ANTIQUITA [...] Theologica & Gentilis.


THE FIRST, Concerning the ORIGINAL [...] CHURCHES, and their D [...] rect or Collateral Endowment [...]

THE SECOND, Touching the RELIGION of the GEN­TILES, their TEMPLES, PRIESTS▪ SACRIFICES, and other Ancien [...] RITUALS.


By THOMAS PHILIPOT, M. A. an [...] formerly of Clare-Hall in Cambridge.

LONDON, [...]rinted by W. G. and sold by R. Needham at the Bell in little S. Bartholomews, 1670

To his LEARNED FRIEND Sr PHILIP WARWICK Of Frog-Poole-Place in Kent, Knight.


THis Treatise im­plores your Pa­tronage as an Umbrella to over-sha­dow it, and your Ap­probation to secure & [Page] support it; so that if its Leaves shall begin to wither, being blast­ed with any malevo­lent Censure, they will contract new Sap and Verdure, animated & improv'd with your Protection; it is ready to receive its Death at your Command, and can entitle its Life on­ly to your acceptance: But, Sir, your Judg­ment [Page] and Candor are folded up together in an equal complication and mixture; as you have Art to judge, so you have Charity to forgive,

Sir, Your very humble Servant,
Thomas Philipot.


Courteous Reader,

I Have at last rallied into one Body some scat­tered Notions fitted and in­tended originally for my pri­vate Memorials, and having knit and cimented them toge­ther into one Frame or Con­texture, make them the Ob­ject [Page] of thy Mercy and Ju­stice, by offering them up to be winnow'd by the publick; so certain it is, that the Rea­ders censure is still the Wri­ters Fate. They had for ever silently slept in their own sheath and secresie, had not the Importunity of some Friends (whose Influence hath always so vigorous an Impression upon me, that their Desires are Commands, and their Requests, Obligations) engaged me to devote them to a more General Inspection, yet there are some Errors by an unhappy intertexture in­terwoven [Page] in this Discourse, which owe their double extra­ction to the Pen and Press. Some things are omitted which may be added, as a just and necessary Supplement; and some things inserted which may be par'd away as a superfluous Excrescence; as namely, pag. 3. For some­times seated, read some­times were seated. And whereas p. 47. these words through inadvertency are in­serted, viz. (Having wrap'd up this Discourse in as brief a Circumscription as [Page] I could, I now proceed to discover a Scale or Regi­ster of those Recto [...]ies or Vicarages, and their respe­ctive Patrons both ancient and modern, as they lie empal'd in the Diocesses of Canterbury & Rochester) they must be obliterated and expung'd, as relating to ano­ther Discourse, which is al­most ready for the Press, and which I had once thought to [...]ave annexed to this Trea­ [...]ise. P. 63. For, But like­wise with a Religious Ad­ [...]ress, read, With a Religi­ous [Page] Address; expunging (but likewise) which wa [...] added before. P. 70. l. 14 For Frabrilibus, read Fabri [...] libus. P. 78. For He wa [...] Jupiter Labradeus, read, H [...] was stil'd Jupiter Labrade [...] us. P. 91. For Possidona read Poseidona, as deriv'd from the Greek [...]. P [...] 101. For Safety, read Tha [...] Safety. P. 105. l. 4, & 5 For Manturn [...]roma, rea [...] Manturna [...]rema, and p ibid, l. 19. For Muncia read Murcia.

[Page]There may possibly be some other Mistakes, but of a more [...]nconsiderable Bulk and Di­ [...]ension, which a more curi­ [...]us Eye may unvail; but I [...]ope a merciful one will con­ [...]eal. Vale.

Imprimatur, Nov. 30. 1669.

Rob. Grove R. R. D Episc. Lond. a sac Dom.

A brief Discourse of the Original Institution of CHURCHES, and their Direct or Collateral Endowments.

THere having been much written, which has an a­spect upon this subsequent Dis­course, and which lies scatter'd in the pages and Treatises of several Authors: I thought it a [...]aske not unworthy my pen, or a labour not unfit, to improve the common interest, to collect those dispersed and divided no­ [...]ions into one heap or Volume: and having thus knit them to­gether, [Page 2] to offer them up to the publique disquisition.

Before I made farther in this Discourse, I must affirm that even in Paradise there was Se­paration or Distinction of pla­ces, since God did more espe­cially exhibite his presence in that part of the Garden, when he descended to commune with Adam, than in any other porti­on of it; and thence in the Sa­cred pages, it is affirm'd that Adam upon his Defection fled from the presence of God. In Times subsequent to this, we find that there was no Nation so rude or wildly Barbarous, but did set apart some solemn or publique places for the Wor­ship of their imaginary Deities; if they Sacrific'd to their Ter­restrial [Page 3] Gods or powers, that had the Care or Tuition of the Earth, they erected there Altars on the plain Superficies of it; if to the Infernal Powers, they did it in Cryptis & Abditis Spelunca­rum, in Grots, Caves, and other gloomy Recesses; if to the Coe­lestial or Supernal Deities they offer'd up their Sacrifices, they then perform'd that Devotion, on the Brows or Tops of Moun­tains; and it is very probable, that this later Custom of theirs, had its Derivation from the Prosouchae or Oratories amongst the Jews, which sometimes seat­ed near the Margin of a Spring, Brook or River, but most commonly upon the Edge of a Mountain, and it is as pro­bable, that the Encaenia, or So­lemn [Page 4] Feasts, Instituted at the Devoting or Consecrating their Temples to the Worship of their Gentile Deities, was first ex­tracted from the Feast of Dedi­cation amongst the Jews; A Feast (say the Rabbins) where­in something was renewed, be­cause those things are only re­puted consecrated, which are separated from their Common, and dedicated to some new and Holier use.

From these Premises I may justly Collect, that God who alwayes lov'd Order, and was apt to hear Holy and prudent prayers, hath often declar'd, that he loves Publique Places, because of their Order, Conve­nience, and Necessity for the Solemnity of Worship, and [Page 5] hath affirm'd, that he will dwell in them, not that they are Ad­vantages to Him, but that he is pleas'd to make them so to us; [...]n publique places we decline singularity, as in our Retire­ments or Oratories, we avoid Hypocrisy. But I have too much digress'd, I now proceed; And I shall first endevour to trace▪ out when Parishes were originally distinguished and di­vided from each other. Se­condly, I shall discover the Grounds and Reasons on which Churches were Erected and Dedicated. Thirdly, I shall make a Survey of their Frame and Contexture within, and how in times of an Elder in­scription they were contriv'd for the Celebration of Religi­ous [Page 6] Performances, and other practical Duties and Offices▪ Fourthly, I shall make some re­flections on the original institu­tion of Oblations, Obventions, Tithes, and other Payments which did both enhance and secure the Dignity and Liveli­hood of the Ecclesiastical State. Fifthly, I shall represent in a Compendious Prospect, upon what foundations, and upon what considerations the right of Patronage was invested in Lay or Secular Persons. When Pa­rishes were first divided, that in­struction or intelligence, (Anti­quity exhibites to us from those Registers and Records which might enlighten our knowledge as to that particular,) is per­plexed and obscure. The gene­rally [Page 7] received Opinion is, That Pope Evaristus, under Trajan the Emperour▪ about▪ the Year 110. peradventure observing that too diffused and numerous a Multitude (like too much fuel cast upon the flame) did rather Choke and extinguish, than any way multiply the heat of De [...]o [...] ­tion; for the more regular & uni­form performance of Religious Offices for the future, did con­tract those throngs of new Con­verts, which were daily added to the Church into their several Stations and Parishes, But this design of his being left crude and imperfect by his Martyr­dom, which happen'd not long after under the Emperour a­bovesaid, It slumber'd in his Urn, untill the Reign of Gali­ [...]nus▪ [Page 8] the Emperour, and then Pope Dionysius taking the ad­vantage of a benigne and pro­pitious Edict, issued out by that Prince in favour of the Christi­ans (from whose farther perse­cution and torture he had not long before been deterr'd, by [...]al menaces reveal'd from [...]en in many ominous and direful Prodigies) reduc'd the first endevours of Pope Eva­ristus to accomplishment and perfection; which pious work of his received both strength and improvement from the Re­ligious undertaking of Pope Fa­bianus, and his Successor Pope Marcellinus, about the Year 314. as Bellarmine in his Chro­nology out of the Writings of Anastasius, and Luitprandus does abundantly testifie.

[Page 9]In England this pious example had such an influence and fa­vourable Aspect, that about the Year 636. Honorius Arch-bp. of Canterbury began to circum­scribe the people under his Pa­storal [...]are and inspection, within the Boundaries of their several divisions and Parishes, which design of his was farther prose­cuted, inlarg'd and confirm'd by his successor Arch-bp. Theobal [...], about the Year 677. In which posture and condition this Nati­on hath ever since continued.

Parishes being thus institu­ted, there appear'd a subse­quent necessity▪ of erecting of Churches and Oratories, where the Celebration of Divine Of­fices might multiply the growth of Christianity, which was yet [Page 10] but in its Infancy and Minori­ty; after their first Erection and Establishment, Antiquity (as it is evident from several Monuments of Venerable In­scription) impos'd the Name of Tituli upon them. For in the Life of Pope Marcellinus, we read that In Roma ille insti­tuit. 21. titulos; that is, in the Dialect of Elder times, one and twenty Churches.

Now Titulus (as Sanctius observes) is Signum aliquod se [...] Monumentum, quod docet latere aliquid, aut accidisse cujus nolu­mus perire Memoriam.

Churches then were antient­ly called Tituli, either from a name Metaphorically borrowed from Goods belonging to the Princes Exchequer, that had [Page 11] some sign imprinted upon them, that they might be known whose they were; So the sign of the Cross was put upon the Churches, to make it known they were mark'd out and di­stinguish'd for Gods Service: or else they were nam'd Tituli, because the respective Presby­ters did antiently derive and re­ceive their several Titles from them. See Baronius, Anno Do­mini 112. They were likewise stiled Memoriae Martyrum, be­cause antiently Churches were built Supra Cryptas Martyrum; that is, upon those Vaults and Repositories, where the Dust and Reliques of the antient Martyrs were originally trea­sur'd up. Now, if you will know why Antiquity with such [Page 12] industrious Piety did Erect these Monuments, now called Churches, over the Ashes of these glorious Assertors and Champions of Christianity, and after devoted them to their names; these subsequent Re­marques or Notes upon the first institution, will sufficiently insi­nuate to the Reader the Reasons of this primary Consecration.

I. That the Memory of those excellent Persons might be so preserv'd, that after they had re­ceiv'd the glorious fate of Mar­tyrdom it might not be bury'd in so cheap a Tomb as Oblivion.

Secondly, That the example of such eminent Champions per­petuated in these lasting Monu­ments, might in succeeding Ages excite others, if any fresh On­set [Page 13] should be made on Christi­anity, with the same magnani­mity to assert it as these be­fore them had done, since they beheld so Venerable an Esti­mate was set upon their remem­brance for dying for it.

Thirdly, That in future times they might be rescued from an [...]njurious and sacrilegious deva­station, when Posterity should find they were devoted to the Memory of those who had with such an inexpugnable passive fortitude defended the Do­ctrine of the Cross, and had im­prov'd Christianity to a stupen­dious fertility, with the double compost of their Ink, and of [...]heir Blood.

Having thus traced out the original institution of Churches, [Page 14] and the Reasons of their Dedi­cation; we shall now unlock their Dores, and view their contrivance within, and there, upon a serious Survey, Antiqui­ty we shall find cast them into this Method and Order.

When the indulgent and libe­ral Piety of the Primitive Chri­stians began more visibly to ma­fest it self, those Churches they erected, were frequently, if not generally built in an Oval Figure, or like some of our Ships long and narrow, and bul­king out on both sides, near the midst whereof the Pastopho­ria (we may call them the Pews) for Men and Women were de­sign'd, and in the midst the Bi­shops seat was plac'd, call'd in Greek Bema, from its assent, [Page 15] and in Latine Thronus, from the [...]minency of it. At the East end was the Altar plac'd, though at Antioch its position respected the West. Not far distant from the Bishops. Throne was the Ambo, or Reading Desk, where­ [...]t the Anagnostes. Read the Scriptures Old and New to the [...]aity; round about the Bi­shops seat sate the Presbyters, the Deacons not sitting, but standing behind him, except the [...]rimicerius Diaconorum, who was ever to attend the Bishop, and therefore stood close by him, being alwayes eldest in [...]ime, though not preferr'd in affection. The Ostiarii (Church Officers so styled) were desig­ned to attend the Mens, as the Deacons were oblig'd to wait [Page 16] the Womens Desks or Pews, by whose care and inspection they were kept neat and in their just order, Younger Men & Women, if there were any conveniency of place, sate; if not, they were engag'd to stand, the Women be­hind the graver Matrons, the Men behind their Seniors; Boys were placed with their Fathers, and Girls with their Mothers. See Bp. Montagues Acts and Monuments of the Church, pag. 457. & 458.

The Absis amongst the Primitive Christians, was the upper part of the Quire near the Altar, where Penitents by Imposition of hands were usually absolved.

In the Primitive times, these se­veral stations in the several Re­spective Churches were consign'd to those who were blasted more or less (that is gradually) with [Page 17] [...]he censure of Excōmunication.

First, those who were called [...]tantes, were those who were [...]ebarr'd the Lord's Table. But [...]s for the entrance into the Church, hearing the Word, [...]raying with the Congregation, [...]hey were Entituled to equal [...]iberty with other Christians; [...]hey might stand by, and behold [...]thers receive the Sacrament, [...]ut themselves did not par­ [...]ake of that Sacred Mystery.

Secondly, The Succumbents were those who had admittance [...]nto the Church, but their sta­ [...]ion was behind the Quire or Pulpit, and they were to depart upon the pronouncing the It a [...]issa est, with the Catechumeni (that is, such Pagans who were gained to the Christian Faith, [Page 18] but not fully admitted into th [...] Church, because they wanted Baptisme) and therefore tha [...] they might not pray promiscu­ously, with other Christian [...] there was a place behind th [...] Pulpit or Quire allotted t [...] them in form of a Cloister, cal­led from them the Catechumeni­um.

