PHILIPPVS IV HISPANIARVMET INDIARVM REX CATHOLICVS

The Original and Growth OF The Spanish MONARCHY United with the HOUSE of AUSTRIA. Extracted from those Chronicles, Annals, Registers and Genealogies, that yeild any faithful Representation how the Houses of Castile, Aragon and Burgundy became knit and combin'd into one Body. To which are added several Discourses of those Accessions and Improvements in Italy, Africk, with the East and West-Indies, that are now annexed by Alliance or Con­quest to the Diadem of SPAIN.

By THOMAS PHILIPOT M. A. Formerly of Clare-Hall in Cambridge.

London, Printed by W. G. for R. Taylor, in St. Martins le Grand neer St. Leonards Church yard. 1664.

To the Learned and Judicious St RICHARD FANSHAVV Knight and Baronet, One of HIS MAJESTIES most Honourable PRIVY COUNCIL, and Design'd Lord Ambassador for Spain.

My Lord,

YOur Experience and practical Ob­servation being the best Comment on those Annals and Registers which have an Aspect on this ensuing Treatise; Give me leave to offer it up to be Scann'd and Winnowed by your particular scrutinie; and if it shall receive its Appro­bation in your Vogue and [Page] Estimate, I fear no Blot from the Common Suffrage. For I shall not Fear that Ju­stice, which is so even and Im­partial; nor despair to find an Absolution there where the former is mixt and compli­cated with so much Charity and Candor. And I dare with much Confidence expect to be Assoil'd by the Publique Decision, if once it shall ap­pear that Your Private De­termination hath discharged and acquitted

(My Lord)
Your very humble Servant THOMAS PHILIPOT.

The Preface to the Reader.

Courteous Reader,

SInce the Printing off the first Sheets of this Treatise, the signal Battel was Commen­ced between Don John of Austria, and the Conde de Villaflore General for the Portugal, where (after an eager and Blo [...] Debate) the Spanish Grandeur did so sink in the Fatal Carnage of that Field, that many Conjecture (how truely or falsly I know not) it will not buoy up again, (at least for some years) from that important Ruine. Nor hath a lesse Destructive Wound been lately inflicted on the House of Austria by the Turkish Scimeter, which hath lop­ped off New-hausel from the Dominion [Page] and Interest of the Emperour; which as it hath a dangerous prospect towards Novigrad, Cassovia, Tokay, and other Towns of the Upper Hungary, so it hath a dismal As­pect on Moravia, Austria, and the re­sidue of that Princes Hereditary Territories; and from the Prejudice its Losse may pro­bably super induce, does tacitly seem to implore other Christian Princes to Concen­ter in a Noble and just Confederacy, to stop the Impetuous Current of the Turkish Conquests, which like an Inundation threaten (if not timely intercepted) to intombe not onely the House of Austria, but Germany it self in a Ruinous Deva­station. And since I am engaged in this Discourse of the Turkish Greatnesse, you may be advertised that if this Essay find any acceptance in the Publique Estimate, I shall represent in a Compendious [...]lume, the Original and Growth of the Turkish Empire, and from what a narrow Incre­ment this Thracian Bramble hath shot out and improved it self to that Excrescencie, that it hath not only by an unhappy Diffusion, over-spread the Lesser Asia, but a considerable part of Europe it self.

[Page]I have no more to add but this, that those Errors which through the Inadvertency of the Presse, and peradventure too, through my own, have by an unhappy Intertexture been Imbodied with this Treatise, (as name­ly, Page 19. line 30. in my Discourse of Castile, for Despois Nos Vos, read Des­pues de Nos Vos. and then line 31. for No es Lover read No ay Lugar. And in my Discourse of Portugal, Page 26. line 25. for John the fourth, is inserted John the fifth) have made this Treatise and my Self the Object of your Charity. There may possibly occur other Mistakes of a lesser Di­mension, on which you may exercise at once, both your Justice and your Candour; with the first you may Censure, and with the last excuse

T. P.

Imprimatur,

ROGER L'ESTRANGE.

The ORIGINAL and GROVVTH OF THE SPANISH MONARCHY.

THE Spanish Monarchy is like a tall Colossus swoln by new Acquists to that Bulk and Dimension that it bestrides almost two parts of the habitable World, that is, Europe and America, and indeed its glory hath in these latter ages arrived to that Eminence and Lustre, both in its Latitude of Power, and extent of Empire, that it is by a successful com­petition grown almost corrival with the great Eye of the Day, the Sun, who both rises and sets in those Dominions which are subservient to the Interest of the Spanish Scepter. And though its Grandeur hath been lately Eclips'd, and the wide circumfe­rence of its Jurisdiction and Command hath been contracted into a narrower Orb, by the Revolt of Catalonia, because its ancient Rights [Page 2] were invaded by Conde Olivarez; and the to­tal Defection of Portugal, because its Native Franchises and Immunities were assaulted by Vasconcelos the Secretary, and other ill Ministers of State; yet is Catalonia by the valour and Magnanimity of John de Austria, and the pru­dent Conduct of the Marquisse of Mortara, almost retriv'd and again knit to the Spanish Pa­trimony; nor did the Duke of St. German and the Marquiss of Viana not long since manage and improve the increasing Hopes of the Spaniard to lesse advantage in Portugal; for since the Re­duction of Olivenza by the first, and the subdu­ing of Monzon and Salvaterra on the River of Minho by the last, that Crown and Scepter did then seem to shake, and was fear'd (if not by a timely supply supported) it might have fallen from the Head and Hand of their own Native Soveraign, to prostrate themselves at the Feet of the Spanish Monarch. But not long after, the Victory of Elvase did so expiate these crooked and sinister accidents, that the Diadem of Portu­gal that did before look somewhat dim, did by this Conquest and other successes of a more modern Aspect, seem to recover its primitive lustre.

Having in this short Preface limn'd out a Compendious prospect of the Spanish Empire, I shall now take a more full and serious view of all those Limbs which like so many Ingredients fall into the Composition of this great Body; [Page 3] and first I shall consider those Provinces which lie immediately wrap'd up within the Verge of Spain. Secondly, those which like so many Ex­crescencies have been annexed to this Scepter, by the collateral Designs either of Marriage or Con­quest. And thirdly, those Islands and other Do­minions and Principalities which lie scattered on the Continent either of the East or West-Indies, and which by any modern Discovery have been successfully subdued and made Captive and Mi­nisterial to the Power and Jurisdiction of the Spanish Diadem.

Spain was in Times of an elder Aspect styl'd Hesperia, from Hesperus the Evening▪star, under whose Beams and Influence it is believed to be situated; Secondly, it fell under the Appellation of Iberia, which Name was conceived to be borrowed from the River Iberus now called Ebro which disembogues it self into the Mediterra­nean Sea, not far distant from Tortosa in Ca­talonia. Thirdly, it had the Denomination of Hispania, either from Panus an Iberian Cap­tain, o [...] else from Panus a Punick word, which imports or signifies in that Dialect, a Cony; with which Creature this Continent in elder Times was much infested. It stretches out it self to a length of Eight hundred miles, and is again dilated into a breadth of Five hundred and six of the same proportion, so that the whole Circuit amounts to Two Thousand eight hundred and sixteen miles. It was anciently distinguish­ed [Page 4] into three parts or divisions, known by the Names of 1. [...]arraconensis, 2. Boetica, and 3. Lusitanica; w [...]ich afterwards by Constantine the Great, were broken and multiplied into seven Divisions or Provinces styl [...] 1 B [...]tica, 2 Lu­sitanica, 3 Gallicia, 4 [...]haginensis, 5 [...]ar­raconensis, 6 [...]ingit [...], 7 The Province of the Isles, embracing w [...]n its Verge and Cir­cuit, Ma [...]orc [...], Minorca, Ebusa and F [...]u­mentari [...].

Spain after many Contests and signal Decisi­ons in the Feild, wherein the [...]ate of this Nati­on was put to the bloody Umpirage of the Sword, first sto [...]ped and surrendred its Neck to the Ro­m [...]n servitude, but when the Vandalls like an [...]nundation swolne with successe and Victory, b [...]oke in upon Spain and bore down all before them, the Romans were supplanted and disseised, and being wholly dislodged from their ancient Acquists, this Kingdome was once mo [...]e resign'd up as a prey to the successful Sword of Gunde­rious King of the abovesaid Nation. But the same Vic [...]ssitude which had crushed the Romans, [...]led in upon the Vandals, who being in seve­ral Conflicts and encounters broken and dispers'd by the [...]lla [...]n and Suezians, gave up their new C [...]nquests to be enjoyed by the Victorious Hand of there early Invaders; but their triumphs were bl [...]sted, and those Laurels and Chaplets which they expected like a happy Guerdon should have Crown'd their Victories, suddenly withered, [Page 5] being torne from [...]eir Temples by the rough [...] of the Go [...]hs: For Athaulfus their Lead­e [...] Match▪d with Placidia Sister to Hono­ri [...] [...] [...]p [...]rour, e [...]poused his Quarrel, and b [...]tun [...]e [...]rup [...]on made on the Spanish Re [...]o [...]s, [...] co [...]ted [...]he power, and dissipated the [...]r [...]ngth [...]f these bold [...]ttuders, that they erec [...]d [...]h [...]t Throne, upon which they intended to fixe and [...] that [...]n [...]rchy they aspired to in this Nation, upon their Ruins. So that a­bout the year 420. the Temples of Vallia Suc­cessor to Athaulfus, were empal'd with the Dia­dem of Spain; yet was it not obtained without the regret and reluctancy of the Reliques of those Roman Forces who were scattered into the several Provinces of Spain, who being wholly broken and subdued about the Year 641. the Con­quest then appeared to be wholly p [...]rfected, and the Scepter confirmed in the Hand of S [...]intilla the second, to whose successful Managery of Affairs the Gothi [...]h Nation seemed first to owe the Glory and Gran [...]eur of a full Establishment in their Triumphs over this Kingdome. No [...] was their such an inherent tincture of Barbar­ [...]ime in the minds of the Goths (though I know they appeared black in elder Times for their Ra­ [...]ure of Histories and demolishing of Records and other Monuments of Antiquity) but the Culture of Discipline did melt and supple m [...] into a capacity which made them fit to [...] a nobler Complexion; for though the Laws [...] [Page 6] Spain peradventure borrowed an imperfect Insti­tution from the Romans, yet were they mingled with the Customes of the Goths, which were after digested into shape and Order by Euricus the first. But in procedure of Time these being found of too general a latitude to be calculated for the Climate of every Province, they about the Year 1296. were refined and new polished by Ferdinand the third, that being thus attired they might be made proportionate to the manners and temper of his Subjects, and fit for the Ge­nius of Castile. And thus they continued with­out any thing of moment or importance being added to them, untill the Year 1492. and then King Ferdinand (the Scourge of the Moors) and Isabella his Queen Ordained and decreed by a Statute enacted at Corduba, that all Gentle­men of those Signories and Lordships which were Subject to the Crowns of Castile and Aragon, were obliged to appear and exhibit a just proof and Testimony of their Pedigrees and Nobility; which Law, because it received its first Birth and Institution there, hath ever since obtained the Appellation of the Law or Statute of Corduba. But I have digressed, I now return, and shall dis­cover a compendious Series of the Gothish Kings of Spain, as I find their Names Recorded upon their ancient Coins, from whence their Cata­logue has been drawn, and exactly Registred by the Industrious Pen of Augustinus Bishop of Tarragona, in his learned Discourse of Anci­ent Coins.

  • [Page 7]369. Athanarick joyned with Fridigerne reigned 13 years.
  • 382. Alarick united with Radagaise governed 28 years.
  • 411. Athaulfus rul'd 6 years.
  • 416. Segeric, who being suddenly after his being invested with the Crown destroyed by a trai­terous Combination of his own Subjects, upon his Decease one Vualia ascended the Throne and managed the Scepter 3 years, as Vulsa and Isidore testifie, and not twelve years as Sige­bert asserts.
  • 419. The [...]deredus governed 33 years.
  • 452. Turismund held the Scepter but one year according as I [...]idore avers, and not three as Jor­nandes and Sigebert record.
  • 453. Theuderick and not Theodorick ruled 13. years.
  • 466. Euricus wore the Gothish Crown 17. years.
  • 483. Alaricus the Second ruled 23 years.
  • 506. Gesaleicus and in other records styled Gesa­licus and Gesalaricus reigned four years.
  • 511. Theudericus the Second was invested with the Diadem 15 years.
  • 526. Amalaricus swayed the Scepter 5 years.
  • 531. Theudis, and in History sometime written Theudes and Theudius, governed 17 years.
  • 548. Theudiseulus sate on the Throne one year and five months.
  • 549. Agila, and in other Monuments of Anti­quity styled Aquila, sate five years and three months.
  • [Page 8]554. Athanagildus governed 15 years.
  • 567. Liwa, and not Liuba or Luiba as some Historians falsly intimate, ruled one year.
  • 568. Leovigildus, so his name is exhibited on his Coines, and not Leovegildus or Liuvigildus as some Historians represent, reigned 18 years.
  • 586. Reccaredus weilded the Scepter.
  • 601. Liwa the second governed two years.
  • 603. Wittericus or Wittricus, not Victericus as some Records insinuate, sustained the Scepter six years.
  • 610. Gundemar not Gundimar reigned two years.
  • 612. Sisebutus managed the government 8 years and 6 months.
  • 621. Reccaredus the second ruled but some few days.
  • 621. Suintilla not Scintilla or Cintila swayed the Scepter Ten years.
  • 631. Sisenandus and not Sisnandus as Histories misrepresent his name, governed 3 years.
  • 636. Suintilla the second reigned 3 years.
  • 640. Tulca not Tulcas governed two years.
  • 642. Chindassuintus, not Cindasiundus or Ghindas­uintus, as his name is falsly registred in some Annalls, ruled 6. years and odd months.
  • 649. Reccesuinthus not Reccesiundus, for under that notion Antiquaries have registred him, sup­ported the Diadem 23 years.
  • 672. Wamba not Bamba as his name is placed in ordinary Registers, managed the Government eight years.
  • [Page 9]680. Erigius, erroneously sometimes written Eringius, continued placed on the Throne six years.
  • 687. Egica falsly styled Egipsa weilded the Scepter of the Goths 15 years.
  • 701. Witiza and not Vitiza, as his Name is en­rolled in some Chronicles, reigned in a joint Combination of Government with his Father five years, and five years he swayed the Scep­ter alone.
  • 711. Rudericus, so his Name is inscribed on his Coins, and not Rodericus, as it is registred in the Spanish Annalls, governed one year, and then having by an injurious and violent Rape pollu­ted and debauched the Honour of Cana Daugh­ter to Count Julian an eminent Nobleman of Spain, he to assoil his Name and Family from that Stain which this ignominious Affront had spread over it, invited the Moors of Africk, under the Conduct of Musa, to expiate the former violence, who indeed executed the Vengeance designed by him for Roderick so so­lemnly, that in a signal Battell commenced at Xeres de la Frontera in Andalusia, the For­tune of Spain was entomb'd in the Carnage of that Field, and Roderick abandoned both Crown and Kingdome to the prevailing Sword of the Moors; and Musa being supported and reinforced by new Supplies, by frequent suc­cesses, forced almost all Spain to bow to a universal Conquest, whilst the scattered Re­liques [Page 10] of the pale and amazed Goths immur'd themselves in the inaccessable Retreats of A­sturia or Leon, from whence Garcia Ximenes a Nobleman, extracted from the Royal Gothish Blood, about the year 713. or as others assert about the year 716. descended with 600 men, and after divers successeful encounters with the Moors, gave a Beginning to the little Kingdom of Suprarba locked up within the Pyrenean Hills, which sometimes after dilated it self, and spread into the Valleys, which from hence as­sum'd the Name of Navarra, or Navierras, which in Spanish imports as much as plain grounds: And of this Kingdome I shall now render an Account.

NAVARRE.

NAVARRE is circumscribed on the East with the principality of Berne in the King­dome of France; on the West with the River Ebr [...] or Iberus; on the North with the Cantabri­an Mountains, and on the South with the River Aragon which seperates it from that Kingdome.

The ancient Inhabitants were the Vascones, in­vested not only in the possession of this Track, but of Biscay and Guipusc [...]a also. It was ravished away [Page 11] from these by the Romans, who were expulsed by the Goths, and they again were disseised of the te­nure of this Province by the invading Moors, who finally were dislodged from their new Acquists by the Magnanimity of Garcia Ximenes above-men­tioned; whose Successor Ximenes Garcia dying without Issue, after an Interregnum of four years, Inigo Arista Son of Simon Earl of Bigorre, was advanced by Election to the Royal Dignity of Navarre as the next Heir in the Collateral Line to Ximenes Garcia abovesaid; and he was Ance­stor to Sancho the fourth, who in respect that he was possest by Descent of Navarre and Aragon, of Castile in Right of his Wife Donna Nugna or Elvira Sister and Heir of Sancho the last Earl thereof, and of Leon by Conquest, incorporated into his stile the Title of Great; and he upon his Decease bequeathed the Kingdom of Navarre to his eldest Son Garcia, whose Son Sancho the fifth was unnaturally assassinated by his younger Brother Raymir; after whose Tragical Exit, and the brief interposition of this bloody Intruder who had bespattered the Throne of Navarre with such a purple Effusion, this Diadem was pluck'd from his Temples by Sancho Ramires, to invest his own; after whom, Pedro and Alfonso Kings of Aragon likewise did severally and Successively weild the Scepter, and manage the Government of Navarre: But this Alfonso dying without Issue, and his Brother Raymir a Monk uncloud­ing his Head of his Cowle to adorne it with the [Page 12] Crown of Aragon, the Soveraignty of Navarre was vested in Garcia Raymir Grandchild of Gar­cia de Nagera, and Son of Raymir the Usurper abovementioned; so that the Right of this De­scent so fortified his Title, that he ascended the Throne of Navarre as the direct Heir of that Kingdome, from whom the transmission of De­scent transported it to his Grandchild Sancho the eighth, in whom the Male Line of Garcia Ximi­nes was wound up in a Conclusion; for he going out without Issue, Theobald Earl of Champaigne Son of Blanch his Sister and Heir, was entitled in Right of this Descent to the Diadem of Navarre; and from the Thread of Succession wafted this Dignity to his Grandchild Henry, who determining in Joan his sole Daughter and Heir, she by Matching with Philip the Fair King of France, by this new Alliance inoculated the the Scepter of Navarre on that of France, and in the Hands of his Posterity it flourished during the Government of Lewis Hutin, Philip the Long and Charles the Fair, Kings of France and of Navarre his Lineal Successors; but Charles the last of these, expiring without Issue, Jane Daugh­ter of Lewis Hutin, as Heir General of this Charles, was invested in the Possession of this Kingdome; and in her Right, Philip Earl of Eu­reux her Husband step'd into the Throne of Na­varre; and from these two did the Diadem of this Province devolve by Successive transmission to his Grandchild Charles the third King of Na­varre, [Page 13] in whom the Male Line determining, the Distaff prevailed against the Spear, for Blanch his Daughter annexed this Kingdome to the Pa­trimony of her Husband John King of Aragon, who likewise found his Name wrap'd up, as to this particular Match, in two Daughters and Co­heirs; one of whom styled Leonora, by espousing Gaston de Foix, gave up the Roialty, Possession and Crown of this Kingdome to empale the Brow of this Earl her Husband; and from these two the Soveraignty was conducted down by succes­sive Delegation to their Grandchild Francis Phoe­bus, who deceasing without Issue, the Crown and Dignity of Navarre came to embellish the Head of Catharine his Sister and Heir, and she being espoused to John d'Albret of Gascony, descended from Amani d'Albret; which Ama­ni (in the Government of Charles the fifth King of France, was wedded to Margaret of Bour­bon, Sister to Jane Queen of France, and by that Alliance very much improved the splendor of his House) linked the Kingdome of Navarre to his Patrimony; and from these two descended Henry their Son and Heir, who was King of Navarre, and Match'd with Margaret Sister of Francis the first, King of France, by whom he had Issue Jane the sole Inheritrix of Navarre, who by e­spousing Anthony of Bourbon, entitled him to the Crown and Scepter of Navarre; and she was Mother of Henry the fourth, Grandmother of Lewis the thirteenth, & Great-grandmother of the [Page 14] instant Lewis the fourteenth, successively Kings of France, who by Authority of this Alliance, have ever since inserted and interwoven the Title of King of Navarre amongst their Style and Inscriptions. But alas! this is only a barren, na­ked and empty Title, for the actual Possession of the Crown, which should give support and vital Energie to it, was long since torne away by Fer­dinand the Catholick King of Aragon and Ca­stile; the occasion which ministered materials to that Foundation on which that Detention was e­stablished, was this: About the Year 1510. Lewis the twelfth having by a signal Victory over the Venetian at Aignadel humbled that People, much retrenched their Power, and infus'd a Ter­rour into all the Princes of Italy, fell into conten­tion with Pope Julius the second, and their mutual Animosities were enhans'd with that Acrimonie and Spleen, that the Quarrel was prosecuted almost to a Scihsme; for Julius blasted all the Partisans of Lewis with an Excomunication, and put their E­states under Interdict, in the Register of whom was John d'Albret King of Navarre, who was disseised of his Crown and Scepter by Ferdinand above mentioned; for this Ferdinand varnishing his Designe of ravishing this Kingdom away from the House of D'Albret, with a pretence and shew of passing into Guinne, to combine and unite his Forces with the Confederate Invading English, by Vertue and Authority of the Papal Interdict to seise and subdue the Crown of France, suddenly [Page 15] retriv'd his Army, and like a Tempest, drop'd on the Kingdome of Navarre; and by Conquest about the Year 1512. supplanted [...]nd expell'd John d'Albret above mentioned; upon this pre­tence, that he was entwined and linked in Con­federacy with Lewis the twelfth, who was a Re­bell against the Church, and an avowed Enemy to the English, with whom he was wrap'd up in mutual Alliance; and more to fortifie this pre­tence, he asserted, that there was an ancient Com­pact or stipulation between the Kings of Spain, by which they did Covenant and Indent with each other, not to suffer or permit that any of the Spanish Crowns should fall into Forreign Hands, or under the Power and Seignory of Houses not Soveraign, as those of Foix and Albret were, and who likewise by a kind of Servile Coherence and Connexion had their Dependance on the Crown of France: And though in Ages subsequent to this, the French have protested against this Inva­sion and Forcibl [...] [...]ntry, and have likewise en­devoured to vindicate their Interest by the more powerful Argument of the Sword; yet hath it ever since been so firmly linked to the Spanish Patrimony, that it still obeys the Scepter, and confesses the Dominion of Philip the Fourth, King of Spain.

CASTILE.

CASTILE is bounded on the East with Navarre, Aragon, and part of Valentia; on the West with Portugal; on the North with Biscay and Guipuscoa and Asturia; on the South with Estremadura, Andalusia and Gra­nada. It is divided into the Old and New Castile; the first of which assumed that Appel­lation, because it was the ancient Patrimony of the first Earls thereof: The other hath borrow'd the Distinction of the New, because it was in­corporated into the Old Demeasne when the suc­cessful Conquests of the Castilians had rent it from the Moors. The ancient Inhabitants of these two Provinces were, the Vaccai, Ventones, Arevacae, Oretani, Dittani and the Carpentani, whose Chief City was named Castulo, now shrunk into an obscure Village, hav [...]g its ancient Glory entomb'd in neglected Rubbish, from whence some Conjectures have asserted, that the Name of Castile was imposed on this Province. But all these Inhabitants having been much harrassed by the frequent Incursions of the Romans, not able to stand the shock of so powerful an Op­position, fell under their Conquests, and became a part of the Roman Empire; from which again they were rent off by the Alani, who again were disseised of their violently extorted purchase by [Page 17] the Intrusion of the Goths, who being over­whelm'd by the Moors, who like an [...]nnunda­tion not cloistered up within the shore and chan­nel of any Restraint, bore down all before them, for some distance of Time gave way to the Tor­rent; but not long after, their spirits, which be­fore seemed to have been sunk, buoy'd up again, and by the Assistance of the Kings of Leon, so resolutely vindicated their own Interest, that they disengaged themselves wholly of that yoke of Moorish servitude, that with an uneasie Load had so crushed their shoulders; and the better for the [...]uture to secure themselves from the Eruptions of the Moors, resign'd themselves up to the dominion and protection of the Kings of Leon, who managed this Province at first by Provincial Earls; but they having made ill use of that power they had entrust­ed them with, by making too frequent Inroads upon the peoples Liberties, were by the instigation and influence of one Ordogno, who much fomented this Defection, barbarously assassinated by the im­petuous Multitude; having thus thrown off all O­bedience to the Scepter of Leon, they were after­wards Governed by Judges; and secondly, by Earls, as an absolute and Independent Estate, chained by no subserviency to any Forreign Diadem; but still this did not so supersede the Claim of the Kings of Leon, but that they of­ten endevoured by the power of the Sword to as­sert their Title, until Sancho King of Leon being engaged in a Debt to Ferdinand Gonzales, [...]e to [Page 18] absolve himself From this Obligation, quitted and released▪ all pretence and Claim to the Earldom of Castile, so that Ferdinand Gonzales from this signal Investiture is look'd upon in the Spanish Annalls as the first Proprietary Earl of Castile; and from him it came down to his Great Grand­child Garcias the second, who being treasonably assassinated, and concluding without Issue, Sancho the Great, King of Navarre, in Right of his Wife Elvira Sister and sole Heir to this Garcias, entred upon it and linked it to his Revenue; and upon his Decease setled by particular Do­nation on his Son Ferdinand; and more to en­haunse the glory of this Grant, annexed the Title of King to this Concession; and from him did the Crowns of Castile and Leon by the Devolu­tion of many Descents come to empale the Temples of Sancho the third, second Son of Al­fonso the fifth, King of Castile and Leon; who by the Revolution of humane Affairs, having the Fate to survive his elder Brother Ferdinand de la Cer­d [...], contriv'd so many Stratagems in his Fathers Life Time, which Artifices of his were so close­ly combined and knit together in the Contrivance and Contexture of them, that by Aide of these, and the concurrent support of a prevalent Facti­on beside, he extorted the Scepter of Castile and Leon from the Heits of his Elder Brother, though many Attempts were made to retrive the Diadem thus placed on the Head of Sancho, which being by the prudence of Sancho broken and dis­appointed, [Page 19] Alfonso Son of Ferdinand, retreated for shelter into France, where he Match'd, and had Issue Lewis Earl of Clermont, which Lewis, by Leonora de Guzman, extracted from the House of Medina Sidonia, had Issue Lewis and John, both which were extinguished without Issue, and Isabella de la Cerda, who by matching with Ber­nard, a Natural Son of the House of Foix; and so all the Right of that Family which was concen­tered in her, was now lodged on him; which Bernard, King Henry the second, (the more by some solemn Obligations to endear and fasten to himself) adorned with the Title of Earl of Me­din [...] C [...]li; and his Son Gasto [...], the better to enforce and propagate the memory of the Noblenesse of his Antiquity and Extraction, discarded the Name of Foix, to embrace that of De la Cerda; which hath ever since been transmitted with the Title bestow­ed on Lewis, Grandchild to this Gaston, and to his Posterity, though there hath not wanted a succes­sive regret and murmur in this Family, to be thus excluded from the Spanish Diadem. It is customary for this House, at the Coronation of the Kings of Spain, to put up a Petition to the Prince, wherein they exhibit their Claim to the Spanish Scepter, that at the least, upon the De­failance of this Family now Reigning, the stream of Soveraignty might flow back into this House; to which demand the King subscribes this Answer, Despois Nos Vo [...], After Us, You: And some­times, No est lover, There is no place for him. [Page 20] Thus have I in a compendious Prospect repre­sented the Fate which attended on the Stock and Lineage of Ferdinand de la Cerda: I shall now trace out what Vicissitudes waited on Sancho the third, from whom the Scepter of Castile and Leon (by the unbroken Thread of Succession) came to be swayed by the Hand of his Grandchild Pedro the Cruel; who was expulsed out of the possession of his kingdoms by the procurement and influence of his natural Brother Henry Earl of Transtamare, because of that havock and ravage his savage Exe­cutions had acted both on the Nobility and Popu­lacy; who after the discarding and Renunciation of him, was by the Favour of the People advanced to the Crown of Castile and Leon; but his Son John the first, finding that his Title was established but upon a crazie Foundation, unlesse there were some more powerful Buttresses to sustain, more to fortifie his claim, matcht his Son and Heir Prince Henry to Catharine Daughter to John of Gaunt by Constance one of the Daughters of Pedro the Cruel, and so twisted the two differing Titles into one; and from him did the Diadem devolve to his Great Grandchild Henry the fourth, who going out without Issue Male, Isabell his Sister and sole Inheritrix, being Wedded to Ferdinand Son to John King of Aragon, incorporated it with the Patrimony of his Crown and Scepter; but both these Princes dying without Issue Male, Jo [...]n their onely surviving Princesse of Castile, Leon, Granad [...], &c. and of Aragon, Navarre, [Page 21] Sicily, Naples, &c. by espousing Phillip Arch-Duke of Austria, and Lord of Belgium, fastned these vast Territories into one Body; the Ciment which knits them together hath been in subse­quent Ages so closely united by the combination of many reciprocal Leagues and Marriages, that they are still the Demeasne of the Austrian Family; and particularly, the Scepter of this Kingdome is lodg'd in the Hands of Phillip the fourth, now Monarch of Spain.

PORTUGALL.

PORTUGALL is bounded on the North with the Rivers Minio and Avia, which seperate it from Gallicia; on the South, with Algarue; on the West, with the Atlan­tick Ocean; on the East, with the two Castiles, and Estremadura.

The ancient Inhabitants were the Lusitani; and from them the Name of Lusitania was im­posed upon it; but though these were the prin­cipal, yet the Celtici and Turditani, who dwelt on the South-side of Tagus, and the Gallaici Brac­carii [Page 22] (so styled from the Gallaici Lucenses, who were Proprietaries of Gallicia) and who inha­bited on the North of Duero, were entitled to a considerable part of the possession of it.

It was at first by the successful Sword of the Romans made Subject to their Empire, but when their Power began to sink under the Impressions of those barbarous Nations who had so fatally assaulted them, this was extorted from their Ju­risdiction by the Alani; but continued not long twisted into their Acquists, for the Suevians breaking in upon them, supplanted the Contex­ture of their newly obtained Conquests, and forc'd them to dislodge, and tamely to surrender their In­terest here to them; but a usurped Right can have no solid Foundation to establish itself upon, for not long after, these new Invaders were cast out from their new encroachments by the prosperous Attempts of the Goths; but they again sunk in ths Ruins of Spain, (particular Lamentations are not distinguishable in universal Groans) when the Moorish Invaders by a publique Conquest made the Liberty of Spain stoop to their Com­mands and Successe, and after it had for some Ages groaned under those Fetters they imposed upon it, it was rescued from its servitude by the noble Conduct of Henny of Lorrain, to whom (as a just Recompense of his Vertue and exem­plary Services) Alsonso the sixth, King of Leon, espoused his base Daughter Teresa, and with her, to improve her Fortune, transmitted that part of [Page 23] Portugall which he and his Ancestors had by some auspicious Conquests rent from the Moors; and and to make his Bounty more conspicuous, he Invested him with the Title of Earl; from whom it came by Descent to his Son Alfonso, who by the Soveraigns of Leon, was as Guerdon to poize both his Valour and his Virtue, and that testimony of an excellent Courage he exhibited at the Battle of Obriqu [...], Anno 1139. he Go­verned as Earl and King seventy two years, and managed his Scepter with that Art and Prudence, that at his Decease he made his Exit with the Fear and Reverence of his Enemies, and the Adoration of his Friends. And from him did the Diadem of this Kingdom descend to Alfonso the Wise, who by a successful Conquest inlarged the Dominions of Portugall, and wrung the King­dome of Algarue from the Moors of Morocco, who had before supplanted the Moors of Sevill, and so broke the Power of Aben Mefad, one of the most Puissant Princes of this Track, that most of the Towns and petty Governours be­came by a subordinate Vassalage subject to the Scepter of Portugall; and having thus entwined the Right of these two Provinces, he transmitted them to his Grandchild Pedro, who left Issue Fer­dinand the first, in whom the Male Line of Hen. of Lorrain determined, so that the Right both of Portugall and Algarue was concentered in Beatrix his Daughter; who was disseised of her Title to the Crown by her Uncle John, Natural [Page 24] Son to Pedro above mentioned; who having thus dislodged her from the Throne, by ill Arts and dark Stratagems, disdaining to be tir'd down by any bordering Title by an unlawfull Disherision, di [...]carded and cast out the remaining Lawful Issue of his Father Pedro; and having thus by these crooked Designs grasped the Scepter, and empa [...]'d his Temples with the Diadem of Portugall and Algarue, he to fortifie and support his unjust pretensions, Match'd with Phillippa Daughter to John of Gaunt Duke of Lancaster, with whom so many noble English Families enter'd Portugall, that most of the Eminent Houses of this Nation spin out their Extraction from them at this Day. And this John the first, had by this Alliance Al­fonso the fifth, and John the second, successively Kings; who both Deceasing without any Issue sur­viving, Emanuel Son to Ferdinand Duke of Vis [...]o, third Brother to these two Monarchs, ascended the Throne of Portugall; and from him it de­scended to his Grandchild John the fourth; who upon his Decease left it to be enjoyed by his Son and Heir Don Sebastian, who being unhappily slain in the Fatal Battail of Alcasar, which stained the Feilds of Africk wi [...]h so much Blood, Henry third Brother to King John above mentioned, and Uncl [...] to this Sebastian, put off his Cardinals Hat to adorne his Head with the Diadem of Portugall; but he being Aged and Impotent, his Hand was too we [...]k to Manage or sustain a Burden of that importance (as the Royal Scepter) long, so that [Page 25] being assaulted with Cares, and over-laid with Years, after some short Time of his assuming the Crown, shrunk into Ashes, and paid that Debt we all owe; upon his Decease, several pretended a Title to this Diadem; Lewis second Brother to King John above mentioned, died without any Lawful Issue, but left Antonio, Christopher and others begot in unlawful imbraces; Antonio fixt his Claim upon a pretended Act of Legitimation from the Estates of Portugall, but there were Titles which appeared more specious and plausible which stav'd his off; for Edward the fourth Brother to King John, though he concluded without Issue Male, yet he left two Daughters and Co-heirs, Mary wedded to Alexander Duke of Parma, and Catharine Matched to John Duke of Braganza; and the two Aunts of the Deceased Sebastian, namely, Mary was espoused to Charles the fifth, and Beatrix was married to Charles Duke of Savoy; from both which Alli­ances there proceeded Issue, so that now the Con­troversie was, whether after the Decease of Car­dinal Henry, a Brothers Daughter, or a Sisters Son had the more fixed and established Pretence to the Crown and Scepter of Portugall; and when this Question was begun to be winnowed by the Civill Lawyers, the Duke of Alva to en­dear himself to his Prince, who was Phillip the second, King of Spain, and Son to Charles the fifth and Mary above mentioned; and to assoile himself from that Stain his stupendous Massacres [Page 26] in the Netherlands had contracted, perswaded his Master to cast his Claim upon no other De­bate, but the Umpirage of the Sword; and this counsell had so great an Operation upon him, that he employed this Duke, and a puissant Ar­my under his Conduct to assert his Title to the Diadem of Portugall; the Effects of which In­vasion were so visible, that after some Trivial Opposition made by the Portuguees, who were broken and split into Division and Faction, the whole Kingdome stoop'd and resigned it self up (with a Restriction to havs its original Franchises preserved and supported) to the Dominion and Scepter of Phillip the Second; and under the com­mand of his Successors it continued untill the year 1640. and then by the Arts and dark En­gines of Cardinal Rich [...]lieu, the Negligence and Supine inadvertency of Conde d'Olivarez, and the ill managery of Affairs in Portugall it self by the King of Spain's Ministers, that Kingdome was torn off by a total Defection from the Crown of Spain, and the Scepter placed in the Hand of John Duke of Braganza, who was with the publique Applause of the people acknowledged for King, by the Name of John the Fifth; and upon his late Decease this Kingdome is come to confesse Alfonso his Son just Heir to his Domi­nion and Scepter.

Leon and Oviedo.

THe Kingdome of Leon and Oviedo is bounded on the East with Biscay, on the North with the Main Cantabrian Ocean, on the South with Castile, on the North with Galicia. The ancient Inhabitants were the Astures, from whence the name of Asturia was imposed upon it; and were divided into the two general names of the Au­gustani and Transmo [...]tani, in which the particular Tribes of the Pesici, Gigari, Zoelae and Lanci­ [...]s [...]s were involved and circumscribed.

It is divided into two parts, Asturia de Oviedo confining on Galicia towards the West, and Astu­ria Santillana approaching Biscay towards the East. From which Divisions thus approportioned, the eldest Son of the Monarch of Spain is sty­led Prince of the Asturias, which Denomination some probably conjecture was derived from this Foundation, that this Countrey was the first that like a Dam stopt the Current of the Moorish Fu­ry, which before like an impetuous Inundation carried down all before it, though other Spanish Writers of Authentick credit, refer the rise and original of this Appellation to that time which was cotemporary to the Match of Catharine Daughter to John of G [...]nt, and in Right of her [Page 28] Mother Constance the indisputable Heir of Castile, unto Henry Son of John the first, then planted in the possession of the Kingdome of Castile, it be­ing then assented to more to improve the Ho­nour of this married pair, that as the Heir appa­rent of England is styled the Prince of Wales, so the eldest Son of Castile should be named Prince of the Asturias.

