and crooked paths, which in the end, will bring you to three little cels: in one of which they have their conventicles; in the other, they lay up their provisions; and in the third they bury the carkasses of their dead. This doth Plutarch speak concerning Pismires.

Of Silk-Worms.

WIth the industry of these creatures, I shall not unfitly joyn that of the Silk-worms, of whose pains and care, both in the making of their nests, and the spinning of their thred and bottoms (wherewith Kings are so magnificently adorned) Philosophers have written very strange things.

And who can chuse but wonder at those great endowments of skill and knowledg,Diligence the mother of wealth. and that exceeding industry, (the mother of so much wealth) in the little body of so small a creature? The providence therefore of God, doth not only appear in this, that he hath adorned each creature with a peculiar and proper endowment, but in this especially, that on the least creatures of all, he hath bestowed the greater portion of skill, industry, and ingenuity, to supply their defect of bo­dily strength.

Of the love of Beasts one towards another, and to their young.

PLutarch writeth, That all kind of creatures bear a singular love,The industry of Partridgee in preserving their young. and have a kind of care of those that are generated of them, and the industry of Partridges this way is much com­mended; for during the time that their young ones are weak and unable to fly, they teach them to lye upon their backs, and to hide themselves among the clods on the ground, that so being al­most of the same colour, they may not be discerned by the Faulkoner. But if notwithstanding, they see any body coming, and that he is near them, they do with a hundred dodges and stoopings of themselves, as if they were weary with flying, entice him away from their young to follow after them, and when they have their purpose, they then, as if they had recovered some fresh strength, fly quite away; Who can but wonder at this both affection and subtilty?

In Florida part of the West-Indies, they have a Beast, which for the variety and deformity of it I cannot pass over in silence; the natives call it Succarath, the Canibals, Su. It keeps for the most part about the Rivers, and the Sea-shore, and lives by prey. When he perceiveth that he is pursued by the Huntsman, he gets his young ones upon his back, and with his tail, which is very long and broad, he covereth them, and so flying, provideth both for his own and their safe­ty; neither can he be taken by any other way but by pits, which those savage men use to dig in the places near which he is to run, into which at unawares he tumbles headlong.

This picture of him here, I drew out of Thevets Cosmographie.

[Succarath]

How Hares provide for themselves and their young, for fear of hunters.Neither are those things less wonderful that are reported of Hares, for when they would go to their seat, they sever their young, and commit them to the trust of divers places, it may be two acres asunder one from another, lest peradventure a Huntsman, a Dog, or any Man should chance to come that way, and they might be in danger to be lost at once. And then after they have traced up and down, hither and thither, and every way, that the Dogs may not trace them, nor the Huntsman prick them, they take a leap or two, and leap into their forms.

Nor inferior to this is the craft of the Hedg-hog: for when the Fox pursueth him, and is now at his heels, he rowls himself up in his prickles like a Chesnut in the outward shell, so that every part being rounded and encompassed with these sharp and dangerous pricks, he cannot be hurt: and so saves himself by this trick. For his young he provides in this manner.

The care of the Hedghog to provide for her young.In the time of Vintage he goes to the Vines, and with his feet he strikes off the boughs and the grapes, and then rowling his body makes them stick upon his prickles, and so doth (as it were) take his burthen upon his back, and then returns to his hole; you would think that the Grapes did move of themselves; the prey he divides between himself and his young.

Of the affection of Birds, and of Dogs towards their Masters.

The piety of Storks.THe young Stork provides for the old, which is disabled by age; and if any one of their e­quals come to any mischance, that he is not able to fly, they will give him their assistance, and bear him on their backs and wings. And therefore this affection and piety towards the old ones, and (as it were) brotherly love towards their equals, is commended in the Stork.

The Hen in any kind of danger gathers her Chickens under her wings, and (as it were) with that guard, defends them as well as she can. For their sake she exposeth her self to the cruelty of the fiercest Beasts; and will fly in the eyes of a Dog, a Wolf, or a Bear, that by chance offers to med­dle with her Chickens.

The fidelity of Dogs.But who is there that doth not admire the fidelity and love of Dogs towards their Masters, whereby they recompence them for their keeping? A Dog will never forsake his Master, no, if he be never so hardly used. For there is no Man can find a stick hard enough to drive that Dog clean away from him which hath once taken a love to him. There is no kind of creature that doth more certainly and readily remember his Master; he will know the voyce of all the houshold, and of those which frequent the house. There cannot be a trustier keeper (as Cicero himself saith) than a Dog is; I speak not of their faculty of smelling, whereby they follow their Masters by the foot, and find them; neither do I speak of those infinite examples of the fidelity of Dogs, which were too long to rehearse.

Doves free from adultery.Pigeons, as well the Cock as the Hen, although they are all very venereous, yet they know no adultery; yea, and the Hen will bear with the frowardness of the Cock, neither will she ever leave him, but reconciling him unto her by her officious diligence, bring him to his wonted dal­liance and kisses; neither is the love of either of them less towards their young.

Turtles never couple twice.There is the like mutual bond of love between Turtles; for if one them die, the surviver never solicits Hymen more, neither will he ever chuse other seat than a dry withered bough.

Of the strength, piety, docility, clemency, chastity, and gratitude of Elephants.

AMong the Beasts of the field, there is none more vast, more strong, or more to be feared than the Elephant. His strength is sufficiently shown by those towred Castles of armed men which he carries, and fiercely rusheth with into the battail. The Roman Souldiers, being other­wise of undaunted spirits, yet in that battail which they fought against Pyrrhus, being ter­rified with the vastness and immanity of these Bodies, which they had never before seen, [Page 41] presently turned their backs and fled; which notwithstanding, it is a wonderful thing what Sto­ries natural Philosophers tell of the vertues of the Elephant.

[depiction of elephant]

Pliny writeth, that an Elephant cometh very near to the understanding that Men have,Lib. 8. cap. [...]. and that he hath a rude kind of knowledg of language; that his facility and obsequiousness is won­derful; that his memory in the performance of his wonted duties, is no less wonderful. And for [Page 42] Religion (Plutarch saith) that they pray unto the Gods,The religion o [...] the Ele­phant. P [...]n. lib. 8.c. 5. and sprinkle and purge themselves with Salt-water; and that with great reverence they worship the Sun at his rising, lifting their trunks up towards heaven for want of hands. Pliny addeth, that they do with the like reverence wor­ship the Moon and the Stars. For it is related in the History of the Arabians, that at a new Moon the Elephants go by Troops down unto the Rivers, and there wash themselves with water; and be­ing thus purged, kneel down and worship the Moon, and then return to the Woods; the eldest going first, and the other following after according to their age. Plutarch reporteth, that it hapned once, that among the Elephants which were caught at Rome, against the Panegyrick Shows, there was one that was something dull, and not so docile as the rest, which made him be despised by his fellows, and often beaten by his Master: But that this Elephant, that he might supply by diligence what he wanted in wit, was oftentimes observed in the night, by the light of the Moon, to be practising and conning what he learnt of his Master in the day-time. For they were wont to be taught to make Letters, and also to present Garlands to the Spectators, and other such like tricks. But they can never be brought to go aboard a Ship, to be carryed over the Sea into any strange Land, unless their Master give them his word to assure them that they shall re­turn again to their own native soil. They never hurt any one that doth not first provoke them. They never gender but in private, out of sight; an argument of their modesty.

Of the Lamprey.

LEst that the heat of affection may seem to lie quenched under the waters, let us by one ex­ample, (it were an infinite thing to speak of all) see in what kind of mutual love the crea­tures of the water come short of those of the Land. The Lamprey of all the creatures of this kind doth worthily bear the praise for its piety towards those of whom it was generated, its affe­ction towards those that are generated of her; for first she breeds Eggs within her, which in a short time after are spawned. But she doth not as soon as her young ones are formed and procrea­ted, bring them straight-way forth into the light after the manner of other fishes, that bring forth their young alive, but nourisheth two within her, as if she brought forth twice, and had a second brood. These she doth not put forth before they are of some bigness, then she teacheth them to swim and to play in the water, but suffers them not to go far from her; and anon gapes and receives them by her mouth into her bowels again, suffering them to inhabit there, and to feed in her belly so long as she thinks fit.

The savage or brute Beasts may be made tame.

Cos [...]g [...]ph. Tim. 2. lib. 19. cap. 7. TH [...] reporteth, that the Emperor of the Turks hath at Caire (it was once called Memphis) and at Constantinople, many savage Beasts kept for his delight, as Lions, Tigers, Leopards, An­tilopes, Camels, Elephants, Porcupines, and many other of this kind. These they use to lead a­bout the City to shew. The Masters of them are girt with a girdle hung about with little bels, that by the noise of these Bels the people may be fore-warned to keep themselves from being hurt by these Beasts. But in hope of reward, and of gifts, they shew them to Ambassadors of strange Na­tions, before whom they make these Beasts do a thousand very delightful tricks, and in the inte­rim they play their Countrey tunes and Musick upon their Pipes, and other Instruments, and make many sports in hope of gain.

That Fishes also may be tamed.

BUt it is far more wonderful, that the creatures of the water should be made tame, and be taught by the art of man. Among which, the chiefest are held to be the Eel. The same things also are reported of the Lamprey. For, we have it recorded, that Marcus Crassus had a Lamprey in his Fish-pool, that was so tame, and so well taught, that he could command her at his pleasure. Therefore as a domestical and tame Beast he gave her a name, by which, when he called her, she would come. And when this Lamprey dyed, he mourned for her in black, as if she had been his daughter. Which when his colleague Cneus D [...]micius objected to him by way of reproach, he re­plying, told him, That he had buryed three wives, and had mourned for none of all them three.

Of the Lyon, the Ich [...]um [...]n, and those other Beasts which are not easily terrified.

The provi­dence of the Lion in his going.THe Lion when he goes, hath his claws alwayes clutched, and (as it were) put up in their sheaths, not only because he would leave no mark in his feet, whereby he may be traced and so taken, but because by continual walking he should wear off, and blunt the points of his claws. B [...]ls when they fight, charge one another with their horns, and like valiant Souldiers provoke and animate one another to the battail.

The Ichne [...]mon seems to imitate the most valiant Souldier in his preparation and access to bat­tail; for he bedaw [...]s himself with mud, and doth (as it were) buckle and make tite his armor, especially when he is to encounter with the Crocodile; who although he be a vast Beast, is put to fl [...]ght by this little creature.The greatest are testified by the least. And this truly hath been observed to be by the singular Provi­dence of Nature, that the most vast creatures are terrified by the least things, and such from whence there can arise no danger; so they say, the Elephant doth startle at the granting of a Hog; and the Lion, at the crowing of a Cock; although it be reported of the Lion, that no fear can make him turn his face. These kind of fears, terrors, and affrightments, arising upon light and most ridiculous occasions, we find as well in the ancient as modern Histories of our times, to have dispersed and put to flight mighty legions of Souldiers, and most potent Armies.

That men were taught by Beasts to polish and to whet their weapons, and to lye in ambu [...]h.

Souldiers are careful to keep their weapons from rust, and therefore they carry them to the Armorers to be polished. But in this care, many Beasts are nothing inferior unto them; for Boars whet their tusks against they fight. And the Elephant knowing that one of his teeth is dou­bled with digging at the roots of trees to get meat, keepeth the other sharp, and touches nothing with it, preserving it for his combat with the RHINOCEROT his Enemy. But the craft of

[armored rhinoceros]

[Page 44] the Rhinocerot is very remarkable, that being in continual enmity with the Elephant, at the time when he prepares for the battail,The craft of the Rhinoce­rot about to fight with the Elephant. he whets his horn against a Rock, as if it were with a Whetstone; nor (if he can chuse) will he strike any other part of the Elephant but the belly, because he knows that part of the Elephant is so tender, that it may be easily pierced. This Beast is in length equal to the Elephant, but in height he is inferior unto him, by reason of the shortness of his feet; he is of a palish yellow colour, and full of many spots.

Of Cocks.

Cocks are kingly and martial Birds.COcks are Kingly Birds, and therefore Nature hath adorned them with a Comb, as with a Princely Diadem; and wheresoever they come, their magnanimity and courage makes them Kings. They fight with their beaks and their spurs, and with their martial voyce they fright the Lion, who is otherwise the King of Beasts.

Of Conies.

Conies have taught us un­dermining.COnies have taught us the art of Undermining the Earth, whereby the most lofty Cities, and Structures reaching to the very skies, are by taking away their foundation levelled with the ground.

Marcus Varro writes, that in Spain there was a Town, and that no mean one, which standing on a sandy ground, was so undermined by a company of Conies, that, all the houses tumbling and falling down to the ground, the Inhabitants were fain to depart and seek new dwellings.

Of Wolves.

The deceits and ambushes of Wolves.MEn have learnt the Arts of waging War from the Wolves, for they come out by Troops, and lye in ambush near the Towns which they have appointed, and then one of them runs unto the Town and provokes the Dogs. And making, as if he run away, incites the Dogs to fol­low him, until he hath gotten them unto the place where their ambush lyeth, which on a sodain appeareth and rusheth out upon them. And so they kill and eat all, or as many of the Dogs as they are able to catch.

Of the Fox.

The craft of the Fox.IN subtilty and craft the Fox exceedeth all other Beasts: When in the chase the Dogs are at his heels, he berays and bepisses his tail, and swings it in the face and eyes of the Dogs that follow him, and so blinding them, in the mean time gets ground of them. To fetch the Hens down from their pearch, he hath this device; he shakes and swings his tail upwards and downwards, as if he meant to throw it at them; which they fearing tumble down, and he takes up one of them for his prey. His wariness when he passeth over a River that is frozen, is wonderful; for he goes softly to the bank, and lays his ear to listen, if he can hear the noise of the Water running under the Ice.The Fox seems to reason with himself. For, if he can, back he goes, and will not venture to pass over. The knowledg of which thing he could never meerly by his subtilty and craft attain unto, but that of necessity he must have some faculty of reasoning joyned with it; which by discourse, and by proving one thing by another,His Sorites. arrives at this Conclusion: Whatsoever is liquid and maketh a noise, is in motion; what­soever liquid is in motion, is not concrete and frozen; that which is not concrete and frozen, is li­quid; whatsoever is liquid, will not bear a heavier body; whatsoever will not bear a heavier body, cannot with safety be adventured on; and therefore back again must I go, and not pass over this River.

Of Swine.

SWine, if, in the Woods, they hear any one of the same herd with them crying out, they straight make a stand; and marshalling their forces, haste all, as if they had been warned by the sound of a martial Trumpet, to the assistance of their fellows.

Of the fishes, Scarus and Anthia.

The love of fishes one to a­nother. PLutarch reports of the Scari, that when one of them chances to swallow a hook, and be taken, the rest of the same kind come to his rescue, and shearing the Line with their teeth, set him at liberty. But the readiness of the Anthiae to the mutual assistance of one another, is yet more manifest; for by casting the Line upon which the hook hangeth on their back, with the sharpness of their sins they cut it asunder, and so set free themselves and their captived fellows.

Of the Pilot-fish.

THere is great kindness between the Pilot-fish and the Whale; For, although in bulk of bo­dy, the Whale so far exceed him, yet he leads the Whale, and goes alwayes before him as his Pilot, to keep him from running himself into any straight or muddy place, whence he might not easily get out. And therefore the Whale always follows him, and very willingly suffers him­self to be led by him,The Whales pilot or guide. it being for his own good. And, in like manner, he gets into the Whales mouth, and there lodging himself, sleeps when he sleeps, and leaves him not either by day or night.

Of Cranes.

Cranes orders themselves in ranks.CRanes when they are to take a long journey into some Countrey cross the Seas, put their company in so good order, that no Captain can put his Souldiers in better. For before they stir out of any place, they have (as it were) their Trumpets to call them together, and encourage them to fly. They come together, and then fly up on high, that they may see afar off, choosing a Captain whom they are to follow. They have their Serjeants to take care of their rancks, and keep their nightly watches by turns.The sentinel Crane. Plutarch tells us, that the Crane, which is appointed to stand Sentinel for all the rest, holds a stone in her foot, to the end, that, if she chance to give way to nature and sleep, she may be waked by the noise of the falling stone. The leader, lifting up his head, and stretching out his long neck, looks about him far and wide, and gives warning to [Page 45] the rest, of any danger that may befall them. The strongest lead the way, that they may the bet­ter with the flapping of their wings break the force of the air, and this they do by turns. And that they may the easilier prevail against the force and opposition of the winds, they dispose their company into a wedg in the form of the Greek letter [...], or a triangle; and being skilful in the Stars, they fore-see when tempests are coming, and fly down to the ground to keep themselves from the injury of the approaching storm.

Of Geese.

THe Geese of Sicilie do with great wariness take care, that by their keeking and their noise,The care of the Geese that their gagling do them no harm. they do not expose themselves to the rapacity of Birds of prey: for Plutarch saith, that when they are to fly over the hill Taurus, for fear of the Eagles that are there, they hold stones in their mouths to keep themselves from gagling; until that they come unto a place where they may be secure.

Of Dragons.

NEither are the Dragons less crafty;The craft of Dragons fight­ing against the Elephant. for thus do they overcome those vast and otherwise in­vincible Beasts the Elephants. They lye in ambush, and sodainly set upon the Elephants when they fear no such matter, and involve their legs with the twines of their tail, in such sort, that they are not able to go forward; and stop their nostrils with their heads; so that they cannot fetch their breath; they pull out their eyes, and wheresoever they find the skin most tender, there they bite and suck the bloud until they make them fall down dead. Pliny saith,Lib. 8. cap. 11. & 12. that there are Dra­gons found in Aethiopia of ten Cubits long, but that in India there are Dragons of an hundred foot long, that fly so high, that they fetch Birds, and take their prey even from the midst of the Clouds.

Of the Fish called the Fisherman.

This Fish is called the Fisherman, because he hunts and takes other Fishes,The craft of the Fisherman fish in taking her prey. which he doth al­most by the same cunning which the Cuttel uses; for he hath hanging at his throat a certain bag, like the Wattels of a Turky-cock, This when he listeth he casteth out, and layeth before the little Fishes for a bait, and then by little and little draws it up again, until he catch for food the little Fishes seising upon it as a prey.

Of the Cuttel Fish.

WOnderful is the craft of the Cuttel-fishes,The craft of the Cuttel to save her self. Lib. 9. de Hist. animal. cap. 37. for they carry a bladder at their Neck full of a black Juyce or Ink, which they pour forth as soon as they feel themselves taken; that so they may blind the eys of the Fishermen, as Plutarch saith, and as Aristotle witnesseth, they with their long fangs do not only hunt and take little Fishes, but oftentimes also Mullets.

Of the arms or weapons of brute Beasts.

BRute beasts are naturally so furnished with arms, that they have no need to get, make, or bor­row in any other place.

And some of them nevertheless are so furnished with such arms, that they captivate those which hold them Prisoners; an example of this is the Torpedo, which doth not only hurt by touch, but also by the net being between, he breaths such a quality from him, as stupefies the hands of the Fishermen, so that they are forced to let go their nets, and so let him go; moreover if it touch a ship it makes it stay. Thevet writes, that the Persian bay towards [...]ia, Cosmosgr. tom. 1. lib. 10. cap. 10. nourishes a Fish equal in length and thickness to a Carp, on every side encompassed with [...]arp and strong pricks, like our Porcupine, with which he fights against all kinds of fish. If a man chance but to be light­ly hurt either with these or his teeth, he will die within 24 hours.

Of the Fish Utelif.

HE saith moreover, That as he was carryed by force of tempest [...]rough the Atlantick Ocean, he saw this Fish, having (as it were) a Saw in his forehead of three foot-long, and four fin­gers broad, armed on each side with sharp spikes; they call it Utelif, in their Countrey speech.

Of the Fish Caspilly.

THere is another Fish to be seen in the Arabian-gulf, which the Arabians call Caspilly; it's two foot long, and many broad; it hath a skin not much unlike a Dogfish, but armed with spikes, one whereof he carries in his forehead a foot and half broad, in sharpness and force of cutting not much short of a graver, or chissel: with this weapon, when she is opprest with hunger, she assails the first Fish she meets, neither doth she give over, before she carry her as a prey whither she please, as Thevet saith he hath seen.Tom. 1. lib. [...]. cap. 2.

Of Crabs.

CRabs and Lobsters, though in the quantity of their body they be but small, yet they use their forked claws before, not only in feeding but also in defending themselves & assailing others.

Of the docility of Beasts, and first of the Dog.

BEasts are apt to learn those things which men desire, whereby they shew themselves not whol­ly void of reason. For Dogs, Apes, and Horses, learn to creep through the Juglers hoops,The wonderful docility of Dogs. and rise on their hinder-feet, as though they would dance. Plutarch tells that a Jugler had a Dog which would represent many things upon the Stage befitting the occasion and argument of the Play; amongst the rest, he exceeded all admiration in that, that taking a soporifick medicin, he excellently feigned himself dead; for first, as taken with a giddiness in his head he begun to tremble, then presently fell down, and lying on the ground, as it were contracted his dying members, and lastly, as if truly dead he wax'd stiff; and moreover suffered himself diversly to be fitted according to divers parts of the Theater, the fable so requiring, But when he,A spectacle full of admiration and truth. by those things that were were said and done, knew it was time to rise, he first begun to move his of [Page 46] legs by little and little, as if he had been wakened from a sound sleep; then presently with his head a little lifted up, he looked this way and that way, to the great admiration of all the behol­ders; and finally rose up, and went familiarly and chearfully to him he should. Than which sight the Emperor Vespasian (who was then present in Marcellus his Theater) never saw any which more delighted him.

Of the Camel.

THe Camel is a very domestical and gentle Beast, and which is easily tamed and taught all kind of obedience and service; although some of them are cruel, wild, and troublesome

[camel]

[Page 47] by biting and striking such as they meet, no less than untamed Horses.Camels both tame and wild. There is no need to house them in the night, for they may be left in the plain fields in the open and free air, feeding upon the grass and trees, and cropping the tops of the Thistles, neither in the morning do they any whit the worse undergo or carry their burdens.The easie and not chargeable keeping of Camels. They are not put to carry burdens before they be four year old. The Arabians geld them young, that they may enjoy their labor the longer; neither being gelt, do they rage for love, or desire of Venery. At the putting in of the Spring they en­dure hunger and thirst for eight days; they are so dutiful, that at the beck of the Turkish-slaves, or but touched on the neck with a twig, they presently kneel on the ground to take up their burden,Camels know when they have a sufficient load. Camels both to carry burdens, and to ride up­on. neither do they lift themselves up before that they find they have a sufficient load laid upon them. Those that have but one bunch upon their back are of Africk; but such as have two bunches are of Asia, or Scythia. Those kind of Camels that are the bigger are used to carry packs, but the les­ser are used to ride upon, as our Horses are. They love nothing so well as Beans, and yet they live content with four handfuls of Beans for a day. The greatest wealth of the Arabians consists in Camels, and so they estimate their riches, not by the quantity of silver, or gold, but by the number of Camels. The Turkish Emperour (Thevet being the reporter) made a Captain over the heards of his Camels, giving him a great troop of African and Christian slaves, that they might be the better looked unto. I have heard it reported (saith Thevet) by certain Arabian, African, and Jewish Merchants who were present, at that time when Sultan Selim, the first of that name, besieged Cair [...] in Aegypt, A mighty troop of Ca­mels. (which in former times was called Memphis) that there then was in that Em­perours Army sixty thousand Camels, besides a mighty company of Mules.

Of the Ape.

AN Ape is a ridiculous Creature, and which makes men much sport in imitating their actions.Gal. lib. 1. de usu partium. There hath been seen an Ape which would pipe and sing, and besides, dance and write, and endevour to perform many other things proper to men. I remember, I saw in the Duke of Semes house a great and curst Ape, who because he much troubled many, had his hands cut off, who suffering himself to be cured, when the wound was cicatrized, he grew more mild and do­cile. Wherefore cloathed in a green Coat, and girt over his loins with a Girdle, he carryed hanging thereat a case of Spectacles, a pair of Knives, and a childs Handkerchief. He was com­mitted to the charge of the Master-cook to teach, because he had taken up his lodging in the Chimney-corner, he was taught many tricks and feats. If at any time he swerved from his do­ctrine and precepts, in a trice the whip was upon his back and loins, and much was abated of his daily allowance; for, as Persius saith, The belly is the Master of Arts, and sharpener of wit. By these means he profited so in a short time, that he much exceeded all the Apes of his time in the glory of his wit; and there was none counted more skilful in leaping and dancing to the pipe, running up a pole, and nimbly leaping through his Masters-legs. To conclude, he performed all the actions of a strong Ape, and very reverently carryed up dishes with the Waiters and Serving-men, and made clean the dishes and platters by licking, and did much other drudgery, so that he was commonly called, Master John Do [...]all. At dinner and supper sitting in a Chair, he said grace, and cast his eyes up towards heaven, and rouled them this way and that way, and smote his breast with the stumps of his hands with much lamentation, and imitated Prayer by the gnashing or beating together of his teeth. He would turn up his tail to any that offended him, (for his coat scarce co­vered half his buttocks, lest he should have defiled it) he made much other pastime, always going upright by reason of the cutting away of his hands, unless at any time through weariness he were forced to sit on his Buttocks.

Of ravenous Birds.

BUt let us take view of Falconers teaching ravenous Birds,The diligence of Falconers in training up their Hawks. how with swift wings carryed a­loft into the air, they may seise upon other Birds, and cast them down dead to the ground; in performance whereof, they often too freely soar up to the clouds, so that they carry them­selves out of the Falconers sight, with a desire to Sun themselves, neglecting in the mean time their designed prey.

The Hern when she sees her self kept under, and below the Falcon,The fight of the Hern and Falcon. carried up by his strong wings with a marvellous swiftness, with her beak, which is long and sharp, hid under her wings, and turned upwards, she receives the Falcon blinded with the heat of fight, and desire of prey, carelesly flying down and rushing upon him; so that he often strikes him through the gorge, so that oft-times they both fall down dead to the ground. But if the Falcon without harm escape the deceits by Art, and the happy turning of his body, and the Hern be not cast down, the Faulco­ner calling her back with never so loud a voyce, yet by setting up her Feathers she dares her to the pretended fight.

That Birds have taught us Musical tunes.

THe Nightingales are sweet and excellent singers, tuning their notes with infinite quaverings,To sing like a Nightingale. and diversities of sounds, so prettily and sweetly, that humane industry can scarce equal the sweetness thereof, by so many musical Instruments; so that we say, he sings like a Nightingale, [Page 48] who varies his voyce with much variety. In which thing Birds much excel men, because they have that admirable sweetness of singing from Nature it self without any labour of learning; which men can scarce attain to in any Shool of Musick, by having their ears a thousand times pluckt by the hand of a curst Master.

That Beasts know one another voyce.

The voyce to beasts is of the same use, as speech is to men.BEasts know one another by their voyce, so that they may seem to talk and to laugh toother, whilst fluttering with their ears, they pluck in their noses with a pleasant aspect of their eyes; and as speech is given to men, so Birds have their natural voyce, which is of the same use to them, as speech is to us. For all Birds of the same species, as men of the same countrey, chant and chirp to one another, when men understand not the speech of other men, unless of the same Nation.We are as ill as deaf, when we hear an un­known lan­guage. Wherefore the Scythian tongue is no more profitable to one living in Egypt, than if he were dumb; nor the Aegyptians understand it no more than if they were deaf. Wherefore an Aegyptian is dumb and deaf to a Scythian. This those which travail well understand, how many dangers, how many troubles they undergo, because they cannot express their minds, and re­quire things necessary for life. Wherefore to the assistance of this unprofitable tongue, we are compelled to call the rest of the members, and to abuse the gestures of the head, eys, hands, and feet. Truly the condition of bruce beasts is not so miserable, seeing that all of the same kind wheresoever they be, may answer each other with a known voyce. Truly, if any should hear a German, Briton, Spaniard, English man, Polonian, and Greek, speaking amongst themselves in their native tongues, not understanding any of them, he could scarce discern, and certainly judg, whe­ther he heard the voyce of men, or of beasts.

That Birds may counterfeit Mans voyce.

Parrats are wonderful imitaters of mans voice.LInets, Larks, Pies, Rooks, Daws, Crows, Stares, and other such like Birds, speak, sing, whistle, and imitate the voyces of men, and other creatures. In this, Parrats excel all other, being wondrous skilful imitaters of mens voyces; and very merry, but specially when they have drunk a little Wine.

A talking Pit. Plutarch reports that there was a Barber at Rome, who kept a Pie in his shop, which spoke ex­ceeding well, and that of her own accord, none teaching her, when she first heard men talking together; she imitated the voyce or cry of all Beasts she heard, as also the sound of Drums, and the sound of Pipes, and Trumpets; to conclude, there was nothing which she did not indevour to imitate. There have been Crows that have spoken and articulately sung Songs and Psalms, and that of some length.Lib. 2. Satu [...]n. cap. 4. To which purpose the History of Macrobius is notable; for he tels that there was one amongst those, who went forth for luck-sake to meet with Augustus Caesar, returning from the war against Antonius, who carryed a Crow, which he had taught plainly to pronounce this salutation, Salve Caesar Imperator Augustissime, that is, God save thee, O most sacred Emperor Caesar. Caesar taken with the novelty of this spectacle, bought this obsequious Bird with a thousand pieces of silver. Pliny and Valerius have reckoned up amongst prodigies, Oxen and Asses that have spoken. I omit infinite other things recorded by the Ancients, Plato, Aristotle, Pliny, Plutarch, and other Philosophers of great credit, of the docility of Beasts, and their admirable felicity of understand­ing. Which things, if untrue, these learned men would never have recorded in writing, lest so they might brand with vanity, (than which nothing is more base) the rest of their writings to po­sterity in all ensuing ages.

Of the Sympathy and Antipathy of Living Creatures amongst themselves.

HAving briefly described the understanding of brute Beasts, it seems not impertinent to set down some things more worthy of knowledg, happening unto them by reason of Sympathy and Antipathy; that is, mutual agreement and disagreement, which happens not only to them living, but also dead,The Lion fears a Cock. by a certain hidden property, through occasion whereof some desire, other shun, and others prosecute one another even to death. In testimony whereof; The Lyon the King of Beasts excelling all other in courage and magnanimity, fears the Cock, for he is not only terrified by his presence; but also by his crowing being absent. So an Elephant fears an Hog; but he is so afraid of Mice and Rats, that he will not touch the meat that is given him, if he smell that it hath been defiled with such creatures. There is deadly hatred between the Elephant and Rhinocerot; yet when the Elephant is furious and angry, he becomes quiet and calm at the sight of a Ram.A Horse fears a Camel. A Horse is so afraid of a Camel, that he cannot endure his sight. The Dog hates the Wolf, the Hart flies the Dog. The Snake flies from and fears a naked man, and follows him be­ing clothed. There is deadly hatred between the Aspis and Ichneumon: for he when he hath rowled himself in the clay, dries himself in the Sun, and so being covered over (by doing thus di­vers t [...]mes) as it were with shells, or armour, he enters into combat, stretching out his tail, and pre­senting his back, until he get opportunity to choak his adversary, by leaping and fastening on her jaws, by which stratagem he also kils the Crocodile. The green Lizard is a capital enemy to the Ser­pent, but most friendly to man, as Erasmus witnesseth by many Histories concerning that matter, in his Dialogue of Sympathy and Antipathy. There is a great deal of hatred between a Man and a [Page 49] Wolf, which is most manifest by this, that if the Wolves first see a Man, his voice is taken away, and his intended cry hindered. If the Weasel intend to set upon the Aspis that most venemous Serpent, she arms her self by eating Rue, as a most certain Antidote. The Ape fears the Torpedo, as Erasmus manifests by a pleasant History in the forementioned Dialogue; where also he preti­ly shews the deadly hatred between the Serpent called Areus and the Toad. The like hate is be­tween the Owl and Crows, so that the Owl dares not go out, fly abroad, or seek her food unless by night. The Water or River-Fowl are afraid of the Falcon, that if they but hear her bels,What foul fear the Falcon. they had rather be killed with staves and stones, than take wing to flie into the air. So the Lark yields her self to be taken by a man, lest she fall into the Talons of the Hobby. The Castril, or Merlin, is naturally a terror to Hauks, so that they both shun his voice and presence.

The Kites are all at perpetual enmity with the Crows,The enmity between the Kites and Crows. The discord between the Lamb and Wolf, is not ended by death. wherefore the Crow always gets away the Kites provision. All kind of Pullen fear the Fox. The chicken fears neither a Horse, nor an Ele­phant; but, scarse hatched, it presently runs away at the voyce or sight of a Kite, and hides it self un­der the hens wings. The Lamb and Kid flie from the Wolf when they first see him, neither doth death give an end to that hatred, but it supervives their funeral. An Experiment whereof (they say) is, that if one Drum be headed with Wolves skins & another with Sheeps, and beaten up together, you shall scarce hear the sound of the Drum covered with sheep skins. And besides, if you string one Harp with strings made of Sheeps-guts, and another with strings of Wolves-guts, you cannot bring it to pass, by any art, to make them agree and go in one tune. It is reported from the expe­riments of many men, that if a Wolves head be hanged upon high in the place where Sheep are, that they will not touch the grass how good and fresh soever it be, nor rest quiet in any place, but tumultuoussy run up and down, until all such kind of terror be taken away.How to make Cheese that Mice will not not gnaw. The hate be­twixt Mice and Weasels appears by this, that if you mix never so little of the brains of a Weasel in the rennet, with which you crudle your Cheese, the Mice will never gnaw or touch that Cheese. The Linnet doth so hate the bird Florus, that both their bloods put into one vessel cannot be mix­ed together. A Wolves head hung up in a Dove-house, drives away Poll-Cats and Weasels. The Panther and Hyaena burn with so great hatred, that if both their skins be laid one against the o­ther, the Panthers will shed the hair, the hairs of the Hyena remaining entire and not moved; which thing, they say, happens to the feathers of other Birds, if any one chance to tye them up in a bundle with the Eagles. Let these suffice for some few examples of many, of the Antipathy a­mongst Beasts. But of the Sympathy and consent of Beasts amongst themselves, I think needless to write any thing, being it is sufficiently known to all, that one Jay associates another, and the cruel Bears agree amongst themselves; and beasts of same species do wonderfully consent one with another.

That Man excells all Beasts.