And Lastly, Though they might prostrate themselves o [...] their knees (styled from thenc [...] Succumbentes) and offer up thei [...] prayers, yet this they might no [...] do in the Congregation, but on­ly in that place which was the station design'd for the Catechu­meni.

The Third sort of Penitents that were Marshall'd under the denomination of Audientes, were [Page 19] those who were permitted to [...]dvance no further, than the Church-Porch, where it was al­ [...]owed them to hear the Scrip­ [...]ures read, but not to joyn in [...]rayer, nor to approach the Sa­ [...]red Table of the Lord.

The Fourth Catalogue of [...]ersons under the sad Discipline [...]f separation, denominated the [...]lorantes, were those who stood [...]uite without the Church, im­ [...]loring those that entred in with Tears, to Petition God for the Remission of their formerly [...]ontracted Offences.

There were other Persons [...]ikewise in the Primitive times, who were something proporti­ [...]nate to these, and fell under a [...]ive-fold Denomination. As first, there were the Catechistae, [Page 20] that is, those who by Instructi­on and the Discipline of Cate­chisme were to be habituated to the Rudiments of Christian Re­ligion. Secondly, the Educati who were those who by hearing dayly Lectures of Divinity read, did improve those princi­ples which were first planted in them by Catechistical Infusion. Thirdly, the Competentes, who were those who could render an Account of those Fundamental Truths, which lay folded up in that compendious Scheme or Systeme call'd the Apostles Creed. Fourthly, the Intincti Neophyti or Tirones, who were those that could not only untwist those Principles that lay wrapt up in the Apostolical Symbol of Be­lief, but likewise could unveil [Page 21] those other Doctrines out of which was woven the whole Frame or Contexture of the Christian Religion. Fifthly, [...]he Fideles, who were those well matured or improved Christians, who being fully ra­ [...]icated and instructed in the faith, were admitted to the Re­ception of the Sacred Eucha­ [...]ist.

So under the Law, there were the Proselites of the Gates, [...]he Proselites of Justice: The first of these were only tyed to [...]he observation of those seven precepts which were styled the precepts of the Sons of Noah, because supposed to be given by Noah to his Sons when he came out of the Ark, but were nei­ther circumcised nor otherwise [Page 22] conformable to the Law of Mo­ses, which precepts were these 1. That they dealt uprightl [...] with every man. 2. That the [...] Blest and Magnified the Nam [...] of God. 3. That they Wor­shiped not any False Gods, bu [...] to abstain from Idolatry. 4. T [...] refrain from all unlawful Lust and Copulations. 5. To keep themselves from Theft and Robbery. 6. And from shed­ding of blood. And 7. not to eat the Flesh or Member of any Beast abstracted from it, whe [...] living, by which all cruelty wa [...] Interdicted. These though they were admitted to the Worship of God, and to repair to the Temple, yet being uncircumci­sed, were not suffered to con­verse with the Jews, nor come [Page 23] [...]to the same Court of the Tem­ [...]e with them: but had the ou­ [...]rmost Court of that place, cal­ [...]d Atrium Gentium or Immun­ [...]rum. The other simply cal­ [...]d Proselites were represented [...]nder the Notion of Adopted [...]ews, as being admitted to Worship God in the same Court [...]f the Temple with them, and [...]aring with them in all their [...]iviledges, not differing from [...]em in any thing, but only their [...]encalogy or Extraction.

Now there were four Courts [...] the Jewish Temple: First, [...]trium Sacerdotum or the [...]riests Court, where was e­ [...]cted the Thusiasterion or Al­ [...]r for Sacrifice, as likewise the [...]razen Laver wherein both [...]riest and Sacrifice were as­soil'd [Page 24] from their Pollution. Se­condly, Atrium Populi or the Peoples Court, appropriated likewise to the Proselites of Ju­stice, where stood the Braze [...] Throne or Scaffold, on which Solomon and his Successors wer [...] inaugurated; it was also stil' [...] Solomons Porch, from the many Porches erected there by tha [...] Prince to secure the People from the violent and injuriou [...] impressions of the Weather▪ Thirdly, Atrium Foeminaru [...] or the Womens Court, where was established the Poor mans Box, from whence in Sacred pages it hath contracted the Denomination of the Treasury▪ and from thence our Saviour is said to Teach in the Treasury, that is in the Womens Court. [Page 25] Between these Courts was an as­cent of 15 steps whereon were sung by the Levites the Gradu­al Psalms, beginning at the 120, and concluding at the 134. Fourthly, there was Atrium Gentium or Immundorum, de­voted to the Service of those Gentiles who were properly styled the Proselites of the Gates; this Court was divided from the other Courts by an eminent Traverse Wall three Cubits high, adorned with cer­tain Pillars of equal distance, to which St. Paul alludes when he asserts that our Saviour by his Tragedy on the Cross had dis­mantled the Partition Wall: And out of this Court Divines likewise affirm that our Saviour did expel those Buyers and Sel­lers [Page 26] that had defil'd it by an impious and injurious Profana­tion. So amongst the Levites, there were first the Punies or Tirones, who from their Child­hood till the Five and Twenti­eth year of their Age learn'd the Duty of their Offices. Se­condly, Graduates, who were those who having spent four years Study in the Law were able to answer and oppose in it. Thirdly, Licentiates, who did actually exercise the Priestly Function. And Fourthly Do­ctors or Rabbins, who were in Degree the most Eminent.

Indeed many of the Jewish Ceremonies were imitated by our Saviour under the Gospel: The Apostles were answerable to the Missi or Messengers a­mongst [Page 27] the Jews, being sent a­broad into all Nations by Christ to gather in Sinners to their Sa­viour, being that peculium which of all others he counted most his Due, having paid so dearly for it on the Cross: as they were amongst the Jews sent by the High Priest to fetch in the Dues of the Temple. So also the Imposition of Hands, a Form of Benediction amongst the Jews as antient as Jacob himself, Gen. 48. 14. in blessing Josephs Sons, was often used by our Saviour to the same purpose. And even the two Sacraments are of this Nature: Baptisme related to the washing in use amongst the Jews at their admitting or Initi­ating Proselites; and Christs ta­king Bread and giving Thanks, [Page 28] &c. after Supper (wherein the other Sacraments was first Insti­ted) was directly the Post Cae­nium amongst the Jews, not a peculiar part of the Passeover Feast, but a Ceremony after all Feasts very customary amongst them. So the word Ecclesia from the Assemblies Sacred or Civil amongst the Jews is made use of to signify the Christian Church which Christ was to gather to­gether. So the Presbyteri or Elders amongst the Jews are brought by the Apostles to sig­nify an Order in the Church, and Presbyteria Colledges of many of them together, call'd by Igna [...]ius in Epist▪ ad Trall. Sacred Societies and Counsel­lors and Assistants to the Bi­shop, are parallel to the Sanhe­drin [Page 29] or Councel of Elders that were join'd to Moses in his Go­vernment, to facilitate the Bur­then to him. The Deacons a­mongst the Primitive Christians were instituted in Imitation of the Treasurer or Steward a­mongst the Jews, and conse­quently the place where the Goods which they were to di­stibute were kept, was corre­spondent to their Gazo-philaci­um or Treasury: So the Bishop also amongst Christians is a Transcript of the Head of the Congregation amongst them. And the Christian Patriarchs were originally but an Imitation of the Heads of the Tribes a­mongst the Jews: Something proportionate to these were the [...] amongst the Spartans, [Page 30] who were the Overseers and Governours of their Provinces and Cities, as likewise the

who were a peculiar sort of Governours, who had to do with the education of Women especially in cultivating and Re­forming their Lives and Man­ners. Amongst the Athenians, likewise were the [...] who were chosen Magi­strates, ten out of every Tribe, whose Duty and Office it was to take care and cognisance of the younger people. The Chri­stian Censure of Excommunica­tion was in Assimilation of their Aposunagogia, whether it were a seclusion from Sacred or only Civil Conventions it matters little, for the Civil amongst them, may be accommodated [Page 31] to the Ecclesiastical amongst Christians, as the word [...] (which though it signifies pri­marily any kind of Assembly and is so taken Mat. 6. so that it is appropriated to a place of Divine Worship in other places of Holy writ) and the several Degrees of it in the Christian Church, were proportionate to the Jewish Niddui, Cherim, and Schammatha. Psalms, Hymns, and Songs antiently used in the Christian Church, were parallel to 1. Mizmor a short verse. 2. Tehilla, Praise, Celebrating God. 3. Schir, a Canticle, as that word is used in the Title of the Song of Songs very custo­mary amongst the Jews. And it is the conjecture of some lear­ned persons that our Saviour in­stituted [Page 32] his Prayer vulgarly called the Lords-prayer in Re­lation to those 18 Prayers or Benedictions called in the Ge­marra▪ composed or appointed Prayers; The 3 first of which, and the 3 last respected the Glo­ry of God, the 12 other inter­mediate were spent on those prime Things that were neces­sary, either to the whole Peo­ple, or every particular Man. Lastly, others assert that that Clause, For thine is the King­sdom, the Power, and the Glory, or ever and ever, was annexed to the Lords-prayer, as parallel to that Form of Speech intro­duced amongst the Jews in the Time of Ezra, which was com­monly interwoven in the Close of their Prayers, viz. srom an [Page 33] Age to an Age. For whereas in all the conclusions of Benedicti­ons before the Days of Ezra, they were only wont to say srom Age; when the Sadduces perverted this Form of Speech, and asserted there was but one Age, the Jewish Doctors did determine that the Form should be, from Age to Age.

But I have made too prolix a Digression, I now return to prosecute my former Discourse.

Churches being thus erected and established, the several de­nominations of Ecclesiae Domus orationis, Aedes Sacrae, Coemite­ria, Martyria, Kuriacae Eucteria, by subsequent ages were impo­sed upon them, but seldom or never Templa, or Naoi, untill the Government of Constantine [Page 34] the Great, and then the appel­lation of Templa was engraf­fed upon them, that Monarch by this commodious and flexible condescention, endeavouring so to endear those that continued spotted with the dark tincture of Paganisme, that he might by degrees reduce them within the pale of the Church; or second­ly, by this Artifice or comply­ance designing to charm and ob­lige them to mingle with the faithful in the Celebration of those Divine Offices, whose per­formance did improve and in­force the growth of the Christi­an Faith.

Having taken a compendious prospect of Churches, as to their frame without, and their con­texture within; I shall now sur­vey [Page 35] that Revenue either fixed or accidental, that made up the Ecclesiastical Patrimony, and my first disputation shall be up­on Oblations, which ancient­ly were marshalled under the double title of Cathedratica and Pentecos [...]alia.

Cathedratica were so styled, because they were paid towards the support▪ of that Honour and Dignity which was due to the Episcopal Chair, and these were so retrenched by the second Councel of Bracara, and the seventh of [...]oledo, that they were not to exceed two shil­lings in the pound. Or else they were called so because they were paid to the Bishop so­lemnly sitting in the Episcopal Chair.

[Page 36] Pentecostalia had that denomi­nation conferr'd upon them, be­cause they were anciently pay­able to the Minister or Priest at Whitsuntide, and for that reason vulgarly called Whitsun - Far­things, a moiety of which, and sometimes a third part was re­turn'd to the Bishop of the Re­spective Diocesse, towards the supply and maintenance of so eminent a Function.

Obventions are the next, which exact our consideration, if you consult the Lexicon Juri­dicum of Sclardius or Calvinus-you will find them thus discrib'd in the word Obventio; Obventi­ones (say they) reditus Fruct us­que omnes significant, qui vel ex ipso corpore, velex industria ho­minis accedunt, veluti mercedes, [Page 37] pensionesque ex locationibus prae­diorum urbanorum debitas, ve­c [...]uras jumentorum, naulum na­vium. In brief, Obventions are sometimes a Revenue that issues from things certain, but more frequently and for the most part they are the result and product of these things which are of ac­cidental contingency.

The first raising of Tenths and Fifths by Gregory the 9th. about the Year 1229. and after rati­fied and confirm'd about the Year 1240, seems to have beer that when the Court of Rom▪ did confer on Clerks and Chap lains residing with them, Benesi ces in the Diocesses of Forraig [...] Bishops, they out of a gratefu [...] acknowledgment, gave the first whole or half years profits to [Page 38] the Pope. See Sir Roger Twis­den's Historical Vindication, page 84. When the collection of first fruits did originally commence, is in debate amongst Authors, some asserting that Pope Boni­face the ixth. began to gather them about the Year 1399. though others again, as Cardi­nal D'ossatt, Ranulphus C [...]strusis and Walsingham affirm their pay­ment to be earlier, and that Pope John the 22th. began first to col­lect them about the Year 1316.