It was first conquered by the Romans, and by Augustus Caesar made parcel of the Province Tarraco [...]ensis, and part afterwards of the Pro­vince of Gallicia by the Emperor Constantine; torn it was from the Roman dominion by the con­quest of the Goths; and from them again it was extorted by the invading Moors, though they were not long after supplanted. For as the Lust of Roderick, excited the injured Count Julian to call in the Moors, so the intempered and disorde­red Lust of Magnutza a Moorish Viceroy, enga­ged him to ravish the Sister of Prince Pelagius, whilest he had embarqu'd the said Prince in an Embassy to Musa the Moorish Generall, who being a person of noble pretensions and daring Hopes, at his return to expiate this Dishonour and Infamy with which his Family was bespattered, to assoil this Stain, he gave up the life of this Viceroy as an Oblation offered up to the Justice of his Sword, and the Price of so great an Inso­lence and Lust; Despairing of pardon for this Act, he flew to defensive Arms, as his noblest Sanctu­ary, and fortified himself in the most inaccessable [Page 29] Retreats of this Country, to which many of the old inhabitants resorted, and having prospered un­der his Command, elected him for King, by the Name of King of the Asturias, though after he had reduced the City of Leon, he assumed the Title of King o [...] Leon, and left it to his Son Fasila; who dying without Issue it devolved to Alfonso, for his piety sirnamed the Catholick, who had wedded Ormisind his Sister; and he had Issue Froilla the Repairer of Oviedo, Aur [...]lius and Odesin matched to Sillo, who after the De­cease of the two others was King of Leon, af­ter whose Exit the Crown of Leon was unjustly usurped by Mauregate natural Son to Alfonso; in which violent detention he was supported by Aderamen King of the Moors, who was obliged to this supply by an infamous stipulation transacted and made between him and the said Mauregate; by which this Usurper was engaged to pay him, as an annual Cense or Tribute, fifty Virgins col­lected out of the Families of the most eminent and noblest Estimate in this Region; but after his Decease the Crown of Leon returns to invest the Temples of Veramund, Son to Froilla above­mentioned; and from him the Clew of Descent guided it down to his great Grandchild Alfonso the Third, who not only with Contempt and Scorn disdained to pay the ignominious Tribute of Virgins abovesaid, but in so many signal contests and encounters retrenched the power of the Moors, that he justly merited the Title of Al­fonso [Page 30] the Great; and he left Issue Garcia, who deceasing without Children, the Crown and Scepter of Leon devolved to his s [...]cond Brother Ordogno who was King of Gallicia; and from him the Inheritance by many Generations flowed down to his Successor Veramund the Third, who engaging in an unsuccesseful War with Ferdinand King of Castile, was by him in a prosperous Conflict discomfited and slain; upon whose Tragedy the Scepter of Leon was seised on by this Ferdinand, as having match'd with Sanctia Sister and Heir to Veramund; and he left the Crown of Leon to Alfonso his youngest Son, and that of Castile to Sanctius his eldest; which Sanctius dy­ing without Issue both Scepters devolved to be grasped by Alfonso, from whom the Efflux of Descent cast them into the possession of his Daugh­ter [...]rraca Queen of Leon and Castile, and she had two husbands Raymond of Burgundy, and Alfonso the Seventh King of Arrag [...]n and Na­varre; by the Raymond she had issue Alfonso the Eighth, who succeeded in the Realms of Leon and Castile; and he had issue Sancho the Second, on whom he setled the Kingdome of Castile, and Ferdinand the Second, on whom he enstated the Realm of Leon; and from him it went along to Alfonso the Ninth of Leon, who (more to twist the complicated Interest of these two Diadems) espoused with Berengaria Sister of Henry King of Castile, from which Alliance descended Ferdi­nand the Third King of Leon, who by the Arts [Page 31] and Designs of his Mother Berengaria, was ad­vanced to the Soveraignty of Castile, to the pre­judice of Blanch her eldest Sister, matched to Lewis King of France. And thus the Crowns becoming once more united, they were never since dissever'd, though the Title by the violent Assaults of Sancho second son of Alfonso the fifth, was distorted and planted in his Family, to the in­jury and apparent disherison of the Children of Ferdinand de la Cerda. Of which discomposure I shall discover more when I come to treat of Castile.

Biscay and Guipuscoa.

BIscay is bounded on the West with Leon, on the East with the Pyrenean Mountains and Guienne, on the North it confines on the Canta­brian Ocean, and on the South with Navarre and Old Castile.

The ancient Inhabitants of this Province were the Cantabri, subdivided again into the se­veral Tribes of the Mar [...]ogi, Caristi, Antri­gones, Varduli, and the Cantabri properly so called, a people as eminent for their Antiquity as they were for their Valour and Conduct, which they exemplified in many solemn Contests with [Page 32] those Adversaries of theirs that endevoured ei­ther to retrench or else absolutely to subvert their Liberties; nor lost they any thing by their inter­mixture with the Vascones, who came out of Na­varre and setled amongst them, but rather im­proved their courage by this union, so that not­withstanding the frequent Impressions and Onsets made upon them by the Romans, Carthaginians, Goths, and Moors, they remained as in their Liberties not vanquish'd so in their Language un­alter'd, the Reasons of which eminent Courage of theirs may be assigned to be these: First, their Habitations being amongst the craggy and inac­cessable Retreats of inexpugnable Mountains, those natural Bulwarks cast up at Gods own char­ges, might make them more confident and da­ring; and secondly, the purity of their native Air, might so fan and winnow their Spirits from those Dregs and compacted humours, which thick­er fumes and grosser exhalatious frequently amass together, might possibly render them more active and vigorous. This hath made them so impati­ent of servitude, and not easily yeilding a tame Compliance to any thing they resent with dislike and regret, so that this scale of privileges still fortifies their Liberties. First, Though they give obedience to their Prince with their Bodies, they deny him the service of their Purses; being ex­empt from all Tallages and Impositions, for when ever the King of Spain approaches their Borders, he is accosted in his progresse by the [Page 33] Noblesse of the Country, neer the Borders, and there they present him with some small pieces of Brasse, called Maravedies, treasur'd in a Lethern Bag appendant to the End of a Lance, which he is oblieged not to take; which refusal (as they con­ceive of his,) does enwrap a Tacit Symboll of a Confirmation of their Immunity from Taxes. Secondly, at all their publique Assemblies, the Women first taste of the Cup, which custome hath grown by tacit Consent into use, and hath been made hoary and reverend by a prescription of many years, ever since Ogne Countesse of Castile attempted to destroy the Life of her Son, by a Cup of Wine fatally mingled with poyson. Thirdly, they admit no Bishops; which aversnesse to that Order, peradventure had its Rise and Growth from some antecedent pressure imposed upon them by that Order, as our modern Sectaries from some personal Defects they beheld in the English Protestant Bishops, did arrive at that height of Animosity as to abrogate their Function; as if this were an equitable piece of Logick, because there is an Error in the Seed therefore consequently there must be one in the Soil, not considering that these Biscainers by the want of Bishops and Episcopal Visitations have fallen into that ignorance, rudenesse, and ex­cesse, which like a Cimmerian Mist dwells yet about them. Fourthly, they allow or give license to no Priest to officiate amongst them unlesse he bring his Concubine with him, to appease his de­sires; [Page 34] affirming it impossible to preserve their Wives chast and unmix'd from the imbraces of the Incumbent, if he hath not a woman with may allay the wilder flames of Concupiscence. But to proceed, though the ancient Inhabitants were so martial and vigorous, yet the frequent As­saults of the Romans so wasted their strength, that though they were not wholly subdued, yet they were forced to resign themselves with some Salvo or Provision which had a Reflection on their Li­berties, to the Command of Augustus. Under the Romans they continued untill that Empire shrunk into its own Ruins, and then not brought under Servitude by the Goths, but surrender'd to them with the Residue of Biscay. And this indeed may be added to their glory, that they were the last Province of Spain which offered themselves up to the successeful Fury of the Moors (excep­ting the Asturias never part of their Triumphs) and the first which disengaged their Necks of that yoke of Conquest the Moors had loaded them with, animated in that design by Soria, who so managed and improved their increasing Hopes, with Conquests and augmentation of Territory, that about the year 870. he undertook the Com­mand of Lord of Biscay, and from him did the Title and Estate by the steps of several descents passe down to his Successor Lopez Diaz the third, the first who assum'd to himself the Sirname of Haro, borrowed from a Town of that name of that Foundation; and from him did it descend to [Page 35] his Successor Nugno de Lara, vvho determined vvithout Issue; so that his tvvo Sisters and Co­heirs, Jean and Isabel vvere entitled to his In­heritance; but vvere defrauded of the Possession by the forcible Intrusion of Pedro King of Ca­stile; Ferdinand the younger Son of Ferdinand de la Cerda King of Castile, Matched vvith Jean Nugna the Edest of these tvvo Sisters; and from this Conjunction Issued Jean Manuell espoused to Henry the second, King of Castile likevvise; and he had Issue John vvho vvas invested also vvith the Diadem of that Kingdome, and he in Right of his Mother vvas planted in the Propri­ety of Biscay; and from him did it devolve to his Successor Henry the fourth, King of [...]tile, vvho dying vvithout Issue, it came to confess the Title of his Sister and Heir Isabella; vvho by Matching vvith Ferdinand King of Aragon, pla­ced the Propriety of it amongst those Flovvers vvhich adorned his Diadem, vvhere it hath been so permanent and fixed, that though several Revo­lutions have intervened in this Family, yet still it acknovvledges it self to be an Appendage to the Crovvn and Scepter of Philip the fourth, novv King of Spain.

GUIPUSCOA.

AS for the Fortunes of Guipuscoa, they had this Aspect as they stood in their posture towards the Rest of Spain. First, the Vascones, then the Cantabri, subdivided into the Mar­bogi, Caristi, and other petty Colonies above­mentioned, enjoyed the Possession of this Track, and for sometime were disseised of the Propriety of it by the Invading Romans; but having vindi­cat [...] their Interest from their Encroachments, they were at last forced to bow to the Dominion of the Goths; and from them was it torne by the Moors; and being again rescued from their Slavery by the Kings of Navarre, it was link'd to that Kingdome, and remained a Member of that Crown, untill it was wrung from Sancho the sixth King of Navarre, by Alfonso the first King of Castile, about the Year 1079. by whom it was entrusted to the Managery and Sway of Lopez Diez de Haro Lord of Biscay. But after the Decursion of some Time, it was again upon following Capitulations, surrendred to the Kings o [...] Navarre, to whose Scepter it continued fast­ned untill the Year 1200. when the People of Guipuscoa having by a just and equal Resentment tasted of both Governments, and rellishing that of [Page 37] Castile better than that of Aragon, they by a vo­luntary Resignation bowed their Heads to the Command of Alfonsus the fourth, King of Castile, who without the least Decision of the Sword received this Country into a full Subjection, and left it thus setled and confirmed to his Successor [...] the Kings of Spain, in whose Demeasne and Re­venue the Seignory of it is yet constantly trea­sur'd up.

GALLICIA.

GALLICIA or Gallaecia, is bounded on the East with Leon, on the South with Portugall, from which it is separated by the Ri­ver Minio, on the North with the Cantabrian Ocean, and on the West with the Atlantick. The Ancient Inhabitants were the Gallaeci, whence it assumed its Name, broken into the several Tribes of the B [...]dyi, Su [...]ri, Cilini, Capori, and Lemavi.

It was one of the last Provinces which resigned themselves up to the Power of the Romans; en­couraged to this Noble Defence and asserting of their Liberties by that Chaine of Cantabrian Mountains, with which this Country is almost [Page 38] interlaced; out of which Consideration it was selected as a Refuge or Sanctuary by those af­flicted Christians who groaned under the Con­quest of the Moors.

It was in Times of an Elder Inscription a Limb of Hispania Tarraconensis; after it swelled it self into the Estimate of a Province, and had the Name of Gallicia imposed upon it, being augmented with the Asturia's, and some part of Portugall, and the Old Castile. In the E­clipse of the Roman Power, the Suevi, a warlike Nation of Germany (accompanying the Vandals and Alani in their Eruptions) invaded Spain, and atchieved the Conquest of this Province. But not satisfied with their new Acquists, they assaulted the Silings, a Collateral Tribe of the Vandalls, then invested in the Possession of Boetica; whom they subdu'd, and by a successful Province extorted that Province from them, animated to this Conquest by the presence of Richila their second King. They not long after improved their Victories by the Addition of Lusitania; but their farther pro­gresse was intercepted by Theodorick the second, King of the Goths, by whom they were discomsi­ted and shut up within the Recesses of Gallicia; which they enjoyed untill their final Suppression and Subversion by L [...]u [...]igild King of the Goths, about the Year 858. and then this Province was linked to the Gothish Scepter. In Times subse­quent to this, it was incorporated into the King­dome of Leon, being Conqueted by retaile and [Page 39] in pieces from the Intruding Moors by the Kings of that Province. It was first erected into a Kingdome by Alfonso the third, sirnamed the Great, Anno 886. and given to Ordogno, his se­cond Son, who upon the Decease of his Elder Brother Garcia was entitled to the Crown of Leon likewise, and so Gallicia became once more united to Leon; but so as by particular Compact it was beheld as an independent distinct Realme of it self. But this Connexion was not very per­manent, for in the Year 955. the Gallicians re­senting with regret the ill Government of Ray­mir the third, elected Veramund for their King, who was Son of Ordogno the third, and had the most manifest Title to the Diadem; who being advanced to the Crown of Leon on the Death of Raymir, once more incorporated the two Realms under one Scepter; but it was torn off once more from Leon, by Ferdinand King of Castile and Leon, who gave it unto Garcia his youngest Son, Anno 1067. But it was again reduced under the Sway and Dominion of Leon, by Sancho eldest Son to Ferdinand above mentioned, by whom the Forces of Garcia were broken, and he him­self made Captive in the Year 1081. never since broken off from Leon and Castile; but when Leon was rent from Castile, being still involv'd with Leon in those Distinctions till that dis [...]nion of Leon and Castile was sodered together and Cimented in the Person of Ferdinand the second, in the Year 1230. And being thus entwined they [Page 40] are by Successive Descent brought down to con­fesse the Diadem of Philip the fourth, now King of [...]Spain.

CORDUBA.

CORDUBA, as it stood when it vvas by Conquest rent from the Moors by the Spa­niards, vvas thus environed. On the Fast it vvas contiguous to Murcia and the Mediter­ranean; on the West to Portugal and the Ocean; on the North to the Mountains of Sierra, Mo­rena, and Castile; and on the South with the Ocean, the Straits of Gibralter, and the Mid­land-Seas. It extracts this Denomination from Corduba the Principal City, and did anciently enwrap with its Limits Andalusia, Gades, Estremandura and Granada; of which last I shall speak more hereafter. The ancient Inhabitants of these Provinces were the Turduli, the Ba­stu'i, the Yurditani of Andalusia and Granada, the Celtici, and some part of the Lusitani; all which were reduced to the Roman Obedience, and contributed to the making up those Trium­phal wreaths which adorned the Temples of Sci­pio African, about the Commencement of the second Punick Warre. From the Romans the [Page 41] Seignory of these Provinces was ravished away by the Vandalls, who passing over into Africk, there to multiply their Conquests to a larger Ex­tent, transmitted it to them; but they were scarce planted in their new Patrimony, but they were disseised by Theodorick the Fourth, King of the Goths, who by these Victorious Atcheive­ments made all Boetica augment the Grandeur of his Diadem; under the Scepter of whose Suc­cessors it continued constant, untill the Fatal Eruptions of the Moors, who having by per­petual Conflicts and Inroads enslaved almost the whole Continent of Spain, were first subservient to the Commands of the great Caliphs, who spread their Rule over the Saracenical Empire, com­manding here from Ulidor Ulit, by whose Influ­ence and reiterated Supply they perfected their Triumphs over the Goths, Anno 714. to Ab­dalla, Anno 757. at what time Abderamen of the Line of Mahomet the Impostor, declining by flight the Fury of Abdalla, by whom the anci­ent Line of the Caliphs of the Race of Humeia (from which Stem this Abderamen was extract­ed) had been devested of the Empire, sought for shelter in Spain, and was with many Sym­tomes of Joy and other unusual carresses recei­ved by the Spanish Moors entirely devoted to his House, whose Government (upon his shaking off all dependance or subordination to the Caliphs or Mahumetan Emperours) he wholly assumed to himself. In his Line the Title flowed with an [Page 42] even and undisturbed Current untill it streamed down to Hizen the Second; after whose Decease the Scepter of Corduba seemed to be broken to pieces by the surprizal or encroachment of sub­sequent Usurpers and Pretenders, the last of which was Mahomet the Son of [...], after whose Exit the Body of the Carduban Monarchy (ha­ving evaporated its most vigorous and most active Spirits at those wounds the successeful Swords of the Kings of Castile and Leon had inflicted on it) languished into decay, and fell to peices; the Fragments of which dissolved Monarchy, were gathered up by several Royolets and erected into new Principalities; as namely, one started up at Sevill, another at Toledo, a third at Valentia, and a fourth at Corduba. After this great onset made on the Monarchy of Corduba, which so broke the Scepter and disordered the Diadem, made now contemptible and cheap by the tearing off so many Provinces from its Seignory and Jurisdi­ction, the Series of those Princes who were Suc­cessors to Mahomet above mentioned, is so ra­vel'd and discomposed, that there is no Track in the Registers of History made visible to us by which we may persue their Remembrance, only several petty and inconsiderable Tyrants by an unjust Usurpation endevoured to grasp the Scepter; but their Arrogance and insolent comportment so disgusted and disobliged the people, that to rescue themselves from that Load of Oppression which with so Calamitous a pressure sat heavy upon their [Page 43] Lives and Fortunes, they called in the Mira­momolins, or Kings of Morocco, who so nobly asserted the Peoples Liberties that all those Roy­telets were totally by them subdued. Under seven Princes of Morocco did the Government of these Spanish Moors continue unbroken, that is to say, from the Entrance of Joseph Telephin in the Year 1091. unto the going out of Ma­homet the Green, in the Year 1214. During which Interval of Time, which made up an Ac­count of an Hundred and twenty years, their Affairs and Designs were so well managed by the Conduct and Inspection of these active Chieftains, that they lost nothing but Estremadura, which was snatched from them by Alfonso the Second, King of Castile and Leon; and the City of Lis­bon torn from them by Alfonso the First, King of Portugall. But Mahomet the Green being discomfited at Serra Morena, by the Forces of the Christians, concentered and knit together in in a joynt Confederacie or Combination about the Year 1214. was so dispirited with this dis­astrous Successe, that he made an obscure Re­treat, abandoning all that Care which might have oblig'd him to a farther defence of this Monarchy; after whose Recesse this Kingdome was once more split and dissolved into divers Principalities and small Royalties almost equal to the number of great Towns, which after various Contests were incorporated into that Regall Patrimony which bowed under the several Scepters of the [Page 44] Kings of Castile, Aragon, and Portugall; but the Kingdome of Corduba, having too crazy and infirm a Foundation to support a Fabrick so rui­nous and tottering, sunk into its own Ruines, be­ing pluck'd asunder by the victorious Hand of Ferdinand the second King of Castile in the year 1236. who afterwards fastned to that Revenue which owned the Jurisdiction of that Crown and Scepter, where the Title hath remained ever since so fix'd and permanent, that by the Steps of se­veral Descents it hath been conducted down to confesse the Power and Authority of Philip the fourth now King of Spain.

GRANADA.

GRANADA is circumscribed on the West with Andalusia, on the East with Murcia and the Mediteranean, on the North with New Castile, on the South only with the Midland Sea.

This Kingdome was a Limb of the Kingdome of Corduba, being still wrapp'd up in the Fate of that, having still the same Inhabitants cultiva­ting its earth, and the same Conquests retrenching its Liberty, so that it was sacrific'd as an oblation to the Sword of the invading Moors and Sara­zens. [Page 45] But when the Castilians by many signal Encounters had so dissipated and rent asunder the great Kingdom of Corduba, that it appear'd to be split into Parcels, this was seised on by Maho­met ben Alhamar or Alcamir, who so vigorously asserted the Interest of the Moors, even in their declining Fortune, that he made this Province part of his own Endowment and Patrimony, and▪ vvas by those persons vvhom he had so gallantly shadovved vvith his protection, advanced to be the first King of Granada, though he vvas the last of Corduba; of all the Kings subsequent to him, the Spanish Records affords us so dim a Beam that we wander in the dark, when we en­devour to trace out a just and successive Series of them; for Civil Contentions and intestine Ani­mosities like a private Moth did so fret into the Title, that it was no longer stable than the power of the Sword did support it, nor indeed could it be but expected that the Foundation of a Monar­chy fixed on so great a Ruine, and whose Fabrick was cimented with so much blood, must be crazy, brittle, and unsafe, so that the [...]own devol­ving to Mahomet Boad delin (who did not ex­pect his Fathers death, but hastned it) with all these imperfections debauching its lustre, it is no wonder if it was snatch'd from his head by Fer­dinand and Isabella, who having by a noble and a Christian Conquest knit it to the Demeasn of Castile and Arragon, it is now by successive right brought down to confesse Philip the Fourth, now [Page 46] King of Spain for its Lord and Soveraign.

TOLEDO.

THe Kingdome of Toledo extracts its Appel­lation from Toledo the principal City, which in elder times did circumscribe the chiefest part of that Countrey, which now falls under the Name of New Castile. The ancient Inhabitants were the Carpentani, and Gyres [...]ni dislodged by the Romans; who again were dispossessed by the Alani, and they again finally disseised by the Goths, who after they had many Descents possest it, and made Toledo their capital Residence (which City was surrounded and fortified with a Wall by the Care and Expence of Bamba King of the Goths) were outed and devested by the discomfiture given by Musa Chieftain of the Moors, to Roderick the last Gothish King, whose incogitant [...]st gave him and Spain up a prey to the Sword of Barbarous Sarazens. But after­wards, when the great Kingdome of Corduba be­gan to be split asunder, by its own Disorder and Confusion, it was upon the entrance of Abdera­men, into Spain, ravished away from Galafr [...]y, who held it as Vassall under the Caliphs of Da­ [...]ascus, but with the Title of King; and this Abderamen left it to his eldest Son Zuleima, who [Page 47] was disseised not only of this Province, but of Cor­duba likewise, by his younger Brother Hizen; after which devestiture it remained constant to the Interest of Corduba, untill the Expiration of the Reign of Abderamen the second, King of Corduba; from whom it was torn away by Aben Lope; who again was supplanted by Mahomet Son of Abderamen, about the year 848. and here it continued fixed and constant until Ad­dalla, a Man of very great estimate amongst the Moors, taking advantage of the Feud started between Zuleima and Hizen the second in rela­tion to the Realm, seised on Toledo, and entitu­led himself to the Diadem of it; but he dying without Issue, as divers old Records intimate, the Crown of Toledo devolved by his Testament and Donation to Mahomet Almohadi (issued from the Royal Family of Humeia King of Cor­duba, to which Diadem though he had an indispu­table Title, yet he was illegally and forcibly dis­carded from the possession of it by the Violence of Zuleima and his more prevalent Faction) and from this Mahomet did the Scepter of Toledo come to adorn the hand of his Son Obeydalla, who had but newly ascended his Throne, when he fell in an unsuccesseful Encounter a Sacrifice to the Ambition and Fury of Hizen King of Corduba, about the year 990. After whose disastrous Tragedy the Diadem of Toledo empailed the Temples of his Kinsman Hairam; from whom the Devolution of successive Right carried it [Page 48] down to his great Grandchild to Hiaya, sirna­med Alcaduchir or Alcadarbile; who having by his Tyranny and Exactions disobliged his Sub­jects and exasperated their Spirits against him, opened a Gap so wide, that Alfonso the first, King of Castile and Leon▪ rushed in at that breach, and by an absolute Conquest annexed this Pro­vince to Castile, to the Dominion of whose suc­ceeding Princes, it hath ever since continued so constant, that it still obeys the Scepter of Phi­lip the fourth now King of Spain.

MURCIA.

MURCIA is bounded on the West with Granada, on the East with Valentia, on the North with Valentia and part of Granada, on the South with the Levant or Mediteranean Sea. This Province being an appendant Limb to Hispania Carthaginensis, was upon the E­ruption of the Alani ravished from the Romans, who were by Conquest first entituled to it; but the Alani had not been long resident in their new Atcheivements here, but they were expulsed by the more powerful Sword of Vallia or Wallia King of the Goths. After this it was so subser­vient to the Fate of Spain that it was made part of the Conquests of the Moors of Africk, [Page 49] when the rest of the Kingdome bowed it self to their yoke and Scepter: But their Empire in Spain being by their own Divisions and Animosi­ties so disorder'd and discompos'd, that it was distracted and broken into several parcells, this upon so general Shipwrack was seised upon by A­ben-Hut, extracted from the Kings of Saragossa, who raised it into a distinct Kingdome about the year 1228. and afterwards stretched out his power to that latitude, that he not only commanded over this Countrey, but reduced Granada and part of Andalusia under his Dominion. But long he had not been in the possession of his new Con­quests, when amidst the Caresses of a drunken Feast, he was traiterously assassinated by Aben Arramin a per [...]idious Servant of his own; upon whose Tragedy, one Aben Hudiel with a suc­cesseful hand seised on the Scepter; but long he had not grasped it, when one Alboaquis wrung it from him; but he being not able to assert his new atchieved Regality against the power of his Competitor, resigned the Kingdome into the hands of Ferdinand the second King of Castile, but with this Provisoe, that he should enjoy the Title of King of Murcia during his Life; upon whose Expiration it was annexed to the Diadem of Ferdinand abovementioned, and hath been so constantly linked ever since to the Scepter of Castile, that it now acknowledges no other Mo­narch but Philip the fourth now King of Spain.

VALENTIA.

VALENTIA is circumscribed on the East with the Mediterranean; on the West with Castile and Aragon; on the North with Ca­talonia. It was originally part of that Division of Spain called Tarraconensis; but afterwards that Province being subdivided by Constantine, it was made a Limb of Hispania Carthaginensis. The ancient Inhabitants were the Bastitani, the Edotani, the Contestani, and some part of the Celtiberi. In the waning of the Roman Empire, when the Imperial Diadem was torn to pieces, by its fatal Distemper within, as well as by the vi­olent and forcible Eruptions of the Barbarous Nations from without; this▪ Province stoop'd to receive that yoke which was imposed upon it by the victorious Alani; but this was not long after taken off by the Goths, who having subdued these new Intruders, cimented this Province by Con­quest with the Residue of Spain; but was again rent off from their Monarchy by the successeful Sword of the Moors, and knit by this Acquist to their Kingdome erected in Spain, and in their Do ninion untill Mahomet Enasir received that destructive Blow at the Battel of Sierra More­na, which so diminished the strength of the [Page 51] Moors, that their Retreat into Africk was an effect of this Defeat; Valentia was erected into a distinct Kingdome by Zeit Aben Zeit, the Bro­ther of Mahomet Enasir before mentioned, about the year 1214. but not long after, that is about the year 1228. it was ravished away from this new Prince by Zaen, a Prince of the Moors in Spain; and the pretence upon which he establish­ed this Violence, was, that this dethroned Po­tentate had an Intention to revolt to Christianity; but this Zaen had not been long seated in his new Conquests; but he was supplanted and subdued by James King of Aragon, about the year 1238. and this Province annexed as an Appen­dage to the Kingdome of Aragon; to which it hath ever since been so constantly fastned, that both its Title and Propriety is at this instant lin­ked to the Scepter of Philip the fourth, now King of Spain.

MAJORCA.

THe Kingdome of Majorca contained the Islands of Majorca, Minorca, Fbusa, Frumentaria in the Levant, and the Land of Roussillon, which was added to Spain in the time of the Goths, being accounted a Limb before of Gallia Narbonensis. On the Decease of Ger­rard [Page 52] the last Proprietary Earl, it was added to the Crown of Aragon by Alfonso the second; by James the first it was annexed to the Diadem of Majorca; but being torn from that Scepter by Pedro the fourth, it was once more linked to the Patrimony of that Crown. After that it was transmitted as a pawn by John the second, to Lewis the eleventh King of France, to secure the reimbursement of 300000 Crowns, lent in the year 1462. and freely surrendred to Ferdi­nand the second, sirnamed the Catholique, with a Release from all incumbrances by Charles the Eighth his Son, in the year 1493. with this Pro­visoe annexed, that he should not impede or intercept him in those Designs which had an As­pect on the Conquest of Naples; from whom the continued Flux of Descent carried it down to Philip the fourth King of Spain, in whose Patrimony it lay couched until the late Defecti­on of Catalonia; and then it was totally lopp'd off from the Interest of the Spaniard by the suc­cesseful Sword of the French, and is by the conditions of the last Treaty of Peace to remain during the truce wrapp'd up in the Demeasnes of the Gallican Diadem. Adjoyning to this Pro­vince, as part of the Kingdom [...] of Majorca, is that Countrey, which by the Spaniard is styled Cerdagne, and it is probable borrowed this Appel­lation (now stiv'd into a lesser Volume) from the Cerretani, who were the ancient Inhabitants. This Province lying in those Valleys which are [Page 53] linked to the Pyrenean Hills, was judged meet to be annexed to the County of Roussillon, for the farther improvement of that Province, to whose paramount Fortune, its appendant Fate hath been constantly ever since so subservient, that when it and Roussillon was pawned to the French, it was part of the Mortgage, and was also wrapped up in the Restitution.

The Earldome of Montpellier was some hun­dreds of years since, by Mary the only Daugh­ter of William the last Earl thereof, united to the Dominion and Patrimony of Peter the se­cond King of Aragon; and by her he had issue James King of Aragon and Majorca, of that Name the Third, who conveyed it by Sale to Philip of Valois King of France, in the patri­mony of whose Successors it hath ever since been resident.

Majorca with the circumambient Islands of Minorca, Ebusa, now called Yuica, Frumen­tera styled by the Greeks Ophiusa and Colubra­ria by the Latins, from the multitude of Ser­pents which anciently infested it, Drag [...]nera, Cabraria, Vedra, Co [...]rello, Moncolibre, Al­faques, and Scombraria, so called from a con­temptible Fish named Scombrus, attaqued in the time of the Romans in numerous Shoals on this Coast, and thence transported to Rome; though more anciently, as divers eminent Records testifie, it obtained the Denomination of the Island of Hercules.

[Page 54]These Islands were first planted by the Tyrians or Phaenicians, to whose industrious care most of their Cities owed their first Institution and E­rection, there being one erected in the Island of Ebusa, which to inforce a grateful acknowledge ment to posterity of their expence, had the name Phaenissa anciently lodged upon it. And from these Phaenicians the future Inhabitants derived the Art of Slinging, which they improved to so great advantage and Dexterity, that the Name of Baleares in subsequent Ages was imposed up­on them, which word some do assert was ex­tracted from the Phaenician word Baal-Jarre, which in the Punick Dialect imports as much as a Master in the Art of Slinging, though others with more probability deduce it from the Greek word [...], which signifies to cast forth or throw. But to proceed. These Islands first bowed to the yoke of the Carthaginians, whose Affairs here were successefully managed by the prudent conduct of Hanno and Himilco, Anno M. 5500. At what time the City of Rome lay gasping under the Tyranny of the Decemviri, under the Dominion of that State they remained subject until the Conclusion of the second Punick War, when the Carthaginians being no longer able to shelter them with their protection they abandoned them to themselves, who imme­diately moulded themselves into the Constitu­tion of a Commonwealth, whose Contexture was quickly supplanted by Metellus Brother to [Page 55] him who subdued Crete, and united it to the Ro­man Patrimony, who from this submission of theirs to that Empire, was recompensed with the glorious Trophies of a triumph. Afterwards being incorporated into Spain, and made a Limb of that great Body, the same Fortune, either pro­sperous or adverse, which waited on that, atten­ded likewise on this. In those Distractions which retailed out the Empire of the Moors in Spain to a various Ruine, they were knit into an entire Kingdome, under the notion of the Kingdom of Majorca; from the Moors it was rent away by the Conduct and Prowesse of Raymond Earl of Barcelona, assisted in that undertaking by the concurrent Supply of the Genoese, about the year 1102, but I know not upon what grounds; not long after the Genoese made a tame Surrender of it to the Moors again, which was not long resident in their possession, for James King of Aragon about the year 1228. wrung it from them by a second Conquest, and he setled it on his second Son James, and from him the Diadem devolved to his Son and Heir Sancho, who dying without Issue, James Son of Ferdinand, Brother to James the first King of Majorca, entred up­on it by the Name of James the second; on whose decease James the Third ascended the Throne, who suddenly after was dislodged, being subdued and slain in a disastrous Encounter by Pedro the fourth King of Aragon about the year 1348. After whose Tragedy this was annexed to [Page 56] Aragon, and hath continued ever since so close­ly interwoven with the Interest of this King­dome that it still obeys the Scepter of Philip the Fourth now King of Spain.

CATALONIA.

CATALONIA is shut in on the North with the County of Roussillon and the Pyrenian Mountains, on the East with the Mediterranean, on the South with Valentia, on the North and North-West with Aragon.

The Name (as some probable Conjectures seem to affirm) is derived from the Castellani, who in elder times were the ancient Inhabitants of some part of it, though others upon as pos­sible Grounds assert it was extracted from the Catalauni, an ancient People of Languedoc, a Province of France, divided by no considerable distance from this Province. But the Affirma­tion of those, is certainly the most proporti­onate to Reason, who deduce it from Gotholo­nia, which, by depravation of Dialect, and a more easie pronunciation, was melted into Cata­lonia. This Province having been adopted into the Name of Gotholonia by the Goths, as ha­ving been one of the first Provinces of Spain on which that Nation made their violent and suc­cesseful Eruptions.

[Page 57]The ancient Inhabitants of this Province were the Castellani, Auxitani, Indigites, Cosetani, with part of the Ilercones and Jaccetani, all of them Possessors of that distribution of Spain which was styled Hispania Tarraconensis; but when the Glory of the Roman Empire began to suffer her Eclipse and umbrages, and wand into a visible Declension, this was rent from that great Body by the Alani, who not long after were subdued and disseised by the Goths; but when a general ruin was super-induc'd on Spain by the power of the Moors, this sunk in that general Shipwrack, and was forc'd to stoop to receive a yoke from the Hands of Infidelitie; from them, after many signal struglings, it was rescued by the Mag­nanimity of Charles the Great, who having re­duced the City of Barcelona about the Year 801. settled it on one Bernard a Frenchman, with the Title of Earl, and he managed the Affairs of this Province for that Emperour, as Gothofredus his Successor did for Lewis the Godly. But Go­thofredus Son to this Godfred, having acted some exemplary Service which obliged Charles the Gr [...] to some grateful acknowledgement, he to expiate this Engagement made him Proprietary of it, with this Limitation reserved, that the Year of the Kings of France as was accustomed to be performed by his Predecessors should be Inscribed and used in all Records and Instru­ments of publique Cognisance; and from him it was transported to his Grandchild Gothofred [Page 58] the Second, who dying without Issue, his Uncle Borellus entred upon the Possession of this Earl­dome, and in his Line was it so successively fixed untill by an even Clew it descended to Raymond the Fifth, who by Matching with Petro­nilla Daughter of Raymir the Second, King of Aragon, was by the Authority of that Alliance invested with the Diadem of that Kingdome, and knit by a future Combination this Earldom to the Patrimony of that Scepter, whose Suc­cessor was James the First, King of Aragon and Lord of Catalonia, (for so the Records of Spain seem to insinuate, his Style was used in Coins and other Inscriptions) to whom St. Lewis King of France, by Resignation and Surrender released that Vassalage and acknowledgement which was due from his Predecessors to the Di­adem of France in the Year 1260. and this King James to ballance and poize the Merit of so great an Obligation by a proportionate Com­pensation, at the same time devested himself by a general Release of all his Right and Title to Carcassan, B [...]ziers, Nismes and some other considerable pieces in France, in Tim [...] of el [...]er Inscription relating as Appendages to the Revenue of that Crown. Thus have I repre­sented in Landskip, how Catalonia became twisted into the Demeasne and Royaltie of A­ragon, where it constantly reposed it self untill the Year 1638. and then that Defection from the Crown of Spain, which was occasion'd by [Page 59] the Invasion of the Liberties of the Catalans, as was pretended by the Spaniard, though those pretences were improv'd, inflam'd and aggra­vated by the Arts and cloudy Stratagems of Cardinal Richelieu, having torn it off from that Scepter, it was by the Inhabitants modelled and fashioned into the shape of a Common­wealth, but with a Reservation that it should still be under the Patronage and shelter of the Crown of France, and in this Capacity it remain­ed untill the sucbesseful Sword of Don John of Austria, the Marquiss of Cerra, and the Marquiss of Mortara so vigorously asserted the Interest of Spain, that they wrung all Catalonia from the hands of the French; and although this Nation by the concurrent Aid of the Catalans did retrive Puycerda, Castiglione, and some o­ther pieces from the Spaniard, yet the more principal part of Catalonia doe [...] [...]et after all these vast Concussions acknowledge no other Scepter but that which is swayed by the Hand of Philip the Fourth King of Spain.

ARAGON.

ARAGON is fettered in on the East with the Land of Roussillon and the Pyre­nean Hills, on the West the two Castiles, on the North Navarre, on the South and South-East Catalonia and some part of Vanlentia. The ancient Inhabitants were the Celtiberi, who spread themselves over a very considerable part of Spain, styled Hispania Tarraconensis, but originally had their Rise and Extraction from the Celtae an ancient People of France, who being clogg'd and surcharg'd with superfluity of People, advanced over the Pyrenean Hills, and mingled with the Iberi, the old Possessors of Aragon; yet there were other Inhabitants of lesse importance, as namely, the Jaccetani, the Lacetani with some part of the Editani, and Ilergetes or Ilurcones, that had their Concern­ment in this Province, and thrived under the protection and shadow of the Nobler Colo­nies. And in this posture it remained until the Carthaginians endevouring to enlarge their Ter­ritories made it bow to their Government; but here it had not long been resident, when the power of the Romans growing paramount to theirs, it was forced to submit to the more [Page 61] predominant strength of that Empire, and to their Interest it was subservient, untill it was ravished away by the prevailing Arms of the Goths, whose Acquists here attended the Fate of Spain, and was surrendred to the Moors in that publique Calamitie which was complicated with their Conquest. But about that time when the Foundations of the Kingdomes of Leon and Navarre were established, one Az­narius a Person of an unbroken Courage, dis­daining any longer to lye panting under that load of Slavery which the Moors had cast upon him, disengaged himself of the pressure, and by ma­ny generous Conflicts with the Moors, wherein he exhibited many Symptomes of an inexpugna­ble Courage, he invested himself in the Pos­session of some Lands on the Banks of the River of Aragon; but because he found his Power was too infirm and crazie to support his new Ac­quists without some collateral supply, he put himself under the Protection of the King of Navarre about the Year 775. And that Mo­narch, both to excite and cherish so worthy a Ver­tue with some exemplary Guerdon, dignified him with the Title of Earl of Aragon; and from him it devolved by Descent to his Lineal Successor Fortunio Ximines, in whom the Male Line determined, so that Fortunio the Second King of Navarre, in Right of his Mother Ur­raca who was his Sister and Heir, was entitled to Aragon supported by this Alliance, annexed [Page 62] this Province to Navarre; and from him the Clew of Descent transmitted it to Sancho the Great King of Navarre, who gave it to his Son Raymir begotten in unlawful Embraces, to the prejudice of his Lawful Son Garcia, who indeed justly merited this Disherision, be­cause he had by an unnatural Accusation ende­voured to blast the Reputation of his Mother Queen Elvira Wife to his Father, by besmear­ing her with the Calumnious Aspersion of Adul­tery, from which black tincture she was assoil'd by the Noble and generous Assistance of Ray­mir above mentioned, who offered to assert her Innocence by the solemn Decision of a mutual Combate with this Garcia, which obliged his Father King Sancho to reflect with so benigne an eye on so great a Virtue, that he thought the Earldome of Aragon a proportionate Guerdon to his Merit and Courage, and translated the Coronet of this Province into a Diadem, that the Reward designed him might swell into a more considerable Dimension, and with more Lustre adorn his Temples; and from this Ray­mir did there Issue out a Series of Kings that was never interrupted, disturb'd, or ravel'd in the Clew of Descent, but in an even order went along untill the Line of Succession brought the Crown of Aragon to empale the Temples of Ferdi­nand sirnamed the Catholick, who by Matching with Isabella the Heir of Castile, linked and incorporated these two Kingdoms into one Body, [Page 63] whose divided Interest being thus combined, hath ever since continued fastned and tied up in so strict a Union, that the Propriety of both these Kingdomes does now support and inforce the Grandeur of that Diadem which invests the Head of Philip the Fourth the instant Monarch of Spain.

SPAIN.

SPAIN in Times of an elder Complexion was the Stage where the Scene of much Con­tention and Bloudshed was established, the Ro­mans attempting with much eagernesse and Ani­mosity to ravish away the Spanish Liberty, and impose that yoke of Servitude on their Necks they had burdened and loaded the shoulders of o­ther captived Nations with, and the Spanish In­habitants, again endevouring with a generous vigour to assert their Native Franchises against their Eruptions, and so to secure their Liberties, that they might not be offered up an Oblation to the rapatious Tallons of the Roman Eagles; but after many Conflicts commenced, and the bloody Umpirage of several Battels, the Spanish Body having exhaled its most active and vigorous Spi­rits at those breaches and wounds the successe­ful Swords of the Romans had torn and discom­pos'd [Page 64] the Bulk of their Empire withall, fell a cheap Sacrifice to their Successe and Ambition, and by a tame Submission put on those Fetters the Hands of these new Victors had designed to load them with; and the Romans, the better to manage and fortifie their new Acquists with a cautious improvement, scattered several Colo­nies and Forts on those several Provinces which were circumscribed within the Continent of Spain; a subsequent List of which I shall now represent to the Reader, as likewise an exact Re­gister of those Cities and Towns which in times of a more modern Inscription have like so many Phaenix's ascended into shape and order out of their antiquated Ruines.

