A NEW SURVEY OF THE Present State OF EUROPE: Containing REMARKS Upon several Soveraign and Republican STATES. With MEMOIRES Historical, Chronological, Topographical, Hydrographical, Political, &c.

By Gidion Pontier, &c.

Done into ENGLISH by J. B. Doctor of Physick.

LONDON: Printed for W. Crooke at the Green Dragon without Temple-bar, nigh Devereux-Court. 1684.

TO THE Candid Reader.

THis Treatise exposeth to your view the most emi­nent Things and Transa­ctions of this World, concerning Ecclesiastical States, Monarchies, Republicks, the va­rieties of Sects and Religions, the O­rigine of Arts and Sciences, several un­parallel'd Accidents, variety of Recher­ches in Antiquity and Memoires, con­taining the Combats, Battels, Sieges, surprizal or taking of Towns, and the most signaliz'd and memorable Actions that have happened in this Modern Age.

If any curious Reader shall oppose the Digressions of this Tract, I must desire him to consider that they are both useful and necessary; and so far from exposing him to Fatigue and Trouble, that they will prove a grand Satisfaction and Diversion. I must confess I have in this Composition dis­covered several gross Errours in some Authors, whom I have forborn to re­cite, because I scorn to shame them: but if any Criticks desire a more regu­gular Method than herein is chalked out, (which is a thing of more than ordinary difficulty in a Business of this nature, and in so great variety of Mat­ter) I desire them to take into their consideration, that this Natural way of Writing will be, by all Persons of In­genuity, preferr'd before any Schola­stick Dissertation or Disputation what­soever.

I have no more to say but this: You will herein find Variety, the Comfort and Satisfaction of Mankind; that [Page]Gravity, which will please the Serious; that Diversion, which will gratifie the Curious; that Variety, which can dis­please none, but such as are void and destitute both of Sense and Reason: And therefore I shall detain you no longer from the perusal of this Trea­tise; onely give me leave to acquaint you, that there is herein contain'd no­thing but what is grounded upon Truth, and gathered from the most Authentick Writers, and present State of this Modern Age.

Yours, Gidion Pontier.

A TABLE OF THE Contents of this Book.

  • THe Papacy pag. 1
  • The Etymology of the Name Cardinal; his Institution and his Habits pag. 10
  • The Continuation of the Actions of Pope Innocent the Eleventh pag. 13
  • The Singularities, and curious remarkable Actions of some Popes pag. 15
  • Observations on the reducement of Jubiles, under what Popes, and in what times pag. 22
  • The opening of the Jubile pag. 25
  • The splendid Ceremonies, and the Honour of Rome pag. 29
  • St. Austin's three Desires ibid.
  • The Dominion of the Pope pag. 30
  • Places of Pleasure ibid.
  • Ornaments of Rome pag. 32
  • [Page]The chief Towns of Italy, with their Epithets and Elogies pag. 33
  • The chief Rivers of Italy pag. 35
  • Popes by birth French-men, and Passages of their Lives pag. 36
  • The future Popes, how conformable to the Prophe­cies pag. 54
  • The chief Princes of Italy, after the Popes, are five. First, the Duke of Savoy pag. 55
  • Secondly, the Great Duke of Tuscany pag. 62
  • Thirdly, the Duke of Mantua pag. 67
  • Fourthly, the Duke of Modena pag. 69
  • Fifthly, the Bishop of Trent pag. 71
  • The Figure of Italy, and its length ibid.
  • An Itinerary pag. 72
Of FRANCE pag. 75
  • THe Dolphin of France and his Marriage pag. 79
  • The Duke of Orleans pag. 81
  • The Prince of Condé, and the Duke d'Enguien pag. 83
  • Prince Henry de la Tour d'Auvergne, Vicount de Turenne pag. 84
  • The ancient Marshals of France living An. 1680. pag. 86
  • The Ministers and Secretaries of State ibid.
  • The Chancellor pag. 87
  • M. de la Villiere pag. 89
  • [Page]M. de Louvois pag. 90
  • M. Colbert pag. 91
  • M. Colbert Croissi pag. 93
  • The Councils pag. 94
  • France the Mountain of the Muses pag. 97
  • King of France his places of Residence pag. 98
  • The Louvre ibid.
  • The Tuilleries pag. 100
  • Fontainbleau ibid.
  • Versailles pag. 101
  • Paris pag. 103
  • Colledge Mazarin, its Institution, Library, and A­cademy pag. 109
  • The House of President Perrot pag. 112
  • Houses of Pleasure about Paris pag. 116
  • Houses and Places of Devotion near Paris pag. 118
  • The Treasury of St. Dennis pag. 120
  • The Tombs of the Kings of France pag. 124
  • Other famous places of Devotion and Pilgrimages greatly frequented in the Kingdom pag. 125
  • The twelve ancient general Governments of the Provinces, called together at Paris under Loüis the Thirteenth, according to their rank and place in the States General pag. 129
  • The Governours of the Provinces pag. 130
  • Conquered Countries pag. 133
  • The Fertility of France pag. 134
  • The Channel of Languedoc pag. 135
  • The chief Towns of France pag. 138
  • The most considerable Maritime Towns ibid.
  • The great Rivers pag. 142
  • The Epithites of the great Rivers pag. 144
  • [Page]The principal small Rivers pag. 145
  • Pont du Gard pag. 150
  • A Catalogue of the Archbish, and Bishops of France, containing the number and name of the first and last Bishop of each Diocess, to An. 1680. pag. 153
  • The Archbishoprick of Rheims ibid.
  • The Archbishoprick of Narbonne pag. 156
  • The Archbishoprick of Bourges pag. 159
  • The Archbishoprick of Vienne pag. 160
  • The Archbishoprick of Tolose pag. 162
  • The Archbishoprick of Roüen pag. 163
  • The Archbishoprick of Sens pag. 164
  • The Bishops of Bethlem pag. 165
  • The Archbishoprick of Lyons pag. 167
  • The Archbishoprick of Bourdeaux pag. 169
  • The Archbishoprick of Arles pag. 170
  • The Archbishoprick of Ambrun pag. 172
  • The Archbishoprick of Tours pag. 174
  • The Archbishoprick of Aix pag. 176
  • The Archbishoprick of Paris pag. 177
  • The Archbishoprick of Albi pag. 179
  • The Archbishoprick of Cambray pag. 181
  • The Archbishoprick of Bezancon pag. 183
  • The Rank and Seats of the Prelates pag. 184
  • Agents General of the Clergie of France pag. 185
  • The ordinary List of the Parliaments of France, and the time of their erection pag. 187
  • The Countries of State pag. 193
  • Remarkable things of these times, happening from the year 1672, to the beginning of 1680. pag. 193
  • Of the Peace betwixt France, Holland, Spain, [Page]the Emperour, the Elector of Brandenburg, and Denmark pag. 203
  • The Marriage of the Princess Mary Loüise of Or­leans with the King of Spain pag. 205
  • A Continuation of Affairs to this time pag. 206
Of LORAIN pag. 208
  • THe chief Towns in Lorain pag. 210
  • Those of the Dutchy of Bar ibid.
  • Mausoleums of the Dukes of Lorain ibid.
  • The Marriage of Prince Charles of Lorain pag. 213
Of GERMANY pag. 214
  • OF the City of Vienna pag. 215, 221
  • The chief Houses of Pleasure in the Country pag. 215
  • The Coronation of the Emperour, with the significa­tion of the three Crowns pag. 216
  • The Golden Bull pag. 217
  • Prerogatives of the Emperour pag. 219
  • Fourteen Emperours of the House of Austria ibid.
  • The chief Towns of Germany pag. 220
  • The Cities of Prague and Presburg pag. 222
  • Of Aix-la-Chappelle and Presburg pag. 223
  • Of Erfort, Munic, and Strasburg pag. 224
  • The Tower, Clock, Bridge, and famous Trees of Strasburg pag. 225
  • [Page]The Ceremonies of Electing the Bishop of Stras­burg 226
  • The number and Residence of the Canons of Stras­burg 227
  • The ancient Entrance of the Bishop of Strasburg, and the number of Bishops it hath had 228
  • Of the Cities of Hamburg and Munster 229
  • The Cities of Magdeburg, Nuremburg, and Aus­bourg 231
  • The Cities of Francsort, Passau, Visbourg, Bruns­wick, Inspruc, Bremen, Hanover, Spire 232, 233
  • The Imperial Maritime and Hans-Towns 233
  • The Archbishopricks and Bishopricks of Germany 235
  • The Principalities and Lordships of the Empire, and its Division 236
  • The chief Rivers in Germany 237
  • The Electors of the Empire 239
  • The Archbishop and Elector of Mayence 240
  • Boniface condemned the Bishop of Saltzbourg for an Heretick, for believing the Antipodes. Of the Towers of Rats 242
  • The Invention of Printing 243
  • The first Bible that was printed 245
  • The Archbishop and Elector of Treves 247
  • The Archbishop and Elector of Cologne 249
  • The Homage to the Elector of Cologne 250
  • An Observation on the three Ecclesiastical Electors 254
  • An Observation on the Lay-Electors ibid.
  • [Page]The Electoral Habit 255
  • The Treaties of Peace betwixt England, France, and Holland, by Sir Joseph Williamson, &c. at Cologne 256.
  • Of Treaties of Peace in the years 1678 and 1679 257
  • The Elector and King of Bohemia 258
  • The Elector of Bavaria 261
  • Dr. Vossius Prebend of Windsor his MS. 262
  • The Electory of Saxony 264
  • Of Martin Luther of Wittemberg 265
  • The Elector of Brandenburg 267
  • Taking of Stetin, Stralsont, and Gripswal Anno 1677, and 1678. of Anclan 1679. 270
  • Prince Loüis of Brandenburg married, Anno 1681. 273
  • The Elector Palatine 274
  • The Consecration of the new Church at Frederick­bourg, 1680. 278
  • Of the number of the Electors, and other Circum­stances 279
  • The Invention of Powder and Cannon 280
Of SPAIN 282
  • THe chief Houses of Pleasure that belong to the King, and out of Madrid 283
  • The chief places of Devotion 285
  • The Division of the Spanish Monarchy 287
  • Catalonia, Portugal, &c. 288
  • [Page]The Towns of Spain ibid.
  • Madrid, Toledo, Sevil, Grenada 289
  • Sarragossa, Valencia, Compostella, Salamanca, Cordona, Barcelona, Cadiz 290, 291
  • The Rivers of ancient Spain 291
  • The Archbishopricks of Spain 293
  • The Castillian Language 297
  • The King of Spain his Letter to Don John, De­cember 24. 1676. 298
  • The Queen. Mother her Letter to Don John, De­cember 27. 1676. 299
  • Don John of Austria's Answer 300
  • Marquess of Villa banisht An. 1678. restored An. 1681. 301
  • Don John of Austria died 1680. ibid.
  • The King of Spain's Marriage 302

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A New Survey OF THE STATE of the WORLD.



INnocent the Eleventh, Vicar of Jesus Christ on the Earth, and Bishop of Rome, former­ly Benedict Odescalchi, was born in the year 1613. at Como in the Country of Mil­lain; was created Cardinal under the Title of St. Onuphrius, in the year 1645. by Innocent the Tenth, whose name he bears by way of acknowledgment.

He was elected Pope, Anno 1676. the 21 of September, being the day and Feast of St. Mat­thew; [Page 2]was exalted the 4th of October following: Cardinal Maldachin, first Deacon of the Sacred Colledge, performed the Ceremony of the Pro­clamation.

The 8th of November this Prelate went from St. Peter's Church to St. John Laterans, where he receiv'd at entrance the two Keys, the one of Gold, the other of Silver, from the hands of Cardinal Chisi, who is Archpriest, after having first kiss'd the Cross, which his Eminency pre­sented him. There were carried in this Caval­cade, according to custom, the vacant Hats, which were at that time to the number of six. There was vacant a twenty third place in the Sacred Colledge, by the death of Cardinal Ber­nardino Rocci, which happened at the end of the month November, 1680.

The Arms of his Holiness's House are in a Field Argent six Salvers Gules, three in chief, two in flank or in fess, and one in point or in base: These surmounted by three Bars of the same, de­brused with an Escutcheon Argent, charg'd with a Lion Passant Gardant Gules: Lastly, a Chief, Or; thereon a single Eagle display'd, Sable.

His Prophetick Motto was, Bellua insatiabilis; because this Pope has in his Arms the Eagle and the Lion, insatiable Animals, with Salvers; or else because he has continually with him in his principal actions Cardinal Cibo, which signifies Food; who follows him in his Chappel, in the Church, in the Consistory, and elsewhere. See [Page 3]the Allusion. Wherefore after that Innocent had declared his Eminency his first Minister and Secre­tary of State, some person writ, Verè bellua in satiabilis, quia sine Cibo nunquam vivere potest. We may and ought better to understand insa­tiable of the salvation of Souls, and in a word, of his Zeal for the House of God, conformably to the Motto of the Royal Prophet, Zelus domus tuae Comedit me: and to see the glory of God, the onely thing that can satisfie, as the same King and Prophet says, Satiabor cum apparuerit gloria tua. The Prophetick Motto of Pope Ʋrban the Third, called before his Exaltation, Lambert Cribelli, was, Sus in Cribo, because his Arms were a Sow in a Sieve, and that he was of Millain, where its Founders lighted on a Sow covered the one half with Wooll, and the other with Hair; whence is come the word Medio­lana & de Medio-lanum. The Prophetick device of Eugenius the Fourth was Lupa Coelestina, the Wolf Coelestine, because he had for Arms a Wolf, and had been a religious man of the Coe­lestins. The four Evangelists are mystically represented under the Figures of four Animals; St. Matthew has for Emblem a Man, St. Mark the Lion, St. Luke the Ox, and St. John the Eagle. These are the four Animals that the Prophet Ezekiah saw in a Vision, which carried the Throne of God. Jesus Christ is called the Lion of the Tribe of Juda; Vicit Leo de Tribu Juda.

The Papal Scutcheon, which is Gules, [Page 4]consists of a long Cap, or Head-piece, Or, sur­mounted with a Cross pearled and garnished with three Royal Crowns, with the two Keys of St. Peter placed in Saltier.

Boniface the Eighth was the first that wore the Tiara with a double Crown, and Ʋrban the Fifth made it triple in the form of a Cap, ador­ned with a triple circle of Gold, for some My­stery that is contained in it: They call it the Regnum, because it denotes the dignity and pow­er of Priest and Emperour. The Popes never wear it on their heads in doing their Office; it may be upon the Altar, but they make use of Miters: the Tiara serves but at the Corona­tion of the Pope, and other Solemnities going and returning from the Church. It was typifi­ed by that of the great Priest of the Hebrews, of which Josephus says, that it was called Aurea Co­rona Pontificis in triplicem fabricata seriem.

No Pope in his Exaltation has dar'd to take the name of Peter, through respect to the first Vicar of Jesus Christ.

The ordinary place of Residence of the Popes is Rome, pleasantly watered with the River Ti­ber, which divides it into two unequal parts.

The day of their Coronation, the Master of Ceremonies kneeling on the ground, burns Flax in their presence, and says to them thrice with a loud voice, Pater Sancte, sic transit gloria Mun­di: Holy Father, behold the continuance of this fire, thus passes the glory of this world. It [Page 5]is reported, that they say to them also in this Ce­remony, Non videbis dies Petri; that is to say, Peter lived twenty five years, you will not live so long: And in reality it is observ'd, that since S. Peter no Pope has ever passed twenty five years in his soveraign Pastorship, whether he were e­lected young or old. Adrian the First, and St. Sylvester the First, Romans, and Ʋrban the Eighth a Florentine, came nearest to it. Adrian hold the Government of the Church twenty three years, ten months, and seventeen days; the other two about twenty two years each, and then they were fain to leave the World. Ʋr­ban the Eighth was of the Noble Family of the Barbarins.

As soon as Innocent was rais'd to the supreme dignity of the Apostleship, he resolv'd on twenty eight Articles of Reformation, which were sign'd by all the Cardinals; and he caused a Consisto­rial Bull to be made of these Orders, that the Popes his Successors might not so easily dero­gate from them. His most Christian Majesty having been well inform'd from a long time of his merit, desired his Election, though he were a natural Subject to the King of Spain.

His Holiness lessen'd above half of the Officers and Domesticks belonging to the Houshold of the last soveraign Pastors. Being made acquain­ted that the Venetians had made choice of four Embassadours of Obedience to come and comple­ment him according to custom, he signified to [Page 6]the Senate that he dispenc'd with their Civility, and thankt them for having admitted his House amongst the number of the Nobles of Ve­nice.

He sent to the King of Poland sums of Mo­ney to maintain the War against the Turks and Tartars, and assisted that Kingdom with his own Purse even before his Exaltation, and daily does surprizing and admirable things. It's a truth known at Rome, that Benedict Odescalchi during his Cardinalship, often threw Purses of Money in cognito into houses of persons in want. A Gentleman of Liege having been robb'd, and desiring his assistance in his necessity, he gave him a Bill to receive 4000 Crowns, having first told him that he had seen him somewhere. The Gentleman thinking that he should not be paid so great a sum, presented him the Bill to know whether his Eminency had not mistaken in wri­ting it; he answered him, You will be readily paid it; and do not divulge what I have done, I wish I could do somewhat more.

The 19th of October 1679. his Holiness held a Consistory, where he gave in charge to the Car­dinals Barberin, Cibo, Ottoboni, and Albritio, to inform themselves aright of the desert of per­sons to be raised to the Episcopal dignity; and exhorted Princes who have the Nomination to Prelateships, to present persons endowed with Pastoral qualities.

The 4th of December 1676. his Holiness caus'd [Page 7]a Bull of Ʋniversal Jubile to be publisht in Rome, at the entrance of his Pontificate, in which he gave fifteen days for obtaining it, on condi­tion that they should pray to God to grant his Person all necestary assistances for the well-go­vernment of the Holy Catholick Church; and that they should beg also, that he would in­spire Christian Princes to live in good peace and concord, and what else is exprest in the Bull: because at Rome they gain the Jubile before it be sent into the States of other Christian Prin­ces; Innocent the Eleventh sent the Bull of the great Jubile into France, and elsewhere, which continued two Months in the Diocess of Paris, which received these two Jubiles at the same time.

Clement the Tenth his Predecessor granted to the faithful three universal Jubiles; the first was at his coming to his Pontificate; the second in savour of the Polanders, to implore the Di­vine Assistance against the Turks; the third was the great Jubile of the Holy year, fixt and or­dinary, which happens now from twenty five years to twenty five years.

The Fourth of January 1677, the Body of Innocent the Tenth being taken up in St. Peters Church, with the ordinary Ceremonies, and car­ried into that of St. Agnes, Innocent the Eleventh gave order for budding him a most magnifi­cent Mausoleum.

The twenty fifth of February of the same [Page 8]year, his Holiness made an exhortation in the Apostolick Palace, to all the Curats of the City of Rome, concerning the necessity and indis­pensable duty of Teaching the People.

The Third of March he Blest and distributed the Ashes, and heard Mass celebrated by Cardi­nal Ludovisio, and the Sermon of one Father Theatin.

The Twelfth he Instructed the Preachers to preach the Gospel with simplicity, and without far-sought Embellishments: and in reality, it's a vain thing to study points of Wit and Flowers to adorn that which shines enough of it self. Good Friday he heard the Sermon of the Passi­on of the Son of God, which was made by the Father Recanati, Capuchin.

The Ninth of November his Holiness caused the Corn to be seiz'd, whereof some particular persons had made Magazines, to sell it at an excessive rate, and to make an advantage of the scarcity wherewith many places of Italy were afflicted: his Holiness labouring for the com­fort of the poor, regulated its price, and di­stribution after such a manner, that drew pub­lick Blessings upon him.

An. 1678. the Ninth of June, the Pope made a Decree, strictly forbidding the Prelates of the Congregation of Riti to take other fees in Canoni­zations than those specified by this Decree; which much moderates the Charges that have been u­sually made in these Ceremonies.

The Ninth of July his Holiness received, to his extream comfort, the news sent him by the Nuncio of Turin, that by the Cares of the Dutchess of Savoy, above Four hundred persons in the Valley of Lucern, within her Territories, were brought back into the bosome of the Church, and particularly the Minister Danas, who made his Abjuration in the Cathedral Church, in the presence of their Highnesses.

The Fourteenth of August his Holiness caused two Edicts to be publisht against the Luxury of Cloaths: Queen Christian of Sweden began the first to put them in execution, the Roman La­dies presently followed her example.

In the same year Commissaries were appoin­ted by Innocent the Eleventh, to examine some Bulls set forth by his Predecessors, concerning some Office and Indulgence, to consider whe­ther these Bulls were observed according to their tenour.

An. 1679. at the beginning of the year, a Decree was passed in the Vatican for retrench­ing from Cardinals a multiplicity of Places, and for bestowing them on others who had not any; it being not just that one should have all, and the others nothing.

The Pope some days after appointed Commis­saries for examining the Bull of Sixtus the Fifth, who determined the number of Cardinals to Seventy; and the report was, he had a design to reduce them to Fifty, in case this change [Page 10]might be found advantageous to the Church. The Council of Constance limited them to Twenty four. Pope Sixtus the Fourth to Thir­ty. Alexander the Sixth to Fifty. Leo the Tenth to Sixty five. Pius the Fourth to Seventy six; and Sixtus the Fifth to the number of Se­venty, answering to the Seventy Elders given to Moses, for his assistants in the Government of the Synagogue; time was, there were but Twelve, according to the example of the Apostles.

The Etymologie of the Name Cardinal: his In­stitution and his Habit.

THe word Cardinal comes from this, that the first and principal Churches of Rome were call'd Ecclesiae Cardinales. St. Austin calls the principal Donatists, Cardinales Donatistas. The first Cardinals were so call'd, because they were the first and Chief Priests of their Churches.

They were appointed in so many streets of the City of Rome, for taking care of the poor, under Pope Sylvester. After the death of this Prelate, whilst things were calm in the Church, they took upon them the care of the Baptism and Burial of the Faithful, and always reserv'd to themselves the Jurisdiction they had on the Priests and Clerks of their Parish, when the Popes sent them abroad as Legates. They con­tinued in this state till Gregory the Seventh, at which time Henry the Fourth Emperor of Ger­many [Page 11]was excluded from the Election of the Popes, who were chosen by the Clergy and by the People, just as Bishops were. Claudius Vaurus says on this subject, in his Book Intituled The Court of Rome, that when these Priests, Cardi­nals, Curats of Rome, were Consecrated Bishops, their dignity of Cardinal became void, as infe­riour to the Episcopacy. Nevertheless, in suc­cession of time seeing themselves Bishops, they desired of the Popes to leave them the Title of Cardinals: the honorary Title of Cardinal has been given since to those that assist the Pope with their Councels in the Government of the Church.

St. Bernard, in a Letter that he writ to Pope Eugenius, calls them Collaterales & Coadjutores Pontificis, de toto orbe Judicaturos, de toto orbe di­ligendes, conformably to the words that the Pope pronounces at their Creation, in these terms; Maximâ dilectissimi filii, & Excellentissimâ dig­nitate donati, estis ad Consilium Apostolorum voca­ti consiliarii nostri, & Conjudices orbis terrarum, eritis Successores Apostolorum, circa thronum sede­bitis.

According to the same Claudius Vaurus, they never wear Velvet nor Sattin, and are ordina­rily cloathed but of two colours, Red and Vio­let: they are in Violet during Advent and Lent, from Septuagesima, except the third Sunday of Advent, and the first Sunday of Lent, days mixt of joy and sadness; in which they wear the [Page 12]colour of dry'd Roses, participating of red and violet; they are also in violet every Friday, on Vigils, at the four times, and the day of the Commemoration of the Dead, and wear no robe of silk. There is an exception to this Rubrick, because they were the red colour at the four times after Pentecoste, on all the dou­ble Feasts that fall on Fridays out of Advent and Lent, on the Vigil of the Nativity of the Son of God, on the Creation and Coronation of the Pope, in what ever time it happens; on the Feast of St. Peters Chair at Rome, and at other solemn Feasts, and on days of publick joy, for victories obtained, and the like things. The Cardinals that are Monks, wear always the co­lour of their Order, except the Hat, and the Red Cap.

We do not comprize the Cardinals Jesuits amongst the Monks, because they are none. Cardinal Bellarmine, the ornament of the Purpu­rated Colledge, was habited with Red, as the others according to the time that then was; with this difference, that he wore the Habit of Jesuit underneath.

When a Cardinal is created Pope, he has 24000 Duckets of Revenue every day.

The Continuation of the Actions of Pope Innocent the Eleventh.

IN the Month of March of the fore said year, 1679. he caused all the Bishops of Italy to be writ to, and enjoyn'd them to examine with great care all those that presented themselves to receive Holy Orders, and not to give them but to fit persons, and when the Church had need of them.

He presented Medals of Gold and Silver, with his Picture on them, to the Captains of the Dutch Vessels that brought Corn to Civita-Vechia.

According to the ordinary custom, though tir'd, on Holy Thursday, in the Dukes Hall, he performed the Ceremony of washing the feet of Thirteen poor Forreign Priests, habited with white Cloath; to each of which his Holiness gave afterwards a Medal of Gold and of Silver, and waited on them some time at Table.

The Twenty first of June, he sent to his In­ternuncio at Brussels, the Sum of 60000 Livres, for the subsistance of the Colledges which the English Catholicks have in Flanders; and some­time after, 60000 Crowns to be distributed to the Catholicks of England retired thither.

An. 1679. the fifteenth of October, the Pope visited the Church dell Anima, of the German Nation, where he granted a Plenary Indulgence [Page 14]in form of a Jubile, to pray to God to deliver from the Plague the Town of Vienna in Au­stria, and the other Towns of Germany.

The Seventeenth, the Pope called before him the Congregation establisht by Clement the Eighth, for the Examination of Bishops for Ita­ly, and there caused to be examined the Father Gaetano Mirabello Theatin, whom he nomina­ted for the Archbishoprick of Amalfi; Dom Carlo Berlinguier, whom he nominated to the Arch­bishoprick of St. Severin, and Dom Francisco Mogale for the Bishoprick of Isola: during their Examination, they answered always on their knees to all the questions that were made them by the Cardinals, Prelates, and Divines, that were of the Congregation, and afterwards they were precognized in the first Consistory for their due capacity. In France, by the Concordat betwixt Leo the Tenth, and Francis the First, those that are nominated to Bisho­pricks are not examined, because they are all Doctors or Licentiats in Divinity, in one of the Laws Canon or Civil, which is a mark of their Capacity; they make only a Profession of their Faith betwixt the hands of the Popes Nuncio, or of the Metropolitan: Princes destinated to the Episcopacy, are dispensed from taking the De­gree in the University, nevertheless they are the first to study.

At the beginning of the year 1680, his Ho­liness caused all the Preachers to come to the [Page 15] Palace, and exhorted them to preach particu­larly by their Example.

Singularities, and curious and remarkable Actions of some Popes.

ST. Clement the First instituted the Colledge of Apostolical Protonotaries for writing the Lives of Martyrs, and of all the other Saints. Claudius, surnamed Vaurus, writes, that in his time a participant Protonotaries place was sold for 7000 Crowns of Gold, and that it yielded of yearly Revenue 3 or 4000 Crowns: that the participant Protonotaries, which are in number twelve, are ordinarily Masters of Requests for both Seals: that they have rank and place in the Popes Chappel, are cloathed with Violet, wear the Rochet, and the Hat, with the Violet Band and Border; have precedency of Prelates which are not consecrated, are present in the half publick Consistory, at the Canonization of Saints, and other great Actions of the Pope; have power to give the Cap of Doctor, and to create Apostolical Protonotaries without the Walls of Rome. The same Claudius Vaurus says, that if the Apostolical Protonotaries are not much e­steemed in France, it's because they are some­what idle in performing their Function; though haply this idleness be not blamable in them, be­cause there is want of matter for them to exer­cise themselves, there being but few Martyrs [Page 16]and Saints at present within our Kingdom, that oblige the Protonotaries to write their Lives.

St. Cletus was the first that inserted in his Letters these words: Salutem & Benedictionem Apostolicum.

St. Anacletus ordained, that Ecclesiasticks should wear their hair short; and confirmed by a new Decree, that Bishops should be consecra­ted by three other Bishops. Telesphorus, a Gre­cian by Nation, enjoyned the use of singing at Mass the Canticle of the Angels, Gloria in ex­celsis Deo; and impower'd Priests to say three Masses on Christmass-day.

St. Zephyrinus made the Decree of receiving the Communion at least once a year; and not to proceed in Law against a Bishop accus'd of a­ny Crime whatsoever, without the authority of the holy See.

St. Lucius ordained, that a Bishop should be always accompanied with some Priest, to the end that his presence should oblige him to lead a regular life.

St. Sylvester the First, the thirty fourth Pope, was the first that erected an Altar of Stone; which he consecrated, and anointed with holy Oyl. Before him they were made of Wood, and portable, by reason of the persecution that the Christians underwent under the Pagan Em­perours; which was so great, that the thirty three first Popes suffered Martyrdom. He was raised to the Pontificate in the beginning of the [Page 17]Empire of Constantine the Great, who embracing Christianity, gave joy and tranquillity to the Church, and a secure Settlement after so many troubles and afflictions. This Emperour after he was baptized, enlarged the Christian Reli­gion, built Churches, made Foundations for en­tertaining its Ministers with splendour, and freed the Clergie from Taxes: He transported the Seat of his Empire into Thracia, to the Town of Bysantium, called since by him Constanti­nople.

St. Damasus suppressed the Corepiscopi: they were Priests whom the Bishops were wont to send into divers Villages and Burroughs of their Diocesses, with a particular power to preach the the Word of God, and to establish Ecclesiastical Discipline. They were called Corepiscopi. They were suppressed, because they went often beyond their Commission, doing Functions that be­longed but to the Bishops themselves. Some of them had the Episcopal Character.

St. Gregory the Great was the first who quali­fied himself Servus servorum Dei, the Servant of the servants of God. He took this Title, to check the boldness of John the Faster, Patriarch of Constantinople, who took the Title of Ʋniver­sal Bishop. The Emperour Phocas condemned the Arrogancy of this Prelate, declaring by an Edict the contrary, according to the judgment of the ancient Fathers and Councils, who own'd the Church of Rome to be the Head of all o­thers.

Pope Boniface the Third, according to the common opinion, introduced the use of Bells in the Church, Anno 606. The learned Genebrard ascribes the [...]vention to Pope Sabinianus, who ordained, Anno 604. that they should be rung at Canonical hours, and at Mass. The Bell is called Campana, from a Province of Italy called Campania, where it's thought they began. They were introduced into Greece, Anno 865. by those that the Venetians sent to the Empe­rour Michael. Baron. 865. the Bell is made speak thus:

  • 1. Laudo Deum verum.
  • 2. Plebem voco.
  • 3. Convoce Clerum.
  • 4. Defunctos ploro.
  • 5. Pestem fugo.
  • 6. Festa decoro.

Those that have a mind to know more, may read Pal­uoti.

Sergius the First caused the Agnus Dei to be sung at Mass.

Adrian the First ordained that the Papal Bulls should be seal'd with Lead, and not with Wax, for the longer continuance of the Seals.

Leo the Tenth made the famous Concordat with Francis the First, Anno 1515. according to which it is permitted to the Kings of France to have the Nomination to Bishopricks and Abbeys. These Benefices are called Consistorial, because their vacancy is propos'd in the Consistory to be provided for. The Pope reserves to himself a years Revenue from each of these Benefices; and it is that which is called the Law of first Fruits, which is paid when the Bulls are taken up.

Gregory the ninth caused the Book of Decre­tals to be couch'd in writing, containing the Constitutions of the Popes, to serve for the Ca­non-Law, which is read in Catholick Universi­ties.

Paul the Third obliged the Jews to wear the Yellow Cap, to distinguish them from the Chri­stians.

Gregory the Thirteenth reform'd the Kalen­dar, Anno 1582. by cutting off ten days in Octo­ber from the fifth of the said month to the 14th inclusively: so that after the fourth of October the ten days following were leapt over, and they counted the 15th the day after. England, Sweden, Denmark, and other Northern Countries that disown the Pope, do not make use of this Kalendar, which is called otherwise the Grego­rian year; but retain the ancient way of coun­ting. Thence it is, that when Catholick Coun­tries are at fourteen in the month, the others count four, and say in their dates, the ancient or new Stile. Famous Astrologers and Mathemati­cians were employed in reforming this Kalendar, to take care that the points of the Equinoxes and Solstices should not change place for the fu­ture, which had caused a disorder in the day fixt for the Feast of Easter, which ought always to be the Sunday after the full Moon of the E­quinox of March. Pope Victor the First made a Decree to avoid concurring with the Jews, and others who were called Quarto-decumans, be­cause [Page 20]they celebrated it the 14th of the Moon on whatever day of the Week it happened. The Decree of this Prelate was confirmed in the first General Council of Nice. Anno 1679, the E­lector of Saxony caused a form to be presented to the Diet of Ratisbone, for agreeing on a Ka­lendar to be received throughout the Empire of Germany.

Gregory the Thirteenth ordained that the Cardinals of Religious Orders who wore a black Cap, or of the colour of their Order, should wear it red like the others. It was Innocent the Twelfth who gave the Cardinals in the Council of Lions the red Cap, as an Hieroglifick that they ought to pour forth their bloud for the sup­port of the Church; as it results from the words which the Pope uses in putting it on their heads, in these terms.

Ad laudem Omnipotentis Dei & Sanctae Sedis Apostolicae, ornamentum accipe Galerum rubrum, Insigne singulare dignitatis Cardinalatûs, per quod designatur, quod usque ad mortem & sanguinis effu­sionem inclusivè, pro exaltatione Sanctae Fidei, pace & quiete populi Christiani, augmento & statu sacrosanctae Romanae Ecclesiae te intrepidum exhi­bere debeas. In nomine Patris, & Filii, & Spiri­tus Sancti.

His Holiness sends the red Cap with a Brief to those that are not present at Rome in the Consistory.

As to the Hat, it is given kneeling, from the [Page 21]hand of the Pope, unless a person be employed in some important Embassie to the holy See; in this case the Pope sends it to the Cardinal new­ly created, to authorize him the more, and ren­der him more venerable. His Holiness's Cour­rier that carries the Hat from Rome, carries with it the form of the Oath of Fidelity, and delivers all into the hands of the Prelate appoin­ted to perform that Ceremony, which is splen­did. You must observe, that Cardinals that have not received the Hat, cannot be Legates of the holy See till they have first taken it, as the above-mentioned Claudius Vaurus informs us.

In the Ceremony of opening the Mouth, that is to say, in the permission the Pope gives to new Cardinals to opine, and to give their Votes and Suffrages, he says to them, Aperimus vobis os tam in collationibus quam in Consiliis, atque in electione summi Pontificis, & in omnibus actibus tam in Consistorio, quàm extra qui ad Cardinales spectant, & quos soliti sunt exercere: In nomine Patris, & Filii, & Spiritus Sancti. Amen.

You must observe, it was in use above an Age, that if a Pope died whilst a new Cardinal had his mouth shut, he might enter, if he please, into the Conclave; but he could not be elected Pope, nor give his Suffrage for any person, un­less the sacred Colledge (the See being vacant) by a special Act of Grace gave him an Active and Passive Voice; as it did to Cardinal Conty. [Page 22]Pope Pius the Fifth has declared since by a De­cree of the 26th of January 1571, That this closing of the mouth does not deprive the new Cardinal of his power and principal Function, which consists in the Election of the Pope.

Gregory the Fifteenth brought in use the Ele­ction of Popes by secret Suffrages, that the Car­dinals might be more free in giving their Votes. Formerly 'twas said, Non fit bis in die Scrutini­um: Now it is performed in the morning after Mass. and in the Evening after the Hymn of the Holy Ghost.

Ʋrban the Eighth gave Cardinals the Title Eminentissiums; he caused the body and writings of Marc. Anthony de Dominis to be burnt after his death, for an example: Dominis was Arch­bishop of Spalathra, anciently Salona in Dal­matia.

Alexander the Seventh received Christan, Queen of Sweden, into the Communion of the Catholick, Apostolick, and Roman Church.

Observations on the reducement of Jubiles, un­der what Popes, and in what times.

BOniface the Eighth, Anno 1300. ordained, that the celebration of the Jubile should be performed every hundred years, both to pay to God solemn acts of Thanksgivings at the end of [...]ch Age, and that Christian Rome should not have less acknowledgment for the true God, [Page 23]than Profane Rome shewed heretofore to its I­dols, by the centenary sports or games which it solemnized with an extraordinary concourse of people.

Clement the Sixth established it for the time to come, from fifty to fifty years, answering to that of the Hebrews, and in consideration of the number of fifty consecrated by the visible de­scent of the Holy Ghost; and also by reason of the shortness of mans life, because few persons enjoyed the benefit of this great Treasure.

Ʋrban the Sixth, as Gretserus tells us, redu­ced it to thirty three years, in memory of the thirty three years that the Son of God passed on the Earth.

Paulus the Eleventh desiring that every man should partake of so great a favour, abbreviated the time, and established it from twenty five to twenty five years. Thomas Friard in his Book of the Jubile, taxes this of falshood, alleadging that Paul was dead three or four years before this reducement; and that it was Sixtus the Fourth his Successor, before General of the Cor­deliers, who sixt it at this number of years. If this Writer had dived to the bottom of this mat­ter, and had read the Popes Bullary thereon, he had found that Paul ordained it, as it appears by his Bull. It is true that he could not ce­lebrate it, because death prevented him. In a word, he had seen that the one ordained it, the other confirmed and executed it, Anno 1473. [Page 24] Du Chesne has it express in his History of the Popes: And the Abbot Le Maire Chaplain in Ordinary to the Queen, Doctor of Sorbonne, great Vicar and Archdeacon of Chartres, a learned and most eloquent man, understands it so in his Book of the Jubile. This Jubile has ever since been observed and practised to this time.

Besides the ordinary and set Jubiles at certain times, there are some extraordinary ones, which the Church opens in her urgent necessities, to obtain some favour from Heaven.

We shall remark here cursorily, that what Boniface called a plenary Indulgence of all sins, Clement the Sixth and his Successors have given it the name of Jubile; which marks a publick rejoycing in God, Liberty, Remission, time of Propitiation according to Josephus, and accor­ding to the Septuagint. Under the ancient Law the Jubile was publisht with a sort of Trumpet made of a Rams horn.

Having proposed to my self in this Work to give an account of some curious and remarkable things in the States of each Soveraign on the Earth, I shall briefly note here the Ceremony that is used at Rome at the Opening and Close of the Jubile, and other things worthy memory.

The Opening of the Jubile.

THe opening of it is performed ordinarily the 24th day of December, on Christmas-eve, by the opening of the holy Door; which is so called, because by its opening and entrance we enter into Grace, and become holy, by pra­ctising what is ordained by the Bull of the Ju­bile.

On the day and Feast of the Ascension of the Son of God which precedes the holy Year, two Priests after having read the Gospel, read the Bull, the one in Latine, and the other in Italian, and publish the approaching Jubile.

His Holiness on the Christmas-eve following goes a general Procession; the Cardinals, the Se­cular and Regular Clergie, the Ambassadours of Christian Princes, and the Officers of the City of Rome, and all the common people accompa­ny him: and about noon he comes to the door of St. Peter of the Vatican, which is walled up: then the Pope strikes three stroaks with a silver Hammer against this Wall, which is presently thrown down, the door is washt with holy Wa­ter, it's opened, the Company enters into the Church, they sing Vesperas with all solemnity; and at the same time the Pope sends three Car­dinals to open the doors of the Churches of St. Paul, of St. John Lateran, of St. Mary Major; where the same Ceremonies are used.

The Silver Hammer is a Symbol of the Popes power, which Jesus Christ gave him, by giving him the Keys of St. Peter; the Hammer was formerly of Massy Gold.

The Penitentiaries in such Solemnities, are near the Popes Person, to shew that he com­municates his Jurisdiction to Confessors, to whom he gives the power of Absolving from all Crimes, and even in cases that are reserved to himself.

The opening of the Holy Door is an Hiero­glyphick of the opening of the Churches Trea­sure, whereof the Pope is the dispenser: four doors are open'd, to shew that persons are call'd from the four parts of the world. The Doors are washt, to intimate, that those persons gain the Jubile, who are cleansed from their faults and defilement by the vertue of the Sacraments, and by the application of the Merits of Jesus Christ: over the Holy Door they set the Name of the Pope that opened it last, and the time.

The shutting up of the Jubile.

THe end of the year of Jubile being elaps'd, the Pope on Christmass-Eve goes in Pro­cession from the Apostolick Palace to St. Peters Church, where after Vesperas are sung, his Ho­liness appoints three Cardinals to go and shut the other three holy doors: and at the same time himself, accompanied with the Clergy, [Page 27]and with all that is great and splendid in Rome, marches processionally, goes forth at the holy door, blesses the Materials appointed to wall it up, (which is not open'd but the year of the Jubile) lays the first stone with some pieces of Gold and of Silver, and says in Latine, what I turn into English: Through the Faith, and through the vertue of our Lord Jesus Christ Son of the living God, who said to the Prince of the Apostles, Thou art Peter, and on this Rock I will build my Church; we lay this first stone for shutting this Holy Door, which ought to be again thus shut in this year of Jubile: In the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost.

In what sence the Title of Holiness is attributed to the Pope, against the Protestants.

THe Pretenders to Religion, who love al­ways to cavil, and to mix Controver­sy in their Discourse, conformable to what is said by the Latine Poet,

Navita de ventis, de Bobus narrat Arator,
Enumerat Miles vulnera, Pastor oves.

not able to endure that we give the Pope the Title of Holiness, nor that we call the Doors be­fore mentioned Holy, thinking it a Blasphemy; I answer them, that they blame what they do [Page 28]not understand: they ought to consider, that there are three sorts of Holiness: the first by Nature and Essence, which is increated, infinite, incomprehensible, and incommunicable to all other persons, but to those of the most Holy Trinity. The second by Consecration, which is found in animate and inanimate things: it is diversly caused, by Prayers and Blessings, by Oyl, and by Unction. The third Holiness con­sists in an Habitual Grace inviolable to sin. The Catholicks do not say that the Pope is Holy by a Holiness of Nature, or of Essence, which be­longs but to God alone, who is the sole Origi­nal & final Sovraign of all Holiness; the Popes understand it so; they own themselves sinners before God, implore his mercy, and make a confession of their sins. When we call the Pope the Holy Father, it is by Consecration; the Priests, the Prophets, and the Kings were Anoin­ted and Consecrated under the ancient Law, as well as the new; and now the Popes and the Abbo [...]s are blest: Churches, Altars, Taberna­cles, Crosses, Chalices, and Bells, are holy things, with a Holiness of Consecration, which is an ex­teriour Sanctification. If the Roman Church be call'd Holy, why shall we not call him Holy that presides in it? If the Body be called Holy, the Head is not Profane. The great Priest Aa­ron wore on his Tiara a Plate of Gold, where these [...]ords were Engraven, Holiness to the Lord. Let us proceed to the other remarks and dis­quisitions.

Other Splendid Ceremonies.

IT's at Rome where we see Seven other very curious and remarkable Ceremonies; the Canonization of Saints, the Coronation of the Pope, that of the Emperour, of Kings, of Em­presses, of Queens, and the Creation of Cardinals.

A touch in the Honour of Rome.

IF it be said of this Capital of the world, that at present Rome is sought for is Rome, be­cause it has lost that vain splendour which it drew from its ancient Roman Emperours; we say also, that what she holds no longer by her arms, she possesses by Religion.

Sedes Roma Petri, quae Pastoralis honoris,
Facta Caput Mundi, quicquid non possidet Armis,
Religione tenet.—

It's said of St. Peters Church at Rome, and of St. Sernin at Tolouse,

Non est in toto Sanctior orbe locus.

Three desires of St. Austin.

ST. Austin wisht to see Three things: Jesus Christ on the Earth, St. Paul in the Chair, and Rome the Triumphante.

The Dominion of the Pope.

THe Vatican, which is the Palace of St. Pe­ter, the Palace of St. John Lateran, Castel­gandolphi, Mont-Cavallo, otherwise Montquirinal, and the Castle St. Angelo, belong to the Pope: he possesses the Patrimony of St. Peter, the Duke­dom of Spoleto, Marcha Anconitana, Romandiola, the Dutchy of Benevent in the Kingdom of Na­ples, the Dukedoms of Ferrara and of Ʋrbin, Ceneda in the Marca Trevisano, Montaldo, and San Stephano, on the side of the River of Genoa, and the Country of Avignon in France, &c. You must observe, that the Countess Mathilda made the Holy Sea Heir to her Lands, which have since been call'd St. Peters Patrimony. When the Roman Emperour is at Rome, he lodges in the Vatican, which is the Imperial Palace: Civita Vecchia is famous for it's Port; its there where his Holinesses Galleys are; they are no longer at Ancona, because they were too remote from Rome.

Places of Pleasure.

TIvoli, Frascati, the Villa of Pamphilio, those of Burghesi, of Farnesi, of Aldo­brandini, of Montalto, of Ludovisio, of the Duke of Florence, of the Prince Palestrini, and of Mat­thei, are very famous places of pleasure. We see there the Gardens adorn'd with all rare pie­ces [Page 31]the Lodgings richly furnished, the Galle­ries and privy Closets full of all that is curious and splendid in Rome. Mazarini's Palace is of the number of the most beautiful; it belongs at present to the Duke of Nevers.