The last Ingredient that com­pounds the spiritual Revenue, which indeed is the great Liga­ment that ties together all the Ecclesiastical Patrimony, is Tithes, which are not only due by a right of assimulation; that is, because they were paid un­der [Page 39] the Levitical Law, therefore by the Analogy of proportion they are to be paid under the Gospel, but even injoyn'd by the Law of Nature it self: And this may easily be evicted by this Argument. Whatsoever hath been observed to be paid in all times, in all places, and in all Nations, does result from a com­mon Dictate of Nature. But the paiment of Tithes hath been observed in all times, in all pla­ces, and by all Nations; Ergo, the payment of Tithes does ori­ginally result from a common Dictate of Nature. The Minor is supported and made good by the general practice of Nations. The Sabeans, a rude and bar­barous Nation, forbad their Spices to be Transported, until [Page 40] the Tithes of them were offered unto their God Sabis. The Ty­rians, and after the Romans paid Tithes of that increase they had obtain'd by Merchandize, and other Naval atchievements to their great Patron Hercules. The last of which paid them by a ge­neral assent to the respective Deities; Hippona, Pomona, Mes­sia, Almona, Tutelina, Cardua, Par [...]ula, Lucina, Sestia, Statina, and Murtia, to whose protecti­on, Horses, Fruit, Corn, Wo­men and publick Laystals were generally devoted. And Cyrus when he had carried Sardis by storm or Onset, by interdict forbad the plunder or Ravage of the City, until the Tithe of the Spoil was sequester'd and set apart to be paid to Mars and [Page 41] Pallas; and Camillus, the emi­nent Roman Dictator, when he had attaqued the City of Vei [...]y assault, he particularly ab­stracted the Tithes of that Pil­lage that opulent City afforded, to be consecrated to Apollo and Jupiter. Hercules by the Tra­chinii was stil'd Kornopios, and worshipped under the Notion of a God, that by his powerful influence rescued them from the injuries of Flies; for so original­ly the Name imports: and Ipi­ctonos by the Erithrai, or the Inhabitants of the Red Sea, that is, such a God, and in that ca­pacity ador'd, that destroy'd those Worms who were destru­ctive to their Vines; in memo­ry of which signal protections, both these Nations abovesaid, as [Page 42] well as the Tyrians, as the Learn­ed observe, paid him Tithes, as a Symbol of their exemplary Gratitude.

Jupiter amongst the Greeks was called Myiagrus, Myiodes, and Apomyios, all which Deno­minations did only denote and intimate his Dominion over Flies, so that the ancients (as Meursius and others observe) ei­ther paid him Tithes, or some­thing parallel or proportionate to them, for preserving their Sacrifices from the busie and im­portunate Onsets of those rave­nous Insects. See more of this Discourse in Stachius, De Sa [...]r [...] ­siciis Gentilium.

The Persees that now inhabit Persia (being a Branch extracted from the ancient Persians who [Page 43] upon their Pyr [...]theia worshipp'd their Fire-Gods, as a Transcript of the Sun, who in their opi­nion was but an Original Globe of Flame; and whom they a­dor'd sometimes under the name of Mithras, and sometimes un­der the Appellation of Abra­xas) although they are ruder than the wildness of a Desart, and ignorant beyond the Fate of Barbarism, yet by the conduct of the Light of Nature, though it shine in them but with a faint, and a glimmering Beam, they have a separated Priesthood, to whom they pay Tithes, because by their ministring to Divine Offices, their Devotion receiv­eth an happy Increase and Im­provement; as a late Treatise stil'd The Religion of the Banians [Page 44] and Modern Persees, does abun­dantly testisie.

The Behedin or Laymen (says the Author of that Tract) anci­ently, and at this day, pays Tithes to the Distoore, or Chief Priest, and in his absence, to the Herbood, or Priest; or lastly, to the Daroo, or Churchmen, Officers of a spiritual cogni­zance amongst the ancient and modern Persees who still super­stitiously worship the Fire.

I know it is objected, that this was only in some special cases, and they of extraordina­ry emergency, because a Vow was still annexed for the pay­ment of them; which had they been due intrinsecally and ex natura rei, had altogether been unnecessary and superfluous. To [Page 45] this I answer, that all Divines that have treated of Casuistical Theology, do assert, that every act of sin upon its immediate Commission is to be rescinded [...]nd expiated by as immediate an [...]ct of repentance; yet they al­ [...]o affirm, a Vow is of excellent [...]se to promote and quicken the performance of this so absolute­ [...]y necessary a Duty: So it is [...]ere, though Tithes are due in­ [...]insecally and ex natura rei, yet [...] Vow is of eminent use and in­fluence to improve their more [...]ctive performance, and enforce [...]heir more quick and effectual [...]ayment; which Discourse is [...]pported by Cajetan, in that [...]rief and rational assertion of [...]is, which he thus delivers:

Non est inconveniens (deter­mines [Page 46] he) materiam voti esse bo­num, ad quod quispiam alio nomi­ne tenetur, ut ex duplici vinculo ad idem teneatur; vinculo scili­cet divini praecepti, seu juris na­turalis, & proprii voti.

Having thus concluded these disquisitions concerning the Ori­ginal institution of Churches▪ & their particular endowments; I shall now from these subse­quent Reasons briefly discover how the Advowson or Patro­nage of Ecclesiastical prefer­ments became to be invested in Lay persons.

First, It was Ratione sundi▪ in relation to that parcel o [...] ground on which the Church was erected, which was of their original concession.

Secondly, Ratione fundationis [Page 47] by reason the Fabrick of the Church it self, was first erected [...]t the Cost and Expences of [...]heir proper Beneficence.

Thirdly, Respect [...]n donationis, [...]n respect of the Donation of [...]and, either Glebe or Pasture, [...]y them Enstated upon the [...]ncumbent Minister of Priest, [...]nd his Successors for ever.

Having wrapt up this Dis­ [...]ourse in as brief a Circumscri­ [...]tion, as I could; I now proceed [...]o discover a Scale or Register [...]f those Rectories or Vicariges, [...]nd their Respective Patrons [...]oth Ancient and Modern, as [...]hey lie impal'd in the Diocesses [...]f Canterbury and Rochester.

A short View of the RELI­GION and VVORSHIP of the Ancient Gentiles

HAving mentioned some Ceremonies amongst the Gentiles in my precedent Dis­course, that probably entituled their first Genealogy to some Customs amongst the Jews, I do not esteem it an unwelcom task if I shall take a compendiou [...] prospect of the Religion of those ancient Idolaters, which consisted principally and chiefly in the Worship of Daemons, i. [...] Inferior Divine Powers, suppo­sed to be Mediators between [Page 49] God and man; which opinion of theirs was certainly extracted from the Jewish Doctrine of Angels, and the Description of those Offices & Embassies those Seraphick Spirits were concern­ed and engaged in here below, when they were Ministerial and subservient to the execution of those Omnipotent Commands that were impos'd upon them by God above.

Now Daemons in the Gentile Theology, were Deastri, or Me­dioxumi, an inferior Species of Deified Powers, of a middle proportion, or degree between the Soveraign Gods and mortal men; and this seems to be the affirmation of Plato in his Sym­posio; and all the subsequent Platonists did manifest it evi­dently [Page 50] that they did embark and concenter in the same Assertion. After him Plutarch in his Trea­tise De defectu Oraculorum, de­duces the extraction of this Di­stinction between [...], or Sove­raign Gods and Inferior Deities, or Daemons, as high as the An­tiquity of Zoroaster; you may hear him speak thus, Magnas & difficiles Dubitationes videntur (says he) solvisse qui [...] medio inter D [...]os & Homi­nes loco constituerunt, quod nos cum his concil [...]at quodammodo ac conjungit, invenerint, sive haec Magorum & Zoroastris Doctrina sit, sive Thracica ab Orpheo pro­fecta, sive Aegyptiaca, sive Phry­gica, &c. The Soveraign or Highest Gods, which amongst them were properly stiled [...] [Page 51] were those whom they asserted, to have their residence in Hea­ven; yea, in the Sun, Moon, and the residue of the other Planets, and their Retinue the Stars; from whence they represented them under the Appellation of Dii Superi, and Dii Caelestes, whom they affirmed to have neither Beginning nor End: And this is the Sentiment of A­puleius, as you find him thus speaking, in his Treatise De Dae­monio Socratis. Immortales sine ullo vel Fine vel Exordio, sed prorsus à retrò aeviterni. And because they dwelt in the Hea­venly Lights, as Souls lodg'd in Bodies. It is the opinion of Pla­to in his Cratilus, that the Name [...] first was derived from the everlasting Rowling and unces­sant [Page 52] Motion of the Heavenly Bodies.

Now these Soveraign or Ce­lestial Gods were in the vogue and Estimate of elder times of so sublime and venerable an ac­count, as they might not be pro­phaned with the address or ap­proach of earthly Applications, or with the care or managery of inferior and terrestrial Con­cerns, & therefore they brought in, by way of supply, that mid­dle sort of Divine Powers which they called Daemones, to be an Order of Agents and Ministers, or else as Mediators between the Soveraign Gods & Mortal Men; and this is that Plato affirms in his Simposium, God is not (says he) approached by men, but all that Commerce and Intercourse [Page 53] which is betwixt the Gods and Men, is performed by the Me­diation of Daemons or Inferior Deities. And in a Discourse subsequent to this, in the Trea­tise above-mentioned, he de­scends to more minute particu­lars, and thus unvails his Sence; Daemons (says he) are Report­ers and Transporters from men to the Gods; again from the Gods to men, of the Supplica­tions and Prayers of the one, and the Injunctions impos'd, and the Rewards due to the Devotion and Religious Worship of the other. And Apuleius in his fore­quoted Treatise De Daemonio So­cratis, does excellently well [...]ourtray these middle Powers Mediae Potestates per quas & De­sideria nostra, & merita ad D [...]os [Page 54] comineant inter mortales Coelico­las (que) Rectores; hinc precum, inde donorum; qui ultra citro (que) por­tant; hinc petitiones, inde suppe­tias, seu quidam utrin (que) Interpre­tes & Salutigeri. For, saith he, in the procedure of his Dis­course, Ne (que) enim pro Majestate Deorum Coelestium fuit haec cura­re. It is not adequate to the Majesty of the Soveraign Gods to manage these things of them­selves.

Whence it is that Celsus in O rigen, strews these eminent Cha­racters on his Daemons or inferi­or Deities, terming them Sum­mi Dei, Satrapas, Praesides, Pro­curatores, Duces, qui neglecti non minus laedere possunt quam Persa­rum, Romanorum (que) R [...]gis Prae­sides & Ministri. To lodge no [Page 55] longer on this Discourse, we will fold up all in the words of Apuleius in his Treatise De Dae­monio Socratis, Cuncta Coelesti­um voluntate, Numine & Auto­ritate [...]iunt sed Daemonum obse­quio, opera & Ministerio. All things (says he) owe their first efflux and emanation to the will, influence, and authority of the Celestial Powers above, and to the obsequious industry and Ministry of the Daemons, or in­ferior Deities below. Indeed this Doctrine of Daemons was so [...]iveted and incorporated into the Theological Principles of the Gentile world, that it was a publick Assertion, that the Souls even of Tyrants, and o­ther impious men, had a power after death, and that the pro­duct [Page 56] of these were the mali Ge­nii, or the torvi Daemones; hence they represented them under the affrightful Notions of Erinnies, Eumenides, Larvae, Spectra, Lemures, and other hor­rid Appellations, and erected Temples and Altars, wherein with Sacrifices and Oblations, they endeavoured so to mollifie and appease their fury, that they might be redeem'd from that dammage and prejudice which might else like a Black Tempest have descended upon them.

This Discourse leads me to peruse the Original of these Daemons, whom upon a serious Scrutiny I find to be only the Souls or Spirits of some Deceas­ed Heroes Canoniz'd and Deifi­ed by the Superstition of elder [Page 57] times, for some Monuments and signal Trophies of their Pru­dence and Magnanimity be­queathed to the entranced world: Indeed it was long be­fore it could be believed that so excellent persons could live; and when they saw they did live, they after thought they could never die: and this Assertion is supported by the Testimony of Hermes Trismegistus, an Author both of unquestionable veraci­ty, and antiquity, in his Asclepi­as, where having named Aescula­pius, Osiris, and his Grandfather Hermes, who were (as he af­firms) worshiped for Daemons, in times parallel to his; he adds farther, that the Egyptians call them (namely the Daemons) Sancta Animalia, and that a­mongst [Page 58] them (naming the Egy­ptians) per singulas Civitates co­ [...]i eorum Animas, quorum sunt consecratae virtutes.

Philo Biblius in his Preface to his Translation of San Coniat hon, the ancient Phoenician Hi­storian, delivers what he had observed and deduced out of the same Author, and might be Ministerial to the improve­ment of their Understandings who should read him; namely, that all the Barbarians, princi­pally the Egyptians and Phoenici­ans, from whom the rest extra­cted it, esteemed those their Dii Medioxumi, who had found out any thing profitable for the Life of Man, or had deserved well of any Nation, so that they worshipp'd these as Gods, ere­cting [Page 59] Statues, Obelisques, I­mages and Temples unto them; and more especially they gave the Names of their Kings (as to the Elements of the world) so also to these reputed Gods; for they esteemed the natural Deities of the Sun, Moon, and Stars, and those which were in these, to be solely and properly Gods; so that their Deities were ranged and marshalled into two distinct Orders, the one Mor­tal, and the other Eternal.