A
  • [Page 65]ALCE a City of the Celtiberians, was raz'd by Gracchus.
  • Abdera now called Almeria, and according to the Conjectures of some, the place where now the City of Vera [...]s situated.
  • Abula, now deno­minated Avila.
  • Acci, likely to be Guadix in Granada.
  • Agra, it is under Controversie whether it were placed in Spain or in Africk
  • Arcobrica, now styl­ed Calataiub, or else separated by no great distance from it.
  • Assindon, the place where now Medina Si­donia or Xeres in Anda­lusia is fixed.
  • Astapa, a Colony of the Carthaginians was destroyed by Martius, a Roman Commander under Scipio.
  • Astigia, reputed to be Eccia in Andalusia.
  • Asturica or Astorga, retains its primitive Appellation, and con­tinues a Bishoprick until this day.
  • Ategua, how this Ci­ty is denominated now is represented by Fer­rarius, who asserts that [Page 66] it is now called Teba­laveia or Teiveila in Granada.
  • Augusta, a Name Common to many Towns in Spain, yet when it is simply re­hearsed or Registred without being yoked with any additional De­nomination, it is taken to signifie Bracar or Braga.
  • Auriensis, or Aquae Calidae, now taken for the Bishoprick of O­renza or Orense in Gallicia.
  • Auringa was an e­minent City in Anda­lusia, di [...]antled and o­verturn'd by Scipio.
  • A [...]s [...]a or Auxima, at this present styled Vic d'Ossone, an obscure Towne circumscribed within Catalonia.
  • Auca, an ancient City out of whose ruins Burgos is now started.
  • Axenium, where that was situated, or what City was extracted from its Ashes is uncertain.
B
  • Barcina or Rubicata, now call'd Barcel­ona, the Capital City of Catalonia.
  • Bastitania now known by the Name of Baza, in the Province of Murcia.
  • Bregetium, in old Records denominated likewise Lucus Astu [...]um is now the City of Ovi­ [...]do in Leon.
  • Biaria, now called Barra, is in the King­dome of Toledo.
  • Bigastrensis Civitas, or Urbs Bistargensis, was a Bishoprick situa­ted in the Province of Carthagena.
  • [Page 67] Bigerra, now styled Beijar, is contiguous in its position to Valentia.
  • Britolensis Urbs, was a Town near Tuy in Gallicia.
C
  • Cauca, was a City in the Territory of the Vacceni, and scitua­ted in Portugall, ruined by Lucullus the Roman General.
  • Carmona was a Town near Cordova, demo­lished by the Goths.
  • Cauria, at this day denominated Coria, and is placed near Merida.
  • Caesarea Augusta, or Salduba, now Sarra­gossa, the Metrapolis of Arragon.
  • Calaguris, now re­presented under the Name of Calahorra, in Navarre.
  • Colimbrica or Conim­brica, now Coimbra, an eminent University in Portugall.
  • Carthago Nova, or Carthagena, which still retains its pristine Name and though now fallen under some Umbrage and obscurity, was in elder Times one of the most eminent Cities of Spain.
  • Castulo, at this day styled Castona, and is scituated near Sevill.
  • Centobrica in Celtibe­ria, was reduced to the Roman obedience by Metellus, since crumbled into Rub­bish.
  • Complutum, out of w [...]ose Rubbish, the no­ted and Illustrious Uni­ve sity of Alcala de Henarez in C [...]stile, is now risen forth.
  • [Page 68] Conistorgis was a Co­lony in Portugall, long since mouldred into a neglected heap.
  • Colenda was a City of the Celtiberians.
  • Corduba gave Na [...]e to the whole Province wherein it was placed, and preserves the anci­ent Appellation, and continues a Bishoprick untill this day.
D
  • Dertosa, now called Tortosa, and is scitu­ated upon the River of Ebro, which separates Catalonia and Valentia.
  • Di [...]ni [...]m, now styled Denia, is placed in the Kingdome of Toledo.
E
  • CIvitas Egarensis, was the Residence of a People call'd Egur­ [...], out of whose Ashes sprang a town in Toledo, styled Medina del Rio Secco.
  • Egedita, now a lit­tle [...]ourg in Portugall called Edania.
  • Egosa or Egiba, is a Town which still conti­nues its ancient Appella­tion, and is situated near Girona in Catalonia.
  • Ebora, now is known by the Name of Euora, and is placed in Portu­gall, and is at this in­stant ascended to that Eminence that it is be­come the Residence of the Kings of Portugal.
  • [Page 69] Elib [...]is, was in Ages of an higher step, a po­pulous and spatious City, though in Times of a lower Descent, it shrunk into the narrow Bulk of a Castle; but it is conjectur'd that Gra­nado, not far distant, owes part of its Dimen­sion and Grandeur to its superannuated Ruins.
  • Eliocrota, was scitu­ated betwixt Cartha­gena and Cas [...]ona, but was by the Fury and frequent Onsets of the Vandalls, rendred so in­considerable an heap, that it is now entombed in its own Rubbish.
  • Elna, was placed in Gallia-Narbonensis, and is now shrunk into De­cay and Oblivion.
  • Emirita, at this in­stant called Merida, is placed in Castile, and hath nothing singular to ennoble it, but onely some venerable Ruines.
  • Eminium or Eumi­nium, is placed in Por­tugal, betwixt Coimbra and Porto; but it is now crumbl'd away into such a narrow heap, that it hath at present, found a forgotten Sepulcher.
  • Ergavica, now a Town in Aragon, cal­led Alcanez.
  • Escadia, was a City sci­tuated in Lusitania, re­duced to Ruines by the Roman Conquests.
F
  • FLaviobriga, a City in Biscay, which mouldering away by the injurious Impressions of Time, and the As­saults of Enemies, fell into decay and Rubbish.
  • Bilbao, the Capital [Page 70] City of that Province, was extracted from its Sepulcher.
  • Flavium Brigantium now passes under the Notion of Corvina, in Gallicia.
  • Flavinavia, was sci­tuated in Asturia, and hath now atchieved the name of St. Andero.
G
  • GAdes, an ancient Town of Spain, in more modern Or­thographie written Ca­dez.
  • Gerunda, in Catalo­nia, is now marshal'd under the Name of Gi­rona.
  • Gerabrica or Jera­abrica, is placed in Por­tugall, betwixt Lisbon and St. Irene, but is now by the rude hand of Time, crushed into so disordered a Masse, that it is removed but a small preferment from the notion of a Village.
  • Gemella, was a For­tresse in Portugal, what Name it hath since been habituated to, is uncer­tain.
  • Girniza, a City of the Vacceans, demo­lished by Titus Didius.
H
  • HIspalis, in Anda­lusia, is now listed under the Name of Sevil, and is the Metra­polis of that Track.
I
  • [Page 71]IAcca was the prin­cipal City of the Jac­cetani, in Aragon, and still preserves its name.
  • Ilerda, was scitua­ted in Catalonia, and is now styled Lerida.
  • Ilice, in the Kingdom of Valentia respecting the Islands Pitieuses, and adopted that emi­nent Bay call'd Sinus Ilicitanus into its own Sirname, but where this Town or the Rags and Skeleton of it, have found their Enterment, no Beam extracted from publique Re­cord, can direct to a Discovery.
  • Ilipa was a City sci­tuated in the Straight of Boetica, It is suppo­sed to be Niebla in Por­tugall.
  • Illiturgis, was scitu­ated in Andalusia, and was put into Flame and Ashes by Scipio.
  • Julio Briga, an an­tiquated Colony, is now Logrogno in Aragon.
  • Illiberis, was a City in Roussillon, divided by no great distance from the Pyrenean Hills, out of whose Rubbish Co­liure or Colibre, a City now extant, had its ori­ginal Institution.
  • Civitas Imotinensis, is by some Conjectures now asserted to be Mon­tanches not far distant from Merida.
  • Imopyreneus or Rhoda is at this day called Ro­ses and is a City of E­minence in Catalonia, it was built by the Rho­dians.
  • Empuria Urbs Impu­ritana or Emporitana, [Page 72] though languish'd into Decay hath from its Skeleton afforded a Town call'd Empuria now plac'd in Catalo­nia.
  • Julia Libica is now that City we stile Sar­dona or Cardona, a City existent in Catalonia, or as some conjecture Linca.
  • Jugastria or Juncaria was Scituated in Catalo­nia and is in more mo­dern Appellation stil'd Junquera.
  • Intercatia was plac'd amongst the Astures, but what Denomination it hath acquir'd now no Record does ex­hibit.
  • Iria Flavia is at this instant stil'd Padron and hath its Scituation near Terrae Finis in Gallicia.
  • Italica an ancient City in Andaluzia, is now entomb'd in its own Ruines and wild Dispersion.
L
  • LAmbria was no far Distance divided from the Margent of the River of Limia in Portugall, but what name it hath obtained now is incertain.
  • Lacobrica there were two Towns which bore this Denomination, the one at Cape St. Vincent, the second near Palenza it is now conjectur'd to be Lagos.
  • Lameca now passes under the Denomina­tion of Lamega, and is a noted City in Portu­gall.
  • Luci Tarum is now stil'd St. Lucar di Bara­meda in Andalusia.
  • [Page 73] Lancia was in elder times the Metrapolis of Asturia, though now wholly devested both of Bulk and Beauty.
  • Laurona was an an­cient City made an heap of Flame and Ruines by Sertorius even in the presence of Pom­pey.
  • Legio is at this instant stil'd Leon, and is the Capital City of that province.
  • Lucia or Urbs Lu­censis was an ancient Colony now known by the Name of Lugo in Gallicia.
M
  • MAlaca at present called Malaga, one of the most emi­nent Cities of the Kingdome of Gra­nada.
  • Mentesa now Mon­teio or else Jaen in An­dalusia.
  • Munda was a City of the Vacceans Emi­nent for the Battle be­tween the two Pompeys and Caesar, it is now ob­scure in its own Ruines unlesse Ronda be started from it.
N
  • NOvi [...]m in Galli­cia is now faln under the Name of Noya.
  • Numantia after a tough Seige buryed in its own Ruines, by Sci­pio.
O
  • [Page 74]OBoliola was a City upon the Verge of Portugal, which was demolished and de­stroyed by Quintus Fa­bius Maximus Servi­lianus in his War com­menc'd against Viria­tus.
  • Occi or Acci is now involved in Guadix, Scituated in Valentia.
  • Ocilis or Ocelona was a City near Merida, now so wrap'd up in its own disordred and con­fused dispersions that it its difficult to trace out its rubbish even amidst its ruines.
  • Olisipo now known by the Name of Lisbon the Metrapolis of Portugal.
  • Orcelis whose Bishop was at the Councell of Arles, it was fixed in Valentia. It is now De­nominated Origu [...]la.
  • Or [...]tana now stil'd Calatrava, the Semi­nary of Knights of that Order, was in the King­dome of Toledo.
  • Osca that is Huesea in Aragon a Bishop­rick and a University.
  • Ossobona was in Al­garbe not far divided from Faro which by the Moors was named Ex­uba.
  • Oxovia in the King­dome of Toledo stil'd by Plyny Uxania at this in­stant it is known by the Appellation of Osona, and is honoured by be­ing the See of Bishop.
  • Oxthraca a City of eminent note in the an­cient Lusitania destroy­ed by Atilius or Acilius Balbus one of the Ro­man Commanders.
P
  • [Page 75]PAx Augusta an Eminent Roman Colony in Extremadura now still'd Badaisos and by the Moors in elder times named Baxan­g [...].
  • Palentia or Palantia in the Kingdom of To­ledo, continues listed under that Name and remains a Bishoprick at this Day.
  • Pampelona continues still espoused to its an­cient Name, and is at this instant the Capitall City of Navarre.
  • Placentia is Situated in Castile and pre­serves its ancient De­nomination at this in­stant.
  • Porto or Portogallo, is placed in Lusitania, and is that City which at present is nam'd Por­toport.
S
  • SAguntum was de­stroyed by Hannibal out of whose Ashes Morviedro in Valentia is now descended.
  • Sanuessa is now San­guessa in Navarre.
  • Salmantica or El­mantica is circumscri­bed within the Limits of Castile, and hath now assumed the Denomi­nation of Salamanca, being both a Bishop­rick, and an eminent University.
  • Segobia or Secobia is Scituated likewise in [Page 76] Castile, and with a small variation from the an­cient name is now stil'd Segovia.
  • Segobrica is the Town called Segorbia in Ara­gon.
  • Seguntia or Sagun­tia, now named Sigu­enza is placed between Castile and Aragon, and is made eminent by being the See of a Bishop.
  • Senga in Aragon, hath now contracted the name of Balba­stro.
  • Segissama hath now atcheived the name of Tordede [...]illas.
  • Sediga was a noted City of the Arevaces, and was extinguish'd and dismantel'd in the Conflicts and Conten­tions between Spain and the Romans.
  • Setabis is the Town Xat [...]va now a Limb of the Kingdom of Aragon.
  • Septimantia now stil'd Simanca, is a Town which is Scituated in Castile..
  • Scalabis was an emi­nent Roman Colony in Portugall, how it is stil'd now is incer­tain.
  • Sarabris or Sentilla was Scituated in Castile, and is now Marshall'd under the name of Za­mora or Toro.
  • Sitia was erected in the Province of Cordu­ba, but what Name it hath assumed at this in­stant no Record does discover.
  • Sitale o [...] Sitiale was established in the Track of Andalusia, what Denomination it hath now put on we can­not at present trace out.
T
  • [Page 77]TArracona was Sci­tuated in Catalo­nia, and at present is stil'd Tarragona, be­ing an Arch-Bishops Seat and the Second Ci­ty for Eminence and Populacy in that Pro­vince.
  • Talabriga hath now obtained the appella­tion of Talavera and is circumscribed in Por­tugall.
  • Tartessus, now stil'd Carteia, is Scituated in Andaluzia, and gave the Name to the whole Track.
  • Trebia and Tribola were two eminent Ci­ties in Castile and the Old Lusitania both cast into a heap of Rubbish in the Wars of the Romans waged with the people of that Pro­vince.
  • Thermissa was in times of an elder Com­plexion a City of the Vacceans or Arevaces, and was demolished by the Consull Titus Di­dius.
  • Thermantia was an ancient City of Spain not far distant from Numantia now by the Injuries of time shrunk into Decay and Obli­vion, only it is supposed Nuestra Sennora de Tiermas in Aragon is now extracted from its Tomb.
  • Toletum is that emi­nent City, we now stile Toledo being an Arch­bishoprick and the Me­tropolis of Castile.
  • Turiasso now the Town Tarrasso which had its position near the [Page 78] Limits of Navarr.
  • Tucca was Scituated in Betica near Castulo, what name is fix'd upon it now I cannot disco­ver.
  • Tuda or Tyda is now adopted into the name of Tuy in Gallicia and is adorn'd with the Title of a Bishop.
  • Tullica was placed in Cantabria or Biscay, but what denomination it hath borrowed since no Beam of Antiquity does exhibit to us.
  • Turris Julia is now compacted into the more modern Name of Trugillo in Portugall.
V
  • VAlentia or Va­lence, is at this in­stant an eminent Arch-Bishoprick▪ and affords a Name to the whole Province where it is scituated, preserving both its Name and An­tiquity.
  • Valeria, had its first erection in the Pro­vince of Arragon, and hath at this instant got the Appellation of Co [...] ­cia or Cuenca.
  • Vasco Baso, was an e­minent City of the Vas­cones now languished into an obscure Town in Navarre, call'd Bas­conton.
  • Veila, was an anci­ent City in Cantabria, now languished into neglected Ruines.
  • Vesci, is now stiled Viseo, and is a noted Town in Portugall.
  • Urci, was an anci­ent Roman Colony, not far removed from Al­meria in Castile, now shrunk by Decay into [Page 79] an inconsiderable Ob­scurity.
  • Urgela, called like­wise Bergidum, is now Urgel, a City, and a Bishops See in Catalo­nia.
  • Urbicua, a Town of the Celtiberians, put in­to Ruines by Q. Ful­vius Flaccus, a Roman Commander.
  • Ucubis, a Town in farther Spain, now en­tombed not only in its own Rubbish, but in ob­livion likewise; onely it is conjectured Ucubi in Granada, is a child of its production.
  • Uxama, an ancient Colony of the Romans, is fallen into so obscure a Decay that it hath lost both its Name and the place of its abode, so that it is now extant on­ly in Record and An­nals.
  • Vellica, was in Na­varre, whose dispersed Rubbish was in the Year 1181. by Sancho the fourth, King of Na­varre, Collected into a City, whose Denomi­nation in Memory of some Successe upon its first Institution was Victoria.
  • Viminacium, was placed in Castile, but what Town is now de­scended from its Ruins, the testimony of Histo­ry does not exhibit to us.
  • Virovesca in Old Ca­stile, hath now put on the Name of Briviesca, or Birviesca.
  • Voluce, or Veluca, hath from its Ashes given us Cannatanazor, now in Valentia,
  • Urso, hath f [...]om its Ruins been productive of Ossuna, now plac'd in Andalusia.

[Page 80]There are other Ancient Towns in Spain, and its Circumabient Provinces, which are Re­gistered in Mela, Strabo, Ptolomie, Pliny and Antoninus; which because they have put on other Names, I shall represent the first as they are Recorded in those Venerable Authours, and exhibit the last as they lie enroll'd in the Spanish Histories; as namely,

A
  • ASta, in Pliny is now Xeres, in the Kingdome of Granada.
  • Augusta Forma, mentioned by the for­mer Authour, is now Eccia in Andalusia.
  • Aquae Calidae, en­rolled in the Pages of Ptolomie, is now Oreus or Orenza, in Gallicia.
  • Aspavia by Corduba, mentioned by Ptolomy, is stil'd Espeio.
  • Alba in Antonnius, is now Viana in Na­varre, which formerly afforded a Title to the King of Navarr's el­dest Son, who was stil'd Prince of Viana.
  • Avia or Livia, Re­gister'd likewise by An­toninus, is now Villalon in Castile.
  • Alaba in Celtiberia or Biscay, call'd so by Ptolomy, hath now in more modern Appella­tion assum'd the Name of Alava.
B
  • [Page 81]BAlaria in Anto­ninus, hath now assumed the name of Bara or Vera, and is fixed in Castile.
  • Baetulo or Betullo sty­led so by Mela is now named Badelona.
C
  • CErtima in Ptole­my is now Car­thama in Castile.
  • Caetobrix or Cetobri­ca, recorded by Pliny and Antoninus, is now either scituated in Por­tugall, or else Alma­das on the Mouth of the Tagus.
  • Calpe or Heraclia in Antoninus, is now Gibraltar in Andalusia.
  • Carmela in Antoni­nus is now Carmon in Portugall.
  • Cex mentioned in Ptolomy, and Sexica­num registred in Anto­ninus, is now Velez Malaga, in the Pro­vince of Granada.
  • Condabora in Ptolomy is now Siguenza in Ca­stile.
  • Cecillia Gemellina in Antoninus, is now St. Mary of Guadalupe.
  • Clunia remembred by Pliny and Livy, was a Colony of the Areva­ces, and is now styled Corunna del Conde, or Cividad del Castro, both scituated in Castile.
  • Cauca registred by Ptolomy, is now that Coca which is scituated [Page 82] in Old Castile.
  • Contestania mentio­ned by Ptolomy and Clusius, is now shrunk into Concentayna in Va­lentia.
E
  • ELna in Roussillon, mentioned by An­toninus, was erected by the Celtae, and still de­serves its ancient De­nomination.
G
  • GRacu [...]is was a Co­lony in Hispania Baetica, instituted by Gracchus, whose Me­mory is preserved in the Pages of Ptolomy and Antoninus, and is now called Agreda, being seated in Castile.
I
  • I Lorci recorded by Pl [...]ny, is now that Town we call Lorca in Murcia.
  • Illusias or Illusia, so it is written in Ptolomy, is now d [...]nominated [...]ucena, and is placed in Valentia.
  • Illarco scituated in New Castile, and styled so by Pliny, hath now obtained the name of Alarco.
  • Illuro or Diluron, sty­led so in the Registers of Ptolomy, is now cal­led Alora, being a Village in Catalonia.
  • [Page 83] Ilarcuris, named so by Ptolomy, is placed on the Margin of New-Castile, and is now cal­led Caros de los Infantes
  • Ildum. hath obtained that Name in the Itine­rary of Antoninus, and was seated in Valentia, where it is now known by the name of Salsa­della.
L
  • LAcuris or Larcu­ris, whose remem­brance is treasured up in Ptolomy, and Surita is circumscribed within Castile, and is now sty­led Loquera or Alarcos.
  • Lebrisia in Ptolomy, hath now from its Ru­ines given us Nebrissa in Andaluzia.
M
  • MAntua whose Ap­pellation survives amongst the Leaves of Ptolomy, is now suppo­sed to be Madrid in Ca­stile, the eminent Re­sidence of the King of Spain.
  • Marcia offered up to our Remembrance by Pliny and Strabo, is now Marchena in An­daluzia.
  • Margis, preserved from Oblivion by the Industry of Ptolomy, is now conjectured to be Maxacra in Granada.
  • Menralia, whose name is enrolled in the Volume of the above­said Author, is now the eminent City of Mur­cia.
N
  • [Page 84]NOrba Caesarea, though [...]bverted and demolished by Pe­treius and Afranius, two of Pompey's Comman­ders, yet it lives still in the Volumes of Ptolo­my, and Antoninus, & hath contributed a Be­ing to Alcantara in Portugal.
  • Nemetobriga or Ne­metobrica, a [...]own pla­c [...]d by Ptolomy in Old Casti [...]e, is now called Val [...]de Nebro.
  • Nebrissa so styled by Ptolomy, but called Ve­neria in the Records of Pliny, hath now con­tracted the Appellation o [...] [...]ebrixa.
  • Naebis is placed by [...]ra [...]o neer Viana in Portugal, and is now called Neiva.
  • Nagara is by Ptolo­my represented to be a Town of Hispania Tar­raconensis, and hath ac­quired the name of Na­ira.
P
  • PInta registred by Ptolomy, hath now transplanted its name into Valladolid.
  • Porta Augusta is by Ptolomy likewise asser­ted to be a Town of Hispania or Old Cae­stile, and hath now pur­chased the modern name of Torquemada.
  • Portus Calensis was seated in Portugal, and is named now Porto Port.
R
  • [Page 85]RUseino or Ruscino, mentioned by Pli­ny, is conjectured by some to be the Castle of Roussillon, and by o­thers to be Perpignan in that County.
  • Rusticiana was pla­ced by the Itinerary of Antoninus in Old Ca­stile, and is now as some contend named Castileo though others assert Ci­vidad Roderigo, was ex­tracted originally out of its Ruines.
S
  • SAcili or Sacilis, af­firmed by the Regi­sters of Pliny and Pto­lomy, to have been a Town of Hispania Bae­tica, is now known by the Name of Alcorru­cen in Granada.
  • Salaria in Ptolomy's Time, hath from its Remains afforded Siru­ela in New Castile or as some from very an­cient Records do assert, another Town styl'd Ca­zorlo.
  • Salsulae in Roussillon nominated so by Stra­ [...]o, is now faln under the Denomination of Sal­ses, Selsona, or Celso­na, for so they are pro­miscuously written in [Page 86] Ptolomy & other vene­rable Monuments of Antiquity, hath from its Ashes contributed a new Production to Sal­sona in Catalonia.
  • Segisama mentioned by Ptolomy and Orosius, is now involved in Vey­zama seated in Biscay.
  • Segortia Lacta or Lata, which owes for its Remembrance to Ptolomy, is now wrap­ped up in Sepulveda, scituated in Castile.
  • Segobriga, whose name occurs in Strabo and Pliny, hath now assumed another Appel­lation, and is styled Cabezza del Griego, be­ing scituated in Valen­tia.
T
  • TUcci denominated likewise Augusta Gemella, and Gemella Tuccitana, as the Pa­ges of Pliny and Ptolo­my do abundantly testi­fie, is now shrunk into a little Town in Anda­luzia called Martos.
V
  • VIrgao, whose Me­mory is improved by the Pen of Pliny, is now called Vera in Granada.
Z
  • [Page 87]ZAcantha was an ancient City in Spain, entombed in its own Ruines, by the successeful fury of Han­niball.

There were other ancient Towns wrapped up within the limits of the Continent of Spain and Portugal; as namely Al [...]hea, Aronda, Atha­nasia, Arsa, Anitorgis, Cusibis, Cunes, Con­trebia, Evandria, Hippo, Ituca, and Sere­zola, which often occur in the Annalls of Spain, which were so dismantled and defaced in the Wars commenced by the Romans with the Car­thaginians, and the Native Inhabitants of Spain, and there memory now entombed in such inhos­pitable Ruines, that it is a work of more perplex­ed Difficulty to trace out their Fragments and Re­mains, which now lye treasured up in untractable Rubbish, then it was for the Roman Generals first to subdue them.

HAving taken a prospect of the Continent of Spain, let us now lanch out into the O­cean, and make a reflection on that Interest or concernment, the Spanish Scepter is entituled to, either in Africa, Asia or America; and the first of these new Acquists wh [...]ch does obvi­ate our discovery are the Canaries, which are in number seven, and have contracted this Deno­mination from Canaria the principall Island. In ancient Records they are adorned with the Epithete of the Fortunate Islands; and in the Arithmetick of Pliny and Ptolomy are computed but six, but though they consent in their Number they disagree in their names. By Pliny they are said to be 1 Ombrio, 2 Junonia Major, 3 Juno­nia Minor, 4 Capraria, 5 Nivaria, and 6 Ca­naria: But upon Ptolomies catalogue and account they are thus reckoned, 1 Aprositus, 2 Hera or Junonia, 3 Pluitania, 4 Casperia, 5 Canaria and Pincuria. But more modern discoveries h [...]ving rectifyed former Surveys, have improved the account to Seven, now better known by the new Names of 1 Canaria, 2 Palma, 3 Teneriffa, 4 Gomero, 5 Ferrò, 6 Lanserotte, and 7 Fuerte Ventura.

The ancient Inhabitants of these Islands were the Guanches, who were (as ancient Relations discover to us) both rude and barbarously igno­rant, for their food was raw flesh, for want either of the use or knowledge of Fire; their earth they turned up with the Horns of Oxen, [Page 89] being destitute of Ploughs or Instruments of Iron; their Beards they shaved with a sharp Flint, and transmitted the care of their Children to the Nursery of Goats. The Slaughter of Beasts was in their estimate the most [...]ordid and de [...]picable employment, and therefore was impos'd on Pri­soners and persons devoted and conden ned to the Ignominy of a common execution, who being the common Slaughtermen, were to live separa­ted from publique intercourse and Society; yet notwithstanding this Barbarity, the light of nature, though it shined in them with a faint and sickly Beam, yet was it not so extinguished but that it still did send forth those rayes, which did guide them to resign themselves up to a Kingly Go­vernment; for each Island was rul'd by a single person, whose power and authority held some Proportion and Analogy to the Rule and Domi­nion of a King: but yet was their Government not so purely regall, but that it was retrenched with the Dictates and Prescriptions of a comm [...]n Councell collected out of all the Islands, and consisting of an 130. who did not onely guide in Civill matters, but direct and steer in Sacred also, the People being by them conducted both in their Interest of State and that of conscience, and obeyed their Prescripts, which had an aspect on their faith and worship, as well as an Influence on their Civill obedience.

The knowledge of these Islands being lost with the Roman Empire, they lay conce [...]led [Page 90] untill about the year 1330. when an English, or as some affirm, a French Ship, did in the disorder of a Tempest fall upon them. Notice thereof being given to Alfonso the Fourth King of Por­tugall, Lewis de Ordo was by that Prince design­ed to the conquest of them, who being repulsed at Gomera Anno 1334. abandoned the enterprise, and only left some foundation for the Portuguese to establish a future Claim upon. But the News of this new discovery successively extending it self to the Court of Rome, Pope Clement the sixth esteemed it convenient by a new Donation, to transmit the Right and Title of them to Prince Lewis, Son to Alfonso de la Cerda, the indisputa­ble Heir of Castile; But nothing being effected by Lewis abovesaid in relation to the Popes con­cession, some Adventurers of Biscay about the year 1393. furnishing out some Ships from Se­vill to recruit their ebbing Fortunes at Sea, fell amongst these Islands, and having observed the number, greatnesse and scituation of them, af­ter their Pillaging of Lanserote, returned into Spain with a considerable Cargo of Wax, Hides, and other Commodities, which did ennoble the Riches and Fertility of these Islands, and did so excite the appetite of Henry, at that Instant King of Castile, that for the future he did resolve to­invest himself in the Possession of them; but though his Design was by death made abortive, yet Katharine his Queen Dowager during the Minority of her Son King John the Second, pur­sued [Page 91] the enterprize, and employed John de Be­tancourt an active daring Frenchman in the con­quest of them (with a condition annexed to hold them under the Soveraignty of the Crown of Spain) and he so well managed the undertaking that four of them were subdued, but attempting to attaque the remainder, he perished in the Action. In the year 1417. young Betancourt the Son finding his Power not proportionate to the Conquest and reduction of Canaria the chief Island, whither most of the Islanders had retired for Sanctuary, fortified himself in Lanserote and assumed the Title of King, which he transmitted to one Menault, under whose Rule, these Islands were reduced to the knowledge of Christianity, having a Sea Episcopall established in the Isle of Lanserote. But this new Commander having ra­vel'd and disordered the Government of these Islands by many irregular excesses, by the clamo­rous Importunity of the Inhabitants in the Court of Castile, Pedro Barva de Campos with three Ships of War was employed against him, with whom Menault abovesaid being unable to grap­ple, he with the approbation of the Crown of Castile, conveyed his Interest in these Islands to Fernando Perez a Knight of vast wealth in Sevill; from whom the Title and Propriety streamed down to his Successors, but the posterity of this Perez were entitled to the possession of the four Lesser Islands only, for Canaria it self, Teneriffa and la Palma, continued under the [Page 92] Scepter of their own Kings, and so remained un­till the rule of Ferdinand the Catholick; who in the year 1483. under the conduct of Alfonso de Muxica and Pedro de Vera two eminent and pro­sperous Leaders, obtained the Empire and Do­minion of them, and translated the Episcopall See from Lanserote to Canaria. But as these Islands before this totall Conquest, were by separation broken into two estates, so do they remain at this Day, though now one be subordinate to the other, for Gomera, Lanserote, and Hierra, or Ferro, are resident in private hands, but Cana­ria (where the prime Seat of Justice is fixed, to which all the residue resort as their occasions oblige them) Palma, Teneriffa, and Fuerte Ventura, are at this instant a Limb of that De­measne which makes up the Patrimony of the Crown of Spain.

AMERICA is the next Subject of our Discourse, which if you measure it by parts and proportions, as to the principal Territory of it both for Wealth and Dimension, it is now subservient to the Dominion of the Crown of Spain.

I shall now represent the first Discovery of those parts in the West-Indies, that are now inter­woven with the Demeasne of that Crown; and first Cuba exacts our Consideration.

[Page 93]It was one of the first Islands which was dis­covered by Columbus, who having almost tyred and tortured the Expectation of the Spaniards with increasing hopes, first fell upon Guahanani by Florida one of the Lucaios, to which he gave the name of St. Saviours; and from thence [...]ailed to Baracoa on the North of the Island, which he styled Fernandina in Honour of Ferai­nand the Catholique King of Castile and Arra­gon. The Inhabitants he found rude and igno­rant, not knowing the use of Money, nor un­derstanding the nice Intrigues of Meum and Tuum, being Tenants in Common to those Blessings the Earth by a cheap and easie Birth produced, and Coheirs of Nature: After this about the year 1514. this Island was reviewed by Don Diego de Valasques, by whose prudent con­duct the Spaniards got such footing in it, and made that footing good by so many Colonies, that their Title and Possession was beyond dispute, and so continues until this day.

Hispaniola was fir [...]t Discovered by Columbus, being conducted hither by some of the Natives of Cuba, and having by his civil Compliance endeared the Affections of the Islanders, he ob­tained license of one of the Kings or Caciques to erect a Fortresse here, which he stiled Na­tividad, which he Garrison'd with 36. Spaniards, who upon his departure were butchered by the per [...]idious Natives, and the Fort dismantled. But on his return, being better furnished for a [Page 94] second Plantation, he erected the Town Isabella (stiled so in honour of Isabella Queen of Ca­stile) near the Mines of Cibao; which after­wards was also abandoned and the Colony trans­planted to St. Domingo, which was first built by Bartholomew Columbus, Anno 1494. on the East bank of the Ozama; and afterwards in the Year 1502. removed by Nicholas de Oban­do then Governour of the Island, to the op­posite shore. After this the Spaniards so se­cured this Island with surplusage of Colonies, and so immur'd and chain'd it up with Fortifi­cations, that notwithstanding the various At­tempts of Forreigners, it is still wrapp'd in the Patrimony of the Crown of Spain.

Porto Rico was first touched upon by Christo­pher Columbus in his second Voyage, in the Year 1493. But being deserted by him, it was first Planted and Inhabited by John Ponce de Leon in the Year 1510. who▪ having by a fair deportment obliged Aiguabana the Chief Prince thereof, established a Colony of Spaniards in the North part of the Island, called Caparra; from whence some ten years after, the Colony was transplanted to Guarica; and from thence drawn off to St. Germans; nor did it fixe here, for it was carried away to Porto Rico, now be­come the Chief Town, placed in a little Island, on the North-side the greater, which having been Fortified with two Castles, by the Command and Influence of Philip the first, Anno 1514. [Page 95] it ever since maugre the Assaults and Saccage of the English, hath been rolled up in the In­come of the King of Spain.

Jamaica lieth on the South of Cuba, from which it is divided by a distance of fifteen Leagues. It was Discovered in the second Voy­age of Columbus, who not only entituled the Island St. Jago, but likewise Instituted here a Spanish Colony, which he stiled St. Jago de la Vega, which in some years after was enhaunsed to a higher Reputation and Estimate, when it gave the Title of Dukes to Christopher Columbus, and his Brother Bartholomew. But in Ages sub­sequent to this, the Possession of this Island was not so secur'd to the Spaniard, but that it was Invaded and Conquered in the Year 1596, by Sir Anthony Shirley; but being again abandoned, it remained under the Spanish Obedience; until late years, it was again subdued and quitted by Capt. Jackson, so that it again return'd to con­fesse the Interest of the Spanish Scepter, and continued subservient to that Dominion, untill lately it was snatched away by the English, under the Command and Conduct of Collonel Doiley.

Margarita and Cubagna are two little Islands opposite to Cumana. The first of which was discovered by Columbus in his third Voyage, which was about the Year 1498. And not long after Cubagna, where the Spaniards erect­ed a Colony, which they adopted into the Name [Page 96] of New-Cadiz [...] But in the Year 1521. the Convent of Franciscans on the opposite shore being destroyed by the Savages of Cumana, in­fused so much Terrour and Astonishment into the Spaniards, that they abandoned the Island, and fled to Hispaniola; but were Commanded back again by the Council there under the Command of James de Castellon, by whom the Town was adorned with more Beauty, and improved to more strength than it enjoyed since the first Plantation. Both these Islands were under a signal Repute, and much frequented, whilest the charms & Magick of the Pearl-Fishing did invite the Spaniards hither; but that being decayed, the flourishing condition of these two Islands is shrunk into Neglect, and languished away with it; and the Mid-land parts of these two Islands being destitute of Grasse and Water, and by Consequence, of Cattle, and there being no­thing kept up in Reserve which might attract ei­ther new Resort or Commerce, they quickly grew over-grown with Solitude and Desolation; so that these two Islands have been compar'd to some profuse Gallants, who spend all upon the Back, but nothing upon the Belly, having their out-sides laced with Pearl, but within nothing but Want and Hunger.

The Spanish Interest on the Continent of AMERICA.

PARIA is the first which exacts our No­tice. It is bounded on the East with Guia­na, and the Islands in the Mouth of the River of Orenoque, on the West with the Gulfe or Bay of Venezuela, and part of the new Realm of Granada, on the North with the Atlantick O­cean, or Mare del Noort; the Countries on the South being hitherto not discovered. It is cal­led Paria from its eminent situation, Paria in the American Dialect importing high Hills or Mountains, (for here begins that Chain of Hills which are from thence continued to the Straights of Magellan for the distance of 3600. Miles) Cumana, and Venezuela are Limbs or Provinces of this Paria.

Cumana hath on the East the Gulf of Paria, and the River of Orenoque, on the West Vene­zuela, on the North and South it is circumscri­bed as before. It was first Discovered in the third Voyage of Columbus, but the Possession was first taken by two Dominicans, who out of a zeal to disperse the Mists of Infidelity in Paria, by the Irradiation of the Gospel, established a little [Page 98] Cell in the place, where after in the Year 1513. the Borough of Cumana was erected; and certainly their Religious Intentions had been reduced to perfection, had not the Avarice and Treachery of some Spaniards subverted it, who having brought the Chief of one of their Tribes with his Wife and Train into Captivity, so en­raged the Natives, that nothing but the Death of the two Monks could expiate this Affront; But their Death was recompensed with revenge by Alfonso de Oieda in the Year 1520. but he himself not long after fell a Sacrifice to the Fu­ry of the Savages; and with him perished two Convents of Dominican and Franciscan Friers, which had been established here in the Year 1518. To repair these prejudices, and peece up the Colony, a second Supply is employed hither under the Conduct of Gonsalvo de Ocam­po, who beheads one of their Kings, hangs some of the People and depopulates the Country. But this Force being likewise dissipated and broken, Diego de Castellon is Commanded by the Coun­cil resident in Hispaniola, to secure the Possessi­on of the Country; by whom the Castle first, and secondly the Borough of Cumana was both built and planted. Afterwards the Castle St. Michael de Neueri was erected by Hierome de Ortal, which Fo [...]tifications and Strengths have so asserted the Interest of the Spaniard in this Province, that it is yet under the signory & Scepter of that Monarch.

Venezuela▪ the second Province of Paria, is [Page 99] shut in on the East with Cumana, and on the West it is chained in with the Bay of Venezuela, the Lake of Maracaybo, and the New Realm of Granada. It was first Discovered by Co­lumbus, but first Discoveries being like the De­signs of Chymists in their Quest of [...]old, much in projection but little in perfection; It was afterwards perfected and brought to some accomplishment by Alfonso de Oieda, who ha­ving found a Borough of Savages to which there was no passage feasible but by a Boat, being cir­cumscribed with Waters, he stiled it Venezuela, the Word importing as much as Little Venice. Afterwards John de Anpuez was in the Year 1527. by the Council of Hispaniola employed to secure this Province thus Discovered, with Forts and Colonies, to the Dominion of the the Crown of Spain; and thus it remained un­till Charles the fifth, being obliged by his Ne­cessities, had taken up vast Sums of Money of the Velsers, a wealthy Family of Augspurg, mortgaged this Province to them as their Secu­rity untill they were reimburs'd, and by them was Ambrose Alfinger employed with 400 Foot and 80. Horse, to take Possession; but he and his Sucessors▪ filling the whole Country with Ra­pine and Devastation, the Council of Domingo being zealous in the Reduction of this Pro­vince to perfect Obedience and Civility, de­signed one John de Caravayall in the Year 1545. for that employment, who having out-vied his [Page 100] predecessor in all excesse and disorder, was sup­planted and outed by one John Pe [...]ez de Tolosa, sent over likewise by the Council of Hispaniola, by whose Prudence and Conduct this Province was brought to conform to Order and Govern­ment. In the Year 1550. the Negroe, being transported out of Africk in great Multitudes into this Province, endevoured a Mutiny, but their Treasonable designs being discovered, they were for the most part offered up to the Sword of Justice; after these distempers and concussi­ons the Country was in short time so thorowly planted, and the Natives in their several Tribes so exemplarily encouraged by exempting them from Taxes and other pressures, that Peace, Plenty, and Contentment have ever since waited upon this Province, under the Government of the King of Spain.