I Now think it fit to assay to write of that excellency of Man over Beasts, which I have so long intended. Neither would I that Epicures, and other, too much natural and materiate Philoso­phers, so take those things I have written of the endowments of Beasts, as though we should think, there were no difference between Man and Beast. I had no such meaning, no such intention; but only that man should not become too stately, or too ingrate in less acknowledging God to be the Author of so many benefits with which he abounds. For whatsoever we have largely spoken of beasts, yet there is no comparison between Beasts and Man; for there is too great a difference be­tween them. For Mans mind is adorned with Religion, Justice, Prudence, Magnanimity, Faith, Piety, Modesty, Clemency, Fortitude, and other vertues as Lights, which shine much more bright in Man than Beasts. For they are sometimes all in some one Man,Man bears Gods image. each whereof are thought great in Beasts. For seeing that Man is made to the Image of God, it cannot be, how much soever he de­file himself with the pollution of vices, that he can so obscure that inbred-light, but that alwayes some beam of the divine wisdom will be inherent and shine in him. But although by collation to some beasts, he may seem a defective and weak Creature; yet no fortitude nor strength of Beasts can be so great as to equal the fortitude of Man. For God hath ingraven in Man the Character of his divine vertue, by the assistance whereof, he might have all Beasts under and obedient to him. And though by that we have formerly said, Beasts may seem to have a certain shadow of reason, yet that small light is not fit for many and divers uses, but there is only given them so much providence, as should be sufficient for them and the preservation of their bodies. But men have Reason given them to crop or gather the fruits of eternal life, (as Lactantius saith) whereby it comes to pass, that man only, amongst so many creatures, hath sense and understanding of divine things. Which Cicero thought to be known by that, because Man only had a certain knowledg of God in his mind. Wherefore he was inriched by God with reason, speech, and hands as helps for the performance of all his actions; moreover by his singular and almost divine wit he easily excels all brute Beasts. For first, Reason being his guide,Man hath gi­ven names to things. he invented things necessary for life, fitly imposed names on the things invented befitting their natures, framed Letters and Chara­cters, invented all liberal Arts and handy-crafts, and found means to measure the Land and Sea. He hath observed and drawn into an Art the spaces of the Celestial Globe, the distinctions of the Stars; the changes and orders of days and nights, of times and seasons; the rising and setting of Stars, and their power and effects over these lower bodies. Lastly, he records in writing to per­petual memory that which concerns his own nature, or the nature of other things, the precepts and ordinances of life and manners: by which singular gift, we can now confer with Socrates, Pla­to, Aristotle, and other Philosophers of ancient times, as if they were living.

What benefit man hath by reason of his native nakedness and ignorance.

Gal. cap. 4. lib. 1. de usu pa [...]ti­um.BUt as Mans body is by nature naked and unarmed, so is his mind like a smooth table in which nothing is painted, nothing graven; but for help of his nakedness he hath hands, and for supply of his ignorance, reason and speech. And by these three being, as it were, the ministers of infinite variety of things, he clothes and defends his body with all things needful: and inriches his mind with the knowledg of Arts and Sciences. Now if he had certain weapons born with him, he should use them only; if he should be born skilful in any Art, he would meddle with none else.As the hand is the Instrument of instruments, so reason is the Art of arts. Therefore, because it was more expedient to use all sorts of weapons with the hand, and be skilful in all Arts; therefore he must be born wanting and ignorant of all. Aristotle very wittily called the hand the Instrument of instruments: in imitation of which speech, one may rightly af­firm, that reason is the Art of arts: for as the Hand in worth exceeds the other instruments, be­cause it can make, handle and fit them for use; so reason and speech, though names of no Art, yet comprehend and encrease all Arts. Therefore Man, seeing he hath his mind instructed by Art, that is, by reason; it is fit he should have his body defended with a weapon, or instrument, that is, the Hand; which in agility and excellency should excel all other instruments. For so Man hath his hands in stead of all weapons, which he may use in war and peace, as the instruments of all Arts; he wants not the Buls horns, the Boars tusks, the Horses hoofs, nor, to conclude, any arms of any other Beast. For by the benefit of his hands he can handle other arms far more profitable and safe; as a Lance, Sword, Spear, Halberd; but man also can use at some distance the Bow, sling, and handgun, when the horn and the hoof cannot be used but neer at hand. But some may say; A Lyon exceeds a man in swiftness of foot; What then? Is man therefore inferiour to him? No, for by the means of his hands, and the guidance of his reason he bridling and riding upon a Horse, out-runs the Lyon, and being victor follows him to and again as he himself pleases, or vanquished flies away; and from the Horses back, as from a Tower, wounds the Lyon with what weapons he pleases. To conclude, Man is abundantly provided with means, to defend himself from the vio­lence of all other Beasts. For this purpose, he doth not only harness himself as with brazen wals, but also makes Ditches and Bulwarks, he makes by the ministery of his hands all kind of weapons, weaves himself garments, casts into the water and draws forth nets to catch fish; and, to conclude, he performs all things to his own contentment,Man under God is the King and Em­perour of the World. and having that priviledge granted him by God, he rules over all the earth; all things which lye hid in the bowels of the earth; which go, or creep upon the earth, which swim in the Sea, and flie through the air, or are any where shut up in the compass of the skie, are in Man's dominion.

How wonderful God hath shewed himself in making Man.

Man is the end of all mundane things.GOds Deity and Providence hath principally shewed it self in the creation of Man; neither his so admired light hath so shone in the production of other creatures, seeing that God would have them to live and have their beeing, only for mans sake, that they might serve him. Therefore man is, if we diligently consider all his endowments, a certain pattern and rule of the divine Majesty & (if I may so say) Artifice.Man is little world, yea al­most a great World. For being made to Gods Image, he is, as it were, his coin, exceeding the capacity of all humane understanding. Which seemed a just reason to the ancient Philosophers, that he should be called Microcosmos, or a little world, because the particles of all things contained in the compass of heaven and earth, are contained in his mind and body, that in the mean time I may in silence pass over his Soul, more great and noble than the whole world.

Why Nature hath not given Man the faculty of presaging.

Man is not obnoxious to the air and stars.THis seems the reason, that men by the instinct of Nature do not foresee the future seasons and dispositions of the heaven and air; because, seeing they have received certain sparks of prudence from God, by whose care and guidance they are led to the knowledg of things by no de­ceitful but certain judgment, being not obnoxious to the conditions and changes of times and seasons, as beasts are: Wherefore knowing all these airy changes, to be placed under them, that is to say, their minds; according as occasion serves, and their minds desire, they give themselves to mirth when the air is wet, stormy and dark, and on the contrary, in a clear and fair season, to a serene and grave meditation of things sublime and full of doubt. But beasts accommodating themselves to that disposition of the air which is present and at hand, are lively, or sad, not from any judgment, as Men, but according to the temper and complexion of their bodies following the inclinations of the air,One man will counterfeit the voices of infi­nite varieties of beasts. and of the humors, one while diffused, another while contracted. Neither ought we to blame Man, because he can imitate the voyce of Beasts, but rather much commend him, that he can infinitely wrest and vary one thing, that is, his Voice; for men can bark like Foxes and Dogs; grunt like Hogs; whet and grind their teeth like Boars; roar like Lyons; bellow like Bulls; neigh like Horses; knack their teeth like Apes; houl like Wolves; bray like Asses; bleat like Goats and Sheep; mourn like Bears, Pigeons, and Turtles; Keek and Gaggle like Geese; hiss like Serpents; cry like Storks; caw like a Crow, and crow like a Cock; clock like Hens; chatter as Swallows and Pies; sing like Nightingales: croak like Froags; imitate the singing of Wasps, and Humming of Bees; mew lite Cats. The singing of Birds scarce seems to merit the name of Musical,The power of Musick. compared to the Harmony of men, fitted and tuned with infinite variety of voyces. For with this they possess the Ears of Kings and Princes; provoke and temper their wrath, and carry mens minds beyond themselves, and transform them into what habits they please. But if those [Page 51] cruel Beasts have any humanity, they owe it all to Man. For he tames Lyons, Elphants, Bears, Tigers, Leopards, Panthers, and such other like.

Of the Crocodile.

PLutarch reports of the Crocodile (whose figure is here delineated) that being tamed,A tame Croco­dile. & taught by man, he doth not only hear mans voyce, and answers to his call, but suffers himself to be handled, and opening his throat, lets his teeth be scratched and wiped with a towel. How small a part of Physick is that, which beasts are taught by nature? Certainly nothing in comparison of Man, who by the study and practise of a few years, can learn at his fingers ends all the parts of Physick: and practise them not only for his own, but also for the common good of all men. But why cannot beasts attain unto the knowledg of Physick so well as men? I think, because so great Art as Physick is, cannot be attained unto, by the dull capacities of Beasts.

[crocodile]

In what sense we said, Ele­phants had re­ligion.But for that I have written of the Religion of Elephants, if I must speak according to the truth of the matter, we cannot say, They worship God, or have any sense of the divine Majesty. For how can they have any knowledge of sublime things, or of God, seeing they wholly following their food, know not how to meditate on celestial things? Now for that they behold and turn them­selves to the Moon by night, and to the Sun in the morning, they do not that as worshipping, or for that they conceive any excellency or divinity in the Sun; but because Nature so requiring and leading them, they feel their bodies to rejoyce in that light, and their entrails and humors to move and stir them to it. Therefore, when we attributed Religion to Elephants, we said it ra­ther popularly, than truly, and more that we might exhort men to the worship of God, than that we thought Elephants had any knowledg of divine worship implanted in their minds.

That man may attain unto the knowledg of all voices and tongues.

THe docility of mans wit is so great, and facility of the body obeying that divine gift of wit, such, that he is not only able to learn to speak the Tongues of divers Nations differing in so many peculiar Languages;Man not only the imitater, but the inter­preter of the voices of Beasts and Bird. and not only to imitate and counterfeit the voices of all Beasts though so much different from man, which many flattering and jugling companions, followers of other mens Tables, will do; but also be able to know and understand both what they pretend and sig­nifie. In confirmation of which thing, they cite the Philosopher Apollonius most famous in this kind of study and knowledg. He walking on a time amongst a company of his friends through the field, and seeing a Sparrow come flying and chirping much to divers other Sparrows sitting upon a tree, is reported to have said to those which were with him: That Bird which came flying hither, told the other in her language, that an Ass laded with corn was fallen down at the City­gate, and had shed the wheat upon the ground. Wherefore Apollonius, and all his friends which were with him went thither to see whether it were so, and found that it was so, as he had told them, and observed that the Sparrows, moved thereto by the coming of the other, were eating up the grains of Corn, shed on the ground.

But for Crows and Pies artificially taught to counterfeit mens voices, it is too small a thing, that for that cause they should contend with men. For they have quickly babled all they have learnt with longer cost and labour, tediously singing still the same song, and whatsoever they prate they do it without sense, understanding, or any reason for what they say. But man alwayes contemplating somewhat more high, still thinks of greater things than these present, and never rests.The un­quenchable desire of learn­ing in man. But burning with an infinite and endless desire of knowledg, he doth not only covet to know those things which appertain to food and cloathing, but by casting his eyes towards heaven, and by the light of his mind, he learns and understands things divine. Which is so certain an ar­gument of the celestial original of our soul, that he which considers those things, can no wayes doubt, but that we have our minds seasoned, by the universal Divine Understanding. But now it is time for us to set upon the Description of the Body, the habitation and fit instrument of all the functions of the Divine Mind.

The End of the Second Book.

The Third BOOK. Of the Anatomy of MANS BODY.

I Following the custom and the manner of such as before me have written of Anato­my, will first, (that I may make the minds of the Readers more attentive had desirous of these studies) declare how necessary it is, and also how profitable; and then shew the order to be observed in it, before I come to the particular description of Man's body.

Furthermore how Anatomy may be defined, and the manner of the definition of the parts.The necessity of the know­ledg of Anato­my. For the first, the knowledg of Anatomy seems in my judgment very necessary to those that de­sire to excel, or attain to perfection of Physick; that is, whereby they may be able to preserve the present health of the body, and the parts thereof, and drive away diseases. For how can ei­ther Physitian or Chirurgeon preserve health by the use of the like things, which consists in the temperament, conformation, and natural union of the parts; or expel the disease which hurts those three, by the like use of their contraries, unless he shall know the nature and composure of the body, and understand, as by the rule of this knowledg, how much it swerves from the nature thereof? Wherefore it is excellently said of Hippocrates; that the Physitian,Initio lib. de Offic. Medici. called to cure the sick Patient, ought diligently to consider, whether those things that are in him, or appear to be in him, be like or unlike, that is, whether the Patient be like himself and his own nature in all his parts and functions, temperature, composure and union; that he may preserve those which are yet contained in the bounds of nature, and restore those that are gone astray.Lib. de ossibus. Which thing Galen hath also confirmed, specially where he saith, He must well know the nature and structure or composure of the bones, who takes upon him to restore them broken or dislocated to themselves and their proper seats or places. Moreover seeing that healing doth not only consist in the know­ledg of the disease, but as well in prescribing fit medicines and like application of them to the bo­dy and the parts thereof, all which by their natural dissimilitude, do require unlike medicines,1. de loc. affe­ctis, & lib. 3. Meth. ac­cording to Galens opinion: I prethe tell me, Who can perform this, which is ignorant of the de­scription of the whole and the parts thereof, taught by Anatomy? We may say the like of the A­pothecary, who ignorant of the situation of the parts in the body cannot apply Emplaisters, Oint­ments, Cataplasms, Fomentations, Epithemes, bags to the fit places, as to the sutures of the skull,Why, when the liver is hot the stomach i [...] commonly cold. to the Heart, Liver, Stomach, Spleen, Reins, Womb, or Bladder. For example: let us imagine the Li­ver to be troubled with a hot distemperatvre, but on the contrary, the stomach with a cold (which commonly happens, seeing the Liver hotter than ought to be, sends up many vapours to the head; from whence cold humors fall into the stomach) if hot things to be applyed to the stomach by the Physitians prescription, be by the Apothecary, making no difference, applyed, to both the stomach and neighbouring Liver (which may chance, if he be ignorant, that the stomach bends somewhat to the left side under the breast-blade; but the liver so takes up the right side of the body, that with a great part thereof, it covers almost all the stomach) will not he much offend by increasing the hot distemper of the liver, and not thereby giving ease, or help to the disease? Shall not, by this his ignorance, the Patient be frustrated of his desire the Physitian of his intent, and the medicine of its effect? By these examples I think it most manifest, that the Anatomical knowledg of the parts of the body is exceeding necessary to all Physitians, Chirurgeons, and Apothecaries, who will practise Physick with any praise to the glory of God, and the benefit and good of man, for whose sake we have writ these things, and illustrated them by figures, subjecting the parts to the eye, and fitly put them in their proper places.

But Anatomy is commodious four manner of ways; The first is,The know­ledg of Ana­tomy, is com­modious four manner of wayes. because thus we are led to the knowledg of God the Creator, as by the effect to the cause; for, as we read in St. Paul, The invi­sible things of God are made manifest by the visible. The second is, that by means hereof we know the nature of mans body, and the parts thereof, whereby we may more easily and certainly judge and determ [...]n of sickness and health. The third is, that by the knowledg of the body and its parts, and together therewith its affections and diseases, we may prognosticate what is to come, and fore­tell the events of diseases. Lastly, the fourth is, that, considering the nature of the diseased part, we may fitly prescribe medicines, and apply them in their due place.

Now we must declare in what order Anatomy may be fitly delivered; but first we must observe,There is a threefold me­thod. there is a threefold Method; The first is called of Composition, being very commodious for the teaching of Arts, which Aristotle hath used in his Works of Logick, and natural Philosophy, the order and beginning taken from the least and most simple to the more compound. The second of Division, fit for the inventing or finding out of Sciences. Galen hath followed this order in his Books of Anatomical Administrations, and of the use of the parts. The third of Definition, which sheweth the nature and essence of things, as appears by Galen in his Book De Arte P [...]rva. And because this order doth also prosecute the divisions, therefore it is commonly ac­customed to be comprehended in the compass of the second. Therefore I will follow this in my [Page 54] Anatomical Treatise,The Author's intent. dividing man's body into its parts, which I will not only subject to the eye in the way of knowing them, but also to the mind in the faithful understanding them. For, I will adjoyn those things that are delivered of them by Galen in his Book of Anatomy-Admini­strations, with those which he hath taught in his Books of the use of the parts. For there he fitly layes the parts of mans body before our eyes, to the sense. But here he teaches to know them, not to see them; for he shews why, and for what use, they are made. Having briefly handled these things, we must declare what Anatomy is; that, as Cicero saith out of Plato's Phaedro, it may be understood of what we dispute. And because we attain that by definition (which is a short and plain speech, consisting of the Genus and Difference of the things defined, being the essential parts, by which the nature and essence of the thing is briefly and plainly explained) first we de­fine Anatomy, then presently explain the particular parts of the definition.

What Anato­my is.Wherefore Anatomy, (if you have regard to the name) is a perfect and absolute division, or ar­tificial resolution of mans body into its parts, as well general as particular, as well compound as simple. Neither may this definition seem illegitimate; specially amongst Physitians and Chirur­geons. For, seeing they are Artizans humiliated to the sense, they may use the proper and com­mon qualities of things for their essential differences and forms.How a defini­tion differs from a descrip­tion. As on the contrary, Philosophers may refuse all definitions as spurious, which consist not of the next Genus, and the most proper, and essential differences. But seeing that, through the imbecillity of our understanding, such differences are unknown to us, in their places we are compelled, in defining things, to draw into one many common and proper accidents, to finish that definition which we intend: which for that cause we may more truly call a description, because for the matter and essential form of the thing, it presents us only the matter adorned with certain accidents. This appears by the former definition, in which Division and Resolution stand for the Genus, because they may be parted into divers others, as it were into species. That which is added over and besides, stands in place of the difference, because they separate and make different the thing it self from all other rash and unar­tificial dissections. We must know, an artificial division, is no other than a separation of one part from another, without the hurt of the other, observing the proper circumscription of each of them; which if they perish or be defaced by the division, it cannot be said to be artificial. And thus much may suffice for the parts of the definition in general.

The subject of Physick.For as much as belongs to the explication of each word; we said, of Mans body, because as much as lies in us, we take care of, preserve the health, and depel the diseases thereof: by which it may appear that mans body is the subject of Physick, not as it is mans, or consists of matter and form, but as it is partaker of health and sickness.

Gal. lib. 1. de usu part. lib. 1. Meth.We understand nothing else by a Part, according to Galen, than some certain body, which is not wholly disjoyned, nor wholly united with other bodies of their kinds; but so, that, according to his opinion, the whole be composed therewith, with which in some sort it is united, and in some kind separated from the same, by their proper circumscription. Furthermore by the parts in general, The similar parts are nine. I understand the head, breast, belly, and their adjuncts. By the particular parts of those, I understand, the simple parts, as the similar, which are nine in number, as a gristle, bone, ligament, membrane, tendon, nerve, vein, arterie, musculous flesh; some add fibers, fat, marrow, the nails, and hairs; other omit them as excrements; but we must note that such parts are called simple, rather in the judgment of the sense, than of reason. For if any will more diligently consi­der their nature, they shall find none absolutely simple, because they are nourished, have life and sense, either manifest or obscure, which happens not without a nerve, vein, and artery.

How the bones come to feel.But if any shall object, that no nerve is communicated to any bone, except the teeth; I will an­swer, that nevertheless the bones have sense by the nervous fibers, which are communicated to them by the Periosteum, as by whose mediation the Periosteum is connext to the bones, as we see it happens to those membranes, which, involve the bowels. And the bones, by this benefit of the animal sense expel the noxious & excrementitious humors from themselves into the spaces between them, and the Periosteum, which, as indued with a more quick sense, admonisheth us, according to its office and duty, of that danger which is ready to seise upon the bones, unless it be prevented. Wherefore we will conclude according to the truth of the thing, that there is no part in our body simple, but only some are so named and thought, according to the sense; although also other­wise some may be truly named Simple, as according to the peculiar and proper flesh of each of their kinds.The com­pound or orga­nical parts. Those parts are called Compound which are made or composed by the medi­ation, or immediately of these simple, which they term otherwise organical, or instrumental; as an arm, leg, hand, foot, and others of this kind.

And here we must observe, that the parts are called simple and similar, because they cannot be divided into any particles but of the same kind; but the compound are called dissimilar from the quite contrary reason. They are called instrumental and organical, because they can perform such actions of themselves, as serve for the preservation of themselves and the whole; as the eye of it self, without the assistance of any other part, seeth, and by this faculty defends the whole body, as also it self.Four particles to be observed in each orga­nical part. Wherefore it is called an instrument or organ, but not any part of it, as the coats, which cannot of it self perform that act. Whereby we must understand, that in each instrumental part we must diligently observe four proper parts. One by which the action is properly per­formed, as the Crystalline humor in the eye; another, without which the action cannot be per­formed, as the nerve and the other humors of the eye. The third, whereby the action is better and more conveniently done, as the tunicles & muscles are. The fourth, by wch the action is preserved, [Page 55] as the eye-lids and circle of the eye. The same may be said of the hand, which is the proper in­strument of holding; for it performs this action, First, by the muscle, as the principal part; Se­condly, by the ligament, as a part without which such action cannot be performed; Thirdly, by the bones and nails, because by the benefit of these parts, the action is more happily performed; Fourthly, by the veins, arteries, and skin, for that by their benefit and use, the rest, and so con­sequently the action it self is preserved.

But we must consider, that the instrumental parts have a fourfold order.Four sorts of instrumental parts. They are said to be of the first order, which are first and immediately composed of the simple, as only the authors of some one action, of which kinds are the muscles and vessels. They are of a second, which consist of these first simple, and others besides, as the fingers. They are counted of the third rank, which are composed of parts of the second order, and some besides, as the hand taken in general. The fourth order is the most composed, as the whole body, the organ and instrument of the soul. But you must observe, that when we say, the muscles and vessels are simple parts, we refer you to the sense and sight, and to the understanding, comparatively to the parts which are more compound; but if any consider their essence and constitution, he shall understand they are truly compound, as we said before. Now it remains, that we understand, that in each part, whether simple or com­pound,Nine things to be considered in each part. nine things are to be considered, as substance, quantity, or magnitude, figure, compositi­on, number, connexion, (by which name, we also understand the original and insertion) tempe­rature, action, and use; that by the consideration of these things, every one may exercise the art of Physick, in preserving health, curing diseases, or foreseeing their events and ends.

But also we must note, that of the organical parts, there be three,Why the three principal parts are so called. by whose power the body is governed; which for that cause they call regent and principal, because they govern all the rest; they are the liver, heart, and brain. But they are called principal, not only, because they are necessary for life, (for the stomach, wind-pipe, lungs, reins, bladder, and such like parts perhaps are equally as necessary for life); but because from each of these three, some force, power, and faculty, or also matter necessary for the whole body, flow over all the body, when no such thing proceeds from the rest of the parts. For from the Liver a matter fit for nourish­ment is distributed by the veins through all the body; from the heart the vital force, diffused by the arteries, imparts life to the whole body; from the brain by the nerves a power or faculty is carried through all the parts of the body, which gives them sense and motion.

Galen would have the Testicles to be of this kind, not for the necessity of the individual,Lib. de arte me­dica. or peculiar body, but for the preservation of the Species or kind. And moreover, in his Book de Semine, comparing the Testicles with the Heart, he makes them the more noble by this reason, that by how much it is better to live well and happily, than simply and absolutely to live, by so much the Testicles are more excellent than the heart; because with them we may live well and pleasantly, but with this simply live; as we see by the Example of Eunuchs, and such as are gelt, by which the Testicles seem rightly to be accounted amongst the principal parts; for nature see­ing it desired, that this its work should be immortal, for the attaining of that immortality which it intends, frames those parts, like as prudent founders of a City, who do not only procure to furnish their City with many Inhabitants, so long as they are in building it, but also that it may remain in the same state and condition for ever, or at least for many ages.The use and function of the parts serving for ge­neration. And yet notwithstand­ing of so many Cities built in the first memory of man, there remains none, whose fame and state, together with the Builder's name, is not decayed and perished. But this humane work of na­ture, stands yet secure for this many thousand of years, and shall endure hereafter; because it hath found a way, by which every one may substitute another in his place before he depart. Hence it is that all creatures have members fit for generation, and pleasures inserted in those members, by which they might be enticed to mutual embraces and copulations. But the mind, which hath dominion over those members, hath an incredible desire of propagating the issue; by which also brute Beasts incited, desire to propagate their kinds for ever. For seeing that na­ture understands, all these her works considered particularly by themselves, are frail and mortal, it hath done what it could to recompence that fatal necessity of dying, by a perpetual succession of Individuals.

Hitherto we may seem to have abundantly shewed what necessity of knowledge in Anatomy belongs to all Artizans in Physick, and also what order is to be observed in the same; and last­ly, how it is defined, and the reason of the parts of the definition. Wherefore it remains that we prosecute what we have taken in hand: which is, that we shew and declare how to know all and every the parts of man's body, how many, and what they be, and to understand wherefore they be. For although the true knowledge of Anatomy may be perfected by the sight of the eye, and touching and handling each part with the hand, yet nevertheless the labour of de­scribing Anatomy is not unprofitable. For by reading, such as have often exercised themselves in the dissecting of mens bodies, may refresh and help their memories, and such as have not, may make plain and easie the way to the understanding of Dissections.

CHAP. I. The Division or partition of Man's Body.

BY reason the partition of Man's body can hardly be understood, if the distinction of the proper faculties of the soul be not understood, for whose cause the body enjoys that form (which we see) and division into divers Instruments; Therefore I thought good in few words to touch that distinction of the faculties of the soul, for the better understanding of the partition of the body,What the Soul is, and with how many faculties it is endued. which we intend. Wherefore the soul, the perfection of the body, and begin­ning of all its functions, is commonly distinguished, and that in the first and general division, into three faculties, which are, the Animal, Vital, and Natural. But the Animal is divided into the principal, sensitive, and motive; Again, the Principal is distinguished into the imaginative, rea­sonable, and memorative: And the Sensitive into seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, and touch­ing: But the Motive into progressive and apprehensive. And the Vital is divided into the dila­tive and contractive faculty of the heart and arteries, which we know or understand by the pul­sifick faculty. But the Natural is parted into the nutritive, auctive, and generative faculties; which three perform their parts by the help and ministry of five other faculties, which are, the attractive, retentive, concoctive, assimilative, and expulsive.

All the parts of mans body are distinguished into three.After the self-same manner, the organ or instrument of the soul, to wit, Man's body, at the first division is distinguished into three parts, which from their office they call Animal, Vital, and Natural. These again, according to the subdivision of the subalternal faculties, are divided par­ticularly into other parts; so that any one may know the organ of each faculty, by the property of the function. For, while other Anatomists divide Man's body into four universal and chief parts, they distinguish from the three first, those which they call the Extremities; neither do they teach, to what rank of the three prime parts each Extremity should be reduced. From whence many difficulties happen in reading the writing of Anatomists; for shunning whereof, we will prosecute, as we have said, that distinction of man's body, which we have touched before.

What parts are here called Animal.Wherefore, as we said before, man's body is divided into three principal and general parts, Animal, Vital, and Natural. By the Animal parts, we understand, not only the parts pertain­ing to the head, which are bounded with the crown of the head, the coller-bones, and the first Vertelra of the breast, but also the extremities, because they are organs and instruments of the motive-faculty;Lib. 6. Epidem. Hippocrates seems to have confirmed the same, where he writes; Those who have a thick and great head, have also great bones, nerves, and limbs. And in another place he saith, those who have great heads, and, when they stoop, shew a long neck, such have all their parts large, but chiefly the Animal. Not for that Hippocrates would therefore have the head the beginning and cause of the magnitude and greatness of the bones and the rest of the mem­bers; but that he might shew the equality, and private care, or government of Nature, being most just and exact in the fabrick of man's body, as, if she hath well framed the head, it should not be unlike that she idly or carelesly neglected the other parts which are less seen. I thought good to dilate this passage, lest any might abuse that authority of Hippocrates, and gather from thence, that not only the bones, membranes, ligaments, grisles, and all the other animal parts, but also the veins and arteries depend on the head as the original. But if any observe this our distinction of the parts of the body, he will understand, we have a far other meaning.

What parts are called Vital.By the Vital parts, we understand only the heart, arteries, lungs, wind-pipe, and other particles annexed to these. But by the Natural, we would have all those parts understood which are con­tained in the whole compass of the Peritonaeum or Rim of the body, and the processes of the E­rythroides, the second coat of the Testicles. For as much as belongs to all the other parts, which we call Containing; they must be reckoned in the number of the Animal, which notwithstanding, we must thus divide into principal, sensitive, and motive; and again, each of these in the manner following.The division of the animal parts. For first, the principal is divided into the Imaginative, which is the first and upper part of the brain, with its two ventricles, and other annexed particles, into the Reasoning, which is a part of the brain, lying under the former, and (as it were) the top thereof with its third ven­tricle; into the Memorative, which is the cerebellum or after-brain, with a ventricle hollowed in its substance. Secondly, the Sensitive is parted into the visive, which is in the eyes; the audi­tive, in the ears; the smelling, in the nose; the tasting, in the tongue and palat; the tactive, or touching which is in the body, but most exquisite in the skin which invests the palms of the hands. Thirdly; the motive is divided into the progressive, which intimates the legs; and the comprehensive, which intimates the hands. Lastly, into simply-motive, which are three parts, called bellies,The division of the vital parts. for the greatest part terminating and containing; for the vital, the instrument of the faculty of the heart, and dilatation of the arteries, are the direct or streight fibers, but of the constrictive the transverse; but the three kinds of fibers together, of the pulsifick: or, if you please, you may divide them into parts serving for respiration, as are the lungs, and weazon, and parts serving for vital motion, as are the heart and arteries, furnished with these fibers, which we formerly mentioned.The division of the natural parts. The division of the natural parts remains, which is into the nourishing, auctive, and generative, which again, are distributed into attractive, universal, and particular; retentive, concoctive, distributive, assimilative, and expulsive. The attractive, as the gullet and upper orifice of the ventricle; the retentive, as the Pylorus, or lower passage of the stomach; the concoctive, as the body of the ventricle, or its inner coat; the distributive, as the three small [Page 57] guts; the expulsive, as the three great guts; we may say the same of the liver; for that draws by the mesaraick and gate-veins, retains by the narrow orifices of the veins dispersed through the sub­stance thereof; it concocts by its proper flesh; distributes by the hollow vein, expels by the spleen, bladder of the gall, and kidnies. We also see the parts in the Testicles divided into as many functions; for they draw by the preparing vessels; retain by the various crooked pas­sages; in the same vessels they concoct the seed by the power of their proper substance and fa­culty; they distribute by the ejaculatory, at the glandules called Prostatae, and the horns of the womb, supplying the place of prostates; Lastly, they expel or cast forth by the prostates, horns, and adjoyning parts. For as much as belongs to the particular attraction, retention, concoction, distribution, assimilation of each part, that depends of the particular temper, and, as they term it, occult property of each similar and simple part. Neither do these particular actions differ from the universal, but that the general are performed by the assistance of the three sorts of fibers; but the special, by the several occult property of their flesh, arising from their temperature, which we may call a specifick property. Now in the composition of mans body, nature princi­pally aims at three things. The first is, to create parts necessary for life, as are the heart, brain, and liver. The second, to bring forth other for the better and more commodious living, as the eyes, nose, ears, arms and hands. The third is, for the propagation and renewing the species or kind, as the privy parts, testicles, and womb. And this is my opinion, of the true distinction of mans body, furnished with so many parts, for the performance of so many faculties; which you, if you please, may approve of and follow. If not, you may follow the common and vulgar, which is, into three bellies, or capacities, the upper, middle, lower, (that is, the head, breast,The vulgar di­vision of mans body. and low­er belly) and the limbs or joints. In which, by the head we do not understand all the Animal parts, but only those which are from the crown of the head to the first vertebra of the neck, or to the first of the back; if, according to the opinion of Galen, Lib. de ossibus, where he makes men­tion of Enarthrosis and Arthrodia, we reckon the neck amongst the parts of the head. By the breast, whatsoever is contained from the coller bones to the ends of the true and bastard, or short ribs, and the midriff. By the lower belly, the rest of the trunk of the body, from the ends of the ribs to the share-bones; by the limbs, we understand the arms and legs. We will follow this division in this our Anatomical Discourse, because we cannot follow the former in dissecting the parts of mans body, by reason the Animal parts are mutually mixed with the vital and natu­ral: and first of the lower belly.

Nature would not have this lower belly bony,Why the belly is not bony. because the ventricle might be more easily di­lated by meat and drink, children might grow the better, and the body be more flexible. It is convenient we begin our Anatomical Administration from this; because it is more subject to pu­trefaction than the rest, both by reason of its cold and moist temperature, as also by reason of the seculent excrements therein contained. Yet before we go any further, if the Anatomical Admi­nistration must be performed in publick, the body being first handsomly placed, and all the in­struments necessary for Dissection made ready, the belly must be divided into its parts: of which some contain, and other some are contained.

They are called containing,The division of the lower bel­ly. which make all that capacity which is terminated by the Peritone­um or Rim of the belly. The upper part whereof is bounded by Galen within the compass of the direct muscles, and by a general name is called Epig [...]strium, or the upper part of the lower belly. That again is divided into three parts, that is, into that which is above the navil, and which carries the name of the whole, into that which is about the navil, and is called the umbilical or middle part; and lastly, into that which is below the navil, called the Hypogastrium, or the lower part of the lower belly.

In every of which three parts there be two lateral, or side-parts to be considered,The Hypocho [...] dria. as in the E­pigastrium, the right and left Hypochondria, which are bounded above and below, in the compass of the midriff, and the short ribs. In the umbilical the two Lumbares (some call them Latera sides) which, on both sides from the lowest parts of the breast, are drawn to the flanks or hanch-bones; in the Hypogastrium, the two Ilia, or flanks bounded with the hanch and share-bones. Neither am I ignorant, the Ilia, or flanks, which the Greeks call [...], signifie all the empty parts, from the ends of the ribs, even to the hanch-bones, whereupon they also call them [...], as if you should say, empty-spaces, because they are not encompassed with any bone. Yet I thought good, that this doctrine of dividing the belly should be more distinct, to call the parts which are on each side the navel Lumbares, and those on the lower part of the lower belly, Ilia, flanks. But we must observe, that the Antients have been so diligent in deciphering the containing parts, that as exactly as might be, they designed the bowels contained in the belly, which being divers lie in sundry places; for the greater portion of the liver lies under the right Hypochondrium; un­der the left almost all the ventricle and spleen. Under the Epigastrium the lower orifice of the ventricle, and the smaller portion of the liver; In the Lumbares, or sides, in the right and up­per part the right kidney, in the lower part towards the flank, the blind gut; in the middle part thereof the collick and empty guts. In the upper part of the left side lies the left Kidney, in the middle part, the rest of the empty and colick guts. Under the region of the navel, lies the girdle or upper part of the kall, the colick-gut thrusting it self also through that way. Under the Ilia, or flanks, the right and left, lie the greater part of the gut, Ileon, the horns of the women big with child, and the spermatick vessels in men and women. Under the Hypogastrium in the lower part lies the right, or strait gut; the bladder, womb, and the rest of the kall.

A most certain note of the part affected by the place where the pain is.If we know, and well understand these things, we shall more easily discern the parts affected by the place of the pain; and cure it by fit application of remedies, without the hurting of any part. The distinction of such places, and the parts in those places, as seeming most profitable, I have thought good to illustrate by the placing these two following figures, in which thou hast deci­phered, not only the foresaid parts, containing, and contained, but also of the whole body, and many other things which may seem to conduce to the knowledge of the mentioned parts. The Fi­gures are these.