And to this purpose Hesiod speaks in his Poems, when ac­cording to that luxuriant Lati­tude of Phansie, Poets entitle themselves to, he tells us, that when those happy men, that flourished in the first and Gol­den Age of the world, had a­bandon'd [Page 60] this Life; great Jupi­ter promoted them to be Dae­mons, that is, Keepers or Guar­dians, Protectors and Patrons of Humane Nature, and Earthly Mortals, Overseers of their good or evil works, Dispensers of Riches; and this he affirms is that Majestick Royalty they are invested with. To abet all that hath been discours'd of before, Plato in his excellent Treatise De Rep. would have all those that had fallen with Honour in the Field, to be enroll'd in Hesiod's Golden Register, and to be ad­vanc'd to the preheminence and dignity of Daemons, and the O­racle to be consulted, how they should be both enterr'd and honour'd; and according­ly ever afterwards their Sepul­chers [Page 61] to be approach'd with the same Reverence and Esteem as Addresses were made to the Re­positories and Tombs of other Daemons. And the same Ho­nour and Canonization (he af­firms) in a semblable or propor­tionate Method should be attri­buted to all those who in the time of their life, were excellent for Virtue, or eminent for Mag­nanimity and Courage, whether they were ravish'd away by a violent Fate, or deceased under the incumbent pressure of a great, but good old Age. Thus have we trac'd out, and unvail'd the Original Genealogy of Dae­mons, according to the most ancient Opinion, and general Notion of the Gentiles; But [...]esides these Soul-Daemons, and [Page 62] Canoniz'd Mortals, their Theo­logy asserted and introduc'd a­nother degree of Daemons more elevated and sublime, which never had been the Souls of men, or ever were linked to mortal Flesh; but were from the beginning, or without be­ginning, always the same. So Apul [...]ius discovers to us from the Sentiments of the Platonists, in his before recited Treatise De Daemonio Socratis. Est (says he) & aliud superius, augustius (que) Dae­monum genus, qui semper à Cor­poris compedibus & nexibus, libe­ri, certis potestatibus curentur, Ex hâc sublimiori Daemonum co­pia, autumat Plato, singulis ho­minibus in vitâ agendâ, Testes & Custodes singulos additos. This Order of Daemons is in its sem­blance [Page 63] or proportion exactly pa­rallel to those separated and spiritual Powers we list under the Notion of Angels, as the Species of Soul-Damons is cor­respondent to those we marshal under the Appellation of the Saints departed. The supersti­tious Gentiles muffled up in the Fogs both of a gross and an af­fected and voluntary Ignorance, not only worship'd these Dae­mons, or inferior Deities them­selves, but likewise to inforce and aggrandize that Adoration they offer'd up to them, and render it more conspicuous, but likewise with a religious Ad­dress reverenced those Shrines, Urns and Sepulchers that were intrusted to be the Treasuries of their Relicks. Plato who was [Page 64] cited before for the Canonizat [...] ­on of those Heroes, who had generously offered up their Lives in the Field, as an Oblati­on to the Interest of their Coun­trey, would have their Shrines and Repositories to be worshipt [...], as the Coffins of Daemons, which ridiculous Devotion of theirs, or rather Folly is well represented to us by Clemens Alexandrinus, Stro­matum Lib. 6. in these words, as they are cited by Vossius, De Idololatria, and M [...]de in his A­postasie of the latter times, Ex­istimant (scilicet Graeci) nihil re [...]erre, an has Animas (scilicet Daemones quos invocant) Deos an Angelos dicamus: Jam verò qui sunt eorum Doctrinae periti, in multis Templis tanquam Deo­rum [Page 65] statuas, omnes se [...]è Mortuo­rum Lo [...]ulos posu [...]re, Daemones vocantes eorum Animas; eas au­tem coli ab Hominibus docentes, [...]ut quae divinâ Providentiâ, prop­ [...]ter Vitae puritatem acceperint, ut [...]ad Hominum Ministerium, Locum qui est circa Terram obirent, scie­bant enim aliquas Animas, ex Na­turâ, Corpore teneri. Out of which sober Reflections o [...] Ob­servations we may collect the Result of his sence to be this; that the Gentiles supposed the like presence and power of the Daemons at their Coffins and Se­pulchers, as they asserted was resident in their Images, as though there perpetually re­main'd some natural Obligation or Connexion between the sepa­rated Souls and their Reliques; [Page 66] and therefore they established Temples over those Tombs that were the Conservatories and Exchequers of their disbanded Ashes. I shall subjoin the Testi­mony of Arnobius, a person ve­ry well vers'd in the Rituals and Ceremonies of those elder times, having originally gathered the Rudiments of his Education and Culture from the Schools of the Gentiles; who thus speaks, lib. 6. adversus Gentes. Quid quod multa ex his Templa quae Tholis sunt aureis, & sublimibus elata Fastigiis, [...]uctorum conscriptioni­bus comprobatur, contegere Cine­res atque Ossa & functorum esse Corporum scpulturas? Nonne pa­tet & promptum est aut pro Diis immortalibus mortuos nos colere, aut inexpiabilem si [...]ri Numinibus [Page 67] [...]ontumeliam, quorum Delubra & Templa Mortuorum superlata Bu­ [...]tis. I shall not need to disrobe [...]he words of their Latin Ve­ [...]ture, because the sence is al­most coincident with the former, [...]e upbraiding the Gentiles for [...]everencing their Temples as the Shrines of their Gods, which were but the Repositories of mortal men.

Nor did they only worship the Sepulchers of these Daemons, but likewise those Pillars, Co­ [...]umns, and Obelisques establish­ed at first to their Honour and Remembrance: And those which [...]t first were but Index's and Me­morials to perpetuate their Fame, in procedure of time be­came Monuments to improve [...]heir superstitious Devotion; [Page 68] which is excellently describ'd by Minusius Felix in his Octavius Majores nostri (saith he) dum Reges suos colunt religiosè, dum defunctos eos desiderant in Ima­ginibus videre, dum g [...]stiunt eo­rum memorias in statuis detine re, sacra facta sunt, quae fuerant assumpta solatio. From which words we may collect, that the superstition of the Gentiles, e­steeming the adoration of Urns and Coffins too cheap and ob­scure, advanc'd and screw'd up their Wor [...]ip to an higher pitch, and paid their Devotion to consecrated Columns, and Pillars, and those that were at first erected only to establish a remembrance, at last became In­struments to oblige a publick Veneration; so that those persons [Page 69] that were beyond their hopes when living, were above their Faith when they were dead.

But the great Engines by which the Gentiles did exalt their Devotion, were the Images of these Daemons in whom they believ'd the Souls of these de­parted Heroes (like Inmates) [...]o lodge and inhabit; and this [...]ve are inform'd by Eusebius out of Porphiry, who affirms, that [...]hey asserted that Gods had a particular affection to their Portraitures a [...] Images; and [...]hat they were circumscrib'd within the narrow Cloysters of [...]hose consecrated Statues, which [...]eing dismantled, they immedi­ [...]tely substracted their protecti­ [...]n: Hence issued that Answer [...]r Defence of the Gentiles, as [Page 70] Arnobius (lib. 6. advers Gent.) makes them speak; Neque nos aera, argenti materias aurique, neque alia quibus signa conficiunt, eas esse per se Deos, & religiosa discernimus Numina; sed cos in his colimus, eosque veneramur, quos dedicatio infert sacra, & frabrilibus efficit habitare Simu­lachris. Which is likewise dis­cover'd to us by a Pen more ancient than either of these, that is, Hermes Tresmegistus, who in his Asclepias speaks in English thus; Because (saith he) our Ancestors erred much, through unbelief, concerning Deities, and had but easie regard of Re­ligion, and Divine Worship; therefore they contriv'd an Art to frame Gods (he means Ima­ges) and because they could [Page 71] not create Souls (he means to those senceless Bodies) therefore [...]hey summon'd the Souls of Dae­mons and Angels, and cloyster'd [...]hem up in their Images, and ho­ [...]y Mysteries, by which means [...]lone these Images have power [...]f helping and hurting; which [...]us incorporated (he saith) are [...]iled by the Egyptians Statuas [...]nimatas spiritu & sensu plenas. The sum of all this Mystery is, [...]hat Images are made as Bodies [...] be inform'd with Daemons, as [...]ith Souls; so that an Image [...]as but an Ambush or Engine [...] catch Daemons, and an Arti­ [...]e so to oblige them to a place, [...]at they might keep them from [...]ndoning it. And this was [...] reason they bound their I­ [...]ges with such massie Liga­tures [Page 72] and Chains, hoping that by these Restraints and Con­finements they might so oblige them to fix their residence in those Receptacles, that no Charm or Magical Address might seduce them to desert that place or station they were not only engaged to protect, but likewise to assert. A Transcript of which Charm or Address, as it is set down by Macrobius i [...] his Saturnalia, is here represent­ed, the Words made to speak English, are these that follow And thou especially, whosoever thou art, the Patron of this Ci­ty and People, I pray and be­seech, and with your leave, re­quire you, to abandon the Peo­ple and City of Carthage, t [...] forsake the Places, Temples [Page 73] Ceremonies and Enclosures of their City; to go away from them, and to strike some terrour and astonishment into that Peo­ple and City; and having left it, to come to Rome to me and mine; and that our Cities, Places, Tem­ples, Ceremonies, be more ac­ceptable, and better lik'd of you; and that you would take the charge of me, of the Peo­ple of Rome, and of my Souldi­ers, or as we may know and understand it; if you do so, I vow to build you Temples, and to appoint solemn Sports for you. When they invok'd the Infernal Gods to depart a City, they touch'd the Surface of the Earth; when they mention'd the Supernal Deities, they ere­cted their hands to Heaven; [Page 74] when they recited their Vow, they affix'd their hands to their Brests.

And indeed this may appear a probable reason why God so frequently in the sacred Pages with the menace of the severest penalties, and other formidable prohibitions, does deter the Jews from framing any Graven Images, to bow down before them and worship them, because the universal Assertion of the Gentiles was, their Gods or Dae­mons were Tenants to those gra­ven Mansions.

I should now represent a Re­gister of those Tutelary Deities the Gentiles stil'd their Dii Mi­nores or Daemons, or Dii Medi­oxumi, or Deastri; but before I advance farther in this Dis­course, [Page 75] I shall make some com­pendious Remarques on those they call'd their Dii Majores, or their greater and more eminent Deities, and then subjoin a Ca­talogue of the other. As for the Dii Majores, that were the Pro­tectors and Tutelary Guardians of the Grecian States, they were circumscrib'd within a narrow Circle, their whole Number swelling but to a List of twelve Namely, Jupiter, Juno, Saturn, Sol or Apollo, Luna or Diana, Mars, Mercury, Minerva or Pal­las, Neptune, Pluto or Orcus, Vulcan, by them stil'd Mulciber; and lastly, Venus or Urania, or Lilithia, or Anaitis; for so she was named by the Phoenicians, Syrians, and Arabians: To whom the Romans superadded [Page 76] these eight, viz. Bereinthia, or Cybele, or Vesta; for under all these Appellations she was ado­red by the Romans, which flow­ed from one and the same Dei­tie, Coelus, Ops or Tellus, Bacchus, Alcides or Hercules, Ceres, and lastly, Proserpina, and Janus: Now to some of these they gave special Attributes; some of the principal of which I shall now recite. Jupiter by the Romans was called Jupiter Stator, or Ju­piter the Stayer; because in a Fight between Romulus and Ta­tius King of the Sabins, when the Romans began to retreat, Romulus vowed to erect a Tem­ple to him, under that Attribute, if he would infuse new courage into the faint and drooping Ro­mans, and stop the flight of the [Page 77] one, and the victorious progress of the other, which accordingly (say the Roman Historians) being effected, Romulus paid and ac­complish'd his Vow, and Jupi­ter in subsequent Ages, was in that devoted Temple ador'd, under that Notion. Secondly, He was nam'd Jupiter Lapis; hence per Jovem Lapidem jurare, does frequently occur in the Roman Antiquities; now the reason of this Attribute was this; In those publick Contracts the Romans entred into, either with their Allies, or Enemies, they cast away a Stone, with this Imprecation annex'd to it, May Jupiter that is the great Witness to this solemn Contract, so reject and cast away us, as we do now this Stone, if we by a [Page 78] false and injurious violation in­fringe this signal and publick Stipulation. In relation to this practice of theirs, Grotius in his Treatise De Jure Belli & Pa­cis, discourses excellently well; his words are these: Qui per Lapidem jurat (says he) si falsum juraverit perjurus est, quia non te audit Lapis loquentem, sed pu­nit Deus fallentem. And in ano­ther place he subjoins this reason to fortifie what he had discour­sed of before. Neque honos ul­lus deberi potest Deo (says he) si nihil praestet colenti; nec ullus metus si non irascitur non colenti. Thirdly, He was Jupiter Labra­deus, from his being portray'd or insculp'd on ancient Coins and Images, holding an Axe or Hatchet, which amongst the [Page 79] Grecians was the Symbol, and a­mongst the Egyptians, the Hiero­gliphick of Justice. Fourthly, He had the Appellation of Ju­piter Pistor, or the Baker; and the reason of this Attribute was, because when the Gauls had be­sieged the Capitol, and much distressed the Garrison, Jupiter instructed the Romans in their sleep to fling out their Bread to them; which caused the Gauls to abandon the Siege, believing the Capitol to be well furnish'd and stock'd with Provision to secure it against the Distresses of an approaching Famine. He had other Epithetes of less Esti­mate; some of which I shall re­flect upon, and the rest entomb in silence; as Nenius, God of Hospitality, Philus God of Love, [Page 80] Neterius, God of Fellowship; Homogenius, God of Kindred; Phratrius, God of Tribes; En­horeius, God of Oaths; to in­timate to us, what a respectful or cautious regard men should have of Hospitality, Love, Fellowship, Kindred, Tribes, and Oaths. But he had two sig­nal Attributes bestowed upon him by the Gentiles; namely, Jupiter Teretrius, and Elicius: Jupiter Teretrius was call'd so from the Globous Figure of the Earth, which is teres & rotun­dus, and which he is insculp'd with in ancient Coins, sometimes supporting it in his hand, and sometimes treading upon it with his Foot; or rather from teren­do Hostes, from wasting and de­stroying the Enemies of the Ro­man [Page 81] Grandeur. Secondly, He was stil'd Jupiter Elicius, ab eli­ciendo Suppetias, because when the Romans were engag'd in perplexed difficulties, he rescu­ed them from those prejudices by an extraordinary Supply and Support.

Juno likewise had several Ti­tles attributed to her. She was stil'd Nebo▪ and Baaltiis a­mongst the Assyrians, and Soti­cena, Sospitatrix, and Opipena amongst the Romans, because she was favourable and helpful to Women, in the agony and pangs of Child-birth; hence that usual Address of the teem­ing Roman Ladies, Juno Lucina­fer opem. Then she was named Curetis, the Goddess of Souldi­ers; and Populonia, the Goddess [Page 82] of the People: She had also the Epithite of Juno, Gamelia, and Juga, or Jugatina, that is, the Goddess of Marriage; in order to which, she had the va­rious Appellations of Interduca, because she was supposed to be assistant to persons at their Inter-Marriage; Domiduca, because she conducted them home; Unx­ia, because the Posts of the house where the Nuptial Feast was solemniz'd, were anciently a­nointed with Oyl, the Embleme of Joy and Festivity; and Cinx­ia, either because by her con­currence, the Cestus or Virgin Zone was more successefully un­tied, or else because the Posts of the Bridal Mansion were bound about with Chaplets and Gar­lands: She likewise was known [Page 83] by the Title of Juno Caprotina' and was stiled so because she was entituled to the protection of the Trees called Caprosici, one of which bordered upon the margin of the Camp of the Romans, when they by the Ar­tifice of their Maid Servants, gave a signal Defeat to Posthu­mus Livius, General of the Fidenates.