Guiana is bounded on the East with the main Atlantick Ocean, on the West it is hem'd in with the Mountains of Peru, or rather some un­discovered Countries interposed betwixt them; on the North with the River of Orenoque, and on the South with that of the Amazons; it is assirmed by Authors of approved Esteem that it is called Wiana from the River Wia, and by the Dutch who cannot melt the W into A, in their Dialect Guiana, the G. being more naturally pro­portioned and shaped to the Genius of their pro­ [...]nciation.

Rio [...]e [...]as Amazones, called likewise Orel­lana, [Page 101] was first discovered by Orellana Lieutenant to Gonzales Pizarro, from whom it extracted its Name: This Pizarro moved with the noise of some rich Countries beyond the Andes, he collected a considerable Force and passed those Mountains (where being necessitated by the want of Provisions (they framed a Boat▪ and employ­ed Orellana abovesaid to bring in Provisions; but the River he engaged in was of that course, that being debarr'd of Return, he obey'd his Fate, and follow'd the Stream from the beginning of January to the end of August 1540. and at last descended into the Sea, and arriving in the Isle of Cubagna sailed into Spain; in his passage some Masculine Women shewed themselves active to oppose his Landing, inter-mixt with Men, and in some places he found Men with long Hair like women; either of which rela­tions might foment that report which affirmed these parts to be held by Amazons. But to re­turn, in the Year 1549. he obtained a Commis­sion from the Court of Spain for the Conquest of these Countries, and immediately undertook the Employment; But though he found one of the Mouthes of the River, yet he could never attaque that Channel, though often attempted, which conducted him before to the Sea. This ill successe, waited on with the losse of his Fame and Fortune, filled him with that Regret and discomposure, that the Lord of Sorrow sunk him into his Sepulchre, having bequeathed to Poste­rity [Page 102] the Honour of the first Discovery. This Enterprize was prosecuted with the same fruit­lesse successe, by one Pedro de Orsna in the Year 1560. since which the Spanish Hopes being blast­ed with these Discouragements, they have a­bandoned the design and given it over.

The Coast and River of Orenoque with the se­veral Nations that dwell on the Margin and Fringes of it, as namely, the Capuri, and Ma­cureos, with the Tivitivas, Assawy, Saymae, Wi­keri, Aroras, and Ar [...]ac [...], were first Discovered by Diego de Ordas, Anno Do [...]. 1531. furnish­ed with a Patent for the Conquest of this Track, by Charles the fifth, but missing the true Chan­nel, and being not able to level those Difficul­ties which did intercept his Design, he returned into Spain, effecting nothing, but opening the way to others. Followed herein by Hierome de Ortal, Anno 1533. and after Anno 1536. by Herrera, who advanced his progresse farther then the others, and finally by Gonsalvo Xi­menes de Quesada: and Antonio Berreo, with more auspicious Fortune waiting upon their de­signs, who commencing their Journy from the new Realm of Granada in the search of Guia­na, sell casually into this great River, as Orella­na did before into that of the Amazons. But yet not perfectly Discovered untill the Year 1595. in which Sir Walter Raleigh having taken Prisoner this Antonio Berreo, and taking an Ac­count of him of his Expedition, resolved up­on [Page 103] the undertaking, and searched so far into the Country, by the course and Conduct of this River, that some have since imposed the Name of Raliana upon it. The businesse next year was prosecuted by Capt. Lawrence Ke [...]is, who by the Influence and employment of Sir Walter Raleigh embarqued himself in that Attempt, but the Spaniard, having unravel'd his Design, dispersed and scattered the Natives which fa­vored the English, and made good their Inte­rest here with such vigorous opposition, that he was forced to return without any other effect of his Journy then the finding out the true Mouth of the River of Orenoque, which owes it self to his Discovery. After this the Spaniards the more to secure their Concernment here, erected St. Thome, situate on the main Channel of the River, a Town consisting in the Bulk of it but of 140. Houses, stretched out in extent (though meanly built) the distance of half a mile, which in the Year 1617. was sack'd by Sir Walter Ra­leigh, not without the losse of his Son and a considerable part of his Forces, who at his re­turn into England, to expiate this Affront offer­ed to the Spaniurd, was excuted upon a former Attainder Octob. 29. 1618. though some Law­yers of that Age did assert, that the investing him by Commission with the power of General, did absolve him from all former guilt of High Trea­son, upon whose Tomb stone the Character dropped upon his Memory by the learned Camb­de [...] [Page 104] in his Annals may be endorsed as an eternal Epitaph; Vir erat nunquam sat is Laudato Stu­dio, & Regiones remot as detegendi, & navalem Gloriam promovendi: And so having opened the Sepulchre of this great Man, I again close it up and leave him in his bed of Rest, and proceed. In the Year 1629. the Town of St. Thome a­bove-mentioned was again Invaded and ransack­ed by the Hollander, but being abandoned not long after, it was repossessed by the Spaniard, and remains in obedience with the Country ad­jacent at this instant under the Crown of Spain,

There is an Island at the Mouth of the River of Orenoque called Trinidado, or Insula Trini­tatis, being situated opposite to Paria, from which it is divided by a Frith or Straight by Co­lumbus, who in his third Voyage Anno 1497. first discovered this Island called Boca del Dra­go, or the Dragons mouth, from the Difficulty and danger of the passage of it, the Frith or Straight is but three miles over, yet made more narrow by the Interposition of four or five lit­tle Islands, which the Sea breaks thorough with great impetuousnesse, leaving only two entran­ces for Shipping into the Gulf, called the Gulf of Paria. There is nothing more memorable in the story and fortunes of this Island, but that it abounds with Maiz, Sugar-canes, Cotten­wooll, excellent Tobacco, sufficiencie of Fruit and Cattel for the use of the Natives, and some Veins of Gold and other Metals, as likewise [Page 105] such abundance of Pitch that innumerable Ships might be laden with it, but that it is conceived to be unfit for the Calking of Ships, because it [...]oftens in the Sun: The principal Town of the Island is St. Joseph's, patch'd up of forty Houses, yet the Spanish Governour who hath here his Re­sidence, besides this Island, stretches his Com­mand (as is intimated by his Titles) over the two Provinces of El Dorado and Guiana.

Paraguay is bounded on the South with Ma­gellanica, on the East with the main Atlantick, on the North with Brasil, on the West it is shut in with some unknown Countries that interpose between it and Chile. It hath borrowed this Appellation from Paraguay one of the greatest Rivers in the World which runneth through this Province, which with the adjacent Country is by the Spaniards christned by the Name of Rio de Plata, from the great abundance of Silver they expected from it.

It is divided into the three Provinces of Rio de Plata, Tucuman, and S. Crux de Sierra. The Soil is productive of Maiz, Wine, Sugar-Canes, and other American Fruits; blest with an increase of Cattel, especially of Kine and Horses brought out of Spain, multiplying here to a strange Improvement: Not unfurnished of Mines of Brasse and Iron, some Veins of Gold and Silver, and great plenty of Amethists. It contains likewise great plenty of Stags, and of Monkeys incredible numbers; not to say any [Page 106] thing of Lions, Tygers, and other such destru­ctive Animals, a few of this noxious Register being thought too many.

These Provinces were first Discover'd by John Diaz de Solis, Anno 1515. Afterwards the Dis­covery was reduced to a more eminent Perfecti­on by a farther prosecution by Sebastian Cabot, in the Year 1526. but wanting that happy Con­clusion that a Design of this nature did seem to exact, its Discovery was reassum'd by Pedro de Mendosa in the Year 1535. but still his under­takings were not so matur'd and digested but that they were left to be brought to a final period by Alvarez Nonnez, who in the Year 1540. ha­ving fully perfected the Discovery and Conquest of these Territories, hath left the Possession e­ver since to be enjoyed by the succeeding Kings of Spain.

Chile is shut in on the North with the Desart of Alacama extended 90. Leagues in length, interposing betwixt it and Peru, on the West with Mare del Zur, on the South with the Straights of Magellan, and on the East as far as to Rio de la Plata, with the main Atlantick Ocean.

The Soile hereof towards the Midland is Mountainous and unfruitfull, towards the Sea­side levell and fertile, made so by Rivers distil­ling from the Mountains, productive of Maiz, Wheat, and excellent Pasturage, not defective in plenty of Gold, abundance of Hony, store of [Page 107] Cattel, and Wine enough for the use of the peo­ple; the Vines and all other Plants which are transported hither out of Spain, enriching the Industry of the Inhabitants with a thriving and successful Fertility. The People are of a white Complexion, but shaggy Hair'd like the rest of the Savages, of a tall and Gigantick stature, well conditioned and qualified unlesse provoked, they are Armed with Bows and Arrows, and are atti­red with the Skins of Beasts, the Climate exact­ing it; this Country being called Chile from the word Chill, which in more Tongues than ours, doth signifie Cold; indeed the Air of this Terri­tory is so exposed to the violence of Frosts, that many times both Horses and Men are con­gealed, and hardned like a peice of Marble.

It is divided into Chile, properly so called, and Magellanica. The first Province was disco­vered by Almagro de Alvarado, but Conque­red by Baldivia, Anno 1544. And he with the concurrent Assistance of Garcias de Mendoza, the more to secure the Spanish Acquists in this Track, about the Year 1551. strewed it with the Colonies of Serena, St. Jago Delos Confines, Imperiale (so stiled by the Spaniards, because they found on the Dores of some Houses an Ea­gle insculped in wood, the Relique perchance of some German Ship-wrack) Villa Rica, Baldi­via Osor [...]o, Castro, St. Juan de la Frontera, and other Colonies; and though the Savages (worried by some Affronts of the Spaniards) flew to Arms, [Page 108] and not only in a successful Encounter slew Bal­divia, but about the Years 1599. and 1604. being better furnished with Military provisions, Sacked the Town of Baldivia, forced Imperial [...] to surrender without Conditions, and reduced Osorno by Famine, yet in Times subsequent to this, the Spaniards so vindicated their Interest here, that a considerable part of this Province is yet held in Obedience to the Spanish Scepter.

Magellanica is a Province which for the most part is not onely interlaced and bunch'd out with Mountains, but condemned to Cold and Barrennesse, abounding with Men of a huge proportion and Gigantick Stature. It was sti­led so from the dangerous Gulf or Straight which washes the South parts of it, and was Disco­vered by Ferdinand Magellan 1520. But the first discovery being imperfect, it was endevour­ed to be improved by Don Pedro de Sarmiento, who entered the Gulf 1584. and planted two Colonies on the most convenient parts of that Straight which he named Nombre de Jesus, and Cividad del Roy Philip, which he resolv'd to for­tifie and store with Canon. But Winter ap­proaching, he left his Men, promising to supply them upon his return with a Recruit of necessa­ry Provisions to inforce their increasing hopes; but after struggling with many Storms, Ship­wrecks, and disappointments, his unhappy Fate cast him into Captivity under Sir Walter Ra­leigh, so that his two Plantations shrunk into [Page 109] Ruine, the men either mouldering away with Diseases, or else being destroyed by the Savages; so that the Design of Planting this Province hath ever since been abandoned.

Peru is bounded on the Fast with that vast Chain of Mountains they call the Andes on the West with Mare del Zur, on the North with some part of the Realm of New Granada, on the South with Chile. It hath extracted its Name from the River Peru, which being one of the first of Note the Spaniards met with in their pur­suit of this Country, invited them to impose this Name upon the whole.

It is divided into the Plains, the Mountainous Countryes, and the Andes; all of so different a Nature one from the other, as if they were far distant, both in sight and soile; the Plains ex­tended on the Sea-shore are in all places levell without Hills, the Andes a continual Ridge of Hills without any vallies, the Hill-Countryes are composed of both. In the Plains it seldom raines; on the Andes almost continually; on the Hill Countries rain distils from September to A­pril, and then is ushered in a constant Fair Wea­ther. In the Hill Countries the Summer begins in April and concludes in September. In the Plaines their Summer Commences from October and Determines in Aprill. The Andes are clothed with Woods and Forrests, but the Hill-Countries are bare and naked; the Plains though refreshed with store of Rivers, [Page 110] are yet dry, barren and sandy. In some parts of the Hill-Countries though there is a destitution of Rivers and Rain but seldome, there is a co­pious production of Roots, Maiz-fruit, and all other necessaries: In the Plaines there never blows any but the Southern Wind, though it is the harbinger to no Rain; In the Hills the Winds breath from every quarter and Coast, and of every Nature, some ushering in raine, some snow, some claps of Thunder, and some again being the parent of fair weather. As for the Country it self though it be productive of a narrow Increase of Wheat, yet is it of a large plenty of Roots (the principal food of the In­habitants) some proportion of Maiz, and plen­ty of Cocas, the Leaves whereof being dried and formed into Lozenges, are exceeding use­ful in a journey, for melting in the mouth they appease both hunger and thirst, and preserve a man in his strength, and his Spirits in vigor; and though the Cattel of Europe brought hither in a considerable quantity, are not multiplyed to any great increase, yet is that defect supplied by Beasts called Vicagues, in Resemblance some­what like a wilde Goat, which in infinite num­bers graze in their woods and pastures; and great store of Sheep by the Natives called Pacos, profitable for Fleece and Burden, as big as a small breed of Horses, but in relish as pleasing as our Mutton, and no lesse conducing to nu­triment. A Creature so well acquainted with his own abilities, that when he is over-pressed [Page 111] with a burden, no force or violence shall engage him to move forward untill his load be abated; and of so cheap a Diet, that very litle suffices him, passing sometimes for the continuance of three dayes without any water.

Nor is the Peruvian Fig-tree to be forgoten, the North-part of which respecting the Moun­tains produces its Fruits in Summer onely; the Southern part having an aspect upon the Sea, is fruitful onely in Winter: and secondly that Beast called the Huanacu, exacts our Remem­brance, of that regard to their Females that the Males stand sentinel on the hills, whilest they are feeding in the vallies, and if any men ap­proach, they by some clamorous notice intimate to them the invasion, and if they are pursued they descend to bring up the rear, that by in­terposing their own bodies, they may secure their retreat from danger. Another plant the Rela­tions of Peru informe us of, but do not disco­ver the name, which being placed in the hand of a sick man will by some Symptomes give te­stimony whether he shall live or die, for if on the pressing of it his Visage be Cheerful, it is an assured sign of his recovery; as otherwise, if sad and troubled, a certain index of ensuing death. Nor is Peru defective in Rarities of Nature even in things inanimate, for here is affirmed to be a Lake near the Mines of Pot [...]si, whose wa­ter is so hot, though the circumabient Region be exceeding cold, that they who bath themselves [Page 112] are not able to sustain its Heat if they depart and wade some distance from the Bank, there being a Boyling in the midst of above twenty Foot square; a Lake which never does decrease though they have drawn a considerable stream to be subservient to their Mines of Silver.

As for the Inhabitants, they are people of no great knowledge, yet great Dissemblers, being ne­ver drawn to discover their conceptions freely. They are ignorant of Letters, but bold in War, and dexterous in the managery of those Wea­pons they have been accustomed to, nor do they resent Death with any Fear, being prompted to this Confidence by an Opinion that after Death they shall eat, drink, and make their Love & ad­dresses to Women. At the Funeral of any e­minent person they offer up one or two of his Servants as an Oblation to his Sepulchre (being egged on to this inhumanity by the former opi­nion) to attend him in the world to come. In their Habit they are conformable to other Sa­vages, onely those attire their upper parts with some decent Garment, but expose the other Members to publique view, being bare and na­ked. But this is onely near the Aequator, both Sexes else wearing Mantles pendulous to their feet, Habited generally in one Fashion, un­lesse in the Attire of their Heads, wherein they almost all disagree from each other, each retain­ing his mode to himself. The Women here are treated as Slaves, and sometimes upon trivial [Page 113] Accidents cruelly beaten, the Men being prompted to this Barbaritie by being given up to Sodomie, and other unnatural uncleannesse.

Peru is divided into Quito, a Province of a fertile Soile well stored with Cattel, plentifully furnished with Fish and Fowl, great quantity of Nitre, and replenished with Rivers, some of which have their sand enamelled with veins of Gold; the people are strong and healthy, industrious in the making of Cottens almost proportionate to Silk in finenesse, but given to dissembling, the disorders of drink, and other vices, which renders it difficult to reclaim them from their ancient Barbarisme, and makes them unapt for any Tincture or impression of the Christian Faith. Secondly, Los Quix [...]s, some­what more barren then Quit [...], whose people have distinct a Tongue of their own, though they both understand and speak the common Per [...]vi­an Language. Thirdly, Lima or Los Reys, en­nobled with the Mines of Castro Verreyna, from whence is extracted Silver of the purest Com­plexion. Fourthly, Cusco, a Province blest with a calme and temperate Air, not fretted or o­ver-scalded with the scorching reflections of the Sun, nor made drowsy & dull with the distempers of Evening Mists, and whose Soile is full of Rivers and Pasturage, which makes it to be fur­nished with Deer and other Herds of Cattel; nor is it wanting in Coca which is here gather­ed in some abundance, or defective in Mines [Page 114] of Gold or Quick-silver, very subservient to the easie extraction and purifying of the for­mer noble Metal; the first being discovered at St. Juan del Ore in the Valley of Carravayan, and the second being traced out in the year 1566 near the Town of Guancabelica. Fifthly, Callao, a Country well stored with fertile Pastures, and those pastures furnished with Herds of Cattel, but barren of Corn, and not well furnished with Maiz, whose defect is supplied by Bread composed of a Root call'd Ropa, dryed in the Sun bruised to powder; Its Inhabitants are of a more clear and solid Judgement then the rest of Peru, and so dextrous in the observations of the Course of the Moon, that the Spaniards upon their first Discovery of this Province, found the Year distinguished into Months, Days, and Years, for each of which they had a pro­per and significant Name. In this Province is the so much fam'd Lake of Titicaca, in which twelve Rivers are reported to lose themselves, in compasse 80. Leagues, and usually Naviga­ble with Barks and Ships; the waters are not so salt as that of the Sea, but so thick that they are in no capacity to be drank. By a fair wa­ter-course or River i [...] glides into a lesse Lake called Aulaga, and thence most probably by some indistinguishable recesses empties it self into the Sea. Sixthly, Los Ch [...]rc [...]s, a Province not very plentiful in Corn or Cattel, though in many places furnished with excellent Pasturage; [Page 115] but its eminence arises from the inexhaustible Mines of Porco and P [...]tosi, which makes it to be unparrallel'd with any Province in Peru. The Mine of Potosi is two hundred Fathom deep, to which they do descend with Ladders made of raw Hides eight hundred steps, some of the Workmen not seeing the Sun many months together. For the refining of this Silver there are 52. Engines or Silver-mills upon a River near unto it, 22. more in the Valley of Tarapia near adjoyning, besides many which they turn with Horses; and from these Peruvian Mines as from some bottomlesse Exchequer does the King of Spain load that Fleet whence he ex­tracts so much Income and profit.

Peru and the Provinces circumscribed within the Limits of it were discovered and conquered from Arabaliba the Inga or Emperour of Peru by Pizarr [...] & his Complice Diego de Almagr [...] 1528. first of which (more to secure his Con­quests) erected Lima, Truxillo (named so from Truxillo a Village in Navarre where Pizarr [...] was born and educated) Arned [...] and other Colo­nies, but yet the Conquest was not so perfect­ed by these two Commanders above-mention­ed, but that Gil [...]s Ramirez first in the Year 1559▪ and Don Francis de Toledo afterwards in the Year 1565. by Building of Oropes [...] in Char­ra [...], and establishing Colonies in the other Pro­vinces, brought this vast Kingdome to the full Obedience of the Spanish Scepter.

[Page 116] Nova Granada, or the new Realm of Gra­nada is shut in on the North with Castella Au­rea, on the West with Mare del Zur, on the East with Venezuela, on the South with the Hills and unpassible Mountains and Countries not yet discovered. It is divided into Granada, pro­perly so called, and Popayna.

Granada hath an Air well tempered, the Country is full of Woods, amongst which Gui­a [...]um so medicinable for the Malady of France, grows in great abundance; the soil is of great fertility, well stored with Corn and Pasturage, which affords a Feeding to many Herds of Cat­tell; it is enriched likewise with some veins of Gold and other Metals, and that part which is called Tunia exhibits plenty of Emeralds. The People are tall and strong of Constitution, but not very industrious, they wholly devoting their time to Songs and Dances. The Women are of a white and more clear Complexion than their Neighbours, and more handsomely atti­red, being apparelled in Black or party-colour­ed Mantles girt about their middles, their Hair [...]ied up and covered with Chaplets artificial­ly composed and intermixed with Flowers.

Popayna is a Country which being over-cloid with rain produces little Maiz, lesse Wheat, and almost no Cattel. The People were anci­ently Man-eaters and as rude as any, now more industrious and accostable than the other Americans, especially about Popayana where [Page 117] the Soile is better tempered then in other places.

Both these Provinces were reduced to the Signorie of Spain by Gonsalvo Ximines de Que­sada and Sebastian de Betalcasar, the first sub­ [...]ued Granada 1536. and the last mastered Po­payana not long after, and styled it so from the Name of a King which then Governed it at the Conquest by the Command and Influence of Francis Pizarro Governour of Peru.

Castilia del Oro is bounded on the East and North with Mare del Noort, on the West with Mare del Zur, and some part of Veragua, on the South with the New Realme of Granada. It is divided into Panama Darie [...]e, Nova An­dalusia, St Martha, and Rio de la Hach.

Panama hath an Air foggy but exceeding hot, and consequently, the Soil is either Mountain­ous and barren, or Low and mirey; naturally uncapable of Grain, and productive onely of Maiz, and that but sparingly; more devoted to pasturage & the goodness of it: upon the first ap­proach of the Spaniard, the Country was almost over-run with Swine, but being destroyed, that Nation now complains as much of their defect, as they did before of their abundance. As for the Inhabitants, most of the old stock being almost rooted out by the Spanish Massacres, and no new ones planted in their room, the Country in all parts, except towards the Sea, is almost desolate and forsaken.

Darie [...]e hath an Air well tempered and a [Page 118] fruitful Soil, very happy in the production of Melons and other Fruits, ripening here in twen­ty Dayes after they are sown, and with the same felicity does it yeild an increase of Grapes, either congenial hereunto, or else transported from Europe. A Tree here is called Hov [...] whose Shade is reputed so wholsome that the Spaniards covet to sleep under the shadow; out of the Blos­soms they distill a perfumed water; out of the Bark they compose a Bath prevalent to open the pores and redresse wearinesse; and out of the Roots they extract a Liquor fit for Bever­age; of Beasts and Fowl both wilde and tame, there is exceeding plenty, and some of them not discoverable in other places.

Nova Andalusia is Mountainous and full of Woods, but those woods abound with great store of Rosin-gums, and [...]ome kind of Balsams. Here is said to be a Tree which whosoever touches is in danger to contract a Ruine by poy­son. Our Europian Fruits transplanted hither prosper not, because the Soile being obnoxious to abundance of Rain, becomes moist and sog­gie. This Province is interlaced with few veins of Gold, onely in that part of it which is called Zena; the Spaniards at their first Arrival found much Treasure not digg'd out of the Entrails of the Earth, but deposited in the Tombs and Repositories of the Dead, such being the repu­ted Sanctity of this Region, that the border­ing Nations brought their Dead to be Enterred [Page 119] here, with great quantity of Gold, Jewels, and other Riches. The Natives were fierce and bold whilst they were a People, but being wasted in those Contests which intervened be­tween them and the Spaniards, the populacy of this Province is now thin and empty, and their Courage much broken and debased.

St. Martha hath a Soil barren and unfruit­ful not capable of Pasturage or Tillage, it being made knotty by a long Ridge of Mountains, called by the Spaniards, La [...] Sierras Nievadas, or the Snowy Hills; yet notwithstanding the Air which hovers on the Sea-Coast is in its temper Hot and Scalding, though it be again fann'd and qualified with the Breezes of the Mid-land parts which are Cold and Freezing; which combinati­on of Heat and Cold, peradventure renders the Soile productive of Limons, Oringes, Pom­granates, and such other fruits as are transplan­ted or transported out of Spain. The Inhabi­tants are affirmed to be of a rough and Arrogant Nature, some of whom by the advantage of the Mountains of Tairona, called so from a Neighbouring Valley of that name, have pre­served their Liberty against the Spaniard; the residue, though they retain their several Kings are yet in subjection to the Spaniard; whose Go­vernment they submit to with much unwilling­nesse and Regret.

Rio de la Hacha is a fifth Province which summons our Notice. It is a Territory of a [Page 120] small circuit, confining on the North-east of St. Martha, environed on two sides with the main Ocean, and on the third, which is that of the East, shut in with the spacious Arm of the Sea called Golfo de Venezuela, the extremities here­of North west, have borrowed the Denomi­nation of Cabo la Vela, and those on the North-East the Appellation of Cabodi Coqui Boccoa.

The whole Province borrowed its Name from the Town and River of La Hacha, which though it be but narrow in its Dimension and Estimate, yet is it big enough to afford a Title to so small a Province. The Soil which embra­ces the Town is exceeding rich, giving Increase to all such Plants as are transported from Spain, being enamelled with Veins of Gold, studded with some Gems of much worth, value, and virtue, and likewise well replenished with Wi­ches which are fitted and proportioned to the production of excellent Salt: The Inh [...]bitants both in the Dimension of Body and Qua­lity of nature differ not much from those of St. Martha, from which this Province is divorced by no great distance. Panama, Nova Anda­lusia, and Dariena, now annexed to Panama, were first Discovered on the North-side by Co­lumbus about the Year 1508. Dariena and Pa­nama were afterwards imperfectly Conquered by Didaco Ni [...]uesa; and Nova Andalusia as lamely subdued by Alfonso Oreda: But the [Page 121] Complete and perfect Reduction of these Pro­vinces to the Obedience of the Crown of Spain, in whose Patrimony they have been ever since resident, was reserved to the Victories of Euci­sus, Balboa, and Pedro d'Avila.

The two Praefectures of St. Martha, and Rio de la Hacha, were brought under the Domi­nion of the Spanish Scepter by the Successful ma­nagery of the Arms of that Nation by Francisco Vasquez; and being thus reduced, have been ever since constantly subservient to the Com­mands and Interest of the Successive Monarchs of Spain.

Guatimala is environed on the North with Jucutan and the Gulf of Honduras, on the South with Mare del Zur, on the East with Ca­stilia del Oro, on the West with New Spain. It is resolved into six more subordinate Provin­ces, namely, Chiapa, Verapaz, Guatimala properly so called, Honduras, Nicaragua, and lastly Veragu [...].

Chiapa hath a Soil not very productive of Corn or Fruit, though that Valley which is con­tiguous to the Town of Chiapa is well reple­nished with Pears, Apples, Wheat, and Maiz; Herbs, Beans, and Lentils transported from Spain thrive here to a plentiful increase, yet Vines seldome arrive here to any maturity, though Wood-vines there are besides, which af­ford a pleasant Pulpe, and if they were well managed might repay the Labourers Industry [Page 122] with a nobler profit. Their Trees, as Pines, Oakes, Cedars, and the Cypresse are of greater dimension then in other places; here are entire Woods of Walnut-trees, but the nut is not of that quantity as those of Europe; some Trees distil Rosin, some such Balsamick-gums as in o­ther parts are not Customary, and some there are whole leaves being dry'd into powder, contribute a soveraign Plaister against inveterate Ulcers: And indeed this Country being stored with Snakes and other venomous Creatures, doth of­ten exact such defensatives against their poyson which is fatally deadly. Here is a considerable production of Cochineele.

The Inhabitants are more devoted to Musick, and become more exact in Painting than the rest of the Natives.

Verapaz is a Province distinguished into e­minent Hills and deep Vallies, but defective in Fruitfull Valleys. It is generally over­spread with Woods very large and thick, which so disturb the free passage of the Winds, that the air is much exposed to showers, inso­much that Nine months in the year are moist with continual Raine, nor are the other three altogether secure from it; which excesse of moi­sture engenders many Mesqueto's injurious and destructive to Fruit, with which, and with Fish and other necessaries this Province is redundant. In stead of Mines of Gold and Silver not yet dis­covered, some Trees here pour out a kind of [Page 123] Amber, which the Natives style Liquid Amber; some Mastick and other Gums; nor is here any defect of Medicinal woods, as Sarsa-parilla, China, and many others of the like Nature.

The Natives are tractable in their Confor­mity to the Spanish Discipline, unlesse the Le­ [...]andones and Pachuteci, being some broken re­mains of the Ancient Salvages, who immuring themselves in the craggy Fastnesses of this Coun­try, have at once asserted their Native Freedom against the onsets of the Spaniards, and retained their ancient Idolatry, there being but fourteen Villages in all this Province in which the Spani­ards have mingled with the Old Inhabitants.

Guatimala properly so called, is a Province not only embost with Mountains, but likewise interlaced with many Rive [...]s, which renders the Country commodious both for Fishing and Hunting. Productive it is of Wheat, Maiz, and other Provisions not durable; it is not so much exposed to Raine, as the neighbouring Pro­vin [...]e of Verapaz, but more infested with winds. It contains plenty of rich and fertile Pastures, and those covered with great Herds of Cattel. It contributes store of Cotten-wooll, some Bal­sam and other medicinable Liquors; it trans­mits the best Sulphur, and other healthful Drugs, whose Register I am ignorant of. The People are full of Fear and Pusilanimity, yet seem greater poficients in Christianity and Civility then the Residue of the Salvages, yet very prone [Page 124] to relapse again to Paganisme and Infidelity, and as propense to revive again their old Barbarous Customes, if the curb of Power and bridle of Authority, did not with an awfull Fear restrain this Apostacy. The Men are affirmed to be dextrous in Archerie, and the Women skilful in Spinning.

Honduras is a fourth Province of Guatimala, a Country so swoln with Hills or depressed with Vallies, that it affords little Champaigne, yet is productive of Maiz and Wheat, and of rich Pasturage, improved to that Fertility by the con­stant over-flowings of their Rivers about Mi­chaelmas. Some Mines of Gold are affirmed to be wrapped up in the Entrails of the Earth not yet discovered; the Inhabitants being made so unactive with Sloth and Idlenesse, that they had rather subsist by Roots, the common stock of Nature, then by the more industrious design of Tillage, and therefore not easily charmed to toyle for others, that will not Labour for their own necessities.

Nicaragua is a fifth Province which claims our consideration. It is a Country destitute of Rivers unlesse where it is linked to Costa Ric [...], which is it self marshall'd under the Notion of a Province. The defect of which is supplied by a great Lake called the Lake of Nicaragua, one hundred and twenty Leagues in compasse, ebbing and flowing like the Sea. It is not much enriched with Corn, but abounding in Herds of [Page 125] Cattell, who have a Soil to graze on Levell and champaign, but cooled with the shadow of fre­quent Trees; one amongst the residue is of that nice Constitution, that a man cannot touch it in any part but it pre [...]ently withers. Vulgar relations assert this Province to be as well re­plenished with Parrots as England with Crows; It is stored with plenty of Cotten-wooll, and a numerous product of Sugar-canes. Indeed the Country is so ennobled with all things that may either improve Delight or contribute to Necessi­ty, that the Spaniards have imposed upon it the Title of Mahomet's Paradise. The Inhabi­tants are generally knowing in the Spanish Dia­lect, to the Garb, Behaviour and Apparel of which Nation they willingly conforme them­selves; well retriv'd from their old Barbarous Customes, which are still retained by those Mountainers, they call Cho [...]tales. They are all of a considerable Stature, and of a Complexi­on indifferently white. Before their reduction to Christianity, they were knit together by a poli­tique Form of Government, onely as the Ro­mans had no determined Law or punishment for a man that destroyed his Father, so had these none for the Killer of a King, both of them judging that men could not be so unnatural as to act either Parricide or Regicide. A Theif they condemned not to Death, but decreed he should be Slave to that person he had injured, till by his Service his crime was expiated with [Page 126] just satisfaction: A course both prudential and merciful.

Veragua is the last Province in Guatimala which extracts our Inspection. The Name which was imposed upon it, was extracted from Vera­gua, the most considerable River in it at the first Discovery. This Country is knotted with Mountains, and has a Soil condemned to Bar­rennesse, in no capacity for Tillage, and lesse useful for the feeding of Cattel, yet is sufficient­ly productive of Maiz and Herbage, but else very thrifty in other necessaries which conduce to the Life of Man; but to recompense this Ingrateful Indigencie and penury of Soil, the Bowels of the Earth treasure up in their Cells and gloomy Repositories, as in some inexhausti­ble Exchequer, never perishing Mines of Gold and Silver.

The Inhabitants are of a Warlike and Irre­fragable spirit, sufficiently testified by their un­daunted Courage in bearing the Spanish Yoke with that Regret and reluctancy as they do at this instant; it being observable, that the most untameable and untractable Nations have been the Inhabitants of Woody and Mountainous Countryes; the last being Bulwarks cast up at Gods own charges to secure them from the onsets of any forraign violence.

This Country entitles its Discovery to di­verse men, according to the several Members and Divisions of it; Veragua, though the last of [Page 127] these Provinces which were conquered, had the Honour to be first visited by Columbus, who in the Year 1502. driving up and down on these Coasts was cast on the Entrances of that River on which he afterwards imposed the Name of [...]elen, where (hearing that there was Golden Treasures in the Mines of Hurira not far di­stant) he intended to fortifie; But his Designs being superseded by a Defect of provisions to to sustain his followers, the further discovery of Guatimala was abandoned, being reserved to the fortunate and vigorous undertaking of Ferdinand Corte [...], who having fully setled and composed the Affairs of Mexico, determined to make the residue of America bow to the Commands of the Spanish Scepter. And to re­duce these Intentions of his to perfection, he employed his Officers and Commanders into se­veral parts, Guatimala was discovered and re­duced by Pedr [...] de Alvarado; Honduras was Conquered by Christopher de Olid; Nicaragua and Verag [...]a were subdued by Gonsalvo de Cor­duba; and lastly, Vera Paz was won to Chri­stianity, and the Spanish Obedience together, by the Preaching of some D [...]minican Friers of that Nation. But Cortez distrusting that some new Revolt or Defection might tear these Pro­vinces from the Spanish Dominion, resolved to secure his new Concernments by a personal Vi­sit; and to fortifie, and second this Design in the Year 1524. he collected a Body of fifteen hun­dred [Page 128] Horse, and as many Spanish Foot, with an Addition of Three thousand Mexicans, and ad­vancing into Guatimala, he continued his pro­gresse as far as Truxillo, where finding that Gon­salvo de Cordova had so composed Affairs, that there was no farther need of his Conduct or Assistance, he with his little Army in the Year 1526. retreated to Mexico, leaving these Pro­vinces before recited, firmly fastned and an­nexed by an happy Conquest (as they have continued ever since) to the Dominion and Command of the Diadem of Spain.

Nova Hispania.

NOva Hispania is circumscribed on the East with a spacious Arm of the Sea called the Bay of New Spain, and the Gulf of Mexico; on the West it is shut in with some parts of Nova Gallicia and Mare del Zur; on the North with another part of Nova Gallicia, some part of Florida and the Gulf; on the South with Mar [...] del Zur, or the South Sea; from the Discovery of these new Acquists, the Kings of Spain style themselves Reges Hispaniarum, in the Plural number.

The Air of this whole Continent, as to the generality or principall part of it, is temperate [Page 129] enough, though placed under the Torrid Zone, the Heat being much qualified by the Fannings of those continual Breezes which breath upon it from three Confines of the Sea; this Refrige­rium or abatement of Heat being much inforc'd by that continual Flux of Rain which distils up­on the Earth in those hotter months of June, Ju­ly and August. The entrails of this Soile trea­sure up in themselves Mines of Gold and Silver, and some of Brasse and Iron; Nor is the Sur­face of it more ungrateful to the Industry of the Inhabitants, here being a copious plenty of Wheat, Barly, Pulse of all sorts, and of such plants and roots as are nourished for the use of the Kitchin, Maiz in a fertile quantity; nor is the production lesse of other plants unknown to Europe; Pomgranats, Oringes, Limons, Citrons, Malacatons, Figs and Cherries, do here enrich their owners even with superfluous increase; Apples and Pears are more thrifty in their fer­tility, and Grapes no lesse, and those which ar­rive to Maturity are unfit for the Composition of Wine. Of Beasts and Birds both wilde and [...]ame, there is a fruitful Account: but that which most ennobles it is the plenty of Coco-nuts, the abundance of Cassia, and the wonderful Increase of Cochineel, which hath been improved to that quantity, that Five thousand six hundred and seventy Arroba's of it (each Arroba compre­hending Twenty five Bushels of our English measure) have been transported into Europe, [Page 130] [...] Drug of a very inconsiderable Extraction, for it grows upon a small Tree or Shrub shadowed with thick Leaves called a Tuna, in their Insti­tution planted and order'd as the French do their Vines, out of the Seed hereof issues a Worme, in its bulk, when extended to the greatest pro­portion not exceeding our Lady-cows, whom they much resemble; which receiving their food from the Leaves, and over-spreading the ground with their number, are collected into heaps twice in the Year by the Natives, stifled with Ashes, or mortified with Water, and after this Tragedy, being dried and reduced into powder, make up that Cargo which is transported into Europe. Nova Hispania is distinguished into six Provinces, the Register of which follows, namely Panuco, Mexicana, Mechoacan, Tlasca­la, Guaxata, and Jucutan.

All which are not alike in all places as to the Constitution of the Soil and Air, which is so different in these Provinces, that in such▪ parts of them as are hot and dry, their Seed time is in April or May, their Harvest in October; but in that Division of this Continent as is low and moist, they entrust their Corn to the Earth in October, and reap its product in April or May; thus two▪ Harvests in a year, (and yet but one if we consider their alternate and successive Vicessitudes) in this Region are the Result of the Husband-mans industrious Tillage.

The Ancient and Original Inhabitants of this [Page 131] Track were the Chichimeca's and Ottomies, who were disseised by the Navatlacos, resolv'd [...]nd digested into seven Tribes, which are thus Registred in their Catalogue, the Sachimilci, [...]he Chalchae, the Tepenecae, the Culvae, the Tla­ [...]uici, the Tlascaltecae; all of which were setled [...]n this Track, and five of them upon the Mar­ [...]in of the Lake of Mexico, before the Eruption of the Mexicans, so styl'd from Mexi their prin­ [...]ipal Leader, who much charmed with the Con­ [...]eniences and situation of Temistitan, a City then [...]n [...]ombed in a Heap of ruines, caused it to be [...]eedified and adopted it into his own Family, [...]tyling it Mexico, which afterwards grew the Metrapolis of this Common-wealth; the Chiefs of six of the Tribes managing the publique affairs [...]n common after the fashion and mould of an Aristocratical Common-wealth, but the Ty­ [...]annical prevalency of some Tribes having by [...]n over-poize made the Power unequal, the Mexicans, one of the most inconsiderable Tribes, [...]eing grated upon by the unjust and uneven pressures of the rest, separated themselves from the main Body, and resigned up the Admini­stration and sway of their Affairs to a King of their own, at first elected by themselves; but when the prosperity of their prevailing Arms had cast all these Tribes but Tlas [...]alla, under the Scepters of Acamapitzli, Vitzovitzli, Hulzi [...]ihuiel, Chimal Pupuca, Iscoalt, Mote­zuma, and others of their succeeding Kings, [Page 132] the choice of the Mexican Monarchs was en­trusted unto Six, who as a Common-Council or Senate represented the six Tribes above-menti­oned, and they still lodged the Election upon the most Active and Magnanimous, and who were chiefly fitted for Military Designs and un­dertakings.