The Figure shewing the fore-parts of the body.
  • A The hairy Scalp, call'd [...].
  • b The forehead call'd Frons, [...].
  • c The temples call'd tempora, [...].
  • From b to d, the compass of the face.
  • e The greater or inward corner of the eyes, call'd Canthus internus.
  • f the lesser or external angle of the eye, call'd Canthus ex­ternus.
  • * The lower eyebrow, which is immovable, Palp [...]hra,
  • g The check-ball call'd mala, [...].
  • h the check-puff call'd bucca, [...].
  • i The ridg of the nose call'd Nasus externus, [...].
  • k the nosthrils call'd nares, [...].
  • l the outward ear, auris externa.
  • m The mouth made of the two lips, Os.
  • n The chin called mentum, [...].
  • o The neck, collum, [...] and [...].
  • From o. to e the pillar of the neck, truncus and [...].
  • p p The hollow of the neck, called juguli, [...].
  • q q The Patel bones, claves, [...].
  • r The chest, pectus, [...].
  • s The right breast.
  • ss The left breast: to this Region we apply cordial Epi­themations moist and dry.
  • tt The nipples of the breasts, papillae, [...].
  • u The trench of the heart which the Antients called [...]. The Latines scrobiculus cordis. This part is anointed for the mouth of the stomach.
  • From u to E. the lower belly, [...].
  • X The Epigastrium or upper part of the lower belly.
  • yy The Hypochondria or P [...]aecordia.
  • * The outward Liver-remedies are applied to this place.
  • z The region of the navil, called umbilicalis or the middle part of the lower belly.
  • A. The navil, umbilicus. The root of the belly, [...].
  • B B. The sides, Latera, [...], and in our Author Lumbi, seu Lumbaris regio.
  • C. Hypogastrium, the water-course Aqualiculus, the lower part of the lower belly, [...].
  • D D. The flanks called Ilia, and [...].
  • E. The Groins called pubes or pecten, [...].
  • F F. The Lesk called inguen where those tumours which are called bubones.
  • G. The Yard with the fore-skin, penis cum praeputio.
  • H. The stones or testicles with the cod or scrotum.
  • I I. The shoulders, humeri, [...].
  • K K. The arms, Brachia, [...].
  • L. The bowt of the arm, called Gibber, [...].
  • M. The outside of the lower part of the arm, called cubi­tus, [...].
  • N. The wrist called Brachiale, [...].
  • O. The after-wrist postbrachiale, [...].
  • P. The Palm called Palma or vola manús, [...]. The back of the hand, Dorsum manus, [...].
  • Q Q. The fore and middle part of the thigh, where we ap­ply cupping-glasses to bring down womens courses, [...].
  • R R. The knee, genu, [...].
  • S S. The leg, tibia, [...].
  • T T. The calf of the leg, sura, [...].
  • V V. The instep, tarsus.
  • X X. The top of the foot, Dorsum pedis, [...].
  • Y Y. The inner Anckles, [...].
  • Z Z. The outward Ankles.
  • αα The toes of the feet.
  • β The place under the inward Ankle, where the Vein called Saphena is opened.
The Figure of the back-parts of a Man.
  • A. The forepart of the head, synciput, [...]
  • B. the top or crown of the head, vertex, [...].
  • C. the hinder-part of the head, occiput, [...].
  • From D. to D. the face, facies, [...].
  • E. the eyebrows, supercilia, [...].
  • F. the upper eyelid, [...].
  • G. the tip of the nose, called globulus nasi.
  • H. the back-part of the neck, called cervix, [...], and the nuke or nape of the neck. There is a hollowness at the top of this cervix, where we apply Seatons.
  • I. the back-part of the Shoulder top, called axilla, [...].
  • K K. the shoulder-blades, scapulae, [...].
  • 1, 2, 3. On this place we set Cupping-glasses.
  • 4, 5, 6, 7. the back, dorsum, [...].
  • 8, 9. the ridg, spina dorsi, [...].
  • L. the armhole, ala, [...].
  • * The elbow, gibber brachii.
  • M M M M. the sides, latera.
  • N N. the loins, lumbi, or the region of the Kidneys, [...].
  • O O. the place of the hips, coxendices, where we apply remedies for the Sciatica.
  • P. the place of the Holy bone, or Os sacrum, where we ap­ply remedies in the disease of the right gut.
  • Q. the place of the rump or Coccyx.
  • R R. the buttocks, nales, [...].
  • S S. the back parts of the thigh, femur.
  • T T. the ham, poples, [...].
  • V V. the calf of the leg, sura.
  • X X. the foot, or parvus pes, [...].
  • Y Y. the outer ankle, malleolus externus.
  • Z Z. the heel, calx, or calcaneus, [...].
  • a a. the sole of the foot, planta pedis, [...].
  • b. the inside of the lower part of the arm, called ulna, [...].
  • c. the outside of the same, cubitus, [...].
  • d d. the wrist, carpus.
  • e e. the back-part of the hand, dorsum manus.
  • g. the forefinger, index, [...].
  • h. the thunb, pollex, [...].
  • i. the middle finger, medius, [...].
  • k. the ringfinger, annularis, medicus, [...].
  • l. the little finger, auricularis, minimus, [...].

CHAP. II. Of the containing parts of the Epigastrium, and the preparation to Anatomical Administration.

THe containing parts of the Epigastrium, are the Epidermis, or thin outward skin;The containing parts of the belly. the true skin; the fleshy or fatty Pannicle, the eighth muscle of the Epigastrium, with their com­mon coat; the Rim of the belly; the five vertebra's of the loins; all the holy-bone; the hanch-bone; share-bone; the white line and midriff. Of these parts, some are common to the whole body; as the three first; the other, proper to the parts contained in the E­pigastrium taken in general. Which that you may see in their order, first you must cut round about the navel, to the upper superficies of the muscles, that so we may keep it, till such time, as occasion shall offer it self, to shew the umbilical vessels lying in that place, which are one vein, two arteries, and the Urachus (if it be there.) Which being done, you must draw a streight line from the chest, over the breast-blade, even to the share-bone, which may divide the common-containing parts, even to the white line.

Then presently it will be convenient to draw two other lines a-cross or overthwart, of the like depth on each hand, from the circumference of the navel, even to the sides, that so on each part we may draw the skin more commodiously from the parts lying under it; the sight of which otherwise it would hinder. These things being done, the skin must be divided from the parts ly­ing under it from the designed circumference left about the navel. We must teach how the skin is twofold, the true and false, and render a reason of the name, which we will every where do, as far as the thing will suffer, and it shall lie in our power. And in doing or examining these things, it will be convenient diligently to enquire into the nine things mentioned in the Preface. We will begin with the Skin, because that part is first obvious to our senses.

CHAP. III. Of the utmost Skin or Cuticle.

THe skin being the first part, and spred over all the body, is twofold; that is, the true, and ba­stard skin:The skin two­fold. From what parts the skin cannot be se­parated. The true is called by the Greeks, Derma, which may almost every where be pulled from the parts lying under it, which it invests, except in the face, ears, the palms of the hands, soles of the feet, fingers, and privities, where it sticks so close that it cannot be separated.

The bastard skin (which first of all we will declare, because it first presents it self to our sight) is by the Greeks called Epidermis, because it covers the true skin, they term it commonly the Cuticle. The substance of it is excrementitious, and (as it were) a certain dry flouring, or production of the true skin. That it draws not its substance from the Seed is apparent by this, that as it is easily lost,The matter of the Cuticle. so it is easily repaired, which happens not in parts truly spermatical. This outmost thin skin, or Cuticle, may two manner of wayes be made apparent; by it self, and separated from the other, as by burning with fire, or ardent heat of the Sun, (in some delicate bodies, and such as are not ac­customed to be conversant in Sun.shine) The quantity in thickness is very small, but the extent is most large,The quantity. because it covers all the skin. The figure of it is round, and long, like those parts which it invests. The composure of it is obscure; yet because this Cuticle is the excrement of the true skin;The figure. The compo­sure. we say it hath its matter, from the excrementitious superfluity of the Nerves, Veins, Arteries, and substance of the true skin.

The number.It is in number one, like as the true skin which it outwardly covers, that it might be a medium between the object and fixed faculty of Touching, diffused over all the true skin, which every where lies under it.The tempera­ture. For the temperature, by the common consent of Physitians, it is in the midst of all excels; for, that seeing it is the medium between the object and faculty, if it should be hot­ter, colder, moister, or dryer, it would deceive the faculty by exhibiting all objects, not as they are of themselves, but as it should be; no otherwise than as to such as look through red or green spectacles,The use. all things appear red or green. Wherefore for this reason it was convenient the Cu­ticle should be void of all sense. It hath no action in the body; but, it hath use: for it preserves and beautifies the true skin; for it seems to be given by the singular indulgence of nature, to be a mu­niment and ornament to the true skin. This Providence of Nature, the industry of some Arti­zans (or rather Curtizans) doth imitate; who, for to seem more beautiful, do smooth and polish it.Why the Cu­ticle cannot be restored in scars. By this you may understand, that not all the parts of the body have action, yet have they their use, because, according to Aristotle's opinion, Nature hath made nothing in vain. Also you must note that this thin skin or Cuticle being lost, may every where be re-generated, unless in the place which is covered with a scar. For here the true skin being deficient, both the matter and for­mer faculty of the Cuticle is wanting.

CHAP. IV. Of the true Skin.

The substance. Magnitude.THe true skin, called by the Greeks Derma, is of a Spermatick substance: wherefore being once lost, it cannot be restored as formerly it was. For in place thereof comes a scar, which is nothing else but flesh dryed beyond measure. It is of sufficient thickness, as appears by the sepa­rating from the flesh.

But for the extent thereof, it encompasses the whole body, if you except the eyes, ears, nose, privities,Figure. fundament, mouth, the ends of the fingers where the nails grow, that is, all the parts by which any excrements are evacuated. The figure of it is like the Cuticle, round and long, with its productions, with which it covers the extremities of the parts.

Composure.It is composed of nerves, veins, arteries, and of a proper flesh and substance of its kind, which we have said to be spermatical, which ariseth from the process of the secundine, which lead the sper­matick vessels even to the navel; in which place each of them into parts appointed by nature, send forth such vessels as are spred abroad & diffused from the generation of the skin. Which also, the similitude of them both, that is, the skin and membrane Chorion, do argue. For as the Chorion is double, without sense, encompassing the whole Infant, lightly fastened to the first coat, which is called Amnios; so the skin is double, and of it self insensible, (for otherwise the nerves were added in vain from the parts lying under it) ingirting the whole body, lightly cleaving to the fleshy Pannicle. But if any object, That the Cuticle is no part of the true skin, seeing it is wholly different from it, and easily to be separated from it, and wholly void of sense: I will answer, These arguments do not prevail. For, that the true skin is more crass, thick, sensible, vivid, and fleshy, is not of it self,The skin it self is void of sense. being rather by the assistance and admixture of the parts, which derived from three principal it receives into its proper substance; which happens not in the Cuticle. Neither, if it should happen,The number. would it be better for it, but verily exceeding ill for us, because so our life should lye fit and open to receive a thousand external injuries, which encompass us on every side, as the violent and contrary access of the four first qualities.

Connexion.There is only one skin, as that which should cover but one body; the which it every-where doth, except in those I formerly mentioned. It hath connexion with the parts lying under it by nerves, veins, and arteries, with those subjacent parts put forth into the skin investing them, that there may be a certain communion of all the parts of the body amongst themselves.

It is cold and dry in its proper temper, in respect of its proper flesh and substance, for it is a spermatical part. Yet, if any consider the sinews, veins, arteries, and fleshy threds which are mixed in its body, it will seem temperate, and placed (as it were) in the midst of contrary quali­ties, as which hath grown up from the like portion of hot, cold, moist, and dry bodies. Use. The use of the skin is to keep safe and sound the continuity of the whole body, and all the parts thereof, from the violent assault of all external dangers; for which cause it is every where indued with sense, in some parts more exact, in others more dull, according to the dignity and necessity of the parts which it ingirts, that they might all be admonished of their safety and preservation. Lastly, it is penetrated with many pores, as breathing-places, as we may see by the flowing out of sweat, that so the arteries in their diastole might draw the encompassing air into the body, for the tem­pering and nourishing of the fixed inbred heat, and in the systole expel the fuliginous excrements,The reason why the skin is blacker and rougher in Winter. which in Winter, supprest by the cold air encompassing us, makes the skin black and rough. We have an argument and example of breathing through these, by drawing the air in by transpiration, in women troubled with the mother, who without respiration live only for some pretty space by transpiration.

CHAP. V. Of the fleshy Pannicle.

AFter the true skin, follows the Membrane, which Anatomists call the fleshy Pannicle,What a mem­brane is. Why it is sometimes cal­led a coat, sometimes the fleshy and fatty Panni­cle. whose nature that we may more easily prosecute and declare, we must first shew what a Membrane is, and how many ways the word is taken; Then, wherefore it hath the name or the fleshy Pannicle. A membrane therefore is a simple part, broad and thin, yet strong and dense, white and nervous, and the which may easily without any great danger be extended and contracted. Sometimes it is called a coat, which is, when it covers and defends some part. This is called the Pannicle; because in some parts it degenerates into flesh, and becomes musculous, as in a man from the coller-bones, to the hair of the head, in which part it is therefore called the broad muscle, whereas in other places it is a simple Membrane, here and there intangled with the fat lying under it, from whence it may seem to take or borrow the name of the fatty Pannicle. But in Beasts (whence it took that name, because in those a fleshy substance maketh a great part of this Pannicle) it appears manifestly fleshy and musculous over all the body,Why beasts have this Pan­nicle wholly fleshy or mus­culous. as you may see in Horses and Oxen; that by that means being moveable, they may drive and shake off their flies, and other troublesome things, by their shaking and contracting their backs. These things consi­dered, we say, the fleshy Pannicle in its proper body, is of a nervous or membranous substance,The substance. as that which hath its original from the coat Amnios, (which is next to the Infant) dilated near to the navel, and stretched forth for the generation of this Pannicle; in which thing I think good to note, that as the membranes Chorion and Amnios mutually interwoven with small nervous fibers, encompass and invest the child as long as it is contained in the womb; so the skin and the fleshy Pannicle, knit together by such like bands, engirt the whole body.

Therefore the fleshy Pannicle is equal in magnitude and like in figure to the true skin,The magni­tude and figure. Number. but that it lies under it, and is contained in it, in some places mixt with the fat, in others increased by the flesh interwoven with it, and in other some is only a simple Membrane.

The composition of it is such, as the sight of it presents to our eye, that is, of veins, arteries,Composure. nerves, and the proper flesh, some whites mixed and interlaced with fat, and sometimes with muscu­lous flesh. It is but one, by reason of the use we shall presently shew; it is situated between the skin and fat, or common coat of the muscles, annexed to these, and the other parts lying under it, by the veins, nerves, and arteries, ascending from these inward parts, and implanting themselves into the substance thereof, and then into the true skin.

The temperature thereof is divers, according to the variety of the parts interwoven with it.The temperature. The use of it is, to lead, direct, and strengthen in their passage, the vessels which are disseminated in­to the true skin, and the whole superficies of the body. But in beasts it hath another commodity,The use. that is, it gives a shaking or trembling motion to their skin and back, for that cause which we formerly touched.

CHAP. VI. Of the Fat.

THe Fat coming near the condition of an excrement, rather than of a part (as we said,The Fat is rather an ex­crement than a part. The substance. The efficient cause of fat. when we treated of the similar parts) is of an oily substance, bred of the airy and vapo­rous portion of the blood, which sweating through the pores of the coats, or mouths of the vessels, becomes concrete about the membranes, and nerves, and cold bodies, and turns into fat by the coldness of the place. Whereby we may know, that cold, or a more remiss heat, is the efficient cause of fat, which is manifest by contemplation not only of creatures of divers kinds, but also by those of the same species and sex, if so be that the one be colder than the other.

By which we may understand that the fat is the more or less in quantity,The quantity. according to the [Page 62] different temper of the whole body,The compo­sure. and of its particular parts. For its composition, it consists of that portion of the blood which we formerly mentioned, intermixt with certain membranes, ner­vous fibers,The site. veins, and arteries. The greatest part of it lies between the fleshy Pannicle, and the common coat of the Muscles.I was present at the opening of a Body, Feb. 1630. in which the fat in the lower part of the lower belly was in thick­ness above eight inches, upon the breast between four and five inches: which I thought good to rem [...]mber in this place, both for the rarity of the thing, as also because it was increased by report, and the place mista­ken; some saying the Omentum or Kall was so thick, which was false; for it did not much exceed the quantity of that part, in other fat men. Otherwise it is diffused over all the body, in some places more, in some less, yet is always about the nervous bodies, to which it delights to cleave. Most Anato­mists enquire whether the fat lie above or beneath the fleshy Pannicle. But me-thinks, this questi­on is both impertinent and idle; being we often see the fat to be on both sides.The Temper. It is of a middle temper between heat and cold, being it ariseth of the more aery portion of the blood; although it may seem cold in respect of the efficient cause, that is, of cold by which it concretes. For the rest, moisture is predominant in the fat.The use. The use thereof is, to moisten the parts which may be­come dry by long fasting, vehement exercise, or immoderate heat; and besides, to give heat, or keep the parts warm. Although it do this last rather by accident, than of its own nature, as heated by exercise, or by some such other chance; it heats the adjacent parts; or may therefore be thought to heat them, because it hinders the dissipation of the native and internal heat; like as cold heats in winter, whereby the bellies are at that time the hotter. I know, some learned Physitians of our time stiffly maintained, that the fat was hot; neither did they acknowledge any other effici­ent cause thereof, than temperate heat, and not cold. But I think it best to leave the more subtil agitation of these questions to natural Philosophers. But we must note,The solider fat or seam. that, at the joints which are more usually moved, there is another sort of Fat, far more solid and hard, than that which we formerly mentioned, often found mixed with a viscid and tough humour like the whites of Eggs, that so it might be sufficient for a longer time to moisten these parts, subject to be hurt by driness, and to make them slippery, and so fitter for motion; in imitation whereof they usually grease hard bodies, which m [...]st be in frequent motion, as Coach-wheels and Axletrees. And there is another kind of fat, which is called Sebum, seam, in one thing differing from the ordinary fat, that it is much dryer; the moister and softer portion of the fat being dissipated by the raging heat of the place. For it is found principally about theIn what parts and for what cause the fat is more dense. Midriff, where there are many windings of arteries and veins; and [...]t is also about the reins, loins, and basis of the heart. The Fat is wasted by long fasting; is dried and hardened by vehement exercise and immoderate heat. Hence it is that it is much more compact in the palms of the hands, and soles of the feet, about the eyes and heart, so that it resembles the flesh in density and hardness; because by the continual motion and strong heat of these parts, the thinner portion being dissipated and diffused, the more gross and terestrial remains.

CHAP. VII. Of the common Coat of the Muscles.

The substance. The quantity.NExt under the Fat, appears a certain coat, spred over all the Muscles, and called the common coat of the Muscles; it is of a nervous substance, as all other membranes are. The quantity and breadth thereof is bounded by the quantity of the Muscles which it involves, and fits it self to, as that, which encompasses the Muscles of the Epigastrium, is of equal largeness with the same Muscles. The figure of it is round: it is composed of veins, nerves, arte­ries,The compo­sure. and its peculiar flesh consisting of three sorts of fibers; the beginning of it is from the Peri­ostium, in that part where the bones give ligaments to the Muscles; or, according to the opinion of others, of the nervous and ligamentous fibers of the Muscles, which rising up, and diffused over the fleshy superficies thereof,The Original. are united for the generation of this coat. But this membrane arising from the Periostium (as every membrane which is below the head, takes its original from the Periostium either primarily, by the interposition of no Medium, or secondarily) is stretched over the Muscles by their Tendons. But if any object, that this membrane, pluck'd from the bel­ly of the Muscle, may seem to end in a ligament; I will answer, that it is the condition of every nervous part, so to binde or fasten it self to another part of his own kind as to a stay, so that it can scarce be pluck'd from thence.The number. We see the proof hereof in the Peritonaeum or Rim in the Epi­gastrium, or lower part of the lower belly. That which covers the Muscles of the Epigastrium, is but one, unless you had rather part it into two the right and the left distinguished by the interpo­sition of Linea Alba, The site. or White-Line. It is situate betwixt the Fat and Muscles; for it is fastened above and below to these parts with fibers, which in smalness & fineness exceed the Spider's web. But by its vessels, it participates with the three principal parts, and is of a cold and dry temper. The use of it,The use. is, to contain the Muscles in their natural union, and to keep them as much as in it lies, from putrefaction, which may happen to them from pus or matter, which is often cast forth of the similar parts into the empty spaces and distances of the Muscles. Wherefore going about to se­parate the Fat of the Epigastrium (where you must begin the dissection of mans body) you must have a care that you hurt it not with your knife, but that, before you touch the Muscles, see you artificially take it away,What the White-line is. that you may the more easily separate the Muscles, lying under it, distin­guished by a manifest space at the White-Line, which is made by the meeting together of the proper coats of all those Muscles.

CHAP. VIII. What a Muscle is, and how many Differences there be thereof.

A Muscle is the instrument of voluntary motion; and simple voluntary motion is perform­ed six manner of ways, upwards, downwards, forwards, backwards, to the right hand,What a Muscle is. and to the left; but the compound one way, which is circularly, the which is performed by the continual succession of the motion of the Muscles ingirting the part.How the circu­lar motion is performed. Such a motion Fal­coners use when they stretch forth their hand, and lure their Hawk. We have some parts, which have motion without a Muscle, but that motion is not voluntary; such parts be, the heart, stomach, guts, both the bladders, (that is, that of the gall, and that of the urine) and divers other which have the motions of attraction, expulsion, and retention, by the means of the three sorts of fi­bers; for they draw by the right, expell by the transverse, and retain by the oblique.From whence the difference of Muscles are drawn. The dif­ferences of Muscles which are many and diverse, are taken from their substance, original, inser­tion into the part which they move, form or figure, holes or openings, magnitude, colour, site, kind of fibers, their conjugation or connexion, heads, bellies, tendons, opposition in action and office. Some in substance are nervous, venous, arterious; because they have manifest nerves,Differences of Muscles from their substance. veins, and arteries; as the Midriff, the Intercostal, or Epigastrick Muscles, and many more, and that for their difference from other Muscles, into which neither nerve, nor vein, or arteries are manifestly inserted, although secretly they admit them all for sense and motion, life, and nou­rishment; such are the Muscles of the wrist, the wormy Muscles of the hands and feet; for if there be any nerves observed in them, they are very small. Some had rather make the difference of Muscles thus, that some of them are fleshy, some nervous, others membranous.Differences of Muscles from their original. From their O­riginal; some arise from the bones, as those which move the hands, arms, and legs; others from grislles, as the Muscles of the throat; others, from membranes which invest the tendons, as the wormy Muscles of the hands and feet; others, from ligaments, as the extenders of the fingers; others from other Muscles, as the two lower Muscles of the Yard which proceed from the Sphincter-Muscle of the fundament. Others have no original, as, the membrane, which we call the fleshy Pan­nicle, assumes flesh in certain places, and degenerates into a Muscle; such are the Cremaster, or hang­ing Muscles of the testicles, the large Muscles of the face; & if you please, the Midriff as that which is composed of two coats; the one, encompassing the ribs and the Peritonaeum, hath flesh in the midst between the two membranes. And moreover some Muscles have their original from one only bone, as those which bend and extend the Cubit; others arise of many bones, as the oblique descending, the Dorsal, and many Muscles of the neck, which arise together from many spondyls, and sides of spondyls. There be others, according to the opinion of some men, both from the bones and grisles of the Pubis at the right or direct Muscles of the Epigastrium, yet by their favour I think other­wise. Because by the Anatomical and received axiom, A muscle is there thought to take his be­ginning, from whence he receives a nerve; but these Muscles take a nerve from the intercostal Muscles, wherefore their original ought to be referr'd to the sides of the breast-blades,Where a Muscle hath its original. Differences of Muscles from their insertion. as shall be shewed in due place. From their insertion arise these differences; some are inserted into a bone, as those which move the head, arms, and legs; others into a grisle, as those of the Throtle, eye-lids, nose, and the oblique ascendent muscles of the Epigastrium; some into a bone and grisle both, as the right muscles of the Epigastrium and the Midriff; some into the skin, as the muscles of the lips; others into the Coats, as the muscles of the eyes; others into Ligaments, as the muscles of the yard. But these differences following may be drawn both from their insertion and original. For some muscles arising from many parts, are inserted into some one part, as divers of those which move the arm and the shoulder, which arising from many spondyls, are inserted into the bone of the shoul­der, and the shoulder-blade. Others arise from one part, and insert themselves into more, as, those which arise from the bottom of the shoulder-blades are extended and inserted into some eight or nine of the upper ribs, to help respiration; and the benders and extenders of the fingers and toes: Others, arising from many bones, are inserted into as many; as some of those which serve for respi­ration, to wit, those which we call the hinder Saw-muscles, and the Semispinatus, which sends a tendon into all the ribs. Others have their original from many bones, & end in grisles of the seven ribs, as those two which lie under the Sternon. Moreover also these differences of muscles may be drawn from the original and insertion, that some proceed from bones, and are inserted into the next bone, to help and strengthen the motion thereof, as the three muscles of the Hip: Others arise from an upper bone, & are not inserted into the next, but into some other, as the long muscles. Some are named from the part they move, as the temporal muscles, because they move the temples: others from their office, as the grinding muscles; because they move the skin as a Mill,Differences of Muscles take [...] from their figure. to grind asunder the meal. From their form or figure; because some are like Mice, other like Lizards which have their legs cut off; for that they imitate in their belly, body, or tendon, the belly or tail of such creatures; and from whence the name of Musculus and Lacertus are derived. Such are those which bend the wrist, and which are fastened to the bone of the Leg, and which extend the foot; others are triangular, as that which lifts up the arm, called Epemis or Deltoides, and that which draws the arm to the brest, called the pectoral muscle. Others quadrangular, as the Rhomboides, or Lozenge-muscle of the shoulder-blade, and the two hindsom-muscles serving for respiration, and two of the wrists which turn down the hand; others consist of more than four angles, as the oblique descending, and that muscle which joins it self to it from the shoulder-blade; others are round and broad, as [Page 64] the Midriff; others circular, as the Sphincter-muscle of the fundament and bladder; others are of a pyramidical figure, as the seventh muscle of the eye, which compasses the optick nerve in beasts, but not in men. Others have a sem-circular form, as that which shuts up the eye, seated at the lesser corner thereof; others resemble a Monk's cowl or hood, as the Trapezius of the shoulder-blade. Besides, others at their first original are narrow, but broad at their insertion; as the Saw-muscle of the shoulder, and the transverse of the Epigastrium; others are quite contrary, as the three muscles of the Hip; others keep an equal breadth or bigness in all places, as the in­tercostal muscles and those of the wrist; others are long and slender, as the long muscle of the thigh; others are long and broad, as the oblique descending muscles of the Epigastrium; others are directly contrary,Differences from their perforations. as the Intercostal; which are very narrow. From their perforations; for some are perforated,From their magnitude. as the midriff which hath three holes, as also the oblique and transverse of the Epigastrium, that so they may give passage forth to the preparing spermatick vessels, and to the ejaculatory vessels, the Coat Erythroides associating and strengthening them; others are not perforated. From their magnitude; for some are most large, as the two Muscles of the Hip; others very small, as the eight small muscles of the neck, and the proper muscles of the Throtle, and the wormy muscles.From their colour. Others are of an indifferent magnitude. From their colour; for some are white and red, as the Temporal muscles, which have Tendons coming from the midst of their belly; others are livid, as the three greater muscles of the calf of the leg, which colour they have by the admixtion of the white, or tendinous nervy coat with the red flesh; for, this coat by its thick­ness darkning the colour of the flesh, so that it cannot shew its redness and fresh colour, makes it seem of that livid colour.From their site. From their situation; for some are superficiary, as those which ap­pear under the skin and fat; others deep in, and hid, as the smooth and four twin muscles; some are stretched out, and (as it were) spred over in a streight and plain passage, as the muscles of the thigh which move the leg, except the Ham-muscle; others oblique, as those of the Epigastrium; othersome transverse, as the transverse of the Epigastrium; where you must observe, that although all the fibers of the muscles are direct, yet we call them oblique and transverse, by comparing them to the right muscles, as which by the concourse of the fibers make a streight or acute angle.

From their Fibers.From the sorts of fibers; for some have one kind of fiber; yet the greatest part enjoy two sorts running so up and down, that they either are crossed like the letter X, as happens in the pectoral and grinding muscles; or else do not concurr, as in the Trapezii. Others have three sorts of fibers, as the broad muscle of the face.

From their Connexion.From their coherence or connexion, or their texture of nervous fibers; for some have fibers somewhat more distant and remote immediately at their original, than in other places, as you may see in the muscles of the buttocks: Others in their midst and belly, which by reason there­of in such muscles is more big or tumid, their head and tail being slender, as happens in most of the muscles of the arm and leg, in which the dense mass of flesh interwoven with fibers, disjoins the fibers in so great a distance; in othersome the fibers are more distant in the tail, as in the greater Saw-muscle arising from the bottom of the shoulder-blade; in others, they are equally distant through the whole muscle, as in the muscles of the wrist, and between the ribs.

From their Head.From their head; for in some it is fleshy, interwoven with few fibers, as in the muscles of the buttocks; in others it is wholly nervous, as in the most broad muscle common to the arm and shoulder-blade, and in the three muscles of the thigh proceeding from the tuberosity of the hucklebone; in some it is nervous and fleshy, as in the internal and external muscle of the arm. Besides, some have one head, others two; as the bender of the elbow, and the external of the leg; others three, as the Three-headed muscle of the Thigh. But we must note, that the word Nerve or Sinew is here taken in a large signification, for a ligament, nerve, and tendon, as Galen saith, (Lib. de Offilus); and moreover we must observe, that the head of a Muscle is one while above, another while below, otherwhiles in the midst, as in the Midriff, as you may know by the insertion of the Nerve, because it enters the muscle by its head.

From their Belly.From their belly also, there be some differences of muscles taken; for some have their belly immediately at their beginning, as the muscles of the buttocks; others at their insertion, as the Midriff; others just at their head, as those which put forth the Calf of the leg; in others it is somewhat further off, as in those which draw back the arm, and which bend the leg; in others, the belly extends even from the head unto the tail, as in the intercostal muscles, and those of the wrist; in others, it is produced even to their insertion, as in those of the palms of the hands and soles of the feet; some have a double belly distinguished by a nervous substance; as those which open the mouth, and those which arise from the root of the lower process of the shoulder-blade.

From their Tendons.Moreover the differences of muscles are drawn also from the Tendons; for some have none, at least which are manifest, as the muscles of the lips, and the sphincter-muscles, the intercostal, and those of the wrist: others have them in part, and want them in part, as the Midriff; for the Mid­riff wants a Tendon at the ends of the shorter ribs, but hath two at the first Vertelra of the Loins in which it is terminated: Others have a Tendon indeed. But some of these move with the bone, some not, as the muscle of the eyes; and besides, some of these have broad and membra­nous tendons, as the muscles of the eyes, and Epigastrium, except the right muscles: In others they are thick and round, as in the benders of the fingers; in others they are less round, but more broad than thick, such is the Tendon arising from the twin muscles, and Soleus of the leg: others have short Tendons, as the muscles which turn down the hand; othersome long, [Page 65] as those of the palms of the hands, and soles of the feet; besides, others produce Tendons from the end of their belly, which Tendons are manifest; others from the midst, as the Temporal Muscles.

Besides, also others diffuse many Tendons from their belly, as in the hands the benders of the fingers, and extenders of the feet. Othersome put forth but one, which sometimes is divided into many, as those which bend the third articulation of the foot; otherwhile many muscles by their meeting together make one Tendon, as the three muscles of the Calf of the leg, and those which bend the cubit and leg. All Tendons have their original, when the nerves and ligaments dispersed through the fleshy substance of a muscle, are by little and little drawn and meet together, until at last carried to the joint, they are there fastned for the fit bending and extension thereof. From the contrariety of their Actions; for some parts have contrary muscles, benders and extenders;From their action. From their function. other parts have none; for the Cods and Fundament have only lifters up. From their function; for some are made for direct motions, as those which extend the fingers and toes; others for ob­lique, as the Supinators of the hand, and the Pronators: others perform both; as the pectoral muscle, which moves the Arm obliquely upward and downward, as the upper and lowers fibers are contracted; and also outright; if all the fibers be contracted together, which also happens to the Deltoides and Trapezius. I have thought it good to handle particularly these differences of muscles, because that by understanding them, the prognostick will be more certain; and also the application of remedies to each part; and if any occasion be, either to make incision, or future, we may be more certain, whether the part affected, be more or less nervous.

CHAP. IX. Of the parts of a Muscle.

HAving declared the nature and differences of a Muscle, we must note that some of the parts thereof are compound and universal, others simple or particular.The compound and simple parts of a Muscle. The compound are the head, belly, and tail. The simple are ligaments, a nerve, flesh, a vein, artery, and coat. For the compound parts; by the head, we understand the beginning and original of a muscle, which is one while ligamentous and nervous, otherwhiles also fleshy. By the belly, that portion which is absolutely fleshy; But by the tail we understand a Tendon consisting partly of a nerve, partly of a ligament promiscuously coming forth from the belly of the Muscle. For as much as be­longs to the simple, which are six in number, three are called proper, and three common. The proper are a Ligament from a bone, a nerve proceeding from the Brain, or spinal marrow, and flesh compact by the concretion of blood. The common, are a vein from the Liver or trunk ari­sing from thence; an artery proceeding from the Heart,What use each simple particle hath in a muscle. a Coat produced by the nervous and li­gamentous fibers spreading over the superficies of the muscle. But for the simple use of all such parts, the nerve is (as it were) the principal part of a Muscle, which gives it sense and motion, the ligament gives strength, the flesh contains the nervous and ligamentous fibers of the Muscle, and strengthens it, filling up all the void spaces; and also, it preserves the native humidity of these parts, and cherisheth the heat implanted in them; and, to conclude, defends it from all ex­ternal injuries; for like a fan it opposeth it self against the heat of the Sun; and is a garment against the cold; and is as a cushion in all falls and bruises; and as a buckler of defence against wounding-weapons. The vein nourishes the muscle, the artery gives it life, the coat preserves the harmony of all the parts thereof, lest they should be any ways disjoined or corrupted by puru­lent abscesses breaking into the empty or void spaces of the Muscles; as we see it hapneth in a Gangrene, where the corruption hath invaded this membrane, by the breathing out of the more acid matter or filth.

CHAP. X. A more particular inquisition into each part of a Muscle.