Saturn was stil'd Chronos, un­der which Notion they prefigu­red. Time, and from hence the Ancients affirmed him to be the Son of Coelus and Ops, or Tell us, because Time is measured by the Motion of the Heavens, and the Vicissitudes and Seasons of the Earth; and therefore they painted him holding a Sithe, to suggest to us that there was no­thing▪ [Page 84] which in the vulgar appre­hension was so inexpugnable, but the Sithe of Time could mow it down, or subvert it. He was likewise nam'd Sterculius, be­casue he first instructed men with Dung or Compost to till and manure the Earth; and some antiquated Coins that still pre­serve his memory, have on their Reverse the Sculpture of a Ship, by which is intimated, that he was the first that taught men the Art of Navigation; for which he was exceedingly honoured by the Tyrians and Carthagini­ans, under the Notion of Mil­com and Moloch, both derived from the Punick word Melech, which in that Dialect imports as much as King, as Milce does Queen; or else because he was [Page 85] [...]he first that conducted Colonies [...]nto Italy.

Sol, or Apollo, or Pboebus, call'd by the Persians, Abraxas and Mithras, had divers Attri­butes, with which elder times adorn'd him: He was nam'd Hyperion▪ because he was of highest Estimate amongst the Gentiles, and worship'd: with more veneration than all the o­ [...]her Deities, as his Light, Mo­ [...]ion and Influence is of more ef­ficacy and vigorous Impression, [...]han all the rest: He had like­wise the Epithite of Cyclops Di­ [...]i, & Diespaeter, or Diei pater, Fa­ [...]her of the Day; Erithaus, Red; Actaeon, Shining; Lampas, Bright­ [...]ess; Philogeus, Loving the Earth; but the most eminent Attribute they deck'd him with, [Page 86] was Sminthius, derived from a Greek word that signifies a Mouse; for when Greece was miserably infested and harrassed with swarms of Mice, he by his power and influence destroy'd that heap of ravenous Vermine, and rescued the Country from that total Ravage and Devasta­tion they menaced to superin­duce upon it: He had likewise the frequent appellation of Cla­rius, extracted from Claros, one of the Islands of the Cyclades. There is one Epithite that the ancient Phoenioians bestowed on the Sun, which Mr. Selden in his Discourse De Diis Syris, hath furnish'd me with, that is Abgol, Baal, or Aligabalus, which in the Syrian and Phoenician Dialect imports as much as D [...]us seu Do­minus [Page 87] Rotundus, Circularis seu Volubilis, the Circular or Sphae­rical God.

The Moon, called Luna, Cyn­thia, or Diana by the Romans, Artemis, by the Greeks; Astarte, by the Phoenicians; and Belisa­ma by the Syrians; had like­wise a Train or Retinue of At­tributes: At Athens, she was na­med Brauronia; becaus there was a Temple devoted to her Wor­ship, by one Brauron an Atheni­an. She was denominated Tri­via, because she was worshipped where three ways met; and Lya or Lua, either from Lues the Plague (as Scaliger believes) be­cause she is the cause of Infecti­ous Distempers, which loosned the Soul from the Body, or else from loosing that Girdle which [Page 88] Virgins were accustomed to un­tie in her Temple. And lastly, she was stiled Fascelides, from the Bundle of Wood in which Iphigenia conceal'd that Image she stole from the Tyrant Thoas, who was accustomed to sacrifice all strangers to this Deity, under the Notion of Diana Taurica.

Mars was stiled Odrysius, from that solemn Worship which was ascribed to him by the Odrysii, a People of Thrace; and Gradi­vus à Gradiendo, that is, from the several steps and progressi­ons that should with caution and prudence be observ'd in the conduct of War.

Mercury was adored by the Egyptians under the Appellati­on of Anubis, and had the he­terogeneous Figure of a mans [Page 89] body, but a Dog's head, which was amongst them the Hierogli­phick of Vigilancy, Fidelity, and Sagacity. He was stil'd Hermes by the Greeks, that is, the Inter­preter; because the most dark and gloomy things are open'd by Eloquence, of which he was the Patron. He was named Ago­r [...]us, from the Greek word [...] Markets, intimating that that dexterous circumspection that should be employ'd in Con­tracts, and the prudent manage­ry of affairs in buying and sel­ling was to be supported and improved by his concurrence. Lastly, His Appellation was Her­maphroditus, because Antiquity did assert, that the virtue of this Planet was Masculine and Foeminine; and therefore he [Page 90] was anciently painted with a Lance in one hand, and a Di­staff in the other, to manifest that his Nature is both Mascu­line and Feminine; with the one he excites heat, with the other he improves moisture.

Minerva is stil'd by the Greeks Tritonia, because she was edu­cated by Triton a God of the Sea; or else under that Poetical umbrage is couched the dan­gers and prejudices wise men are exposed to, and that Learn­ed men gather Knowledge and Experience out of Difficulties and Troubles. She was like­wise named Onca, because one of the Gates of Thebes of that Appellation was entituled to her especial Patronage and Pro­tection.

[Page 91] Neptune or Glaucus was cal­led by the Greeks Posidona, ma­king the Image, because of all the Elements, Water by reason of its smoothness and clearness, makes and represents Images to us. He was also stil'd Sisic­thonius and Ennosigaeus, from his violent concussion or shaking of the Earth.

Pluto or Orcus was denomina­ted Moth or Muth by the Phoe­nicians, which signifies Death; hence he is stil'd by Homer im­placable or inexorable, inex­pugnable, and most hateful, because the Gentiles did resent their Dissolution with regret & horrour.

Vulcan or Mul [...]iber had the Title of Ephaibos by the Greeks, and Vulcanus, quasi volans candor, [Page 92] to shew the Heat and Light of the Fire; he is stil'd deform'd, not that the Fire is so in it self; but that renders every thing de­form'd that it consumes; or else he hath the uncouth Title of crooked and lame, from the ob­lique and unequally ascending Flame, smutted and eclips'd with the annex'd particles of Soot and Smoke; but still through those cloudy vails there appears light, which by its refulgency and beauty obliges all eyes; which caus'd the Poets to affirm, that Vulcan was the Husband of A­glaia and Venus, that is, splendor and beauty.

Venus stil'd Nanaea in the Book of Maccabees, and Urania, Lili­thia, or Anaetis; for so she was [Page 93] call'd by Romans, Greeks, Phoe­nicians, Syrians & Arabians, was apparelled with many Titles by the Ancients; she was stil'd Morpho by the Greeks, which is the same with Venus Armata a­mongst the Romans. Indeed al­most all the Deities were depi­ [...]ted or insculp'd Armed, which Pourtraicture among the Anci­ents was the Embleme either of Magnanimity, or Majesty; and [...]olias, an Attribute, I suppose [...]onferr'd on her, for her (in their opinion) successeful loosning of Prisoners Fetters, or else for her [...]appy contributing to the unty­ [...]ng of the Virgin Zone.

She was stil'd likewise Venus [...]allipiga, that is, pulchras ha­ [...]ns Nates; if I should untwist [Page 94] the Story on which this Epithite is established; there would ap­pear so much obscenity to be folded up in it, it would so stain and sully the Paper, that it would scarce leave it white e­nough to do its penance in. I had rather therefore obscure & wrap it up in a grateful silence, than rake any farther in so unsa­voury a Dunghil.

Amongst the Romans she wa [...] named Venus Libitina,, so that she was the Goddess both of Ge­neration and Corruption, of ou [...] coming into this world, and o [...] our going out. She was nomi­nated also Venus Cloacina, from Cloaca, a Sink or House of Of­fice, a Title the Romans bestow­ed on their publick Strumpet [...] or Curtezans, that expos'd an [...] [Page 95] prostituted themselves for hire to the embraces of any person, though never so foul and dete­stable.

Nor did she want her Attri­ [...]utes amongst the Phoenicians, [...]nd Saracenical Arabians, by [...]hom she was stil'd Salambo and [...]abar, that is, as Mr. Selden in [...]is Book De Diis Syris, inter­rets it, Stella Lucifera, or the [...]efulgent Star.

Berecinthia was stil'd Turrita, [...]ecause she first taught men how [...] erect Towers and Fortresses, [...]d to secure and circumscribe [...]eir Cities and Towers with [...]alls and Turrets; hence in [...]cient Coins she is always in­ [...]lp'd with a Tower on her [...]ad. She was nam'd also Ve­ [...], à vestiendo, because she first [Page 96] instructed men to wear Gar­ments, or else to apparel the na­ked Earth with Houses, and therefore from her the Roman Porches and Thresholds conse­crated to her, were called Ve­stibula; or because she was fre­quently taken for the Earth, (as her Temple at Rome did im­port, which was built in an Or­bicular Figure) she might be call'd Vesta, because the Earth i [...] attir'd and cloth'd with the Em­broydery of Grass, Flowers▪ Herbs, Plants, and Trees hence she is also denominate [...] Cybele, from Cubus, a Cube; t [...] intimate to us the Earth's stabi­lity.

Bacchus had several Appella­tions, as amongst the Phoenici­ans he was nam'd Iar-Chus, tha [...] [Page 97] is, as the Learned Bochartus ren­ders it, the Son of Chus; and from thence by the Greeks and Latines he was corruptly called Jacchus. He had the Title of Zagreus, a Hunter, and Nebrodes. He had the Title of Nebrodes conferr'd upon him (as Bochar­tus conjectures) being corrupt­ly borrowed by the Gentiles, from Nembroth or Nembrot, vul­garly stil'd in our Translations Nimrod. Others extract it from his being attir'd in exuvio Hin­ [...]uleo, that is, in the Skin of a young Fawn, or Kid, or as o­ [...]hers assert, in that of a Colt. Bromius was another Title con­ [...]err'd on him, which is deriv'd [...]rom his protection of Vines [...]nd Grapes. He was stil'd Le­ [...]aeus from the Greek word [...], [Page 98] which signifies Torcular, a Wine­press; and Lisius, Lyaeus and Liber, from the opening and dissolving the Spirits by the heat of Wine, when they were too much condens'd and congeal'd with Melancholy. Another At­tribute of his was Evan, which in the Syrian and Arabick Dia­lect, is Hedera, or Ivy, because his Thirsus, or Lance was bound about with Vine & Ivy Leaves. And so he was nam'd in Latin Cissius, from the Greek [...], Ivy. He was stil'd Aegobolus, from a Goat being sacrificed to him in­stead of those humane Sacrifices which had before stain'd and polluted his Altars, and Dithri­ambus, from his double Tri­umph, over the Indians, and A­rabians, and from Nisa, a Town [Page 99] inhabited by the last; he was frequently termed Dionisius.

Hercules or Alcides, had in the Register of his Epithites two of signal account, that is, Ogmi­us and Saxanus; the first Bo­chartus derives from the Phoeni­cian word Ogami, to wander; which may denote to us his va­rious Excursions and Expediti­ons into Lybia, Spain, and other places; the reason of the last is this; being engaged in Battle, & Victory hovering with doubt­ful Wings over his fainting Troops, by a Cataract of stones that were poured down from Heaven, the Conquest was re­triv'd, and the Enemy totally subdued and discomfited.

Ceres had the Title of Ambar­valis attributed unto her; but [Page 100] upon what Foundation it was erected is uncertain; and from hence were the Feasts derived which were dedicated to Her, call'd Ambarvalia.

Janus is by Bochartus deem'd to be but a Transcript of Noah; first, because Jajin in the Hebrew signifies Wine, of which Noah was the first Inventer. Second­ly, Because he was anciently in­sculp'd with two Faces, which is exactly parallel to Noah, who looked backwards npon the old World that perish'd under the angry Baptism of an Universal Deluge; and forwards upon the Universe newly started out from that publick lnundation. And thirdly, upon very ancient Coins, where the Signature of Janus is insculp'd on the one side, there [Page 101] is the Figure of a Ship endorsed or impress'd on the Reverse, which preserves the remem­brance of safety and shelter that Noah receiv'd in that wooden Isle the Arke.

There were many other Epi­thetes that these Dii Majores of less moment and importance, which were borrow'd and ex­tracted from some Hills, Cities, and Regions where they were ador'd, which are exactly deci­phered by Lillius Giraldus in his Syntagmata Deorum, whither I refer the Reader.

Before I leave this Discourse, because it conduces much to the understanding of ancient Coins, and Medals, I shall represent how the Fictions of the Poets did describe these Deities to be [Page 102] drawn in their Celestial Chari­ots. Jupiter, Sol, Mars, and Neptune had theirs conducted a­long by Horses; Bacchus had his manag'd by Linces and Ti­gers; Saturn by Dragons; Di­ana by Stags; Luna, or the Moon by Oxen; Juno by Pea­cocks; Cybele by Lions; Ceres by Serpents; Pluto by four black Horses; Mercury in stead of a Chariot, had Wings annex'd both to his Head and Heels; Venus had hers attended on by Swans, Doves, and Sparrows, the last of which is excellently well pourtrayed and descanted on by the Greek Epigrammatist, and thus made to speak English;

When the Blind Boy doth address
His Forces unto wantonness,
[Page 103]He then extracts Plumes for his Arrows
From his Mothers Lustful Spar­rows;
But when again he would inspire
Mortals with a chast Desire,
To plume a Dart, for such a Love,
He borrows Feathers from her Dove.