Pope Clement the Tenth much embellisht the Bridge St. Angelo by causing to be placed on it twelve fair Statues of white Marble, admi­rably well done, and of a great height, each on its Pedestals: St. Peter and St. Paul stand first, and on each side of them, at fit distances to the end, we see five Angels holding in their hands some Instrument of the Passion of our Saviour. This Bridge has two fair Galleries with Iron Ballisters. The Gate del Populo, formerly cal­led Flavius Gate, is at present a Master-piece: they call it the Gate of the People, because of its nearness to the Monastery of St. Mary of the People: it is of the invention of Michael Angelo. The Town-hall was formerly the Capitol.

The Castle St. Angelo is called by this name, because an Angel appeared on the top of it with a naked Sword in his hand, which he put up in its Scabbard; shewing by that, that God was appeas'd. This Apparation happened on a day that St. Gregory the Great carried in a solemn Pro­cession the Image of the Virgin, at a time when the Plague wholly dispeopl'd Rome. This Scourge ceased as soon as the Angel had sheathed his Sword. There is to be seen since in that place the Figure of an Angel in Marble. [Page 32]The Emperour Adrian, a great lover of Buil­ding, caused this Fortress to be built; which was the place where he was buried. Pope Si­xtus the V. left there five millions of Gold, with a Bull defending all Popes, under pain of Excom­munication, to alienate them, but in the extre­mest necessity, for the defence of the Popes and of the City. Pope Ʋrban the Eighth caused this Castle to be well fortified, placing in it the fairest pieces of Cannon that are any where to be seen: there are six which were given by a King of England; some of them are made of many Statues of the false Gods melted. The Tower in the middle of it is so elevated, that it commands all the approaches of the Town. The Coridor of the Vatican-Palace, reaching to the Ca­stle St. Angelo, is very convenient for the retreat of the Popes in times of War, or of Sedition.

Other Ornaments of Rome.

IN Rome, the beautiful Churches, the fair Pil­lars, the Antiquities, the Popes Court, the A­quaeducts, the large Streets, the Obelisks, the Mausolea, the Catacombi, the Library of the Va­tican, draw the admiration of all men. There is so great a number of Fountains, that it's thought if they ran all into one Channel, they would make a River; and some think, large e­nough to bear Vessels. The Vatican draws its Etymology from Answers or Oracles, which [Page 33]the Latines call Vaticinia. Its Library is de­scribed by the Sieur le Gallois in his book in­tituled, Traite des plus belles Bibliotheques de l'Europe: It contains excellent Disquisitions and Curiosities. It was printed at Paris, An. 1680.

The Rota is a famous Tribunal composed of twelve Auditors of different Nations, the juris­diction whereof extends it self on beneficiary and profane causes. It's thought they are so called, because they sit in a Circle, and roul about the most important differences of the Christian World. Their Judgments are cal­led Decisions of the Rota; and to express well their force and authority, it suffices to say, The Rota has thus determined.

The chief Towns of Italy, with their Epithetes and Elogies, are,

ROme the Holy, Roma la Santa; Naples the Noble, Napoli la Gentile; Venice the Rich, Venetia la Ricca; Genoa the Proud, Genova la Superba, for its Palaces and Buildings; Milan the Great, Milano la Grando; Bolonia the Fat, Bolonia la Grassa, for the fertility of its Soil; Ravenna the Ancient, Ravenna l'Antica; Padua the Learned, Padua la Dotta, for its University, because good learning has always flourisht there. According to Sabellicus, we may place Mantua in parallel with Ravenna, for Antiquity; and with Bolonia, for the goodness of its Soil. Italy [Page 34]is called the Garden of Europe, for its charming Delights and Beauty; and according to the Pro­verb, A man has seen no fine Country, if he has not seen Italy.

I cannot end this Paragraph of the remarka­ble Towns of Italy, without naming that of Melphi in the Kingdom of Naples, which is fa­mous for having brought forth Flavio, to whom is attributed the invention of the Sea-Compass, which shews Pilots the course they ought to steer, the place whence they come, and that whither they are going, and where they are According to the common Opinion, this Flavio of Melphi invented it the year of our Salvation 1300 It was called Boussole, from Buxus or Bu­xeolus, because those of the West put it at first in a Case of Box. The Sieur Faucher, President of the Mint-concern, says, that it was called in France for above 400 years, the Marinotte. Some persons, over-speculative, think it may be presumed to have been in use in the time of the Children of Noah, because they had Iron, and the Load-stone proper to compose it, and the knowledge of the Mathematicks. Levinus and Pineda say, that Solomon's Pilots made use of it to go to the Iflands of Tharsis and of Ophir. The Scripture notes, that Solomon having equipt a Fleet on the Coast of the Red Sea, Hiram King of Tyre furnisht him with his Sea-men skill'd in the Art of Navigation. The Greek Poet writes, that the Pole was observed in Navigation in the [Page 35]time of the Trojan War: And the Latine Poet, that men observed the Stars. And thence some think that this could not be done without the Sea-Compass; not considering, that men before did nothing but coast about upon the Sea, and sail in Roads.

After having mention'd the Town of Melphi on the account of Flavio, that of Ferrara comes into my mind on the occasion of a great Lover of Learning, viz. Coelius Calcagninus a Noble Person of Ferrara, living Anno 1249. it was his will to be buried in his Library, which has this Inscription on the door: Index tumuli Coelii Calcagnini, qui ibidem voluit sepeliri ubi semper vixit.

The chief Rivers.

THe River Po, the Tiber, Ticinus, Doero, Lad­do, Rubicon, called now Pisatello; Menzo, Garrigliano, Offranto in Poüille, Arnus, and others. The Po is called by the Greeks Eridanus; it pas­ses at Turin, Cazal, and Valentia near Milan, and at other places. This River is famous amongst the Poets for the fabulous fall of young Phae­ton; its source is in the highest Mountain of the Alps, called Montviso; on the side of Pied­mont it receives thirty Rivers into its Channel, and a great many Lakes and Ponds: its course is from the West to the East.

Popes by birth French-men; and some passages of their Lives.

SYlvester the Second, Ʋrban the Second, Ca­lixtus the Second, Ʋrban the Fourth, Cle­ment the Fourth, Innocent the Fifth, Martin the Fourth, Clement the Fifth, John the Twenty second, Benedict the Eleventh, Clement the Sixth, Innocent the Sixth, Ʋrban the Fifth, Gregory the Eleventh.

Sylvester the second of the name, called be­fore Gilbert, or Gerbert, born in Aquitain, was a Religious man, and Benedictine of St. Gerard of Aurillac in the Diocess of St. Flour, and Tutor to Robert King of France, and to the Emperour Otho the Third, who raised him to the soveraign Pontificate: He was first Archbishop of Rheims, and then of Ravenna, and lastly Pope; which gave occasion for this Verse to be made on him:

Scandit ab R. Gerbertus in R. post Papa Regens est.

He was a great Mathematician, which caused his Enemies to accuse him of Magick. He was falsely charg'd for having in his Closet a Head of Brass, by which the Devil answered what he askt. He died the 12th day of May, 1003. Pope Sergius, his Successour, writ his Epitaph, which is yet to be seen, and shews that he lived and died a holy man.

Ʋrban the second of the name was born at Chastillon on Marne, Son of Milon. He was called before his Exaltation, Cardinal Otho Bi­shop of Ostia. He excommunicated the Dio­cess of Compostella for having put their Bishop in prison; and governed the Ship of St. Peter e­leven years, four months, and eighteen days: some say eleven years and a half. He called into his Council St. Bruno, Founder of the Or­der of the Charthusians. He called the Council of Clairmont in Auvergne, where he made the Enterprize of the holy War succeed; which he called the Croizade, because those that listed themselves were all crossed, wearing a Cross sewn on their Habits. He died An. 1110.

Calixtus the Second was named Guy; others say, Guigue: He was a Burgundian; Uncle to Adelais Queen of France, and near Cousin to the Emperour Henry. He was Archbishop of Vienne in Daulphiné.

Suger Abbot of St. Dennis, says, that the night before his Election, he saw, as a Prognostick of his future Election, a great Person that gave him the Moon to keep under his Archiepisco­pal Cope, fearing lest the Church might incur some danger by the death of Pope Gelasius. He soon found the truth of this Vision, seeing himself soveraign Pontife. His Election was made whilst he was in the Abbey of Clugny. An Anti-pope appeared at that time in Italy, called Bourdin, who was taken notwithstanding [Page 38]his intrenching and fortifying himself: the Soul­diers that took him mounted him on an old Ca­mel, and walkt him about the Streets publick­ly in derision, with his face turn'd towards the Tail, which they made him hold as a Bridle; and afterwards he was confined to a perpetual imprisonment. Calixtus assembled a Council at Rheims, possest the Holy See about six years, died the 19th of December 1124. In the time of his Pontificate St. Norbert founded his Or­der called Praemonstratensis, from the place where he retired himself, which is in the Diocess of Laon.

Ʋrban the Second, of the Town of Troy in Champagne, was the Son of a Cobler, and cal­led James Pantaleon; he recompensed the de­faults of his birth by the eminency of his Learn­ing and Vertue. After having been Canon and Archdeacon of Laon, and afterwards of Liege, he was made Bishop of Verdun; from Bishop he became Patriark of Hierusalem, from Patriark Legate in divers places, and then afterward Pope. The Prophetick Motto was, Hierusalem Campaniae. When any one reproached him with the lowness and obscureness of his Birth, he an­swered, That the Nobility which is acquired by the gifts of the Understanding, is more valua­ble than that which comes from Birth alone, and that it consists in Vertue. Those that are born Noble, may say to their advantage, and with truth, that Jesus Christ was a Gentleman, [Page 39]and the holy Virgin a Gentlewoman. It is very true, when Nobleness of Bloud is joyned with that of Vertue, it is Perfection. Superiours of an ignoble Birth may object, that St. Peter who had the government of the Church, was no Gentleman. This Prelate after three years of the Pontificate, left this mortal life the last day of September; and according to Onuphrius, the second day of October 1264.

Clement the Fourth, called before Guy Fou­caut, according to du Chesne, was Native of the Town St. Gilles in Languedoc; and according to Father Gautruche a Jesuit, of a Village near Narbonne. He was Bishop of Puy, Archbishop of Narbonne, and Cardinal by the Title of St. Sabine, and Legate in England: St. Loüis made him Counsellor of State, because he was greatly skilled in the Laws. Some think that he was elected Pope the 5th or 11th of February 1265. He crowned at Rome, Charles of Anjou King of Naples and of Sicily, with the ordinary Ceremonies, in St. John Lateran's. He had in his Arms an Eagle holding a Dragon in his Ta­lons. His Prophetick Motto was, Draco depressus. He died the 29th of November 1268. after three years and a half being Pope.

Martin the Fourth, formerly Simon de Brie, was Native of Mont-pincé, or of the Village de Suci. He founded the Chapter of Champeaux, which is in the Diocess of Paris. He was Trea­surer and Canon of St. Martins of Tours, and [Page 40]Cardinal by the Title of St. Cecil; was elected Pope the 22th of February 1282. Under his Pontificate, the year of his Election, the French had their Throats cut throughout all Sicily. This Massacre was called the Sicilian Vesperas, because it was committed at the hour of Vespe­ras on an Easter-day: O cruel Vesperas! Peter of Arragon having an Army on foot under pre­text of going into the Holy Land, usurpt the Country at the sollicitation and detestable en­terprize of a young Italian Gentleman, a sworn Enemy to the French. The Pope struck with a mortal grief, excommunicated the Sicilians and those of Arragon for their Attempt and black Treason. This Prelate created many Cardinals, amongst others the Dean of the Church of Nostre Dame at Paris, called Geofry de Barbo a Burgundian. The Prophetick saying on this Pope was, Ex Telonio Liliacei, because he was Treasurer of St. Martins of Tours: others say, Liliacei Martini, believing that this Church was adjudged the midst and the centre of France, the Kingdom of Flower-de-luces. God took him out of this World at Peruse the 28th or 29th day of March 1285. Two Miracles hap­pened at his Burial.

Clement the Fifth, born at Bourdeaux, had for his Father Beraud Chevalier, Lord of Villan­drault. Before his Exaltation he was called Bertrand Gout de Gutto. He had in his Arms three Bars Gules in a Field Or; the Prophecie [Page 41]was, de Festis Aquitanicis. The Cardinals con­tinued ten months in the Conclave for the crea­tion of this Prelate, before Bishop of Cominges, then Archbishop of Bourdeaux; whereof he performed the Function even till they had brought him the Decree of his Election, with the Letters of the whole Colledge. He took solemnly possession of the Apostolical Chair at Bourdeaux in the Cathedral-Church of St. An­drews; caused himself to be crowned at Lyons; the greatest part of the Cardinals rendered them­selves there pursuant to his Orders; the Kings of France, of England, and of Arragon, assisted at this Ceremony. The Italian Cardinals thinking to lead him to Rome, he transferred the Holy Sea to Avignon, where it continued seventy years, or seventy two, from Clement to Gregory the Eleventh, who re-established it at Rome, Anno 1375. At his first promotion of Cardi­nals, he created ten, all French-men: In the third, he made Cardinal William de Maudagout Arch­bishop of Embrun, who was-born at Sevenes a­bove the Town Vigan. The Castle of Mauda­gout is at present Protestant, and encompassed with Chesnut-trees. His Arms are yet to be seen over the great Gate. Clement built the Castles of Villandrault, Budos, and la Brede. He go­verned the Church eight years, ten months, and some days; died Anno 1314. in the Castle of Roguemaure scituated on the Rhone, in the Dio­cess of Avignon, and not of Nismes, as some [Page 42]persons have said. His Body reposes in Guyenne, in the Church of the Canons of Ʋzste, where­of this Prelate was the Founder.

See here a remarkable thing related by An­drew de Chesne, in the Life of the Popes. Cle­ment, whilst he was yet Archbishop of Bourde­aux, having deposed Gautier de Bruge. Cordelier Bishop of Poitiers, Gautier in the bitterness of spirit, appeal'd to the future Council, and cau­sed a promise to be made him, that at the Ar­ticle of his death, his Appeal should be put into his hands; which was executed: his Body was carryed into the Cordeliers Church, where some Miracles have since been wrought. Clement coming to Poitiers, and knowing that Gautier had carried his Appeal with him, caused his Tomb to be opened to take it away; for this intent, he made an Archdeacon enter into it at Midnight, who found the Appeal in the hands of the defunct; which he could not possibly take from him, till he had first sworn to restore it him, with the consent of him that had De­posed him. This being done, Gautier open'd his hands, and the Archdeacon taking the Appeal, gave it the Pope; but endeavouring to go forth of the Sepulchre, he found he could not stir, and said there was somewhat which withheld him, till he had returned the Appeal into the hands of the Bishop deceas'd: then he came forth with ease; and the Pope conceiving a respect for the dead, honoured from thenceforwards his me­mory, [Page 43]and enricht his Tomb. Gautier was de­pos'd, because he was more inclined for the Arch­bishop of Bourges, than for him of Bourdeaux, who contested for the Primacy of Aquitain. Cle­ment revok'd two Decrees of Boniface passed a­gainst France: under him there rise a great distur­bance betwixt the Vatican & the Louvre. Boniface was so animated against the Gibelins, and those of their Party, that he shew'd it openly in the person of the Archbishop of Genoa, on an Ash­wednesday. Under the said Clement the Fifth, the Errours of the Beguines and Begards, or Begands of Germany were condemned; and it is from thence that the word Bigot comes: these Here­ticks, under the Mask of Religion, with a se­rious and hypocritical countenance, play the good companions. Clement the Fifth removing the Holy Sea to Avignon, transported thither the the Vatican Library; and Martin the Fifth caused it to be carried back to the Vatican, where it has continued since.

John the Twenty first or Twenty second, of the Town of Cahors in Quercy, Son of Arnaud d'Eusa, or Dossa, a Cobler, was call'd James. The Prophesie was, De sutore Osseo. Du Chesne says, that the Holy Sea having been vacant two years and some days, and that the Cardinals not a­greeing in the Creation of a Pope, they all con­sented to accept and receive him whom James d'Eusa Cardinal, Bishop of Port, should nomi­nate; which James seeing, he nam'd himself; and [Page 44]the Nomination was approved and confirmed by the Cardinals, fearing lest they might have another that would less please them. Father Gautruche says this is a Fable, and that the Car­dinals did not remit themselves to his judge­ment, to choose whom he thought fit, and that he did not name himself. It's a thing well known, that by the way of Scrutiny and of Ac­cess, it is descended under pain of Nullity of Election to choose a Mans self. The way of Scru­tiny and of Access both together, is the most practised; that of Inspiration and of Compro­mise, are but rare, and little us'd: we call the way of Inspiration. when all the Cardinals free­ly concur to acknowledge and proclaim unani­mously one person for Pope. The way of Com­promise is, when the Cardinals either at entrance into the Conclave, or tir'd with the length of it, refer themselves to one or to many amongst them, to whom they give the power in the name of all, to give a common Father to Chri­stianity. None of the Compromisaries can give his voice for himself, but his Election will be void. These three ways of Election contain many circumstances and conditions. John was Bishop of Frejus, and some time afterwards Arch­bishop of Avignon. Pope Clement the Fifth made him Cardinal. He made many good Foundations in the place of his Birth, amongst others he founded the Ʋniversity, the House of Carthusians, and built a Bridge, with a lofty [Page 45]Tower at one end of it, on the River Lot, on the side of the Capuchins. It is he that intro­duced into the Church the custom of ringing thrice each day the Angelical Salutation. He believ'd for some time, that the Souls of the dead did not enjoy the Vision of God till after the General Judgment. He made no Decree, and retracted this Errour. Loüis de Bavieres going to make himself Emperour against the forms, and in contempt of the Holy Sea, raised him an Antipope, an Apostate of his Order, call'd Peter de Corbare. A Prelate has styled him the stinking Crow, which had no place in the Ark. The Emperour after having received from his hands the Imperial Crown, being con­strained to quit Italy, and to retire himself into Germany, left this Ghost of a Pope to the mer­cy of the Guelphs, who carryed him to Avignon, where he ended his days in Prison. Pope John the Twenty second rais'd in France and else­where, Abbeys and Bishopricks into Archbisho­pricks. He divided the Diocese of Tolouse into six, that of Poitiers into three, viz. that of Poi­tiers, of Mailezais, and of Lucon. The Sea of Mailezais is at present at Rochelle, since its red­dition. According to du Chesne, this Prelate held the Government of the Church eighteen years, three months, and twenty days; and ac­cording to Father Gautruche, ten years and a half: he dyed the third of December, An. 1334. being 90 years of age. He left after his decease [Page 46]25 Millions, to make War against the Iufidels in the Holy Land. There have been more Popes of this name, than of any other; they count twenty three. You must observe, that the Pretenders to Religion endeavour to render ridiculous the Constitutions which John the twenty second made and compiled, because he entituled them Extravagants; not considering that they were so called, because they were not included in the body of those of Clement, which he publisht together.

Benedict the Eleventh, some say Twelfth, Native of Saverdun in the County of Fois, in the Diocess of Pamiers, Son of a Joyner, was cal­led before James du Four, otherwise surnamed Novelli, of the Order of the Cistertians, was Ab­bot of Fontfroide: The Prophecy was Frigidus Abbas. He was Bishop of Pamiers. John the Twenty second made him Cardinal. For some time they called him the white Cardinal, because of the colour of his ancient Religious Habit. When his Exaltation was signified to him, he said through humility, they had made choice of an Ass (though he was very learhed, and Do­ctor of Divinity in the faculty of Paris) be­cause he feared that he knew not well how to govern. He did not suffer himself to be led by his Relations in the distribution of his Favours. When his Niece was to be married, he gave her a Portion but answerable to her condition. He founded the Church and Colledge of the Ber­nardins [Page 47]in Paris. He held the Holy See seven years and three months, and died with a very good fame, Anno 1342.

Clement the Sixth of Malmont in Limosin, was called Peter Roger or Rosier, of the House of Beaufort. He took occasion to bear Roses in his Arms, for having been baptized in the Parish de Rosiers. He was Bishop of Arras. The Pro­phecy was, de Rosa Attrebatensi. He was also Archbishop of Sens, and then of Roüen; and Cardinal sub titulo SS. Nerei & Achillei. He was chosen Head of the Church the 5th of May, 1343. He made Cardinal Bernard de la Tour of Auvergne in the Diocess of Clermont. He remembred that having been ill used in the Woods of Randan in Auvergne, in the Diocess of Clermont, by Robbers who stript him (being at that time a Scholar, and returning from his Studies at the University of Paris) he was charitably assisted by Stephen Aldebrand, Pryor and Curate of Thuret, a Religious man of the Order of St. Benedict, of the Abbey of St. Al­lire near Clermont; who received him at his house, and gave him a suit of Cloaths, and Mo­ney to conduct him to the Abbey de la Chaize-Dieu, whereof he was a profest Religious man. Peter Roger giving thanks to his Benefactor, and saying to him, When should he be able to ac­quit himself of the Obligation he had to him, he prophetically answered him, It shall be when you come to be Pope. He no sooner was entered [Page 48]into the Apostolical Chair, but he sent for him: as soon as he saw him, he created him one of the first Officers of his Court, and some time after Archbishop of Tolouse, and afterwards Cardinal. He was called Cardinalis de Thureto. The ad­venture of Peter Rosier fallen into the hands of Robbers, with the good reception and enter­tainment that he found in the Monastery of Thuret, is taken from the Archives of the Ab­bey of St. Allire, by the Father Vialard, who is there a Religious man, and who has also been Pryor and Curate of Thuret. Messire Claudius de Broüez, Pryor and Lord of Dorcet, former­ly first President in the General Election of la Basse Auvergne at Clermont, furnisht me with this Memoire and Extract. In the Abbey of St. Allire, they say Peter Rosier, and not Roger, though the Register in Latine says Rogerius. Clement the Sixth passed from this mortal life to the im­mortal, the 6th of December 1351. Three Car­dinals of his nearest Relations caused his body to be carried to the Abbey de la Chaize-Dieu, according to his last Will and Testament. It is held by Tradition, that this Pope in his youth was Pensioner at Paris in the Colledge of Nar­bonne.

Innocent the Sixth, of the Mountains of the Country Limosin, formerly Steven Aubert, or Albert, was Bishop of Noyon, and Cardinal by the Title of St. Pammachus. Father Gautruche says, that he was placed on the Episcopal See of [Page 49] Clermont in Auvergne. He had six Mountains in his Arms; the Prophecy says, de Montibus Pammachii. Pope Clement the Sixth took him into the sacred Colledge of Cardinals. Being come to the Papacy, he created Cardinal Andin Albert, his Nephew, then Bishop of Maguelone or Montpelier. He succeeded Clement the Sixth the 18th of December 1352. In one of his Pro­motions he made Cardinal the Bishop of Nismes, called Johannes de Blandiaco. John de Blauzac of the Diocess of Ʋzes, gave up his soul to God in the Town of Avignon, the 12th of September 1372. his body was carried into the house of the Carthusians of Villeneuve, where he had cho­sen his Sepulchre in his life-time. Most per­sons render the Latine words, Blandiacum by Blandiac: the people of the Country turn it, and pronounce it Blauzac, and not Blandiac. The Castle is Calvinist, and the Village almost entirely. Before Messire James de Grignan was Bishop of Ʋzes, the Catholicks and Hugenots buried in this Village, and at Chalmete, and in some other places of this Diocess, in the same Church-yard, one amongst another: This Pre­late remedied this abuse, not thinking it rea­sonable that the Dead should be put in holy ground, who during their life-time would not come to Church to participate of its Sacra­ments. M. Philippeaux de la Verilliere, Doctor of Sorbonne, succeeded him for some time, as far as the year 1677. in which he mounted into the [Page 50]Patriarchal Chair of Bourges. Cardinal Ʋrsin recommended him in the Consistory.

Ʋrban the Fifth, called before William Gri­moard of Grisac, issued from the Illustrious and ancient House of Roure, whose Earl at present, Messire Peter Scipion Grimoard de Beauvoir, Earl of Roure, Marquess of Grisac, Baron of Ba­riac, and other Baronies, Lord of Banes, and ma­ny other places, is Lieutenant-general for the King in his Armies and Provinces of Languedoc, and particular Governour of the Town and Bridge du St. Esprit on the Rhone, and other places. This Prelate had for Father N. Gris­moard Lord of Grisac, in the Diocess of Mande in Givodan; and for Mother, Dame Amphilize de Montferrand. He was first a Religious man of the Order of St. Benedict in the Conventual Priory of Chirac, Abbot of St. Germains of Au­xerre, and then of St. Victor of Marseilles. In­nocent the Sixth having sent him into Italy on very important Affairs, he acquir'd such a Re­putation, that the See being vacant, the Cardi­nals assembled at Avignon in the Conclave, e­lected him Pope with a common Consent the 27th day of September 1562, according to Onu­phrius: and because he was at that time in Italy, fearing lest he should be kept there, they sent to him to come away presently; but without signifying to him his Election, till his return in the Town of Marseilles, which was the 27th day of October, as it appears by the Chronicle of the [Page 51]Abbey of St. Victor. He was consecrated and crowned at Avignon, in the month of November following, being about twenty five years of age. The Prophecy was, Gallus Vicecomes. When he received the news of his Election, he pronounced the words of the Psalmist, A Do­mino factum est istud, & est mirabile in oculis no­stris. We find in his Arms in the Popes Ar­morial, an Oak forked, Or, in a Field Azure, the name Roure signifying an Oak in the Gascoign Tongue. The Country of his birth was ex­empted from Tributes by the Kings of France, to honour the merit of his person. He founded many Monasteries, Churches and Colledges; built two beautiful Palaces in Italy, one at Or­vietto, and the other at Montefiasco. He trans­ported himself to Rome, to allay some disorders; and excommunicated Bernaboüe Viscount of Milan, for having burnt two holy Religious men who had reprehended him with all sort of respect for his debaucht and tyrannical life, cau­sing his Subjects eyes to be torn out of their heads, and to be strangled, that hunted in his Lands contrary to his command, whom he con­strained to keep for him five or six thousand Dogs. This great Prelate shewed to the peo­ple the heads of St. Peter and of St. Paul; crown­ed Charles of Luxemburg Emperour: St. Bri­git Princess of Sweden, received from him the confirmation of her Order. We may see at large the good and admirable actions of this [Page 52]Pope in Platina, du Chesne, Coulomb, Gautruche, and others. He governed the Ship of St. Pe­ter eight years and four months. His body lies at Marseilles, in the Church of the Abbey of St. Victor, after having first continued eleven months deposited in the Church of Nostre dame de Dons at Avignon; where he died the 19th of December of the year 1370. The Cardinals ce­lebrated his Obsequies with the accustomed Ce­remonies. He is in the Catalogue of canonized Saints. In the House of Roure there have been two other Popes, viz. Sixtus the Fourth, and Julius the Eleventh, both of Genoa.

Gregory the Eleventh of Limosin, called for­merly Peter Roger, of the House of Beaufort, which subsists still in that of the Marquess of Canilhac in Auvergne, was Son of William Earl of Beaufort, and of Jane Sister to Pope Clement the Sixth. Before his Exaltation, he was Canon of the Church of Paris, Dean of the Cathedral of Bayeux, and then afterwards Cardinal by the Title of St. Mary la Neuve. His Prophecy was Novus de Virgine fortis. It is he that founded for perpetuity in the Church of Nostre dame of Paris, the station that is dayly kept there at nine a clock in the morning, before the Altar of the Virgin. He died at Rome the 27th of March of the year 1372. some say, Anno 1376. others, Anno 1378. Two hundred years after his death the Italians erected a new Monument of Mar­ble in his memory, in the Church where he was [Page 53]buried, as an acknowledgment of the Benefits received from him; and caused to be graved on it this Epitaph in great Letters.

Christi Saluti.

Gregorius XI. Lemovicensi, humanitate & doctrinâ pietateque admirabili, qui ut Italioe seditioni­bus laboranti mederetur, sedem Pontificiam A­venione diu translatam divini afflatus numine, hominumque maximo plausu, post Annos LXX. Roman, foeliciter perduxit, Pontificatûs sui de Anno VII. S. P. Q. R. tantoe Religionis & Bene­ficii non Immemor Gre. XIII. P. Opt. Max. com­probante, An. ab orbe Redempto MDLXXXIV.

The Italians call the time during which the Holy See was at Avignon till its re-establish­ment in Rome, the years of the Transmigration of Babylon.

The Church had two hundred forty four Popes, from Saint Peter to Innocent the E­leventh: There remains yet to come twenty five, according to the Prophecies of St. Malachie Primate of Ireland; and then will happen the great day of the General Judgment, which will close the door of Time, and open that of Eter­nity. These Prophecies are not proposed as Articles of Faith: for who is the man that can know the times and the moments? This is re­served to God alone. Jesus Christ said to his Apostles, that no body knows the hour of this [Page 54]great Day. All that is said, is grounded on conjectures, and on adjusted senses: because the Law of Nature lasted two thousand years, the written Law two thousand years, it is thought that the Evangelical Law will continue so long. Nothing can be said thereon for certain, nor con­cerning the Popes to come, before their crea­tion.

The future Popes, conformably to the Prophecies mentioned, are these.

1. POenitentia Gloriosa. 2. Rastrum in Porta. 3. Flores Circumdati. 4. De Bonâ Reli­gione. 5. Miles in bello. 6. Columna excelsa. 7. A­nimal Rurale. 8. Rosa Ʋmbrioe. 9. Ʋrsus velox. 10. Peregrinus Apostolicus. 11. Aquila rapax. 12. Canis & Coluber. 13. Vir Religiosus. 14. De Balneis Etrurioe. 15. Crux de Cruce. 16. Lumen in Coelo. 17. Ignis Ardens. 18. Religio de Popu­lata. 19. Fides Intrepida. 20. Pastor Angelicus. 21. Pastor ex Nautâ. 22. Flos Florum. 23. De Medietate Lunoe. 24. De Labore solis. 25. Gloria Olivoe.

These Prophecies are inserted in a book cal­led Lignum Vitoe, composed by Arnold Ʋvion, Benedictin. St. Malachie began them by Coele­stin the Second, to the coming of Antichrist, and died Anno 1298. in the Abbey of Clairvaux, in the arms of St. Bernard, who has writ his Life. These two great persons are buried the one by the other behind the High Altar.

The chief Princes of Italy, after the Pope, are the five following.

The Duke of Savoy.

VIctor-Amé, the second of the name, Duke of Savoy, Prince of Piemont, Marquess of Saluzze, &c. was born Anno 1666. professes the Catholick Religion: he shews in the tenderness of his age a viril Judgment, which raises admi­ration in Foreign Ministers, and gives great hopes that he will one day be Master of the ex­cellent Qualities of his Father, which will live in him by the care of his Mother Regent; who being ignorant of nothing that ought to be known, took care of his Estates during his mi­nority, and appointed him persons whom she made choice of for forming his Manners and Conduct. The Dutchess laid down the Re­gency Anno 1680, into the hands of her Son. This Prince gave her his thanks for the care she had taken of his Person and of his Estates, and pray'd her to continue to assist him in the Go­vernment.

I shall set down but part of his Coat of Arms, though very excellent and most noble, because his Scutcheon is extreamly charg'd: They may be seen at large in some good book of Heraldry, and those of other crowned heads. I shall say onely, that the Dukes of Savoy bear the silver Cross; for having relieved the Isle of Rhodes, [Page 56]and repelled the Turks An. 1315. and that for acknowledgment the Knights gave them the Cross, with this Motto, FERT; which sig­nifies, Fortitudo ejus Rhodum tenuit. I shall also say, that these Dukes bear the Arms of the Kingdom of Cyprus: This Crown gives them the Title of Royal Highness. They are descen­ded from the ancient House of Saxony. They were called in the first place Earls of Morienne, then Earls of Savoy, till Amedée the Eighth, whom the Emperour Sigismond created Duke Anno 1416, or 1417. It was Amé the Fifth, surnamed the Great, who caused Mahomet the second of the name, Emperour of the Turks, to raise his Siege from before the City of Rhodes.

The House of Savoy has been acknowledged Soveraign for above six hundred years; it has afforded many Empresses and Queens.

Turin in the Plain of Piemont on the Bank of the Po, is the capital City of the Dukes Terri­tories. Chamberry is of Savoy, and has a Parlia­ment. The Court of this Prince is very splen­did; his Royal Highness holds it at Turin, where there is a great Garison. The Dukes new Palace is one of the finest of Italy; it is composed of four pavillions, with great piles of Lodgings joyning to it; and in a great Court is seen the brazen Figure of Charles Emanuel the Second, on a Horse of Marble represented to the life. The old Palace flankt with four great round Towers, guarded with a large Trench, [Page 57]and which faces a large void space, is embellish­ed with a fair Gallery filled with excellent Pi­ctures, which represent the Christian Princes, and the Genealogy of the Dukes of Savoy. The little Chariot, with six horses in their harness, all cover'd with pretious Stones, is an Ornament; and many other Rarieties.

The Metropolitan Church called the Dome, dedicated to St. John, is the depository of the holy face-cloath, on which we see imprinted the face and other parts of the body of the Son of God. The other Towns of Piemont are Vercelli, Susa, Turée, Mondevis, Ast, Carignan, Carmagnolo, St. Tas. Susa is the first that is found at the en­trance of Italy at the foot of the Alps, ten leagues from Turin. Pompey established there a Colony, which gives testimony of its antiqui­ty. It has passed for the Capitol of the small Principality of the little King Coetius. This Country is fertile; Provisions are cheap, and Sil­ver scarce, because there is no Trade. Susa which is in Persia is more renowned than that before-mentioned, because the great Assuerus who commanded from the Indies even to Æ­thiopia, an hundred twenty seven Provinces, and other Kings, have held there their Court. Piemont has two or three Rivers whose banks afford Gold; it is found divided into slender parcels called Threads: The way of gathering it is noted in a book intituled Conversations de l' Academie de l' Abbé Bourdelot, in the Chapter [Page 58]of the Philosophers Stone, which was the subject of a long Conference.

The principal Towns of Savoy after Cham­berry, are Anneci, St. John de Morienne, Monstier in Tarentaise, and others: Montmebian is the strongest place.

Savoy was called by this name, as who would say, Sauve-voye, or safe-way; and this since it was purged of Way-Robbers and Murtherers, who rendered the ways dangerous and unpas­sable: or else from a Village called Sabbatie or Sabaudie, which Ptolomy and other Geogra­phers place under the Alps. According to the opinion most followed, it took its name from Sabaudus Archbishop of Arles, who made it Ca­tholick.

Its Mountains bring forth many Monkeys: These Animals sleep six months of the year; they have the mussel and ears of a Squiril, and four long and sharp teeth; the legs short, great nails on their feet, and the hair rough. Chim­ney-sweepers bring of them to Paris; they are easily taken when they are asleep. The La­tines call this Animal Mus Alpinus. There are a great many in the Mountains of Switzerland. Chateauniere deGrenaille tells us, that persons that cannot sleep, or that are tormented with the Cholick, find themselves relieved by rubbing their belleys with their fat.

Many Mountaineers get Strumous swellings by drinking Snow-water, which by its crudity [Page 59]ill quality, causes the glandulous swelling about the throat.

Mount Cenis and little St. Bernard, are the principal passages of the Alps for Italy: Great Mount Cenis is the ordinary Road of the Posts of France; and little Mount Cenis is a shorter way, but more uneasie. We find there the invention of a sort of Sled, on which a man sitting, ad­vances in less than half a quarter of an hour a league, by sliding on the Snow from the top of the Mountain to the bottom. There are per­sons trained to this exercise called Sled-drivers, who guide the Sled by stopping it when it is necessary, with a great Prong of iron, which they fix in the way. On the top of the Moun­tain there are houses which they call the Ramass, where the Sled-drivers are, by whom men cause themselves to be driven on a Sled when they go to Lasneburg.

We find on the right hand the Chappel into which those persons are carried who are killed by the extremity of the cold in their Journey, and on whom is found no mark of their Reli­gion. When persons so killed are discovered to be Catholicks, they are buried in the next Catholick Church-yard: If they are Prote­stants, they are carried into the next Church­yard of theirs. Those that go into this Chap­pel, fancy they are in the Kingdom of the Dead; the Air is so subtile, that those bodies do not putrifie; there are many of them entire, with [Page 60]their flesh, skin, and hair, without having chan­ged but a very little of their colour. They are placed in order upright against the walls of this Chappel, a place of sadness and melancholy. Mount St. Gothard, which is the passage from Switzerland, has also a Chappel of persons fro­zen to death: Our Lady of Laghette is very fa­mous, two leagues from Nice. The greatest part of the Tombs of the Dukes of Savoy, are in the rich Abbey of Haute-combe, on the Lake Bourget.

The Dominions of this Prince may be seven­ty leagues in length, and thirty or forty in breadth; and in some parts above fifty. Spain would have swallowed them up in the minority of Charles Emanuel the Second; but France op­posing it, made them give over the Attempt.

His Royal Highness has four houses of plea­sure about Turin, which must not be forgotten to wit, that de la Grande Venerie Royal, that of Valentin, and those of Mirefleur, and of Rovili. Purpurat must also be added to the number: Nor must we omit la Generale, which belongs to Pre­sident Truchy a Minister of State, of a great un­derstanding, and equally zealous for the service of his Prince.

At the beginning of the year 1679, the Ab­bot d' Estrade at his return from his Embassie from Venice, where he resided three years, was sent to this Court with the Character of Embas­sadour of France: his entry was very solemn. [Page 61]He succeeded to Duke Villars chosen for the Em­bassie of Spain, where he formerly was; and the Marquess Ferrero was appointed Embassadour of Savoy with the most Christian King.

The Ratification of the Marriage of the Duke of Savoy with the Infanta of Portugal, was at Lisbone the 18th of Aug. 1679.

The 19th of September following, the Sieur of the Red hat Deputy, and first Syndick of the Town of Geneva, accompanied with Sieur Pit­tet and others, had Audience of Madam Royal, to give her satisfaction concerning some subjects of complaint that she had made against that Town at the beginning of her Regency. He gave her to understand in a fine discourse, how sorry his Masters were for all that had happen­ed; that their intentions had never been to do any thing that was disagreeable to so great a Princess; and that they humbly suppli'd her to forget all that was past, by a motion of Gene­rosity, and to let them feel the effects of her good will towards them. He addressed himself afterwards to his Royal Highness, and gave him to understand the desire the Town of Geneva had to merit his good will, and the part they took in the glory that the Prince acquired by his Marriage with the Infanta of Portugal, Heir­ess of so great a Kingdom. These Deputies were presented each, before their departure, with a Chain of Gold.

The Great Duke of Tuscany.

Cosmus the Third, Great Duke of Tuscany, of the House of Medices, Cath. He bears Or, with five Roundles, Gules, and one in cheif, Azure, charged with three Flower-de-luces, Or.

This Prince is Son of Ferdinand the Second, & of Victoria de la Roüere: he married the 19th of April 1661. by Proxie, the Princess Louïse Marguerite of Orleans, Daughter of late Gaston of France, Duke of Orleans, and of the deceased Marguerite of Lorain. Cardinal Bonzi perfor­med the Ceremony in the Chappel of the Lou­vre. From this Marriage are issued two Prin­ces and a Princess.

Anno 1531. Florence changed its Popular Government into a Monarchical, under the au­thority of the Emperour Charles the Fifth, and had for Prince Alexander de Medices, Nephew to Pope Clement the Seventh. And Anno 1569, Pope Pius the Fifth gave to Cosmus, Successor of Alexander, the Title of Great Duke of Tuscany, for having sent into France bands of Souldiers against those of the pretented Religion, the Au­thors of the first Wars of Religion; and made him see his Bulls executed.

Florence is the Capital of the whole State on the River Arne, and the place of abode of the Great Dukes. This Town has two strong Castles and a Citadel. The Duke lives in the [Page 63]Palace, on the Model of which that of Luxem­burg at Paris was built. Its Galleries are very curious and very rich; there are seen in a Hall Chairs of silver, a Service of massie gold, two Spheres, the one of the heavens, and the other of the Earth, both of cast Brass, artistically made; the barrel of a Gun and its battery, of Gold, made by one of its Dukes; great Can­dlesticks with feet of Amber; a great Load­stone: And in another Hall, a great many of the Works of Titian, of Michael Angelo, and of Raphael Ʋrbin; and an infinite number of o­ther Wonders. The Garden contains many excellent Figures; those of Adam and Eve are accomplisht Pieces: it has large and beautiful Walks, excellent Knots, large Trees, pleasant Fountains, great Cisterns, and fine Flowers.

The Chappel of St. Laurence is the Mausoleum of the Dukes; it is very large, and of a round figure; in the inside they have not spa­red Jasper, Porphire, Alabaster, Pearls, &c. the outside is of the fairest Marble that could be got. Under the Chappel is the Vault, where are many Tombs. In the Chappel is placed a Tabernacle made of Saphirs, Diamonds, Eme­ralds, and Rubies, which was formerly kept in a Cabinet in one of the Great Dukes Gal­leries, and dazeled the eyes of the Specta­tors.

The Palace of Strosses is famous for its stru­cture.

The Great Dukes Houses of Pleasure about Florence, are Pratolino, Prato Petraria, Baron­celli, Carregio, Poggio Imperiale, and Poggio Ca­jano.

Florence had the Title of Archibishoprick: Cardinal Nerli, heretofore Nuncio in France, is seated in it: The Cordeliers keep there in their Church the Robe of St. Francis. Sienna and Pisa are also Archiepiscopal Seats.

The Academy of Florence has given the Pub­lick a Dictionary which rectifies the Italian Tongue. A certain person said once pleasantly on this subject, That as the Searce separates the Flour from the Bran, this Academy has purified by its Dictionary the Tongue of the Country, separating the good terms from those that are not so. He that would know the origine of the word Academy, may consider, that it is on the occasion of a place near Athens which Academus gave to Plato to teach Philosophy in, that the name of Academy is since given by way of ex­cellency to illustrious Assemblies, where Scien­ces are cultivated. You must observe, that this name is general; Plato had his Academy, Ari­stotle his Lyceum, Zeno his Porticus, Epicurus his Gardens; divers Sciences were there taught.

The principal Towns near Florence are Sien­na, Pisa, Legorn a strong place and a Sea-port, Pistoya, Volaterra, Fiorenzola, Radicofanis, and Portferraya another Sea-port.

By reason of the liberty of Conscience that is at Legorn, there are several sorts of Nations, Jews, Greeks, Turks, Armenians, and Christians, walk all together there in the great Piazza.

Four Popes have issued from the House of Medecis; Steven the Tenth, Leo the Tenth, Cle­ment the Seventh, and Leo the Eleventh: two Empresses, and two Princesses who have been Queens of France; to wit, Katherine de Mede­cis, married to Henry the Second, Mother of three Kings; Mary de Medecis, Spouse of Hen­ry the Fourth, called the Great. This Princess will never die in the memory of the people: She gave excellent Fountains throughout all Paris; caused the Queens Court to be planted with a great number of Trees, which have been augmented by Loüis the Great; and caused that august Palace of Luxembourg to be built, which is visited and frequented not onely by Parisians, but likewise by Strangers, who admire the Stru­cture and Symmetry with the rest. It is inha­bited by two great Princesses of the Royal Bloud, Mademoiselle de Montpensier, Soveraign of Dem­bes; and Madam de Guise, Dutchess of Alen­con.

Tuscany has afforded many Popes: the sole Town of Sienna has given Alexander the Third, of the Family of Bandinellis; Pius the Second, and Pius the Third, or the House of Picolo­miny; Alexander the Seventh; of that Chisi; Clement the Ninth was Native of Pistoya. A [Page 66]Historiographer of Brandenburg relates, that Pope Pius the Fourth having an intention to give the quality of King to a Duke of Florence, the Emperour being advertised of it by an Em­bassadour, answered, Italia non habet Regem nisi Coesarem. Others believe that this Answer was given by Charles the Fifth, when he was spoken to concerning the restitution of the Town of Milain to Duke Ludovick Sforce, who had depo­sited it in his hands.

Some think that the Italian Tongue is more pure at Sienna than in the rest of Italy. many think that those persons talk much after the same rate, as those who say that better French is spoken at Blois and at Saumur, than at Paris; which seems a Paradox: for there where the Court is, the French Academy, the greatest Prea­chers of the Kingdom, and a most renowned Bar, the Language ought to be most pure and polite. This may be a little Problematical, be­cause the diversity of Nations that are at Paris cause the corruption of the Language. You must observe, that Sienna has a flourishing Aca­demy, and that almost all the Towns of Italy have Academies; we see them mentioned in a book of the Academy of the Abbot Bourdelot, containing divers Researches: It is to be had at Thomas Moettes in Harp-street, at the signe of St. Alexis.

The Duke of Mantua.

Charles the Third, of the House of Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua, Cath. His Arms are Argent a Cross Pattee Gules between four Eagles Sable, on the whole an Escutcheon, quarterly first gives a Lion Rampant Or, and 3 Bars Sable. He resides at Mantua, a very large, strong, and pleasant City, which was built by Manto the Prophetess, Daughter of Tiresias. It is esteemed more an­cient than Rome by 670 years: It is scituated on the Lake Benar, which has ten leagues cir­cumference.

This Town has some Bridges on which a man may walk guarded from the Rain in some pla­ces; that of St. George is five hundred paces in length.

Mantua was made a Marquisate, An. 1433. by the Emperour Sigismond; and a Dutchy, Anno 1530. by the Emperour Charles the Fifth, in favour of Frederick de Gonzaga.