HAving gone thus far, it remains, that we more particularly inquire into each part of a Muscle, that (if it be possible) nothing may be wanting to this discourse.The nature of a Ligament. Wherefore a Ligament properly so called, is a simple part of mans body, next of a bone and grislle, the most terrestrial, dry, hard, cold, white; taking its original immediatly, or by the interposition of some Medium, from the Bones or Grisles (from whence also the Muscles have their beginning) whereby it comes to pass, that a ligament is void of sense, unless it receive a nerve from some other place; (for so the ligaments which compose and strengthen the tongue and yard, are par­takers of sense, and it inserts it self into the bone and grisle, that so it may bind them together, and strengthen and beautifie the whole joint or connexion; (for these three be the principal uses of a ligament) then diffusing it self into the membranes and muscles to strengthen those parts.The treefold use of a Ligament. What a Nerve is. A N [...]rve, to speak properly, is also a simple part of our body, bred and nourished by a gross and p [...]legmatick humour, such as the brain, the original of all the nerves, and also the Spinal marrow endued with the faculty of feeling, and oftentimes also of moving. For there be divers parts of the body which have nerves, yet are destitute of all voluntary motion, having the sense only of [...]eeling, as the membranes, veins, arteries, guts, and all the entrails. A nerve is covered with a double cover from the two membranes of the brain, and besides also with a third proceeding from [Page 66] the ligaments which fasten the hinder part of the head to the Vertebra's, or else from the Pericrani­um. What we mean by the nervous and ligamen­tous fibers. We understand no other things by the fibers of a Nerve, or of a Ligament, than long and slender threds, white, solid, cold, strong, more, or less, according to the quantity of the sub­stance, which is partly nervous and sensible, partly ligamentous and insensible. You must imagine the same of the fleshy fibers in their kind; but of these threds some are streight for attraction; others oblique, for retention of that which is convenient for the creature; and lastly, some trans­verse, for expulsion of that which is unprofitable. But when these transverse threds are extended in length; they are lessened in bredth; but when they are directly contracted, they are shortned in length. But when they are extended all together as it were, with an unanimous consent, the whole member is wrinkled as contracted into it self: as on the contrary it is extended when they are relaxed. Some of these are bestowed upon the animal parts, to perform voluntary motions; others upon the vital to perform the agitation of the heart and arteries; others upon the natural for attraction,By what power the similar parts princi­pally draw or attract. What, and of how many sorts the flesh is. retention, and expulsion. Yet we must observe, that the attraction of no similar part is performed by the help of the foresaid fibers or threds, but rather by the heat implanted in them, or by the shunning of emptiness, or the familiarity of the substance. The flesh also is a simple and soft part, composed of the pure portion of the blood insinuating it self into the spaces between the fibers, so to invest them for the uses formerly mentioned. This is (as it were) a cer­tain wall and bulwark against the injuries of heat and cold, against all falls and bruises, as it were, a certain soft pillow or cushion yielding to any violent impression. There be three sorts of flesh; one more ruddy, as the musculous flesh of perfect creatures, and such as have blood; for the flesh of all tender and young things having blood, as Calves, and also of all sorts of fish, is whitish, by reason of the too much humidity of the blood. The second kind is more pallid, even in perfect creatures having blood, such is the flesh of the heart, stomach, weason, guts, bladder, womb. The third is belonging to the entrails, or the proper substance of each entrail, as that which remains of the Liver (the veins, arteries and coat being taken away) of the bladder, of the gall, brains, kidnies, milt: Some add a fourth sort of flesh which is spongy, & that they say is proper to the tongue alone.

What a vein is.A Vein is the vessel, pipe, or channel of the blood, or bloody matter; it hath a spermatick substance, consists of one coat composed of three sorts of fibers.

What an Arte­ry is.An Artery is also the receptacle of blood, but that spirituous and yellowish, consisting in like manner of a spermatick substance; But it hath two coats with three sorts of fibers, the utmost whereof is most thin, consisting of right fibers, and some oblique: But the inner is five times more thick and dense than the utmost, interwoven with transverse fibers; and it doth not only contain blood and spirit, but also a serous humour, which we may believe because there be two emulgent Arteries as well as Veins.

Why an artery is more thick and dense than a vein.But the inner coat of an Artery is therefore more thick, because it may contain blood which is more hot, subtil, and spirituous; for the spirit, seeing it is naturully more thin and light, and in perpetual motion, would quickly fly away, unless it were held in a stronger hold. There is other reason for a Vein, as that which contains blood, gross, ponderous, and slow of motion. Where­fore if it had acquired a dense and gross coat, it could scarce be distributed to the neighbouring parts:The mutual Anastomasis of the veins and arteries. Where it is manifest. God, the maker of the Universe, foreseeing this, made the coats of the vessels contrary to the consistence of the bodies contained in them. The Anastomasis of the Veins and Arteries, that is to say, the application of the mouths of the one to the other, is very remarkable, by benefit of which they mutually communicate and draw the matters contained in them, and so also transfuse them by insensible passages, although that Anastomasis is apparent in the Vein and Artery that meet together at the joint and bending of the arm, which I have sometimes shewed in the Physick schools, at such time as I there dissected Anatomies.

From whence a muscle hath its beginning or head.But the action or function of a Muscle is either to move or confirm the part according to our will, into which it is implanted; which it doth when it draws it self toward its original, that is to say, its head. But we define the head by the insertion of the nerve, which we understand by the manner of the working of the Muscle.

CHAP. XI. Of the Muscles of the Epigastrium, or lower Belly

NOw seeing that we have taught what a Muscle is, and what the differences thereof, are, and what simple and compound parts it hath, and what the use, action, and manner of action in each part is; it remains that we come to the particular explication of each Muscle, beginning with those of the lower belly, as those which we first meet withal in dissection.

Eight muscles of the Epi­gastrium.These are eight in number, four oblique, two on each side, two right or direct, one on the right, another on the left side; and in like manner two transverse. All these are alike in force, magni­tude and action, so mutually composed, that the oblique descendant of one side, is conjoined with the other oblique descendant on the other side, and so of the rest.

We may add to this number the two little Supplying or Assisting muscles, which are of a Py­ramidal form,The oblique descendant. Their sub­stance. and arise from the Share-bone, above the insertion of the right muscles; Of the oblique Muscles of each side the one ascends, the other descends, whereupon it comes to pass, that they are called the Oblique descendant and ascendant Muscle. Those oblique which we first meet with, are the descendant, whose substance is partly sanguine, partly spermatick; for they [Page 67] are fleshy, nervous, ligamentous, veinous, arterious, and membranous.Their greatness and figure. Yet the fleshy portion is predominant in them, out of which respect Hippocrates is wont to express the muscles by the name Fleshes; their greatness is indifferent between the large and the small muscles; their figure is three square. They are composed of the fore-mentioned parts, they are two in number;Their compo­sure and site. their site is oblique, taking their beginning from the touching of the great Saw-muscle; and from the sixt and seventh true ribs, or rather from the spaces between the six lower ribs, and rather on the forepart of the muscles, than of the ribs themselves; from whence shunning the Vertebra's of the Loins, the fleshy parts of them are terminated in the external and upper eminency of the Haunch­bone, and the membranous end in the lower eminency of the Share-bone and the White-line. Yet Columbus dissenting from this common description of the oblique Muscles, thinks that they are only terminated in the White-line, and not in the Share-bone. For (saith he) wherefore should they be inserted into the Share-bone which is not moved? But because it would be an infinite la­bour and trouble to set down at large the several opinions of all Authors of Anatomy; I have thought it sufficient for me to touch them lightly by the way. Their connexion is with the ob­lique ascendant lying under them, and with the direct or right. Their temperament is twofold,Their connexi­on. Their tempe­rament. Their action. the one hot and moist, by reason of the belly and the fleshy portion of them; the other cold and dry, in respect of their ligamentous and tendinous portion. Their action is to draw the parts into which they are inserted towards their original, or else to unite them firmly. Yet each of these privately and properly draws the hip in an oblique manner towards the Cartilago Scutiformis, or brest-blade. Then follow the oblique ascendant, who have the same substance, quantity, figure,The oblique ascendant. composure, number and temper the descendant have. They are situate between the descendant and transverse with whom they have connexion,Their site and connexion. especially by the vessels which are brought from the parts beneath. All the fleshy parts arise from the rack-bones of the Haunch to the ends of the bastard-ribs, which they seem to admit above and below, being fleshy even to the fourth, and then becoming membranous, they take their way to the White-line, with a double aponeurosis, which passes through the right Muscles above and below, as we may plainly see from the Navel downwards. In their fleshy part they draw their original from the spine of the Haunch-bones a little lower than the descendant end in their fleshy part. But for their membranous parts, they arise before from the share-bone, but behind from the spondyls of the Holy-bone, and Ver­tebra's, of the Loins obliquely ascending upwards to the White-line, into which they are termi­nated by an aponeurosis or membranous tendon (which seems to penetrate the right Muscle upwards and downwards, especially under the Navel) but by their fleshy part at the ends of all the bastard ribs, which they seem to receive above and below. And because these Muscles are terminated in the White-line, they have also another use, yet such as is common to all the Muscles of the Epigastrium, that is, to press down the Guts.Their action. Their action is (if they perform it together) to draw and dilate the brest; but if their actions be separate, they draw the chest to the hip with an ob­lique motion. After these follow the right Muscles, so called,The right muscles of the Epigastrium. because they descend according to the length of the body, and because they have right or streight fibres.

We will say nothing (to shun prolix ty, which in all other places we will avoid) of their sub­stance and other conditions, which they have common with the fore-mentioned Muscles.Their site. They are situate in the eminentest or extuberating region of the belly, bounding the Epigastrium taken in general, (or the superficiary belly); they are divided by the manifest intercourse of the White­line, even to the Navel, in which place they seem to be united even to the place of their inserti­on. They draw their original not from the Share-bone, as some would have it,Original. but according to the insertion of their nerves from the sides of the Cartilago scutiformis, and the ends of the sixth, seventh and eighth ribs; but they end in the Share-bone, where they make a common Tendon sufficiently strong and short. Sylvius, Vesalius, and Columbus think they arise from the Share-bone, because they cannot be inserted into that bone, because it is unmovable. You may perceive in these Muscles certain nervous and transverse intersections, oftentimes three in number for the strength of these Muscles, (of which Galen makes no mention, although they may be seen in Apes.) And also in the inner side of these muscles you may see four veins, and as many arteries, of which some creep upwards, others run downwards. The upper, called the Mamillary, descend from the Axillary by the side and lower parts of the Sternon, the slenderer portions thereof be­ing distributed by the way to the Mediastinum, and about the fourth and fifth rib to the Dugs, from whence they take their name.

That which remains breaking out by the sides of the Brest-blade, inserts it self into those mus­cles, creeping along, even almost to the navel; in which place they are manifestly united (that is,The meeting together of the Epigastrick and mamillary veins and arte­ries. the veins with the veins, and arteries with the arteries) with the Epigastrick, which ascend from the upper part of the Iliack; on each side under the said muscles, until they meet with these four mamillary vessels. That you may find the concourse of the veins and arteries about the navel, you must follow both the upper and the lower somewhat deep into the flesh, pressing the blood on both sides from above downwards, and from below upward, until you shall find the exos­culation of these vessels, which will appear by this, That the blood will flow from this into that, and from that into this; otherwise you can scarce perceive it, by reason of the smalness of such vessels which want blood. But that by the benefit of such concourse of the vessels, the mat­ters may be communicated and transported both from the womb to the dugs, and again from the dugs to the womb, appears in Nurses who want their courses, when the milk comes into their dugs; and on the contrary lose their milk when their courses flow plentifully. Otherwise to what [Page 68] purpose should there be such concourse between the vessels of the paps and womb? for there are veins and arteries diffused to the sides of the womb from the root of the Epigastricks; for indeed the Epigastricks which in their ascent meet with the mamillary, go not to the womb, though they be next to them, and arise from the same trunk with the Hypogastrick vein of the womb. The a­ction of these Muscles is,Their action. Their use. to move or draw near together the parts of the Hypogastrium to the Praecordia, or Hypochondries. Their use, in Columbus opinion, is, to draw the brest downwards, so to dilate it. At the ends of these, nature hath produced two other small Muscles from the upper part of the Share-bone, of a triangular figure, for the safety of the thick and common tendon of the right Muscles; whereupon they are called Succenturiati, or, Assisters.

The first figure of the Lower belly.
  • AABCD. The upper, lower, and la­teral parts of the Peritonaeum.
  • EE. The white Line from the grisle of the Breast-bone, called the Breast-blade, to the commissure or meeting of the Share-bones.
  • F. The Grisle of the Breast-bone, Cartilago ensi-formis, or the Breast-blade.
  • G. The Navel; which, all the Mus­cles being taken away, must be kept for the demonstration of the Umbilical Ves­sels.
  • HH. The productions of the Perito­naeum, which contain the seminary Vessels on either side.
  • * * The hole which giveth way to the seminary Vessels of men.
  • II. A vein and an artery from the Epigastrick, which being carryed up­ward under the right Muscles, do here hang down, and are distributed into the lower part of the Abdomen.
  • KK. A Vein and an Artery, from the internal Mammary, proceeding from under the Bone of the Breast, are car­ryed downward through the right mus­cles, and are disseminated into the up­per part of the Abdomen.
  • 1, 2. The place wherein the right muscles arise, which being here cut off, do hang down, that their Vessels may the better be seen.
  • 3, 4. The Anastomasis or inoculation of the foresaid Vessels, making the con­sent of the Abdomen and the Nose, and of the Womb with the Breasts, as some think.
  • LL. Branches of Veins mouing into the sides of the Peritonaeum.
  • N. The place of the Haunch-bone ba­red, to which the Oblique and the Trans­verse muscles do grow.

The Pyrami­dal or assisting Muscles.Some (moved with I know not what reason) would have these two small Muscles to help the erection of the Yard. Columbus thinks they should not be separated from the right, and that they only are the fleshy beginnings of the right.The transverse Muscles of the Epigastrium. Their figure and site. But, on the contrary, Fallopius manifestly proves them different and separate from the right, and shews their use. The Transverse remain to be spoken of, so called by reason of their fibres, which make right angles with the fibres of the right Muscles. They have a quadrangular figure situate upon the greatest part of the Peritonaeum, to which they stick so close that they scarse can be separated. They take their original from the production of the loins, the eminency of the Haunch-bone, the transverse productions of the Vertebra's of the loins, and the ends of the bastard-ribs; contrary to the opinion of many, whom the insertion of the nerve convinces, but they end in the White-line, as all the rest do.

Their action. The common use and action of the eight Muscles of the Epigastrium.Their action is to pass the guts, especially for the expulsion of Excrements.

But all the eight recited Muscles, besides their proper use, have another common; that is, they stand for a Defence, or Bulwark, for all the parts lying under them, and serve for the strengthen­ing of the voyce, as experience shews in those who sound Trumpets and Cornets.

Therefore these Muscles do equally on every side press the Belly; but the Midriff, the inter­costal muscles assisting it, doth drive from above downwards, from which conspiring contention follows the excretion of the excrements by the Fundament; but unless the Midriff should assist, these muscles would press the excrements no more downwards, than upwards to the mouth.

Why when the mouth is open the extrements go more slowly forth.Although to this excretion of the excrements, it is not sufficient that the Epigastrick, Midriff, and intercostal Muscles press the belly, but the muscles of the throttle must be also shut. For the mouth being open, the excrements never go well forth; because the vapors do pass out of the [Page 69] mouth, which being restrained and driven to the Midriff, by stretching it powerfully thrusts down the excrement. Wherefore Apothecaries when they give Glysters, bid the Patient to open his mouth, that the Glyster may easily go up, which otherwise would scarcely go up, the mouth be­ing shut; because so, we should have no place empty in us, into which the Glyster might be ad­mitted.

Of the White-line, and Peritonaeum or Rim of the Belly.

THe White-line is nothing else, than the bound and extremities of the muscles of the Epi­gastrium, distinguishing the belly in the midst into two parts, the right and left.What the White-line is. It is cal­led White, both of its own colour, and also for that no fleshy part lyes under it, or is placed above it. It is broader above the Navel, but narrower below, because the right muscles do there grow into one. Now we must treat of the Coat or Membrane, Peritonaeum or Rim of the Belly;What the Pe­ritonaeum is. it is so called, because it is stretched over all the lower belly, and particularly over all the parts contain­ed in the ventricle, to which also it freely lends a common coat. It hath a spermatick substance,The substance, and quantity. as all other membranes have; the quantity of it in thickness is very small, (for it is almost as thin as a Spiders web) yet differing in divers places in men and women; for men have it more thick and strong below the navel, that so it may contain the extension of the stomach, often stretched beyond measure with meat and drink. On the contrary, women have it so thick and strong below their navel, that it seems double, that so they may more easily endure the distention of their womb, caused by the child contained in it. But above the navel, men and women have the Peritonaeum of an equal strength, for the self same reason. The longitude and latitude of it is known by the cir­cumscription of the belly.

The figure is round and somewhat long; it puts forth some productions, like finger-stalls,The figure. both for the leading and strengthening the spermatick vessels, and the Cremaster muscles of the Testicles, and, besides it, the ejaculatory vessels; as also to impart a coat to the Testicles, and all the natural parts.

It is composed of slender, membranous and nervous fibers,The compo­sition. certain small brauenes of veins and arteries concurring with them, which it receives for life and nourishment from the adherent parts.

This membrane is one in number, and besides every where one and equal, although Galen would have it perforated in that place where the spermatick vessels descend to the Testicles; But,The number. Lib. de sem. in truth, we must not think that a hole, but rather a production, as we said before.

The later Anatomists have observed, the Coat Peritonaeum is doubled below the Navel, and that by the spaces of these reduplications the umbilical arteries ascend to the Navel.

It is situate near the natural parts, and compasses them about, and joyned by the coat,The site and connexion. which it gives them, as also on the sides, it is joined to the vertebra's of the loins, from whose Ligaments (or rather Periosteum) it takes the original: On the lower part, it cleaves to the share-bone, and on the upper to the Midriff, whose lower part it wholly invests; on the fore or outer part it sticks so close to the transverse muscles, that it cannot be pluckt from them but by force, by reason of the complication and adhaesion of the fibers thereof with the fibers of the proper membrane of these muscles; which membrane in Galen's opinion proceeds from this Peritonaeum, Lib. 6. Meth. so that it is no marvail that we may more easily break than separate these two coats. It is of temperature cold and dry, as all other membranes.

Use. It hath many uses, the first whereof is, to invest and cover all the parts of the lower belly, specially the Kall, lest it should be squeezed by great compressures and violent attempts into the empty spaces of the muscles, as it sometimes happens in the wounds of the Epigastrium, unless the lips of the Ulcer be very well united; for then appears a tumor about the wound by the Guts and Kall thrusting without the Peritonaeum into those spaces of the muscles; from whence proceeds cruel pain.

Another use is, to the further casting forth of the excrements by pressing the ventricle and guts on the foreside, as the Midriff doth above, as one should do it by both his hands joyned together.

The third use is, it prohibits the repletion of the parts with flatulency after the expulsion of the excrements, by straitning and pressing them down.

The fourth and last is, that it contains all the parts in their seat, and binds them to the back­bone, principally that they should not fly out of their places by violent motions, as by leaping, and falling from on high.

Lastly, we must know, that the Rim is of that nature, that it will easily dilate it self, as we see in Dropsies, in women with childe, and in tumors against nature.

CHAP. XIII. Of the Epiploon, Omentum, or Zirbus, that is, the Kall.

AFter the containing parts, follow the contained, the first of which is the Epiploon, The substance, magnitude, figure. (or Kall) so called, because it (as it were) swims upon all the guts. The substance of it is fatty and spermatick, the quantity of it for thickness is diverse, in divers men, according to their temperament. The latitude of it is described by the quantity of the guts. It is in figure [Page 70] like a purse,The compo­sure. because it's double. It is composed of veins, arteries, fat, and a membrane, which sliding down from the gibbous part of the ventricle, and the flat part of the gut Duodenum, and Spleen over the Guts,The connexi­on. is turned back from the lower belly to the top of the Colon. It is one as we said covering the Guts. It hath its chief connexion with the first Vertebra's of the Loins, from which place in Beasts it seems to take a Coat, as in men from the hollow part of the Spleen, and gibbous of the ventricle,Lib. Anatom. administ. The temper. The use two­folds. and depressed part of the Duodenum; from whence doubled, it is ter­minated in the fore and higher part of the Colick-gut. Which moved Galen to write, that the upper part of the membrane of the Kall was annexed to the Ventricle; but the lower, to the laxer part of the Colick-gut. From the Vessels of which parts it borrows his, as also the Nerves, if it have any. The temper of it in lean bodies is cold and dry, because their Kall is without far; but in fat bodies it is cold and moist by reason of the fat. The use of it is twofold: The first is to heat and moisten the Guts, and help their concoction, although it do it by accident, as that which through the density of the fat, hinders the cold air from piercing in, and also forbids the dissipa­tion of the internal heat. Another use is, that, in want of nourishment in times of great famin, sometimes it cherishes,Lib. 4. de usu partium. and (as it were) by its dew preserves the innate heat, both of the Ven­tricle and neighbouring parts, as it is written by Galen. Moreover we must observe, that in a rupture or relaxation of the Peritonaeum, the Kall falls down into the Scrotum, from whence comes that rupture we call Epiplocele. A cause of frustrating conception. But in women that are somewhat more fat, it thrusts it self be­tween the bladder and the neck of the womb, and by its compression hinders, that the seed comes not with full force into the womb, and so frustrates the conception. Besides, when by a wound or some other chance, any part of it be defective, then that part of the Belly which answers to it, will afterwards remain cold and raw, by reason of the fore-mentioned causes.

The second figure of the lower Belly.
  • AA, BB. The inner part of the Peritonaeum cutt into four parts, and so turned backward.
  • B. The upper B sheweth the implantation of the Umbilical vein into the Liver.
  • C. The Navel separated from the Peritonaeum. From D to the upper B the Umbilical veins.
  • E, E. The forepart of the stomach blown up, nei­ther covered by the Liver nor Kall.
  • F, F. A part of the Gibbous side of the Liver.
  • G. Vessels disseminated through the Peritonaeum.
  • * The Brest blade.
  • H. The [...]otttom of the Bladder of urine.
  • I. The connexion of the Peritonaeum to the bottom of the Bladder.
  • K, K, K, K. The Kall covering the Guts.
  • M, N. Vessels and sinews embracing the bottom of the stomach.
  • O. The meeting of the Vessels of both sides; so that M, N, and O, shew the seam which Aristotle mentions. 3. Hist. & 4. de part. Anim. where he saith, That the Kall arises and proceeds from the midst of the belly.
  • P, P. Branches of Vessels running alongst the bottom of the stomach.
  • QQQQ. Certain branches of the Vessels distributed to the upper membrane of the Omentum, and compassed with fat.
  • a, a, The two Umbilical arteries going down by the sides of the bladder to a branch of the great artery.
  • b. The Ligament of the Bladder which is shewed for the Urachus.

CHAP. XIII. Of the Ventricle or Stomach.

What the ven­tricle is. The substance. The magni­tude. The figure. The compo­sure.NOw we must speak of the Stomach; the receptacle of the food necessary for the whole body, the seat of appetite, by reason of the Nerves dispersed into its upper orifice, and so into its whole substance. The substance thereof is rather spermatick than san­guine, because that for one fleshy membrane, it hath two nervous; The quantity or magnitude of the ventricle is divers, according to the various magnitudes of bodies, and gluttony of men. The figure of it is round and somewhat long, like a Bagpipe. The stomach is composed of two proper coats, and one common from the Peritonaeum, together with veins, sinews, and arteries; [Page 71] the innermost of its proper coats is membranous, woven with right fibers, for the attraction of meats; it is extended and propagated even to the mouth thereof, whereby it comes to pass that the affections of one part may easily be communicated to the other by sympathy, or consent.The cause of the consent of the mouth and stomach. This coat hath its original from the membranes of the brain which accompany the nerves descending from the third and fourth conjugation to the mouth thereof. And in like sort from other pro­ductions descending by the passages of the head, from whence also another reason may be drawn from that, which they commonly bring from the nerves of the sixt conjugation; why in wounds of the head, the stomach doth so soon suffer by consent with the brain. The exterior or outer is more fleshy and thick, woven with oblique fibers, to retain and expel. It draws its original from the Pericranium, which assoon as it comes to the gullet, takes unto it certain fleshy fibers. There be nerves sent into the Stomach from the sixt conjugation of the Brain, as it shall be shewed in its proper place. Veins and Arteries are spread into it from the Gastrica, the Gastrepiploides, the Coronaria and Splenick, from the second, third, and fourth distribution of the Vena-porta, or Gate-vein; and the third of the descendent artery to the natural parts, assoon as it passes forth of the Midriffe.

It is one in number, The greater part of it is situated on the left side between the Spleen,The number. the hollowness of the Liver, and the Guts, that, assisted by the heat of such neighbouring parts, it may more cheerfully perform the concoction of the meat. Neither am I ignorant that Galen hath written, that a great part of the Stomach lies on the left side. But inspection it self, and reason makes me derogate from Galen's authority: for, because there is more empty space on the left side,Lib. de usu partium. by reason the Spleen is less than the Liver, it was fit it should lie more on the left side.The connexi­on. The more proper connexion of it is with the gullet and guts, by its two orifices; with the brain by its nerves; with the liver and spleen by its veins; with the heart by its arteries; and with all the natural parts by its common membrane.

The temper of the ventricle in men of good habit, is temperate, because it is almost composed of the equal commixture of sanguine and spermatick parts; or according to Galen's opinion,The temper. Lib. 9. Meth. it is cold of it self, and by the parts composing it; and hot by the vicinity of the bowels. But in some it is hotter, in others colder, according to the divers temper and complexion of divers bo­dies. That stomach is to be thought well tempered, that powerfully draws down the meat and drink, and embraces and retains them so drawn, until by concoction and elixation, they shall be turned into a juyce like cream (which the Greeks call Chylos;) and lastly, which doth strongly send from it, and repel the excrements of this first concoction.

The Stomach is known to be hotter by this, that it better concocts and digests coorse and hard meats, as Beef, hard Egs, and the like, than soft meats easie of digestion,Notes of a ho [...] Stomach. which it corrupts and turns into belchings. For so a young Chicken, is sooner burnt than well roasted at a great fire. The stomach which is colder, desires much meat, but is slow in concocting them, especially if they be cold and hard of digestion, which for that cause quickly turn sowre. The action of a well conditioned stomach is twofold, one common, another proper. The common is to attenuate,The action twofold. mix and digest the meats taken in at the mouth, for the nutrition of it self and the whole body, after the liver hath performed its duty, which before it be done, the ventricle only enjoys the sweet pleasure of the Chylus, and comforts it self against the impurity of the adjacent parts, where­of it is called the work-house of concoction. Its first action is to attract, retain, and assimilate to it self that which is convenient; but to expel whatsoever shall be contrary, either in quantity, or quality, or in the whole substance.

It hath two orifices, one above, which they commonly call the stomach and heart,The two orifices of the stomach. the other lower, which is called the Pylorus, or lower mouth of the stomach. The upper bends to the left side neer the back-bone; it is far more large and capacious than the lower, that so it may more com­modiously receive meats half-chewed, hard and gross, which Gluttons cast down with great gree­diness; it hath an exquisite sense of feeling, because it is the seat of the appetite, by reason of the nerves incompassing this orifice, with their mutual imbracings; whereby it happens that the ven­tricle in that part is endued with a quick sense, that perceiving the want and emptiness of meat, it may stir up the creature to seek food. For albeit nature hath bestowed four faculties on other parts, yet they are not sensible of their wants, but are only nourished by the continual sucking of the veins, as plants by juyce drawn from the earth.

This orifice is seated at the fifth Vertebra of the chest, upon which they say it almost rests.The site. Yet I had rather say, that it lies upon the twelfth Vertebra of the chest, and the first of the loins; for in this place the gullet perforates the midriffe, and makes this upper orifice.The glandu­lous ring of the Pylorus. The lower orifice bends rather to the right side of the body, under the cavity of the Liver. It is far straiter than the upper, lest any thing should pass away before it be well attenuated and concocted; and it doth that by the help or assistance of, as it were, a certain ring, like to the sphincter muscle of the fundament, which some have thought a glandule made by the transposition of the inner and fleshy membrane of the ventricle into that which is the outer of the guts. I know Columbus laughs at this glandulous ring, but any one that looks more attentively, shall perceive that Pylorus is glandu­lous. The stomach in its lower and inner side, hath many folds and wrincles, which serve to hold and contain the meats, until they be perfectly concocted. In the ventricle, we observe parts gibbous and hollow; the hollow is next to the liver and midriffe; the gibbous is towards the guts.The falling down of the stomach. Now we must note that the ventricle, when it is much resolved or loosed, may slide down even to the navil near the bladder, the which we have observed in some bodies dissected after their death.

The third and fourth Figures.
  • The first figure shews the fore­side of the stomach and gullet.
  • A. sheweth the orifice of the gullet cut from the throat.
  • B. the straight and direct course of the gullet from A. to B.
  • C. how the gullet above the first rack-bone of the chest, from B. to C. inclineth to the right hand.
  • D. his inclination to the left hand, from C. to D.
  • EE. the two glandules called the Almonds, set close to the gul­let in the end of the throat, called also Paristmia, Antiades, Ton­sillae, and Salviares glandulae.
  • FF. another glandulous body in the midst of the gullet, about the fifth rack-bone, from which place the gullet gives place to the great artery, somewhat declining to the right side: Vaesalius, Lib. 5. c. 3. and Columbus, cap. ult. lib. 9. write, that those Glandules are filled with a certain moisture, with which the gullet is moistened that the meats may slide down more easily into the stomach, as through a slippery passage. No otherwise than the Glandulae prostatae, filled with a kind of gross and oily moisture, smooth the passage of the urine, that so it may flow through it, with a more free and less troubled course.
  • G. the connexion of the gullet with the stomach, where the upper orifice of the stomach is fashioned.
  • H. the lower orifice of the stomach called Pylorus.
  • I. K. the upper part of the stomach at I. the lower at K.
  • LL. the foreside of the stomach.
  • P. the gullet called Duodenum.
  • T. V. the right and left nerves of the sixth pair, encompassing about the gullet and the uppermost left orifice of the stomach.

The second Figure sheweth the back-parts of the Ventricle and Gullet.

A. EE. FF. G. H. P. TV. shew the like parts as in the former. From C. to D. the inclination of the stomach to the left hand. M. N. O. the back side of the stomach. M. sheweth the prominence of the left side. N. of the right. O. sheweth the dock or impression, where it resteth upon the rack-bones. Q. R. the passage of the bladder of the gall into Duodenum at R. S. a glandulous body growing under the Duodenum, bearing up the vessels X. Y. a nerve on the left side creeping up to the top of the stomach, and so running out to the liver.

CHAP. XIV. Of the Guts.

Their sub­stance.THE Guts the instruments of distribution and expulsion are of the same substance and com­posure with the Stomach, but that the site of the coats of the Stomach is contrary to those of the guts. For that which is the innermost coat of the Stomach is the outermost of the Guts, and so on the contrary. The figure of the Guts is round, hollow and capacious, some more,Figure. Their number. some less, according to the divers bigness.

But for the quantity of the Guts, some are small, some great, more or less, according to the variety of bodies.The Duode­num. But they are six in number: for there be three small; the Duodenum, the Jejunum or empty Gut, and the Ileon. Three great, the Blind, the Colick, and the Right-gut. All which have had their names for the following reasons; the first, because it is extended the length of twelve fingers, like another stomach, without any turning; or winding, of which great­ness it is found in great bodied men, such as were more frequently to be met withall in Galen's time, than in this time of ours; in which, this gut is found no longer than seven, eight, or nine fingers at the most. The cause of this length is, that there may be a free passage to the Gate-vein, coming out of the Liver, as also to the Artery and Nerve which run into it. For seeing that this Gut may sometimes rise to the top of the Liver, it would possess the space under the Bladder of the Gall (with which it is often tincture) if it had any revolutions that way, which is the passage for such like vessels. Others give another reason of this figure, which is, That there should be no­thing to hinder the easie and fit distribution of the perfectly concocted Chylus to the Liver.

The Jejunum.The second is called Jejunum, or the empty-Gut, not because it is absolutely so, but because it contains little in comparison of the other. There is a triple cause of this emptiness, the first the multitude of the meseraick Veins and Arteries which are about it, whereupon there is a greater and quicker distribution of the Chylus. The second is the vicinity or neighbourhood of the Liver strongly drawing the Chylus contained in it; the third is the flowing down of the Cholerick hu­mor from the Bladder of the Gall into it, which ever and anon by its acrimony cleanses away the filth, and by continual flowing solicits it to expulsion. The third is called Ileon, because it lies between the Ilia, Ilcon. or flanks; it differs nothing from the rest in substance and magnitude, but in [Page 73] this one thing, that there is more matter contained in it than in the rest, by reason of the paucity of the vessels terminated in it, that it is no marvel that there can be no exact demonstration made of them. The fourth is called Caecum, or the Blind,Caecum. because it hath but one passage to send out and receive in the matter. This Gut hath a long and strait production, which, according to the opini­on of some (though altogether erroneous) often falls down intO the Scrotum in the rupture, or re­laxation of the Rim of the Belly; for, that production in the lower Belly strongly sticks to the Peritonaeum, or Rim, which hinders such falling down. But Galen seems by such a Blind-gut to have meant this long and narrow production; and certainly, so thinks the common sort of Anato­mists: but here Vesalius justly reprehended Galen. Wherefore Sylvius that he might free Galen of this fault, would have us by the Blind-gut to understand the beginning of the Colick-gut. The fifth is called Colon (or Colick-gut) because it is greater and more capacious than the rest.Colon. Rectum. The sixt and last, the Right-gut, by reason of the rightness or straightness of the passage. This, in beasts especially, hath a certain fatness in it to make the passage slippery, and lest the guts should be ex­ulcerated in the passage, by the sharpness of hard and acrid excrements.

The site of these guts is thus: The Duodenum upon the back-bone bends to the right hand;Their site. the Jejunum possesses a great part of the upper umbilical region, & diffuses it self into both sides with windings, like to those of the Gut Ileum, even to the flanks. The gut Ileon is situate at the lower part of the umbilical region, going with many turnings and windings, even to the hollownesses of the holy-bone above the bladder and side parts of the Hypogastrium, they call the flanks.

The Blind bends to the right hand, a little below the Kidney, above the first and fourth Verte­bra of the loins. The Colon or Colick-gut is crooked and bent, in the form of a Scythian-bow, filling all the space from the Blind-gut, below the right Kidney even to the hollowness of the Li­ver, and then it goes by the gibbous part of the stomach above the small-guts, even to the hollow­ness of the Spleen; from whence sliding under the left Kidney, with some turnings, it is termina­ted upon the Vertebra's of the Loins.

By all which turnings and windings of the Colick-gut,The distincti­on between the colick and the stone in the kidneys. Their connexi­on. it is easie to distinguish the pain of the Stone of the Kidneys, which remain fixt in one certain place, from the Colick wandring through those crooked passages we mentioned. The right-gut tends with an oblique site towards the left hand, upon the holy-bone even to the very fundament. They have all one and a common connexi­on; for they are all mutually joyned together by their coats, because there is but one way from the gullet even to the fundament; but they are joyned to the principal parts by their nerves, veins, and arteries.

But a more proper connexion is that, where the Duodenum on the upper part of it, is joyned with the Pylorus; but on the lower part to the Jejunum, and the parts lying under it; by the coat of the Peritonaeum. The Jejunum, or Empty-gut, is joyned to the Duodenum and Ileon. The Ile­on, with the empty blind-guts. The blind with the Ileon and Colon, and with the right side of the back-bone where it is tied more straightly. The Colon with the blind and right-guts,Why vomiting happens in the Colick. and in his middle part, with the Kidneys and gibbous part of the Stomach; whereby it comes to pass, that be­ing distended with wind in the colick, it over-turns add presses the stomach, and so causes vomiting.

Lastly, the right-gut is annexed with the Colick-gut and Fundament.The Sphincter Muscles of the fundament. At the end whereof there is a muscle fastened, of figure round and circular, called the Sphincter, arising from the lower Ver­tebra's of the holy-bone and rump, by the benefit of which as of a dore or gate, the excrements are restrained at our will, lest man born for all honest actions, without all shame, in every time and place, should be forced every where to ease his belly. For such as have lost the benefit of this mus­cle by the Palsie, have their excrements go from them against their wills.Gal. lib. 5. de usu partium. cap. 14. There is a body situate at the end of the right-gut, and of a middle substance between the skin and flesh, as it were arising from the mixture of them both, like the extremities of the lips, of the same use with the Sphincter, but that it is not altogether so powerful. But there are also certain veins situate about it called the Haemorrhoidal, of which we will speak in their place.

Besides, there are two other muscles that descend to the end of this gut, being broad and membranous on each side, one arising from the side and inner parts of the share and hip-bones, which inserted above the Sphincter pull up the fundament falling down, wherefore they are cal­led Levatores Ani, or the lifters up of the Fundament. Wherefore when as either they are too weak, or resolved, or the fundament oppressed with the weight of flegmatick, salt,Levatores Ani. cholerick and sharp humors, the gut is scarce restored into its place, that there is need of the help of the fin­gers for that purpose.