Although this spacious Province be not bar­ren in Rarities, as namely, two Mountains, one in the Province of Mexico, which vomits out Fire, the second in that of Guaxata, which disgo [...]ges from its heated Entrails two Burning Streams, one of Red Pitch, the other of Black; yet the principal which exacts our Notice, is that which they call Magney or Meto, a Tree which they both plant and dresse as we do our Vines; it hath on it forty severall distinctions of Leaves, which when tender, they compose into Conserves, Paper, Flax, Mantles, Mats, Shooes, Girdles and Cordage; and these Leaves are armed with prickles so strong and pungent, that the people use them in stead of Saws. From the Top of the Tree issues a Juice in consistence like a Syrrup, which upon Decoction puts on the shape of an Hony; and if purified, the form of Sugar, out of which they extract both Wine and Vinegar. Out of the Bark, being roasted, is drawn a convenient Plaister for wounds, bruises and sores; and from the highest of the Bowes distils an unctuous Juice like a Gum, which is a Soveraign Antidote to chastise the malignity of [Page 133] Poyson. But I have digressed, I now return to the description of those Provinces above men­tioned; and first Panuco obviates our discovery, so called from Panuco the Chief River of it, which bubling out of the Hills of Tepecsuan, bordering upon Cinoloa and Couliacan, and di­viding New Biscay from the Province of Zoco­tecas, glides through the middle of this Pro­vince, and so at last after many traverses disem­bogues it self into the Gulf of Mexico.

It is divided into three lesser Provinces called Aiotuxetlan, Chila, and a Third whose Name is not yet discovered. The Soil is in some parts fruitful and productive of Mines of Gold, in others again lesse pregnant, and in the last Pro­vinces dry and unpleasant, being condemned to Barrenness & infertility not from any intrinsique defect in the Soil, but rather (as its thought) from a want of Inhabitants to cultivate the Earth, who being active and couragious, rather than they would bow their necks to a Forraign Servitude, have been almost rooted out in those Contests and Encounters which were waged between them and Cortez the Spanish General.

Mechoacan, the second Province, hath ex­tracted its Name from that plenty of Fish their abundance of Rivers and Lakes afford them, the word importing in the Native Idiome Locus Piscosus or a Country of Fish. It is ennobled with an Air so sweet and salubrious, that Dis­eased people repair thither from distant Coun­tries [Page 134] to retrive their Health, which is likewise promoted and inforced by the use of those me­dicinable hot Baths which issue from Rocks and other craggy Repositories. The Soil is plenti­fully productive of Grain even to admiration. It is well Wooded and full of excellent Pastures, which are improved by the multiplicity of Springs and Rivers, nor does it yeild to any part of America for Herbs and Plants of an act­ive and Medicinal nature in the Conquest and expulsion of Diseases. It is likewise redundant with Amber, Mulbery-trees, Wax, Hony, and such other things as are subservient both to Pompe and Pleasure. The Inhabitants are tall, strong, and active, of no contemptible Ingenu­ity, as being dextro [...]s in the Contexture of many Manufactures, more pliant to the man­ners and Habit of the Spanish Nation than any of the Natives of New Spain, the Mexicans on [...]ly excepted, and of so propense an inclina­tion to Christianity, that by planting many Parishes, and establishing many Convents of Dominican and Augustine Friers amongst them they are almost rescued from their old habituated Idolatry.

Mexicana is the third Province which obli­ges our consideration. The Soil abundantly sup­plyes not only the Inhabitants, but likewise nu­merous Herds of Cattel, with plenty of Ali­ment; nor is it defective in Fruits, of which there is a liberal production. The Inhabitants [Page 135] are industrious as to the care of their common Subsistence, which commonly is supported by their copious Stock of Cattel, of which some private persons abound to such store, that their Register amounts to Forty thousand Kine and Oxen: Nor are they lesse dextrous in extracting a livelyhood from Fish, of which last they draw out such plenty from the Lake of Mexico alone, that the profits arising from this Trade swell to a volume of Twenty thousand Crowns paid yearly into the King of Spain's Exchequer: They are ingenious likewise in those Mechanical Arts which here are professed, growing good Handy­craftsmen, if they stoop so low as to Trades; be­coming rich Merchants, if they apply them­selves to a more noble and profitable Com­merce; and waxing hardy and valiant Soldiers, if they are disciplin'd and imployed in Service, having in Times of more high ascent, very well managed the Sling and Arrowes their ancient Arms, and in these modern Ages as vigorously (being enured to it by their Spanish Conquer­ours) weild the Harcubuize and Pike which are their new. But the greatest Glory and Fame which both now & anciently did accrue to them, was their exquisite perfection in composing their Feather Pictures, turning every feather to the Light every way, upwards and downwards, to discover in what posture it will best fit the place intended for; secondly, their most accomplish'd expertnesse in Refining their Metals; and third­ly, [Page 134] their curious designs in Painting upon Cot­ton, whatsoever was represented to the Eye. But these Virtues and perfections were stained and debauched with so Barbarous a Cruelty, that they thought no victime so fit could be offered up to appease the Fury of their gods, as an Ob­lation of humane Sacrifices, so that it is no wonder if God permitted the Spanish Sword to [...]ake such bloody Ravage upon this People, as [...] reward proportioned to recompense their in­humane Butcheries, it being still very equal that the Artificers of Death should be caught in their own impious and injurious Artifices. But Ignorance and Barbarity are still complicated and entwined, and so it was manifested here, for upon the first Eruption of the Spaniards, their misguided Apprehensions esteemed Them and their Horses to be one peice, and when they neighed they demanded what they spake, igno­rantly placing no Distinction between neighing and speaking.

Guaxaca is a fourth Province which falls un­der our Cognisance. It hath assumed this Name from Guaxaca the principal Town of these parts, now styled Antequera. The Air hereof is sound and salubrious, which hovers over a Soile as fruitful, productive not onely of those Commodities which it enjoyes in common with other Provinces of this Continent, but likewise blest with such plenty of Mulberry-trees, that from thence is extracted such a quantity of Silk, [Page 135] that if the Natives paid their Tithes (as they do not) the Income which issued from thence, would afford a Revenue competent enough to support five Bishopricks. Rivers are here ve­ry numerous, whose Shores for the most part are enamelled with Golden Sand, nor is there here any deficiency of Cochineele, Cassia, Silver, and other Metals; so that if the Industry of the People were but correspondent to the Fer­tility of the Soil and Wealth of the Country, it might become as opulent as any Province in America: But the natural sloth of the Inha­bitants makes them impatient of Labour, and consequently intercepts all opportunities which may suggest an occasion of ama [...]ing together any considerable Estate; yet notwithstanding this, they are of a tractable and docile Capacity in relation to the Impressions of the Catholique Faith, which hath encouraged the Spaniard to establish here an Hundred and twenty Covents of Dominican Friers, and many other Schools and Seminaries of Learning, that by their In­fluence and concurrent assistance they might better improve the growth of Christianity in this Province.

Jucutan is a fifth Province which calls for our remembrance. It hath borrowed this Name from Jucutan, which in the Idiome or Dialect of the Country imports as much as What say you? For when the Spaniards at their first arri­val demanded the Name of the place, the Na­tives [Page 138] answered, Jucutan. The Air which ho­vers over this Country is hot, whose fervors are inforced from the Destitution or want of Rivers in this Track, whose defect is supplied by the conservatories of artificial Pits and Channels. The Soil is generally condemned to Barrenne [...]s, not producing wheat, or any European Fruits; nor many of those which are of the natural Ex­traction of America in other places. Nor are its bowels more pregnant in Mines of Gold and Silver or any other Metalls, so that the ge­neral subsistence of this People, is principally supported by Trades and Mechanick Operati­ons. But that which makes this Country most remarkable, is, that the Spaniards upon their first approach discovered here some symptomes or glimpses of Christianity, the people generally observing a constant Form of Baptisme, which in the Native Dialect is styled a second Birth, expressing by that word a Regeneration; nor is any one permitted, to Marry untill he hath the Symboll of this Initiation, which probably was some Vestigium or Relique of the Christian Re­ligion left here behind by Mad [...]c [...]ap Owen, or some other Christians by the Disaster of some Shipwrack cast upon this infortunate shore.

Tlascalla is that eminent Province, which being one of the Seven Tribes, which having supplanted the Ancient Natives, the Chichime­chas, could never be reduced to the Tyranny and Usurpation of the Kings of Mexico, but [Page 139] still preserved themselves, notwithstanding their frequent Eruptions in the Liberty of a Demo­cracie or Free State, and erected here the City of Tlascalla, which as it gave Name to, so it became the Metrapolis of this Province, and in this Capacity they remained until the Invasi­on of Cortez made upon Mexico, to whose as­sistance out of Animosity to the Mexicans, they and the Inhabitants of Zempoallan, another City of this Province, contributed such large sup­plies both of Men and other Necessaries, that by their concurrence Mexico was reduced and the Scepter of that Kingdom broken to peices; and though they were forced afterwards to bow to the successful Sword of the Spaniard, yet do they preserve still some shadow of ancient Li­berty, being exempt from all kind of Tribute, as a Recompense of their former Services, ex­cept it be an handfull of Wheat for every per­son, and permitted to live under the protection of the former Government.

This Province is abundantly stored with Corn and Cattell, every where strewed with rich Pastures, and abundantly productive of Mai [...]. It is levell and beaten out into an even Cham­paigne, unlesse where it confines on the Sea, where it is made Gibbous and rugged with a Chain of craggy Mountains; but indeed the Fertility of the Earth is very much inforced and multiplyed by those many Rivers which stream almost through every vein of it.

[Page 138]If we please to trace out those Eminent per­sons to whose Industry and Navigation these Pro­vinces which lie clasped up within the Verge of Nova Hispania do attribute their first Dis­covery, we shall find that Panuco and Mecho­acan were first attempted by Francisco Garaio, but their Conquest was perfected by Ferdinand Cortez in the Year 1522.

Jucutan was first Discovered by Ferdinand Cordova in the Year 1517. which Discovery was in the Year 1518. reinforced by John de Grijalua, and persued likewise by the Industri­ous Designs of Cortez, who about Tabasco ob­tained over the Natives a signal Victory; but the final reduction of this Province to the Obe­dience and Soveraignty of the Crown of Spain, is entitled to the Successful Sword of Francisco Monteio, who in the Year 1527. atchieved a full and absolute Conquest over it.

Mexico and Guaxata followed the Fate of Panuco and Mechoacan, and by their Conquest and Subjection augmented the Triumphs of the Victorious Cortez, about the Years 1521, and 1522. Tlascalan was first Discovered by John Grijalua, but received under the Protection of the Spanish Scepter by Cortez in the Year 1521.

Nova Gallicia is circumscribed on the East and South with Nova Hispania, on the West with the River of Buena Guia, and the Gulfe of Califormia, the Countries which abutt on [Page 139] the Northern parts of it are not yet exposed to a Discovery. It hath assumed this Name from some resemblance or proportion it holds with the Province of Old Gallicia in Spain.

The Air generally is of a temperate Consti­tution, yet more inclinable to heat than cold, yet often discomposed with Thunders and Storms, and Cataracts of Rain; the ground is much obnoxious to drynesse, if not mollified by the Morning Dewes which here distill fre­quently, but whether the Temperature of the Air or Soil do contain in it some impure Se­minalities is incertain; sure it is, that here is a production of Gnats (it is possible they may proceed from a complicated putrefaction) af­firmed to be in bulk equall to a Bean, which by their stings afflict the People, and raise Blisters on their Bodies proportionate in their dimension to a Walnut.

The Country in general is more knotted with Hills then levell with Plains, and in most parts Sandy. Quarryes of stone are here in abun­dance, but there is a deficiency of Marble, or any other Stone of value. Plenty here is of Mines of Silver, but few of Gold or Iron; yet is their Silver not free from a mixture of Lead. The Soil is so Fertile that for one Measure of Wheat it payes back its Interest in Sixty, and for one of Maiz it refunds Two hundred. The Rivers abound in Fish, and the Woods in Beasts; Swarms here are of Bees without stings, which [Page 142] have no other Hive but the Forrest to compose their Hony in. Apples, Pears, Citrons, Figs, Malacotons, and other European Fruits trans­ported from Spain, thrive better here than in their Native soil, onely the Cherry and Olive arrive at no perfection; of which the first hath her nourishment purloin'd from her by Emmots, and the last thrusts forth such clouds of Leaves, (occasioned by the ranknesse of the circumam­bient earth) that the Fruit seldome ascends to just maturity.

The People are of an inconstant volatile Na­ture, apt upon any Disgust to abandon their Houses, and take Sanctuary in Woods and other Fastnesses; nay, to return to their ancient Bar­barisme. Tractable and docile enough even in Matters which relate to Religion; but lazie and impatient of Labour, to which they hardly are enur'd either with Stripes or Wages, yet they are of vigorous and healthful temper, contagi­ous Diseases seldome breaking in upon them, which is occasioned by the sound Constitution of the Air. Much given they are to Dancing, Singing, and sometimes to Drinking. Their stature is reasonably tall, their Vesture general­ly is a Shirt of Cotton, with a Mantle cast over it, fastned with two Buckles about their shoul­ders. They Inhabit in Villages, which swell in their Dimension, according to the greatnesse of those several Tribes they are to receive, which Tribes are under the Command of their respe­ctive [Page 143] Chiefs, who succeed hereditarily, yet notwithstanding are all subservient to the Sway and Regiment of the Judges, and other Mini­sters of the King of Spain. Plenty here is of Sugar-canes and Cochineele; but the Spaniards being concerned in more gainfull Merchandise, and eager in the persuit and search of Metals, neglect to refine the one, and are not very se­dulous to attend the ordering of the other.

If you will Survey the Anatomy of this Re­gion, you will find it to be dissected into seven subordinate Provinces; namely, 1 Cinaloa. 2 Couliacan. 3 Xalisco. 4 Guadalaira; and on the Western shores, 5 Zacot [...]cas 6 New B [...]scay; and lastly, Nova Mexicana, lock'd up within the Land.

Cinaloa the first Province in the Register a­bove mentioned, is made happy by an Air ge­nerally clear and healthy, and enriched with a Soil fat and Fruitful, productive of Maiz, Pulse, and a certain long Pease, equivalent to those in proportion the Latines anciently called Phaseoli, of which it contributes to the industry of the Inhabitants a large Abundance; and this plenty is much enhaunsed by the multiplicity of Rivers with which this Province is very well watered.

The Inhabitants are generally of an eminent Stature, which much exceeds that of the Spani­ards; Warlike they are, vigorous and Active, and not reduced to the obedience of the Spaniard [Page 142] without the expence of much Blood and Trea­sure, though their Furniture either for offensive or defensive War, consisted in a narrow Inven­tory, being only a massie Club, a Bow and some poysoned Arrows. Those Garments which both Sexes attire themselves with, are made out of Cotton-wooll, of which this Province yeilds a plentiful increase; The Hair of both Sexes is nourished a considerable length, which the Men winde up in a knot, but the Women permit to shoot out into a wide Diffusion. Both Sexes at the first approach of the Spaniards, had no­thing to veile their Nakednesse, onely their Pudenda were obscured, being both indigent and ignorant, adoring the Sun, and making their Diet out of Humane Butcheries.

Couliacan is the second Province which ex­acts our Notice; It enjoys a Soil plentiful of Fruits, and yeilding to none in its production of all sorts of provisions; and not defective in Mines of Silver, which owe their first Discovery to the Ingenuity of the Spaniard.

The Inhabitants are not much different from the residue of Gallicia, only the Beauty, Per­sonage, and Dresse of the Women is more ob­liging; yet the Men were not secure from sor­did and unnatural uncleannesse. The Vesture which both Sexes were habited in at the first Discovery of the Spaniards, was framed out of Cotton-wooll. Their Houses are neatly thatch'd with straw, but the Lintells of the Dores are [Page 145] embellished with paintings full of impudence and impure obscenity. They are ignorant of Gold, of which this Province is defective, but the Spaniards having discovered some Silver Mines, made them by a costly experience know the Value of that Metall, compelling them both to Dig and Refine it, that it might be more mi­nisteriall to the ends of their Avarice and Luxury.

Xalisco or Galesco is a third Province of ac­count. It enjoyes a Soil very capable of the production of Maiz, with which it plentifully rewards the Industry of the Inhabitants, onely the scorchings of the Sun have introduced a penu­ry of Herbage, which is the greatest defect, onely the Northern parts styled Chiatnetla, are endued with more fertility and people, being enriched with store of Wax, plenty of Honey, and some Mines of Silver. The People were formerly embarqued in perpetual Feuds and mu­tual Contests amongst themselves, and dieted themselves with Mans flesh; which barbarous Customes, their conversion to Christianity hath extinguished, onely one of their Ancient Cu­stomes they yet adhere to▪ which is, to sustain the smallest Burdens on their Shoulders, and not carry them under their Arms, as thinking the last indecent and mis-becoming.

Guadalaira is a fourth Province which obliges our Discourse. The Character which we have in generall propotioned to the Natives of Nova [Page 146] Gallicia, may be fitted and shaped in particu­lar to the Inhabitants of this Province. The Soil being moistned with the kind refreshments of the River Barania which cuts through the midst of it, becomes fortunate in the producti­on of Herbage, Maiz, Wheat, and other Fruits which owe their first Extraction to Europe; nor are they destitute of Silver Mines, whose bowels here cast out their Treasure in some plenty.

Zacatecas is a fifth Province, circumscribed within the Pale of Gallicia, whose Inhabitants whether by the conduct and Instinct of Nature, or the impulse of external Force, are more in­dustrious than the rest of the Gallician Natives. The Soil is in its entrails enriched with Silver Mines, but its surface is naked and barren, be­ing destitute of Maiz, Wheat, Water, and all other provisions which should contribute to the support of humane nature, as if it were design'd to be the residence of some greedy Miser, who delighted to glut his Eyes more than his Appe­tite. The Northern parts styled Uxitipa, have nothing wanting which may give a supply either to necessity or pleasure; and though they are defective in Silver, yet are they plentifully stor'd with Corn and Fruit, whilst their Woods are liberally replenished with Deer, whose several Trees afford such entertainment to Quires of Birds, that they may be deemed the constant Repository of those feathered Choristers.

Nova Biscaia is a sixth Province which does [Page 147] summon us to a Description. The Bowels of the Earth are the Excheque [...]s from whence much Silver is extracted; as for its Margin it is abun­dantly productive of all necessary provisions, though much exposed in the Winter to the inju­rious inclemency of Frost and Snow; no [...] are they likewise defective in Mines of Lead, which fitly contributes to the melting and Refining their Silver, not onely here, but in New Spain and Peru also. The Inhabitants are generally of a Vigorous Constitution, and of a Resolute and active Spirit, not bowing their necks to the Yoke of Conquest upon the first Impression, being rather reduced by the calmnesse of per­swasion, then subdued by the rougher Attempts of violence and Force.

Nova Mexicana is the seventh Province which calls for our Notice; But those Relations which have an Aspect on this Territory, are dis­ordered with so much Fiction and Improbab [...]lity, that, that Beam of Truth which should direct us to a just and regular Description of it, is mu [...]led up in the darknesse of incertain and imper­fect Informations, so that untill clearer Disco­veries do dissipate that Cloud which invelopes this Province, I shall deliver nothing for posi­tive or certain, either in relation to the Natives, or the Commodities emergent from the Soil.

Cinaloa and Guadalaria in Nova Gallicia, were first Discovered and entered into by Non­ [...] de Gu [...]man, 1542. whose Conquest was [Page 148] accomplished and completed by Francisco Tharra about the Year 1554.

Couliacan was reduced to submit to the Scep­ter of Spain, by the auspicious Conduct of Nonnez de Guzman about the Year 1531.

Xalisco or Galesco was forced to resigne it self to the Spanish Obedience, by the Armes of Nonnez de Guzman 1530. but its Conquest re­ceived its perfection from the Successes of Francis Tharra, about the Year 1554.

Uxitipa was made to encrease the Register of the Spanish Acquists in America, by the fortunate Sword of Lopez de Mendoza, em­ployed in this Design by Nonnez de Guzman a­bout the Year 1529.

Zocotecas and Nova Biscaia, were made to stoop to the Diadem of Spain, by the happy Conduct of Francisco Tharra, in the Year 1554

Nova Mexicana was first offered up to the Discovery of Augustine Royaz a Frier, in the Year 1580. But its Conquest was afterwards attempted by Antonio Espeio a Citizen of Mexi­co; but his Designs being by their own Disorder rendred lame and imperfect, its final Reduct­ion, as to that part which is now folded up in the Spanish Patrimony, acknowledges the hap­py Valour of John de Onnate to be solely In­strumental in it, who in the year 1599, by the vi­gorous Assistance of Five thousand men link'd it to the Demeasn of his Master the King of Spain.

[Page 149] Califormia circumscribes all those Provinces of Mexicana, which lie on the West-side of that Northern Peninsula which is seated beyond Gallicia and New Spain, though in the stricter acceptation of its Chorography, it is confined to that Province which is placed on the other side of a long and spacious [...]ulf styled M [...]r­virmigl [...]o or the Pay, and Califormia, and limit­ed to an Island (so generally conceived to be) extended in a full length from North to South thereof. The Continent is distinguished into the two Provinces of Cibola and Quivira, and the Island is sub-divided into Califormia, pro­perly so called, and Nova Albion.

The Inhabitants generally of these Provinces make their Food out of the flesh of Beasts, which they feed on raw, and swallow down in great morsels without chewing; The Men from head to feet are attired in Bulls skins, but the Women have no other Garment to secure them from the Cold (which here is keen and eager) but their Hair, which they nourish to that ex­tent, that like a Veile it rescues their Naked­nesse from the publique view. Their Habita­tions are volatile and unsetled, wandering in Companies, and living in Hoords like the anci­ent Nomades, and the present Cathay Tartars, from whom they are removed by no great di­stance, and by whom, some probable Conje­ctures assert, they were at first peopled. The Inhabitants of Cibola are well propotioned and [Page 150] rall, and of a more pregnant Ingenuity than o­ther Salvages of Califor [...]ia, securing their Na­kednesse with Mantles wrought in variety of Colours, which with those painted skins, they with much industry import from [...]icuique or some Northern Country, and that quantity of Cotton they have amongst them (none of it growing upon their Soil) are demonstrations of their Ingenuity, in managing a course of Traffick with their neighbours.

The Natives of Califor [...]ia are numerous and of Thick proportion, resolv'd (as some Re­ports testifie) into Twenty three several Nati­ons, all of different Languages and Dresses, inhabiting the Banks of Bona Gui [...]. Some stain their Faces wholly with paint, and some half way, and others supply the use of Painting with Vizors; they bore Holes in their No­ [...]thrills and Ears for their Pendants, the tips of which last, they even over-load with the pendulous Bones of Fishes; each of their Wasts are surrounded with a Girdle, to which they fa­sten a bunch of Feathers which hangs down be­hind them like some excrescence, which the Women use also, but upon them they are visible before. The Diety to which these Califor [...]ians offer up their Devotions, is the Sun; and the god to which the Natives of Cibola consecrate theirs, is the W [...]ter; both which are by these Salvages affectionately adored, because they are the Causes to which they entitle the Increase [Page 151] of the Earth multiplied into Corn, Fruit, and Herbage.

The Soil of Quivira is plain, level and full of Herbage, giving nourishment to Cattel, dif­fering not much in bulk and dimension from those of Europe, only that there is a gibbous Excrescence or Bunch placed between their shoulders, they are Bristled upon the back like Bores, with somewhat which resembles the Mane in Horses, and the Beard in Goats; their Legs are short, but attired with something proporti­oned in similitude to Fetlocks, their Horns are sharp but short; the whole Beast is of an Aspect so full of Terrour, that no Horse upon the first Accesse or Intercourse will approach him. The Hides of these yeild the Natives either Houses, or the Covering of them; their Bones are composed into Bodkins, their Hair into Thread, their Sinews into Ropes, their Horns, Maw [...] and Bladders, are framed into Vessels; their Dung supplies Pi [...]e, their Skins are shaped into Bougets to preserve Water, their Blood affords Drink, and their Flesh Meat.

The Soil of Cibola is generally level, but in some parts made rugged with Rocky Mountains. It is shadowed but with few Trees, and those destitute of Fruit; but to recompense this, they have a Wood like Cedar, which abundantly sup­plies them with fuel and Timber. Here is a plentiful stock of Maiz and white Pease, which gives them a supply of Bread. Here are nu­merous [Page 152] Herds of Deer, which they chase and destroy for their Skins. And a considerable pro­duction of Sheep, known to be so onely by the Analogy of their Fleece, being in Bulk and Di­mension equivalent to an Horse, or Oxe, and having Horns that poyse in Ballance the Weight of Fifty pounds.

But though Cibola enjoy but a narrow stock of those Creatures which are of profitable en­tercourse, yet of Bears, Tygers, and other noxi­ous Animals, there is an unprofitable Redun­dance.

The Island of Califormia, properly so called, is indifferently even, only here and there the Champaigne swells with Mountains, and some of those from their Sulpherous Entrails vomit out Flame, which hath caused the Spaniards to impose the Title of Cacofogo upon them; the Waves which wash the Shore of this Island, af­ford the Natives plenty of Fish, which are found upon weeds amassed into Heaps, and which like so many floating Islands invest the Surface of the Sea. But the only Rarity which ennobles this Country, is a Beast which is Hairy like a Goat, but hath Teats like a Cow. The Air both of Cibola and Califormia, is of an Indifferent Temper, onely it is sometimes discomposed with the unkind Distributions of Frost and Snow.

Cibola and Quivira were Discovered by the diligence of Antonio Mendoza, who employ­ed [Page 153] Marco de Nisa a Frier, to perfect the Dis­covery; but the more absolute and accomplish­ed Conquest was reserved to the Valour and Conduct of Francisco Vasques de Coronado, about the Year 1540. Califormia was Discovered at the expence of Ferdinand Cortez, who set out two ships 1534. but the Design languishing a­way, it was renewed and reinforced by Fran­cisco de Ulloa 1539. After him, Fernando de Alarcon, Discovered many Leagues up the Ri­ver Bu [...]na Guia, where Naguacatus one of the Cheifs, surrendred himself to obedience. Fi­nally, Roderigo Cabrillo 1642. by a new Disco­very attaqued two small Islands called S. Lukes, and Possession, on the Western Shore. But these Countries affording no Gold or other At­tractives which might charm the Spaniards to an abode, they abandoned them to that poverty the Inclemency of the Air, and thriftinesse of the Soile, had long before Condemned them to.

Florida is circumscribed on the North-East with Virginia, on the East with Mare del No [...]rt, on the South and some part of the West with the Gulf of Mexico, on the residue of the West with part of New Gallicia, and some Coun­tryes not yet expofed to a full Discovery.

The Country is parallel to Castile in Spain, which renders the Air and Soil to be almost ade­quate to that in their Temper & Constitution, but the last infinitely out-vies Castile in its Fertility [Page 154] and plenty, the earth being not here so harrassed with the Impressions o [...] continual Tillage as in the other. Productive it is of abundance of Maiz the natural Bread of the Country, which they sowe both in March and June, which the third Month after repayes the Plow-man's toyle with a plentiful Crop, which they deposite in publique Granaries, and employ as the necessi­ties of persons exact its Destribution. Not is it defective in Fruit, which here are Register­ed under the particular names of Mulberries, Cherryes, Chesnuts, Grapes, and Plums, of excellent tast and colour. It is likewise emi­nent for its store of Fowle, and its Herds of Beasts, both wilde and tame. The Woods and Forrests are shadowed with spreading Okes and very tall Cedars; as likewise Cypress [...] and Bay-trees of a large Dime [...]sion. Nor is their plenty inconfiderable, which they yeild of that Wood the Natives style P [...]v [...]e, and th [...] French Sassafras; and of the Tree named Es­qui [...]e, the Bark of the first, and the Wood of the last, are both asserted to be soveraign against the incursions of the Malady of France. It is affirmed also, that the Entrails of the Florida [...] Earth are enriched with some Mines of Gold and Silver, and studded with Turquoises, Pearls, and Emeralds of much estimate and beauty, and the probability of the first is supported and inforced by the relations of the Natives, who report that in the Hills called Apalatei, there [Page 155] are discovered Veins of a reddish Metal, which the French concluded to be Gold, but wanted Time and Opportunity to improve their search.

The People are of an Olive Colour, large Stature, and cast into a fair proportion, naked, only their privities excepted, which they ob­scure with the skins of Stags. Their Arms and Knees are stained with variety of Paintings, not to be forced off with frequent Ablution. Their Hair is by Complexion Black, which they nourish to that extent and length, that it diffuses and shoots it self even to their thighs. Apt they are to wrap up their Actions in an affected veil of Dissimulation, whose Contexture is made more specious by an Artificial cunning. They are naturally revengeful, which engages them in continual Feuds and Animosities, whose ef­fects are visible by those bloody Contests fre­quently commenced amongst themselves. Ge­nerally they are subtle and Ingenious, and in a Capacity to be reduced to a tamer subserviency, by compliance and nobler Usages; but then they are like Tigers, who when they appear re­claimed by the intercourse and calmnesse of ci­vil Correspondencies, yet upon the first draught of Blood they are apt to leap into their former Crueltie, and devoure those Hands who gave them Food and Discipline.

The Women upon their Husbands Decease (as a symptome of Sorrow) cut their Hair close to their Ears, and afterwards to make their Grief [Page 156] appear more signall and solemn, strew it on their Husban [...]s Sepu [...]chres; nor are they permitted again to entertain a second Marriage, until their Hair be improved to that growth as to cove [...] their shoulder. Hermaphrodites, that is, per­sons of a twisted or complicated Sex, Nature hath here yeilde plenty, who onely are design­ed to the sustaining of Luggage, and the being mi­nisterial to the cheaper and more ignoble works of Drudgery. Some imperfect Notions o [...] Conceptions the Natives have of the Immorta­lity of the Soul, but otherwise their knowledge, in relation to a Deity, is so gloomy, that it is enwrapped and muffled up in a grosse and dark Idolatry.

This Continent, as to those parts of it which border on the Sea, hath in Times of a more modern Inscription been the Stage whereon the Scene hath been laid that hath repre­sented to our view those sad Contentions which have been waged between the French and Spa­niard, concerning the Dominion of this Pro­vince, which drew so much blood, that the pur­ple effusion bedewed almost every Turfe on which those fatal Tragedies were acted; but the French being at last utterly supplanted, and thei [...] Forts which they erected here, namely Arx Carolina, Fort Chastilion and others, were dismantled or diserted. But in these Con­tests the Spanish strength was so much broken and impair'd, and its noblest Spirits evapoura­ted [Page 157] at those Wounds the French Sword had in­flicted, that wanting Recruits to manage their Conquests, they abandoned their new Acquists and retired to St. Jago, St. Matthew, and St. Augustines, the onely places they preserved in Florida, where they Planted and Fortified, but not long after the Fate of War cast the new Co­lony of St. Augustines under some umbrage, for in the Year 1585. Sir Francis Drake ha­ving by a vigorous Assault mastered the Fort of St. Johns which had a powerful Aspect upon the Town, he reduced this likewise, and en­riched himself and his Partisans with a Booty of Twenty thousand Florens; but though this new Plantation was almost sunk by these Dis­asters, yet not long after, it buoyed up out of these Ruines, and being reinforced with a Sup­plement of additional Fortifications, this with St. Jago, St. Philip, and St Matthew, have been ever since so firmly twisted with the Spa­nish Interest, that they are at this Instant under the Dominion and Seignory of that Crown and Scepter.

The first who engaged himself in the Disco­very of Florida, was John P [...]nce of Leon, who sailed thither about the Year 1512. but his Sur­vey being left imperfect, it was attempted to be reduced to perfection by the Diligence of Vasques de Aillon, who made an Invasion on Flo­rida in the Year 1524. but such a complication of crosse Accidents encountered his Endevours [Page 158] that they were rendred unsuccessful. To repair the Dishonour of this Expedition, Pamphilu [...] de N [...]rva [...]z makes an Eruption on Florida, a­bout the Year 1528. being seconded with a strength of Four hundred Foot and Eighty Horse. And lastly, Hernandes à Soto, embarques in this Expedition, and did endevour with a Supply of Three hundred and fifty Horse, and Ninety Foot, to accomplish the Conquest of Florida, that by the addition of this Province he might enhance both the Lustre and Patrimony of the Spanish Diadem, and pursued and managed this Enterprise with a various Successe and Conduct from the Year 1538, to the Year 1543. But it is disputable whether the Storm with Reason, or the Storm without, was more Destructive and prejudicial to the double Expedition of these two last Undertakers: For Diseases, Tempests and Shipwracks, combining with the Treacherous Ambushes of the Natives, so disordered their Affairs, and discomposed the Contexture of the whole Design, that the Spaniards ever since, have abandoned any Attempt which had any tendency to the Reduction of this Province to the Spanish Scepter; since the Enterprizes of those Commanders before named, which seem­ed at first to sprout out with such specious Hope, were at Last so infortunately Blasted, onely they preserved St. Augustines and the other Co­lonies above recited, to remain as In-lets, to open for the future both an Opportunity and [Page 159] Passage to any new Invasion which might forti­fie and confirm the Spanish Interest in this Pro­vince of Florida.

Having taken a full prospect of those Ad­ditions of Empire the Spaniard is now pos­sest of in America, I shall now hoist sail, and make my Application to the East-Indies, and view what new Accessions have made an Im­provement both of Revenue and Power of that Estate which relates to the Spanish Dominion in these Territories: And first the Malacca I­slands do call for our Consideration: They are Seven in number, Ternata, Tidor, Macir, Bacha, Machian, Botona and Siana; the first Discovery entitles itself to Americus Vesputius, whose first Attempts were perfected by the En­devours and successful Navigation of Ferdi­nand Mag [...]llan, encouraged to embarque him­self in this Expedition, by the expence and at the Command of Charles the Fifth, about the Year 1519. But though the Title of these I­slands might seem at first so firmely engrasfed upon the Spanish Scepter, that no external Force could almost ravish it away; yet have the Hollanders by some modern Successes, so sha­ken the Spanish Interests in these their new Ac­quists, that a considerable part of these Islands is pluck'd away, and annexed to the Patrimony of the United Provinces.

Next the Philippina Islands oblige us to a Dis­course; If you consult the Original Register, [Page 160] upon the Account you will find but four in the Catalogue, namely, 1 Luzon. 2 Mindanao. 3 Tandair. 4 Pall [...]han. They were discovered origi­nally by Lagaspi a Spanish Captain, by the Con­currence, Procurement, and Assistance of Lewis de Velasco Vice-Roy of New-Spain, in the Year 1564. and in memory of Philip the Second (in whose Raign they were Discovered) they were called Philippinae. But since these Islands were knit to the Spanish Demeasn, the Hollanders by the Assistance of Fleets, and sup­port of Armies, have endevoured to ravish a­way these Islands from the Patrimony of Spain, to incorporate them into their own; but yet mau­gre these attempts, the title of them hath been so firmly inoculated upon the Spanish Scepter, that it is still subservient to the Seignorie and Command of Philip the Fourth, the instant King of Spain.

THE SECOND PART.

The Spanish Interest in BUR­GUNDY, BELGIUM, or the NETHERLANDS.

The French County and Dutchy OF BURGUNDY.

THE French County, or County of Bur­gundy, is involv'd and couch'd in the Patrimony of the House of Austria, and is thus circumscrib'd; it hath on the East the Mountain of Jo [...]r, on the West the Dutchy of Burgundy, on the North a Branch of the Mountain Vange, on the South la Bresse. It is by estimate 90 miles in length, and about 60 [Page 162] in Breadth. The ancient Inhabitants of this County, were the Sequani, whose power was of that Latitude, that it was once put into the Bal­lance, when the Contest was between them and the Hedui and Arverni, for the Soveraignty of Gaul, until this emulous Contention was super­ceeded by the Roman Conquest, under whose Government it made up, together with Switzer­land, the Province of Maxima Sequanorum. In the Wane of whose Empire, it grew a Limb of the Burgundian Kingdom, the first of whose Mo­narchs who conducted the Burgundians into Gaul was Tibica, whose Successor Gundomar Son of Sigismund was in a Successeful War dislodg'd, and cast out from his Kingdome by Childebert and Clotaire Kings of Paris and Soisson, in Re­venge of their Brother Clodomire, who fell by the Sword of this Sigismund. And thus was Burgundy annexed to the Demeasne of the French, after it had continued about an Hun­dred and twenty years entire, without any sub­serviency; Guntram the Son of Clotaire, and Clovis one of the Sons of Dagobert the First, bring both in their respective times ennobled with the Burgundian Diadem. But the subse­quent Succession of the Kings of Burgundy, was emergent from the partage of the Patrimony and Empire of Cherlemaigne, amongst the Chil­dren of Lodovicus Pius the first, of which Mo­narchs which weilded the Burgundian scepter, was Charles younger Son of Lotharius the Emperour, [Page 163] in which Lotharius likewise, the Title to this Crown, as being Son to Lewis the Godly, was ta­citly lodged; but he dying without Issue, it de­volved to his Brother Lotharius, who likewise determined without Children; and [...]o a second Vicissitude brought it to confesse the Scepter of their Uncle Charles the Bald, King of France, and Emperour of Germany, who conferred the Seignory with the Title of Earl, on Boson Earl of Ardenne, who had Matched with his Sister Judith; which Boson was advanced not long af­ter, by Charles the Grosse, to the Title of Mo­narch, and was styled King of Arles and Bur­gundy, in which last this Province was rolled up; from whom by several Traverses it came down to Rodolph the first, who had the Title of Duke of Burgundy beyond the Jour; and from him the Devolution of successive Interest, carried it to Boson the second Brother to this Rodolph the first, by whom the Dukedome of Burgundy beyond Jour, was united to the Kingdome of Arles and Burgundy; And from him the Thread of Descent transported it along to his Grand­child Rodolph the second; who concluding with­out Issue, gave this and many other Provinces to Conrade the second Emperour of Germany, who had Espoused Gisela Sister and Heir Gene­ral of this Rodolph. After this it was so couch­ed in the Caesarean Patrimony, that it was e­steemed as a Limb of the German Empire, and was managed and Governed by such Earls and [Page 164] Provincial Officers, as those Emperours trans­mitted hither, to sway and regulate the Affairs of this Province.