The Dukes Palace is very beautiful; it is at one of the ends of the Town. Montferrat at the foot of the Alps is of his dependancies, where­of Cazal is the Capital; it's a very large For­tress: its Cavalry are esteemed throughout all Italy. Part of Montferrat was yielded to the Duke of Savoy by the Treaty of Peace at Qui­ras. The Duke of Mantua possesses Cazal.

The Country is very fertile, but very small; [Page 68]they are there courteous and officious, particu­larly to the French, in remembrance of the as­sistance they [...]orded them in time of need.

The two famous Poets, Virgil and Tasso, were of Mantua.

The Cathedral-Church called St. Andrew, is remarkable for its Pictures and Tombs. Un­der the Quire is a vast Chappel, where is pre­served the Bloud of the Son of God, gathered by St. Longis on Mount Calvary.

Some little Soveraignties have been dismem­bred from the Dutchy of Mantua, to make Po [...] ­tions of Lands for younger Brothers: Bozol [...] Mirandula, Sabioneta, Novalara, Gustala, and o­thers, are of the number. The Dutchy yield its Prince a million yearly.

The Body of the Jews there living is com­posed of above two thousand, who are rich by reason of their great Trade; the Duke gets great Tribute from them.

Strangers that go to Mantua, if they are cu­rious, should not return without visiting Ma [...] ­mirol, a Country-house of Pleasure belonging t [...] the Duke: This place is charming for its Mar­ble, for its Grotto's, for its Conduits, for it Gardens, for its Fountains and Jet d'eaus, for its Paintings, Sculptures, and Figures.

This State is said to be 35 miles from North to South, and 50 from East to West.

The Po, the Seiche, the Ogli, and the Mine are its most considerable Rivers.

A Relation of the 23th of August 1679. tells us that a Gentleman was cured at Mantua of a Tertian Ague by an extraordinary Remedy, in the strongest time of the Fit: He was covered with pieces of Ice in his bed, and this freezing Remedy cured him at the first application; but he remained so weak, that he had much ado to set himself right again. The Physicians of the East-Indies on the Coast of Coromandel, & even at Surat, take near the same course with those that have Agues. The Spaniards drink with Ice at the strongest time of the Fit.

The Duke of Modena.

Alphonsus d'Est the third of the name, Duke of Modena. Besides this Quality, he takes that of Duke of Regio, of Prince of Carpi and of Cor­regio, of Marquess d'Est, and of Rovigni, Cath.

His Arms are Azure, an Eagle Argent, crow­ned, billed, and membred Or.

Modena is the Capital of the Dutchy of this name, and the ordinary place of residence of its Duke: Its Bulwarks are made of the ancient fashion.

If this State be small, it is good.

Renaud Cardinal d'Est Bishop of Regio, was Protector of some Crowns at the Court of Rome.

The Dukal Dignity began in the House of Modena, An. 1452. under the Emperour Frederick the Third.

The ancient Houses of Brunswick in Germany, and of Modena in Italy, are of the same Stock, and make good their Descent almost from the year 800.

The Duke of Parma and of Placentia.

Rainutio Farnesis Duke of Parma and of Pla­centia, Cath.

His Arms are Or, with six Flower-de-luces Azure.

Petro Luigi Farnesis was the first Duke of Parma. Alexander Farnesis, youngest Son of Pedro Luigi, was one of the greatest Captains of his Age. Pope Paul the Sixth, born at Far­nesis, began the Council of Trent.

Parma is the Capital of the Dutchy, and the ordinary place of residence of the Duke.

The Dukes Palace is beautiful, the Citadel is not amiss: the Soil is good, it contains in many places excellent Fields and fat Pastures for fee­ding all sorts of Cattel, and particularly Cows. Its great Parmesan-Cheeses are very famous; they are sent in so great a number into all parts of Europe, that this sole Merchandize is able to inrich the Inhabitants. The Country is so fer­tile, that all things necessary and commodious for the life of man are there found. The Po, the Trebeia, and the Taro, water it.

This State has not much above 25 leagues in length, and 20 in breadth.

The Bishop of Trent.

THe Bishop and Prince of Trent is called Alberti: he was made Bishop Anno 1677. The Cathedral Church is dedicated to St. Vigil; it is built of great Free-stone, even to its high Steeple: its Canons are all of No­ble extraction, and have the right of chusing their Bishop. The Town of Trent, besides its Antiquity, is famous throughout the World for its General and Oecumenical Council held under three Popes. It began under Paul the Third, Anno 1545. continued under Julius the Third, and ended under Pius the Fourth, 1563. It continued a long time, because it was interrup­ted on the occasion of Troubles and Wars be­twixt Christian Princes. All Church-men ought to read continually this Council. Tren­tin is a Province near the Alps.

Its Capital City is on the River Adige.

This Principality is under the protection of the House of Austria, as the Principality of Mourgue or Monacho is under that of France.

The Figure of Italy, and its Length.

ITaly has the figure of a Cavalier's Boot, and is 300 common leagues of France in length, from Chamberry to Regio, which is at the farthest part of Calabria. As for its wideness, it [Page 72]is small, and unequal; in some places it is 30, in others 50, and elsewhere 100 French leagues wide. The Alps divide it from France and Ger­many. Lombardy is included in Italy. The States of Savoy, Piemont, Milain, Genoa, and Montferrat, are in Ʋpper Lombardy.

The States of Venice, Mantua, Parma, Mode­na, Trent, &c. are of Lower Lombardy.

Before we proceed farther, I have thought it proper to give here the following little Itine­rary, for distinguishing the different Leagues of divers States, as serving for Topical History.

An Itinerary.

THe Italians make their leagues of 1000 paces; they count by the mile.

The common league of France is of 3000 paces, and in places about Paris of 1500. In Gascoigne they equal those of Germany; those of Limosin and Berne exceed them.

The ordinary leagues of Germany and Poland are of 4000 paces, and in Hungary of 6000, and in Switzerland of 5000.

In Spain and in Portugal they contain 3000 paces, and are of a different length, as in France.

In England they comprize 1250.

In Sweden and in Norway 8000. These are the longest of all; in some places they are of 6000 paces.

In Muscovy they include 800 Geometrical paces: two ordinary paces make the Geome­trical. The Russians and Muscovites call leagues Verstes.

The Jews count by furlongs: their league is composed of 15 furlongs; each furlong con­tains 125 paces, whereof each is five foot. Sta­dium, according to its Etymology, signifies sta­tion, or rest.

The Greek furlong is likewise of 25 Geome­trical paces.

The Egyptians measure their leagues by Schoenes or furlongs.

The Moguls by Cosses, which are of 1500 paces.

The Persians by Parasanga's, which are 30 furlongs. Authors differ about the measure of Parasanga's.

The Chinese league is of 2500 paces.

Antonius, Andrew Resendius, Gretserus, Me­rula, Rabbi Benjamin, Count de Brinne, Peter de la Vallée a Roman Gentleman, John Baptista de Rocole, and others, have made Itineraries.

Some Astrologers speaking of Leagues, have taken occasion to say, that the Sun goes in an hour 290921 leagues of the greatest of France. According to this computation, he must go as quick or swifter than an Arrow out of a Bow, or as a Bullet shot out of a Musket, by reason of the greatness of the way he passes day and night.

On this ground it has been asserted, that in case a Carrier could go post from the Earth to Heaven, he would not reach to the Starry Heaven in 1300 years, if he went not more than 16 or 17 German leagues each day.

Hesiod says in his Theogonia, that it would require nine days and nine nights for an Anvil of Iron to fall from the Heaven of the Moon to the Earth, and that it would arrive on it the tenth. Let us leave the consideration of these matters to Astrologers.


LOƲIS the Fourteenth, King of France and Navarre, surnamed the Great, came into the World the Fifth of September, An. 1638. was declared of Age the Seventh of September, 1651. Crowned at Rheims the Se­venth of June, 1654. & was Married at St. Johns de Luz, An. 1660. the Ninth of June, to Mary Theresa of Austrich, Infanta of Spain, Daughter of Philip the Fourth, and of Elizabeth of France. This great Princess is a Mirrour of Piety, and the Mother of the People. Those that have the honour to behold her Countenance, have the happiness to find there all the Graces which have taken pleasure to seat themselves in it.

The Twenty fourth of August of the same year, their Majesties made their Royal Entry in­to Paris, accompanyed with Princes, Ambassa­dors, and Forreign Ministers, with all the Pomp and Magnificence imaginable. Heaven has blest this Marriage by the Birth of Mon­seigneur le Dauphin.

Loüis is the Most Christian King, and the Eldest Son of the Church.

He has for Motto, Consiliis armisque potens.

And also this, Nec pluribus Impar.

He bears Azure Three Flower-de-luces, Or, [Page 76]which formerly were Semè, or without num­ber, and reduced to Three by Charles the Sixth. The Scutcheon is Environed with the Collars of The Orders of S. Michael, and of the Holy Ghost, Ensigned with a Helmet, Or, entirely open, thereon a Crown closed after the manner of an Imperial Crown, with eight in arched Rayes, topt with a double Flower-de-luce; and this is the Crest: for Supporters, two Angels habited as Levites, the whole under a Pavilion Royal, Semè of France, Lined Ermines, with these words, Ex omnibus sloribus elegi mihi Lilium. Li­lia non laborant neque nent.

These terms, The Lillies do not spin, import, That the Flower-de-luces, which represent the Crown of France, never fall to the Distaff, & that the Female Sex cannot inherit according to the Salick Law; as it is amongst the Chaldeans, E­gyptians, Persians, Chineses, Turks, Tartars, and Parthians. Women have sometimes succeeded in Spain, England, Sicily, and in Sweden; but never in France.

The Arms of Navarre are Gules, Chains of Gold interlaced, parted into Orles, Pales, Fesses, Counterbands, or Saltiers.

The Livery of the most Christian King is of a Blew colour.

This Monarch has a Physiognomy more Di­vine than Humane, which moves a most pro­found respect; and we perceive in his Counte­nance a sweetness which tempers his Majesty: [Page 77]he is gifted with the Sublime Science of Go­verning; he is another Solomon, in rendring the Oracles of his Judgments. Mounting on Horseback, he puts himself in the head of his Armies, which he conducts as another David, or as another Alexander the Great; whose pre­sence imports more than Millions of Captains, and an entire Army. He takes whole Provin­ces in all seasons, and in a day Four Towns toge­ther: there is little difference with him betwixt the Design and the Execution: what has he not done before these important places, Lille, Ma­strich, Valenciennes, Cambray, Gaunt, Ipres, and others, for their reducement? He has performed the Office of a General, and of a Captain, and has toyled as a simple Souldier. He has been all at once King, General of an Army, Marshal of the Camp, Sergeant of the Battel, Captain, Souldier, Engineer, and Cannoneer. He holds all his Enemies play; and the more he has, the more he puts to the Rout. He has gotten so many Palms and Laurels, that the fires of joy and publick rejoycings have shewn themselves throughout the whole Kingdom. His Adven­tures are a Concatenation of Victories, Tri­umphs and Prodigies. He is worthy the Em­pire of the whole Earth: the great Armies which he keeps on foot, and his yearly Reve­nue above one hundred Millions, render him formidable to the opposers of his glory. We are sheltered under his Royal Mantle seme de lis, [Page 78]which is so long and large, that it is capable of giving shelter and security, not only to his own State, but also to Forreigners.

If the Kings of Spain glory in the Title of Catholick, the Kings of France merited it before them. Philip de Valois was honoured with it, An. 1329. for having upheld the Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction: Its Loüis the Great particularly, who extends Christianity even into the new world by his care, in maintaining Evangelical Labourers, where they cry, Vive le Roy de France.

We shall observe here, that this custom of crying Vive le Roy, comes from the Hebrews: when Solomon was proclaimed King by the sound of the Trumpet, the people cry'd often, Let the King live. On this occasion the Romans cryed at the Proclamation of their Emperours, The Gods protect and keep you for ever. Froissard and Enguerand de Monstrelet, cited by Peter de Romuald, say, that it is not yet 200 years since that in France, instead of crying Vive le Roy, they cryed Noël, Noël; that is, as though they said Hosanna, which signifies Salus & Gloria: Blessed be him that comes in the Name of the Lord. It's to the Kings of France that Heaven sent the Holy Vial for their Consecration, in the person of Clovis: An ancient Poet made these Verses on this Subject.

Remigius sacris Regem dum lavit in undis,
Attulit è sacro Chrisma Columba polo.

It is those who have the power and vertue of curing the Kings Evil, by the touch of their Royal hands, and making the sign of the Cross on the Patient, and saying, The King touches, and God cures. How redoubtable to Infidels has been the Royal Standart, or Banner, which some think to have been sent from Heaven to Clovis! I shall say no more; the splendour of the Maje­sty of Loüis the Great dazles me: I have not the Eyes of an Eagle to look fixtly on the Sun. I shall onely add something concerning the E­ducation of Monsieur le Dauphin.

The Dolphin of France, and his Marriage.

THis Prince came into the world the first day of November, 1661. The King has enlightned the steps of his youth, and has given him a meet Education, and inspired into him, that he must never be Absolute but in Reason and Justice. These are the firm Pillars of a State. His Majesty considering that it is to in­fect the head of a publick Fountain, to corrupt the Soul of a Prince that may one day be sea­ted on the Throne; for this reason removes from his company Flatterers and Libertines, who might render obscure the precious gifts and rare qualities which Heaven pours with full hands on this Royal Soul; which rejoyces France, which increases every day more and more, by the noble cares, by the high lights, and [Page 80]by the incomparable Conduct of the Illustrious Persons who have governed and instructed him. This Prince in his Orient is the admiration of the whole Court, of Ambassadors and of For­reign Ministers; and will be one day the Model of the greatest Heroes. We see this Divine Plant to grow and rise it self every day to the admiration and glory of France, and of the Church. Anno 1668, Pope Clement the Ninth sent into France Prince Loüis, Cardinal Deacon, Duke of Vendôme, Legat a Latere, to Loüis the Fourteenth, for the Solemnity and Ceremony of the Baptism of Monsieur le Dauphin. His Ho­liness was Godfather, and he was named Loüis August. This Prince has Married the Electoral Princess of Bavaria, Mary-Ann-Victoir-Christian. People admire her Perfections, the excellency of her Understanding, her Majestick Air, the evenness of her Humour, and generally all the excellent qualities that she possesses; which yet, as eminent as they are, are much beneath the Christian Vertues wherewith her fair Soul is endowed. This great Princess will give her Spouse Heirs to the Crown, and he in exchange will Crown her with Palms and Laurels. The Church and the State will gather the fruits of Glory and of Benediction. The 7th of March, 1680, Cardinal Boüillon, great Almoner of France, gave them the second Benediction of Marriage at Chalons on Marn. Lilia florebunt, the Lillies will flourish, and diffuse their agreea­ble [Page 81]odour over all the earth. I have spoken of the August Electoral House of Bavaria, in the Tract of the Princes Electors of the Empire.

The Duke of Orleans.

MOnsieur the only Brother of the King, did not fail to signalize his Courage before Lisle and Mastrich when they were reduced, and to take Towns on other occasions. Before he reduced St. Omer to the Kings Obedience, he surpast himself on the eleventh of April of the year 1677. at the Battle which he fought at Cassel, being assisted by the Marshals d'Humie­res, and de Luxembourg; where he gained a ve­ry great and very famous Victory o'er the Spa­nish and Dutch Troops commanded by the Prince of Orange. The Chevalier de Lorain was always near his person in the Fight; and his Brother the Chevalier d'Harcourt may be lookt upon as a second David, after having killed at the Battle of Raab the Turkish Goliah, who insolently insulted over the Christian Army. Cassel is known in History to have been the field of Battle of three Sons of France, all cal­led Philip; the first was overcome, the other two were Conquerers.

This last and glorious day was remarkable for many singular actions: the Cavalry contri­buted extreamly by their vigour, to the gain­ing of this great Battle: they had the advan­tage [Page 82]to give the beginning to the Victory, over­throwing at first onset the left Wing of the Ene­my. We may say that the first Squadron, com­posed of Scotch and English, was not of those that signalized themselves least, by the advan­tage it had to begin, and almost to end this great day; it was led by the Compt de Bröe, more known by the name de la Guette. His firmness was like to have cost him his life in the last Charge; his sole Squadron, which was well kept in order, being attackt by five Squadrons of the Enemy. This Count, Captain-Lieute­nant of the English Souldiery for his most Christian Majesty, was very fortunate, in that it cost him but his liberty: ev'n his Enemies rendred Justice to his Merit, by treating him with as much Civility as he could wish. The Musketeers came very seasonably at the instant that the Victory hanged in doubt; they made themselves Masters of the Barricado of Cassel. The Commander de Fourbin, whose Illustrious and Ancient House has furnisht great Captains and learned Politicians to the State, whom our Kings have caressed and honoured with the greatest Employs of the Kingdom, and so esteem­ed them, that they have been pleased to have them for their safety as well as for their Coun­cel near their Royal persons; it's the Elogy of their Family, The Wise and Valiant Fourbins; gave a testimony of both in this dangerous and important occasion: and his Majesty shewed his [Page 83]generous acknowledgment, by the reception he made him at his glorious return, even to give him his Picture which he took from his arm, and which the Sieur Commander Captain-Lieutenant of the first Company had more in his heart than all the Pictures that could be given him. The Sieur de Hautfaye, Lord of Jonvel, Captain-Lieutenant of the second Com­pany, did his part well there. The Chevalier de Lussan in this famous Battle lost one Arm by a Cannon-shot, in the service of his King and Country. The Count d'Avejan, Captain of the Guards, bestirred himself vigorously according to his wont.

The Prince of Condé and the Duke d'Enguien.

FRance has always been provided with great Men in all Ages, and in all kinds. It has not been at a loss for great Captains, men of Brain and execution, good for War and for Peace, for Battles and for Treaties; such as have not been like the Emperour Domitian, who amus'd him­self in running through slyes with a Golden Bodkin; or Aropas King of Macedon, who made Lanterns; or Hartabus, King of the Hircans, who caught Moles; or Biantes King of the Ly­dians, who ran Frogs through: It has in this Age Loüis de Bourbon Prince of Condé, and the Duke d'Enguien, Sons of Mars and Bellona, to whom the number of Enemies does but add [Page 84]courage, bloody occasions being their diver­tisements: and for this reason they have done actions that might better be imagined than written. Their Swords have painted them much more lively with the blood of the Spani­ards and other Nations, than they may be re­presented with a Quill. The most intelligent know well, that these are not chance-blows, but ordinary effects of their dexterity and courage. The famous and bloody Battle of Senef Crowns their Military Exploits. They have joyned Learning with Arms, and have an excellent Li­brary, where there are rare Greek and Latine Manuscripts. The Father and the Son are living Libraries.

Prince Henry de la Tour d'Auvergne, Vicount de Turenne.

FRance has its Marshals and its Captains, and an infinite number of valiant and flesht Souldiers, the greatest part of them capable of commanding; and he that has commanded them so long time, and so gloriously, Henry de la Tour d'Auvergne, Vicount de Turenne, Marshal-General of the Kings Camps and Armies, and Colonel-General of the French Cavalry, is re­commendable for his famous Exploits, and for the important Victories that he has gained over the Enemies of the State; and more in this hap­py day, that renouncing the Errour in which [Page 85]he was born, and in which he had lived, he embraced with a sincere heart the Catholick Faith, which leads to Eternal Salvation, the Church Militant has not had less joy than the Triumphant. Though Learning was familiar to this Prince, and that he has been heard to say very convincing things for the proof and maintaining of Catholick Truths; the Church is obliged to Cardinal de Boüillon, his Nephew, for having contributed to so illustrious a Con­quest. Italian Princes were heard to say to his Highness at his promotion to the Cardinalship, La promotion di vestra Altezza al Cardinalato Colmo d'honore il Sacro Collegio.

I shall not omit, that if the said Henry de la Tour left the Earth the Twenty first of July, 1675. to rest from his labours, being killed by a Cannon-shot near Satzbach, as he went to take a view of a Post of the Imperial Army, to the end to give it Battle; after the loss of so great a Man, the King, to comfort himself, made Nine Marshals of France; the Count d'Estrade, the Duke de Navailles, the Count de Schomberg, the Duke de Duras, the Duke de Vivonne, the Duke de la Feüillade, the Duke de Luxembourg, the Marquess de Rochefort, and the Count de Lorge. His Majesty honour'd them with the dignity of the Marshals staff the Thirtieth of July of the same year of Vicount Turenne's death.

The Ancientest Marshals of France living, Anno 1680. are these.

THe Marshal Duke de Villeroy, the Marshal Duke de la Ferte-Seneterre, the Marshal de Crequi, the Marshal de Bellefond, and the Mar­shal d'Humieres: these three last are of the pe­nultimate Promotion. The Marshal de Roche­fort dyed An. 1676. he quitted the life Military for the glorious.

The Ministers and Secretaries of State.

IF the King be the Soul of the Monarchy, his Ministers are the Organs by which he works. His Majesty has carried the glory of France to so high a point, that it may hope all things, and its Enemies fear all. Its Ministers and Secreta­ries of State are indefatigable in their pretious vigilancy, and in the cares they take for the rest of the Kingdom. They have all signalized themselves: their spirit is filled with lights so shining, that there is no cloud that they do not pierce, nor no Forreign or Domestick Factions which they do not dissipate and subvert: their experience is universal. A very famous Preacher, who is an Archbishop, Preaching in Sorbon on the day of St Ʋrsula, the Patroness Feast of that Colledge, in the presence of Anne of Austriche, Queen of France, said, that Cardinal Richlieu had [Page 87]the Spirit of the Prophet Elias, and Cardinal Mazarine that of the Prophet Elizeas. I be­lieve that these have the Spirit of Elias and Eli­zeas, Richlieu and Mazarine. Nor is it to be won­dred at, all their lights being but necessary and favourable emanations of the great splendour of the Sun, who animates and enlightens them.

The Chancellour.

MEssire Michael de Tellier, Chevalier, Chan­cellour and Keeper of the Seals of France, Commander of the Kings Orders, Lord of Cha­villes, Barbezieux, and other places, excels in Councel, Understanding, and Integrity; he is consummated in the decision of affairs of grea­test difficulty. Italy has been the Theater of his great Actions, as well as France. For this reason, Loüis the Thirteenth made him Secreta­ry of State, and Loüis the Fourteenth Crea­ted him Chancellour and Keeper of the Seals, for the faithful and important Services that he has rendred his Majesty for above thirty six years, in the functions of Minister and Se­cretary of State. He has the esteem of all great persons, and the applause of the people: his Memory will be preserved eternally in the Chronicles of France. The Arms of his House are Three Lizards, which are friendly to Man. That which renders particularly eminent the Office of Chancellour, (which this person pos­sesses, [Page 88]is, that he is Chief Minister of the Kings Justice, and of his Councel: it is he, who like another Legislatour Moses, ascends into the Mountain; he enters into the Cloud which en­virons the Throne of his Prince, where the Rayes and Lightning of Royal Majesty display themselves, and where he receives the Laws and Ordinances which he afterwards pronoun­ces to all the people.

He never wears Mourning, because in some sort he deposes his own person, to represent for the future nought but Justice; it being not de­cent for this vertue, which is wholly Divine, to shew a feeling of humane infirmities. He has for exteriour mark of his high dignity, on his Scutcheon a Cap of Honour of Cloth of Gold, faced with Ermines, topt with the figure of a Queen, the Hieroglyphick of France, with the Scepter in the right hand, and the Seals of the Kingdom in the left; & behind the Scutche­on two great Maces of Silver gilt plac'd in Saltier, with a Mantle like those of the Dukes and Peers of France, adorned with rayes of Gold towards the top, and lined with Ermins, which encompass all the Scutcheon. The door-keepers of the Chancery-Court carrying a Mace of Silver gilt on their Shoulders, march before him, and the other door-keepers in order.

In the Book entituled l'Estat de la France, Printed An. 1678. pag. 199. I found these follow­ing Lords ranged in this following manner, [Page 89]as I place them. If I have not well follow­ed the order, there will be no contest betwixt them for precedency, each of them knowing very well his right and duty, they teaching them to others.

M. de la Vrilliere.

MEssire Loüis Phelipeaux, Chevalier, Lord of Vrilliere, Marquess of Chasteaux-Neuf on Loire, and of Tanlai, Count de S. Florentin, Baron de Hervi, and the ancientest Secretary of State, was Sworn to his Office, An. 1629. He has a great zeal for the welfare of the Church: the general affairs of the pretended Reformed Religion are committed to him, and many o­thers. Languedoc, the County of Foix, Guienne, Rovergne, and Quercy, Broüage, and the Country of Aunis, Touraine, Anjou, le Main, and le Perche, Normandy, Burgundy, and Brest, and all that is under his charge, gives testimony of his Vertue and Merit. He has a Son who pos­sesses the See of the Patriarchal, Archiepiscopal, and private Church of Bourges. Messire Pier­re Balthazar Phelipeaux de la Vrilliere, Mar­quess of Chasteau-Neuf, who has the Reversi­on of the place of Secretary of State, and of the Kings Orders, treads in the glorious foot­steps of his Father: the marks which he daily gives, are proofs of what he will be hereafter.

M. de Louvois.

MEssire Francois Michel de Tellier, Cheva­lier, Marquess of Louvois, and of Cour­tanvau, Councellor in ordinary to the King in his Councels, Chancellour of his Orders, Mi­nister and Secretary of State, and of his Ma­jesties commands, Vicar-General of the Order of Nostre Dame du Mount Carmel, and of St. La­zarus of Hierusalem, great Post-master, and Superintendant of the Posts and Stages of France, &c. has given an infinite number of ma­nifest proofs of his Consummated skill in Mili­tary Discipline. It seems as though he had ex­ercised himself in it all his life-time: this shews that great men are capable of all things: his name is known throughout the whole Earth: the Hollanders, Spaniards, and others, when the War was at the highest, declared that he went like Lightning, when the Service of his King and Country called upon him. He pos­sesses the eminent qualities of his Father the Chancellour of France. Poitou, la Marche, Lion­nois, Dauphine, Catalognia, and Roussillon, Pigne­rol, Lorrain, Alsatia, the places Conquered and yeilded, the Fortifications of these Generalities, the War, the Taxes raised for the support of the Souldiery, and the Artillery, are things belong­ing to his Charge.

M. Colbert.

MEssire John Baptist Colbert, Chevalier, Marquess of Seignelay, Baron of Mone­teau, Beaumont, Cheni, Ormois, Sceaux, and other places; Counsellor in ordinary to the King in his Councils, and of the Royal Council; Gene­ral Controuler of the Kings Revenue, Superin­tendant of the Navy, Arts, and Manufactures of France; Minister and Secretary of State. He has acted vigorously for the subsistance of the Armies of the French Monarchy, in finding means to raise such Moneys as were necessary, which are the Nerves of War. He has the prudence of the Serpent, as it is express'd in his Arms. Cardinal Mazarine considering his De­sert, before he died wisht the King to make use of him as his Minister, for his fidelity, and for his service. His admirable Conduct daily ma­nifests it self, both in general and in particular, even to the education of his Children, and of his Illustrious Relations. Messire Charles Edoü­ard Colbert, Marquess of Seignelay, is the eldest of the House: he makes himself daily admir'd in the diversity of his Employs and Affairs where­with he is taken up in his Majesties service: he is Secretary of State, Superintendant of the Ma­ritine affairs, both in the East and West. I saw, Anno 1677. Messire Julius Armandus Colbert, Lord of Ormais, at the age of fourteen years, [Page 92]defend publick and general Theses of Philoso­phy in the University of Paris, under the Presi­dency of his Brother, the Abbot Messire Jacque Nicolas, then Prior of Sorbonne, to the admira­tion of all that there is of Great and Learned in the Kingdom. I cannot hold from saying [...] this noble Defender in his Orient, what was said of St. John Baptist at his birth, Quis puta [...] puer iste erit? It's a rare thing to see a Brother perform that Office under a Brother, and with so wonderful a presence of understanding. These are Prodigies, and Marks of their grea [...] Genius. It may well be said on this occasion Fortes creantur fortibus; and with the Oracle Corona senum filii filiorum, & gloria filiorum pa­tres eorum. I shall not be more large, lest I of­fend the modesty of the Father and of his Chil­dren: I shall onely say, that this wise Mana­ger of the Kings Revenue has in his division Paris, the Isle of France, and the Country of Soissons, as far as Noyon, Orleanois, Blezois, the Kings House, the Clergy, what regards the Sea, Trade, and Manufactures. As I write this Ar­ticle, the admirable and elegant Sermon which the Illustrious Abbot his Brother made one day on the Feast of St. John Baptist, comes into my mind: Paris rendered it self that day at Sceaux to hear it: This Sermon was followed with many others in the Capital City of the King­dom, and always with excellent success. This Abbot is Doctor of the House and Society of [Page 93] Sorbonne, and Coadjutor to the Archbishop of Roüen, since the second of Feb. 1680.

M. Colbert Croissi.

MEssire Charles Colbert, Chevalier, Mar­quess of Croissi, Minister and Secretary of State, President of the Parliament of Paris, formerly Master of Requests, and Intendant of Justice, has acquired the Political and Geogra­phical knowledge of all the States of the World; that of Ancient and Modern History, and of all the Interests of the Princes and Potentates of Christendom, in his Ordinary and Extraordi­nary Embassies at Rome, in England, Spain, at Aix la Chappel, and in quality of Embassadour and Plenipotentiary at Nimigen for the general Peace of Europe, and at Bavaria for the Marri­age of Monseigneur le Dauphin with the Electo­ral Princess, and in other important Negotia­tions. Holland shewed him the joy they received after the Peace concluded, to see him in their Country; and he manifested his by his profuse liberality of his Gold and Silver to the People in some Towns. This Minister having seen so many Countries and Nations, and all Courts, it may be said of him what Homer said of Ʋlysses in the beginning of his Odysses, according to the translation from the Greek into Latine, Multo­rum autem hominum vidit urbes, & mores novit. Champagne, and Brie, Provence, Britany, Berry, [Page 94]Limosin, Angoumois, Xaintonge, Bearn, Bigorre the three Bishopricks of Metz, Toul, and Verdun the Principality of Sedan, and the Forreign Countries which are also in his division, have all a veneration for his Conduct and Generosity. He succeeded to Messire Simon Arnaud, Cheva­lier, Lord of Pomponne, in his Charge of Secre­tary and Minister of State, which he demised in the Month of December, An. 1679.

The Councels.

THe Councels are composed of the Chan­cellour Keeper of the Seals of France, of the Marshal Duke de Villeroy Chief of the Royal Council for the Kings Revenue, of Twelve ordinary Councellours of State, Three Coun­cellors of the Church, and Three of the Sword, Twelve attending every six Months. The King regulating the Councel, An. 1673. added the Controuler General of his Revenues, and the two Intendants of them, to have place in the Councels des Parties, as they have in those of the Revenue.

The Councellours of State are chosen by his Majesty, being such as have past the greatest part of all the Offices of the Robe, having been Intendants of Justice, or Ambassadors, or first Presidents of the Parliaments; these are at present the best and most sought-for Offices of the Kingdom, and which come nearest the [Page 95]King, who gives such persons daily the best em­ploys, and Commissions of greatest importance for the service of himself and the State. To these Councels the Masters of Request have ac­cess, which are to the number of Eighty, where­of Twenty serve each Quarter: after having been honoured with many Commissions and Intendancies, they are preferred by his Maje­sty to Employs of the highest nature where he designs them.

The two Intendants of the Revenue are Mes­sire Vicount Hotman, and Messire Nicholas des Marests Colbert.

The first has been Councellor in the grand Councel, Master of Requests, and Intendant of Justice in Guyen, and in Tourain, Proctor-General of the Chamber of Justice, and afterwards honoured by the King with a place in his Councels, and with the Commission of Intendant of the Kings Revenue, and of Justice in the generality of Paris: all these great Employs are marks of his singular Merit, which he has signalized in all occurrences. Messire Nicolas des Marests has been Counsel­lour to the Parliament of Paris, and is at pre­sent Master of Requests, and Intendant of the Kings Revenues. There is no man but knows that he has always done things with skill and integrity: his Ability, his Candour and the care that he takes, appear in his Conduct as three great lights, which make him known to those that will be enlightned.

When the waves are troubled, the Vessel has most need of skilful Pilots: the perfect know­ledge that these two Intendants have of the In­terests of the Provinces, has served them as a Watch-tower to keep them from erring; and the zeal they have for the advantage of his Majesties Revenue, is another means for them to behave themselves well betwixt the Sove­raign and his Subjects: in a word, to the end that the King may receive as much aid as his people comfort.

The Illustrious Controller General of the Kings Revenues, of whom I have spoken before, may rely on the fidelity of these two Inten­dants.

The Four Secretaries of the Kings Revenues are the Sieur Bechameil, Berrier, Ranchin, and Coquille.

The Four Clerks of the Councel des Parties are the Sieurs Aguillaumie, Pecot, le Foüyn, and Brunet.

The Keeper of the Royal Treasury in wai­ting, enters into the Councel of the Kings Re­venues; and also the Treasurer of the casual Revenues in waiting, when they are upon the Rolls of the casual Revenues, this person stands behind the Chancellours Chair.

Besides the Councel of the Finances, and the Councel des Parties, the King has also a Councel of Dispatches, a Councel of War, and others ac­cording to different affairs: the Councel of [Page 97]Dispatches is held in the Kings Chamber, where attend the Duke of Orleans, the Chancellour, the Marshal de Villeroy, the Four Secretaries of State, and those that are received for that Office upon Survivorship. His Majesty presides in the Councel of War: the Princes, the Marshals of France, and other Lords skilful in the Military Art, are ordinarily called to it.

France the Mountain of the Muses.

IF France be the field of Mars, it is also the Mountain of the Muses, and the refuge of Arts. Philosophy has left Egypt and Greece, to make its residence in this Kingdom. The Spa­niards confess this truth by this Proverb used in the University of Salamanca; Dat Lutetia Ari­stotelum, Salamanca Deum. It's at Paris parti­cularly where we find new Plato's and Aristo­tles in subtilty and solidness, Consummated Divines, Orators like Cicero and Quintilian; Cujas's and Bartholus's for the Canon and Civil Laws; second Galen's, Hippocrates's, and Escula­pius's in Physick. Astrology gives us in the House of the Observatory, its Ptolomy's, its Alphonsus's, and its Tico-Brahe's; the Mathe­maticks Cluverius's; Poesie, its Virgil's, its Ovids, its Martials, and its Homers. Painting its Apel­les, and Carvers its Phidias. It's in France where Forreigners come and suck the Ambrosia, and drink large draughts of the Nectar of the Gods.

The ordinary places of Residence of their most Christian Majesties.

PAris, Saint Germains in Laye, Versailles, Vin­cennes, Fontainbleau, Chambort, Blois, Com­peinne.

These dwelling-places are truly Royal: the Louvre, the Chasteau des Tuilleries; that of Fon­tainbleau and Versailles are a Miracle of Nature, and a Prodigy of Art in all things; and in a word, the Centre of the Rarities and beautiful things of the world.

The Louvre.

PHILLIP August ended the Building of the Louvre, An. 1214. This Palace being the first of the Kingdom, and as a Master-piece, some Authors think that this Monarch called it le Louvre, as though he would say, l'Oeuvre, (the Work) by Excellency: others think it so called, from a street called Lupura, or Lupara, in which it is thought to be built. Loüis the Fourteenth putting the last hand to it, has so enlarged it, that it is capable of receiving three Kings. A Learned and excellent Wit of our time, has made this Inscription for the Louvre, which compre­hends and expresses the greatness of the Build­ing, the greatness of the person, and of the Name of King Loüis le Grand, and the expli­cation [Page 99]of his Devise or Motto, Nec pluribus Impar, in these terms.

Haec licet ampla domus longè tamen amplior hospes,
Ludovico magno nec totus sufficit orbis
Sufficeret solus multis, nec pluribus Impar.

The same Inscription in English.

This House though great, the Person whose Command
It owns, is greater much, Loüis le Grand
Does find the world too scant, for he alone
Would serve for many, fit for more than One.

It's in the Louvre where Learning has been stript of the gross Bark of the School; it's there where the Muses are habited a-la-mode, and where they are given the fine turn of Polite­ness, by the means of the French Academy in­stituted by Cardinal Richlieu, An. 1635. for the pureness and perfection of the French Tongue. Of late, some Towns of this Kingdom have e­rected Academies for this purpose; as Arles, Suissons, and others. We shall here observe, that in France, in the time of the said Cardinal, the Gazette, which according to the term de Gaza, signifies a heap of divers things, began An. 1631. and that the first Gazettier, called Theophrast Renaudot, Physician of the faculty of Montpellier, dedicated it to Loüis the Thirteenth. I saw it in the Library of Colledge Maza­rin; it succeeded the French Mercury; its dates and Chronologies were in the Margin.

The Tuilleries.

THe Tuilleries are call'd by this name, be­cause in this place formerly there was Tuillerie, or place to make Tiles. Queen Ca­therine de Medices caused this building to be be­gan in the Month of May of the year 1564 Loüis the Fourteenth has compleated it, and rendred it August: this Prince has planted in the Garden Sycomers and Indian Maroniers▪ and other beautiful Trees; he has made Knot [...] and Beds, with all sorts of Flowers, large Allie [...] little Wildernesses, great Cesterns, with thei [...] Jet d' Eaux and Terrasses, and has placed excel­lent Statues in it: that of Time, which devours [...] Children, is very remarkable. We see Di [...] ­na of Ephesus in one of the four Chambers of the ancient Pieces of the Louvre.


THe number of excellent Fountains, and great streams of water, have given to this place the name it bears. The Inhabitants think that the name Fontainbleau comes from a Fountain of fair water that is to be seen there at this day. In the Palace we find four of them, and as many Gardens: its Chambers are very rich, and its Galeries very beautiful: in one of them are represented in excellent Painting, the [Page 101]Fights and Victories of some Kings of France. We see in another the Antiquities, the Garden-Knots, the Grotto's, the Water-falls, the fine Walks, the great Mail, the Meadows and the Groves that render this place famous: we see the Hermitage of St. Loüis on a little knap in the midst of the way of the Forest, which is very large, and very full of all kind of Deer. Joüin de Rochefort has excellently particulariz'd this Royal House.


THere is nothing more agreeable, nothing more sumptuous nor magnificent than the Palace of Versailles. Silk, Gold, Silver, Pearls and Pretious Stones, Paintings and Ta­pestry enrich it, and yet infinitely more the presence of the Master. Its Gardens are vast and charming, and the water falls the finest that may be seen. How admirable is the great Park, with the great Channel, which is thirty two fa­thoms wide, & nine hundred in length! the two Horses that stand at its entrance in a fierce po­sture, as those of Montecavallo in Rome, draw on them the fixt eyes of the Passengers. The Vi­varium contains all sorts of wild Animals. By the rule conveniunt rebus nomina saepè suis, Ver­sailles deserves to be called by this name, be­cause his Majesty pours there ordinarily his Favours and Blessings in a profuse manner on [Page 102]those who have the honour to be known to him. This place is another Terrestrial Para­dise for delights. I think I give it its Elogy in saying, It's the work of Loüis the Fourteenth, worthy of its Author; so I say all. The fa­mous Painter Apelles being to represent the greatness of a Giant, and considering that he could not include so great a Body in so small a space; he bethought himself to represent only the Thumb, with this Inscription at the bottom of the Picture, Ex ungue Leonem, The Lyon is known by his Claw: that is to say, from the proportion of this Thumb, the greatness of the rest of the Body might be known. A Greek Orator thought he had made a full Panegyrick on Philip King of Macedon, by saying that he was Father of Alexander: Cum te patrem Alex­andri dixi, totum dixi. I judge also that the Elogy of Versailles is compleat, after having said, that it is the Work of our present King, because this word in expression drains and con­summates all its praises. Non datur ultra. The Ambassadors of Forreign Princes admiring this House of Pleasure, say that it belongs but to a King of France to make the like. I do not particularize it, because we see on this subject a large Book, which gives the entire description of it.


ALL the Towns of the Kingdom govern themselves according to the motion of that of Paris, which they look on as the Pri­mum Mobile, and as the Capital. It is Royal, Sacerdotal, and the seat of the Prophets, and one of the greatest and most famous of all Chri­stendom. They count in this famous City, a Million and a half of persons: the pleasant River Sein passes through the midst of it, and wrests itself in and out at parting from it, as though it were unwilling to leave it: and to render it yet more agreeable, the River Ourques is brought to it, to supply the Trenches on the side of Montmartre, by the cares of Sieur de Manse, Treasurer-General of the Royal Hunting and Hawking. Saint Denis Consecra­ted there the Churches of St. Steven of the Greeks, that of Nostre Dame des Champs, and that of St. Bennet of the University, which was called before of the Trinity: those of St. De­nis, of Charters, and of St. Symphorien, are very ancient.

Phillip the Second, called August, made an end of Building the great and stately Temple of Nostre Dame, about the year 1200. Its Structure is admirable; this Cathedral Church contains sixty six fathom in length, twenty four in breadth, and seventeen in heighth; one [Page 104]hundred and twenty Pillars, forty five Chap­pels, a great many doors; over the three chief there are twenty eight Statues of Kings of France, & of the holy Mysteries of our Religion, which excites the Piety of the faithful. There are three hundred eighty nine steps to the place where the Bells are; the Towers are thirty four fathom in heighth above the Earth. This place is lookt upon as the lowest of Paris: the Office is there celebrated after a Divine manner; Mi­racles are there wrought; Matins are sung at Midnight: six of its Canons have been Popes: to wit, Gregory the Ninth, Adrian the Fifth, Bo­niface the Eighth, Innocent the Sixth, Gregory the Eleventh, and Clement the Seaventh: fifteen or sixteen Canons of the same Church have been Cardinals. Abbot Parfait, the ancientest Canon of this Church, has composed a fine Book, con­taining the number of Popes, Cardinals, Bi­shops, and Archbishops that this Metropolis has afforded, and other singularities since St. De­nis, to Messire Francis de Harlay de Chan­valon. The late Dean, Messire John de Contes, Counsellor of State in ordinary, consummated in the practice of the Church, has often gover­ned this Diocess to the satisfaction of all men. He dyed full of years, the fourth of July, 1679. His most worthy Nephew, Abbot Mony, who walks in his steps, succeeded him as Heir to his Vertues: his Actions are accompanied with sweetness, prudence, gravity, and modesty. [Page 105]His Brother Abbot Bongueret, Canon in the same Church, is very learned in the Science of the Canon-Law. This Chapter is a Nursery of Bishops.

This City contains Eleven Chapters, a great number of very fair Parishes, whereof some are equal to good Bishopricks; above sixty Colledges: it was once propos'd to have them reduced to six, because many of them are one-ey'd, so call'd, because there is nothing done in them, as in many other Kingdoms.

This Town contains also an infinite number of Religious Houses, excellent Fountains, Aque­ducts, many Bridges, amongst which Pont-neuf, which is all of stone, surpasses all the rest. We see in the midst of it a Monarch, who was in three rang'd Battles which he gain'd, in thirty three Rencounters, in an hundred and forty fights, and in three hundred Sieges of several places; it's Henry the 4th, excellently represented on a Horse of cast Copper, and at the end of it the Clock of the fair Fountain of the Samaritan; and Loüis the Thirteenth, on another Horse of cast Copper, with excellent Devises on the Pe­destal, in the midst of the Place Royal, which is one of its ornaments, with the Queens Tour. The Place Royal was begun to be built, Anno 1604. It's there where Coaches go the Tour, where they run the Ring, and use other publick Divertisements. The new Hôtel Royal of disa­bled men, called otherwise the Hôtel of Mars, [Page 106]as large as a Town, built for the place of resi­dence and entertainment of Souldiers that are lamed and dismembred in the Army, for the service of the State, is a Monument of the ac­knowledgment and gratitude of Lewis the Fourteenth, and a subject of the great care that the Marquess de Louvois has taken for the per­fection of this Work. The Fort of the Observa­tory for Astronomers is worthy consideration.

Before that part of St. Germains, formerly called le Fauxbourg St. Germain des Prez, and others were taken into the Town, there were counted twenty four doors: that of Saint An­thony is Royal, the figure of the King on Horse­back is over the Triumphal Arch. The late Abbot de Bourzaix thought that the Devises of this great Monument raised in the honour of Loüis le Grand, should have been Latine; al­leadging, that the Latine Tongue is the Tongue of Religion, the Tongue of the Altar, and of the Holy Ghost, and many other reasons. The Sieur Charpentier of the French Academy ta­king another way, maintains that they ought to be in our Tongue, in his Book intituled, De­fense de la Langue Francoise pour l'inscription de l'arc de Triumphe.

The same Town of Paris is honoured with the first Parliament of the Kingdom: it is the Court of the Peers where our Kings have their Throne of Justice.

It has also a very ancient University, known [Page 107]throughout the Earth for being very Learn­ed, and for making others so; Charlemain founded it, An. 791.

We take always the Rector of the Faculty of Arts according to his ancient standing. The Faculty of Divinity is composed of two pub­lick Schools; of that of Sorbone, and that of Navarre: the Sieurs Martin Grandin, Guillaume de l'Estocque, Gui Boust, Jacques de Perrier, Ed­me Pirot, and Michael Antoine Vincent, teach in the Colledge of Sorbonne. Master Martin Gran­din has dictated Divinity for these forty years. It may be said of him, Scivit & in mundo, Sci­bile quicquid erat. The Sieurs Pierre Guischard, Jean de Saussoy, Claude de Febure, and Briand Marion, are Professors in the Colledge Royal of Navarre. These two Houses have furnisht at all times great Men. The Religious Men and the Monks have their particular Professors in their Houses, which have also brought forth great persons. The Seculars and Regulars are compared to two Beams, which uphold the E­difice of the House of God. The Abbot Coque­lin, Doctor of the House and Society of Sorbone, Canon of the Church of Paris, formerly Curat of St. Mederic, and Prior of Sorbone, was made Chancellour of the University in the Month of May of the year 1679. We promise our selves great things from him, by reason of his emi­nent Learning and rare Eloquence, whereof he has given, and daily gives manifest proofs, in [Page 108]the first Chairs of Paris. To raise the dignity of his Charge of Chancellour, and the merit of his Person, there is nought wanting to him but that he occupy for some time the Chair of the Louvre. Besides his being a great Orator (which is a particular Talent) and a great School­man, he is also a great Historian, and skilful in the Oriental Tongues. He has outdone all his other knowledges by the Voyages he has made, after the example of another Dedalus, Melampius, Pythagoras, Homer, and others.