The guts follow the temper of the stomach.The action of the guts. Their action is the distributing the Chylus by the meseraick veins (which of duty belongs to the three small guts) and the receiving the excre­ments of the Chylus, and retention of them, till a fit time of expulsion, which belongs to the third quarter. Besides, these small guts finish up the work of concoction, begun in the stomach, al­though they be not altogether made for that use. But nature is often accustomed to abuse the parts of the body for some better use.

But we must note, that for the composure of the guts, they have only transverse fibers,Their fibers▪ for ex­pulsion's sake, unless that at the beginning of the Colon, and the end of the right gut, you may see certain right fibers added to the transverse to strengthen them, lest these guts should chance to be broken and torn by the passage of hard excrements, and the laborious endeavour of expulsion (specially in brute beasts.)

The fifth figure, of the lower belly.
  • A. The brest-blade, Cartilago Ensiformis.
  • BB. the Rim, with the midrisse and broken ribs bent outwards.
  • CC. the gibbous part of the Liver.
  • D. a ligament tying the Liver to the Midriff.
  • E. part of the umbilical vein.
  • FF. the stomach fild full of meat.
  • G. a part of the spleen.
  • H. the blind gut of the late writers, for the An­cients took the top of the Colon for it.
  • I. the beginning of the great or thick guts.
  • I. and so to K. sheweth the passages of the colick-gut from the right kidney to the liver. And so the co­lick and the stone on this side are in one place, and therefore hardly distinguished.
  • K. to L. same colick-gut lyeth under the whole bottom of the stomach, which is the reason that those which are troubled with the colick cast so much.
  • L. to M. the passage of the Colon from the Spleen to the share-bone, by the stone and the Colick on the left side, very hard to distinguish.
  • N. the Colon ending in the right gut.
  • O. the beginning of the right-gut unto the bladder.
  • P. Q. the sunken or fallen side of the Colon at P. and his Chambers or Cells at Q R. S. T. the les­ser guts especially lying under the Navel.
  • aa. The two umbilical arteries.
  • b. the bottom of the bladder.
  • * the connexcion of the bladder and the Peritonae­um.

How the guts become fit to retain.But if any ask, how they have retention, being they want oblique fibers; he may know, that the faeces are retained in the right-gut, by the force of the Sphincter-muscle, but oft-times in the blind,Their length. by their hardness and abundance, whereby they stick in the passage; but in the rest, by reason of their conformation into many windings and turnings. The length of the guts, is seven times more than the length of the whole body; to this length they have windings, lest the nou­rishment should quickly slide away, and lest men should be with-drawn by gluttony from action and contemplation. For so we see it comes to pass in most Beasts, which have one Gut, stretched straight out from the stomach to the fundament; as in the Lynx, and such other Beasts of insati­able gluttony, always, like plants, regarding their food.

CHAP. XV. Of the Mesentery.

The substance. Magnitude. Figure. Composure.AFter the Guts follows the Mesentery, being partly of a fatty, and partly of spermatick substance. The greatness of it is apparent enough, although in some it be bigger, and in some lesser, according to the greatness of the body. It is of a round figure and not very thick. It is composed of a double coat arising from the beginning and root of the Perito­naeum. In the midst thereof, it admits nerves from the Costal of the sixt Conjugation; veins from the Vena Porta, or Gate-vein; Arteries from the descendent artery, over and besides a great quantity of fat and many glandulous bodies, to prop up the division of the vessels spred over it, as also to moisten their substance. It is in number one, situate in the middle of the guts, from whence it took its name.Number. The connexi­on. Yet some divide it into two parts, to wit, into the Meseraeum, that is, the portion interwoven with the smal guts, and into the Meso-colon which is joyned with the Great. It hath connexion by it vessels, with the principal parts, by its whole substance with the guts, and in some sort with the kidneys, from whose region it seems to take its coats.

The temper.It is of a cold and moist temper, if you have respect to his fatty substance; but if to the rest of the parts, cold and dry.

The action and use.The action and use of it is, to bind and hold together the guts, each in his place, lest they should rashly be folded together, and by the Meseraick-veins (which they term the hands of the Liver) carry the Chylus to the Liver.

All the misera­ick veins come from the liver.In which you must note, that all the Meseraick Veins come from the Liver, as we understand by the dissection of bodies; although some have affirmed, that there be some veins serving for the nourishment of the guts, no ways appertaining to the Liver, but which end in certain Glandu­lous bodies, dispersed through the Mesentery, of whose use we will treat hereafter.

CHAP. XVI. Of the Glandules in general, and of the Pancreas, or Sweet-bread.

A Glandule is a simple part of the body; sometimes of a spongy and soft substance,Substance of the glandules. some­times of a dense and hard. Of the soft Glandules are the Tonsillae (or Almonds, like in substance to blanched Almonds), the Thymus, Pancreas, Testicles, Prostatae. But the dense and hard are the Parotides, and other like. The Glandules differ amongst themselves in quantity and figure, for some are greater than othersome, and some are round, and others plain,Quantity and figure. as the Thy­mus and Pancreas.

Others are compounded of veins, nerves, arteries, and their proper flesh,Composition. as the Almonds of the ears, the milky glandules in the breasts and the testicles. Others want nerves, at least which may be seen, as the Parotides, the axillary, or those under the arm-holes, and others. The number of glan­dules is uncertain, by reason of the infinite multitude and variety of sporting nature.Number. You shall find them always in those places, where the great divisions of vessels are made, as in the middle ventricle of the brain, in the upper part of the Chest, in the Mesentery, and other like places.

Although othersome be seated in such places, as nature thinks needful to generate and cast forth of them a profitable humor to the creature; as the Almonds at the root of the tongue, the kernels in the dugs, the spermatick vessels in the scrotum and at the sides of the womb; or where Nature hath decreed to make emunctories for the principal parts, as behind the ears, under the arm-holes, and in the groins. The connexion of glandules is not only with the vessels of the parts concurring to their composition, but also with those, whose division they keep and preserve.Connexion. They are of a cold temper, wherefore Physitians say, the blood recrudescere (i), to become raw again in the dugs, when it takes upon it the form of milk. But of these some have action, as the Almonds,Temper. Action and use. which pour out spattle useful for the whole mouth, the dugs milk, the Testicles seed; others, use only, as those which are made to preserve, under-prop and fill up the divisions of the vessels.The substance of the Pancre­as. Be­sides this we have spoken of glandules in general, we must know, that the Pancreas, is a glandu­lous and flesh-like body, as that which hath every-where the shape and resemblance of flesh. It is situate at the flat end of the Liver, under the Duodenum with which it hath great connexion,The site. and under the Gate-vein, to serve as a Bulwark both to it and the divisions thereof, whilst it fils up the empty spaces between the vessels themselves, and so hinders, that they be not pluckt asun­der, nor hurt by any violent motion, as a fall or the like.

CHAP. XVII. Of the Liver.

HAving gone thus far, order of dissection now requires, that we should treat of the distri­bution of the gate-vein; but, because it cannot well be understood unless all the nature of the Liver from whence it arises, be well known, therefore putting it off to a more fit place, we will now speak of the Liver. Wherefore the Liver (according to Galen's opinion,What the Li­ver is. lib. de form. foetus) is the first of all the parts of the body, which is finished in conformation. It is the shop and Author of the blood, and the original of the veins; the substance of it,Its substance and quantity. is like the concrete mud of the blood, the quantity of it is divers, not only in bodies of different, but also of the same species; as in men amongst themselves, of whom one will be gluttonous and fearful, another bold, and temperate or sober; for he shall have a greater Liver than this, be­cause it must conceive and concoct a greater quantity of Chylus: yet the Liver is great in all men, because they have need of a great quantity of blood for the repairing of so many spirits, and the substantifick moisture, which are resolved and dissipated in every moment by action and contem­plation. But there may be a twofold reason given, why such as are fearful have a larger Liver.Why Cowards have great Li­vers. The first is, because in those the vital faculty (in which the heat of courage and anger resides) which is in the heart, is weak; and therefore the defect of it must be supplyed by the strength of the natu­ral faculty. For thus nature is accustomed to recompence that which is wanting in one part, by the increase and accession of another. The other reason is, because cold men have a great appetite, for by Galen's opinion In arte parva, Coldness increases the appetite; by which it comes to pass that they have a greater quantity of Chylus, by which plenty the Liver is nourished and grows larger. Some Beasts, as Dogs and Swine, have the Liver divided into five or more Lobes, but a man hath but one Lobe, or two, or three at the most; and these not so much distinguished, as which cherish the upper & hollow region of the ventricle, with embracing to help forward the work of concocti­on. Therefore the liver is almost content with one Lobe, although it is always rent with a small di­vision, that the umbilical vein piercing into the roots and substance of it, may have a free passage; but also oftentimes there is as it were a certain small Lobe of the Liver, laid under that umbilical-vein, as a cushion.

The figure of the Liver is gibbous; rising up and smooth towards the Midriff;The figure. towards the sto­mach is the simous or hollow-side of it somewhat unequal, and rough by reason of the distance of the Lobes, the original of the hollow-vein, and the site of the bladder of the Gall.

The composition of the Liver is of Veins, Nerves, Arteries,The compo­sure. the coat and proper substance thereof which we call the gross and concrete blood, or Parenchyma. The vessels. Veins and arteries come to it from the navil; but nerves immediately from these which are diffused over the stomach according [Page 76] to Hippocrates; yet they penetrate not very deep into its substance; for it seems not to stand in need of such exact sense, but they are distributed upon the coat and surface thereof, because this part made for distribution over the whole body, keeps to it self no acrid or malign humor; for the perception of which it should need a nerve, although the coat investing it, sends many nervous fibers into its substance, as is apparent by the taking away of the coat from a boiled Liver; we must think the same of the other entrails. The coat of the Liver is from the Peritonaeum, waxing small from the umbilical vein, when it divides it self for the generation of the gate and hollow-veins, as is observed by Galen, Lib. de format. Foetus. The Liver is only one, situate in the greater part on the right side,The number and site. but with the lesser part on the left, quite contrary to the Stomach. Its chief connexion is with the stomach and guts,The connexi­on. by the veins and membranes of the Peritonaeum; by the hollow vein and artery, with the heart; by the nerve with the brain; and by the same ligatures with all the parts of the whole body.The temper. It is of a hot and moist temper, and such as have it more hot, have large veins and hot bloud;The action. but such as have it cold, have small veins, and a discoloured hew. The action of the Liver is the conversion of Chylus into the blood, the work of the second concoction. For although the Chylus entring into the meseraick veins, receive some resemblance of blood, yet it acquires not the form and perfection of blood, before it be elaborate, and fully concoct in the liver. It is bound and tyed with three strong ligaments;The liga­ments. two on the sides in the midst of the bastard ribs, to bear up it sides and the third more high and strong, descending from the blade, to sustain its pro­per part, which with its weight would press the lower orifice of the stomach, and so cause a falling or drawing down of the sternon and coller-bone. And thus much may suffice for its proper liga­ments, for we before-mentioned its common; the veins, arteries, nerves, and coat of the Peritonae­um, by which it is knit to the loins and other natural parts. But we must note, that besides these three proper ligaments, the liver is also bound with others to the Bastard-ribs; as Sylvius ob­serves in his Anatomical observations, and Hollerius in his Practice, Cap. de Pluritide.

CHAP. XVIII. Of the Bladder of the Gall.

The substance, greatness, and figure thereof.NOw we must come to the bladder of the Gall, which is of a nervous substance, and of the bigness of a small Pear; it is of figure round, with the bottom more large, but the sides and mouth more narrow and strait. It is composed of a double coat, one proper, consist­ing of three sorts of fibers,The composi­tion. the other from the Peritonaeum. It hath a vein from the Porta or Gate-vein, and an artery from that which is diffused into the Liver, and a nerve from the sixt conjugati­on.Number and connexion. It is but one, and that hid on the right side under the greater lobe of the Liver, it is knit with the touching of its own body, and of the passages and channels made for the performance of its actions with the Liver; and in like manner with the Duodenum, and not seldom with the stomach also, by another passage; and to conclude, to all the parts by its veins, nerves, arteries, and com­mon coat.Temper. Action. It is of a cold temper, as every nervous part is. The action of it, is to separate from the Liver the cholerick humor, and that excrementitious, but yet natural, by the help of the right fi­bers, for the purifying of the blood, and by the oblique fibers, so long to keep it being drawn until it begin to become troublesome in quantity, or quality, or its whole substance, & then by the transverse fibers,The channels of the Gall. to put it down into the Duodenum to provoke the expulsive faculty of the guts. I know, Fallopius denies the texture of so many fibers, to be the minister of such action to the gall. But Vesalius seems sufficiently to have answered him. The bladder of the gall hath divers chan­nels: for coming with a narrow neck, even to the beginning of the Gate-vein, it is divided into two passages,Lib. 2. de tem­per. the one whereof suffering no division is carryed into the Duodenum, unless that in some it send another branch into the bottom of the stomach, as is observed by Galen; which men have a miserable and wretched life, being subject to cholerick vomit­ings, especially when their stomachs are empty, with great pains of their stomach and head, as is also observed by Galen. Cap. 74. Artis Med. The other, coming out of the body of the Liver divides it self into two or three passages, again entring the substance of the Liver is divided with infinite branches, accompanying so many branches of the Gate-vein through the substance of the Liver, that so the blood unless it be most elaborate and pure, may not rise into the hollow-vein, all which things Dissection doth manifestly teach.

The sixth Figure of the Bladder of the Gall.
  • M. the Pylorus joyned to the Duodenum.
  • N. the Duodenum joyned to the Pylorus.
  • P. shews the bottom of the bladder of the gall.
  • QQ. the holes of the bladder of Gall dis­persed through the Liver, betwixt the roots of the hollow and Gate-veins.
  • R. the root of the Gate-vein in the Liver.
  • S. the root of the hollow-vein in the Liver.
  • a. The concourse or meeting of the passages of choler into one branch.
  • b. The neck of the bladder into which the passage is inserted.
  • c. The passage of the Gall into the Duode­num.
  • [Page 77]d. the Duodenum opened to manifest the insertion of the porus biliaris. i. e. an artery going to the hollow part of the Liver, and the bladder of the Gall.
  • f. a small nerve belonging to the liver and the blad­der of gall, from the rib branch of the sixth pair.
  • gg. the cistick twins from the gate-veins.

CHAP. XIX. Of the Spleen or Milt.

BUt because we cannot well shew the distribution of the gate-vein, unless the Spleen be first taken away, and removed from its seat: therefore before we go any futher,The Substance. I have thought good to treat of the Spleen. Therefore the Spleen is of a soft, rare, and spongi­ous substance (whereby it might more easily receive and drink up the dregs of the blood from the liver) and of a flesh more black than the liver. For it resembles the colour of its muddy blood,Magnitude. Figure. from which it is generated. It is of an indifferent greatness; but bigger in some, than in other­some, according to the diverse temper and complexion of men. It hath, as it were,Composition. a triangular figure, gibbous on that part, it sticks to the ribs and midriffe, but hollow on that part next the stomach. It is composed of a coat, the proper flesh, a vein, artery, and nerve. The membrane comes from the Peritonaeum, the proper flesh from the faeces or dregs of bloud, or rather of the natural melancholy humor, with which it is nourished. The fourth branch of the vena porta, or gate-vein, lends it a vein; the first branch of the great descendent artery, presently after the first entrance without the Midriff, lends it an artery. But it receives a nerve, from the left costal, from the sixt conjugation on the inner part, by the roots of the ribs; and we may manifestly see this Nerve,Number and Site. not only dispersing it self through the coat of the liver, but also penetrating with its Vessels the pro­per flesh thereof, after the self same manner, as we see it is in the heart and lungs. It is one in num­ber, situate on the left side, between the stomach and the bastard-ribs, or rather the midriffe which descends to their roots. For it oft-times cleaves to the midriff, on its gibbous part, by a coat from the Peritonaeum, as also on the hollow part to the stomach, both by certain veins which sends it into the ventricle, as also by the kall. It hath connexion, either primarily, or secundarily,Connexion. with all the parts of the body, by these its vessels.

It is of a cold and dry temper; the action and use of it, is to separate the Melancholick humor,Temper and use. which being feculent and drossie, may be attenuated by the force of many arteries dispersed through its substance. For by their continual motion, and native heat, which they carry in full force with them from the heart, that gross blood puts off its grosness, which the Spleen sends away by passages fit for that purpose, retaining the subtler portion for its nourishment. The passages by which it purges it self from the grosness of the melancholy bloud, are a vein ascending from it into the stomach to stir up the appetite by its sourness, and strengthen the substance thereof by its astriction; & also another vein, which sometimes from the Spleen-branch, sometimes from the gate-vein, plainly under its orifice, descends to the fundament, there to make the Haemorrhoidal veins.

CHAP. XX. Of the Vena Porta, and Gate-vein, and the distribution thereof.

THe Gate-vein, as also all the other veins, is of a spermatick substance,The substance and figure. of a manifest large­ness, of a round and hollow figure, like to a pipe or quill. It is composed of its proper coat, and one common from the Peritonaeum. It is only one,Composition. Number and Site. and that situate in the simous or hollow part of the Liver, from whence it breaks forth (or rather out of the umbilical vein) into the midst of all the guts, with which it hath connexion, as also with the stomach, spleen, sphincter of the fundament and Peritonaeum, by the coat which it receives from thence.Temper and Action. It is of a cold and dry temper. The Action of it, is, to suck the Chylus out of the ventricle and guts, and so to take and car­ry it to the Liver, until it may carry back the same turned into bloud for the nutriment of the sto­mach, spleen, and guts. This gate-vein coming out of the simous part of the Liver, is divided into six branches, that is, four simple, and two compound again divided into many other branches;Division there­of into 6 bran­ches, of which, 4 simple. 1. Clysticae gemel­lae.2. Gastrica.3. Gastrepiplois.4. Intestinalis. The first of the simple ascends from the fore-part of the trunk of the bladder of the Gall by the passage of the Choler (and are marked with g, g,) with a like artery for life and nourishment, and this distribution is known by the name of Cysticae gemellae, or Cystick twins. The second called the Gastrica or stomach vein, arising in like manner from the forepart of the trunk, is carryed to the Pylorus and the simous or back-part of the stomach next to it.

The third is called Gastrepiplois, the Stomach and kall-vein, which coming from the right side of the gate-vein goes to the gibbous part of the stomach next to the Pylorus & the right side of the kal.

The fourth going forth from behind and on the right hand of the gate-vein, ascends above the root of the Meseraick branch even to the beginning of the gut Jejunum, along the gut Duodenum, from whence it is called Intestinalis, or the Gut-vein. And these are the four simple branches. Now we will speak of the compound.

The first is splenick, which is divided after the following manner.Two compound. I. Ramus Spleni­cus, sending forth, For in its first beginning and upper part, it sends forth the Coronalis, or Crown-vein of the stomach, which by the back-part of the stomach ascends into the upper and hollow part thereof; to which place, assoon as it [Page 78] arrives,1. Coronalis. it is divided again into two branches, the one whereof climbs up even to its higher orifice, the other descends down to the lower, sending forth by the way other branches to the fore and back parts of the stomach. These engird and on every side incompass the body or the ventri­cle, for which cause they are named the crown-veins.

I have sometimes observed this coming forth of the trunk, a little above the orifice of the splenick branch.2. Haemorrhoida­lis. Interna. But this same splenick branch on its lower part, produces the branch of the Haemorrhoidal veins, which descending to the fundament above the left side of the loins, diffuses a good portion thereof into the least part of the colick gut, and the right gut, at the end where­of it is often seen to be divided into five Haemorrhoidal veins, sometimes more, sometimes less.

Silvius writes that the Haemorrhoidal branch descends from the mesenterick: and truly we have sometimes observed it to have been so. Yet it is more sutable to reason, that it should desscend from the Splenick,3. Gastrepiplois major sinistra. not only for that we have seen with our eyes that it is so, but also because it is appointed by nature for the evacuation of the excrementitious melancholick humor. But this same splenick branch out of the middle almost of its upper part produces the third branch go­ing to the gibbous part of the stomach, and the kall; they term it the greater, middle, and left Gastrepiplois, 4. Epiplois simp­lex. But on the lower part towards the Spleen, it produces the simple Epiplois, or Kall-vein,5. Vas breve seu venosum. which it diffuses through the left side of the Kall. Moreover from its upper part, which touches the Liver, it sends forth a short branch called vas breve, or venosum, to the upper orifice of the ventricle for stirring up the appetite.

Lib. 4. de usu partium.We have oftentimes and almost always observed, that this vein-vessel, which Galen calls vas breve, comes from the very body of the Spleen, and is terminated in the midst of the Stomach on the left side, but never pierces both the coats thereof. Wherefore it is somewhat difficult to find, how the melancholy juyce can that way be powred, or sent, into the capacity of the Stomach. Now the Splenick branch, when it hath produced out of it those five fore-mentioned branches, is wasted and dispersed into the substance and body or the spleen.

II. Ramus mesen­tereus divided into three parts.Then follows another compound branch of the vena porta, called the Mesenterick, which is di­vided into three parts; the first and last whereof goes to the Blind-gut and to the right and mid­dle part of the Colick-gut, divided into an infinite multitude of other branches. The second and middle is wasted in the Ileon; as the third and greater in the Jejunum, or Empty-gut. It is called Mesenterick, because it is diffused over all the Mesentery; as the Splenick is in the Spleen. And thus much we have to say of the division of the Gate-vein, the which, if at any time thou shalt find to be otherwise, than I have set down, you must not wonder at it, for you shall scarce find it the same in two bodies, by reason of the infinite variety of particular bodies, which (as the Philoso­phers say) have each their own, or peculiar gifts; Our judgment is the same of other divisions of the vessels. Yet we have set down that which we have most frequently observed.

CHAP. XXI. Of the original of the Artery, and the division of the Branch, descending to the natural parts.

THese things being thus finished and considered, the guts should be pulled away; but see­ing that if we should do so, we should disturb and lose the division of the artery descen­ding to the natural parts; therefore I have thought it better to handle the division there­of,The original of arteries, The division of the great de­scendant Ar­tery, is into these. before the Guts be pluckt away. Therefore we must suppose, according to Galen's opinion, that as all the veins come from the Liver, so all Arteries proceed from the Heart. This presently at the beginning is divided into two branches, the greater whereof descends downwards to the natural parts upon the spine of the back, taking its beginning at the fifth vertebra thereof, from whence it goes into the following arteries. The first, called the intercostal, runs amongst the intercostal muscles, and the distances of the ribs, and spinal marrow, through the perforation of the nerves on the right and left hand from the fifth true, even to the last of the bastard ribs.

1. Arteria inter­ [...]ostalis. 2. [...]brenica. 3. Coeliaca.This in going this progress makes seven little branchings, distributed after the forementioned manner, & going forth of the trunk of the descendent over against each of the intercostal Muscles.

The second being parted into two, goes on each side to the Midriffe, whence it may be called, or expressed by the name of the Diaphragmatica, or Phrenica, (i) the Midriffe Artery. The third being of a large proportion, arising from the upper part of the Arterie presently after it hath passed the Midriffe, is divided into two notable Branches, whereof one goes to the Stomach, Spleen, Kall, to the hollow part of the Liver and the Gall; the other is sent forth to the Mesen­tery and Guts after the same manner, as we said of the Meseraick vein, wherefore it is called the Coeliaca, or Stomach Artery. But we must note, all their mouths penetrate even to the innermost coat of the Guts, that by that means they may the better and more easily attract the Chylus con­tained in them.

4. Emulgent.The fourth carryed to the reins, where it is named the Reinal or Emulgent, because it sucks fit matter from the whole mass of blood.

5. Spermatica.The fifth is sent to the Testicles with the preparing Spermatick-veins, whence also it is named the Spermatick Artery, which arises on the right side, from the very Trunk of the descendent Artery; that it may associate the Spermatick-vein of the same side, they run one above another, beneath the hollow-vein; wherefore we must have a great care whilest we labour to lay it open, that we do not hurt and break it.

The seventh Figure of the lower Belly.
  • A, A, The Midriff turned back with the ribs of the Pe­ritonaeum.
  • BB, The cave or hollow part of the liver; for the liver is lifted up that the hollow part of it may be better seen.
  • C, The least ligament of the Liver.
  • D, The Umbilical vein.
  • E, The hollowness of the Liver, which giveth way to the stomach.
  • F, the left orifice of the stomach.
  • GG, Certain knubs or knots, and impressions in the hollow part of the liver,
  • H, The bladder of Gall.
  • I, The Gate-vein cut off, and branches, which go to the bladder of gall.
  • K, A nerve from the liver coming from the stomachi­cal nerve.
  • L, An Artery common to the liver, and bladder of gall.
  • M, A nerve common also to them both, coming from the right costal nerve of the ribs.
  • N, The passage of the Gall the Guts cut off.
  • OO, The hollow of the fore-parts of the Spleen.
  • P, The line where the vessels of the Spleen im­planted.
  • Q. The trunk of the hollow veia.
  • R, The trunk of the great Artery.
  • S, The Coeliacal Artery cut off.
  • T, V, The Kidneys yet wrapped in their membrane.
  • X, Y, The fatty veins called venae adiposae.
  • a, b, The Emulgent veins with the Arteries under them.
  • cc, dd, The Ureter from either kidney to the bladder.
  • e, f, The spermatical veins to the testicles; the right from the hollow vein, the left from the Emulgent.
  • g, g, Veins coming from the spermatical to the perito­naeum.
  • h, i, the spermatical Arteries.
  • k, The lower mesenterical Artery.
  • l. The ascending of the great Artery above the hollow vein, and the division of it, and the hollow vein, into two trunks.
  • m, The Arterie of the loins called lumbaris. n, The holy Artery called Sacra.
  • o, A part of the right gut.
  • p, The bladder of Urine. * The connexion of the bladder with the peri­tonaeum.
  • q, A part of the vessels which lead the seed from the Testicles is here reflected.
  • r, s, The scrotum or cod, that is, the skin that invests the Yard and Testicles
  • t, The fleshy Pannicle or membrane which is under the cod.
  • u, The coat which is proper to the Testicles with his vessels.
  • x, A part of the yard excoriated or flayed, and hanging down.

The sixth going from the fore and upper part of this descend nt artery,6. Haemorrhoidalis sue mesenterica inferior. descends with the Hae­morrhoidal veins to the fundament; presently from his beginning, sending forth certain branches alongst the colick gut, which by Anastomasis are united with other branches of the Coeliacal Arte­rie; for whosoever shall look more attentively, he shall often observe that veins are so united amongst themselves, and also arteries, and sometimes also the veins with the arteries. For Ana­stomasis is a communion and a communicating of the vessels amongst themselves by the applicati­on of their mouths, that so by mutual supplies they may ease each others defect. But they call this the lower meseraick artery.

The seventh proceeding from the trunk with so many branches as there be Vertebra's in the loins, goes to the loins, and the parts belonging to them, that is, the spinal marrow of that part,7. Lumbaris. and other parts encompassing these Vertebra's, whereupon it is stiled the Lumbaris, or Loin-Ar­tery.

The eighth maketh the Iliack arterie, until such time as it departs from the Peritonaeum, where the Crural Arteries take their original. This Iliack Artery sends many divarications towards the Holy bone where it takes its beginning, and to the places lying neer the Holy bone, which,Iliac [...]. be­cause they run the same course as the Iliack veins, for brevitie's sake, we will let pass further men­tion of them, till we come to treat of the Iliack veins.

CHAP. XXII. Of the distribution of the Nerves to the natural parts.

IT remains, that before the bowels be taken away, we shew the nerves sent to the entrails and natural parts, that as wise and provident men we may seem to have omitted nothing.The origina [...] of the nerves which are car­ried to the natural parts. First we must know that these nerves are of the sixth Conjugation, which descend as well to the stomach all alongst the Gullet, and the sides thereof, as those at the roots of the ribs on both sides within. But when they are passed through the Midriff, those which are distributed amongst the natural parts follow the turnings of the veins and arteries, but specially of the arteries. Wherefore if you have a mind to follow this distribution of the nerves, you must chiefly look for it in those places, in which the artery is distributed amongst the Guts above the loins.

Their Magni­tude and Use.These nerves are but small, because the parts, serving for nutrition, needed none but little nerves, for the performance of the third duty of nerves, which is in the discerning and knowing of what is troublesom to them. For, unless they had this sense, there is nothing would hinder, but these bowels, necessary for life, being possessed with some hurtful thing, the creature should presently fall down dead; but we have this benefit by this sense, that as soon as any thing troubles and vellicates the bowels, we being admonished thereof, may look for help in time.

And besides, if they were destitute of this sense, they might be gnawn, ulcerated, and putrified by the raging acrimony of the excrements falling into, and staying in them; but now (by means hereof) as soon as they find themselves pricked, or pluckt, presently by the expulsive faculty they endeavour to expel that which is troublesom, and so free themselves of present and future dangers.

CHAP. XXIII. The manner of taking out the Guts.

WHen the Guts are to be taken out, you must begin with the right Gut. And you must divide it, being first straitly tied in two different places, at a just distance about four fingers from the end, with a sharp knife between two ligatures. Then you must shew its proper coats, and fibers, and that common one which it hath from the Peritonaeum. This being done, you must in like manner bind the trunk of the gate-vein as neer the original as you can; that so all his branches being in like manner tied,, there may be no fear of effusion of blood: you must do the like with the Coeliack Artery at the left Kidney, and in the lower Mesenterick, which descends to the right Gut with Haemorrhoidal veins. This being done, pull away the guts even to the Duodenum, which being in like manner tied in two places, which ought to be below the insertion of the Porus Cholagogus, or passage of the Gall, that you may shew the oblique inser­tion thereof into that gut; for the obliquity of its insertion is worth observation, as that which is the cause that the Gall cannot flow back into its bladder, by the compression of this Gut from be­low upwards. Then all these windings of the Guts may be taken away from the body.

CHAP. XXIV. The Original and Distribution of the descendent Hollow Vein.

The original of the Hollow vein. It is divided into two Trunks.BEcause the rest of the natural parts, do almost all depend upon the descendent Hollow Vein, therefore before we go any further, we will shew its original and distribution. We said before that all Veins proceeded from the Liver, but yet in divers places. For the gate-vein goes out of the hollow part, and the hollow vein out of the Gibbous part of the liver, which going forth like the body of a tree, is divided into two great branches; the lesser of which goes to the vital and animal parts, and the extremities of these parts, as we shall shew in their place. The greater, descending from the back-part of the Liver above the Vertebra's of the loins to the parts beneath,The division of the greater branch of the hollow vein. goes in the manner following. The first division thereof is to the membranes of the reins, which come from the Peritonaeum. Wherefore there it produces the Venae adiposae, or fatty veins, so called, because they bring forth a great quantity of fat in those places; Of these fatty veins, there is a diverse original; for the right doth oftentimes arise from the right emul­gent,1. Adiposa. because it is higher; but the less comes from the very trunk of the hollow vein, because the Emulgent on that side is lower; and you shall scarce see it happen otherwise.

2. Emulgens.The second, being the Kidney or Emulgent veins, go to the Reins, which, at their entrance, or a little before, is divided into two branches, like as the Artery is, the one higher, the other low­er, and these again into many other through the substance of the Kidneys, as you may learn bet­ter by ocular inspection, than by book. They are thick and broad, that the serous humour may without impediment have freer passage. Their original is different; for the right Emulgent oftentimes comes forth of the hollow vein somewhat higher than the left; that seeing their office and duty is to purge the mass of blood from the cholerick and serous humour, that if any part thereof slide by the one, it may not so scape, but fall as it were into the other. Which certainly would not have happened, if they had been placed the one just opposite to the other. For the se­rous or wheyish humour would have stayed as equally ballanced, or poised, by reason of the con­trariety of the action, and traction or drawing thereof. But, we must remember, that in dissecting of bodies, I have ofttimes found in such as have been troubled with the Stone, seven Emulgent veins, and so many arteries; four from the left side coming from divers places, of which the last came from the Iliack; three from the right hand likewise in divers places.

3. Spermatica.The third division is called the Spermatick, or Seed-vein, it goes to the Testicles; the original thereof is thus, That the right arises on the fore-part of the trunck of the hollow vein; but the left most commonly from the Emulgent. Besides, you shall sometimes find that these have com­panions with them, to the right Emulgent; but to the left, another from the hollow vein; in some but on one side, in others on both. But also I have sometimes observed the left emulgent to pro­ceed from the spermatick or Seed-vein.

4. Lumbaris.The fourth, because it goes to the Loins, is called Lumbaris; which, in his original and inser­tion [Page 81] is wholly like the Artery of the loins. But there are four Lumbares, or Loin-veins,5. Iliacae which are divided into. on each side, that is, one in each of the four spaces of the five Vertebra's of the loins.

The fifth division makes the Iliacae, until, passing through the Peritonaeum, they take the names of Crural veins; These are first divided into the musculous, so called, because they goe to the oblique ascendent and transverse muscles, and to the Peritonaeum. Sometimes,1. Musculosae. they have their ori­ginal from the end of the Trunk. And the same Iliacae are divided into the Sacrae, or Holy;2. Sacrae. which go to the spinal marrow of the Holy-bone, through those holes, by which the nerves, ge­nerated of this marrow, have their passage.

Thirdly, the Iliacae are divided into the Hypogastricae, so called,3. Hypagastricae, which produce the Haemor­rhoidales ex­ternae. because they are distributed to all the parts of the Hypogastrium, or lower part of the lower belly, as to the right Gut, the muscles thereof, the musculous skin, (in which place they often make the external Haemorrhoidal, ordained for the purging of such blood as offends in quantity, as those other [that is, the inward Haemorrhoidal] which descend from the right Gut from the Gate-vein by the spleenick branch, serves for cleansing that which offends in quality,) to the bladder, & the neck thereof, even to the end of the Yard, to the Womb, and even to the neck of the womb and utmost part of the privities, from whence it is likely the courses break forth in Women with child, and Virgins. But this same vein also sends a portion also without the Epigastrium by that perforation which is common to the share and haunch-bones, which, strengthened by the meeting of the other internal Crural vein, de­scends even to the Ham; but in the mean time, by the way, it is communicated to the muscles of the thigh called Obturatores and other parts within. Fourthly, the Iliacae produce the Epigastricae, 4. Epigastricae. which on both sides from below ascend according to the length of the right muscles, spreading also by the way some branches to the oblique and transverse muscles, and also to the Peritonaeum. Fifthly, these produce Iliacae, the Pudendae, or veins of the privities;5. Pudendae. because they go in women to their privities, and in men to the Cods; where they enter that fleshy coat filled with veins, and going to the skin of the Yard, they take their beginning under the Hypogastricae.

CHAP. XXV. Of the Kidneys or Reins.

NOw follow the Kidneys, which that they may be more easily seen, (after that you have diligently observed their situation) you shall despoil of their fat, if they have any about them, as also of the membrane they have from the Peritonaeum. First, you shall shew all their conditions, beginning at their substance.