Otho of Flanders, Son of a Sister of the Em­perour Conrade, by the Aid and Concurrence of Robert King of France, was the first who was invested in it as Proprietary, those others whom the French Registers and Records represent to us to have held it, being Official rather than Hereditary. This Otho above mentioned, de­termined without Issue; so that Reinald his Cou­sin and Kinsman, became Heir to the Earldome of Burgundy; but here the Title was very tran­sitory, for he concluded in a female Inheritrix cal­led Beatrix, who was Matched to the Emper­our Frederick Barbarossa, by which Alliance it was annexed to his Patrimony, and from him it devolved to his youngest Son Otho; but here likewise the Possession was as transient, for he expired in a Daughter and Heir styled Beatrix, who by Matching with Otho Duke of Meranis, which was part of the Province of Tyroll, brought it to confesse him for Earl of Burgundy, and by her he had Issue Alice, his only Daughter and Heir, who was violently dispossessed by Stephen de Chalons and his Complices, who was next Heir to Garrard de Vienne and Joan his Wife, second Daughter to Otho the first, and Sister of Beatrix, acknowledged by his Faction there for Earl of Burgundy, even in the Life Time of Otho; and from him did the Title glide [Page 165] down to his Grandchild Hugh, who finding his new acquited Dignity was established upon a crazy Foundation, to fortifie his Claim, he Matched with Alice the Heir of Otho, the se­cond above-mentioned, and so by twisting their Titles together, became indisputable Heir to this Earldome; and he had Issue Othelin, who go­ing out in a Daughter and Heir known by the Name of Joan, she by Matching with Philip the Long King of France, annexed it as an Ap­pendage to his Scepter, and he setled it on Joan his eldest Daughter issuing from this Match, on Eudes Duke of Burgundy; but his Grandchild Philip dying young and without Issue, this upon his Decease by right of Inheritance devolved to Margaret second Daughter of King Philip the Long, and Joan his Wife above mentioned, who was Wedded to Lewis de Malain Earl of Flan­ders; and he had Issue by her Lewis de Malain, who in her Right incorporated this Earldom into his Patrimony; but here it was not long resident, for he found his Sepulchre in a Female Heir cal­led Margaret, who by Espousing Philip the Hardy, second Son of John King of France, linked this and the Title and Interest of many other eminent Seignories to his Paternal De­measne.

Having thus in Landskip discovered the Fate of the French County, I shall represent in a Compendious Prospect those Vicissitudes and Revolutions that roll'd about the Title of the [Page 166] Dutchy of Burgundy, untill it came finally to accknowledge the Dominion of Philip the Har­dy above-mentioned.

The Dukedome of Burgundy hath on the East the French County, and [...]o [...]e part of the Savoy; on the West Burbonnis; on the North Champaigne; on the South Bresse, Lionnois, and and some part of Peau jeulois. The Ancient Inhabitants of this Dukedome, were the People in Ancient Reco [...]ds, so Eminent for their War­like Disposition, called the Hedui. In times of a more mode [...]n Inscription, that is, about the Division of the French Kingdome of Bur­gundy, made by Charles the Bald, that part of it which was called the Dukedome of Burgundy on this side of the Soasne, was Canton'd into the Five Earldoms of Dijons, Chalons, Au­tun, Lions, and Mascon; whereof the three first being laid and amassed together, by Eudes King of France, during the Minority of Charles the Simple, were given unto his Brother Richard, embellished with the Title and Style of Duke of Burgundy: But the common Fate which attends upon all humane Frailty, transported this Pro­vince, upon the Decease of Gilbert Son of this Richard who made his Exit without Issue Male, to Otho (Son of Hugh Capet Earl of Paris, sur­named the Great) in Right of his Wife, who was Daughter and Heir General of this Gilbert; in whose Patrimony it had not long resided, when he dying without Issue, this Dutchy which [Page 167] he had been entituled to, by the Authority of this Alliance, came over to his Brother Henry, who likewise expiring without Children, the Thread of Desent wafted it along to Robert King of France Son to Hugh Capet, who was Ne­phew to Otho and Henry above mentioned; and from him did the Clew of Succession guide it down to Robert the third, who had Issue Hugh the fifth of that Name Duke of Burgundy, and Eudes, who upon the Decease of his Brother Hugh the fifth, without Issue, entered upon this Dutchy as his Heir; and from him again did it come down to his Grandchild Philip; who dy­ing young and sans Issue, this Province with all its Perquisites, augmented the Revenue of John King of France, to whom it accrued in right of his Mother Joan Wife to his Father Philip de Valois, who was one of the Daughters of Ro­bert the Third above mentioned, and by Conse­quence upon defailance of Issue in Philip above­said, became entitled as his Heir General to the Propriety of this Dutchy; But this was pre­tended onely, for his Title was better support­ed by a violent Detention of this Dutchy, upon which he had entered as an Escheat, to the pre­judice and supplantation of the Earls of Eu­reux, by an illegall Inroad upon their Interest; since those Earls extracted their Descent and Claim from the Daughter and Heir of Lewis de Hutin K. of France, before Philip de Valois, which Lewis Matched with Margaret eldest Daughter [Page 168] to Robert the Third above mentioned, and Mo­ther to the Heir General. But to proceed, K. John being thus invested in the Possession, setled it on his second Son Philip the Hardy, from whom by the steps of some Descents, it came down to Charles the Hardy, who finding an untimely Sepulchre in the Feilds of Nancy, left the Propriety of Burgundy to be enjoyed by Mary his sole Inheretrix; upon the Decease of which Charles, Lewis the Eleventh King of France, seised upon the Dutchy of Burgundy, as an Appendage to the Crown of France, pre­tending it was by the Fundamental Customes of that Kingdome to return to that Scepter, in case there were a defailance of Issue Male; but the French County being an Imperial Isle, was permitted to remain united to the Patrimony of his Daughter Mary abovesaid, in whose Right Maximilian the Emperour her Husband, was invested in the Fee; and from him is the Seig­nory and Demeasne of this Province, by the transmission of Successive Descent, guided down to own the Scepter and Dominion of Philip the fourth, the instant King of Spain.

Flanders and Artois.

THese two though since since separated, were Originally knit together in the Interest of one Estate, yet after the Interval of five or six Descents were again twisted together, and re­mained thus incorporated ever since.

Flanders is bound in on the East with Hai­ [...]alt and Brabant; on the West with the Ger­man Ocean; on the North with the Seas of Zea­land, and a Branch of the Scheld; and on the South with Picardy and Graveling, interposing betwixt Callis and Graveling. Antiquity hath extracted its Name from several Conjectures, as first from Flando, because it lyeth upon the winds; others again assert that it was imposed upon it, from Flandbert the Son of Blesinda Daughter of Cl [...]dion the second King of France; some fetch it from a Town of that Name situated in that part of the Country where now Ardenbourg stands, so long since languished and shrunk into Ruin, that the least Symptome or Representa­tion being wanting to inform us that there was once such a place in being, that we now with dif­ficulty trace out its Rubbish amidst its Ruines; therefore the Conjectures of more rational heads extract the Appellation from Flandrina [Page 170] the Wife of Lideric the second, the first who managed the Government of these parts as For­rester. It was in elder Times resolved into three Divisions, that is, Flandria Imperialis, called so because it was long in its obedience subservient to the Emperours of Germany; Flan­dria Gallica, so styled from the French Dialect there spoken; and Flandria Teutonica, because within its precinct the Dutch Language was pro­perly used.

Artois is limited on the East with Flanders Gallicant, and the County of Cambray; on the South and West it is bounded with Picardy; on the North with Flanders Flammegant, and the River of Lis. The Name is extracted from the Atrebates the old Inhabitants thereof; the Air is temperate, and the Soil so pregnant and [...]ertile that it may very well have the Denomi­nation of the Granary of Flanders and Bra­bant.

These Countries of Flanders and Artois were anciently, if not a part, yet much of the same Nature and Condition with the great Forrest of Ardenne, nothing but the Solitudes of continu­al Woods and De [...]arts, making the Aspect of it rude and desolate; The ancient Inhabitants of the first were the Nervii and Morini, who were supplanted by the Romans, and these again by the French, who having established the great Earldome of Ardenne, made these Provinces in part subject to the Dominion and power of [Page 171] its Governours, whilest that Track of Earth which confined on the Sea, was so exposed to Rapine, Pyracies, and Depredations of the Danes, that it was neglected, uncultivated, and almost unpeopled; the In-land Countries▪ something contributing to the general Calamity by being meanly planted, from a Deficiency of those Necessaries which should support the Life of Man. But when Brunulph Earl of Ardenne was secured by Dagobert King of France, this Wild and disordered Country, extending as far as the River of Some, and enwrapping besides Artois and Flanders, a considerable part of Pi­ [...]ardy about the Year 621. was given to Lideri [...] le Beuque, with the Title of Forrester, to be held under Homage to that Crown. In whose Posterity this Title sojourned, until the time of Baldwin the first, the Son of Odoacer the seventh of the Forresters, whose Names are Recorded in the Registers of Flanders, there being a Gap or Parenthesis which ravels their Memories du­ring the Ravage of the Danes and Normans. This Baldwin having by a violent Onset ravished away, and after Wedded Judith Sister to Charles the Bald King of France, and Emperour, was by him created Earl of Flanders about the Year 864. the Soveraignty reserved as before it was; in whose Issue the Interest of these Provinces remained combined and entire, until Philip the first surnamed of Elsas, Son of Theodorick the first, surnamed likewise of Elsas, to which The­odorick [Page 172] the Seignory both of Flanders and Artois accrued, as being Heir General of Heltrude, Daughter and Heir General likewise of Robert the first, Earl of Flanders and Artois, after the Decease of her Brother Robert the second, Charles Son of Canutus King of Denmark, who had Matched with her Sister Adeliza, and of William, Grandchild of William the Bastard Duke of Normandy (who had Espoused Mawde Daughter of Baldwin the Fifth Earl of Flanders and Artois) gave unto Philip Augustus King of France, the Province of Artois with the Earl­dome of Veramandois, with Isabel his Neice, Daughter of Baldwin the eighth Earl of Hai­nault, which Baldwin had Wedded Margaret Daughter of Theodorick above-mentioned, and Sister and Heir of this Philip. By Lewis the Eighth Son and Successor to this King Philip, Artois was given as a Portion to swell the Patri­mony of his youngest Son Robert, who was a­dorned with the Title of Earl of Artois by King Lewis the Ninth Anno 1234. This Robert had Issue Robert the second, in whom the Male Line failed, so that Mawde his sole Daughter, being Matched to Othelin Earl of Burgundy, he in her right became Earl of Artois: But in him the Title was as volatile and unfixed as in the for­mer; for he Deceased without Issue Male, and so Joan his Daughter and Heir by Espousing Philip the Long, King of France, united this Earldome to his Scepter, and the Estate to [Page 173] his Patrimony, and gave it in Marriage with the County of Burgundy, with Joan his Eldest Daughter, to Eudes Duke of Burgundy; and from him the right of Descent wafted it along to his Grandchild Philip the Third, who expi­ring without Issue, Margaret second Daughter of King Philip the Long above mentioned, who was Matched to Lewis Earl of Flanders, enter­ed upon this Earldome as his Heir General, and transmitted it and both the Burgundies to his Son Lewis de Malain; and from him again did Mar­garet his sole Heir carry the united Titles and Interest of all these Provinces to Philip the Hardy, to whom she was solemnly Wedded at Gaunt, in the Year 1369.

Having thus in a Compendious Discovery re­presented those Revolutions which annexed Ar­tois to the Burgundian Stem, I shall now in as narrow a Volume pursue and trace out the Fate of Flanders; and it stood thus: Theodorick of Elsas Earl of Flanders above mentioned, had Issue Philip surnamed of Elsas, and Earl of Flanders likewise, who dying without Issue, Bald­win the eighth Earl of Hanault, who had E­spoused Margaret his Sister and Heir, in her Right was entituled to the Earldome of Flan­ders, and left his new Acquists to his Son and Heir Baldwin the Ninth, a man of that Latitude of Power in the Age he lived in, that he was not only Earl of Flanders and Hainault, but Emperour of Constantinople also; but he and his [Page 174] Greatnesse found one Sepulchre together in two Daughters and Coheirs, Joan the eldest was first Matched to Ferdinand Son of Sancho King of Portugal, and secondly to Thomas third Son of Thomas Earl of Savoy, by whom having no Issue surviving, Margaret her second Sister Wedded to William of Dampiere, became Heir to her Concernment in Flanders and Hainalt; by her Husband abovementioed she had Issue William of Dampiere, whom even in her Life Time she admitted to the Title of Earl, which he con­tinued until his Death, which was divers years before her own Decease; and Guy of Dampier [...] who was not only Dignified with the Title of Earl on the Death of his Brother, but invested also in the Estate, on the Exit of his Mother, and from him did the steps of several Descents conduct it down to his great Grandchild Lewis de Malain Earl of Flanders, Hainault, Artois, and both the Burgundies; but expiring without Issue Male, Margaret his sole Inheritrix by Matching with Philip the Hardy, fourth Son of John King of France, brought them not only to improve the Grandeur of his Family, but likewise to swell and inforce his Patrimony, and from him did the Title of these Provinces flow down to his great Grandchild Charles Duke of Burgundy, surnamed the Warlike, who being unfortunately cut off at the Battle of Granson, and expiring without Issue Male, his Interest in Flanders, Burgundy, and many other Provin­ces, [Page 175] came to be enjoyed by Maximilian the Emperour, and his Son Philip having Wed­ded Joan Daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella, Monarchs of Spain, so twisted the Title of Flan­ders and Burgundy with that of Spain, that it is still subservient to the Dominion and Empire of Philip the fourth, who now weilds the Scep­ter of the Spanish Monarchy.

Hainault.

HAIN AULT is bounded on the East with Namur, on the West with Flan­ders, on the North with Brabant, on the South with Picardy and Champaigne. It was in elder times called Saltus Carbonatius, by some Wri­ters the Lower Picardy; In Latine Records of a more modern Inscription Hannonia. It bor­rows this Name from the River Haine or Ha­nia, which glides through it, and the Word Holt which imports a Wood; this Province be­ing almost clouded and over-spread with For­rests, so that the Etymologie will be Hainault quasi Hain-holt, a Country replenished with Woods on the River of Haine. Thus it is re­presented in French, but in Dutch it is best known by the Name of Henegou, that is, a Country consining on the River Haine, as the [Page 176] signification in that Language does intimate.

The ancient Inhabitants of this Province were the Nervii, so eminent in History for their Valour and Prudence, who after Bloody Con­tests were supplanted by the Romans; but they again being dislodg'd by the Prench, it became a Limb of the great Earldome of Ardenne, and remained so until the Death of Brunulph, who was subdued and slain in Battel by Dagobert K. of France; which Brunulph his Father in his Life Time had invested with the Title of Duke of Ardenne, and designed unto the Conquest of it; but the Fury of War being allayed, and the parts of Flanders and Brabant which were parcels of that Dutchy being enstated on other Houses, this by the Indulgent Magnificence of Sigebert King of Metz or Austrasia, was set­led on Alberic surnamed the Orphelin one of the younger Sons of Brunulph, and was likewise a­dorned with the Name and Title of Earl of Hainalt; and from him did both the Title and Estate by the Thread of Descent come down to Walter the third; by whose eldest Daughter it was brought to confesse Albon both for Earl and Pro­prietary; and from him the Clew of Paternal De­scent transported the Title to his Successor Reigner the third, who determined in a Daughter and Heir called Richild, who by Matching with Bald­win the Fifth of that Name, Earl of Flanders, added so strong a Right to this Alliance, that he became Earl of Hainalt by the Name of Bald­win [Page 177] the first, and left it to his Son Arnulph, who was Barbarously robbed of his estate by his unna­tural Uncle Robert; who not glutted with this Ruin, ravished away likewise the Earldome of Flanders by an unjust and Usurped Surprizal, in­to which he succeeded, though his Nephew Baldwin, Brother to the infortunate Arnulph, was repossest of Hainault, by the Name of Baldwin the second, and styled himself likewise Earl of Flanders; and from him by a continu­ed Channel of worthy Successors, did the Title of this Earldom flow down to Baldwin the eighth of that Name in Hainault, and the Ninth in Flanders, who went out in two Daughters and Coheirs, Joan who dyed without Issue though twice married; and Margaret who being en­trusted to the care and Tuition of Buschart her Guardian, he by ill Arts and worse Stratagems so seduced and charmed her Affections, that she was made a prostitute to his Lust, and by those unlawful Embraces had a Natural Son called John de Avesnes, Prior of St. Peters in L'isle, who by the Designs of Force and Fraud, by an unjust intrusion extorted Hainault from his two Brothers William and Guy of Dampierre, both being Sons of William of Bourbon Lord of Dampierre and this Margaret, & both the Issue of Lawful Sheets; and this John being thus swoln with an Increase of Patrimony, and made tall in Title, Matched with Aleida Daughter and Heir of Florence the fourth Earl of Hol­land, [Page 178] and so by the Authority of this Alliance, was not only Earl of Hainault: but of that Territory also of whose Descendants, and how both Hainault and Holland came to devolve to the House of Burgundy, I shall discover when I come to treat of Holland.

Namur.

NAMUR hath on the East Hainault, on the West the Bishoprick of Leigh, on the North Brabant, and on the South Luxen­bourg. The ancient Inhabitants of this Coun­try were the Nervii. It was first erected into an Earldom by some of the Descendants of the Sons of Clodion second King of the French, who being by a violent Usurpation devested of their Fathers Diadem, by Meroveus Master of his Horse, to whose ingrateful and unworthy Tuiti­on they had been entrusted by their confident (but unwa [...]y) Father, were forced to seek shel­ter in the most desencible places of the great Forrest of Ardenne, where they established the great Earldomes of Ardenne and Mosell. Di­vided in succeeding Generations into many par­cels, of which this was one. Who the first Earls were, because Ancient Records are dim in that particular, is incertain. Albert who [Page 179] was Co-temporary to Hugh Capet, and Match­ed with Irmingrade Daughter of Charles of France, and first Duke of Lorraine, is repre­sent in very old Registers to have been Earl of this Province; and he was Grandfather (and as some Authors assert) Father to [...]eter Earl of Namur, in whom the Male Line determined, so that his Daughter and Heir by Espousang Henry the second Son of Baldwin the eighth Earl of Flanders and Hainault (which Henry was Em­perour of Constantinople likewise, after the death of his elder Brother Baldwin the ninth Earl of Flanders and Hainault) brought this Earldom into that Family; and from him it descended to Yoland his Daughter, who Wedded Peter Earl of Auxerre (who also succeeded his Father in Law Henry in the Empire of Constantinople) and he supported by a Right derived from Her, was en­titled to this Earldome; and upon his Decease Philip his younger Son, as being then in the Ne­therlands, entered upon it as Earl; but he dying without Issue, John his elder Brother, who at his Fathers Decease was at Constantinople and there made his Claim, was entitled to it; but he likewise making his Exit without Issue, it de­volved to Philip the second, Brother to Henry the Emperour above mentioned; and the like­wise determining without Children, it was transmitted to Margaret one of the two Daugh­ters and Co-heirs of Baldwin the ninth, as Heir General to this Philip, and she setled it on her [Page 180] third Son John sirnamed of Dampierre, upon whose Decease his elder Brother Guy of Dam­pierre entered upon the Earldome, and left it to his Son by his second Wife, by the Name of John the third; upon whose Exit, his Brother who was one of the Sons of Guy de Dampierre above mentioned, by his first Wife, was invest­ed in the Earldome by the Style of John the fourth; but he expi [...]ing without Issue, his Bro­ther by the whole Blood entered upon the Pos­session, by the Name of Guy the second; and from him it Descended to his Grandchild John the sixth, who in the Year 1429. passed away his Estate here in Reversion to Philip the Good, to be enjoyed by him, on the Decease of his next Heir Theodore, who being Infirm, and go­ing out without Issue, it accordingly augmented the Revenue of Philip the Good; and from him hath the steps of several Descents carried down the Title and Propriety to Philip the fourth, now King of Spain.

Luxenbourg.

LUXNBOURG is environed on the East with the Moselle and the Land of Triers on the West with the Maes and the Forrest of Ardenne, on the North with Luick-land, Na­mur, [Page 181] and a part of Hainault, and on the South with the Dutchy of Lorraine. It hath borrow­ed this Name from the Castle near the Town of Luxenbourg, selected by Sigifride the first Earl hereof for his Seat and Residence. The whole Dutchy is resolved into two parts, that on the East having borrowed the Name of Famenne, that on the West having the Appellation of Ardenne imposed upon it.

This Province was at first a Limb of the great Earldome of Ardenne, rent from it in the Raign of Otho the first by Sigifride the Son of Ric [...] ­inus Prince thereof, who in the breaking the Estate by Division into pa [...]cels, had this con­signed for his Portion with the Title of Earl. Of his Successors Gilbert, Godfrey, and Con­rade there is little represented to us by ancient Record, in a constant order of Succession, un­til the Time of Henry the first, who being slain in the Cause and Quarrel of Renald Earl of Gueldres▪ contending with John Duke of Bra­bant for the Dutchy of Limbourg, this Pro­vince descended to his Son and Heir Henry the second, who by the Influence and procurement of his Brother Baldwin Elector of Triers, Em­perour of Germany; and he had Issue John who Matched with Elizabeth Daughter of Wenceslaus the Elder, King of Bohemia; the Respect had to that Alliance was so operative upon that Na­tion, that he was in the Life Time of his Father by their Election advanced to the Scepter of [Page 182] that Nation. And he had Issue Charles who was Emperour of Germany the fourth of that Name, and likewise King of Bohemia, and Wenceslaus the first, who was created Duke of Luxenbourg by his Brother Charles the Emperour, to inlarge and multiply the Grandeur of their Family; but he Deceasing without a Successor, this Dutchy again was united to the Patrimony of Wencesla­us, who was eldest Son to Charles the fourth, and was Emperour, and King of Bohemia also; and to him Succeeded his Brother Sigismund who was invested in all his Estates, and adorned with all h [...]s Titles, as namely, Emperour, King of Bo­hemia, and Duke of Luxenbourg; but grew more considerable when he Matched with Mary Heir of L [...]wis the first, King of Hungary; by which Alliance that Diadem likewise encircled his Temples; and he the better to fortifie his own Family with external Butteresses, by a munificient Donation, enstated this Dutchy on Elizabeth Daughter to his younger Brother John Duke of Gortlitz; which endowment of his fit­ted her for the Bed of Anthony of Burgogn Duke of Brabant; after whose Decease she was remarried to John the third Earl of Hainault and Holland, but having Issue by neither of them, she by Sale conveyed her Concernment in this Dutchy to Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, [...] whom several Descents hath conducted the [...] down to Philip the fourth now King of [...].

Brabant.

BRABANT is bounded on the East with Luickland, on the West with the River Scheld and a part of Flanders, on the North with the Maes, which separates it from Holland and Guelderland, and on the South with Hai­nault, Namur, and a branch of Guelderland. The ancient Inhabitants of this Province were the Aduatici, and some part of the Tungri, by the Romans reputed a Limb of that Province, called Germania Secunda; and by the French, a Pro­vince of the Kingdome of East-France or Au­strasia; the Southern parts thereof Confining on Hainault, were subservient to the Com­mand of the Earls of Ardenne; the Northern parts extending towards the Sea, were mise­rably harrassed with the Depredations of the Danes and Normans, and therefore for their future Indempnity, were committed to the Custody and Protection of one who had the Title of Lord Warden of the Marches. But long these Robbers had not laid this Province Deso­late with their wilde Depopulations, when their Rapine met with a just Expiation, for Theode­bert Son of Theodorick first King of Austrasia, accompanied with Utilo a Boiarian Prince, so [Page 184] check'd their Insolencies, and retrenched their Eruptions by seve al Defeats, that Theodorick at the request of his Son Theodebert, to ballance the signal performances of Utilo, gave him not only the Command of these Countries, but the Propriety and possession of a considerable part of them likewise by the Title of Lord Marquiss of Antwerpe, the fourth from whom called Araulph, was the first Mayor of the Palace to the Kings of France, made Hereditary to this Family and his [...]uccessors. By Dagobert the first [...]ole King of the French, that Branch of this Country which was [...] [...]ubjection to the Earls of Ardenne, was by his Victorious Sword ex­torted from them, and the whole Estate con­ [...]erred on Ansegisus Son of Arnulph, with the Title of Duke of Brabant; and from him did the Title and Estate descend to Charles Martell Base Son of his Son Pepin the first; and this Charles had Issue Pepin the second, surnamed the Short, who having managed Successfully the Affairs of France, at last Usurped that Diadem, and solemnly receive the Crown at Soissons from the Hands of Boniface Arch-Bishop of Mentz in the year 751 The Dukedome of Bra­bant was by this means incorporated into the Revenue of the Crown of France, where it [...] [...]ch [...]nt [...] the partage of the French Em­pire amongst the [...]ons and Kinsm [...]n of Lewis the Godly▪ and [...] [...]t w [...]s link'd as an Appendage to the Kingdom [...] of Lorraine, where it lay [Page 185] wrapped up, until Lotharius the third King of France, in whose share it was involved confer­red it on Charles his younger B [...]other with the Title of Duke of Brabant. But this Donation little improved his Interest, because the princi­pal part of this, and that Moiety of the King­dome of Lorraine which obeyed the French, was cut off by the Sucessful Sword of Otho the se­cond Emperour of Germany, and annexed to the Empire. But this Otho considering that Charles above-said, thus devested, was his Cousin Ger­man, as being Son to Lewis King of France sur­named the Transmarine, who had Wedded Gerburg Sister to his Father Otho the first, in­vested him in the great Dukedome of Lorraine, which in spacious Latitude and extent of it cir­cumscribed within its Precincts and perambula­tion, Lorrain, Gulick, Brabant, which had then the Denomination of Basse or Low Lor­rain, and the Lands of Luick. But out of this spreading Patrimony thus enstated on Charles of France, Otho the second above-mentioned, re­served out of it for his Aunt Gerburg Mother of the said Charles, the Towns and Territories of Lovain, Bruxells, Antwerpe, and Nivelle as her Dower; which with Reference to the Ancient Title, he Honoured with the Dignity of Marquisate of the Holy Empire, Ann [...] 981. Gerburg the Sister, and after the Death of Charles her Brother abovesaid without Issue, succeed­ed in Lovain, Antwerpe, Bruxells, and Nivelle; [Page 186] by a Right transmitted to her from her Grand­mother the first Gerburg, aswell as from him, (though she had injuriously disseised of Lorrein and the Title to that large Demeasne by the Em­perour Henry the second, the Emperour) which Territories of Lovain and the rest above-menti­oned, she conveyed in Marriage to Lambert one of the Sons of Reigner Earl of Hainault, with the Title of Earl of Lovain, Henry his Son re­duced Antwerpe, which it seems by an unjust Violence was detained from him; and by this Atchievement obtained the whole Marquisate, but still reserved the Title of Earl of Lovain. Godfrey the sixth Earl, having by several new Ac­quists much extended the Bounds and Marches of his Dominions, was by the Emperour Henry the fifth, to whom he was link'd in as near an Obligation of Affinity (having Matched with his Sister) as in Friendship, in the Year 1108, Created the first Duke of Brabant; and from him the Title flowed down with an undisturbed Channel to John the third of that Name Duke of Brabant, by whose Daughter and Co-heir both the Title and Seignory was transported to Wenceslaus the first Duke of Luxenbourg, by whom though she had no Issue, yet on him and on his Posterity she enstated this Dutchy, and Sigismund his second Son Duke of Luxenbourg setled it on Elizabeth his Neice, Daughter to John Duke of Gorlitz in Lusatia; and she by Matching with Anthony of Burgogne, one of [Page 187] the younger Sons of Philip the Hardy, annexed it to his Inheritance; and being by this Alli­ance thus entitled to it, it was transmitted to John the fourth Duke of Brabant, who was el­dest Son by his first Wife (for this his second deceased without Issue) Joan Daughter of Wale­ran Earl of S. Paul; but he dying without Issue, it devolved by Descent to his second Brother Philip, who likewise expiring without Children, Philip the Good Grandchild to Philip the Hardy, Succeeded in this Dutchy as Heir to his two Kinsmen above mentioned; and from him did the Clew of diverse Descents guide the Title down to Philip the second, King of Spain, and he lost a considerable proportion of it in the Fa­tal Defection of the Netherlands, occasioned by the Bloody Impression made upon their In­vaded and Injured Liberties by Ferdinand Duke of Alva; though Bruxells, Antwerpe, Mach­lin, and other Important peices, do yet con­fesse the Scepter and Dominion of Philip the fourth now King of Spain.

The Seignory of Machlin consists onely of that City, and some Eight or nine contiguous Villages; The most eminent of the Villages is styled Liest or Hiest, situated on the pleasant Knob of a swelling Hill; the residue of the ad­jacent Villages confining on the foot thereof. Both Town and Villages were formerly enwrap­ed in the Patrimony of the powerful Family of the Bertholts; which Name expi [...]ing in the per­son [Page 188] of Gualter de Bertholt, slain in the Battel of Worancan by John Duke of Brabant, one Moi­ety of it devolved to the Bishop of Leige, who again conveyed it by Sale to John the se­cond Duke of Brabant, and the other proporti­on accrued to ...... Duke of Gueldres, and he in the Year 1333. passed it away to Lewis de Malain Earl of Flanders, but he conveyed no­thing away but a naked Title which was before denuded of its Revenue, by the Successful Hand of John the third Duke of Brabant, who tore it away to augment his own Estate, since which this Seignory of Machlin with all its Perqui­sites and Appendages, hath so constantly attend­ed the Fate of Brabant and Flanders, that it at this instant confesses the Interest of the Spanish Scepter.

Limbourg hath on the East the Dukedome of Gulick, on the West the Bishoprick of Leige, on the North Brabant, and on the South the Dukedome of Luxenbourg. The ancient In­habitants of this Track were the Eburones; when it was first advanced to the Title of an Earl­dome, the Light which should be Collected from Ancient Records is so dim and faint that it can­not conduct us to any clear and positive disco­very, onely it is probable, that it was Original­ly a Limb of the great Earldome of Ardenne, from which it was rent to institute and make up a Patrimonial Inheritance for some Cadet or younger Son, as Namur and Luxenbourg were, [Page 189] or snatched away by the Violent hand of some For aign pretender (as Gulick was, when God­frey and Baldwin Dukes of Lorrain, the indi­sputable Heirs of▪ the House of Ardenne, were engaged to a necessary absence by the Holy War. But when, and by whom it was a [...]orned with the Title of an Earldome, certain it is, that of an Earldome it was erected to a Dukedome by the Emperour Frederick Barba­rossa, Anno 1172. Henry one of the Dukes hereof, Matched his Daughter Margaret to Godfrey the third Duke of Brabant, which sug­gested to his Successors some specious Colour to pretend unto it, supported with a Title of more Authority which came in to reinforce the for­mer, on the Decease of another Henry, the last Duke of Limbourg, whose next Heir Adolph conveyed it to John Duke, who fortified his Claim and Title to it by a colourable Pretence and Right derived from the former Match Anno 1293. But Reynald Earl of Guelders, being blown up with an over-weening Conceit that his Title was established and erected on a better Foundation than that of Adolph, in Right of Ermingrade his Wife, Daughter to Herman a late Duke thereof, cast in his Challenge to this Dukedome, and attempted to evict the Title by the power of the Sword, but this was ruinous and destructive to him, for being subdued and made Captive by the said Duke John in the Battel of Worancan, he was forced to redeem his Liberty by no lesse a price or Ransome than his [Page 190] total Release to all Title or Claim that he or his Successors might pretend to the Dukedome of Limbourg: after which it was so folded up in the Interest of the Dukes of Brabant, that it came over with it to the House of Burgundy; and from that again to own ever since the Do­minion of the Spanish Monarchy.

Guelders, Zutphen, and Groning.

GUELDERLAND is shut in on the East with Cleve and the Earldome of Zutphen, on the West with Holland and Utrecht, on the North with Over Issell and the Zuyder-Sea, and on the South with Brabant and the Land of Gulick.

The ancient Inhabitants of Guelderland were the Menapii and Sicambri, People very emi­nent in ancient Record for their Magnanimity and Courage. In Ages of a more modern In­scription, these Sicambri mingled with the French, and under that Name and notion were entitled to the spreading Empire of the West. In the partage thereof by the Posterity of Charles the Great, this Province was knit to the King­dome of Austrasia or East-France; and after­wards [Page 191] being broken off was united to the Ger­man Empire. At the beginning of its Govern­ment the Publique Ast [...]i [...]s were swayed and weilded by some who enjoyed no other Title but Guardians and Protectors, and were advanced to that Dignity by the People in the Raign of Charles the Bald; the first who were embellish­ed with this Title were Wickard and Leopold two Brethren, who fixing their Chief Residence in the Castle of Guelders, gave an occasion to fu­ture Ages to impose the Name of Gueld [...]rland on the whole Province; but they and their Suc­cessors were supported by a Power of so narrow a circumscription, that in effect their Office was but Provincial, they themselves being ac­comptable to the Emperours how they managed the publique Concernments of this Province. The first Prince who disengaged from the Shackles of these Restraints, was Otho of Nas­saw, who Matched with Aleida Daughter to Wickard the last Guardian, and was by the Em­perour Henry the third made the first Earl of Guelderland; and under this Style and Title his Successors continued, until the Emperour Lewis of Bavaria improved this Dignity in the person of Reynold the second, to the Degree of a Duke, about the Year 1339. and from him did it de­scend to his Son Edward the Offspring of his second Wife Eleanor Daughter of Edward the third King of England; and he deceasing without Issue, Mary his Sister by Matching with [Page 192] William [...]arl of Gulick, brought both the Pa­trimony and Ducal Crown of this Province to be possest b [...] him, and his two Sons William and Reynold the fourth, successively enjoyed it; but they dying without Issue, Arnold of Egmond Son of John Lord of Egmond and Mary his Wife, Daughter of Joan the Sister of William and Raynold the two last Dukes, as Heir General pos­sest himself of Guelderland; but in the declen­sion of his Age, being worried by his unnatural Son Adolph with War and Imprisonment, he was in this agony supported by Charles the War­like, Duke of [...]urgu [...]dy, who rescued him from his Son, and released him [...]rom his Fetters; and he to Ballance [...]o signal a favour, conveyed his Interest in Guelderland and Zutphen to this Duke, which Contract was after much Contest and Effusion of Blood ratified to Charles the fifth, by his second Son Arnold, and according­ly the Provinces of Guelderland and Zutphen were by a voluntary Resignation surrendred to Charles the fifth, and from him the Title de­volved to his Son Phil [...]p the second, King of Spain, in whom it was lodged until the Barbar­ous Cruelty of the Duke of Alva engaged most of the Belgick Provinces to a Revolt or defecti­on, and the Prudential Conduct of Maurice Prince, having much extended the Conquests of the Confederate States, most of this Province was by his successful Atchievements annexed to their United Patrimony.

Zutphen.

ZUTPHEN was anciently an Earldom of it self without any Connexion or de­pendance on the Fortune or Seignory of Guelder­land, and remained in this Capacity until it de­volved to be the Patrimony of Wickman the last Earl, who determined in Sophia his sole Daugh­ter and Heir, who by Matching with Otho first Earl of Guelderland, fastned it to that Pro­vince, annd so it continued after this, subservient to the Command of the Successive Earls and Dukes; and when Arnold the last Duke of Guelderland conveyed all his Interest to Charles the fifth, this was wrapped up in the Purchase, and remained under the Dominion of the Scep­ter of Spain, until the Defection of Holland and other Provinces from that Crown; and then about the Year 1590. it was by Prince Maurice, and the Army of the United States, by Con­quest torne from the Spanish Patrimony, and hath ever since remained linked in Confederacy with those Combined Provinces.

Groining.

GROINING, both City and Province, did in elder Times confesse no other Seig­nory but of that of the Bishop of Utrecht, but he either by want of Power of Inadvertency, being remisse in Asserting their Liberties against Forraign Eruptions, they submitted to the Pro­tection of the Dukes of Guelderland. But these Princes were disturbed in their new Ac­quists by the Dukes of Saxony, who by a pre­tended Claim entitled themselves to the Pro­priety of it, during which disorder and emoti­on it was surprized by Ezardus the Earl of East-Frizeland, who about 1514. conveyed his U­surped Interest here to the Duke of Guelders the just Proprietary of it. Afterwads they resigned themselves up, with a Reservation of their anci­ent Liberties, to Charles the fifth; which being men [...]ced to be overwhelmed by the Fury of the Sp [...]niard, they Combined 1594. with Holland in [...]ion and remain yet wrapped up in that Confederacy.

Holland, Zealand, and Frize­land.

HOLLAND hath on the East the Zuy­der-Sea, Utrecht and some part of Guel­derland; on the West and North the German-Ocean; on the South the Isles of Zealand, and some part of Brabant.

Zealand consists of Seven Islands, viz. Wal­cheren, South Beverlant, North Beverlant, Wol­fers-Dike, Schowen, Duvelant and Tertole [...]. It is divorced from Flanders by the Left Branch or Arm of the Scheld; on the East it is divided from Brabant by the right Branch of the said River, on the North it is separated from Holland by the Gulf called the Flack, and on the West it is rent from England by the O­cean.

West-Frizeland hath on the East the Land of Groining and a part of Westphalia, on the South Over-Issell and the Zuyder-Sea, on the North and West the main Ocean. The ancient Inha­bitants of these three Provinces were the Bata­vi and Carinefates, Inhabiting that Track of [...]arth contracted almost into the circumambient em­braces of the Rhine and Wael, and which now [Page 196] circumscribes within its precincts and Verge Holland, Utrecht, [...]d a part of the Dutchy of Guelders; the Frisii who were entitled to the Possession of West-Frizeland, and the Matti­aci who were planted in Zealand. But when the Ravage and Pyracies of the Normans had by many Bloody Onsets and Impressions act­ed such a Devastation here, that these Provin­ces were almost dispeopled; Charles the Bald to Thierry Son of Sigebert a Prince of Aqui­tane; and the more to manage and improve his encreasing Hopes, and enable him to protect these depopulated Countries, he engraffed on him the Title of Earl, with this Restriction an­nexed to the Donation, that he and his Succes­sors should own and confesse the Soveraignty of the Crown of France, which was accordingly performed, until it was by Arnulph the fourth Earl interrupted and discontinued, who rendred himself Homager to the Empire; and from this Thierre an undisturb'd Channel of Descent trans­ported it down to John the Son of Florence the fifth, who determining without Issue, John of Avesnes Earl of Hainault, in Right of the Marriage of his Father John of Avesnes Earl of Hainault, and his Mother Aleide Sister and Heir of William the second Earl of Holland, en­tered into the Possession of these Provinces as their Heir General; and from him it was wafted down to his Grandchild William the fourth of that Name Earl of Holland, and the second of [Page 197] Hainault, who being slain in a War against the Frisons, and leaving no Issue, Margaret his Sister and Heir brought it to be possest by Lewis of Bavaria Emperour of Germany, after whose Decease she was forced to relinquish Holland to her second Son William, and Hainault to her third Son Albert; but Earl William, the fifth above men­tinoed, deceasing without Issue, Albert his Brother became entitled to the Earldoms of Holland and Hainault, and had Issue William the sixth, who by a Right transmitted to him from his Father, wore the Coronet of Holland; and in him this Family was entombed, for he Deceasing with­out Issue Male, Jaqueline his only Daughter be­came his heir; but it seems she was condemned by nature to an inexpugnable barrenness, for though she had three Husbands, namely, John the fourth Duke of Brabant, from whom she was separa­ed by Divorce, under pretext of Consangui­nity, Humfrey Duke of Gloucester, and John de Borselles, a Gentleman of a private Orb, yet the Annalls of Holland do assert that she had Children by neither, so that wanting Posterity to inforce and propagate her Memory to suc­ceeding Times, she conveyed her Concernment in Holland and Hainault to Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, Son of John Duke of Burgundy and of Margaret his Wife, Sister to Earl Wil­liam the sixth, and Daughter of Albert above­mentioned; from whom by the Traverses and steps of several Descents (the House of Bur­gundy▪ [Page 198] having by the Match of Joan the Heir of Ferdinand and Isabella, fa [...]ned and knit the House of Castile unto it self) the Propriety and Title of Holland, Zealand, and Frizeland, devolved to Philip the second King of Spain, [...] Vice-Roy for the [...] Provinces the Duke [...]va having by his prodigious Butcheries and [...]cutions incited the People to a total Defecti­on from the Crown of Spain, they to Fortifie t [...]m [...]lves against the Bloody encroachments of the Spamard, Chained their divided Inte­rests together in one common Union and Co [...] ­s [...]cy▪ in which they continue linked at this instant.