Peerless Paris is particularly embellisht with the Palace des Tuilleries, the Louvre, the Palace of Luxembourg, the Palace Royal, (these two last have changed their names) with the Hostel de Condé, de Conti, de Soissons, with the Hostel de Guise, with that of the Grand Prior of France in the Temple, with that of Angouleme, of Van­dôme, of Palace Mazarin, and of the Houses ad­jacent, with a good Arsenal, and the Bastille, the Hôtel de Villê, the Palace where Justice is ad­ministred: the Hôtel of St. Paul, recommen­dable for its Antiquity, and for having been the place of Residence of some of the first Kings of France; with the Hôtels of Lorrain, of Turenne, of Sully, of Mayenne, of Lesdiguiere, of Elboeuf, of Matignon, of the Houses of la Baziniere, and of Guenegaud; of that of the Master of Requests, Amelot Biseul, in the Marsh of the Temple, and with an infinite number of others; with two high and great Towers of the Church of Nostre-Dame, [Page 109]the Steeple of the holy Chappel of the Pa­lace, that of St. Jacques de la Boucherie, the Tow­ers and Steeples of St. Genevieve, of St. Germain des Pres, and of St. Victor; with many Coupula's, with the Dome of the Church of Sorbone, the Dome of Val de Grace, the Dome of the Jesuits of St. Loüis, the Dome of the Religious Women, of the Assumption, and with that of the Colledge of the Four Nations, founded by Cardinal Ju­lius Mazarin. We must observe, that during this last War, they have not forborn to enlarge their streets.

Colledge Mazarin, its Institution, Library, and Academy.

THis Colledge was Instituted for the main­tenance of Sixty Scholars, Sons of Gen­tlemen, who are there to be Lodged, Dieted, and Taught gratis; whereof fifteen, according as it is exprest in the Foundation, must be of Pignerol, and of the Territories and Valleys adjacent, and of the Ecclesiastical State; fif­teen of the Country of Alsatia, and other con­tiguous Countries of Germany; twenty of the Country of Flanders, Artois, Hainault, and Lux­embourg; and ten of the Country of Roussillon, Conflant, and Sardaigne. In default of Gen­tlemen, the Children of the chief Bourgers of the said Towns and Countries are to be received. Fifteen persons must be drawn from the Col­ledge [Page 110]for the Academy, without any distincti­on of the Countries mentioned.

The Colledge must be governed by the Do­ctors of the House of Sorbone; amongst which there are to be four Inspectors, one Grand-Ma­ster, Twelve of the Ancientest Doctors, who are to be under the Inspectors and grand Master. All Classes are to be gone through there, except that of Divinity: the Scholars of each are to be Governed by the Principals and Sub-principals establisht for their Nation.

There will be in the Academy a Gentleman, a Dancing-Master, a Fencing-Master, a Vault­ing-Master, a Master of the Mathematicks, and necessary servants.

The Abbey of St. Michel in l'Herm, seated in Poitou, is assigned for the maintenance of the Colledge and Academy; with many great Houses for the reception of Coaches, lying in the street Mazarin, and others.

The Library was judged very curious by the Kings of England and Denmark: these two Prin­ces saw it in the Palace Mazarin, whence it was transported into the Colledge. His Majesty of Denmark caused his to be built after the model of that: it is long, wide, and very high; and admits a great deal of light, and has the pro­spect of the Louvre, and the Seine: it will be open twice a week to all persons of Learning, on such days as shall be thought fit; as that of the Abbey of St. Victor, which is publick on Mun­days, [Page 111]Wednesdays, and Saturdays, and which is famous. The Library Mazarin contains 30000 Volumes: there are in it the chief Books of the Protestants.

Cardinal Mazarin made this pious and grand Foundation for many reasons; amongst others, for rendring the Inhabitants of the Conquered Countries before-mentioned, as well French in their Heart as by Nation.

Divine Providence having prescribed [...] ­mits to the life of all men, the Founder of this Colledge dyed at Vincennes the ninth of March, 1661, in the fifty one year of his age. His Heart reposes in the Church of the Theatins; his Body will be transferred from the Church of Vincennes, into the Church of the said Colledge, when Mass comes to be celebrated in it; and it will be placed in a magnificent Mausoloeum, there to wait the general Resurrection.

In the Month of May of the year 1677, on the Porch of the Church of Colledge Mazarin were placed on the Pedestals of the Body of it, advan­ced from the front over square Pillars & Pilasters, the four Evangelists; St. Matthew, St. Mark, St. Luke, and St. John, with their Attributes. On the right hand backward, on the like Pedestals, the four Doctors of the Greek Church, accor­ding to their place; St. Basil, St. Athanasius, St. John Chrysostome, and St. Gregory of Nazianze: and on the left hand, the four Doctors of the Latin Church; St. Gregory the Great, St. Ambrose, [Page 112]St. Austin, and St. Hierome. According to the Order of time in which they lived, we range the Greeks thus: St. Athanasius, St. Basil, St. Gregory of Nazi­anze, and St. John Chrysostom: in the Latine Church, St. Ambrose, St. Hierome, St. Austin, and St. Gregory. In placing the figures, they have gone according to dignity.

They say that the Effigies of Loüis the Great will be placed before this Colledge, in a great Place which will be called Dukal.

This Colledge is incorporated to the Univer­sity, with all its rights and priviledges.

The Sieurs Foucaut, le Foüyn, and Mariage, have taken much pains for perfecting this Col­ledge.

Some persons of Quality having assured me of the satisfaction they received in the relation I made them of the House of President Perrot near the Colledge, I shall set down the parti­cularities that I observed in it, An. 1677.

The House of President Perrot.

THis House, which faces the Louvre, has five Balconies on the Seine: besides its Scitu­ation, uniformity, neatness, and conveniency, it's esteemed curious for its Ancient Pieces, and for large Pictures made by Apelles's. They are expos'd in the great room of Paintings, which has windows on both sides. We see there An­thony de Bourbon King of N [...]varre, Henry the [Page 113]Fourth, Loüis the Thirteenth vested with the Royal Mantle, and with the great Collar of the Order; and Loüis the Fourteenth clad like a Roman; and M. the Dolphin betwixt the late King and the present in a round or oval over the door of the entrance; and Philip of France, Duke of Orleans standing by, Loüis de Bourbon Prince of Condé with his Father and his Grand­father, and the Duke d'Enguien with his Chil­dren: the Queens and Princesses are by the sides of their Spouses.

In the midst of this Gallery is plac'd a large sheet of Velam in Miniature, set in a frame, which contains the Genealogy of the Bourbons, from St. Loüis to the year 1679; and on the back part of the Velam are represented the Combats, Rencounters, Sieges, Battels, and Vi­ctories gain'd by the Prince of Condé Loüis de Bourbon.

Amongst some Pictures that adorn the Chap­pel, that which is against the Altar is accom­plisht; and to express the thing better, it's a consummated piece of work, or a Master-piece representing the seven Sacraments of the Church: the Archduke Leopold admiring this Piece, would have given a thousand Pistols for it if the Master would have sold it him. It was permitted his Highness to cause a Copy to be taken of it. Neer the Chappel-door we see the present Prince of Condé mounted on a War-horse, represented to the life. In some Cham­bers [Page 114]we find many other Pictures; that of [...] Nativity of the Son of God; that of Lot ha­ving drank to excess before his two Daughters, to which nothing can be added.

The rowling Desk, composed of divers Ta­bles, which is in the Library, is of a very rare structure, and convenient for those that com­pose some laborious Piece: all the edges of it are gilded, and the Boards or Planks hold a great many Books in folio. When you are near it, without changing place, with one of your fingers you make the Desk turn, and bring be­fore your eyes the Books that lead to your de­signe; but you must first place them.

Atabalipa one of the Incas of Peru, would not have esteemed it much for his use: for he threw on the ground a very excellent Book pre­sented to him, alleadging for a reason, that it spoke not a word to him; though they made him believe it would teach him a great many things, he could not make it speak. I believe he would have soon imitated a King of Congo, to whom Emanuel King of Portugal having once sent Lawyers with good Law-books, he sent back the Doctors, and caused the Books to be burnt, thinking they would serve but to intro­duce Cavilling, and put Confusion in the Un­derstandings of his Subjects; whereas, he said, they had need but of Reason and a good com­mon Sence: which is related in a History of Portugal. This Prince added, that he should [Page 115]still continue a Friend to him that had sent them him, taking the good will for the deed.

In the Garden of the same House I saw a try­al made of a great Burning-glass, in the presence of M. the Prince, which burnt a great Block set opposite to the Sun; and which wonderfully magnifies and multiplies Objects. The two Gladiators and other Figures of massie cast Copper, which are Ornaments of the Garden, are Pieces artificially made: Each Gladiator holds his Buckler with one hand, and his Sword with the other; whose postures are much e­steem'd. The Venus is highly priz'd; as also another Figure drawing a Thorn out of its foot. The great Iron Arbour is very beautiful, and very high rais'd; under which persons breath the cool Air and fragrant Smells during the Sum­mer-heats: On the side of it are the Grotto's and Waters. The Dido striking a Dagger into her breast, is represented to the life; the Ʋrns are considerable.

The Master of this House considering that good ought to be communicative, has for some years past made his Garden common to the Publick for walking; and has sometime given to some great Lords and others the satisfaction of seeing the Cormorant-fishing, which is a Royal Divertisement. I think it not strange that the Emperour and other crown'd heads divert themselves with it.

In this Capital City of the Kingdom there [Page 116]are many Houses whereof Wonders may be said; which I pass by, because to run them over it would take up a Volume.

I shall onely adde, that persons curious in wonderful and transcendent things, should see the Rooms of Anticks of the Louvre and the Tuilleries, the King and Queens Closets, their Apartments and Furniture, the Kings Library, which contains above 40000 Volumes, an infi­nite number of Manuscripts in Hebrew, Ara­bick, Greek, Latin, and many of History and Policy; the remarkable Medals, the curious Shells, a famous Burning-glass known through­out all the Earth, many Books of Migniature and other Curiosities; the two Galleries o [...] Palace Mazarin; that of the Palace of Luxem­bourg, containing in great and various Pictures the Adventures of Queen Mary de Medicis; we see there her Birth, her Life, and her Death. The Palace Royal belonging to Monsieur, merits to be visited, as also the Royol Academy of Painting and Carvings, the Galeries of M. le Prince and others.

Houses of Pleasure about Paris.

THe fair and delightful houses, next the King's, are these: Saint Cloud and Vi­liers Cotteret, which belong to Monsieur; Ch [...] ­tilly to M. le Prince: there is seen even at th [...] day in his Menagery a Pelican 150 years old [Page 117]having a bill of Ivory. The Isle Adam be­longs to M. the Prince of Conti, Reinci to the Princess Palatine, Annet to the Duke of Vandôme; the Palace of Ecoüan to the Dutchess of Angou­leme, Gros-bois to the Marquess of Pienee, Ruel to the Duke de Richlieu, Verneuil to the Duke of this name, Liancour to the Prince of Marcil­lac, Villeroy to the Duke of this name, Chaville to M. the Chancellour le Tellier, Sceaux to M. Colbert, la Cheurette to M. de la Vrilliere, Berni to the Marquess de Lionne, Chilly to the Marquess d'Effiat, Conflans Les-Charenton to M de Harlay Archbishop of Paris. Maisons, Vaux, Saint Mandé, Meudon, are also places very agreeable. Chassan is another House of Pleasure joyning to Harcueil; it belongs to the Abbot of S. Germain des Prez: Cardinal Francis de Tournon, first Commendatory Abbot of the Abbey of the said S. Germain, caused it to be put in order; we see there his Arms, which are Seme of Flower-de­luces. Mademoiselle de Montpensier increases the number of delightful Houses, by that which she purchased of late years at Choisy; This Princess causes a beautiful Palace to be there built.

The House of the Dean of Pontoise, seven leagues from Paris, has one of the fairest Pro­spects and Terrasses of the Country; the Terras is entirely on Rocks. Messire Steven de Burtio de la Tour Doctor of the House and Society of Sorbone, and formerly Priour and Prosessour of the said House, Knight of the Order of the King [Page 118]under the Title and List of Saint Michael, Count of the holy Apostolical Palace, and Prea­cher, is Dean. When the general Assembly of the Clergy is held at Pontoise, the President lod­ges at his house. We see at the entry of this Town, as we come from Paris, a famous Abbey of Religious Ladyes, called de Maubuisson.

I omit to name many other Ornaments, be­cause it would be, too tedious to number them.

Houses and Places of Devotion neer Paris.

THe pious places about Paris that are most frequented, are Mount-Valerian, the Church of the Abbey of St. Denis, Nostre Dame des Anges, otherwise des Bois, against the Her­mitage of Coubron; Nanterre in memory of St. Genevieve, Nostre Dame des Vertues, S. Prix, Nostre Dame in the Forrest and Hermitage of Senar: Saint Roch is very famous at Pont-carré; they come thither the day of its Festival from all parts: Saint Spire is visited for the Falling Sickness.

We must say something here of Mount-Vale­rian.

If Mount-Valerian, vulgarly called le Tertre, be not rich, it is nevertheless frequented: We see there represented to the life the whole Histo­ry of the Death and Passion of Jesus Christ. Round about the top of the Mountain there are seven Chappels or Oratories representing the [Page 119]seven Stations; and on the top Calvary, on which Jesus Christ is beheld crucified on a tall Cross betwixt two Thieves, that the representation of the Order of the Crucisixion should be more lively and plain: and also that after the faith­ful have plung'd themselves by all these exteri­our and sensible Objects in the meditation of the Death of Jesus Christ, they may die to the World, and then rise again with him in a new­ness of a spiritual life. They preach there e­very Sunday and Festival day, and every first Friday of each month, there being a great con­course of people that comes from all parts. On the day and Feast of the place, which is that of the Exaltation of the holy Cross, the 14th of September, there have been sometimes 30 or 40000 persons, either on the Mountain, or in the Way: The fraternity of the Penitents of Paris goes thither in a Procession yearly, some days of the year. On Good-friday three dif­ferent Preachers preach there the Passion succes­sively. The Queen, who is a Pattern of Piety and Devotion, visits this holy place from time to time.

The Church is serv'd by Priests who live in a Society. Messire Michel de Bougi, Abbot of St. Ʋrbain, a person of Birth and Merit, is Purvey­or; and the Abbot Hardy, Doctor of Sorbone, is Superiour. The Office of Purveyor is for perpetuity, and that of Superiour triennial. Under Anne of Austria Queen of France, there [Page 120]was a great Law-suit for the possession of this place, betwixt the Secular Priests and the Do­minicans. This business gave much trouble to the Abbot de Bougi, and to Master Lafont, in his life-time Principal of the Colledge of Nar­bone.

The Congregation of the Priests of Calvary on Mount-Valerian was establisht An. 1633. by Letters-Patents of Louis the Thirteenth, who sent for a Priest expresly for this effect, a man of a holy life, called Charpenter, who had already instituted it on the Mountain of Betharan in Bearn, which resembles Mount-Valerian.

The Hermites have been in possession of Mount-Valerian for these 800 years, according to an humble Remonstrance made An. 1622. to Cardinal des Retz by the Priests of Calvary: There was seen there for some time a recluded Hermite. The Treasure which is in the Church of the Abbey of St. Denis, and the Tombs of the Kings of France, deserve that we should say something of them.

The Treasury of St. Denis.

THe Church of the Abbey of St. Denis is extreamly visited, both by reason of its Patron, and for its Treasure, and for being the Burial-place of the Kings of France.

King Dagobert the First of the name, caus'd it to be built, and to be covered with silver: [Page 121]This Prince, Founder of the Abbey, died the 19th of Jan. of the year 648.

There is seen in the Treasury a Missal written by the hand above 800 years since, and a Ma­nuscript above eleven hundred years old, which contains the four Gospels written in Characters of gold and silver on Velam of a purple colour. A Book of Velam covered with silver, contain­ing the Works of St. Denis the Areopagite: A­nother Book written by hand, which contains the Epistles and Gospels of the great Feasts; Gold, pretious Stones, and great Pearls cover it. Moreover, another Book concerning the Ceremonies and Prayers of the Kings Corona­tion.

In a rich Cross-case, a foot and a halfs length of the true Cross.

One of the Nails with which the Son of God was fastened to the Cross; a Thorn of the Crown, and some of the Spunge with which they pre­sented him Gall.

Some of the Myrrh which the Magicians presented him; one of the Pitchers in which he chang'd Wine into Water at the Wedding of Cana in Galilee; and a great many Shrines wherein Relicks are kept.

A great Cross of massie Gold, cover'd with pretious Stones, and set round with oriental Pearls.

A little Crucisix made of the wood of the true Cross.

The Heads of St. Denis, St. Hilary, and St. Bennet, are extreamly rich. The Miter of the first is of Gold, and all cover'd with pretious Stones and oriental Pearls; those of the others are also of a great price.

The Head of St. Loüis King of France is at Paris in the holy Chappel of the Palace. Jean d' Eureux Queen of France took it from the Treasury of St. Denis, and put in its place par­cels of all the Relicks that are in the said holy Chappel.

There is seen in the same Treasury of St. De­nis a Cup of Tamarisk-wood, in which St. Loüis drank to keep himself from the Spleen.

A Vessel of an oriental Agate, esteem'd one of the most pretious pieces of the Treasury, for its largeness, antiquity, and work. It's believed that Ptolomy Philadelphus caused it to be made, and that it was working with the point of a Diamond for thirty years.

Another Vessel of Gold in the form of a Sal­ver, adorn'd with Granats, Jacinths, and with a great white Saphire in the midst, on which is seen the Effigies of King Solomon seated in his Throne. It is judg'd that it appertained to this Monarch, as also a great Vessel of Rock-Chri­stal, by reason of some Inscriptions in Samaritan Characters.

A Gamahoea in an Agat-stone, expressing the Image of the Queen of Saba.

Many Crowns of Gold and Silver; that of [Page 123] Charlemain, St. Loüis, Henry the Fourth, Loüis the Thirteenth, and Loüis the Fourteenth. Each of these Kings has given to the Treasury two Crowns, one of Gold, the other of Silver gilt. That of Charlemain, which is carried to Rheims to serve at the Coronation of our Kings, with the other Royal Ornaments, is all of Gold, a­dorn'd with great Rubies, Saphirs, and Eme­ralds. The Crown of St. Loüis is likewise of massie Gold, adorn'd with very beautiful pre­tious Stones, amongst others with a Ruby va­lued at a hundred thousand crowns; in which is inchast, by the Kings order, a Thorn of the Crown of the Son of God.

There is seen the Image of the same St. Loüis gravd on a Ring, with these two letters S and L; that is to say, Sigillum Ludovici: because he made use of it to seal his Letters.

All the Kings have shewn themselves liberal to this Treasury; some Abbots of the Order have also given to it, particularly Abbot Suger: His two little Pots are not common, the one is of Rock-Christal, the other of Beril, cut with the point of a Diamond: His Chalice is made of a very fair oriental Agate.

In this Treasury are kept a great many Swords; that of Charlemain, that which St. Loüis brought with him at his first Voyage from the Holy Land, that of the Pucelle of Or­leans Joanne d' Arc, and also the Sword of Turpin, who having been made Archbishop of Rheims, [Page 124]afterwards bore Arms against the Infidels: There are seen there many other Pieces of An­tiquity. So much for a Sample of this Trea­sury. He that desires to see more, may go to St. Denis: where a Religious man shews it e­very day at two of the clock in the afternoon. Those that cannot come to see it, may read a little Book in 12o entitul'd Inventaire du Tre­sor de S. Denis, where all the Pieces are briefly describ'd according to the Order of the eight Presses where they are shewn. This little Book is printed at Paris by Pierre de Bost Rue S. Jacques, at the signe of St. Francis, near St. Se­verin.

The Tombs of the Kings of France.

DAgobert the First, eleventh King of France, and St. Loüis the forty fourth, have their Tombs in the Quire of the Church; and many other Kings and Queens. In the com­mon Vault of Rites repose Henry the Fourth, Mary de Medicis his Wife, Loüis the Thirteenth, Anne of Austria his Spouse: The Duke of Or­leans the Kings Uncle, Madam de Montpensier his first Wife, Henriette-Marie Queen of Eng­land, Henriette-Anne her Daughter the first Wife of Monsieur the Kings Brother, and others. The Monument of Francis the First is out of the Quire, on the side of the Cloister in a rais'd Monument. They count five Kings out of [Page 125]the Quire on the Gospel-side. Marshal de Tu­renne is in a Chappel near the high Altar. Loüis the 14th has caus'd a Monument to be rais'd in his memory, and in acknowledgment of the great Services he did to France. After his death many Services and Funeral Prayers were said for him in the principal Churches of Paris. Bertrand du Quesclin Sancerre, a Gentleman of Britany, Constable of France, has his Tomb, for his Fidelity and Valour, amongst those of the Kings, by the order of Charles the Fifth, called the Wise. Clouis the first of the name, the fifth King of France, and Clotilde his Spouse, have their Mausolea at Paris, in the Abbey of St. Genevieve, in the Quire.

Other famous places of Devotion and Pilgrimages greatly frequented in the Kingdom, and favour'd with the kindest Aspect of Heaven.

THe Church of Nostre-Dame at Paris in the Isle of France; that of the Abbey of St. Genevieve, and the Chappel of the Hospital of the Holy Ghost.

Nostre-dame de Grace near Gallion in the Di­ocess of Roüen.

Nostre-Dame de Chartres in Beausse.

Nostre-Dame de L' Epine near Chalons in Champagne.

Nostre-Dame de Liesse in Picardy.

Nostre-Dame de Bologne on the Sea.

Nostre-Dame de la Deliverance, and Mount S. Michel in Normandy.

Sainte-Reine in Burgundy.

Nostre-Dame d' Alizor near Lyons.

Nostre-Dame de Loisiere and la Chartreuse of Grenoble in Daulphine.

St. Maximin, Saint Baume, and St. Martha in Provence.

Nostre-Dame de Rochefort in Languedoc les Avignon.

Nostre-Dame de Grau, called la Grenoüillade, at half a league from Agde.

Nostre-Dame de Consolation, half a league from Beziers, and Nostre-Dame de Gignac in the same Diocess.

Nostre-Dame de Liviniere in the Diocess of S. Pons of Tomiers.

Nostre-Dame de Lorme, and Nostre-Dame d' A­len in the Diocess of Montauban.

Nostre-Dame de Ladreiche, a league from Alby.

The Hermitage of Nostre-Dame de Moinier in the Territory of Pompignan, on the top of a high Mountain in the Diocess of Nismes.

St. Sernin at Tolose, where are the entire Re­licks of many of the Apostles: Nostre-Dame d' Alet, and Nostre-Dame de Roqueville, three leagues off.

Nostre-Dame de Garaizon in the Diocess of Ausche.

Nostre-Dame de Verdelez at Cadiliac near Bourdeaux.

Nostre-Dame de Nazareth in Britany, three leagues from Dinan; and Nostre-Dame de bonnes Nouvelles at Rennes.

Nostre-Dame d' Ardilliers in the Diocess of Angers in Anjou.

Nostre-Dame de Mibonnet, a league from Mou­lins, in the Diocess of Authun in Bourbonnois.

Nostre-Dame de Clery near Orleans on the Loire.

Nostre-Dame du Puy, Nostre-Dame de Fridieire, and Nostre-Dame de Pitie in Auvergne. This is without the Town of Chaude-Agues on a sharp Rock: Abbot Cholmerl is the Founder.

Nostre-Dame de Banelle, and Nostre-Dame de Sabar are in the County of Foix in the Diocess of Comminges.

Nostre Dame de Quezac in Givodan, near St. Maur the Abbey of St. Bennet in the Diocess of Mande.

Nostre-Dame de Roquemadou, and Nostre-Dame de Liaurou in Quercy in the Diocess of Cahors.

Nostre-Dame de Cignac in the Diocess of Rhodes. The House of Arpajou has given it great Marks of its Devotion.

Nostre-Dame d Orient in the Diocess of Va­bres. These two places of Devotion are in Roü­ergne.

Nostre-Dame du Calvaire of Betharan in Bearn, in the Diocess of Lascar: Messire Pierre de Marca has said wonderful things of it, in a [Page 128]Book entituled Traité des Merveilles Operées en la Chappelle Nostre-Dame du Calvaire en Betha­ran. It was printed An. 1646. and An. 1648. the word Betharan signifies, according to the Language of the Country, a fine Branch; and according to the Hebrew Tongue, the House of the Soveraign and of the most High, or the House of Greatness and Eminency.

In the Territory of the Tribe of Gad there was a Valley of this name; which appears by the Book of Joshua.

The Mountain Betharan has the figure of that of the true Calvary of Jerusalem; Many Miracles have been there wrought.

If Miracles were wrought in the Temples of the Protestants, as in these holy places, they would make them serve as Seals to their Do­ctrine, and would make them sound forth with a high voice that the Saviour of the World gives the power to them, as a most powerful and pressing means to cause the truth of their Faith to be embrac'd; and because they have no Mi­racles, they laugh at them. To which I oppose, that the Jews and Pagans rejected those of Jesus Christ, and of the Apostles; and with St. Austin, that Miracles have been the motives of innume­rable conversions to Christianity; that Mira­cles are the Chains that hold us in the Catholick Church. Our strayed Brethren chuse rather to suffer themselves to be bound by their own Imagination, and by the consequences they [Page 129]draw from the Scripture, according to their pri­vate spirits, and without having either of our most dear Chains, neither the antiquity, nor the number, nor the succession of Chairs, nor the Miracles, &c. which have continued in the Ro­man Church from Age to Age since the time of the Apostles. Let us return to our subject.

The Church of Nostre-Dame of Ardilliers, which is one of the chief suburbs of the Town of Saumur, is serv'd by the Oratorian Fathers.

Saint Maximin and Saint Baume by the Do­minicans, as also Nostre-Dame de Bonnes Nouvel­les at Rennes.

Nostre-Dame de Rochefort by the Religious Benedictines.

Saint Reine, by the Cordeliers.

Nostre-Dame d'Orient, by the Capucins.

Nostre-Dame de Consolation de Bezieres, by the Religious of St. Francis of Paul, vulgarly called les Bons hommes.

The others by Canons and Secular Priests.

The twelve ancient General Governments of the Provinces were called together at Paris under Loüis the Thirteenth, according to their rank and place in the States General, 1614.

THe Isle of France, Burgundy, Normandy, Guienne, Britany, Champagne, Languedoc, Picardy, Daulphine, Provence, Lyonnois, and Or­leanois.

Of these twelve great Governments many o­thers are made. Lyonnois comprehended for­merly higher and lower Auvergne, and also la Marche, the higher and lower Bourbonnois, Beau­jolois, and the Country of Forrests. Orleanois con­tain'd Poitou, Aniou, Touraine, Loudunois, the Town and Government of Rochelle Angoumois, le Maine, Berry, Pais Chartrain, le Perche, Ni­vernois, and Vandosinois. Xaintonge was of the Government of Guienne.

The Governours of the Provinces An. 1679. are these.

THe Town, Provostship, and Vicounty of Paris has for Governour the Duke of Crequy, Peer of France, Commander of the Kings Orders, and first Gentleman of the Cham­ber to his Majesty. He was made choice of by the King to go to Bavaria to carry the Mar­riage-Presents to Madam the Dolphiness, Anno 1680.

The Duke d' Estrées, Peer of France, is Gover­nour of the Isle of France, Soissonnois, Laonnois, Beauvoisis, &c.

The Prince of Condé, Lord Steward of the Kings Houshold, has the government of Bur­gundy and of la Bresse; the Duke d'Enguien has the survivourship of his Father.

The Duke de Montauzier, Peer of France and Commander of the Kings Orders, has Norman­dy: [Page 131]he was Governour of Monseigneur the Dol­phin.

The Duke de Roquelaure, Guienne.

The Duke de Chaune, Britany.

Marshal Duke de Vivonne of Montmart, Cham­pagne and Brie.

The Duke of Verneuil, Languedoc: he succeeds Arnand de Bourbon Prince of Conti, whose Piety is crown'd in the Coelestial Court: he died at Pezenas An. 1666. the 21 day of Febru­ary, and his body was carried into the house of the Carthusians of Villeneufe in Avignon. This Prince compos'd two Books, one is entituled Devoirs des Grands, and the other, Memoires du Prince de Conti; the former contains very excellent Instructions.

The Duke d' Elbeuf is Governour of Picardy.

The Duke les Diguieres of Dauphiné.

The Duke de Vandôme of Provence. Mar­shal de Grignan is sole Lieutenant-General of this Province: he has also been Lieutenant-General of Languedoc.

The Duke de Villeroy, Son of the Marshal of this name, is Governour of Lyonnois, Forests, and Beaujolois.

The Marquess d' Alluye of Orleannois, Blesois, Dunois, and the Country of Sologne, Chartrain, and Vandômois.

Auvergne has for Governour the Duke de Boü­illon high Chamberlain.

Higher and lower la Marche, the Marquess de S. Germain Be [...]upré.

Limosin, the Count d' Auvergne.

Bourbonnois, the Marquess de la Valiere.

Berry, the Prince of Marsillac. Francois de la Rochefoucaud Duke of Rocheguion, Groom of the Stole, and Chief Master of the Game of France, Son of the Prince of Marsillac, and Grand­child of the Duke of Rochefoucaut, married An. 1679. in the Church of S. Roch of Paris, Madeleine la Tellier Daughter of the Marquess de Lionnois, Minister and Secretary of State, and Grand-child of Messire Michel le Tellier Chan­cellour of France.

Anjou has for Governour Count d' Armagnac, the Kings Master of the Horse.

Touraine, the Marquess de Dangeau.

Le Maine, Laval, and le Perche, the Marquess de Fervaques.

Poitou the upper and lower, the Duke of Vieville.

Xaintonge and Angoumois, the Duke de Crus­sol.

The Country of Aunis and Broüage, the Duke de Navailles.

Nivernois, the Duke of Nevers.

The Country of Foix, the Marquess de Mire­poix.

Navarre and Bearn, Duke Anthony Charles de Grammont, Soveraign of Bidache: his Father, Duke and Earl, Marshal of France, Knight of the Kings Orders, died at Bayonne the 83 year of his age, the 12th of July 1678.

Conquer'd Countries.

THe upper and lower Alsatia have for Go­vernours the Duke de Mazarin, Duke of Mielleraye and Mayenne, Peer of France, and particular Governour of the Towns, Citadels, and Castles of Brisac, la Fere, Vitre, Vincennes, Port-Loüis, and other places.

Lorrain, the Marshal de Crequy.

The Town and Citadel of Metz and Vic, the Marshal Duke de la Ferte-Seneterre.

Toul, the Count de Pas de Feuquieres.

The Duke de Noailles Peer of France, Cap­tain of the first Company of the Life-guard, is Governour of Roussillon, and Lieutenant-Gene­ral in upper Auvergne.

The Duke and Marshal de Duras, Knight of the Order of the Holy Ghost, has the Govern­ment of Franche Comté.

Marshal d' Humieres is Governour and Lieu­tenant-General of Flanders, and particular Go­vernour of Lille.

Count de Monthron, Governour of Arras, and Lieutenant-General in the Country of Artois.

These Provinces have Lieutenant-Generals, some more, some fewer. The particular Go­vernours of Towns, Citadels, and other places, are in a very great number.

The Fertility of France.

ITs Provinces are worth Kingdoms: it's in France where we see the level Fields fertile in all sorts of Grain, the Hills cover'd with Vines, pleasant Meadows, beautiful Forrests, fair O­live-trees and Orange-trees, and all sorts of Fruits. It may be said, that this is the Land whereof the Scripture speaks, which flows with Milk and Honey; which includes within it all that is necessary for life, without having re­course to strangers, who stand in need of its Corn and famous Wines. Salt and Iron are there common. Mines of Gold and Silver might be discover'd there, if men would go to the charge. If Egypt glories in its Fertility and Fruits, Italy in its beautiful Gardens, England in its fair Parks, Poland in its vast Meadows; France possesses all these advantages in an emi­nent degree. Its Sea-coasts have secure Har­bours, and Ports full of all sorts of Merchandise; and its Rivers are navigable. If it does not bring forth Cloves, Nutmegs, and Cinnamon as the Molucca Islands, Ginger and Pepper as Calecut, Perfumes as Arabia, Diamonds as the Isle of Ceilan, Emeralds as China, Rubies as Peru, Topases and Pearls as India; it has men able to conquer all this, and do not fail to do it. An Historiographer of Brandenburg relates in his Researches, that on consideration of the [Page 135]power of this Monarch, an Emperour of the West call'd Maximilian, said once by way of discourse, that if it were possible and just to wish it, he would that he had three Children, where­of the eldest should be God, the second King of France, and the third Emperour.

The Channel of Languedoc.

THere has been made of late years in this Province a great Channel for the com­munication of the Mediterranean Sea with the Ocean, by joyning the River Aude▪ which en­ters into the Mediterranean Sea, to the River Garone which discharges it self into the Ocean by the means of many Rivers whose waters are kept with Sluces in this great Channel, capable of conveying Barks for transporting Merchan­dise and other things from the Town of Nar­bonne to that of Tolose, and thence to Bour­deaux.

The designe of this great Work was proje­cted by Henry the Fourth, examin'd and ap­prov'd by Loüis the 13th and put in execu­tion by Loüis the Fourteenth, to whom we must give the glory. This incomparable Monarch for this effect made use of the conduct of Sieur Paul de Riquet, Native of Beziers, and Baron of Bonerepos.

This Channel is about thirty five leagues in length from Cape Sette▪ which is four leagues from Montpellier, to T [...]se.

The Rigole which contains the Waters of the Mountain Moire to the point where the Waters part called Naurouse, contains five leagues. The place where the Waters part, or the Reserver, is as large as the Place Royal at Paris. The Wa­ters are kept by two strong and thick Walls, in which are great Cocks that are open'd with wic­kets to give a passage to the great Cestern made of an octangular figure.

Pursuant to this Enterprize there are made ten Bridges, thirty five Mills, and a hundred and fourteen Sluces.

The new Port made under Cape Sette, is sci­tuate in the Diocess of Agde; two Moles will in­compass it, which issue from the firm Land, viz. the Isthmus which separates the Pond Tau from the Mediterranean Sea.

Though the performance of this Master­piece has seem'd impossible to many persons, it will be perfected in much less time than the new Discovery of the North-East-passage to China and Japan by the Hollanders, who have been a­bout it above eight hundred years. This passage is betwixt Spïstzberg and Nova Zem­bla.

Julius Caesar, Caligula, and Nero undertook to cut the Isthmus of Corinth, and to make na­vigable Morea or Peloponnesus, by the commu­nication of the Ægaean and Ionian Seas: Their Enterprize came to nothing.

To facilitate the Commerce of the Ocean, [Page 137]Mediterranean and Caspian Seas, it was formerly propos'd at the Court of the Great Duke of Muscovy to joyn these great Rivers together, the Volge, the Duinus, and the Dom, for the communication of the chief Seas of our Conti­nent. This designe also fail'd of success; but this here will not prove abortive: and though nine or ten years have been employ'd already to do what is done, we must make use of the Proverb, Sat citò, si sat benè; Things are soon enough done, that are well done. The Mo­ther of Hercules was a whole night in bringing him forth.

They go of late conveniently from Castel­naudary so far as Tolose, which are two Towns distant from each other ten leagues of Province, which equal twenty of the Isle of France. When we go by land, at Bastide we begin to find the great Channel of the communication of the two Seas. This Work has not been carried on with­out interruption. This joyning of the two Seas will serve moreover for the conveniency of con­veying the Merchandise of the Levant, and of all the Mediterranean into the Ocean, not to run a risk with them by the Strait, nor expose them to the pyracies of those of Algiers and o­ther Towns of Barbary.

The Sieur de Riquet, who drew the designe of the Channel for the two Seas, and who has always had the direction of it, died the first of October 1680. in his house of Frescati at Tolose. [Page 138]He has rendred himself famous by his Enter­prize, which no man before him had the cou­rage to undertake, nor the genius to carry on: He so far advanc'd it, that we may say he died in accomplishing it, and that the little he has left to do, is but to leave to his two Sons (where­of the one is Master of Requests, the other Captain of the Guards) the honour to consum­mate it. It is not doubted but the Channel will be navigable and in its entire perfection before the end of the year 1681.

The chief Towns after Paris, are

ROüen, Tolose, Narbonne, Orleans, Bourdeaux, Arles, Aix, Marseilles, Toulon, Rochelle, Poitiers, Xantes, Limoges, Amiens, Abbeville, Rheims, Sedan, Troyes, Caën, Chartres, Tours, Montpellier, Nismes, Beziers, Montauban, Carcas­sonne, Bourges, Angers, Rennes, Nantes, Cahors, Tulles, Auches, Castres, Dijon, Grenoble, Vienne, Valens, Mans, Perigueux, Bergerac, Agen, Mou­lins in Bourbonnois, Clermont in Auvergne, and le Puy in Velay, and many others. There is no Town in the whole Kingdom more subject to Thunder than that of P [...]y.

The most considerable Maritime Towns are

MArseilles, Toulon, Rochelle, St. Malo, Brèst, Havre de Grace, Dieppe, Calais, Bayonne, [Page 139]St. Valery, Dunkerke, Gravelin; the Burrough of Rochefort became a Town by reason of its Port: it will be made one day the place of em­barking for the East Indies; it's a great Arsenel for the Sea. The Gallies are at Marseilles: Broü­age, Honfleur, Cherbourg, and Grandville, are likewise Maritime Towns.

A Traveller speaking of Towns, said, that he observ'd three things in France, a World, a Town, and a Village; Paris is the World, Orleans the Town for its scituation and uniformity, Poitiers the Village by reason of the great number of Gardens, Fields, Meadows, and Vineyards that are within its precincts. Abbeville seems one of the greatest of the Kingdom, by reason of the great Ponds and large Gardens that are within it.

Chastelleraud, Thoüars, Niort, Fontenay-le-Comte, Saint Maixant, Lusignan, Partenay, la Roche-sur-You, Champigny, la Ganache, and others, are Towns of Poictou. Poitiers is the Capital, as Xantes is of Xaintonge.

Alez, Anduze, Ganges, Sumene, and Vigan, are those of Sevenes.

Sauve, Saint Hippolite de la Planquette, S. Jean de Gardonenque, la Salle de St. Pierre, Va­relaugue, and Saint Etienne de Valfrancesque in Sevenes, are as good as little Towns.

Those of Givodan are Mande, Marvege, Ca­nourgue, Florac, Qujesac, St. Chely, and Chanac, which is the ordinary place of residence of the [Page 140]Bishops of Mande. Messire Sylvestre de Marsil­lac caus'd the Castle to be fortified. I saw there in his time Arms for five hundred men. Thi [...] Prelate contributed to the reducement of Ro­chelle. Meyrvueich and Barre are two Towns in the Neighbourhood.

The Capuchins have in that Country three houses establisht for the Mission; one is at Sauve, the other at Vigan, and the third at Flo­rac: We cannot say of their Churches or Chap­pels that they are too beautiful, which a Father, General of their Order, said in the course of his Visitation of that of Riom in Auvergne, when complaining of the Guardian, who had made it stately by what he built, he spake in these terms: Iste Pater concavit Regulam sancti Francisci Pa­tris nostri.

Viviers, Vans, Aubenas, Tournon, Annonai, Pri­vas, Villeneufve-le-Berg, Pradeles, and le Pou­zin, are of Vivarais.

Le Puy, Saint Paulian, Mounistrol, Crapone, are in Velay.

In the conquered Countries these are consi­derable.

In Flanders, Dunkerke, Gravelin, Hesdin, Ba­paume, Arras, Tournay, Courtray, Lisle, Doüay, Condé, Bouchain, Aire, Valenciennes, Cambray, S. Omer, Gand, Ypres, and many others. These three last places were conquer'd in the begin­ning of the year 1677. Maestrich was surrendred to the Hollanders by the Treaty of Peace con­cluded [Page 141]at Nimeguen the tenth of Aug. 1679.

Dunkerke was taken by the Prince of Condé, then Duke d'Enguien, An. 1646. and by Mar­shal Turenne, An. 1658. It was for some time in the possession of the English, because they provided a Naval Army, and much contributed to the taking of it and of some other places; and therefore five millions were given to his Britanick Majesty for resigning this Town to the Dominion of the French.

Before Arras was in the possession of France, there was seen in imbost work over one of its gates, a Cat pursuing Rats, with this Inscrip­tion:

Les Francois prendront Arras,
Lors que ce Chat prendra ces Rats.
The French will take Arras
When this Cat takes these Rats.

At present there is onely the letter p of the verb prendront taken away, the word rendront remaining, which signifies Restore. There is seen in the Cathedral Church a fair and antient Library.

In Alsatia the chief conquer'd Towns are Brisac, Colmar, Haguenau, Schelestad: Philips­bourg was retaken by the Imperialists the 17th of September 1676. with an honourable Capitu­lation. Our French-men took in its place Fri­bourg [Page 142]in Brisgaw. Philipsbourg has been under the dominion of France thirty two years.

In Lorrain the most remarkable are Nancy, Metz, Toul, and Verdun.

In Franche-Comte, Bezancon, Dole, Grez, and Salins.

In Roussillon, Perpignan, Colioures, Salses, Ca­net; the Episcopal See was at Elne. Du Chesne, Father Boussingaut, and A. Jovin de Rochefort, have given a particular description almost of all the Towns: There has been printed lately in Holland a Book intituled Theatrum Ʋrbium.


FRance, as another terrestrial Paradise, has four beautiful Rivers, viz. the Rhone, the Loire, the Seine, and the Garonne. An Author calls them the four Royal Rivers.

The Rhone takes its rise at the foot of the Mountain St. Godart; it comes from the Alps of upper Valois, and is not far from the Rhine and Danubius. The Germans call it Rhoden, from an ancient Town called Rhodays. Some count it as one of the three greatest Rivers of Europe. It runs through the Lake of Geneva, passes at Lyons, Vienne, Tournon, Valence, at St. Esprit, Avignon, Tarascon, Beaucaire, and Arles. The Saone, the Doux, the Lizaire, the Gardan, the Durance, and other Rivers, enter into it.

The Loire takes its origine at the foot of [Page 143] Mount Gerbier of Jou in the Parish of S. Martial of the Diocess of Viviers; it is call'd by this name from a Country-house near its source cal­led Loire, which is in the Parish of St. Eulalie of the same Diocess, five leagues from the Town of Pardeles in Vivarez, and six from that of du Puy in Velay. It casts forth water at its rise as big as a mans thigh. Mount Gerbier is so call'd because it has the figure of a Gerbier, that is, a stack of Corn. Those are in an errour who af­firm the origine of the Loire to be in Sevenes, be­cause Sevenes is not Vivarez, though contiguous to it; neither is Vivarez, Sevenes, or Velay. These three Regions are entirely distinct, and are as it were little Provinces that are incorporated in that of Languedoc. The Loire passes at Ro­anne, Nevers, la Charité, Gien, Gergeau, Orleans, Blois, Amboise, Tours, Saumur, Nantes, and at the Bridge of Ce. This River is the longest of the Kingdom; it carries Vessels about a hundred and sixty leagues from Roanne, as far as Nantes, or to Brevian. If it be not very deep, it is large and very full of Sand, wherefore Vessels often run a ground there. It passes through the midst of the Kingdom, and divides it almost into two equal parts. The source of this and of Alliers are near each other. Alliers, le Cher, Auron, Lindre, the Saudre, the Huine, the Loire, the Sarthe, the Mayenne, the Vienne, the Clein, and other Rivers, discharge themselves into this River, which has its beginning and end in France.

The Seine comes from the Mountain Vogesus in the Dutchy of Burgundy. S. Seine gave it its name, it being the nearest place of note to its source. This River passes at Chatillon, Nogent, Monte­reau, Melun, Corbeil, Paris, Mantes, Vernon, Roüen, and at Pont de Larche. Its Rivers are the Marne, Yonne, the Oyse, the Ayne, the Eure, and others. The Ayne enters into the Oyse; the River call'd the Loire passes at Montargis, and re­ceives the Channel of Briare, for the communi­cation of the Loin and the Seine for Paris. This Channel was made under Henry the Fourth.

The Garonne issues from the Pyrenean Moun­tains near a place call'd Gadeloup: Its source is affirm'd to be in the little Valley of Aran. It passes at Tolose, at Moissac, Agen, Marmande, Ca­dillac, and at Bourdeaux. Its Rivers are the Taru, the Lot, and the Pordogne.

The Epithetes of these four Rivers are

RHodanus rapidus, Ligoris latus, Sequanus pro­fundus, Garumna obliquus: Rhone the rapid, Loire the large, Seine the profound, Garonne the oblique, because it wrests in and out. The Po­ets call the Rhone, by reason of its rapidity, the hasty, the swift, the precipitate.