I shall now unweave a Cata­logue as brief as may be of these Dii Minores, or Semones, that is, Semi-Homines, which here follows; Summanus was the Principal God or President of the Manes, by some conjectur'd to be Pluto. Consus was the God of Counsel, by many af­firm'd to be Neptune, because Counsels should be as obscure and hidden as the Flux and Re­flux [Page 104] of the Sea. Pan or Faunus, Inuus and Pales were the Gods of Shepherds, from the last of which, the Feasts call'd Pallilia, celebrated on the days of the Foundations of Cities were de­rived; for indeed those were but the nobler Transcripts of Sheep-cots; the last did protect the Flock from the Rage of Beasts; and the first did se­cure the Citizens from the fury of more Bestial men. Deus A­verruncus was a Tutelary God that vindicated Corn from Smut, and men from the Black­ness of Disasters; he was a­mongst the Phoenicians call'd Chamos. Nascio was the God of Births: Cunina was the God­dess of Cradles; Rumina of Sucking; Educa and Potina, or [Page 105] Vict'a and Potua were the Deities to whom was entituled the care of Eating and Drinking: Sub­jugus, Virginensis, Manturn, Proma and Pertunda were ex [...]isae seu temeratae Virginitatis Dii & Deae. Mena was the Goddess of Womens Monethly Prosluviums; Egeria of Teeming Women; Carne was the Goddess of Flesh; Abeona and Adeona were the Pa­tronesses of Passengers, to pro­tect their going out, and return­ing home; Naenia was Goddess of Funerals; Lubentia, of Lust;

Volumna of Will or Desire; Vitula of youthful Wantonness; Vacuna was Goddess of Leisure and Idleness; Muncia of Sinks; Laverna of Thieves; Feronia was Goddess of Groves; Col [...]i­na or Collinus were the Deities [Page 106] of the Hills; Jugatinus had the care of Tops of Mountains; Sil­vanus had the custody of woods; Vallona was the Goddess of Val­lies? Peitho or Suada was the Goddess of Eloquence; Pecunia of Money; Thalassius was the God of Marriage; Aius of Speech; Fidius of Faith; A­ristaeus had the Tuition of Bees; as Mellona was the Goddess of Honey; Bubona of Oxen; Hip­pona of Horses: Nor did Acti­ons want their peculiar Deities; for Horta was the Goddess of Exhorting; and Agonius the God that brought Actions to ac­complishment; Robigus was the God of Smut; Terminus of Bounds; and Priapus of Gar­dens and Seeds; Proteus and Vertumnus were the Gods of [Page 107] Merchants; Sentinus was God of Senses; Vitunus of Life; Tu­tanus of Defence; Aeolus was the Deity of the Winds, dedu­ced from the Phoenician word Aol (as Bochar [...]us asserts) which signifies a Tempest; Portunus or Melicertus of Harbours; Au­cula was Goddess of Maid-ser­vants; Diverra of Sweeping; Dice, of Law-Suits; Pomona was the Goddess of Fruit; and Flora or Chloris of Flowers; No­diotinus or Nodinus was the God that had the Care of the Corn when it knotted; whilst the Flower was wrapped within the Bud, Volutina; when the Leaves dilated themselves, Patelina; whilst the Corn was in its milky Substance, Lactucina had the custody of it; when it was di­gested [Page 108] and ripened, Matura; and when it shot forth into Ear, Hostilina was entituled to its Tuition; Hebe was the Goddess of Youth; Meditrina was the Goddess of Physick; Cardina or Cardea, of Hinges; Forculus was the God of Doors; and Limentinus, of Thresholds; In­tercido was the God that rescued men from violent Slaughters; Pilumnus was a Deity that guarded corn when it was Inn'd, from Hair, or any other destru­ctive heterogeneous mixture; Pi­cumnus was a God to whom An­tiquity ascribed the Manuring, and first Cultivating of Fields; Levana was a Goddess that mol­lified that grief or sorrow which was the Result of Disease, or any other Disorder or Misfor­tune; [Page 109] Carmenta was the God­dess of Prophetesses; her Name was extracted from Carmen, be­cause all Prophesies anciently were delivered in Verse; Ossi­pago was a Goddess who knit to­gether and made solid tender Bones. Februa or Februtis was the Goddess of Fevers; Pataecus Epitrapezius was the Guardian Genius of those Tables the Gen­tiles eat at, whose Statue was u­sually affix'd to them; Momus was the God of Criticks, a De­ity so impartially severe in his Animadversions, that he was permitted by Jupiter to make his Remarques upon him­self, and the Residue of the o­ther Deities; Bona Dea, call'd likewise Fauna or Fatua, à Fan­do, was the Goddess of Chasti­ty; [Page 110] and because she appear'd to be warp'd & distorted with En­thusiasmes, when she delivered her Dictates, therefore, from her, all persons that discours'd incogitantly, were stil'd Fatui and Fatu [...]; Haspocrates was the God of Silence; he was ancient­ly depicted with his Forefinger on his mouth, and a Cap on his Head, which was the Symbol of Liberty; Angerona was the God­dess of Squinzies, and of Si­lence; also adjoining to her Temple was that of Volupia, Goddess of Pleasure, to inti­mate that none were to enter in­to her Temple, but those who had undergone any Calamity with Silence. Nay Tempests, & Noxious Fumes, and Privie had their Deities too; for [Page 111] when Cornelius Scipio had esca­ped the danger of Shipwrack in that Sea which washes the shores of Corsica, he consecrated a Temple Deae Tempestati; Cloa­cina was the Goddess of Privies, and Memphitis of ill Odours; who had a Temple Devoted to her Worship near Cremona.

Indeed most of these Deities, if rightly considered, were but Effects and Emanations of Gods Power and Providence, visibly manifested in his supporting and upholding the Fabrick of the Universe; and this Truth the Poets and Philosophers of the Gentiles well understood, but design'd to skreen and conceal it from the Vulgar, by muffling it up in these Fabulous, and Sup­posititious, but Artificial Noti­ons [Page 112] of Gods and Goddesses.

There being an Alliance or Conformity between many of the Jewish Sacrifices, and those of the ancient Gentiles, I shall in a succinct and summary Land­skip represent a brief Scale of those Solemnities from the Cu­stoms of the Romans & Greeks extracted from Stuckius, De Sa­crificiis Gentilium.

Before I make any farther pro­gression in this Discourse, I shall take a brief Survey of those Priests which did manage the Roman Sacrifices. And first, he that had the charge of all subor­dinate or inferior Priests of the Sacrifices and Festivals, was called Pontifex maximus, and Rex Sacrificulus, or the King of [Page 113] Priests, because Kings did exer­cise this Office in elder times. But above them all was the Pon­tifical Colledge, which at first consisted only of eight, but Syl­la enlarged them to fifteen; these were to assist the Chief Pontifex, in whom alone was the supreme power of all Religion, Festivals, priests, Vestals, Vows, [...]dols, Oaths, Funerals, and all other appendant Ceremo­ [...]ies, besides the Charge of the Bridge stil'd Pons Subli [...]ius. He [...]ad more priviledge and Ho­ [...]our annex'd to his Office than [...]he Kings themselves; for he [...]ight ascend the Capitol in his [...]itter, which was unlawful for [...]thers; and whatsoever Crimi­ [...]al fled to him for Refuge, was [...]at day secur'd from Punish­ment; [Page 114] nor was he to render an account of any of his Actions▪ The Priests subordinate to him were Luperci, the Priests of Pan Lycaeus, Potitii and Pin [...]rii of Hercules; of Divination by the Chirping of Birds, Augures; and of Divining by Poultry▪ Pullarii; then those who had the care of Altars, and made an inspection into the Entrails of Beasts, who were stil'd Aruspi­ces and Extispices. Curione [...] were the Priests who had the charge of each Curia or Ward for Romulus distributed Rom [...] into thirty Wards, and to each Ward assign'd a Curio; ove [...] these was Curio Maximus; w [...] may stile him an Archbishop▪ The Priests whom Romulus in­stituted to preserve the memory [Page 115] of Tatius King of the Sabins, were nam'd Sodales Tatii. The Priests of Mars were call'd Sa­lii; their Catalogue at first was but twelve, which afterwards swell'd to fifteen: These were chosen out of the Patritii, and [...]hey were in march to dance so­ [...]emnly with their Targets, stil'd Ancilia, one of which was pre­ [...]ended to have fallen down from Heaven. Arvales were Priests that had the care of the [...]ields, as the Feciales were [...]hose that had the charge of the [...]ar: The Priests that went al­ [...]ays cover'd with threaden [...]aps, were call'd Flamines, qua­ [...] Filamines; these were as ma­ [...]y in number as the Dii majores, [...]nd were subservient to that [...]eligious Worship that was of­fered [Page 116] up to those greater Dei­ties, the principal of which was he who was devoted to Jupiter, and was stil'd Flamen Dialis: The Priests who had the care of the Sybils Books were at first but two, stil'd D [...]umviri; then they were improv'd to ten, and at last enlarg'd to fifteen. Fauna or Fatua who for her Loyalty to her Husband, had the Appella­tion of Bona Dea, had her pe­culiar Priestesses also. The Priests of Cybele, stil'd Mater De­orum, were call'd Galli, whose Chief or Arch-Priest had the Title of Archi-Gallus. There were other Priests call'd Trium­viri and Septemviri Epulonum, who had the conduct & charge of the publick Feasts and Games. Besides every lesser [Page 117] Deity was entituled to a Priest, and these had their under Offi­cers, call'd Camilli. The Ser­vants of Flamen Dialis were sti­ [...]ed Flaminei: The Guardians of their Temples were nam'd Aeditui. Their Trumpeters, [...]ubicines and Tibicines, their Criers that went before the [...]riests, to injoin the people to [...]bstain from work during the [...]me of Sacrificing, were stil'd [...]reciae. Popae were those that [...]ound the Sacrifices; Victima­ [...]i were those who killed them. [...]here was an Officer amongst [...]e Greeks and Romans, that [...]d the charge and custody of [...]e Lavatory, or Chernips, stil'd [...] Greek [...], [...]here the Priest was to wash & [...]oil himself, before he per­form'd [Page 118] the Rites of Sacrifice▪ And now I proceed to describe the Sacrifices; and first I shall survey those of the Romans, wh [...] us'd to offer the Day before the Solemn Sacrifice, a preparatory Victim call'd Hostia praecedanea▪ Their Succedaneae were Sacri­fices which succeeded when th [...] former were not satisfactory▪ Weathers that were led to Sa­crifice with a Lamb on each side [...] were stil'd Ambigui. Bidente [...] were Sheep design'd for the Al­tar, with two Horns and tw [...] eminent Teeth. Ambarvale [...] were Sacrifices carried in Pro­cession about the Fields, as Am­burbales were those that wer [...] conducted in Procession abo [...] the City. Heifers untamed [...] which never had been put u [...] ­der [Page 119] the yoke, were named In­ [...]uges. The Priest having brought [...]he Victim to the Altar, was [...]ccustomed to pray, laying his Hand on the Altar, Musick in [...]he Interval improving the So­ [...]emnity; af [...]er he lodg'd on the [...]ead of the Beast Corn, or a [...]ake mixed with Salt & Frank­ [...]cense; this was stil'd Immola­ [...], from Mola a Cake. Then [...]llowed Libatio, which was [...]e tasting of the Wine, and [...]rinkling it on the Beasts head; [...]is done, the Hairs between [...]s Horns were pluck'd up, and [...]st into the Fire; this they en­ [...]uled Libamina prima: Then [...] Beast was kill'd, the Blood [...]ceiv'd into Vessels, and the [...]trails perus'd; at last it was [...] into pieces, one Fragment [Page 120] was wrap'd up in Meal, and then burn'd on the Altar; this was termed Litare. After this they let themselves loose into all man­ner of Festivity. The Sacri­fices that were offered up, were stil'd porrecta, from an antiqua­ted word porricere, which im­ports as much as Dicare: Now each particular God had his Sa­crifice; White Beasts were sa­crificed to the Supernal Gods and Black to the Infernal Dei­ties: the Bull was offered up to Jupiter, Neptune, Mars, Apollo▪ Luna, and the Heroes. Th [...] Ram was sacrific'd to Mars, an [...] the Heroes wine was devote [...] to Ceres and Liber; the Goat t [...] Aesculapius and Liber, Milk an [...] Honey to Ceres; a Horse to S [...] and Mars; a Lamb to Juno an [...] [Page 121] Faunus; a Dove to Venus; a Doe to Pan and Minerva; a Cock to the Lares; a Hog to Sylvanus; a Sow to Ceres and Cybele; a Hen to Aesculapius; and a Child to Saturn. To each Deity they likewise assign'd a particular Bird: The Eagle to Jupiter; the Cock to the Sun; [...]he Magpy to Mars; the Raven [...]o Apollo, &c. There were also particular Trees consecrated to [...]hem; to Jupiter, the Oak; to [...]allas, the Olive; to Venus, the Mirtle; to Pluto, the Cypress; [...]o Baochus the Vine and Fir­ [...]ree; to Hercules the Poplar; [...]o Apollo the Lawrel and Palm­ [...]ree; to Mars and Hymen the [...]ine.