Utrecht.

UTRECHT is chain'd in on the East with Guelderland, and on the West, North and South with Holland. The City of Utrecht was sometimes the Royal Residence of Radbold King of the Frizons, after the Romans were dislodg­ed, who had long been plante [...]here in those Ci­ties and Seats, they by an unjust Violence had torn from the Bructeri, Salii, and Batavi, who w [...]re the ancient Inhabitants; but when Dago­bere King of France had dissipated and broken the Strength of the Frizons, he erected this Pro­vince [Page 199] into a Bishoprick, and annexed unto it a Demeasn spreading and opulent, the better to soment the increase of Christianity, and im­prove the subsequent Dignity of it. The first Bishop whose Hand sustained the Crosier, was Willibald an English-man, who established Chri­stianity, and dispelled the Mists of Infidelity which had long over-shadowed these parts; and his Successors multiplied it to that Grandeur and formidable Power, that they asserted their Pa­trimony and Intetest in this Province about Nine hundred year [...], with much of Reputation and Courage against all the encroachments and unjust Incursions of the Invading Earls of Hol­land, until it came to be possest by Henry of Ba­varia Bishop hereof, who being distressed by the Duke of Guelders, and expulied out of U­trecht by his own mutinous and tumultuous Sub­jects about the Year 1527. conveyed his Estate here to Charles the fifth, and he procured an In­vestiture in it from the Estates of the Empire (it being an Imperial Fief, and so not to be alie­nated or imbezelled without their License) not long after; and from him did it devolve by Succession to his Son and Heir Philip the second, who having lodged the Government of the Ne­therlands upon his Vicegerent Ferdinand de To­ledo, Duke D'Alva, this Duke by his Massa­cres and Assassinations, having filled the Inhabi­tants with a universal Regret and Animosity, this with the rest of the Provinces, by a pub [...]ique [Page 200] Revolt, renounced and disclaimed all Allei­geance to the Crown of Spain; and the better to secure their Liberties from the future Onsets of that Kingdome, the People of this Province cemented themselves in a Confederate Union with those of Holland, and continue at this day wound up in that first Combination.

Cambray.

THE City of Cambray with the Territory annexed, was established and erected into a Bishoprick in the person of St. Diogenes by Birth a Grecian. In Times of a more recent Aspect, that is, about the Year 1562. it was advanced to the Dignity of an Arch-Bishoprick by Paul the fourth. It was made an Imperial Fief by the German Emperours, and was given in protection by the Emperour Henry the fifth, to Robert of Hierusalem Earl of Flanders, which Patronage was ratified to the Successors of this Robert, by the Indulgent Bounty of the Empe­rour Frederick Barbarossa about the Year 1164. so that being under the constant Tuition of Flan­ders, it was esteemed a Limb of that Province, yet had the Bishops a separate Jurisdiction, and were of that Eminence and Latitude of Power, that the Bishop of Cambray was under the Re­pute [Page 201] and Notion of a Prince of the Empire. It was several times, sometimes by Assault, and sometimes by Stratagem, forced to bow to the Dominion of the French, who having disobli­ged the People by their disorders and irregular Exorbitances were expuls'd in the time of Lewis the eleventh, and then it continued under the Character of a Free City & Province, though shadow'd still with the Protection of Flanders, until the Year 1543. a Citadel was here esta­blished by Charles the fifth, which could not res­cue it from being surprized in a sudden Camisade by the Duke of Alenzon, but being not long after retrived by the Courage and Virtue of the Spanish Arms, it hath ever since remained an­nexed to the Patrimonial Inheritance of the Crowne of Spain.

The Spanish Interest in Italy.

SICILY is the first place in Italy which swells the Bulk of the Spanish Greatnesse; and made its Interest so considerable to its Ene­mies, and useful to its Friends in all its scattered Territories. It is environed with the Lower or Tyrrhenian Sea, and contains Seven hundred Miles in Compasse, and by elder Conjectures was supposed in Ages of a higher [...]limax to have been united to Italy, being then a Demy-Island or Peninsula, such as Peloponnesus, and joyned to the Continent by some narrow Isth­mus. Indeed the Narrownesse of the Straight, thr [...]hallownesse of the Water in the Phare, the Brittlenesse of the Shore on either side, being full of Caves, and Chinks, wrought in it by the violent Onsets of the Sea; and then the City Rhegium situated on the Cal [...]brian Coast, and almost opposite to Messina, which imports a Breach or Cutting off, from the Greek word [...], which signifies to Break off; do evince to us by probability of Circumstances, that Si­cily was one piece with the adjacent Continent, until the violence of Earth-quakes, and the im­petuous Futy of the Waters and Waves did dis­lodge and consume the earth which tyed it to Italy.

[Page 203]It was once called Trinacria, because it ex­tends it self into the Sea with three Capes or Promontories, viz. 1 Pelorus now Capo de Foro. 2 Pachinus, now Capo Passaro, and Lilybaeum now Cape Boij, or Coro. The first Inhabitants that History represents to us to have possest this Country, are those vast Giants Recorded in the Odysses of Homer, under the Appellation of the Laestrygones and Cyclops. These were afterwards supplanted and discarded by the Sicani, a Peo­ple of Spain, who called it Sicania. But these new Invaders being not long after rooted out by the Siculi, who were driven out of Latium by Evander and his Areadians, and forced to seek new Habitations here; it abandoned the Name of Sicania, and assumed that of Sicily. At their first Landing they built the City of Zancle called afterwards Messana, together with Ne [...], Hybla, Catana, and Leontium. After them came another Italian Colony styled the Mor­getes, being forced hither by the Oenotrians, and fixed their Residence in that part of the Island where they erected the City Morgentum, and adopted it into their own Surname. The first of the Greeks who Invaded it, were the Chalcidians, a People of the Isle of Euboea, now called Negropont, to whom the City of Naxos owed its first Foundation; and after Ar­chias of Corinth, and his Retinue of Adventu­rers, by whom Syracusa (Famous in elder Times for the Petalismus or Banishment of Citizens by [Page 204] having their Names writ in an Olive Leaf) was first built, or else very much enlarged and a­dorned. Next them the Rhodians and Cr [...]tians sent some Colonies hither, the first Founders of Gela; and after, of the so much Celebrated City of Agrigentum. And not long after, a new Stock of Planters built Heraclia. The Citizens of Megaris, another State of Greece, transmitted a Colony also, who built S [...]linus: And so did those of Messene or Mycena also, who taking the Town of Zancle from the Siculi, new beantified it; and being thus repaired, fixt on it the Name of Messana. Nor can we deem the Tyrians and Phaenicians, such Noted Un­dertakers of Publique Businesse [...], would be so stupidly unactive not to attempt nothing, when so rich and eminent a prey did invite their In­dustry; for we find they attaqued the Promon­tories of Pachinus and Lilybaeum, and some of the adjoyning Islands, and Forti [...]ied them, the better to secure and improve the Trade they had established in Sicily. But these several Colo­nies being broken into several Interests and Fa­ctions, Combined not together in the Design of an absolute Conquest, but planting themselves on the Shore, did not discard the Name of the Island, by which they found it distinguished up­on their first Eruption. After this Island by these particular Onsets and Impressions, fell un­der the Cognisance of the Greeks, from all their principal Cities, Colonies issued out, who In­habited [Page 205] the Sea-Coasts of the Country; but so as they never Concentered in a Common Body, but had their several ends and particular Inte­rests, whereby they came to be split into many Factions, and sacrificed as a Prey to as many Tyrants. Phalaris over-ruling Agrigentum, Panaetius at Leontium, Gelon at Syracusa, Cle­ander at Gela; and when one Faction was too Impotent to obviate or resist the other, they called in several Forraign Nations to support their Quarrel. For on this Foundation the Car­thaginians were called in by the Messanians, against the Agrigentines. And on the same Principle, was managed the Peloponnesian War, the Athenians Combining with the Leontines, [...]nd the Spartans with the Syracusans, in which the whole Power of Athens was broken by Sea and Land, and their two Generals Nicias and Demosthenes offered up to an untimely and Bloody Fate in prison. But because Syracusa was a City of the most eminent Authority, and of the greatest Influence over the rest, the state and Affairs of that City are made more visible by History, than those which have an Aspect up­on the Towns or Communities of this Island. The Government at first was popular, as it was in most of the Greek Colonies, according to the Platforms and Models they transported with them, and was but newly transplanted into the Aristocratical when Gelon erected his Kingdome here, about twenty years after the expulsion of [Page 206] Tarquins at Rome, whom with as many Suc­ceeded in the Royal Dignity, take in this subse­quent Register.

A. M. 3465.
1. Gelon taking advantage of the Con­tests in Syracusa betwixt the Ma­gistrates and People made himself Master of the City, and was Cho­sen King. 7.
A. M. 3472.
2. Hiero the first, Valiant, but rude and Covetous.
A. M. 3484.
3. Thrasibulus Brother to Hiero, whose Government was so Barbarous and Insupportable, that he Sway­ed but ten Months.
A. M. 3544.
4. Dionysius the so much Celebrated Tyrant, who being General of the Syracusans, made himself their King. A Man of great Vi­ces, and as eminent Vertues. 38.
A. M. 3582.
5. Dionysius the second Succeeded his Father in his Kingdome and his Vices, but not in his Courage or Prudence, being first supplanted by Dion a Gentleman of Syra­cusa, and secondly, vanquished and made Captive by Timoleon, of Corinth.
A. M. 3635.
6. Agathocles a Potter, after a Soul­dier, twenty years after the [Page 207] death of Timoleon, made him­self King of Syracusa. 29.
A. M. 3681.
7. Hiero the second, of a Leader of their Armyes, chosen King of Syracusa by a Party which he had pack'd amongst them. In his Time broke out the first Pu­nick War, the Romans being cal­led in by the Mamertones, who held Messana against the Car­thaginians. 56.
A. M. 3737.
8. Hieronymus Son of Hiero, after whose Decease all Sicily be­came subject to the Dominion of Rome, by the successful Con­duct of Marcellus.

Being thus made Subservient to the Govern­ment of Rome, it was wrapped up in the Fate of that City, and of the Roman Empire; until in the partition, [...]f the Roman Empire, it was cast together with Apuglia and Calabria into the Power of the Greeks. In the Declension and wane of whose Greatnesse, this Island having been miserably depopulated and harrassed by Constans, Anno 669. it became a prey to the Sa­racens; from them rescued again by the Nor­mans; who held both this, and the Realm of Naples in Fee of the Church, under the Title of Kings of both the Sicilyes. After that it fell under the Fortune of that Kingdome subject unto the Princes of the Norman and German Line, until [Page 208] the Death of Conrade, no discomposure or In­terruption intervening. After whose Exit, when Manfred Base Son of the Emperour Fre­derick, and Brother of Conrade, had by a forci­ble Intrusion entitled himself to the Crown and Scepter of this Island, it was offered by the Pope (upon some Conditions knotted with ma­ny rugged difficulties) to Richard Earl of Corn­wal Brother to Henry the third; a man accor­ding to the Standard of those Times, of a most important Revenue; upon whose waving this motion, it was again offered to his Nephew Ed­mund second Son to Henry the third, who was espoused to this Royalty by a Ring, and Mony Coyned in his Name by the Popes appointment, with the Impresse and Inscription affixed to it of Edmundus Rex Siciliae. But Henry the third being not in any Capacity to pursue this Design, the Civil Contests with his Barons having en­tangled him in more difficult Undertakings, and the Pope having sufficiently by this Overture drained his Exchequer, it was in the Year 1261. given to Charles Earl of Provence and Anoju, Brother to Lewis the tenth of France. To his Command this Island was subservient until the Year 1281. in which his Competitor Peter of Arragon justled his Title by a new Claim, e­mergent from his Wife the Daughter and Heir of Manfred above mentioned; and for the clearer decision of the Title, invited him to the Commencement of a Duel before King Edward [Page 209] the first of England, at Bourdeaux; which defi­ance he tacitly declining, Peter in the mean time by dark Stratagems and black Contrivances, wherein he was aided by John de Prochita a Gentleman of the Kingdome of Naples, from whom Charles of Anjou had violently snatched the Island of Prochita, upon a Summons recei­ved from a Toll of a Bell, sounded, as it was pretended, to give an Alarum to Sicily of the approach and onset of some Invading Sarazens, the French were Assassinated in this Island which massacre so firmly riveted the title into the House of Aragon, that it still continues incorporated into the Interest of Spain.

Sardinia.

THE Island of Sardinia lyeth West from Si­cily, from the nearest point thereof it is di­stant about Two hundred miles. It is in length one Hundred and eighty, Ninety in breadth, and in Circuit Five hundred and sixty miles. In the Time of Aristotle it was called Ichnusa, and next Sandaliota, from the Resemblance of a Shooe-sole or the Impression of a Mans Foot on the Earth; and finally, Sardinia from Sardus the Son of Hercules, who coming out of Africk entitled himself to the Possession. And that which more improves and fortifies this Narrati­on is, that the People in the Latine Tongue have still the Appellation of Sardi, and the circum­ambient [Page 210] Sea the Denomination of Mare Sar­doum. And to this Name it hath remained so constantly ever since espoused, that no following Plantations were ever able to extinguish or di­vorce it. Some Companies of Attica were Conducted hither by Iolaus, where they erect­ed Olbion and Agrillis; which Colonies, to in­force and multiply the Memory of their Foun­dér, assumed to themselves the Name of Iolaten­ses. And after the Ruine of Troy, some of the bro­ken Reliques of that scattered Nation came and planted in the void places of this Island; whose Successours are mentioned by Livie and Pliny, under the Denomination of the Ilienses. After these the Carthaginians by the nearnesse of their Habitation, did attaque all Advantages to make, as at last they did, a full Conquest of it; build­ing therein the Cities of Carmis, Calaris, and Sulchi; and asserting their Title to it, it was unjustly wrung from them by the Romans, at the end of the first Punick War; at what time Carthage was in hazzard to be Ruined by the de­fection of her own Mercenaries, and so in no Capacity to resist.

This Island being thus extorted from the Car­thaginians by the Romans▪ was immediately under the Signory of the Praefect of Rome; but after by Junsti [...]an, it was incorporated into his New Dio­ce [...]s of Africk, and as an Appendage to it, was Claimed, Invaded, and Subdued by the Sara­zens, Anno 807. who destroyed Calaris, sub­verted [Page 211] by Gracchus and the Romans; and again in more setled Times re-established. But from them it was rescued by the Pisans, (who re-edifi­ed Calari) and Genoese, who made a partition of it betwixt them; but the Genoese disgusted with their Portion, as being lesse in Quantity, and worse in Quality, began to enter into Contest with the Pisans, which at last ushered in an open War, Anno 1324. In which having worried them­selves with mutual Contests, Pope Boniface the eighth, to appease their Animo [...]ties, and su­persede all Quarrel for the future, by a new Do­nation enstated it on James the 2d. King of A­ragon, who had entitled himself to it by a spe­cious Claim before, upon pretence that it was a Limb or Appendix to Sicily, and wrapped up in the Patrimony of that Diadem; and the more to fortifie his new Acquists, obtained the Papal Concession to support and improve his Interest here, which before appeared to be but infirm and crazie; and being thus doubly guarded with his own Title and the Pope's Grant, he after some signal Decisions of the Sword, wholly supplant­ed both the Pisans and Genoese; and in the Year 1324. reduced this Island under the Dominion of the Aragonian Scepter. And from him hath the Propriety ever since been conducted down to his Successors in so uninterrupted a Channel, that the Devolution and Traverses of many winding Descents hath at this instant brought it to confe [...]s the Empire and Seignory of Philip the fourth K. of Spain.

Naples.

THE Kingdome of Naples is almost on e­very side circumscribed with the Adriatick, Ionian, and Tuscan-Seas, unlesse on the West, where it is separated from the Lands of the Church, by a small Neck of Land drawn from the Mouth of the River of Druentus, to the Spring Head of Axofenus. It is divided into Terra di Lavoro, Abruzzo, Apulia, Terra de Otranto, Calabria-Inferior, Calabria-Supe­rior, and the Isles of Naples.

Terra di Lavoro was Anciently called Cam­pania, and extracted this Surname from the Cam­pani, who with the Oscani, who were invested in Possessions about Capua, in Ages of a very old Inscription style [...] Osca, were the anci­ent Inhabitants of it. Abruzzo, in Latine sty­led Aprutium, was the Residence or Territory of the Picentes and the Samnites; the last of which were subdivided into the [...]erentani, Ar­pinates, Caraceni Praecatini, Peligni, Vestini, Hirpini, and the Samnites, properly so called. Terra di Otranto was in elder Times Peopled by the Salentini, Iapyges, and Messapiani; and from hence in the Records and Monuments of Antiquity, it is exhibited to Posterity under [Page 213] the Names of Salentina, Iapygia, and Messa­pia. Calabria-Inferior and Superior, were both originally that Track of Earth which was postest by the Calabri, Tarentini, Lucani, [...]rutij, and some sprincklings of the Liburni, a People devoted by the Romans to the sustaining of Bur­dens & other servile employments; and this I be­lieve was done by such cheap and contemptible undertakings to extinguish in them all thoughts which might egg them on to a Recovery of that Liberty which the Sword of the Romans had lopped off; for these, the Calabri and Tarentini were the last (not without many signal and so­lemn strugglings) who prostrated themselves as a prey to the Victorious Tallons of the Roman Eagle.

This Kingdom of Naples hath been whirled a­bout with so many Revolutions, that the Inhabi­tants of any Region have not been obnoxious to more Vicissitudes and Mutations than the Posses­sors of these Provinces have been. For 1. the Grecians entered and scattered here their parti­cular Colonies of Achaians and Spartans, which obliged Antiquity to give the Name of Magna Graecia to Calabria; in which Track they e­rected Locris, so eminent in old Records for Zeleucus the Law-giver, and his Laws and In­stitutions, and Eunomus the Musician. 2. Ta­rentum, which contributes a Name to that Ca­pacious Bay called Sinus Tarentinus. 3. Cro­tona, whose Inhabitants were anciently so active [Page 214] in the Olympick Games. 4. Amycle, a Town whose Inhabitants were made up in elder Times of the Pythagoreans, a Sect which by the In­stitutions and Rules of their Order, devoted themselves to Silence. 5. Sybaris [...]o infamous in Story for their Softnesse and Effeminacy, having melted themselves into so much Ease and Luxury, that they expulsed all Smiths and Bra­siers into Exile▪ because by the Noise of their Bellows and Hammers, they might make an Invasion on their Repose and Slumber, and en­tertained with unusual Caresses, Musicians, Fidlers, because they improved their Sleep and Excesse. And 6. they here erected Rhegi­um, which Name they fixed upon it from the Word [...], which signifies to break or tear asunder; this City being separated or torn off from Sicily, by that Straight of Sea which they style the Faro of Messina. In Terra di Lavoro they erected Parth [...]nope, now called Naples, Osca now named Capua, Cuma and Sinuessa now called Sessa. In Abruzzo they established Arpinum. In Apulia Anciently by the Gre­cia [...]s called Daunia, they founded Luceria, As­culum sometimes styled Asculum Satrianum, and Argyripa the Argos Hirpium, of the an­cients, and contracted by use and depravation of Dialect into Agyripa, which as Antiquity asserts and intimates, was erected into the shape and model of a City by Diomedes, and a Co­lony transmitted from Etolia. In Terra di O­tranto [Page 215] they established Brundufium, Hydruntum, and as some affirm (but upon what grounds I know not) Gallipolis likewise; but though Na­ples were thus strengthened with Colonies, and knotted with Cities, yet this could not so secure her from Forraign Eruptions, but that she bow­ed her Head; and partly by a voluntary Resigna­tion, and partly by Conquest, gave her self up to be made part of that Patrimony which im­proved the Roman Grandeur; and after it had for some years submitted to the Dominion of Rome, as it was first a Common wealth, and af­terwards the Seat of the Empire, it was rent off from that Great Body by the Goths, under whose Tyranny it had not long lain gasping, but it was forced to surrender it self to the Jurisdi­ction of the Lombards, who by their frequent and happy Inroads disseised the Goths of their new Acquists; but their Conquests were not fix­ed or permanent, for their Foundation being Ci­mented with Blood, was infirm and slippery, being after some assaults made upon it by Charles the Great, forced to bow to his Scepter: But to winde up all Controversie for the future, and to entomb all emergent Differences in an amicable Pacification, this Charles about the Year 803. made an equal and indifferent partage between Nicephorus then Emperour of the East, and himself as Emperour of the West; the Limits of which Division was the River Liris now Can­tigliano by Capua, and the River Aufidus now [Page 216] Ofanto in Apulia. But this partage did not long continue without some Discomposure; for ill Agents having fomen [...]ed some Differences be­tween the Greeks and the Germans, their pri­vate Animosities and Heats were at last blown up into the publique Flame of War, which did determine in the total expulsion of the Germans out of Naples; yet this was not acted without the Concurrent Supply of the Sarazens, Ene­mies to them both; who discovering the weak­nesse of the Greeks in being invited in to sup­plant the Germans, Invaded those who had cal­led them in; and thus was this unhappy King­dome for several Ages made the sad Stage where the Latines, Greeks, and Sarazens, acted their Bloody Tragedies. But in fine, the Greeks being wasted with frequent Conflicts, and almost sinking under the weight of a Forraign Conquest, they ha­ving evapourated their noblest & most active spi­rits at those wounds the Swords of these Infidels had inflicted on them, were supported in this their Agony by Forty Norman Gentlemen, who a­bout the Year 1000. returning from a Pilgri­mage made into the Holy Land, gave so noble and generous Assistance to the Afflicted Christi­ans that they checked the Fortune of the Sa­razens, and intercepted the Current of their Vi­ctories, which before like a Deluge menaced wholly to over-whelme the Christian [...]nterest and Concernment in this Kingdome. But this gave the distressed Inhabitants but some dawning [Page 271] of better hopes; the improvement of this Suc­cesse was left to the Valour and Conduct of one Drangot, who having slain Repostel a Gentle­man of Eminence, in the presence of Robert Duke of Normandy, Father to our William the Conquerour, so disgusted his Allies and Relati­ons, that to decline the Tempest which mena­ced him, he retired into this Kingdome for shel­ter, and after many Conflicts commenced with the Sarazens, by a Fortunate Managery of the Christian Quarrel, he contracted their Power into narrower limits; but being supplied with new Recruits the Sarazens not onely reinforced their Animosities but Hopes also, until Tancred and his twelve Sons arriving out of Normandy with fresh Supplies, after many signal encoun­ters, wholly supplanted the Interest that these Infidels had in Naples; but though these Inva­ders were thus dissipated, yet the Greeks re­mained dis-satisfied, and gave new occasion of War and Trouble to these Norman Conquerours under the Command of Melorco Vicegerent of this Province under the Grecian Emperours; but the Affairs of the Normans were so well swayed and ordered by the Care and Prudence of William Son to Tancred above mentioned, that this new Emotion was extinguished by the Defeat of Melorco, and the Troops marshall'd under his Conduct; but this Discomfiture did not so totally dispel the Tempest, but that there were new Clouds collected together, to disor­der [Page 218] and ecclipse the Glory of the Norman Con­quests; which in fine, were so wholly dissipa­ted, by the active Courage of Robert Guiscard another of the Sons of Tancred, that the Greeks be­ing absolutely crush'd and subdu'd, & the Reliques of the Sarazens extirpated & thrown out, he just­ly merited in the Annals of succeeding Times the Title of the Conquerour of the Kingdome of Naples; and he bequeathed this Province with all its Perquisits and Appendages to be enjoyed by his second Son Robert Guiscard Earl of Sici­ly, who in the Year 1125. by the Favour and Influence of Anacletus then Pope, had the Title of King of Naples conferred upon him, and his Son William received the Crown, with this Restriction, that he should hold this Dia­dem as a Donative from the Pope, and in Ho­mage of the See of Rome; and in the Hands of his Successors did the Neapolitan Scepter remain fixed, until it came to be weilded by William the second, who upon his Decease left Constance his Daughter, his onely Lawful Issue, and Tan­cred his Natural Son, the Issue of unlawful Em­braces; and he by the concurrence and support of his Faction, so managed his Designs, that he invested his Head with the Crown of Naples, to the prejudice and Disherision of Constance the Lawful Heir; but disdaining to acknowledge the Pope for Soveraign of the Fee, the Pope to retaliate this Affront, Matches Constance to Henry the sixth Emperour of Germany, and by [Page 219] opposing the Right of his Empresse to the di­storted and Usurped Title of Tancred, so crip­pled his Authority and Power, that finally after many Contests and Bloody Decisions, the Scep­ter of Naples came to be swayed by Henry the sixth abovesaid; but his Successor Frederick the second embarquing in the former Contrast with the succeeding Popes in Relation to the Sove­raignty of Naples, disclaimed and renounced any Homage to the See of Rome, which so in­flamed that Bishop, that he collected all supply that the Engins borrowed either from Strength or Art could contribute to vindicate his pre­tended Right to the Soveraignty of Naples; yet was he thwarted in his endevours with such vi­gorous Opposition during the Government of Frederick the second abovesaid, Conrade his Son, Manfred his Natural Son, and Conradine Grandchild to Frederick, nothing was effect­ed of Importance which might afford any sup­port to the accomplishment of the Designs of the Popes for the time being: so that Pope Innocent the fourth, to Fortifie his Attempts with Forraign Succour, presented the Kingdom to St. Lewis King of France; for his Brother Charles Count of Anjou and Provence, who had the Repute of an excellent Souldier, and an experienced Commander; and about the Year 1264. which was two years after Pope Urban the fourth invested him with it; he to assert his Interest, Commenced a War with Conradine [Page 220] King of Naples, and having put his Title to the Umpirage of a Battel, after a Bloody Debate, took this Conradine Captive; and made the for­feiture of his Head expiate its wearing that Dia­dem which the Popes Donation had before by a pretended Investiture entituled him to; and ha­ving thus fixed the Scepter of Naples in his own Hand, he left it to be swayed by his Son and Heir Charles the Lame, who by Mary his Queen Inheritrix of Hungary had Issue, Charles surnamed Martel, who had his Mothers Kingdom assigned him for his Subsistence or Portion; Lewis his second Son, who assumed Holy Orders, and Clowded all his earthly Glories in the Cowle of a Franeiscan Frier, and afterwards was Bi­shop of Thoulouse; Robert his third Son, was by the Munificence of his Father entitled to the Inheritance of the Kingdome of Naples. There were other Sons who had other Lands consigned them in Appennage for their future support and Alimony. Robert abovesaid, had Issue Charles, who dying without Issue Male in his Fathers life time, left onely a Daughter and Heir called Joane, who after the Decease of her Grandfather Robert, came to Manage the Neapolitan Scep­ter; and this is that Joane so Famously Infamous in the Annals of Naples, for the probable As­sassination of her first Husband Andrew, and o­ther wilde Disorders, which have cast so dark a Tincture upon her Fame, that though some have endevoured to wrap up her Guilt in a modest [Page 221] Covering, yet the Blacknesse of her Life is vi­sible by an indelible stain through all those Veils the Industry of Flattery attempts to fold it up in. But to proceed; about the Expiration of the Raign of this Ioane, which was about the Year 1378. the Church of Rome was Dis­ordered by a remarkable Schisme; for Urban the sixth, being made Pope, the Violence of a predominant Faction, a considerable part of the Conclave of Cardinals Elected Robert Cardi­nal of Geneva, by the Name of Clement the se­venth. Queen Joan being warped with Ani­mosity against Urban, who was born under her Dominion and Scepter, made her self a Partisan in the Cause and Quarrel of his Adversary and Competitor Clement. Her Crime contracted from the Slaughter of her Husband Andrew, had been long entombed in a Pacification transacted in her Favour by Pope Clement the sixth, with Lewis the Great, King of Hungary, Brother to Andrew abovesaid. But Urban the sixth, to recompense her for those Disservices with which she had disobliged him, again raked into her Guilt, and incensed Charles of Duras, of the House of Hungary, to expiate the former Mur­ther by a just Revenge; and this Prince, infla­med by his Instigations, came and Beseiged her in Castello del Ovo, and having reduced her, and that Fortresse to his Discretion, strangled her in or near that place where she had acted her Barbarous Parricide on her first Husband [Page 222] Andrew. Charles of Duras having thus destroy­ed this Infamous Princesse seised on the Neapoli­tan Diadem, which did not sit so fast on his Temples, but that it was shaken by a Concur­rent Title, for Joan not long before her Death, to fortifie her self agrinst the Designs of Pope Urban, had adopted Lewis Duke of Anjou Bro­ther to Ch [...]rles the fifth King of France, for her Heir; and he endevoured to vindicate and extort the Crown from Charles of Duras by Dint of Sword; but the latter did so vigo­rously sustain all the Impressions of the House of Anjou, that he not onely asserted and fixed the Right of the Crown to himself, but likewise transmitted a peaceable Possession of it to his Successors; which were, first, Ladislaus his Son and Heir, who Deceased without Issue, and Joan his onely Daughter and then Heir, who upon the Death of Ladislaus, ascended the Throne of Naples by the Name of Joan the second; who for Disorders and irregular Excesses, and hold­ing a scandalous Familarity with one Caracciolo, as likewise for her ill Administration of the pub­lique Affairs, was Degraded from the Regal Dignity by Pope Martin the fourth, and Lewis of Anjou, Grandchild to Lewis Duke of Anjou above mentioned, named by him to wear the Diadem of Naples in her place; but she dis­daining to be thus devested, to secure her self against the attempts and pretences of this Lewis, Adopted Alfonsus King of Aragon and Sicily for her Heir; but being a Woman of a vola­tile [Page 223] and inconstant Temper, upon pretence of some ingrateful Affronts put upon her by Al­fonsus abovesaid, Cancelled her first Adoption, and by a second Instrument declared Lewis the fourth Duke of Anjou, Son to Lewis abovesaid, for her Heir; and this Lewis having wrung the Crown from the House of Aragon, enjoyed it joyntly with this Queen Joan, in a fixed sere­nity of Government for some years; but dying without Issue before her, she to preserve her self from the Eruptions of the Aragonian Faction, Adopted Rene Duke of Anjou his Brother, for her Heir; and soon after she had declared and effected this, she her self was disrob'd by Death of all Earthly Glory. But this Rene being then Captive with the Duke of Burgundy, was de­barred from amassing those Forces together, which might adjoust his Title to the Crown of Naples; indeed his Dutchesse Elizabeth, at­tempted to retrive it, but being overlaid with the Faction and Force of Alfonsus, She and the House of Anjou were utterly sup­planted, and Alfonsus upon a pretence extracted from the first Adoption of Joan, which was supported by Conquest, upon the Ruines of this Family, step'd up to the Throne of Naples; and he more to ennoble his Fa­mily by an Additional Augmentation of Re­venue, enstated this Kingdom on his Natural Son Ferdinand, who being thus invested in it, trans­mitted it to his Son Alfonsus the second; and he had Issue Ferdinand the second, who like­wise [Page 224] wore the Diadem of Naples; but a Tenure very volatile and unfixt attended the Soveraign­ty, and made it rest but loosly on his Temples; for Charles the eighth King of France, Espou­sing the Title and Quarrel of the House of An­ [...]ou, so vigorously supported their Interest, that he supplanted this Ferdinand, and forced him to abandon the Neapolitan Scepter; but the French upon the Departure of Charles the eighth managing both the Civil and Military Affairs of this Kingdome with much Impetuousnesse and Inadvertency, excited the Neapolitans to resent their sway and Government with so much Regret and Passion, that Frederick Bro­ther of Alfonsus the second, regained it with as much Facility as his Nephew Ferdinand had cheaply lost it. But Lewis the twelfth, Succes­sor and Kinsman to Charles the eighth, upon the Decease of this Charles (who dyed suddenly at Amboise, as he was preparing for a second Eruption upon Naples) Collected a Powerful Army to vindicate his pretences and Title to that Kingdome, so that Frederick finding him­self too weak to sustain the weight of so mighty an Opposition, threw himself into the Protecti­on of Ferdinand King of Aragon and Castile, who in stead of asserting his Interest against the Onsets of the French, by an unworthy Compact with Lewis the twelfth, disserted his Kinsman, and had the Moiety of the Kingdome assigned him, as the price of this Dereliction; but not [Page 225] long after, the French and Spaniard entering into Contention about the Bounds and Limits of the Lands divided, their Animosities were im­proved to that heighth, that they blazed out in the Flame of a publique War; which was ma­naged with that Vigor and Prudence by Gonsalvo the Spanish General, that after many Encounters the French were wholly disseised, and their In­terest they had in this Kingdome extorted from them; and though in Ages subsequent to this, the French did not tamely abandon their pre­tended Concernment here, but sought to retrive it by the Bloody Umpirage of the Sword, yet were their Designs so ill managed, and their Arms so unprosperous, that their Disastrous suc­cesse did but more fasten the Crown and Scep­ter of Naples to that of Spain: to whose Dia­dem the Interest and Title of this Kingdom hath remained ever since so firmely linked, that it is still united to the Hereditary Patrimony of Philip the fourth now King of Spain.

Milan.

MILAN is shut in on the East with Mantua and Parma, on the West with Piemont and Switzerland, on the North with the Province called Marca Anconitana, and on [Page 226] the South with that Chain of Hills which is sty­led the Appenine.

The Ancient Inhabitants were the Insubres, the B [...]ji, the Cenomani, and the Senones; who were after diverse signal Contentions devested of their Possessions by the Romans, and forced to surren­der themselves as Tributary to their Dominion and Seignory; and in that Demeasn which sup­ported Rome, as it was first the Head of a spread­ing Common-wealth, and then secondly, the Metrapolis of a spacious Empire, did this Pro­vince lie folded up, until the Government of this Province came to be Managed by Augustu­lus, the last of the Western Emperours, who being subdued and his Forces broken by Odoacer King of the Heruli and Thuringians, this Pro­vince became the Guerdon of his Triumphs; but the Possession being thus atchieved by an unjust Invasion, was not long after extorted and ravished away from them by Theodorick K. of the Go [...]hs, about the Year 495. but here the Title was as volatile and transient as formerly; for Teyas his [...]uccessor, was about the Year 567. vanquished by the un [...]ted Forces of Alboinus King of the Av [...]res, invited out of Hungary, and Narses General for the Emperour Justinian in Ita [...]y; the Goths being thus disieised, this Province was consigned to Alb [...]inus, and his Troops by Narses, Anno 568. as the price of his Successful Courage, and meritorious Fidelity so visibly exhibited in the War commenced with [Page 227] the expulsed Goth; and in himself and his Line, did the Soveraignty of this Province, by a De­cursion and Series of Twenty three Kings remain uninterruptedly lodged, until the Devolution of Descent brought the Scepter to be weilded by Desiderius, who being about the Year 774. Discomfited by Charles the Great, this King­dome sunk in his Ruines; and was afterwards incorporated as a Province into the spreading Demeasne of that Victorious Monarch. After whose Raign this Province remained Imperial, and was subservient still to those who had the Empire of the West. But when the House of Charle [...]aigue degenerated, and suffered the Im­perial Diadem to be ravished from their Heads after the Year 900. an eager Dispute was mana­ged by the Continuance of Fifty years, betwixt the Italian and German Princes, in relation to the Possession and Soveraignty of the Empire. In Fine, the Germans prevailed in the person of Otho the first, and his Successors having designed and fixed their Seat of Power and Government in the Empire, they afterwards were entangled in several Contentions with the Papacy, which so much retrenche [...] and contracted their Autho­rity, that their Power in Italy began sensibly to crumble away, and a considerable part of Lom­bardy slipt out of their Dominion; and some Seignories chose to themselves Italian Lords, and some elected Liberty and a Popular Go­vernment. In these Confusions Milan and its [Page 228] Appendant Territory, put it self under the Pa­tronage and Protection of Otho its Arch-bishop, Descended from the Viscounts of Angleria, a place of a narrow Circuit in this Dutchy.

But after his Decease Matthew Brothers, Son to this Arch-Bishop, was confirmed in the Go­vernment of Milan by Albert Emperour of Germany, but under no other Notion or Title than that narrow one, onely of Commander; (for still it seems the Skeleton of Soveraignty was deposited in the Hands of the Emperours, though those Nerves and Muscles which should make it act vigourously, and move re­gularly, were rent off) and from him did the same Command devolve to his Son Galeazzo Visconti, who because he exercised this Autho­rity without the Approbation of Lewis of Ba­varia the Emperour, he was disseised of his Power and expulsed; but his Son Actio Visconti was reinvested in that Command from which his Father had been dislodged by the same Lewis; but after his Exit, the same Command was suc­cessively Managed by his two Uncles Luchino and John Visconti, younger Brothers to his F [...]ther Galeazzo; and after their [...]xtinction, the Government of this State was dispensed and swayed by Galeazzo the second, Son of Stephen, who likewise was a younger Brother of these two, but embellished with no other Title but that of Commander of Milan; and here this Appellation expired with him, and was entomb'd [Page 229] in his Urne; for after his Decase, John Gale­azzo Visconti Son of Galeazzo the first, above­mentioned, coming to graspe the Command of this Province, by the Benefaction and Mu­nificence of the Emperour Wenceslaus about the Year 1395. as some compute, or about the Year 1397. as others calculate, received his Investiture into the State of Milan, with the more splendid Title of Duke; which was suc­cessively enjoyed by his two Sons, John Maria, who in a popular Sedition fell an early Oblation to the Disorder and Fury of the Vulgar; and Philip Maria, who likewise made his Exit with­out Issue, so that the Right of Inheritance was lodged in Valentina their Sister and Heir, who about the Year 1398. was Matched to Lewis Duke of Orleans, Son to Charles the fifth King of France, and by the Contract of Matrimony, it was manifested and declared, that upon Defai­lance of the Masculine Line of Galeazzo, the Children of Valentina should be invested in the Succession of this Dutchy; notwithstanding, this Clause had this emient Defect, that this Dutchy being established a Masculine Fee, Galeazzo could not make it Feminine without the Empe­rours Grant or License, which was not demand­ed or required, because the Empire was then vacant by the Degradation of Wenceslaus whom the Electors had devested and deposed because of his dull and sluggish Administration of the Affairs of the Empire; but it is asserted by [Page 230] the French, that Pope Benedict the thirteenth, who then held his See at Avignon, ratified and approved the above-mentioned Contract, for that Right the Popes challenge in the Vacancy of the Empire. But this Succession falling in the Confusions of France under Charles the se­venth, when the two Sons of Valentina, Charles Duke of Orleans, and John Count of Ango [...] ­lesme were Captive in England, where the first continued twenty five years, and the last almost thirty. It was a Design of not much difficulty for Francis Sforza (a man of a vigorous Re­solution and a deep speculation) who had Wed­ded Bona Natural Daughter to Philip Maria, the last Duke of Milan, above-mentioned; in that interval of Time, and the Desolation of the House of Orleans, to surprize and seize the Dutchy of Milan, of which he had procured and obtained an Investiture of the Emperour Frederick the fourth. But this did not so super­sede the int [...]insique Right of the House of Or­leans, but Lewis the twelfth coming to be King of France, about the Year 1498. so powerfully prosecuted his Right, that he expulsed Lodowick Sforza (who h [...]d by a cla [...]destine Assassination destroyed his two Nephews, the Sons of his Brother Francis abovesaid, entrusted to his Guardianship and Protection, and violently ra­vished away the Possession of this Dutchy) and having made him his Prisoner, carried him into France, where he dyed in Captivity in the [Page 231] Tower of Loches. Lewis remaining thus Ma­ster of this Dutchy, to secure his Claim and fortifie his Title, he obtained two Investitures of the Emperour Maximilian, the first in the Year 1506. and the second in the Year 1509. But this did not so support his Possession, but that towards the latter end of his Government he was supplanted by Maximilian Sforza, Son to Lodowick, and the Concomitant Succours of the Suisse, with the Consent of Maximilian the Emperour, who was disgusted because Claude eldest Daughter to Lewis who had been promi­sed to his Grandchild Charles, was [...]spoused to Francis, afterwards King of France, by the Name of Francis the first; which Francis af­ter Decease of Lewis, being emp [...]l'd with the Diadem of France, so Successfully vindi­cated his Claim and Title, that he regained this Dutchy, and rendered Maximilian his Prisoner, but he either neglected o [...] the d [...]dain­ed to do Homage to the [...]mperour for a new Investiture; which Contempt of his, Charles the fifth, who succeeded his Grand­father Maximilian, re ented with so much Regret, that his Animosity against Francis grew inveterate and implacable, which blazed out in the Flame of a Publique War, in which Francis was made Captive at the Battel of P [...] ­via, and from thence transported and put under Restraint at Madrid, and there remained un­til he purchased his Enfranchisement with a [Page 232] plenary Release and Surrender of his Right to this Dutchy into the Hands of Charles the fifth, though the French affirm this could onely pre­judice himself, but not the Children of Claude his Queen, who were entitled to a Right by Descent from their Mother; and that this Con­cession of Madrid is null by the Fundamental Laws of France, which will not permit the Alienation of the Soveraign Rights of the Crown without the Consent of the Estates Gene­ral; and they never ratified this Concession; but the actual Possession of the Spaniard hath been more strong than these Pretences, who have so secured their Interest in this Dutchy, a­gainst all the Efforts and hostile Eruptions of the French, that it is still wound up in the Patrimo­ny of Philip the fourth King of Spain.