The principal small Rivers are

THe Charente, the Somme, the Saonne, Al­liers, the Tarn, the Lot, the Dordogne.

The Somme is famous in Picardy; it begins by a Saint and ends by another, which are S. Quentin and S. Valery. Hau, Peronne, Amiens, and Abbeville are water'd with it.

The Charente passes through Angoumois and Xaintonge; waters the Towns of Angoulesm and and Xaintes.

The Saône coasts along Burgundy, passes at Châlon and Mascon, and goes to Lyons. Its source is near Lorrain: Its Waters are stagna­ting and dull. The Poets have call'd it the Tardy, the Slow, the Sluggish.

Bouche, Larroux, and others, are of Burgon­dy.

Allier waters Bourbonnois, and goes to Mou­lins.

The Tar crosses Rovergne and Albigeois, pas­ses at Millain, Albi, and at Montaubon.

The Aveiron renders its Waters at Rhodes, the Agout at Castres, Puilaurens, and Lavoir; the Lot at Cahors divides Quercy and Agenois.

The Dordogne waters Limosin and Perigord; its source is at the foot of Mount Or in Auver­gne; it passes at Bretenoux, Sarlac, Bergerac, Sainte Foy, and at Libourne: It's the fullest of Fish of any in the Kingdom, and particularly fertile in Salmons.

The Gave and the Gave water Bearn.

The Vilaine and others, Britany Aremorick.

Vien and Tarion, Limosin.

The Dour in Gascogne passes at Tarbes, Aire, Dax, and at Bayonne: the Bidouze enters into the Dour.

The Vienne, the Chein, and the Vouzelle, are in Poictou.

The Auron, the Cher, and the Indre, in Berry.

The Orbe, the Brille, and Drome, in Norman­dy.

The Sarthe, the Huine, and others, in le Maine.

The Loir, the Dive, and others, in Anjou.

The Eure, in Beausse.

The Doux, which was once bitter, in Franche Comté.

The Marne and the Vesle, in Champagne.

The Isaire and the Drac, in Daulphine. The Izaire rises in Savoy, passes at Grenoble, enters with the Drac into the Rhône near Valence, and not at Vienne, as an Author has written. If he never was at Valence, he ought to have had a good Geographical Map, which would have kept him from committing this oversight. To the Izaire has been given the name of Serpent, because it torns and wrests very much. It's by way of allusion that it's said, Draco & Serpens evertunt Gratianopolin: Those are two scurvy Rivers very rapid. Some years since the Serpent overthrew the Stone-bridge of Grenoble, which has since been rebuilt.

The Durance and the Varthe are in Provence; the first waters Sisteron and Cavaillon: it's very rapid and apt to do mischief, being of the na­ture of certain persons, full of gall and bitter­ness. Fish cannot live in it. The Varthe is pronounc'd the Val. The Ardeche and the Cetze water Vivarez.

The Aude and the Eraut are in Languedock; the first passes at Aleth and at Carassome: An arm of this River waters Narbonne by a great Channel which divides it into two parts. The Eraut breeds a great number of Trouts, descends from Sevenes, joyns it self to the River Are, passes at Ganges, at la Roque, at S. Basil, and goes to Agde.

One of the Barons de la Roque has preserv'd the Catholick Religion in his place of residency, which is very strongly seated, and which has been the Sanctuary of the Catholicks of the Country in the times of the Wars of Religion. It is known by tradition that Beza being come thither from Ganges to preach his new Doctrine, he was expelled by that Lord. The Lady of the place was seduc'd before, and the Inhabitants passionately desir'd to hear him preach, because it had been represented to them that he preacht nought but the pure Word of God, and the Re­formation of the Age, and that he was an ex­traordinary Preacher. Beza was already got into the Church de la Madelein, when the Baron came from his Castle accompanied with his [Page 148]Domesticks, and with Partisans and Halberds.

This River Eraut, before it reaches Ganges, coasts along by the Baronny of Sumene. The present Baron, formerly one of the Kings Coun­sellours in his Court of Accounts, Tributes and Finances of Montpellier, has a very fair Castle at Roger by le Causse against the Mountain Espe­rou, where there are Simples of a very great vertue: The Physitians of Montpellier go or­dinarily there every year a simpling; a man is perfumed when he passes through its Mea­dows all deckt with Flowers. There has been found there sometime an Herb which pull off Horses shoes, and which creates hunger in per­sons that tread on it. The ancient Castle of Roger, during the Wars of Religion, was a place of Refuge for the Catholicks thereabout: The Pretenders to Religion laid a heavie hand on it by demolishing a part of it two several times.

If we nam'd in Bearn the Gave, and the Gave, it's because there are two of them; we may also say the Gandon and the Gandon in Sevenes and in Languedoc, compos'd of many Streams and Rivers: One passes at St. Jean de Gardonen­que, at Mialet, and at Auduze. The Marqui­sate of this Town is in the ancient House of Aire-Baudouze, and has given the Church three or four Bishops; the Town has also given some: they are found all nam'd in the Book intituled Gallia Christiana. The present Marquess com­mands a Regiment bearing his name. The [Page 149]Barony of Ganges, which is not far from Au­duze, is made a Marquisate of late years in the House of Tude: Its Marquesses have had Re­giments, and some particular Governments. The Chevalier de Ganges was chosen to com­mand the Regiment which the Estates of Lan­guedoc granted the King An. 1677.

The other Gandon passes at Alez, a pleasant Town for its fair and vast Meadow-ground: We see there yet some Reliques of the most beautiful Garden which the Constable Montmo­rency caus'd to be made there. This Gandon passes before the ancient Castle of S. Martin de la Fare. The Family of this Marquess is ori­ginally of lower Languedoc, the Frontier of Se­venes, near Alez. It's an Illustrious and ancient House, of which the late high and mighty Lord Messire Jacques de la Fare, Marquess de la Fare, Vicount de Montclar, Baron de la Salle, Lord of Bastide, S. Martin, Soudorgne, Paupidor, and other places, has had many Children.

He married the Daughter of Comte de Lussan, from which Marriage are issued nine Sons and four Daughters. Of the males there are eight who long time serv'd his Majesty in his Armies, and have had considerable Employs.

Let us make an of end our Gardons: they de­scend from Serenes, and meet under the Village Ners, three or four leagues from Nismes, and pass under the famous Pont du Gard to go find the impetuous Rhône.

Pont du Gard.

FRance is oblig'd to the Romans for having built for it on two Mountains this famous Bridge, which contains three the one on the o­ther. The building is of Free-stone, of a sur­prizing breadth and length: the stones are with­out Lin [...]-mortar; or ought else to bind them. Th [...] highest Bridge was built to uphold an A­queduct for conveying waters to Nismes for its embellishment, and for a perpetual memory. Some persons think that it was in order to make some Sea-fights, alledging that Nismes did not want water for its ordinary use.

The first Bridge contains six Arches, the se­cond eleven, the third thirty six: The first is a hundred and fifty paces in length, the second two hundred seventy five, and the third three hundred.

They say that that person has not seen Pont du Gard, who has not seen the Hare, because the figure of it is seen there in Relief on the second Bridge against the top of the Pillar of the third Arch.

Louis the Thirteenth, and Loüis the Four­teenth, Kings of France, went to see this curious Piece of Roman Antiquity, when they were in Languedoc.

This Bridge was call'd Pont du Gard because it is scituated on the River Gardon, and retains its name even to this present time.

The Marquess of S. Privat, Baron of Fournez, and Lord of other places, has a Castle by the side of the Bridge, and resides there ordinarily when he is in his dominions. Cardinal de Ri­chelieu and Cardinal Mazarin have lodged there. This ancient House has always been well ally­ed, and with the chief of Daulphiné.

These great Springs of Water that boil forth, the Fountain of Vigan and of Sauve in Sevenes, and that of Nan in Roüergue, which equal Ri­vers, deserve to be mentioned with that of Nis­mes at the foot of Tournemagne, adorn'd with a great Cestern, and which drives six or seven Mills. The Fountain of Vaucleuse is likewise famous.

If that of Nismes be considerable for the o­pening of a Rock whence issues a great Spring of very clear water, the bottom of which is not to be perceiv'd; Its Amphitheater there is re­markable for its great and large Stones. A modern Author has committed on this subject a great Anacronism, or a supposition of a time far distant from another, when he said that these Stones clove asunder at the death of Jesus Christ, not considering that the Amphitheater was not then in being, and that it was not built till a long time afterwards. It is thought that it was begun under the Emperour Adrian, and ended under Antonius Pius Native of Nismes, a long time after the Ascension of the Son of God. The same Author did not also observe [Page 152]that the Goths, Enemies of the Works of the Romans, put sire to this Amphitheater, which has caus'd the cleaving and blackness. You may see what is writ thereon by the ancient Counsellor Guiran of Nismes, he is the last who has spoken of it.

The square House which serv'd for the Prae­torium, or the place where Justice was admini­stred, and the Temple of Diana, are moreover ancient Monuments of this Town, formerly a Colony of the Romans.

Arles and Xaintes have also Amphitheaters, where many sports were celebrated, and where men were made to sight with wild Beasts.

If the Fountains, of which I spake even now, are publickly known, those of Main and Mon­frin in bas Languedoc, of Vic in Auvergne at the Fonsanche half a league above Sauve, are ex­treamly frequented for their Medicinal and Pur­gative vertue: they are as good as those of the Spaw and of Ems in Germany.

The goodness of the Fountain of Vic was dis­cover'd by a Cow, which being the leanest of the Herd, became the fairest and fattest, because she alone drank of that water. Amongst the Medicinal Fountains of Vals, we see four that issue from the same Rock, and pass through divers Minerals, producing different effects. That of Fonsanche ebbs and flows; men drink at one place there, and bathe at another: the [Page 153]Mud of this Fountain is good against sore Eyes. The Waters of Camarez in Roüergne are also e­steemed. A value also is set on the Waters of Sainte Reine in Burgundy, and on those of For­ges. The Baths of Baleruc four leagues from Montpellier, those of Bagnols in Givodan, those of Moulins Alchambaut in Bourbonnois, and of Barege at the Pyreneans, are singular, they strengthen, comfort, and cure many infirm per­sons. There is seen in the season a great con­course of people.

In the year of the World 2218. Ana the Son of Sebeon Prince of Seir, found first of all Springs of hot Water: he is the Inventor of Hot Baths, according as Torniel and the greatest part of the Interpreters of Scripture, affirm.

A Catalogue of the Archbishopricks of France, and the Suffragan Bishopricks; containing the num­ber and the name of the first and last Bishop of each Diocess, to the year 1680.

The Archbishoprick of Rheims.

RHeims has had ninety four Bishops and Archbishops, from S. Sixtus to Mes­sire Charles-Maurice le Tellier, first Ecclesiastical Duke and Peer of France, Legat of course to the Holy See, and Primate of the Belgick Gauls, Doctor of the House and Society of Sorbon, and Great Master of the Kings Chappel of Mu­sick.

He succeeds Cardinal Antony Barbarin, whose Epitaph, which denotes a profound Hu­mility, is coucht in these terms, by the order of his late Eminency; Hic jacet pulvis, cinis & nihil.

The Archbishop of Rheims, at the Royal Consecration and Coronation, Anoints and Crowns the King.

Its Suffragans are eight, Amiens, Beauvais, Boulogne, Châlons on Marne, Laon, Noyon, Sen­lis, and Soissons. Cambray and Tournay belong'd formerly to the Archbishoprick of Rheims; wherefore the Archbishops of Rheims signi­fied their Protestation against the erection of the Archbishoprick of Cambray. Messire Charles le Tellier caus'd his to be signified to Messire Christopher de Brias. An. 1679. in the month of June, the King gave in his Council to the Archbishop, Duke of Rheims, a place of Coun­sellor of State in Ordinary, who seats himself as first Duke and Peer above the Dean of the Council, immediately after the Chancellor of France.

Amiens has had seventy six Bishops from St. Firmin to Messire Francois Faure: he was Prea­cher in Ordinary to the late Queen Mother Ann of Austria.

Beauvais eighty nine from St. Lucien to Mes­sire Toussaint Fourbin de Janson, Count and Peer of France, and Vidame of Gerbroi. This Prelate carries the Mantle Royal at the Kings [Page 155]Consecration and Coronation. He was Bishop of Dignes, and afterward of Marseilles, and a long time Embassadour in Poland: I speak of it in the Tract of the Sarmathians; he was pro­pos'd by the Pope in his Consistory for the Bi­shoprick of Beauvais, though he had not been precogniz'd, because a Precognization is not necessary when his Holiness proposes a Subject. The Cardinals with a common voice gave him gratis a half of the Bulls. The 27th of Novem­ber 1679. he was received in the Grand Cham­ber of the Parliament with the usual Ceremo­nies, and took there his place betwixt the Bi­shop, Duke of Langres, and the Bishop Count de Noyon, in the presence of the Duke d'Enguien, of the Prince of Conti, of the Prince de la Roche­sur-Yon, and of seventeen Dukes and Peers, whereof three were Ecclesiasticks. He gave af­terward a Dinner to the Princes of the Bloud, and to the Dukes and Peers.

Boulogne has had sixty six Bishops, com­prizing those of Teroüanne to Messire Nicolas Lavocat Billard sixth Bishop of Boulogne, for­merly Canon of the Church of Paris. The first Prelate of Teroüanne was call'd Antimondus or Aumondus; the first of Boulogne, Antoine de Crequy. Three Bishopricks have been made of that of Teroüanne; that of Boulogne, that of St. Omer, and that of Ypres.

Châlons eighty nine from St. Mamet to Mes­sire Loüis-Antoine de Noailles Count and Peer [Page 156]of France: He carries the Ring at the Conse­cration and Coronation of his Majesty.

Laon seventy seven from St. Genebaud or Ge­nebal to Cardinal Caesar d'Estrées Duke and Peer of France; he carries the holy Vial at the Kings Consecration and Coronation. This E­minency holds his Hat from the Crown of Portugal, whereof he is Protector. His most Christian Majesty gave him An. 1679. the Ab­bey of St. Claude in Franche-Comte, vacant by the death of Dom John of Austria.

Noyon ninty two from Hilary to Messire Francois de Clairmont de Yonnere, Count and Peer of France: He carries the Wast-belt at the Kings Coronation.

Senlis eighty nine from St. Regulus to Messire Denis Sanguin.

Soissons eighty one from St. Sixtus to Mes­sire Charles Bourlon.

The Archbishoprick of Narbonne.

NArbonne seventy one both Bishops and Archbishops, from St. Paul the Proconsul to Cardinal Pierre de Bonzi the Queens Grand Almoner, formerly Embassadour of France at Venice, in Poland, and in Spain. He was Bi­shop of Beziers, sometime afterward Archbishop of Tolose, and for some great good is made Archbishop of Norbanne; which of course con­stitutes him President of the Estates of Langue­doc, [Page 157]who look upon him as their Protector, and the King considers him at the same time as a faithful Support of his Authority. His promo­tion to the Cardinalship happen'd the 22d. of February 1672. and his late great Uncle Jean de Bonzi who was grand Almoner of Queen Marie de Medicis, was made Cardinal at the no­mination of France, and this by that of Poland. His Embassies have gain'd him very great lights.

The Suffragans of Narbonne are Agde, Aleth, Beziers, Carcassonne, Lodeve, Montpellier, Nis­mes, S. Pons de Tomires, and Ʋzez.

Agde sixty five Bishops from Beticus to Mes­sire Loüis Foucquet, Lord and Count of the Town of Agde. Heaven makes known to this Prelate by experience, that the Felicities of the Earth are mixt with bitterness.

Aleth twenty one from St. Bartholmew to Messire Loüis Alphonse de Valbelle. He suc­ceeds Nicholas Pavilion, who wisht that Supe­riours were infallible in their Sentiments, im­peccable in their Conduct, and far from all sur­prize.

Beziers seventy two from St. Afrodisius to Messire Armand Jean de Rotondis de Biscara. This Prelate pass'd from the Bishoprick of Dig­nes to that of Lodeve, and from Lodeve to Be­ziers. He is arrived from degree to degree to one of the most considerable of Languedoc by his merit, and by the services which himself [Page 158]and his have rendred the State. The Organs of his Cathedral-Church have the reputation of being the fairest of France.

Carassonne seventy three from St. Guimera to Messire Loüis de Bourlemon Auditor of the Rota.

Lodeve a hundred and seven from St. Florus vulgarly St. Flour, to Messire Claude Antoine de Chambonas.

Montpellier sixty three to Messire Charles de Pradel, comprizing those of Maguelone, which was transferr'd to Montpellier under Pope Paul the Third, An. 1536. The first Bishop of Ma­guelone was call'd Ether or Ethere, and the first fixt at Montpellier was Pellicie the Seventh of the name. Messire Charles de Pardel was no­minated Anno 1675. Coadjutor of his Uncle, whose great services rendred to the Church and State, even to the exposal of his life once while he was Intendant of Justice, helpt to recom­pence the science and desert of him who occu­pies the See at present.

Nismes ninty six from Crocus to Messire Jaques Seguier, formerly Bishop of Lombez, be­fore Canon, and Theologal of the Church of Paris. The King considering that Heresie had laid very deep roots for a long time in the Di­ocess of Nismes, and that it was a thing of im­portance to establish there a Pastor of an ex­traordinary Zeal, nominated him to this Bi­shoprick an. 1671. where this Prelate incessant­ly pursues the wild Beast which has spoil'd in [Page 159]divers places the Vineyard of the Lord.

St. Tomieres nineteen from Raymond to Mes­sire Pierre-Jean-Francois de Montgaillard.

Ʋzez sixty from Constance to Messire Michel Poncet de la Riviere Doctor of the House and Society of Sorbonne, Bishop and Count of Ʋ ­zez. As soon as he entred into this Diocess in­fected with Heresie, he began with the reforma­tion of his Clergy, and afterward cast the Apo­stolical Net and drew up into the Vessel of the Church many Fish; I mean, men according to the promise which the Son of God made to his Apostles, that they should be fishers of men in­stead of fish, Faciam vos fieri piscatores hominum. The Town of St. Ambrose whereof he is Pryor and Lord, knows it by experience; where, af­ter having put the last hand to a very fair Church, and having consecrated in an. 1679. he gave in one day the Absolution of Heresie to forty seven persons.

The Archbishoprick of Bourges.

BOurges a hundred and two Prelates from St. Ʋrsin to Messire Phelipeaux de la Vrilliere. St. Rodulphe, forty fourth Bishop of Bourges, was declared Archbishop, Primate, and Patriarch.

The ordinary Suffragans were eleven, Albi, Cahors, Castres, Clermont in Auvergne, Limoges, Mande, le Puy, Rhodez, St. Flour, Tulles, and Vabres. Since that Albi has been rais'd to an [Page 160]Archbishoprick Bourges counts but five Suffra­gans, which are Clermont, Limoges, le Puy, S. Flour, and Tulles. In this counting of the Suffragans given to Albi, there has been assign'd to the Archbishop of Bourges, and to his Successors, 15000 Livres yearly of the Revenue of the Archbishoprick of Albi.

Clermont has had eighty eight Bishops from Austremon to Messire Gilbert de Veni d' Ar­bouse.

Limoges eighty five from St. Martial to Mes­sire Loüis Lascaris d' Ʋrfé.

Le Puy eighty eight from St. Georges to Mes­sire Armand de Bethune Count of Velai.

St. Flour twenty seven from Raymond Vehens or Vehennes, to Messire Jerôme de la Motthe Houdancourt: He succeeds to Jacques de Mont Rouge.

Tulles thirty two from Arnal de S. Astier to Messire N. Ancelin Almoner to the Queen.

The Archbishoprick of Vienne.

VIenne a hundred and three from St. Cres­cent to Messire Henry de Villars Archbi­shop, Count of Vienne, and Primate. He suc­ceeds his Uncle, who having considered that the Nephew possest all the Qualities which make a great Prelate, discharg'd himself of the Arch­bishoprick as of a heavy burthen, on him who could bear it with all the force necessary for so high a dignity.

The Suffragans are Valence, Geneva, Greno­ble, S. Jean de Morienne, and Viviers.

Valence joyn'd with Die has had fifty three Bishops from St. Martius to Messire Daniel de Cosnac.

Geneva a hundred from Diogenes to Messire Jean d' Arenson d' Alaix, who succeeds Charles-Auguste de Sales. The Episcopal See was sixt at Anneci after that the Protestant Ministers had driven from the Town the Bishop and the Catholicks. The Duke of Savoy nominates to this Bishoprick. Cardinal Robert Bishop of Ge­neva, was Pope under the name of Clement the Seventh.

Grenoble sixty two from Domninus to Messire Etienne le Camus Bishop and Prince, President of course of the Estates of Daulphine, formerly Almoner of his Majesty. He might say with the Evangelical Prophet, Quid debui ultrafacere vineae meae & non feci? I wish him the same fate with S. Gregory of Neocesarea call'd Thau­maturgus, who having askt, as he lay on his Death-bed, how many Infidels remain'd in the City of Neocesarea, after that it was answered him onely seventeen, he said in rendring thanks to God, that the day he took the Government of the Diocess he found full as many Catho­licks.

S. Jean de Morienne is at the nomination of the Duke of Savoy.

Viviers ninety five from S. Janvier to Messire [Page 162] Loüis-Francois de la Chaume of Susa, Count of Vivarez and Prince of Donzere.

The Archbishoprick of Tolose.

TOlose has had forty eight Bishops, the first S. Saturnin vulgarly S. Cernin, and twen­ty nine Archbishops from Raymond de Commin­ges Cardinal, to Messire Joseph de Montpezat of Carbon, formerly Bishop of S. Papaoul, who deserv'd in the Prelateship the same elevation as his Illustrious Brother the Archbishop of Sens.

The Suffragans are seven; Pamiers, Lombez, Mirepoix, Montauban, Rieux, S. Papaoul, La­vaur.

Pamiers twenty nine Bishops from Loüis de Sicile surnam'd de Marseille, to Messire Francois Etienne de Caulet.

Lombez twenty nine from Arnoldus Rogier de Comminges to Messire Cosme Roger, before Ge­neral of the Order des Feüillans, and Preacher in Ordinary to their Majesties. He was nomi­nated to the Bishoprick of Pamiers An. 1680.

Mirepoix thirty two from Raymond Athon to Messire Gabriel de la Broüë Preacher in Ordina­ry to the King.

Montauban twenty eight from Bertrand du Pui to Messire Jean Baptiste Colbert de S. Poü­ages.

Rieux twenty three from Cardinal Pile­fort [Page 163]de Rabastein to Messire Antoine Francois Bertier.

S. Papaoul thirty from Bernard de la Tour to Messire Barthelemi de Grammont.

Lavaur thirty one from Rogier d' Armagnac to Messire Charles le Goulx de la Berchere, former­ly the Kings Almoner.

The Archbishoprick of Roüen.

ROüen eighty nine from S. Nicaise to Mes­sire Francois Rouxel de Medavi de Grancei Counsellor of State in Ordinary, Primate of Normandy. Messire Jacques Colbert is his Co­adjutor. He was created Titular Archbishop of Carthage the 4th of Aug. 1680.

The Suffragans of Roüen are six; Avranche, Bayeux, Coûtance, Evreux, Lisieux, and Sées.

Avranche fifty six from Nepos or Nepus to Messire Gabriel Philippes de Froulé de Tessé.

Bayeux sixty eight from S. Exupere to Mes­sire Francois de Nesmond.

Coûtance eighty eight from S. Ereptiol to Messire Charles-Francois de Lomenie de Brien­ne.

Evreux sixty seven from S. Taurin to Mes­sire Loüis-Joseph de Grignan, formerly Agent-General of the Clergy of France. He succeeds Henry de Maupas of Tours, sometime Bishop of Pui, who was deputed to Rome for the Beatifi­cation and Canonization of S. Francois de Sales, [Page 164]and has given the publick the Life of Priest Vincent, General of the Congregation of the Mission of S. Lazarus. The same Prelate has compos'd some other Works.

Lisieux forty nine from S. Theobaud to Mes­sire Eleoner de Matignon. If his high Birth fills him with Honour, his excellent Actions accu­mulate him with Glory.

Sées sixty eight from S. Latuin to Messire Jean Forcoal, before Almoner to the King.

The Archbishoprick of Sens.

SEns a hundred and sixteen Prelates from S. Savinien to Messire Jean de Montpezat de Carbon Primate of the Gauls and of Germany. He was Bishop of S. Papaoul, and then Arch­bishop of Bourges, and afterward nominated to the Archbishoprick of Tolose, which he did not occupy.

The Suffragans are Auxere, Nevers, and Troyes. Before that Paris was made an Archbishoprick, they were six in number.

Auxere an hundred and three from S. Peregrin to Messire André Colbert Doctor of the House and Society of Sorbonne.

Nevers, ninety two from Tauritius or Astre­monius to Messire Edoüart Vallot.

Troyes eighty three from S. Amant to Messire N. de Chavigni, formerly the Kings Almoner.

Bishops of Bethléem.

BEthléem which was but a Village in Pale­stina belonging to the Tribe of Juda, was honour'd with the Title of Bishoprick an. 1110. by Pope Pascal the Second, in the honour of the birth of the Son of God. The Episcopal See was transferr'd into France in the Diocess of Auxere in the faux-bourg of the Town of Cla­meci against Nivernois. Guillaume the fourth of the name, Count of Nevers, being in the Ho­ly Land for reconquering of it, and considering that the Bishop of Bethléem could not subsist there, founded him 500 Livres of yearly Rent for his subsistence in the faux-bourg before-nam'd. Charles the Fourth King of France con­firm'd this Donation. The present Bishop is called Francois Batailler; he depends immedi­ately on the Holy See, and is very much em­ploy'd in Ordinations and Missions. His an­cient Predecessors were Suffragans of the Patriark of Hierusalem. Messire Francois Bata­iller was propos'd to go and serve Portugal at the time that this Crown was found reduc'd to one onely Bishop, by reason of the Refusal which the Court of Rome then made to give it any on the account of Spain, whose Embassadour at Rome made great instances on this subject.

Auchs, joyn'd with the Country of Eusan, ninety six Prelates from Ceratius to Messire [Page 166] Henry de la Motthe Houdancourt, Commander of the Kings Orders, and Purveyor of Navarre, formerly Bishop of Rennes, and Almoner of the deceas'd Queen-Mother. He is esteem'd one of the most learn'd Prelates in Antiquity, and in the Science of the Canon-Law, absolute­ly necessary for the government of the Church: It's what is requir'd at Rome.

The Suffragans are ten; Aire, Acqs or Dax, Bayonne, Couserans, Comminges, Leitoure, Lescar, Oleron, Tarbes, Bazas.

Aire fifty one from Marcel to Messire Jean-Loüis de Fromentieres, Preacher in Ordinary to the King.

Acqs fifty seven from S. Vincent Martyr to Messire Philippes de Chaumont.

Bayonne twenty nine from Leon to Messire Henry de Garsias; the Prelate that occupies it at present is call'd Messire Jean Dolce.

Couserans sixty three from S. Valere to Mes­sire Gabriel de S. Etienne, vulgarly Esteve.

Comminges forty seven from Suavis to Mes­sire Loüis de Rechignevoisin de Guron.

Leitoure forty five from Heutherius to Mes­sire Hugues de Bar.

Lescar forty five from S. Julien to Messire Jean de Haut de Sallies. President of the Estates of Bearn, first Counsellor to the Parliament of Pau, and first Baron of Province.

Oleron forty four from Gratus to Messire Ar­naud-Francois Maitié.

Tarbes forty nine from Antomerius to Mes­sire Francois de Poudens.

Bazas fifty from Sextilius to Messire Guil­laume de la Boissonade of Ortie, formerly Chan­ter of the Church of Agen; he succeeds Samuel Martineau.

Elne, joyn'd with Perpignan, a hundred and five from Apel who was nominated Successor of N. Marguerit. This Diocess has been Suffragan sometimes of Tarragone, sometimes of Narbonne. Elne is three leagues from Perpignan.

The Archbishoprick of Lyons.

LYons a hundred twenty two Bishops or Archbishops from Potin to Messire Camil­le de Neufville de Villeroy Archbishop and Count of Lyons, Primate of the Gauls, and Comman­der of the Kings Orders, and Lieutenant Gene­ral for his Majesty of Lyonnois, Forez, and Beau­jolois.

The Suffragans are Authun, Chalons or Saone, Langres, and Mascon.

Authun a hundred eighty four from S. Amant to Messire Gabriel de Roquette, Successor of Loüis d'Attichi. He is President of course of the Estates of Burgundy. Administrator Spiritual and Temporal of the Archbishoprick of Lyons during the vacancy of the See. Pope Innocent the Eleventh granted this Prelate the Pallium, the third of October in the year 1678. Though [Page 168]the Church of Authun enjoy'd this privi­ledge from the Pontificate of St. Gregory the Great, its Bishops have not been able to obtain it for many Ages, whatever instances they have made. Messire Gabriel de Roquette recei­ved it from the hands of the Archbishop of Ly­ons Messire Camille de Neufville of Villeroy, with the ordinary Ceremonies, in the Church of the Carmelites of the faux-bourg S. Jacques of Paris, the 21 of May 1679. It is to be ob­serv'd, that it's said to the Pope the day of the Ceremony of his Consecration when he puts on the Pallium, Accipe Pallium sanctum, plenitu­dinem Pontificalis Officii.

Chalons seventy six from Donatien to Mes­sire Henry-Felix de Tassis, Dean of the holy Chappel of Vincennes.

Langres ninety three from Senator to Mes­sire Loüis de Simianes de Gordes, Duke and Peer of France, Count of S. Jean de Lyon, and first Almoner of the Queen. The Bishop of Langres carries the Scepter at the Ceremony of the Consecration and Coronation of the King. The Duke of Burgundy bears the Crown, and puts the Sword by the Kings side. The Peers appear with a Circle of Gold on their heads in the form of a Crown. There are Princes and Lords chosen to represent the Peers whose Peer­ages have been reunited to the Crown.

Mascon seventy seven from S. Placide to Mes­sire Michel de Tilladet.

The Archbishoprick of Bourdeaux.

BOurdeaux seventy two Prelates from S. Gil­bert to Messire Loüis de Bourlemont, Au­ditor of the Rota.

The Suffragans are Agen, Condom, Angoulesme, Lusson, Rochelle, Perigeux, Poitiers, Xaintes, Sarlat.

Agen sixty one Bishops from S. Caprasi to Messire Jules Mascaron, Preacher in Ordinary to the King. He was Bishop of Tulles. The Pope propos'd him in his Consistory for the Church of Agen.

Condom twenty three from Raymond Goulard to Messire Jacques de Mattignon, who succeeds Messire Jacques Benigne Bousset, Tutor to M. le Dauphin, and at present first Almoner of Ma­dam the Dauphiness, and Author of a Book en­tituled The Exposition of the Doctrine of the Ca­tholick Church on matters of Controversie.

Angoulesme sixty seven from S. Auson to Mes­sire Francois de Pericard.

Lusson thirty from Pierre de la Voirie to Mes­sire Henry de Barillion.

Rochelle joyn'd with Maillezais twenty four. The Episcopal See was remov'd from Maille­zais to Rochelle An. 1648, by a Bull of Pope Innocent the Tenth, and with Letters Patents of Loüis the Fourteenth. The first Bishop of Maillezais was call'd Gaufrid Pauvrelle, and the [Page 170]two first of Rochelle were Jacques Raoul, and Messire Henry de la Valle de Boisdauphin de Sa­ble.

Perigueux seventy from S. Fronto to Messire Claude le Boux, Preacher in Ordinary to his Majesty.

Poitiers a hundred and five from Liberius to Messire Hardoüin Fortin de la Hoguette, for­merly Bishop of S. Brieux. He was Agent-General of the Clergy of France.

Xaintes sixty six from S. Eutrope to Messire Guillaume de la Brunetiere du Plessis Geté, for­merly Archdeacon and Canon of the Church of Paris, and grand Vicar of the two last Archbi­shops. This Prelate at his coming to the Pon­tificate having found in the Field of his Church the Darnel, whereof it is spoken in the Gospel that the man enemy had sown there during the darkness of the night, tore it up without unroo­ting the good seed, by his skill and dexte­rity.

Sarlat thirty one from Raymond de Roquecor to Messire Loüis de Salagnac.

The Archbishoprick of Arles.

ARles eighty seven Prelates from S. Trophime to Messire Francois Adheimar de Monteil de Grignan, Primate Prince of Salon and of Montdragon, Commander of the Kings Orders. Messire Jean Baptiste Adheimar de Monteil de [Page 171]Grignan was nominated his Coadjutor an. 1666. and consecrated at Ʋzes an. 1677. He preacht in Advents before their Majesties, and has made fine Speeches to the King as deputed by the general Assemblies of the Clergy. The first Archbishop of Arles was called S. Cezaire. The Town glories in having given birth to eleven of its Bishops and Archbishops, which are St. Honorat, S. Aurelien, Pierre Ainard, Imbert de Guieres, Michel de Morieres, Hugues Bouardi, Bertrand de S. Maleferrat, Bertrand Almaric, and Gaspart du Laurens. I remit those who would have an ample relation on this subject to a Book newly compos'd by the Abbot de Port Native of Arles, which contains excellent Remarks: he has entitul'd it, The Ecclesiastical and Secular History of Arles; it's the third Book wherewith he has gratified the Publick. The first is a fine Book of Prayer, the second a fine Rhetorick.

The Suffragans of Arles are Orange, Marseil­les, Toulon, and S. Paul Trois Chateaux.

Orange eighty eight Bishops from Constance to Messire Jean Jacques d'Obeille.

Marseille seventy one from S. Lazarus Bro­ther of Mary Magdaleine and of Martha, to Mes­sire N. d'Estampes.

Toulon fifty from S. Honorat to Messire Vint-Mille du Luc, before Bishop of Dignes.

S. Paul sixty eight from S. Sulpicius to Mes­sire Loüis-Aube de la Roquemartine.

The Archbishoprick of Ambrun.

AMbrun seventy nine from S. Marcelin to Messire Brulart de Genlis.

The Suffragans are Digne, Glandeve, Grasse, Nice, Senez, Vence.

Digne has had fifty two Bishops from S. Dom­ninus to Messire Francois de Tellier, who was nominated to this Bishoprick an. 1677. He was before the Queens Almoner, Curate and Archpriest of the Church of St. Severin of Paris.

Glandeve thirty one from Fraternus to Mes­sire Leon Bacouë, formerly Cordelier. He suc­ceeds Jean-Dominique Ithier. Those are de­ceiv'd who have written that the See of Glan­deve has been at Antibe; they would say true, if they said that the Episcopal See was transfer­red to Grasse, because at Antibe they abus'd the Bishop of the place.

Grasse sixty three from Armenterius to Mes­sire Loüis-Aube de la Roquemartine Dean of the Church of Arles.

Nice is in the nomination of Savoy.

Senez thirty three from Ʋrsus to Messire Loüis-Anne-Anbert de Villeserin, Commander of the Kings Orders. Some Authors have said falsely, that Senez has been honour'd with a Council, because having found cited in some Books Concilium Sinense, they thought that it [Page 173]was a Council held at Senez, not observing that it was at Sienna in Italy 1423. besides that the Town of Senez was then destroy'd, and reduc'd to a pitiful Village. There is an expectation from Rome of Bulls for the translation of the E­piscopal See and Chapter of Senez to Castellane. For these two hundred years and more its Bi­shops have labour'd for this Work to no pur­pose; Messire Loüis de Villeserin has resum'd so just a designe, and has transferr'd his Officialty, his service and his ordinary Residency to the Town of Castellane. This Diocess is one of the most considerable and most ancient of Provence. This Prelate has set up a Confraternity of St. Francis of Sales in the Chappel of the Religi­ous Women of the Visitation of St. Mary of Castellane: he has also establisht in the same Town a Society des Dames de la Charite, and has made other excellent Institutions which take from Usurers all sorts of occasions of maintain­ing their wicked Commerce, and comfort the Poor.

Vence fifty two from St. Ʋsebius to Messire Loüis de Thomassin Lord and Baron of Vence, where he has upheld the Rites of the Church with an extream vigour, in which and on other occasions he has shewn himself a most zealous Defender of the Episcopacy, and of the Ecclesi­astical Discipline; which appear'd by a famous Decree of the Council of State which he ob­tain'd An. 1679.

The Archbishoprick of Tours.

TOurs an hundred and thirteen Bishops and Archbishops from S. Gassien to Messire Michel Amelot, formerly Bishop of Lavaur. Some Authors call the first Bishop of Tours, Gratianus; the Archives and Registers say, San­ctus Grassianus; and all the Canons of this Church pronounce it thus, saying even in their Litanies, S. Grassiane, or a pro nobis.

The Suffragans are in great number; Angers, S. Brieux, le Mans, Quimper or Cornoüaille, Dol, S. Paul de Leon, S. Malo, Nantes, Rennes, Tri­guier, Vannes.

Angers has had seventy two Bishops from S. Defenseur to Messire Henry Arnaud.

S. Brieux sixty one from Bishop Adam to Messire N. de Coëtlogon.

Le Mans seventy four from S. Julien to Mes­sire Loüis de Lavergne Montenard de Tressan, first Almoner of Monsieur Philippes of France, onely Brother to the King. He succeeds Philippes Emmanuel de Beaumanoir de Lavardin, after ha­ving been first Bishop of Vabres.

Quimper sixty two from Corenthin to Messire Francois de Coëtlogon.

Dol sixty seven from S. Samson to Messire Matthieu de Thoreau, formerly Agent-General of the Clergy of France. Dol has had former­ly the Title of Archbishoprick, wherefore [Page 175]the Bishops bear in their Arms the Archiepis­copal Cross.

S. Paul forty eight from S. Paul de Leon to Messire Pierre de Nebout de la Brousse.

S. Malo seventy one from S. Maclou to Mes­sire Sebastien de Guemadeuc, President of course of the Estates of Bretany, formerly Agent-Ge­neral of the Clergy: [...]he was nominated to the Bishoprick of Beziers, which he did not occupy through a motion of love for his Country.

Nantes ninety four from S. Clair to Messire Gilles de Beauveau de Riveau. He succeeds Messire Gilles de la Baume de la Valiere.

Rennes seventy four from S. Clair Moderan to Messire Jean Baptiste de Beaumanoir de La­vardin.

Triguier sixty one from S. Tudgual to Mes­sire Ignace de Saillant. He was formerly Cap­tain in the Kings Armies; and there were few there like him, who joyn'd Valour with Understanding, and who on all occasions could shew equally a strength of mind and that of the arm. He was since Superiour of the House of the Priests of the Oratory of S. Honorius at Paris, and Assistant of the Father General.

Vannes eighty nine from S. Patern to Messire Loüis Caset de Vautorte, formerly Bishop of Leitoure.

The Archbishoprick of Aix.

AIx seventy Bishops and Archbishops from S. Maximin to the most Eminent Cardi­nal Jerôme Grimaldi. This Eminency draws his Origine from the Princes of Monaco. He was Vice-Legat of the Patrimony of S. Peter, Nuncio Extraordinary at the Court of the Em­perour, and Nuncio in France, where he receiv'd from the Kings hand the Cardinals Cap.

The Suffragans are Apt, Sisteron, Prejus, Riez, and Gap.

Apt has had sixty six Bishops from S. Auspice to Messire Jean de Gaillard Bishop and Prince of Apt, formerly Theologal of the Church of Coûtance.

Sisteron sixty one from Valere to Messire Jacques Potier de Novion.

Frejus seventy one from Acceptus to Messire Lucid Aquin, formerly Bishop of S. Paul de Trois Châteaux.

Riez seventy seven from S. Prosper to Messire Nicolas de Vallavoire.

Gap forty four or forty five from S. Demetri­us to Messire Nicolas de Meliand. Guillaume de Mescatin formerly Canon, Great Keeper and Count of Lyons, who died An. 1679. preceded him as the last Bishop save one.

The Archbishoprick of Paris.

PAris has had eighty seven Bishops, and five Archbishops; S. Denis was its first Bishop. Pope Gregory the Fifteenth made this Town, being the Capital of the Kingdom, an Archbi­shoprick, at the request of Loüis the Thirteenth, An. 1622.

The first Archbishop was Messire Jean Fran­cois de Gondi, Commander of the Kings Or­ders.

The second, Cardinal de Retz Jean-Fran­cois-Paul de Gondi. He was made Coadjutor of the Church of Paris An. 1643. and resign'd his Archbishoprick An. 1661. into the Kings hands, who gave him the Abbey of S. Denis. He would have laid down his Cardinals Hat An. 1675. to retire himself from the World: the Pope and his Consistory did not think it convenient, finding him necessary in the Con­claves; and it mist but little in one but he had been rais'd to the Soveraign Pontificate. He died the third Cardinal of his House; his Hat was of the nomination of France.

The third, Messire Pierre de Marca: he was Councellor, and afterward President of the Par­liament of Pau, Intendant of Justice, and Visi­tor-General in Catalonia and Roussillon, Bishop of Couserans, Archbishop of Tolose, and then after­ward Minister of State, and Archbishop of Pa­ris. [Page 178]He receiv'd the Bulls some days before his death, and did not occupy the See. This Great Person is buried under the Archiepiscopal Chair. His Book in folio De Concordia Sacredotii & Im­perii has been read by the Learned, and exami­ned at Rome.

The fourth, Messire Hardoüin de Beaumont of Perefixe, a great defender of the Priviledges of his Church, formerly Tutor to Loüis the Great, and Bishop of Rhodez. He writ the History of Henry the Fourth, and has been very liberal in giving Alms: he gave at one time ten thousand Livres towards a Building for the Priests of the Congregation and Mission of St. Lazarus at Paris, and during his Archiepiscopacy assisted poor Gentlemen and others with his Revenue. This Prelate re-united the jurisdiction of all the faux-bourg S. Germain des Prez and other places, to the Archbishoprick of Paris, with an extraordinary vigour, by solemn Decrees.

The fifth, Messire Francois de Harlai de Chan­valon, Commander of the Kings Orders, Duke and Peer of France, and Purveyor of Sorbonne. He was honoured with the Archbishoprick of Paris An. 1671. and created Duke and Peer of France An. 1674. It's the first of this See who has born the Title of Duke and Peer, which will pass from him to his Successors. He was be­fore Archbishop of Roüen, and President in or­dinary of the Assemblies of the Clergy of France. He never permits any Priest to speak to him [Page 179]with his Hat off, but himself is likewise unco­ver'd, though he be a great Lord.

The Suffragans of Paris are Chartres, Orleans, Meaux.

Chartres has had a hundred and five Bishops from S. Avent or Aventin (some say Potentien) to Messire Ferdinand de Neufville de Villeroy, Counsellor of State in Ordinary, formerly Bi­shop of S. Malo. He was born at Rome under the Embassie of his deceased Father, who caus'd the Statua of Henry the Great to be erected there. This great Prelate is descended from great Ministers, who have been cherisht by our Kings, and who have govern'd the State with so much wisdom and prudence. He has always had near him persons of eminent Learning.

Orleans a hundred and seventeen from S. Al­tin to Messire Pierre Cambout de Coaslin the Kings first Almoner.

Meaux a hundred and four from S. Sanctin to Messire Dominique de Ligni, Successor of his Uncle Dominique Seguier.

The Archbishoprick of Albi.

ALbi has had sixty eight Bishops from St. Clair to Gaspard de Daillon du Lude. This Bishoprick, very famous for its Revenue, was made an Archbishoprick under Pope Inno­cent the Eleventh, at the request of Loüis the Fourteenth, in favour of Messire Hyacynthe de [Page 180]Serroni, some time Bishop of Orange, and after­ward Lord Bishop of Mande, Count of Givodan, and first Almoner of the late Queen-Mother Anne of Austria, whose Funeral-Oration he made at Paris in the head of the Clergy of France, and of all that is most Illustrious in the King­dom, with the applause and admiration of all his Auditors. His rare Piety, his profound Learning, the long and important Services which he has rendred the Church and State, have rais'd him to this high Dignity. His de­vise is Sidus flos & lapis. There has been counted to the year 1680. sixty eight Bishops of Albi: the Abbot de Cam, who dayly pene­trates Antiquity, has discover'd eight or ten more by reading the Councels and the Register and Documents of the Metropolitan Church of Albi, whereof he has compos'd the History. His merit oblig'd the first Archbishop of this See, a lover of Learning and learned Per­sons, to make him his great Vicar, and to send him on his behalf to assist in the Estates of Lan­guedoc of the year 1680.

The Suffragans of Albi are the nearest to it; Vabres, Rhodes, Castres, Cahors, and Mande.

Vabres has had twenty two Bishops from Pierre d'Olargue to Messire Loüis de Barrada. The two first Bishops of this Diocess were of the ancient House of Olargue.

Rhodes fifty three from St. Amant to Mes­sire Gabriel de Voyer de Paulmi.

Castres twenty nine from Deodat to Mes­sire Michel Tuboeuf.

Cahors sixty four from Genulphe to Messire N. le Jay.

Mande sixty two from S. Severian to Mes­sire Francois Placide de Baudri de Piencour. He confirms those that are in the good way, and recalls those that are astray. Five Bishops of this Diocess enlarge the Catalogue of Saints.

The Archbishoprick of Cambray.