I shall now descend to repre­sent [Page 122] in a brief Pourtraiture the Priests & Temples amongst the Grecians, as likewise their trai [...] of Sacrifices, and the Right [...] which attended them; I shal [...] begin with their Priests and Temples: As they had multipli­city of Gods, so they had vari­ous Orders of Priests; Those of Jupiter and Apollo were Boys, e­minent for Birth and Beauty [...] the Priests of Cybele were to be artificial Eunuchs; Ceres, Bo­na Dea, and Bacchus had their Priestesses; the Priests of Bello­na offered up a Victim of their own Blood; the Athenian chief Priests, stil'd Hierophantae, who were invested with a power proportionate to the Roman Pontifices, dieted and congealed themselves with Hemlock, [Page 123] to super-induce in them an Impotency towards Wo­men. No man was to be instituted a Priest, whose Body was impair'd with any blemish. Their Garments and Shoes were white, if they were the Priests of Ceres; outward purity being the principal thing they entitu­led themselves to. The Priests that sacrificed to the Infernal Gods, were attir'd in black Gar­ments; but purple if they were the Priests of the Celestial De­ities. They glitter'd also with Crowns and Miters, and were also adorn'd with Ribbands and Laces: Their Office was not only to pray and sacrifice, but also to purifie with Brimstone & Salt-water. The [...] which was a Basket or Chest wherein [Page 124] were treasur'd up the first fruits and other consecrated Reliques, which had been offered up to Minerva, was to multiply and enforce the Grandeur and pomp of their Panathenaian Feasts, de­voted to the honour of the a­bovesaid Goddess, born on the shoulders of the noblest Atheni­an Virgins. The [...] was under the Notion of a Bi­shop or overseer, to regulate their Sacred Mysteries. The [...] was he that attended the Sacred Fire that glow'd on their Altars; they had, as a­mongst the Romans, their Cri­ers and Preachers also, and like­wise those who were the Guar­dians of their Temples.

Now for their Temples, that of Minerva at Athens was erect­ed [Page 125] in the most elevated part of the City, as that of Jupiter at Rome was in the Capitol. The Temple of Mercy at Athens, sti­ [...]ed the Asylum, which was a Sanctuary for Delinquents, was established by the Sons of Her­cules. Theseus had erected one before stil'd Theseum, in imitati­on, and proportion to which, Romulus instituted his Asylum at Rome. At first the Deities a­mongst the Gentiles had no Temples at all; but were ado­ [...]ed either on Hills, or in Groves; [...]crops was the first (as some [...]ffirm) who erected a Temple [...] Athens, as Janus did in Italy; before they had no other Tem­ples, but the Sepulchers and Monuments of the Dead. The Temples of the Celestial Gods, [Page 126] were established upon the Ground, those of the Infernal under. Near Sparta, Jupiter had a Temple stil'd Scotinon, from the Darkness of it, being obscur'd with Groves. There was also [...], the Chappel of the Earth, and [...] the Chap­pel of the Destinies. The Places where they established their As­semblies and Sermons were na­med [...]. Their Temples had the Denomination of [...] from those dark Exhalations that issued from their Sacrifices and Incense. [...] was the ge­neral Name for Temples, be­cause the Gods dwelt in them, and because they were esteemed to be rendered holy by Conse­cration, they were stiled [...].

[Page 127]That part of the Temple where the Idol stood was nam'd [...], the same with Delubrum amongst the Latines.

[...] was derived from [...], [...]o [...]ut, or set apart, and did sometimes denote the Temple, because it was separated from vulgar uses.

For such a Superstitious Ho­nour did they devote to its Stru­cture, that they leap'd over its Threshold, out of a dread they might pollute it by treading on [...]t. Nor did they pass by any Tem­ple without paying some venera­tion to it: And such a confident security did they repose in these [...]difices, that here they lodg­ed their Treasures, Sacriledge being then under the Notion [Page 128] of an execrable Impiety: Nay, such a venerable esteem did the Gentiles ascribe to the Temple of Apollo Pythius, that it was judg'd a Crime of a black Tin­cture but to walk in it; and by the Law of Pisistratus was pu­nished with death. Hence when the Greeks would express any danger for acted Impieties, they would proverbially affirm it had been better you had walk'd in the Pythium; and to admonish persons from venting their Ex­crements, either Ordure, or U­rine, near the Confines of Con­secrated Structures, the Images of Serpents were insculp'd over the Gates of their Temples. And from hence that proverbial A­dagy amongst the Romans had its Birth and Extraction, Pinge [Page 129] duos Angues, locus sacer est.

I shall now proceed to offer up a concile Scheme of their Sa­crifices themselves, whose Mode and Method is thus decipher'd; None were to approach the Al­tar until they were first purified; nor must the Victim be laid on it, until it had receiv'd its Lustra­tion with Meal and Holy Water, gather'd from their Lavatory, stil'd Chernips. Some sprinkling of this Water was strewed on the standers by, after a Fire­brand snatched from the Altar had been first drench'd and ex­tinguish'd in it, and then some sa­cred Meal was cast on them. This done, the Priest offered up his Orizons, and then the Sacri­fice was conducted to the Altar with the Head downwards, if [Page 130] it were devoted to the Infernal Gods, but upwards, if it were dedicated to the Celestial; the Heart, Spleen, Liver and Fat were offered to the particular Deities, the residue of the Vi­ctim was a Feast for the Priest and People, consuming the Re­mainder of the Day in a licenti­ous and vitious Festivity: when the Greeks sacrificed to Vesta, and the Romans to the Lares, they devoured the whole Sacri­fice; hence Lari Sacrificare, was to eat up all: Persons of a mea­ner capacity offered Meal or Cakes, the same with the Roman Mola, to which those of richer Demeasne added the mixture of Wine and Oil. These frugal Sacrifices are stil'd by Pindar, Supplicating Sacrifices, suggest­ing [Page 131] to us, that there was fre­quently more Devotion manife­sted in these mean and thrifty oblations, than there was in more splendid and pompous Victims: They were accustomed to try if the Sacrifices would prove ac­ceptable to their Gods, by pla­cing a Cake upon the Head be­tween the Horns, which were in solemn Feasts guilded; if the Beast was compos'd and quiet; it was judged to be a fit Sacri­fice; but if disorder'd and tu­multuous, it was rejected. In all Sacrifices Vesta was first invok'd; to intimate the antiquity and ne­cessity of Fire (of which she was made the Patroness by the Gre­cians) in those oblations. In the morning they us'd to sacrifice to their gods, in the evening to their [Page 132] Demi-Gods or Heroes. The Greeks did not as the Romans, grind the Corn they plac'd on the Head of the Victim, but laid it on the Mass to demonstrate the ancient Mode of Feeding, before grinding of Corn was in­stituted. They were accustom­ed also after the Sacrifice and Feast, to burn the Tongue of the Beast, and sprinkle Wine on it, to specifie, that after eating and drinking, the Tongue should be▪ obliged to Silence, and no­thing divulged that was uttered in times of Festivity: This Rite was also solemnized to the honour of Mercury, who was in their Estimate the Patron of E­loquence, and Deity of Sleep; and therefore about that time that was devoted to Repose, the [Page 133] Tongue was sacrificed. The Grecian Priests were accustomed in an irregular Dance to run a­bout their Altars, beginning first at the left hand, to insinu­ate the motion of the Zodiack, which is from the West, and was by ancient Astronomers sti­led the left part of the world; then they began their measures at the right hand to demonstrate the motion of the first Sphere, which is from East to West. Bloo­dy Victims in the publick vogue fell under the notion of impure; but Mirrhe, Frankincense, and such like, had the milder Appel­lation of pure▪ Oblations con­ferr'd upon them. The Fleshy Mor [...]els of the Sacrifices were stil'd [...]heothyta: The persons who collected the consecrated Corn, [Page 134] were nam'd Parasiti. The Officers that officiated at the Sacrifices, were entituled Orgeones. Philo­thytae were those superstitious Devoto's, that upon any occasi­on, though never so despicable, did offer up Sacrifice. And be­cause much Wine was drunk af­ter the accomplishment of these Solemnities, which dissolv'd both Priest and People into Excess & Disorder, therefore Criticks ex­tract the Greek word [...] from [...], after Sacrificing.

Having taken in pieces most of the Ingredients that com­pounded the Gentile Superstiti­on, I shall now describe those Festivals customary amongst the Grecians and Romans; first be­cause they were a principal part [Page 135] of their Religion: secondly, be­cause many held some correspon­dence and proportion with the Feasts of the Jews; so that it is probable they were first copied from that Original.

I shall begin with those of the Greeks.

And first, they had their The­oxenia, Feasts devoted to the whole Retinue of Deities, and therefore stil'd by the Latines Dies Pandicularis and Communi­carius; it was principally ob­served by the Athenians, and consecrated to the Honour of Forraign Gods, or the Gods or Genii of Hospitality; some­times likewise they were de­voted to Apollo, who from▪ thence is stiled Theoxenius [Page 136] They entitle their first instituti­on to the Dioscuri, or Castor & Pollux. Anacalypteria were Feasts dedicated by the Rusticks to Ceres and Bacchus upon the In­ning of their Corn and Fruit; it was also observed by Brides up­on their entrance into Marriage, because then the Bride that had been before cloistered up in her Fathers House, began to be re­veal'd and discover'd; hence the Presents the Bridegroom en­dowed her with, had the Ap­pellation of Anacalypteria. An­thisteria were Feasts devoted to Bacchus, observ'd in the Moneth Anthistorion, supposed by the Learned to be August, named so because the Athenian Children were then crowned with Gar­lands of Flowers. Aletis was a [Page 137] Feast that preserv'd the memo­ry of Icarius and Erigone. An­thesphoria or Theogamia were Feasts offered up to Proserpina; the first was named so because Pluto ravish'd that Goddess, when she was gathering of Flowers.

Apatorion was an Athenian Feast maintained for four days, or as some assent, only for three.

Ascolia were Feasts dedicated to Bacchus, deduced from [...], a Bladder, because in the midst of the Theatre they were accu­stomed during these Solemnities to dance upon Bladders blown, and oyled, only with one foot, that by falling they might fo­ment Mirth. Boedromia were Feasts celebrated at Athens with clamour and running in the Mo­neth Boedromion or September.

[Page 138] Charistia were Love-Feasts, where those of Consanguinity entertain'd each other with gifts and Banquets.

Chytria were Athenian Feasts observed in the midst of Novem­ber, wherein all seeds were pro­miscuously boil'd, and devoted to Mercury and Bacchus. Dia­mastigosis was the scourging Feast amongst the Spartans, in which the principal Youth were scourged in the view of their Friends, at the Altar of Diana. Diosia, were Feasts intituled [...]o Jupiter; here they appear'd not with jovial, but with sad and de­jected Aspects. Elaphebolia were Feasts consecrated to Diana in the Moneth Elaphebolion, or Fe­bruary, wherein Stags were sa­crificed to that Goddess. Ephestia [Page 139] were Theban Feasts devoted to Tiresias, who had been a succes­sive mixture of Man & Woman, and therefore at that time they attir'd one first in a Masculine, and then in a Feminine Habit. Gamelia were Feasts offered up to Juno, as the Protectress of Marriage, in the Moneth Game­lion, or January; as likewise was that Feast stil'd Hecatombe, solemniz'd in the Moneth Heca­tombaion, or July, where several Sports were exhibited to the People, wherein he that was most eminent, was recompensed with the Guerdon of a Brazen Target, and a Mirtle Chaplet. Elenephoria were Athenian Feasts wherein certain sacred Reliques were carried about in a Conse­crated Chest, by Priests devoted to that Service.

[Page 140] Gacinthia were Spartan Feasts entituled to the honour of Apollo and his Boy Hiacinthus.

Hypoca [...]stria were Feasts conse­crated to Minerva, for rescuing persons from the prejudice of casual Fires.

Usteria were Feasts at Argos, nam'd so because a Sow was at that Solemnity offered up as a Victim to Venus.

Lampteria were Feasts ascri­bed to Bacchus, into whose Tem­ple in the Night, they were ac­customed to carry flaming Tor­ches, and to place Goblets full of Wine in all the Avenues of the City.

Thea were also Feasts devoted to Bacchus, in whose Temple three empty Vessels were mi­raculously replenished with [Page 141] Wine in the night-time, when the Doors were secured with Locks and Bars. The Chief Priestess that did officiate at their Celebration was entituled Thaia, and from her the Residue Thyadae.

Theoina were Athenian Feasts consecrated also to Bacchus, as he was Patron of Wine.

Trieterica were Feasts likewise [...]elebrated to the honour of [...]acchus every third year.

Megalesia were Feasts entituled [...] Cybele, in which some remark­ [...]ble Spectacles were exhibited [...] the People.

Metageitnia were Apollo's Fe­ [...]vals, who from these was sti­ [...]d Metageitnius, and the Mo­ [...]th in which they were ce­ [...]brated was denominated Me­tageitnion, [Page 142] which some assert, was May, others July.

Monophagia were Feasts a­mongst t [...]e Aegeans, where it appears they did eat in common of one Dish.

Munichion was the Feast of Minerva, solemniz'd in the Por [...] of Athens, nam'd Munichium, & in the Month Munichium or April.

Nephalia were Feasts so deno­minated, because sober Sacrifices without the brisk supplement o [...] Wine, only consisting of a mix­ture of Honey and Water were offered up at that time to Sol, Luna, Venus, Urania, Mne­mosyne, Aurora, and the Nimphs and Muses.

Nuctelia, were Feasts stiled so because then Night-Sacrifice [...] were devoted to Bacchus, wh [...] [Page 143] from them was named Nuc [...]e­lius.

Oinesteria were Feasts that gather'd that Appellation from a vast Cup fill'd up with Wine, which Beardless Youths being to cut their Hair, consecrated to Hercules,

Ornea were the Festivals of Priapus, who was stil'd Ornea­ [...]es, from Ornis a Town of Pelo­ [...]onnesus.

Oschophoria were Feasts at [...]hens instituted by Theseus, when [...]e return'd mourning from [...]reet, upon intelligence of the Decease of his Father Aegeus, [...] which the noblest Youths [...]arried Vine-Branches into Mi­ [...]erva's Temple.

Panathenaia were the most emi­nent [Page 144] Feasts celebrated▪ every fifth year at Athens to the ho­nour of Minerva; at this time several Spectacles were exposed to the People; the Youth then were accustomed to dance in ar­mour, stil'd Perriche, from [...]yr­rhus, the Inventer. The Image of Pallas was then imbark'd in a Ship nam'd Panathenaica, whose Sail had the Appellation of Pe­plus, whereon the Effigies of Enoeladus was pourtraied, de­stroyed by Pallas. In this Feast as they did in the Feasts named Ephestia and Promethea; it was their usage to run extravagantly with Lamps or Torches: He that atchieved the Conquest was recompensed with a Pot of Oyl, whose first Institution was ascribed to Pallas, and not any [Page 145] but he, was licensed to transport Oil out of the Attick Territo­ries.