The ninth and tenth figure of the vessels of seed and urine.
  • The first figure sheweth the fore-side; the second, the hinder-side.
  • a, a, a, 1. The fore-part of the right kidney.
  • b, b, b, 2. The back-part of the left kidney.
  • e, 1. The outside.
  • d, d, 1, 2. The inner-side.
  • e, e, 1, 2. The two cavities whereinto the emulgent vessels are inserted.
  • f, f, 1, 2. The trunk of the hollow vein.
  • g, g, 1, 2. The trunk of the great ar­tery.
  • h, i, 1, 2. The emulgent vein and artery
  • k, k, 1, 2. The right fatty vein.
  • l, 1. The left fatty vein.
  • *, 1. The Coeliacal artery.
  • m, n, 1, 2. The Ureters.
  • o, p, q, 1, 2. The right spermatick vein which ariseth neer p. the left neer q.
  • r, 1. The place where the Arteries of the seed arise.
  • s, 1, 2. Small branches distributed from the spermatical veins to the Peri­tonaeum.
  • t, 1, 2. The spiry varicous body, called Varicosum Vas pyramidale.
  • u, 1, 2. The Parastatae, or Epididymis.
  • x, 1. The Testicle yet covered with its coat.
  • y, 1, 2. The place where the leading vessel called vas deferens, doth arise.
  • α, 1, 2. The descent of the same leading vessel.
  • β, 1, 2. The revolution of the same leading vessel.
  • γ, 1, 3. The passage of the same ves­sel, reflected like a recurrent nerve.
  • δ, 2. The meeting of the same leading vessels.
  • ε, 1, 2, The bladder of urine; the first figure sheweth it open, the second shew­eth the back-parts.
  • ζζ, 1. The small bladder of the seed opened.
  • η, η, 2. The Glandules called Glandulae Prostatae.
  • θ, 1. The Sphincter-muscle of the bladder.
  • ιι, 1, 2. The two bodies which make the substance of the yard.
  • κ, κ, 1. The vessels which go unto the yard and neck of the bladder.
  • λ, 1. The passage which is common to the urine and seed cut open.
  • ψ, 2. The implantation of the Ureters into the bladder.

Their Sub­stance.The substance of the Kidneys is fleshy, dense, and solid, lest they should be hurt by the sharp­ness of the urine. Their magnitude is large enough, as you may see. Their figure is somewhat long and round,Magnitude. Figure. almost resembling a semicircle, and they are lightly flatted above and below. They are partly hollow, and partly gibbous; the hollow lies next the hollow vein, and on this side they receive the Emulgent Veins and Arteries, and send forth the Ureters; their gibbous part lies towards the loins. They are composed of a coat coming from the Peritonaeum; their own peculiar flesh,Composition. with the effusion of blood about the proper vessels, (as happens also in other en­trails) generates a small nerve, which springing from the Costal of the sixth conjugation, is dif­fused to each Kidney on his side into the coat of the kidney it self, although others think, it always accompanies the vein and artery.

But Fallopius, that most diligent Author of Anatomy hath observed, that this nerve is not only oftentimes divaricated into the coat of the Kidneys, but also pierces into their substance. They are two in number,Number. that if the one of them should by chance be hurt, the other might supply those necessities of nature,Site. for which the Kidneys are made. They lie upon the loyns at the sides of the great vessels, on which they depend by their proper veins and arteries, and they stick to them as it were, by a certain second coat, lest that they might be shaken by any violent motions. Where­fore we may say, that the Kidneys have two coats; one proper adhering to their substance, the other, as it were, coming from the Peritonaeum on that part they stick to it. The right Kidney is almost alwayes the higher, for those reasons I gave, speaking of the original of the Emulgent ves­sels. Columbus seems to think the contrary; but such like controversies may be quickly decided by the Eye.Connexion. They have connexion with the Principal vessels by the veins, nerves, and arteries; by the coats with the loins and the other parts of the lower belly; but especially with the blad­der by the ureters.Temper. Action. They are of a hot and moist temper, as all fleshy parts are. Their action is to cleanse the Mass of the blood from the greater part of the serous and cholerick humour. I said the greater part, because it is needful that some portion thereof should go with the alimen­tary blood to the solid parts, to serve instead of a vehicle, lest otherwise it should be too thick.

Their Strainer.Besides, you must note, that in each Kidney there is a cavity bounded by a certain membrane, encompassed by the division of the Emulgent veins and arteries, through which the urine is strained partly by the expulsive faculty of the Kidneys, partly by the attractive of the Ureters, which run through the substance of the Kidneys on the hollow side, no otherwise than the Porus cholagogus through the body of the Liver.

CHAP. XXVI. Of the spermatick Vessels.

Ureters.NOw we should have spoken of the Ureters, because, as we said before, they are passages derived from the Kidneys to carry the urine to the bladder. But, because they cannot be distinguished and shewed unless by the corrupting and vitiating the site of the sper­matick vessels; therefore I have thought it better to pass to the explication of all the spermatick parts.

And first of all you must gently separate them, (that so the Declaration of them may be more easie and manifest) and that from the coat which comes from the peritonaeum, and the fat which in­vests them even to the sharebone, having diligently considered their site, before you separate them.Their Sub­stance. Then you shall teach that the substance of these vessels, is like to that of the veins and ar­teries. Their quantity is small in thickness, but of an indifferent length by reason of the distance of their original from the Testicles.Quantity. They are longer in men than in women, because these have their Testicles hanging without their belly, but women have them lying hid within their belly. Their figure and composure is wholly like the figure and composition of the veins and arteries,Figure and Composure. except in this one thing, that from that place where they go forth of the great capacity of the Peritonaeum, they are turned into many intricate windings, like crooked swoln veins, even to the Testicle; That the spermatick matter in that one tract, which yet is no other than blood, may be prepared to concoction, or rather be turned into Seed in these vessels, by the irradiation of the faculty of the Testicles.Number. These vessels are six in number, four preparing, and two ejaculatory, of which we will speak hereafter. Therefore on each side there be two preparing vessels, that is, a vein and an artery, arising as we told you when we spoke of the distribution of the hollow vein. They are inserted into the Testicles through that coat which we call Epididymis, others Dar­ton. Site. Their site is oblique above the loins and flanks, whilst they run down between the ends of the share and haunchbone, they are knit to the parts lying under them, both by certain fibers which they send from them, as also by the membrane they have from the Peritonaeum. They have like temperature as the veins and arteries have. Their action is to carry blood to the Testicles, for generating of seed.

CHAP. XXVII. Of the Testicles, or Stones.

THe Testicles are of a Glandulous, white, soft and loose substance,Their Sub­stance. that so they may the more easily receive the spermatick matter: their magnitude and figure equal, and re­semble a small pullet's Egg somewhat flatted; their composure is of veins, arteries,Magnitude. and Figure. Composition. coats and their proper flesh. Their veins and arteries proceed from the spermatick vessels, their nerves from the sixth conjugation, by the roots of the ribs, and out of the Holy-bone. They are wrap­ped in four coats, two whereof are common, and two proper. The common, are the Scrotum or skin of the Cods, proceeding from the true skin; and the fleshy coat, which consists of the fleshy Pannicle in that place receiving a great number of vessels, through which occasion it is so called. The proper coats are first the Erythrois arising from the process of the Peritonaeum, The Coat Erythrois. going into the Scrotum together with the spermatick vessels, which it involves and covers; this appears red both by reason of the vessels, as also of the Cremaster-muscles of the Testicles;The Epididy­mis, or Dartos. Then the Epidi­dymis or Dartos which takes its original of the membrane of the spermatick preparing vessels. The flesh of the Testicles, is as it were, a certain effusion of matter about the vessels, as we said of other entrails. But you must observe, that the Erythrois encompasses the whole stone, except its head, in which place it strikes to the Epididymis, which is continued through the whole substance of the Testicle. This Epididymis or Dartos was therefore put about the stones, because the Testicles of themselves are loose, spongious, cavernous and soft, so that they cannot safely be joined to the sper­matick vessels, which are hard and strong. Wherefore Nature, that it might join extreams by a fit Medium, or mean, formed this coat Epididymis. This is scarce apparent in women by reason of its smalness. The two forementioned common coats, adhere or stick together by the vessels not only amongst themselves, but also with the Erythrois. You must besides observe,The Cre­master-muscless. the Cremaster-muscles are of the said substance with other muscles, small and thin, of an oblique and broad figure, arising from the membrane of the Peritonaeum, which (as we said before) assumes flesh from the flanks. Their composition is like other muscles. They are two, on each side one. They are situate from the ends of the flanks, even to the stones. They have connexion with the process of the Peritonaeum and Testicles. Their temper is like that of other muscles. Their action is to hang and draw up the Testicles towards the belly, whence they are called hanging muscles. The Testicles are most com­monly two in number, on each side one; sometimes there be three, sometimes one alone; as it hap­pens also in the Kidneys; for some have but one Kidney. They lie hid in the Scrotum at the very roots of the share-bone, connexed to the principal parts of their vessels, with the neck of the blad­der and yard; but by their coats they adhere to the parts from whence they have them. They are of a cold and moist temper, because they are glandulous;Temper. although they may be hot by acci­dent, by reason of the multitude of the vessels flowing thither. Those whose Testicles are more hot, are prompt to venery, and have their privities, and adjacent parts, very hairy; and besides, their testicles are very large and compact. Those on the contrary that have them cold, are slow to venery, neither do they beget many children, and those they get, are rather female than male; their privities have little hair upon them, and their testicles are small, soft and flat.Action. The action of the testicles is to generate seed, to corroborate all the parts of the body, and, by a certain manly irradiation to breed or increase a true masculine courage. This you may know by Eunuchs, or such as are Gelt, who are of a womanish nature, and are oftentimes more tender and weak than women. As Hippocrates teaches, by example of the Scythians, lib, de aere, locis & aquis.

CHAP. XXVIII. Of the varicous bodies or Parastat's, and of the ejaculatory Vessels, and the glandulous or Prostates.

THe varicous Parastata are nervous, and white bodies, like as the nerves, wound and close-woven amongst themselves; they are stretched even from the top to the bottom of the testicles, from whence presently by their departure they produce the Vasa ejaculatoria, Their Sub­stance. or leading vessels. But unless we do very well distinguish their names, they shall scarce shun confu­sion. For that which I call Parastatae; that is, as it were, the head of the Testicle, being, as it were, like another stone, is called Epididymis by Galen, l. 1. de semine. But I, by the example & authority of many Anatomists, understand by the Epididymis the proper coat of the testicles, of which thing I thought good by the way to admonish you of. Their Action is,Here the Au­thor speaks otherwise than Galen. Their Action. by their crooked passages to hinder the seed from departing out of the preparing into the leading vessels, before it shall be most perfect­ly laboured and concocted in these vessels by the power and force of the testicles. For in the first windings the blood looks pure; but in the last it is not so red, but somewhat whitish. For Nature commonly doth thus delay the matter in its passage, either by straitness, or obliquity, which it de­sires to make more perfect and elaborate by any new concoction; this we may learn by the fold­ings of the Rete mirabile, the windings in the guts, the wrinkles in the bottom of the stomach, the straitness of the Pylcrus, the capillary veins dispersed through the body of the Liver; Certainly nature hath intended some such thing in the making of the spermatick vessels.Their Quanti­ty, Figure and Composure. Their quantity is visible, and figure round, tending somewhat to sharpness. They are composed of veins, nerves, and arteries, which they enjoy from the vessels of the Testicles, from the Epididymis, or the [Page 84] coat,Their temper and number. from the Peritonaeum, and their proper substance. Their temper is cold and dry. They be two in number, one to each testicle. But these varicous bodies are called Parastatae, Assisters, be­cause they superficially assist, and are knit to the testicles according to their length, or long ways. Out of the Parastatae proceed the Vasa ejaculatoria, Vasa ejaculato­ria, the ejacula­tory or leading Vessels. or leading vessels, being of the same substance as their Progenitors; that is, solid, white, and as it were nervous. Their quantity is indifferent, their figure round and hollow, that the seed may have a free passage through them, yet they seem not to be perforated by any manifest passage, unless by chance in such as have had a long Gonor­rhaea. They have like temper as the Parastates, between which and the Prostates they are seated, immediately knit with them both; as both in the coat, and the other vessels with the parts from whence they take them.

But we must note, that such like vessels coming out of the Parastates ascend from the bottom of the stones even to the top, in which place meeting with the preparing vessels, they rise into the belly by the same passages, and bind themselves together by nervous fibers, even to the inner capacity of the belly; from whence turning back, they forsake the preparing, that so they may run to the bottom of the share-bone, into the midst of two glandulous bodies, which they call Pro­states situate at the neck of the bladder, that there meeting together, they may grow into one pas­sage.

The tenth figure, wherein those things shewed in the former figure, are more exactly set forth.
  • aa, A part of the Midriff, and of the Peritonaeum with the ribs broken.
  • bb, cc, The convex or gibbous part of the liver marked with bb. the hollow or concavous part with cc.
  • d e, The right and left liga­ments of the Liver.
  • f, The trunk of the gate-vein.
  • g, The trunk of the hollow vein.
  • h, l, The fatty veins, both left and right.
  • i, The ascent of the great artery above the hollow vein, and the division thereof.
  • k, The Coeliacal artery.
  • m, n, The emulgent vessels.
  • oo, pp, The fat tunicles or coats torn from both the kidneys.
  • qq, The ureters that go unto the bladder.
  • t, u, The right spermatical vein which ariseth near to u.
  • x, y, The double original of the left spermatical vein.
  • x, From the Emulgent.
  • y, From the hollow vein.
  • α, The original of the sperma­tical arteries.
  • β, Certain branches from the spermatick arteries which run unto the Peritonaeum.
  • γ, The passage of the spermatical vessels through the productions of the Peritonaeum, which must be observed by such as use to cut for the Rupture.
  • δ, The spiry bodden hidie's entrance into the testicle, it is called Corpus varicosum pyramidale.
  • ε, The Parastatae.
  • ζ, The stone or testicle covered with his inmost coat.
  • η, The descent of the leading vessel called Vas deferens.
  • VV, The bladder.
  • * The right gut.
  • ξ, The glandules called prostatae into which the leading vessels are inserted.
  • ρ, The muscle of the bladder.
  • στυ, Two bodies of the yard, σ, and τ, and υ, his vessels.
  • φχ, The coat of the Testicle.
  • ψω, The muscle of the Testicle ψ, his vessels ω.

For thus of three passages, that is, of the two leading vessels, and one passage of the bladder, there is one common, one in men for the casting forth of seed and urine. A Caruncle rising like a crest at the beginning of the neck of the bladder argues this uniting of the passages, which re­ceiving this same passage which is sufficiently large, is oft-times taken by such as are ignorant in Anatomy for an unnatural Caruncle, then especially when it is swoln through any occasion. These leading vessels are two in number,Their Number and Action. on each side one. Their action is to convey the seed made by the testicles to the Prostates, and so to the neck of the bladder, so to be cast forth at the common pas­sage. But if any ask, whether that common passage made by the two leading vessels between the glandulous bodies be so obvious to sense or no: We answer, it is not manifest, though reason com­pel us to confess that that way is perforated by reason of the spermatick, gross and viscous matter carried that way. But peradventure the reason why that passage cannot be seen, is, because in a dead carkass all small passages are closed and hid, the heat and spirits being gone; and the great [Page 85] appear much less, by reason all the perforations fade, and fall into themselves. Yet certainly these passages must needs be very strait, even in a living man, seeing that in a dead they will not admit the point of a needle. Wherefore we need not fear, lest in searching, whilst we thrust the Cathe­ter into the Bladder, it penetrate into the common passage of the leading vessels which runs with­in the Caruncle, unless peradventure by some chance, as a Gonorrhaea, or some great Phlegmon, This Carun­cle must be ob­served and distinguished from a Hyper­sarcosis or fleshy ex­crescence. it be much dilated besides nature. For I have sometimes seen such passages so open, that they would receive the head of a Spathern; which thing should admonish us, that in searching we take great care, that we do not rashly hurt this Caruncle; for being somewhat rashly handled with a Cathe­ter, it casts forth blood, especially if it be inflamed. But also the concourse of the spirits flowing with great violence together with the seed, much helps forward such ejaculation thereof per­formed through these strait passages by the power of the imaginative faculty in the Act of gene­ration.

After the leading vessels follow the Prostatae, The Prostatae. being glandulous Bodies of the same substance and temper that other Glandules are. Their quantity is large enough, their figure round,Their quantity and figure. and somewhat long, sending forth on each side a soft production of an indifferent length. They are composed of veins, nerves, arteries, a coat (which they have from the neighbouring parts) and lastly their proper flesh, which they have from their first conformation.Number and site. They are two in num­ber, situate at the root of the neck of the Bladder, somewhat straitly bound or tied to the same, to the leading vessels, and the parts annexed to them. But alwayes observe,An Anatomi­cal Axiom. that every part which enjoyes nourishment, life and sense, either first or last, hath connexion with the principal parts of the body, by the intercourse of the vessels which they receive from thence.

The use of the Prostates, is, to receive in their proper Body the seed laboured in the testicles,Their uses. and to contain it there, until it be troublesom either in quantity or quality, or both. Besides, they contain a certain oily and viscid humour in their glandulous Body, that continually distil­ling into the passage of the urine, it may preserve it from the acrimony and sharpness thereof. But we have observed also on each side other Glandules,Rond. in method. med. ad morbos which Rondeletius calls Appendices Glan­dulosae, Glandulous dependences to arise from these prostates, in which also there is seed reserved.

CHAP. XXIX. Of the Ureters.

NOw it seems fit to speak of the Ureters, Bladder, and parts belonging to the Bladder.The substance, magnitude, figure and composure of the Ureters. Therefore the Ureters are of a spermatick, white, dense, and solid substance, of an indiffe­rent bigness in length and thickness. Their figure is round and hollow. They are compo­sed of two coats, one proper consisting of right and transverse fibers, which comes from the emul­gent veins and arteries; the other common, from the Peritonaeum; besides, they have veins, nerves, and arteries, from the neighbouring parts.

They be two in number, on each side one;Number and Site. they are situate between the Kidneys (out of whose hollow part they proceed) and the Bladder. But the manner how the Ureters insert or enter themselves into the Bladder, and the Porus Cholagogus into the Duodenum, exceeds admirati­on; for the Ureters are not directly but obliquely implanted neer the orifice of the Bladder, and penetrate into the inner space thereof; for within they do, as it were, divide the membrane, or membranous coat of the Body of the Bladder, and insinuate themselves into that, as though it were double. But this is opened at the entrance of the urine, but shut at other times, the cover, as it were, falling upon it, so that the humour which is faln into the capacity of the Bladder, can­not be forced, or driven back; no not so much as the air blown into it can come this way out, as we see in Swine's Bladders blown up and filled with air.

For we see it is the Air contained in these which fills them thus, neither can it be pressed forth but with extraordinary force.

For as this skin or coat turned in by the force of the humour gives way, so it being pressed out by the body contained within, thrusts its whole body into the passage as a stopple; like to this, is the insertion of the Porus Cholagogus into the Guts.

The Ureters have connexion with the above-mentioned parts, with the muscles of the loins;Connexion. upon which they run from the Kidneys to the Bladder.

Wherefore nothing hinders, but that the stone sliding through the Ureters into the Bladder, may stupifie the thigh as much as it did when it was in the Kidney. They are of a cold and dry temper.

Their use is, to serve as passages, or channels, for carrying the urine into the Bladder.Temper and use.

CHAP. XXX. Of the Bladder.

The substance.THe Bladder is of the same substance, that the Ureters, that is, nervous, that so it may be the more easily dilated.

It is of a large proportion, in some bigger, in some less, according to the difference of age,Figure. and habit of body. It is of a round figure, and, as it were, Pyramidal.

Composition.It is composed of two coats, one proper, which is very thick and strong, composed of the three sort of fibers, that is, in the inner side of the direct; without of the transverse; and in the midst of the oblique. The other common coat coming from the Peritonaeum, hath veins and arteries on each side one, from the Hypogastrick vessels above the Holy-bone; also it hath nerves on each side from the sixth conjugation mixt with the nerves of the Holy-bone. For these nerves descend from the brain even to the end of the Holy-bone.

It is but one, and that situate in men in the lower belly upon the right gut, and below the share-bone; but in women between the Womb and that bone, to which it cleaves with his mem­branous ligaments, as it doth to the Yard by its neck, and to the right gut by its common coat and proper vessels. It is of a cold and dry temper.

The eleventh figure of the Bladder and Yard.
  • AB, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 9, The two bodies which make the Yard.
  • CC, 2, 3, The place where these two bodies do first arise.
  • D, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 9, The Nut of the Yard, called Glans penis.
  • EE, 4, 5, The fungous and red substance of the bodies of the Yard.
  • F, 4, 5, The mutual connexion of the bodies of the Yard, and the nervous outward substance of the same, compassing round about the former fungous sub­stance.
  • G, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 9. The passage of the Urine, or common pipe, run­ning under the Yard all along his length.
  • H, I, 1, 2, The first pair of Muscles of the Yard, which in the first figure do yet grow to it, but in the second they hang from their original.
  • K, L, 1, 2, The second pair of Muscles of the Yard, in the first figure, growing; in the second, hanging from their insertion.
  • M, 1, 2, The Sphincter of the right Gut.
  • N, 3, 7, 8, 9, The round Sphincter-Muscle of the bladder.
  • OO, a Membrane which is over the holes of the share-bone.
  • P, 2. A round Li­gament from the meeting of the share-bones on the head of the thigh.
  • Q, 3, 7, 8. The body of the bladder.
  • RR, 3, 7, The Prostatae, which into seed when it is perfectly laboured, is led.
  • SS, 3, 8, Portions of the Ureters.
  • TT*3, Portions of the vessels, which lead down the seed.
  • VV, 7, 8, The umbilical arteries.
  • X, 7, 8, The ligament of the bladder called Urachus.
  • Y, 7, 8, The navil or umbilicus.
  • Z, 7, 8, The um­bilical vein.
  • aa, 7, The vein and artery of the yard.
  • b, 5, The artery distributed through the body of the Yard.

Temper, use or action.The use and action thereof is by the fibers continually to draw the urine, and contain it as long as need requires, and then to expell it by the neck, partly by compression either of it self, or ra­ther to the muscles of the Epigastrium and midriff; because this motion, seeing it is voluntary, can­not be performed unless by a muscle which the bladder wants; partly by the dilatation and relax­ation of the Sphincter-muscle composed of transverse fibers,Their Sphin­cter of the Bladder. like the sphincter of the fundament, after the same manner to shut up the orifice of the bladder, that the urine flow not out against our will. But the bladder, as it fils, is dilated; but as it is emptied, it is contracted like a purse. You may easily observe this Muscle in a Sow's bladder: it is stretched from the orifice of the bladder, and beginning of the urinary passage even to the privities, in women; but in men it is termi­nated [Page 87] in the Peritonaeum, as soon as it hath left the right Gut. Besides, this muscle is thus far stretched forth, that the urine by its compression should be wholly pressed out of the bladder, which by too long stay would by its acrimony do some harm. This is the common opinion of Ana­tomists concerning the Sphincter of the bladder, which nevertheless Fallopius allows not of. For (saith he) if this muscle should be situate beneath the glandulous bodies, the Seed in copulation could never be cast forth without some small quantity of urine. Wherefore he thinks, that this muscle is situate above the Prostats, and that it is nothing else but the beginning of the neck of the bladder, which becomes more fleshy whilst it is woven with transverse fibers.

For the neck of the Bladder: it differs nothing in substance, composure, number,The neck of the Bladder. and temper from the Bladder, but only in quantity, which is neither so large, nor round in figure, but some­what long together with the Yard, representing the shape of the letter S. It is placed in men at the end of the right Gut and Peritonaeum, rising upwards even to the roots of the yard, and with it bending it self downwards; in women it is short, broad, and streight, ending at the orifice of the neck of the womb between the nervous bodies of the Nymphae.

In men it hath connexion with the bladder, the ejaculatory vessels, the right gut and yard,The connexion and use there­of. but in women only with the neck of the womb and privities. The use of it is in men to cast forth seed and urine; in women only urine. But we must note, that the share-bones must be divided and pulled asunder, in that part where they are joyned, that so you may the more exactly observe the situa­tion of these parts. Besides, you must note, that by the Peritonaeum, we understand nothing else, in men and women, than that space which is from the fundament to the privities, in which the seam is called Taurus.

CHAP. XXXI. Of the Yard.

NOw follows the declaration of the Privy parts of men and women;The substance, quantity and figure of the Yard. and first we will treat of mens. The Yard is of a ligamentous substance, because it hath its original from bones; it is of an indifferent magnitude in all dimensions, yet in some bigger, in some less; the figure of it is round, but yet somewhat flatted above and beneath.

It is composed of a double coat, nerves, veins, arteries, two ligaments, the passage of the urine,Composure. and four muscles. It hath its coats both from the true skin, as also from the fleshy pannicle; but the Veins and Arteries from those of the lower part of the lower belly which run on the lower part of the Holy-bone into the Yard, as the seminary vessels run on the upper part.

The ligaments of the Yard proceed on both sides from the sides and lower commissure of the share-bones; wherefore the Yard is immediately at his root furnished with a double ligament;The ligaments. but these two presently run into one spungy one. The passage of the urine, situate in the lower part of the Yard, comes from the neck of the bladder between the two ligaments.

For the four muscles, the two side-ones composing or making a great part of the Yard,The Muscles. pro­ceed from the inward extuberancy of the Hip-bone, and presently they are dilated from the ori­ginal; and then grow less again. The two other lower arise from the muscles of the funda­ment, and accompany the urinary passage the length of the peritonaeum until they enter the Yard; but these two muscles cleave so close together, that they may seem one, having a triangular form.

The action of these four muscles in the act of generation is;Their Action. They open and dilate this common passage of urine and seed, that the seed may be forcibly or violently cast into the field of Na­ture; and besides, they then keep the Yard so stiff, that it cannot bend to either side.

The Yard is in number one, and situate upon the lower parts of the share-bone, that it might be more stiff in erection. It hath connexion with the share-bone and neighbouring parts; by the particles of which it is composed. It is of a cold and dry temper. The action of it is to cast the seed into the womb, for preservation of mankind.

The head of it begins where the tendons end;The Nut. this head from the figure thereof is called Glans and Balanus, that is, the Nut; and the skin which covers the head, is called Praeputium, that is,The Praeputi­um, or Fore-skin. the foreskin. The flesh of this Glandule is of a middle nature between the glandulous flesh and true skin. But you must note, that the Ligaments of the Yard, are spongy contrary to the condition of others, and filled with gross and black blood. But all these stirred up by the delight of de­sired pleasure, and provoked with a venereal fire, swell up and erect the Yard.

CHAP. XXXII. Of the spermatick Vessels and Testicles in Women.

NOw we should treat of the Privy Parts in Women, but,In what the spermatick vessels in wo­men differ from those in men. because they depend upon the neck and proper body of the Womb, we will first speak of the Womb, having first de­clared what difference there is between the spermatick vessels and testicles of men and women. Wherefore we must know, that the spermatick vessels in women do nothing differ from those in men in substance, figure, composure, number, connexion, temper, original, and use; but only in magnitude and distribution; for women have them more large and short.

The twelfth Figure, of the Womb.
  • A. The bottom of the womb laid open without any membrane.
  • BB. The neck of the womb turned upward.
  • CD. A part ef the bottom of the womb like the nut of the yard, swelling into the upper part of the neck of the womb, in the middle whereof the orifice appeareth.
  • EE. A membrane knitting the womb to the Peritonaeum, and holding together the vessels thereof.
  • F. The left testicle.
  • G. The spermatical vein and artery.
  • H. A part of the spermatical vessels reaching unto the bot­tom of the womb.
  • I. One part of the vessels coming to the Testicles.
  • * A vessel leading the seed unto the womb.
  • K. The coat of the testicle with the implication of the vessels.
  • L. The cavity of the bladder opened.
  • M. The insertion of the Ureters into the bladder.
  • N. The Ureters cut from the kidnies.
  • O. The insertion of the neck of the bladder into the lap or pri­vity.

The second Figure.

aa. The spermatical vein and artery. bb. Branches distributed to the Peritonaeum from the spermati­cal vessels. c. The bottom of the womb. d. The neck of the womb. e. Certain vessels running through the inside of the womb, and the neck thereof. ff. Vessels reaching to the bottom of the womb produced from the spermatical vessel. gg. The leading vessel of the seed called Tuba, the Trumpet. hh. A branch of the spermatical vessel compassing the Trumpet. ii. The testicles. kk. The lower ligaments of the womb, which some call the Cremasters or hanging muscles of the womb. l. The lap or privity in which the Cre­masters do end. m. A portion of the neck of the bladder.

The third Figure.

aa, The spermatical vessels. bb. A branch from these spermatical vessels to the bottom of the womb. c. The body or bottom of the womb. d. The neck of the same. e. The neck of the bladder ending into the neck of the womb. ff. The testicles. gg. The leading vessels, commonly though not so well called the ejacu­latory vessels. hh. The division of these Vessels, one of them determining into the horns at double kk. ii. The other branch ending in the neck, by which women with child avoid their seed. kk. the horns of the womb.

The fourth Figure.

AB. The bosom of the bottom of the womb, at whose sides are the horns. CD. A line like a suture or seam, a little distinguishing that bosom. EE. The substance of the bottom of the womb, or the thickness of his inner coat. F. A protuberation or swelling of the womb in the middle of the bosom. G. The orifice of the bottom of the womb. HH. The coat or second cover of the bottom of the womb, com­ing from the Peritonaeum. IIII. A portion of the membranes which tie the womb. KK. The beginning of the neck of the womb. L. The neck of the bladder inserted into the neck of the womb. m. The Clitoris in the top of the privity. n. The inequality of the privity where the hymen is placed. o. The hole or pas­sage of the privity in the cleft. p. The skinny caruncle of the privity.

Why womens spermatick ves­sels are larger, but shorter then mens.It was fit they should be more large, because they should not only convey the matter fit for generation of young and nourishment of the testicles, but also sufficient for the nourishment of the womb and child; but shorter, because they end at the testicles and womb within the belly in women. Where you must note, that the preparing spermatick vessels, a little before they come to the Testicles, are divided into two unequal branches, of which the lesser, bended after the same manner, as we said in men, goes into the head of the testicle, through which it sends a slender branch into the coats of the testicles for life and nourishment, and not only into the coats, but [Page 89] also into leading vessels. But the bigger branch descends on each side by the upper part of the womb between the proper coat and the common, from the Peritonaeum; where it is divided into divers branches. By this difference of the spermatick vessels, you may easily understand why wo­men cast forth less seed than men.

For their Testicles, they differ little from mens but in quantity; For they are lesser,In what their testicles differ from mens. and in figure more hollow and flat, by reason of their defective heat which could not elevate or lift them up to their just magnitude. Their composure is more simple; for they want the Scrotum or cod, the fleshy coat, and also, according to the opinion of some, the Erythroides: but in place there­of they have another from the Peritonaeum which covers the proper coat, that is, the Epididymis, or Dartos. Silvius writes, that womens Testicles want the Erythroides; yet it is certain, that be­sides their peculiar coat Dartos, they have another from the Peritonaeum, which is the Erythroides, or, as Fallopius calls it, the Elythroides, that is as much as the vaginalis, or sheath. But I think,Lib. 14. de usu partium. that this hath sprung from the mis-understanding that place in Galen, where he writes, that womens testicles want the Epididymis. For we must not understand that to be spoken of the coat,Site. but of the varicous parastats (as I formerly said). They differ nothing in number, but in site; for in men they hang without the belly at the share-bone above the Peritonaeum; women have them ly­ing hid in their belly, neer the bottom at the sides of the womb, but yet so as they touch not the body of the womb.

But these testicles are tied to the womb, both by a coat from the Peritonaeum, Connexi-on. as also by the lead­ing vessels descending to the horns of the womb; but to the rest of the body, by the vessels and the nerves arising from the Holy-bone and Costal nerves. They are of a colder Temper than mans.Temper. The ejaculatory, or leading vessels in women differ thus from mens;Their ejacula­tory Vessels. they are large at the begin­ning, and of a veiny consistence, or substance, so that you can scarce discern them from the coat Peritonaeum, then presently they become nervous, and wax so slender, that they may seem broken or torn, though it be not so; but when they come nearer to the horns of the womb, they are again dilated; in their own conditions, they agree with mens,Why they have more in­tricate wind­ings. Their site. but that they are altogether more slender and short. They have a round figure, but more intricate windings than mens; I believe, that these windings might supply the defect of the varicous Parastats. They are seated between the testicles and womb; for they proceed out of the head of the testicle, then presently, armed with a coat from the Peritonaeum, they are implanted into the womb by its horns.

CHAP. XXIII. Of the Womb.

THe Womb is a part proper only to women, given by nature instead of the Scrotum, as the neck thereof, and the annexed parts instead of the yard;Wherein the privy parts in women differ from those in men. so that if any more exactly consider the parts of generation in women and men, he shall find that they differ not much in number, but only in situation and use. For that which man hath apparent without, that women have hid within, both by the singular providence of nature, as also by the defect of heat in women, which could not drive and thrust forth those parts, as in men. The womb is of a ner­vous and membranous substance, that it may be more easily dilated and contracted, as need shall require.

The magnitude thereof is divers, according to the diversity of age, the use of venery,The substance and magnitude of the Womb. the flow­ing of their courses, and the time of conception. The womb is but small in one of unripe age, having not used venery, nor which is menstrous; therefore the quantity cannot be rightly defined.

The figure of the womb is absolutely like that of the bladder,Figure. The Horns of the womb. if you consider it without the productions, which Herophilus called horns, by reason of the similitude they have with the horns of Oxen at their first coming forth. It consists of simple and compound parts. The simple are the veins, arteries, nerves, and coats. The veins and arteries are four in number,Composure. two from the preparing spermatick vessels, the two other ascend thither from the Hypogastrick, after this manner.The Veins and Arteries.

First, these vessels before they ascend on each side to the womb, divide themselves into two branches, from which othersome go to the lower part of the womb, othersom to the neck there­of, by which the menstruous blood, if it abound from the conception, may be purged.

Nerves come on both sides to the womb, both from the sixth conjugation,Nerves. descending by the length of the back-bone, as also from the holy bone, which, presently united and joyned toge­ther, ascend and are distributed through the womb, like the veins and arteries.

The utmost or common coat of the womb, proceeds from the Peritonaeum, The Coats. on that part it touches the Holy-bone; but the proper it hath from the first conformation, which is com­posed of the three sorts of fibers, of the right on the inside of the attraction of both seeds; the transverse without to expel, if occasion be; the oblique in the midst, for the due retention thereof.

The womb admits no division, unless into the right and left side, by an obscure line or seam, such as we see in the scrotum, but scarce so manifest;No Cells in the Womb. neither must we after the manner of the an­cients, imagine any other cels in the womb. For by the law of nature, a woman at one birth can have no more than two. An argument hereof is, they have no more than two dugs. If any chance to bring forth more, it is besides nature, and somewhat monstrous, because nature hath made no provision of nourishment for them.

The site.Nature hath placed the Womb at the bottom of the belly, because that place seems most fit to receive the seed, to carry and bring forth the young. It is placed between the bladder and right gut, and is bound to these parts much more straitly by the neck, than by the body there­of; but also besides, it is tied with two most strong ligaments on the sides, and upper parts of the sharebone, on which it seems to hang; but by its common coat from the Peritonaeum, chiefly thick in that place, it is tied to the hollow bone, and the bones of the hanch and loins.

By reason of this strait connexion, a woman with child feeling the painful drawings back, and, as it were,The temper and action. convulsions of those ligaments, knows her self with child. It is of a cold and moist temper, rather by accident than of it self. The action thereof is to contain both the seeds, and to cherish, preserve, and nourish it, so contained, until the time appointed by nature; and also be­sides, to receive, and evacuate the menstruous blood. The compound parts of the womb, are, the proper body and neck thereof. That body is extended, in women big with child, even to the na­vel, in some higher, in some lower.