CAmbray has had nine or ten Archbishops from Maximilian de Berghes to Messire Christophle de Brias; he succeeds Gaspar Nemi­us. Many Bishops preceded them; for some time those of Cambray were Bishops of Arras, they were afterward separated. The Archbi­shop of Cambray stiles himself Archbishop and Duke of Cambray, Count du Cambresis, and Prince of the Empire. This Archbishoprick before the Wars was worth a hundred thousand Livres of Rent. The Archiepiscopal Church has a very fair Body adorn'd with a high Stee­ple; some persons think that its Bell call'd Mary-Fontenoise resembles in greatness to George d' Amboise of Roüen, or to Cardaillac of Tolose, or to that of Mande when it was in being, whereof the Clapper is yet to be seen. Charles the Fifth caus'd the famous Citadel to be built, which is very strong by Scituation and by Art, though [Page 182]the King of France took it in a little time, and receiv'd the Oath of Fidelity from the Arch­bishop An. 1677. The Governour of this place being askt at Brussels by the Duke de Villa-Hermosa, why he had yielded it so soon, answered him in these very terms, The King of France was before it in person; and I believe if he besieg'd Hell, he would fetch all the De­vils out, in case Hell could be besieg'd and taken by Mortals.

The Suffragans of this Archbishoprick are Arras, Tornai, Saint Omer.

Arras has had fifty three Bishops from Lam­bert to Messire Guidon de Seve de Roche Chou­ard.

Tornai forty eight from S. Plato to Messire Philiberg de Choiseul du Plessis Pralin, formerly Bishop of Comminges. He preacht the Funeral Sermon on the late Prince of Conti. The Ca­nons of his Cathedral-Church are cloath'd in vio­let. The Town of Gand depended formerly for the spiritual on the Bishops of Tornay, as we shall see elsewhere.

Saint Omer ten from Gerard de Hamericourt to Messire Annes Tristan de la Baume Suse. His Majesty chose him for a Diocess and a People newly conquered, by reason of his particular merit, and of his extream sweetness, accompa­ [...]d with a like Address for governing them. He was created before Bishop of Tarbes. He expected his Bulls for S Omer An. 1679. A [Page 183]Historiographer of France says that he has been assur'd that the custom of defending Theses in Greek pass'd from S. Omer to Paris, in a Book entituled Les Entretiens de Luxembourg, p. 193.

The Archbishoprick of Bezancon.

BEzancon ninety four Prelates and Archbi­shops from S. Lin to Messire Antoine de Gramont. The Canons of his Cathedral bear in their Arms a Camail of Silk Azure doubled with Taffety Gules, with a Crosier and a Mi­tre.

The Suffragans are Bellai, Bâle, Lausane. These two last are in Switzerland.

Bellai has had eighty six Bishops from Au­dax to Messire Pierre du Laurens. There was given to this Prelate for devise in a These dedicated to him, Crescit suo sydere laurus, by allusion to his Arms.

Bâle sixty from Justinian to blessed Rame­stein, who died An. 1651. After that Bâle was entirely Protestant, the Episcopal See was plac'd at Potentru.

Lauzane sixty three from S Beat to Messire Jean de Vateville, who died An. 1649. The See is at Fribourg in Brisgou: Buntruc is the or­dinary Seat of the Bishop.

Metz, Toul, and Verdun, are Suffragans of Treves, which has been taken and retaken.

Metz has had eighty nine Bishops from St. [Page 184] Clement to Messire George d' Aubusson de la Fue­illade, Commander of the Kings Orders, Prince of the Empire, formerly Archbishop of Ambrun, and Embassadour at Venice. Henry de Bourbon Duke of Verneüil, Jule Mazarin, and Prince Gu­illaume de Fustemberg, though in the Catalogue of the Bishops of Metz, not occupy the Epis­copal See.

Toul eighty six from Mansuet to Messire Jacques de Fieux, Prince of the Empire.

Verdun ninety four or ninety five from St. Sanctin to Messire N. de Bethune Bishop and Count of Verdun, and Prince of the Empire. He succeeds Messire Armand de Monchi d'Ho­quincourt.

The Rank and Seats of the Prelates.

THe Archbishops and Bishops have Rank and Seat in the General Assemblies of the Clergy, according to the antiquity of their Consecration.

The Prelates which are Dukes and Peers of France, have the precedency above the others at the Ceremony of the Consecration of the Kings, and in the Seats of Parliament, and en­ter with their Coaches into the Court of the Louvre.

Agents General of the Clergie of France.

THe Clergy has two Agents General at Court to mind Eccesiastical affairs; the Archbishops and Suffragan Bishops name them alternatively. They hold their Charge five years, because at each General Assembly of the Clergy two are created, who are deputed each by the Province which names at his turn. Messieurs the Abbots of Maretz Colbert and of Bezons, Doctors of Sorbonne, were created A­gents An. 1680. having been nominated the one by the Archbishop of Rheims, and the other by him of Narbonne. Bourges and Vienne gave Agents An. 1675. It is observ'd that there is no Prelate who has been Agent-General of the Clergy, but that he understands affairs; for as men do business, so business makes men.

The Clergy has also its Treasurer, call'd o­therwise Receiver-General.

Those that would know the continuation and succession of all the Archbishops and Bishops of France, must read a Book of a great labour in four Volumes in Folio, compos'd by the Sieurs de Sainte-Marthe, entituled Gallia Christiana; there are seen there a great number of Popes Bulls, the day of the creation of the Prelates, their Qualities, their Arms, the names and the number of Abbeys. This Work was printed An. 1656. and is worth a thousand other Impressions. [Page 186]There is to be seen also another Book on this subject, which has for Title Series Epis­coporum. Pierre Frison has given the publick Gallia Purpurata.

Since some time the King seldom gives Arch­bishopricks to Ecclesiastical persons, if they are not actually Bishops.

These Archbishopricks contain many Suffra­gans under them; our Conquests increase the number.

The sole Province of Languedoc has had to this time twenty two Bishops, and as many Ba­rons, entring yearly into the Estates.

The Duke of Verneüil is Governour of this Province, the Marquess de Cauvisson, the Comte de Roure, and the Marquess de Montanegue, are Lieutenants General for the King; and Mes­sire Henry d' Aguessau, Master of Requests, and President of the Grand Council, is there Inten­dant of Justice, Polity, and Finances. He suc­ceeds Messire Claude de Bezons Counsellor of State in Ordinary, who liv'd there a long time, and who manag'd well the Kings affairs.

We shall remark, in favour of this Province, that the Law of Aubeine or Escheatage has no place here by priviledge and exemption of the King, nor in the Vicounty of Turenne. Laurence Bouchet Advocate in the Court of Parliament of Paris is formal in the point, in his Book entituled La Bibliotheque ou Tresor du droit des Francois; in which are treated civil, criminal, and benefi­cial [Page 187]matters, govern'd as well by the Ordinan­ces and Customs of France, as decided by De­crees of Soveraign Courts, summarily extracted from the most famous French Lawyers and Practitioners, and compar'd in many places with the Laws and Customs of Foreign Nati­ons: This book was printed at Paris, An. 1629. There may be seen also thereon the book of the Province which contains its Priviledges.

The ordinary List of the Parliaments of France, and the time of their erection.

PAris, Tolose, Grenoble, Bordeaux, Dijon, Roüen, Aix, Rennes, Pau, and Metz.

There are added Tornai and Dole; its Parlia­ment was plac'd at Bezancon, An. 1674.

Perpignan has a soveraign Council which judges without appeal; as also Pignerol, Brisac, and other places. That which the French call Parliament, that is to say conference and debate concerning things belonging to Justice, the Spa­niards name Soveraign Council, and the Savoy­ards the Senate.

The Parliament of Paris was made of constant Session on the place by Philippes le Bel, An. 1302. and according to Chorier, An. 1288. It was be­fore liable to be remov'd from place ro place.

The 19th of May 1678. Loüis the Fourteenth nominated Messire Nicolas Potier Chevalier Lord of Novion and of Vilbon, President of the [Page 188]Cap, to the place of first President of this Par­liament. This place has been long due to his Merit, to his Integrity, to his great Lights, and to that long experience of the Parliament-house which he has acquir'd with an indefatigable and wholly wonderful Assiduity. He has rendred himself considerable on all occasions, and parti­cularly on those great days, which he held at Clermont in Auvergne 1665.

Tolose was instituted by the same Philippe le Bel, and in the same year as Paris, An. 1302. and made fixt An. 1443. and according to Cho­rier, An. 1320. Its first President is at this day Messire Gaspart de Fieubet.

Grenoble by the Dolphin Loüis Son and Suc­cessor of Charles le Bel, who confirm'd, Anno 1453. by his Letters-Patents, that which the Dolphin had done. Its first President at this day is call'd Denis le Goux de la Berchere.

Bourdeaux by Loüis the Eleventh, An. 1462. Bourdeaux and Grenoble sit by turns. That of Bourdeaux was transferred some years since to Condom, and afterward to Marmande, from Marmande to la Reole. This Parliament has at present for its first President N. d'Olide, by the voluntary demission of Messire Arnaud de Pontac.

Dijon by the same King Loüis the Eleventh, An. 1476.

Me [...]e Loüis Laisne Chevalier Lord de la Marg [...], after having been many years Coun­sellor [Page 189]to the Grand Council, Master of Requests, and having exercis'd divers Intendances of Ju­stice, Polity, and Finances, in Guienne, Norman­dy, Burgundy, and had many important Com­missions in Languedoc for the Kings service, and in his Armies, was created for his merit first President of the Parliament of Dijon, An. 1653. and has kept the place with all the Splendour, Honesty, Honour, and Understanding imagi­nable, so far that his Majesty judg'd him necessa­ry in his Council, where he has been one of the most employed in the Affairs of State, and of the Finances. Messire Nicolas Brulard has been some years first President of this Parlia­ment.

Roüen was establisht by Loüis the Twelfth, An. 1499.

The Author of the book entituled L'Etat de la France, sets this Parliament after that of To­lose; he speaks in these terms: The Soveraign Court of Normandy regulated under the name of Echiquier by Philippe le Bel, An. 1302. was made perpetual by Loüis the Twelfth, An. 1499. though it did not bear the name of Parliament but un­der Francis the First, An. 1515. Messire Claude Pellot is here President since his Inten­dances of Justice.

Aix An. 1501. by Loüis the Twelfth.

Late Messire Geofrey Camus Lord of Pont­carré, Counsellor to the Parliament of Paris, and Master of Requests, was nominated after [Page 190]his Intendancies of Justice in Guienne, Langue­doc, and Provence, first President of the Parlia­ment of Aix by Letters-Patents of King Henry the Fourth, and call'd shortly after to the Coun­cil of his Majesty, where he died Sub-dean, and honourary Counsellor to the Parliament of Pa­ris.

Late Messire Elie Laisné Chevalier Lord of Marguerie, Father of Messire Loüis Laisné Lord of Marguerie, Counsellor of State in Ordinary, was also first President of the Parliament of Aix: He has given the publick a Commen­tary on the Prophet Esay in folio, which a great Pope honour'd with his esteem, having said that it belong'd to a Counsellor of State to explain another Counsellor of State. He has left a posthumous Work on Job.

Late Messire Jean de Mesgrigni Counsellor of State, was the first President of this same Parliament. Messire Arnoul Marin Lord of Chateneraye, occupies at present this Tribu­nal.

Rennes by Henry the Second, An. 1553. This Parliament was transferr'd to Vannes, An. 1675. Messire Loüis Phelipeaux de Pont Chartran is at present its first President; he succeeds Messire Francois d'Argouges now Counsellor of State.

Pau and Metz are the work of Loüis the Thirteenth. Pau was created An. 1620. and Metz An. 1633. Messire Bernard de la Vie is in the head of the Parliament of Pau, and [Page 191]Messire Thomas de Bragelone at that of Metz.

Tornai by Loüis the Fourteenth, An. 1675.

The Order of the Session of Parliaments was regulated An. 1557. at the Estates General held at Paris under Henry the Second.

The first President of each Parliament wears on his Cap two Galloons of Gold, and three Borders of Gold likewise on his Mantle, lin'd with Hermines on the backside to distinguish him from other Presidents of the Cap, who have but one on their Cap. The Presidents, the Counsellors, and their Atturneys and Sol­licitors-general, wear red with trimmings of black Velvet, on the days of Ceremonies; the Hoods are lin'd with Hermines. The chief Re­gister, and the first Door-keeper, wear also a red Robe; this wears a Cap of Gold.

There are in France ten Courts or Chambers of Accounts: The Towns where they are esta­blisht are Paris, Roüen, Dijon, Nantes, Mont­pellier, Grenoble, Aix, Pau, Blois, and Lille in Flanders. That of Paris is very ancient; its Presidents, as also those of the Grand Council, wear on the days of Ceremony a Robe of black Velvet. A book entituled L'Etat de la France marks the Jurisdiction of all the Superiour Courts, and after what manner the Officers are cloath'd on solemn days.

There are counted in the Kingdom twenty three Generalities, about an hundred sixty four Elections: There were counted three Chambers [Page 192]of Edict; that of Grenoble, that of Castelnaudari which was before at Castres, and that of St. Machairus formerly at Bordeaux; they were incorporated in their Parliaments An. 1679.

These Chambers were instituted in favour of persons of the pretended reform'd Religion, pur­suant to the Edicts of Pacification made in the years 1576, 1577, and 1578. This last is call'd the Edict of Nantes or of January. These Courts or Chambers of Edict were called Miparties, be­cause they were compos'd of an equal number of Magistrates Catholick, and of the pretended Religion.

The 22th of April 1666. the King set forth a Declaration which remov'd the affairs of per­sons converted to the Catholick Religion, from the Chamber of Edict of Castres to that of Gre­noble, because many particular persons conver­ted to the Roman Catholick Religion com­plain'd that they could not hope for any Ju­stice in the Chamber of Edict of Castres. The Archbishops and Bishops, and other Ecclesia­sticks deputed in the General Assembly of the Clergy, carried their Complaints to his Maje­sty the 8th of September 1679. The Cham­bers of Edict of Paris and of Roüen, were sup­pressed An. 1669.

The Presidential Seats are in a very great number: these are of a Jurisdiction of a vast extent; the Castelet at Paris, that of Tolose, that of Lyons, that of Poitiers, that of Nismes, [Page 193]and that of Rion in Auvergne. The Sevenes, Givodan, and Vivarez, plead at the Presidency of Nismes, whereof the Marquess of Monfrin is Se­neschal. The Inhabitants of Velai have their Presidential Seat in the Town of Puy.

The Countries of State are

BƲrgundy, Dolphine, Provence, Languedoc, and Britany.

Remarkable things of these times happening from the year 1672. to the beginning of 1680.

ANno 1672. the 7th of April, there was publisht at Paris the Kings Proclamation, by which his Majesty declar'd War against the States General of the Ʋnited Provinces, both by Sea and Land. His Majesty conquer'd in a lit­tle time on them above fifty or sixty places, as well Towns as Forts, and took a great number of Prisoners, without speaking of the reduce­ment of three Provinces. By reason of these great Conquests it was deliberated in the Guild­hall of Amsterdam for carrying the Keys of their Town to the King; of thirty six voices there were twenty seven. An ancient Burgomaster, assisted with eight persons of the contrary opi­nion, reverst the Deliberation, and caus'd the Sluces to be drawn up. After that they were drawn up they would have sent this ancient [Page 194]Burgomaster into Spain with the Character of Embassadour; he excused himself on the account of the weakness of his age. M. le Prince drew very near Amsterdam, and many persons think that he had entred it, had it not been for the hurt he receiv'd in his hand at Tolhus, a place where the Rhine divides it self, and where is built the famous Fort of Schenk.

The 23 of the same month and of the same year, the King put in possession of the Seals Messire Etienne Deligre, and rais'd him the month of January, An. 1674. to the place and dignity of Chancellor of the Kingdom, for his merit and long services rendred to the State. He was Son of a Master, his Father having been Chancellor and Keeper of the Seals.

Anno 1673. the War was declar'd betwixt France and Spain.

At the beginning of the year 1675. the King chose for his Confessor Father de la Chaize, who has been Professor of Divinity in his Society, Rector and Provincial of the Province of Lyons. He is consummated in all sorts of Knowledge, and particularly in the Moral, Positive, and Scholastick learning; in the Mathematicks, and in Medals, whereof he has written a Book. It's a Chair of Truth and Piety, whence issue Oracles to instruct, and Examples to edifie; it's wherefore Loüis the Great by the high Lights which Heaven has communicated to him, know­ing his merit, & the solidity of his Understanding, [...] [Page 195]committed to him his Conscience and his Soul entirely. He possesses in an eminent degree the excellent and great Qualities of those that have preceded him in the Office of Counsellor Con­fessor of our Kings; the first was Aymon Auger, the following Coton, Arnoux, Siguerand, Suffren, Malliand, Gourdon a Scot, Caussin, Sirmond, Di­net, Paulin, Annat, and Ferrier. Henry the Third was the first King of France who had a Jesuit for his Confessor; the other Kings, Suc­cessors of this Prince, make use of them since, and the greatest part of other Monarchs and Po­tentates.

The 28th of April 1675. the Senators and Sheriffs of the famous Town of Messina, specially impower'd in the name of all the Inhabitants, took on their knees the Oath of Fidelity to the Invincible Loüis the Fourteenth King of France and of Navarre, from the hands of Loüis Victor de Roche-Choüard, Prince of Tonnai-Cha­rente, Duke of Vivone, and Lieutenant-General for his Majesty in the Town here mentioned, and in the other places of the Isle of Sicily, since Mareschal of France. At this Ceremony and other important actions, assisted Francois-Auguste de Valavoir Marquess of Vaux, Melchior de Tho­mai Lord of Chateauneuf and others. The French soon got possession of lands by the taking of Sca­leta, Augusta, Taormina, Merilli, and other places.

In the same year 1675. the 19th day of the month of July, the Shrine of Saint Genevieve [Page 196]was carried processionally about the Town of Paris for fair weather, which was obtain'd as soon as recourse was made to her Prayers: be­fore, the obstinate Rains laid waste the Country and the Corn for above two months; the hopes of the Labourer and Vineyard-keeper were fallen. It was twenty three years that the Re­licks of this Saint had not been carried.

An. 1676. the 22th of April happen'd the great Naval-fight in Sicily as far as Augusta and Messina, betwixt the French Fleet and those of Holland and Spain. The French gain'd a great Victory; Michel-Adrien Ruiter was so dange­rously wounded, that he died some days after. The Sieur du Quesne signaliz'd himself there, and shew'd the braveness of the French, who since some years are become firm Sea-men.

The King of France declar'd War against the King of Denmark the 28th of August of the same year, because contrary to the Treaty of Peace at Copenhagen, An. 1660. betwixt Sweden and Denmark, for the performance of which his most Christian Majesty gave his Guarentie, his Danish Majesty did not cease from making War on the King of Sweden, who had not contraven'd to this Treaty of Peace.

An. 1677. on Ash-wednesday there was a de­feat of a Squadron of fourteen Dutch Vessels in the Port of Tobago, by the Comte d'Estrées Vice-Admiral of France. This Island Tobago, which is one of the Isles Antilles in America, gave the [Page 197]name to Tobacco, or has taken that. This sim­ple was formerly call'd the Herb Nicotian, be­cause the Physician Nicot brought it into Eu­rope. Some call it the Herb of the Queen, for having been first presented to the Queen of Spain. It is extreamly in use in moist Countries, because it dries, and sometimes too much. After Meals, Pipes and Tobacco are set up­on the Table; the men and women think they are not able to live without it, because the To­bacco evacuates, as they say, the evil humours of the brain. Joüin de Rochefort relates, that in the Town of Worcester he was askt whether in France the Scholars when they go to School car­ry Tobacco as those of England. He tell us, that when the Children go to School they car­ry in their little Bag, with their Food, a Pipe fill'd with Tobacco; and that at the hour of ta­king it every one lays down his Book to kindle his Pipe, and that the Master takes with them, and teaches them to hold their Pipe and to smoak. All sorts of persons are seen to smoak in Flanders, even to the religious men and wo­men.

The Bull of Jubilé of the holy year, which is celebrated from twenty five to twenty five years, was publisht at Paris at the beginning of the month of March in the year 1677. At the same time also was publisht the Jubilé of the Exaltation of our holy Father Innocent the E­leventh. The first Jubilé lasted two months, [Page 198]the other a fortnight; whereof we have spoken in the Tract of Italy.

At the beginning of April, Cambray and St. Omer were reduc'd to the Obedience of his most Christian Majesty. St. Omer the second Town of the County of Artois is seated on the River Aa.

The 11th of April, Philip of France got the Battel of Cassel.

The 14th of July the King receiv'd a Courier from the Marshal de Navaille who commanded the Army in Catalonia, bringing news of a great advantage gain'd by the Kings Army over the Spanish Troops commanded by Comte de Mon­teri Vice-Roy in Catalonia.

In the same year the Town of Arles, which was once the Capital of the Kingdom of Arles and of Burgundy, rais'd for the glory of the King in the middle of the Place a stately Obe­lisque, which was found buried in the Gardens of Madam de l'Hote, scituate in the Trenches of the Town. The Sieur Roubin Member of the French Academy of this Town, presented the Draught to his Majesty. The Obelisque is fifty two foot high, without comprizing the Pe­destal, which is seven foot diameter all of a piece.

The 25th of October of the same year 1677. Messire Etienne Daligre Chancellor and Keeper of the Seals of France, died at Versailles in the house of Chancery, aged eighty five years and a half.

The 27th the King created Chancellor and Keeper of the Seals of France, Messire Michel le Tellier, who took the Oath presented him by his Majesty the 29th following.

The indefatigable Marshal de Crequi, who has gloried in exposing himself for a long time in the dangers of War, whereof he carries many ho­nourable marks on his body, for the service of our Monarch, has perform'd according to his wont, Military actions worthy of his Courage and Valour, and particularly in the Campagne of 1677. against the Imperialists. The taking of the Town and Citadel of Fribourg in Brisgaw by this Marshal, deserves to be particulariz'd. This important place opens the Hereditary Countries, takes from the Emperour a part of his Dominion. Fribourg has belong'd to the Dukes of Zeüringuen, and afterward to Comte E­gon of Fustemberg for having married Agnes their Heiress; his Descendants were Masters of it to the year 1386. The Inhabitants of the Town gave up themselves to the Duke of Austria. Mar­shal Horn and the Duke of Weimar besieg'd and took this place three times for the Swedes, An. 1632, 1634, 1638.

Marshal d'Humieres reduc'd to the Kings O­bedience the Town of Saint Guillain, by his Va­lour and Forecast, the tenth of December of the same year 1677. This place is about two leagues from Mons; its Abbot is Lord Spiritual and Temporal, and the Abbey is the chief of Hainalt.

The 12th the Count d'Estrées having taken the Forts which the Hollanders held in the Isle of Gorea at Cape-Vert, made himself Master, af­ter a long Navigation, of the Isle of Tobago, and of many Duch Men of War.

An. 1678. the first day of March, the Town of Gand, Capital of the Country of Flanders, was invested by the Marshal d'Humieres, and taken by his most Christian Majesty on composition the ninth of the same month, and the Citadel the twelfth. Julius Caesar caus'd this great Town to be built whilst he was at Teroüanne, and the Emperour Charles the Fifth was born and baptiz'd there An. 1500. his Cradle is yet shewn there. His Statue is seen in a Market-place on a Pedestal. The Episcopal Church is call'd S. Bavon; the Bishoprick is worth 30000 Crowns, and the Prebendries 2 or 3000 Livres. Father Boussingout relates that the Organ of the Church of Saint Michael has three thousand Pipes, in a Book entituled The Guide of the Low Countries. The most Christian King gave the Government of this place to Comte de Montbron. It was restor'd to his Catholick Majesty by the Treaty of Peace concluded at Nimegen betwixt France and Spain. In this Town a Cathedral-Church was built and detacht from Tornai, An. 1559. by Pope Paul the Fourth, at the request of Philip the Second King of Spain.

The 16th of March 1678. the King judg'd it convenient for the good of his affairs, to with­draw [Page 201]his Troops from Messina, which he had a long time kept there for the service of those of Messina, who had implor'd his assistance. The Duke de la Fueillade who succeeded the Duke of Vivonne, permitted above four thousand In­habitants of the Town to embarque themselves, they being desirous to come into France to a­void the rigorous consequences of the Spanish Policy.

The third of May the Town of Ypres surren­dred it self to the King; it has the title of a Vi­county. His Majesty gave the Government to the Marquess de la Trousse, Lieutenant-General of his Armies, Captain-Lieutenant of the Com­pany of M. le Dauphin.

The third of May the Town and Fort of Lewe in Brabant were taken from the Spaniards by the Valour and Dexterity of the Sieurs Calvo and de la Breteche; this person executed the Enterprize. This place is incompass'd with a Marsh, a great Trench, and a Fore-trench full of water twelve foot deep. The fifty Swim­mers under the conduct of the Sieur de Cre­meau, Captain in the Regiment of Piemont, did a bold action in passing courageously the waters with their Swords betwixt their teeth, being assisted by two hundred Musketeers, who open­ly advancing themselves, fired continually on the Enemies to favourize the passage.

The 31th of the same month the Marshal Duke de Navaille took Puicerda, Capital of Cer­daigne. [Page 202]The King lessen'd six millions of Livres of the Tailles of the year 1678. and reduc'd them from forty millions to thirty four, to be distributed or divided in all the Generalities and Countries Taillables. His most Christian Majesty lessen'd them yet more by two mil­lions, An. 1679. The Tailles began under St. Loüis to maintain the charge of War against the Infidels in the twelfth age; and the Gabelle or Impost on the Salt under Philip called the Long, in the thirteenth age of the Incarnation. An­cus Martius introduc'd it a long time before at Rome; he has been blam'd by some, and ap­prov'd by others, particularly the Emperour Justinian, who assur'd that without the Gabelle it was impossible to make the Republick sub­sist, because the Quiet of the People is preserv'd by Arms, Arms by Pay, Pay by Imposts, Tri­butes, and Tolls. The Emperour Nero would have abolish'd the Gabelle, but the Senate op­poss'd it, alleaging that to diminish the publick Revenue was to ruine the Empire.

In the month of July of the same year 1678. an ill Accident happen'd in America to the French Squadron commanded by the Count d'Estrées, six or seven Men of War and five Flyboats were lost near the Isle of Birds about ten leagues from Curassow, being cast by the rapid­ness of the Currents on Rocks, which are there high. Many persons in them were drown'd. Seven Vessels were sav'd, viz. the Duke, the [Page 203] Thunder, the Star, the Lyon, the Vigilant, the Merillon, the Tempest; three Fireships and two Flutes.

Of the Peace betwixt France, Holland, Spain, the Emperour, the Elector of Brandenburg, and Denmark.

THe Treaty of Peace betwixt France and Holland was sign'd at Nimegen at the house of the Marshal d'Estrades, An. 1678. the tenth of August, about midnight. The French and the Dutch embrac'd each other with tender­ness, and shew'd a great Joy to see their ancient Friendship perfectly reestablisht. The Marshal d'Estrades, Son of the Marshal of this name, arriv'd the 15th of the same month from Nime­gen at Saint Germains in Laye, where he presen­ted his most Christian Majesty the Treaty of Peace betwixt France and the States General of the Ʋnited Provinces. The Ratifications were exchang'd the 20th of September, and the 29th following the Peace was publisht at Paris with the accustomed Ceremonies. The 5th of Octo­ber the Marshal d Estrades Embassadour of the most Christian King, and the Sieur Beverning Embassadour of the Estates General, caus'd pub­lick Rejoycings to be made at Nimegen for the Peace betwixt France and Holland.

In the same year, the 17th of September, the Treaty of Peace betwixt France and Spain was [Page 204]sign'd at Nimegen about eleven of the clock at night, in the house of the Holland-Embassa­dours. The Ratification followed some time after, as also the publication.

An. 1679. the 5th of February, the Treaty of Peace betwixt France and the Emperour was sign'd in the Chamber of Sir Leoline Jenkins Embassadour of England, by the Marshal d'E­strades, and the Sieur Colbert Marquess of Croissi, Embassadours Plenipotentiaries for the most Christian King, and by the Bishop and Prince de Gurk, Count Kinski, and the Sieur Stracman, Embassadours Plenipotentiaries for the Empe­rour. Signor Bevilaqua the Popes Nuncio, has the reputation of having much contributed to this Peace. The Treaty of Peace betwixt the Emperour and the King of Sweden was sign'd the same day by the Plenipotentiaries of the Emperour, and by Count Oxenstern and Sieur O­liwenkans Embassadours Plenipotentiaries of Sweden. The 19th of April the Ratification of the Emperour was exchang'd with that of the most Christian King. The 26th this Peace was publisht at Paris with the ordinary Ceremo­nies.

The 29th of June the Sieur Pomponne Mini­ster and Secretary of State, and the Sieur Min­ders Envoy Extraordinary of the Elector of Brandenburg, sign'd the Treaty of Peace betwixt his most Christian Majesty and the Elector of Brandenburg. Some time after the Peace was [Page 205]likewise sign'd betwixt France, Sweden, Den­mark, and the Duke of Holstein Gottorp.

The Marriage of the Princess Mary-Loüise of Or­leans with the King of Spain.

ANno 1679. the second of July, after the suit which the Marquess de los Balbazez made of Mademoiselle in the name for the King of Spain, the Chancellor of France, the Marshal Duke de Villeroy, the Sieurs Colbert and de Pom­ponne, Ministers and Secretaries of State, were nominated by the King for drawing the Articles of the Contract of Marriage; which was sign'd the ninth by the Commissaries nominated, and the Marquess de los Balbazez Embassadour Ex­traordinary of Spain.

The 26th of August the Contract of Marri­age of the King of Spain was sign'd in the King of France's Closet by all the Royal House, and by the Marquess de los Balbazez, and afterward the Affiances were made by Cardinal Boüillon great Almoner of France. The Ceremony of the Marriage was perform'd in the Chappel of the House of Fontainebleau.

The 20th of September the Queen of Spain parted from Fontainebleau for Spain; she went into a Coach with the King, the Queen, M. le Dauphin, Monsieur and Madame; they went to­gether two leagues on the way, and parted from each other after having bid an Adieu very ten­derly. [Page 206]Her Catholick Majesty, accompanied with Monsieur and Madam, went on her way; the Marquess and Marchioness de los Balbazez went the Journey with her.

The 30th of December of the year before-mentioned 1679. was sign'd at Munic the Con­tract of Marriage of M. le Dauphin with the E­lectoral Princess of Bavaria, Mary An-Christian Victoir.

A Continuation of Affairs of this time.

THe King re-establisht by an Edict of 1679. the study of the Civil Law, which had not been taught since the Ordinance of Blois of the year 1579. Messieurs Boucherat and de Be­zons, Counsellors of State, who were nomina­ted Commissioners for determining the difficul­ties which might hinder the execution of the Edict, were present at the Harang which the Sieur Deloy Professor made the 17th of Decem­ber in the Schools of Law, to thank his Majesty for the favour granted. Some time after, the King, to render more flourishing the study of the Civil Law of Paris, made a Society of twelve Doctors, who took the Oath tendred them by the same two Counsellors of State, nominated Commissaries for this effect; the Sieurs Bocca­ger and le Gendre are of the number of the asso­ciated Doctors for their particular merit. His most Christian Majesty appointed 200000 Li­vres [Page 207]to be distributed in the Diocesses of Nar­bonne, Beziers, Agde, and S. Pons, by reason of the Damages that they had suffered by the drought of the same year.

An. 1680. on the 15th of January, the Con­tract of Marriage of Loüis Armand de Bourbon, Prince of Conti, with Mademoiselle de Blois, Ann Mary de Bourbon, was sign'd in the Kings Cham­ber; the next day after Cardinal Boüillon per­form'd the Ceremony of Marriage in the Chap­pel of the House of S. Germain in Laye.

The King nominated Abbot Hervaux to the Office of Auditor of the Rota, possess'd before by Messire Charles de Bourlemont.


LOrain, Lotharingia, took its name from Lotharius, Grandchild of the Emperour Charlemagne.

The Ducal and Soveraign House of Lorain contains many Escotcheons, over all a Bend Gules, charg'd with three Alerions Argent, in me­mory of Godefroy de Boüillon, who at one sole shoot of an Arrow broacht three little Birds on it. Its Princes bear also in their Arms the Cross of Hierusalem, by reason of their pretences to the two Sicilies, whereof the Kings were also Kings of Hierusalem. Lorain has for capital City Nancy; two Duchies, that of Lorain, and that of Bar. They count there three Baili­wicks or Seats of Judicature, to wit, that of Nancy, that of Germany Lorain, and that of Vauge. These Bailiwicks comprize a great ma­ny Lands and Lordships, as the County of Vau­demont, the Marquisat Nomeni, the Marquisat Hatonchatel, the Lordships of Epinal on the Mo­selle, Marsal, Blamont, Salverdin, Boulai, &c.

Charles the Fourth Duke of Lorain, Uncle of Charles the Fifth, Son of Francis Count of Vau­demont, was depriv'd of his Estates for some years, and restor'd to them upon the general Peace by special Articles the 3d of March 1661.


The King of France and the King of Spain have been Masters, the one of the Estates of this Prince, and the other of his Person.

Henry the Second King of France, conquer'd Metz, Toul, and Verdun; these three Towns were straitly united to the Crown of France by the Treaty of Munster, and by that of the Pyre­neans.

Loüis the Thirteenth conquer'd the Town Bar le Duc, and all the Country of Barrois, and also the strong places Moyenvic, Stenai, Dun, Ja­metz, and the County of Clermont, which ought to continue incorporated to France, according to the Treaty of Peace made in the Isle of Fai­sans 1659.

Loüis the Fourteenth on consideration of this Peace restor'd Prince Charles to the possession of the Dutchy of Lorain, after having caus'd his Fortifications of Nancy to be demolish'd, on con­dition that the Duke should leave off all Leagues▪ Intelligences, Associations, and Practices with any Prince whatsoever; which having not per­form'd, his Majesty dispossess'd him. Since this Treaty of Peace, Duke Charles has yielded up to the most Christian King the Property and Soveraignty of his Duchy of Lorain and Bar.

The most learned Genealogists draw the O­rigine of the House of Lorain from above 2000 years. It descends from Echinoal Maire of the Palace under Clovis the Second King of France 648. It's the same Family with that of Austria [Page 210]at present. Its Princes repair not to the Diets of the Empire, fearing lest they should not have that place allow'd them which they pretend to conformable to their Birth.

The Dutchy of Bar is a Fief holding of the Crown of France.

The chief Towns of Lorain are

NAncy, Mireout, Luneville, Spinal, Remire­mont, Diuze, Valdegrange, Rosieres, Neuf­chatel, &c.

Those of the Dutchy of Bar,

BAr le Duc, S. Mihiel, Pont-Amousson, Stenay, Estein, Vizelise, Moyenvic, Commerci. Pont-Amousson has the title of University; its principal Founder was Prince Charles the Third.

The Country Messin contains a great many Towns, Burroughs, Villages, Hamlets, Castles, &c.

At Luneville near Rosieres there is a fair House of Pleasure belonging to the Dukes of Lorain.

Mausoleums of the Dukes of Lorain.

THeir Tombs are in divers Abbeys, to wit, in that of Clairlieu, Clairfountain, Beau­pre; and since these three hundred years at [Page 211] Nancy, at S. Georges, and at the Cordeliers.

There are in Lorain four famous Abbeys of Ladies Canonesses, to wit, of Remiremont, Epí­nal, Poussai, and Boussiere: these Ladies may marry themselves, excepting the Abbesses, and others of the chief; they are of Noble extra­ction.

Lorain is very fertile both in Corn, Wine, and Pasturage; it brings forth good Horses, and divers Animals: Venison is almost as common as Beef in a great many Butchers stalls.

Fish abound there by reason of the River Maes, and other Rivers very full of them, as the Moselle, the Sare, the Meurte, and the Selle.

This issues from the Pond Indre, of which the Carps alone bring its Master once in three years 16000 Livres of Rent, as it has been at­tested to me by some of the chief Officers of the late Prince Charles the Fourth. The other Ponds are considerable; there are four or five of this greatness.

If Switzerland has great Lakes, Lorain has Ponds very full of Fish. A Lake is distinguisht from a Pond or Marsh, that the first is a deep water, and has Springs which never dry; and a Pond is a gathering together of waters more subject to diminish: Ponds are emptied, but not Lakes.

This Country has Salt-works of a great reve­nue. Rosieres, Dieuze, Marsal, Moyenvic, Salone and Chasteau are places of Salt-works: and ex­cellent [Page 212] Baths, particularly those of a place call'd Plombieres, whose warm waters are of a great vertue; it's a work of the Romans. The Salt-work of Dieuse furnishes Salt to Alsatia; that of Rosieres, to the three Bishopricks. They make no farther use of Marsal and Salone, because the others supply abundantly. The Switzers take their Salt in Franche Comte.

The Mountains are fill'd with Mines of Brass, Lead, Silver, Alabaster, and particularly of I­ron.

The Forests are full of Game. We see there Glass-houses; the Sieur de Rochefort says, in his Book of Voyages, T. 4. p. 374. That there is sometimes danger in seeing them alone when they are in a retired place in the Woods, be­cause the Workmen may throw a man into the Furnace to make their Glass as clear and beauti­ful as Crystal: wherefore in regard he would not that they try'd it on him, he contented himself with seeing that of Venice, and went on his way. The Lorainers will not grant this Ar­ticle.

The Soyl is so dispos'd to bring forth Trees, that if it were not till'd it would all run up to a Forest.

All Lorain is forty leagues in length, and thir­ty in breadth.

An. 1220. one of its Dukes Matthew the Se­cond, caus'd an evil Justice to be slea'd by rea­son of the Thefts he had committed, and his [Page 213]Skin to be put on the Judicial Seat for his Son to sit on, to whom he gave the Office, and the terrour of being us'd after the like manner. This Prince followed the Example of Cambyses King of Persia; with this difference, that he caus'd the Judge Chunrad to be slea'd after his death; but the other caus'd Sisames to be slea'd alive. The House of Lorain has yielded many Saints.

The Marriage of Prince Charles of Lorain.

PRince Charles the Fifth is married with the Queen Dowager of Poland, the Sister of the Emperour Leopold; the Bishop Count Ka­lonitz gave them the Nuptial Benediction, assi­sted with two other Bishops, in the presence of their Imperial Majesties and of all the Court, in the Church of Loretta of Neustad: The Mar­riage was consummated the sixth of February 1678.

The tenth of February the King of Spain ho­nour'd Prince Charles the Fifth above-mention'd with the Coller of the Order of the Golden Fleece.


LEopold the First of the name of the House of Austria, Emperour of Germany, was born the 9th of June 1640. was chosen King of Hungary An. 1655. King of Bohemia An. 1656. elected King of the Romans An. 1658. and crown'd Emperour at Francfort on the Main An. 1659. where the three Ecclesiastical Ele­ctors and the Elector Palatine repair'd; the o­thers sent thither their Embassadours; as also the King of France, the King of Spain, and o­thers.

The Emperours of Germany are Catholicks.

The Empire bears Or, an Eagle displayed sable, membred, langued, becked, and adorn'd with a Dia­dem Gules.

It has for Device, Ʋno avulso non desicit al­ter.

The Livery of the Emperours of the House of Austria is yellow.

The 14th of October 1676. the Emperour Leopold, some time after the death of the Em­press Margaret of Austria, Daughter of Philip the Fourth King of Spain, and Sister of the Queen of France, declar'd for his future Spouse the Princess Mary Magdalen-Therese-Eleonor of New­burg. The Marriage was consummated at [Page 215] Passau the 14th of December following. The Bishop of that Town bless'd it, assisted with two Prelates; he of Aicstad was of the number.

Their Imperial Majesties made their solemn Entries at Vienna the 20th of January 1677. The Canons of the Arsenal were carried on the Ramparts, and all the Citizens put themselves in Arms by the order of the Magistrate.

Count Montecu [...]u [...] was declar'd Prince of A­malfo the 31th of March 1678.

The 26th of July of the same year, on the day of S. Anne, the Empress was brought to bed of a Prince, who is call'd the Archduke of Austria. He was given at the Font of Baptism the names of Joseph, James, John, Ignatius, Antony, and Eutache. The Dutchess of Newburg presented to the Empress her Daugher a Bed and a Cra­dle of silver.

Vienna in Austria on the Danubins is the Ca­pital City, and the ordinary place of residence of the Emperour. His Palace is August, though it appears very ancient. It has four Pavili­ons.

The chief Imperial Houses of Pleasure in the Country.

LƲxembourg, Favorites, Neustad, Kanisburg, Ebersdorf, and others.

The Church of the Capucins of Vienna is the or­dinary bural place of the Emperors of the House [Page 216]of Austria in a Vault, and many Obsequies are solemniz'd for three days in the Church of the little discalceated Augustins. The Cathedral-Church is dedicated to S. Steven.

The Coronation of the Emperour, with the signifi­cation of the three Crowns.

THe Emperour is crown'd ordinarily with three sorts of Corwns; the first is of Iron, the second of Silver, the third of Gold. The Crown of Iron denotes the Strength which an Emperour ought to have, that of Silver sig­nifies the Pureness, that of Gold the Charity. The Emperours formerly went to Milan to re­ceive the Crown of Silver, and to Rome for that of Gold; at present they go no longer: the Pope confirms the Election and Coronation. Since Charles the Fifth, no Emperour has been crown'd by the hands of his Holiness. At Aix la Chappelle is kept the Crown of Iron, with one of Silver; and at Nuremberg many Ornaments which are made use of at the Coronation of the Emperours. There are to be seen there the Dalmatica of Charlemagne, the Imperial Mantle, the Globe, the golden Scepter and the Sword; the golden Bull also, enjoyning him that is ele­cted Emperour to receive at Aix la Chappelle the first Crown which is of Iron; and if he re­ceives it elsewhere, the Imperial Ornaments are carried thither, and a great Sword after the Per­sian fashion.

The Emperour, after his Coronation, receives the Oath from the Imperial Towns; the Town of Strasburg refus'd it, praying Count de Hanau, who had Orders to receive it for Leopold, to as­sure the Emperour that they would continue within the bounds of Duty and Acknowledg­ment towards his Imperial Majesty; but that having not taken an Oath to any of his Prede­cessors for three hundred years, they would not swear, and could not innovate any thing. You may see thereon Loüis du Mai Knight, in his Book of the State of the Empire, T. 1. p. 365. and T. 2. p. 203.

The Emperour does not command absolute­ly out of his Hereditary Countries, but governs by the way of Diets, which are General Assem­blies, and as it were Estates General. He is the Chief of the Empire, and the Electors are the principal Members. His hereditary Estates are those of Austria and Bohemia; those of Hungary are Elective.

The Golden Bull.

THe Constitutions of the Empire are con­tain'd in the Golden Bull, which is a little Book; its Original is writ on Parchment, con­taining twenty four Leaves, and thirty Chap­ters; the twenty three first were publisht at Nuremberg 1356. the tenth of January, and the other seven at Metz in the same year on Christ­mas-day.

This Book treats of the Election of the King of the Romans, of the Ceremonies that ought to be observ'd in the Election of the Emperour, and of his Authority, of the Devoir and Priviledges of the Electors and other Officers of the Empire, and also of the means to preserve Peace.

The Emperour Charles the Fourth of the House of Luxembourg, made this Bulle, call'd by his name the Caroline, in the presence and with the consent of the greatest part of the Prin­ces, Lords, and other Estates of the Empire.

This Edict comprehending the Fundamental Laws of the Empire, was seal'd with a great round Seal, not on Wax, nor on Lead, nor on Silver, but on Gold, to shew that as this Metal is incorruptible, and the noblest of all, so that the Laws which this Bulle contains, being the prin­cipal of the Empire, ought not to be chang'd.

The Seal is fasten'd to red and yellow Strings of Silk; on one side of it there is the Effigies of the Author seated in his Throne, vested with the Imperial Mantle, the Crown on his head, the Septer in one hand, and the Globe of the Empire in the other, with this Inscription, Caro­lus IV. divina favente Clementia Romanorum Im­perator, semper Augustus, & Bohemiae Rex. On the other side there is a Castle with two Towns and this Devise, Aurea Roma: and in the cir­cumference, Roma Caput Mundi regit orbis fraena rotundi. There is an Inscription on both sides, because the Seal is impress'd and engrav'd on [Page 219]both sides on a great Medal hanging beneath the Bulle.

It is reported of this Prince, that in recom­pensing the Treason of three Captains of Philip of Austria, his Enemy, as they deserv'd, he caus'd them to be paid 600000 Crowns which he had promis'd them; but it was in false Coin: The Traytors complaining, the Emperour said to them, Go too, false Money is well enough for those who have falsified their Faith to their Prince.

Prerogatives of the Emperour.

THe chief Prerogatives of the Emperour are to create Kings; to require the Towns of the Empire by Proclamation to at­tend him on occasion; to give the Investitute of Fiefs, the Power of Legitimating, and other Priviledges.

Fourteen Emperours of the House of Austria.

THe Empire has been in divers Houses, ac­cording to the pleasure of the Electors. There are counted fourteen Emperours of the House of Austria, to Leopold reigning at pre­sent.

The first was Rodolphus of Alsatia Earl of Habsbourg. Writers take notice of him for that before his Election, as he was hunting, a Priest [Page 220]carrying the Sacrament to a dying Peasant, he alighted off his horse, and made the Priest get up upon him, and afterward taking the horse by the reins he accompanied the Sacrament a long, difficult, and troublesome way, till he came to the Hut of the poor sick person. This extraordinary act of Piety and Religion has been so well recompens'd by God, that since that time this house is aggrandiz'd and rendred Illustrious throughout the whole Earth. The Castle of Habsbourg, the original Seat of the Emperours of the House of Austria, is two leagues from Bâle; there are now onely the Ruines to be seen, the Switzers not suffering it to be rebuilt.

The chief Towns of Germany.