Puanepsia were Feasts that ex­tracted this Title from Beans and other Pulse consecrated to Apollo; these Feasts were devo­ted to that God in the Moneth Puanepsion, which some affirm to be October, others, July.

Sciora were Athenian Feasts, which had this Epithete bestow­ed upon them from that Um­brella or Fan stiled in Greek Sci­oron, and Sciadion, born about then in Procession, & which was design'd to skreen and rescue persons from the heat of the Sun. These Feasts were dedi­cated to Minerva, stil'd from them Scirada, and were observ­ed in the Moneth Sciorophorion, [Page 246] by some Conjectures deem'd to be March.

Thargelia were Athenian Feasts devoted to the Veneration of A­pollo and Diana, and were ce­lebrated in the Moneth Tharge­lium, or April: In this the first Fruits of the Earth, as Earnest of her Fertility, were offered up to these Deities, and boil'd in the Pot stil'd Thargelos.

I shall now describe the Ro­man Festivals, and those were either fix'd and determin'd to a certain Revolution of Time, as the Stativae and Nundinae, or else solemniz'd when some extraordi­nary emergent occasion did ex­act their observance; such were the Sementivae and Pagonalia, Feasts celebrated at the Sowing of Corn, and erecting of Vil­lages; [Page 147] and these stil'd by the general Name of Imperativae & Conceptivae. I shall now descend to unravel Particulars.

Opalia were Feasts ascrib'd to Ops.

Saturnalia were dedicated to Saturn, about the Suns entrance into Capricorn; during▪ the So­lemnity, the Heads of Slaves were covered with a Pileus, as a Symbol of Liberty, and at­tended by their Masters.

Feriae Latinae were devoted to Juno, and observed upon the Hill Albanus, by Romans and La­tines.

Quinquatria was a Feast of five days to the honour of Mi­nerva, solemniz'd after the Ides of March; the first day was set [Page 148] apart for Sacrifice, the other three for Gladiators, and the last for Expiations.

Natalitia were Feasts devoted to the Genii, in which it was held ominous to shed the Blood of Beasts, since these Celebra­tions were wholy dedicated to Joy and Festivity.

Lupercalia were Solemnities devoted to Pan, in gratitude to him for protecting the Sheep from Wolves; in it the Youth us'd to traverse the Streets na­ked, gently striking all that were obvious, with Leather Thongs; Virgins by a purpos'd Design expos'd their hands to the Impression, hoping that Ad­dress would improve in them a future Pregnancy.

Agonalia were Feasts observ'd [Page 149] in January, to Agoniús Cod of Actions and Enterprizes.

Carmentalia were offered up in January, to the Prophetess Carmenta, Evander's Mother.

Compitalia were Feasts in May offered up to the Lares, and so­lemnized in Streets and High­ways, where the Heads of Pop­pies and Onions were devoted as a Victim to them instead of the Sacrifices of Infants, whose Blood before by a barbarous ef­fusion, had sullied and defil'd their Altars, until prohibited by the Interdict of Junius Brutus.

Matutalia were Feasts in May, consecrated to Matuta or Leuco­ [...]hoe; in these Feasts all Maid­servants were excluded, but one, whom each Matron was to smite [...]n the Cheek, because Matuta▪ [Page 150] distorted with Jealousie, that her Husband's Love was more warm to her Maid than her self, was so worried with a Phrensie, that she extinguish'd that, and her self at once in the Sea.

Veneralia or Vinalia were con­secrated to Venus; at these Fe­stivals Gardens were dedicated, and much Wine poured out, in those Temples where Sacrifices were devoted to her.

Lemuria were Feasts observ'd in May, to pacifie the Lemures, or Night-Ghosts; at this time it was an Usage to fling Beans a­bout their Houses, hoping by this Artifice to expel those Gob­lins from their infested Mansi­ons.

Feralia stil'd so à ferendis epu­lis, from carrying of Viands to [Page 151] the Urns and Sepulchers of their Deceased Relations, were Feasts in February, dedicated to the Manes.

Terminalia were dedicated in February also, to Terminus, God of Marches and Bounds; these Feasts were observed to ciment all emergent Animosities be­tween Neighbors in relation to Bounds.

Vertumn [...]li [...] were Feasts ob­served in Oct [...]b [...], to Vertumnus God of Merchants.

Consualia mere Celebrations [...]n August, dedicated to Consus, [...]he God of Counsel; at this [...]ime the Horses and Asles were Crown'd, and redeem'd from [...]abour.

Saliaria were Solemnities in March, devoted to Mars, whose [Page 152] Priests at this Feast, danced with Targets in their hands.

Liberalia were observed in March, to the honour of Liber or Bacchus; the Priests at this Solemnity, sacrificed Crown'd with Ivy Chaplets.

Cerealia were consecrated to Ceres in April, because then she retriv'd Proserpina; the Ceremo­nies that attended this Festival were perform'd only by Roman Matrons.

Palilia were celebrated in A­pril also, to Pales the Deity of Shepherds.

Vulcanalia in August, preserv­ed the memory of Vulcan.

Meditrinalia were in October offered up to Meditrina, God­dess of Physick, because in that Moneth, the Romans took an [Page 153] Essay of old and new Wine as Medicinable.

Neptunalia in June, were so­lemniz'd to the honour of Nep­tune.

Portunalia were Feasts cele­brated in the mouth of the Ri­ver Tiber, to Portunus God of Harbours.

Mercurialia and Brumalia were observ'd in November, to Mer­cury and Bacchus, who was sti­led Brumus and Bromus.

Robigalia were dedicated to Robigo, God of Smut, in April, to redeem the Corn from Smut.

Fontinilia were held in Octo­ber, at which Feasts Fountains were imbellished with Garlands.

Augustalia were solemniz'd in October, to the honour of Augu­stus, because in this Moneth that [Page 154] Prince return'd to Rome, adorn­ed with the Laurels of Victory and Conquest.

Laurentalia and Angeronalia were Feasts celebrated in De­cember; the first were entituled to Acca Laurentia; the last to Angerona, Goddess of Anguish and Silence.

Majuma and Floralia were So­lemnities observ'd in May and April; the first devoted to Ve­nus; the last to Flora; the Rites that improved these Ce­lebrations, were so obscene and infamous, that I had rather fold them up in that Vesture the Wo­men then disroab'd themselves of, than prostitute and ex­pose them to the publick View.

The Ludi or Festi Saeculares were celebrated at Rome, semel [Page 155] in saeculo, once in an Age, that is, in the Computation or Calcu­lation of the Romans, once in an hundred years.

The Festi or Agones Capitoli­ni were consecrated to Jupiter, as Guardian or Protector of the Capitol, at which Festival Po­ems were either chaunted or re­cited to the honour of that De­ity, by the Roman Poets; he that was most eminent for those Labours, was rewarded and a­dorn'd with a Chaplet or Crown of Lawrel, from which Investi­ture, it is probable, our Mo­dem Poets Laureat did extract their first Denomination.

He that will peruse this Dis­course represented in a larger portraiture, let him view Rosi­nus Meursius, De F [...]stis Graeco­rum, [Page 156] or Hospinian De Origine Festorum, and Steuchius, De Sa­crificiis Gentilium; in all which he will find what I have com­pendiously folded up in this Treatise, there more diffus'd and dilated.

HAving mentioned the Au­gures, Aruspices, and Ex­tispices in the Body of this Trea­tise, I shall as an Appendage to this Discourse, subjoin a Sum­mary Description of the several Methods of presaging or Divi­nation amongst the Ancients; which here follow:

And there was, 1. Auspicium, [Page 157] quasi Avispicium, taken from the flight of Birds, either on the right hand or on the left; (and hence the Proverb com­eth, Avi sinistrâ, good Luck, be­cause in giving or going, the right hand is opposite to the Re­ceivers left) or from the num­ber of the Birds, whence Ro­mulus had promised to him the Empire, before his Brother, be­cause he had seen the double number of Vultures: or lastly, from the nature of them, whence the said Romulus, seeing the Vul­tures, was (saith Florus) Spei plenus, Urbem Bellatricem fore, i [...]a illi, sanguini & praedae, assue­tae, aves polliceb intur.

2. Aruspicium, ab Aras inspi­ciendo, in which the Soothsay­ers [Page 158] observed whether the Beast to be sacrificed came to the Al­tar willingly, or not; whether the Entrails were of a natural colour, and exulcerated, &c. or whether any part were defe­ctive or wanting. All Histories afford Varieties of examples in this kind; I need give no parti­cular Instance. A kind of Di­vination said to be practis'd first by the Tuscans or Hetrurians; instructed in the knowledge thereof, by one call'd Tages, who appearing to certain Plow­men out of a Furrow, taught them this Mystery, and so vanish­ed. This was also stil'd Extispi­cium.

3. Tripudium, so called quasi Terripudium, and Terripavium, [Page 159] from the trembling or shaking of the Earth; was a conjecture of future Successes, by the re­bounding of Crums cast unto Chickens: We have an instance of this in the Life of Tiberius Gra [...]chus, who being seditiously busie in promoting the Law A­graria, was forewarned by the Keeper of his Chickens to desist from that Enterprize, because when he had thrown the Crums to the Coop, there came out but one of the Chickens only, and the same without eating, re­tir'd again; which was taken for an ominous Portent, as the gree­dy devouring of them had been an auspicious Omen; but Tibe­rius contemning the Advertise­ment, and pursuing his Design, was the same day destroyed.

[Page 160]4. Augurium, so called ab A­vium garritu, was a prediction from the Chirping or Chattering of Birds; as also from the sounds and voices heard they knew not whence, nor on what occasion. In which latter kind the death of Caesar was divined, from the clattering of Armour in his House; and the poyson­ing of Germanicus, by the sound­ing of a Trumpet of its own accord; In the former, an Owl screeching in the Senate-house, was deemed ominous to Augu­stus; and a company of Crows following Sejanus to his House, with great noise and clamour, was judg'd to be fatal to hat great Favorite; and so it pro­ved.

It is to be observed, that the [Page 161] Priests that managed these My­steries were attir'd in Chlaenâ, that is a Garment (as Ferrarius de re vestiaria expounds it) of Purple Cloth, lin'd with Wool, to whose Treatise, for more am­ple Information I refer the Rea­der.

It is now expected I should unvail that mysterious Learning of the Ancients that lay folded up in the Aenigmatical and Al­legorical Mythology of the Gen­tiles; but this I hope I shall ac­complish in a Treatise I am now designing to offer up to the pub­lick view, Entituled, The Origi­nal Growth, and Improvement of Heraldry, wherein I believe I shall give the World and the Reader a plenary satisfaction: I had almost forgot to decipher [Page 162] the several Species of Musick in use amongst the Ancients, espe­cially the Greeks at the solemni­zation of their Festivals, and o­ther Rituals above said, some part of which was in subsequent times, when the Mists of Infide­lity were dispelled, annex'd to the Retinue of Christian Cere­monies, and introduc'd into the Basilica's or greater Churches, about the Year 300▪ which was the time of their Erection, the Christians by this Artifice en­deavouring so to oblige and en­dear them, that they might bring them to be enamour'd on the Faith of Christ, when they should see that a prime Rite of theirs was adopted into the Fa­mily of its Religion, and made to wear a Christian Habit, that [Page 163] before was invested with a pro­phane one. But because I shall be a little more diffusive on this Subject, I shall give this brief Original of the ancient and mo­dern Musick, and so determine this Treatise.

When Musick was introduced into those Churches, Antiquity call'd the Basilica's, or their grea­ter Churches, & which we now stile Cathedrals, which were e­rected about the Year 300, is uncertain; only it is probable, that about this time of Constan­tine it was incorporated into the Christian Discipline, and that upon two Considerations; First, as Augustine well observes, Ut per oblectamenta aurium as­surgeret animus ad Pietatis affe­ctum; that by the Obligation [Page 164] of the Ear, the mind might be raised to an affectionate delight in piety; or secondly, that by an easie and symbolical compli­ance with the Gentiles (in whose Temples, to improve the solem­nity of their Sacrifices, and other publick Devotions, Musick was in use many Ages before) they might so engage and endear them, that they might bring them by degrees within the pale of the Christian Church: Indeed this was customary in the Primi­tive times for the Bishops of▪ those Ages, observing that the Gentile Priests us'd the Ring, Staff, and Mitre (as Philostratus asserts) practis'd those Rituals too, and in the highest detestati­on of their Follies, thought they might wisely enough imitate [Page 165] their innocent Customs, and Priestly Ornaments, and hoped they might better reconcile their minds to the Christian Re­ligion, by compliance in Cere­monials, than exasperate them, by rejecting their ancient and in­nocent Ceremonies; for so the Apostles invited and enticed Ju­daism into Christianity. Now amongst the Ancients there were three Distinctions of Musick; First, the Ethick or Lidian, which consisted of Long Notes or Spondees, fit to calm the Passi­ons, and raise the Affections, and this is supposed to be that Musick which Elisha called for to [...]nvite the Spirit of Prophesie [...]nto him, 1 Kings 3. 15. And was practised by David, to recom­ [...]ose the disordered Spirit of [Page 166] Saul. Secondly, There was th [...] Dorian or Active, consisting [...] Dactils, or one long Note an [...] two short ones; it was stiled s [...] because fitted to open and dilat [...] the Spirits, when they were to much fix'd and congeal'd wit Melancholy Impressions. Third­ly, There was the Enthusiastic [...] or Phrigian, call'd so, because i [...] was much in use amongst tha [...] loose, ungovern'd People, an [...] was compos'd of Tribrachies, o [...] short Notes fitted and design' [...] for the improvement and exci­tation of Amorous Passions.

And now I hope this Di [...] ­course will have an Harmonio [...] Influence upon the Readers af­fections, since it's last determi­nation concludes in Musick.


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