The Spanish Interest in Siena.
Siena.

SIENA and its circumambient Territory is situated between the Estate of Pisa, and the Patrimony of the Popes of Rome, called the Demeasn of the Church. The City is by Antoninus in his Itinerary styled Sena Julia, to distinguish it from another of that Name, si­tuated on the Margin or Fringes of the Adria­tick Gulf, and named Sena Gallica. It was as the Ancient Traditions of Italy testifie, e­rected by Brennus, who here, as in some Infir­matory, did deposite his Souldiers who were su­perannuated with Age, or else almost crumbled away with Sicknesse. In Times of a more mo­dern Aspect this Province was wholly devoted or offered up to the Interest of the Faction or Combination of the Gibellines or Imperial party, so that the price was narrow and easie at which they enfranchis'd & purchased their liberty of the Emperour Rodolphus. After this City and Province came to confesse the Seignory and Scepter of the Spaniard; but they had not been long resident in their new Acquists, but they [Page 234] were disseised by the French, but by the second Eruption of those Spanish they had not long be­fore expulsed, they were again rooted out and supplanted; and the King of Spain having thus rescued Siena from the yoke of the French, conveyed all his Concernment in it to Cosmo de Medices Duke of Florence about the Year 1558. but with this Retrenchment or limi­tation, that the Dutchy of Siena it self should hold in Fee of the Crown of Spain, and the Cities and Ports of Porto Hercol [...], Orbitillo, Piombino, and Porto Longone, should be an­nexed to the Crown of Spain, and remain as Limbs of the Patrimony of that Diadem for ever; & though Porto Piombino and Longone were not many years since torne from the Spanish Scepter by the prosperous Arms of the French, yet the Spanish discovering how Destructive and Ruinous it would be to their Affairs in Italy, to suffer these new Intruders to be fix­ed in a constant Possession of them, retrived them by Dint of the Sword, and are at this instant entitled to the peaceable Possession of them.

The Interest of the House of AUSTRIA in GERMANY.

AUSTRIA properly so called, hath on the East the Kingdome of Hungary, on the West Bavaria, on the North B [...]ia, on the South Stiria or Stiermarck, represented to us by the Dutch under the Denomination of Ost [...]rick, that is to say, the Eastern King­dome, this being the extreme Province of East-France, or the Eastern Kingdom of the French; in the rude and unpolished Latine of those Times styled Austrasia, whence the modern Austria hath borrowed its Name and extra­ction.

The ancient Inhabitants were the Quadi who were subdued by the Romans; but these had scarcely advanced their Trophies upon the Ru­ines of this People, but the Marcomanni im­proving their strength by a Confederate mixture with the Boij, dislodged the Romans from their new Acquists, and Conquered part of this Pro­vince, and left the remainder to be offered up as a Sacrifice to the Victorious Sword of the Avares.

But these Boij being subjugated by Clovis the [Page 236] Great, and the Avares expulsed from Pannonia by Charlemaigne, both this and that became incorporated into the French Empire, until the subduing Pannonia by the Hungarians. To oppose whom, and more vigorously to protect this Province in its Peace and Safety, some under the Notion of Guardians or Lord Mar­chers, were Deputed by the Kings and Empe­rours of Germany to have an Inspection into the Affairs of this Territory; and more to reward and ennoble their Care, they were adorned with the Title of Marquisses. At first Offici­arie, but at last Hereditary; made so by the Emperour Henry the first, who gave this Pro­vince Anno 980. to one Leopold surnamed the Illustrious, extracted from the House of Schwa­ben; and from him descended Leopold the fourth Marquisse of Austria, who dying without Issue, Henry the second was not onely invested with the Estate, but likewise with the Title of Mar­quisse of Austria; but by the liberal Munifi­cence of Frederick Barbarossa in the Year 1158. was advanced to a higher Dignity and Created Duke of this Province by that Emperour; and from him it came down to his Grandchild Leo­pold the fifth, who surprized Richard the first, in his Return from the Holy War; and having made him his Captive, obtained so plentiful a Ransome for his Redemption, that with it he Purchased Stiermark and the Counties of Neo­bourg and Lintz, and Circumscribed U [...]enna [Page 237] with a Wall; and this Leopold had Issue Frede­rick the Warlike, who for some Enterprises wherein he exhibited signal Testimonies of his Courage, was made King of Austria by Fre­derick the second Emperour of Germany; but he Deceasing without Issue, Ottocarus Son of Wenceslaus King of Bohemia, being fortified with a Right derived from Margaret Sister to this Frederick, entered upon his newly esta­blished Monarchy, adding thereto, as an increase of Patrimony, the Countries of Carinthia, and Carniola, which he had Purchased of Ulric the last Prince thereof; but being Vanquished and Slain by Rodolphus of Hapsberg not long before advanced to the German Empire in the Year 1246. he conferred the Possession of these large Acquists on his eldest Son Albert with the Title of Duke of Austria, about the Year 1298. But though these new Conquests were incorpo­rated into the Demeasn of Albert, by the suc­cessful Sword of his Father, yet was their Title better secured and supported by Marriage; for he Wedded Elizabeth Daughter of M [...]inard Earl of Tiroll and Elizabeth his Wife, the Daughter of Gertrude, who was Daughter to Henry Brother to Frederick the Warlike; which Gertrude Matched with Hermanus Marquisse of Bad [...]n, by whom she had Frederick Beheaded at Naples by Charles of Valois, 1268. And this Elizabeth abovesaid, in whose Right Albert became entitled to Austria, Tiroll, and many [Page 238] other Opulent and considerable Possessions else­where; and from him did this Dutchy by De­scent devolve to Albert the sixth, who (as some Records and Histories assert) assumed the Style of Arch-Duke, about the Year 1430. and much enhaunsed his Grandeur and Revenue by Match­ing with Elizabeth Heir of Sigismund King of Hungary and of Bohemia, she adding those two Crowns to his Patrimony; and he left Issue Ladislaus, who Deceasing Childlesse, Frederick the second, being extracted from Leopold one of the Sons of Albert the third Duke of Austria surnamed the Short, was by a Right flowing from him entitled to this Dukedome; and he had Issue Maximilian the first, from whom this Dutchy devolved successively to his two Grandchildren Charles the fifth, and Ferdinand the first. The last of which had Issue Maximilian the second; from whom the Title was conducted down to his two Sons Rodolph the third, and Matthias, who both Deceasing without Issue, the Title was in­vested in their Kinsman Ferdinand the second Duke of Gratz, Son of Charles Duke of Au­stria youngest Son of Ferdinand the first; from whom it is transmitted to his Grandchild Leo­pold Ignatius, the instant Emperour of Ger­many.

Stiria or Stiermark, is bounded on the North with Austria, on the South with Carinthia, on the East with Hungary, on the West with Ca­rinthia likewise. It was anciently possest by [Page 239] Inhabitants who fell under the Denomination of the Taurisci part of the Norici, from whom it extracted the Appellation of Stiermark; the Germans calling that a Stier which the Latines call Tauriscus, or a little Bullock. From which Account it may be asserted that Stiermark was nothing Anciently, but the Borders or Marches of the Taurisci, being the utmost Limits or Ex­tent of their Possessions. It was annexed to Pannonia in the Destribution of the Roman Pro­vinces, and had the Name of Valeria imposed upon it, as a Trophie of Honour imposed upon it, to improve the Memory of Valeria the Daughter of Dioclesian. But when it was rent off from the Roman Empire it obtained the Name of Stiermark, which had an Aspect upon the Ancient Inhabitants the Taurisci. It was first erected into an Earldome in the person of one Ottocarus, who was Dignified with the Title of Earl by Conrade the second. And this Title continued until Leopold the fourth was created Marquisse of Stiermark by the Emperour of Germany, for the Time being; and from him the Right of Succession transported this Province to his Son Ottocarus the fourth, who was adorned with the Title of Duke of Stiria by Frederick Barbarossa. But he being without hope of Issue, and infected with the incurable Disease of the Leprosie, conveyed his Interest and Concern­ment in this Province to Leopold the fifth, Duke of Austria, which he purchased with that vast [Page 240] heap of Treasure he extorted from Richard the first, for his Ransome from that Captivity he was detained in. And hath been wrapped up ever since in the Demeasne of the House of Au­stria; but so that it hath been consigned as a Portion to support the younger Sons of that Fa­mily; as namely, to Leopold the ninth of that Name, one of the younger Sons of Albert the Short, and after to Ernest the youngest Son of that Leopold; and lastly, to Charles the young­est Son of Ferdinand the first, commonly cal­led Charles Duke of Gratz, Father to Ferdinand the second, who was Successor to Matthias in the Empire, and Heir General likewise to that Complicated Interest he enjoyed in Austria, and the rest of the Estates incorporate with it, where it hath ever since remained so united, that it is not probable for the future, that it will so unpo­litiquely be dismembered from it.

Carinthia and Carniola are two other Pro­vinces which inforce the Grandeur and swell the Patrimony of the Austrian Family. The first called Karnten in Dutch, is bounded on the East with Stiermark, on the West with the Bishop­rick of Saltzbourg, on the North with Austria, on the South with Carniola. Carniola styled Krain in Dutch, is surrounded with Sclavonia on the East, Friuli on the West, Carinthia on the North, and Istria on the South. The anci­ent Inhabitants of Karnten and Krain were the Carni; from them not only the adjoyning Alpes [Page 241] had the Name of Carnicae, but these two Coun­ties had those Names imposed upon them, by which they now are known. Both Provinces were united long since in the persons of the Dukes of Karnten; the first of whom the Te­stimony of Authentique Record does exhibit to publique view, was Henry Son to Berthold a Noble Man of Bavaria, in the Time of the Emperour Otho the third, who invested him with the Title, and planted him in the Estate; which were both disposed off in succeeding Times at will of the Emperours, as their In­terest guided them. Nor was the Title fixed in any House, until it devolved to Henry Son of Englebert President of Istria, in which Family it remained under this Henry, his Brother Englebert, Ulric the first, Henry the second, Herman and Ulric the 2d. the last who was inti­tuled to these Provinces; who by Matching with Agnes Sister and Heir of Otho the second Duke of Meranis, linked that Estate to his former Pa­trimony. But being ancient and Issue-lesse, he con­veyed his Interest here to Ottocarus King of Bo­hemia and Duke of Austria, by whom these Countries were surrendred to Rodolphus of Hab­sperg, as an Oblation to that Peace which was solemnly stipulated between them. And though Rodolphus gave Carinthia to Mainard Earl of Tiroll (in Right of whose Daughter, Albert the Son of Rodolphus was enstated in Austria) yet upon the expiration of Henry the Son of Mainard [Page 242] without Issue Male, it devolved (according to a Pre-contract) unto Albert the Short, eldest Son of Albert, and Grandchild of Rodolphus, continned ever since annexed to that Family, though not alwayes resident in the Chief House of Austria.

In this Province of Carniola is the Town and little Territory of Gorit [...] anciently styled No­reia, and was in elder Times of that Repute that the Proprietary of it was adorned with the Title of an Earl; he that had the Dignity of Count of Goritz, was Albert second Son to Mainard Earl of Tiroll, who devested himself of the Propriety of it, to fix the Title on him; and in the Descendant Line of this Albert it continued until the Year 1500. and then Leonard the last Earl thereof dying without Issue, it was seised on by Maximilian the Emperour as his next vi­sible Heir, whose Successors both in the House of Austria and Empire also, inter-weave the Title of Earl of Goritz in their usual Style.

Tiroll.

TIROLL is bounded on the East with Friuli and Marca Trivigiana, on the West with Grisons and some part of Switzer­land, on the North with Bavaria, and on the South with Lombardy.

[Page 243]The Earls were at first but Provincial Offi­cers; but when this naked and empty Title va­nished and grew Hereditary, no Beam either from private or publique Record does contri­bute any Light to a Discovery. The first whom any certain Evidence does represent to us, is Mainard who dyed Earl of Tiroll about the Year 1258. and from him did this Earldome devolve to his Grandchild Henry, who dying without Issue Male, his Daughter Margaret by the con­sent and Suffrage of her Subjects, conveyed her Propriety in this Earldome to the Sons of Albert the Short, which hath been linked ever since to the Revenue of the Austrian Family. Ferdinand the first gave it in Appennage to his second Son Ferdinand surnamed of Inspruch, who having disgusted his Allies by Matching with Philippina a Burger's Daughter of Ausburg, he to becalme their Passions which boyled with Re­gret and Animosity against this cheap Alliance, entered into Covenant with them, that her Issue should not be entitled to the Inheritance of Ti­roll; In order to which stipulation, after his Decease this Earldome devolved to the House of Gratz, his eldest Son Charles being adorned with the Dignity of Marquisse of Burgh, and his second Son Andrew advanced to be Cardinal of Brixia, so that the Propriety of this County hath been ever since resident in the above recited▪ Fa­mily; and at this instant confesses the Seignory and Title of the Descendants of Leopold Bro­ther [Page 244] to Ferdinand the second, Duke of Gratz, and Emperour of Germany.

Bohemia.

BOHEMIA is encompassed on the East with Moravia, on the West with the Upper Palatinate and Voitland, on the North with Misnia, Lusatia, and some part of Si­lesia; on the South with some parts of Bavaria and Austria.

The first Inhabitants were the Marcomanni and Quadi, mingled with the Boiari Marsigni, Burij and Gothini; who upon the wane of that Power and Splendor which ennobled the Roman Empire, were disseised of their ancient Patri­mony in this Kingdome by the Sclavi, a Nation Inhabiting the Banks of the River Ister; a Peo­ple very Obscure in their Original and in their Country, until their Successes dispelled that Mist which hung about them, and made them more conspicuous. Under what Form of Govern­ment they modelled themselves after their At­chievement of this Kingdome, is not obvious from any Ancient Record; or if they did erect any Frame, it was swept away by new Squadrons of Sclaves, Croatians, and other scattered Na­tions, who under the Conduct of Zechius a [Page 245] Leader of great estimate, like an Inundation broke in upon them, which Zechius, with his Brother Leches about the Year 640. were ex­pulsed out of Croatia, for some Offences of a dark Complexion there acted by them; and be­ing very acceptable to the Sclaves of Bohemia, who viewed him as a Prince extracted out of the same Cradle and Seminary with themselves, and one of the same Language, concerned in the same Laws, and conformable to the same Cu­stomes with their own, they Adopted him into the Supreme Government of this Province. But after his Decease the Estate crumbled into the Confusions of a disordered Anarchy; until Crocus about the Year 670. recollected the bro­ken pieces into shape and Order; and from his Justice and Integrity in the Administration of the Publique Affairs, acquired the Name of the Bohemian Law-giver; after his Exit the Bohe­mians resigned themselves up to the Govern­ment of Libussa his youngest Daughter, but her Hand being too narrow to graspe the Affairs of State, her Subjects made choice of Primi [...]aus, and by Matching of him to her devolved the Government on his shoulders; and in his Po­sterity the Supreme Authority was resident, who were adorned with no other Title but sometimes Governours and sometimes Dukes of Bohemia; until the Rule of Ueratislaus Brother to Sbtig­n [...]us, who about the Year 1086. was for his Worthy and generous Performances in several [Page 246] Undertakings, by the Emperour Henry the fourth, at Metz, invested with the Title of King; which Regal Dignity was to continue Elective either at the will and Arbitrament of the Em­perour, or at the Disposition of the Estates and People; and this is evident from several Pre­cedents, this Uratislaus left three Sons who were devested of the Crown to give way to Conrade Brother to Uratislaus, who by the suffrages of the People was Elected King; and after his De­cease Brecislaus Son to Uratislaus, to the preju­dice of hi [...] two Sons, was advanced by Choice to the Bohemian Diadem; and after his Exit, Borivorius fourth Son to Brecislaus, to the Dis­herison of his three elder Brothers, was Elected to weild the Scepter; and thus did the Crown continue in the persons of Sutopulcus, Uladislaus the second, Sobeslaus Brother to this Uladislaus, Uladislaus the third, Son to Uladislaus the se­cond, above mentioned, who by the Peoples Election was advanced to the Diadem, the Sons of Sobeslaus being excluded and all the Resi­due of their Successors; until the Crown came to be placed on the Head of Ferdinand the first Emperour of Germany, who notwithstanding his Latitude of Power, acknowledged that the Bohemian Scepter devolved to him not by the Authority of any Intrinsique or Inherent Right or the Claim of Succession, but only by the Electi­on of the People; and this his Confession was enrolled in the Records of the Kingdome; and [Page 247] though it is certain, that Maximilian his Son, Ro­dolphus & Matthias his two Grandchildren, were Successively Kings after him, yet not their De­scent, but the Peoples Election, fortified their advancement to the Bohemian Diadem; and though upon the Decease of Matthias, Ferdi­nand surnamed of Gratz, as Adopted Son to Matthias, & declar'd Successor to the Crown of Bohemia by his Testament, intruded upon the Throne; yet being not formally and legally E­lected by the People, he was by the Estates of the Kingdom rejected, who fixed upon Frederick Elector Palatine of the Rhine as the object of their Choice; but he being betrayed by his Con­federates, and over-laid with the united Armies of the Emperour Ferdinand, and the Dukes of Saxony and Bavaria abandoned Bohemia, which was re-possest by Ferdinand, in whose De­scendant Line it hath been since so permanent (the Peoples Election having been by Menaces and Force extorted) that it is now the Possessi­on of his Grandchild Leopoldus Ignatius the instant Emperour of Germany.

Silesia.

SILESIA is bounded on the East with Poland, on the West with Lusatia, on the North with the Marck of Bradenburg, on the South with Moravia.

The first Inhabitants hereof were the Marsig­ni, Burij, Gothini, and some part of the Quadi. In the great partage of the Eastern parts of Ger­many amongst the Sclaves, who had supplanted the ancient Proprietaries, it was incorporated with the Dukedome or Kingdom of Poland▪ and remained annexed unto it until the Government of Uladislaus the second, who being devested of his Crown and Scepter by the unnatural Com­bination of his Brethren, was by the powerful Influence and Intercession of the Emperour Fre­derick Barbarossa, Seated in this Country, with this Restriction, that it shoul be held in Homage to the Soveraignty of Poland. After his De­cease it became split into parcels, and was di­stributed amongst his three Sons, and again ac­cording to that ancient Custome of Germany called Land-Skiftan (which with the Saxons was transplanted into England) was subdivided into so many subordinate parts, which were to support the Revenue and Livelyhood of their [Page 249] Posterity, that it became resolved and broken into fourteen Dukedomes; of all which, onely Oswitz and Zator continue fastned to the Crown of Poland, ten of the twelve remaining being by the Power and Prudence of Wenceslaus the second, and John of Luxenbourg, Son to the Emperour Henry the seventh, both Kings of Bohemia, knit to the Patrimony of that Diadem only Su [...]initz remained under the Regiment and Administration of its own Dukes, until Bo­g [...]slaus the last Duke by Testamentary Donation, passed away all his Interest in it to Charles the fourth Emperour, and King of Bohemia also; so that eleven of these petty Royalties by Con­quest and voluntary Concession, came to be linked to those Possessions which improved the Grandeur of the [...]ohemian Scepter, and have still so constantly waited on the Fate which hath attended the Diadem of that Kingdome, that they are now subservient to the Interest and Do­minion of the Austrian Family, at this instant Seated in the Imperial Throne; onely Lignitz the last in the Inventory of Fourteen Duke­domes, does yet pay its Obedience to a proper Prince or Duke whose Predecessors have enjoy­ed it by a prescription of many Descents. But alas! his power is circumscribed, and himself so chained up by Tribute and Homage, to the Com­mands of the Emperour, as King of Bohemia, that he appears little more than precarious.

Moravia.

MORAVIA is shut in on the East with Hungary, on the West with Bohemia, on the North with Silesia, on the South with the Lower Austria. The Ancient Inhabitants were the Marcomanni and Quadi, who were in subsequent Ages rooted out and discarded by a Sprig or Branch of the Sclaves, who Inhabited about the Banks of the River Mora, from whence they imposed the Name of Moravia on their new acquired Patrimony. At the be­ginning of their Settlement in this Province, their Government was managed by Kings, the first Name of whom, represented to us in Re­cord is Raslai, who was made Captive by Lewis the Godly, and this Province forced to become Tributary to the Empire; after Raslai the Right of Succession brought the Moravian Scepter to be swayed by Hermodurus and Suantopulcus, under whose Raign these Moravian Sclaves were retrived from the Mists of Paganisme and Infidelity to the Light and Clearer Conduct of Christianity, by the pious Industry of Cyrill and Methodius, two Grecian Doctors. After Su­antopulcus, his Son Suantobegius ascended the Moravian Throne; a Prince of a Noble and [Page 251] inexpugnable Spirit, who stretched his Scepter by many eminent Conquests over Bohemia, Silesia, and Polonia al [...]o; but his Power growing for­midable, Arnulph the Emperour thought it meet to contract it, and taking the Advantage to lay the Foundation of a Quarrel from his Denial to pay the accustomed Tribute, by the united Aid of the Hungarians then Pagans, so bruised him in several encounters, that his Kingdome crumbled into a heap of R [...]ines, being seised on by the Hungarians and Poles, and other Na­tions. And in this Calamitous condition it lay entombed, until it began to glitter with a new Beam of Grandeur, by being erected into a Mar­quisate, but when Chronologie is silent; only History represents to us that Jodocus Barbatus a­bout the Year 1410. Elected Emperour, was likewise Marquisse of Moravia; after whose Decease it devolved to Sigismund Emperour and King of Bohemia as his next Heir, and he enstated it on his Son in Law Albert Duke of Anstria about the Year 1417. which Albert upon his Decease not only succeeded him in Moravia, but likewise was planted in all the rest of his Estates; since which time it hath been so constant an attendant on the Fate and Fortune of the Crown of Bohemia, that at this instant it obeys the Scepter of Leopoldus Emperour of Germany.

Lusatia.

LUSATIA, in High Dutch styled the Lausnits, is clasped in on the East with Silesia, on the West with Misnia, on the North with the Marck of Brandenbourg, and on the South with Bohemia: Who were the first Inhabitants, no Beam from Antiquiy affords us Light enough to Discover, onely an obsolete Supposition reflects upon the Senones of Tacitus to be its Ancient Possessors. In Ages of a more Modern Inscription, the Winithi or Venedi, the most Powerful Branch of all the Sclavos were entitled by Conquest to the Propriety of it. When it was advanced to the Dignity of a Mar­quisate, the Annalls of the Empire are so dim and obscure that they exhibit no Testimony to us which may justifie a perfect Discovery. A­bout the Year 1156. one C [...]nrade dyed invest­ed with the Title of Marquisse, to whose Do­minion the Emperour Henry the fifth, added both the Title and Marquisate of Misnia, which for some Decursion of time remained annexed to Lusatia; after this, this Province of Lau­snits being not able to support it self against the frequent Incursions and Inroads of the Poles, it stooped to the Scepter of their Kingdom, and [Page 253] continued subservient to the Interest of that Di­adem, until it was conveyed by Sale to Fre­derick the second, Marquisse and Elector of Brandenbourg, who reserving to himself C [...]t­house, and some other peices contiguous to the Margin and Verge of his Confines, transmitted the Remainder by a voluntary Resignation to George Pogibrachius King of Bohemia, who Claimed it by the Right and Authority of an Original Grant made to Uratislaus the first Bo­hemian King, by Henry the fourth Emperour of Germany; and from this George did the Right and Title of this Province flow down to Fer­dinand the second Emperour of Germany, in an even Channel; who conveyed his Interest in it to the late Duke of Saxony, as a Guerdon of those Supplies with which he Supported his Quarrel against the Palsgrave Fredrick E­lected King of Bohemia. yet though Mo­ravia, Silesia, and this Lusatia, were thus interwoven in the person of one Supreme Go­vernour, yet did they continue so distinct in their particular Laws and Governments, that the Chief Magistrate or Ruler is admitted and acknowledged by each Province distinctly by it self, and not by any one of them in the Name of the rest; and this is done to preserve themselves free from any Slavish Connexion or Dependen­cy of each to the other; which Custome or Pri­viledge, notwithstanding these late Concussions, hath remained unshaken and unviolated to this day.

Alsatia.

ALSATIA, in Dutch, Elsats, is shut in on the East with the Rhine and some parts of Schwaben, on the West with the Mountain Vogesus, which divo [...]ces it from Lor­rein, on the North with the Palatinate, on the South with Switzerland.

The Ancient Inhabitants were the Tribochi, with some mixture of the Nem [...]es and Ra [...]ra [...]i▪ It was first subdued by the Romans; and w [...]ung from them by the Almans; afterwards extorted from these by the French, and by them annex­ed as a Province to the Kingdome of Lorrein, and and when that Realm was in the Solstice of its most flourishing Condition, it fell under the Notion of a Province of the Empire. The Government at [...]irst was managed for the Em­perours by Provincial Earls called Landgraves, at first Officiarie and Ti [...]ular onely, as being accomptable for the profits of the County to the present Emperour. But in the subsequent Age it was made Hereditary and Successive, in the person of Theodorick, by Otho the third; after whose Decease the Empire returning to be Ele­ctive, gave such an Alarum to these Provincial Commanders, that they endevoured to secure [Page 255] themselves by lopping off any future depen­dant Connexion that might render them precari­ous; so that the Propriety of Elsats remain­ed folded up in the successive Line of this Theo­dorick, until the Government of the Empe­rour Frederick the second, and then this Estate and Seignory of Alsatia was broken to peices and conveyed by Female Coheirs to Albert the second Earl of Habspurg, Albert Earl of Ho­henloe, and Lewis Count of Ottingen. Rodolph of Habspurg, afterwards Emperour, Son of this Albert, Matched with Anne Heir of the Earl of Hohenloe, and so in her Right and in his own, became invested in two parts of this Province, which make up the Upper Elsats, which remained so constantly fixed in the Pos­session of the House of Austria, that by the steps of several Descents it came to acknowledge the Dominion of the Emperour Ferdinand the third, not long since Deceased, who to reimburse the French for those vast expences the German War had embarqued and engaged that Crown in, by the Articles of the late Peace so solemnly trans­acted at Munster, conveyed it by Grant to the Crown of France, and remains so at this instant an Appendage to the Demeasn of that Diadem.

Sungow or the Earldom of Pfirt, was Anci­ently clasped up within the Patrimony of the Princes of Schwaben, upon the expiration of which Eminent House, in the person of Conra­radine about the Year 1268, the Patrimony of [Page 256] which, supported the Lustre of that Family; in his Extinction sunk into parcells, some propor­tion of which erected this into a distinct Earl­dome. And under this Notion it remained un­til Ulrick the last Earl, going out in two Fe­male Coheirs, about the Year 1324. Ann the eldest Matched to Albert the Short, Duke of Austria, and Son to the Emperour Rod [...]lphus, and Ursula the second, by an equal Distribution shared his Inheritance; and she fearing his Power, for a Recompense of Eight Thousand Crowns conveyed her Moiety to this Albert; whose Successors (unlesse when it was pawned or engaged to Burgundy) were entitled by an uninterrupted Right to the Propriety of it, un­til the War Commenced not many years since, between the two Emperours Ferdinand the se­cond, and Ferdinand the third, and Lewis the thirteenth King of France, made by that King in favour of the Swede, who was in danger to be over-laid, and dislodged from his new Ac­quists in the Empire, by the thriving Caesarean Army, after the Fatal Battel of Nortlingen; the effects of which Quarrel were so destructive and ruinous to the last Emperour, that to expedite an Accommodation with the Crown of France, he gave up his Interest in this Province, during the term of the Truce, to be enjoyed by the French.

Brisgow in Schwaben.

BRISGOW was in Times of a very high Ascent the Patrimony of the Earls of Ze­ringen, which was erected into an Earldome by Berthold the first, Son of Gebizo, and Grand­child of Guntran the second Earl of Hapspurg; which Family finding its Tombe and fatal Ex­tinction in the person of Berthold the fifth, the seventh in succession, who Deceased Anno 1218. the Right of Brisgow devolved to the Earls of Fribourg, the Principal City of that Country. Cuno the first who bare the Title of Earl of Fri­bourg, being the eldest Son of Judith Sister and Heir of Berthold the last Earl of Zeringen. Eg­gon is the last Recorded in the Register of those Earls of Fribourg who were invested with that Dignity and the Propriety of Brisgow; who be­ing over-born by the Eruptions of his Muti­nous Subjects, he sunk under the pressure, and transmitted by Sale his entire Concernment in this Province upon the Receipt of Twelve thou­sand Ducats, to Albert and Leopold Dukes of Austria, Sons of Albert the Short; in the Patrimony of whose Successors the Title of this Province hath ever since been so constantly fold­ed up, that it still confesses the Signory of the Au­strian Family.

Hungary.

HUNGARY is shut in on the East with Transylvania and Walachia; on the West with Stiria, Austria, and Moravia; on the North with the Carpathian Hills; on the on the South with Sclavonia and some part of Dacia.

The Ancient Inhabitants of Hungary on the North side Tisse, were the Iazyges Metanastae; on the East-side of Tibiscus, the Daci were planted; on the South-side of the Danau, the Pannones resolved into the several Colonies of the Azuli, Latovici, Werciani, Jassij, and Oseriates; as likewise the Ercuneales, Breuci; Aravisei, and Scordisci Inhabited; the first of which extended their Dwellings to the East, as the last inlarged their Habitations to the West. But all these above mentioned were either very much broken, or else forced to surrender them­selves to the Successful Sword of the Romans, Anno post urbem Conditam 719. Lucius Cornifi­cius, and Sextus Pompeius being Consuls; and after they had been planted in the Possession of this Province for some Centuries of years, their Tenure and Title was disordered by the Invasi­ons of the Chuni or Huns, who under the Command of Balamir their General, in seve­ral Encounters, so disspirited the Power and bruised the Force of the Romans, that they a­dandoned [Page 259] this Province to the Possession of these new Conquerours; but the same Vicissitude which cast out the Romans, roll'd in upon these Huns, and crushed them with the Wheel of a Revolution 'like the former; for the Winnithi or Longobards, having both infested these Huns with many Inroads, and afflicted them in many fortunate Encounters, so wasted their Strength, and impair'd their Armies, that they gave up themselves and this Province, as a Cheap Obla­tion to the Triumphs of these Victorious Longo­bards; but these being called by Narses into I­taly, to reinforce his Armies (who then were in Contest with the Goths for the Soveraignty of that Territory) discarded the Cold and Barren Fields of Hungary to settle on the Warmer Champaign of Lombardy, where under the Go­vernment and Scepter of Alboinus, they erect­ed their Longobardian Kingdome. The Longo­bards having thus left the Stage, the Avares or Avarini, a People dropp'd out of the Bosome of Sarmatia, about the Raign of Tiberius the second Emperour of Greece, entered under the Conduct of Caganus or Chan, an Heroick but Merciful (Clemency and Magnanimity are twins) Cheiftane, who first dissipated the For­ces employed to break him by Tiberius above­said, and then after a Bloody Decision subdued Cometiolus Lieutenant to the Emperour Mau­ritius, Successor to Tiberius, and the Forces marshall'd under his Conduct; which Empe­rour attempting to repair the Dishonour con­tracted [Page 260] by this Defeat, had his Endevours fru­strated by that execrable and perfidious Assassi­nation which was acted on him by his Bloody Servant Phocas; which Murther so unsetled and disordered all those hinges which sustained the Frame of the Grecian Empire, that these Ava­res and their Commanders taking the Advantage of its intestine Distractions, not only reduced Hungary to their subjection, but likewise so ex­tended their Conquests, that in the Raign of Phocas abovesaid, and the Emperour Heraclius, they Forraged to the Gates of Constantinople; and having thus broken the Power of the Greeks, they next Assaulted the Goth [...] and Gepidae, who yet possest some part of Hungary; and after many Conflicts and Disputes with these tougher Nations about their Title, they supplanted these also, and asserted the entire Possession to them­selves; and here they setled in a quiet and un­disturbed Residence, until the Government of Charles the Great; and then he having like a Whirle-wind, cast out those Nations which op­posed him, shivered these into a wilde Dis­persion, and by his Victorious Arms dislodged them from the Possession of this Kingdome; af­ter their Exit this Province was subservient to the Commands of the German Emperours; until Arnulphus being Assaulted by the fierce Impressions of Suantobogius King of Moravia, called in the Hungars, a People of Scithia, wandering in Sarmatia Europaea, and not tied or fixed to any certain abode, to his sup­port [Page 261] and Assistance, and they so generously crushed the Attempts, and repulsed the Assaults given to the Emperour and his Armies, that to reward so signal and generous performances, Arnulphus Invested them in the Possession of Pannonia, and by a grateful elevation advanced Casala their Leader, to the Title of Duke of this Province; and he to perpetuate to Posteri­ty the Memory of this Magnificent Donation, discarded the Ancient Name of Pannonia, and imposed that of Hungary (an Appellation ex­tracted from the People above mentioned) up­on it; and from him it came down to his great Grandchild Stephen the fourth Duke of Hunga­ry, in whom that Title ceased, and was im­proved to the more eminent Dignity of King; which Office by the transmission of Descent, passed along to his Successor Stephen the fourth of that Name King of Hungary; and he deter­mined in Mary his sole Heir, who by Match­ing with Charles the I ame, Son of Charles K. of Naples, linked the Crown of Hungary to his Patrimony; and in his Descendant Line it resided until the Scepter of this Kingdome came to be grasped by his Successor Ludovicus or Lewis, who concluding in Daughters and Co­heirs, Mary the eldest being Wedded to Sigis­mund the Emperour, brought this Crown about the Year 1387. to acknowledge his Scepter and Seignory; and he left Issue, Elizabeth Daugh­ter to them two, and she by Espousing Albert of Austria, planted the Crown of Hungary [Page 262] on his Temples; and from him it devolved to Elizabeth his Daughter by this Alliance, who was Affianced to Ladislaus the second, Son of Casimir the fourth King of Poland, who in her Right was justly entitled to the Hungarian Dia­dem, and left it to his Son Ladislaus or Lewis, infortunately slain at the Battel of Mohats by the Turks, about the Year 1526. upon whose Decease without Issue, Ferdinand Brother to Charles the fifth, in Right of Anne his Wife, who was Sister and Heir to Lewis above-said, was In­vested with the Crown of Hungary; and from him the Scepter of this Kingdom was transported by the Devolution of several Descents to Ferdi­nand the third Emperour of Germany, who upon his late Decease hath left it to be weilded by his Son and Heir Leopoldus Ignatius, who now is pla­ced on the Hungarian Throne.

Croatia.

CROATIA is bounded on the East with Bosnia, on the West with Carniola, on the South with Contado di Zara, anciently Named Liburnia, on the North with Windischland. The Reason why the Name was imposed, is not ob­vious in Authours, only it is generally asserted it was fixed on it by the Sclaves when they made their first Eruption on this Country, when they disseised the Goths who supplanted the Romans, who had before rooted out and dislodged, by se­veral [Page 263] multiplied Conquests, the ancient Inhabi­tants call'd the Liburni and Illyrij, mingled with some allay of the neighbouring Nations, or ra­ther Colonies of the Japodes, the Scirtari, the Mazai, the Peruistae, the Derrij, Ceraunij, Daur­sii, Vardae, Siculotae, Sardiotae, and others of more despicable Estimate. But long the Sclaves had not setled in this Province, but their Disor­ders unsetled them; for by their Mutinies and Rebellions against their Governours, which con­cluded still in their slaughter and Ruin, they fill'd the State with Anarchie and Vicissitude, and were never calm or fixed, until the several Tribes to allay this Distemper, had Princes who suc­ceeded one another in a more Regular Method, under the Title of Kings of Croatia; and in this Capacity it remained until the Year 970. when having worried and harrassed their Neighbours by Pyracies and other acts of Devastation, the Venetians, inflamed by these Affronts, to expi­ate their Depredations with a just Revenge, in several Conflicts so embased and retrench'd their Power, that Zelamirus the last King, Deceasing without Issue, bequeathed the Kingdome to his Wife, and she by a willing Donation transferr'd her Interest to her Brother Ladislaus the Saint, King of Hungary, so that it hath had its Title ever since so involved and wound up in the Fate and Fortune of Hungary, that by Ann the Sister and Heir of K. Lewis, who perished in the Ruin of the Battel of Mohatz,, it accrued to Fer­dinand the first Emperour of Germany; and [Page 264] from him by the Traverses of several Descents, did it passe along, untill at last it is now come to confess the Soveraignty of Leopoldus Ignatius now Emperour of Germany.

VVindischland.

VVINDISCHLAND is chained in on the East with part of the lower Hun­gary, on the West with Carniola or Karnt on the North with the River Dravus, on the South with Croatia.

It was anciently esteemed a Limb of Pannonia Inferiour, as in more modern Times a parcell of the Province of Savia. The ancient Inhabitants were the Winithi or Vendi, who being swallowed up in the frequent mixtures of their Confining Neighbours the Sclaves, were esteemed a Branch of that Powerful and spreading Nation; but still to preserve the Name of their first Original the Denomination of Windischland was imposed on this Province, which since by the Sale and conveyance above mentioned, made by Zelami­rus to Uladislaus the Saint, hath been so linked with Croatia, that as it hath had still the same Successours, so at this instant it owns no other Scepter, but that of Leopoldus Ignatius now Emperour of Germany.

FINIS.

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