VIenna, Prague, Presburg, Aix la Chappelle, Ratisbonne, Erfort, Dresden, Munic, Stras­bourg, Hambourg, Mayence, Cologne, Tréves, Munster, Magdeburg, Lubec, Nuremberg, Aus­burg, Heyldeburg, Francfort on the Meine, Passau, Visbourg, Brunsvic, Inspruch, Bremen, Branden­burg, Berlin, Hanover, Francfort on the Oder, and others.

The four Wood-land-Towns, Valdshoüet, Lauffembourg, Seckinge, and Reinfeld, are so call'd because they are built in Woods.

The four Rustick Towns are Cologne, Ratis­bonne, Constance, and Saltzbourg.

Vienna is a Bulwark of Christendom against the Turks; the Emperour Ferdinand the Third, and Leopold Ignatius his Son, fortified it with large and deep Trenches, growing broader and broader from the bottom to the top, with twelve great Bastions, and high Ramparts. There are but six Gates to pass into this Town, and they are always shut before Sun-set: those that come late from walking, enter by a Wicket at the Gate of Italy, which they must open with a silver Key. Solyman the Second Empe­rour of the Turks, besieg'd this Town with 300000 men the 26th of September of the year 1529. and was forc'd to raise the Siege the 14th of October following, after having lost there a great part of his Souldiers, some say fourscore thousand men. A great number of Bassa's and other Commanders heads were planted on the Walls of this place, which vigoroufly held out twenty Assaults. Notwithstanding this firm Resistance, Solyman would not withdraw him­self till they had permitted him to cause the Crescent to be set up in Vienna: this was ac­corded him pro bono pacis, and as a Memorial of this Siege. The Crescent is to be seen on the Pyramidal point of the Steeple of the Ca­thedral-Church of S. Steven. The Town was not then fortified as it is at present, being now the strongest of all Germany. Its Bishop is Suf­fragan of the Archbishop of Saltzburg, who has eleven. The University of Vienna was foun­ded [Page 222]by Albert the Third. There are seen in the Emperours Library fourscore and seven Paper-writings hung up, where it is exactly treated of the Ʋniversity of Paris, of its Statutes, and Priviledges. The Plague destroy'd An. 1679. a world of people at Vienna, and in all Austria.

Prague is the Capital City of the Kingdom of Bohemia, whereof we shall speak elsewhere.

Presburg is the Capital of that part of the Kingdom of Hungary which the Emperour of Germany possesses there, since the loss of Ofen or Buda, occupied by the Great Turk. Komorre and Javarrin are two Bulwarks of Christendom on that side. This Kingdom contain'd former­ly Transylvania, Valachia, and Moldavia; thence it is that the two Emperours of the West and East pretend each that the Princes of these three Estates receive from them the Investiture. At­tila King of the Huns and Hongarians, is very fa­mous in History for using Fire and Sword where-ever he came. He stil'd himself Son of Mundizic of the Race of the Great Nimrod, Na­tive of Engad, and through the divine bounty King of the Huns, Goths, Medes, and Danes, the Terrour of the World, and the Scourge of God. This Enemy of Mankind march'd with an Army of five hundred thousand men; France forc'd him to retreat, and kill'd him a hundred and fifty thousand men at Arms under Merovi­us, being seconded by Ætius a Roman Patricius, and with Theodoric King of the Westergoths, [Page 223]An. 454. In Hongary they call the Horse-men Hussars, and the Foot-Souldiers Heiduques.

Aix la Chappelle has the first place in the Di­ets of the Empire. Charlemagne made it the head of his Empire on this side the Alpes: he was there born, and there died. There are seen with­out the Town hot and cold Baths, which are famed as being Medicinal. Its Inhabitants pay no Toll in any place of the Empire. Marshal de Crequi made himself Master of this place for his most Christian Majesty, An. 1678. By or­der of the Magistrate the Physitians there An. 1680. Anatomiz'd of a Fountain which is in the Town; they examin'd its nature and qua­lities, and found by the taste and by the places where it passes, that it comes from Iron, and that the use of this Water, which is cold, is a specifick Remedy for curing a Dropsie arising through an inflammation of the Liver, the ob­structions of that part, and those of the Spleen and Reins; as also the Hypochondriack affects, the Gravel, the Jaundise, the Green-sickness, and other Distempers.

Ratisbonne is the place prefixt for the Diets, which render it one of the most famous and pleasant Towns of Germany; a great many Per­sons of Quality live there, that they may see the Diets that are there held of the whole Empire; and for this reason many Palaces and beautiful Edifices are there built. Its Bridge over the Danubius is admirable in its Architecture, in [Page 224]the greatness of the stones whereof it is made, and in its length. Its entrance and passage forth are fenc'd with two Towers, whose Gates are guarded with a Corps du Guard. Strangers are there examin'd strictly concerning the cause of their coming, before they enter the City. The Germans call this Town Regensburg; it is scituated in the lower Bavaria.

Erfort is the first of the Landgraviat of Thu­ringia, which appertains to the House of Saxony, as also Dresden. There is another Town call'd Erfort, which the late Archbishop of Mayence reduc'd under his obedience some years since, as­sisted by the French Forces, and by the Sieur de Pradel Governour of S. Quentin.

Munic belongs to the Elector of Bavaria: This Town is in the upper Bavaria; it's very pleasant, and finely fortified with high Ram­parts, large Trenches full of flowing waters, strong Walls, great Bastions, and many Draw­bridges.

Strasbourg a Free and Imperial Town in low­er Alsatia, is famous throughout all Germany; the two Rivers Ill and Brusche water it: it is half a league from the Rhine, and has the title of Ʋniversity; the Emperour gave it great Privi­ledges, An. 1622.

There is seen there a pyramidial Tower of stone hollowed open to the day, which is e­steem'd by many persons the highest of all Eu­rope: It is 574 foot high, and some say, has 630 [Page 225]steps by which men ascend inwardly to the top, where the Inhabitants always keep a man Cen­try, who sees above four leagues distance all round the Town.

Its Clock passes for the finest and most admi­rable of the whole World, in the esteem of many persons; the great number of its Wheels and Machines gives a motion to all the Constella­tions: There are seen the periods of the Pla­nets, and their middle stations every hour; the Eclipses, the Days of the Month, the Moveable Feasts; a Child who strikes the first quarter of an hour with one stroke on a Bell, a Youth the second with two, a Man full grown the third with three, an old Man the last with four; then Death issues forth and rings the hour with his little Bell, and the Son of God who passes be­fore the Figures which represent the four Ages of Life: the little Bells chime there, and the Cock crows all the hours of the day and night. The Cathedral-Church is adorn'd with this high Tower, and this famous Clock.

Persons who go to Strasbourg see out of curi­osity a Tree of a prodigious bigness, on the top of which a Tavern is kept.

Travellers go to see its Bridge on the Rhine, half a league from the Town, which is said to be above twelve hundred paces in length; it is kept strictly since three of its Arches were burnt. This caution hindred not Marshal de Crequi from making himself Master of it. It is of Wood▪ [Page 226]and cover'd with the same matter: it seems to me dangerous, because it has no side-Rail, and that it cannot be pass'd over on Horse-back without shaking.

This Town is govern'd as a Republick; it is very strong, and has a good Arsenal: Its Ca­nons are fam'd throughout all Germany. It is all Lutheran, except a Convent of Religious Women, where Catholicks may hear Mass. According to what Selden reports, L. 1. De Statu Religionis, Carolo V. Imperante, Strasbourg continued without any Mass one and twenty years; it was re-establisht An. 1550.

The Episcopal See is transferr'd to Molsheim four leagues thence, not by a Bull of some Pope, but through necessity. Its Bishop, who is Prince of the Empire, resides ordinarily in the Town of Saverne, whereof he is Lord spiritual and temporal.

The Ceremony observ'd in the Electioa of the Bi­shop.

THe Bishop is chosen by its Chapter. The time of Election being come, the Chap­ter goes three solemn Processions; the first for the Election, the second for the Consecration of him that is chosen, the third for the Preserva­tion of his Person. The Canons appear on these days of Ceremony with splendour, in splen­doribus Sanctorum. Each in an orderly distance [Page 227]has following him, in emulation of his fellow-Brothers, great number of Persons of Qua­lity, Officers, Domesticks, and Attendants. They have Train-bearers to carry the Train of their Gowns, which are extraordinary long, be­ing of Crimson-Velvet; and they have a Cap of the same Stuff.

The number of the Canons.

THe Chapter is compos'd of twenty four Canons, Princes or Counts of the Em­pire: There are moreover Protestant Canons who have their Revenue apart, and who are not capitulary. These reside at Strasbourg. Four Protestant Princes are Canons, the Dukes of Brunswick, of Mekelbourg, of Witemberg,, and the Marquess of Dourlan. They value not their Ca­nonships, but to be Members of the Chapter.

The limited Residence of the Canons.

THe Catholick Canons are not oblig'd e­very year but to thirteen weeks resi­dence at Molsheim to enjoy their Revenue, so they are in the Diocess in any place whatsoe­ver.

The antient Entrance of the Bishop at Strasburg.

WHile the Town of Strasburg was Catho­lick, the Bishop incontinently after his Consecration made there his publick Entrance, where he was receiv'd as its Prince. This Ce­remony is no longer practis'd, by reason of the pretentions which the Bishop has on Strasburg, which does not own him but as Prince of the Empire.

The number of its Prelates.

THis Town has had eighty four Bishops from Justus or Justin to his Highness Francis Egon, who stiles himself Bishop and Prince of Strasburg, Landgrave of Alsacia and of Furstemberg, Count of Heiligenberg, Wertem­berg, and Loigne. He succeeds Leopold William of Austria. This Bishoprick is endow'd with two hundred thousand Livres of revenue. The same Historiographer of Brandenburg, whom I have cited elsewhere, has observ'd in his Resear­ches, that the Emperour Rodolphus the First us'd Henry Count of Furstemberg as his near Re­lation; and to express to him the extraordinary affection wherewith he honour'd him, he said, that he was the bone of his bones, and the flesh of his flesh. They are the terms which God made use of to make known the Bond which ought [Page 229]to be betwixt persons nearest allied, viz. Man and Wife married together.

Hambourg Capital City of the Dutchy of Ol­satia, is govern'd also as a Republick; it is en­tirely for Trade, and rich, strong by Sea and Land: The Danes and Swedes have many times besieg'd it separately, and it has always defen­ded it self. There has been compleated of late years a Channel for the joyning of the Oder and the Elb for the transportation of their Mer­chandise which comes to Hambourg by Sea, both to avoid the Sound at the entrance of the Baltick Sea, where they were sain to pay a Tri­bute to the King of Denmark for their Merchan­dise, and to shorten a great reach at Sea which they were forc'd to make. This Town is Lu­theran, and has a publick Library which is open twice a day, in the morning and after dinner. It has also two Synagogues of Jews, amongst whom Manuel Tessera is esteem'd ther ichest of Germany; he is judg'd to have five or six millions; he is call'd the rich Jew. France keeps a Resident in this Town; it's the Sieur Bidal. We shall speak elsewhere of Mayence, Cologne, Tréves, Magdeburg, Lubec, Heildeberg, and some o­thers.

Munster is the Capital City of Westphalia; it is call'd in Latin Monasterium, by reason of a Monastery which was made an Episcopal Church. Thence it is that at present its Inhabitants are called Monasterians. Its Bishop is a Prince of [Page 230]the Empire; the Emperour Charlemagne gave him the Principality, on condition of paying Homage to the Empire. Its last Bishop save one, Christopher Bernard de Galen, kept a good Garrison in the Citadel which he built. This Prelate died An. 1678. his life was Military; wherefore being in danger of dying, An. 1674. some person made on him this Epitaph:

Now in his Tomb will rest from strife,
Who never rested in his life.

An. 1678. his Coadjutor the Bishop of Pater­born took the government of this Bishoprick, which is worth above two hundred thousand Crowns of annual rent, as we are assur'd. The Towns-men keep the Town of Munster. Ma­ny Revolts and Seditions happen'd there before the Citadel was built; the Inhabitants shut the Gates of the Town one day against their Pre­late, who entred there with Sword in hand af­ter nine months siege, An. 1661. Munster is fa­mous as well for the Treaty of Peace concluded there betwixt the Crowns of Europe, An. 1648. as by the imaginary Kingdom of the Anabaptists, who made themselves Masters of this place An. 1534. They created for their King John Buckold a Taylor, vulgarly call'd John of Leidon, because he came from thence, or was there born. When he appear'd in publick accompa­nied with his Court, he had two Pages on horse­back [Page 231]by his sides, whereof one carried his Crown and the Bible, and the other his Sword. He created Judges, to whom he gave imaginary Kingdoms, and sent abroad in the World twenty eight of his Disciples to preach his Faith, who were all put to death but one.

This new Tyrant was orecome after a siege of fourteen months standing by the Bishop of the Town call'd Francis Count de Valdec, assi­sted with some Circles of the Empire, and Buc­kold was put in a great Iron Cage, to end there his days miserably.

This Cage is seen on a Tower of the Church of St. Lambert on the outside, with two others on the two sides of it. I have noted the chief Errours of the Anabaptists in the Tract of Eng­land.

Magdeburg is famous for its Book of Centuries in eight Tomes in Folio, compos'd by Matthias, Flacius Illiricus, Johannes Wigandus, Mattheus Judex, and Basilius Faber. These Centuriators have compil'd in this Work the History of the Church. We shall say somewhat more of this Town in the Article of the Elector of Savoy.

Nuremberg is a great Town, and of a great Trade; some persons think the Emperour Ne­ro to be its Founder, and that since it is call'd Nuremberg. It is then very ancient.

Ausbourg, Capital of Soüabia, is also very an­cient, since Caesar Augustus gave it its name: its Walls are slanckt with many Towers; its [Page 232]Arsenal is very considerable. The Lutherans presented in this Town to Charles the Fifth their Confession of Faith, made by Melancthon. Soüa­bia draws its Etymology from Suevia or Suecia, because the Swedes liv'd there some time after having first reduc'd a part of Germany under their Obedience.

Francfort on the Main is very famous, as well because the Election of the Emperours is there made, as for its great Fairs and Markets, and also for its beautiful Palaces.

Francfort on the Oder is the Capital of the new Marcha of Brandeburg.

Passau is divided into three Towns, which are Passau, Instad, and Ilstad, which compose one very great one. The Bishops Castle is very stately. Nôtre-Dame of Passau is famous throughout all Germany for its Miracles; it is seated in the Church of the Capucins: a man must ascend about three hundred steps to come to its Altar.

Visbourg is the Capital of Franconia.

Brunswick the chief of a Dutchy in lower Saxo­ny: Its Prince who is Soveraign resides ordina­rily at Wolfembutel in a very fair Palace on the River Echer.

Inspruc is the first in dignity of the County of Tirolis, formerly the place of residence of its Counts, and then of some Archdukes and Prin­ces of Austria. We see there the August Palace which the Emperour Ferdinand the Second caus'd there to be built.

Bremen on the Weser is the Capital of its Dut­chy; it has the Title of Archbishoprick.

Hanover resembles Nismes in bigness.

Spire in the Country of Austrasia is the Im­perial Chamber, which is as the constant sit­ting Parliament of the Empire.

The Imperial and Hans-Towns.

THe Free or Franc-Towns, to the number of about eighty four, are Imperial, because they owe Homage to the Empire, and have in their Arms an Eagle entire or divided: their Body has two Voices at the Diets of the Em­pire.

The four Capital Hans-Towns are Lubec, Co­logne, Brunswic, and Dantzic. They are call'd Hans, because they are divided into four Anses or Corporations, and that they are particularly associated for Commerce.

The Maritime Towns of Germany, and those which were on the Rivers, trading with them, made a League to oppose themselves against the Incursions of the Huns, and other barbarous Nations, for rendring their Commerce free and secure. The chief Towns from the Gulf of Finland, which is at one end of the Baltick Sea, to the mouth of the Rhine, entred into this League, and call'd themselves Hans, taking their name either from the Theutonick Sea, because they were scituated on this Sea, the word Ansee [Page 234]signifying on the Sea; or from the Oath made of joyning hands for affording each other a mutu­al assistance, the Germans calling the hand Han; or else from the Assembly which is held for deliberating together, call'd in the old Ger­man Tongue Hanza; and in that passage of the Evangelists where it's said that the Jews held an Assembly against the Son of God, the German Bible renders the word Assembly by Hanza.

There were receiv'd in this Confederation but the Maritime Towns of Germany, which had right of shutting and opening their Gates, be it that they were subject to a Prince, or that they were free; some Kings have authoriz'd them.

Sixty six Towns are call'd Hans, because they are associated and confederated with the four Capital Hans-Towns. The Archives of the League are at Lubec, which is the Capital of all the Hans League; it has right of assembling all the others, with the advice of five confederate Towns that are next it.

Lubec has for its confederate Towns Ham­bourg, Rostoc, Wismarc, Strasbourg, and Lunebourg, S [...]etin, Anclan, Golnous, Gripswal, Colberg, Ptar­gard, and Stolp: Cologne, Brunswic, and Dantzic include the others. You may see thereon the great Atlas, and particularly the Books on this subject of the four Capital Hans-Towns.

Archbishopricks of Germany.

THe Archbishopricks of Germany are May­ence, Treves, Cologne, Magdeburg, Saltz­bourg, Breme, and Prague.

Chief Bishopricks.

VIsbourg, Bamberg, Strasbourg, Spire, Liege, Munster, Paderborn, Minden, Hildesheim, Onasbruc, Verden, Halberstat, Brelau; the Car­dinal Landgrave of Hesse occupies this last, which is in Silesia.

The Abbey of Fulde is famous throughout all Europe for its Antiquity, and for its great Ri­ches; it is certainly affirm'd to be worth a mil­lion of Livres of Rent. It is in Buchow, betwixt Hesse, Franconia, and Thuringia. Cardinal de Bade has possess'd it a long time. The three chief Abbeys of the low Countries are Saint Vaast of Arras, Saint Berlin at St. Omer, and St. Pierre of Mont Albin at Gand. Cardinal de Boüillon has the first. Germany has few Arch­bishops, and few Bishops in comparison of France: some Authors have counted thirty nine, others thirty six.

Principalities and Lordships of the Empire, and its Division.

THis Empire contains above three hundred Principalities or Lordships.

It is divided into ten Circles; Austria, Bava­ria, Soüabia, Alsatia or the upper Rhine, the E­lectorate of the lower Rhine, Westphalia, upper Saxony, lower Saxony, Franconia, and Burgundy, compose the ten Circles. Alsatia and Burgundy belong to France.

These Circles compose the General Diets of the Empire, where all Affairs are transacted.

The first Body is that of the Electors.

The second the other Princes, be they Lay or Ecclesiastick.

The third is that of the Free or Franc, other­wise Imperial Towns.

The most usual division of Germany is into Ʋpper and Lower; in the Upper are put the Switzers, Alsatia, Soüabia, the Dutchy of Wi­temberg, Bavaria, Franconia, the Palatinate of the Rhine, Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia, Austria, Stiria, Carinthia, Carniola, and Tirol.

In the Lower, the seventeen Provinces of the Low Countries; Liege, Lorain, Cleves, Juliers, the three Electoral Archbishopricks, Westphalia, Hesse, Saxony, Thuringia, Misnia, Lusacia, Sile­sia, the Marquisate of Brandenburg, Pomerania, Mekelbourg, Holsacia or the Country of Holstein.

The chief Rivers.

DAnubius, the Rhine, the Elbe, the Oder, and the Veser.

Danubius arises in Soüabia: a great Map very exact of Samson Geographer in Ordinary to the King, shews us its rise in the Principality and County of Furstemberg. This River contains above sixty Rivers, some say a hundred, where­of there are about thirty capable of bearing Vessels. It has this particular with the Po, that it runs from West to East even to its mouth. It is the greatest and longest of all Europe, excepting the Volga, according to a Geographer, which flows in Muscovy. Men give Danubius above seven hundred leagues in its course; it waters above fifty great Towns, without counting an infinite number of Castles and Burroughs; passes through the Eastern Em­pire which the Great Tu [...]k possesses in Europe, and that of the West which belongs to the Em­perour of Germany. After having flow'd a long while, it discharges it se [...] into the Euxine Sea, which is call'd the Blac [...] Sea, or Mar Magiore. This River and the Rhine are not far the one from the other at Consta [...]ce and Schashuysen.

The Rhine comes from the Alps of the Gri­sons; it has two sources which make each a stream, the one is near a Village call'd Fort-Rhen, and the other is not far from Mount S. Gothard. [Page 238]These two Sources, after having flow'd separate­ly some leagues, (some say ten) unite them­selves together. This River passes at Croire and other places before it enters the Lake of Constance; here losing it self for a while, it issues forth again with violence, and receives the River Aar, which much enlarges it, because it contains the Waters of great Lakes and Rivers in Switzerland. The Nekar, the Mosele, the Main, the Lippe, and a great many others, give a great addition to it. An Author says, that sixty two Rivers enter this. It waters Bâle, Brisac, Philipsbourg, Spire, Wormes, Mayence, Cologne, and other Towns. It parts it self into two Channels at Thdus, where is the famous Fort Schenk. The left Channel is call'd the Wahal, and joyns it self with the Meuse near its mouth. The Rhine disgorges it self in Holland into the Ocean; its course is above two hundred and fifty leagues.

They say that the Rhine was plac'd as a bound betwixt France and Germany; but Monarchs do not tye themselves to Rules of Geogra­phers, and their Sword does not always agree with the Compass.

The Elb begins in Bohemia in the Mountains near Schimidberg, passes at Cogingretz, Toschen, Dresde, Meissen or Mesen, Torgan, Witemberg, Dessau or Dessan, Magdeburg, Hizaker, Lavem­bourg, Harbor, Hambourg, and at Glucstid.

Stade is near the Elbe. Elster, Cadburgz, Moldave, Sale, joyn with this River.

The Oder takes its Origine in Moravia near Dolmutz, which is the Capital of it, flows at Ra­tibor, Oppelen, Breslau, Crossen, Francfort, and at Stetin. Ratibor, Oppelen, and Breslau, are Towns of Silesia. Crossen is the Capital of the Dutchy whose name it bears. Varthe, Noisse, Boler, and other Rivers, joyn themselves to the Oder.

The Weser takes its Origine in Saxony of Naumbourg near the Dutchy of Saxony of Alten­bourg, passes at Hamelen, Minden, Breme, and other places. Leina, Aler, Ecker, Inerst, and o­ther Rivers enter into the Weser. Leina waters Hanover, Aller Zel and Ferden, Ecker Brunswic, Inerst Hildeshein. Some years since the Duke of Lunebourg took the Town of Brunswick in de­spite of all the Efforts of the Duke of this name.

The Electors of the Empire, An. 1679.

THere are counted many Soveraign Prin­ces in Germany, though feudatory to the Empire. The chief are the Electors, who have power of chusing by their Suffrages the Empe­rours of Germany.

The Archbishop and Elector of Mayence.

ANselm Francis Frederic of Inghelheim, Archbishop of Mayence, Prince and E­lector of the Empire, Great Chancel­lour of Germany, Legate of course of the holy Apostolick See. Catholick.

He was elected the 7th of November, 1679. being forty years of age. Before his Election he was Archpriest of Mayence, and Governour of Erfort.

A Wheel Or in a Field Gules and over it an E­lectoral Cap, compose the Arms of this Ele­ctor.

The first Elector of this Church was call'd Villigise, Son of a Cartwright: for evidence of it, he kept, through Humility, a Wheel in his Chamber, to put him in mind of his Extracti­on; wherefore his Successors have kept it in re­membrance of him in their Arms.

The Archbishops of Mayence, as Chancellours of the Empire, keep the Archives of the Empire, and the original Register-books where are regi­stred the names of all the Princes and Estates who have a Voice in the Diets. When the Em­perour is dead, they give notice to the other E­lectors, and signifie to them a day to set upon a new Election.

Mayence, Aschaffembourg, are the ordinary places of Residence of this Prelate, who has thirteen Suffragans; Strasbourg is one.

Of late years there has been united to this Archbishoprick the Bishoprick and Principality of Wormes.

Mayence has had seventeen Archbishops from S. Boniface to Anselm Francis Frederick. Forty Bishops preceded them; the first was S. Crescens, and the last Gervilio.

This Archbishoprick yields ordinarily to its Archbishop six or seven hundred thousand Crowns of Annual Rent; its Dominions contain twenty five Bailiwicks, and a great many Tolls on the Rhine and on the Main.

This Elector is Dean of the Electoral Col­ledge, he crowns the Emperour on his Lands. The Election is made ordinarily at Francfort on the Main, though not by an indispensable ne­cessity, because the Emperours have formerly receiv'd the Crown at Aix la Chappelle, and of late years at Francfort and elsewhere. The E­lector of Saxony contested the Election with Ferdinand the First, because he was elected at Cologne.

Mayence, which was formerly an Imperial Town, lost its Priviledges by the Assassinate of Arnold de Zellenouë its Archbishop.

The Chapter is compos'd of twenty four Ca­pitulary Canons, that is to say, who have a de­liberate Voice; they are all Gentlemen.

I will not pass with silence a thing which pass'd in this Town An 745. Its Prelate Boni­face not believing that there were Antipodes, accus'd of Heresie before Pope Zachary. of whom he was Legate, Vigilis Bishop of Saltzbourg, be­cause he had maintain'd the contrary both in his Pulpit, and in a Book which he compos'd; whereat some Church-men being scandaliz'd, accus'd him to Boniface, who caus'd him to be condemn'd as an Heretick, alledging that St. John Chrysostom, S. Austin, and other Fathers of the Church, had not believ'd a new World, and that to set up a new, was to introduce a new Jesus Christ. Zacharie writ on this subject two Letters to Boniface, which are inserted in the general Sum of the Councils. We can no lon­ger doubt of a new World, since the discovery of Christopher Columbus. It has been said since of this Archbishop Boniface, that he was as ill a Geometer, as he was a good man.

There is seen in this Diocess an ancient Tower famous in History, call'd Meusthur, that is to say, the Tower of Rats, in a Lake, where Hatton the Second of this name was devour'd by these Animals, An. 914. through a divine punishment. Some Authors relate that they gnaw'd away e­ven his name wheresoever they found it.

The Jews were expell'd from Mayence, Anno 1433.

The Invention of Printing.

SOme attribute to John Guttemberg Gentle­man, Native of Mayence (some say of Stras­bourg) the Invention of Printing, about the year 1440. under Pope Eugenius the Fourth. Chaste­auniere de Grenaille says, that it was in the Town of Haërlem, sometime an Episcopal Town, where it was invented; that it was Laurence Coster who first invented this Art, and that after having begun to work upon it, and having profited and advanc'd in it, one of his treacherous Servants call'd John Faustus pocket­ed up and carried away to Mayence all the Let­ters and other Instruments serving for Printing, in a word, the whole Trade, in a Christmas-night, whilst his Master and all the Family were at the Midnight-Mass. Boxhornius, in his Book entituled the Theatre of Holland, has writ­ten in favour of Haërlem; as also Petrus Scri­verius: Naudé has declar'd himself for May­ence,

There are seen on the house of the said Lau­rence Coster, Citizen, Keeper of the Royal Pa­lace of Haërlem these words:


Typographia Ars Artium omnium Conservatrix, hic Primum Inventa circa annum 1430.

And moreover the Statue of Coster, with this Inscription:


Laurentio Costero Harlemensi, Alteri Cadmo, & Artis Typographicae circa annum Domini 1430. Inventori primo, bené de literis ac toto orbi me­rito, hanc Q. L. QC. Statuam, quia aeream non habuit, pro Monumento posuit gratissimus.

M. Joli, Chanter of the Church of Paris, has very well remarkt, that we must not think strange of the difference of these two dates 1440. and 1430. which are in these Inscripti­ons, because Boxhornius makes the Invention of Printing more ancient by ten years, telling us that Coster laid the first Foundations, An. 1420.

The late Dean of Munster, call'd Malinchrot, maintains that the Invention of Printing be­longs to Mayence: He has compos'd a Book in Quarto, which has for title de Ortu & Progressu Artis Typographicae, which was printed at Co­logne, An. 1639.

Parival says, in his Book entituled Les Deli­ces de la Holland, p. 86. that the Chineses a long time since invented Printing; that it was po­lisht at Mayence, and thence convey'd all over Europe; but that the Honour belongs to Lau­rence Coster, and the immortal Glory to Haër­lem.

Adrian Junius says, that the first Characters [Page 245]for Printing were of Beech-wood whereof Coster bethought him, afterward of Lead, then of Tin. Others say, with more likelihood, that they be­gan to print at Haërlem with Tables of Box, or of Brass, ingraven after the Chinese manner.

The Book entituled Speculum nostrae Salutis, printed at Haërlem and at Mayence, is very an­cient; as also the Catholicum Januense: it's a Latin Dictionary call'd Prosodia. It was com­pos'd by a Religious man of the Order of St. Dominick, and printed at Mayence, An. 1460. That of the Dominicans de la rue S. Honore, is of the year 1629.

The first Bible was printed at Mayence by John Faustus and Peter Schoeffer his Son-in-Law, An. 1462. and the year following S. Austin de Civitate Dei, in the same Town.

Martin and Michel Ʋlriques were the first who exercis'd in Paris the Art of Printing, An. 1470.

The Latin Bible was printed at Paris Anno 1512. Those of Robert Stevens came forth at Paris An. 1528, and 1532.

The first Huguenot Bible was translated from Hebrew into French by Peter Olivetan, vulgarly Oliveteau, and printed at Neuchastel in Switzer­land, An. 1535. by Pirot Picard.

The Bible of Vatablus was printed by the same Robert Stevens, An. 1557. in three Vo­lumes in Folio.

The Sieur Joli above-mentioned, says in his [Page 246]Book entituled Voyage fait à Munster & autres lieux voisins, An. 1646 and 1647. a remarkable thing, which is, that to adjust the difference be­twixt Haërlem and Mayence concerning the In­vention of Printing, it may be concluded from a Book of Bertius, that Coster at Haërlem lighted on the Invention of Printing after the manner of the Chineses, and that Guttemberg and Faustus invented afterward at Mayence the moveable and changeable Characters for composing syl­lables and words; because Scriverius shew'd Bertius this Speculum Salutis, whereof each Page was made on a Frame or Table engrav'd or cut as it were, and not with separated Chara­cters, composing apart the syllables, words, and lines. The Parthians wrought their Letters on Linnen-cloath, after the manner of Embro­dery.

The Invention of Powder and Cannon is more ancient; it was invented An. 1354. We shall speak of it elsewhere.

The Archbishop and Elector of Treves.

JOhn Hugo de Dorsbec, Archbishop of Treves and Bishop of Spire, Prince and Elector of the Empire, Governour of Prumb, and Pre­sident of Weisembourg: Catholick. He stiles himself Grand Chancellor of the Gaules, and of the Kingdom of Arles.

He resides at Wilich. He succeeds Charles Gasper Van Derleyen.

Coblens and Hermenstein are very strong pla­ces, by reason of their scituation on the joyning of the Rhine and the Moselle; they belong to his Electoral Highness.

It is said that the Revenue of this Archbi­shoprick may go yearly at eleven or twelve hundred thousand Livres. The Archbishoprick comprehends twenty four Bailiwicks.

The Chapter is compos'd of sixteen Capi­tulary Canons; none but Gentlemen are re­ceiv'd; Princes and Earls are receiv'd with dif­ficulty.

This Elector and that of Cologne take their Seats alternatively when the Emperour is not present; this alternation is made from week to week successively.

The three Ecclesiastical Electors are no longer deem'd Chancellors, onely titular to the King­doms [Page 248]of France, Arles, Austrasia, and Italy. The 30th of August 1670. Christopher de la Fosse a Fleming of the Town of Mons, having stil'd the Elector of Treves, amongst his Titles, Archchan­cellor of France and the Kingdom of Arles, in a Thesis which he was to defend at Paris for his Doctorship, he was hindred from defending the said Thesis. Another good Writer has observ'd, that when this Elector is call'd Grand Chancellor of the Gauls, this is understood of the Country which the Roman Emperours possessed within the bounds of the ancient Gaul on this side the Rhine, which was call'd formerly the Kingdom of Arles.

Treves, call'd in Latin Augusta Trevirorum, was built, as Æneas Sylvius relates, in the time of the Patriarck Abraham, 2000 years before the In­carnation, by Trebeta Son of Ninus King of the Assyrians, who being driven from the Kingdom by his Step-mother Semiramis, came and built this Town on the Moselle. Alstedius says its founder was Trevir Son of Man King of Germany.

This place has been a Theatre of War, having been taken and retaken in our time. It has had 101 Bishops and Archbishops from S. Eucher to John Hugo de Dorsbec. Popo was its first Arch­bishop.

The blessed Rhenanus assures us, L. 3. de rebus Germanicis, that the Church of Mayence and that of Cologne were formerly under that of Treves. Its Ʋniversity is the most ancient of Germany.

The Archbishop and Elector of Cologne.

MAximilian Henry of Bavaria, Archbi­shop of Cologne, Bishop and Prince of Liege, and Bishop also of Hildesheim, Prince and Elector of the Empire, Grand Chan­cellor of Italy, and Legate ex officio of the Apo­stolick See, has many other Titles. Catho­lick.

His Arms are those of the House of Bavaria, hereafter mention'd.

This Prince came into the World, An. 1622. the 8th of October; he succeeds his Uncle by the Father side Ferdinand of Bavaria, of whom he was made Coadjutor, An. 1643. and conse­crated Archbishop by Fabius Chigi, Nuncio to Pope Innocent the Tenth, for the Peace of Mun­ster; who has since been Pope under the name of Alexander the Seventh.

The Archbishoprick has in its Arms, a Cross Sable in a Field Argent.

Bona on the Rhine is the ordinary place of Residence of the Archbishop: his Revenue from the Archbishoprick arises to six or seven hun­dred thousand Crowns.

The Chapter of the Cathedral Church is compos'd of twenty four Canons, who are all [Page 250]Princes, or at least Earls; bare Gentlemen are not admitted there.

The day that the Archbishop takes posses­sion of the Archbishoprick, the Town, though it be Imperial, does him Homage in these terms:

We, free Citizens of Cologne, promise this day, for this day and the days to come, to N. our Arch­bishop of Cologne, to be faithful and friendly to him as long as he shall preserve us according in our Rights, Honour, and ancient Priviledges; we, our Wives, our Children, and our Town of Cologne. So help us God and his Saints.

The Archbishop obliges himself reciprocally in these terms:

We by the grace of God, Archbishop of the holy Church of Cologne, Elector and Archcancellor of the Empire in Italy, to the end that there may be an amicable Consideration, an entire Confidence, and a sincere and inviolable Peace betwixt us and our dear Citizens and Town of Cologne, do de­clare by these present Letters, that we have pro­mis'd and assur'd, and do promise and assure in good Faith, and without Fraud, that we confirm all the Rights and Franchises written or not written, old or new, within and without the Town of Cologne, which have been granted it by Popes, Emperours, Kings, or the Archbishops of Cologne; which we will never countervene. In testimony of which, we have set the Seal of our Arms to these Presents the, &c.

The Archbishop was oblig'd to come every year to Cologne on Twelf-day, and the Town gave him four hundred Florins of Gold, with a hundred measures of Oats; which he lost if he came not. There has been a composition since for this Rent by a new agreement. When he comes there, he cannot stay there above three days together, unless he has permission from the Burgomasters; and the number of persons which he brings there with him, is limited. He keeps in the Town a Magistrate who judges criminal Processes, assisted with two Sheriffs.

The People of the Country call this Town Collen. The Empress Agrippina Julia, Wife of the Emperour Claudius, having been born there and peopled it with Romans, gave it its name; since that time it is call'd Colonia Agrippina. Trajan was chosen Emperour there. It is said amongst the Germans, that he who has not seen Cologne, has not seen Germany: Qui non vidit Coloniam, non vidit Germaniam. This Proverb supposes it to be very famous. Ammianus Mar­cellinus calls it Ʋrbem ampli nominis, munitissi­mam, amplam & copiosam. The Rhine gives it the figure of a Bow or of a Crescent, because it bends it self there by reason of some Banks which are carefully kept. The French took it under Childeric the First, and it continued in their hands to the Emperour Otho the First, who restor'd it again to the Empire amongst the Free and Hans-Towns. It has for Devise, [Page 252] Colonia fidelis Romanae Ecclesiae filia; and for Arms, three Crowns Or. It has a great number of Churches and other beautiful Edifices. Good Walls and double Trenches environ it: Its or­dinary Guard is of three hundred Waloons or Germans.

In the Metropolitan Church, which is con­secrated under the name of S. Peter and the three Kings, called vulgarly the Dome, are shewn the three Heads or Sculls, being very black, of the three Kings or Magi, who adored the Son of God in the Manger; and it is believ'd that they are there entire.

The Church of St. Ʋrsula is famous by rea­son of the eleven thousand Virgins cast by a Tem­pest on the coasts of Germany. There are seen an infinite number of bones all round the walls of the Quire in high Cupboards, and many Tombs in the body of the Church, and on an Altar many heads of silver, where is that of St. Ʋrsula. The Colledge of Sorbonne a Member of the faculty of Divinity of Paris, has for Patro­nesses this holy Daughter of a King, and her Companions. Cardinal Baronius says in his Annotations on the Roman Martyrologie, that the true History of these Virgins is lost; thence it comes that we find many uncertain things of it. Mr. Joli, Canon of the Church of Paris, has said remarkable things of it in his Book en­tituled. A Voyage made to Munster in Westpha­lia, and many other neighbouring places, An. 1646, [Page 253] and 1647. Printed by Francis Clauzier.

Father Boussingault in his Guide of the Low Countries, p. 101. and 219. says, that the Church St. Mary of the Capitol has two Bodies and two Quires, in the one of which the Canons say their Office, and in the other the Canonesses; where the one being on one side, and the others on the other, they sing the Praises of God. There is a like thing practis'd at Nivelle in Bra­bant, the Canons come on certain days of the year into the Church of the Canonesses to sing with them. The Abbess, as Lady spiritual and temporal of the Town of Nivelle, it being of her Jurisdiction, presides in the Chapter; the Canons and Canonesses joyntly confer the Be­nefices which are vacant by the death or by the marryage of the Canonesses. The Ladies wear in the Church a Rochet with a black Mantle over it which trains on the ground, a starcht Linnen-cloath on their arm instead of the Aumusse or the furr'd Ornament worn by Canons, and a Couvre-chef on their head.

St. Bruno Founder of the Charthusians, was born at Cologne, and Mary de Medicis dyed there the third of July 1643. In the same year dyed Loüis the Thirteenth, and Cardinal Richelieu.

Cologne has had eighty Bishops and Archbi­shops from Matternus to Maximilian Henry of Bavaria: seventeen Bishops preceded there the Metropolitans. St. Agilulfe was its first Arch­bishop. Pope Zachary declar'd this Church [Page 254]Metropolitan, An. 744. The Suffragans are Munster, Minden, and Osnaburg.

An Observation on the three Ecclesiastical Ele­ctors.

YOu must observe that the three Ecclesia­stical Electors have no Passive Voice in the Assemblies of Election, that is to say, they cannot nominate themselves Emperours; they may nominate and give their Suffrages for o­thers, but not for themselves; it having not been judg'd proper that one and the same head should wear the Miter and the Imperial Crown, and one and the same hand carry the Cross and the Sword; and to the end that since they can­not arrive at the Crown, they may keep the o­ther Electors within the bounds of their de­voir.

Another Observation on the Lay Electors.

THe Secular Electors may nominate them­selves. Sigismond of Luxembourg, King of Bohemia, nominated himself after the death of Robert of Bavaria; and the other Electors ac­knowledging his merit, gave him unanimously their Voices and Suffrages.

The Ecclesiastical Electors are elected by their Chapters, who may exercise the Archie­piscopal Functions during the vacancy of the See, but not the Electoral.

The Electoral Habit.

THe Electoral Habit comes near that of the Presidents of Soveraign Courts. That of the Ecclesiastical Electors is of Scarlet Cloath, and that of the Lay Electors is of Crim­son Velvet. They are all lin'd with Hermines, as likewise their Cap. There are some of them to be seen drawn at large with their ceremonial Habits, in one of the fairest and richest Galle­ries of Duke Mazarin, formerly belonging to the Cardinal of this name. The King of Bohemia, instead of the Electoral Cap, wears a Royal Crown on his head.

You must observe, that An. 1673. the Town of Cologne was chosen to treat there of a Peace betwixt the Kings of France and of Great Bri­tain and the Hollanders, and the Assembly was held at the Convent of the Carmelites, a place very convenient. His most Christian Majesty sent thither for his Plenipotentiaries the Duke of Chaulne, and the Sieurs Courtin and de Baril­lon, who arriv'd there the first; the King shew­ing that he would not retard the work of Peace, where so many Princes concern'd them­selves, though loaded with Victories. They were followed by three Embassadours of Swe­den, who had a deference of Honour from all the rest, they being then in quality of Media­tors. Two Plenipotentiaries came afterward [Page 256]from England, and they expected for third the Earl of Sunderland chief of the Embassie. Du­ring his absence Sir Joseph Williamson perform'd for him. Those of Holland came to the num­ber of four, and afterward the Plenipotentiaries of Spain, who had no other quality but of En­voys. The Elector of Cologne had one Embas­sadour, Prince William of Fustemberg; the Elector of Brandenburg sent thither the Baron of Zmin­zin, who had a Colleague. The Emperour de­puted the Baron d'Isola and others, and the Bi­shop of Munster sent two there. He was one of the Parties concern'd. This Illustrious As­sembly had no success, because the seizing and carrying away by force the person of Prince William of Furstemberg by the Imperialists, though vested with the character of Plenipoten­tiary, in a place which ought to be a Sanctuary, oblig'd his most Christian Majesty, considering the Laws of Nations violated, to recal his.

Nimegen was since made choice on for re­newing the Conferences of the general Peace. The Duke de Vitry, the Sieur Colbert Marquess of Croissi, and the Sieur de Mesmes Count of A­vaux, were appointed Plenipotentiaries of France Anno 1675. Marshal d' Estrade succeeded the Duke de Vitry.

The 11th of August 1677. the Bishop and Prince of Gurc chief of the Embassie of Germany for the Conferences of the Peace, arrived at Ni­megen accompanied with Count Kinski, and with [Page 257] Sieur Straman his Colleagues, who went before him. All the other Plenipotentiaries repair'd thither. The Estates of the Ʋnited Provinces of the Low Countries appointed for their Pleni­potentiaries the Sieur Hieromy Beverning Lord of Teylingen Curator of the University of Leiden, the Sieur William of Nassau Lord of Odik Corte­gene, &c. and the Sieur William Haren Grietman du Bildt.

The Treaties of Peace and of Commerce, Navigation and Maritime affairs betwixt France and the States General of the Ʋnited Provinces of the Low Countries, were concluded at Nime­gen the 10th of August 1678.

In the same year the Treaty of Peace betwixt France and Spain was sign'd, and the year fol­lowing, 1679. that of France and of the Empe­rour, whereof we have spoken elsewhere.

The Elector and King of Bohemia.

THe King of Bohemia, one of the seven E­lectors, formerly the Emperours great Cup-bearer, is at present the Empe­rour himself. Cath.

His Arms are, a Lion Argent arm'd and crown'd Or, with a double tail noüed and pass'd in Saltier in a Field Gules.

Prague is the capital City; its Dukes, the Kings and Emperours have kept there a long time their Court: it is divided into three, the Small, the Ancient, and the New; Praga ad Moldaviam fluvium, the Molde waters it.

Its Inhabitants were govern'd by Dukes till Ʋratislaus was created the first King, who was followed by many others, till the Royal Line being extinct, the House of Austria put them­selves in possession of this Kingdom, which has been made hereditary in the House of Austria by the Treaty of Peace of Munster.

The Ancients called Bohemia Bojemia or Bo­johemia, that is to say in the German Tongue, the House or Residency of the Boyes, a People of the Gauls who retir'd thither.

Some have said that this Elector was the last before that he was King. His Chair at the E­lections is of Sattin pursled with Gold, and that [Page 259]of his Colleagues of Crimson Velvet onely. Some would seem to say that he has onely a ca­sting Voice and Suffrage, when the other Ele­ctors do not accord for the Election of the Em­perour: but it is certain that he is effectively an Elector as the others, and that his Royal qua­lity gives him the first Seat amongst the Lay Electors.

Bohemia, with the Provinces of Moravia and Silesia, may be worth yearly twelve or thirteen Millions to its Prince. The Emperour Frede­ric surnamed Barberossa, made it a Kingdom: it is he who said to Pope Alexander the Third, Non tibi, sed Petro.

The Bohemians in the Ceremonies of the Mass, sing the Epistle and Gospel in their Tongue, and communicate under both kinds: it has been permitted them as a thing which does not alter the essence of Faith.

The Town of Egra, otherwise Eger, belongs to this Crown; the Gazettes often mention it.

There are pretious Stones found in the Moun­tains of Pinch; whence is come the Proverb, that men throw sometimes a Stone at a Cow, which is worth more than the Cow.

The Inhabitants of Bohemia are call'd Bohe­mians, with an Aspiration, and the vagabond Egyptian Fortunetellers Boemians; they ap­pear'd in Europe An. 1417. They came from Hungary, and Valachia, Frontiers of Turky.

The Clocks of Bohemia are alter the Italian [Page 260]fashion: they tell the hours there from one Sun-setting to the next, twenty four hours con­secutively.

Olmus is the capital Town of Moravia, and Breslau of Silesia.

The Emperour Leopold declar'd Count Sta­remberg Chancellor of the Empire, and Coun­sellor of his Privy-Council, the 24th of January 1678.