The Cotyledo­nes.In the inner side, the Cotyledones come into our consideration, which are nothing else than the orifices and mouths of the veins, ending in that place. They scarce appear in women, unless pre­sently after child-bearing, or their menstrual purgation; but they are apparent in Sheep, Goats; and Kine, at all times like wheat-corns, unless when they are with young; for then they are of the bigness of hasel nuts: but then also they swell up in women, and are like a rude piece of flesh of a finger and a half thick; which begirt all the natural parts of the infant shut up in the womb; out of which respect this shapeless flesh, according to the opinion of some, is reckon­ed amongst the number of coats investing the infant, and called Chorion, because, As, in beasts, the Chorion is interwoven with veins,Columbus justly reproved. and arteries, whence the umbilical Vessels proceed; so in women this fleshy lump is woven with veins, and arteries, whence such vessels have their ori­ginal. Which thing, how true and agreeable to reason it is, let other men judge.

There is one thing whereof I would admonish thee, that as the growth of the Cotyledones in beasts, are not called by the name of Chorion, but are only said to be the dependents thereof; so in women such swollen Cotyledones merit not the name of Chorion, but rather of the dependences thereof.

The orifice of the Womb.This body ends in a certain straitness which is met withall, in following it towards the privities, in women which have born no children, or have remained barren some certain time; for in such as are lately delivered,The proper orifice of the Womb is not always exactly shut, in Wo­men with child. you can see nothing but a cavity and no straitness at all. This straitness we call the proper orifice of the womb, which is most exactly shut after conception, especially until the membrane, or coats encompassing the child, be finished, and strong enough to contain the seed, that it flow not forth, nor be corrupted by entrance of the air; for it is opened to send forth the seed, and in some the courses, and serous humours, which are heaped up in the womb in the time of their being with child.

The neck of the Womb.From this orifice the neck of the womb taking its original, is extended even to the privities. It is of a musculous substance, composed of soft flesh, because it might be extended and contracted, wrinckled, and stretched forth, and unfolded, and wrested, and shaken at the coming forth of the child, and after be restored to its former soundness and integrity. In process of age it grows har­der, both by use of venery, and also by reason of age, by which the whole body in all parts there­of becomes dry and hard. But in growing, and in young women, it is more tractable and flexible for the necessity of nature.

Its Magnitude.The magnitude is sufficiently large in all dimensions, though divers, by reason of the infinite variety of bodies.Composition. The figure is long, round, and hollow. The composition is the same with the womb, but it receives not so many vessels as the womb; for it hath none but those which are sent from the Hypogastrick veins, by the branches ascending to the womb. This neck on the inside is wrinckled with many crests, like the upper part of a dogs mouth, so in copulation to cause greater pleasure by that inequality, and also to shorten the act.

Number and Site.It is only one, and that situate between the neck of the bladder and the right gut, to which it closely sticketh, as to the womb by the proper orifice thereof, and to the privities by its own ori­fice; but by the vessels to all the parts from whence they are sent.

Temper.It is of a cold and dry temper, and the way to admit the seed into the womb, to exclude the infant out of the womb, as also the menstrual evacuation. But it is worth observation, that in all this passage there is no such membrane found,No Hymen. as that they called Hymen, which they feigned to be broken at the first coition. Yet notwithstanding Columbus, Fallopius, Wierus, and ma­ny other learned men of our time think otherwise, and say, that in Virgins a little above the passage of the Urine, may be found and seen such a nervous membrane, placed overthwart, as it were, in the middle way of this neck, and perforated for the passages of the courses. But you may find this false by experience; it is likely the Ancients fel into this errour through this occasion, Because that in some a good quantity of blood breaks forth of these places at the first copulation.

From whence the blood pro­ceeds that breaks forth in some virgins at the first coition.But it is more probable, that this happens by the violent attrition of certain vessels lying in the inward superficies of the neck of the womb, not being able, to endure without breaking so great extention as that nervous neck undergoes at the first coition. For a maid which is manageable, and hath her genital parts proportionable in quantity and bigness to a man's; shall find no such ef­fusion of blood, as we shall shew more at large in our Book of Generation.

This neck ends at the privities, where its proper orifice is: which privy parts we must treat of, as being the productions and appendices of this neck. This Pudendum or privity, is of a middle sub­stance, between the flesh and a nerve; the magnitude is sufficiently large, the figure, round, hol­low, long. It is composed of veins, arteries, nerves, descending to the neck of the womb, and a double coat proceeding from the true skin and fleshy pannicle; both these coats are firmly uni­ted by the flesh coming between them; whereupon it is said, that this part consists of a muscu­lous coat. It is one in number, situate above the Peritonaeum. It hath connexion with the funda­ment, the neck of the womb and bladder, by both their peculiar orifices.

The thirteenth Figure, shewing the parts of women different from those in men.
  • A.B.C.D. The Peritonaeum reflected or turned backward, above and below.
  • E.F. The gibbous part of the liver E, the cave or hollow part F.
  • G. the trunk of the gate-vein.
  • H. the hollow vein.
  • I. the great artery.
  • K. the roots of the Coeliacal artery which accompanieth the gate-vein.
  • L.M. the fatty vein going to the coat of the Kidneys.
  • N.O. the fore-part of both the kidneys.
  • T.V. the emulgent veins and arteries.
  • aa. the right Ureter at the lowest a, cut from a part which, neer to b, sticketh yet to the blad­der, because the bottom of the bladder is drawn to the left side.
  • c. the left ureter inserted into the bladder neer to r.
  • dd. the spermatick vein which goeth to the left testicle marked with i.
  • ee. the spermatick vein which goeth to the left testicle with i, also.
  • f. the trunk of the great artery from whence the spermatical arteries do proceed.
  • gh. the spermatical arteries.
  • ii. the two testicles.
  • ll. a branch which from the spermatick ves­sels reacheth unto the bottom of the womb.
  • mm. the leading vessel of the Seed which Fallopius calleth the tuba, or trumpet, be­cause it is crooked and reflected.
  • n. a branch of the spermatick vessel, com­passing the leading vessel.
  • oo. a vessel like a worm which passeth to the womb, some call it Cremaster.
  • p. the bottom of the womb called fundus uteri.
  • b. a part of the right gut.
  • r. s. the bottom of the bladder where­to is inserted the left Ureter, and a vein led from the neck of the wome neer unto
  • r. t. the neck of the blad­der.
  • u. the same inserted into the privity or lap.
  • x. a part of the neck of the womb above the privity.
  • yy. certain skinny Caruncles of the Privities, in the midst of which is the slit, and on both sides appear little hillocks.

The Figures belonging to the Dugs and Breasts.

αα. The veins of the Dugs which come from those, which descending from the top of the shoulder, are offered to the skin. β. the veins of the Dugs derived from those which through the arm-hole are led into the hand. γ. the body of the Dug or Breast. δδ. the kernels and fat between them. εε. the vessels of the Dugs descending from the lower part of the neck called Jugulum, under the breast-bone.

It hath a middle temper, between hot, and cold, moist and dry. It hath the same use as a mans Praeputium or fore-skin, that is, that together with the Nymphae it may hinder the emeance of the air, by which the womb may be in danger to take cold. The lips of the Privities called by the Greeks [...], by the Latines Alae, contain all that region which is invested with hairs;Alae. [...]. and because we have faln into mention of these Nymphae, you must know, that they are, as it were, productions of the musculous skin, which descend on both sides, from the upper part of the share-bone downwards; even to the orifice of the neck of the bladder, oft-times growing to so great a bigness, that they will stand out like a man's yard. Wherefore in some, they must be cut off in their young years, yet with a great deal of caution, lest if they be cut too rashly, so great an ef­fusion of blood may follow, that it may cause, either death to the woman, or barrenness of the womb, by reason of the refrigeration by the too great effusion of blood. The latter Anatomists, [Page 92] as Columbus and Fallopius, besides these parts, have made mention of another Particle, which stands forth in the upper part of the Privities, and also of the urinary passage, which joyns toge­ther those wings we formerly mentioned.Cleitoris, ten­tigo. Columbus calls it Tentigo; Fallopius, Cleitoris, whence proceeds that infamous word Cleitorizein, (which signifies impudently to handle that part.) But because it is an obscene part, let those which desire to know more of it, read the Authors which I cited.

CHAP. XXXV. Of the Coats containing the Infant in the womb, and of the Navel.

THe membranes or coats containing the Infant in the womb of the Mother, are of a sper­matick and nervous substance,Their sub­stance, magni­tude, figure, and compo­sure. having their matter from the seed of the Mother. But they are nervous, that so they may be the more easily extended, as it shall be necessary for the child. They are of good length and bredth, especially near the time of deliverance, they are round in figure like the womb.

Their composition is of veins, arteries, and their proper substance. The veins, and arteries, are distributed to them (whether obscurely or manifestly, more or fewer) from the womb by the Cotyledones, which have the same office, as long as the child is contained in the womb, as the nip­ples or paps of the nurses after it is born. For thus the womb brings the Cotyledones, or veins, degenerating into them, through the coats like certain paps to the Infant shut up in them.

These coats are three in number according to Galen; one called the Chorion, Secundine, or Af­ter-birth;The number. the other Allantoides; the third Amnios. I find this number of coats in Beasts, but not in Women, unless peradventure any will reckon up, in the number of the coats, the Cotyledones swollen up, and grown into a fleshy mass, which many skilful in Anatomy do write; which opini­on notwithstanding we cannot receive as true. I could never in any place find the Allantoides in Women with child: neither in the Infant born in the sixth, seventh, eight, or in the full time, be­ing the ninth month, although I sought it with all possible diligence, the Midwives being set apart, which might have violated some of the coats.

But thus I went about this business: I divided the dead body of the Mother croswise upon the region of the womb, and taking away all impediments which might either hinder, or obscure our diligence, with as much dexterity as was possible, we did not only draw away that receptacle or den of the Infant, from the inward surface of the womb, to which it stuck by the Cotyledones, but we also took away the first membrane which we called Chorion, from that which lies next under it, called Amnios, without any rending or tearing; for thus we poured forth no moisture, whereby it might be said, that any coat made for the containing of that humor, was rent or torn. And then we diligently looked, having many witnesses and spectators present, if in any place there did ap­pear any distinction of these two membranes, the Allantoides and Amnios, for the separating the contained humors, and for other uses which they mention.

But when we could perceive no such thing, we took the Amnios filled with moisture on the up­per side, and having opened it, two servants holding the apertion, that no moisture might flow out of it into the circumference of the Chorion, or Womb, then presently with spunges we drew out by little and little all the humidity contained in it, the Infant yet contained in it, which was fit to come forth, that so the coat Amnios being freed of this moisture, we might see whether there were any other humor contained in any other coat besides. But having done this with singular diligence and fidelity, we could we see no other humor, nor no other separation of the membranes besides.

He shews by three several reasons that there is no Al­lantoides.So that, from that time I have confidently held this opinion, that the Infant in the womb, is only wrapped in two coats, the Chorion and Amnios. But yet not satisfied by this experience, that I might yet be more certain concerning this Allantoides, having passed through the two former coats, I came to the Infant, and I put a quill into its Bladder, and blew it up as forcibly as I could, so to try, if by that blowing I might force the air into that coat which we questioned, as some have written. But neither thus could I drive any air from hence, through the navel into the contro­verted coat, but rather I found it to fly out of the bladder by the privities. Wherefore I am cer­tainly perswaded that there is no Allantoides. Moreover I could never find, nor see, in the navel, that passage called the Urachus, which they affirm to be the beginning and original of the coat Al­lantoides. But, if it be granted, that there is no such coat as the Allantoides, what discommodity will arise hereof? specially, seeing the sweat and urine of the Infant may easily, and without any discommodity be received, collected, and contained in the same coat, by reason of the small dif­ference which is between them. But if any object, That the urine by its sharpness and touching will hurt the Infant: I will answer, there can be no so great sharpness in the urine of so small an Infant; and that, if that there be any, it is tempered by the admixture of the gentle vapor of sweat.

Besides, if you consider, or have regard to the use of such an humor (which is to hold up the child, lest by its weight it break the ties, by which it is bound to the womb;) we shall find no hu­mor more fit for this purpose than this serous, as which by its thickness is much more fit to bear up a weight, than the thin and too liquid Sweat. For so we see the Sea or Salt-water carries [Page 93] greater weights without danger of drowning than fresh Rivers do. Wherefore I conclude that there is no need, that the urine should be kept and contained in one coat, and the sweat in ano­ther. The Ancients who have writ otherwise, have written from observations made in Beasts. Wherefore we make but only two coats, the Chorion and Amnios; the one of which, seeing it contains the other, they both so encompass the child, that they vest it on every side.

Fallopius in some sort seems to be of this opinion; for he only makes two coats, the Chorion and Amnios; but he thinks the Infant makes the water into a certain part of the Chorion, as you may perceive by reading of his Observations. Both these coats are tyed between themselves by the intercourse of most slender nervous fibers, and small vessels penetrating from the outer Chorion to the inner Amnios. Wherefore unless you warily handle these coats, you may easily tear the Amnios in separating it. They are of the same temper with other membranes.Their temper and use. Their use is diffe­rent; for the Chorion is made both for the preservation of the vessels, which it receives from the womb for the generating of the umbilical veins and arteries, as also to keep whole and safe the parts which it invests.

But the Amnios is to receive and contain the excrementitious and serous humors, which the childe shut up in the womb is accustomed to evacuate. But this coat is very thin and soft, but strong and smooth, lest by its touch it might hurt the Infant, whereupon it is called the Lambskin-coat.

CHAP. XXXV. Of the Navel.

THe Navel follows these coats; It is a white body,What the Na­vel is. somewhat resembling the wreathen cord, or girdle of the Franciscan-friers, but that it hath not the knots standing so far out, but only swelling in certain places, resembling a knot, only lifted up on one side; it a­rises and takes its original from a fleshy mass,The Navel is the center of the body. which we expressed by the name of swelling Coty­ledones, and goes into the midst of the lower belly of the Infant, yea verily into the midst of the whole body, whose root it is therefore said to be. For even as a tree by the root sucks nourish­ment from the earth, so the Infant in the Womb draws its nourishment by the Navel. The great­ness of it in breadth and thickness, equals the bigness of the little finger. But it is a foot and a half long, so that children are brought forth with it, encompassing their middle, neck, arms,The figure and composure. or legs. The figure of it is round. It is composed of two Arteries, one vein, and two coats. It hath these vessels from that great multitude of capillary veins and arteries, which are seen dispersed over the Chorion. Wherefore the vein entring in at the Navel, penetrates from thence into the hollow part of the Liver, where divided into two, according to Galens opinion,Lib. de format. foetus in utero. it makes the gate and hollow-veins. But the arteries, carryed by themselves the length of the Navel, cast them­selves into the Iliacae, which they make, as also all other, that from thence the vital spirit may be carryed by them over all the Infant. It hath its two coats from the Chorion.

But seeing they are mutually woven and conjoyned without any medium, and are of a suffici­ent strength and thickness over all the Navel, they may seem to make the Infants external skin and fleshy Pannicle. I know, very many reckon two Umbilical veins, as also arteries, and the U­rachus, by, or through which the Urine flows into the coat Allantoides. There is only one Vein in a childs Navel, but no Urachus. But because this is not to be found in Women, but only Beasts, I willingly omit it, because I do not intend to mention any parts, but such as belong to humane bodies. Yet, if there be any, which can teach me, that these parts, which I think proper to brute beasts, are to be found in women, I will willingly confess that to his credit, from whom I have reaped such benefit.

The other things that may be required concerning the Navel, as of its number, site, connexi­on, temper and use, may easily appear by that we have spoken before. For we have apparently set down the use, when we said, the Navel was made for that purpose, that the Infant may be nou­rished by it, as the tree by the root, by reason of the continuation of the vessels thereof, with the preparing spermatick vessels made by God for that purpose: To whom be honor and glory for ever and ever. Amen.

The End of the third Book.

The FOURTH BOOK. Treating of the Vital parts contained in the CHEST.

The PREFACE.

HAving finished the first Book of our Anatomy, in explanation of the natural parts contained in the lower Belly: Now order requires, that we treat of the Brest; that so the parts in some sort already explained (I mean the Veins and Arteries) may be dispatched after the same order and manner, without interposition of any other matter.

And besides also, that we may the more exactly and chearfully shew the rest of the parts which remain, as the Head and Limbs, knowing already the original of those Vessels which are dispersed through them; To this purpose, we will define what the Chest is, and then we will divide it into its parts. Thirdly, in these we will consider which parts contain, and which are contained; that so we may more hap­pily finish our intended discourse.

CHAP. I. What the Thorax or the Chest is; into what parts it may be divided, and the nature of these parts.

THe Thorax, or Chest, is the middle Belly, terminated or bounded above with the Col­ler-bones, below with the Midriff, before with the Sternon or Brest, behind with the twelve Vertebra's of the back, on both sides, with the true and bastard ribs, and with the intercostal and intercartilagineous muscles.The contain­ing parts of the Chest. Nature hath given it this structure and composition, lest that being a defence for the vital parts against external injuries, it should hinder respiration; which is no less needful for the preservation of the native heat diffused by the vital spirits, and shut up in the heart,Why Nature hath made the Chest partly bony, partly grisly. as in the fountain thereof, against internal injuries, than the other fore-mentioned parts against the external. For if the Chest should have been all bony, verily it had been the stronger, but it would have hindered our respiration or breathing, which is performed by the dilating and contracting thereof. Wherefore lest one of these should hinder the other, Nature hath framed it, partly bony and grisly, and partly fleshy. Some render another reason hereof, which is, That Nature hath framed the Chest, that it might here also observe the order used by it in the fabrick of things, which is, that it might conjoin the parts much disagreeing in their composure, as the lower Belly, altogether fleshy, and the Head all bony, by a medium par­taker both of the bony and fleshy substance; which course we see it hath observed in the con­nexion of the fire and water, by the interposition of the air; of the earth and air, by the water placed between them.

The number of the bones of the Sternon.The Chest is divided into three parts, the upper, lower, and middle: the coller-bones con­tain the upper; the Midriff the lower; and the Sternon the middle. The Sternon in Galen's opini­on is composed of seven bones; I believe by reason of the great stature of the people that lived then. Now in our times, you shall oft find it compact of three, four, or five bones, although we will not deny, but that we have often observed it (especially in young bodies) to consist of seven or eight bones.

Wherefore those who have fewer bones in number in their Sternon, have them larger, that they might be sufficient to receive the ribs. This is the common opinion of the Sternon. Yet Fallopi­us hath described it far otherwise; wherefore let those who desire to know more hereof, look in his Observations.

Cartilago scuti­formis, the brest-blade.At the lower part of the Sternon, there is a grisle, called commonly Furcula, and Malum gra­natum, or the Pomgranate, because it resembles that fruit; others call it Cartilago scutiformis, that is, the Brest-blade.

It is placed there, to be (as it were) a Bulwark or defence to the mouth of the Stomach, en­dued with most exquite sense; and also that it should do the like to that part of the Midriff which the Liver bears up in that place situate above the orifice of the ventricle by the ligament coming between, descending from the lower part of the same grisle into the upper part of the Liver.

The common people think that this Grisle sometimes fals down. But it so adheres, and is uni­ted to the Bones of the Sternon, that the falling thereof may seem to be without any danger, al­though oft-times it may be so moistned with watery and serous humidities, with which the orifice of the Stomach abounds, that (as it were) soaked and drunk with these, it may be so relaxed, that it may seem to be out of its place; in which case it may be pressed and forced by the hand into the former place and seat, as also by applying outwardly, and taking inwardly, astringent and dry­ing medicines to exhaust the superfluous humidity.

This Grisle at its beginning is narrow, but more broad and obtuse at its end, somewhat resem­bling [Page 95] the round or blunt point of a Sword, whereupon it is also called Cartilago Ensiformis, or the Sword-like grisle. In some it hath a double, in others a single point.

In old people, it degenerates into a Bone. Now because we make mention of this Grisle, we will shew both what a Grisle is, and how many differences thereof there be, that henceforward as often as we shall have occasion to speak of a Grisle, you may understand what it is.

A Grisle is a similar part of our bodies, next to a Bone most terrestrial, cold, dry, hard,What a Grisle is. weigh­ty, and without sense, differing from a Bone in driness only, the which is more in a Bone. Where­fore a Grisle being lost, cannot be regenerated, like as a Bone, without the interposition of a Callus.

The differences of these are almost the same with Bones, that is, from their consistence,The differences thereof. sub­stance, greatness, number, site, figure, connexion, action, and use. Omitting the other for brevi­ty sake, I will only handle those differences which arise from site, use, and connexion. Therefore Grisles, either adhere to the Bones, or of, and by themselves make some part, as the Grisles of the Ey-lids called Tarsi, of the Epiglottis, and Throttle. And others which adhere to Bones, either adhere by the interposition of no medium, as those which come between the Bones of the Ster­non, the Coller-bones, the share and Haunch-bones, and others; or by a ligament coming be­tweeen, as those which are at the ends of the Bastard-ribs to the Sternon by the means of a Liga­ment, that by those Ligaments being softer than a Grisle, the motions of the Chest may be more quickly and safely performed. The Grisles which depend on Bones, do not only yield strength to the Bones, but to themselves, and the parts contained in them, against such things as may break and bruise them. The Grisles of the Sternon, and at the ends of the Bastard-ribs, are of this sort.

By this we may gather, that the Grisles have a double use,Their twofold use. one to polish and levigate the parts to which that slippery smoothness was necessary for performance of their duty; and for this use serve the Grisles which are at the Joynts, to make their motions the more nimble. The other use is to defend those parts upon which they are placed, from external injuries, by breaking violent assaults, by somewhat yeelding to their impression, no otherwise than soft things opposed against Cannon-shot. We will prosecute the other differences of Grisles in their place, as occasion shall be offered and required.

CHAP. II. Of the containing and contained parts of the Chest.

THe containing parts of the Chest are both the skins, the fleshy Pannicle, the fat, the brests,The division of the Chest into [...] parts. the common coat of the Muscles, the Muscles of that place, the fore-mentioned Bones, the coat investing the ribs, & the Diaphragma or Midriff. The parts contained are the Me­diastinum, the Pericardium or purse of the heart, the heart, the lungs and their vessels. Of the con­taining parts, some are common to all the body, or the most part thereof, as both the skins, the fleshy pannicle and fat. Of which being we have spoken in our first Book, there is no need now further to insist upon: Others are proper to the Chest, as its Muscles (of which we will speak in their place) the Brests, the fore-mentioned Bones, the membrane investing the ribs, and the Dia­phragma or Midriff.

We will treat of all these in order, after we have first shewed you the way, how you may sepa­rate the skin from the rest of the Chest. Putting your knife down even to the perfect division of the skin, you must draw a straight line from the upper part of the lower Belly, even to the Chin; then draw another straight-line, overthwart at the Coller-bones even to the Shoulder-blades; and in the places beneath the Coller-bones: (if you desire to shun prolixity) you may at once se­parate both the skins, the fleshy Pannicle, the fat, and common coat of the Muscles; because these parts were shewed and spoken of, in the dissection of the lower Belly.

Yet you must reserve the Brests in dissecting of the Bodies of Women; wherefore from the upper parts of the Brests, as artificially as you can, separate only the skin from the parts lying un­der it, that so you may shew the Pannicle which there becometh fleshy and musculous, and is so spred over the neck and parts of the face, even to the roots of the hairs.

CHAP. III. Of the Brests or Dugs.

THe Brests, as we said, when we spoke of the nature of Glandules,Their sub­stance. are of a glandulous sub­stance, white, rare, or spongious; in Maids and Women that do not give suck, they are more solid, and not so large.

Wherefore the bigness of the Dugs is different, although of a sufficient magnitude in all.Magnitude. Figure. Composure. Their figure is round, somewhat long, and in some sort Pyramidal, Their composure is of the skin, the fleshy Pannicle, Glandules, Fat, Nerves, Veins, and Arteries, descending to them from the Axil­laris under the Sternon, betwixt the fourth and fifth, and sometimes the sixth of the true ribs.

And there they are divided into infinite rivulets by the interposition of the glandules and fat, by which fit matter may be brought, to be changed into the Milk by the faculty of the Dugs.

We will speak no more of the nature of the Glandules or Kernels, as having treated of them [Page 96] before;Which Glan­dules have nerves, and which have none. only we will add this, that some of the Glandules have Nerves, as those of the Brests, which they receive from the parts lying under them, that is, from the intercostal, by which it comes to pass, that they have most exquisite sense. Others want a nerve, as those which serve only for division of the vessels, and which have no action, but only use.

They be two in number, on each side one, seated at the sides of the Sternon upon the fourth, fifth, and sixth true ribs.

Their con­nexion.Wherefore they have connexion with the mentioned parts with their body, but by their vessels with all other parts, but especially with the womb by the reliques of the mamillary veins and ar­teries, which descend down at the sides of the Brest-blade; in which place these veins insinuating themselves through the substance of the Muscles,How the brests and womb communicate each with other. are a little above the Navel conjoyned with the Epigastricks, whose original is in some sort opposite to the Hypogastricks, which send forth bran­ches to the womb. By the meeting of these it is more likely that this commerce should arise, than from other, and those almost capillary branches, which are sometimes seen to descend to the Womb from the Epigastrick.

Their temper.They are of a cold and moist temper; wherefore they say, that the blood by being converted into milk,Recrudescere. becomes raw, flegmatick and white by the force of the proper flesh of the Dugs. Their action is to prepare nourishment for the new-born Babe, to warm the heart from whence they have received heat,Their action and use. and to adorn the Brest.

By this you may know, that some Glandules have action, others use, and some both. At the top of the Dugs there are certain hillocks,The Nipples. or eminencies called Teats or Nipples, by sucking of which the Child is nourished through certain small and crooked passages, which though they ap­pear manifest to the sight, whilst you press out the milk by pressing the Dug, yet when the Milk is pressed out, they do not appear, nor so much as admit the point of a Needle, by reason of the crooked ways made by nature in those passages, for this use, that the Milk being perfectly made, should not flow out of its own accord against the Nurse's will. For so the seed is retained and kept for a certain time in the Prostats.

CHAP. IV. Of the Clavicles or Coller-bones, and Ribs.

IF we should handle these parts after the common order, we should now treat of the Muscles of the Chest which move the Arm, and serve for respiration, and which first offer themselves to our sight.

But for that they cannot be fitly shewed, unless we hurt the Muscles of the Shoulder-blade and Neck, therefore I think it better to defer the explanation of these Muscles, until such time as I have shewed the rest of the contained and containing parts, not only of the Chest, but also of the Head, that having finished these, we may come to a full demonstration of all the rest of the Muscles, beginning with those of the Head, which we first meet with, and so prosecuting the rest even to the Muscles of the Feet, as they shall seem to offer themselves more fitly to dissection, that so, as much as lyes in us, we may shun confusion.

Wherefore to return to our proposed task; after the foresaid Muscles, come the Coller-bones, the Sternon, and Ribs.

But that these parts may be the more easily understood, we must first know what a Bone is, and whence the differences thereof are drawn.

What a Bone is.Therefore a Bone is a part of our body most terrestrial, cold, dry, hard, wanting all manifest sense, if the teeth be excepted.

A double sense.I said [manifest sense,] that you may understand that the parts have a double sense of Touching, the one manifest, such as resides in the flesh, skin, membranes, nerves, teeth, and certain other parts; the other obscure, yet which may suffice to discern the helping and hurting tactile quali­ties, such sense the Bowels and Bones have; for very small fibers of the nerves are disseminated to these parts by mediation of their coat,Lib. 1. de Locis affectis. or membrane, I say, so small that they can scarce be dis­cerned by the eyes, unless (as Galen saith) by plucking such coats away from the parts.

Why the bones have such small veins.But it is no marvail, if Nature would have these parts in like manner to have such small veins, contrary to the lungs and most part of the muscles, only to yield so much nourishment to the part, as should be needful; for seeing the substance of the Bones is cold, hard, dense and solid, it wastes the less.

Wherefore they need not so much blood for their nourishment, as the hot and soft parts; and besides the lesser Bones have neither Veins [...]or Arteries, but draw fit nourishment, only by the force of the attractive faculty implanted in them.

Whence the difference of Bones may be taken.The differences of Bones are taken from many things, as from their Apophyses, Epiphyses, Gri­sles, Necks, Heads, Solidity, Cavity, Eminencies, Marrow, Consistence, Bigness, Number, Figure, Site. We will prosecute all these as they shall offer themselves in the demonstration of the Bones; to which doctrine we will give a beginning at the Clavicles or Coller-bones.

The Clavicles or Coller-bones.The Clavicles are two very hard and solid Bones, without any great or notable cavity, situate on each side betwixt the side and upper part of the Sternon and top of the Shoulder-blade, for the strength and stability of these parts, whence they take the name of Claviculae Clavicles, (from [Page 97] the Greek [...], which signifies, a Key, or any other Bar or fastning of a Door.) They carry the shape of a Surgeons Levatory.

But you must note that the Clavicles seem to be fastned to the Sternon by the mediation of a gri­sly-bone. Moreover the space and cavity contained within the coller-bones, is called by the La­tines jugulum, by the French the upper furcula, because the jugular-veins pass that way;Lib. 13. de usu part. cap. 13. it sticks to the upper process of the shoulder by a Grisle, which Galen calls the small Grisle-bone, although it be nothing else but a production of the Os juguli.

For the Sternon, which we said is framed of divers Bones, as sometimes 3, sometimes 4, 5, 6, 7, and sometimes 8; you must note, they are very spongy and full of pores, and of a far softer consi­stence than the coller-bones, wherefore more subject to corruption; besides, they are mutually joined by interposition of muscles. Their use is to be as a shield to defend the vital parts.

The Ribs are 24 in number, on each side 12. seven of these are called true or perfect ribs,The Ribs. be­cause they make a circle, at the one end joyned to the Sternon, on the other to the vertebra's; the other are called bastard, or short-ribs, because they fall short in their way, and come not to the Sternon; but they are fastned on the foreside of the Sternon by Grisles and Ligaments, but on the back-part to the transverse vertebra's of the Back-bone, and to the sides of the said vertebra's. But the short-ribs are only knit to the vertebra's, wherefore that part of the vertebra's is called the root of the ribs.

The exterior, or fore-part, of the bastard or short-ribs, is grisly, that they should not be broken, and that they might be the easier lifted up in the distensions of the Stomach filled with meat. They are of a consistence sufficiently hard, yet more towards their root, than at the Sternon, Their Consi­stence. where they come nearer together, and are more hardly broken; they are smooth both within and without, but in the midst they have some sign of being double, or hollow, to receive the veins and arteries, which nourish their bony substance; they are fashioned like a bow; their use is the same with the Sternon, and besides, to carry and strengthen the muscles serving for respiration.

CHAP. V. The Anatomical administration of the Sternon.

THe coat investing the ribs, which the common Anatomists call Pleura, is the last of the containing parts of the Chest, which because it lies hid in the inner part thereof, it cannot be shown unless by pulling asunder of the Sternon; wherefore we must now shew the man­ner of opening the Sternon, that hereby we may not violate the original or insertion of any of the muscles. Wherefore first you must understand, that he which will shew in their proper place their original and insertion of the pectoral muscles, of the Mastoides, of the two muscles of the bone Hyois, of the muscles subclavii, and intercartilaginei, ought first of all to separate all the pectoral muscles from the Sternon, and the Grisles from the true-ribs; then to cut the Ligaments; next the Bones themselves, even from the sixth true rib to the clavicles.

And then shewing the Mediastinum stretched under the Sternon all the length thereof, he must separate the Sternon with his knife, and bend it up to the clavic [...]es, and there cut it, reserving to­gether with it the four muscles, that is, the two Mastoides, and the two moving the Bone-Hyois, because they either wholly, or for the most part, arise from the Sternon.

Lastly, the Clavicles being somewhat thrust upwards, the Grisles must on each side be turned outward towards the arm; that so the containing parts of the Chest may not lye only open to view, and be easily shewed, but also the muscles may be contained in their place, until they come to be shewed in their order.

And because the Coller-bones must be lifted up very high, that the recurrent nerves may be more easily seen, and the distribution of the veins and arteries, the two small Subclavian muscles, one on each side must be shown by the way, who have their original from the inner and fore-part of the Clavicles, and an oblique descent to the Sternon, towards the grisle of the first rib.

For the Clavicles cannot be thus separated, but that these muscles must be violated and spoiled. Also you may divide the Sternon in the midst, that you may shew the inward pectoral muscles whole, having separated the muscles which arise from the upper part. All which things being per­formed as they ought, we must come to the coat investing the ribs, and then to the Mediastinum, as arising from it.

CHAP. VI. Of the Pleura, or coat investing the Ribs.

THe Tunica Subcostalis, or coat investing the Ribs,What the membrane in­vesting the ribs is. being the last of the containing parts of the Chest, is a large and a broad membrane answerable in proportion of use and action to the Peritonaeum of the lower Belly. For as the Peritonaeum generally and particularly co­vers all the natural parts, binding and holding them in their places, so this coat invests all the vi­tal parts in general, because it is stretched over all the inside of the Chest, but in particular whilst it gives each a coat from it self.

It hath its original from the Periosteum (or, as others will have it,Its original. from the Pericranium) in­vesting [Page 98] the Vertebra's of the Chest at the roots of the ribs. Wherefore it sticks very fast to the ribs, scarce to be separated, as also to all the parts bounding the Chest, and contained in it.

Vesalius reprehends Galen, because he said, that this was double on both sides; yet Columbus defends Galen, and verily it is seen to be double in the inner part of the Chest, under the ribs and the muscles of the ribs, that in that space there may be way for the Veins, Arteries, and Nerves.

Whether, as there is a two­fold Plurisie, so also a double Pleura.Some have made it twofold, and divided it into the internal and external; as those which have made two sorts of Pleurisies, the true and bastard; placing the external above the Ribs and inter­costal muscles; but the internal under the ribs, muscles, Diaphragma, and Sternon.

But we to shun ambiguity, intend only to prosecute those things which are manifest to the eys; wherefore we say, that the ribs are lined on the inside with a double coat; One which immediately and firmly sticks to them on every side called the Periosteum, which is common to them and other Bones. The other which lies upon that Periosteum, and on the inside invests all the Ribs, whence is it called the Subcostalis tunica. The substance, temper, and composure, are the same, as in other membranes.

The Magni­tude & Figure.The magnitude in length, as also the figure, is the same with the compass of the inner part of the Chest; the thickness of it, is very little. This coat is commonly called the Pleura, from the name of the part which it covers or lines, (for the Greeks call the ribs [...],) and in like manner that which happens betwixt the Periosteum and this Pleura, is called either a true or bastard Pleurisie.

CHAP. VII. Of the Mediastinum.

The Substance and Magni­tude.NOw we must speak of the parts contained in the Chest, seeing we have already handled the containing: beginning with the Mediastinum, as being a part which in dissection first presents it self to our sight. The Mediastinum is of the same substance, thickness, com­posure, number, temper, as the Pleura. For the substance of the Mediastinum is membranous, and though it be stretched all the length of the Chest, yet it is of a small thickness, receiving Veins, Nerves, and Arteries, from all the parts to which it is knit, like as the Pleura doth; but especially from the Mammillary vessels, descending under the Sternon.