The Elector of Bavaria.

MAximilian Marie, Count Palatine of the Rhine, Duke of Bavaria, Prince and Elector of the Empire, Great Stew­ard of the Imperial House, came into the World An. 1662. is Cath.

His Arms are, three Shields together, the first Sable, a Lyon crowned Or, which belongs to the Palatinate; the second is fusile in bend of 21 pieces Argent and Azure, which belongs to Bavaria; the third Gules an Imperial Globe Or, which be­longs to the Electorate.

Saltzburg has f [...]rmerly been the Capital of this Country, at present it's Munic, a very strong place; some call it in Latin Monachum, others Monachium. The Germans, Munchen, on the River Iser.

This Elector resides at Munic; his Palace is one of the stateliest of Germany. The great Gustavus Adolphus King of Sweden having ta­ken the Town and the Dukes Palace, which he did not demolish by reason of its beauty, pos­sess'd himself of the Dukes sine Library, where were rare Manuscripts, which he ca [...]ried into Sweden. Queen Christian his Daughter gave li­berally of them to some learned persons; a­mongst others, to the Sieur Vossius Canon of [Page 262] Windsor in England, to the Sieur des Cartes, and others.

The Castle of Schelesheim two leagues from Munic, is a Country-house of Pleasure where his Electoral Highness goes ordinarily to take the diversion of Hunting.

His Bucc [...]ntaurus passes, amongst the curious, for a Wonder of this Age. It is on the Lake of Staremberg, which is a league over, and six leagues in length. It is held to be as beautiful and as large as that of Venice, whereof I speak in its place.

This Elector raises eighteen or twenty thou­sand men, and sometimes more; his Revenue is considerable.

His Dukedom. which is in upper Germany, is divided into upper and lower Bavaria.

Munic, Ingolstat, and Freisingen, are in the upper. Freisingen has the title of Bishoprick, and Ingolstat of University. Ratisbone in the German Tongue Regensburg, Passau, Landshut, Straubingen, and many others, are of the lower Bavaria.

The great Church of Munic is the Burial-place of its Dukes.

The Electorate, the upper Palatinate, and the County of Chamb, were granted to the House of Bavaria, and its Successors, as long as the Male­line should hold, acco [...]ing to the tenth Article of the Treaty of Munster.

In the last War between France and Germany [Page 263]the Elector Ferdinand Marie stood Neuter. He dyed suddenly at Schelesheim at forty three years of Age. Pope Innocent the Eleventh cele­brated Mass for the Soul of this deceased per­son, and the Emperour caus'd the Funeral-Ob­sequies to be solemniz'd at Vienna in the Church of the discalceated Augustins.

The Empire has been divers times in the House of Bavaria. Its Princes have married eight Daughters of Emperours, and eleven Daughters of Kings; and among the Daughters of this House, six have married Emperours, three have been married to Kings, and two to Dolphins of France. Three Electors are of the same Family; that of the Palatinate of the Rhine, that of Bavaria, and that of Cologne, which has been for about an Age in this House.

The Elector of Saxony.

JOhn Georges the Third of the name, Duke of Saxony, Landtgrave of Thuringia, Marquess of Misnia, Great Marshal or Great Gentle­man of the Horse of the Empire, Prince and Elector. Luth.


  • 1. upper Saxony,
  • 2. Thuringia,
  • 3. Misnia,
  • 4. lower Saxony.

Over all the Ele­ctorate, which is barrely Or and Sable, upon that a Crown Verte placed Bendways.

Dresde on the River Elbe, is at present the ordinary place of Residence of this Elector.

His Revenue both ordinary and extraordina­ry, may amount to about eight millions of Li­vres.

Magdebourg is the greatest Town of all the Country. The Elector of Brandenburg posses­ses it by vertue of the Treaty of Munster, accor­ding to which the Empire has consented that he hold in Soveraignty the Archbishoprick of Magdebourg, and the two Bishopricks of Albe­stad and Minden, to indemnifie him for Pome­ran [...]a Ʋlterior, possess'd by the Swedes. Be­sides that his Electoral Highness of Brandenburg keeps a great Garison at Magdebourg, he spares nothing in fortifying it.

The present Archbishop, who is Lutheran, is [Page 265]also Bishop of All. He enjoys a great Reve­nue. This Prelate or Governour is of the House of Saxony. He is married, and has Children well grown in years. Amongst his Titles he takes that of Primate of Germany; the Electo­ral Archbishops contest this Primacy with him.

The House of Saxony is esteem'd one of the most antient of Europe. Wittemberg was for­merly the Seat of the Duke. This Town is known throughout the Earth for having first followed the Heresiarch Luther, Native of Islebe in the County of Mansfel, who having liv'd some time in the Order of the Fryers Hermites of S. Austin, left them An. 1517. The publi­cation of a Plenary Indulgence throughout all Christendom in favour of a Croisade against the Turks, serv'd him as a Stumbling-block, because Cardinal Albert of Brandenbourg, Archbishop of Mayence, and Commissary of the holy See, per­mitted Father John Tetzellius a Dominican, to publish this great Indulgence. Martin Luther, who at that time was a Religious man and Pro­fessor in Divinity, took so great a pique at it, through a motive of Jealousie, and sell into such a fury, being assisted by John Stuaupire Vicar-general of his Order, that he began to preach a­gainst the Pope, and against his Indulgences, maintaining that they were diabolical Inventi­ons; that the Roman Church must be left, and a Sect made apart; that there needs no Fasting; [Page 266]that Ecclesiasticks, Religious men ad women, ought to marry; and an infinite store of the like Errours. The sensuality of his Doctrine, joyn'd with the Revenues of the Church, being employ'd in Pomps, in Vanities, & other worse things, drew to him a great many Followers, and even per­sons of power. John Frederick Elector of Saxony, and Sichingi a great German Captain, upheld Lu­ther. He chang'd the name of Ludder, which signifies a Mocker and Thief, into that of Lu­ther, which signifies Pure; and dyed An. 1646. sixty three years and some months old. He made his own Epitaph, in these words: Pestis eram vivus, moriens ero mors tua Papa. This Butterflye threaten'd an Elephant; the Plague is ceast, and the Popes live without interruption in glory. Melancthon speaks of this Epitaph in his Funeral-Oration.

Ʋpper Saxony belongs to the Elector, the lower to the House of Brunswick for the greatest part of it, and to that of Saxony Lavenburg on the Elbe, which is the Head of the Illustrious House of Anhalt, comprizing the Towns of Ham­bourg, Breme, and the County of Oldenburg.

The Town of Brunswick in the middle of Saxony, is very much enlarg'd; it is at present under the government of the Duke of Wolfem-buttel, Head of his Family. These three Bro­thers, the Duke of Zell, of Hanover, and the Bi­shop of Osnaburg, are of the same House.

The Elector of Brandenburg.

FRederick William Marquess of Branden­burg, Great Chamberlain of the Empire, and Elector, Duke of Prussia, Magdeburg, Juliers, Cleves, Monts, Stetin, Pomerania, Cassu­bia, Windalia or Wenden, of Crossen, and of Ja­gendorff, Bourgrave of Nuremberg, Prince of Al­berstad and of Minde, Earl of la Mark and Ra­venspurg, Lord of Ruvestein, and other places.

These are the Titles which I saw in a Brief which his Electoral Highness gave to a person of my acquaintance.

This Prince was born the sixth of Feb. 1620. he does not enjoy Crossen and Jagendorff, but the Emperour.

This Elector Frederick William married in his first marriage Loüise Henrietta Princess of O­range, An. 1646. who dyed the eighth of June 1667. and in his second marriage Dorothy Daughter of Philip of Holstein Gluxbourg, Dow­ager of Christian Loüis Duke of Brunswick, the 14th of June 1668. He has many Children by both. He is a Calvinist.

He bears divers Quarterings, containing se­veral Alliances and Principalities, over all Azure a Scepter in pale Or, which belongs to the E­lectorate; a triple Helm and triple Crest.

The Livery of this Elector is of a blue co­lour.

Brandenburg is the capital City of the Mar­quisate to which it gives the name; it is seated on the River Havel. It is seen at a great di­stance by reason of its two great Towers. This Town has the title of Bishoprick: Luther re­ceiv'd there the Order of Priesthood.

Berlin, Spandau, and Posdam, are the ordina­ry places of Residence of his Electoral High­ness.

Berlin is the greatest Town of the Marqui­sate here nam'd; the River Suevus waters it. Its Soil is the most fertile and pleasant of the Marcha of Brandenburg. Berlin is as big as Montpellier or Beziers. They count there three Towns, to wit, Coln otherwise Cologne on Sue­vus where is the Palace of the Elector, the an­cient Town of Berlin, and the new which is call'd Fridericverde.

This Elector, next the Emperour, has more Land and Souldiery than any of the other Prin­ces of Germany. He has ordinarily twenty five or thirty thousand men on foot, and good Soul­diers. His Revenue ordinary and extraordi­nary is eleven or twelve Millions, some say fourteen.

His Court is Royal, and is the best of the Empire, next that of his Imperial Majesty.

He has three Provinces which go by the name of la Marcha, to wit, the Old, the New, and the [Page 269] Mean. Three Bishopricks, Brandenburg, le Buz, and Havelsberg.

Frederick Burgrave of Nuremburg bought, An. 1417. the March of Brandenburg of the Em­perour Sigismond, for four hundred thousand Florins, after having first sold his Burgraviate for two hundred and forty thousand Florins.

The Estates of this Elector contain in length above two hundred German leagues; from Hussen near Arnhen to Memel in Prussia, they are not large. This Prince goes on his Lands from the Low Countries as far as Poland and Cur­land.

The Oder, the Elbe, and the Havel, water these Estates.

This Prince is descended from the House of the Earls of Zolleren in Suabia in the Diocess of Constance, whereof the Head of the Family is Catholick.

This Elector has done memorable things of late years; amongst others, he has settled in his House the Ducal Soveraignty of Prussia.

Moreover, he has made a Communication of the Baltick Sea with the Ocean, through the ministry of a French-man of Provence, called Pierre des Chaises, who undertook it, and brought it to effect by the means of Channels and Rivers. He fortified Berlin when it was believ'd to be lost. This Prince came with his Forces before Ferbellin in the month of July of the year 1675. where he defeated the Swedes [Page 270]commanded by General Wrangel, and notwith­standing the bloudy Fight on both sides, his E­lectoral Highness cut in pieces about three thou­sand Swedes, took a great number of Prisoners, and took from the Swedish Army twenty two Standards and Ensigns, eight pieces of Canon, and the Baggage.

This Elector has got by conquest since of the King of Sweden, Wolgast, Wollin, and Demmin.

The 29th of August, An. 1679. he took from his Majesty of Sweden, Anclan; and the 30th he made there his Entrance with Madam the E­lectoress, and the Electoral Prince. His High­ness passing in the Town, alighted before the great Church, where he heard the Sermon, and assisted at the Te Deum which was there sung. Thence his Highness went to the Guild-hall, where he receiv'd the Oath of Fidelity from the Mayor in the Council-chamber, and afterward of all the Burgesses before the Guild-hall, and assur'd them that he would maintain them in all the Ecclesiastical and Politick Rights and Priviledges which they had enjoy'd under the Reigns of his Predecessors the ancient Dukes of Pomerania. The whole was concluded by a magnificent Entertainment, where all the Bur­gesses that came were admitted.

The 19th of December 1677. this Elector gave a publick Audience in his Camp before Stetin to the Envoy of the Cham of Tartary Precopites. His Electoral Highness sate in a [Page 271]Seat of Crimson-Velvet trim'd with Gold, on a Scaffold rais'd two steps, cover'd with a rich Turky Carpet. This Envoy had three Letters, one from the Cham, one from the Sultan Galga his eldest Son, for his Electoral Highness; and one for the Electoress, consisting of Comple­ments and offerings of Service.

The 26th of December of the same year, the Town of Stetin, Capital of Pomerania, surren­dred it self to his Electoral Highness, after a vi­gorous resistance of six months siege.

The 24th of the same month the Capitula­tion was concluded and sign'd on both sides. The 26th in the morning, the Composition be­ing made, his Electoral Highness commanded two thousand men to possess themselves of the Gate of the Bastion, &c.

His Electoral Highness granted the Town ten years Exemption, and the liberty of Fishing, that the Inhabitants might employ the publick Revenues in the reparation of the Ruines of the Churches; and his Highness took on himself the reparation of the Cathedral.

The Elector gave to Baron Orflin, Camp-Mar­shal of his Army, the government of Pomera­nia, as Count Wrangel enjoy'd it in his life-time; and made Major-General Suering Governour of Stetin, and Col. Barstel Commander under him. The Siege of this place cost his Electoral High­ness four hundred thousand Crowns in Powder, Bullets, and Shot, according as some relate.

This Elector made his solemn Entry into the Town of Stetin the sixth of January 1678. on Twelf-day; and after having heard the Sermon, and receiv'd the Oath of Fidelity from the Ma­gistrates and the People, the Medals which his Highness had caus'd to be made, were distribu­ted to the People. In the Evening he retir'd into his Camp, whence he parted the eighth to return to Berlin, where they gave him an Au­gust Reception.

This Elector was not satisfied with giving Orders for repairing Stetin with all possible di­ligence, but moreover he would adde there new labours for rendring this place of Importance more strong than it was before.

The 22th of Octob. 1678. the Town of Stral­zond surrendred it self by composition to his Electoral Highness, who made there his publick Entrance the 30th of the same month. The Elector granted the Inhabitants an Exemption for ten years from all the Impositions that they were wont to pay, to capacitate them to reestablish themselves, because, of two thousand houses that there were in the Town before the Siege, there remained not fifty which were not consum'd with the fire.

The 17th of November of the same year, Gripswal incurr'd the same fate; the Elector receiv'd the Oath of Fidelity of the Inhabitants the twentieth of the same month. This Town has the title of University; it's half a league om the Sea.

The Swedes entred Germany forty or fifty years since, assisted with the Protestants against the Catholicks.

At the beginning of the year 1679. all the E­states of the Elector of Brandenburg resolv'd to e­rect for this Prince a Statue of cast Copper in the Town of Berlin, in memory of his great Victories.

This Prince has restor'd to the King of Swe­den the places that he had taken from him. Stetin is of the number, which is the onely place that his Electoral Highness insisted on kee­ping, because it had cost him so much, and that it was the Seat of the ancient Dukes of Pomera­nia his Predecessors.

There is seen at his Court a Fugitive, to whom the Father General of the Capuchins spake on a day, in these words, with Tears in his Eyes: Religion has given you Honey, and you re­turn it back Gall.

An. 1680. Ʋrslan Aga Envoy of the Cham of the Crim-Tarters, presented the Electoress from the Cham's Wife a Shift of Egyptian-Cloath, and a sort of Buskins embroidered with Gold, such as are worn by the Sultans.

The third of Jan. 1681. Prince Loüis of Bran­denburg, fourth Son of the Elector of this name, married the Princess Loüise, onely Daughter of the late Prince Bogeslaus Radzevil, she being 14 years of age, a very rich Heiress. This Princess possesses above 40 leagues of Land in Lithuania on the frontire of Livonia, where she has two places well fortified.

The Elector Palatine.

CHarles Count Palatine of the Rhine, Prince and Elector of the Empire, Great Treasurer of the Imperial House, was born 1651. Calvinist.

He bears quarterly in the first and fourth Sable, a Lion Or, crown'd of the same, arm'd and langued Gules; in the second and third Lozenge Argent and Azure of twenty one pieces, and then a Mond Or in a Field Gules, which belongs to the Ele­ctorate.

Heidelberg is his capital Town in the lower Palatinate on the Necar. It was taken An. 1621. by the General of the Emperour Ferdinand the Second. The Tower where the Clock is, is ve­ry high, and of a very excellent Architecture. Manhein is the Fence of the whole Country; there is a very fair Palace there, where the Prince ordinarily resides.

Charles Loüis, Father to the present Elector, was admirably skill'd in the Civil Law; he has been heard to dispute against publick Theses de­dicated to his Electoral Highness with such a strength of Spirit, that he has put to a stand both Defender and Master. Books are no less worthy of a Prince, than the Military Art; [Page 275] Minerva and Mars are both Children of Jupi­ter. Alexander the Great read Homer's Iliads and Odysses. Julius Caesar has left us his Com­mentaries. Alexander Severus read Plato's Re­publick, Tulliee Offices, and Horace. The great Captain Scipio studied the Institution of Cyrus; Tiberius and Adrian the Works of Ovid. Char­lemagne King of France and Emperour, read the Scripture, the Fathers, and particularly the Works of St. Austin; made Rules for the Refor­mation of the Church, entituled Capitula Caroli Magni. Charles the Fifth, King of France, nam'd the Wise, caus'd the Latin Bible to be transla­ted into French, and caus'd other Versions to be made. S. Loüis, Francis the First, and other Kings of France, have lov'd Learning and lear­ned persons. Alphonsus the Tenth, King of Ca­stile, compos'd Books on the Civil Law, fine Astronomical Tables, and even the General Histo­ry of Spain: it has been observ'd that he read the Bible fourteen times.

St. Bruno in his Book entituled the present state of the Affairs of Germany, with the Inte­rests and Genealogies of the Princes of the Em­pire, reduces the Estates of the Prince Palatine to ten Bailiwicks, and notes his Revenue; he has inherited five hundred thousand Livres of Rent since the death of the Palatine of Simme­ren Uncle of Charles Loüis, and formerly his Tutor.

The Elector Palatine, and he of Bavaria, are [Page 276]of the same Family. The House Palatine is the eldest. Frederick the Fifth, Count Palatine, elected King of Bohemia, had the Electoral Di­gnity taken from him An. 1623. at the Diet of Ratisbone, which gave it to Maximilian Duke of Bavaria. The Elector Palatine of the Rhine was restor'd to the possession of the lower Pala­tinate, and invested with an eighth Electorate, which was erected at the Treaty of Peace of Westphalia, at the instance of the most Christian King.

When the Emperour is not in Germany, or that the Empire is vacant, the Electors Palatines and of Saxony, are Vicegerents or Regents: Bavaria contests it at present with one of them. The King of the Romans is perpetual Vicegerent of the Emperour.

The House Palatine has given Emperours to Germany, one King to Denmark, and two or three to Sweden; and of late years a very wor­thy Spouse, the Princess Elizabeth Charlotte, to Philip of France Duke of Orleans, onely Brother of the King of France and Navarre. This Mar­riage was concluded and the Articles sign'd the sixth of November 1671. The Marriage was made at Metz the 26th of the same month, and of the same year.

Philip Count Palatine of the Rhine, and his Brother Frederick the Second, signaliz'd them­selves at the Siege of Vienna against Solyman: they commanded in the Town, and so vigo­rously [Page 277]repell'd the Turks in their Assaults, that they kill'd 40000. These two Princes, besides the danger of their Life, engag'd all their Estates for the support of this War. The Emperour Charles the Fifth was about Vienna, keeping the Field.

The Palatinate of the Rhine furnishes all things necessary for humane life, a great deal of Corn, and good Wines. In the great Tower of Heidelberg is seen a remarkable Vessel which contains forty Pipes of Wine; it deserves Iron Hoops.

There was seen at Heidelberg before the year 1623. the curious Palatine Library, which was transported to the Vatican at Rome.

The River Necar is very full of Fish, and serves as well for bringing Wood from the Ot­thonick Forest, as for the transportation of Mer­chandize.

Near this Forest appear'd, An. 1476. a Shep­herd called Nicolas Hausen, who quitting the charge of his Flock, forg'd a Religion, and turn'd Preacher. He preach'd first against the life of Church-men, and said, that they ought not to have Titles given them. He attacht also the Secular powers, maintaining that there must be no paying of Tolls nor Tributes, nor any Im­position or Subsidy, that all was common; and said in his Sermons, that he had a Revelation from the holy Virgin. The People, who are lovers of Novelties, flockt to he [...]r him from all parts.

He had as great a concourse of People as the Mason that preacht at Paris in the Fauxbourg S. Germain, An. 1672, or 1673. At length Nico­las Hausen was indicted, and condemn'd to be burnt as an Heretick. The Mason who preacht but moral things was interdicted preaching, ha­ving neither Order nor Mission.

A Relation tells us, that his Electoral High­ness Charles Loüis made an end of building, An. 1680. at Frederickbourg near Manshein, one of the fairest Churches of Germany, and that he dedicated it to holy Concord or Ʋnion, which now he makes it bear, and caus'd it to be men­tion'd in a Sermon preacht there the first day for its dedication. The Ceremony began with a sine Concert of Musick, which was followed with an inaugural Oration very learned, and a learned Sermon of Doctor Fabritius his first Mi­nister: in the afternoon he caus'd to preach there a Lutheran Doctor, and in the evening a Catholick Priest of the Church of Mayence: and all three freely heard each other on the laudable designe of his Electoral Highness. You must not admire at this diversity of Preachers, be­cause in some places of Germany the same Church is common to Catholicks and Lutherans.

Of the number of the Electors, and other Circum­stances.

THe Electors were formerly seven in num­ber; three belonging to the Church, and four Lay-men. They are at present eight, since the Peace of Germany concluded at Munster, An. 1648.

The Lay-Electors, who are Minors, in the E­lection of an Emperour, may be present there accompanied with their Guardians, who are their nearest Relations. They have no need of them if they have attain'd the age of eighteen years compleat, because then they come out of Guardianship.

The Princes Electors have the power of chu­sing the Emperour, to the end that none attri­butes to himself the Imperial Dignity as here­ditary.

Though the Electors pretend to be equal with Kings, their Embassadours have not their Seats but after those of Crown'd heads. The youngest Sons of the Electoral Houses take place in Germany of other Princes.

The Confusion which arose formerly from the great number of Electors, was the reason that they were reduc'd to so few. The Emperour Charles the Fourth confirm'd them in the possession of this Right mention'd in the Golden Bull. The Great Turk calls them the [Page 280] Kings of Germany. Before we leave Germany, we will observe that Powder and Cannon were there invented.

The Invention of Powder and Cannon.

POwder was invented by chance, An. 1354. by Berthold Schuartz a German Cordeli­er. This great Naturalist making an Experi­ment of Rarefaction, shewing that there was no Vacuum in Nature, made use of a Pot well co­ver'd, wherein he had put Sulphur and the pow­der of Saltpeter, and laid fire to it, whereof he saw the effect. Some hold him to be the In­venter both of Powder and Cannon. Others say that it was Bartholomew le Noir, a Monk of Cologne, a great Alchymist, who found out the Secret of making Cannon, according to Nau­clerus, in the same year 1354. and according to Baronius, An. 1360. Bartholomew le Noir was at Venice to cast Cannon, to the end that the Venetians should make use of them to recover from the Genoeses Fossa Claudia, about the year 1378. according to Sabellicus, Blondus, and o­thers. The use was receiv'd in France, Anno 1425. at the time that an English Earl, call'd Thomas of Montigni, besieg'd the Town of Mans.

Petrarch falsely believ'd that the famous Ar­chimedes of the Town of Syracuse was the In­venter [Page 281]of Cannon, because he conveyed great Rocks by Mathematical Springs into the near Vessels of the Enemies, and burnt them with Burning-glasses.

The Chineses boast that a Demon shew'd the Invention to their first King above a thousand years before the Nativity of the Son of God.


CHarles the Second, of the House of Au­stria, King of Spain, was born the sixth of November, An. 1661.

He is Catholick, and even so call'd. It's a Title given by Pope Alexander the Sixth to Ferdinand the Fifth, and in his person to his Suc­cessors, for having destroy'd in Spain the Moors and Sarasins.

He bears quarterly the Arms of Castille, which are Gules a Castle triple tower'd Or; and those of Leon, which are Argent a Lion Gules, and within an Escotcheon the Arms of his principal Realms, which we should call in France Provin­ces. The Kings Livery is of a yellow colour. The ordinary Devise of some Kings of Spain is this: Omnes contra me, & ego contra omnes.

Since Philip the Second, the Town of Madrid, scituated in new Castille, is the ordinary place of Residency of this Court. There is a great Bridge, and a little River under it, call'd Man­zanarez; on the occasion of which, an Embas­sadour said to the Emperour Charles the Fifth, Less Bridge, or more Water.

The Kings Palace is call'd Pallasso del Rey, otherwise Palasso Real. The eldest Sons of the [Page 283]King of Spain are called Princes of Austria; as in France, Dolphins; in England, Princes of Wales; in Portugal Princes of Algarves; and in Savoy, Princes of Piedmont.

A relation whereof I could quote the Author, tells us that a man must be clad in black to speak to his Catholick Majesty: I know the contrary by Spaniards who have had the ho­nour to speak to him in grey Clothes. I may believe that a man must appear before him in black Clothes when he is in Mourning, and be in a decent habit.

The Coach-men sit on one of the horses which go at the Draught-tree, since the time that the Coach-man of Count Alvarez, who sate before the Coach, reveal'd a Secret of his Master, which he had overheard. The same thing is practis'd in Germany.

The chief Houses of Pleasure belonging to the King, and out of Madrid, are

IL Campo, il Retiro, Aranjues, le Pardo, the Escurial, and Jarzuela.

The Spaniards make of this last save one the eighth Wonder of the World. Philip the Se­cond laid out twenty Millions in building it: he caus'd the Escurial to be built both in me­mory of the Victory which he gain'd over the French, An. 1557. at S. Quentin in Picardy on the Somme, the tenth of August, being S. Lau­rence's [Page 284]day, and for having caus'd the Church of S. Laurence of S. Quentin to be beaten down; whereupon he made a Promise to God to cause a finer to be built in Spain, in the honour of the same Saint, and a Monastery where the Monks of S. Hierome are magnificently seated. The King has a Seat in the Refectuary, and a great Palace without the Convent. After the Library of the Vatican, which is the first of the World, that of these Monks has been greatly valued.

There is seen at il Campo a great Park for the divertisement of Hunting; great Ponds and Gardens.

At il Retiro, otherwise call'd Buen Retiro, there is seen Philip the Fourth on a Horse of cast Copper. The King passes there the grea­test heats of the Summer, by reason of its Wa­ters and fine Grotto's of different kinds. The fine Walks are there as green in the Summer as in the Spring-time. There is a strange Figure there standing in the midst of a great Cistern, casting forth water from all the parts of its bo­dy, which is made use of for watering in a mo­ment a Garden of the Palace full of all sorts of Flowers. There is also seen there Gardens full of Fruit-trees.

At il Pardo are the Pictures of all the Kings of Spain.

The ancient Palace of one of the Kings of the Moors, call'd Halambra, is remarkable for [Page 285]being flankt with thirty Towers; it is on one of the little Hills of the Town of Grenada.

The chief places of Devotion.

IN Madrid the Church of our Lady Almudena, and that of Athoca, are very famous. Our Lady of Athoca, call'd according to the Language of the Country, Nostra Senora d' Athoca, is at Madrid, as the Church of our Lady at Paris, for Piety and the concourse of People. It's there where the Te Deum is sung.

Saint James of Compostella in Galicia is a very famous place of Pilgrimage; the French Pil­grims that go thither pass over the Trembling Bridge. It is thought that this Bridge is so call'd by reason of the flowing of the Sea, which coming to press against it, makes it tremble. It's a roguish Bridge of wood, a little River passes under it.

The Apostle S. James the Greater is the Pa­tron of all Spain. His Relicks are under the great Altar of the Metropolitan Church of Com­postella: his Figure representing half his body, is over it: his Pilgrims Staff is on the side of the Quire; and his Head at Toulouse in the Church of S. Sernin. It's there where the Pil­grims begin their Pilgrimage.

S. James has been seen to fight for the Spa­niards against the Sarasins, holding in his hand a white Standart with a red Cross in it, in the [Page 286]time of King Ramires; who being assisted with his Apostle, charg'd so briskly the Enemies, that he cut in pieces 60000 on the place.

Charlemagne King of France was at Compostella to honour St. James, and caus'd his Church to be built. Since the Kings of Spain have been Catholicks, they have always honour'd him.

I have read a Relation of divers Voyages, in which the Author says, that St. James suffered Martyrdom at Compostella. It's a roguish Me­moire which has been given him; I remit him to the Books of the Acts of the Apostles, to the Ecclesiastical History, and to the holy Martyro­logy, and he will find that it was at Hierusalem that Herod caus'd him to be beheaded. This Apostle having continued some time in Spain, return'd to Judaea; his Disciples after his death carried him from the Port of Joppe presently to Fa, where they embarkt for Spain; and after having sail'd all along the Mediterranean Sea, and pass'd the Straight of Gibralter, they took on the Ocean the course of Galicia, where they landed and disembarkt the body of the Saint in the Town of Irisflavia, where he continued hid­den and unknown, till it was miraculously dis­cover'd by a Star which appear'd there. This place has been call'd since Compostella, that is to say, Campus stellae. S. James the Lesser suffered also Martyrdom in Hierusalem, whereof he was Bishop; he was thrown headlong from the top of the Temple to the bottom, and cudgell'd to death.

After S. James of Compostella, Mount Sarra is another place of Piety and of Pilgrimage, very much frequented: It's a Mountain in the mid­dle of Catalonia, on which there is an Abbey of the Order of S. Bennet, and where thirteen Her­mites have each their little Cell and little Gar­den.

The Angelical Chappel, call'd otherwise our Lady of the Pillar, is very famous at Saragossa. Buterius says that S. James being in Prayer a­bout this Town with his little Flock, and being very uneasie that he could not convert in Spain above nine persons, whereof there were eight Jews, and one onely Spaniard; the holy Virgin, brought by Angels from Judaea into this Coun­try, appear'd to him near the River Eber on a Pillar of Marble, some say of Jasper; who com­forting him, foretold to him the Conversion of this People by the Ministry of his Disciples; and that St. James rais'd her since this Chappel, where this Pillar is seen, and on it the Figure of the Virgin holding her Son in her arms. This Church is esteem'd the most Ancient of Christen­dom, amongst those that are dedicated to the holy Virgin.

The Division of the Spanish Monarchy.

ITs Kingdoms, or to say better, its Provinces, were formerly to the number of fourteen, by counting thus: Castille, Leon, Arragon, Ca­talonia, [Page 288]Valencia, Andalusia, Grenada, Murcia, Galicia, Portugal, Algarve, the Asturies, Biscay, Navarre.

Catalonia is a County and not a Kingdom: when the King of Spain makes his first Entrance into Barcelona, which is the capital City, he en­ters there in quality of Earl; wherefore when he is before the Gate, which he finds shut, after having knockt, they ask from within the Town the name of him that will enter: his Catholick Majesty answers twice, The King of Spain; and they do not open the Gates to him till he says it's the Earl of Barcelona King of Spain, who will come in. At these words the Gates are incontinently open'd, and they give his Majesty a Reception becoming him.

Portugal and Algarve have their King. Bis­cay a Lordship; Navarre belongs to France: a part of Biscay is possess'd by the French, and the other by the Spaniards.

Spain may have two hundred and sixty French leagues in length, and two hundred in breadth, without comprizing what it has in I­taly, in Flanders, and in America, and along the coasts of Barbary on the Mediterranean Sea.

The chief Towns are

MAdrid, Toledo, Sevil, Grenada, Sarragossa, Valencia, Compostella, Salamanca, Barce­lona, Cadiz.

Madrid is increast since that the Kings of Spain have kept there their Court; it has no Suburbs. It has been said that this Town was wall'd round with Fire, by reason of its ancient Walls built in many places with great Stones that strike fire. Its Fountain is very famous, after that of Palermo in Sicily, and of Navona at Rome, which are esteem'd the finest of Europe. The Fountain Arethusa is celebrated in Histo­ry; it has been the ground of many Roman Fables.

Toledo is adorn'd with two fair Palaces, with that which Charles the Fifth caus'd to be built there, and with that of the Archbishop. The Metropolitan Church has a Clock resembling that of Strasburg in Alsatia in its height and Architecture: the Doors of this Church are of cast Copper; the Streets of the Town are very narrow; the Moors built the Walls.

Sevil is the Capital of Andalusia; the Spa­niards say thus: Que no ha vista Sevilla, no ha vista la Maravilla: He that has not seen Sevil, has not seen a Wonder. The Duke of Medina Coeli has a fine Palace there. It is held that this Town call'd Hispal, or Hispalis, gave the name of Spain to all the Kingdom.

Grenada is larger in compass than any Town of Spain: the Moors built it. The Streets are narrow, and the Houses rang'd after such a man­ner, that they resemble the kernel of a Pome­granat. The Kingdom has a great number of Mountains.

Sarragossa is the Capital of the Kingdom of Arragon; it has an Archbishoprick, Parliament, Inquisition, and University.

Valencia, call'd the Beautiful and the Great, is the Capital of the Kingdom whose name it bears; it is honoured with an Archbishoprick, Parliament, and University.

Compostella Capital of Galicia, is famous for the Relicks of the Apostle St. James the Grea­ter. Brother of St. John the Evangelist. The Spaniards call Compostella, San Jago di Compo­stella.

Salamanca is recommendable for its largeness and University, which is the most famous of all Spain. It has a great House adorn'd with a Court, where are the Schools and the Halls where the Acts are made, and where Persons are admitted to Degrees; Metaphysick is there in its Throne. The Preachers there are very full of Gestures to express naturally their Thoughts and Motions; they make use of all the parts of their Body, of the Head, Hands, Feet, and Eyes: Though they said nothing, a man might guess very near what they would say. Francis Relux, a Dominican, Doctor of the Faculty of Divinity of Salamanca, formerly Confessor of Charles the Second King of Spain, and at present Bishop of Placenza, has for Succes­sor in his place of Confessor, Father Bayono, Pro­fessor of the University of Alcala.

Cordona, capital City of the Dukedom where­of [Page 291]it bears the name, has a Mountain of Salt.

Barcelona, call'd by the Spaniards Barcino, is an important place; the French possess'd it un­der the Reign of Loüis the Thirteenth. The Palace of the Duke of Cardona there is August; there are seen there some Figures of the Earls of Barcelona. This Town, which is at present dou­ble, has a Bishop, a Parliament, an University, Inquisition, and a Port where many Ships have often been cast away in the Road.

Cadiz is famous by reason or the advantage­ous scituation of its Port; it's there where the Gallies arrive that come from Peru laden with Gold and Silver. This Town is very strong and well peopled: in those late Wars its Bishop coming from Italy, was stopt at Montpellier, and sent afterward from Th [...]lose into his Dio­cess in exchange for some Prisoner.

Rivers of ancient Spain.

TAgus, the Ober, the Guadian, Guadalgui­vir, the Douro, and the Minhio, the Gua­dalaiar, the Seger, the Liuga, and others.

The Tagus, famous for its Golden Sand, pas­ses at Toledo, Villa Franchia, and at Lisbon.

The Iber, Iberus, at Sarragossa and Tortoza: this River gives the name of Iberia to all Spain.

The Latins call the Guadian, Anas; and the Guadalaiar, Bertis; the Douro, Durius; the Se­ger, Sicoris.

The Spaniards boast of having a Bridge on which above ten thousand horn'd Beasts may feed together. This proceeds from the River Anas, which hiding it self for six leagues, pas­ses under a great Meadow-ground. According to a Map made in Spain, which the Sieurs Sam­sons, Geographers in Ordinary to the King, have shewn me, and which they find good, this Ri­ver loses it self and rises again. It is metapho­rically call'd Anas, because of its entrance and coming forth of the Earth as a Duck does in wa­ter. Its waters supply Bajados and other places.

Some Rivers in France lose themselves in like manner, and appear again; as the River Sumene at the foot of the Sevenes, the Rize near Masdazille in the Country of Foix, the Vouzeille in Po [...]ctou four leagues from Poictiers on the W [...]- [...] the Bandiat near Angouleme, the Rile i [...] Normandy near Beaumont le Roy, the River Drome [...] Bayeux, the Venelle which passes at Sel [...]ngay in Burgundy, seven or eight leagues from Dijon on the North-side.

The Guadalguivir waters Corduba and Se­vil.

The Douro, Valladolid and Zamora.

The Seger descends from the Pyrrheneans into Catalonia, passes at Ʋrgel and Lerida.

Cesar and Lucan speak of the River Cinga, which is by the Pyrrheneans, and which has re­tain'd its name even to this day.

The Archbishopricks.

TOledo, Sevil, Sarragossa, Burgos, Grenada, Valencia, Compostella, and Taragonia.

Cardinal Porto Carero is Archbishop of Tole­do, and Primate of Spain: He succeeds Dom Pascal Cardinal of Aragon, Archbishop of Tole­do, who died at Madrid the 28th of September 1677. After having given all he had to the Poor, he gave his Nephew onely a Picture of Devo­tion. Cardinal de Porto Carero gave, An 1679. to Dom Francisco Canon of the Church of Tole­do, the Archdeaconship of Toledo, which is worth forty thousand Duckets of Rent.

Toledo has eight Suffragans, Sevil three, Sar­ragossa six, Burgos three, Grenada two, Valencia three, Compostella fifteen, Taragon seven.

Toledo has two hundred thousand Piasters yearly, Sevil eighty, Sarragossa fifty thousand, Burgos thirty thousand, Grenada thirty thou­sand, Valencia thirty thousand, Compostella twenty four thousand, Taragon sixteen thou­sand.

The Bishoprick of Ciguenca brings fifty thou­sand Piasters, and Cadiz twelve thousand.

The Archbishopricks and Bishopricks have a great Revenue in Spain. If the number of Arch­bishopricks be there small, it is very great in the Estates of Naples, which are possess'd by his Catholick Majesty; it is true that these here [Page 294]are very much limited in the extent of Coun­try, and in their Rents, as in the rest of Italy, exce [...]ting the Archbishoprick of Milan, Naples, and Messina. They count in the Kingdom of Naples twenty Archbishopricks, and a hundred twenty seven Bishopricks.

Pope Adrian the Fourth granted to the Kings of Spain, in the person of Charles the Fifth, of whom he had been Tutor, the Right of Nomi­nation to Bishopricks and other Consistorial Be­nefices; they have the Nomination but of some in the Kingdom of Naples. The same Pope A­drian, a Spaniard, gave the Conquest of the New World to the Kings of Spain, wherein o­ther Nations do not agree. Atabalipa, one of the Kings of Peru, call'd the Incas, being told that this Pope had given the King of Spain his Country, said with a laughter, Who is that man who gives that which belongs to another? This Incas being taken Prisoner by the Spaniards, of­fered for his liberty a Chamber full of Gold and pretious Stones; which could not save his life. Before he died, he appeal'd to the Justice of the God of Christians, Protector of the affli­cted and innocent. Pizarre has been blam'd every where for having caus'd him to be stran­gled; he fear'd that if he let him live, he would be taken by force from him.

Philip the Second boasted that he comprehen­ded the course of the Sun within his Dominions, by reason of America, because the Sun shines [Page 295]there always when it is set in Europe. A Gran­dee of Spain having said on a day to this Prince, that a year before the Emperour Charles the Fifth had left to him his Crowns, he replied, that it was a year since also that he repented of it. The said Philip died of the Lowsie Disease, after having lost the Kingdom of Tunis and Holland. Pope Clement the Seventh ended his life also by the same Disease, caus'd through a great corruption.

Philip the Fourth fell much from his vast Do­minion by the loss of Portugal, with all its de­pendancies in the East and West, and after the seizure of Jamaica by the English.

Spain was extreamly dispeopled by the Ex­pulsion of the Moors and Jews; it was farther emptied to stock the Indies: and these Domi­nions being disperst in many places, cannot ea­sily be reliev'd. Its Mountains are barren, and its Women not very fertile.

The Spaniards are grave in their walk and discourse. This makes me think of a pleasant passage related by a modern Author; he says, that a Buffoon with his ridiculous Gestures and Expressions having on a day made the Queen laugh extreamly at Table, it was said to her, that a Queen of Spain ought to be serious. This Princess who was in her Orient, newly come from Germany, answer'd, that they should then take away that Fellow from before her eyes, if they would not have her laugh.

The Spanish Nation has the repute of ma­king Rodomontadoes; the following is not mean, made by an Officer, a Prisoner of War in France: Loüis the Thirteenth having askt him wherefore the King of Spain went not to the Wars as the Kings of France, he answered with an Exclamation, Ho, it is not necessary; if the King my Master went to the Army, he would make the whole Earth to tremble.

The Spaniards are fit for holding a long Siege, because being sober, they endure hunger and thirst a long time. They fear much the English; wherefore they have said, La Guerra con toto il Mundo y la pace con las Inglesos: War against the whole World, and Peace with the English, because they are better Souldiers than them on the Sea. All men are not fit for the Sea.

There grows not much Corn in Spain, because the Lands are ill cultivated; France and Sicily are its its Granaries, and of the Low Countries. Its Mines of Andalusia, Estramadura, Grenada, Murcia, and of some other places, are very fa­mous.

They embark at Malaga the Wine of Grenada which is brought to Paris, at Alicant that of Murcia, and at Cadiz that of Andalusia. The white-Wine is there better than the Claret. Arragon and Castille produce not much Wine; that of Portugal is almost of a Crimson co­lour.

Their Oyls of Olives, their Woolls, their Silks, their Horses, and their Mines, are very considerable.

The Castilian Language is the finest of all Spain. Charles the Fifth said, that if he were to speak to God, he would speak in the Spanish Tongue, by reason of its Gravity; to Men, in French; to Ladies, in Italian; to Horses, in the German. Some Castilians have dar'd to say, either through a ga [...] of Spirit, or as a Ro­domontado, that God spake Castilian to Moyses on Mount Sinai. They speak grossly in Gali­cia.

Agrippa describing the Humour of four chief Nations of Christendom, says among other things, that in their singing,

The Spaniards Groan,
The Italians Bleat,
The Germans howl,
The French Quaver.

The 27th of Decem. 1676. the King of Spain writ a Letter to Don Juan, by which his Catho­lick Majesty signified to him, that he judg'd it convenient to have him near him to assist him with his Counsel: It is coucht in these terms, according to an Extract taken from the London-Gazette of the fifth of Feb. 1677.

The Copy of the Letter of the King of Spain writ to Don John of Austria.

DOn Juan of Austria, my Brother, of the Council of State, Gover­nour and Captain-General of the Spanish Low Countries, and Commander General of all our Sea-Forces; the Affairs of this Monarchy being at present in such a con­dition that I find my self oblig'd to seek all sorts of ways for setling them as they ought to be; and having considered that you are therein so very much interessed, and that I must impart to you the greatest part of my Resolutions, I propos'd to my self to require you to repair hither without any delay, to assist me in a juncture so impor­tant; it's what I promise my self from the zeal which I have always found in you for the good of the State. God keep you in his protection as I wish.

EGO REX. By the Command of our Lord the King, D. Hierom de Eguia.

The Copy of the Letter of the Queen-Mother to Don John.

THe King my Son has resolv'd, as you may understand by the Letter which he has written to you, that you re­pair hither as soon as may be to assist him in the administration of the Affairs of the Monarchy; and I may tell you, that there is nothing which can please me more than to see you embrace the direction with all the diligence which the juncture of af­fairs requires: In which I shall rely on your zeal and good intentions; assuring you, that for as much as shall be in my power, I shall always use my endeavours for procuring you all satisfaction.

The Answer of Don Juan to the Queens Letter.

NOt doubting but your Majesty sees the Answer which I have made to the Letter of the King my Brother, whom God preserve, it would be to no purpose for me to repeat it to you; assu­ring your Majesty that you never may have had, nor never will have any per­son who wishes and wishes again to your Majesty with a more sincere intention, that which I take God to witness to be most beneficial and advantageous for the service of your Majesty: At whose feet I cast my self, praying God to maintain your Majesty a long uninterrupted course of years in Posterity.

In the same year the Marquess de Villa Seria lost the Kings Favour.

His Catholick Majesty arriv'd at Sarragossa, accompanied with Prince Don Juan, the Duke Medina Coeli Great Chamberlain, the Constable of Castille Great Steward of the Kings House­hold, the Count de Talaras, the Duke de Montery, and with Count d Arcot.

The Queen was in her Government of To­ledo. Some time afterward the new Corrigi­dor of Madrid, or the chief Governour of the Polity for remedying the inconveniencies which ordinarily happen in the night, ordain'd the seventh of October, conformably to what has been practis'd of late years at Paris, and at Amsterdam, for the publick good, that for the future there should be expos'd throughout the whole Town of Madrid Lights in the Streets by the means of Lanterns, and ordered that from five to five houses there should be a Light, for which the five houses should contribute pro­portionally. This Sentence has been put in ex­ecution.

At the beginning of the year 1678. the Coun­cil gave sentence in the case of Don Ferdinand of Valenzuela Marquess of Villa Seria, who was condemn'd to a perpetual banishment, and sent to the Philippine Islands. Intelligence was gi­ven, An. 1680. that the King of Spain call'd him back from banishment from the Islands where Don Juan had caus'd him to be banisht.

The 17th of September, Don Juan of Austria, natural Son of the late King Philip the Fourth, [Page 302]died, being fifty years of age. His Body was carried to the Escurial. This Prince died at the same hour, the same day, and the same month as the late King his Father, 1666. He was a great Captain, fearless in War, a man of great Reservation, a great Minister of State, penetra­ting all things, and neglecting nothing.

The Kings Marriage.

CHarles the Second, King of Spain, being gi­ven to understand that the King of France had granted him the Princess Mary Loüise of Orleans for Spouse, made extraordinary Rejoy­cings at Madrid, all the Town appear'd in fire for many days; the People cryed with a loud voice, That France had always giv'n them good Queens. At their Arrival the Patriarch of the Judges gave their Catholick Majesties the second Benediction. The 13th of January 1680. the Queen of Spain made her publick and solemn Entrance at Madrid.


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