It is in number one, but it is made of two membranes produced from the Subcostal: for, this, as­cending on each side by the hollowness of the Chest to the Sternon, and then at right Angles, is reflected to the bodies of the Vertebra's, whence the Pleura hath its original.

In that reflection there is so much distance between each Membrane, as may be sufficient to re­ceive two fingers. For otherwise, seeing that they cannot penetrate through the Heart, it was fit each side of the Pleura should turn to the Pericardium, that so they might arrive at the appointed place without offence. Neither yet is that space void and empty, but woven with many small ner­vous fibers. Columbus adds, that that place is often filled with a certain humor besides Nature, which you may draw out, or evacuate, by opening the Sternon.

The figure.Yet I would gladly learn of Columbus, by what signs we may know that such an humor is con­tained there. For the figure: the Mediastinum with the Pleura on each side, represents the figure of a Leather-bottle, whose flat side is the Mediastinum, whose other side the Pleura; the bottom that part of the Pleura which is next the Midriff; the mouth the upper part of Pleura at the first ribs. We shewed the site and connexion of the Mediastinum, when we declared its original.

The use.The use thereof is to separate the vital parts (as it were) into two cels, the right and left, that if peradventure it happen, that the one be hurt, the creature may live by the benefit of the other.

And it hath another use, which is, to prop and hold up the Pericardium, that it fall not upon the Heart with its weight, but tossed with the motions of the Heart and Chest, it may move to this or that side.

CHAP. VIII. Of the Diaphragma or Midriff.

What the Mi­driff is.ALthough the Midriff may seem to be accounted rather a part containing than contained, yet for commodities sake, we have deferred the demonstration thereof till now. There­fore, It is a muscle round and long, terminating the lower part of the Chest.

Its substance, composition, &c.It is of the same substance, composition, and temper, as the Muscles of the Epigastrium; it is made of two coats, the lower whereof is from the Peritonaeum, and the upper from the Pleura. Which getting to them flesh, but not there, but in their circumference, by the benefit of the bloud brought thither by the Veins and Arteries distributed through it, turn into a muscle; whose mid­dle is nervous and membranous, but the extremities by which it is inserted, one while fleshy, as in that part next to the bastard-ribs; another while tendonous, as where it touches the first and se­cond Vertebra's of the Loins; for it ends in them by two Tendons manifest enough. It is one in number,Connexion. interposed with an oblique site betwixt the natural and vital parts. It hath connexion with the lower part of the Sternon and short-ribs, and the two first Vertebra's of the Loins, but by its coats and vessels with the parts from whence it received them.

Quantity.The extent thereof is equal to the compass of the lower part of the Chest. The length of it [Page 99] is from the brest-blade, even to the first and second vertebra of the loins. The thickness is diverse, for it is far thicker in its fleshy extremity, than in its nervous original.

The Action thereof is to help the expulsion of the Excrements by the mutual assistance of the Epigastrick muscles: but the chief use is for respiration, of which it is one of the prime instruments.Action. This partition the Ancients called Phrenes, Why the Dia­phragma was called Phrenes. because the inflammation thereof caused like symp­tomes, as the inflammation of the Brain, by reason of the large nerves on each side one, which come to it directly and primarily from the third, fourth, and fifth Vertebra's of the neck. This muscle differs from other muscles, specially in figure. It is perforated in three places, to give way or passage to the ascendent Hollow-vein, to the artery Aorta, and the Gullet.

CHAP. IX. Of the Lungs.

THe Lungs are of a soft substance and fleshy, rare and like a sponge,Their Sub­stance. Quantity. The Lobes thereof. of a various colour pamered; their quantity is sufficiently large; for most commonly they are divided in­to four lobes, disjoyned with a manifest and visible division, on each side two, where­by they may be the more easily opened and contracted, and the air may the better enter.

Besides also in large bodies, who have a very great Chest, there is found a fifth lobe, arising from the second lobe of the right side, as a cushion or bolster to bear up the Hollow-vein ascend­ing from the Midriff to the Heart.

In little men who have a shorter Chest, because the Heart is so near as to touch the Diaphrag­ma, this lobe is not seen, yet it is alwayes found in Dogs.

The Lungs represent the figure or shape of an Oxes foot or hoof;Figure. for like it they are thicker in their basis, but slenderer in their circumference, as you may see in blowing them up, by the Wea­zon, with your mouth, or a pair of bellows.Composition. They are compounded of a coat coming from the Pleura, which on each side receives sufficient number of nerves from the sixth conjugation; and also of the Vena arteriosa coming from the right ventricle of the Heart, and the Arteria venosa from the left, as shall be shewed in the Anatomy of the Heart; besides the Aspera arteria or Wea­zon coming from the Throat; and lastly, its own flesh, which is nothing else than the concreti­on of cholerick bloud poured out like foam about the divisions of the foresaid vessels, as we have said of other parts.

The body of the Lungs is one in number, unless you will divide it into two, by reason of the va­riety of its site, because the Lobe of the Lungs stretched forth into the right and left side do al­most involve all the Heart, that so they may defend it against the hardness of the Bones which are about it, they are tyed to the Heart, chiefly at its basis, but to the roots of the ribs, and their ver­tebra's by the coat it hath from thence; but by the vessels to these parts from whence they pro­ceed.The sticking of the Lungs to the ribs. But oft-times presently from the first and natural conformation they are bound to the cir­cumference of the ribs by certain thin membranous productions which descend from thence to the Lungs, otherways they are tyed to the ribs by the Pleura.

The nourishment of the Lungs is unlike to the nourishment of other parts of the body;Their nourish­ment. for you cannot find a part equally rare, light, and full of air, which may be nourished with blood equal­ly thin and vaporous. In temper they incline more to heat than to cold, whether you have regard to their composure of cholerick blood, or their use, which is to prepare and alter the air, that it hurt not the Heart by its coldness. The Lungs is the instrument of voice and breathing by the Weazon or Wind-pipe. For the Lobes are the instruments of voyce, and the ligaments of respiration. But the Larinx, or Throttle, is the chief instrument of the voyce; for the Wea­zon first prepares the voice for the Throttle, in which it being in some measure formed, is per­fected in the Palate of the Mouth, as in the upper part of a Lute, or such like Instrument by the help of the Gargareon or Uvula, as a certain quil to play withall.

But as long as one holds his breath he cannot speak; for then the muscles of the Larinx, ribs, the Diaphragmn, and the Epigastrick muscles are pressed down, whence proceeds a suppression of the vocal matter, which must be sent forth, in making or uttering a voice.

Nature would have the Lungs light for many reasons; the first is,Why the lungs are light. That seeing they are of themselves immoveable, they might be more obsequious and ready to follow the motion of the Chest; for when it it straitned, the Lungs are straitned and subside with it; and when it is dilated, they also are dilated, and swell so big, that they almost fill up all the upper capacity thereof.

Another cause is, That by this their rarity they might more easily admit the entring air, at such times as they have much or sodain necessity, as in running a race.

And lastly, That in Plurisies and other purulent abscesses of the Chest, the Pus or matter poured forth into the capacity of the Chest, may be suckt in by the rare substance of the Lungs, and by that means the sooner sent forth and expectorated.

The use of respiration is to cool and temper the raging heat of the Heart.The use of re­spiration or breathing. For it is cooled in drawing in the breath by the cool air, and in sending out thereof by avoiding the hot fuliginous vapor. Therefore the Chest performs two contrary motions, for whilst it is dilated it draws in the encompassing air, and when it is depressed, it expels the fuliginous vapor of the Heart; which any one may easily perceive by the example of a pair of Smiths-bellows.

CHAP. X. Of the Pericardium or Purse of the Heart.

Whence it hath its matter.THe Pericardium is (as it were) the House of the Heart, which arising at the basis there­of (either the ligaments of the Vertebra's situate there, or else the vessels of the Heart yielding it matter) is of a nervous, thick and dense substance without any fibers. It re­tains the figure of the Heart, and leaves an empty space for the Heart to perform its proper mo­tion. Wherefore the bigness of the Pericardium exceeds that of the Heart.

It consists of a double coat, one proper, of which we have spoken; another common, coming from the Pleura; and also of the veins, arteries, and nerves; the vessels partly coming from the Mamillary, partly from the Diaphragma, chiefly there where it touches it; the nerves come on each side from the sixt Conjugation.

Number and Connexion.It is only one, placed about the Heart, and annexed to it at the basis thereof by its membranes, to the original of the Lungs, and the Vertebra's lying under them, and by the vessels to the parts from whence it received them. It is of a cold and dry temper, as every Membrane is.

Use. The use thereof is to cover the Heart, and preserve it in its native humidity, by certain natural moisture contained in it, unless you had rather say, that the moisture we see contained in the Peri­cardium, is generated in it after death by the condensation and concretion of the spirits. Although this seems not very likely, because it grows and is heaped up in so great quantity in living bodies that it hinders the motion of the Heart, and causes such palpitation, or violent beating thereof, that it often suffocates a man.

From whence the matter of the watery humor con­tained in the Pericardium.For this Palpitation happens also to hearty and stout men, whose Hearts are hot, but blood thin and waterish, by reason of some infirmity of the Stomach or Liver; and this humor may be generated of vapors which on every side exhale into the Pericardium from the blood boyling in the Ventricles of the Heart, where kept in by the density thereof, they turn into yellowish moi­sture; as we see it happens in an Alembeck.

The Consi­stence.Nature would have the Pericardium of a dense and hard consistence, that by the force thereof the Heart might be kept in better state; for if the Pericardium had been bony, it would have made the Heart like iron by the continual attrition; on the contrary, if it had been soft and fun­gous, it would have made it spongy and soft like the Lungs.

CHAP. XI. Of the Heart.

What the Heart is, and of what sub­stance.THe Heart, is the chief mansion of the Soul, the organ of the vital faculty, the beginning of life, the fountain of the vital spirits, and so consequently the continual nourisherer of the vital heat, the first living and last dying; which because it must have a natural mo­tion of it self, was made of a dense, solid, and more compact substance than any other part of the body.

The three sorts of fibers of the Heart.The flesh thereof is woven with three sorts of fibers, for it hath the right in the inner part de­scending from the basis into the point, that they might dilate it, and so draw the blood from the Hollow-vein into the receptacles thereof, and the breath or air from the Lungs by the Arteria venosa; it hath the transverse without, which pass through the right at right angles, to contract the Heart, and so drive the vital spirits into the great Artery Aorta, and the cholerick blood to the Lungs by the Vena arteriosa for their nourishment; It hath the oblique in the midst to contain the air and blood drawn thither by the forementioned vessels, until they be sufficiently elaborate by the Heart.

All these fibers do their parts by contracting themselves towards the original, as the right from the point of the Heart towards the basis, whereby it comes to pass, that by this contraction of the fibers the Heart dilated becomes shorter, but broader, no otherwise than it is made more long and narrow by the contraction of the tranverse: but, by the drawing of the oblique, it is lessened in that part which looks towards the Vertebra's, which chiefly appears in the point thereof.

The Magni­tude.It is of an indifferent bigness, but yet in some bigger, in some less, according to the diverse temper of cold or hot men, as we noted in the Liver.

Figure.The figure thereof is pyramidal, that is, it is broader in the basis, and narrower at his round point.

Composition.It is composed of the most dense flesh of all the body, by the affusion of blood at the divisions and foldings of the vessels, and there concrete, as it happens also to the other entrails. For the blood being there a little more dryed, than that which is concrete for the making of the Liver, turns into a fleshy substance more dense than the common flesh, even as in hollow ulcers, when they come to cicatrize.

The proper Vessels.It hath the Coronal veins and arteries, which it receives either on the right side from the Hol­low vein, or on the left from the basis at the entrance of the artery Aorta. You cannot by your eye discern that the Heart hath any other nerves than those which come to it with the Pleura.

The Nerves.Yet I have plainly enough observed others in certain Beasts which have great hearts, as Swine; they appeared seated under the fat which covers the vessels and basis of the Heart, lest the [Page 101] humid substance of these parts should be dissolved and dissipated by the burning heat of the heart. Whereby you may perceive that the heat of the Heart is different from the Elementary heat, as that which suffers fat to grow about this entrail, where otherwise it doth not concrete, unless by cold or a remiss heat, which thing is chiefly worth admiration.

The Heart is one alone, situate most commonly upon the fourth vertebra of the Chest,Number and site. which is in the midst of the Chest. Yet some think, that it inclines somewhat to the left side, because we there feel the motion or beating thereof; but that happens by reason of its left ventricle, which being it is filled with many spirits, and the beginning of the Arteries, it beats far more vehement­ly, than the right. It required that seat by the decree of Nature; because that region is the most safe and armed, & besides it is here on every side covered (as it were) with the hands of the Lungs.

It hath connexion with the fore-mentioned Vertebra's, but by the parts composing it,Connexion. with those parts from whence it hath them; with the Lungs by the Vena arteriosa, and the Arteria venosa; and lastly, with all the parts of the body by the Arteries, which it sends to them all.

It is of a hot and moist temper, as every fleshy part is. The action thereof is,Temper and action. first to prepare the blood in its right ventricle, for the fit nourishment of the Lungs; for from hence it is that Ga­len saith, This right ventricle was made for the necessity of the Lungs. Secondly, to generate the vital spirits in its left ventricle for the use of the whole body.What the vital spirit is. But this spirit is nothing else than a certain middle substance between air and blood, fit to preserve and carry the native heat, where­fore it is named the Vital, as being the author and preserver of life. In the inner parts of the heart, there present themselves to our consideration the ventricles, and the parts contained in the ventricles and between them; such are the Valvulae, or Valves, the Vessels and their mouths, their distribution into the Lungs, the wall or partition, and the two productions or Ears of the Heart; which because they are doubtful, whether they may be reckoned amongst the external or intern­al parts of the heart, I will here handle in the first place.

Therefore these Auriculae, or Ears, are of a soft and nervous substance,The Auriculae Cordis, or ears of the heart. compact of three sorts of fibers, that so by their softness they might the more easily follow the motions of the Heart, and so break the violence of the matter entering the Heart with great force when it is dilated. For otherwise by their violent and abundant entrance they might hurt the Heart, and (as it were) overwhelm and suffocate it; but they have that capacity which we see given by nature, that so they might (as it were) keep in store the blood and air, and then by little and little draw it forth for the use of the necessity of the Heart. But if any enquire, if such matters may be drawn into the Heart by the only force of the Diastole, ad fugam vacui, for avoiding of emptiness; I will answer, That that drawing in or attraction is caused by the heat of the Heart, which continu­ally draws these matters to it, no otherwise than a fire draws the adjacent air, and the flame of a Candle the Tallow which is about the wiek for nourishments sake. Whilst the Heart is dila­ted it draws the air, whilst it is drawn together or contracted it expels it. This motion of the Heart is absolutely natural, as the motion of the Longs is animal. Some add a third cause of the attraction of the Heart, to wit, the similitude of the whole substance. But, in my judgment, this rather takes place in that attraction which is of blood by the venae coronales for the proper nourish­ment of the Heart, than in that which is performed for attraction of matters for the benefit of the whole Body.

These Ears differ in quantity, for the right is far more capacious than the left,Their magni­tude, and Number. because it was made to receive a greater abundance of matter. They are two in number, on each side one, situ­ate at the basis of the Heart: The greater at the entrance of the hollow vein into the Heart, the less at the entrance of the veinous and of the great Artery, with which parts they both have con­nexion. We have formerly declared what use they have, that is,Their use. to break the violence of the mat­ters, and besides to be stays or props to the Arteria venosa and great Artery, which could not sustain so rapid and violent a motion as that of the Heart, by reason of their tenderness of substance.

Of the Ventricles of the Heart.

THe Ventricles are in number two, on each side one,The partition between the ventricles of the heart. distinguished with a fleshy partition strong enough, having many holes in the superficies, yet no where piercing through.

The right of these Ventricles is the bigger, and encompassed with the softer and rarer flesh; the left is the lesser, but is engirt with a threefold more dense and compact flesh; for the right Ven­tricle was made for a place to receive the blood brought by the hollow-vein, and for distributing of it, partly by the Vena arteriosa into the lungs for their nourishment, partly into the left ventricle, by sweating through the wall or partition, to yield matter for the generation of the vital spirits.

Therefore because it was needful there should be so great a quantity of this blood,Why the right ventricle is more capacious and less com­pact. it was like­wise fit that there should be a place proportionable to receive that matter. And because the blood which was to be received in the right ventricle was more thick, it was not so needful, that the flesh to contain it should be so compact; but on the contrary, the arterious blood and vital spirit have need of a more dense receptacle, for fear of wasting, and lest they should vanish into air; and also less room, that so the heat, being united, might become the stronger, and more powerfully set upon the elaboration of the blood and spirits.

Therefore the right Ventricle of the Heart is made for preparation of the blood appointed for the nourishment of the Lungs, and the generation of the vital spirits,The action of the right ven­tricle. as the Lungs are made for the mitification or qualifying of the Air. Which works were necessary if the Physical Axi­ome be true, That like is nourished by like, as the rare and spongious Lungs with more subtil [Page 102] blood; the substance of the Heart gross and dense, with the veinous blood, as it flows from the Liver, that is gross.

The action of the left ven­tricle.And it hath its Coronal veins from the Hollow-vein, that it might thence draw as much as should be sufficient.

But the left Ventricle is for the perfecting of the vital spirit, and the preservation of the na­tive heat.

Of the Orifices and Valves of the Heart.

The uses of the four orifices of the Heart.THere be four Orifices of the Heart, two in the right, and as many in the left Ventricle; the greater of the two former gives passage to the vein, or the blood carryed by the Hollow-vein to the Heart; the lesser opens a passage to the Vena arteriosa, or the cholerick blood carried in it for the nourishment of the Lungs.

The larger of the two other makes a way for the distribution of the Artery Aorta, and the vi­tal spirit through all the body; but the lesser gives egress and regress to the Ateria venosa, or to the air and fuliginous vapors. And because it was convenient that the matters should be admitted into their proper Ventricles by these orifices, by the Diastole, to wit, into the right ventricle by the greater orifice, and into the left by the lesser; and because on the contrary it was fit that the matters should be expelled by the Systole, from their ventricles, by the fore-mentioned orifices;

The Valves.Therefore nature to all these orifices hath put eleaven valves, that is to say, six in the right ven­tricle, that there might be three to each orifice; five in the left, that the greater orifice might have three, and the lesser two, for the reason we will presently give.

How they dif­fer.These Valves differ many ways: First, in action; for some of them carry in matter to the Heart, others hinder that which is gone out, that it come not back again. Secondly, they differ in site:Action. Site. Figure. for those which bring in, have membranes without, looking in; those which carry out, have them within looking out. Thirdly, in figure: for those which carry in, have a Pyramidal figure, but those which hinder the coming back again, are made in the shape of the Roman letter C. Fourth­ly,Substance. in substance: for the former for the most part are fleshy, or woven with fleshy fibers into cer­tain fleshy knots ending towards the point of the heart; The latter are wholly membranous.

Number.Fiftly, they differ in number: for there be only five which bring in, three in the right ventricle at the greater orifice; and two in the left at the lesser orifice; those which prohibit the coming back,Motion. are six in each ventricle, three at each orifice. Lastly, they differ in motion; for the fleshy ones are opened in the Diastole, for the bringing in of blood and spirit, and contrariwise are shut in the Systole, that they may contain all, or the greater part of that they brought in. The membranous on the contrary are opened in the Systole to give passage forth to the blood and spirits over all the body, but shut in the Diastole, that that which is excluded might not flow back into the Heart. But you shall observe that Nature hath placed only two Valves at the orifice of the Arteria venosa, Why there be only two Valves at the Orifice of the Arteria venosa. because it was needful that this Orifice should be always open, either wholly, or certainly a third part thereof; that the air might continually be drawn into the Heart by this Orifice in Inspira­tion, and sent forth by Exspiration in the contraction of the Heart. Whereby we may gather this, that there is but one third part of that air we draw into the Heart in breathing, sent forth again in the form of vapor in exspiration, because Nature would have but one third part of the Orifice to lye open for its passage out. Therefore the exspiration or breathing out, and the Systole of the Heart and Arteries, is shorter than the inspiration, so that we may truly say, that the inspiration, or drawing the breath in, is equally so long as the exspiration is together with the rest, which is in the midst between the two motions.

CHAP. XII. Of the distribution of the Vena arteriosa, and the Arteria venosa.

HAving hitherto shewed the original of the vessels of the Heart, we must now speak of their distribution. The Vena arteriosa, or the Arterious vein; and the Arteria venosa, or the Veinous Artery, each proceeding out of his proper ventricle, that is, the right and left, are divided into two large branches; one of which goes to the right and the other to the left hand, the one lying cross-ways over the other, the Vein always riding over the Artery, as you may understand better by the sight of your eys,The Artery al­ways lies under the vein. than by reading of Books. These branches at their entrance of the Lungs are divided into two other large branches, and each of them go to his pe­culiar Lobe of the Lungs; and these again run almost into infinite other branches, dispersed in three places over the Lungs.

These Vessels have acquired their names by reason of that transmutation of consistence, where­by the composure of a vein degnerates into an Artery,A twofold rea­son why the Vein was made arterious or like an artery. and that of an Artery into a Vein, for the commodity of life. For this is a miracle of prudent Nature to change the Coats of the vessels of the Lungs; producing a Vein which in its Body should imitate an Artery, and an Artery which should represent a Vein: for if the Vena arteriosa should have retained its proper consistence, the arterious blood which is carryed by it from the Heart to nourish the Lungs, might by reason of its subtilty penetrate through, and flow away by reason of the rarity of the veinous texture: and so nature should never have attained her conceived end, that is, to nourish the Lungs, by reason of the continual motion of their contraction and dilatation.

For nourishment cannot be assimilated to the part, unless it be put and cleave to it. Wherefore it was fit, that nature should make the Body of this vein solid, that it might be immoveable, un­shaken and stubborn (in respect of a vein which by its softness would have been too obsequious and yielding to the agitation of the Lungs) that so it might have nourishment, which might be diffused into all parts thereof, and which might neither be drawn by its Diastole, Why the Ar­tery was made like a Vein. nor driven back into the heart by its Systole. But the artery hath the consistence of a vein, that by that veinous softness according to the necessity of Nature, it might be the more readily contracted and di­lated, to bring the air in and carry the vapours forth of the heart. Here we meet with a difficul­ty, which is, By what way the Blood is carried out of the right and left ventricle of the heart.

Galen thinks that there be certain holes in the partition made for that purpose;By what way blood may pass out of the right into the left ventricle. and verily there are such, but they are not perforated. Wherefore Columbus hath found out a new way; which is, that the Blood is carried to the lungs by the Vena Arteriosa, and there attenuated; and carried from thence together with the air by the Arteria venosa to the left ventricle of the heart; this he writes, truly very probably. Botallus, in his Treatise de Catarrho, hath found out a third way, to wit, a vein, which he cals Arteriarum nutrix, that is, The nurse of the arteries,The vein cal­led the Nurse of the arteries. Fallop. initio. ob­ser. Arteriarum Gal. lib. 15. de usu partium, cap. 6. which creeps a little above the Coronal to the right ear of the Heart, and then goes into the left ear thereof. But yet I am very much afraid, that this vein observed by Botallus, is that vessel observed by Fal­lopius, whereby the Vena Arterialis is joyned to the Aorta, and by which the all vital Blood is carried for the forming and nourishment of the Lungs whilst the infant is yet in the womb. Of which also Galen makes mention, but it had lain hid from his time to this day, but that Fallopius raised up the memory of it again.

CHAP. XIII. The Distribution of the ascendent Hollow-Vein.

THe Hollow Vein rising out of the gibbous part of the Liver,Gal. lib. de form. foetus. The greater descendent branch of the hollow vein. and resembling (according to Galen) the Body of a Tree, is divided into two notable Branches, but not of a like big­ness. For the greater, by the hind-part of the Liver upon the Back-bone, and by the way, receives certain other Branches from the substance of the Liver which enter not into the great trunck with the rest. You may often see this descendent Branch even to the Back-bone upon which it lies in this its descent, covered with the substance of the Liver, so that it may seem that branch proceeds not from that common trunk together with the ascendent,The upper branch of the hollow vein is the less. although indeed it always doth. But the lesser Branch ascends to the upper parts, and is distributed after this man­ner following. For first arising into the Midriff, it bestows two small veins upon it, on each side one, which from that part are called Phrenicae. But from thence when it arrives at the right Ear of the Heart, it makes the Coronales, the Coronal or Crown-veins,Venae phrenica Coronales. which compass the basis of the heart in manner of a Crown. Thirdly, entring somewhat more deeply into its right Ear, in its greater part it produces the vena arteriosa. Fourthly, lifted up above the heart,Vena Arteriosa. on the right side it produces the vein Azygos or sine pari (that is, without a fellow) which descending to the fourth rib, (reckoning from above downwards) nourisheth the intercostal muscles, and also the membranes of the eight lower ribs, on both sides, sending a Branch into each of the muscles at the lower part of the rib, which may be sufficient for their nourishment. Besides also oftentimes,Vena Azygos, or sine pari. especially in little men, this vein Azygos nourishes all the spaces between all the ribs by the like Branches, which it sends in the same manner to the four upper ribs. Moreover also, this Azygos sometimes,The Azygos sometimes two. How the mat­ter of a plurisie may be evacu­ated by urin. though but seldom, is found double, that is, on each side one. Here you must chiefly observe, that this vein, after it hath nourished the spaces between the lower ribs, in its remainder descends un­der the Diaphragma, and is joyned on the left side to the Emulgent vein; by which it is manifest how an Abscess may be critically evacuated by the urine, in a Plurisie. But this same Azygos is more depressed on the right side, and meets with the Venae lumbares, but especially with one of them, which goes down to the thigh, whereby Fallopius gathers, that it is very convenient in the beginnings of Plurisies, to open the vena poplitis, the vein of the Ham. Fifthly above the Azygos (when it is wanting there)Intercostalis. it sends forth the Branch called Intercostalis to the other spaces be­tween the upper ribs; although this is sometimes seen to come from the Axillares, which Sylvius calls the subclaviae. Sixthly, it brings forth the Mammariae, so called,Mammaria. because in their greater part they run to the dugs between the fourth and fifth ribs, for the uses formerly mentioned, men and women have on each side one of these coming from the Subclaviae. They are sometimes found to proceed by a certain common orifice from the hollow vein, before it be divided into the Sub­clavian Branches, but it is rather in Beasts than in men; these veins descending by the sides of the Sternon, yield nourishment to the two inner muscles of the Chest, to the seven intercostal muscles of the true ribs, to the Sternon it self, and to its ligaments and gristles, as also to the Mediastinum and the upper part of the right muscles, and the adjacent parts. Seventhly,Cervicalis. it produces the Cervi­calis, which on both sides through the holes of the productions of the Vertebra's of the neck, ascends to the head,Musculosa. In w [...] place cuppingglasses may be fitly applyed in a bastardplurisie. sending many small Branches into the spinal marrow through the holes by which the nerves pass; and also into the membranes, ligaments, gristles, bones, and neighbouring muscles. Eightly, the Musculosa, or musculous which also arising out of the Subclaviae is divided into two other Branches: the one whereof goeth upon the Breast to the paps nourishing the fore­most muscles; wherefore in a bastard-plurisie, cupping-glasses may be fitly applied in this place.

The other Branch descends to the upper muscles of the Chest, but specially to that which is called Latissimus. Axillaris. Humeralis. Jugularis in­terna, externa. Into what parts the Jugularis interna goes. The tenth is the Axillaris. The eleventh the Humeralis, of which we will treat in their place. The twelfth and last is the Jugularis properly so called, which is twofold, the in­ternal and external. The internal being the lesser, doth presently on both sides from this very beginning ascend by the sides of the Aspera Arteria, or weazon, even to the mouth and skull, yeild­ing nourishment to the parts by which it passes, as to the next membranes and nerves. But when it comes to the basis of the Cranium, it is divided into two Branches; the greater whereof going back along the basis of the Cranium to the hind-part thereof, sending a Branch to the long muscle situate upon the oesophagus, it enters the Cranium with the small Carotides through the hole of the nerves of the sixth conjugation, where they become one common vessel. The lesser sending a slip to the organ of hearing by the hole called Caecum (or the Blind) also enters the Cranium, and is spent in the thicker meninx neer to the hole of the third and fourth conjugation of nerves. The external Jugular vein being greater and fairer,Into what parts the Jugularis externa goes. most commonly simple, yet sometimes double, ei­ther presently at his beginning, or a little after, ascends superficially on both sides of the neck, be­tween the broad muscle, or fleshy pannicle, being there easie to be discerned, and other muscles situate at the sides of the neck, into which, as also into the skin, it sends certain branches for nourishment.

The Figure of the hollow vein, whole and freed from the rest of the body.
  • A, The trunk of the hollow vein. The lower AA, At this place of the Liver, is seated the left part of the vein, and distributeth branches to the left side.
  • B, Sheweth how the trunk of the hollow vein in the chest (to give way to the heart) is curved or bowed to the right hand.
  • Betwixt A, and B, that part of the hollow vein which is betwixt the gibbous side of the Liver and the Midriff.
  • C, The left midriff-vein called Phrenica sinistra, from which surcles do run in a man unto the purss of the heart; for the mid­riff and it, do grow together.
  • D, The orifice of the hollow vein which groweth unto the heart.
  • E, The Crown-vein called coro­naria, which like a crown com­passeth the basis of the Heart, and sprinkleth his surcles on the outside thereof as far as to the cone or point.
  • FF, The trunk of the vein Azy­gos or non-paril, descending along the right side of the rack-bones unto the loins.
  • GG, The lower intercostal veins, to the branches of the vein Azy­gos, which go unto the distances betwixt the ribs, and afford surcles unto the muscle which lie upon the ribs and the rack-bones, and the membranes of the chest.
  • H, The division of the hollow vein into two subclavian trunks near the Jugulum under the breast-bone.
  • II, the subclavian Branch tending on either side unto the Arm; called by some Axillaris.
  • K, the upper intercostal vein which commonly sendeth three slips unto the distances of the upper ribs, unto which the first intercostal vein sent no branches.
  • LL, the descending mammary vein: this descendeth under the breast-bone unto the right muscles of the Abdomen, and affordeth surcles to the distances of the gristles of the true ribs, to the Mediastinum, the muscles that lie upon the breast and the skin of the Abdomen.
  • M, the conjunction of the mammary with the Epigastrick vein ascending about the navil under the right muscles.
  • N, the vein of the neck called Cervicalis, ascending towards the skull, which alloweth surcles to those muscles that lie upon the neck.
  • O, The vein called Muscula, which is pro­pagated with many surcles into the muscles that occupie the lower parts of the neck and the upper parts of the chest.
  • P, Thoratica superior, the upper chest-vein which goeth to the muscles lying upon the chest, to the skin of that place, and to the dugs,
  • Q, the double Scapularis, distributed into the hollow part of the [Page 105] shoulder-blade and the neighbour muscles: so also betwixt P. and R. sometimes small veins do reach into the glandules that are in the arm-holes.
  • R, Thoratica inferior running downward along the sides of the chest, and especially distributed into the muscle of the arm called Latissimus.
  • S, the inner Jugular vein which en­treth into the Scull after it hath bestowed some surcles upon the rough artery.
  • T, the external Jugular vein.
  • V, the division of this vein under the root of the ear.
  • X, a branch of the external Jugular which goeth into the inside of the mouth, and is diversly divided into the parts therein contained.
  • Y, the exterior branch di­stributed near the Fauces into the muscles of the chops, and the hole skin of the head.
  • Z, a portion of the branch.
  • y, reaching unto the face.
  • a, ae, the vein of the fore-head.
  • a, a portion of it creeping through the temples,
  • ae.* a propagation that goeth unto the skin of the Nowl or Occiput.
  • a.a, the vein called Cepha­lica, or the external vein of the arm which others call Humeraria.
  • b, Muscula superior, a propagation of the Cephalica vein which goeth unto the backward muscles of the neck. Betwixt b. and d. on the back-side issueth a branch from the Cephalica which passeth unto the outside of the blade, and a portion thereof runneth betwixt the flesh and the skin.
  • d, d, a vein from the Cephalica which attaineth unto the top of the shoulder, and is consumed into the muscle that elevateth or lifteth up the arm, and into his skin.
  • e, e, a small vein from the Cephalica dispersed through the skin and the muscles of the arm.
  • f, the divi­sion of the Cephalica into three parts.
  • g, the first branch runneth deep unto the muscles which arise out of the external protuberation of the arm.
  • h, the second branch which goeth to make the median vein.
  • i, i, the third branch running obliquely above the wand and the outside of the arm.
  • k, from his branch certain. circles are divided into the skin, the chief whereof is marked with k.
  • l, the third branch at the wrist which is join­ed at l. with the branch of the Basilica marked with x.
  • m, the Basilica which on the right hand is called Hepatica, on the left hand Lienaris.
  • n, o, a branch of the Basilica going to the heads of the muscles of the cubit at n. and to the muscles themselves at o.
  • p, a notable branch of the Basilica running obliquely, and bestowing surcles upon the muscles that issue from the external protuberation. This branch descendeth toge­ther with the fourth nerve.
  • q, division of the Basilica into two branches, and that which is noted with q, is ever accompanyed with an artery.
  • s, a branch of this vein bestowed upon the arm.
  • t, a branch of the Basilica which together with the branch of the Cephalica marked with h. makes the mediana or middle vein marked with a.
  • u, a branch of the Basilica going to the inner head of the arm.
  • xx, a branch issuing out of the former that creepeth along unto the wrist, and toward the little finger conjoyning it self with a branch of the Cephalica.
  • y, A vein running out unto the skin at the outside of the cubit, Upper z. a propagation issuing out of a branch of the Basilica marked with t; lower z, a branch of the Basilica x, going to the inside of the arm.
  • α, the Median or common vein.
  • β, the partition of the Median vein above the wrist: This division should have been made above γ.
  • γ, the external branch of the partition which goeth to the outside of the head.
  • δ, from which issueth a small branch to the inside.
  • ε, the internal branch under ε. which toward the middle and the ring-finger is especially disposed.
  • (que), the vein of the thumb dispersed into the mountainet or hillock, which is conjoynd with the branch noted with δ.
  • ζ, the trunk of the hollow-vein from which issue branches unto the parts seated under the liver.
  • η, the fatty vein called Adiposa sinistra, which goeth unto the fat of the kidneys.
  • θ, ι, the two Emulgents which lead whey-blood unto the kidneys.
  • λ, μ, the two spermatical veins leading the matter of the seed unto the testicles.
  • V, the beginning of the bodden vessel called Vas varico­sum.
  • ξ, the veins of the loins called Lumbares, which are sent in the knots or knees to the rack-bones, to the marrow of the back, to the muscles that lie upon the loins, and to the Peritonaeum.
  • ο. the bifurcation of the hollow-vein into the Iliack branches, which bifurcation is not unlike λ.
  • π, Muscula superior, a trans­verse branch going to the muscles of the Abdomen, and to the Peritonaeum.
  • ρ, σ, the division of the left Iliack vein, into an inner branch at ρ. and an utter at σ.
  • τ, Muscula media the utter propagati­on of the branch ς. distributed through the muscles of the coxa and the skin of the buttocks.
  • υ, an inner propagati­on of the same branch ρ. which goeth unto the holes of the holy-bone.
  • φ, the vein called Sacra, which goeth unto the upper holes of the holy-bone.
  • χ, ψ, the vein Hypogastrica distributed to the bladder, to the muscles of the fundament, and the neck of the womb.
  • ω, a vein arising from the utter branc